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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1907)"

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ST._ CaW0mia S,a,e L *™V 1 



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14199* 
{c£>30.5 PI 



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and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



LXXIII. No. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1907. 



Thirty-seventh Year 



OBSCURE CORNER^OF CALIFORNIA. 

It is not handsome, we must admit, but all inter- 
esting things are not handsome and vice versa. It is 
surely novel, for we are sure but few people have 
dropped their eyes upon it even on an ordinary map. 
Ordinary maps are apt to smooth it over. It is easier 
to put on a patch of color than to mark down places 
the whereabouts of which you are not sure of. And 
then there is one thing there 
which no one developer 
would consent to have put 
down on a map by which he 
hoped to locate settlers. What 
inspiration can there be tow- 
ard paying good prices where 
there is an inscription like 
"Death Valley" anywhere on 
a map for home seekers and 
colonists! And so the little 
corner of California to which 
we invite attention on this 
page is generally flooded 
with color — some refreshing 
tint of green probably — so 
that charming places to be 
glorified in descriptions may 
have an attractive back 
ground to rest upon. We 
have just carefully examined 
eight illustrated county pam- 
phlets in our search for points 
and cannot find Death Valley 
in text, map, or picture; it 
is cast out by bell book and 
deep impression upon the 
candle. It makes a pretty 
face of the earth, but not 
even a trace upon the world 
that is for sale by the lot 
or acre. 

There is all the more rea- 
son that we should bring it 
to public attention, not so 
much for what it is for the 
industrial life which is pres- 
sing close upon its forbidding 
confines. Anyone who desires 
explicit information about 
Death Valley can find it in 
some of the encyclopedias 
and in the reports of explor- 
ations by the Geological Sur- 
vey. If there is a desire to 
enjoy the exquisite coloring 
and the emotional suggestive- 
ness of the region it is amply 
answered in Mrs. Austin's 
delightful "Land of Little 
Rain." Our purposes at this 
time are less fine and more 
material; that is to show our 
readers the new relations of 
the region to recent indus- 
trial developments in its en- 
vironment and to suggest 
that even here in the present 
almost hopeless absence of 
water there may be achieved some 
desert vacancy and silence. 

In our issue of October 27 we had an interesting 
relief map of the Imperial Valley and its adjacent re- 
gions, where there has been so much development at- 
tained, and subsequently endangered by the waters of 
the Colorado river. The exclusion of the river has 
not yet been secured, but it is to be undertaken more 
vigorously than ever and may be duly expec ted. The 
north line of that relief map in our issue of October 
is about 75 miles south of the south line of the man 



upon this page. There is, therefore, a strip of desert, 
about 75 miles wide, lying between the two maps and 
accounting for this the relation of the two districts can 
be easily discerned, for Imperial Valley is almost ex- 
actly south of Death Valley and about 150 miles away. 
This proximity seems to us very suggestive of the 
future development of this southeast quarter of the 
State, as will be noted later. 
The map on this page shows the relation of southern 




Relief Map of the Nevada-California Border — Suggesting Important Industrial Relations 

edemption from Nevada to southern California, the heavy broken line 
crossing from northwest to southeast being the boun- 
dary line between the two States. Centrally situated 
on the map north of this boundary may be seen the 
names of the several new Nevada towns which one is 
constantly encountering in the daily papers in connec- 
tion with two industries: Mining and prize fighting. 
Tonopah, Goldfield, Bullfrog, etc., are mighty names to 
conjure with both in mining stocks and prize fight pools, 
but it is with neither o f these a ctivities that we have 
to do at this time.^^Srrrffi^ltJP^k that the tens of 




thousands of people who go upon this agriculturally 
unproductive country must be fed. No one can tell to 
what hundreds of thousands of population such a prom- 
ising mining region may attain. There is perhaps only 
one sure thing about them, and that is that they must 
be fed. Studying the small black lines which traverse 
the southern part of the map one becomes aware that 
railways are already threading the region. One can 
see the Santa Fe and its connections near Needles, the 
Salt Lake and Los Angeles 
line traversing the map a 
little farther north and the 
"Borax Smith Road," as the 
irreverent map maker desig- 
nates it, which indicates that 
the civilized world is to re- 
ceive its borax benefits by 
rail and not by the famous 
20-mule teams which have 
been running around in our 
kitchens and bath rooms for 
several years. All these 
railways indicate that there 
is to be easy access to these 
so-called desert regions from 
various points of the compass 
and that there will be oppor- 
tunity for free outward move- 
ment of mining products but 
free inward movements of 
food supplies. The coast re- 
gions of southern California 
are already in competition 
with the Utah districts in 
these supplies with some ad- 
vantage in point of 'istance 
but there would be greater 
advantage with the produc- 
ers of the Imperial Valley 
and of the irrigated lands 
near Yuma if their district 
were connected with the re- 
gion of which we speak by 
a north and south line. It is 
possible then in the future 
that eastern southern Califor- 
nia may have a very im- 
portant and profitable func- 
tion to serve in the feeding 
of southern Nevada, enjoy- 
ing almost a home market 
there as the relations of the 
two regions are indicated by 
the two maps to which we 
refer. As things now are 
and promise to be, the ex- 
treme southeastern corner 
of California should be con- 
sidered in connection with 
its position as the granary 
for the whole, immense re- 
gion included in its northern 
environment. 

Of course there is anoth- 
er California region which 
stands in immediate relation 
to the southern Nevada de- 
velopment and will be ad- 
vantaged thereby to its full capacity — the Inyo and 
Mono district, which will awaken from its industrial 
isolation beyond the Sierra Nevada and connect indus- 
trially with the Nevada markets, with forest, range, 
and pasturage products, as well as with orchard and 
truck field products to the extent of its adaptations. 
From all these points of view it seems to us that there 
is a good prospect that the obscure corner of California 
which the map indicates may ere long find its oppor- 
tunity for prominence and prosperity upon lines which 
have not yet been distinctly drawn. 



2 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 5, 1907 



Pacific Rural Press 

Published Temporarily at Berkeley, Gal. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



Sntered at S V. Postoffice as second-class mail matter 



DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. 



Publishers 



K J. WICKSON 
BDGAR RICKARD 



Editor 
Business Manager 



THE WEEK 



A Happy New Year to the readers of the Pacific Rural 
I'res-' This issue opens the 37th of its history and for- 
tunately there are a good many subscribers still hale 
and hearty who laid down four big round dollars as 
gifts at its christening and have continued their gen- 
erous support every year since 1870. Those were the 
days of old when people talked and acted in whole 
dollars and not in "chicken feed" coins. It is true that 
the rate per year for a score of years and more has 
been but half of the pioneer rate; in fact the publishers 
have always made every sacrifice to supply a journal 
which should be good and look well, but they have al- 
ways refused to go below a point where quality could" 
not go with patronage. That this policy has been ap 
proved by our constituency is shown by the support 
which has brought the journal unscathed through losses 
which would have overcome an undertaking which was 
weaker in the affections and esteem of its supporters. 
It is also a personal satisfaction to the writer that he is 
able to begin with this issue the 33rd year of uninter- 
rupted editorial responsibility and effort. Nearly a third 
of a century of very pleasurable work which has brought 
a very wide friendship with very warm-hearted people 
as its greatest satisfaction and reward! And what 
higher compensation could there be, save perhaps a 
consciousness that we have all worked together for the 
upbuilding of California agriculture In all its branches, 
and have thus accomplished something worth while foi 
the advancement of our beloved State. Personal friend- 
ship is a rich blessing; but the union of heart and pur- 1 
pose transcends the common experiences of mankind 
and lays hold upon that which is beyond. 

The Twelfth Biennial Report of the Bureau or Labor 
Statisltcs of the State of California is the work of 
Commissioner W. V. Stafford, whom we frankly com- 
mended upon his appointment to the commissionership 
and whose work has fully justified the confidence which 
we placed in him. It is the best collection or statistics 
relating to labor which our State has ever secured and 
the most rational in its comments upon the nroad teach- 
ings of such figures. No commissioner before has haa 
breadth of view enough to appreciate the fact that 
labor is not a commodity monopolized by certain organ- 
izations and that the price of labor is of vital concern 
and importance to every interest in the community. 
Because of Mr. Stafford's correct conception of relations 
between labor and employment of labor and because 
of his zeal and industry in ascertaining facts which tend 
to make such relations more clear we count his work 
as fit to be classed with the report of the commission 
on taxation as two great economic achievements of the 
administration of Governor Pardee which will have i 
permanent effect upon the prosperity of the State. Of 
course, we do not mean that the two works are com- 
parable, for the report on taxation is a finished pro- 
duct, concerning which there will, of course, be much 
discussion, but which will remain as self-consistent and 
permanently influential; the other is only a part of a 
work which must be continuously pursued. We count 
them similar in kind though different In degree and the 
spirit and justice In them an endowment of the State. 
We expect to have opportunity for further reference to 
the useful facts which Mr. Stafford has secured and 
his comments upon them. 



Dry farming is coming to high estate and we cannot 
but congratulate those who have just come to apprecia- 
tion of it for California has known for 50 years that it 
was good and has gained a thousand million dollars by 
pursuing it. Still if the people of the interior States 
persist in glorifying it as a discovery of their own, it 
does not matter; just as much of it remains as the 
foundation upon which all rainfall farming has been 
done ever since California was Americanized. This 
remark is suggested by the official call which we have 
just received to the "Trans-Missouri Dry Farming Con- 



to the principles which we have known and applied 
so long and employ them in rendering waste lands 
useful, as the call suggests, the sober and diligent in- 
quiry and discussion which will follow will be suggestive 
and helpful toward the improvement of methods 
wherever crops are undertaken with short rainfalls. 

A story is current that a prominent English electri- 
cian is shocking the horticultural public with the an- 
nouncement that fresh grapes may be plucked from the 
vines in March and ripe cherries picked in December, 



gress," which will be held in Denver, Colorado, during because the fruit can be ripened by electric light. He 



the last week of the present month. How glorious our 
old practice appears when the Governor of Colorado 
issues his call: "To the Governors, Agricultural Col- 
leges, State Land Boards, State Engineers, State Boards 
of Agriculture, National Agricultural Associations, State 
Agricultural Associations. County Commissioners, May- 
ors of Cities, Railroad Companies, and all Commercial 
bodies in the Trans-Missouri States, Greeting." and an- 
nounces that the first general convention of those vitally 
interested in the reclamation of the semi-arid regions 
of the United States by systems of scientific farming 
is hereby called to meet in the City of Denver, Colo- 
rado, on January 24 and 25, 1907. 

California, eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington 
have never risen to consciousness of how much the 
way they have always secured rainfall products may 
mean to the great interior regions. They have always 
looked upon it as a sort of halfway house to the irri- 
gation heaven and have never appreciated that it was 
such a great thing in itself. This has been in part due 
to our far Western blindness, for, in fact, our way of se- 
curing crops where the rainfall has only given about 
half the water which the investigators have declared 
was essential to the production of the plant, has al- 
ways been great and significant. We have lost our 
right to a patent but still there is glory in the process. 
Just see how much it may mean to the country as de- 
scribed by the call of the governor of Colorado: 

"The rapid development of practical farming and pro- 
fitable crop production under improved agricultural 
methods, and the unmistakable proof of the possibility 
of reclaiming a great portion of the semi-arid acre- 
age in the Western States, have led to increased activ- 
ity in both official and private experimental work. I be- 
lieve that the time for united action and official encour- 
agement has been reached, and that there should be in- 
augurated a practical and active general movement, 
under proper organization, through which the great 
natural resources of the non-irrigated districts and 
the possibilities of extending the agricultural areas of 
our Western States may be brought to the attention of 
the world at large. To populate our vast acreage where 
irrigation is not possible will insure the continuance 
of prosperity throughout our Western States, and will 
increase the commerce and stimulate the demand for 
the products of our factories to such an extent that 
every commercial industry in the Trans-Missouri States 
will be favorably affected." 

We hope the call of the Governor of Colorado will be 
generously responded to. We understand that Governor 
Pardee will appoint delegates from this State and 
we trust that many other organizations will arrange 
for representations. Because there is really much more 
to learn about than we now know. Although the prin- 
ciples of It have been demonstrated most clearly in 
our experience, as we have suggested, there is amplo 
opportunity for improving practices so that they may 
be more effective in moisture conservation and may 
introduce the very important feature of soil renovation 
which is made of but little account in most dry farming 
calculations. We may also have better tools, as well 
as better policies. This is all of the greatest moment 
because while we always have an eye on irrigation, dry 
farming will always be looked upon as temporary and 
as a makeshift. Thus it is of the very highest import- 
ance to overcome. Therefore while a grand concourse 
with banquets and orations will call general attention 



says he has made extensive experiments, which were 
thoroughly encouraging from a business point of view. 
Apples, bananas, and other fruits have been brought 
to maturity by the electric light. He has also the fol- 
lowing attachments: "They need not only light but 
carbonic acid. I feed them with it by artificial means. 
Then, besides bathing them in electric light, I apply 
a feeble electrostatic current and this not only stimu- 
lates the roots of the plants, but kills all parasites. The 
fruits which I produce are, therefore, always sound, 
and they excel besides, in size, flavor, and aroma. Com- 
mon sense and simplicity are the characteristics of the 
new method. Any fruit grower can apply it easily and 
at trifling expense." 

This is a very enticing tale. Is it not wonderful that 
this expert narrator should have been more frank with 
his listeners and stated to them that the electric light 
which he uses, while indispensable, is not the real 
foundation of his enterprise? The real foundation is 
coal. He grows his trees under cover, keeps them warm 
with tons and tons of coal, and then because sunshine 
is short at this time of the year, and particularly so in 
England, he uses electric light as a substitute for sun 
shine. That is commonly known to be feasible and has 
been tried in this country as well as abroad. But how 
much does it cost? Probably not more than a few epi- 
cures can afford to pay and so to a certain extent there 
may be profitable production. But the manifest purpose 
of the writer, if not of the electrician, is to create the 
impression that the fruit is the product of the electric 
light and "any grower can apply it easily and at trifling 
cost." This statement is a delusion and a snare. 

Naturally the great cattle interests of the Mississippi 
valley cities are glad to have it known that the excite- 
ments of last winter over alleged abuses has not injured 
the great meat industries. It is announced from Chicago 
that the figures on the business transacted at the 
Union Stock Yards for 1906 show the valuation of live 
stock handled to be the largest on record. The receipts 
for the year were slightly over 16,000,000 head, valued 
at $314,300,000, an increase of $20,000,000 over 1905. 
General prices fluctuated within a narrower range than 
in previous years. Beef cattle averaged twenty-five cents 
a hundred higher, hogs $1 higher, sheep twenty cents 
higher, and lambs five cents higher. 

We intended to have mentioned some time ago the 
death of Mr. Joseph D. Phillips, originator of the 
Phillips Cling peach, which is being so widely planted 
for canning purposes. Mr. Phillips began early in 
the fruit industry, after it had found itself commer- 
cially, planting peaches near Yuba City, until he was 
part owner of 400 acres, largely in that fruit. He was 
keen in his judgment of the commercial character of 
varieties and hailed the appearance of Phillips Cling 
as a chance seedling as meeting certain canner's 
requirements in a notable way. We remember a visit 
made to him nearly 20 years ago, when he showed us 
the new variety in canned form and gave us an ac- 
count of what he expected from it. The variety was 
propagated and introduced by the late Mr. J. T. Bogue, 
whose long and honorable life also closed during last 
ye;:r. Mr. Phillips was highly esteemed by those who 
knew him. He devoted the best part of his life to the 
cultivation of fruit and at last his efforts were crowned 
with success when he. discovered the variety which 
bears his name. It found a ready market at the highest 
price. 



January 5, 1907. 



141998 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



3 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 

THE CRACKING OF ORANGES. 

To the Editor: Has the cracking of oranges on the 
tree ever been explained or accounted for, and has any 
remedy been approved? READER, Los Angeles. 

This cracking of oranges is a physiological problem 
and not the result of a disease. It is an old trouble 
and has been studied and theorized upon for a long 
time. The orange is not the only fruit that cracks 
badly, nor is the cracking confined to any locality. It 
seems most reasonable to attribute the trouble to swift 
and great changes in atmospheric moisture, although 
there may be, of course, other conditions renderding 
the fruit susceptible thereto. This is one of the phy- 
siological investigations which will properly come to 
the experts at the newly established citrus experiment 
station at Riverside, and we hope in time they will 
reach a rational explanation and possibly a treatment 
which will diminish the trouble. It is really a very 
serious matter. 

FORCING IN CALIFORNIA. 

To the Editor: We are extensively engaged in grow- 
ing lettuce, cucumbers, and tomatoes under glass. Will 
you kindly give any information that you may have 
regarding the treatment of soils in greenhouses or the 
growth of vegetables under glass. Any favors that 
you may be able to show us will be appreciated. — 
GROWERS, Astabula, Ohio. 

We regret to say that we have no special informa- 
tion concerning forcing vegetables. Very little is done 
in that line in this State, because of the favoring cli- 
mate, which makes open air growing of some of these 
things practicable all the year and others during the 
greater part of it. Still, there is some prospect that 
forcing may amount to something in this State, although 
it shows very small development as yet. 

INOCULATION FOR LEGUMES. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly instruct me how to 
proceed to obtain the proper material for inoculating 
winter vetch with the nitrogen fixing bacteria. I in- 
tend to plant about 1000 lb. of seed. I intend also to 
plant some of the horse beans for plowing under. Do 
they need inoculating too? — PLANTER, Santa Clara 
county. 

We cannot give you any very definite information. 
The seedmen stopped handling inoculation material 
when its character was successfully impeached by the 
United States Department of Agriculture. A great 
many experiments were made showing that the ma- 
il rial in the trade was unsatisfactory. Since then we 
understand there has been commendable improvement, 
and that the trade was to begin on a better line. Pull 
information from the point of view of the trade can be 

itained by correspondence with seedmen advertising 
In the Pacific Rural Press. It might be well also for 
you to write directly to the Bureau of Plant Industry, 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, in case 
they may still be distributing approved material. Cali- 
fornia experience is that you can get gooc! growth of 
vetches and horse beans as you can of other legumes 
. bout inoculation. It may be necessary in places, but 
think of our alfalfa and beans acreages of all kinds 
grown before inoculation was thought of and still 
grown. We are not convinced yet of the general advan- 
tage of it. 

EUCALYPTUS FOR THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY. 

To the Editor: I intend planting eucalyptus trees 
on an acre of poor sandy soil in a peach orchard. What 
kind, suitable to the climate of Fresno county, would 
you advise me to plant? They would be watered and 
cultivated the same as the peach trees. Also, what kind 
would you plant on a good soil, which holds moisture 
well but is underlaid with hard pan at 2y 2 feet? The 
land is above water and will have to depend on good 
cultivation for moisture. — SUBSCRIBER, Fresno 
county. 

You will find a very interesting discussion of varie 
ties in the Pacific Rural Press of December 15. The 
species rudls, robusta, viminalis, and rostrata are given 
the leads for your valley and that agrees with our own 



observation. They are also the ones most easily found 
at the nurseries. Plant them wherever you want trees. 
They will do the best they can with whatever condi- 
tions they encounter. 

SQUASH OR PUMPKIN SEEDS NOT DANGEROUS. 

To the Editor: We are feeding pumpkins to milch 
cows. Does feeding the seeds with the pumpkins tend 
to reduce the flow of milk? It is the general opinion 
around here that is does. Have any experiments ever 
been undertaken to definitely settle this question? — 
READER, Fowler. 

Ever since we used to throw down pumpkins from 
the top rail of a New York pasture fence to see them 
burst and the seeds fly, we have seen cows eating pump- 
kins seeds and all without injury. The notion you speak 
of is unwarranted. This has been amply settled by the 
experience of many people. It was also specifically 
demonstrated by experiment at the Vermont Experi- 
ment Station a few years ago. 

PEAS FOR FORAGE. 

To the Editor: I intend putting a twenty-acre's strip 
of sandy loam soil to peas for fodder or hog feed. Will 
you please tell me what sort of peas I should plant, also 
time and manner of doing it? — FARMER, Stockton. 

Take the common small, round field pea which you 
can buy cheaply in any quantity. Do not use any kind 
of a "cow pea" at this time of the year. Broadcast 
about a bushel of peas and a bushel of barley or rye 
and cover with t shallow plowing on such soil as you 
describe, say three or four inches deep. This will give 
you good green stuff to cut and carry or to pasture as 
you see fit. If you give the peas a chance to climb the 
grain a little you will get a large amount of feed either 
for cows or hogs. 

DRY ROT OF THE POTATO. 

To the Editor: My potatoes have a dry rot or blight. 
Which is it? Just as the vines die most of the large 
ones begin to decay at the stem of the potato. Some 
dug before they died were all right. The last dug were 
the worst. The top looks all right. Your articles I 
have read don't describe the blight so I can tell what 
is the remedy. Have they found a cure for the melon 
wilt? — C. E. L., Mendocino county. 

Are you sure that the tops are all right? Is there 
not a blackening of the stem which proceeds downward 
and makes the blackening and dry rot of the tubers, the 
whole occurring very late and affecting the late dug 
potatoes as you describe? This is caused by a different 
fungus from the one causing the great potato blight. 
This dry rot which you have is widely round in the 
State, mostly, however, in upland districts, where the 
crop is not largely grown and can be largely escaped by 
early digging as your experience suggests. The best 
way to escape the melon wilt, which is most common 
in California, is to frequently change the plantings to 
new ground and use the old ground for other crops. 
The same course will help your potatoes. 

RIPENING OF WINTER BARTLETTS. 

To the Editor: I hear from a gentleman who has 
just returned from California that the Winter Bartlett 
does not ripen in your State. Please let me know if 
this is correct, as I am thinking of planting some of 
them.— ORCHARDIST, Havelock, New Zealand. 

We never heard such a statement. It might be both 
true and false. California has some localities where 
only early ripening varieties of any fruit are worth 
growing. These are exposed situations near the coast, 
where the summer temperature is low; insufficient to 
bring any late fruit, except apples, to satisfactory ma- 
turity and where a satisfactory amount of sugar can- 
not be developed in any late variety. Possibly your 
informant visited such a region. Where sufficient 
summer heat is had to make other very late varieties 
good, the Winter Bartlett reaches ripening all right 
so far as we know. If there are particular troubles with 
this variety we shall be glad to hear of them. It has 
been rather recently introduced and though widely 
planted, growers have not had long experience with it. 



MASON BEES IN THE ORCHARD. 

To the Editor: In a number of pear orchards I have 
found little masses of pebbles cemeted together and 
placed in the crotches. Inside each mass are five or 
six pupae of some insect. Can you name it for me? 
I have had two or three inquiries while working 
for the experiment station on the blight and peach 
fungus. — R. L. ADAMS, Sacramento valley. 

The peculiar construction of pebbles cemeted to- 
gether, which you found in the crotches of trees, is 
made by one of a number of species of Mason bees 
which we have in this State. We would like to have 
such specimens as it is convenient for you to gather, 
so that the perfect insects can be secured and species 
determined. 

NEGLECT AND SUN BURN. 

To the Editor: Returning to my place after an ab- 
sence of a year, I find the apple trees in bad shape. 
The bark comes off in great patches and there is a 
powdery substance under it. It seems to me that it 
must be the borer, and if so can you tell me what to 
do? The trees have been very thrifty and some were 
just coming into bearing. They have been heavily 
manured and are irrigated. I am afraid I shall lose 
them all, as some of them are nearly girdled. If I had 
known of this condition, should have done something 
before. — OWNER, Placer county. 

The apple trees which you describe are undoubtedly 
suffering from neglect and sun burn of the bark, which 
have prepared for the entrance of borers. When they 
are too badly injured it would be better to plant new 
trees. If only a moderate amount of the bark is injured 
it can be removed and the trees given a good white- 
washing to reflect, rather than absorb, the rays of 
the sun which have occasioned the injury. All young 
trees should be protected from direct sunshine until 
the shade of the branches accomplishes this. There 
is nothing to do for the insects which have already 
been at work, but if the trees are handled as described, 
the entrance of more of them will be prevented. 

TREATMENT FOR ALMOND TREES. 

To the Editor: Kindly inform me on the following: 
I have an almond orchard twelve years old that has 
never been sprayed. For the last two years it has been 
infested with all kinds of insects and the past season 
with shot-hole. There is lots of moss on the trees. 1 
want to know what kind of spray I should use, and 
when to use it. — Grower, Lodi. 

Spray at once with the Bordeaux mixture of the 
strength frequently mentioned in our recent issues 
for the peach blight. Give particular attention to thor- 
ough spraying of the new wood for that is where the 
shot-hole will do its work. You can knock the moss oft" 
the old bark later by spraying with one pound of con- 
centrated lye to six gallons of water. Look out and get 
in a good sulphuring for red spider early in the sum- 
mer and keep at it later if necessary. Many people 
have an idea that almond trees can just about take 
care of themselves. It is a great mistake. 

THE FLAT PEA. 

To the Editor: I send a sample plant, grown from 
seeds we received from a seed company, which prints 
the enclosed description. I would like to ask you what 
you know about this plant (Lathyrus sylvestris Wag- 
nerii), and if you advise me to plant it in rich soil. 1 
planted the seed last May and the samples are the 
largest and the smallest plants of a little patch three 
feet square— GROWER, Fullerton. 

The plant was introduced and distributed from the 
University about a decade ago. The result, as testified 
by growers in different parts of the State, was unfavor- 
able to its value, generally, but there are places in 
the coast district where it grows well. Possibly you 
have such a place and that you can tell from your own 
experience and observation. It is a plant good for 
forage purposes; also, for green manuring; if you can 
get satisfactory growth. We apprehend, however, that 
you will find the Canada peas and some of the vetches 
will be more satisfactory. 



4 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 5, 1907 



HORTICULTURE. 



HORTICULTURAL 



THE UNIVERSITY 



USES OF 
FARM. 

(By E. J. Wickson. Dean of the College of Agriculture 
of the University of California and Acting Director 
of the University Experiment Station, at the Fruit 
Growers' Convention at Hanford, December 6, 1906.) 
By the munificence of the State, through the legisla- 
ture of 1903, the University of California has been 
provided with about 730 acres of first-class valley land, 
with deep, rich soil, easily tilled and fully adapted. 



equipment and uses cf the farm will begin along the 
lines of the animal industries and general farming. 
This is a proper recognition of the live stock interests 
as prime movers in securing the form for the University 
and it is justified also by the fact that those engaged in 
the animal industries and general farming, as a whole, 
are relatively less advanced in understanding their 
best agencies and methods than are those in the fruit 
industries, although we have a number of individuals 
who have pushed their live stock work in California 
to the point of national leadership. To meet them, 
this popular demand and opportunity to elevate general 



THE PEAR BLIGHT WAR. 

(From a paper by Prof. M. B. Waite, Pathologist In 
charge of diseases of fruit of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture at the Fruit Growers' Convention at 
Hanford.) 

In March, 1906, when the pear blossoms began to 
open the eradication work may be said to have been 
only fairly started with the notable exception above in- 
dicated. .Many trees were pulled out and large quan- 
tities.' of fresh blight on the roots, especially while the 
I trees were in bloom, many other condemned trees were 
still in the ground. It may be safely said therefore 



farming and stock growing in California, to better serve ,, , ... . u . . 

as the law requires, to produce as manv as possible of . „ . . . that whi.e the amount of hold over blight had been re 

individual prosperity and the advancement of the State 



the crops which can be grown in California. It is upon 
an established irrigation system and has water rights 
for its full acreage. It is situated at the junction of 
two overland routes, within half an hour by rail of the 
State Capitol, and can be reached by five minutes' 
walk from the railway station at Davisville. In Yolo 
county. It is probably the mo»t valuable and suitable 
for demonstration of the best that can be done in agri- 
culture and for instruction therein, of all the farms 
owned and used by the agricultural colleges of the 
United States for educational purposes. 

By the munificence of the late Mr. M. Theodore 
Kearney, the University of California will, in due time, 
come into possession of another magnificent piece of 
land of about 5,400 acres, near Fresno. According to 
the desires of the donor, this land will also be used for 
agricultural education, research and experimentation. 
The fact that Mr. Kearney should devise this land for 
these purposes after the State, through its commission 
for the selection of a University Farm, had declined to 
accept a part of it to satisfy the requirements of the 
specific law under which they acted, a very significant 
of two moving forces in his mind: First, that he 
would not be actuated by the feeling that a slight had 
been put upon his proffered gift. Second, that he was 
fully convinced that one farm, no matter how great 
and good, would not adequately meet the urgent de- 
mand in this great and varied State for practical in- 
struction and scientific investigation in agriculture. 
Therefore, his gift stands for this declaration of his 
dying faith; whatever the State may provide and main- 
tain for this training and research upon which its 
future development and prosperity depend, there is 
ample opportunity and demand that much more shall 
be done by individual gift and bequest. Thus the 
University comes into ownership of two grand agri- 
cultural properties to be strictly used for agricultural 
education in its various branches. 

This rich inheritance which comes to the College of 
Agriculture of the University of California must be 
taken as evidence of full recognition and appreciation 
of two things. First, the research work and the popular 
presentation of its results, by Professor Hilgard and his 
staff during the last third of a century have convinced 
the people of California that the fullest knowledge of 
Californian conditions of climate, soils and cultures 
must be had for intelligent and profitable pursuit of the 
industries which are based upon them. Second, that 
the equipment and facilities of the College of Agri- 
culture for teaching the practical arts in accordance 
with the scientific demonstration of local conditions 
were pitiably meager and inadequate. Hence arose 
the popular demand that the College should under- 
take instruction in California farm practice on much 
broader lines than it has ever undertaken hitherto 
and that it should do this under actual farming condi- 
tions on an easily accessible and widely representa- 
tive farm and should adapt such instruction to the 
needs and requirements of those who intend to secure 
livlihood directly from the soil. That the legislature 
from the popular demand, and Mr. Kearney from his 
own convictions, should place all this- value in the hands 
of the College of Agriculture is a complete demon 



the balance of the appropriation of 1905 will be used, 
so far as it will go, in buildings and equipment along 
this.- line. The horticultural phases of equipment and in- 
struction will, however, immediately follow and it is 
interesting to outline some of them: 

First: The University Farm will have standard or- 
chards and vineyards with all desirable kinds of fruit 
and varieties thereof which shall be grown true to 
name and shall serve as a source of material for wide 
pomological studies as well as court of last resort for 
all questions of identification and nomenclature. It 
will also be a source of cuttings and scions necessary 
to test these questions locally in various parts of the 
State, whenever issues arise. 

Second: Aside from these standard collections, there 
will be commercial orchards and vineyards with enough 
of each variety to demonstrate the best methods of 
handling in actual practice the trees and vines and the 
fruits which they bear. There will be at proper times 
of the year announcements that any one interested can 
go to the farm to learn pruning, spraying, fumigation, irri- 
gation and all other practical arts of culture and other 
times when fruit picking, packing, drying, etc., will be 
demonstrated. 

Third: There will be a full outfit of buildings for 
the different methods of fruit preservation with arti- 
ficial agencies and for the manufacture of fruit pro- 
ducts, such as fruit drier and cannery, winery and 
cellar, distilling and other equipment. All these opera- 
tions will be actually performed and taught. 

Fourth: Plantations of small fruits will also be main- 
tained for observation of varieties and for instruction 
in culture and handling of products. 

Fifth: The growth of vegetables will be undertaken 
on a commercial scale, both under rainfall and irriga- 
tion, and variety tests will also be constantly in pro- 
gress. Forcing operations will be provided for. 

Sixth: Methods of propagation of trees and plants 
will naturally be constantly pursued for instructional 
purposes and as introductory to nursery practice with 
all classes of growths — ornamentals, fruit trees and 
vines and forestry plantings. 

Seventh: Plant protection, to be secured by an un- 
derstanding of the various injurious insects and plant 
diseases and the best ways to cope with them or to 
avoid them, will be amply demonstrated and inculcated. 

Eighth: In all buildings and appliances for horti- 
cultural work, as for other equipment of the farm, it 
is intended to regulate design and expenditure as far 
as possible so that the pupil shall work in buildings 
and use tools and machines such as he can construct 
and purchase for his own use afterward and not in 
show buildings and with gilded tools. Thus he can 
return from the instruction with sketches and lists 
of these to use in making up his own home outfit. Al- 
though, of course, large buildings will be required for 
assembly and class room purposes, the working parts 
of the farm will be, so far as possible, instructive be- 
cause susceptible of reproduction for actual use. 

Ninth: There will be going on on the farm con- 
stantly, so far as funds permit research and experiment 



duced, that in a few orchards that had been well 
worked, great quantities of it remained in the pear 
districts. Several of the experiment station men re- 
mained in the field to observe results and Mr. Deane 
B. Swingle of the bureau of plant industry remained 
until June. As to the amount of blossom blight, which 
is the direct result from infection from the holdover, 
it ii- plainly, in the spring of 1906, evident that it had 
teen reduced materially in all of the better worked sec- 
tions. This spring probably was not especially favor- 
able for the distribution of blossom blight. One pe- 
culiarity, however, developed in the way the blossom 
blight had scattered. Blossom infection instead of be- 
ing clustered in colonies around the holdover cases 
appeared to be scattered lightly and widely throughout 
the orchards. Had the spring been dry and the rains 
stopped earlier in April as has often been the case in 
this State the blossom infection would doubtless have 
resulted in but little damage and it could have been 
easily removed by summer cutting. Unfortunately 
rains continued through April and May and even into 
June and the infection periods were so intense that a 
very unusjal amount of twig blight resulted. This of- 
ten happens in the Eastern States where our rainy 
summer prevails but was scarcely expected in Cali- 
fornia. The same conditions undoubtedly caused a 
great many infections on the water sprouts which come 
from and sprouts from the French stock on the base of 
the trees and from the roots and possibly also favored 
infection in the fleshy bark on the trunk of young trees 
or the tender bark at the soil line on larger trees. The 
conditions were very similar to those in the spring of 
1905. 

In visiting the orchards this fall it is apparent there- 
fore that the blight has made great progress in its 
destructive course. During the last season many or- 
chards only slightly attacked in 1905 have gone down 
badly and even destroyed beyond recovery during the 
last season's outbreak. This is particularly north of 
Sacramento in the Sacramento valley. It is also true 
of a very young orchard which I have visited in the 
lower Sacramento river district below Sacramento 
and in fine orchards of Yolo and Solano counties. 

Present Conditions. — In Sacramento county in the 
strip of orchards along the river many instructive les- 
sons can be learned from the behavior of the blight. 
In a large orchard near Walnut Grove, where efforts 
were made to secure eradication and where the trees 
affected below the ground line had been carefully 
marked by three hacks in the bark, these trees were 
not dug up and still remain, at least in part, to this 
lay. The result was exactly as might have been ex- 
pected. The blight was already bad in the orchard, 
but now the orchard is a wreck and ruined beyond re- 
covery. Probably over seventy per cent of the trees 
have the blight running down into the roots, many 
have their tops nearly totally destroyed and all have 
many blight limbs. On Steamboat Slough there are a 
number of very fine young orchards whose proprietors 
probably intended to eradicate the blight but the work 
was not done early enough to finish, very great losses 
have been sustained. 

A number of other orchards, notably those in the 



work in pomology, plant breeding, plant protection from 
a that the foundation laid by it in agricultural I Pests and diseases, all of which will constitute horti- 1 vicinity of Courtland, stand out in marked contrast, 
science was recognized as sound and enduring and i cultural uses of the farm and be effective not only r can re fer particularly to the orchard of Mr. Ernest 
that the men who had given their lives hitherto to the | in advanced instruction, but in the promotion of horti- 
building of the foundation could best direct the ex- 
pansion on the practical side of instruction so that 
agriculture known to be practicable under California 
conditions should be faithfully and accurately taught. 
Thus the recent State law endorsed by Mr. Kearney's 
magnificent gift becomes an incontrovertible decision 
that agricultural research and instruction shall be 
henceforth entrusted to the University of California in 
accordance with the organic act which brought this 
institution into existence nearly forty years ago. 

I have indulged in this general statement in the 
hope of contributing to a clearer popular conception of | chardists' Association and many other groups of pro- ■ of Courtland can point to similar results. I cannot say 
the relation of things. The horticultural uses of the gressive fruit growers. We are deeply gratified, how- that these gentlemen, have not been discouraged at 
University Farm are naturally of particular concern to ever, that we shall be able to do so much more for the . times and still feel uncertain as to the outcome, how 



cultural science. 

Of course, all these things, and others like them 
which will undoubtedly be provided for as they arise, 
are not new to University instruction in agriculture. 
Many of them are now taught in Berkeley, but they 
will be taught from a different point of view and with 
fuller demonstration on the farm. We shall be enabled 



Gammon, near Courtland. This was the first orchard 
which I visited on beginning this work in February, 
1905. Mr. Gammon started the work at that time but 
was unable to secure very complete eradication in 1905. 
Last winter, after more experience and with better help, 
his work greatly improved and, while considerable 
blight occurred during the past season, it has not been 
unreasonably severe and standing the other day in the 



to do more because possessed of our own outfit. We part which at first had been most affected it became 
cannot forget, however, how we have been helped hither- \ evident that while losses had been sustained the flght 
to by the generous co-operation in horticultural investi- had been victorious in the main. Mr. Barry, Mr. Mc- 
gation of such organizations as the Pajaro Valley Or- Collough and several other orchardists in the vicinity 



us as we assemble as representatives of the fruit grow- 



horticulture of the State in the future than we have ever, many of the Sacramento river growers now begin 



ing industries of the State. As is generally known, the heretofore 



ti» realize that with careful painstaking work con- 



January 5, 1907. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



5 



tinued over a large area, that the blight can be con- 
trolled. Mr. Hayward Reed, in his orchard opposite the 
city of Sacramento, has been particularly successful 
in fighting out the blight. On the Pierce ranch, near 
Suisun, of which Mr. Geo. Reed is superintendent, very 
excellent work has been done and the orchard stands 
today, in fine condition as a splendid example of the 
possibilities of blight eradication. 

At Marysville and Yuba City a number of affected 
orchards have been very badly attacked during the 
past season and the owners in several instances have 
given up the fight, however, the orchard of Mr. How- 
ard Reed is a splendid example of the results of thor- 
ough carrying out of eradication methods. I may say, 
however, that the results have not in all cases over the 
State followed exactly as expected. Some badly blight- 
ed orchards that have been poorly worked have had 
less blight than anticipated, on the other hand some of 
those little affected or carefully worked have had a bad 
outbreak during this year. These exceptions to the 
rule, of course, are to be looked for. There are so 
many variable factors concerned in the spread of blight 
that it is by no means possible to keep track of them 
all. 

In the upper Sacramento valley in Butte, Tehama 
and Sutter counties, many fine orchards have been de- 
stroyed during the past season. It is certain, however, 
that in most of these abundant holdover blight was 
left, either in the particular block or in the com- 
munity. The fine orchard on the Cone ranch at Red 
Bluff is in very good condition. Considerable blight 
attacked the orchard this year but undoubtedly some 
holdover blight was left at the base of the trees last 
season. At any rate, the infection in this orchard 
could be accounted for through the numerous cases; 
of holdover left in the vicinity, even though it were 
clean itself when spring opened. Instead of being dis- 
couraged at the outcome, however, Mr. Ramsey, the 
able superintendent, is now at work with a crew of men 
doing more and better eradication work than ever be- 
fore. A few trees will be dug up, certainly only a 
small percentage, however, but the blight, at least 
what can be found by the most careful work, will . be 
removed. In the foothill orchards of Placer county 
which centers around Newcastle, the blight has made 
only moderate progress during the past season, with a 
very few exceptions the orchards are all standing in 
good shape, although infection is quite general. As the 
pear blight methods become better known more thor- 
ough eradication will probably be carried out in this 
district. At Vacaville and Winters the condition is 
still rather bad. The blight has increased to a marked 
extent in many orchards, some of which were already 
damaged beyond recovery. 

The loss. 1 of so many fine orchards in Solano and 
Yolo counties, and especially the severe losses in the 
upper Sacramento valley, are certainly to be regretted, 
especially as it seems to me an unnecessary loss. If 
the growers would take up the work enthusiastically 
and thoroughly it is- believed these orchards might 
have been saved. As it is now more than half of the 
blocks of pear trees north of Sacramento, at least 
those which 1 have seen, are now injured beyond sav- 
ing. This, however, should not be discouraging to the 
skillful grower, because it renders pear growing more 
profitable to those who succeed. It may cost more 
money to maintain an orchard and fight out the blight, 
but high prices will doubtless increase rather than de- 
crease the profits in the business. Blight has spread 
very badly on the apples in Northern California and has 
even attacked scattering orchards far into the Sierras. 
During the last year the writer found the California 
holly attacked by the blight at Vacaville. This is a 
member of the pome family and a relative of the pear 
and apple. After repeated examinations it was finally 
found attacked. It is evidently not a very good host 
of the pear blight germ, however, but can harbor it 
under favorable conditions. It seems to me on a whole 
that while the possibility of complete eradication seems 
to be rather remote, the behavior of the blight in the 
well worked orchards gives more and more encourage- 
ment to those who will take the necessary pains in 
eradicating this disease. 

Work During the Present Winter. — The Bureau of 
Plant Industry is giving more attention this winter 
than ever before in aiding the pear growers in this 
fight. Instead of having the men here at the close of 
the fighting season a number of competent patholo- 
gists were put in the field early in November to con- 
tinue through until the blossoms open. The total num- 
ber of department men engaged in the work during the 
winter will be seven. Besides the writer, Mr. W. 
M. Scott, who was here last season, will be on the 
ground and in charge of the work during a portion of 
the time; Mr. P. J. O'Gara will be located at Newcastle 



and will look after the foothill orchards. Mr. W. F. 
Fanrot will be located at Suisun and will work in Sui- 
sun and Yolo counties. Mr. George F. Miles will be lo- 
cated at Courtland and will spend his time in Sacra- 
mento county. Mr. James Burch Rorer is at present 
at Courtland but will spend part of his time in the or- 
chards around San Francisco bay and the lower San 
Joaquin valley. Mr. W. S. Ballard is at Vina and will 
devote his efforts to the upper Sacramento valley. 

It is our aim to give . every horticultural commis- 
sioner or his inspectors, and through them or else in 
person to give every orchardist an opportunity of get- 
ting the instruction in the best possible methods of con- 
trolling this disease. Our men act as instructors or 
advisers to the orchardist in his fight against the 
blight. Some orchards we can actually inspect, or even 
in a few limited cases do the work on certain trees 
ourselves, but as a rule the real work must fall on the 
grower. Upon the skill and success therefore of the 
California growers in carrying out these methods the 
future of the California pear industry depends. 



FIGHTING THE PEAR BLIGHT. 

To the Editor: A method in fighting blight wnich 
is worthy of consideration is leaving more wood during 
the winter pruning than is wanted in the finished tree. 
This extra wood will act as a safety valve, so to speak, 
to be cut off during the following season when twig 
and blossom infection is at its height. This is really a 
slight adaptation from the Eastern orchard practice 
where summer pruning is a part of the regular pro- 
gram. When the tree starts to grow, if one-third or 
one-quarter, extra wood is left, a lot of wood and many 
newly set pears can be sacrificed and one can still 
count on an ordinary full crop. 

The grower must make up his- mind to cut off this 
wood, however, no matter how many pears it contains 
or how little blight it has, else the tree will be too 
heavily taxed and the fruit consequently small and 
poor. This is especially true of trees on rather poor 
soil. 

Another advantage is that less wood is promoted and 
the tree makes a slower, harder growth, better able to 
withstand blight infection while fruit formation is 
induced at the same time. 

Less cultivating and no plowing has been advocated, 
but while in theory this seems feasible I am afraid too 
great stress is laid on it, enough so that everyone will 
swing to the other extreme and do no tillage whatever. 
This would certainly be detrimental in many orchards 
which under present conditions make a slow growth. 
The object claimed is the production of a harder, 
smaller growth, it being an established fact that such 
wood is more resistant. But to set and harvest a crop 
of pears requires a lot of food and water. When no 
fertilizing or irrigating is done it seems to me that 
there is danger in advocating this practice too strongly. 
Where the trees make a very heavy growth and are 
growing on strong, heavy, rich, moist land a certain 
amount, if not all, cultivating might be stopped, but to 
adopt such proceedings in the management of orchards 
on dry, gravelly clay which is hone too rich at best, is 
not wise, especially as most of the growers are some- 
times too ready to accept any proposition which means 
less labor. 

To assist against the blight and to mature a crop of 
pears requires graduating the plowing and cultivating. 
This is an individual problem in every orcharfl, no 
two having exactly the same soil and water conditions. 

In general, if the trees are making a growth of a 
foot or a foot and a half no plowing need be done. 
If a three-foot growth is made during the season, plow- 
ing and most of the cultivating can be dispensed with, 
only enough being done to keep down the weeds. 

In orchards making less growth than this the giving 
up of all cultivating will seriously hurt the water sup- 
ply, held as it is by a dust mulch produced by constant 
stirring of the surface soil. Where irrigation is prac- 
ticed this would not be a serious consideration. 

Therefore, as a last warning, do not be carried away 
with the idea that no cultivating will mean no blight. 
In many cases it will mean no pears. The only propo- 
sition to be considered is a careful average; enough till- 
age to mature a crop, and only enough, as more will 
promote blight infection by causing a soft, watery 
growth. 

R. L. AUAMS. 

Anderson, Cat. 

[Mr. Adams is now engaged in pear blight warfare 
in the Sacramento valley as a member of the field 
staff of the University Experiment Station under di- 
rection of Prof. R. E. Smith. His article is rational and 
timely. The measure of last year's growth is as he 
says, a very good indication of what helps to growth 
the tree may require. — ED.] 



THE NURSERY. 



THE NURSERY BUSINESS IN CALIFORNIA. 

(From a paper by Mr. Leonard of Morgan Hill at the 
Pacific Coast Nurserymen's Convention at Hanford.) 
In speaking briefly on this subject, I am strongly 
tempted to indulge in retrospection, for, while the 
"present needs" is a difficult phase to treat of, and one 
on which there would be many opinions, the "future 
possibilities," while almost limitless, are also largely 
imaginary. It becomes almost necessary, in fact, to 
allude to the past, that a more comprehensive view 
of the whole many be obtained. By this I do not mean 
to inflict upon the members of the association a sketch 
of the early nursery ventures in California, although 
I have abundant data therefor, having had occasion, 
some years ago, to search all known records. These 
data now, in view of the destruction of the San Fran- 
cisco libraries by fire, have, however, an added value. 

All of the earliest nurseries were located near the 
Bay of San Francisco, or its branches, or along river 
banks near to tide water. It did not seem possible 
that elsewhere trees or plants could be grown, in a 
climate where no rain fell for six months at a time. 
Perhaps I may select four names as typical of our Cali- 
fornia pioneer nurserymen without detracting from the 
honored memory of others equally deserving: B. S. 
Fox, John Lewelling, James Shinn, John Rock. The 
work of these men lives on, and, as an instance of 
their enterprise, it is worthy of mention that in 1859 
B. S. Fox had in his nursery in Santa Clara county, 
263 varieties of apple, 324 of pear, 89 of peach, 71 of 
cherry, 56 of plum, 14 of nectarine, 18 of apricot, 21 of 
currant, 86 of gooseberry, 12 of raspberry, 122 of for- 
eign grapes, 21 of figs, etc. In 1858 W. C. Wal- 
ker, of San Francisco, exhibited 264 varieties of or- 
namental plants in pots, and about the same time 
A. B. Smith of Smith's gardens, Sacramento, was 
propagating fruit trees on a large scale, and also demon- 
strating the profit in growing fruit in those days, the 
crop from two of his peach trees netting him one year 
$326.50. 

It is well to look backwards, occasionally; our own 
achievements are sometimes dwarfed by comparison 
with those of others who have preceded us, and whose 
work has been accomplished under so much greater 
diflicuUy. These early pioneers in the nursery busi- 
ness in California attained success without the aid of 
railroads or any regular hired labor. California was 
then a wilderness, being gradually peopled by adven- 
turers drawn here by the gold excitement of '49 and '50. 

We have learned — or might have learned — many les 
sons from the experiences of the pioneers, and still 
we know but little. 

Present Needs. — The nursery business in California 
needs, first, and more than anything else, just such 
men as those I have named. We want not only men 
who are skilled horticulturists, but shrewd men of busi- 
ness, who ought to be able to see something of what 
the future has in store. Compared with nurseries in 
the western, southwestern and eastern states, our larg- 
est concerns here are but pygmies. It may be said 
that the demand alone will create the supply. In a sense 
this is true; but supply also, and the naturally accom- 
panying advertising, creates demand. There are many 
ways by which the nursery business of California might 
be augmented. Why is it that Eastern firms can do 
such an enormous mail-order trade, and we can not 
do it here? We grow the seeds here, wholesale them 
East, and let the California public buy them of the 
Eastern houses, to plant near where they were grown. 
The retail market of the United States is ours, or a 
good share of it, for seeds, and also, in time, for bulbs. 
The latter are being grown successfully, and it only 
requires a knowledge of the necessary conditions, and 
an application of that knowledge, to insure success with 
all branches of commercial bulb culture in California. 

The "climates" of California constitute our most 
valuable asset. It is because of this that it is no idle 
statement that nowhere else in the world, in the same 
area, can be successfully grown so great a variety of 
crops as in the State of California. 

Many carloads of trees are shipped into California, 
but when did we hear of a carload being shipped out 
of the State? "California" is the name which sells 
fruits all over the length and breadth of the land. Why 
is it not likely that thousands of planters would like 
California-grown trees if they could get them? New 
Jersey and New York nurserymen grow hundreds of 
thousands of roses annually in California for their 
Eastern trade, because in eight months they can get a 
better plant than they can there in two years. For 
more than half a century seed and bulb collectors from 
Europe and Eastern States have been searching Cali- 



6 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 5, 1907 



fornia for new species and supplying nursery firms and 
seedmen all over the world. Why cannot these native 
seeds and bulbs be catalogued and advertised extensive- 
ly in the United States and abroad in order to work 
up a direct trade with the planter? Or why can not 
these native plants, shrubs, and trees be grown ex- 
tensively for retailing outside of our State? You will, 
today, find in the parks and private grounds of people 
of refinement in Europe more specimens and a larger 
variety of California trees and shrubs than can be 
found at home. 

We need a more fraternal spirit, and the calling of 
this meeting of the Pacific Coast Nurserymen's Asso 
ciatlon is, I hope, a means to this end. Not only Is 
there ample room for all now engaged in the business, 
but room for many more, of the right kind. We must 
sink all petty jealousies and suspicions, let our views 
be broadened, and lot us be ready to "live and let 
live." There are many other "present needs," general 
and local. Of the latter, a wholesale nursery for the 
growing of apple, pear, cherry, and plum seedlings is 
badly wanted; we are still in that extravagant, spend- 
thrift stage when we continue to send money away for 
what we can produce at home. 

I would prefer to deal with hard facts rather than 
to plunge into the realm of prophecy and let the imag- 
ination run riot in an attempt to portray the "future 
possibilities" of the nursery business in California. 

And yet they have already been hinted. Give us 
more men of enterprise and horticultural ability, give 
us better transportation facilities, give us a parcels 
post, and there is practically no limit to the growth 
of the nursery business of California. 



RELATION OF NURSERYMEN TO THE GROWER. 

(By Mr. A. N. Judd of Watsonville at the California 
Fruit Growers' Convention at Hanford.) 
Probably no two Interests should be so interwoven 
and friendly as fruit-growing and the nursery business, 
yet, strange to say, the intercourse between the or- 
chardist and the nurseryman is of but a few days and 
of a prefunctory nature. The embryo orchardist is 
usually an enterprising and progressive farmer, who 
has no knowledge whatever of pomology, but who re- 
members something of the taste he had, when a boy, 
for the Greening, the Newtown Pippin and the Blue 
Damson. His interrogatories put to the nurseryman re- 
garding the best varieties to plant, considering the cli- 
mate and market, disclose the fact that he has no pos- 
itive knowledge on the subject. In looking through 
the nurseryman's stock, which seems to be on dress 
parade, so even in helghth and straight are the rows, 
the purchaser will see little white board partitioning 
off the plot or field, with supposed names of varieties, 
in plain and legible letters, standing as a guarantee 
that what is bought is true to name. He will see men 
cutting off a few of the lower limbs of each young tree, 
these cuttings to be placed in damp sand to be used as 
stocks for root grafts, which reproduce like variety; if 
later they are used for budding, the results are the 
same. The buyer may often notice on roots of young 
trees that have been dug preparatory to heeling in, or 
for B customer, a white or moldy substance, and on 
some of the limbs a pimply effect. But the prospective 
orchardist is not an entomologist, so he waits awhile, 
a few years perhaps, before he begins to take notice 
that his young trees are uneven, both in thrift and size; 
with some there seems to be swelling at the ground 
and the excresence is covered with what seems to be 
mildew. He then consults his neighbor, who knows 
as little, or perhaps less, about entomology than he 
does. After considerable discussion they decide it is 
due to lice of some kind, and those Newtown Pippins 
that are doing so poorly, that are making no growth, 
and actually going back, are voted by the nurseryman 
as not suitable to the climate and soli. In digging them 
out you notice, when the limbs are cut, that they are 
dry, and under the bark they have a streaky red look; 
and yet what puzzles him greatly is that a few of the 
trees of the same variety do exceedingly well; in fact, 
you find this condition over all your orchard on those 
trees that have none of the aliments mentioned. This 
is often accounted for by the nurseryman BO your own 
fault, the result of improper cultivation or pruning. 
You reason that he ought to know, and I ask right here, 
should he not? 

When I look over the live-stock field 1 see a struggle 
for the best strains of the best breeds which make the 
best crosses, and no price is too high and no distance 
too great to accomplish the result aimed at, which is 
to get the very best of each — strong, and fertile, and 
above all unmixed. But did you ever see a nurseryman 
around any orchards, during the fruiting season, noting 
or marking trees of special strength or merit with a 
view to securing scions from the best types of true 



varieties, for the purpose of improving his stock? Do 
the nurserymen agree even on the names of varieties 

and what they are? To illustrate: A buyer in the com- 
munity in which I live bad a lawsuit to recover the 
price of a car of Winesaps in California, but which were 
not the Winesaps the purchaser had known when he 
lived in the East. Now, as I have two varieties of Wine- 
saps, and at least two varieties of Newtown pippins, 
the question arises, which is which? And like con- 
ditions exist with other varieties, causing no end of 
trouble in the market. 

It seems to me that each State university should es- 
tablish a chair in pomology, and, where possible there 
should be state nurseries, or at least a strict supervi 
sion of the plant Industry, so that the responsibility 
for filling the land with all kinds of rubbish, pests, 
and diseases could be placed, and damages recovered. 
No stock breeder dare sell you stock with anthrax, 
tuberculosis, glanders, or with any other cantagious 
disease; yet many nurserymen can and do, sell you, 
every year, wholly or partially diseased trees. Such 
trees are taken from ground that is often alive with 
woolly-aphis and other pests; the trees often come to 
hand dead or in a dying condition, caused by use of 
deadly gases to partially destroy the pests, leaving only 
sufficient life to permit the trees to eke out a miserable 
existence, at great loss to the grower. I would enact 
a law which places a fine for sailing unclean trees or 
those not true to name; this fine I would make equal 
to the cost of the tree sold, the cost of cultivation, the 
rent of land, damage to the land for like product (as 
no apple will grow where one grew before), and the 
loss of profit that should accrue during the time before 
the discovery of the criminal mistake was made. 

It seems to me that the longer the average nursery- 
man is in business the less Interest he takes In the 
betterment of our fruits, and the more certain he is 
to combat discoveries, or I might say rediscoveries, 
which the energetic orchardist makes by reading up 
or by experiment. However, there was a time when 
he had pride in the betterment of fruits and was looked 
up to as an encyclopedia on all subjects pertaining to 
horticulture; but I am sorry to say that now, with few 
exceptions, we refer to books of fifty or more years 
ago on that all-absorbing question of fruit-growing. 
I notice, so far as I have read, that these works are 
specific on the subject of where on the trees you should 
select your grafts, their proper condition, and in what 
ftock you should put them, but in no Instance are the 
methods of our nurserymen recommended; in fact, the 
more you read these works the greater is your sur- 
prise and shame, for, with the exception of a few minor 
details where new pests are concerned, we have actually 
gone back, apparently forgetting (if we ever knew) that 
the horticultural knowledge of the old Greeks, Romans, 
Frenchmen, and Germans, as well as of our own Down- 
ing, was not hereditary. It is true we have our Bur- 
bank, our Coates, and our Roeding, not In the same 
class, however, but each in his way has done things, 
and In these days of selfish commercialism their acts 
stand out as a star, giving some light in that dark cor- 
ner of horticulture, the nursery business. 



THE BOTANIST. 



A STUDY OF FORAGE PLANTS AT ETTERSBURG 
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

(Written for the Pacific Rural Press by Albert F. Ktter.) 
I Third Paper. J 

Of native narrow-leaved Fescues — two species abound 
in this locality: the "Blue" fescue or "bunch grass," 
which is frequently found in many places hereabouts, 
but generally on the higher ridges and in rather poor, 
light soil, and the "Creeping Fescue," a rather rare 
species, and to my notion, a very promising grass and 
well worthy of cultivation. 

The "Blue" fescue is generally charged with dying 
out very soon where it is pastured, but be this as it 
may, it Is well liked by stock and that alone makes it 
less possible to long endure. Yet, still, after half a 
century of grazing, it is yet to be found, and this fact 
alone would indicate that some of it, at least, Is quite 
enduring to say the least of It. Again, I note the fact in 
specimens I have brought In and transplanted in the 
garden that it grows in considerable variation, and I 
believe that were we to collect and then select the 
very best specimens for further experimental work, we 
could finally have the start in seed of a grass that 
would well be worth considering as a grass to arti- 
ficially sow on some of our lands where today we have 
little to select from that is in any measure desirable. 

Our other species, the "creeping" fescue, likewise 
varies much in type, and from my work with it here, 
I can only speak of it as one of our most promising 



grasses. It is perfectly adapted to our seasons. It 
withstands perfectly our hottest weather and the frosts 
of winter do not bring It to distress. Last winter, with 
all our frosty weather, It remained bright and green 
through it all. No other of the narrow leaved fescues 
can compare with it as resistant to frost and if I 
can judge correctly, it is the most vigorous in germi- 
nation of them all. It is a fine seeder and from the 
fact that it is both deep rooted and propagated by under- 
ground root stems, I see no reason why it should not 
( be a most permanent grass, and a fire run over it in 
; the dry season only improves it. In texture it is quite 
the equal of Kentucky blue grass, or Perennial rye grass, 
and it forms a dense turf on fertile land and should 
| be a good grass for either grazing or for hay. This 
"creeping" fescue and Deschampsia elongata, which I 
will now consider, I look upon as two grasses that have 
always been with us and so well adapted to our climate 
conditions that their natural range should be closely 
looked over and the best selected and increased. 

"Deschampsia elongata. — This, too, is what the 
stockman terms a "bunch" grass; but it has a head 
and a seed resembling a very tiny oat. It is a rare 
grass, too, in the parts of Humboldt county I am fa- 
miliar with; in fact, I have seen it on only three small 
areas, all on high ridges. When brought under cultiva- 
tion in good soil here, this summer on a plot of three 
rods in extent, it grew six feet high and very thick, 
and when cut for seed and thoroughly dry it turned off 
a crop of 12600 lb. of straw and seed per acre. The 
yield in seed alone was very nearly a ton per acre. 
The seed, although weighing almost as heavy as rye 
grass, is so much smaller that it will go three times 
as far in sowing. It is easily harvested and easily 
threshed and as a germinator it is all right if the 
seed Is fresh, but seed I sowed last spring that was 
three years old was almost a total failure, while new- 
seed came perfectly. Everywhere I sowed it last fall 
on the burnings, and it was a most discouraging season 
for grass to "catch" on such a situation, it made a 
satisfactory "catch" and stood the summer drouth per- 
fectly. While it is not a tender grass it is eagerly 
sought after by all kinds of stock. It is very permanent 
where grazed and from my observations on this point, 
I look upon it as perhaps most likely grass to sow 
and get a catch on the natural range. Where the seed 
has become scattered here among the grasses, annual 
and otherwise, it has fought for an existence and estab- 
lished itseU' and is doing well now. It is a fair winter 
grower and with us here it remains green all sum- 
mer where pastured. I believe, too, that it should make 
a good quality of hay, and it is less harsh than orchard 
grass. Three years ago I sowed as an experiment, a 
small quantity of this Deschampsia, Sheep's fescue, 
and rib grass on a south-hillside where manzanita for- 
merly grew, and where it gets the full benefit of our 
hot summer days. The three species all germinated 
well, but the fescue is entirely dead and gone now, 
while the Deschampsia is permanently established and 
seeding, while the rib grass has been seeding for the 
past two years and thickening up considerably, and it 
is safe to say that it makes twice the feed that the 
Deschampsia does, though I think both are there to 
stay permanently. 

Rat-tail Fescue and Squirrel-tail Fescue. — Rat-tail 
fescue is of no importance as a grazing plant and Its 
presence on a range generally denotes poverty or over- 
stocking and on this account it is often called "Pov- 
erty" grass. Squirrel-tail fescue, or as it is often styled 
"Tickle" grass, is, I believe, the most nearly every- 
where present of any plant on Humboldt natural ranges. 
It is an annual and so well is it adapted to maintain 
itself that a very few plants of it to the acre on a large, 
clean burning will within a few years spread over every 
foot of it. To prevent it seeding is practically impos- 
sible, for it will seed itself, no matter how short it 
is grazed, and by a peculiar little barb on the end of 
the seed and the beard on the other, it comes about 
as near possessing animation as a seed will ever have. 
Like many other grass seeds it will burrow itself in 
the ground and with the first showers they get the full 
benefit and germinate. It grows rapidly after germi- 
nation and makes a fine feed, stock eating it readily 
enough until it comes in seed, but care little for it 
after it ripens on the range, but when cut for hay, 
stock of all kinds e*at it up clean, though the seeds 
are objectionable. Sheep, goats, and pigs sometimes 
get the seeds in their eyes, and dogs often become 
sore footed from the seeds working into the flesh be- 
tween their toes. It stands frost only moderately well. 
Whether our ranges would be better off without it or 
not, I am not prepared to say, but I feel that so far as 
we are concerned we need not worry ourselves at all 
on this point. We have it everywhere and it is beyond 
doubt here to stay to the last. 



January 5, 1907. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



7 



Brome Grasses. — In the Brome grass family I had 
plots of the following species: B. marginatus, B. unio- 
loides, B. inermis, B. brevaris, and B. carinatus hook- 
erianus. Then we have three native perennial species 
and the widely naturalized B. villosum or soft brome. 

B. marginatus does but little in this climate. It dis- 
likes our rainless summer and our long, wet winters 
distress it even more, so that when spring does ar- 
rive it is in no humor to grow. In no way is it as de- 
sirable as orchard grass, so I will not discuss its short- 
comings further. 

13. brevaris made a very poor showing and 15 inermis 
is out of joint with our seasons. It makes no growth 
in winter and in summer it is too dry and warm, and 
at best it makes but a scanty growth. 

B. unioloides grows well but is not permanent. In 
fact, it is scarcely more than an annual, and, I think, 
only fit for hay making, and this naturally brings it into 
direct competition with the oat family and they are 
better in every way for the purpose and probably yield 
better crops. The seeds are as large as an oat grain, 
and if expected to re-seed and volunteer, I would rather 
take chances for success with wild oats. 

B. carinatus hookerianus is by long odds the best 
of the species I have tried here. It is quite permanent, 
a quick grower from seed, and it stands frosts well and 
grows all winter. The seed is as large as a light oat 
grain and it seeds well and is a splendid germinator 
and stands the summer drouth almost as well as orchard 
grass. As a hay it is probably somewhat less harsh 
than orchard grass, and it is also a better winter grower, 
but not so permanent. 

Our native species are not of a quality that would 
seem to make them very desirable, so I will pass on to 
the annual species known as Soft Brome Grass. It is 
a very desirable grass where annuals alone are con- 
sidered and in many places it is the dominating species. 
It is a splendid germinator and stock eat it well in all 
its stages of growth and when ripening it is quite equal 
to feeding grain, as the heads are quite heavy. After 
ripening the seed shatters and readily re-seeds itself so 
that it does not run out under ordinary grazing. As 
a dry feed on the range, stock eat it better than any of 
the other annual grasses, and it makes a desirable hay 
that all kinds of stock eat well, but it is a little more 
inclined to get musty than rye grass hay. It is a de- 
sirable grass in the hay-Bold, where the soil is thin or 
light, and is generally mature enough when cut to re- 
seed itself. It should always be included in a mixture 
for seeding on burnings on uplands. 

Another member of the Brome family that is gen- 
erally regarded as an outcast, is the "Broncho grass." 
Put half a dozen of the long awned seeds of this species 
down the back of a fellow's neck and there will im- 
mediately be something doing. It's only redeeming 
feature is that it makes a vigorous growth early in 
the season and is a good winter grass, but after it be- 
gins to beard out it becomes less and less desirable. 
It spreads year by year and chokes better grasses out, 
and to exterminate it when once introduced on a range 
is out of question. Apparently it will grow where any 
other of our annual grasses will thrive and probably 
become more abundant by crowding more desirable 
species out. It is exceedingly easy to introduce on a 
range and practically impossible to exterminate it when 
once introduced. 

(To be continued.) 



FRUIT MARKETING. 

CALIFORNIA FRESH FRUIT SHIPMENTS OF 1906. 

(By Hon. Alden Anderson, manager of California Fruit 
Distributors, at the Fruit Growers' Convention at Han- 
ford.) 

In compliance with your request for a report of the 
fruit shipments- from the State this year, I herewith 
give you figures compiled by this company, same be- 
ing for actual carload shipments (not estimated ton 
cars) of fruit leaving the State. 

The first carload of cherries (which variety of fruit 
opens the deciduous fruit shipping season in California) 
was shipped on May 2, and the last carload (apples 
excepted) of grapes- was shipped November 28. 

The following gives total carload shipments, by va- 
rieties, except apples, which shipment is not 
yet: 

Cars, 



Cherries 150 

Apricots 16 

Peaches 584 

Plums 1220 

Pears 1513 

Grapes 2050 

Apples (to Dec. 1) 669 

Miscellaneous 22 



There was an increase in shipment of cherries over 
1905, but, on account of the cold, late spring and late 
rains, the shipment did not reach the average quantity. 

The shipment of apricots was light on account of 
the very short crop. 

The shipment of peaches was less than one-third of 
the shipment of that of 1905. This was occasioned 
somewhat by the short crop in California, but more 
particularly on account of the heavy crops- in the 
eastern peach growing districts. 

The shipment of plums was only a few cars less than 
in 1905, while that of pears was some five hundred 
cars more. 

The shipment of grapes exceeded that of 1905 by some 
450 cars. The weather for shipment of grapes was 
very satisfactory, but the cold, late spring held them 
back and they were late in ripening and maturing and 
when ripe seemed to have a deficiency of sugar com- 
pared to normal years and there was much complaint 
that they did not carry as well as usual. 

On apples, there has been to this date something over 
a thousand cars le&s shipped than for the season of 
1905. This decrease was occasioned by a large apple 
crop in the East and the fact that many apples are 
being stored and handled locally. 

Although not called for by report, I venture to re- 
mind the Fruit Growers' Convention that there has 
now been enacted a law substantially the recommenda- 
tions made by the Fruit Growers' Convention of San 
Jose in 1904, and telegraphed to the President and our 
Congressional Repre&entatives, both as regards the in- 
crease of power and duties of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission and the operation and control of refriger- 1 
ator cars by the transportation companies themselves. 

With reference to the amended Interstate Commerce 
Act, I know of no disadvantageous condition that will 
apply to shippers of California because of its enact- 
ment to offset its advantages. When the law first went 
into effect some of the eastern railroads declined to 
make diversions, or make back hauls when necessary 
to reach the main line for diversion purposes, but these 
incidents are, through the assistance and understanding 
of the matter by the initial transportation lines, being 
protected by publication in tariffs-. 

The new refrigerator cars that will be operated by 
the railroad companies are said to be very fine and it 
might be well for this convention to request that the 
department having charge of their operation be sep- 
arate and distinct and independent from all other de- 
partments of the railroad, so that there will be no 
chance of having the cars appropriated for other trans- 
portation purposes when needed. If such action is 
taken growers and shippers should always* be assured 
of a sufficiency of good, clean cars at all times for 
fruit transportation purposes. 

Notwithstanding the large eastern crops of the cur- 
rent season, the fruit season just closed, has, on the 
whole, been a remunerative and 1 prosperous one for 
the fruit growers of California. 
Sacramento, December 4. 



THE ANT ECLIPSED. 

One of the classic stories cited as an illustration of 
the intelligence of ants is that of the ingenious insects 
which climbed down a string to get at the sweets which 
Frinklin had suspended in mid-air to be out of harm's 
way. If that be the highest mark of insectile intelli- 
gence, then the common wood-louse, that brown-gray 
beetle which curls itself into a ball, must be exalted to 
prominent place. A certain firm of nurserymen finds 
the wood-lice its greatest enemy. So serious are their 
depredations among the maidenhair ferns that it has 
been necessary to raise all the staging of the houses 
and support the wood-work upon jars, which rest in 
bowls of water. This made it impossible for the beetles 
to croop up to their food, for they will not swim. The 
beetles have not been beaten. They have been some 
time working out a new plan of campaign, but it has 
been done at last. They do not any longer attempt 
to climb up the staging. They leave that alone. In- 
stead, they climb up the glass roof of the house, then, 
curling up, drop down on the plants. Their plan is 
more daring than that of the historic ants. The ants 
had a string clown which to climb; the wood-lice have 
to dive. — St. James's Gazette. 



"What did you do with that crazy poem you wrote a 
while ago?" "I put Rah, Rah, Rah,' on the end of it, 
and sold it to a university for a college yell." 



The Young Hostess — "Papa, I wish you'd request the 
musicians not to play the dance music so fast." Her 
Father — ■ " I did, my dear, but the leader says the union 
rules call for time and a half after midnight." 



THE MARKETS 



Wheat. 

The local demand for wheat is only fair, and the 
situation remains stationary. The demand for wheat 
abroad is not very urgent, and engagements made some 
time ago with buyers on the other -side of the water 
are being rapidly filled. The principal new demand ex- 
ists from the Orient ports, and some good-sized cargoes 
have recently been dispatched there from the North 
and some more will go forward in a short time. Since 
the beginning of the season wheat prices have shown 
but little weakness. At times prices have dropped a 
few cents and recovered again the lost ground. There 
is to be no pressure of the grain on the market for 
the balance of the fiscal year. There will have to be 
considerable imports, else bins will be swept bare long 
before June 1 next, and this certainly does not and 
cannot argue for reduction in local values. These were 
carried over, 84,000 tons last June, but unquestionably 
the milling usage was materially reduced subsequent to 
April 18, the mills of this city being destroyed. So, 
unless the North sends grain down in much larger vol- 
ume than seems likely, carry-over stocks as shown 
June 1 next will hardly exceed those of 1904, viz: 55,000 
tons. They have never been lower and can hardly be, 
in view of the mills' necessities. Speaking of these 
mills, it is understood they are not supplied plenti- 
fully. Basing their purchases on the assumption that 
city milling demand was of a negligible amount, they 
held off buying and, what with the marked difficulty 
in getting coastwise tonnage, it is not going to be an 
easy matter to supply their needs, and any good wheat 
In this State should be in demand, from now on. Some 
handlers consider that Australian wheat need never be 
sold for under $1.40 per cental. The scarcity of cars 
is bound to make wheat importation into this State 
anything but an easy matter, and without such imports 
there is barely enough stock to go around for the en- 
suing six months, if every sack and kernel were con- 
sumed, and nothing on hand June 1, 1907. 

Barley. 

There is considerable strength to the barley mar- 
ket, and the sentiment is that the figures issued by the 
Merchants' Exchange, did not confirm the very large 
crop predicted in this State. Exports for the season 
will likely total 150,000 tons, as compared with 67,000 
tons last year. Some handlers claim that the crop is 
nearly or quite 500,000 tons, though the usual and ac- 
cepted method of figuring does not indicate as much. 
The final figures on the 1905 crop was 380,000 tons. 
Nevertheless there is a sentiment that barley is scarce 
and there is some bullish talk of higher prices. Feed 
continues in good demand here and the outlook is for 
a continuation of the present high rate of consumption. 
Flour. 

The flour trade in the city is about normal, with no 
prominent or interesting features. The local consump- 
tion is good, but as the millers have the demand pretty 
well discounted, the arrivals are about the same from 
week to week. Country millers are reported to be 
short of wheat, but so far they are showing no great 
desire to buy. There is very little coming down to 
San Francisco from the North and only standard 
brands well known to the market meet with any call. 
Shipments from the North average about 30,000 bar- 
rels per month — only about one-half of that of a year 
ago. California millers are not doing much in the way 
of exports, though advices from the North show that 
the larger mills there are quite active exporters. In 
the export market the demand is spasmodic. Some 
days the cables are liberal, and then comes a sudden 
reaction and the tone becomes weaker, and millers com- 
plain of dullness; but on the whole the demand can 
be termed fair, — there being a fair inquiry from cer- 
tain sections of the Orient, and but little from other 
parts. The principal demand for flour comes from the 
north of China. Japan orders are improving, and the 
indications are that there will be some good-sized 
orders made known for that country after the turn of 
the year. Central American ports have waked up, and 
have placed some fair orders for early loading. 

Oats. 

The oat market is very firm, with advancing ten- 
dencies. In the North, the price has already advanced 
and, as the upward movement has not checked buying, 
a further advance is probable before spring. California 
is becoming a liberal purchaser of Al white oats and 
buyers here are willing to pay liberally for good white 
oats in the Oregon and Washington markets. Ship- 
ments are being made freely to California points from 
Portland and some in the trade are inclined to think 
that California buyers will secure about all of the 
Northern surplus. From present appearances it looks 



8 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 5, 1907 



as if the coast oat crop will be consumed at home. 
Between millers on one side and heavy railroad con- 
struction contractors on the other, the demand is much 
larger than for years past. 

Millstuffs. 

The inquiry for feed of all descriptions is greater than 
the capacity of the mills, and nearly every mill is be- 
hind orders. Supplies coming in are meager and are 
quickly absorbed by dealers to fill orders. Prices are 
without change and may not go any higher, notwith- 
standing the limited stocks. 

Beans. 

Beans are dull, but this seems to be due rather to the 
season than to any weakness in the situation. There 
is no tendency toward lower prices and dealers state 
that the present quietness is natural at the turn of the 
season, when buyers are desirous of having as light 
stocks as possible on hand. As soon as business opens 
up considerable activity may be expected to develop. 
Hay. 

Arrivals of hay for the week have amounted to 3093 
tons. Although trade is generally dull in holiday times 
and the unsettled condition of trade and the bad condi- 
tion of the streets interfere considerably with all tran- 
sactions in town, nevertheless, the shortage of supply in 
the hay market continues to cause the strongest kind 
of a feeling and keeps prices at the high water mark. 
No change in the transportation situation can be noted, 
except possibly for the worse, owing to the interference 
of the storms with water traffic. The railroad is doing 
no better, in spite of determined efforts at many points 
to move hay to San Francisco. Almost any grade of 
hay will now sell readily at top quotations. Choice 
grades are eagerly sought for, and the supply is only 
a fraction of the demand. Most of the better classes 
of hay come from interior points away from water com- 
petition, and these points seem to find it impossible to 
get any cars whatever from the railroad company, 
though some of the shippers that were able to threaten 
water competition have been a little more fortunate. 
Alfalfa brings fancy prices for a choice quality. Very 
little is coming in, but that finds a ready sale at top 
figures. A little straw has been coming in lately and is 
selling at a slight advance, ranging from 60c to 80 cents. 
Poultry. 

The poultry market showed some slight reaction after 



the holidays, especially on dressed turkeys, but later it 
very nearly recovered and good stocks of dressed tur- 
keys sold readily. The market for live poultry is fair 
taken as a whole, though some lots of small young 
stock and old chickens of only medium quality are 
meeting with slow sale. The usual good heavy stock is 
in good demand and the market for these is well 
cleaned up. 

Butter. 

The butter market continues in good shape with 
general conditions favorable to sellers. California ex- 
tras have been bringing 33 cents and possibly a little 
better. All really fine fresh butter is well cleaned up 
at good figures from day to day and as far as can be 
told the situation will continue strong for some weeks 
to come. 

■ Cheese. 

The cheese market has not altered greatly. The de- 
mand continues good for fancy grades and fair for other 
grades. California fancy has been selling up to 14% 
cents, with Oregon cheese ranging about one cent lower 
for the same grade. 

Eggs. 

The egg situation has been up and down during 
the last few days with California selected selling at a 
range of from 50 cents to 55 cents. As a rule every- 
thing in the way of selected stock is kept well clean- 
ed up and holders are generally quite firm in their 
ideas of values. Generally speaking eggs are quoted 
about as before, but they are weak at these figures in 
most grades. Dealers are anticipating an increase in 
receipts. 

Potatoes. 

Both retailers and jobbers are snowing a disposition 
to be very careful about overstocking with potatoes. 
Whether this is due to the turn of the year or to a gen- 
eral feeling that the market has reached its highest 
figure is a little hard to tell. Probably both are fac- 
tors in the situation. No heavy buying is looked for 
until next week. At present, though, the sales are 
considerable, they are of a hand to mouth character. 
Vegetables. 

The onion market has been steadied by the light re- 
ceipts that have come in lately and by the outlook for h 
continuation of this state of affairs. Otherwise, the 
vegetable market is weak and dull, with an oversupply 



of more or less rain-damaged stock. Arrivals of toma- 
toes are very poor and there is but little call for them. 
There is a rather exceptional demand for string beans 
and wax beans and for these the market is tolerably 
firm. 

Fresh Fruits. 

The market is now restricted practically to pears 
and apples, with both in good supply. The demand has 
dropped off some since the holidays, but it is still good 
and, except for the poorest lots of apples, the market 
is in good shape. 

Dried Fruits. 

Since the holidays there is no movement in the 
market, though owing to the light supplies there is nat- 
urally no backward step in prices. The feeling con- 
tinues that prices will tend upward from now until the 
approach of the next season. 

Citrus Fruits. 

Oranges are being dealt in very extensively and are 
selling at a considerable range of prices owing to the 
varying quality. Not much interest is taken in Tan- 
gerines, grape fruit, or limes. Lemons are in light sup- 
ply and are firm at former quotations. 

Nuts. 

The close of the holidays has had no effect on the 
price of nuts, which continues at "famine prices," or 
about what the holders are disposed to ask. Bakers' 
and confectioners' supply houses are picking up all 
available lots. 



JUTE PRICE AND SUPPLY. 

Consul-General William H. Michael reports that the 
jute market in Calcutta is becoming more settled, ow- 
ing to the prospects of a large crop and the belief that 
there will be quite enough to meet the foreign demand 
and the home requirements. Ten thousand bales (400 
pounds each) changed hands at Calcutta within a few- 
days, at $19.50 per bale, and there seemed to be a will- 
ingness on the part of the balers to sell at this- price 
for at least all of October. Mr. Michael adds that there 
is good money in jute at that price. 



Ma — But perhaps the young man wants a little en- 
couragement. 

Daughter — Yes, ma; how would it be if you kept out 
of sight when he's here? 



AND USE - REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION $ 



SPRAY 



The Greatest Insecticide and Fungicide Known to Modern Science. 



COST. We deliver it to points in California for 24c per gallon. One gallon is used with eleven gallons water, making twelve gallons of diluted 
spray for 24c, or 2c per gallon. This is as cheap as it can be made at home and saves time, labor, and the very disagreeable work of mixing, boiling, 
and handling. REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION is entirely free from sediment. No clogging of spray pumps. Pumps last longer and spray- 
ing is done more quickly and thoroughly. 

ITS ADVANTAGES. It is straight lime and sulphur. No other Ingredients are used. It Is mixed and boiled twelve carloads at a time in four 
huge vats by specially made equipments for producing that perfect che-mical combination so essential in order to reach the full limit of value for 
destroying insects, fungus, mildew, etc. It is much more perfect preparation than orchardists can possibly make.. 

READ CAREFULLY what Prof. R. W. Thatcher, of Pullman, Washington Experiment Station, has to say about it: 

"I have analyzed REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION and find it contains a MUCH LARGER percentage of sulphur IN SULPHIDE FORM 
than any other preparation I have- ever known, and it is the sulphur in sulphide form that gives the lime and sulphur spray its value." 
In a letter to Mr. W. H. Benteen, of Watsonville, Cal., Prof. Thatcher explains as follows: 
"In regard to the REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION I would say that their solution is as good or better than the homemade preparations." 
"I have no hesitancy in recommending it very strongly for use wherever the lime and sulphur preparation is desired." 
E. H. Shepard, Mgr. of Hood River Apple- Growers' Union, Hood River, Oregon, reports as follows: 

"Like evc-ryone else here I have had to spray. The first year I cooked the lime, sulphur and salt myself. Results fairly good. The next year I 
used lime and sulphur, cooking chemically with caustic potash. Results better. Last year I used REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION. Results 
very much be-tter." 

Prof. A. B. Cordley, State Entomologist at Corvallis, Oregon, after making official experimental tests on a larger scale, reports as follows: 
"I have tested the REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION in comparison with the homemade lime and sulphur sprays and in the tests made 
— which was on a considerable scale in the larger orchard of the Benton County Prune Company — I must say that the REX gave better results than 
did the homemade spray." 

OTHER ADVANTAGES. 

REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION has been very extensively used both for spraying and dipping sheep ana cattle, and the Department of 
Agriculture at Washington, D. C, makes frequent analyses of It and requires that it must be made at all times to stand the same tests. This gives the 
users of it the be-st possible protection, because it is and must be uniform, while the homemade spray varies from ten per cent, to fifty per cent, in 
its strength and value. 

USE NO SALT. 

There is no need of using salt with REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION. 

FOR FUNGUS. 

Use the straight REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION — one gallon with eleven gallons water, adding just enough milk of lime to make the 
spray white on the trees. This will destroy and prevent the fungus. 

IF BLUESTONE IS WANTED. It is scarce and almost impossible to get this year, but can be mixed with REX LIME AND SULPHUR 
SOLUTION after diluting with the water. If Bluestone is used with REX, there is no need of using more than one-fourth to one-half the amount that 
would be used with REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION. 

We shall be pleased to furnish more complete information to fruit growers who write us for it. 

We are establishing carload dealers in all fruit growing communities. Where we have no dealers, we will ship freight prepaid from Benicia in 
fifty gallon barrels at $14.75 per barrel. When barrels are empty, ship them back to us at Benicia and we will pay freight on empties returned and re- 
, bate $2.75 for each empty barrel returned. 

, We also make and supply the well-known REX ARSENATE OF LEAD. Also REX STOCK AND POULTRY FOODS AND REMEDIES and 

, famous REX CONDITIONER. The REX COMPANY, Benicia, California, and Omaha, Neb. 



January 5, 1907. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



9 



THE DAIRY. 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY 



"THE CURSE OF POOR BUTTER." 

Secretary Coburn, of the Kansas Board 
of Agriculture, calls attention to condi- 
tions in that State in connection with 
what he calls a "curse of poor butter." 

Secretary Coburn says that only about 
25 per cent of the 25,854,206 pounds of 
country-made butter in Kansas during 
the year ending March 1, 1904, was of 
first class quality, good enough to com- 
mand 18 cents per pound. The rest, while 
sold, found its way from the country 
grocer to the renovating butter plant, 
where it has been melted, mixed with 
sweet milk, and again churned, made into 
"butter," and sold on the open market 
in direct competition with the compara- 
tively small amount of first class farm- 
made butter. 

It is said by men who have for many 
years been in close touch with butter 
as a commercial product that less than 
25 per cent of family, or country-made 
butter, is of a really merchantable qual- 
ity, and that this 25 per cent commands 
an average price of 18 cents per pound: 
also, that the remaining 75 per cent, 
reaching the hands of the reluctant coun- 
try merchants, finally finds its way to 
some renovating establishment, at 6 to 
8 cents per pound. From thence it comes 
to the consumer at an equal price with 
decent butter and the consumer is forced 
to buy it because of the scarcity of a 
good dairy product or pay for "creamery" 
and advance over the price the creamery 
man could get in New York or Boston. 

Kansas is not alone. Every family 
knows the rancid, streaked and flavorless 
compound of grease that in too many 
instances is sold as butter. Every house- 
keeper has sent it back to the store and 
after diligent search has been obliged to 
put up with something quite as bad or 
go without. Now that we have legislated 
oleo out of competition with these 
messes, it would seem that something 
should be done to raise the quality of the 
stuff we are forced to buy. Most house- 
wives would agree on a law providing 
imprisonment for the butter maker who 
spoils good cream to produce the lumps 
of rancid fat too often offered as "dairy 
butter." There are good butter makers 
in the country — and there are others. 



NATIONAL CREAMERY BUTTER- 
MAKERS. 

Dairy cattle breeders individually and 
through their registry associations have 
about completed arrangements for hold- 
ing a national exhibit of this class of 
stock at the Coliseum in Chicago, Feb- 
ruary 14-24. The National Creamery 
Buttermakers' Association, whose annual 
convention will be held in Chicago on 
the dates given, instigated the move- 
ment and has offered to provide at its 
expense stalls and feed for the stock. 
Furthermore, it has deposited $3,500 as 
prize money. It is proposed to perfect 
a national exhibition of dairy products 
and dairy cattle. Representatives of the 
Ayrshire, Holstein-Friesian, Guernsey, 
and Jersey associations recently conferr- 
ed on the subject at Milwaukee and 
adopted resolutions favoring the show, 
and asking their respective organizations 
to duplicate the prizes offered. They also 
recommended the appointment of a sup- 
erintendent by each registry association 
and the forming of a board of directors 
to work out the details in connection 
with the project. The show ought to be 
a big success. It is worthy of that result. 
The dairy interests certainly need a na- 
tional exposition. To hold an exhibit of 
dairy products and dairy machinery in 
connection with dairy cattle seems a 
happy idea, and Chicago is the place 
for it. 



TULARE GRANGE MEETING. 

To the Editor: The day was dark and 
threatening but there was a good aver- 
age attendance at the meeting of Tulare 
Grange on Saturday, December 15. 

Two candidates were duly elected to 
receive the degrees of the order. 

The special committee having in 
charge the application for permission 
to organize a county mutual co-operative 
insurance association reported having ob- 
tained enough of names owning insurable 
property to entitle them to insure against 
fire, a committee was appointed to se- 
lect directors and submit the names to 
this grange after which the application 
will be sent to the insurance commis- 
sioner. 

A communication from Henry E. Reed, 
director of Exploitation of the Alaska- 
Yukon Pacific Exposition to be held in 
1909, enclosing resolutions of approval, 
was; referred to a committee of three to 
report at next meeting. 

The following resolution was offered, 
seconded and carried unanimously: 

Resolved, Tulare Grange, P of H., No. 
198, approves the action of the National 
Grange, Patrons of Husbandry, in the 
organization of a Patrons' National Life 
Insurance Association. It is the most 
important measure taken by the National 
Grange in years. The organization of 
such association will do much for th^ 
order and for it& members. 

The following resolution was offered 
and after much discussion was laid over 
for further action until the third Satur- 
day in January. 

Resolved, We approve the stand taken 
by President Roosevelt to have a de- 
cision of the U. S. Supreme Court which 
will determine the treaty rights of 
Japanese children to admission to the 
same schools American white children 
attend, and his determination to en- 
force s.'uch decision. No president of 
the United States, at home or abroad, 
has received greater commendations than 
has President Roosevelt. His actions 
have at all times been inspired by a 
sense of American justice and equity and 
a desire to make American statesman- 
ship the standard for all liberty loving 
peoples. 

The subject brought up much discus- 
sion, but every confidence was ex- 
pressed in the President and his ac- 
tions, as being such as a liberal con- 
struction of his official duties required 
he should take, and as such as will re- 
dound to the credit of the American na- 
tion. 

The condemnation of President Roose- 
velt by the Pacific Coast press and by 
biased speakers, in advance of the de- 
cision of the U. S. Supreme Court, was 
considered as both unjust and unseemly. 

The following resolution was presented 
and laid over for consideration on the 
first Saturday in January: 

Resolved', We approve and advocate the 
resolutions of the State Grange, Patrons 
of Husbandry, held in Santa Rosa in Oc- 
tober and those of the State Horticul- 
tural Association convention, held this 
month in Hanford, favoring the modifica- 
tion of the Chinese exclusion laws. These 
exclusion laws have been promoted by 
class legislation. The industrial pros- 
perity of the coast, particularly of the 
agricultural interests thereof, requires 
such modification. 

Bro. P. D. Fowler read an instructive 
paper on farming remuneration in Tu- 
lare county the past years. 

Officers for next year will be installed 
at the next meeting. The installation 
and the discussions of the day will be 
public. 

J. T. 




Contains all the money-making points of dairying. Among 
the subjects treated you will find How to Feed, What to Feed, 
When to Feed, What Foods Produce Most Milk, How to Tak. 
Care of Milk-Producing Foods, How to Feed Silage, the Care of 1 
the Milch Cow, and many other profitable and practical suggestions 
that help swell the profits of the dairyman. With the book we will 
send additional information telling you how and why you can get the 
most out of you milk by using the 

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We guarantee that with a Tubular you can 

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over any other cream separator made. 
Sharpies Separators get all the cream and 
the Tubular is the easiest running, easiest 
cared for, and easiest kept clean. There 
is just one tiny piece in the bowl, themilk 
can is low and handy, the bearings are 
self oiling. Write for the "Business 
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[Mr. S. L. Boyer, Venetla, Pa., says "The Tubular makes me $255.00 yearly." [ 

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Farmuig Prosperity 
CREAM SEPARATORS 

There was never before a time in the history of the country when the 
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There isn't a farmer anywhere who has use for one who can not afford 
to buy himself a 

DE LAVAL CREAM SEPARATOR 

now and do it right away, and there isn't a farmer anywhere having use 
for a separator who really can afford not to do so. 

Its use means- more and better cream and butter, with less work and 
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If you already have a "cheap" or inferior separator, "trade it in" for 
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Oakland, Cal. Portland, Ore. Los Angeles, Cal. Seattle, Wash. 



PUMPKINS AS FEED FOR COWS. 

In all of the States where pumpkins 
are extensively grown they are used for 
cow feed in the late fall and early winter 
months, and as long as they can be 
kept without deterioration, writes George 
Ellis, in the Farmer's Review. Possibly 
they could be kept all winter under pro- 
per conditions of cold storage, but they 
are such a bulky food that a large place 
is required to store enough of them to 
last a large herd through the winter 
months. They are not only hollow in- 
side, but their shape makes them space 
consumers in storage. I regard the pump- 
kin as equivalent to silage for feed, but 
when we have the problem of feeding 
many cows, it is much easier to handle 
a silo that will hold several tons of silage 
than to build a receptacle for several tons 
of pumpkins. Moreover, the pumpkins 
must be cold enough to prevent them 
from decaying, for the air will get into 
any receptacle into which they can be 
placed. With silage the temperature 



makes little difference if it does not 
reach the point where it freezes. I have 
found in the feeding of pumpkins that 
we can feed about forty pounds per day 
per cow to advantage, and with some 
cows the milk production will be greatly 
increased. I have, however, had occa- 
sional cows where the effect of feeding 
pumpkins was to cause the cows to lay 
on fat and decrease their milk production. 
There are few experiments to which we 
can point relative to the value of feeding 
pumpkins. In one experiment I have in 
mind there was a gain of 6 per cent more 
milk when pumpkins were fed than be- 
fore they were admitted into the ration. 
This was the result, too, when the dry 
matter was so decreased in the ration 
that the increase of milk, based on the 
units of dry matter in the feed, amounted 
to 10 per cent. The milk did not in any 
way deteriorate in quality. In another 
test with which I am familiar the cows 
fed on pumpkins produced about 5 per 
cent more milk than the cows fed on 
silage, and when compared with dry hay 
the increase of milk was great. 



10 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 5, 1907 



HOME CIRCLE 



LOOKIN' OUT. 

Life's a mighty risky thing these busy, 

dizzy days, 
You've got to keep a-watchin' in a dozen 

different ways; 
Lookin' out fur autos that comes hustlin' 

down the road, 
An' wonderin' if they're goin' to run you 

down or just explode; 
Lookin' out fur engines when you drive 

across the track — 
There doesn't seem a minute when you 

aren't on the rack; 
Lookin' out fur sunstroke when the sum- 
mer days unfold, 
An' when the winter comes a-lookin' out 

fur ketchin' cold. 

Lookin' out fur prices when you've got 

some crops to sell; 
Lookin' out fur bunco men that knows 

yer folks so well; 
Lookin' out fur germs that comes a-flyin' 

through the air 
An' never leaves you any chance of 

restin' anywhere! 
Lookin' out fur burglars when you shut 

the house at night; 
It re'ly seems existence is-n't regulated 

right. 

I'd like to be more cheerful, but I can't 

see what about; 
It seems like there is nothin' to this life 

but lookin' out! 



HOW NAN HELPED. 



When Nan married Bernard Willits 
everyone seemed to approve of the match. 

Most of them if pinned down to an 
explanation would have confessed that 
their idea of fitness of the marriage 
was due to the fact that Nan was blonde 
and Bernard was dark and taller than 
&he was. Those still more analytical 
might have added that Bernard was just 
starting to practice medicine and a pro- 
fessional man needs a wife to help make 
him popular, or that if Nan had not mar- 
ried him she might have taken Dick 
Pegman, who would have carried her to 
the far West, which would have been sad 
for her parents. 

So people said the marriage was highly 
satisfactory all around and went to pay 
their wedding calls on Nan in the pret- 
ty house to which Dr. Willits had taken 
his bride. It was- a good-sized house 
and Nan did her own work, but her 
friends agreed with Dr. Willits when he 
said it was a fatal mistake for a doctor 
to start out with an air of poverty. 

It was more convenient for him to 
have his office at home, because he did 
not have to bother about getting to it 
on time. It was more economical, too, I 
because he did not pay office rent and * 
did not need an office girl. Nan was j 
always on hand to answer the bell. 

"Indeed, it is fine to have Bernard 
home with me so much," Nan told her | 
friends, happily, for Nan was- happy | 
even if she was tired. She was helping I 
Bernard and that was joy it itself, so 
she sang as she hurried about her many 
duties. 

"Oh, we can't afford a maid!" she I 
told her mother, who worried over Nan's 
paleness and thinness. "The exercise ■ 
does me good!" 

"Nan looks fine these days," supple- 
mented Dr. Willits. He sat flanked by 
newspapers and magazines, idly brush- 
ing with a white, well-kept finger the 
ash from his cigar. It fell upon the rug 
for his busy wife to brush up later. 
"That was a good dinner, my dear," he 
added, comfortably, watching as she 
cleared the table and washed the dishes. 

Then there was a large basket of 
mending waiting for her, so the read- 
ing she wanted to do was once more 



delayed. Most of her favorite maga- 
1 zines were denied her, as Bernard had 
camera publications and fishing and 
hunting magazines a& well as medical 
' journals to which he must subscribe, 
and she did not want to worry him by 
suggesting her own desires. When he 
j came home with a new $50 camera she 
< was pleased at his pleasure and agreed 
, with him that a man should have some 
fad to relieve his mind from the pres- 
1 sure of business. 

Not that Dr. Willits was so rushed 
with work. He would have been if his 
practice had not been broken into by 
! his hunting and camera trips. Nan nev- 
1 er went along. She said Bernard would 
have a better time if he did not have 
her to look out for. Usually she em- 
ployed these lonely spells in house-clean- 
ing so Bernard should not be annoyed 
by the inconvenience of the soapy up- 
i heaval, or else she sewed. Her allow- 
ance was too small to permit of her 
hiring a dressmaker, and as she had no 
, sewing machine it took her a long time 
I to make things. 

"I expected to economize the first few 
years," she told her mother one day 
when she had taken her work to the 
latter's home to do some machine sew- 
ing. "Of course, we are cramped for 
money and I shouldn't expect Bernard 
to buy me a sewing machine now!" 

Her mother thought of the $50 cam- 
era and was bitterly silent. It was not 
for her to destroy her daughter's real 
or simulated content. 

Even after the baby came Nan had 
no maid. Her smile was as sweet as 
ever when she glanced at her husband 
and he was as lazily complacent and 
lacking in helpfulness as at the very 
first, "Isn't Nan pretty with the baby?" 
he would say, admiringly. 

"In a year or so Bernard will be 
better established and it will be easier 
for me when I can have help," she said. 

Of course, Bernard could not have his 
rest broken caring for the boy — his 
mind must be alert and rested for his 
work. And then he bought the automo- 
bile. Nan was secretly dismayed, but 
she admired the car. He said it would 
be so nice for her and the baby to go 
out in, but she rarely went because she 
had to stay at home to get dinner on 
time or because he had no time to take 
her. Anyhow, she was growing too tired 
to care. 

Then Nan suddenly died. 
That was horribly upsetting. People 
felt tears come to their eyes at the pa- 
thetic thought of the lonely man in the 
desolate home with a small, helpless 
child. They said his bravery was piti- 
ful. 

Last year Dr. Willits married again. 
His new wife was- a helpless butterfly, 
who was a great social favorite. She 
keeps two maids and a chauffeur and 
runs large bills at the modiste's, besides 
making Bernard dance to her every 
whim. He has to work so hard to meet 
expenses that now his practice is boom- 
ing. People say that evidently hi& sec- 
ond wife is more clever at helping him 
make a success than was poor Nan. 

But into Dr. Willits' eyes has come 
of late the look of a man who at last 
has begun to think. — Chicago Daily 
News. 



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RAW BONE 

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PURE ANIMAL MATTER 

POULTRY FOODS 

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We want you to see the kind of Poultry Foods that are man- 
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HINTS TO HOUSEKEEPERS 



William H. Crane, the actor, was once 
asked how it was that he never attempt- 
ed serious Shakespearean roles. 

"But I did once," replied the comedian. 
"Years ago in the West I played 'Ham- 
let.* " 

"Did you, Indeed?" said an admirer 
and friend. "Didn't you have a great 
success-? Didn't the audience call you be- 
fore the curtain?" 

"Call me!" roared Crane. "Why, man, 
they dared me!" 



Pumpkin Pie. — Cook quart of pumpkin 

add yolks of four eggs, one cup sugar; 
half cup cream and a lump of butter; 
bake in flaky pastry. Beat the whites 
of eggs stiff, add two tablespoonfuls of 
sugar, spread over top; return to oven 
and brown lightly. 

A Good Plum Pudding. — Here is one of 
the be&t recipes for plum pudding: 
Three-quarters of a pound of flour, two 
ounces of baking powder, two ounces of 
bread-crumbs, 1% pound of suet, two 
pounds of raisins, one pound of currants, 
ten ounces of sugar, two ounces of al- 
monds, one pound of mixed candied peel, 
salt and spice to taste. Mix the ingred- 
ients well together, and add six eggs well 
beaten, and three-quarters of a pint of 
milk. Divide into two, and boil eight 
hours. 

Poor Man's Fruit Cake. — Seed and chop 
a quarter of a pound of dates; mix witn 
them one cupful of seeded raisins, and 
dust them with one-half cupful of flour. 
Dissolve a level teaspoonful of baking 
soda In two tablespoonfuls of warm | 
water; add to it half a pint of very thick 
sour cream, stir a moment and add one 
cupful of brown sugar, half a tumblerful 
of currant or blackberry jelly, a table- 
spoonful of cinnamon, a teaspoonful of 
allspice and two cupful& and a half of 
flour. Beat thoroughly, add the fruit, 
mix well and turn into a greased square 
J pan. Bake in a very slow oven for one 
, hour and a half. This cake will be quite 
j equal to plain fruit cake if the cream is 
very thick, and it is allowed to stand a 
week before cutting. 

Molasses Fruit Cake. — Cream two- 
| thirds of a cup of butter, add one cup of 
| sugar, and beat again. Two cups of mo- 1 
lasses, one cup of milk, five cups of 
flour sifted with one level tea&poonful Ol 
soda, four well-beaten eggs, one level 
tablespoon each of ginger and cinnamon, 
one level teaspoon of grated nutmeg, one 
cup of raisins, and one cup of currauts 
rolled lightly in flour. Bake in a large 
loaf in a moderate oven for one hour. 

Chocolate Caramel Cake. — Cream thor- 
oughly one cupful of butter, gradually 
add and cream with it one pint of fine 
granulated sugar. Add a quarter of a tea- 
spoonful of salt, the yolks of five 
eggs beaten until thick and three cupfuls 
and a half of pastry flour. Beat hard, 
then stir lightly one teaspoonful of bak- 
ing powder and the whites of three eggs 
whipped to a stiff froth. Bake in layer 
cake pans. For the filling mix in a 
saucepan one cupful of brown sugar, two 
squares of chocolate grated and one table- 
spoonful of water. Stir and cook for 20 
minutes and spread while hot between 
the cake layers. 

Golden Buck. — Cut five ounces of soft 
domestic cheese in small bits. Put it 



into a saucepan with one egg, a level 
tablespoonful of butter, half a teaspoon- 
ful of salt, a pinch of cayenne, a level 
teaspoonful of made mustard and five 
tablespoonfuls of milk. Set the sauce- 
pan over another which contains boiling 
water and stir until the cheese is soft 
and creamy. Then set where the mixture 
will keep hot without cooking any more. 
Have ready five slices of hot toast. Poach 
two eggs for each slice of toast. Spread 
the cheese mixture over the toast, place 
two eggs on each slice, and season them 
with a little butter, mustard and salt 
rubbed together. Serve at once. 

Spanish Fritters. — An excellent way to 
use a stale loaf of bread is to make what 
is known as Spanish fritters. Cut stale 
bread into even slices. Dip each into a 
mixture of egg and milk. Butter a hot 
frying pan and brown the slices in it. 
Serve them hot either with a little pow- 
dered sugar and cut lemon or with a 
bit of current jelly. Sometimes a pinch 
of grated nutmeg is added to the egg 
and milk, and as this is a sufficient flavor 
when it is used the lemon will not be 
needed. 

Koumyss. — Mix one pint of buttermilk 
with four pints of sweet milk and five 
pieces of lump sugar. Pour the whole 
from one pitcher to another till the sugar 
is melted. It takes from ten to fifteen 
minutes. Cover with muslin and allow 
to stand in a warm part of the kitchen 
for twelve hours. Pour into pint bottles, 
tie down the corks, and in four days 
it is ready for use. The bottles should 
be left lying on their sides in a cool 
place. . 

Potato Fingers. — Grate six medium- 
sized cold boiled potatoes; add salt to 
taste; beat two eggs light with a little 
milk, add to the potatoes, then stir fn 
enough flour to make a dough that can 
be rolled out on a well-floured board, with 
the palm of the hand, into rolls- the thick- 
ness of the finger. Cut into finger-lengths, 
lay these side by side on a floured pan 
until all are ready, then fry in deep fat. 

Dressing.— Boil 1 qt. blanched chestnuts 
in salt water until tender, mash, add % 
teacup butter, 1 cup cracker crumbs, 1 
tablespoon chopped parsley and 2 of cel- 
ery, saltspoon each of salt and pepper. 

Cranberry Sauce. — Cook quart cran- 
berries in sufficient water to cover them; 
when soft add one quart sugar, cook until 
ready to jelly, pour into mold and when 
cold remove to dish. 



Hewitt — Do you have to work long 
hours? 

Jewett — No; only the regulation length 
— sixty minutes each. 



Wiggs — He doesn't care how he spends 
his- money. 

Wagg — I guess that's right. He attend- 
ed two church fairs last week. 



January 5, 1907. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



1 1 



To Heat 
Cold Rooms 
Quickly 



FORESTRY. 



Every house has Its 
cold room. Abnormal weather 
conditions, inadequate stove or 
furnace heat often result in some particular 
part of the house being cold and cheerless. Yon 
can make home warm and cheerful with the 

PERFECTION 

Oil Heater 

(Equipped with Smokeless Device) 

Carry it about from room to room. Turn wick high or low— there's no 
danger. Smokeles device prevents smoke and smell. Easy to operate 
as a lamp. All parts easily cleaned. Brass oil fount beautifully em- 
bossed. Holds 4 quarts of oil and burns 9 hours. Gives intense ■ 
heat. Two finishes— nickel and japan. Handsome, useful, reliable. r=i 
Every heater warranted. If not at your dealer's write our I H 



nearest agency for descriptive circular. 



The 



R&rfO Lamp ££ 

^^^^^r you can buy. Equii 

^^^^^ latest Improved burner 



best lamp 

1 1 -r'ou nd 
hold use 
pped with 
Gives 

bright, steady light at lowest cost. Made of brass 
throughout and nickel plated. Suitable for any room 
whether library, dining-room, parlor or bedroom. Safe 
and satisfactory. Every lamp warranted, Write to 
nearest agency If not at your dealer's. 

Standard Oil Company 




A Better Light 

For less money than you ever had before. 

By using SUPERIOR GENERATOR 

It will make Acetylene Gas on your premises and give you a 
STRONG, WHITE LIGHT for every room and an INTENSE 
HEAT FOR COOKING 1 

The SUPERIOR GENERATOR is the Greatest Gon= 
venience that can be Added to the Farm 
House or the Suburban Home. 

Tell us the number of lights von need and the approximate 
time they are used each night and we will tell 
you the proper size of Generator with 
prices to meet your re- 
quirements. 

Our CATALOGUE, No. 4 gives a full description of the ma- 
chine, with illustrations. Send for it and read it over. 
MAILED FREE. 

Superior Light and Heat Company 

151 North Clarence Street, Los Ang les, Cal. 



HEALD'S 

Business College and School ot Engineering 

The Leading Commercial and 
Engineering School In the West 

Has branches at Oakland, Stockton, Fresno aud 
Santa Cruz. 

ESTABLISHED OVER 40 YEARS. 

80 Teachers; nearly 100 Typewriting Machines; 
20,000 Graduates; 1 ,000 annual enrollment; 500 aver- 
age daily attendance; 600 calls annually for graduates 
of the college. Mining, Electrical aud Civil Engi- 
neering departments. All departments open the 
entire year. Both sexes. Individual instruction 
Catalogue free. 

HEALD'S BUSINFS SCOLLEGE 

1451 Franklin Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

TO CUBE A COLD IN ONE DAY 

Take LAXATIVE BROMO Quinine Tablets. Drug- 
gists refund money if it fails to cure. E. W. 
GROVE'S signature is on each box. 25c. 



School of Practical, €ieil, mechanical, 

electrical and mining engineering. 

Surveying, Architecture. Drawing und A„a v ing 

5100 Telegraph Ave., Oakland, California 
Open all Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN. Pree t 

A^ yi ? g l\ ° re . s ' * 2 5- Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay ,$25; Blowpipe Assay, $10; Full Course of As 
saying Established in 1864. Send for circular. 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX AND 

BLACKLEG 
VACCI NES 

are given the preference by 80% of Cali- 
fornia Stockmen because they have better 
results than others do: 

\^rit« for 'Prices, Testimonials and our 

Booklet on ANTHRAX an J ULA CKLEG. 

The Cutter Laboratory 

TEMPORARY ADDRESS 

Grayson and Sixth Streets Berkeley, Cal. 

West of San Pablo Ave. 



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Santa Crux Mts., 12 Miles from San Jose 

Charming Resort Open all the year 

Prices Reasonable 
AEdrws lewis 4. Sige, Prop. Saratoga, Cal. 



Blake, Moffiit & Towne, 



DEALERS IN 

PAPER 

No. 419 Eleventh St., Oakland 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angelea. 
Blake, McFall & Co., Portland, Or*. 



Austin Baldwin & Go. 

53 Broad-way, New Yorh 

General Forwarders and 
Customs Brokers 

Shipments of carload lots for different consignees 
re-forwarded to all parts of Europe or del f"red 

vic7n/ty EaSter " St3teS - Ne ^ York «S23 

CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED 



Broom Corn and Brooms 

A treatise on raising broom corn 
and making brooms on a small or 
large scale. Illustrated. 59 pages. 
6x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 



GRAZING FEES WILL BE COLLECT- 
ED ON RESERVES. 

A recent decision of a Federal judge 
had been widely commented tipon 
throughout the West on the supposition 
that it declared illegal the regulation of 
grazing on forest reserves and the sys- 
tem of charging for grazing permits. 
As a matter of fact, the decision, which 
was handed down by Judge Whitson, 
of the United States District Court for 
eastern Washington, in the case of the 
United States vs. Matthews, has no 
bearing whatever upon the legality of 
the grazing regulations of grazing 
fees, which stand precisely as before. 
The legal question involved was simply 
this: Does the law authorizing the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture to issue regulations 
make the breach of those regulations- a 
crime? 

Judge Whitson's decision merely an- 
swered this question "No.." It was in 
substance that the objection to the in- 
dictment against Walter Matthews was 
the absence of a law defining the act 
therein charged as a criminal offense. 
Upon that ground the court held that 
the demurrer must be sustained and the 
defendant discharged. 

Though the point was simple and 
clear enough, it was entirely • miscon- 
strued in the press reports of the de- 
cision and in editorial comments upon 
it. For instance, in the Wyoming Trib- 
une of Tuesday, November 6, news of 
Judge Whitson's action was given un- 
der the headlines: "Grazing Fees II 
legal Decides Federal Judge," and the 
article declares that "As a result of the 
decision, Matthews, who entered the 
Mount Rainier Forest Reserve without 
the permit required by the Secretary, 
is still using the reserve and is not pay- 
ing the fee imposed by the Secretary." 
As a matter of fact, Mr. Matthew's sheep 
were immediately removed upon notice 
by the forest officers and have not since 
entered the reserve. 

In the Sheridan, Wyo., Post it is said: 
"A decision fraught with importance to 
Wyoming stockmen is that appearing in 
this issue, wherein it is held by the 
United States District Court that the 
collection of fees for grazing live stock 
is illegal. * * * Since its imposition 
this fee has been regarded as illegal 
and arbitrary by many well-imformed 
Wyoming people, and the views ex- 
pressed by the court in this decision 
meet with general approval here. * * 
* The litigant is still running his sheep 
on the Rainier Reserve without paying 
the fees," 

Decisions like Judge Whitson's had 
before been made by the Federal courts 
in three other districts, one of them 
six years ago, but none of these inter- 
feres in the slightest with the right of 
the United 1 States to institute civil ac- 
tion against trespassers violating the 
grazing regulations, or with charging 
the grazing fee. The United States Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Cir- 
cuit decided definitely, in the case of 
Dastervignes vs. United States, that the 
provisions of the act of March 4, 1897, 
delegating to the Secretary the power to 
make regulations, is constitutional, that 
the regulations prohibiting the pastur- 
ing of sheep on forest reserves without 
a permit is valid, and that the Federal 
courts will enforce the regulation by in- 
junction. The Supreme Court of Ari- 
zona, three judges sitting, in the case of 
Dent vs. United States (76 Pacific Re- 
porter, 455), went still further, under 
circumstances which made the decision 
most emphatic. Dent was criminally 
prosecuted for grazing sheep on a forest 
reserve without a permit, in violation of 
the regulations, and the Court hail held 
that his act was not a crime; but as 



I put Macbeth on my lamp- 
chimneys as I am satisfied to 
be known as the maker of the 
only good lamp-chimney. 

There are other lamp- 
chimneys, but their makers 
fail to own them. It's no 
wonder. 

My Index is useful to everyone who owns 
a lamp, and it's free. 

Address, MACBETH, Pittsburgh. 

soon as the Dastervignes case was de- 
cided for the Government the Arizona 
Court granted a rehearing of the Dent 
case and held that the Dastervignes de- 
cision was binding on all courts in the 
Ninth Circuit in criminal as well as civil 
cases, and that Dent was therefore guilty 
of a crime. 

So far, therefore, the court decisions 
as to the criminality of trespass con- 
trary to the forest-reserve regulations 
are conflicting. Final adjudication of 
the point can not be had until the ruling 
of a higher court has been secured; but 
no court has questioned the right of the 
Secretary of Agriculture to make regu- 
lations and to recover damages for 
trespass through civil action. 

Grazing trespassers will be restrained 
from violation of the regulations by in- 
junction proceedings and sued for civil 
damages until the higher courts shall 
have reached a decision as to the crim- 
nal character of such trespasses. The 
Forest Service will continue to exclude 
unpermitted stock from all forest re- 
serves and collect grazing fees for all 
stock under permit. 



Miss Pert — Yes, Jack and I are en- 
gaged. 

Miss Curt — Why, Jack hasn't said any- 
thing about it. 

Miss Pert — No; you are the first person 
I've told. I haven't even told Jack yet. 



"Poor Miss Sere! .She spent 50 cents 
yesterday for a dry old scientific book 
called 'Best Methods of Filtration.' " 

"The idea! What did she want with 
it?" 

"She thought it was 'Flirtation.' " 



STOCK FOOD RECOMMENDED BY AN 
EMINENT AUTHORITY. 

Professor Thomas Shaw has this to say in ref- 
erence to Stock Foods. "They will always be 
found useful when properly made. The time 
will never come when intelligent feeders will 
cease to use them. The necessity for using them 
and the advantage therefrom will become 
greater as foods become increasingly dear. 
Whether it will be profitable to feed them will 
depend upon the necessity for using them and on 
their cost. My special desire, however, is to show 
that they have a place in the economy of intelligent 
feeding. The question of price must be fought out 
between buyer and seller." 

With this indorsement fioni one of the foremost 
authorities on feeding in the country, it would 
seem that the value of feeding tonics, etc., is un- 
questionable; therefore, the only problem is at 
what price such foods cease to become profitable. 

In Bulletin No. 106 issued by the Hatch Experi- 
mental Station they recommend the use of certain 
medicinal tonics to be given in one tablespoonful 
doses once a day for 10 days, then omit for three 
days, then give 10 days more. They estimate the 
cost of the tonics they recommend at 20 cents per 
pound. 

Dr Hess Stock Food, formulated by Dr. Hess, a 
regular graduate of medicine and also veterinary 
surgery, contains the best tonics known to science, 
together with the salts of iron which are the great- 
est known blood and tissue builders, the nitrates of 
sodium and potassium which assist in eliminating 
the poisonous waste material from the system, and 
laxatives which regulate the bowels. 

This preparation is manufactured by Dr. Hess & 
Clark, Ashland, Ohio, and is sold on a written 
guarantee. It costs less than a penny a day to feed 
this preparation to a horse, cow, or steer, and but 
three cents per month for the average hog. Con- 
sider how little additional increase in weight or 
milk is necessary to cover the cost of this prepara- 
tion. 

J. F. Dotzman, Clinton Stock Farm, Centralia, 
111., says : " I am feeding Dr. Hess Stock Food to 
my horses, three stallions, (Hal-Gordon) pacer, 
brother to Star Pointer; George Geisler, trotter, 
out of the best blood lineage in existence ; Andrew 
Jackson, trotting bred coach horse, son of George 
Geisler, above. All three horses in public service 
stud. Also two work horses. 

" I bought Dr. Hess Stock Food at Berger's Drug 
Store at Carlyle. I had never used any stock food 
before, but reading in Coleman's Rural World of 
Dr. Hess' professional knowledge, I purchased a 
sack of Dr. Hess Stock Food and fed it to five 
horses, and am almost surprised at its good results. 
Will keep it always on hand. 



12 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 5, 1907 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 

HORSES AND CATTLE. 

GEO. C. ROEDINQ, Fresno, California, 
Breeder of high-grade thoroughbred Hol- 
■teln Bulla and Heifers. Thoroughbred 
Berkshire Boars and Sows. 

RIVERSIDE HERD HOL9TEIN CATTLE — 
One of the largest and best in the world. 
Bend for catalogue. Pierce Land Jk Stock 

Co., Stockton. Cal. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Short- 
horns, milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O Box, 321 Petaluma. Cal. 

HOLSTEINS— Winners at State Fair at every but- 
ter contest since 1885 in Calif Stock near S. F. 
F H. Burke, 2195 Fillmore St., S. F. 

BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durhams. ADdress E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

A. J. C. C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted 
strains. Joseph Mallllard, San Qeronlmo, 
Marin Co.. Cal. 

P H. MURPHY. Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breed- 
er of Shorthorn Catlle and Poland-China Hogs. 

"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto herd, 77 pre- 
miums California State Fairs 1902-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef anil milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle, Ad- 
dress temporarily, San Mateo, Cal. 

A FB7W CHOICE Red Polled Bulls. J. A. Stowe 
Stockton, Cal. 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 

8. H. FOUNTAIN. Dixon. Cal. Importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire 
sheep. Both sexes for sale at all times. 



POULTRY. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large Size, good plumage, early maturity. 

COPPIN&SONS, Cottonwood Farm, Pleasant Grove 
Cal. Pigeons, gradeil & standard homers $3 to $6 
per dozen. 

L.W.CLARK, Petaluma. Cal, White Leghorns, the 
whit- kind that Uy lots of large, white eggs. 
Just hatched chicks a specialty, will travel 1000 
miles in perfect salety. 

SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN AND INDIAN 
Runner Ducks— Eggs $1 50 per setting; $6 00 per 
hundred. Send for illustrated catalogue. John P 
Boden, 1338 Second street, Watson ville, California. 



SWINE. 



GEO. V. BECK MAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexe . 

BERKSHIRES— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages T Waite, Perkins, Cal. 

pKRKSKIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS 
C. A. Stowe, Stockton. 

GOLD MEDAL Herd ol Berkshire Hogs and South 
Down Sheep. Tbos Waite, Perkins, 1 al. 

"BREEDERS' SUPPLIES - 



GEOKGE H. CKOLKY 
Francisco Maou 
lacturer and Deal- 
er in 



637 Brannau St., San 

Poultry Supplies 

of every description. Send for Catalogue— FREE. 

BUFF ORPINGTONS.— We won at State Fair 
ALL FIRST PRIZES in this class 1906 and 1904 
We have just won at San Jose GRAND SPECIAL 
(or BE-sT 3 Breeding Pens, 3 Cocks, 3 Cockerels, 
3 Hens and 3 Pullets, ALL VARIETIES COM- 
PETING. Mr. Farmer, YOU NEED THIS BREED 
Write me and learn why 

W. SULLIVAN, Agnews, Cal. 

State Vice-President 

NAT. S. C. B. ORPINGTON CLUB. 



SIER'RA KENNELS 



E' M. TIDD, Proprietor 




Scotch 
Collies 



At Stud- -Imported Craigmore Cracksman- -Fee, $15 

FOR SALE 

Puppies, young dogs anil bitches, from $ 0.00 up. 
The breeding of my stock is of the very best. When 
writing particularize > our want. 

SIERRA" KENNELS, Berkeley . Cal. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years 
Impor'ers and Breeders of All Varieties of Land 

an J Water Fowls 
St> ck for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St. Sau Fran- 
cisco. Ca!. 



NaheYour 
Nen» Pay 

Blpr«r Profits by gvttlag Blprtr Hatchet 
Mil hfttcb Chloki tbkt Lira. B^finnan. u«ill 
u tipartt, do this with the LtUit Pattern 
PVDIirDC Incubators 
UTrntnO ,„ d Brooder, wl ,b ih.lrr.uoi* 
ImprcTtmacts poataas«4 try ao other*. 00 daja' free trial with M may 
Back Quantity. Get 244 pa«* Gulda to Poultry Profit FREE to you. 
CYPHERS INCUBATOR COMPANY. BUFFALO. 
OakUad, California, New York, Boatoc, Chicago, &*naaa City. 




PILES CUBED IN (i TO I f PAYS. 
PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any ca » 
of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or Protruding Piles in 6 
to 14 days, or money relunded. 50c. 



Butte County. 

CITRUS INDUSTRY FOR BIGGS — 
Biggs Weekly Argus. The easy life here- 
tofore enjoyed by the wheat grower, and 
the immense tracts of land controlled 
by him and necessary to his mode of ag- 
riculture, has retarded the development of 
this country until some of its most im- 
portant assets have been lost sight of al- 
most entirely. 

Thousands of people acquainted with 
this section have never realized that we 
possess one of the finest outlooks for 
orange growing in the State. Mr. Earle, 
who is an expert on orange growing in 
the central part of the State, has exam- 
ined the soil in this vicinity, very care- 
fully, and pronounced it far better for 
citrus fruits than a large portion of the 
land already profitably devoted to that 
industry. With proper soil conditions, 
only one other natural feature is needed, 
and that is climatic conditions. In this 
we are not lacking. This winter much 
fruit and even new growth of wood on 
the orange trees in the central portion 
of the State were frozen and ruined, 
while in the southern section of the 
State, fires had to be lighted and sleighs 
were used to haul oranges from the or- 
chards. Nolhing of the kind has hap- 
pened here, and trees from fifteen to 
twenty years old have never been injured 
or the fruit injured by the cold. 

The trees of this section are remark- 
ably free from disease. No scale infects 
the trees nor rust or smut affect the fruit, 
as it does in the section along the coast. 
Oranges do not ripen here quite so early 
as in the foothill sections, but still far 
in advance of the southern part of the 
State. 

That this is no idle talk is easily proved 
by an inspection of the few orange groves 
in this vicinity. H. S. Brink, who has 
always been an enthusiast on orange 
culture, has a small grove within the 
corporation limits of the city of Biggs. 
This orchard covers a little less than one 
and one-fifth acres, and the trees are of 
the navel variety, and sixteen years old 
with not a defective or missing tree. At 
the time of this writing, he has already 
packed and sold 200 boxes of choice or- 
anges and has at least 250 more still 
unpacked. He had made no attempt to 
secure fancy prices, and has sold for $1.75 
per box f. o. b. here, at Biggs. This 
shows an income of $600 per acre. 

There are thousands of acres of equally 
as good land for orange growing as Mr. 
Brinks', and some of it will be sub-di- 
vided and put on the market early in the 
year by the Butte County Irrigated Lands 
Company, and we hope to see many new 
groves set out within the next twelve 
months. 

CHANGE FOR THE RIO BONITA 
ORCHARD— Chico Weekly Enterprise: 
The Rio Bonita orchard, owned by the 
Alexander Hammon Company, has re- 
cently changed a considerable number 
of its stockholders, and now the orchard 
will be made into an immense cattle and 
dairy ranch. The large acreage of alfalfa 
already in will be increased as soon as 
the fruit trees become unprofitable. 

Santa Barbara County. 

RECORD CROP OF WALNUTS IN 
VENTURA. — The Independent: Tbe 
year 1906 has been a record-breaker in 
more ways than one, says the Oxnard 
Courier. Walnuts have been considered 
an uncertain quantity in the face of num- 
erous young orchards coming on with 
uncertain tread until this year. But now, 
with young trees only, there have been 
shipped eighteen carloads, or 405,888 
pounds that have averaged 89 per cent. 



No. 1, as against 11 per cent No. 2 — 
nice, clean, well filled, rich in nutriment, 
and pleasant to the taste. And better 
still, these No. 2s are good, not withered 
or tasteless, but below the average in 
size — that's all. 

San Bernardino County. 

REDLANDS STILL SENDS ORANGES. 
The Evening Index. The orange ship- 
ping season this year opened nearly three 
weeks later than last season, the first 
car going forward on December 5, and for 
the week ending December 7 two cars 
and 121 boxes had been shipped. To the 
same date last year 163 cars had been 
shipped. During the next week, to De- 
cember 14, 60 cars had been forwarded, 
and during the corresponding week of | 
last year the shipments amounted to 241 
cars, and was one of the heaviest week's 
shipments of the whole season. For 
the week ending this morning 59 more 
cars have gone forward, making a total 
for the season of 122 cars and 42 boxes. 
Last year there had been sent to market 
by this date 549 cars and 220 boxes, or 
nearly five times as many as have been 
shipped this year. 

When the first 60 cars had been ship- 
ped some of the packers announced that 
there would, in all probability, be no 
more oranges forwarded from Redlands 
before January 1, 1907, but the prices be- 
ing good in the Eastern market the ship- 
ping was resumed at once, and nearly 
as many cars have been sent out during 
the past week as for the week last pre- , 
ceding. There would undoubtedly have 
been much more had there been cars 
available in which to ship. 

CAR SHORTAGE. 

But there has been the greatest short- 
age of cars during the past few days that 
this shipping point has ever experienced 
so early in the season. Some of the ship- 
pers state that it is impossible to get 
cars to handle the fruit that there is a 
demand for, and for which orders have 
been accepted. One of the railroads ha 1 
orders for 14 cars to be "spotted" at the ! 
packing houses, as it is called — meaning 
the placing of the cars on the siding be- j 
side the house for loading — and was 
able to place but 4. These conditions 
have prevailed for the past three days. ! 

This shortage of cars is looked upon 
by a great many as a distinct advantage ! 
to the city. They claim that, with plenty 
of cars, the markets would be flooded 
with fruit, and a serious slump would re- 
sult. There is a large proportion of the 
Redlands shippers who believe in holding 
back the fruit of this section as much 
as possible, except the small portion 
needed for decorative purposes for the i 
holidays, in order that the fruit may be- 
come more nearly ripe and fit to eat. I 
The green and sour fruit will not sell 
as readily as the ripe and sweeter or- 
anges, and the markets are more easily 
glutted with unpalatable than with good 
fruit. 

PRICES FIRM. 

The shortage of cars is not confined 
to Redlands, nor to southern California. 
The same condition prevails all over the 
country, not only in the northern orange 
belt and in Florida, but wherever there 
are products to be shipped to market. I 
The railroads are unable to handle the 
business of moving the immense crops 
of the country. 

Prices remain as fixed in the meeting 
of packers at the opening of the season. 
$2.25 for extra fancy and $2 for extra 
choice. There is some complaint that a 
few have cut prices, although the amount 
of cutting is said to be too small to have 
a serious effect on the market. A drop 
in the market is looked for, however, 
after the Christmas trade has been sup- 
plied, and the present shipments begin 
arriving in the markets, the amount of 



Horse Owners! Use 

GOMBAULTS 

Caustic 




Balsam 



A Bars, SpMdy, ud PmIUt* Cm 
The safest. Beat BLISTER ever used. Tskes 
the place of all llnaments tor mild or severe action. 
Kemoves all Bunches or Blemishes from Home* 
and Cattle, SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
*»a FIRING. Impostibleto produce tear or blemish 
Every bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price 81 .00 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent 
by express, charges paid, with fall directions for 
Its use. Send for descriptive circulars. 
THE LAWRENCE-WILLIAMS CO., Cleveland. O. 



Land for Sale and to Rent 

Glenn Ranch 

Glenn County - California 

FOR SALE 

IN SUBDIVISIONS 

This famous and well-known farm, the 
home of the late Dr. Glenn, "The Wheat 
King," has been surveyed and subdivided. 
It is offered for sale In any sized govern- 
ment subdivision at remarkably low prices, 
and In no case, It Is believed, exceeding 
what Is assessed for county and State tax- 
ation purpose. 

This great ranch runs up and down the 
west bank of the Sacramento River for fif- 
teen miles. It is located In a region that 
has never lacked an ample rainfall and no 
irrigation Is required. 

The river Is navigable at all seasons of 
t:ie year and freight and trading boats 
make regul r trips. 

The closest personal Inspection of the 
iand by proposed purcasers Is invited. Par- 
i.lr-s desiring to look at the land should go 
to Willows. California, and Inquire for P. 
O. Elbe. 

rur furthir particulars and for maps, 
showing the subdivisions and prices per 
acre, address personally or by letter 

F. C. LAJSft, 

Agent of N. D. Rldeout, Administrator of 
the estate of H. J. Glenn, at Chlco, Butts) 
County, Cal. 



fruit going forward at this time of year 
being considered too heavy for the con- 
sumption of unripe fruit. 

Shasta County. 

BLIGHT DESTROYS MANY PEAR 
TREES. Tht Sacramento Bee: Ten per 
cent of the pear trees in Shasta county 
have been ruined by pear blight. That is 
the statement made in this city this 
morning by Professor R. L. Adams, 
pear blight expert in the employ of the 
State, who has spent the last two months 
in examining the large orchards of this 
and Tehama counties. In making this 
estimate Professor Adams does not take 
into consideration pear trees growing 
in dooryards and the orchards of outly- 
ing districts. He estimates that there 
are 40,000 pear trees in Shasta county. 
Four thousand of them are ruined beyond 
repair, but the rest may be saved, if the 
orchardists follow his advice, which has 
been given free of cost and will con- 
tinue to be so given. This is the best 
time of the year to fight tbe battle against 
this pest, and with one or two exceptions 
he has found the orchardists more than 
willing to take such measures as he 
points out as necessary. 

A striking example of what can be 
done to conquer pear blight is shown 
by two orchards situated four miles 
south of Redding, one the property of 
McCoy Fitzgerald, the other the Taylor 
orchard under the management of John 
Brockey. A year ago both orchards were 
slightly affected by blight. Brockey 
understood what measures to take to de- 
stroy the pest and gave his orchard vig- 
orous treatment. Fitzgerald did not then 
understand pear blight; he did not know 
his orchard was diseased; he did noth- 
ing. Today the Brockey orchard is prac- 
tically' free from disease and in the 
Fitzgerald orchard out of 1100 trees only 
100 are of any value. 
Professor Adams cites two large or- 



January 5, 1907. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



13 



chards of Bartletts near Anderson that 
are ruined beyond recall. Very few or- 
chards are wholly free. He sees no oc- 
casion for alarm, provided the orchard- 
ists take the vigorous measures he has 
recommended and which are endorsed by 
the State and the National Governments. 
But neglect for a single season means 
ruin, as in the case of the Fitzgerald 
orchard referred to. 

Sierra County. 

MAY RAISE BEETS IN SIERRA | 
VALLEY. It is reported that parties 
have been in the vicinity of Loyalton se- 
curing leases on the land for the purpose 
of raising sugar beets, and already have 
secured quite a number of ranches. For 
some time parties interested in Loyal- 
ton's future have been planning to secure 
some method of irrigating the valley and 
turning most of it to beet culture, and it 
seems that now this plan is about to be 
successful. It is said that Loyalton al- 
ready has the promise of one or more 
factories just as soon as a sufficient 



Knowledge— 

not guesswork 



DR.. HESS, M.D., D.V.S. 

IN MIS 
LABORATORY 



Dr. Hess (M.D. , D.V.S.) who formulated Dr. Hess Stock Foodfa a 
regularly licensed Doctor of Medicine and a Veterinary Surgeon. He 
is a graduate of the University of Wooster, Cleveland, Ohio; Ma- | 
„- 2fW~ £W triculate of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore, Md., and 1 
' a graduate of the Chicago Veterinary College, and in addition is a prac- 

tical stock feeder of many years' experienco. Dr. Hess Stock Food is a 
medicinal food prepared from a highly successful prescription used by Dr. 
Hess in his many years regular practice before the food was put on the mar- 
ket. It requires only common sense to see that unprofessional manufacturers 
cannot equal a preparation formulated by a practical physician and based upon 
accurate knowledge, long experience and observation. Furthermore. 

D s HESS STOCK FG5D 

FOR CATTLE, HOGS, SHEEP AND HORSES 

is sold under a positive guarantee to do all that is claimed for It. It contains tonics for the digestion, iron for the blood. nitrate9 
to expel poisonous materials from the system, laxatives to regulate the bowels. It has the recommendation of the V&terinary 
College" the Farm Papers, Is recognized as a medicinal tonic and laxative by our own Government, and is sold on a written 
go.rant e . «* ^ $1J Q() ^ ^.j ^ ^ 

Smaller quantities at a slight advance. 

Where Dr. Hess Stock Food differs is in the dose — it's small and fed but twice a day, which proves it has the most digestive 
strength to the pound. Our Government recognizes Dr. Uess Stock Food as a medicinal tonic and this paper is back of the 
guarantee. 

Veterinary ftdvlce given free. From the 1st to the loth of earn month by naming ttiie paper, stating what stock yon have and what Stock Food 
yon have fed, we will f nmish you free veterinary advice and prescriptions. Enclose two cent stamp for reply. Dr. Hess a6 page Veterinary Book 
will be mailed free for giving the above information. 

DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio. 

Also Manufacturers of Dr. Hess Poultry Pan-a-ce-a and Instant Louse Killer. 
THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma. California. 
Pacilic ( oast Distributors. 

Instant Louse Killer Kills Lice. ' 



at any place in the county for that mat- 
ter by calling upon the Ladies Arbor Club 
or some of the societies for assistance. 

Lindsay has been making some rapid 
strides in developing during the past 
year and a half and the good work con- 
tinues. Our population has nearly doubled 
in that time and there is no good reason 
why it should not continue to increase at 
the same rate, and will do so if our peo- 
ple will it. But in order to keep up the 
present pace we must exert the same en- 
ergies in the advertising line that we 
have shown in the past, and we know or 
no better way of keeping it up, or of no 
better advertisement for the district at 
as little cost, than a well managed and 
creditable citrus fair. 

By next fall the conditions will be ripe 
for such an event at this place and as 
we have said the opportunity should not 
be missed by letting it go over indefinite- 
ly or even for another year. 

Yuba. 

TO CARE FOR HIS FRUIT TREES — 
The Semi-Weekly Appeal: H. H. Wolf- 
skill today received from San Jose a 
new "bear car" spraying outfit which 
he will make use of at his ranch re- 
cently leased from Mrs. Bogue. The 
machine is of a late pattern and is a 
very handy arranged concern. Six lines- 
of hose are fed at one time when the 
machine is in operation. He will have 
a canopy built over the wagon and en- 
gine and will put the machine into com- 
mission today. Mr. Wolfskill believes in 
having the best and latest of con- 
veniences with which to care for his fruit 
trees. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 



PLANT GREGORY'S SEEDS. 



THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN 
SOCIETY, 

526 California St., San Francisco. 
For the half year ending December 31, 
1906, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of three and six-tenths (3 6-10) per 
cent per annum on all deposits, free ot 
taxes, payable on and after Wednesday, 
January 2, 1907. Dividends not called 
for are added to and bear the same rate 
of interest as the principal from January 
1, 1907. 

GEORGE TOURNY, Secretary. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

Saving's and Loan Society 

161 Montgomery St., Cor. Sutter, 
San Francisco. 
Has declared a dividend for the term 
ending December 31, 1906, at the rate of 
three and one-half (3%) per cent per an- 
num on all deposits, free of taxes, and pay- 
able on and after January 2, 1907. Divi- 
dends not called for are added to and bear 
the same rate of interest as principal. 

EDWIN BONNELL, Cashier. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE 

San Francisco Saving's Union 

N. W. Cor. California and Montgomery Sts., 

San Francisco. 

For the half year ending December 31, 
1906, a dividend has been declared at the 
rates per annum of three and eight-tenths 
(3 8-10) per cent on term deposits and 
three and forty-two one-hundredths 
(3 42-100) per cent on ordinary deposits, 
free of taxes, payable on and after Wednes- 
day, January 2, 1907. Depositors are enti- 
tled to draw their dividends at any time 
during the succeeding half year. Dividend 
not drawn will be added to the deposit ac- 
count, become a part thereof and earn divi- 
dend from January 1. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



acreage of beets can be guaranteed. This 
valley is especially adapted to beet cul- 
ture, and if the plans work there is no 
reason why Sierra valley may not become 
one of the wealthiest valleys in Superior 
California. 

Tehama County. 

FRUIT PACKERS CLOSE SEASON. 
The Red Bluff News: The James Feeley 
Company closed its packing house Satur- 
day afternoon after a run which was 
practically continuous from September 
1 nearly four months, and most of that 
time the works were in operation both 
day and night. Between three and four 
hundred tons more of dried fruits were 
packed than last year and the employees 
had nearly two months' more work. 
These figures read very smoothly but 
they represent a force of 42 people all 
the while and this number includes from 
15 to 25 girls. The weekly payroll ranged 
from $400 to $500 and frequently while 
buying fruit the expenditures have 
amounting to $20,000 in a single day. 

Many good people of Tehama county 
do not realize the proportions of the 
fruit industry or what it means to the 
community. Roughly speaking, a very 
moderate estimate of the total receipts 
of fruit growers would be one million 
dollars and before this immense crop is 
handled many more thousanls of dollars 
find their way into the coffers of Tehama 
county people. This vast sum of money 
is steadily increasing and has been steady 
enough to provide large numbers of 
young men and women with dependable 
work. The Feeley company had Tues- 
day as the regular payday, but on ac- 
count of the proximity of Christmas, It 
was decided to square up Saturday in 
order to give the employees opportunity 
to buy holiday presents. The local banks 
get a good share of their earnings for the 
fruit packers are thrifty and lay aside 
something for the rainy day when there 
is no fruit to pack. 

The peach output this year has been 
about equal to that of last season but 
apricots, always a variable crop, were 
quite light. Next year there should be an 
appreciable increase to this staple pro- 
duct. The fruit is packed exclusively 
in 25 and 50 pound boxes, nearly all 
with fancy tops or lace facings. The 
nimble fingers of the two or three dozen 
girls faced the prunes, peaches or cots 
while men filled in the balance of the 
box. The fruit was renovated by the 
latest process of machinery. It was dip- 
ped in huge vats by clever mechanical 
devices and endless belts were used to 
a great extent, saving both time and labor 
and being more cleanly and sanitary. 
Cars have been shipped right along 



from the opening of the season and Sat- 
urday three carloads were sent out to 
Eastern jobbers. Most of the output Is 
already sold and the balance now on hand 
will be shipped soon after the first of the 
new year. All white help is employed 
and the workroom is light and airy; this 
is desirable employment and the same 
employees are there year after year. 
The Feeley company will be in a position 
next year to handle a much larger amount 
of fruit and to better advantage. 

Tulare County. 

THE NEXT CITRUS FAIR— Lindsay 
Gazette: Lindsay is in line for the sec- 
ond annual citrus fair of Tulare county, 
and although there may be some, who are 
honest in their opinions, that it should 
not be held here next year, we do not be- 
lieve the opportunity should be missed. 
It has been generally understood ever 
since the plan of holding an annual fair 
was conceived that Lindsay was to follow 
Porterville with the second event, and to 
our way of thinking there would be no 
difficulty whatever in carrying out the 
project with great credit to both Lindsay 
and the entire county, if our people will 
but decide to do so, commence to lay 
their plans early, and work in harmony. 

It seems that the only opposition is in 
the argument advanced by one or two of 
our citizens that Lindsay is too small a 
town and that we lack the facilities for 
taking care of the large crowds that 
would likely attend. 

We do not agree with these arguments 
and might state in support of our claim 
that if it had not been for the special 
train service Porterville could not have 
taken care of the large crowds, that at- 
tended the fair at that place. There is 
a prospect that by next fall Lindsay will 
have a public hall and opera house with 
fully as much floor space as the carnival 
pavilion in Porterville and we believe 
that such a building could be assured in 
the very near future. 

As to the balance of the accommoda- 
tions for holding the fair here there need 
be no more difficulty than was exper- 
ienced in Porterville if our people will 
show a proper spirit on the several com- 
mittees. A good special train service 
would be much easier secured since the 
great success of the Porterville fair and 
accommodations for feeding the people 
; could be as easily arranged for here as 



They're Honest Seeds, Safe, and Sure, and 
Sold at a Reasonable. Price. 

Year after year, for over half a century, thous- 
ands of practical gardeners and planters, both in 
the United States anil Canada, have been planting 
Gregory's Seeds, and they have done so because 
thev know that these seeds have all been thorough- 
ly tested, and that the three warrants under which 
Gregory's Seeds are sold cover all seed risks. 

Just think of it I Over iwo thousand tests o( the 
vitality of both vegetable ami flower seeds are 
made every sea on, and thousands of dollars' 
wortli of seed are thrown away, though most of it 
is better than box seed will avernge. 

Messrs. Gregory & Son have produced many new- 
varieties of vegetables, of one introducing more 
than all other dealers combined, They distribute 
f ee among their customers tubers of the famous 
Eldorado Potato which sold in England three years 
ago for over a thousand dollars a pound. 

All growers of vegetables, flowers and fruits 
should secure a copy of Gregory's new catalogue 
for 1507. It is rich in practical instruction. 

Write to-day, so that you will be sure of 
getting a copy. Address J. J. H. Gregory & Son, 
Mai blehead, Ma : s. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 

California Safe Deposit and Trust Co. 

Cor. California and Montgomery Sts., 
San Francisco. 

For the six months ending December 31, 
1906, dividends have been declared on the 
deposits in the savings department of this 
company as follows: On term deposits at 
the rate of 3 6-10 per cent per annum, and 
on ordinary deposits at the rate of 3 % per 
cent per annum, free of taxes, and payable 
on and after Wednesday, January 2, 1907. 
The same rate of interest will be paid 
by our branch offices, located at 1531 De- 
visadero St., 927 Valencia St., and 1740 Fill- 
more St., San Francisco. 

J. DALZELL, BROWN, Manager. 



14 



r- 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 5, 1907 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



C% V Br* °" r catalog in rich with 
LULL Information fur The 
■* iC S_ .it farmers 

been a prr**at help to 
tfMHimnrtn hall been the mean* of turning 
many a failure into snoress. 
The great variety of vegetable nnrt flower 
seed 8 Include the l»est uf theoM standard 
.fc*^ and fiiK-li new kinds as tmve proved 
1^ ^T'lbjL of value by actual test. 

J. J. H. GREGORY & SON, 
$$/m Marblehead, Mass. 



TREES THAT GROW 



Apples 4c, Teach 5c, Plums 12c, 
Cherries 15c. Best quality 
good bearers, grafted >. 
stock, not Beedbngs. 



Concord Grapes 2c. 



tgr.^r^ a com- 
^ plcte line 



Forest Tree Seed- ./.oSf 
Units $1.00 per ( 
1,000 up. WeV\A* ' » 



of \ egetable. 
lower and 
Farm Seeds. Our 
larpre illustrated cat- 
alog free. 



'Box 116 BEATRICE, Neb. 




LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO. 

(Incorporated) 

Offer for sale a few specialties this 

season. 

A NEW WALNUT, ETC. 

General Fruit Tree Catalogue of 
strictly "Pedigreed"' stock will be 
issued during 1907. 

LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO. 

Morganhill 
Santa Clara County California 




have stood the test for over 50 years, 
and are still in the lead. Their absolute 
certainty of growth, their uncommonly 
large yields of delicious vegetables and 
beautiful flowers, make them the most 
reliable aud the most popular every- 
' where. Sold by all dealers. 1907 
Seed Annual free on request. 
D. M. FERRY & CO.. 
Detroit, Mich. 



Kirkman Nurseries 



"Full line of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees and Vines. Peach and other fruit 
trees at reasonable prices. Grape roof- 
ings and cuttings furnished in any quan- 
tity. 400,000 rooted vines in Stanislaus 
county. Main office at MERCED, Cal. 
Branches at Fresno and Turlock." 



TREES 

K. Crawfords, Hale's Early and many other varie- 
ties of peach trees, all fine budded stock. 

Large stock of all the leading varieties of apples 
on whole roots and free from all pests. Also a fine 
stock of cherries, pears, Burbanks, and S. B. S. S. 
Walnuts, etc. SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 

A. F. Scheidecker, Prof. Pleasant View Nursery 

Sebastopol. Cal. 



Burbank's Crimson Winter Rhubarb 
Our Specially). 

Now is the best time to plant. $1.50 per dozen , 
J7.50 per 100. $50 per 1 >oo. 

We still have a few thousand of Fancy Navel and 
Valencia Orange Trees. 

WAGNER'S NURSERY, 



Phone: Sunset 1297. 



Pasadena, Cal. 



Trees 



flnaly Nurseries 

T. J. TRUE 

Sebastopol 

Write for Price List 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Burbank Beauty (Early; $3.00 per M and 
Brandy wines (mid-season ) at $2.00 per M. 
Both are excellent table and market berries 
and the best varieties for California. Orders 
booked for present and future delivery. 

G. H. Hopkins, Burbank, Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed. I 
have a fine lot of trees. Call and see 
them. Postal gets price list. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



Morse seeds sprout — you and nature do the rest. 
PLANT SEEDS NOW FOR 

Winter Vegetables 

25c 



Send your name and address and 
the names and addresses of your 
friends — to receive a copy of our 
new seed catalogue — ready for 
mailing in December. 



Five regular fiye-cent, 
and one regular ten- 
cent packet for 

1 — 5c pkt. Lettuce, Big Boston, the best winter variety. 

1 — 5c pkt. Radish, Long Scarlet, the best quick growing table variety. 

I — 5c pkt. Spinach, Savoy Leaved, the best variety for winter greens. 

1 — 5c pkt. Onion, White Bermuda, the quickest growing and mildest 

flavored, both for greens and ripe onions. 
1 — 5c pkt. Parsley, Moss Curled, the best for soups and garnishing. 
1 — ioc pkt. Peas, American Wonder, the early sweet wrinkled variety. 

168 Clay St. C. C. MORSE & CO. San Francisco 




REE 



TRUE 
TO 

NAME 



demand for all sorts of frui 
trees promises to be heavier than 
ever before. Place your order 
now, before our assortment is ex 
hausted. 

Deciduous 
Fruit Trees 

We have this season a superior 

stock of 
PEACHES PLUMS 
PRUNES PEARS 
APPLES APRICOTS 
CHERRIES OLIVES 
NECTARINES 
All grown under our personal su- 
pervision, in our Nursery Plant 
No. 3, which has a rich river bot- 
ton soil, permitting the most per- 
fect roots. 

Citrus Trees 

All grown at our Citrus Nurseries, 
in the Great Thermal Belt near 
Exeter. 

Nut Trees 

ALMONDS WALNUTS 
PECANS 

In all the leading varieties 




Grapes 



On their own roots and grafted on 
Phylloxera resistant roots. All the 
leading Table, Wine, and Raisin 
sorts. 

BERRY PLANTS 
BURBANK'S CRIMSON 

WINTER RHUBARB 
ORNAMENTAL TREES 
AND SHRUBS 
ROSES, PALMS, 
GREENHOUSE PLANTS 



Calimyrna 
Figs 

OUR GREAT SPECIALTY. 

None genuine without our seal. 




Also have a fine stock of 
WHITE ADRIATIC, MISSION 

and other standard sorts of Figs. 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash 

Best Tree Wash. 
T. w. JACKSON & CO., Temporary Address 
S^usalito. Cal. 



NEW CATALOGUE. 

Will be ready for distribution in 
January. It contains points about 
Pruning, Planting, is superbly il- 
lustrated. Will be mailed on re- 
ceipt of 10 cents in stamps. 
Price list on application. 

PAID-UP CAPITAL 9 200.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

2Ge0.C ROeding Pres. & Mgr. 



Trees? 



Owing to the unprecedented de- 
mand we are sold out on many 
sorts, and, though we are selling out 
fast on others, we can still furnish 
the following standard varieties: 

In Peaches: Triumph, St. John, 
Early Crawford, Late Crawford, 
Elberta, Piquetts Late, Salway, 
Phillips Cling, Levi Cling, Sherman 
Cling. 

In Plums: Climax, Burbank, 
Wick son, Diamond, Hungarian, 
Fallenberg, German, Grand Duke. 

In Cherries: Knights Early 
Black, Black Tartarian, Bing, Great 
Bigerean, Lambert, Black Oregon. 

In Pears : Bartlett, Brusse Clari- 
gean. 

In Crapes : Emperor.Cornichon, 
Tokay, Malaga. 

In Quinces: Pineapple, Orange. 

Likewise other varieties not 
standards. 

SUBMIT A LIST OF YOUR 
WANTS. WRITE FOR CAT- 
ALOGUE. OUR PRICES ARE 
RIGHT, WHILE OUR TREES 
ARE THE BEST THAT 
GOOD CARE AND INTEL- 
LIGENT APPLICA TION 
CAN PRODUCE. 



Placer Nurseries 

NEWCASTLE, CAL. 

SUVA. BERGTHOLD 4 CO.. Proprietors 

The Fowler Nursery Company 

Has on hand a large lot of thrifty rooted 
vines and peach trees, of all varieties. 
Also strawberries, blackberries and the 
celebrated Himalaya berry. 



STOCK COMPLETE PRICES REASONABLE 



Send for Catalogue and Price List 

FOWLER NURSERY COMPANY 
FOWLER, FRESNO CO.. CALIF. 



January 5, 1907. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



15 




There is more than one way to get 
yoar crops to market. There is only one 
way to be sure of a full crop of smooth, 
good-sized, mealy potatoes. 

Nine per cent, of 

Potash 



in the fertilizer is necessary. 

Stable manure alone makes scaly, 
coarse and irregular shaped potatoes — 
mix it with Potash, a larger yield of a 
better quality is a sure result. 

How to apply Potash, the reasons 
for applying it, and other vital points of 
successful potato growing, all are dis- 
cussed in our booklet. Why not have 
it ? It costs you nothing but the asking. 

GERMAN KALI WORKS 
93 Nassau Street, New York 




MEYERS, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, are Sole Agents 



Cox Seed Co. 

Seed Growers and Nurserymen 

109 Market Street. Sai Francisco Cal. 

Also Large Slock carried in our Oakland 
Warehouses. 

Alfalfa, Grass Seeds, Clover, 

Beans and Peas. 
Trees and Plants of all kinds 

We carry the largest siock of G ir ien Seeds in 
the West 

For over thirty years, Cox's Seeds have been the 
standard for Purity and Quality 

Our J.W7 Catalogue, fully illustrated, will be mailed 
to all applicants free. It is full of valuable informa- 
tion and should be in the homes of all interested in 
Sowing and Planting. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State. 

For sale by all the large groc rs, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave,, San Jose, Cal. 



TOKAY ROOTED VINES 

50,000 FOB SALE 

Grown from the Famons LODI STOCK 
For terms apply to 

FRANK H. BUCK COMPANY 

VACAVILLE. CALIFORNIA 



The only forag- plant i li h t 
will give satisfaction on 
overflow, swamp or up and 
without irrigation. 

Seed can be had of 



EHODES DOUBLE OUT 

PKUNING SHEAS 




RHODES MFC. 

Dept. 24, 



Cuts from 
both sides of 
limb and does 
not bruise 
the bark. 
We pay Ex- 
press charge! 
on all orders. 

Write for 
circular and 
prices. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



R AUSTRALIAN PERENNIAL G 

R 
A 

s 

E Vierra Bros., Moss, Cal. S 

EXCELSIOR STRAWBERRIES 

Earliest grown, $1.50 per thousand in lots of 10 M 
while they last. Also grape roots at bottom 
prices. G. F. ROWF.LL, Loomis, Cal. 



POWER SPRAYERS 

The most complete line built. 16 styles— meet 
every possible requirement. All kinds of spraying 
accessories. Send for catalogue and prices, stating 
your requirements. Mention this paper. 

Wallace Machinery Co., Champaign, 111. 




Eight the Mildew 

Sulphur Your Vines 

Usa the Champion Duster 

Easy and rapid in operation. 
Keeps the dust out of yonr way. 
Always ready. 

Reaches upper and under side of 
foliage. 

Assures thorough & effective work 
Thousands in use. 
Weighs about 6 lb. 

ADDRESS 

F. D. NAGLE, Box 14. Sultana, Calif. 

Leggett & Bros , Manufacturers, 
New York, N. Y 



Books For The Farm 



A Select List of Eastern Agricultural 
Books which convey a knowledge of 
general principles and suggestions of 
practice, many of which are applica- 
ble in California. 

Sent by mail postpaid for prices 
stated. Pacific Rural Press, Berkeley, 
Cal. 



Clovers and How to Grow Them 

By Thomas Shaw. This is the first 
book published which treats on the 
growth, cultivation and treatment of 
clovers as applicable to all parts of 
the United States and Canada, and 
which takes up the entire subject In a 
systematic way and consecutive se- 



quence. After thoroughly explaining 
the principles and practice of success- 
ful clover cultivation in general, the 
most important species and varieties 
are discussed in detail. Illustrated. 

% by 8 in. 337 pages. Cloth $1.00 

The New Onion Culture 

By T. Grelner. Rewritten, greath 
enlarged and brought up to date. A 
new method of growing onlous of larg- 
est size and yield, on less land, than 
can be raised by the old plan. Many 
farmers, gardeners and experiment 
stations have given it practical trials 
which have proved a success. Illus- 
trated. 140 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth 

$050 

The New Egg Farm 

By H. H. Stoddard. A practical, re- 
liable manual upon producing eggs 
and poultry tor market as a profitable 
business enterprise, either by itself or 



HOPS 



Treated with a 
Top Dressing of 



Nitrate 
of Soda 

(THE STANDARD AMMONIATE) 

yield an increase of 82^ 
pounds for each 100 pounds of 
Nitrate. This is what actual 
tests have demonstrated. By 
writing at once you may test 
it for yourself 

Without Paying a Cent 

We want two hundred more tests made 
on HOPS, and will send sufficient Nitrate 
of Soda for the purpose, absolutely free 
to those who first apply. Write at once, 
as this offer is necessarily limited. To 
the ten cultivators who obtain the best 
results, we offer as a prize, Prof. Voor- 
hees' valuable book, "Fertilizers." This 
standard work (327 pages), handsomely bound, 
is of greatest assistance to every cultivator. 

Directions for successful Hop growing will be sent free 
upon request to all those who apply. 4 ' Food for Plants," 
a 237-page book of useful information, will be sent 
free to farmers while the present edition lasts, if paper is 
mentioned in which this advertisement is seen. Address 

WILLIAM S. MYERS, Director 

John Street and 71 Nassau. New York 



Please. Apply by Post Card 



connected with other branches of agri- 
culture. It tells all about how to feed 
and manage, how to breed and select, 
incubators and brooders, its labor 
saving devices, etc., etc. 12mo. 331 
pages. 140 original illustration*.. 
Cloth $1.00 

Plant Life on the Farm 

By M. T. Masters, M D, F C S. A 
sketch of the physiology or life history 
of plants; of the way in which they 
are affected by the circumstances un- 
der which they exist, and how they in 
turn react upon other living beings 
and upon natural forces. 132 pages. 

5x7 inches. Cloth $l.u0 

Asparagus 

By F. M. Hexamer. This is the first 
book published in America which Is 
exclusively devoted to the raising of 
asparagus for home use as well a* for 
market. It is a practical and rellubU 
treatise on the saving of the seed, 
raising of the plants, selection and pre- 
paration of the soil, planting, cultiva- 
ting, manuring, cutting, bunching 
packing, marketing, canning and dry- 
ing, insect enemies, fungous diseases 
and every requirement to successful 
asparagus culture, special emphasis 
being given to the Importance of as- 
j aragus as a farm and money crop 
Illustrated. 174 pages. 5x7 inches 

Cloth lO.o J 

The Hop 

Its culture and care, marketing and 
manufacture. By Herbert Myrick. A 
practical handbook on the most ap 
nroved methods in growing, harvest- 
ing, curing and selling hops and on the 
use and manufacture of hops. It takes 
up every detail from preparing the soil 
and laying out the yard to curing and 
selling the crop. Illustrated. 300 
pages. 5x7 inches. Bound in cloth 
and gold $1.50 



Hoyt's Tree Support 

Patented Nov. 26, 1901. 

Patented Sept. 22, 1903. 
THE PROPLESS PROP THAT 
PROPERLY PROPS A TREE. 

A Useful Thing is a Joy Forever 




Hoyt's Tree Support on the Tree. 

Over Three Million Sold Since 
Introduction in 1903 

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LXXIII. No. 2. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 12, 1907. 



Thirty-seventh Year 



GOOD AND BAD WATER AND FRUIT TREES. 



Some weeks ago we gave some instructive pictures of 
fruit trees on good and bad soils and this time we have 
a contrast of citrus fruit trees irrigated with good and 
bad water. The quality of water for fruit trees is 
measured by the amount of corrosive substances dis- 
solved in it, as the chemist puts it, the irrigating qual- 
ity of water is determined by its 
saline contents. It makes a differ- 
ence, of course, as to what kind of 
salt is dissolved in the water, and here 
again we find a difference between the 
taste of plants and animals; the latter 
will usually enjoy considerable common 
salt and very little alkali in their diet; 
the former will endure more alkali than 
common salt, although they draw quite 
a sharp line against too much of either, 
and it is largely a question of how much, 
whether they look well or ill, or whether 
they grow well or die back and die out. 
These questions have engaged much of 
the attention of Professors Hilgard and 
Loughiidge of the University of Cali- 
fornia Experiment Station during the 
many years they have worked with sub- 
terranean aspects of California agri- 
culture and from their publications we 
can best draw to make our pictures in- 
telligible. 

They represent the cultural results of 
several years' irrigation with the wa- 
ters of an alkaline lake in Southern 
California, as compared with the growth 
of orange trees on the same land, but ir- 
rigated with artesian water. This lake 
is fed by a river, and in wet years 
sometimes overflows for a few weeks 



used ; and afterwards prevented its proper penetra- 
tion, so that the trees- suffered from dryness of their 
lower roots, while damaged by the alkali salts near 
the surface. Experience has shown that citrus trees 
are especially sensitive to common salt. 

Unfortunately it is not easy to give absolute rules 
in regard to the exact figures that constitute an ex- 
cess of salts for irrigation purposes, since not 
only the composition of the salts, but also 



times happens that all or most of the solid content is 
gypsum and epsom salt; when only a large excess of 
the latter would constitute a bar to irrigation use. 
When, on the contrary, a large proportion of the solids 
consists of carbonate of soda or of common salt, even 
a smaller proportion of salts than 40 grains might pre- 
clude its regular use, depending upon the nature of 
the soil to be irrigated. For in a clay loam, or a heavy 
ulobe, not only do the salts accumulate nearer to 





into an outlet. Thus its saline content varies some- 
what, from about 80 to over 100 grains per gallon, of 
salts containing three-fifths of common salt and one- 
fifth each of glauber salt and carbonate of soda. The 
latter tends to form a hardpan in the subsoil, and sucii 
hardpan was actually formed where the water was 



Orange Trees Irrigated Three Years with Alkali Lake Water. — Alkali in 4 Feet of Soil — 8,920 Pounds Per Acre. 

the surface, but the subdrainage being slow 
and imperfect (unless underdrained), it be- 
comes difficult or impossible to wash out 
the saline accumulations from time to 
time, as is feasible in sandy lands. In 
these, moreover, as already stated, the al- 
kali never becomes as concentrated near 
the surface as in heavier soils. Again, 
where hardpan exists in sandy land, sa- 
line irrigation-water soon saturates the 
soil mass above it with salts. 

During dry seasons saline waters have 
frequently been used, exceptionally, in or- 
der to save trees threatened with death 
from drouth. "When this is done, the salts 
so introduced must be washed into the 
subdrainage by heavy irrigation, whenever 
practicable, even if the same saline water 
should have to be used for the purpose. 
For few such waters are sufficiently strong 
to injure vegetation until concentrated by 
evaporation; as can be seen from the veg- 
etation growing close to the margins of al- 
kaline lakes, with its roots immersed in 
the water. 

The irrigator can determine for himself 
whether or not his water is of doubtful 
character, by evaporating a tablespoonful, 
or more, in a clean silver spoon (avoiding 
boiling). If the dry residue should form 
simply a thin, powdery-looking film on the 
polished metal, he may be assured that the 
water is all right. If, on the other hand, an 
obvious saline crust should remain, which will redis- 
solve in water, he should either have an analysis made, 
or use the water in such a manner as to remove the 
accumulated salts from time to time by washing them 
into the subdrainage, if the nature of the soil 
permits. 




Orange Trees Irrigated with Artesian Water. — Alkali in 4 Feet of Soif — 2,560 Pounds Per Acre. 



the nature of the land to be irri- 
gated, and the frequency and amount of irrigation 
water required, must be taken into consideration. 
Broadly speaking, the extreme limits of mineral content 
usually assigned for portable waters, viz., 40 grains per 
gallon, also applies to irrigation waters. Yet it some- 



18 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 12, 1907 



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THE WEEK 



Continued rains with temperatures low enough to 
turn them to snow at much lower levels than snow 
generally appears have given the oldest inhabitants op- 
portunity to indulge in shivering reminiscences. In 
places snowy things have been done the like of which 
have not been seen for thirty years, according to local 
testimony. How great the cold has been can be appre- 
ciated from the fact that house-fires have been often 
maintained all day long instead of mornings and even- 
ings and the chief injury has been done to the pocket, 
for coal is nearly at famine prices in California as well 
as at other points west of the Missouri river. The weather 
has been mainly boisterous and chilly for no re- 
ports have yet come of temperatures injurious to 
plants except in the mountain districts where such 
things are expected. Of course, January bluster and 
drenching are the secret of summer profusion, both in 
commercial crops and in landscape bloom and verdure 
and so Californians are enduring the dispensation with 
becoming fortitude and trudge or roll through the mud, 
dreaming of the delights of the dust which are to come. 

The legislature has assembled iu Sacramento in hired 
halls, as the roof is off the capitol, which is undergo- 
ing repairs. It is remarkable how many legislative 
winters are wet and what a strong pull it makes on the 
imagination when men legislate on irrigation with their 
shoes full of water. They will probably do it, however, 
with all the public spirit and generosity that their pre- 
decessors have done. It will take also a lot of money 
to provide for all the needs of this State during the 
next two years, even if the closest economy is observed. 
Fortunately, the new administration will have a greatly 
increased assessed valuation to work upon, for, in spite 
of local losses by shake and fire, the general value of 
the State has notably advanced. 

We indulged a good deal in comments on dry farm- 
ing in our last issue and we recur to the subject, for it 
is evidently going to be a good year for dry farming. 
That reminds us that a friend, who has a taste for 
agriculture in current discussion, although not very 
near to it otherwise, asked us to explain to him the 
other day what dry farming is. We indulged in reply 
with all the garrulity which is characteristic of us, 
showing how dry farming succeeded by extreme effort 
for the conservation of moisture, etc., His response was 
brief: "Dry farming, I take it then, means wet farm- 
ing." The fact could not be more clearly put. Dry 
farming is also high farming, because it involves so 
much of the most advanced physical and mechanical 
principles which are involved in tillage. We notice that 
a writer in the Deseret Farmer emphasizes this fact 
and sounds a timely note of warning to those who are 
rushing into dry farming as they rush into everything 
which they conceive to be new: "To grow crops with- 
out irrigation in Utah requires more skill and a more 
thorough knowledge of the subject than in any other 
kind of farming. Much of the . land that has recently 
been bought is poorly suited to the growing of crops 
without irrigation. The soil is shallow and poorly sit- 
uated as to rainfall. This being the case, it is all the 
more evident that correct principles of farming must 
be followed if a setback to this new industry is to be 



avoided. While the writer thoroughly believes, and in 
fact knows that money has been made, is now being 
made and can still be made out of dry land farming, 
the fact nevertheless remains that in order to produce 
crops successfully without irrigation in this country, 
one must understand the fundamental principles upon 
which success so much depends. In other words, a 
man must learn to farm scientifically as well as prac- 
tically. It is feared that too many of those who are go- 
ing into this business for the first time are likely to 
fail simply because of the fact that they have a lack 
of knowledge on the subject." 

These warnings are as applicable in California as 
elsewhere and we see some things which indicate that 
some Californians need cooling down a little. They 
seem to think that all they need is to get a professor 
of dry farming who knows nothing of California condi- 
tions of soil and climate to take a look at the landscape 
and let the spirit of prophecy arise within him. Of 
course, the professor, if he be a good one, will tell his 
clients the very things which are stated in the forego- 
ing paragraph and add that they must put in practice all 
that is known about growing crops on scant rainfall in 
California and that their success will depend upon do- 
ing all these things more thoroughly, in working deeper 
in the early part of the season for moisture reception 
and in working more finely later in the season for moist- 
ure retention and in seeing to it that they do not lose 
by scant, coarse work what can only be secured 
by perfect tillage of the right kind at the right time. 
For this they must not only do better work but must 
have better tools, especially adapted to secure the form 
of tillage which is indespensable. Of course, this will 
make cropping cost more. Will the increased crop 
justify the investment at present labor rates? That is 
the economic side of the question which is just as im- 
portant as the scientific. But we will not preach any- 
more on this subject now. If Californians, working by 
rainfall, would proceed as well as they know how, in- 
stead of as they usually do, California would lead the 
country in dry farming. Our natural conditions for it 
are superior to those in the interior mountain states, 
with their shorter growing seasons and other handicaps. 

There is manifestly a disadvantage in having a 
front name which is so satisfying that one is apt to 
forget the rest of his nominal outfit. This is shown by 
the fact that the excellent essay in our last issue on I 
"California Nursery Business" was credited to Mr. 
Leonard of Morgan Hill. But after all it does not 
matter much, perhaps, because in California horticul- 
ture, at least, the term Mr. Leonard is merely short for | 
Mr. Leonard Coates. 

We notice that a writer in an Eastern journal speaks 
of the Japanese walnut as having been "introduced to 
this country some fifteen years ago." It may be inter- 
esting to remind our readers that this Japanese species 
was introduced into California not less than forty or 
fifty years ago and a tree of nearly that age is now to 
be seen near the Tower House, in Shasta county — unless 
it has been recently removed. Fruit from this tree 
was shown at our State Horticultural meetings in the 
latter '70s, and it was some time before the species 
could be identified. In the early '80s the nuts were ad- 
vertised and offered for sale by some of our seedsmen, 
but the Japanese walnut is too hard shelled a propo- 
sition for commercial use, and the species has never 
become popular in this State where the Persian wal- 
nut grows so well. 

A token of the horticultural leadership of California 
is found in the fact that commercial production of 
canteloupe seed for the general trade is now proceed- 
ing from this State. We note the following in an im- 
mense advertisement of such seed addressed to the 
commercial growers of canteloupes in the United 
States: "We secured seed in 1905 from the Rocky Ford 
seed planted in California, and had same planted in 



Florida, Georgia and Colorado, and in every instance 
the vines were very healthy and vigorous, showing no 
sign of rust, and made a large crop of very fine qual- 
ity, deliciously flavored cantaloupes. The dry, sandy 
soil of California, where they have no dew or rain, is 
the ideal place to improve the Rocky Ford seed, mak- 
ing it desirable for growers to use, to secure a large 
crop of fine quality, of especially thick meated, heavy 
net, small cavity and sweet, delicious flavor, and no 
disease." This statement is fortified by a letter from a 
Georgia grower who says he had last year about ten 
pounds of California seed, which he planted separately 
from the Rocky Ford seed, and fertilized and cultivated 
all alike. The California seed gave the best results, in 
every respect, better yield and better stock. There 
was scarcely an imperfect melon in the patch, planted 
with the California seed. They ran uniformly 45s, were 
good shapes, deep meated and heavy netted. California 
leads in the seed trade anyway and eminence in can- 
teloupe seed is only what might be expected. 

California river improvement seems to be attracting 
wide attention in high circles at the East which is a 
good thing, because we cannot expect to secure much 
without effective publicity. Mr. P. J. van Loben Sels, 
a large owner of farming lands on the Sacramento 
river and a leader in river improvement undertakings, 
at tt ended the National Rivers and Harbors Congress in 
Washington last month as a delegate from the River 
Improvement and Drainage Association of California, 
and in his report to President Rufus P. Jennings, of 
the Association, he gives many important facts regard- 
ing the meeting and the work that was done looking to- 
ward the betterment of conditions in California. Mr. 
van Loben Sels was received by President Roosevelt, 
who requested him to make known his ideas relating to 
the proper methods of looking after the rivers and har- 
bors of the country, in writing, and when this was done 
the President promised to take it up with his cabinet. 
Secretary of War Taft was especially interested in the 
work on the Pacific Coast and had a long conversation 
with Mr. van Loben Sels regarding what was being 
done. In the congress all efforts to further any scheme 
or special locality were eliminated, and the resolu- 
tions adopted were confined entirely to the idea of hav- 
ing an annual appropriation of $50,000,000 made for the 
betterment of the waterways of the nation, it being be- 
lieved that such a policy would be far better than the 
old method of having the work parcelled out according 
to the influence of legislators from various sections. 
In closing his report Mr. van Loben Sels expresses 
himself as well pleased with the results obtained from 
the congress, and thinks much good will come from it. 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



THE CALIFORNIA BLACK WALNUT. 

To the Editor: In your "California Fruits" you 
recommend the roots of the California black walnut 
as a stock for the English walnut. 1 wish to know if 
you now consider it a good or the best stock for the 
English walnut; also if there is but one variety of Cal- 
ifornia black walnut and if the variety growing wild 
in Southern California is as good as any? I have seen 
no large trees of this variety and hi've been informed 
that another variety growing farther north in this 
State is much better for grafting and budding into 
the English walnut, partly because it makes a larger 
tree. Also could you inform me where nuts of the 
best variety can be had? I am of the opinion that the 
not growing wild here along the side-s of hills as well 
as in creek bottoms and apparent'?- thriving during 
our driest seasons would make a Btocij upon which the 
English nut would make, during dr..- seasons, a more 
rapid and often healthier growth than cn its own roots. 
Will you be so kind as to favor me with your opinion 
on this subject? I wish to plant over 100 acres of 
most suitable trees and there are reveral other or- 
chardists in this valley to whom your opinion might 
prove of great value. — READER, Ventura county. 

Experience seems to justify the conclusion that the 
California black walnut is the best root for the English 
walnut, at least in all places where the soil is likely to 
become either too dry or too wet. Where the soil con- 
ditions are just right the English walnut seedling is 



January 12, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



19 



manifestly satisfactory, as is shown by the large com- 
mercial acreage on that root in Southern California. 
So far as we know, there is only one species of Cali- 
fornia black walnut, although it becomes very much 
influenced both in size of tree and nut, by local condi- 
tions of soil and moisture. Your observation as to the 
reduced size on the dry uplands- in Southern California 
is correct, but the same species on deep bottom lands 
and alongside streams in Central. California attains 
magnificent proportions. It is usually better to secure 
seed for stocks from trees which have enjoyed condi- 
tions' favorable for free development, because the En- 
glish walnut is a free-growing tree and deserves a 
free-growing stock. Still we believe that you will find 
seedlings of your local black walnuts satisfactory it 
planted on soil which favors a fuller development, tak- 
ing the seed, of course, from the lest trees you can 
find. California black walnut seeds kept in suitable 
condition for germination, also the California black wal- 
nut seedlings which you can plant out for subsequent 
grafting, are usually to be had from California nur- 
series. 



RICE GROWING NEAR STOCKTON. 

To the Editor: Can you tell me the exact location 
where rice growing was attempted near Stockton? I 
am quite familiar with lands there and am anxious 
also to secure all the data possible in regard to rice 
growing in California. At Fresno recently alkali land 
has been reclaimed by growing rice upon it which 
caused me to become interested in the growing of 
rice.— INVESTIGATOR, Fresno. 

The experiments in rice growing were on Union 
Island, near Stockton, during 1893 and 1894, in connec- 
tion with a test of tropical sugar cane as the main 
culture. Brief notes were made frequently in our col- 
umns- concerning the sugar cane, incidental mention 
was also given of the growth of rico. To sum up the 
matter in a word, it may be said that the rice gre^v 
finely; in fact, kept on growing finally by stooling un'il 
it covered the ground fully. It grev about three feet 
high with a splendid show of foliage but never made 
an offer to produce a seed bearing head. The conclu- 
sion seemed to be that with rice, as with sugar cane 
(which never showed more than about 4 per cent sugar), 
the night temperature was too low lor a satisfactory 
development of the plant, although it maintained i's 
vegetative energy until stricken by tnc frosts, late in 
the autumn. Other experiments we r c made with rice 
in the vicinity by individuals, and all complained of 
lack of seed bearing, although the growth of the plant 
was good. We are quite sure that 1-oth rice and sugar 
cane would show much better result at Fresno, and 
probably also in the upper part of the Sacramento val- 
ley, than either of them did in the Stockton region, 
where the night temperature is held too low by the 
entrance of cool summer breezes by the way of Car- 
quinez Straits. The sugar cane which was used for 
seed at Stockton did, in fact, come from Lone Star, 
near Fresno, where it made much better growth than 
it did in its new location. What rice will do in a 
region of warmer nights would certainly be an inter- 
esting thing to determine. 



WALNUTS IN LAKE COUNTY. 

To the Editor: We wish to put out ten acres of 
second bottom, sandy loam to walnuts. Will they do 
well on such land? Am advised to plant native wal- 
nuts and graft English or French into them when three 
years old. Walnuts do well here on bottom land but 
have not been tested on upland except T have a few two 
years old which have made good growth, but I fertil- 
ized them. — FARMER, Lakeport. 

Walnuts will grow well on your lower, moister land, 
and it certainly would be desirable to plant native black 
walnuts and graft upon them later. The bearing will 
depend something upon the occurrence of spring frosts. 
If your trees remain dormant until frcsts are over they 
will in all probability prove to be oOOd bearers. They 
generally do this in the coast region all the way from 
California to Washington. Walnuts are satisfactory on 



uplands when the tree does not suffer from lack of 
moisture and plant food, but as a rule the deeper, 
moister and better drained soils will give better re- 
sults-. 

THE CURCULIO IN CALIFORNIA. 

To the Editor: I noticed a letter in your December 
8 issue from Memphis, Tenn., concerning the ravages 
of the curculio in the Eastern States, and asking in- 
formation concerning its ravages in California. The 
curculio has been a fearful pest in the East and is yet, 
to nearly all stone fruits. It has made its appearance 
in California several times, but it can do little harm 
here, owing to its inability to survive our long dry 
| spell. The curculio requires moisture in summer to 
propagate thriftily, and when they drop into our con- 
stantly dry and warm soil they sim r ly shrivel up and 
die. The fight against them in the East has been given 
up in many localities and orchards abandoned. Prof. 
C. V. Riley of Missouri recommended the spraying and 
sheets bath. But they were never entirely efficacious. 
The best hope apparently is towar i some ichuenmon 
parasite, and that means time and a long time, too. 
A good method of avoiding the pest would be for Mr. 
Fruit Grower to come to California.— D. W. RAVENS- 
CROFT, Petaluma. 

Our correspondent's reasoning seems plausible, but 
why is it that other weevils, as for instance the acorn 
weevils are able to pupate and thrive in the dry soil 
of California? Also why do other insects pupating in 
the ground do well? Is our correspondent sure he 
ever saw a plum weevil in California? If so we hope 
ne will send us the next one he finds. We have plenty 
of other larvae infesting fruit which might be mistaken 
for it. Until a demonstration is had of the presence of 
the insect and its actual failure to reproduce itself 
the matter cannot be determined. We count our cor- 
respondent's note very interesting, but inconclusive ex- 
cept his remark that the best way to get clear of this 
pest is to come to California; that seems sure and we 
hope it will always remain so on our side, though we 
have no selfish objection to Eastern people learning how 
to kill the curculio, if they can. 

IMPERIAL ON SUGAR. 

To the Editor: I have seven acres of young sugar 
prune trees, which I wish to work over into Imperial 
prunes if practicable, leaving enough of the former to 
fertilize the Imperial blossom. Will the sugar and Im- 
perial make a good union? — GROWER, San Jose. 

We do not know enough to be sure about it. We do 
know, however, that many of our readers have made 
this graft during the last two or three years and we 
would like to hear their observations on it. 

TREES FOR FENCE POSTS. 

To the Editor: Will you be kind enough to tell me 
what are the best kind of trees to plant to grow fence 
posts? — READER, Madera. 

For quick growth plant Eucalyptus rudis, rostrata 
viminalis or robusta in your part of the State. How 
long they will last as posts may net be determined 
fully but they will answer a temporary purpose at 
least. For long lasting posts you can grow the locust 
and catalpa which may be ready for posts when the 
eucalyptus posts give out. 

A GENERAL BOOK ON GRAPE GROWING. 

To the Editor: Kindly refer me to some good work 
on the grape, its care, culture, pruning, etc. I have 
several 'Bulletins,' but they are not complete in the 
work— SUBSCRIBER, Sebastopol. 

There is no general work which is comprehensive 
and up to date on California practice. You will have 
to stump along a while, probably, on bulletins and such 
discussions as we can give you from time to time. 

GOVERNMENT LAND STILL OPEN. 

To the Editor: Can you inform me, for the benefit 
of an Eastern friend, if there is anv government land 
for pre-emption, or homestead, in the northern part of 
this State, and of what value would it be aside from the 
timber (timber land I refer to)? If you have not the 
information at hand, who should I write to for same? 
—J. H. HALE, Sebastopol. 

There is no general source of such information. The 
settler has to find the land and ihen go to the local 



land office and ascertain if it is still open for entry. 
He has also to form nis own opinion as to what it is 
v> i.rth to him for the purposes he has in view. Some- 
times people having settled on government land wish 
to have neighbors and they are willing for this reason 
to point out open land to intending settlers. We can- 
not print accounts of this kind but if any reader wishes 
to help Mr. Hale the postoffices are cpen as well as 
the land. 



EUCALYPTUS IN UPPER SACRAMENTO VALLEY. 

To the Editor: We are thinking of planting an area 
of land in Butte county to eucalyptus trees and noting 
that the State University has carried on quite exten- 
sive experiments in this line, I would be under obliga- 
tions if you could refer me to the Lroper source of in- 
formation, or have printed matter forwarded to me, if 
such there is. The different varieties of trees are 
suited, of course, to different purposes, and in view of 
the shortage of railroad ties, we ars inclined to grow 
some trees, at least, for such purposes. — OWNERS, 
San Francisco. 

We have printed many good things on growing 
eucalyptus during the last year but we have nothing in 
printed form embodying recent observations of the 
growth of eucalyptus trees at the Forestry Station near 
Chico. If, however, it should be cenvenient for you 
to visit that station, which lies up Chico creek about 
two miles from the city, you could get sight of many 
varieties and judge of the comparative growth of them 
with such information as Mr. Miller, the foreman in 
charge, is able to give you. In our issue of December 
15 was an essay on eucalyptus growing in San Joaquin 
valley, which might be considered to apply also to the 
district which you menton, because there is practically 
little difference in the minimum temperatures in the 
two places. 



THE VANILLA BEAN. 

To the Editor: Can you give me any information as 
to whether the vanilla bean can be successfully grown 
in Southern California, or whether it has ever been 
iried? If adapted to this soil and cli'iiate, would it not 
be a profitable plant to grow in commercial quantities? 
Where could I obtain some seed fo, - a sample test? — 
ENQUIRER, Los Angeles. 

The vanilla bean is an orchid and not at all related to 
what we know as 'beans' in the temperate zone. It 
cannot be successfully grown away from tropical condi- 
tions, of which we have none in California. You can 
grow the plant in an experimental way in the green- 
house with heat and moisture conditions just right. 
The plants are propagated by cuttings and you may be 
able to get them from dealers in rare greenhouse 
plants. 

COW PEA HARVESTING. 

To the Editor: I desire to be informed of the extent 
to which the cow pea is grown in your State, that is, as 
nearly as possible the approximate acreage of cow peas 
planted in the pea growing districts each year. I am 
interested in a stock pea harvesting machine that has 
been recently patented and which has proved to be a 
thoroughly successful one, and wish information as to 
the probable demand for a machine o£ this character. — 
INVENTOR, Arkansas. 

There is no appreciable acreage of cow peas grown 
in this State for seed. Cow peas are grown here and 
there to a considerable extent for plowing under as 
green manure and to some extent on moist lands for 
forage, but we are almost wholly dependent upon the 
Southern States for seed supply for these purposes. 
This condition of affairs is likely to change if the cow 
pea advances in popular esteem, but at present the 
seed production is very small. 



WINTER ACTIVITY OF TRiE ROOTS. 

To the Editor: Please let me know if deciduous trees 
grow any at the roots during winter in Southern Ari- 
zona and California. — READER, Phoenix, Arizona. 

Deciduous fruit trees certainly do make root growth 
during what we call our winter season. They make 
a considerable extension of new fibrous roots before 
growth starts upon the top of the tree. 



20 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 12, 1907 



HORTICULTURE. 



CALIFORNIA VALENCIA LATES. 

In view that the Valencia Late has been so widely 
planted recently, the commercial struggle and victory 
of the variety is of great local interest. The New York 
Fruit Trade Journal presents the matter in this pointed 
way: 

There is an old saying that "It is an ill wind that 
blows nobody good," and often we have thought of that 
quotation when thinking over the wonderful strides 
made in the markets of the East with California 
oranges. Before the great freeze which occurred in 
Florida in 1895, that State, with the exception of some 
oranges from Spain, also Jamaica and Sicily, had the 
supplying of almost the entire trade of the East with 
the finest kind of oranges. Florida was steadily driving 
all foreign oranges out of the market and as the crops 
in Florida were steadily getting bigger, estimated the 
year of the freeze as over six million boxes, and there 
is no doubt but that State would have succeeded in 
killing foreign competition, especially during the win- 
ter months. Several attempts had been made to intro- 
duce the California navels, but with poor success; in 
fact we know certain well known retailers who took 
fully a month to sell twenty-five boxes of navels. Now 
they think nothing of selling fifty to one hundred boxes 
In a day. With the bulk of the trees ruined in Florida 
by the freeze the trade had to seek elsewhere for 
oranges, and a golden opportunity was opened for Cali- 
fornia. The trade commenced to take hold, but still 
California met with sharp competition from Sicily, 
Spain, and Jamaica; in fact, this competition became so 
keen that prices realized were simply ruinous. The 
California growers and receivers were at their wits' 
end; they finally applied to the railroads for assistance 
from this foreign competition; the growers agreed to 
furnish the fruit and the railroads agreed on an emer- 
gency rate, one cent per pound or seventy-two cents 
per box. This rate, with the assistance of the tariff, 
very quickly killed off competition from Italy and 
Spain, leaving Jamaica and a few summer oranges from 
Rodi and Sorrento still to contend with. The advent 
of the Valencia Late orange from California, which 
the growers found could be held until the navels, 
sweets, and seedlings were shipped and out of the 
way, and which the trade found were far superior as a 
summer orange, to the Rodi and Sorrento oranges, re- 
sulted in the latter being practically done away with 
as a factor in the business. 

Mr. C. C. Chapman, of Fullerton, California, well 
known as the grower and shipper of the "Old Mission" 
brand of oranges, was the first to give battle with the 
Valencia Late oranges, and the general superiority of 
the fruit grown by him very quickly attracted the at- 
tention of the best trade, and they would have no other 
but Valencia Lates, the Rodi, Sorrento, and Jamaica 
oranges were left to the poorer class of trade and the 
results realized were so extremely poor that it did not 
pay to import them. Now practically the entire mar- 
kets of the country the whole year are supplied with 
oranges grown on American soil. 

The cultivation of oranges in California is being stead- 
ily extended, the reports showing an increased acreage 
in both the northern and southern portions of the State, 
aud the growers are reaping fine returns on their in- 
vestment. 

In marketing their product, however, it is found that 
it is impossible to judge one season by the one pre- 
ceding it. During the Valencia Late season recently 
closed it was quite apparent that growers expected 
a repetition of the conditions of the previous year and 
they acted accordingly. As a result the fruit arriving 
during the latter part of the season often showed that 
it had been held too long, and much of it would have 
been marketed to much better advantage had it been 
shipped at the proper time. It would have then arrived 
here in better condition and found a better market. 

The New York trade never wants poor stock, but 
will pay well for good stock. An evidence of this 
fact is given in the way that the "Old Mission" oranges 
sold throughout the season. They have been in a class 
by themselves, and when the prevailing market prices 
for oranges are compared with the records made by 
this brand the showing was something remarkable. 



could succeed everywhere as well as they do here, 
they would be quite an acquisition to the small fruits 
of California, as both are of distinct flavor and char- ! 
acter. As with all other varieties before them, it now 
devolves upon the local planter to test their adaptabil- 
ity to his own peculiar conditions and not until then 
can we know whether they are of general value or 
only locally so. I have tried to proceed carefully and 
have put myself to considerable trouble and expense 
to be the more sure of their value before sending them 
out. 

A brief and candid description of these two new va- 
rieties may not be out of place at this time. 

Ettersberg Gooseberry. — It is a seedling of what is 
known here as the Walla Walla, which it resembles con- 
siderably in growth but stands the heat better, both in 
foliage and fruit. The bush is very vigorous, some of 
them six years old growing here are 5 feet high aud 
20 feet in circumference. They seem to be quite as 
healthy and vigorous in the fog belt of Humboldt 
county. The berry is of medium size, deep green in 
color, green or ripe, has- practically no skin when cooked, 
and the seeds are few in number; the berry being prac- 
tically all meat. With but a little over half as much 
acid as other gooseberries, and with both blossoms and 
stems small and soft, and only necessary to be removed 
for appearance sake, it is quite out of the ordinary 
among gooseberries. It is- very productive and appears 
to bear best when cross-pollinized with other varieties. 
As a proof of its merit, it was awarded at the Louis 
and Clark Exposition of Portland, Ore., a bronze medal 
which was the highest recognition the Jury of Awards 
could bestow upon a single exhibit of a single variety. 

Rose Ettersberg Strawberry. — This- variety is a h' 
brid between a third generation Sharpless-X Parry and 
a type of the Fragaria chilensis, or beach strawberry, 
but of a different type from those growing on the beach 
hereabouts, and most likely from a warmer part of the 
coast of America. As all acquainted with the beach 
strawberry know, it is very fragrant and of distinct 
flavor. The fragrance of the Rose Ettersberg is such aa 
to drown the scent of so fragrant a rose as the La 
Marque when taken together. In common with its 
beach parent, it will thrive on very poor soil and pro- 
duces its best fruit in such situations. Its best adap- 
tation is a light open soil and considerable sunshine. 
Too much moisture and plant food force them all to 
runners and the berries are then lacking in both sub- 
stance and flavor. With me here they grow almost with- 
out cultivation on land that is too dry to grow and ma- 
ture a crop of corn, and from 400 stocks from one to 
seven years old I picked 100 gallons of berries, and this 
is the more remarkable when we consider that I am 
yet to find a red strawberry, that is, of Eastern stock, 
that amounts to anything here. The blossoms are 
often as large as a silver dollar, the berries of large 
size, often 1% inches in diameter, and blush pink in 
color. Single stocks from sets 18 months out were 
measured here last summer that were 22 inches high 
and over 10 feet in circumference. 

ALBERT F. ETTER. 

Ettersberg, Humboldt county. 



THE BOTANIST. 



ETTERSBERG BERRIES. 

To the Editor: It is now twelve years since the 
Ettersberg gooseberry and the Rose Ettersberg straw- 
berry came into existence, and for the past eight years 
I have been studying them closely here on my own 
grounds, as well as having others try them in other 
parts of the State. They are certainly worthy varieties 
here, and, from what I can learn they are worthy of 
wider trial, on the Pacific Coast at least. If they 



A STUDY OF FORAGE PLANTS AT ETTERSBERG, 
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

(Written for the Pacific Rural Press by Albert F. Etter.t 
[Fourth Paper.] 
Rye Grasses. — Of all introduced grasses in Humboldt 
county, rye grass is far in the lead. While Australian, 
English or perennial rye grass is preferred on some up- 
lands, the Italian variety is the favorite generally. One 
of the earliest if not the first introduction of Italian 
rye grass in Humboldt county was in 1885 by Benj. 
Etter, father of the writer, who sowed an acre of this 
grass in that year. So well did it succeed that it soon 
became the variety most generally sown. There is no 
grass more perfectly adapted to the lowlands of this 
county than Italian rye grass, but outside of these moist 
lowlands, which are always cooled and kept moist by 
the summer fogs which prevail, it fails to hold its pres- 
tige and is often substituted by the more permanent 
perennial rye grass or orchard grass. Both of these 
I rye grasses are, however, valuable for sowing on a 
burning in almost any situation, for even though they 
jo not stay more than a year or two, I doubt if there 
is another grass that will produce more feed the first 
year. It is obvious that in thus sowing it, I recommend 
it only in mixture with more permanent species and, 
of course, but a small quantity of seed should be includ- 
ed, lest it choke the others out by its quick growth, 
especially on rather fertile soils. 

In Eel River valley its strong points are its growth 



all the year around; its certainty to catch and quick 
development, and the ease with which it can be cured 
in a cool and foggy climate. It yields an abundant 
crop of hay and always a good aftermath, which is 
sometimes cut as a second crop of hay or cut and fed 
green to the milk cows. I know of no experiments 
where it has been sown on the open range that have 
amounted to anything, but there are a few places on 
Bear River Ridge, near the coast, where perennial rye 
grass has to all appearance naturalized itself in per- 
manent form, but back from the coast where the sun 
becomes hotter it will not stand more than two or three 
years in the most favored spots, and its adaptation 
back from the coast I should say is limited to a place 
in mixture for sowing on burnings. With this perennial 
rye grass, close pasturing tends to make it more per- 
manent. In the plots here it almost entirely disap- 
peared the second season where it had everything its 
own way, and the yield was good. 

Orchard Grass. — This widely known grass is grown 
to some extent in Humboldt county, on tillable land, 
and it is a valuable grass to sow on burnings along 
with mixture of other grasses where it does not be- 
come too dry for perennial grasses. It is a strong, 
deep rooting grass and according to my observations on 
this point, it is quite the equal of nearly any of our 
grasses, either native or imported, in ability to stand 
heat and drouth. The seed germinates readily in 
about fourteen days and catches well on tilled land 
or burnings, but I have no evidence that it can be suc- 
cessfully established on the open range where there is 
a stand of other annual grasses and weeds of various 
sorts. Under such conditions of frosty winter tem- 
peratures as we have here, it is considerably affected 
by the frost, and I do not consider it in the front rank 
by any means as a winter growing grass, but it remains 
green late in the summer and grows well in autumn. 
It is very permanent in most situations where it will 
thrive at all and the quality is good, even though more 
harsh than some other species, but the yield is only 
moderately good. 

Mesquit of Holcus (Lanatus or Velvet Grass). — Mes- 
quit, as it is called in this part of California, is widely 
naturalized in Humboldt county, being one of the first 
grasses introduced by the early settlers. While it was 
early recognized that it was not of the highest feed- 
ing value, it produced so well and the seed was so 
easily obtained that it was for a long time the principal 
grass sown on clearings. So well does it take to cli- 
matic and soil conditions prevailing here that it will 
readily catch and naturalize itself in most locations 
J even on the open range where the land is rather light. 
I In the low country where rye grass thrives, it is a nui- 
sance, for not only is it always present in the land, but 
being of low nutritive value, it has for many years past 
been afflicted by the rust which has farther reduced its 
value. Not only is it a persistent seeder, but the seed 
lies in the ground for many years and it is difficult 
to eradicate it from a field when once grown. The rust 
has done more towards reducing it than anything else. 
As one gets back where the summers are more sunny, 
hay made of mesquit grass has more substance, is less 
rusted, and not nearly so much like "a barn full of 
fog," as it used to be spoken of twenty-five years ago in 
Eel River valley. Stock of all kinds eat it well here 
in the mountains, and when we take into account the 
fact that it is quite permanent and is sure to produce 
considerable feed in almost any situation, on the whole 
it is possibly better to sow mesquit than to sow some- 
thing that is uncertain to produce anything. 

Agrostis Family of Grasses. — Redtop or Agrostis vul- 
garis has never made much of a mark anions imported 
grasses in this county. My own experiments with it irr 
Eel River valley did not indicate it to be of any par- 
ticular value where rye grass succeeded so well. I was 
particularly pleased with its behavior here at Etters- 
berg, though, where I had a plot of it sown on very 
light black ashy land, just such land as mesquit thrives 
on so well. It grew quite thriftily and seeded abundantly 
and from self-sown seed it came up thick on the ground 
with the October rains. From the fact the seed is 
easily obtained from seedsmen, it is a desirable grass 
to experiment with on light open lands where rye grass 
will not thrive. It is very permanent and while it is 
not so well liked by stock as some other grasses, it is 
a good substantial grass, nevertheless, and makes a 
good quality of hay. It makes a fair fall growth, but 
does little in winter, and remains green quite late in 
summer. 

Agrostis canina, or Rhode Island Bent grass, did not 
make a very desirable showing as compared with red- 
top, with which it grew in the same plot, and Agrostis 
alba, a similar species, apparently requires a moister 
soil than prevails in my grass garden. This species, or 
one that grows much like it ,is abundant in moist places 



January 12, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



21 



in most parts of Humboldt county. Another native 
species, Agrostis scorlaria, is abundant in most parts 

? the county. It makes some early growth in the fal) 
and remains green late in the summer when stock eat 
it after the annual grasses are ripe, but generally speak- 
ing, stock are not over fond of it, but it is acceptable 
because it is green. It make& its best showing where 
it is not grazed at all and in such situations it makes 
far less hay than it promises to make before cutting. 

Tall Oat Grass. — Of the oat grasses I had two plots, 
viz., Arrhenatherum elatius (ball oat grass), and Arrhen- 
atherum elatius bulbosus (bulbous oat grass). There 
is no very distinguishing difference in the two varieties 
so far as I noticed, but the bulbous oat grass plot ap- 
peared to always look better than the other, especially 
in fro&ty weather. These are good, long-lived, deep- 
rooting, and permanent grasses that will thrive on toler- 
ably poor and rather dry soil, but, I believe, dislike a 
place that is very wet. They are perfectly adapted to our 
climatic conditions and stock eat them readily, either 
grazing or cured as hay. The seeds are of good size 
and germinate readily in fourteen days. From the fact 
that the seeds drop when matured, it should stand a 
good chance to volunteer from self-sown seed on the 
range. It is tall growing and the hay is bulky and light. 
It makes a good early fall growth, and is about as 
resistant to frost as Italian rye grass. The two plots 
of oat grass always showed up well among the best 
in the garden. 

Trisetum pratensis, known as yellow oat grass, ger- 
minated sparingly in twenty days. I do not consider it 
of any particular value. 

Sweet Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum odortum). — This 
grass made a good showing here after it became estab- 
lished, but while it was quite small most of it burned 
out. It will stand considerable heat and drouth, however, 
when the plants are well established, and as it is a fine 
early fall and winter grower it is reasonable to suppose 
that if it were sown in the fall better results would be 
obtained than could be had by sowing in the spring. 
Like the oat grass and the wild oats, too, the seed drops 
when ripe and crawls about searching for a place to 
burrow in the soil. A& it is a prolific seeder and one 
of the very earliest to mature, I regard it as having ex- 
ceptional qualifications to propagate itself on the range. 
It seems, too, that it would be more adapted for situa- 
tions near the coast, where the sun does not get quite 
so warm as it does here. The seed germinated readily 
in fourteen days and it i& about as hardy against frost 
as the oat grasses. 

Timothy. — This grass, so universally grown in the 
East, is far from holding a like position in Northwestern 
California. It is clearly out of its element here. It 
grows to little in winter and is always waiting for 
rain in summer. I have noticed that when we get plenty 
of rain in May and June, timothy makes a good crop, 
and when the rain is scanty the crop is scanty, too. 
It would also appear that when it is cool enough for 
Italian rye grass to grow well, it is too cool for tim- 
othy. At any rate, I have never &een it grow well in 
Eel River valley. It is not too dry here for the plants 
to live through all right, but without summer rains or 
irrigation timothy, as I know it, is not a success. 

Muhlenbergia racemosa, or "drop seed," I believe also 
sometimes called wild timothy, is very resistant to 
both heat and drouth. I would hardly consider it 
adapted to Californian conditions, because it quits- work 
in October and remains entirely dormant until the 
middle of March. It forms a sort of a bulbous root and 
it is from this that the new growth springs. If it would 
stand winter flooding without injury it might be of 
some use on such lands. It germinates well in twenty 
days and does not readily burn out, even when quite 
small. 

THE GARDEN 

TOMATOES UNDER GLASS. 

As we have previously stated comparatively little is 
done with forcing enterprises in California, because open 
air growth covers so large a part of the year, but in- 
terest is awakening in the practice and it could not be 
well otherwise when forced tomatoes from the south 
reach the California markets each year. Obviously 
we have great advantages in this, not only because so 
little heat has to be used, but because our winter sun- 
shine is in such a strong and constant quantity in some 
parts of the State. Some important suggestions on 
forcing tomatoes are given by Mr. A. C. Beal, of the 
Illinois Experiment Station, in the Orange Judd Farmer: 

The constant demand for fresh fruit the year round, 
especially in the large cities, has made the tomato a 
profitable forcing-house crop. The plant is grown as a 
mid-winter crop or as a spring crop following other 



plants. For the former the seed must be sown about 
July 20 and the plants benched by September 15, so that 
most of the growth is made and the fruits set during 
the bright sunny fall weather. 

If the plants are started late the blossoms do not 
set well in the short, dull days of midwinter unless hand 
pollination is resorted to. Even with this method if the 
dull periods are protected many fruits are lost through 
the failure of the blossoms to shed the requisite pollen 
for the work. The spring crop is usually started early 
in December and the plants benched the middle of 
March. 

Sowing the Seed. — The usual method of starting to- 
mato plants is to sow the seed in a plot and when they 
reach a height of 2 inches they are potted into 2^-inch 
pots in only a moderate rich potting soil. When the 
ball of earth is covered with roots they are shifted into 
3%-inch pots in which the plants remain until they 
become pot bound. They will then form flowers and set 
fruit. This method has enabled me to secure fruit in 
50 days from benching, or in 110 days from sowing the 
seed, whereas the average length of time required under 
ordinary methods is 75 and 145 days respectively. 

Best Soil. — A soil of one-half rich garden loam and 
one-half rotted compost is ideal for tomatoes. The 
plants are set from 18 to 30 inches apart each way. The 
highest yields per square foot, viz. two and one-half 
pounds, was obtained from plants set 20 by 24 inches 
Everything depends on the light conditions prevailing 
in the house as to which is the proper distance for the 
securing of the largest yields. In order to secure the 
maximum light for each plant the mid-winter tomatoes 
are usually grown to a single stem by pruning off all 
side shoots as fast as they appear in the axil of the 
leaves. Some of the largest leaves should also be re- 
duced. 

The houses should be provided with wires parallel 
to the rows and directly over them. The wire should 
be secured to the sash bars by means of screw eyes or 
staples. Wires are also fastened to the top of the bench 
close to the plants. Strings of binder twine are used 
between the wires to form a support for the plants 
which are tied to it with raffia. To avoid slipping the 
raffia should be wrapped around the supporting string 
two or three times and looped loosely around the stem 
below a leaf to allow .or enlargement of the stem. The 
clusters of fruit must be supported by slings of raffia 
and carried through a leaf axil above, or tied to the 
string. 

Pollinating. — Many growers pollinate by tapping the 
strings during the middle of the day on bright, sunny- 
days. This serves the purpose very well in the fall and 
spring, but during the winter a more satisfactory way is 
to hold under each open flower a spoon or a watch glass 
fastened to a stick, while it is gently tapped. The 
pollen is thus caught so that the spoon can be lifted 
against the stigma and the pollen contained therein ad- 
heres to it. , 

Temperature of Forcing House. — The temperature 
should be 65 degrees at night with a rise of 15 or zO 
degrees on sunny days. The atmosphere should be dry 
rather than moist to promote pollination and reduce the 
liability to oedema. Watering should be done in the 
forenoon and the plants should go into the night dry. 

The fruits should be gathered when of even color and 
ripeness. When the market is at a distance the fruits 
are usually wrapped in white or brown tea paper and 
packed in baskets commonly used for peaches, or in the 
flat potato baskets. When the market is at hand, it is 
not always necessary to wrap the fruits, as the forced 
tomato is commonly sold by the pound. The price 
varies from 15 or 20 to 50 cents per pound, and a plant 
yields from four to ten pounds. When the fruit is to be 
placed in the local market, packing the fruit in fiat 
baskets holding five pounds with the top layer faced 
with the stem end down, renders them attractive, if dis- 
played in the show window. The best varieties for 
forcing are Best of All Combination, Eclipse, Froymore 
Select, Lorillard, etc. 



FRUIT MARKETING. 



THE FRUIT GROWERS' AIM. 

By Mr. H. C. Rowley, of Sacramento, at the Fruit Grow- 
ers' Convention at Hanford. 
It may jar the sensibilities of some to state the facts 
just as they are. but aside from a small class, very, very 
few in number, represented by such shining examples 
as Luther Burbank, the fruit grower has but a single 
aim. This may be set down in one word — price. Pub- 
lic spirit and curiosity in experimentation at times play 
a small part, but resolving the matter down to the basis 
which you all know is that the foundation, the aim of the 
fruit grower is to get the best possible price for his 



product. Of course, he at the same time wants to get 
an improved quantity and improved quality in produc- 
tion, but this is merely a means as to an end in 999 
cases out of every 1000, and has as its ultimate object 
— more money. It would seem, therefore, that the con- 
sideration of means looking toward this end is of prime 
importance, and in publishing California Fruit Grower 
it has been my object to specialize as particularly as 
possible on the commercial side of fruit growing, not, 
however, overlooking the matter of improvement in 
quality and methods of production, which are of vital 
import to the fruit grower in the accomplishment of his 
aim. There are several cardinal points in obtaining the 
best possible price for your products as I see it. Pro- 
ducing the best possible article for the class and char- 
acter of trade you intend catering to. Keep as thorough- 
ly posted on selling conditions in your line as is prac- 
ticable. 

Another point is honesty; honesty with those with 
whom you are dealing and honesty with yourself. You 
must turn out an honest product, just what it purports 
to be, and you must keep it strictly to the letter of your 
obligations, in all dealings and insist on others doing 
the same, and if they do not, look around for some- 
body else to deal with. There is a great deal of antag- 
onism and dissatisfaction, not to use any stronger term, 
existing between the fruit growers and buyers and 
packers who handle their product. Both sides are re- 
sponsible for this, and I believe that a great deal of 
the hard usage and bad treatment that growers get at 
the hands of packers and buyers is owing to lack of 
discrimination and judgment in picking out the people 
with whom to deal. If you have had good treatment 
and honest dealings from a packer with whom you 
have been doing business for perhaps a number of 
years, and some other fellow comes along that you 
don't know anything about and offers you a fraction 
better value for your 'goods and you sell them to him 
and get caught one way or another, who is to blame? 

It must be remembered, of course, that the grower is 
not the only individual in the world who is after a 
living and the best possible price. Everyone else con- 
nected with the fruit business or any other, is in the 
same boat; we are all looking for the highest price 
when we have anything to sell and the cheapest price 
when we have anything to buy. It is a natural propo 
sition that a fruit buyer wants to get his stuff at the 
very lowest price he can buy at, but this fact should 
not lead to prejudice. Again, in this matter of hon- 
esty, a contract is just as binding on one party as on 
another, and if not lived up to will in the long run 
work the downfall of the transgressor. Right here in 
your own district this present season there have been 
unholy alliances between unscrupulous packers and un- 
scrupulous growers. Growres, who have made contracts 
to deliver their goods at an agreed upon price to pack- 
ers, have jumped their bargains and delivered their 
goods to others for a consideration. By far the largest 
loss through such dealings will accrue to the packers 
themselves in the course of time, but a grower's con- 
tract is both, in statutory and moral law, as binding 
as any one's else. You expect the man with whom you 
bargain to live up to his word whether he wins or 
loses, and you should certainly do the same. This class 
of growers in such a community as California must, how- 
ever, be small in number. 

In the matter of selling your goods, I have no patience 
with the theorists who get up and argue by the year 
that this or that particular method is the only way that 
any product of the soil can be sold to advantage. I 
do not think there is any one way. I believe there are 
a great many methods of selling or handling your 
goods, each of which is to the best advantage under cer- 
tain circumstances and to certain individuals. With a 
State as large as the State of California and individual 
1 interests as diverse as they always must be in this State, 
j it is sheer nonsense to talk about selling all the fruit, 
all the vast production of our orchards, in various lines, 
under any one system, no matter how theoretically per- 
fect it may seem to be. There are always going to be 
different methods of selling just as surely as no two 
people think exactly alike on all subjects. Co-operation 
so far as uniformity of action or anything like a unani- 
mous scale is concerned, has proved an absolute fail- 
ure; not in theory, the theory of it is perfect, but in 
practice. In the matter of selling your products, nearly 
j every case is different in some particular, and for this 
reason one method is the most advantageous in one 
case and another in another. There is no one royal road 
to the highest price for fruit. 

In an effort to get the best possible price for your 
[ product, you must, of course, keep posted on general 
1 conditions and tendencies. Generally speaking, it pays 
; best to produce a less quantity of a first-class product 



22 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 12, 1907 



handled in a first-class way. The fixed expenses of in- 
terest on your land investment, most of the expenses 
of care for and handling the product, and all the ex- 
pense of transportation, are the same, whether your 
product brings the bare cost of getting it to market or 
a substantial profit to you. It is the great mass of low- 
grade stuff on the markets generally that keeps prices 
down and discourages consumption. Of course, there 
are certain conditions that require a certain class of pro- 
duct, and where a producer is catering to a particular 
trade, he wants the goods that that trade demands; but 
make them the best that they can be for the particular 
conditions that are being catered to. The principle is 
the same. 

A matter which is very largely overlooked by fruit 
growers in disposing of cured fruit is the matter of 
carrying expenses. I do not advocate jumping at the 
first offer that comes your way, but there is a large 
class of fruit growers who argue along these lines: 
"If Mr. Buyer can afford to pay the price he is offering 
me, my goods must certainly be worth more money be- 
cause he expects to make something, so I had better 
keep them myself and I shall get more later on." 
Whether or not a product should be held depends en- 
tirely on circumstances over which the grower him- 
self has very little control. Growers, however, should 
take into consideration more generally the carrying 
expenses; loss of interest, insurance, and shrinkage. 
Now this matter of shrinkage is one of more import 
ance than many think. If the grower holds his pro- 
duct, he is going to lose by shrinkage, and it is very 
material in most cases, amounting to a very noteworthy 
percentage, and the grower in deciding to hold must 
take this into consideration. 

There is one more point that I have left for the last 
because I want to make an effort to impress on you 
my ideas on this subject as strongly as possible. Fu- 
tures: The wrecks that fill up history in fruit trade 
circles are responsible in large part to future selling. 
As a rule growers do not indulge so largely in the 
gamble in futures as do the commercial packers, but a 
large number of the evils of the business and the gen- 
eral hard feeling between growers and buyers is direct- 
ly or indirectly due to dealing in futures. It may be set 
down here that it is not only improbable, but exceeding- 
ly unlikely, that the time will ever come when the 
speculator and dealer in futures will cease to exist. In 
the first place, the human race has an inborn instinct 
to gamble, which, so far as my experience goes, is gen- 
eral in one form or another. It may not be draw poker 
and it may not even be a slot machine for cigars, but 
the individuals in whom the gambling tendency does 
not manifest itself one way or another, are exceedingly 
few and far between. Hence, of course, we are always 
going to have speculation, and the speculator must nat- 
urally take a chance on the future. But of all the prac- 
tices which experience has shown to be prejudicial to 
peace, harmony, and financial success in the fruit busi- 
ness, dealing in distant futures takes front rank in the 
grand stand. 

This is not a packer's meeting, so there is no call to 
discuss the subject from that point of view. It may be 
said, however, in passing, that the packer is between 
two fires in this matter, being liable to get in trouble 
either way, buying or selling, but the effect on the mar- 
ket to the grower is usually detrimental. It is safe to 
say that one year with another in the long run, the less 
gamble the grower takes with his product, the better 
he will come out. Wait until you have something to 
sell; then when you know what you have to sell, both 
in quantity and quality, take the best price, coupled 
with reasonable conditions, that offers at the time buy- 
ers want to buy, and perhaps you will not get the 
very top of the market, but at the same time if you are 
dealing with honest people, and I cannot impress this 
latter point too strongly on you, you will get the best 
average that your particular field of activity warrants. 
When conditions seem in your judgment to indicate bet- 
ter prices later on, of course, by all means wait. But 
in this connection there is an analogy with the stock 
market in that there are but few who are fortunate 
enough, luck more than judgment entering into the mat- 
ter, to obtain the very highest ruling price during a 
season, because a market must be on the move one 
way or the other most of the time. When it stops going 
up it begins to come down, and it does not take much 
illustration to have a fruit grower to see that it is vastly 
easier to sell on a rising market than on a falling one. 

Produce the very best fruit your particular case 
warrants. Keep posted on general conditions, and local 
tendencies. Speculate as little as possible. Be honest 
yourself, and see to it that you only do business with 
those who are. I think that sums up the requirements 
on approaching the aim of the fruit grower. 



THE VINEYARD. 



Vines started in this way will have sound, healthy 
trunks, will be easy to prune and cultivate and al- 
SOME HINTS ON PRUNING YOUNG VINES. together more satisfactory and profitable than the ne- 

(By Prof. F. T. Bioletti of the University of California glected and abused cripples too often seen. A vine with 
Experiment Station.) a scarred, irregular trunk or several of them, leaning 

"The boy is father to the man." This is a truth to be out into the row or half reclining on the ground, is 
kept in view in all pruning of young vines. If a vine more costly to handle in every way and is subject to 
is properly trained during the first three or four years injuries that much deteriorate its value, 
of its life a great deal of trouble and dissatisfaction will Stakes. — The cost of stakes is a serious considera- 
be spared its owner in future years. tion, but will in most cases be more than repaid by 

For nearly all forms of vines suitable to California saving of work on the vines when they come into bear- 
conditions the treatment for the first three years is ing- For long pruned or trellised vines they are es- 
practically identical. A vine of any variety at three sential and are better put in the first or at latest the 
years should consist of a smooth, straight upright second year. 

stem crowned with several symetrically arranged spurs For short pruned vines they very much hasten and 
on arms. The variations will consist in the length of facilitate the proper shaping of the vine. Stakes for 
this stem and the number of arms. These will vary this purpose need not be long or heavy and are only 
according to the vigor of the variety, the richness of the required to last four or, at most, Ave years. At this 
soil and the style of pruning to be adopted ultimately. | age a properly trained vine can support itself. A stake 



For small bodied vines, such as Zinfandel, Burger, 
Gutsdel and Riesling, a stem eight to twelve inches sufficient 
high is usually sufficient. It requires more care and stakes, 
trouble to make the stem higher and the vine does not 
become independent of a stake as soon. 

Heavier growing varieties, such as Muscat, Mission, 



30 inches long and 1% inches in diameter is usually 
Redwood is the best material for these 



Suitable stakes for short-pruned vines can often be 
made from willow, poplar, pine saplings or other woods. 
All these woods require some treatment or they will 



Grenache and Rose of Peru, should have a stem from decay the first year. 

fifteen to eighteen inches high; and the most vigorous, A simple and effective method of treatment is to 
such as Tokay and Emperor, especially when grow- impregnate them with bluestone (copper sulphate.) This 
ing in rich soil, should be made still higher. Vines is done by placing the stakes as soon as made in a tube 
such as Sultanina which are to be trained on wires or containing a 10 per cent solution of bluestone. It is 
trellises should have a stem sufficiently high to bring j only necessary to have a few inches of one end of the 
the head or crown of spurs on a level with the lowest ; stake in the solution. In from ten to twenty hours the 
wire. solution penetrates every part of the wood and the blue- 

In order to bring a vine into the form indicated, the stone can be seen crystallizing on the upper end of 
following hints may be of use: the stake. 

First Year. — If a rooted vine is planted it should The stakes must be made and bluestoned as soon as 
have the good roots shortened to from 1 to 4 inches and I the wood is cut. If allowed to dry even partially it 
all injured parts removed completely. All the canes will take days or even weeks to thoroughly Impregnate 
but one should also be cut off close. The one left them, and it was done then only by completely sub- 



merging them in the solution. 

FREDERICK T. BIOLETTI 
Berkeley, Dec. 15, 1906. 



AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



should be strong and with good buds well placed. It 
there is any opportunity for choice the lowest and 
most upright should be left. This cane may be cut ! 
back to two buds before planting. It is better, how- 
ever, to defer this cutting back until later. In March, 
when the buds at the top have commenced to swell, 

is the best time. This is especially advisable when j AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA. 

grafted vines are planted, as the graft is less liable i n the coures of an address on horticultural education 
to injury during the period between planting and the at the University Short Course in Fresno, Professor E 
starting of growth. j. Wickson, Dean of the College of Agriculture, made 

It is well to stake rooted vines the first year, es | the following reference to the development of educa- 
pecially if they are planted in rich and moist soil where 1 Uonal effort on the Kearney estate, which will beccmie 
they will make a strong growth. When the shoots com- the porperty of the University of Ca'ifornia by the will 
mence to appear they should be thinned to one or two. f the late M. Theodore Kearney: 

and these tied loosely to the stake. If these shoots j \y e meet today near a site upon which one of the 
grow vigorously they should be nipped off at the height mos t unique and interesting agricultural institutions 
at which it is desired to make the head. This will : the world will ere long arise. The gift which will 
cause a growth of laterals which will form the com- provide it a home and an income la Californian in its 
mencement of the head. greatness and in its freedom from restriction; the in- 

If stakes are not used or if cuttings are planted this formal suggestions of the donor do, however, clearly 
thinning of the shoots or nipping of the tips should indicate a conception of an institution which shall be 
not be practiced. shaped by the urgent needs and the characteristic op- 

Second Year. — Sometime during December of the year portunities of its environment and dedicate it to the 
of planting, or in January, February or March the fol- 1 agricultural service of this grand natural division of 



lowing year, the first winter pruning takes place. Vines 
which have made a small growth should be thinned to 
one cane, which is then shortened to two buds and the 
treatment recommended for strong vines during the 

first year be adopted. 



the State— the San Joaquin valley. On this occasion 
It may be proper for me to speak, briefly, about what 
I conceive to be possible in the development of in 
Institution for agricultural education, research and ex- 
periment which shall best serve the prosperity of this 



Vines which have made good, vigorous, well ripened vast and rich district of the State and the manhood and 
canes should be thinned to the most nearly vertical of womanhood of the millions of people whom coming 
the good canes. This cane should be shortened to the j centuries will bring to it. 

length which it is desired to give the stem of the vine. It is becoming more clearly demonstrated each day 
This cane in fact constitutes the stem of the vine and that the outfit of California for agricultural research 
should be chosen and treated with great care. If ' and instruction will consist, first, of a central plant at 
there is no cane suitable in size or position the vine j Berkeley, where agriculture shall maintain itself cred- 
muBt be cut back to two buds and the starting of the itably among other applied sciences, taking its inspira- 
stem deferred until the next year. j tion and material of new truth trov.\ all the sources 

Vines which are cut back to two buds at this time [ thereof, which are to be found in the highest lines o! 
require careful attention during the following growing thought and inquiry which the University pursues. It 
season. If neglected they will send out thick vigorous will consist, second, of several closely related and cor- 
shoots flat on the ground which can never be raised related outposts, where all this new truth shall be em- 
up to form a straight stem. The tying up of the shoots i bodied in actual agricultural operations, which shall 
of such vines during the summer and nipping back to make it available to the people bv practical instruc- 
form the head are essential. tion and demonstration. Nothing less than this will 

Third Year. — In the winter following the second sea- satisfy the people of California. The legislature de- 
ton's growth every well-grown vine can be given from ckired it when it made an appropriation for a University 
two to four spurs. These spurs should consist of one 



or two buds according to their strength. Thin canes 



Farm and so closely described the characters it should 
embody. Mr. Kearney declared it when he gave this 



should be shortened to the base bud, spurs from normal grand property for an institution to bo devoted to agn- 
canes should have one bud more while exceptionally cultural experiment and instruction. The attitude of 
heavy canes should have two or even three buds, be- the people toward this subject should be carefully and 
sides that at the base. The spurs should be selected , conscientiously considered and wisely acted upon, 
so as to make the head as symetrical as possible and One phase alone of a complex problem will I speak 
should be as nearly as possible at the same height from i of now, but it is fundamental in the determination of 
the ground. the whole matter. The instruction should be distinctly 



January 12, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



23 



and distinguishingly along lines of. practical agricul- 
ture. It is not wise to duplicate the common and high 
schools of the State by the creation ot special schools 
which be made of common school c'oth with a fringe 
of technical studies. These may be good, and when 
such are wanted the school boards can provide them 
in accordance with their powers under the general 
school law. The conception of a school which actuated 
recent legislative appropriation and prompted Mr. 
Kearney's magnificent bequest, is entirely different. It 
was a conception of a special school of agriculture 
which shall enable people, either old oi young, to con- 
centrate their attention upon particular branches of agri- 
cultural instruction, presented in its most concrete and 
demonstrative form, for. longer or shorter periods as 
their inclinations and conditions dictated. Such a 
school is a place to learn to do certain things in the 
best possible manner, the result of ^hich would be to 
stimulate, direct and make more profitable individual 
industry, and, indirectly, to advance the quality of cit- 
izenship and general prosperity. Such an institution has 
no close connection with the general public school ef- 
fort; it is not an agricultural grammar school nor an 
agricultural high school, nor can it be secured by graft- 
ing upon such schools. Their stocks are not strong 
enough for such a scion; they cannot grow it to the 
height it should attain. The University is the only 
stock which can nourish it and develop it, because the 
University is the possessor of the science which the 
most advanced and successful practice is based upon. 
The biological sciences are the corner stone of the 
most successful and profitable agriculture; the applica- 
tion to the plant and to the animal of the truth dis- 
closed by those sciences is the only method of reach- 
ing greater success. 

The application of science which modifies and im- 
proves practice is not elementary science. This nat- 
urally is the form of science which can be grafted into 
the curricula of the higher grammar grades or of the 
high school, and enters into the training of the sci- 
entific agriculturalist. But the practical man, either 
young or old, with his livlihood and capital at stake, 
cannot wait for systematic instruction in science which 
must proceed from the elements upward. He must have 
the application of the latest and most advanced sci- 
ence even if he does not understand all the steps which 
lead to it. There is no repository of this advanced 
science except the University and it is the scope of the 
College of Agriculture not only to possess it but to 
make practical application of it. The man who wishes 
merely to know how to do better things in the shortest 
time, gets the demonstration in a form which he can 
appreciate and imitate. At the same time the system- 
atically trained student following regular University 
courses gets the demonstration and understands how 
it is to be theoretically accounted for. Therefore, both 
for the assistance of the student of agricultural 
practice and for the completion of the cost 
of the student of agricultural science, the same 
materials and objects are used and the same 
improved operations are gone through and in both cases 
it is the most advanced forms of agricultural science 
which must be shown in their application. For these 
reasons the conduct of such schools of the highest prac- 
tice must be entrusted to the University and for the 
rounding out and completion of University work in 
agriculture such schools of practice, situated so that 
they can be made representative of the best work under 
conditions characteristic of our chief agricultural re- 
gions, should be an integral part of the agricultural 
department of the University, as is contemplated in the 
law providing for the University Farm, and in the mem- 
oranda of Mr. Kearney, which accompanies his will 
giving his property to the University. 

The State will require a number of auxiliary insti- 
tutions of this character. Two of them are already pro- 
vided for and they are so situated that each is repre- 
sentative of a large and distinctive region, and so wide- 
ly separated that no interference is to be anticipated. 
Both should be built up and equipped as well and ex- 
peditiously as possible in accordance with what, on 
careful examination, seem to be the particular needs 
and opportunities of their respective districts, and their 
instruction made most clearly practical and available 
to all who desire it. 

Alopecurus, or Foxtail Grasses. — These grasses, al- 
though called foxtail, are not the foxtail so called in 
California, which are annual species of Hordeum, or 
the barley family. The seed of these alopecurus, or 
foxtail grasses, is much like a mesquit or velvet grass 
seed and geminates in twenty days. I had Alopecurus 
arundinacea A. pratensis (meadow foxtail), and A. 
agrostis. The arundinacea is perhaps the most prom- 
ising species for California as it seems more tolerant 
to drouth and is hardier against frost than is meadow 



foxtail. Both of the species are very permanent and 
are great in making a tough sod and would probably do 
well on land that is pretty wet in winter and moderate- 
ly dry in summer. They are good grasses and well 
worth experimenting with. Alopecurus agrostis made 
a poor showing. 

Hordeum Bulbosum. — Bulbous barley grass when in 
full head looks much like the grain rye. It is per- 
ennial but I don't see that it would on that account 
be of any advantage over ordinary barley for hay, and 
it does not make a grain full and plump like other bar- 
ley. There are two species of barley grass, or fox- 
tail, which are quite abundant in some parts of Hum- 
boldt county. In certain soils it does so well that it 
crowds all other grasses out. It is remarkable how 
quickly it will spring up, after a heavy rain in the fall, 
and where all was dry, in from ten to twelve days there 
will be fine green feed for the stock. As an annual 
winter grass it ranks among the best, but in the more 
mature state and when dry it is not generally consid- 
ered desirable. It thrives, but on a rich clay loam. 

Paspalum Dilatatum. — This grass, known generally 
as "large water grass," is in some respects a good grass, 
but that it will ever be successfully grown under con- 
ditions prevailing here, I very much doubt. Its good 
points are its strong root development and permanent 
character. It grows better in dry, hot weather than 
other well-known grasses. If it would only do some- 
thing in late fall and winter, I would look upon it with 
more favor. It does not get well started at its season's 
work until June, and then I suppose if we had a few 
inches of rain occasionally it would thrive well through- 
out the summer. It is likewise very tardy at germina- 
tion. The first plot of it I sowed showed very sparingly 
in forty days, and another plot I sowed last spring with 
fresh seed and everything favorable, failed to produce 
even a single plant. So I can't say that I am in the 
least encouraged with it, even though it is held in high 
esteem in Australia. 

Elymus. — Elymus canadensis, E>. triticoides and E. 
virginicum, seed of which was furnished me by the 
Agrostologist in Washington, are not of any marked 
value here, making spare winter growth and not satis- 
factory in summer. We have three wild types of Ely- 
mus in this county. One is of little value and another 
is somewhat better in quality and a third selection from 
near Cape Mendocino is a rather promising grass. When 
just about to head out it much resembles a much- 
stooled stalk of the grain rye. The heads of the species 
of Elymus somewhat resemble a head of grain rye, 
and the faults of the common species is its sparse leaf 
development and harsh straw. In this best selection 
the straw is of about the quality of grain rye straw. 
In common with the other species, it is resistant to 
drouth and frost and makes a fine winter growth. In 
fact, it ranks among the best in making an early and 
vigorous fall growth. It has a peculiarity in that after 
a crop of seed has been cut, it may not show any blade 
of green for two or three months, and then with the 
first rain of any consequence it will send up new blades 
from the base of the dry stubble. In this character it 
is distinctly Californian. It knows how to rest when it 
is too dry to do anything else', and to grow in the wet 
season, and that is more than I can say of many desert 
grasses. Its greatest fault, I have observed so far, is 
that it is slow to take hold for some time after ger- 1 
mination, much slower in this regard than the other two 
types of this species. 

(To be continued.) 



SYLVICULTURE. 



THE CASUAR1NA COM M ENDED FOR A TRYING 
SITUATION. 

To the Editor: I read an enquiry from one of your 
subscribers in last week's Rural Press, signed "Farmer," 
Littlerock, and for his information I would recommend 
the Casuarina. This tree has proved wonderfully suc- 
cessful in California. I have tried it in various situa- 
tions in this State and have always found it most sat- 
isfactory, and for a windbreak on the edge of the Mo- 
jave desert, I think it would be just what "Farmer" is 
in need of. 

The Casuarina are all mostly natives of Australia. It 
is commonly known there by the names of "Beef Wood 
Tree of Australia" and "She Oak." It resembles some- 
what a pine tree, though not of that family. It is 
of extremely rapid growth. I planted four hundred 
trees in nursery rows last April, small trees from seed 
box, and today they are all 4 to 5 feet high, without a 
drop of water, only cultivation. They grow very bushy 
and stand trimming very well; the more you trim them 
the bushier they get. These trees I have in mind were 
planted in one of the hot valley sections. With irri- 
gation, in the Antelope valloy, I have no doubt but 



that the Casuarina would make a growth of eight fet i 
in one season. The wind would not affect it, as I have 
seen it growing in the Golden Gate Park, San Fran- 
cisco. 

"Farmer" would do well to plant the Casuarina for 
I the purpose designated. Any further information I 
can give on the subject I will be pleased' to give. The 
wood is very hard and, I understand, in Australia, was 
used extensively for many mechanical purposes. It 
gets its name from the resemblance of its foliage to the 
plumage of the Casowary, a native bird of Australia. 

JOHN VALLANCE. 

Oakland, Cal. 

[This is very interesting. Our observation approves 
the points made. The Casuarinas are becoming rather 
widely known in California and are destined to be 
very prominent. It should be tried in all situations, so 
that its range may be determined. — ED.] 



SHEEP AND WOOL. 



THOSE PEA-FED LAMBS. 

Months ago we gave an account of pea growing for 
sheep feeding in San Luis Valley, Colorado, and we 
know that several California growers took up field 
pea growing for stock feeding on the basis of success 
in Colorado. We are anxious to hear their conclusions. 
Meantime more about pea growing in Colorado is inter- 
esting and we find a few good paragraphs in Mr. J. 
E. Wing's correspondence in the Breeder's Gazette. It 
gives a better idea of the weather conditions prevailing 
and the use made of the peas. 

The San Luis valley is a level plain from 7000 to 
8000 feet above the sea. That is about as high as suc- 
cessful farming is done in America. The soil is very 
rich. A few things grow, and grow exceedingly well. 
Corn will not do, nor alfalfa as a general thing. It 
winter kills sometimes. Wheat yields tremendously, 
but too many successive crops of wheat deplete the 
soil. That is why these people tried peas. The Mexi- 
cans have long grown peas of a type resembling the 
Canadian field-peas. These were first sown on a large 
scale to benefit the soil. Then a little bunch of lambs 
was allowed to eat the peas when ripe, right where 
they grew. To the astonishment of the owners the 
lambs got very fat and sold well. Then more lambs 
were fed on peas and soon very great numbers were 
put on feed. At first the method was simply to grow 
the peas mixed somewhat with oats, let them mature 
and turn in the lambs. It was thought that here would 
come no storms, no snow. Last winter srorms came, 
and there were too many lambs for the acreage of 
peas. They did not get as fat as usual, and when 
shipped out did not take kindly to alfalfa and corn. 

Peas are exceedingly delicious feed and very good 
for making growth and putting on fat. They are 
extremely rich in protein and make the best lamb 
mutton in the world. This season there have already 
come two snowstorms, one of them a deep one. It 
melted away, but damaged the peas somewhat. Now 
there is discussion of better methods of managing the 
peas. They are already raking and cocking them, and 
that pays well. But peas grow sometimes six feet 
long or more in this rich soil, an J they are hard to 
cut for they become a tangled mass. They are now 
seeking to find a practicable method of harvesting the 
peas. The lambs simply eat them from the cocks, in 
charge of a man and dog. He corrals them at night. 
The lambs roam at will and run and play. That takes 
off a good deal of their fat and they require much 
more feed to make a given amount of gain than they 
do when fed in close yards on hay and grain, so I am 
told, and it seems rather probable. But the expense 
here is ridiculously small — no yards, no sheds, no 
threshing grain, no stacking hay. And the peas enrich 
the soil mightily. They are now seeking a pea that 
will produce more grain and less vine. They think that 
one of Prof. Olin's new varieties will do this. 

But peas are not all that can be grown; barley and 
oats are wonderful crops here. They are threshed and 
may be fed. And hogs do finely on peas, better than on 
any other feed, and hogs fed on peas and barley make 
the best bacon in the world. Prof. H. M. Cottrell says 
that from 400 to 600 pounds of pork may be made from 
an acre of peas here. The hog business now is not 
well done. There is grievous lack of method; there is 
little shelter and little care. Carlots of pigs are gath- 
ered up in northern Colorado and shipped in here and 
some men have made good profits in feeding them on 
peas, much as lambs are fed. Of course, the hogs eat 
little or nothing of the vines. 



24 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 12, 1907 



THE MARKETS 



Wheat. 

The holiday season is still having its effect on the 
trade and there is very little movement. The demand 
is a little better and prices are firm. This may be 
partly due to the figures of the Merchants' Exchange, 
issued a few weeks ago, which seems to indicate a 
shortage of wheat in California before the next crop 
comes in. The chief grain inspector of the Exchange 
has just issued figures showing that on January 1 there 
were on hand in Call Board warehouses. 39,886 tons 
of wheat, of which only 243 tons were in San Fran- 
cisco and Oakland. There were 23,359 tons at Port 
Costa and 16,284 at Stockton. The total shows a de- 
crease of 29,720 tons from the amount on hand January 
1, 1906. The wheat receipts at this port for Decem- 
ber were only 5614 tons. The figures of the Agricult- 
ural Department for 1906 credit the United States with 
a total wheat yield of 735,260,970 bushels produced 
on an estimated area of 47,283,929 acres. This with 
the single exception of 1901, when on an acreage of 
49,895,514, there were produced 748,400,218 bushels, is 
the largest crop ever raised. Advices from Stockton 
say that the wheat crop in San Joaquin valley will 
probably be light next season. A big yield to the acre 
is expected, but the acreage will necessarily be smaller 
than usual, for it is very probable that there will be 
little more seeding to wheat this season. The storm 
has so thoroughly soaked the ground that unplanted 
soil will not be in condition to plow within six weeks. 
As about all of the wheat seeding has to be done in 
the valley before January 10, it is almost certain that 
only the land already planted will produce wheat this 
coming season. The dullness prevailing in foreign mar- 
kets for some weeks past has effected coast markets 
and no new engagements have been entered into. 
There are a number of vessels in the Columbia river 
and on Puget Sound free waiting for charters, and in- 
dications point to very few new charters, unless some 
incentive is shown by foreign buyers. Liberal ship- 
ments have been made to Northern ports during the 
past week, and chartered tonnage is rapidly being 
loaded and sent to sea. 

Flcur. 

Flour seems to be a little scarce and the market 
has firmed up to a certain extent. A number of orders 
have been sent North and several considerable ship- 
ments are coming down by water. Exporting from 
San Francisco is still confined to small shipments to 
Central America, but a good business is beng done witn 
the Orient by Northern millers. With the reduction 
in rates on flour to various Oriental ports after Janu- 
ary 1 there should be a revival in trade, such as was 
witnessed here a few years ago, when the rates were 
cut by the leading steamship lines. The new freight 
rates are $4.50 to Shanghai and Hong Kong, and $4.00 
to Japanese ports. This should create a good busi- 
ness for delivery after March 1, and keep the mills in | 
operation until June of the coming year. So far the 
principal demand is from china ports, but indications 
point to a revival of orders from Japan at an early date, 
and the principal millers claim that inquiries are re- 
ceived daily as to further delivery and price. 

Barley. 

About the only change that can be noted in the local 
market for barley is a stronger demand for feed qual- 
ity. The receipts coming in have fallen again, but 
dealers here claim that they have plenty on hand to 
meet this demand. Buyers are willing to purchase at 
advanced quotations and sellers who are willing to 
meet the market prices can find plenty of buyers at 
all times to take up their offerings. Of course, the 
light movement has much to do with the strong demand. 
The agitation over the car question has so far failed 
to "loosen up" the grain in the country. The stocks 
on hand in Call Board warehouses on January 1 
amounted to 39,650 tons, distributed as follows: San 
Francisco and Oakland, 1275 tons; Port Costa, 25,136 
tons, and Stockton, 1275 tons. Last year at the same 
date there were on hand 29,707 tons, showing a gain 
for this year of 9,943 tons. 

Millstuffs. 

Millstuffs are generally steady and mills have no 
difficulty in placing their entire output. Some handlers 
say that the continued rains, by stimulating the new 
green feed, are weakening the market, but others find 
it as firm as ever. The feed is said to lack strength 
thus far, owing to the prolonged cold weather. Stocks 
of bran in regular warehouses on the wharf January 1 
were 140 tons, against 117 tons December 1. The re- 
ceipts in December were 841 tons. 



Oats. 

Stocks in regular warehouses and on wharf January 
1 were 708 tons, against 742 tons December 1. The 
receipts were 3812 tons. Dealers continue to report 
a very firm market with a good average demand for 
all descriptions at the following prices: Good to 
choice red, for feed, $1.40 to $1.50; common to fair, 
$1.30 to $1.37%; red, for seed, $1.50 to $1.65; white, 
$1.42^ to $1.65; black, $1.50 to $2.25; gray, $1.42y 2 
to $1.50 per cental. San Francisco and other points 
in California are now drawing on Northern sources for 
oats. Shipments going South from Portland are on 
the increase daily, and it woul 1 not be surprising to see 
heavier shipments made. Buyers here are willing to 
pay the market price, and even an advance over quoted 
prices to secure choice oats. 

Corn. 

Stocks in regular warehouses and on wharf January 
1 were 110 tons, against 100 tons December 1. Re- 
ceipts in December were 272 tons. These very small 
quantities fully illustrate the lack of trade in the local 
market at present. When the feed mills get rebuilt 
the movement will probably work back to the propor- 
tions existing before the fire. Prices are fairly firm at 
the following figures: California small round yellow, 
$1.55 asked; other California kinds, nominal; Western 
State, sacked, yellow, $1.30 to $1.35; white, $1.30 to 
$1.35; mixed, $1.27%; white, Egyptian. $1.25; brown 
Egyptian, $1.12% to $1.15. 

Beans. 

The bean market is quiet again this week, owing 
probably to the holidays. Stocks on January 1 
were practically the same as on December 1, being 
195,592 sacks, as against 108,254 sacks on December 1. 
The receipts for December were 52,615 sacks from which 
it appears that the December sales were about 50.000 
sacks. 

Bags. 

The grain bag market is unusually stiff for this sea- 
son of the year. Bags are selling wholesale at 9 cents 
for June and July deliveries and it is probable that 
the market will advance, especially if the outlook for 
a big crop continues favorable. 

Wool. 

Little interest is taken iu wool locally. Holders of 
any considerable quantity are watching Boston ana 
other Eastern markets. As a general rule, Pacific 
Coast wools are being quite well received in the con- 
suming markets. On the Boston market some good 
business has been done in California wools, particularly 
in middle counties' wool, which is selling at 22 cents and 

23 cents, the scoured basis being about 65 cents. Ore- 
gon wools are not so active at Boston as they were, 
but they are receiving some attention at 23 cents and 

24 cents. 

Hops. 

The hop market seems to be looking up, with great- 
er activity both here and in Oregon. One of the largest 
California sales of the season occurred at Santa Rosa 
some days ago, when 846 bales changed hands. The 
price is given out as a little better than 12 cents, 
which seems a little low for the present situation. 
Oregon buyers are offering as high as 15% cents, with 
no sellers and it is understood that 14% cents has been 
refused for choice Sonomas. Reports of the coast out- 
put place the California yield at 105,000 bales, an in- 
crease of 32,000 bales over last year; the Oregon yield 
at 125,000 bales, an increase of 10,000 bales; and the 
Washington output at 45,000 bales, a decrease of 5.000 
bales. 

Hay. 

The arrivals of hay for last week were 2974 tons, this 
being a little less than for the week previous. A larger 
percentage of the receipts were by rail than usual, 
though the rail shipments have again fallen off at the 
end of the week. The storms have interefered with 
water arrivals and the market continues strong. All 
grades of hay have been selling well, notwithstanding 
the general upsetting of business by the holidays and 
the rains. Alfalfa is strong, but as there is but little 
coming in here, the principal business is in the coun- 
try. Straw is scarce and Is now selling as high as 80 
cents for the best. 

Butter. 

During a portion of the week trading was rather light, 
partly on account of the rains and partly because of 
light stock. Nevertheless all really fine stock is very 
firm and receipts pass out of first hands about as soon 
as they are put on sale. As usual, there Is not enough 
of the best grades to go round. 

Eggs. 

The market in eggs has been a little unsettled this 
week. For a time it looked as though even the small 
supply was rather more than enough for the demand 



at the extreme prices and probably there would have 
been a drop in selected had it not been for the fact 
. the best grades of storage goods became scarce 
and the market became almost entirely dependent 
; on fresh goods once more. This quickly stiffened up the 
market, which is now very firm. 

Cheese. 

The cneese supply is rather larger and the market 
for California stock is somewhat easier. Eastern goods 
are as scarce and as firm as ever. 

Poultry. 

Poultry has been very scarce all week and the com- 
paratively light receipts have sold readily at the rul- 
ing figures, notwithstanding the arrival of several cars 
i of fine Eastern stock. The Eastern stock, which con- 
I sisted largely of large young stock sold readily at $7.00 
I The scarcity of poultry has caused a brisk demand for 
game, which is not in very large supply, either. 
Potatoes. 

The potato market is very active. Transactions arc 
quite large, though the arrivals are far below the 
amount that could be absorbed. The scarcity of cars 
is a factor in the market as considerable shipments 
are known to be held back on this account. River 
Bwrbanks are coming in to a certain extent but not 
in large enough quantities to satisfy the demand. 
Vegetables. 

The onion market is firm, with good yellows now sell- 
ing at from 75 cents to $1.00. Most dealers seem to 
expect onions to go still higher. Arrivals of the gen- 
eral run of vegetables have been plentiful, but are 
generally more or less damaged by frost and in poor 
condition. Prices are not very easy to fix, as the range 
is wide, owing to the varying quality of the stock. 
String beans, for example, have been selling all the way 
from 8 cents to 25 cents. 

Fresh Fruits. 

The only fruits now quoted are apples and pears. 
Eoth are in plentiful supply, and the market can be 
considered a little weaker now than it was a week ago. 
Apples are especially plentiful and are hard to sell. 
A carload came in from Hood River, Oregon, and this 
has added to the Large stocks on hand. However, con- 
ditions may improve considerably with better weather, 
as the rains have deterred buyers to a large extent. 
Dried Fruits. 

Trading in all lines of dried fruits continues dull 
with very little indication of any great activity for 
some time to come. Everything is. however, very firm 
and an advancing tendency will probably be manifest 
on the appearance of the first buying demand- Largj 
sizes of prunes are very scarce, and these are bringing 
a premium of from 1 cent to 2% cents over the medium 
grades. All prunes are very firm, and, according to 
Eastern advices, may be expected to go to & 3%-cent 
basis soon. 

Citrus Fruits. 

Citrus fruits have been in free supply all week and 
prices are easier at the old quotations, except as to 
lemons, which are qnite firm. A good volume of busi- 
ness in oranges has been done at times- during the 
week, but stocks on hand still over balance the demand 



Wife — Baft:! Telt me any great or henric action you 
ever performed in your life! 

Husband — I prevented you from dying an old maid, 
diln't I? Isn't that enough? 



Gentleman — What is the reason you charge twice 
as much for my cuffs as you did formerly? 

Washerwoman — Because you have begun making pen- 
cil notes on them. 

Gentleman — What difference does that make? 

Washerwoman — The girls waste so much tim<j trying 
to make them out 



"Listen to this, Maria." said Mr. Stubb as he un- 
folded his scientific paper. "This article states that 
in some of the old Roman prisons that have been 
unearthed they found the petrified remains of the pris- 
oners." "Gracious, John!" replied Mrs. Stubb, with a 
smile. "I suppose you would call them hardened crim- 
inals." 



Jerrold — I can't get any speed out of that motor 
car you sold me. You told me you had been arrested 
six times in it. 

Hobart — So I was. old chap. For obstructing the 
highway. 



Wedderly — That milliner of yours must be a bird. 
Mrs. Wedderly — Nonsense! She has neither wings 
nor feathers. 
Wedderly — Yes; but just look at this bill of hers. 



January 12, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



25 




SIMPLEGBTY 



STRENGTH 



& A cream separator that is worth buying 
must give loi\fj service. To do that, it 
must be built strong and the construc- 
tion must be simple. To have simple 
construction in a separator you must 
have a Sharpies Tubular. There is no 
other cream separator made that will 
perform its work so well for so long a 
time as the Tubular because there is 
no other separator so strongly built, or so simple in construction. 

Sharpies Tubular 
Cream Separators 

get all the cream, have low supply can, 
are easy to run, easy to clean, because 
there is only one little piece in the bowl 
to cleanse after each running, and the 
machine oils itself. It combines Util- 
ity, Simplicity and Durability. A glance 
at the pie-plate construction of most 
separators will give you a fair idea of 
what we mean by "simple construe 
tion" and "strength." For full in 
formation about the Sharpies Tu 
bular write for booklet E. 131 



Mr. R. Carpenter, Davenport, Wash., says "Having used a Sharp- 
ies Cream Separator over sixteen years can say it is just fine." 



THE SHARPLES SEPARATOR CO. 

Toronto, Can. WEST CHESTER, PA. 




Phloago, III. 



Fannys Prosperity 
OREIAM SEPARATORS 

There was never before a time in the history of the country when the 
average American farmer had such big crops worth such good prices as he 
has this year. 

There isn't a farmer anywhere who has use for one who can not afford 
to buy himself a 

DE LAVAL CREAM SEPARATOR 

now and do it right away, and there isn't a farmer anywhere having use 
for a separator who really can afford not to do so. 

Its use means more and better cream and butter, with less work and 
trouble for everybody — it means profit, comfort and satisfaction. 

If you already have a "cheap" or inferior separator, "trade it in" for 
what it's worth and replace it with a DE LAVAL. 

Put some of your prosperity into the most profitable farming invest- 
ment ever made-— of which a De Laval catalogue, to be had for the asking, 
must convince you. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO., General Agents. 
309 Twelfth St., 107 First St., 123 North Main St., 1017 Post St., 

Oskland, Cal. Portland, Ore. Los Angeles, Cal. Seattle, Wash. 



THE DAIRY. 



DAIRY EDUCATION 

By Prof. E. W. Major, of the University 
of California, at the Creamery Opera- 
tors' Convention at Stockton. 
In the discussion of this subject I have 
for convenience, divided it into two 
parts; first, the education of the milk 
producer; secondly, the education of the 
manufacturer of dairy products. While 
this association might, at first thought, 
be considered as more interested in the 
second part of the subject, yet I believe 
the first to be, if anything, the more im- 
portant. The dairy farmer will, as far as 
numbers is concerned, be always far 
ahead of the creamery man. For various 
reasons, too, he is generally In greater 
need of dairy education and, if we con- 
sider the quality of our dairy products, 
we must admit that he has about as 
great an influence as has the manufact- 
urer. By educating the patron to a bet- 
ter knowledge of dairy practice — selec- 
tion, breeding, feeding, and care of 
live stock — ■ we shall enable him not 
only to make more money from his 
herd, but also to find greater pleasure 
in the work, and this is an important 
consideration. 

In advanced dairy farming we have no 
slack season, the work demands constant 
attention, Sundays and holidays as well 
as on week days. In order, therefore, 
to make the work agreeable to the farm- 
er, and particularly to the farmer's boys, 
we must show them the possibilities in 
the work, the pleasure that comes from 
handling good stock, not only in greater 
returns, but also in the owning of sup- 
erior animals. Wherever you see a man 
going in for that which is better, as a 
rule, you will find a better home, better 
farm buildings, and boys who realize the 
possibilities in farm life and are con- 
tent to remain there. 

In an address before the Minnesota 
Dairymen's Association some time ago. 
Prof. Haecker stated that the greatest 
need at the present time was not so 
much better cows as better dairy- 
men. He illustrated this by giv- 
ing some of the records obtained 
at the Experiment Station with 
common cows; showing how by good 
care and intelligent feeding the yield 
of butter per year could be nearly 
doubled. If we could so educate the Cali- 
fornia dairyman that he could increase 
the yield of his cows even ten per cent 
by care and feeding, and then add to 
this the great improvement that can be 
made by selection and breeding, the gain 
to the industry would be enormous. By 
teaching him how to handle and care for 
his milk and cream we shall help the 
maker to produce a better article of but- 
ter or cheese. The value of a dairy edu- 
cation to any one engaged in dairy farm- 
ing would be so generally admitted by 
the members of this Association that I 
shall not take time to dwell further on 
that phase of the subject. Rather would 
I consider the various means whereby 
we may assure this education to our pa- 
trons. 

Agricultural education in this country 
may be said to have started in the land- 
grant colleges, and so we have today the 
agricultural college as a means of edu- 
cating the dairyman. The great ma- 
jority of dairymen, however, have neither 
the time nor the inclination to enable 
them to attend college for four years. 
For this reason many of the colleges have 
started agricultural high schools, short 
courses and other methods that would 
enable them to get in touch with the 
man and boy on the farm. Whenever 
these schools and courses have been 
commenced on a proper basis they have 
been a great success. As the farmer saw 
the object of the institution was a desire 



to instill a greater love for farm life and 
saw that the teachers were men who 
thoroughly understood the subjects 
taught, they gave the schools their 
strong support and gave it in the best 
way — by attending them. In order to 
secure good results in these schools it 
is important that we should have good 
equipment and good instructors. With- 
out a thorough equipment in live stock 
it is impossible to teach students how to 
select dairy cattle, hogs or any other 
class of farm animals. Equipment is 
needed, too, for experiment work so that 
some of the problems that confront the 
dairyman may be solved. In the courses 
designed primarily for the milk pro- 
ducer, we should aim to secure a large 
attendance. Everyone who is working 
with milk cows or intends to take up 
the work should be induced to attend. 
Entrance requirements should be reduc- 
ed to the lowest point so that practic- 
ally no one is prevented from attending 
and securing as much information as 
possible. While the schools and courses 
mentioned are intended more particularly 
for the milk producer, yet the maker 
can to advantage learn much about the 
selection and handling of cattle that will 
be of value to him when he takes charge 
of a factory. At this point I might em- 
phasize the power the butter or cheese 
maker has as an educator of his patrons. 
In many cases he comes in contact with 
them daily and so learns to know their 
conditions. A friendly relationship ought 
to exist and the creameryman or cheese- 
maker is then in a position to offer much 
valuable advice and help in regard to the 
herds and the farm generally, if he has 
given the subject some thought and 
study. 

There are, however, a large number of 
dairymen who will not attend such insti- 
tutions. Some, because they do not feel 
able to leave their farms for the re- 
quired time, and others because, perhaps, 
they have never heard of such a place, 
or, having heard, they do not appreciate 
its value to them. These men must be 
reached by other methods, and we have 
Farmers' Institutes and special dairy 
meetings for this purpose. However 
much these may do they fail in reaching 
a large number of dairymen and this 
last class must be reached by sending 
instructors to their homes. Most of the 
States are doing something along this 
line at the present time, either through 
State Dairy Boards or else by means of 
traveling instructors who are appointed 
by the college. Whatever method is 
employed, I believe it is most important 
that police work, or inspection should 
be kept separate from instruction. Now 
by this I do not of necessity mean that 
the management should be separated, 
but different men should be employed 
in the work. The inspector must travel 
rapidly over his district in order to see 
that the laws are enforced. The instruc- 
tor should take more time and could to 
advantage spend as much time in one 
section of a county as the inspector 
spends over his entire district. Of course, 
it is not possible to absolutely divide the 
two lines of work. Inspecting and en- 
forcing the law will open the eyes of the 
dairymen to the importance of better 
methods and will thus open the way for 
the instructor who comes along to show 
him how. I believe, too, that the fact 
that the dairy instructor has nothing to 
do with police work will put him in a 
better light with the farmer and make 
his work more effective. 

In connection with the work of these 
traveling instructors, circulars of infor- 
mation could be issued covering such 
subjects as selection of dairy cattle — a 
study of the different breeds — the feed- 
ing of cows and calves — how to breed 
up the herd — care of milk and cream 
on the farm and several others that will 



suggest themselves to you. Perhaps you 
will say that such publications have al- 
re'ady been issued, but the answer to that 
is, that nothing has been done that will 
cover California conditions. Then, too, 
the traveling instructor could take such 
publications with him and secure the in- 
terest of the dairymen where, at the 
present time, few will go to the trouble 
to sit down and write to Washington or 
to the Experiment Station asking for 
publications. 

Dairy associations and the dairy press 
will always be important factors in the 
education of dairymen. 

The second part of my subject — the 
education of the manufacturer of dairy 
products — -is attended to in our dairy 
schools. 

When instruction in agriculture was 
first offered, the courses were generally 
divided between two Professors — the 
Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and 
the Professor of Agriculture. The de- 
mand for special instruction in dairying, 
and the fact that a revolution in methods 
was taking place — new machinery, 
cream ripening, paying for milk on a but- 
ter-fat basis, and so a need of instruction 
in milk testing — necessitated men as in- 
structors who were thoroughly convers- 
ant with all these new methods. So we 
find that dairy husbandry was practically 
the first line of agricultural education 



to be segregated and organized as a sep- 
arate department. With this segregation 
came the establishment of dairy schools. 
As far as the terms of these schools are 
concerned, we find great differences. 
Some schools (as in Minnesota) have 
short terms of four weeks; others run 
the entire year around, with a special 
short term of from four to twelve weeks. 
In most of these schools, where the aim 
has been to make the instruction as 
practical as possible, instructors are 
chosen from the most successful butter- 
makers and cheesemakers in the States 
and the student has been taught by being 
made to do the work. I believe there is 
one place where the dairy schools differ 
from the agricultural schools and short 
courses for the milk producer, and that 
is in the matter of attendance. I do not 

(Continued on Page 29* 



THE SEPARATOR NEWS. 



Thla is a big paper, handsomely illus- 
trated in colors, entirely devoted to the 
success, prosperity and protection of sepa- 
rator purchasers. Every issue brimful of 
special [lustrations and information — what 
might bo called inside facts — that will help 
you to decide whether a cream separator 
will pay you, how large a separator you 
should have and how to care for a cream 
separator so as to get the most out of it. 
In fact, a whole paper devoted to cream 
separator news. Would you like to re- 
ceive every future issue — without a cent 
of expense to you? Then write the pub- 
lishers, The Sharpies Separator Co., of 
West Chester, Pa., asking them to put your 
name on their mailing list. But don't for- 
get to mention that you saw this offer in 
The Pacific Rural Press. 



26 



PACIFIC kURAL PRESS 



January 12, 1907 



HOME CIRCLE 



THE COUNTRY EDITOR. 



He is the hardest worked of men, 

A busy chap is he; 
He wields the hatchet or the pen 

With great felicity. 

He chronicles that "Bessie Brown 
Was married to William Goods," 

Then to the woodpile hustles down 
And splits a lot of wood. 

He writes two columns of advice 

To cure the people's ills, 
Then dons his apron in a trice 

And prints a hundred bills. 

And if some callers then there are, 

His inky hands he'll wash, 
And trade a year's subscription for 

A pumpkin or a squash. 

• 

He s-tates "Hi Higgins is in town 

Upon a load of rye" — 
And takes the upper cases down 

And fixes up the "pi." 

And when the "pi" is straightened out, 

The furniture he dusts — 
Then sets a £>tick or two about 

The tariff and the trusts. 

His paper cheers us every week — 

It does what'er it can 
To keep the mud off Freedom's peak 

And save the rights of man. 

So come ye freemen of this land, 

And let's be thankful for 
This bulwark of the Nation 

The country editor! 

—Toronto World. 



IN CEYLON. 



The little clubhouse of the Lantana 
district of Ceylon presented an animated 
scene. It was "Teevali," and all the 
Tamil coolies on the surrounding tea 
estates were busily engaged in celebrat- 
ing their great festival, as was evidenced 
by the incessant tom-toming which arose 
from their lines of huts, and the thriv- 
ing trade which the keeper of the arrack 
tavern was doing. 

Their English masters, with their wives 
and sisters and cousins, were gathered 
at the district clubhouse for the little 
gymkhana meet which is inevitable on 
such occasions. 

Lantana is one of the scattered dis- 
tricts of Ceylon, and the residents, who 
only see each other at rare intervals, 
welcome such opportunities with un- 
feigned delight. Some of them lived 
twenty miles from the club, but distance 
did not deter them, and all the morning 
they had been pouring in, some on horse- 
back, some in little trotting bullock hack- 
eries, and others in 'rickshaws drawn by 
coolies, who looked forward to a liberal 
"santosum" for working on their holiday. 

The club secretary was a harrassed 
man that morning, for there were a 
thousand and one little details to be ar- 
ranged, while the weather was far from 
promising. It was nearing the time when 
the northeast monsoon was due to burst, 
and many an anxious glance did he cast 
at the clouds, which from time to time 
swallowed up the summits of the great 
hills encircling the little valley. 

As he hurried past the tennis court he 
caught sight of a girl who had just rid- 
den up and was standing by her horse's 
head waiting for her horsekeeper. 
"Good morning, Miss Moore," he said, 
as he approached. "Come and let me in- 
troduce you to your partner in the tennis 
tournament. We have just finished the 
draw. Ah, here is the very man," he 
continued, beckonging to a tall man who 



was passing. "Miss Moore — Major Brad- 
shaw." , 

The girl stared aghast for a moment, 
but quickly recovered herself, though 
the warm flush which rose to her cheek 
betrayed her attitude of sangfroid. "Oh, 
you have met before," said the secretary, 
catching the look. "So much the bet- 
ter. I must be off. Hope the weather 
will keep up." 

He hurried off and left the two togeth- 
er. When two young people have been 
engaged and have decided to break it 
off, subsequent meetings are apt to prove 
a little awkward, even after a lapse of 
such a long period of time as five years. 

A faint reddening under the deep tan 
of his skin showed that Bradshaw also 
found the situation a little trying, but 
he smiled frankly as he raised his hat. 
"How do you do?" he said. "I didn't 
know you were in Ceylon." The girl 
laughed. 

"And I was equally ignorant with re- 
gard to you," she said. "I am staying 
with my cousin, Mrs. Deare, whose hus- 
band is a planter on Gangoya estate. 
This is the explanation of my presence 
here." 

"I am staying with Jones on Parmet- 
tia," said Bradshaw, "only a couple of 
miles from Gangoya. Funny I hadn't 
heard you were here. Every one knows 
all about every one else here, but I only 
arrived two days ago, so perhaps that 
explains it." 

The girl felt that the situation was de- 
cidedly awkward. Five years ago, in 
Southsea, she had met young Bradshaw, 
then a subaltern, and after a short ac- 
quaintance they had become engaged. 
She was in her first season, and at 
eighteen life is not a serious problem. 
He was arbitrary and self confident and 
resented what he was pleased to call her 
flirtations with other men, so the quar- 
rel came and the engagement was broken 
off. It was a little embarrasing to meet 
again suddenly like this, but she must 
make the best of it. 

"I hope the rain will keep off," she 
said, taking refuge in that excellent sub- 
ject, the weather. 

"Yes," he replied; " we shan't get much 
tennis if it rains. I am afraid you have 
been unlucky in the draw, for my tennis 
has not improved. 

She stole a glance at him, and found 
his gaze fixed steadily on her. 

"Your regiment is stationed in India, 
isn't it?" she asked. 

"Yes," he said. "I am here on three 
months' sick leave. Had a slight go of 
enteric, and the doctors thought it wasn't 
bad enough to send me home, so I came 
here to pick up after it. Jones is an 
old school friend of mine, and asked me 
to stay with him." 

"I see they are starting play," she said. 
"I must get ready, else we shall get into 
trouble." 

She tripped off to the clubhouse, and 
soon reappeared in a short white skirt 
and tennis shoes. 

The clouds drifted slowly away, and 
the glaring hot sun poured down on che 
little gathering, but the couples, undis- 
mayed by the heat, played tennis vigor- 
ously. Major Bradshaw had evidently 
not overstated the case when he belit- 
tled his powers as a tennis player for 
he and his partner succumbed ignomin- 
iously to couple after couple in the tour- 
nament. 

Miss Moore did not seem to take her 
want to success or the shortcomings of 
her partner very much to heart. On the 
contrary, after the first feeling of awk- 
wardness had worn off, she appeared to 
be enjoying herself immensely, while 
Bradshaw, on his part, threw of the 
slightly nonchalant manner which he had 
at first assumed and became quite vi- 



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Perhaps it was not quite by coincidence 
that they sat next each other at the sub- 
stantial midday breakfast. 

He had improved, she thought. Hard 
lines had taken away the full freshness of 
boyhood from his face, and his hair was a 
little scanty over the temples, but the 
expression had changed for the better. 
The old firmness of will was still strong- 
ly marked, but he was quieter and less 
insistent. 

The years which brought him advance- 
ment in his profession, a brevet majority 
and the D. S. O., had evidently taught 
him that the world could not be moulded 
to his wish. It was with a feeling of re- 
gretful surprise that she realized the 
happy day was over, and it was time to 
go home again. 

As she emerged from the clubhouse 
in boots and habit once more, she found 
him waiting, and advanced to bid him 
goodby. 

"I am coming with you," he said, 
smiling. "Mrs. Deare has had to go on, 
and she asked me to see you safely home 
as it is on my way." 

"It is very kind of you," she said, a 
little shyly. 

"No, not that," he said, as he lifted 
her to the saddle. 

Slowly they mounted higher and high- 
er by the narrow zjgzag path leading to 
the gap whence they would descend to 
the bungalow on the other side of the 
hills. The sun had dipped out of sight 
over the misty hills across the valley, 
and the great clouds came scurrying out 
of the northeast, driven onward by the 
rising wind. The darkness came swiftly 
over them as they climbed the hillside, 
and the valley, far below, with the little 
clubhouse and tennis courts, was swept 
out of sight by the driving mist. 

"I am afraid we are going to have a i 
storm," said Bradshaw at last. "Jones 
promised to have a coolie with a lantern 
at the gap to light us down the other 
side. It's ticklish work riding down the 
side of a mountain in the dark by these 
estate tracks. I hope you are not ner- 
vous, Miss Moore?" 

"Not in the least," she said. "I have 
done this lots of times before, and I shan't 
mind getting wet. Here it comes," she 
continued, as the first heavy drops of the 
storm splashed down on them. 

The rain came down in sheets and 
drove against them as the horses scram- 
bled slowly up the slope. In a minute 
they were wet to the skin. As they near- 
ed the top they plunged into the forest 
of trees, and the path was hidden by the 
darkness. 

At last a faint glimmer of light in the 
distance showed that the promised coolie 
was at his post with the lantern, and in 
obedience to a shouted command from 
Bradshaw the girl gave her horse his 



head, and let him pick his own way after 
the other. Gradually the noise increased, 
and the pelting sheets of rain became 
heavier, till the flickering light proved 
unable to withstand their onslaught, and 
went out suddenly. 

Bradshaw shouted something to the 
coolie, but the man, with the stupidity of 
his race, jumped to the conclusion that 
punishment for the mishap was about to 
be visited on him, and bolted, Bradshaw's 
shouts produced no answer, and they 
were left on the side of the hill in the 
middle of the first burst of the northeast 
monsoon, unable to see a foot in front 
of them. 

"We must go on as best we can," 
shouted Bradshaw. "Leave everything 
to the horses. We are safer on than off 

them." 

The horses seemed to understand, and 
picked their way slowly down the precip- 
itous slope. All went well for a lime, and 
Bradshaw was beginning to congratulate 
himself that the worst was over, when 
they came to a drain crossing the path. 
It had been a trickle of water in the 
morning, but the roar of the torrent rush- 
ing over it warned him that it was prob- 
ably impassable. After a moment's hes- 
itation he resolved to leave it to his horse 
and trust to its instinct if it refused. 

"I'll go through first," he shouted. "I'll 
call to you if it's all right." 

The horse faced it without balking, 
and with a clash and a clatter of hoofs 
on stones he was through, greatly reliev- 
ed to find that it was much less formid- 
able than had appeared from the noise. 
The girl's horse, resenting the feel on its 
mouth which prevented its following, 
grew restive, fidgeted, and slipped a foot 
over the side of the narrow path. Brad- 
shaw pulled up on the other side and 
heard the clatter. There was a scream, 
followed by the noise of a heavy body 
falling down the slope, and the squeal of 
a frightened horse. He sprang from his 
horse, left it to its own devices, and 



TO CUBE A COLD IN ONE DAY 

Take LAXATIVE BROMO Quinine Tablets. Drue- 
gists refund money il it fails to cure. E. W. 
GROVE'S signature is on each box. 25c. 



[CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX AND 

BLACKLEG 
|V ACC I N ES 

are given the preference by 80 % of Cali- 
fornia Stockmen because they have better 
results than others do: 

I Write for 'Prices, Testimonials and our New 
BoeVet on ANTHRAX and SLA CKLEG. 

The Cutter Laboratory 

TEMPORARY ADDRESS 

I Grayson and Sixth Streets Berkeley. Gal. 

We«t of San Pabl* Ave. 



January 12, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



27 



WE GUARANTEE 

ALCOHOL 

Can be used in Improved Peerless and Distillate Engines without 
any change in construction or vaporizer 



V/ z H. P. to 25 H. P. 
Belt or Direct 
Connected 1 




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General Power 
Service 



BAKER &, HAMILTON 



SAIN FRANCISCO 



SACRAMENTO 



LOS ANOEUES 



waded into the water, shouting as he 
went. 

"Miss Moore, where are you?" he call- 
ed, his voice trembling with emotion. A 
cry came from below him. 

"Grace, are you hurt?" he said. "Call 
to me again and I will find my way to 
you." 

"I'm all right, I think," said a voice 
in tremulous accents. "I am trying to 
climb up, but I don't know where my 
poor horse is." 

Bradshaw, his feelings suddenly releas- 
ed from strain, was guilty of a remark 
with reference to the unfortunate horse 
which scarcely conveyed sympathy. Fol- 
lowing the sound of his voice, the girl 
climbed slowly to the path and waded 
into the stream. Midway across her 
outstretched hands touched him, and 
the next moment she was held close in 
a strong embrace. 

"I love you," he said simply. "I have 
always loved you." 

They stood knee deep in the water, 
and the darkness hid their faces from 
each other. She did not speak, but gent- 
ly pressed his arm and sighed softly. She 
was his once more, and all else was as i 
nothing to her. 

"I shall never let you go again," he | 
said. 

"I do not want to go again — ever," 
she said. 

A few minutes later a very wet but 
ridiculously happy couple reached Gan- 
goya bungalow. Harry Deare met them 
in the veranda and was not a little sur- 
prised at the calm indifference with 
which they treated the probable fate of 
their horses. 



FASHIONS 



THE FARMER'S FRIEND 



This is the title of one of the handsom- 
est publications on the subject of fertiliz- 
ers we have ever seen, and it is published 
by a California firm, The Pacific Guano 
and Fertilizer Co. of San Francisco. Its 
contents are also interesting and attrac- 
tive, for it tells how to put something into 
the soil for the purpose of Retting some- 
thing greater out of it. This is a thing 
which even California farmers are fast 
learning to do, and they are anxious to 
know how to do it to the best advantage. 



School of Practical, Gioil, mechanical, 

electrical and mining engineering. 

Surveying. Arcnittcturt. Drawing and Assaying 

5100 Telegraph Ave., Oakland, California 

Open all year. A. VAN DER NAII.LEN. Preft. 
Assaying of Ores, $25. Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay,)2s: Blowpipe Assay, $10; Full Course of A' 
saying Established In 1864. Send for circular. 



Pacific Congress Springs 

Santa Cruz Mis., 12 Miles from San Jose 

Charming Resort Open all the year 

Prices Reasonable 
Addrws Lewis A. Ssge, Prop. Saratoga, Cal. 



A pretty washable cushion cover is 
made of heavy white muslin about the 
weight of sheeting divided into squares 
iy 2 inch in diameter. Every alternate 
square is covered with a lattice work of 
meshes one-fourth inch in diameter, 
worked in heavy embroidery cotton. In 
the center of each mesh is a tiny French 
knot. Any desired color may be used, 
and the edge of the pillow is finished 
with a white cord. For hard service, art 
ticking will be found very desirable to 
cover summer sofa cushions; it may be 
bought in many very handsome designs 
for 25 to 35 cents a yard. There is at 
present a fancy for fine lingerie sofa 
pillows, not only in bedrooms, but in the 
living room also. They are made of fine 
linen or lawn, embroidered or trimmed 
with lace insertions, with ruffles to 
match. These are expensive to buy, 
when decorated with fine hand work. 

Peacock feathers, real and imitation, 
wave above all manner of hats, and in 
all manner of colors; evidently the old 
superstition as to the ill-luck that clings 
to them is past. Some are very pretty, 
and some very freaky, especially in the 
old rose and raspberry shades that now 
lead in millinery. "We have never seen 
so many pink hats as this season, while 
roses in every color lead among flowers-. 
Buckles are more popular than usual. 

A useful sewing apron for wear when 
mending, or doing any dark-colored work 
is made of two widths of black sateen 
Divide one width down the middle, and 
sew to each side of the other, which 
should be slightly gored. Put a large 
square pocket at a convenient height on 
the right side. Sometimes, instead of a 
hem, the bottom of the apron is turned 
up for about 12 inches-, forming a pocket, 
which is divided into compartments by 
rows of stitching. This is a convenience 
for holding sewing materials, though 
personally we prefer the single pocket. 

In the wardroom of every woman who 
makes any pretentions to dress there 
should always be one white silk slip, 
made entirely separate from any gown 
so that it may be worn with a number 
of different ones. All thin woolen ma 
terlals look much better over silk and 
by having the silk slip made separate 
so as to do duty under three or four 
dresses it will not be an expensive ad- 
dition to the wardrobe. These slips are 
made with a plain waist, a little full in 
front and cut out slightly in the neck 
and edged with lace, and they should 
have puffed elbow sleeves of moderate 
size. The skirt should be nicely fitted 
and have some fullness in the back and 



be finished with a ruffle at the bottom 
the waist and skirt may be joined to- 
gether or not. 

Colors to Wear. 

Green sets off white and rosy skins. 
It should be relieved with white, red 
and rose. 

Rose color should not be against the 
skin. It should be separated by the hair, 
or white and green. 

Bright blue becomes the blonde. It 
should never have any relief of rose or 
violet, but yellow and orange have a 
rather good effect. 

A brunette may wear blue, provided 
it is relieved with orange or yellow. 

Dead white against the skin may be 
worn by the blonde or the brunette, 
but the skin must be white or rosy. 

Black, relieved with white, red or rose, 
suits both blondes and brunettes, but 
the latter less than the former. 

Little bags (to hold the handkerchief) 
and parasol are the adjuncts of some 
very ultra bathing suits. But you won- 
der as you look at them just where the 
fun of a good plunge or a swim comes 
in with such unnecessary luxuries. 

A much more sensible luxury is a loose 
wrap to be slipped into if you've a dis- 
tance to go from the bathhouse to beach, 
when the wind strikes chill. These are 
made in a number of ways, the plain- 
est of all slightly suggestive of bath- 
robes, in that they are made of the self- 
same Turkish toweling, trimmed ef- 
fectively with color, while the more elab- 
orate ones are of silk, interlined with 
rubber. 



HINTS TO HOUSEKEEPERS 



Tomato Bisque. — This is a popular 
soup at our house. Put cooked tomatoes 
through a sieve, add % teaspoon soda 
to each quart, heat same quantity of milk 
to boiling and thicken with a little corn 
starch or flour, then turn into the hot 
tomatoes and season to taste with butter, 
salt and pepper, and serve at once. The 
soda in the tomatoes and thickening the 
milk prevents curdling, of which so many 
complain. 

Homemade Soda Crackers. — To 1 quart 
of light bread dough — about enough for 
1 loaf of bread — work in 1 cup, short- 
ening, and y 2 teaspoon soda; then knead 
in flour to make a stiff dough; roll and 
round with the rolling pin for 15 or 20 
minutes, then knead, roll thin, cut with 
a small cutter, put in a dripping pan, 
prick with fork and bake. Graham 
crackers may be made in the same way. 

Beel a La Mode. — The day before 
select a five-pound piece of beef from 
the round; it should be in a square piece 
and have no bones. Boil together for 
five minutes a cupful of vinegar, a table- 
spoonful of salt, one chopped onion, a 
half-teaspoonful each of mustard, pep- 
percorns, whole cloves and allspice. Cool 
this, pour it over the meat, and turn the 
latter every hour for the best part of 
the day. MaKe narrow, deep cuts in the 
meat and press in them strips of fat salt 
pork rolled in ground spices (some pro- 
portions as for vinegar). Bind tightly 
with a broad strip of muslin, and let 
stand over night. In the fat brown two 
onions and a carrot sliced fine. Put them 
round the meat, half cover with boiling 
water, cover closely and simmer until 
tender — about four hours. Thicken, sea- 
son and strain the gravy. 

Fruit Bread Pudding. — Place alternate 
layers of fruit and bread crumbs in a 
baking dish, fruit on bottom and crumbs 
on top, adding bits of butter, a little spice 
if liked and water to just moisten the 
whole. Bake half an hour if stewed fruit 
one hour if fruit is fresh, and serve with 
cre-im and sugar or butter and sugar. — 



I started out to make the 
best lamp-chimney in the 
world — I have stuck to it all 
my life. 

My name is on the chimney 
if it's a Macbeth. 

The Index explains how to get a Macbeth 
chimney to fit every lamp, and how to care 
for lamps. Sent free to everyone asking for it. 

Address, MACBETH, Pittsburgh. 



Graham Gems. — Two cups each gra- 
ham and white flour, 2 heaping teaspoons 
baking powder, half cup sugar, 4 table- 
spoons melted butter, lard or drippings, 
1 well beaten egg, two cups sweet milk 
and a teaspoon salt. Have gem pans 
well greased and hot when putting in 
batter and bake in hot oven. 



STOCK FOOD RECOMMENDED BY AN 
EMINENT AUTHORITY 

Professor Thomas Shaw has this to say 
in reference to Stock Foods: "They will al- 
ways be found useful when properly made. 
The time will never come when intelligent 
feeders will cease to use them. The neces- 
sity for using them and the advantage 
therefrom will become greater as foods 
become increasingly dear. Whether it will 
he profitable to feed them will depend upon 
the necessity for using them and on their 
cost. My special desire,- however, is to 
show that they have a place in the econ- 
omy of intelligent feeding. The question 
of price must be fought out between buyer 
and seller." 

With this indorsement from one of the 
foremost authorities on feeding in the 
country, it would seem that the value of 
feeding tonics, etc., is unquestionable; 
therefore, the only problem is at what price 
such foods cease to become profitable. 

In Bulletin No. 108 issued by the Hatch 
Experimental Station they recommend the 
use of certain medicinal tonics to be given 
in one tablespoonful doses once a day for 
10 days, then omit for three days, then 
give 10 days more. They estimate the cost 
of the tonics they recommend at 20 cents 
per pound. 

Dr. Hess Stock Food, formulated by Dr. 
Hess, a regular graduate of medicine and 
also veterinary surgery, contains the best 
tonics known to science, together with the 
salts of iron, which are the greatest known 
blood and tissue builders; the nitrates of 
sodium and potassium, which assist in 
eliminating the poisonous waste material 
from the system, and laxatives which reg- 
ulate the bowels. 

This preparation is manufactured by Dr. 
Hess & Clark, Ashland, Ohio, and is sold 
on a written guarantee at five cents per 
pound in 100 pound sacks, smaller quanti- 
ties at a slight advance. At this price can 
anyone question the economy of feeding 
such a compound? It costs less than a 
penny a day to feed this preparation to a 
norse, cow or steer, and but three cents per 
mouth for the average hog. Consider how 
little additional increase in weight or milk 
is necessary to cover the cost of this prepa- 
ration. 

J. F. Dotzman, Clinton Stock Farm, Cen- 
tralia, 111., says: "I am feeding Dr. Hess 
Stock Food to my horses, three stallions 
(Hal-Gordon) pacer, brother to Star Poin- 
ter; George Geisler, trotter, out of the best 
blood lineage in existence; Andrew Jack- 
son, trotting bred coach horse, son of 
George Geisler, above. All three stallions 
in public service, stud. Also two work 
horses. 

"I bought Dr. Hess Stock Food at Ber- 
ger's Drug Store at Carlyle. I had never 
used any stock food before, but reading in 
Coleman's Rural World of Dr. Hess' profes- 
sional knowledge. T purchased a sack of 
Dr. Hess Stock Food and fed it to five 
horses, and am almost surprised at its good 
results. Will keep it always on hand." 



DEWEY,STRONG &,C0 



CAVEATS 



PAT ENTS 

IO BACON BLOCK OAKLAND. 



All about Bees and Honey 

The riee-keeper's guide to success. The 
Weekly 

American See Journal 



tells how to make the most money with 
bees. Contributors are practical honey pro- 
ducers who know how. Interesting — in- 
structive. $i per year; 3 mos. (13 copies) 
25c. Sample free. 

American 1>ee Journal., 

334 Dearborn St., Chicago. 



DEALERS IN 

PAPER 



Blake, Moffitt & Towne, 

No. 419 Eleventh St., Oakland 
Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angeles. 
Blake, McFall & Co., Portland, Ore. 



28 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 12, 1907 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 

HORSES AND CATTLE. 

GEO. C. ROEDINO. Fresno, California, 
Breeder of high-trade thoroughbred Hol- 
■teln Bulls and Heifers. Thoroughbred 
Berkshire Boars and Sows. 

RIVERSIDE HERD HOL.STEIN CATTLE — 
One of the largest and best In the world. 
Send for catalogue. Pierce Land * Stock 

Co . Rtockton. Cal. 

JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Short- 
horns, milk strain. High class stock, First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O Box, 321 Petaluma. Cal. 

HOLSTKINS— Winners at Stale Fair at every but- 
ter contest since 1885 in Calil Stock near S. F. 
F. H. Burke, 2195 Fillmore St., S. F. 

BtJLI.-i AND COWS FOR S A I. K —Short Horned 
Durhams. ADdress E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

A. J. C. C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted 
strains. Joseph Mallllard, San Oeronimo, 
Marin Co., Cal. 

P H. MURPHY, Perkins. Sac. Co., Cal. Breed- 
er of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 

"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto herd, 77 pre- 
miums California State Fairs 1902-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle, Ad- 
dress temporarily, San Mateo, Cal. 

~ SHEEP AND GOATS. 

8 H. FOUNTAIN, Dixon. Cal. Importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire 
sheep. Both sexes for sale at all times. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW 



Butte County. 

SUGAR BEETS MAKE MONEY. The 
Gridley Herald: The experience of the 
farmers mentioned in the following arti- 
cle from an exchange can be duplicated in 
this neighborhood, and under our condi- 
tions of brilliant sunshine and plentiful 
irrigation supply, the Gridley farmers 
should be able to exceed the record of industry 
the Idaho beet growers. "Sugar beet 
growers in the Payette district, which 
embraces Payette, Plymouth, Ontario, 
and Nossa, Idaho, are reaping a rich re- 



Glenn County. 

ORLAND ORANGES. — The Evening 
Bee: A number of the orange growers 
of this section have made arrangements 
with San Francisco houses for the sale 
of the output of their citrus orchards. 
Agents of the buyers have been here, 
and they were much pleased with the 
quality of the fruit. More and more at- 
tention is being given here to the orange 
and the appreciation of the 
fruit shown by expert buyers has done 
much to encourage the growers. 

Solano County. 
JAPANESE VINEYARD. — The Even- 
ing Bee: The culture of grapes is the 



POULTRY. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large Size, good plumage, early maturity. 

COPPIN&SONS, Cottonwood Farm, Pleasant Grove 
Cal. Pigeons, graded & standard homers $3 to $6 
per dozen. 

I,. W.CLARK, Petaluma. Cal, White Leghorns, the 
whit' kind that lay lots of large, white eggs. 
Just hatched chicks a specialty, will travel 1000 
miles in perfect saiety. 

SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN AND INDIAN 
Runner Ducks— Eggs $150 per setting; $6 00 peT 
hundred. Send for illustrated catalogue. John P 
Boden, 1338 Second street, Watsonville, California. 



SWINE. 



GEO. V. BECK MAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexe 

BERKSHIRES— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages T Waite, Perkins, Cal. 

BERKSHIRE AND POLAND - CHINA HOGS. 
C. A. STOWE, Stockton. 

GOLD MEDAL Herd of Berkshire Hogs and South 
Down Sheep. Thos Waite, Perkins, i"al. 

BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GKORGE H. CROLEY, 



Branuan Street, San 



Francisco. Manu- 
facturer ai 
Dealer in 

of every description. Send for Catalogue 



Td Poultry Supplies 



FREE . 



BUFF ORPINGTONS. — We won at State Fair 
ALL FIRST PRIZES in this class 1906 and 1904 
We have just won at San Jose GRAND SPECIAL 
for BEST 3 Breeding Pens, 3 Cocks, 3 Cockerels, 
3 Hens and 3 Pullets. ALL VARIETIES COM- 
PETING. Mr. Fanner, VOL" NEED THIS BREED 
Write me and learn why 

W. SULLIVAN, Agnews, Cal. 

State Vice-President 
NAT. S. C. B. ORPINGTON CLUB. 



FOR SALE 

Imported Shire Stallion 

This is a very high class 
Stallion, weighing 1850 lbs. and 
a good stock horse. 

HENRY WHEATLEY, 

Prop. 

OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years 
Importers and Breeders of All Varieties of Land 
and Water fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31, 36: McAllister St. 
San Francisco, Cal. 

FARM PROFITS* Tncui^ 



■ ft 

Ic 



SSI 



d4 Ar 



1 lirr 1 



»! Ex- 



CYPHERS INCUBATOR* 

Our2« i*te U-k. "How To Make 
Money With Poultry," sonaOai root* 
iDfurmBtloa thin uj other. FREE bj tend* 
iagtJdreaact af two frUoda who keep poultry. 

CYPHERS INCUBATOR CO., 
Otklud, OfcL, Uuff»lo, Hm* York. Bo. too, 

Chicago, £»nifcs Cltj ud London, Eog. 



PILES CURED IN 6 TO 14 DAYS. 
PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any cas6 
of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or Protruding Piles in <; 
o 14 days, or money refunded. 50c. 




ward. The beet crop, it is said, will aver 

age 20 tons to the acre. At $4.50 per j lat e S t industry for a Japanese" to under 
ton this makes a gross revenue of ?90 take in this county. M. Matsumoto has 
per acre. The expenses of growing and obtained a ten-year lease of sixtv acres 
harvesting the crop, with Japanese labor, j in Gree n valley, which is situated a few 
is about $26 per acre, leaving a net j mi i es north of tnis city and wi „ set Qut 
profit to the grower of about $64 per acre, 
providing he hires all his work done. 

"C. E. Loveland, who spent a couple 
of days in the district, says the growers 
are greatly pleased with the returns from 
the first crop, and the acreage will be 
trebled next year. Alfalfa lands are be- 
ing plowed up for next year's crop. One 
grower, who had his land listed for sale 
at $175 per acre, as soon as he began 
digging his beets and figured on the re- 
turns, telephoned the agent to take his 
land off the market. The man's beets 
are yielding about 28 tons per acre and 
will give net returns of about $100 per 
acre. 

" 'The beet crop in the Payette dis- 
trict,' said Mr. Loveland, 'is exceeding 
the yield anticipated by the field superin- 
tendent' " 

EXPECT FANCY PRICES FOR 
THEIR POTATOES— The Gridley Her- 
ald: Practically all of the potatoes of 
the California market are held by George 
Shirua, Lee A. Phillips and Charles More- 
ing, of Stockton. They are the greatest 
potato growers on this coast, and Shima 
is probably the potato king of the world. 

They have marketed the bulk of their 
crop and are holding the remaining few 
thousand bags of spuds for fancy prices. 
They are now being offered $1.50 per 
sack on the river bank for their potatoes 
and will probably get $1.75. 

They will not dare hold them much 
after the first of the year, for potatoes 
will be shipped in from Wisconsin and 
Minnesota within a month's time. The 
potatoes there are cheap this season and 
the freight charges from there here will 
be 85 cents per hundred pounds. 

These potatoes will probably retail in 
California at from 2% to 3 cents per 
pound in February. All the potatoes 



a large vineyard to raise grapes for the 
local wineries. 

Ventura County. 

TARDY LIMA BEANS RECEIVE A 
DRENCHING. — Ventura Weekly Demo- 
crat: Although the new year is now in 
the bud and about to burst into full 
bloom, not less than 100 acres of limas, 
in the vicinity of Saticoy, are lying in 
piles, unthreshed, and during the recent 
rain received a good or rather bad 
drenching. 

David Darling, a West Saticoy rancher, 
was a caller Saturday and made the 
statement that he had about 60 acres of 
beans in the field. The crop was planted 
at the usual time, but owing to a freak 
in nature, ran entirely to vines without 
any pods, and the rancher quite naturally 
believed his crop to be a failure, but 
about the time the bean harvest began 
in earnest, these tardy fields began to 
bloom and show signs of great promise, 
and eventually did develop into a good 
crop. 

The peculiar condition existing in 
many fields, where the vines showed a 
rank growth, without any of the articles 
of commerce on them, was made the sub- 

J ject of comment in these columns, and 
the fact that a crop has matured for a 
December harvest, makes the "freak" 
all the more remarkable. 

Yolo County. 
SALE OF SHORTHORNS— The Even- 

! ing Bee: The sale of Shorthorn cattle 
held at the Gibson ranch by Eakle, Gib- 
son & Ashburton, Saturday, was well at- 
tended. There were forty-nine head of 
pedigreed stock which sold for $3967. 
which averaged a little over $80 per head. 
The buyers from a distance were L. 
Sumy, of Yuba City; Howard Cattle Corn- 



now on hand in this State will not feed , pany ' of Newman '' M - c - Collins, of Sali- 

Inas; G. W. Fay, of Gonzales, Nevada; 



the people longer than 
January. 



the middle of 



Cocoanut Oil Cake 

THE BEST FEED FOR STOCK, 
CHICKENS AND PIGS 

For Sale in r.ots to Suit by 

El Dorado Oil Works 

2044 Broadway, San Francisco, Cal. 

A MAN SAVED 

BY USING A FOLDING SAWING MACHINE. 

One man can u*w more KCNS BAST 

wood with it than two ssgn So 
In any other wayand, BtaWBackscUe ' 
do it easier. B CORDS 
IN 10 HOURS, saws 
any wood on any 
ground. Saws trees 
down. Catalog free. • 
Flnt order secures agencjl 
Folding Saw Ion Mach. Co., 1 58 E. Harrison St., Chicago, 111 



Wm. McGraff Company, of Pajaro; S. B. 
Wright, of Santa Rosa; D. B. Lyon, Vina; 
J. E. Turner, of Vina; H. E. Wolfe, of 
Stockton ; S. J. Hough, of iMarysville, and 
Senator Rush, of Suisun. 



Warranted to Glvo Sailat action. 

GombauWs 

Caustic Balsam 




Has Imitators But No Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ring-bone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 
As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, etc.. It is invaluable. 

Tverr bottle of Caustic Balsam sold Is 
a\ urrnntea ti> (rive s»tl:,tactlon. Price SI So 
p<T buttle. Sold by drugiriats. or sent by e™ 
I>ress, chare. s paid, wltn mil directions for 
its u«e rjrsend tor descriptivo circulars 
testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0, 




SecurityRemedyCo- 



Veterinary Experience 

Infallible guide to horse health. 

100 page book, free. Symptoms 
of all diseases and treatment, 
by eminent veterinary, com- 
pounder of 

TUTTLE'S 
ELIXIR. 

Sure cure for curb, colic, splint, recent shoo boils, 
most horse ailments. S100. reward for failure where 
We say it will cure. 

Tattle's American Worm Powders never fail. 
Tutlle's Family Elixir, greatest of all household 
liniments. Write for the book. 
TUTTLE'S ELIXIR CO., 33 Beverly St., Boston. Mast. 
Rcdingtoo * Co.. Third St., near Ti.»nsend. San Francisco. 
W. A Shaw, Los Angeles, Calif., Agents. 





HOYT'S IEEE SUPPORT 

To orchardists who desire to have good, 
self-supporting trees, without recourse to 
hay rope or wire or multiplicity of props, 
the advertisement of Hoyt's Tree Supports 
is commended. Of course, the foundation 
of a good tree lies in intelligent pruning, 
but many a useful branch can be retained 
and held In its place with a support which 
is neat and durable, if it can be had with- 
out too great expense. This is just what 
Hoyt's Tree Support aims to do: nut to take 
the place of pruning, but to help the intel- 
ligent tree-architect to retain serviceable 
branches in the place: where they are 
needed. Every orchardist should alwavs 
keep a number of them in his toolhouse, to 
correct a sagging branch whenever occa- 
sion appears. They are useful all the year, 
ami they are so reasonable in cost that a 
full supply can always be kept on hand. 



Emery's Poultry Foods are sold by all Dealers and Commission 
Men because they are the BEST. 



MANUFACTURED BY 



The Pacific Guano & Fertilizer Co. Mth & Indiana, San Francisco 



Write for our FREE Booklet. 



Farmer's Fri -nd. 



Valuable to all Farmers and Ranchers. 



Land for Sale and to Rent 

Glenn Ranch 

Glenn County - California 

l^OW SAIJi 

IN SUBDIVISIONS 



This famous and well-known farm, the 
home of the late Dr. ijlenn. "The Whpnt 
King,' has been surveyed and subdivided. 
It Is offered for sale In any sized govern- 
ment subdivision at remarkably low prices, 
and In no case, It Is believed, exceeding 
what is assessed for county and State tax- 
ation purpose. 

This great ranch runs up and down the 
west bank of the Sacramento River for fif- 
teen miles. It is located in a region that 
has never lacked an ample rainfall and no 
Irrigation Is required. 

The river Is navigable at all seasons of 
tlie year and freight and trading boats 
make regular trips. 

The closest personal Inspection of the 

: land by proposed purcasers is Invited. Par- 
ties desiring to look at the land should go 

i to Willows, California, and Inquire for P. 
O. Elbe. 

For further particulars and for maps, 
showing the subdivisions and prices per 
acre, address personally or by letter 

F. C. LUSH, 

Agent of N. D. Rldeout, Administrator of 
the estate of H. J. Glenn, at Chico. Butte 
County, Cal. 



January 12, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



29 




THE DAI BY 




True Tools 

You can't square up a block with a lop-sided plane— saw straight with a 
buckled saw or bore a clean hole with worn-out bit. To do a good job you 
must have good tools. That's the reason men who have used and studied 
tools a lifetime insist on having 

K00N mm 

QUALITY TOOLS 

They show their excellence not only in actual use, but at first glance— the 
"hang," balance, finish and careful adjustment being apparent. Keen 
Kutter Tools include not only Carpenter Tools but a full line of Farm and 
Garden Tools — Forks, Hoes, Shovels, Garden- 
trowels, Grass-shears, Rakes, Manure-hooks 
Pruning-kni ves. To get the best tool of its 
kind simply ask for a Keen Kutter. For 37 
years Keen Kutter Tools have been sold under 
til is mark and motto : 

" The Recollection of Quality Remains 
Long After the Price is forgotten." 

Trade Mark Registered. 
If not at your dealers, write us. 
SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY, 
Si. Louis and New York, U. H. A. 




The true worth of a roof is 
figured on the actual service 
it. eives. 

A leaky roof not only dam- 
ages the building, it endan 
gers the value of the goods 
within, or the health and 
comfort of the occupants. 

For every kind of roof — 





RUBBER 
SANDED 
ROOFING 



is a permanent protection — 
absolutely weather-proof, fire- 
resisting and practically wear-proof. That wear-proof surface of 
hard flint sand is a money-saver. Booklet "B" tells all about it. 
It is free with prices and samples. 

PIONEER ROLL PAPER CO. 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA. 



The Fresno Scraper 

r 



r 




FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO. CALIFORNIA 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 

California Safe Deposit and Trust Co. 

Cor. California and Montgomery Sts., 

San Francisco. 

For the six months ending December 31, 
1906, dividends have been declared on the 
deposits in the savings department of this 
company as follows: On term deposits at 
the rate of 3 6-10 per cent per annum, and 
on ordinary deposits at the rate of 3% per 
cent per annum, free of taxes, and payable 
on and after Wednesday, January 2, 1907. 
The same rate of interest will be paid 
by our branch offices, located at 1531 De- 
visadero St., 927 Valencia St., and 1740 Fill- 
more St., San Francisco. 

J. DALZELL. BROWN, Manager. 



(Continued from Page 25) 

think that we should ever measure the 
value of the dairy school by the numbers 
attending it, rather should we measure 
by the quality of those who complete the 
work. The course should not be of the 
nature of a kindergarten, but rather 
should be a graduate school for those who 
have already had considerable experience 
in practical work in a creamery or cheese 
factory. A place where the buttermaker 
and cheesemaker can come and receive 
instruction in the very latest methods, 
in the handling of improved machinery, 
and keep in touch with what is being 
done along experimental lines to solve 
some of his difficulties. In fact, I would 
like to insist upon not less than two 
seasons' experience as necessary for en- 
trance, not merely print this as a re- 
quirement, but absolutely enforce it. 

Perhaps, though, the question that will 
interest you most is — What California is 
doing along the line of dairy education? 
As you all know, largely through the ef- 
forts of this Association and associations 
of a like nature, interested in other lines 
of agricultural work, an appropiation was 
secured for a University Farm and for 
the establishment thereon of a school, 
and the erection of necessary buildings. 
The Farm has been purchased and I 
hoped to be able to tell you that the 
dairy school building had been started. 
I am, however, unable to do this, but I 
think it is safe to say that within the 
next two or three weeks a dairy school 
building and a live stock pavilion will 
be in course of erection. (Contracts have 
since been let for the construction of 
these buildings. — Ed.) 

In the planning of a dairy school build- 
ing we have attempted to secure one that 
will provide ample facilities for instruc- 
tion, and also for experimental work. It 
is impossible to plan a model creamery 
and at the same time have room for stu- 
dents to work around the different makes 
of machines that must be provided in 
a school building. At the present time 
we have a fair dairy herd, rather too 
small for our purpose and we are, there- 
fore, preparing to purchase additional 
dairy animals, as well as specimens of 
the other classes of farm stock and by 
next fall we hope to be ready for stu- 
dents. The school then will, for the first 
time, be well equipped for the work for 
which it is intended. But before we can 
attain this condition it will be necessary 
for us to secure further appropriations 
from the legislature. 

As I said a minute or two ago, the 
Farm and school were started largely by 
the efforts of this and similar associa- 
tions. The work has been well done, but 
we must not rest with the beginning; it 
must be carried to completion, and then 
you must still continue to show your 
interest in it. The Dairy School is your 
school, its object must be to aid all in- 
terested to carry on their work to better 
advantage. It is your duty to see that 
it does this and if not, find out why. The 
securing of an appropriation is not suf- 
ficient, you mHst support the school by 
using it. Attend it yourself, urge your 
patrons to attend, use it in every possi- 
ble way to build up the dairy industry. 
Then, and then only will it really be a 
succcess. The other lines of dairy educa- 
tion mentioned will also require money. 
If we are to enlarge the scope of the 
dairy inspection and provide for traveling 
instructors, increased appropriations 
must be made. The importance of the 
industry justifies the demands made and 
I believe that if all those interested pull 
together, there will be little difficulty 
in securing sufficiently large appropria- 
tions to place Dairy Education in Cali- 
fornia in as high a position as it holds 
in several of the other States. 



EARLY LAMBS 




Early lambs wlh bring big money if 
you save them, and get them to market 
at the right time. Give them a little of 
Dr. Hess Stock Food in the grain they 
eat — then, if you keep them warm and 
dry, there will be no losses, and they 
will be "fit" at the very moment when 
prices are best. 

D B HESS 
STOCK F@§D 

the prescription of Dr. Hess (M. D., 
D. V. S.) contains bitter tonics for the 
digestion, iron for the blood, nitrates 
to expel poisonous material from the 
system and laxatives to regulate the 
bowels. These ingredients are recom- 
mended by Professors Winslow, Qui tin an, 
Finlay Dun, and the most noted medical 
writers in the country. It is not a food 
in itself, but makes all the food of the 
farm produce more milk, more meat 
and more work by increasing digestion 
and regulating the system generally. 

Sold on a Written Guarantee. 
100 lbs. $7.00 
25 lb. pail $2.00 
Smaller qoantitles at a slight advance. 

Where Dr. Hess Stock Food differs in 

Fiarticular is in the dose— it's small and 
ed but twice a day, which proves it has 
the most digestive strength to the pound. 
Our Government recognizes Dr. Hess 
Stock Food as a medicinal tonic, and this 
paper is back of the guarantee. 

If yonr dealer cannot supply you, we will. 
DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio. 
Also manufacturers of Dr. Iless Poultry 
l*an-a-ce-a and Instant l.onse Killer. 
The Pet«lum« Incubator Co.. peuluma, California, 

Pacific Connt IM«t rlbiitorx. 



CREDITABLE PUBLICATIONS 



One of the indications of the advance- 
ment of agriculture is surely to be found 
in the character of the publications under- 
taken by the implement trade to make im- 
proved machines better known. Such pub- 
lications are apt to be more accurate in 
their statements of fact and more artistic 
in their style than was formerly thought 
necessary, and both these things are cred- 
itable to the publishers and indicative of 
higher taste and intelligence among whom 
they are distributed. The most significant 
illustration of these facts is to be found 
in a sample package of the circulars, cata- 
logues, calendars, etc., of the International 
Harvester Company of America, whose cen- 
tral office is at Chicago. If any of our 
readers desire to see something really nice 
in this line, we presume the publications 
will be sent on application, for the com- 
pany manifestly desires to come into cor- 
respondence with as many good, respon- 
sible people as possible. 



NOW READY 

THE BOOK OF 

ALFALFA 

History, Cultivation and Merits. Its Uses as a 

Forage aud Fertilizer, hy F. D. CuliUKN, 

Secretary Kansas Department ol Agriculture. 

The appearance of F. D. Coburn's little book on 
Alfalfa, a few years since, has been a complete 
revelation to thousands of far.ners throughout the 
country aud the increasing dcui.iud for still more 
information on the subject has induced the author 
to prepare the present volume, which is, by far, the 
most aulhoritatlve, complete and valuable work on 
this forage crop ever published. 

One of the most important movements which has 
occurred in Amciicaa agriculture is the general in- 
troduction of alfalfa as a bay and pasture crop. 
While formerly it was considered that alfalfa could 
be grown profitably only iu the irrigation sections 
of the country, the acreage devoted to this crop is 
rapidly increasing everywhere. Recent experiments 
have shown that alfalfa has a much wider useful- 
ness than has hitherto been supposed, and good 
crops are now grown in a.most every state. No 
forage plant has ever been introduced and suc- 
cessfully cultivated in the United State? possessed 
of the general excellence of ull.tlfa. 

The plant although km wn in the Old World 
hundreds of years Befi re Christ, was intro- 
duced into North America onlv during the last 
century, yet it is probably receiving more attention 
than any other crop. When once well established 
it continues to produce good crops for an almost 
indefinite number of years. The author thoroughly 
believes in alfalfa, he believes in it for the big 
fanner as a profit brinf-r In the form of hay. or 
condensed into beef, pork, mutton, or products of 
the cow; but he has a st.ll more abiding faith in 
it as a mainstay of the small fanner, for feed for 
all his live stock aud for maintaining the fertility 
of the soil. . 

The treatment of the whole subject is in the 
author's usual clear nnd admirable sn-lc, as will be 
Been from the following condensed table of contents: 

History, Description. Varieties and Habits. Uni- 
versality' of Alfalfa, yields, and Comparisons with 
Other Crops. Seed and Reed Selctinn, Soil and 
Seeding, Cultivation, Harvesting, Storing. Pastur- 
ing aud S" ling, Alfalfa as a Feed Stuff. Alfalfa 
in Beef-Making, Alfalfa and the Dairy, Alfalfa for 
Swine. Alfalfa for Horses nnd Mules. Alfalfa for 
Sheep-Raitdng, Alfalfa for Bees. Alfalfa for Poul- 
try Alfalfa for Food Preparation. Alfalfa for Town 
and City, Alfalfa for Crop Rotation. Nilro-Cnlture. 
Alfalfa as a Commercial Factor, The Enemies of 
Alfalfa, Difficulties nnd Discouragements, Alfalfa 
in the Orchard, Practical F.xpericnces with Alfalfa. 
Illustrated. 6 1-2x9 inches. 336 pages. 
Cloth. Price S2.00. 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 
Berkeley, Cal. 



30 



January 12, 1907 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 




REG0RY5 

Seeds 

If you havp never planted them, 
try t hem this year. They never 
fliaanpoint — they grow — ttiey 
yield. Always told under three 
pnarantet-n, Insuring freshness, 
purity and reliability. For this 
reason, tliuiisands <<l farmers, 
gurdeners and planters, both in 
the t'nited states and Canada, 
pUuit (lnv<»rvV Seeds exclu- 
sively. Our nev 
(' atal op contains 
in an y tmppentiona 
ami directions — the / 
fruit of fifty years' 
experience in tbe 
Beed business. 

i. i. II. Gregory * ^n 1 
BaruUbead, Mkta, 




TREES THAT GROW 



Apples lc, l't-ach 5c, Hums 12c,.>^t$V_ x 
Chirries 15c. Best quality /^cSV*," 
good bearers, (rrnftcd «l >rf*y^ plete line 
Mock, not sceillintfs. .<> of Vegetable, 

Concord Grapes Sc. ^v^lvc^ >^ Flower and 
Forest Tree s. cd^/^^jp v ^O Farm Seeds. Our 



1,006 u 
fr'ght. 



We 



! ruv illustrated catr 
alotr free, 
GERMAN NTJRBERIES, 
116 BEATRICE, Neb. 



ERRYS 

Seeds 

prove their worth at harvest 
time. After overiifty yearsof 
success, they are pronounced 
the best and surest by careful 
planters everywhere. Your 
dealer se'ls them. 1907 Seed 
Annual free on request. 

D. M. FERRY JL CO., Detroit. Mich- 



Kirkman Nurseries 




"Full line of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees and Vines. Peach and other fruit 
trees at reasonable prices. Grape root- 
ings and cuttings furnished in any quan- 
tity. 400,000 rooted vines in Stanislaus 
county. Main office at MERCED, Cal. 
Branches at Fresno and Turlock." 



Citrus Trees 



TRIE TO NAME 

Anil embracing all the 
Standard sorts are to be 
had of our establishment 
Bear in mind that we are 
the largest growers of 
Citrus Trees in the world, 
anil our stock has been 
awarded the gold medal 
at every world's fair in 
the world where we have 
shown. Our fine booklet, 
containing 50,000 words 
and over 100 illustrations 
gives you all the points 
011 Citrus Culture. Price 
25 cents. Canweseudyou 
a copy? 

SAN DIMAS CITRUS NURSERY 

SAN DIMAS. CAL. 

R. M. TEAGUE, 

PROPRIETOR. 




LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO. 

(Incorporated) 

Offer for sale a few specialties this 

season. 

A NEW WALNUT, ETC. 

General Fruit Tree Catalogue of 
strictly "Pedigreed"' stock will be 
issued during 1907. 

LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO. 

Morganhlll 
Santa Clara County California 



TREES 

E Crawfords, Hale's Early and many other varie- 
ties of peach trees, all fine budded stock. 

Large stock of all the leading varieties of apples 
on whole roots and free from all pests. Also a fine 
stock of cherries, pears, Hurbanks. and S. B. S. S. 
Walnuts, etc. SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 

A. E. Scheidecker. Prof. Pleasant View Nursery 

Sebastopol Cal. 



Crimson Winter 
Rhubarb 

Orifti11.1l Bnrbank Strain 

$1.50 per Doz., $6.00 per 100, $40 per 1000 

Now is good 

time to plant. We are the only Rhubarb 
Specialists on the Coast. We devote most of 
our time to its cultivation and improvement. 
We have the Best pedigreed plants ever offered 
of this wonderful moneymaker. Write or call on 

J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist. Pasadena, Cal. 

A Fine Stock of Superlative Raspberry, also Fruit 
Trees and Vyies of all Sorts Both Phones. 



Trees 



ftnaly Nurseries 

T.J. TKUE 

Se.bastopol 

Write for Price List 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Bnrbank Beauty (Rarly; S3.00 per M and 
Brandywines (mid-season) at $2.00 per M. 
Both are excellent table and market berries 
and the best varieties for California. Orders 
booked for present and future delivery. 

G. H. Hopkins, Bnrbank, Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed. I 
have a fine lot of trees. Call and see 
them. Postal gets price list. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



Morse Seeds Sprout — You and Nature do the Rest 

Your Name 

Is wanted for our 1907 Catalogue mailing list. To get it we will mail 
you one ounce of a specially fine mixture of Sweet Pea seed — for 

Five Cents 

If you have already written us — send the name and address of a 
friend who has a garden. Catalogue now ready. 



168 



Clay St. f^. C. MORSE CSL CO. s« n 



ncisco 



GREENBACK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash 

Best Tree Wash. 
T. W. JACKSON & CO., Temporary Address 
Musalito. Cal. 




True To Name 

The demand for all sorts of fruit 
trees promises to be heavier than 
ever before. Place your order 
now, before our assortment is ex- 
hausted. 

Deciduous 
Fruit Trees 

We have this season a superior 

stock of 
PEACHES PLUMS 
PRUNES PEARS 
APPLES APRICOTS 
CHERRIES OLIVES 
NECTARINES 
All grown under our personal su- 
pervision, in our Nursery Plant 
No. 3, which has a rich river bot- 
ton soil, permitting the most per- 
fect roots. 

Citrus Trees 

All grown at our Citrus Nurseries 
in the Great Thermal Belt near 
Exeter. 

Nut Trees 

ALMONDS WALNUTS 
PECANS 

In all the leading varieties 



Grapes 



On their own roots and grafted on 
Phylloxera resistant roots. All the 
leading Table, Wine, and Raisin 
sorts. 

BERRY PLANTS 
BURBANK'S CRIMSON 

WINTER RHUBARB 
ORNAMENTAL TREES 
AND SHRUBS 
ROSES. PALMS. 
GREENHOUSE PLANTS 

We are the sole propagators and dis- 
seminators of Burbank's four new 
and valuable creations. Write for 
illustrated pamphlet. 



Calimyrna 
Figs 

OUR GREAT SPECIALTY. 

None genuine without our seal. 




Also have a fine stock of 
WHITE ADRIATIC, MISSION 

and other standard sorts of Figs. 

NEW CATALOGUE. 

Will be ready for distribution in 
January. It contains points about 
Pruning, Planting, is superbly il- 
lustrated. Will be mailed on re- 
ceipt of 10 cents in stamps. 
Price list on application. 

PAID-OP CAPITAL » 200,000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

GeO.C.ROedlng Pres. & Mgr. 

Box ' 4 Fresno.Calif6rnia.U5AW 



Are % 
You 

Planting 

Trees? 



Owing to the unprecedented de- 
mand we are sold out on many 
sorts, and, though we are selling out 
fast on others, we can still furnish 
the following standard varieties: 

In Peaches: Triumph, St. John, 
Early Crawford, Late Crawford, 
Elberta, Piquetts Late, Salway, 
Phillips Cling, Levi Cling, Sherman 
Cling. 

In Plums: Climax, Burbank, 
Wick son, Diamond, Hungarian, 
Fallenberg, German, Grand Duke. 

In Cherries: Knights Early 
Black, Black Tartarian, Bing, Great 
Bigerean, Lambert, Black Oregon. 

In Pears: Bartlett, Brusse Clari- 
gean. 

In Grapes: Emperor, Cornichon, 
Tokay, Malaga. 

In Quinces: Pineapple, Orange. 

Likewise other varieties not 
standards. 

SUBMIT A LIST OF YOUR 
WANTS. WRITE FOR CAT- 
ALOGUE. OUR PRICES ARE 
RIGHT, WHILE OUR TREES 
ARE THE BEST THAT 
GOOD CARE AND INTEL- 
LIGENT A P PLICA TION 
CAN PRODUCE. 



Placer Nurseries 

NEWCASTLE. CAL. 

SILVA, BERGTHOLD 4 CO., Proprietors 

The Eowler Nursery Company 

Has on hand a large lot of thrifty rooted 
vines and peach trees, of all varieties. 
Also strawberries, blackberries and the 
celebrated Himalaya berry. 



STOCK COMPLETE PRICES REASONABLE 



Send for Catalogue and Price List 

FOWLER NURSERY COMPANY 
EOWLER, FRESNO CO.. CALIF. 



January 12, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



31 




Fight the Mildew 

Sulphur Your Vines 

Us3 the Champion Duster 

Basy and rapid in operation. 
Keeps the dust out of your way. 
Always ready. 

Reaches upper and under side of 
foliage. 

Assures thorough & effective work 
Thousands in use. 
Weighs about 6 lb. 

ADDRESS 

F. D. NAGLE, Box 14. Sultana, Calif. 

L,eggett & Bros , Manufacturers, 
New York, N. Y 



r AUSTRALIAN PERENNIAL G 
h R 

A 

Seed can he had of 

Vierra Bros., Moss, Cal. S 



Y 
E 



The only forage plant that 
will give satisfaction on 
overflow, swamp or upland 
without irrigation. 



TOKAY ROOTED VINES 

50,000 FOB SALE 

Grown from the Famons LODI STOCK 
For terms apply to 

FRANK H. BUCK COMPANY 

VACAV1LLE. CALIFORNIA 



Cox Seed Co. 

Seed Growers and Nurserymen 

109 Market Street. San Francisco Cal. 

Also Large Slock carried in our Oakland 
Warehouses. 

Alfalfa, Grass Seeds, Clover, 

Beans and Peas. 
Trees and Plants of all kinds 

We carry the largest stock of Garden Seeds in 
the West 

For over thirty years, Cox's Seeds have been the 
Standard for Purity and Quality 

Our 1901 Catalogue, fully illustrated, will be mailed 
to all applicants free. It is full of valuable informa- 
tion and should be in the homes of all interested in 
Sowing and Planting. 



Ask for- SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State. 

For sale by all the large grocers, or rs r> 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave., San Jose, Cal. 



SOW WESTERN SEEDS 
IN WESTERN SOIL 



Here's a SPECIAL OFFER to make New Friends 
for LILLY'S Northern Grown Seeds 




S Vegetable seeds are 
grown on and adapted to 
this coast. These 10 varieties are 
the aristocrats of the kitchen-gar- 
den. They represent the acme of 
Lilly effort, the result of years of 
careful seed selection and cultiva- 
tion. This Special Offer gives you 
$1.50 in these seeds for $1.00. Read 
the descriptions, all of which are 
carefully and conservatively made. 
Living up to the catalogue descrip- 
tion is what has built up the rep- 
utation of Lilly's Best Seeds. 

PUGET SOUND SPECIAL 
TOMATO. 

This miniature, 
from a photo- 
graph, gives you 
an idea how the 
tomato produces. 
Is an early dwarf, 
stands free from 
the ground, with 
hard, firm, round 
stalks. Yields 
large clusters of round, firm, lus- 
cious fruit, beautiful rich color, 
free from blemish, stands shipment 
splendidly. A three-season leader; 
popular everywhere. Perfected by 
us on our experiment 
grounds at Brighton Beach, 
and can be obtained solely 
from us. Sold only in sealed pack- 
ets. Ounce, 60c; packet, 10c. 

GOLDEN JERSEY WAX BEAN. 
Brittle, tender, broad, thick — 

the best of all the yellow pod bush 
beans. Stringless. Beautiful 
golden color and delicious 
flavor. Vigorous, reliable, 

and an abundant producer, i-lb., 

2Sc; packet, 10c. 

JACK FROST SWEET CORN. 

Plump, milky kernels, that melt 
in your mouth; tender, sweet, pro- 
lific — really phenomenal. Dwarf 
variety, permitting close planting. 
Very hardy. Jack Frost seed has 
been perfected by ourselves on 
Puget Sound, is thoroughly accli- 
mated and peculiarly adapted to 
Pacific Coast conditions. Not only 
season's earliest, but longest 
and latest producer. We can- 
not say too much in en- 
dorsement of this corn. Large 
packet, 15c. 

LILLY'S GLORY CABBAGE. 

Glorious in flavor, gloriously 
sound, a glorious grower and a 
glorious shipper. Lilly ships tons 
of this cabbage seed across the 
continent, as this variety, perfect- 
ed on Puget Sound, is admitted to 
be the best cabbage grown. Even 
rounder and more solid than the 



Danish Ball Head, and infinitely 

better adapted to Pacific coast con- 
ditions. True to type, every 
head like its neighbor, sym- 
metrical, white inside and 

solid to the core, i-lb., $1.25; 1- 

oz., 35c; packet, 10c. 

PRIDE OF THE PACIFIC 
CUCUMBER. 

Almost a seedless cucumber, the 
seeds being small and few. Per- 
fectly smooth, very dark green, 
beautiful white flesh, perfect cu- 
cumber flavor, exceptionally firm, 
crisp and delicious. Grows 10 to 
18 inches long, always straight, and 
dark green until ripe. Vine 
hardy and vigorous; enor- 
mously productive; yields 
early and late in season, i-lb., 65c; 
2-oz., 40c; oz., 25c; packet, 10c. 

ENGLISH FORCING 
LETTUCE. 

Large, crisp, tender; best vari- 
ety for home culture, because eas- 
ily grown outdoors or in frames; 
rich color, ideal for garnishing. 
Hotels gladly pay one-third more 
for this lettuce. Stands more 
neglect in watering, and does not 
quickly run to seed. Most profitable 
for market purposes because 
quickly ready in fine large 
bunches of beautiful light 
green, which never spot, i-lb., 50c; 
oz., 20c; packet, 10c. 

MT. RAINIER PEA. 

Dark, rich green, well-filled pods, 
creamy and delicious; enormously 
productive. Propagated in Wash- 
ington, and the best early pea ever 
offered to western growers. 
Especially valuable for mar- 
ket gardeners, commanding 
the highest prices through the sea- 
son. Large packet, 10c. 

CRIMSON GLOBE BEET. 

Close grain flesh, very sweet, 
tender, blood red, delicately zoned 
with white. Exceedingly smooth 
surface. Finest in form, flavor 
and color. Free from woody, 
fibrous roots. Grows uni- 
form in size — about three inches 
through. Matures early. Pkt., 10c 

GOLDEN HALF-LONG 
CARROT. 

Best of all the yellow varieties. 
Very sweet, close in texture, gold- 
en yellow, solid, very smooth, at- 
tains large size, has small core, 
and adapted to all soils; under 
good cultivation yields 25 to 30 
tons per acre. Ready for table 
at all times during growth. 
Equally valuable for stock. 
A market favorite, i-lb., 25c; 
packet. 10c. 



CRIMSON GIANT RADISH. 
The larger it grows the solider it 
gets; twice the ordinary size. 
As hard as a bullet, while 
tender and deliciously crisp. 
Retains goodness long after ma- 
turity, i-lb., 40c; packet, 10c. 

SPECIAL PRICE OFFER. 

$1.50 worth of above seeds for 
$1.00. 

$1.00 worth of above seeds (one 
packet of each variety, with packet 
of Old Fashioned Flower Garden 
Seeds thrown in free) for 75c. 

Six 10c packets, with Flower 
Garden packet, 50c. 

Three 10c packets, 25c. 

Above prices are postage paid. 

fH-LVS SEEDS AND 
vjrOW fe3CS57 GROW RICH 

Plant Lilly's Best Northern- 
Grown Seeds, grown on this coast 
for this coast, and be sure of profit. 
You will find that the saying, "Best 
for the West" is true in every case, 
and that Lilly's Best Seeds will 
give you best results. The above 
are only ten varieties of Lilly's 
Best vegetable seeds. For infor- 
mation as to the full line, write for 

LILLY'S 1907 SEED CATALOG, 

Which will be sent free, postpaid, 
on request. Lilly's 1907 catalog 
surpasses all previous books in at- 
tractiveness and completeness of 
plant information. It is thorough- 
ly dependable, and besides contain- 
ing descriptions, price lists and 
culture directions of thousands of 
varieties of seeds, bulbs, roots and 
cuttings, it is a handbook of in- 
formation on poultry foods, poultry 
supplies, stock foods, fertil- 
izers, garden supplies, sprays, 
horticultural supplies, etc. 
If you want one, free, mark an X 
in the white square. 

HOW TO ORDER. 

Mark an X in each white square 
opposite the variety of seed you 
wish to order, mark the quantity 
in square or on margin, figure up 
the total, clip out the ad., and re- 
mit in same envelope with the 
clipped ad. Be sure and write your 
name and address plainly, filling in 
the following blank: 



Clip ad. and mail to 




Seattle, Wash. 

Enclosed is $ , for which 

please send me $ worth of 

Lilly's Best Vegetable Seeds, as 
marked above 

Name 

Address R.P.-1 



ETTERSBURG G00SEBRER 
Rose Ettersburg Strawberry. 

Ettersburg Gooseberry — Unique, vigorous 
grower, healthy so far as tried, very pro- 
ductive, medium sized berry, very thin and 
tender skin, and practically all meat, as 
there are but few seeds; three-fifths as 
much acid as other varieties and of highest 
quality. Was awarded a Bronze Medal at 
the L. and C. Exposition, which was the 
highest recognition that could be bestowed 
on a single exhibit of a single variety. Fine 
cuttings until February 15, $1.00 per dozen 
postpaid. 

Rose Ettersburg- Strawberry — Unique 
productive, valuable as a home berry on 
light, warm soils. Plants 50c a dozen or 
$2.25 per 100, postpaid. 

For full description see article in this 
paper January 12, 1907. Money orders on 
Bineland, Cal. 

ALBERT F. ETTER, 
Ettersburg, Humboldt Co., Cal. 



P 15 for $1.00 

l\0SeS Fi f n d :^owii ^ plants, 

10 m. to 2 feet. 
Send for Catalog. 

Gilroy, 

CEDR0 NURSERY, Cal. 



THOMAS PHOSPHATE POWDER 
NITRATE OF SODA 

THE LEADING FERTILIZERS OF TODAY 

FOR SALE BY 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE CO. 

San Francisco, Fresno. L,os Angeles 

Write to them for Pamphlets. 




- TO IRRIGATORS! 



Don't pay exorbitant 
prices to surveyors. Get 
a California Leveling In- 
strument anil do vour own 
leveling. Tripod, staff, 
lev el and sights for $7. 
Tripod and staff only, $5. 
If dealer does not keep 
ihem send to 

B. A. Goodwin, 

R.ipon, Cal. 

Money refun.led if not 
satisfactory. 



Hoyt's Tree Support 

Patented Nov. 26, 1901. 
Patented Sept. 22, 1903. 
THE PROPLESS PROP THAT 
PROPERLY PROPS A TREE. 

A Useful Thing is a Joy Eorever 




Hoyt's Tree Support on the Tree. 

Over Three Million Sold Since 
Introduction in 1 903 

After your trees have broken down, over- 
loaded with fruit, don't howl about your 
hard luck. The preventative is cheap, 
effective, permanent. 

FOR FULL PARTICULARS and descrip- 
tive booklet write 

MacDONALD CSL SONS 

WATSON VI LLE, CALIFORNIA 

General Agents for the HOYT TREE 
SUPPORT COMPANY 



Books For The Farm 



The New Egg Farm 

By H. H. Stoddard. A practical, re- 
liable manual upon producing eggs 
and poultry tor market as a profitable 
business enterprise, either by itself or 
connected with other branches of agri- 
culture. It tells all about how to feed 
and manage, how to breed and select, 
incubators and brooders, Its labor- 
saving devices, etc., etc. 12mo. 331 
pages. 140 original illustrations 
Cloth $1.00 



32 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 12, 1907 




Deere 

Universal 

Lever Harrows 



Deere Universal Disc Harrows 

For Orchard, Vineyard, Garden and 
General Field Cultivation. 

Made in 3, 4, 5 and 6 feet sizes with 18 or 20 inch Discs. 
Gangs are reversible and can be extended on the circle bar 

with ease. 
Double levers for operating the gangs. 

Write for special ciroular 




Made in all sizes, from 4 to 24 feet. 
Frames are made of heavy channel steel. 

Patented adjustable tooth clamps lock the teeth whenever set. 

Lever has a relief spring which saves breakage when coming 

in contact with roots or stones. 
Combination draw bars used on all harrows of three sections and 

over. 



Deere Implement Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



0^ se 




I FERTILIZERS 

| MANUFACTURED- * 
7 Br 

^Tme Mountain 
; Copper Co. 

j I020I4FST. 1 

OAKLAND J 

| ,. CAL -M 




IF YOUR DEALER DOES NOT CARRY 

MOCOCO 

FERTILIZERS, 
order direct. 

Pamphlet and Price List free, 
on application . 
Accept no substitute,- insist on 

having MOCOCO ' 



Krogh Pumps Are the Best 

For Irrigation, Reclamation, Mining 

We Build Pumps For Direct Connection to Any Kind of Engine or Motor 
WRITE US FOR INFORMATION 

KROGH MFG. CO. 

2132 Folsom Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

CALIFORNIA VEGETABLES. 

By PROF. E. J. WICKSON, Author "California Fruits." 



IVATIONAL. WOOD 3PIF»E^ CO. 

WOO!! PIPP Wood ward Patent Machine Banded Wheeler Patten 
' T UUU I 1 1 L Continuous Stave Bored Wood Water Pipe 

Made from California Redwood or Selected Puget Sound Yellow Fir 
Los AnHeles Office: 6th and Mateo Sts. 518 1 1th St., Oakland 

Pu6et Sound Office: Olympla, Wash. 

A Booklet: "The Whole Story About Wood Pipe," Mailed Free Upon Request. 



▲ MANUAL Or PRACTICE WITH AND WITHOUT IRRIGATION. THE BOOK COM- 
PLETELY COVERS ITS FIELD. A FULL ILLUSTRATED CHAPTER EACH ON 

Farmers' Gardens In California Artichokes Pappera 

Vegetable Growing- In California Beans Potato.* 

California Climate aa Related to Beets Radiahea 

Vegetable Growing Cabbage Family Rhubarb 
Vegetable Bolla of California Carrot, Parsnip and Salsify Spinach 

Clary Squashes 

Chicory Tomato 

Corn Turnip 

Cucumber Vegetable Sundries 

Egg Plant Vegetables for Canning 

Lettuce and Drying 

Melons Seed Sowing in California 

Onion Family Garuen Protection 

Peaa Weeds In California 



Garden Irrigation 
Garden Drainage in California 
Cultivation 
Fertilisation 

Garden Location and Arrange- 
ment 

The Planting Season 

Propagation 

Asparagus 



Pric. $2.00 Postpaid 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publishers, " 



Temporary Office, Berkeley, Cal, 



Francis Smith «& 


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lt'aotn 

Of 


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FOR TOWN WATER 


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Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office and Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, Cal. 

Water and Oil Tanks— all sires C.ating all sizes of Pipes with AsphaltUB 



Prof. Hilgard's New Book on Soils 

The Greatest in the World 

Read "The Week" in Pacific Rural Press of Sept, 29 

Soils, their formation, properties, composition and relations to climate and 
plant growth in Humid and Arid{Regions. 

By E. W. Hilgardoftht University of California. 

Large Octavio 593 pages illustrated $4 

Especially valuable in California and Pacific Slope generally 

Send orders to PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

First National Bank Building. Berkeley. Cal. 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



LXXIII. No. 3. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 19, 1907. 



Thirty-seventh Year 



FRUIT TREES AND ALKALI SOILS. 



Following closely upon the exhibit of the ill effects of alkaline water 
upon fruit trees in out last issue, comes a showing of the effects of 
different amounts of alkali in the soil which these pictures suggest. 
How much alkali a fruit tree will endure depends upon the kind of salt 
which really comprises what is commonly called alkali and upon the 
kind of tree. The wide researches of Professors Hilgard and Lough- 
ridge, mentioned in our last issue, have done much to promote an 
understanding of this matter, and the pictures on this page represent 
trees directly concerned in their observations and analyses. The first 
shows how much difference there is in plums; the first tree being a 
thrifty French prune or myrobalan and near it a Robe de Sergeant on a 
common plum root. The myrobalan seems in fact to be quite resistant. 
At the Tulare sub-station the amount where they grew was only about 
12,000 pounds per acre in four feet ot soil, and of this only 1,360 
was of carbonate and 1,200 of common salt. It is commonly observed 
that the prune flourishes in alkali soils where the peach is severely 
affected; we may therefore place the power of tolerance at high figures 
for conmon salt at least. 

Another picture shows how differently apples act. Samples of soil 
were taken to the depth of four feet under the Duchess of Oldenburg, 
which was in very poor condition, with no fruit, and whose top was 
losing its leaves; the Jonathan, also very poor, and the Red 
Bietigheimer, which was in excellent condition. The results of the 
examination make it clear that while the apple will tolerate the presence 
of 14,000 pounds of sulfates, 650 of carbonate of soda, and 1,200 of corn- 





Prune on Myrobalan stock. 



Plum on plum stock. 




Red Bietigheimer. 



Duchess of Oldenburg. 



Jonathan. 




The apricot tree as affected by a slight increase in the amount of alkali. 



nion salt, it is injured by 1,200 pounds of.carbonate 
and 3,000 pounds of common salt per acre distributed 
through four feet depth. The Jonathan seems to 
be more sensitive than the Duchess. 

The third plate shows the apricot in alkali. 
The trees photographed were selected as repre- 
senting the best and the worst condition res- 
pectively, Both trees were grown upon apricot 
roots. The differences between the two were very 
marked, in the greater height and full foliage, 
large leaves and vigorous growth in the one, and 
the thinner foliage, smaller and blighted leaves, 
new leaves in clusters at end of limb, and evident 
poor health in the other; some twigs had lost 
their leaves entirely. The results of the exami- 
nation of the respective soils in which these trees 
were growing show that while the total alkali and 
that of each salt are greater in the soil of the poor 
tree, and that to either of these might be attributed 
the trouble, it is more than likely that either tha 
sulfate or the common salt is the true caiise; for 
their amounts are excessive, while that of the car- 
bonate is lower than what is tolerated by most 
cultures. 

It should be under- 
stood, of course, that 
the weights of salts 
mentioned in connec- 
tion with these fruit 
trees are quite evenly 
distributed through 
a large bulk of soil 
such as is comprised 
by a depth of four 
feet through an acre 
of ground. Whenever 
alkali is concentrated 
strongly at any point 
greater injury may be 
expected, such as 
corrosions of the root, 
crown of a plant or 
possibly by concentra- 
tion below which 
causes distress when 
it is reached by 
searching roots. Much 
more will he known 
along this line in the 
future, through ob- 
servation and experi- 
ments. 



34 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 19, 1907 



Pacific Rural Press 

Published Temporarily at Berkeley, Gal. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN 7U)V71XGE 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



Entered at S V. Postoffice as second-class mail matter 



DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. 



Publishers 



K. J. WICKSON 
HDCAR RICK ART) 



Kditor 
Business Manager 



THE WEEK 



The weather is overdone. Everyone would be de- 
lighted if it would do nothing for a few weeks. It is, 
of course, the foundation for all kinds of prosperity 
and happiness but even as a foundation it is becoming 
rather too secure. The State is wet down to bedrock 
and that is enough for the thing itself and enough to 
say of it, except to express satisfaction that nothing 
is suffering nor has anything been seriously hurt. It 
Is only inconvenient to be wet and chilly all the time 
and to be withheld from things afield which one greatly 
desires to do. 



pany intends to purchase, and when his mission there 
is accomplished he will come to California for the same 
purpose. The company will have a paid-up capital of 

$50,000. 

It seems that the arrangements for denatured alco- 
hol will be farther simplified as the present law seems 
to confine its operation to capitalized organizations in 
some way. Senator Hansborough of North Dakota has 
introduced a bill in Congress which provides that a 
farmer may erect a still, then send for a revenue offi- 
cer, who attaches a 'container' made accordng to gov- 
ernment regulations. The official seals this, into it 
goes the alcohol distilled, the producer being unable 
to touch the distilled product under seal. When the 
still is full the revenue officer is called; he detaches 
the container, gauges and measures its contents, wit- 
nesses the process of denaturing and then permits the 
producer to use the alcohol as the latter chooses. This 
or some other simple method will protect Uncle Sam 
against moonshine liquor and will also protect the 
farruer from becoming a toper because he cannot get 
a taste of it before it is killed with nasty chemicals. 
In Germany alone the annual consumption of potatoes 
in making alcohol is 100,000,000 bushels and upward, 
and there are over 72,000 alcohol ditilleries in opera- 
tion. 



Forestry propositions are active at the legislature 
which is now in session. Mr. Drew of Fresno has in- 
troduced a bill creating a State Board of Forestry. A 
member from San Francisco has a bill establishing in- 
struction in forestry in the University and providing 
for it. The State Forester, M. G. B. Lull, has just pub- 
lished an interesting report of the State work in fire 
prevention, etc. In fact, it seems that something may 
really be done for the trees. We are more confident in 
that belief because the Water and Forest Association 
at its last meeting elected as its president, Mr. Arthur 
It. Briggs of San Francisco, who is a man who not only 
loves the tree, but has appreciation also of enlightened 
lumbering and forest preservation. Mr. Briggs is also 
a man of wide executive experience and personal in- 
fluence. We count his election a distinct gain to the 
cause. The whole thing has a hopeful look, both for 
the present and the future. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



The American idea of an International Institute of It seems t0 have been made clear that people can | 
Agriculture as conceived and promoted by Mr. David j contract tuberculosis from eating products from tuber- 
Lubin of Sacramento is winning wide favor. The na- j culous cowg The Bureau of Animal Industry at Wash- 1 
tions are preparing to pay their money for it and that j ington has just published a bulletin containing a re- 
is a pretty good test of popularity. Germany is willing [ port of experiments that have been conducted by Dr. 
to expend $15,000 for her share in the undertaking and j B c Scnroe der and W. B. Cotton. They have under- 
enter in the first of the groups, and will have five votes. | taken experimen t s wit h hogs and cattle for the main 

purpose of testing the susceptibility of the lungs to 



Germany will contribute $5,000 for each of the two en- 
suing years, and $8,000 for the subsequent ones; it. 



infection with tubercle bacilli, regardless of the point 



will moreover provide for the expenses of the German &t wWch tQe infectious mat erial enters the body. Not 
delegation to the general assembly and to the perman- \ Qnly wag u snown ^ tuberculosis may reaUily be 



ent committee. A further sum of $6,000 will be granted 
as a supplement to the German council of agriculture 



caused in the lungs, no matter through what channel 
the bacilli gain entrance to the body. Tuberculous ma- 



in order for it to perfect its system of reports on the j terial from catUe nas ^ highest virulence for all 
prices of agricultural staples, and these reports will be j tested &pecies of the mammalian king dom to which man ! 
placed at the disposal of the central international office anatomically and physiologically belongs, and tubercu- j 



of the institute in Rome. This is the way to start to- 
ward the realization of an official world's crop report 
which is one of the aims of the Institute. 

It is certainly an interesting indication of the grow- 
ing trust in agricultural graduates as men fit to take 
charge of practical affairs, that a Chicago man named 
Bullock has engaged the whole graduating class at the 
Colorado Agricultural College to take various places on 
an immense farm which is developing in Mexico. An 
account in the Boston Journal of Education, which a 
friend sends us, says that this 'farm' in Mexico is a re- 
markable one, fifty-four miles long, in a wonderfully 
fertile valley within shipping distance of the city of 
Mexico. The farm is well stocked, and two young 
men from the dairy school will have charge of a dairy 
with 1,000 cows. Two of the young men will go as hog 
experts, and over 1,000 hogs will be intrusted to their 
care. Bullock examined the machinery at the college 
for up-to-date farming, and will take several of the boys 
to do his farming by machinery. There are 40,000 acres 
to be irrigated on this ranch, a large portion of which 
is to be put into grain, and 130,000 acres of virgin soil 
is to be cultivated. Much of the work is to be done 
by traction engines and gang plows, such as are used 
at the college. The whole thing seems very large, even 
from a California point of view, and we shall all be 
glad to see how it comes out. 



losis material from man has a lower virulence. Man 
is constantly exposed to fresh tuberculosis material in 
a helpless way through his use of dairy products from 
tuberculosis cows and cows associated with tubercu- 
losis cattle. 

It was formerly the practice nearly everywhere in 
California, and still is in some places, to judge the Cali- 
fornia apple by the Eastern and condemn it for in- 
feriority. To those who ever held such a view it may ; 
be a revelation to learn that now Eastern apples are 
judged by a California standard. The Rural New 
New Yorker in a recent issue said : "At the recent 
meeting of the Maine Pomological Society there was | 
some curiosity to sse a box of apples from the Pacific 
Coast. We bought a sample box and sent it to Maine, 
where the fruit growers were greatly interested in the 
appearance of the fruit and the manner of packing. It 
was the conviction of good judges that these Pacific 
Coast apples were no better than the best fruit on ex- 
hibition by the society. We once sent a similar box 
to the Virginia society, and the same thing was true. 
There was just as good fruit in the hall— grown in 
Virginia. At the Connecticut meeting a shrewd visitor 
took a California box and packed it full of Connecticut 
apples. The growers did not recognize their own fruit. 



These things show us the secret of success won by 
As supplementary to what we recently said about Cal- those far Western growers. They sell nothing but the 

finest specimens, and pack them just as people want 
them. Then they guarantee the fruit!" Here we have 
then a complete revival of the old standards. Maine 
and Virginia claim that their apples are just as good 
as ours when they are well packed. Eastern apples 
just as good as California; well, well! 



ifornia canteloupe seed leading the trade at the East 
it is interesting to note the formation in Cleve- 
land of a company to grow canteloupes in 
California and conduct truck - farming in the 
South. A representative is said to have started for 
the South today for the purpose of securing op- 
tions on different tracts of land the new com- 



NEMATODES ON FIG KOOTS. 

To the Editor: I rooted some lig cuttings on old 
alfalfa ground last summer and some of the roots have 
nodulus as per inclosed sample. Are tiiese nodulus any- 
thing that will interfere with the future growth of the 
tree or destroy its value as nursery stock? — GROWER, 
San Joaquin valley. 

The small nodules on the fine roo s of your young 
fig trees are caused by nematode worms. These are 
small thread-like creatures almost microscopic in size 
which cause an enlargement of ihe root by their irrita- 
tion and then go through their processes of reproduc- 
tion in the enlarged tissues. It is certainly undesirable 
to carry these pests into the fig orchards. If you find 
that these nodules only exist on the small fibrous roots 
you can still use the trees by carefully pulling off all 
these fine roots and planting only the larger roots which 
are not infested. If the planting of figs is made in clean 
ground which is not kept too moist by irrigation it is 
very doubtful if these worms will be able to live, be- 
cause a pretty constant moisture supply, such as one 
gets in alfalfa fields or gardens, is probably necessary 
to their existence. Fortunately, it is only seldom that 
these pests are found in our fig and walnut orchards, 
although both trees are quite liable to have them un- 
der conditions which favor their multii lication. 

THE BLACKEYE BEAN GATHERS NITROGEN. 

To the Editor: Is the blackeye bean considered a 
nitrogen gatherer? Its appearance is much that of the 
cow pea and I have noticed nodules on the rootlets, so 
have thought it probable that it possessed similar pro- 
perties— INQUIRER, Lodi. 

It surely is. All legumes have the ability to do it, 
from a tall acacia tree to a creeping clover beneath it. 
How useful the fact is to man depends upon its activity 
in the work and availability of its substance for turn- 
ing under and quick decay. This has to be determined 
for each plant by local observation. 

BASKET WILLOWS IN CALIFORNIA. 

To the Editor: I noted with interest what you said 
in the Pacific Rural Press of December 8 concerning 
the growing of basket willows in California. I now 
send a copy of a letter received from Mr. S. T. Kenyon, 
a basket manufacturer of this city, which speaks for 
itself: 

•1 have been an employer thirty-five years and 
traveled much In England, Scotland, the continent and 
over Australia in connection with the trade , also 
throughout the United States, where I have seen all 
kinds of basket making from all kinds of material. 
Also have introduced many kinds of baskets here, with 
many new ideas, and have been in touch with. willow 
growers everywhere, including California, and have 
studied books on the subject from England, also from 
Washington, D. C. Now, my experience amounts to 
this much, that if willows are to be grown here they 
must be grown in sandy soil and in as cold a place 
as can be found or they will be subject to insect pest, 
as Is the case with the ones grown in San Jose. Rich 
lanus make the butts too thick, as also does too much 
water. Water-logged land is suitable for the osier, but 
the true willow, 'Salix purpurea," does not requira 



January 19, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



35 



much water, etc. Willow is to-day quoted in Berlin 
twenty pounds* per ton. Osier is quoted in Rotterdam 
eleven pounds per ton and is subject to 20 per cent 
duty, including duty on the freight. Oregon willow is 
the best known and most suitable for our trade and can 
be laid down here from Sy 2 to 10 cents per pound. I 
find also that no known material can replace the willow 
and that the making of willow baskets is a trade, 
while that of other material can not be strictly called 
so, as unskilled labor can be employed. Now, as re- 
gards the use of willow and quantity which could be 
consumed here, R. F. Haight Company, 6 E street, city, 
manufacturer's agent, states that one carload of bas- 
Kets is sold every week here, with a value of $2,000, 
naif of which represents willow. Now comes my 
former question. Are willows grown here and where 
can I find suitable land for their growth and at whal 
price?" 

It would appear from Mr. Kenyon's letter that it 
Bhould be commercially profitable to grow these wil- 
lows and it seems that an industry of some magnitude 
could easily be built up. Will you kindly give me 
any information you may have on lands and localities 
suitable for the growth and production of willows 
suitable for basket making?— RUFUS P. JENNINGS, 
California Promotion Committee, San Francisco. 

The letter by Mr. S. T. Kenyon is very interesting. 
He is exactly right as to the conditions which in th's 
State will produce the willow most suitable for basket 
purposes, and such land as he described can be ob- 
tained very cheaply all the way from the hill lands of 
northern Sonoma to the Oregon line. There are very 
large areas of land in northern California which at 
the present time only grow chaparral, but which if set 
to willows and cultivated a little to retain moisture 
would give quite large enough growth on the usual 
rainfall of that part of the State. As we said in our 
Issue of December 8, osier willows have been commer- 
cially grown in California for many years' and we shall 
be glad to receive accounts of experience with them. 

MAKING CEMENT PIPE IN THE TRENCH. 

To the Editor: Some twenty-five years ago, a small 
hand machine was in use to mould or lay down cement 
pipes of small size. A trench was opened a few inches 
wide and of the depth desired. The machine was placed 
in the trench. The mixed cement, or concrete, was 
shoveled into a small receiver, or hopper. Then by 
working a hand lever, the cement mixture was mould- 
ed into a water pipe of desired caliber — 1 to 3 or 4 
inches — and the newly made pipe occupied its perma- 
nent position in the trench. The working of the 
hand lever, in addition to moulding the pipe, moved the 
machine forward, inch by inch. Is such a simple ma- 
chine now in use by orchardists and others in Cali- 
fornia, and is it on sale by implement and supply 
dealers?— READER, Colorado. 

You have des'cribed a machine invented by Mr. E. 
M. Hamilton of Los Angeles as a part of his 'asbestine' 
system of subirrigation. Neither the machine nor the 
system ever came into wide use and we doubt if the 
former can be found on sale anywhere. More recently 
a power machine for doing the same work, laying 
continuous! pipe for conveying water, has been used to 
some extent in Southern California. 

A BORER PRESENT BUT NOT THE CAUSE. 

To the Editor: We are sending you by express a 
little box, containing a peach tree, cut down to con- 
venient size, about which we are very desirous to 
obtain a little information. A fruit grower in this 
district planted twenty-five acres to Phillips and Tuscan 
peach trees in the spring of 1905. The land was con- 
sidered to be first-class and had been planted to peach 
trees before, the former orchard, however, was taken 
up in 1900 and the land sowed to alfalfa. The plot 
produced excellent crops of alfalfa for five years in 
succession, after which time the owner decided to plant 
It to peach trees again. The trees, however, nearly all 
died and the orchard was replanted in the spring of 
1906, with the same result: 75 per cent of the trees 
are dead and the balance show a very scant growth. 
The young orchard has received at all times the very 
best of care and the owner is at a loss to account for 
this condition and does not feel justified to replant 
unless he can find a remedy that will prevent a repe- 
tition of this loss. In every dead tree can be found 
one or more little borers and we have enclosed a 
specimen in the box containing the tree. The owner is 
under the impression that this borer has killed the 



trees, but it seems to us more likely that it did not 
get into the tree until after its death. Is it not possi- 
ble that the presence of roots from the old peach trees 
in the soil is responsible for the fact that the trees 
will not grow? An adjoining five-acre patch, formerly 
planted to pear trees, grubbed out at the same time 
as the old peach trees and treated in the same manner 
as the twenty-five acres referred to, shows better re- 
sults.— READER, Hanford. 

We have examined with interest the tree specimen 
which you send and the insect accompanying it. The 
insect is the larva of the common flat headed borer, 
which is abundant everywhere in California. It is the 
offspring of a beetle which is always on the lookout 
to lay its eggs on the fruit trees which are dead or 
dying from sunburn. It does not attack healthy trees. 
You are right, therefore, in concluding that this in- 
sect is not the cause of injury, nor does the trouble 
seem to rise from sunburn, because this is usually 
plainly discernible on one side of the tree which is 
affected, while this tree seems to have died evenly, 
from some obscure cause of which the stump which 
you send gives no indication. If the owner of the or- 
chard is willing to go to the trouble and expense of 
sending us a small tree which has not been so long 
dead, but is evidently nearly gone while still retain 
ing some indication of life, together with some of the 
soil in which this tree is vainly struggling to grow, 
we shall be glad to make examination, both of the 
tree and the soil and to send reports of any adverse 
conditions which we are able to discover. 

A LOCAL LIPPIA. 

To the Editor: I send you today by mail a sample 
of plant that grows on the lowlands. It seems to be 
good feed and makes a thick sod. It should make an 
excellent lawn plant. Is it the Llppla repens described 
in the Rural Press of October 27, 1906?— SUBSCRIBER, 
Dixon. 

The plant which you send is a lippia, and probably 
Llppla lanceolata, since that is the common wild lippia 
in California. The specimen is too young to allow de- 
termination of species exactly. 

ALL ABOUT RICE. 

To the Editor: Please send me all the information 
you have on rice, including latest statistics relative 
to the crop, the acreage planted, showing the increase 
or decrease upon previous years, etc. I would like to 
know about its soil adaptations, fertilizers used and 
the methods commonly adopted in applying them. The 
methods used in cultivating, irrigating, etc.; the har- 
vesting, marketing and its manufacture, showing its 
different grades of rice and their products, viz., straw, 
hulls, bran, polish, etc., and the number of things 
these products are used for. — READER, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. 

There is no rice grown in California and we are 
rather remote from the source of information on that 
subject. Concerning the growing of rice you can get 
publications from the Bureau of Plant Industry, United 
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 
and concerning the manufacturing side with statistics 
of the number of rice mills, their location and pro- 
duct, also with a historical and descriptive sketch with 
reference to rice growing in the United States and the 
world, from bulletin 61, just issued by the Bureau of 
the Census, by S. N. D. North, Washington, D. C. A 
copy of this bulletin will be sent on application to Mr. 
North and I think this, in connection with the reports 
of the agricultural side from the Bureau of Plant In- 
dustry, will furnish everything that you desire to know. 

VINE CLEANING. 

To the Editor: I am thinking of using a bluestone 
water after pruning vines, i. e., for healng the wounds, 
and more especially for cleaning vines effected by 
climatic conditions. Kindly give me your opinion as to 
above, and quantity of water required to the pound of 
bluestone.— A. E. S., Lodl. 

You can safely use bluestone as strong as you can 
make it with cold water but we should prefer the Bor- 
deaux mixture as less liable to do harm and more 
likely to be useful. 



PASPALUM DILATATUM. 

To the Editor: I have tried Paspalum dilatatum, 
with unfavorable results. Planted on rather dry ground, 
but cultivated, its growth was not satisfactory, though 
it lived for three years. It blossomed in the fall so 
that no seed matures on account of frost. I concluded 
it might do better where it could be irrigated and 
transplanting what was left to a better location, but 
an ambitious hired man hoed it up and I never thought 
enough of it to try it again. Its peculiar history hav- 
ing been a native of some of the Southern States, 
taken to Australia, where ic was rejuvenated so that 
its friends failed to recognize it, and returned as a new 
plant, is worthy of notice.— H. OVERACKE, JR., St. 
Helena. 

This agrees very closely with the observation on 
this grass which Mr. Etter has described in his ar- 
ticles. As for its glorified return from Australia to 
the United States, that has occurred in the history of 
other grasses. Bromus Schraderi did that and is even 
known as 'California prairie grass' in the southern 
hemisphere. 

POTATO SCAB. 

To the Editor: Please inform me as to treatment of 
seed potatoes at planting time, to prevent scab. I think 
the remedy is corrosive sublimate, but cannot remember 
strength of solution, etc. — GROWER, Sacramento 
county. 

There are two successful treatments for scab in po- 
tatoes. One is dipping in a solution of corrosive sub- 
limate. Dissolve one ounce in eight gallons of water 
and soak the seed potatoes in this solution for one and 
one-half hours before cutting. This treatment kills the 
scab spores which may be upon the exterior of the 
potatoes. More recently, however, to avoid danger in 
handling such a rank poison as corrosive sublimate, 
formalin has been used, and one pint of commercial 
formalin, as it is bought in the stores, is diluted with 
thirty gallons of water and potatoes are soaked in this 
for two hours. Thirty gallons of this dip ought to treat 
about fifty bushels of potatoes. 

PASPALUM DILATATUM. 

To the Editor: On account of its rank growth, in very 
poor soil (single plants being a solid mass of foliage 
three feet in diameter), Paspalum dilatatum was one of 
the first plants that attracted my attention when I came 
here. I was very much surprised to learn it had re- 
ceived no irrigation for two years. A few days after 
watering this plot, I was more surprised to find a row 
of plants growing near the fence, on the north side of 
the plot, formerly the pear orchard, in very strong 
alkali. It occurred to me that a plant that will flourish 
under such unfavorable conditions must be a valuable 
forage plant, and worthy of a thorough trial. I under- 
stand this row was planted two years since and had re- 
ceived no irrigation since it was first planted. — J. T. 
BEARSS, Experiment Station, Tulare. 

This behavior of the plant in a region of high heat 
and drouth and alkali is important to note. We trust 
Mr. Bearss will make a larger planting and keep the 
plant under careful observation as to growth season, 
seed bearing, etc. 

TOMATO PRICES AND YIELDS. 

To the Editor: What do canners pay for tomatoes; 
also what do they go in tons to the acre and what 
kinds do they prefer? As there is no cannery near 
here, I ask you the questions. — SUBSCRIBER, Stan- 
islaus county. 

We shrink from answering such questions. The can- 
ners pay the least they can, just like other wise buyers, 
taking all advantage they can of market fluctuations. 
They also contract under certain conditions and what 
they will pay depends upon several things. The way to 
ascertain just what kinds they want for the different 
seasons and from different localities is to write to the 
canners at the best shipping distance from the point of 
production. This is a point of personal business about 
which we are quite as apt to mislead as to edify. The 
yield per acre depends upon the land, the man and the 
season. We like to tell people how to do things when 
we can; what they can make by doing them they must 
find out for themselves. If we were wiser, we would do 
better. 



36 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 19, 1907 



HORTICULTURE. 



THE SHELLED WALNUT INDUSTRY. 

To the Editor: Since the walnut industry (thanks 
to the late French varieties of walnuts) is making such 
immense strides on this coast, turning out so finely -and 
promising so much as a regular industry, even far away 
into the Pacific Northwest of Oregon and Washington. 
It would be well for our walnut growers to get posted 
as to the best market for their product, and under what 
form walnuts are used all over the country, and, there- 
fore, what varieties might be the best for them to 
plant. 

Walnuts are put on the market under two forms, 
that is, not shelled and shelled. A large amount of the 
unshelled imported walnuts and almost the whole of the 
California output are sold as dessert nuts, while the im- 
ported shelled, and a portion of the imported not shelled, 
are used for confections, principally for the manufac- 
turing of walnut cream candy. Our people, I think, 
have no idea of the immense quantities of shelled wal- 
nuts imported into this country from abroad, nearly 
all from France, in halves, and in cases of 25 killograms 
or 55 pounds each. In former articles to the Rural 
Press, I have given figures on the imports of walnuts 



Departments in France, but most all the walnut trees 
there are seedlings. 

The largest of the three classes is Mayette, the next 
Bordeaux, fine meats, too, and last, Chaberte,, but so I 
great is the demand for that nut that it sells higher 
than the larger nuts of Dordogne. As to the price 
shelled walnuts are held at on the American market, 
1 will hereby give them to your readers. I will say 
first that those figures were obtained from the largest 
nut importing firm in New York, shelled walnuts being 
quoted as follows: 

Mayette, one-half walnuts, 55-lb. cases, 38 cents per ' 
pound. 

Chaberte, one-half walnuts, 55-lb. cases, 29 cents per 
pound. 

Bordeaux, one-half walnuts, 55-lb. cases, 26 cents per ' 
pound. 

Thus is it shown that fine as Bordeaux walnuts are, I 
the little Chaberte brings 3 cents more per pound, and | 
the Mayette 12 cents more. "Planters" might see at a 
glance which of the three classes is the most profit- j 
able to plant. 

As your readers may be surprised to hear that the j 
Franquette, a fine dessert nut and also of first qual- 
ity, is not quoted as a shelled walnut, I will hereby 
give the reasons for it. The walnut shelling business 



fiscal year ending June 30, 1906, and as compared with 
the importations of the previous year: 
Walnuts. 

Pounds. 

1905.— Not shelled 16,312,138 

Shelled 4,178,009 



Total 20,490,147 

1906.— Not shelled 15,009,724 

Shelled 4,948,175 



Total 19.977,899 

Almonds. 

1905.— Not shelled 5,542,246 

Shelled 6,523,228 



1906.- 



Total 12,065,474 

-Not shelled 6,119,301 

Shelled 8,299,030 



Total 14,418,331 

Filberts. 

1905. — Not shelled 6,669,857 

Shelled 915,227 



in general, now I will give you the figures on the im 

ports of shelled walnuts in particular, for the last five j is quite an industry, and as unshelled walnuts sell by 



1906. 



years, including 1906: 

Pounds. 

1902 2,224,879 

1903 3,035,970 

1904 3,579,941 

1905 4,178,009 

1906 4,948,175 

Though the book of statictics on the imports of mer- 
chandise into the United States for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1906, is not published yet, I obtained 
in writing, through the courtesy of the Chief of Bu- 
reau of Statistics of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor, Mr. O. P. Austin, the figures on the imports of 
all nuts for the year 1906. 

You will notice the steady increase in the imports 
of shelled walnuts, the amount having more than 
doubled since 1902, that is in four years. I will add 
right here that the same ratio has been steadily kept 
with the imports of shelled almonds and shelled fil- 
berts. 

But, and that is the main reason for the writing of 
this communication, our people seem to hold erroneous snellin S purposes 
ideas on that increasing trade, being much mistaken It is easy for any one to understand why thin-shelled 
in regard to the varieties and size of walnuts constitut- ' walnuts are so much sought after by people engaged 



I the pound, while really they should sell by the gallon 
and bushel, the nut crackers of France buy for shell- 
: ing purposes only nuts with thin and light shells, like 
| the three classes mentioned above; and as the Fran- 
quette has a rather thick and heavy shell compared to 
I Mayette, Chaberte and Bordeaux, and the meat has not 
the desirable shape for the manufacturing of walnut 
cream candy, being too long, it is altogether rejected 
for shelling purposes, and solely used as a dessert nut. 

Answering my questions regarding the Franquette, 
the great New York importing firm referred to in this 
letter, wrote to me as follows, under date of April 4, 
1906: "Your letter at hand, regarding Franquette wal- 
nuts, and in reply would say that we do not import 
those walnuts as such. What few come here, as a rule, 
we thing, come mixed with Mayette." When in the 
district where both, Mayette and Franquette, are pro- 
pagated by grafting the great majority of the trees are 
Mayette, as the demand for that nut is so much larger 
than that for the former; so, for all these reasons, the 
Franquette, though a first-class nut, is not used for 



Total 7,585,084 

-Not shelled 13,414,887 

Shelled 1,155,734 



Total 14,570,621 

The above figures speak for themselves and should 
encourage our nutgrowers all over the Pacific Coast 
to plant nut trees of all kinds, with the certainty, in 
the course of time, of capturing the most of that great 
industry, as we have done with the prune. 

FELIX GILLET. 

Nevada City, Cal., January 8, 1907. 



THE BOTANIST. 



ing this shelled walnut industry; in fact, they entertain 
similar and wrong ideas on the industry, that our wal- 
nut growers in Southern California did when claiming 
that — since that part of the State was producing such 
large quantities of walnuts — the importations were get- 
ting less and less every year, and just at the time when 
within one year the imports just doubled, and from 
11,972,408 pounds in 1903, shelled and not shelled, 
reached in 1904 the enormous figures of 23,033,953 



in the shelled walnut business: First, selling by- 
weight, the nuts yield a larger quantity in meats than 
the thick-shelled walnuts, and then they crack so much 
more easily, for the meat must not be broken smaller 
than in halves. Not one per cent will crack wrong, if 
the shell is thin, and the nut is struck on the face, and 
not on the seam. People will notice in cracking wal- 
nuts, with a light hammer, that the seam of the kernel 
corresponds to each face of the shell, while the seam 



pounds. Well, the same ignorance seems to prevail in of the shell corresponds to each face of the kernel, sol 
regard to shelled walnuts, and such silly remarks as 1 1 if striking the nut on the seam, the meat is liable to be ' of no value here. 



A STUDY OF FORAGE PLANTS AT ETTERSBERG, 
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

(Written for the Pacific Rural Press by Albert F. Etter.) 
[Fifth Paper.] 
Agropyrons, or Wheat Grasses. — Ten species of wheat 
grasses were tried here, viz.: Agropyron pseudo-repens, 
A. repens, A. acutum, A. caninis, A. Richardsoni, A. 
villosum, A. tenerum, A. spicatum, A. repens (Smock), 
and A. occidentalis. Only one of these, A. villosum 
(soft wheat grass), made anything like a showing and 
it takes two years, when spring sown, to make as 
much as a crop of grain, and then, unless sown again, 
it disappears. It did not volunteer on the plot, which 
may be accounted for by it having large seeds which 
are readily picked up by mice. None of the other 
species appear to show any adaptation, unless it be A. 
occidentalis, and there are so many other grasses more 
promising that it is hardly to be considered. 
Panicum colonum, P. virgatum and P. obtusum are 



have read, for instance, in an Oregon paper, from a 
California correspondent: "Let planters know," said 
that correspondent, "that the non-commercial Proe- 
parturiens; the small, unsalable culls of the large or- 
chards, and the great amount of shelled walnuts im- 
ported from abroad, furnish all the supplies confection- 
ers can use." Now, such gross ignorance about the 
shelled walnuts industry is, indeed, laughable, not to 
say pitiable; before flinging such declarations into the 
faces of 'planters,' such correspondents should be 
made get knowledge, and not write at random and, in 
doing so, mislead the public. 

The shelled walnut industry is not made up of the 
culls of our large orchards and unsalable walnuts; it 
is the contrary, and only the meats of our finest and 
best varieties are used. The idea that our high grade 
candy establishments of the East would use for their 
fine walnut cream candy, the refuse of our orchards, is 
simply preposterous. It is safe to say that all the 
shelled walnuts are imported from France (4,948,175 
pounds in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906, and this 
represents double the quantity in weight of unshelled 
walnuts. 



broken in too many small pieces, instead of being ex- 
tracted only in halves. 

I find that with light shell varieties of walnuts the 
meat weighs as much as the shell does; therefore, it 
would require two pounds of such unshelled walnuts 
to make a pound of shelled ones, which at 38 cents per 
pound, for Mayette, for instance, would put a pound 
of unshelled walnuts at 19 cents; and, since unshelled 
Mayettes are delivered at New York at 12 cents per 
pound, average price, including duties, the difference 
of 7 cents would represent the cost of shelling and 
packing in cases, two cents extra duty, and the im- 
porters' profit. 

The two other grades, Chaberte and Bordeaux, though 
paying less, still pay to the growers in France hand- 
some profits. Presently, however, since there is such 
a variety of first-class walnuts raised on this coast, 
in California as well as in the Northwest, the product 
of grafted trees and the first grade of seedlings of 
those French varieties of late vegetating habits, and 
which are doing so finely wherever planted on this 
coast, especially such varieties as Mayette, Franquette, 
Parisienne and the like, will bring better prices; that 
Varieties Used for Shelling.— Three varieties, or is ' wil) be more remunerative, if sold as dessert nuts, 
rather three classes, of walnuts, are used for shelling ; that is - n °t shelled, rather than shelled. But, never 



purposes, to-wit: Mayette, Chaberte and Bordeaux. 
The two former, from the department of Isere, in 
France, are the product of grafted trees; the latter, the 
product of the finest seedling walnuts of the Depart- 
ment of Dordogne, close to Bordeaux, and exported un- 
der that name from the latter port. The Department 
of Dordogne has the largest area in walnuts of all the 



theless, in planting grades of walnuts, our people 



Desert Grasses. — Hilaria cenchioidu (curly mesquit), 
: Hilaria mutica (black grama), Bontelona curtipendula 
(side grama), Elymus Sp. (giant wild rye), Andropogoa 
piovinciatis (big blue stem), Andropogon ciratus, Eleu- 
sine corocana, Melica altissima (tall melic), Sporobol'ts 
strictus, Sporobolus airoides (fine top saut grass), Spor- 
obolus Wright ii (alkali zacatan), Chloris verticillata 
(windmill grass), Danathonia penicillata, Septochloa 
dubia, Andropogon saccharoides (silver beard grass), 
Panicularia fluitani (floating manna grass), Tully grass 
of Utah and Eleusine barreonensis are eighteen different 
kinds of grasses that are mostly from the Great Plains 
and Desert Regions, and while a few of them did not 
germinate at all, most of them came up more or less. 
While most species appeared in about fourteen days, 
these grasses from the semi-arid regions required from 
two to three times as long and generally sparingly. 
The characteristic feature of these species is that they 
grow not at all in winter and many of them but a 
trifle more in the summer time. This behavior is ac- 
counted for probably by the fact that in their native 
region a winter growth is out of the question, and they 
not only bring this habit with them to their new home 
where something is doing all winter, but they want to 
graft the summer showers they are accustomed to onto 
our California summer weather, where rain is a rare 



should be careful to plant in preference such varieties thing, indeed. The sum tatal of the combination is, the 



for which a ready market is found under both forms, 
unshelled and shelled. 

I will close by giving your readers the figures on the 
imports of walnuts, almonds and filberts, as obtained 
from the Department of Commerce and Labor for the 



grasses won't grow when they could and can't grow 
where they would because it will not rain and they are 
disgusted, and so is the grower. 

Chloris elegans. — This grass is a desert grass, too, 
but it made a better showing than those I have just 



January 19, 1907 



37 



dismissed, and I single it out as the best of its kind, (the long beaked species*) is introduced here but is yet j a normal crop will be everywhere the same. The 
to illustrate why it is that a plant must be adapted to quite rare, while E. moschatum (the musky or green verse is also true: the amount of starch present in v 

stemmed) and E. cicutarium (or red stemmed) are 
found more or less abundant nearly everywhere on the 
ranges- especially the red stemmed species. The value 
and habits of the two principle sorts are so well recog- 



a given climate, and why the grasses from the semi- 
arid regions will not succeed in California. 

It required thirty days to germinate when sown in 
the spring in a fine seed bed. It grew moderately, but 



missed the old time summer showers its nature was' Dize, i Dv stockmen that I will not dwell on them too 



accustomed to, and consequently did not make a large 
crop. It scattered its seeds well, but few of them 
germinated in the fall showers and what few did were 
killed by the first frost. "When the warm days of 
spring came, the ground which it had occupied the 
previous" summer was well covered by fall and winter 
growing species and there was no chance of it ever ap- 
pearing again. 

Secale. — Secale montana (mountain rye), and secale 
(?) (goose grass) are the two species under observa- 
tion here. The goose grass was superior in every re- 
spect to mountain rye. It makes a much-stooled and 
bulky stalk, comparable with rye grass in quality. It 
6tands drouth fairly well, but it looks doubtful to me 
whether it would stand much grazing, and it does not 
appear to be very permanent. It seeds abundantly, 
and the seed will germinate readily and the plants 
develop rapidly after germination. 

Eragrostis. — Six kinds were grown, viz.: Eragrostis 
termis, E. purshii (southern spear grass), E. neo-me\- 
icana (crab grass of New Mexico), E. abysinica and E. 
amabilis (love grass). Tljey are all annuals and in one 
essential character, I believe, they fail to meet Cali- 
fornia conditions of existence, for if my observations 
are correct, not one of them is capable of withstand- 
ing a moderate frost. The natural consequence is, 
they cannot start in the fall, and by the time they 
would like to germinate in the spring, the space is 
all taken by other winter-growing species. Few grasses 
seed more abundantly than they, and yet under the 
most favorable conditions they could be given them 
here, where the plots remained comparatively free rf 
other growth, they failed to appear the succeeding 
year. So the only hope I can see for them is on cul- 
tivated land. Eragrostis neo-mexicana is the most likely 
species and' E. Abyssinica and E. amabilis are good 
seconds. They succeed with but little moisture and in 
some situations they might be worthy of trial for hay. 
Apparently they should make good hay, and from then- 
profuse seeding habits, the seed required to thoroughly 
seed an acre shouldi amount to very little as compared 
to grain required per acre. 

The Poa, or Bluegrass Family. — The best known oi 
this family is the Kentucky blue grass. I have been 
experimenting with it here for several years, and while 
it has some good points, on the whole it is not very 
satisfactory. Its most promising showing is after the 
autumn rains begin until heavy frosts come on. Ai 
this time it makes a nice growth, but it makes little 
growth in winter and the spring growth is not by any 
means abundant. It is quite able to weather any 
drouth we have in summer, but it undoubtedly misses 
the summer rains which make it a valuable grass m 
the East. 

Other varieties that were tried were Poa luciaa, a. 
bunch grass of Eastern Oregon, which amounted to 
very little here. Poa compressa (Canada blue grass;, 
Poa nemoralis fancy, Poa Pratensis var. Washington, 
Poa nemoralis (wood meadow grass), Poa arichnhera 
(Texas blue grass), Poa trivialis, Poa pratensis E. and 
Poa aquatica. These are all permanent and nutritious 
grasses, but, so far as I can size them up, they are not 
adapted to our climate as well as they should be to be 
come fairly successful. The most likely of the wnole 
collection is Poa aquatica. Where sown on a burning, 
Kentucky blue grass readily establishes itself. If the 
seed be fresh it germinates readily in about two weeks. 

Koeleria cristata. — Koeler's grass came very sparing- 
ly, but two or three stalks. It seems well adapted to 
the climate, and is making a good showing now, being 
an excellent fall grower. In leaf growth and general 
appearance before heading out it generally resembles 
Deschampsia elongata, but it also has the good feature 
of spreading underground by stolons like creeping 
fescue or bluegrass, which will undoubtedly make it 
permanent when once established on the range. 

Apelodesmos tenax (north African grass). — This is a 
grass of similar texture to the pampas grass, and 
whether it is good for anything more than an orna- 
mental, I am not prepared to say. It is indifferent to 
heat or frost, sun or rain, and grows slowly and stead- 
ily on year after year. It is now four years old and 
has shown no seed stalks yet, although it stands over 
three feet high at present. 

Alfilaria or 'Filaree.' — There are four species of this 
plant in Humboldt county. The round leaved species, 
Erodium maerophyllum is of no importance; E. botrys 



much. They possess remarkable adaptability to main- 
tain themselves on the range, no odds how short it be 



overproducing to the like extent will be everywhere 
the same. The starch reserves, then, of vines produc- 
ing normally ten tons to the acre are the same as 
those of vines producing normally but three tons. Let 
the change in the amount of the starch reserves be 
equal in both cases, when the vines produce respectively 
twenty and five tons to the acre, and we have equal 



pastured. Being only an annual, they must reproduce ; overproduction, 
themselves from seed each year, and they manage to How, then, shall we measure overproduction in terms 
accomplish ihis under the most adverse conditions and of the starch reserves? The method is not difficult and 
make every seed count, too. For just as soon as the ' lends itself well to empirical use. We provide ourselves 
seeds are ripe, they are scattered to begin twisting and with a drop bottle and have it filled at the druggist's 

with a 1 per cent alcoholic or watery solution of iodine. 
Then, immediately after pruning, the spurs or canes of 
a certain number of vines in the vineyard suspected 
of overproducing are touched on the recently cut and 
still sapid surfaces with drops of iodine when, in the 
case of vines in perfect health and having produced 
normally, they will turn (excepting the pith), as the 
iodine is absorbed, deep violet or blue-black; if the 
vines have overproduced lightly the medullary rays 
will color deep blue, and the wood brown, and the cut 
surfaces will appear as if made up of equidistnat radi- 
ate blue lines in a field of brown; but, when vines 
have overproduced exclusively, no blue color will ap- 
pear at all: pith, wood and bark, every tissue will be 
brown. Vines whose spurs fail to show any blue color 
are very sick indeed, despite strength and length of 
cane, despite appearances. Such vines have not starch 
reserves enough to nourish a healthy vigorous growth 
the following spring: if circumstances are favorable 
they will grow and gradually recuperate; if circum- 
stances are unfavorable they will weaken and die. 

With a little iodine solution any grower, then, can 
forecast the health of his vines. The more abundant 
the starch reserves, i. e. the deeper and more general 
the blueing of the cut surfaces, when touched with 
iodine, the stronger the vines will be in the year to 
come, and the less abundant the starch reserves, all 
other things being equal, the weaker the vines will 
be in the following growing season. The presence or 
absence of starch from a vine at pruning time indi- 
cates that overproduction has or has not occurred; it 
evidences an occurrence, not what is occurring. We 
have not always, however, to await the effects of the 
Brunissure to know of its presence. 

One may sometimes get an inkling, that vines are 
overproducing, about maturation time by the appear- 
ance of their foliage; and such a warning should not 
pass unperceived, for the autumn season in California 
is sufficiently favorable to allow of a successful 
prophylaxis in many cases. Overbearing vines will 
often present the following foliar characteristics dur- 
ing the vintage months, sometimes also, but infre- 
quently, in July and August: 

"The disease first appears on the upper surfaces of 
the leaves in the form of very small very numerous 
yellowish brown spots, in the case of the varieties of 
the vine bearing white fruit, and as brown almost black 
punctuations, in the case of those varieties bearing 
colored fruit. As these spots are all very near one 
another, for they are only separated by the ultimate 
ramifications of the fibro-vascular bundles, they run 
together almost from the day of their inception. When 
this has come about they form yellowish-brown or dark 
brown areas that cover the leaf-blade or less. Some 
only cover the space of half an inch, while others 
cover a quarter, one-third, the half and sometimes 
even the whole of the leaf." 

"They appear indifferently here and there upon the 
blade of the leaf, now between the veins, now upon 
the tissues adjacent to the veins, and across the lat- 
ter; now along the edges of the leaf, now at the cen- 
ter of the blade. In general they form interveinarily, 
encroaching upon the main veins and the circumjacent 
tissues later." 

All the leaves do not become diseased at once. The 
basal leaves are the first to become affected, and the 
apical leaves, even when the shoots have ceased grow- 
ing, are the last to become diseased; they may even, 
in mild cases, remain entirely healthy. 

The grower, then, who observes the foliage of his 
vines showing the characters we have just described, 
may suspect overproduction to be the inciting cause; 
but if he can not satisfy himself as to this, then 
the iodine test at pruning time will settle the ques- 
tion. However, as an ounce of prevention is worth a 
pound of cure, if he is satisfied his vines are produc- 
ing above a very good ordinary crop and their foliage 
is failing, he should proceed at once to reinvigorate 
them, if conditions are such that he can do so; if he 
cannot prevent, then he must cure. 

In the case of the mildew one can cure an affected 



boring into the ground, where they are secure against 
loss until the fall rains wet the soil again. They are 
readily seeded on any range where they are not yet 
introduced but the seed all locks together and is diffi- 
cult to sow unless first sifted through a sieve onto a 
pile of other grass seed or even fine chaff, and frequent- 
ly mixing during the sifting process to evenly distrib- 
ute the seeds. The seed has always been rather high 
priced, but I do not see why it should be so, for if 
one goes at it with a little common sense it can be 
gathered very easily. Here is a method of procedure: 
Sow the filaree in rows 16 inches apart in good garden 
soil and keep free of weeds, and just before it covers 
the ground smooth the ground as well as possible. It 
will produce seed in abundance. When ripe, rake the 
straw off the ground and gather the seed and any loose 
earth that may be necessary to get the seed. Use a 
sieve of % to % inch mesh and shake it back and 
forth on cleats nailed on top of pegs 16 inches high, 
driven into the ground. The seed and fine clods readily 
pass through the sieve, and the seed can then be readily 
raked off with the fingers. A cone of earth will soon 
form, which will greatly facilitate the work of raking 
off. In this primitive and inexpensive way one can 
clean up several bushels of filaree seed in a day. 

From what I have seen of Erodium botrys, I don'i 
hold a very good opinion of it. It succeeds best on 
clayey soils, and by its grasping nature and poor 
quality, stock eat the other forage plants out and leave 
it in complete possession of the ground. This is par- 
ticularly applicable to ranges that are mostly of annual 
species. Hogs are fond of it and do well on it in the 
winter and early spring, but other stock are not fond 
of it. The worst feature of all is it is the very first 
annual to mature and it is worthless on the range as 
dry feed, so the natural consequence is that the range 
is of little value in the dry season. The best plan I 
could suggest to follow up when it becomes too abun- 
dant is to seed the Plantago lanceolata (rib grass). 
Where there is moisture enough for this plant to thrive, 
it will greatly lengthen the season for feed. Being 
a perennial, the filaree cannot choke it out, and the 
combination is satisfactory, too, in that the filaree in a 
measure helps to bridge over midwinter, a time when 
rib grass makes but little growth, if the weather be 



THE VINEYARD. 



THE BRUNISSURE AND THE DEATH OF VINES 
IN CALIFORNIA. 



(Written for the Pacific Rural Press). 

Of all the diseases to which the vine is heir, the 
Brunissure is the easiest to describe, — and the hard- 
est to define. When one has said that the Brunissure 
is symtomatic of overproduction, he has said a great 
deal/ — and nothing at all. What is overproduction, and 
how shall we define it? for it is evident that the grower 
whose grape vines produce ten tons to the acre will 
have a different notion of overproduction than his con- 
frere who thanks heaven when his vines produce three 
tons to the acre; and to ask two such gentlemen to 
accept an empirical definition would be like asking 
the tortoise and the hare to travel apace. Ten tons 
to the acre are within one man's ken; ten tons to the 
acre are past the other's comprehension. When one 
says that a vine overproduces, therefore, he must do 
so in terms acceptable to him whose vines produce 
20,000 pounds per acre, and to the less fortunate grower, 
who is passing pleased when his vines produce 6,000 
pounds to the acre. 

Socially, extremes often make agreeable pairs. The 
extremes of production and the extremes of overproduc- 
tion harmonize very well when one takes, as a standard 
of comparison, the starch reserves of overproducing 
and normally producing vines. It is evident that the 
starch reserves of all vines in an equal state of health 
will be, within narrow limits, the same. Therefore, 
the amount of starch present in healthy vines producing 



38 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 19, 1907 



vine almost as easily as he can preserve it untouched. 
In the case of the Brunissure, however, a preventive 
treatment assures, all things being equal, a healthier 
and stronger vine than does a curative treatment. 
The reason is obvious. If you prevent overproduction 
from depleting the vine of its food supplies, you send 
it through the winter in a normal condition, but if you 
allow the Brunissure to develop unchecked, the vine 
has to pass through the winter poorly supplied wit a 
food, and, consequently, in a weakened condition: it 
will be more sensitive to adverse soil conditions and 
climatic changes; its budding will be weak and 
spindly; the young growth, instead of being supplied 
as normally with an abundance of food, will be forced 
to manufacture its own, — hence a languid development. 
The curative treatment accelerates the activities of the 
young spring growth, but does not supply the deficient 
plant food, — hence its inferiority when compared with 
the preventive treatment. However, though of unequal 
value, the preventive and curative treatments of vines 
weakened by overproduction are to all intents and pur- 
poses, the same. 

Let us first consider the preventive treatment of the 
Brunissure. When the stomach and the members are 
at outs, as Aesop would have it, things go ill with man; 
so likewise in the vegetable world, when the leaves 
are suffering, the rest of the plant must suffer, too. 
The Brunissure interferes with the functions of the 
leaves, as it appears very clearly from their browning 
and drying up, and it is to overcome, or forestall, this 
interference that a preventive treatment is given. Our 
attention must then be directed toward re-invigorating 
faded foliage, or the replacing of seared and function- 
less leaves by healthy active ones, — and as to work 
successfully means to work rapidly we have no choice 
of methods. One procedure is open to us: we must 
irrigate thoroughly, and immediately thereafter, while 
the soil is still moist, apply nitrate of soda at the rate 
of 2 to 4 ounces per vine, according as circumstances 
may direct. By this means the foliage will be revived, 
new growth promoted, and the grapes that were dry- 
ing up will swell and perfect their maturation. The 
effect of irrigation on the development of the grapes, 
even when given as late as the beginning of Septem- 
ber, should be as effective as that recorded for rains 
falling at this time after an exceptionally dry sum- 
mer, when the berries become in nine days 24 per cent 
larger in volume without a serious drop in their sugar 
content. In California a loss of 1 or 2 per cent in 
sugar is of little moment, and should not deter one 
from irrigating, even during the vintage, if necessity 
there be. The importance of irrigation in preventing 
the grapes from maturing light instead of plump and 
heavy, aside from its action in furthering the growth 
of new leaves induced by the nitrate of soda, should 
not be overlooked. The fact that the increase in weight 
of the berries, — we are speaking, of course, of vintage 
irrigation, — is due largely to water, and only to a slight 
extent to elaborated material, shows that irrigation, 
though augmenting the amount of fruit produced by the 
vines, is not indirectly intensifying the malady it is 
supposed to combat. The fruit hardly draws upon the 
food supplies at all, and the new leaves, that the nitrate 
of soda has Drought forth, will soon be restoring the 
depleted starch reserves. 

The preventive treatment of the Brunissure has no 
drawbacks, except the one of not being universally ap- 
licable, and, even when applied late, does not interfere 
with the vintage. Vines may be treated as late as the 
15th of September; they will then have about a month 
of fairly active growth; they can in this time largely 
replenish their food reserves and, at the same time, 
mature their shoots satisfactorily enough to pass safely 
through the winter. 

When the preventive treatment we have outlined 
cannot be given, then one must let the Brunissure take 
its course; or, if it becomes manifest early in the sea- 
son, in July or August, remove the greater part of the 
crop, — ^ excellent measure that, for obvious reasons, 
will never enter the demesne of practice. 

In lieu of, or following the preventive treatment, of 
the iodine test shows the necessity, we must apply 
curative measures. The weakened vines must be re- 
stored to health as rapidly as possible. And to do this 
we must fertilize heavily. Nitrogenous manures must 
be given the precedence over all others, as nitrogen is 
the predominant element found in the leaves, and a 
healthy, vigorous production of these organs is essen- 
tial to the life of the plants. The phosphatic and potas- 
sic manures must not be overlooked, however. A weak- 
ened vine must have within easy reach of Its puny 
new root growth sufficient of these salts to insure 
strength and hardiness to the shoots the nitrogen has 
brought forth. In the following formula per acre-ton 
the amount of phosphoric acid, potash and nitrogen that 



should be given may be determined for any particular 
case; allowances may also be made for the natural 
fertility of the soil, amount of exhaustion of the vines, 
etc., but due regard should be taken not to allow the 
end in view to be masked by immediate and personal 
considerations. 

Nitrate of soda 20 — 35 pounds 

Superphosphate of lime 12 — 18 pounds 

Phosphate of potash 7 — 14 pounds 

The phosphatic and potassic salts should be sown 
broadcast and plowed under as early in the season as 
possible, but the nitrate of soda must not be distributed 
until the buds begin to swell. As weakened vines tend 
to die back when pruned early, the canes should be left 
upon them at least until January which, except iD the 
case of trellised vines, will prevent very early tillage. 
A retard in the distribution of the manures is disad- 
vantageous; early pruning is an added source of weak- 
ness to the vine, therefore, of two evils, choose the 
less. We prefer rather to risk the manures not giving 
their maximum effect than to further impair the vigor 
of the vine. 

The Hypothesis of M. Ravaz. 

Mr. Ravaz had advanced the opinion that the death 
of vines en masse in Santa Clara county and in South- 
ern California was due to the Brunissure. [Pacific 
Rural Press, Oct. 27, 1906.] We believe, however, that 
this authority's views are somewhat arbitrary, and that 
the facts will hardly credit more than the assertion 
that overproduction caused the death of the greater 
part of the vines. Even with such a mild restriction 
as this the Brunissure is given the lion's share and 
the California vine disease plays, some will say, too 
unimportant a part. Mr. Ravaz gets over this difficulty 
by telling us that the California vine disease and the 
Brunissure are one and the same thing. We do not 
think, however, that this position is tenable as a whole, 
though the evidence favors it in some cases. 

The evidence gathered from Mr. Pierce's memoir is 
neither proof for nor against in many instances. We 
will cite two, however, that argue in favor of the view 
that the Brunissure was responsible for a part, how 
great we know not. of the death of the vines in South- 
ern Calnornia. 

Mr. Pierce allows that the foliage of most varieties 
of vines may wither without showing the characteristics 
of the California vine disease. He says, " the Mission 
vine has a slightly colored leaf. Many of the 
Mi&sion die, however, without showing these char- 
acteristics, and this may also be said for nearly 
all varieties. The Burger leaf rarely if ever becomes 
distinctly altered in color as with the Muscat. The 
death of the leaf is quite general and rather sudden, 
and it may become somewhat curled like an ordinary 
dying leaf." The Mission is a heavy bearer, a heavier 
bearer south of the Tehacbapi than north of it, and 
the Burger has a reputation for productiveness. 

Mr. Pierce claims that great productiveness is 
symptomatic of the California vine disease; but as soon 
as one has great productiveness and a nondescript dy- 
ing of the foliage, he is evidently in the presence of 
the Brunissure, and the only logical conclusion one can 
come to is that the two diseases may occur in the 
same vineyard and even on the same vine. Mr. Pierce 
takes the character shown by the Muscat leaf as typ- 
ical of the California vine disease, — the Brunissure is 
typified by a browning and drying of the foliage, — so 
that when he finds vines dying without the character- 
istic foliar symptoms it most certainly looks as if he 
were ascribing the same end to two different diseases. 

In the following passage one may credit some of 
the facts to the Brunissure, and others to the California 
vine disease; but symptomatology will hardly permit 
us to credit them to one disease: "The sporadic death 
of vines or appearence of disease in a vineyard is the 
more common one, although more marked with some 
varieties than with others. In some of the varieties 
whose leaves turn yellow or red through the action of 
the disease, its distribution is apparently more sporadic 
than in those vines whose leaves remain green until 
the death of the vine. This may result from the fact 
that in one case the degree of disease present is shown, 
while in others we are deceived by a healthy external 
appearance. There is a degree of truth in this health- 
ful appearance, however, for a good growth of cane and 
abundant fruit are often found on the vines showing 
green foliage, while in the varieties bearing a spotted 
foliage, sporadic stunting of the tops and deficiency 
of fruit is more common." 

When we come to consider the California vine dis- 
ease as it appeared in Santa Clara county between 
1898 and 1900 we find that there are more arguments 
in favor of the view that the vines died from Brunis- 



sure than from an attack of the former malady. 

We remember observing, in 1898, a remarkable case 
of Brunissure. We did not then call the malady by this 
name, but, in the light of our present knowledge, there 
can be little doubt that it was a magnificent case of 
overproduction. Here are the facts: The vineyard 
in question, e&tablished on poor soil and bearing on 
the average between 3 and 4 tons to the acre, was com- 
posed largely of Zinfandel with a scattering admixture 
of Mission, very much more sturdy and vigorous than 
the others. In fact, they looked so well in 1897 that 
the owner ordered the man who contracted to prune 
the vineyard, to give them a fruit branch. Instead of a 
fruit branch, however, the pruners left from three to 
four canes. When the vines came out in the spring 
they showed up well, set a fine crop and at the vintage 
were loaded with fruit. In fact, the fruit was so 
abundant that, Tn many instances, it ripened almost 
without the formation of any color, and very low in 
sugar. In the winter of 1898 the vines were short 
pruned, as their vigor had been materially reduced by 
the heavy crop they had carried to maturity. In the 
spring of 1899 the vines were slow in coming out, and, 
during the summer, most of them died suddenly. In 
1900 the remaining vines died. The foliage of the dis- 
eased Missions never showed the characteristics of the 
California vine disease at any stage; it was very 
chlorotic toward the last, that was all. The Zinfandel 
did not produce heavily at all, and were, in 1900. in as 
good health as in 1898. 

The case we have just cited is as typical of Brunis- 
sure as any mentioned by Mr. Ravaz in his important 
contributions to our knowledge of this malady, and we 
feel sure would be accepted by him as referring to no 
other disease. 

Brunissure is also indicated in the following note: 
"It appears that Mr. K. was already rejoicing over 
the fine vintage he would have, (the berries were 
coloring nicely), when all at once the grapes withered 
and dried upon the vines." 

The following passage indicates Brunissure and Mr. 
Ravaz, if we remember correctly, quotes it to that 
effect. "A great deal of difference, say Messrs. Bioletti 
and Twight, was everywhere noted in the behavior of 
different varieties of vines. The most seriously af- 
fected were Mataro, Zinfandel, Rose of Peru, Mission, 
Emperor, and Burger. Varieties less affected were 
Grenache, Muscat, and Verdal. These three varieties, 
in many cases when they looked very bad last year 
and even this spring, appear to be recovering. Other va- 
rieties show little or no damage. The chief of these 
noticed were Trousseau, Caberet-Sauvignon, Pinot (?), 
Verdot, Robin noir, and Herbemont. This list indicates 
that the heaviest bearers are the most seriously af- 
fected and that all the immune varieties are light 
bearers. This difference in varieties was so marked 
that several Trousseau vines growing in a Mataro block 
were apparently perfectly healthy and vigorous, while 
the Mataro were all dead. The recovery of less sus- 
ceptible varieties, such as Grenache, was, in several 
cases, very remarkable. 

The following note, also relating to the disease of 
the vines in the Santa Clara valley, indicates Brunis- 
sure: "The different varieties of vines show a greater 
or less degree of resistance to the disease, and, the va- 
rieties being planted in blocks, there is a most striking 
line of demarkation between each and every one. The 
least resistant vines are Mataro and Zinfandel: the 
Mataros are practically all dead, while the Zinfandels 
are pushing out feebly. The Carignane, Malvoisie, and 
Grenache have made some growth, though It is very 
far from normal. The Pinot is remarkably healthy." 

In 1904 a grape grower of Santa Clara county, Mr. 
H. Hoops, published a modest booklet under the unas- 
suming title of "How to make grape culture profitable 
in California," but it might as well have been called 
"How to make grape growing profitable in the presence 
of the California vine disease." Mr. Hoops finds that 
with him the vines most sensitive to the disease are 
the Muscat of Alexandria. Black Ferrara, and Cornichon. 
but only when grown on soils favorable to vigorous 
growth and fruitfulness. 

Mr. Hoops' California vine disease is in all proba- 
bility the Brunissure, for, u it only appears on vines 
that are fruitful and vigorous, It cannot well be the 
lormer malady. 

To conclude this brief sketch. We believe that it 
may be advanced on good grounds that the Brunis- 
sure is more or less responsible for the death of the 
vines In Southern California and Santa Clara county, 
but we do not believe that their collapse in all cases, 
can be ascribed to it. . Mr. Ravaz's assertion that the 
California vine disease is nothing but the Brunissure 
we hold to be vulnerable. Symptomatologically the two 
diseases are different. We described the appearance 



January 19, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



39 



THE MARKETS 



Wheat. 



of diseased foliage in the case of the Brunissure, and enhance their comfort or relieve them from the danger | 

the reader cannot help but be familiar with the char- j of dry years than to have from one to ten acres of | 

acteristics of the California vine disease. Do these two , land irrigated where crops can be grown regardless of ' " 
maladies resemble one another? No. Is overproduction ; the rainfall. Provision for such irrigation will enable Not , 

the cause of the California vine disease? There is no ; the farmer to grow trees for fruit and shade, have a | wheat station 1D l0Cil1 

evidence to that effect. Is overproduction the cause of limited area of high-priced products, enough vegetables transactions 
the Brunissure? Yes, says Mr. Ravaz. Then the two for his family, and forage for his cows and horses, 
diseases cannot be identical with one another. 

O. BUTLER. 

University of California, Berkeley. 



if one is to judge by the size of the 
No one seems anxious to load up with 
stock at present, notwithstanding the fact throughout 
It will also enable him to make the surroundings or the State are only a little over three million centals 



his homestead attractive, thus adding to the comfort ! and this j 
and contentment of country life in these regions. 

That the demonstration farm is an effective influence 



THE IRRIGATOR 



s not large enough to carry California through 
until next harvest. Mills in the interior are all operat- 
ing at full capacity and seem to have plenty of wheat 
in promoting the extension of this kind of irrigation j to keep going. Receipts from the North are light, corn- 



has been proved by the results of the oldest of these 



pared to a year ago. A great many in the trade are of 



GOVERNMENT WORK FOR IRRIGATION. 

In his annual report submitted to Congress 



stations located at Cheyenne, Wyo. This station, the opinion that millers will buy freely shortly. Con 



servative buyers abroad do not believe that the spring 



through the utilization of underground waters lifted 
last \ by windmills, has produced crops equaling those of wnl bring much lower prices, on the merit c 
month, the Secretary of Agriculture makes the follow- 1 th e ol d irrigated districts. It has shown the extent , Platte shipments, as these shipments have to make up 
ing interesting statements concerning the work which 1 and value of water resources hitherto neglected. ; for the Russian deficiency. Conditions in the North 
is in charge of Dr. Elwood Mead, so well known to J Tne station was visited during the year by fully 5,000 

people, and its methods and results observed and rlt> 



Californians: 

Three years ago the Office of Experiment Stations ! scribed in a large number of scientific newspapers and 



detailed some of its irrigation experts to work out 
and introduce the right methods of irrigation in some 
of the older districts where water is scare and costly 
and where skill and economy in its use are of the ut- 
most importance, and also took up giving practical ad- 
vice to beginners in irrigation in sections where irri- 
gation was being introduced. The conditions under 
which these men worked therefore were widely dif- 
ferent, but the results have been the same in each case. 
Wherever this educational work was begun there has 
been a marked appreciation of its value. Each one of 
these men has become a fixture in the State and sec- 
tion where he was first located. Every attempt to send 
him to a different section to take up this work h.ns 
been met by protests and remonstrances which could 
not be disregarded. The result has been that requests 
for similar work in other localities made by members 
of Congress, governors, and communities could not be 
responded to, although the value of the work and the 
reasonableness of the requests were fully appreciated. 
To meet these demands the number of men engaged 
in this work should be increased during the coming 
year. 

Thus far this work has been carried on entirely in 
aid of settlers under private works, but it is believed 
that the time has come when this Department should 
take up the work of educating and aiding settlers un 
der Government reclamation projects, and that experts 
should be detailed to these projects to show the meth- 
ods of applying water which should be adopted, the 
kind of tools to be used, the time when land should 
be irrigated, the quantity of water which should be 
used, and the cultivation which should follow this use. 

The experience of the past few years has also shown 
that this educational work and the successful conduct 
of original investigations can both be best carried on 
through the establishment of farms where the best 
methods can be worked out and illustrated and their 
results demonstrated. While bulletins and reports are 
of great value, they are not equal to an object lesson. 
Nothing will teach these farmers how they should do 
their work so quickly as to be able to see fields pre- 
pared in the right way, water handled in the right 
way, and the soil cultivated in the right manner. I 
believe therefore that on each reclamation area a dem- 
onstration farm should be established, on which the 
methods of irrigation can be taught by a practical ex- 
pert from this department, and trust that provision will 
be made for this by the next Congress. 

Five irrigation extension stations for the demonstra- 
tion of methods of using groundwater and flood pud 
storm waters in irrigation as supplementary to dry 
farming have been located in the semi-arid belt dur- 
ing the past year. At these stations it is expected to 
work out and demonstrate the methods and practices 
for utilizing limited water supplies in the irrigation of 
from one to ten acres of land, and the methods of irri- 
gation and tillage needed to conserve this moisture 
in the soil, and the benefits which will come by making 
such irrigation a feature of every semi-arid farm. This 
work has assumed a new importance because of the 
great wave of settlement which is now sweeping over 
this region. 

A number of influences, some of them proper and 
some questionable, are aiding in this settlement. Among 
those that are legitimate are the greater possibilities 
due to the introduction of drought-resistant crops, the 
improved methods of tillage, and the series of wet 
years with which that section has been favored. But 
there will come other dry years, and the permanent 
prosperity of these settlers will largely depend upon 
their having fortified themselves against the risk cf 
drought by utilizing every opportunity for a water sup- 
ply that the region affords. Nothing will aid more to 



magazines, as well as the local press of that region. 



are showing a remarkable change the past week. The 
railroads have overcome the demand for cars, wheat 
purchased several months ago is coming down from 
the interior in large quantities and exporters are giv- 



It has encouraged a large number of farmers to con- ing chartered tonnage remarkably quick dispatch but 
- and utilize water supplies which were hitherto are not taking up any new tonnage that at present 



serve 

going to waste, and the year's results are considered 
as marking the beginning of a new era of agriculture 
in that section. 

In many parts of the arid and semi-arid region water 
for irrigation can be secured only by pumping. The 
Department has a constant call for information as to 
the cost of such irrigation and the types of pumps and 
the kind of power which should be used. We have col- 
lected a large amount of information on these subjects, 
which is now being prepared for publication, and re- 
cently have inaugurated some comprehensive tests to 



is on the free list, preferring to work on old charters. 
Advices from Chicago say that the absence of an active 
and broad speculative interest leaves the large stocks 
to be carried by the few, which is a sadly bearish 
factor. The 15,000,000 bushels of wheat in store m 
Chicago is said to be in strong hands, and is not press- 
ing on the market. Indeed, everything in cash wheat 
is selling higher, in a relative sense, than futures. 
Spot wheat and future deliveries are out of parity. 
Flour. 

Millers are not complaining of the state of the flour 



determine the value of alcohol as a power agent in \ market. They seem to be well satisfied with the 



pumping water for irrigation and drainage, and in other 
agricultural work, with a view to giving practical in- 
formation to farmers about the value of denatured alco- 
hol as compared to gasoline, and the conditions under 
which it should be used to secure the maximum effi- 
ciency. 

Every year the area of irrigated land that needs 
drainage is increased, which proves that irrigation and 
drainage must go hand in hand. During the past year 
the Department has been carrying on extended drain- 
age investigations of some of the irrigated districts 
injured by surplus water in Utah, Washington, Ne- 
braska and California, this work having been paid for 
in part by State appropriations. These investigations 
have been carried on as a preliminary step in the 
preparation of drainage plans. 

The past year has also demonstrated the benefits 
of good engineering in securing the efficiency of drain- 
age as a remedy fo- alkali. The drains put in by the 
farmers of Utah on lands which were regarded as 
ruined by alkali have so relieved the lands in a single 
year that they are now ready for cultivation, and laud 
drained three years ago according to plans prepared by 
the engineers of this Department this year produced 
$75 worth of sugar beets to the acre. Equally encour- 
aging results on a larger scale have followed the car- 
rying out of the plans of the Department's engineers 
in the State of Washington. 



CHAFF. 



Molly — I hear you have sold your brain to a physician? 
Cholly — No, there's nothing in it. 



"My wife had a birthday yesterday, and we took a 
day off." 

"When mine has a birthday she takes a year off." 



He — They say Miss Yelloby is very much in love with 
herself. 

She — Well, she will at least never know what it is to 
experience the bitter pangs of jealousy. 



He. — "When we were married I thought we were to 
be two souls with but a single thought?" 

She. — "Well, aren't we? Don't we both wish we 
were single again?" 



"You men complain at every little pain," she was 
saying, "but we women suffer in silence." 

"I suppose you do suffer in silence, you take so much 
pleasure in talk," he replied 



"I wonder why that fellow gave us such a hard look?" 
"He couldn't help it." 
"Couldn't help it?" 

"No; he's a circus freak — the man with the ossified 
face." 



present condition of things. The demand for all grades 
is good. Receipts from the north show very little 
change, and many in the trade are of the opinion that 
this part of the business will shortly revive. The de- 
mand for flour with Central and South America is 
only fair, and the shipments show but very little in- 
crease. There is no call from Europe. There is no 
accumulation of flour in the various mills throughout 
the country. Usually at this time of the year the mills 
are pretty well stocked up, but the good trade all season 
has kept stocks down very low. There is no change 
in prices. All the large mills in Oregon and Washing- 
ton are more or less behind with their orders for ex- 
port, and a great many complain the demand for more 
flour from their plants increases so that they cannot 
keep up with the same. Northern China and Hong- 
kong are all buying flour and it is this trade that 
keeps the mills busy. There is also a steady demand 
from Japan, but not in as great proportion as China. 
Barley. 

The barley market is very firm and steady, and 
sales have been made quite frequently during the week. 
The bulk of the barley raised this year has been sold. 
Buying is principally for local account. Prices are 
most too high to permit export business, though some 
cargoes are leaving right along. Brewers have been 
buying quite freely of late, and very little brewing 
remains unsold at present. Feed barley has been 
meeting with prompt sales, and all offerings at ruling 
prices have been taken up. 

Millstuffs. 

The demand for all sorts of mill feed has been very 
firm during the week. The feed market is mainly de- 
pendent upon the local demand. Yet there is nothing 
in sight to suggest that there will be a change and it 
looks as if feed will continue about as at present for 
some time to come. The demand of California on the 
northern mills shows no abatement and, if the shipping 
space could be secured, there is no doubt shipments 
from there would be much heavier. Stocks are quite 
light. 

Oats. 

The local market for oats is strong. Oats are scarce 
and there is a good inquiry from various points in 
California for Oregon oats but sellers in Portland are 
handicapped in accepting offers for time delivery, as 
freight space on steamers is very scarce and great 
difficulty exists in securing cars. Oats seem to be 
about on a commercial basis, at least until there is a 
considerable increased movement. Oregon advices 
state that sales of unsold oats east of the mountains 
are very small. Holders have advanced ideas as to 
values, but these stocks are very small. 

Corn. 

The corn market continues quite uninteresting, specu- 
lation being small and shipping demands far from 
good. Yet prices are holding rather steady, local 
stocks being small. At the same time receipts are in- 
creasing, and, with the big crop produced in the north 



40 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 19, 1907 



this year, must eventually be very large, for the price 
is a relatively high one in view of supplies to be mar- 
keted. Producers are all the time willing sellers, but 
on account of the great scarcity of cars are badly 
handicapped. The weather so far is unseasonable. 

Hay. 

Shipments of hay have been more plentiful duri-ig 
the week just ended. In spite of the fact that weather 
conditions have seriously interfered with water ship- 
ments, yet the proportion of arrivals by schooner have 
continued practically unchanged, showing that there is 
still considerable hay available by boat. Motive power 
still continues to be a stumbling block with the South- 
ern Pacific Company, for, although there is plenty of 
room in the hay yards here, and still more in the 
Oakland yards, yet shipments are being brought to 
market very slowly, and now the order has gone forth 
that the principal hay districts can load nothing more 
for San Francisco for a while. Justice is not being 
done in the matter of apportioning cars, for large hay 
centers like Hollister, Livermore and Concord are be- 
ing shut off from this market, whereas many other 
points with comparatively insignificant quantities are 
supplied with cars practically as required. 

Beans. 

There has been some improvement in the demand for 
beans and at present there is enough stock changing 
hands to redeem the market from stagnation, though 
there is no very active trading. Prices are as before 
with no special tendency toward weakness. 

Poultry. 

With the exception of dressed turkeys, everything 
in the poultry market is cleaned up and there does 
not seem to be enough to supply the demand. This ap- 
plies to all live poultry, even the sorts that are or- 
dinarily least sought after going with the rest. 
Dressed turkeys have been in very free supply nearly 
all week. 

Eggs. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the supply of eggs 
was not very large the market has been noticeably 
weak, owing to the fact that dealers are constantly ex- 



pecting a break when larger supplies come in. The 
trade has been anxious to keep well cleaned up and 
in order to work off the carryover, quotations have been 
shaded from time to time. All grades closed the week 
lower than they opened it. 

Butter. 

Butter has been scarce all week, though there has 
been no advance in prices. Dealers think that it is 
most too late in the season for another advance and 
much of an advance is regarded as very improbable. 
The upper grades of fresh stock are in particularly 
good demand and, while they have not sold above quo- 
tations, they have nevertheless been held very firm at 
the top figures on certain days. 

Cheese. 

The cheese market is decidedly weak, especially for 
all grades of California stock and for cold storage 
Eastern stock. The general run of Eastern goods is 
about as heretofore. A continued weak market seems 
to be the best that can be hoped for for the presen'. 
Fresh Fruits. 

The fresh fruit market is now almost entirely an 
apple market and for these there has been a little 
improvement in the better grades. For the poorer 
grades the demand is not brisk and the market shows 
but slight movement. 

Citrus Fruits. 

The blockades on the railroads have had the effect 
of almost entirely stopping the arrivals of oranges 
and other citrus fruits. Still the supply seems ample 
for requirements and there has been no material firm- 
ing up of the situation. 

Potatoes. 

The potato market is stronger again and has en- 
tirely recovered from the slight depression caused by 
the recent heavy receipts and unfavorable weather, and 
all descriptions of table Burbanks are moving off 
freely, choice bright particularly being in brisk deman-i 
at firm rates. The fact is, that the supply is short and 
the demand good so that great firmness can hardly 
be avoided. 

Vegetables. 

Onions are cleaning up well and as trashy and 
sprouting stocks have about disappeared everything is 



going at full quotations. Owing to the blockades of 
the railroads there have been only light arrivals of 
vegetables from the Los Angeles region. Some carried 
over lots of peas, beans and tomatoes have been of- 
fering at reductions, but being of poor quality have 
sold slowly at nominal rates. 

Dried Fruits. 

Prunes are in a strong position. The same interest 
that is in control of raisins is the chief holder of 
coast prunes, with little stock left in other hands. 
Sales of 40-50s on f. o. b. bag basis are reporied at 1c 
and 50-60s and 90-100s on a 3%s f. o. b. This business 
was done in Santa Clara stock, outside being obtain- 
able at a quarter of a cent less. Other fruits are as 
before with nothing to spare in any line. In New York 
the market for California dried fruits continues almost 
at a standstill. Few if any orders are going out to the 
Coast, while the movement in spot stocks is on the 
hand-to-mouth order, and light at that. There is no 
abatement of the supplies in first hands and in some 
lines there is an upward tendency to prices, which is 
expected to develop into an actual advance when buy- 
ing is resumed. 

Raisins. 

The situation is much the same. The stock of raisins 
on the Coast has been reduced to small proportions bv 
the freer purchases made for consumption since :WS 
season opened, and the available supply has been more 
closely concentrated through the recent buying by oc.e 
large packing interest from others, practically giving 
it control of what is left, with the exception of the 
stock held by the California Fruit Canners' Associa- 
tion and possibly one or two smaller outside seeding 
concerns. 

Wine. 

There has been some little movement in the wine 
market from first hands and a number of sales are ie- 
ported in the country at prices ranging from 23 to 2."> 
cents. 



"It would be a great pleasure to me, Miss Stout." 
said Mr. Dubley, "to have you go to the theater with me 
this evening." "Have you secured the seats?" asked 
Miss Vera Stout. "Oh! come now, really, you're not so 
heavy as all that." 



SPRAYING 



Made Perfect, Profitable and Easy 



REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION 

Several carloads of REX LIME and SULPHUR SOLUTION were used in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Colorado during the winter of 1905 
and 1906 and wherever used is now favored and used in preference to the home made or any other spray material. 

It is cheaper than the home made preparation.. It is made much more perfectly. It is free from all sediment; is in complete chemical solu- 
tion — that is to say — the sulphur and li ne are brought completely solution. 

All authorities agree that it is the sulphur IN SULPHIDE FORM that gives any lime and sulphur preparation its insecticidal and fungic ; da! 
value. That is to say, tne calcium sulphides, rol/sulphides, pontisulphides, etc., extracted into solution from the sulphur and lime. 

U. S. Government Chemists aid State Experiment Station Chemists analyses (including the California Station) show Rex Lime and Sulphur 
Solution to contain a MUCH LARGERpercentage of sulphur IN SULPHIDE FORM than any other preparation ever known. 

Our positive guarantee is pasted on every barrel and every orchardist can feel safe in adopting its use, for it is not a patent or secret formula 
preparation, but is straight Lime and Sulphur, prepared in a way that makes it perfect for use and makes it free from the surplus lime and gives the 
user the full essence of the sulphur aid lime and better results from the spraying. 

It saves time for the orchardist, is easy on nozzles and pumps, easy to use, no waste, always ready for instant use; merely add 11 gallons 
water to each gallon of the solution and go to spraying.. No boiling, no heating necessary. Used both for winter and summer spraying.. It is a tonic 
to the trees or plants. 

Mr. Katzenstein, Manager of Earl Fruit Co., jvnote toihe Grand Junction, Colorado, Fruit Growers' Association and received the following reply: 
"Geo. B. Katzenstein, 

Mgr. Earl Fruit Co., Sacramento, Calif.: 
Dear Sir: — I have your favor of the 3rd, and am pleased to give you what information I can in reference to the Rex Lime and Sulphur Solu- 
tion.. We used just one car of this solutwn last spring, but succeeded in getting it distributed among a good many of our growers and have taken some 
pains to investigate the results, and while I have not seen nearly half the growers that used it, all that I talked to tell me it is a good thing. It saves 
time and is rrore satisfactory to use for the reason there is no sediment to clog up the machine or the nozzle. We also have two horticulturists from 
our State Agricultural College and thjy have watched this also and in talking with them they seem to believe the goods all right. I think we will use 
it quite extensively next spring; probibly 5 to 8 carloads. Yours very truly, Jno. F. Moore, Mgr., The Grand Jet. Fruit Growers' Assn." 

The largest orchardists of Cilifornia, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Colorado and many Eastern and Southern States are adopting the use of Rex 
Lime and Sulphur Solution. 

COST. — We deliver it to points in California for 24 cents per gallon. One gallon is used with eleven gallons of water, making twelve 
gallons of diluted spray for 24 cents, or 2 cents per gallon. This is cheaper than it can be made at home and saves time, labor, and the very disapree- 
able work of mixing, boiling, and handling. REX LIME AND SULPHUR SOLUTION is entirely free from sediment. No clogging of spray pumps. 
Pumps last longer and spraying is done more quickly and thoroughly. *** 
lj We are establishing carload dealers in all fruit communities. Where we have no dealers, however, we will ship from Benicia in 50-gallon bar- 

rels at $15 per barrel, freight prepaid. Each 50-gallon barrel makes 12 bar. els or 600 gallons. When barrels are empty, ship them back to us at Beni- 
cia and we win pay freight on empties returned and rebate $3 for each empty barrel returned in good order. 
^ We also make and supply the well-known REX ARSENATE OF L~*-D. Also Rex Stock and Poultry Preparations. 

| THE REX COMPANY Sit i2£r " d j 



January 19, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



41 



THE DAIRY. 



BEST USES OF CORN FODDER. 

In the principal corn-growing regions 
of the United States, as a rule, only the 
grain is harvested, the stalks being left 
in the field to be eaten by live stock, 
or raked and burned. It is estimated 
that in this way nearly one-half the food 
value of the corn plant is wasted. A 
bulletin by C. J. Zintheo, just issued by 
the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, describes the various machines 
which have been developed for harvest- 
ing the corn plant and preparing it for 
stock food. It gives statements of cost, 
the length of service which may be ex- 
pected under ordinary conditions, and 
the work which can be done with the 
various machines-. 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY 



DOINGS OF THE NATIONAL GRANGE. 

The 40th annual session of the Na- 
tional Grange at Denver, Colo., was gen- 
erally conceded to be the most enthu- 
siastic and important event ever held 
by that powerful organization of agricul- 
turists know as Patrons of Husbandry. 

Among the important resolutions re- 
ceiving attention are the following: 

Resolved: That the time has come 
when the common good demands that 
both logs and lumber be placed upon 
the list of free imports. 

Resolved: That the National grange 
is of the unanimous" conclusion that the 
distribution of many kinds and varieties 
of garden and field seeds by the depart- 
ment of agriculture is without benefit in 
any important sense and the practice 
should be abandoned. 

Resolved: That the matter of national 
legislation protecting farmers against the 
sale of nur&ery stock not truly named be 
referred to the various state granges for 
them to secure protective legislation. 

Resolved: That the National grange 
opposes the concealing of stamps, marks 
and brands after they have been placed 
on packages of oleo, renovated or adul- 
terated butter. The statute should be so 
amended that the stamps should be ex- 
posed to public view. 

Resolved: That congress be asked to 
increase the appropriation for the exten- 
sion of agricultural education from $5,- 
000,000 to $20,000,000. 

State Master Walker of Delaware re- 
ported that his state grange is> endeavor- 
ing to induce the trustees of the agricul- 
tural college to use the federal appropria- 
tion for strictly agricultural courses 
in the college instead of building up 
other departments with it. 

Relative to dormant granges, the chair- 
man, G. A. Fuller of New York, recom- 
mended the organization of a compre- 
hensive deputy system in every state 
where such is- not now in operation. The 
deputies should infuse new life into the 
dormant granges and organize new ones. 
It was recommended that the National 
Grange issue more literature to assist or- 
ganizers. The Pomona Grange should 
exercise a greater force in preventing 
granges from becoming dormant and 
there should be a closer acquaintance and 
interchange of fraternal visits between 
subordinate granges. 

One important resolution that was 
adopted was that brought forth by the 
committee on finance through its chair- 
man, Harvey Walker of Delaware. The 
recommendation which was adopted, pro- 
vides for the spending of $10,000 for lec- 
ture and extension work. 

Resolved: That congress be urged to 
give the rural free mail carrier a square 
deal and make his compensation, all 
things considered, equal to the city car- 
rier. 

Resolved: That the National Grange 
favors the enactment of state and na- 



tional laws restricting the amount of 
land that may be owned or leased by 
a single individual or corporation and 
that the taxing power be used to restrict 
and break up the holding of excessively 
large quantities of land. 

Resolved: That the Grange favors the 
placing of a progressive tax upon all 
fortunes beyond a certain amount. A 
tax so framed as to put it out of the 
power of the owner of enormous for- 
tune to hand over more than a certain 
amount to any one individual. 

Resolved: That under a wise and fair 
interpretation of the interstate com- 
merce clause of the constitution, the na- 
tional government should have complete 
power to deal with all of this wealth 
which in any way goes into the com- 
merce between the states. 



SANTA CLARA COUNTY POMONA 
MEETING. 

To the Editor: The new year opened 
most auspiciously for Santa Clara coun- 
ty Pomona at the joint installation of its 
officers and the officers of all the sub- 
ordinate Granges of the county, at Moun- 
tain View, Saturday, January 5. The 
attendance was the largest at any meet- 
ing yet held, and the interest and en- 
thusiasm augured well for a successful 
year's work. 

In the morning, after closing up the 
business of the Pomona Grange for the 
year, and obligating five candidates, W. 
V. Griffith, Worthy Master of the State 
Grange, gave an interesting account of 
the recent meeting of the National 
Grange at Denver, and answered many 
questions about various features of its 
work. He touched upon the parcels 
post, rural free delivery, fire and life 
insurance, and other subjects upon which 
action was taken, and gave an idea of its 
social features and the spirit which ani- 
mated' it, as only one who was present 
could; things which can not be obtained 
from printed reports and statistics. 

After a lunch served by Mountain View 
Grange in its usual lavish style, the 
Grange reassembled in the afternoon in 
open session, and Worthy Master Grif- 
fith installed the officers of all the 
Granges. The work was done entirely 
without the book, and was most beauti- 
ful and impressive. Santa Clara county 
patrons never saw six new Masters sit- 
ting in a row before, and the other offi- 
cers-elect were equally well represented. 

The new Pomona officers are: Master, 
E. C. Abbott; Overseer, W. A. Piatt; 
Lecturer, M. R. Trace; Steward, E. F. 
Greenwood; Assistant Steward, J. J. Cor- 
nell; Chaplain, Emma Meder; Treasurer, 
N. Farrell; Secretary, M. J. Worthen; 
Gate Keeper, Joseph Clem; Ceres, Mrs. 
E. C. Abbott; Pomona, Mrs. W. A. Piatt; 
Flora, Janie Saunders; Lady Assistant 
Steward, Laura Foster; Organist, Mrs. 
Eliza Farrell. 

After the installation, short addresses 
were made by E. C. Abbott, Master Po- 
mona Grange, outlining its future work; 
W. V. Griffith, Master State Grange; C. 
P. Berry, Secretary Mountain View 
Grange, on Crop Reports; F. H. Babb, 
Lecturer State Grange, on "The Purpose 
of the County Grange;" D. M. Winans, 
State Organizer; A. C. Keesling, Master 
Orchard City Grange, on "Co-operation;" 
M. R. Trace, Lecturer Pomona Grange, 
on "The Grange of the Past and Pres- 
ent;" Prof. McCrae, on "The Influence 
of the Grange on Education:" Lewis 
Walter, Master of Mountain View 
Grange, on "Grange Efficiency." Brother 
Thomas Jacob of Visalia, member of tire 
State executive committee, was present, 
but maintained the attitude of an inter- 
ested and critical auditor and spectator. 
Miss Kathryn Husted sang in her usual 
charming style, and Brother W. A. Piatt 
closed the exercises with a clarionet 
solo. F. H. B. 

San Jose. 




Iwnektfer 



If you can increase your butter production 
without any increased cost or any more work 
won't it pay you to do it? And if you can get 
more butter from you milk with less 
work, that will be still better, won't it? 
That's exactly what you can do if you 
will do as Mr. Leiting did— buy a 
Sharpies Tubular Separator. Here's 



what he says about the Tubular: 



Randolph, Nebraska, Feb. 15th, 1906. 
Gentlemen:— On the 23rd day of January, 
1906, I took a No. 4 Sharpies Tubular Separator 
on trial. On learning that I was in the market 
for a cream separator, the agent for the disc 
style "bucket bowl" separator brought one to 
my farm and requested me to give it a trial be- 
fore making a purchase. After giving both 
machines a fair trial, I concluded to keep the 
Tubular as I consider it far superior to theother 
machine. It skims closer, runs easier, and is 
very much easier to wash, there being so many 
less parts. From three skimmings of milk from 
7 cows, we were able to makel'/i lbs. more but- 
ter with the Tubular than we could with the 
"bucket bowl" machine. B. LEITING. 



The Sharpies Tubular 
Separator 



MORE BUTTER 
MORE MONEY 

gets all the cream there is in the milk, does it so 
easy that it's not work to run it at all, and is so 
simple, with only one little part in the bowl to wash 
and keep clean that comparison is out of the question. 

The extra cream it gets makes the Tubular a regular 
savings bank for its owner. 

All the other good money-making points are told 
In book F-131, which you ought to read. Write for it 
today— we'll send it free to you. 

THE SHARP3.ES SEPARATOR CO., 
Toronto, Can. WEST CHESTER, PA. 




Chicago, III. 



Farm'ui^ Prosperity 
CREAM SEPARATORS 

There was never before a time in the history of the country when the 
average American farmer had such big crops worth such good prices as he 
has this year. 

There isn't a farmer anywhere who has use for one who can not afford 
to buy himself a 

DE LAVAL CREAM SEPARATOR 

now and do it right away, and there isn't a farmer anywhere having use 
for a separator who really can afford not to do so. 

Its use means* more and better cream and butter, with less work and 
trouble for everybody — it means profit, comfort and satisfaction. 

If you already have a "cheap" or inferior separator, "trade it in" for 
what it's worth and replace it with a DE LAVAL. 

Put some of your prosperity into the most profitable farming invest- 
ment ever made— of which a De Laval catalogue, to be had for the asking, 
must convince you. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO., General Agents. 
309 Twelfth St., 107 First St., 123 North Main St., 1017 Post SL, 

Oakland, Cal. Portland, Ore. Los Angeles, Cal. Seattle, Wash. 



U.S. 




CREAM 
SEPARATOR 



WEARS LONGEST 

as well as skims cleanest. Time has 
proved the simple, strong construction of 
the U. S. is more durable than any other 
separator. 



Used 14 Years 
Repairs 75 Cents 



Fond du Lac, Wis., Nov. 8, 1906. 

To whom it may concern : 

I have used one of yotir U. S. Sepa- 
rators for the past fourteen years and it 
has given the very best satisfaction. 1 
have paid ?5 cents for extras since get- 
ting the machine. I cannot recommend 
the U. S. too highly. J. Balson. 

27 pictures with plain, easy-to-under- 
stand explanations m our new catalogue, 
make the construction and operation of 
the U.S. as plain as though the machine 
was before you. Let us send you a free 
copy. Just write: " Send Construction 
Catalogue No. m« ". Write today. 

Don't buy a Cream Separator before 
you see thta book. 



VERMONT FARM MACHINE COMPANY 



Bellows rails, Vt. 

• pivcen chstribuM-fc warehouses erit'WII incau: -v re 1 



460 

Canackc 



42 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 19, 1907 



HOME CIRCLE 



PAPA'S KISS. 

"Why don't you kiss like mama?" 

At/ked the little maid of three, 
As she ran to greet her papa, 

And climbed upon his knee. 
"Her tisses taste like tandy, 

And is dood enough to eat; 
But your mouf do taste awful, 

And ain't the least bit sweet." 

"That is so," replied the father — 

Her eyes he dare not meet — 
"There's no reason why, my darling, 

My kiss should not be sweet." 
To him the thought was galling, 

That each evening with his kiss, 
He had thoughtlessly polluted 

Those innocent young lips. 

"Come here, dear wife and mother, 

And help me take this vow: 
Neither liquor nor tobacco 

Shall touch my lips from now, 
And oh, dear Heavenly Father, 

Thou who art good and wise, 
I thank Thee for this angel 

Who has opened my blind eyes." 

— Samuel F. Harker. 



A CALIFORNIA STORY. 

In a village not far from San Fran- 
cisco a Mr. Martin lived, with his four 
young children, the oldest but sixteen 
years of age. The mother died about 
six months before Mr, Martin moved 
into the village. Their new home was a 
poor little brown house of four rooms, 
and to the orphans it seemed lonesome 
and gloomy enough. 

Their father had been appointed teach- 
er in the town, and regretted the nec- 
essity which compelled him to live 
where the Sabbath was desecrated by 
horse-racing and gaming, and where 
drunkenness, profanity and crime made 
every street disagreeable and dangerous. 

When Mr. Martin and his family had 
lived in S. nearly a year, it seemed as 
if the wickedness of the place had 
reached its height. Seven persons were 
murdered within a short time, and who 
the perpetrators of the deeds were no 
one could discover. 

These outrages made every well dis- 
posed person afraid to carry money with 
him, and great uneasiness and anxiety 
was felt. 

Mr. Martin was sometimes- obliged to 
visit San Francisco on business, remain- 
ing there two or three days. The chil- 
dren always dreaded these departures, 
for they lived out of the village, a mile 
and a half from neighbors. 

One day, just after Mr. Martin had 
been to San Francisco for his monthly 
salary, and had safely returned, he re- 
ceived a letter asking him to go at once 
to a town seven or eight miles distant, 
to see a friend who was said to be dan- 
gerously ill. He at once complied with 
the request, leaving the children alone, 
and telling them not to expect his return 
until the next morning. 

Towards night the rain began to fall, 
and the wind blew fiercely, shaking the 
doors and windows, and filling the hearts 
of the little ones with a vague sense of 
coming ill. Lucy, the eldest, did not try 
to conceal her fears, as she usually had 
done, but sat by the stove in the kitchen, 
talking with Willie about robbers and 
murderers, and becoming every minute 
more frightened than before. 

"Do you know where father put his 
money when he went away?" asked 
Willie. 

"Yes," said Lucy. "It is where no 
one would ever find it, under the car- 
pet by the lounge; but if robbers should 
come, they'd shoot us if we didn't tell, i 
Father said there was a man rode behind 



him when he came home today, who 
was in the express office when he got 
his money, and I'm afraid he watched 
him, and will come here tonight, be- 
cause father's gone. 

"Oh, dear!" said little Mary, half cry- 
ing, "I wish father wouldn't go off and 
leave us alone." 

"I'a sleepy," said baby Harry. And 
Lucy took the little boy on her lap and 
began to undress him. She was just in 
the act of taking him into the bedroom, 
when a loud knock on the kitchen door 
caused every heart to thrill with terror. 

Their first thought was to fly at once 
through the other outside door, but this 
they knew it would be impossible to do 
on such a dreadful night, with their little 
brother to carry. 

"We must open the door," said Lucy, 
"and we must not act as though we were 
afraid. Perhaps it is no one who will 
hurt us, after all." 

So saying, Lucy opened the door, and 
a man entered, whose appearance did 
not tend to diminish the children's 
fears. He was tall and strongly built, 
with a dark, forbidding face, and keen, 
piercing eyes. Taking a hasty survey 
of the room and its occupants, he said — 
"Can you keep me here over night, 
little girl? 1 was going on to the vil- 
lage, but it storms, and I have walked 
so far today that I feel too tired to get 
any further.' 

"Yes, you can stay," said Lucy, try- 
ing to speak calmly. "We haven't much 
room, but father is away tonight, so we 
can keep you very well." 

She wished she dared to tell him they 
had no spare room, but she thought that 
very likely he was aware that her father 
was away, and knew it was best, at all 
events, to be perfectly honest. 

The man sat down by the stove, try- 
ing to dry his clothes, which were really 
very wet. 

Lucy took little Harry in her arms and 
started to put him to bed. 

"May I go, too?" said Mary. She was 
usually anxious to sit up late, but felt 
too much frightened in the presence of 
the stranger to desire to do so tonight. 

Lucy assented, and they left the room, 
closing the door after them, as they 
thought, but it opened a little, and the 
stranger, who was sitting near, heard 
and saw what they were doing. 

"Harry must say his prayers," 6aid 
Lucy, "and then go to sleep." 

The child knelt down by the bed, and 
the man looked in and saw the little 
white-robed form, with hands clasped and 
eyes closed, as he repeated, after his 
sister, his beautiful prayer. 

Then Mary was undressed, Lucy, mean- 
while, trying to comfort her and dispel 
her fears, though feeling far from com- 
fortable herself. 

"God will take care of us," she said, 
remembering her mother's daily teach- 
ings, "and we must try not to be afraid." 

The child then knelt by the bedside 
and repeated the same simple prayer that 
her brother had said before her, adding 
in earnest, beseeching tones, "Please, 
dear God, take care of Lucy and Willie 
and Harry and me tonight, and don't let 
the man in the kitchen do us any harm. 
Please, dear God, give him a good heart, 
and help him to do right. Amen." 

Lucy choked back the tears that want- 
ed to come, and taking up the candle, 
left the children to their slumbers. 

In the meantime, every word spoken by 
the little ones had been heard by the 
stranger in the adjoining room. The in- 
fant prayer, and afterwards the petition 
of the little girl asking God to help him 
to do right, startled and impressed him. 

He was all that the children had 
feared. He had seen the money deliv- 
ered to Mr. Martin that morning, and 
had followed him, determined to commit 
robbery to obtain it. For years he had 



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been familiar with such deeds. But now, 
through the influence of God's spirit, the 
words of prayer had touched his heart. 
He bowed his face in his hands, regard- 
less of Willie's presence, and wept like 
a child. Recollections came sweeping 
over him of what he had once been, and 
what he was now. He recalled the time 
when an innocent boy he had knelt be- 
side his mother's knee, and said his op- 
ening prayer. He desired to be again 
what he had been many years back, be- 
fore his desire for gold had led him to 
California, and then to the practice of 
every sin. These innocent children, at 
least, should receive no harm from 
him. Soon after Lucy's return to the 
kitchen, he asked to be shown his bed. 

The morning dawned bright and clear. 
The children had slept soundly and had 
not been disturbed during the night. The 
stranger stayed till after breakfast. 
Then he thanked the children with much 
tenderness of manner for their kind- 
ness, and, saying he should never forget 
them, went his way. The children's 
prayers had saved them, and we hope led 
the wayward man back to his mother's 
God, and to hopes of Heaven. 



kept perfectly clean and bright, 
dust being very apt to collect 
in the interstices. The best method of 
cleaning them is to immerse the orna- 
ments in a mixture composed of equal 
parts of vinegar and water, where they 
should be left to steep thoroughly for 
about a quarter of an hour. They should 
then be taken out of the vinegar and 
spread on a clean sheet of paper to dry. 
The vinegar helps to give back to the 
jet the original lustre, and greatly im- 
proves its appearance. 



HINTS TO HOUSEKEEPERS 



A HINT ON SWEEPING. 

Fine dust raised in sweeping is most 
unpleasant. When sweeping have a pail 
half full of very warm water in which 
put a little ammonia. Before beginning 
dip the broom in thia, shaking as dry as 
possible. When the broom becomes filled 
with dust dip and shake as before. The 
damp broom holds the dust which would 
otherwise fill the air. By changing the 
water often no injury will come to the 
finest rug or carpet. Ammonia brightens 
colors and they look very much cleaner 
than when swept in the old way. The 
labor of dusting is greatly lessened and 
germ& are disposed of. 



TO MAKE 



BURN 



AN OIL STOVE 
WELL. 

Thoroughly clean and refill every time 
after using. If you allow oil and dirt to 
accumulate on it, it is sure to smell un- 
pleasant when lighted. Don't cut the 
wick, but rub off the charred parts with 
a rag or a piece of paper. Always turn 
the wick down before extinguishing it 
and leave turned down till you are going 
to light it again. Remember that the 
top of the part up and down which the 
wick runs needs to be kept thoroughly 
clean. Give it a rub inside and outside 
every time you clean the stove, and if a 
crust forms round the top scrape it oc- 
casionally. 



JET ORNAMENTS. 

Jet ornaments, especially where hair 
accessories are concerned, should be 



A treatment that may be relied on for 
removing spots of iron rust from white 
fabrics is the following: Pour boiling 
water into a bowl, stretch the cloth that 
is spotted over it, and drop on the spot 
of ru&t a drop of hydrochloric or mu- 
riatic acid. Leave it there half a minute, 
then dip the place in hot water. Wash 
out thoroughly afterwards in water 
softened with ammonia. Soap must not 
be used as the acid will decompose it 
and leave a grease spot on the cloth. 

The nervous headaches of brain work- 
ers yield more quickly to mechanical 
treatment and active muscular exercise 
than to any other form of cure. A half- 
hour's change from one's writing table 
to the gymnasium three or four times 
daily, or to practice of exercises with- 
out apparatus, such as posing, bending, 
stretching and rolling, is of inestimable 
value in overcoming nervous tension. 

To clean gilt picture frames beat the 
white of an egg; add to it one pint of 
cold water; moisten your frames with 
this mixture, using a sponge. Then with 
a soft flannel carefully wipe. Take a 
second cloth, perfectly dry, and give the 
frame a light rubbing. If the frames are 
not clear and bright after this* treatment 
you had better take them to a gilder and 
have them regilded. 

A recent writer says: My small 
nephew had swallowed a pin. Bread 
and milk were hastily procured, but 
when the physician came he added fine 
bits of absorbent cotton and made the 
youngster eat a bowlful of the mixture. 
He said the sharp edges were covered 
by the cotton, thus more securely pro- 
tecting the intestine, as there was no 
danger of the cotton being digested. Cer- 
tainly it was successful in this case. 

The potato possesses great cleansing 
properties. Cold potatoes, when used 
instead of soap, clean the hands well and 
keep the skin soft. The water in which 
potatoes have been boiled is excellent 
for sponging out the dirt from silk. 

Never tamper with moles. It is un- 
safe and sometimes is followed by seri- 
ous consequences. If any treatment is 
necessary go to a reliable physician for 
it. 



January 19, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



43 



The safest way of bleaching lace cur- 
tains is the old-fashioned way of let- 
ting the sun do most of the work. Lay 
the curtains in warm water, to which 
you have added the juice of six lemons, 
and leave them there all night. In the 
morning lay them in the sun and wet 
hourly with the sour water. . At night 
leave in cold water and repeat the lemon 
juice process next day. It will not rot 
the muslin, as most bleaching powders 
do. Finally, wash in the usual manner. 

As soon as a nail driven in the wall 
gets loose and the plaster begins to 
break around it, it can be made solid and 
firm by the following process: Saturate 
a bit of wadding with thick dextrine 
or glue, wrap as much of it around the 
nail as possible, and reinsert latter in 
the hole, pressing it home as strongly 
as possible; remove the excess of glue 
or dextrine, wiping it off cleanly with a 
rag dipped in water, then leave to dry. 
The nail will thus be firmly fastened 
in its place. 

The dents in furniture may be taken 
out as follows: Wet the part with warm 
water, double a piece of brown paper 
five or six times; soak it in warm water, 
and lay it on the place; apply on that a 
warm, but not hot, iron until the moist- 
ure makes the wood swell and fill the 
dent. 

DOMESTIC HINTS. 

Scalloped Chestnuts. — Shell and peel 
one pound of chestnuts, then chop them 
as finely as possible. Put them into a 
basin, and add half a cup of sweet cream, 
two well-beaten eggs, one teaspoonful of 
finely chopped parsley, and one salt- 
spoonful of salt. Mix well together, and 
divide into buttered scalloped shells. 
Place the shells in a pan of water, and 
bake in a slow oven till the chestnuts 
are tender. 

Mutton Cutlets Au Parmesan. — Take 
the best end of a neck of mutton, trim 
carefully six cutlets, and partly fry them, 
then steep them in a sauce made of two 
tablespoonfuls of white sauce, in which 
is mixed four spoonfuls of grated cheese, 
and then coat them twice over with egg 
and breadcrumbs, make the surface very 
smooth and even, fry them a golden 
brown, and dish them up on a bed of 
.spinach. 

Potato Soup. — Cook a sliced onion and 
a few stalks of celery with from four to 
six good-sized potatoes, mash all to- 
gether, put through sieve, add a quart 
of milk and a generous seasoning of 
butter, salt and pepper, boil up well and 
serve. 

Orange Marmalade. — Take equal 
weight of sour oranges and sugar. Grate 
the yellow rind from one-fourth of the 
oranges. Cut all the fruit in halves at 
what might be called the 'equator.' Pick 
out the pulp and free it from seeds. 
Drain off as much juice as you conven- 
iently can, and put it on to boil with the 
sugar. Let it come to a boiling stage. 
Then skim and let simmer for about 
fifteen or sixteen minutes. Add the 
grated rind and pulp. Boil fifteen min- 
utes longer. Put away in jelly tumblers. 

Corn Bread.— A very nourishing corn 
bread is- made with a cupful of corn meal, 
two cupfuls of cold boiled rice, one cupful 
milk, one egg, half a teaspoonful of salt, 
a tablespoonful of sugar, butter the tize 
of an egg, and a teaspoonful of baking 
powder. Mix corn meal, sugar, salt and 
baking powder together; add the oth«r 
ingredients after melting the butter and 
putting the rice through the colander. 
Bake half an hour. 

Delicate Boiled Cabbage. — Cut a small 
head of cabbage into four parts, cutting 



down through the stock. Soak for half 
an hour in a pan of cold water to which 
has been added a tablespoonful of salt; 
this is to draw out any insects that may 
be hidden in the leaves. Take from the 
water and cut into slices. Have a large 
stew pan half full of boiling water; put 
in the cabbage, pushing it under the 
water with a spoon. Add one table- 
spoonful of salt and cook from twenty- 
five to forty-five minutes, depending upon 
the age of the cabbage. Turn into a 
colander and drain for about two min- 
utes. Put in a chopping bowl and mince. 
Season with butter, pepper and more salt 
if it requires it. Allow a tablespoonful 
of butter to a generous pint of the cooked 
vegetable. Cabbage cooked in this man- 
ner will be of delicate flavor and may 
be generally eaten without distress. Have 
the kitchen windows open at the top 
while the cabbage is boiling, and there 
will be little, if any, odor of cabbage 
in the house. 

Cutlets — Boil 3 ounces butter in 1 tea- 
cup milk, add 3% ounces bread crumbs 
and cook until it does not stick to the 
pan. Remove from the fire and cool, 
then add 3 ounces ground boiled chest- 
nuts, and 5 drops onion extract. Mix 
well and shape into cutlets. Roll in egg 
and bread crumbs and fry in hot butter. 
Serve with a rich tomato sauce. 

A good receipe for an oyster cocktail, 
which is simple to make and does not 
take long, is to put the small and thor- 
oughly chilled bivalves in a wine glass, 
covering them with a sauce composed of 
a spicy catsup, lemon juice and some 
freshly grated horseradish. 

SOME RIDDLES NEW AND OLD. 



Which is swifter, heat or cold? Heat, 
because you can catch cold. 

Why does a Russian soldier wear brass 
buttons on his coat, and an Austrian 
soldier wear steel ones? To keep his 
coat buttoned. 

What is the difference between an old 
cent and a new dime? Nine cents. 

When is a bee a great nuisance? When 
he is a humbug. 

What is the difference between a hill 
and a pill? One is hard to get up, and 
the other is hard to get down. 

Why is a lazy dog like a hill. Because 
he is a slow pup (slope up). 

A man and a goose once went up in a 
balloon together; the balloon burst, and 
they landed on the church steeple. How 
How did the man get down? Picked the 
goose. 

A man had twenty-six (twenty sick) 
sheep and one died; how many remain- 
ed? Nineteen. 

What is the oldest table in the world? 
The multiplication table. 

Why is the professional thief very 
comfortable? Because he usually takes 
things easy. 

Why is A like honeysuckle? Because 
B follows it. 



BUNCOING THE BUSY BEE. 



The beeman, as he gently removed a 
tawny cluster of bees from his beard, 
said: 

"Above all things, never set a beehive 
near an arc light. If you do, your bees 
will die of overwork within a week. 

"An arc light, emitting a powerful il- 
lumination, was put up last spring near 
my beehive. The night it was put up my 
bees, mistaking its light for daylight, 
worked like beavers, though dead tired. 

"When dawn came and the light was 
extinguished, the bees, quite worn out, 



More than Anybody A.sks. 

The great lamp-chimney maker of the world, Mac- 
heth of Pittsburg, not only makes the best chimneys, 
but prints a most useful Index to lamps and burners; 
from which one can find out what shape and size 
to get for his particular lamp. 

One is no longer dependent on grocers etc. for the 
somewhat delicate service of fitting his lamp. 



turned' in; but lo, in a few minutes the 
sun was shining, and out the poor, bed- 
raggled little creatures hurried again, for 
no bee will consent to pass the daylight 
hours in idleness. 

"They got through the day somehow, 
and at dusk, after thirty-six hours of 
unceasing toil, they once more turned in. 
Alas, the arc light began to hiss and 
glow again, and the poor bees, worn to 
shadows, bent, pallid, staggered forth for 
another round of labor. 

"They were all dead by the end of the 
week — victims of overwork, every moth- 
er's son of them." — Minneapols Journal. 



HE GOT THE HARE. 



An old sailor struck inland, thinking 
he would like to try work in the country. 
He approached a farmer for a meal one 
day, saying he was willing to work, but 
that he knew little or nothing of coun- 
try life. 

"I will give you a meal," said the farm- 
er, "if you will round up those sheep on 
the common there and drive them into 
this fold. Come back when you've done 
it." 

In three hours' time the sailor came 
back looking hot, but happy. 

"Have you done the job?" asked the 
farmer. 

"Yes," replied the sailor, mopping his 
forehead. 

"You've been a pretty long while about 
it. Let's go and see them." 

Looking over the gate of the field, the 

•pioj an.} ui X'ares deaqs 9q^ m/bs januiaj 
"There's a hare sitting up among 'em," 

he exclaimed. 

"Do you mean that little feller there?" 
asked the sailor. "Why, that is the lit- 
tle beggar who gave me all the trouble. 
I thought it was a lamb." 



The lamp is yet to be made 
for which I haven't made a 
chimney that fits. 

Macbeth on lamp-chimneys 
means fit and freedom from 
all chimney troubles. 

A Macbeth chimney doesn't 
break from heat. 

My Index gives a fuller explanation of 
these things, and may be had for the asking. 

Address, MACBETH, Pittsburgh. 



HEALD'S 

Business College and School of Engineering 

The Leading Commercial and 
Engineering School In the West 

Has branches at Oakland, Stockton, Fresno aud 
Santa Cruz. 

ESTABLISHED OYER 40 TEARS. 

8o Teachers; nearly 100 Typewriting Machines; 
20,000 Graduates; i ,ooo annual enrollment; 500 aver- 
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of the college. Mining, Electrical and Civil Engi- 
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entire year. Both sexes. Individual instruction 
Catalogue free. 

HEALD'S BUSINES SCOLLEGE 

1451 Franklin Street, San Francisco, Gal. 



PUNGENT POINTS. 



When a man is very poor he has queer 
bed fellows; and when a man gets rich 
he has wierd nightmares. 

We frequently learn a lot in our ef- 
forts to teach an old dog new tricks. 

Even if reputation be but a bubble, the 
best is seldom made by a blower. 

For the sake of your health, your 
friends, and your business, be pleasant. 

"Laugh and the world laughs with you." 
Snore, and you sleep alone. 

"Look before you leap." If every one 
did this, there wouldn't be so much leap- 
ing. 

Money — the rich man's faith, the poor 
man's hope, and the good man's charity. 

Some people spend a lot of time re- 
gretting things that never happen. 

A cautious man bets on the bottom 
facts and the top dog. 

A temperate life may be slow, but it's 
pretty sure. 

It is far easier to sell a dog than to 
give it away. 

It's not always the handsomest dog 
that gets the bone. 

For every person that is worn out 
there are a hundred that have rusted 
out. 

You can't judge a man by his outward 
appearance. Even a bad egg has a good 
shell. 

Here is a secret to true knowledge: 
Every man you meet is your master in 
some point, and in that you must learn 
of him. 

The pole of success is greased so that 
there is always room on top. 

Don't "grin and bear it"- — laugh and 
throw it off. 



A LITTLE CAUSTIC BALSAM— PLENTY OF 
HARD RUBBING DOES THE WORK. 

Owasco, Ind., April 18, 1905. 
The Lawrence-Williams Co., I leveland. O.: 

While in Cleveland two y< ars ago I bought a 
bottle of GOMBAULT'S CAUSTIC BALSAM and 
used on y a small quantity on a horse for strained 
tendon. It gave good results and now I have 
occasion to use it for Strained tendons and thrush. 
Please send ine directions. L. H.EDWARDS. 



School of Practical, Ciuil, mechanical, 

electrical and mining engine crinfl. 

Surveying. Architecturt, Drawing anct Assaying 

5100 Telegraph Ave., Oakland, California 
Open all Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pret't. 
Assaying of Ores, $25. Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay ,$25; Blowpipe Assay, $10; Full Course of Ar 
saying Established in 1864. Send for circular. 



Pacific Congress Springs 

Santa Cruz Mis., 12 Miles from San Jose 

Charming Resort Open all the year 

Prices Reasonable 
AddrMS lewis A. Sage, Prop. Saratoga, Cal. 

TO CUBE A COLD IN ONE DAY 

Take LAXATIVE BROMO Quinine Tablets. Drug- 
gists refund money if it fails to cure. E. W. 
GROVE'S signature is on each box. 2SC. 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX AND 

BLACKLEG 
VACCI NES 

are given the preference by 80% of Cali- 
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results than others do: 

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TEMPORARY ADDRESS 



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Berkeley, Gal. 



West of San Pablo Ave . 



DEWEY„STRONG &,CO 




IO BACON BLOCK OAKLAND. 



All about Bees and Honey 

The Bee-keeper's guide to success. The) 
Weekly 

American Bee Journal 



tells how to make the most money with 
bees. Contributors are practical honey pro- 
ducers who know how. Interesting — in- 
structive. $1 per year; 3 mos. (13 copies) 
25c. Sample free. 

American Bkk Journal, 
334 Dearborn St., Chicago. 



Blake, Moffitt & Towns, p 7pe"» 

No. 419 Eleventh St., Oakland 
Blake, Moffitt A Towne, Los Angeles. 
Blake, McFall & Co., PertlaneL Or*. 



44 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 19, 1907 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY LIVE OAK STttCK FARM agricultural review 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



OEO. C. ROKDINO, Fresno, California, 
Breeder of high-grade thoroughbred Hol- 
■taln Bulla and Halfers. Thoroughbred 
Berkshire Boara and Sows. 

KIVlRfllDE HERD HOLSTBIN CATTLE — 
One of the largest and best In the world. 
Bend for catalogue. Pierce Land * Stock 

Co.. Stockton, Cal. 

JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Short- 
horns, milk strain. High class stock, First*' 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O Box, 321 Petaluma. Cal. 



HOLSTKIN8— Winners at State Fair at every but- 
ter contest since 1885 in Calil Stock near S. F. 
F H. Burke, 2105 Fillmore St., S. F. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durham*. ADdress E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



. J. C. C. JERSEYS. Service bulla of noted 
strains. Joseph Mallllard, San Oeronlmo. 
Marin Co., Cal. 



P H. MURPHY. Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breed- 
er of Shorthorn Catile and Poland-China Hogs. 



"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto herd, 77 pre- 
miums California State Fairs 1905-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle, Ad- 
dress temporarily, San Mateo, Cal. 



JF.RSEYS, HOLSTEINS. it DURHAMS. Bred es- 
pecially for use in dairy. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm, Niles &" Co., Los Angeles, Cal., 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

. H. FOUNTAIN. Dixon, Cal. Importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire 
sheep. Both sexes for sale at all times. 



POULTRY. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large Size good plumage, early maturity. 



COPPINt SONS. Cottonwood Farm, Pleasant Grove 
Cal. Pigeons, graded & standard homers $3 to $6 
per dozen. 



SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN AND INDIAN 
Runner Ducks— Eggs $1 50 per setting; $6 00 peT 
hundred. Send for illustrated catalogue. John P 
Boden, 1338 Second street, Watsonville. California 



WM. NILES & Co , Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly all 
varieties chickens, geese, aucks. pea-fowl, etc. 



SWINE. 



GEO V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexe 



BERKSHIRES- Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages T Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND -CHINA 
C. A. STOWE, Stockton. 



GOLD MEDAL Herd of Berkshire Hogs and South 
Down Sheep. Thos Waite, Perkins, 1 al. 



BERKSHIRE, POLAND-CHINA, DUROC HOGS 
Choice, thoroughbred Poultry, William Niles & 
Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Established in 1876. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan Street, San 
Francisco. Mi 
f a c t u r e r 
Dealer in 

of every description. Send for Catalogue— FREE. 



ttiui,ti , 03/ Dtituiiitn aucci, sau 

» Poultry Supplies 



BUFF ORPINGTONS.— We won at State Fair 
ALL FIRST PRIZES in this class 1906 and 1904 
We have just won at Sau Jose GRANIJ SPECIAL 
for BE-T 3 Breeding Pens, 3 Cocks, 3 Cockerels. 
3 Hens and 3 Pullets. ALL VARIETIES COM- 
PETING. Mr. Farmer, YOU NEED THIS BREED 
Write me and learn why 

W. SULLIVAN. Agnews. Cal. 

State Vice-President 

NAT. S. C. B. ORPINGTON CLUB. 



FOR, SALE 

Imported Shire Stallion 

This is a very high class 
Stallion, weighing 1900 lbs. and 
a good stock horse, foaled 1902. 

HENRY WHEATLEY, 

Napa, Cal. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years 

Importers and Breeders of All Varieties of Land 
and Water Fowls 

St ck for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Make Your 
Hen* Pay 

Blgjrvr Profit* by f»ttlaf Blgrer HjAchei ~ 
ud hatch Chicks th»tLW». Baflnaan.MwaU 
M •xport*, do tblt with the Latest Pattern 
PVDlirDC Incubator* 
\j I rntnO .„d Brood.* w „ b , hflM . >tfDt . 
ImproaamaBta poaaaaaad by »o ©then. 90 day i' free trial wllb Muney 
Back QuaraBtT. Oat 244 pafa Gulda to Poultry Profit PREB to joo. 
CTPHBES INCtTBATOBCOHPANT. BUFFALO. 
Oakland, OaUfarpla, Wa» Ywk,Boitoa. I tn..-Mo , Kanaaa City. 




PILES CURED IN 6 TO 14 DAYS. 
PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any case 
of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or ProtrudiDg Piles in 5 
to 14 days, or money refunded. 50c. 



Six Miles N. W. from PETALUMA, on 
the Petaluma and Sebastopol Road. 

FRANK A MECHAM, Prop. 

Importer and Breeder of 

Red Pooled Cattle 



Color Deep Red. Both Sexes for Sale. 



Address all communications PETALUMA, 
NOMA CO., CAL. 



SO- 




PRANK A. MECHAM 

mporter and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep 

They were all imported from England, or bred 
rect irom imported Stock. 




We have also bred American Merinos—Hornless 
Sheep— for 30 years. They are a large sheep with- 
out wrinkles. Rams will produce 20 to 25 pounds of 
long, white wool yearly. Sheep of both sexes for sale 



FRANK i, MECHAM, Importer and Breeder 

Shipping Points PETALUMA AND SANTA 
ROSA. SONOMA CO., CAL. 



SIERRA KENNELS 

H M. TIDI), Proprietor 



Scotch 
Collies 



At Stud-Imported Craigmore Cracksm'n--Fee SI5 

POR SALE 

Puppies, young dogs ami hitches, from $(o.oo up 
Tin breeding o my stock is of the very best. When 
writing particularize jour want. 

SIERRA KENNELS, Berkeley . Cal 



Dadd's Modern Horse Doctor 

By George H. Dadd, M D, V S. Con- 
taining practical observations on the 
causes, nature and treatment of di- 
seases and lameness of horses — em- 
bracing recent and improved methods, 
according to an enlightened system of 
veterinary practice, for preservation 
and restoration of health. Illustrated 
432 pages. 6x7 inches. Cloth $100 




Glenn. 

EXPERIMENT IN SEED CEREALS.— 
The Orland Register: Among the most 
important experiments being carried on 
at the cereal investigation stations in 
California is one relating to the annual 
changing of seed wheat. There is a pop- 
ular idea that in order to secure a sat- 
isfactory return, seed from other lands 
or localities must be sown and in many 
cases growers send away to other por- 
tions of the State for their seed and it is 
not an uncommon thing for them to im- 
port their seed from some of the Middle 
West and Northern States, where the 
wheat contains a greater quantity of 
gluten. The experiment station at Yuba 
City is located upon a heavy soil while 
the Modesto location offers the opposite 
type. The experiments now being car- 
ried on at these two places are expected 
to show the effect of old and new seed 
wheat. As in the other experiments 
small plats of ground will be used and 
upon these plats the same seed will be 
planted each year, while upon the others 
new seed will be used. These experi- 
ments are expected to demonstrate 
whether or not it is better to plant an 
entire new seed upon certain soils each 
year. It would seem unnecessary to dem- 
onstrate the advantages of selecting only 
the largest and finest grains of wheat 
for seed, but nevertheless experiments 
are being made to show to just what 
extent such a selection will prove of 
benefit. No one will question the state- 
ment that one of the greatest factors 
that has tendered to reduce not only 
the yield but also the character of Cali- 
fornia wheat is the habit that growers 
have fallen into of sowing small and 
shrunken grains. Experiment stations 
throughout the various States have look- 
ed into this question thoroughly and it 
has been conclusively demonstrated that 
a greatly superior product, both in quan- 
tity and quality, is secured from the se- 
lection of large and vigorous seed. In 
order to make these experiments com- 
plete the University authorities have se- 
lected for sowing, the large, medium and 
small grains. The different qualities of 
seed will be planted under the same 
conditions and a series of experiments 
continued for several years to establish 
what the farmers can produce per acre, 
judging by both quality and quantity, 
from the different types of seed. One- 
half an acre is to be planted with the 
seed from the very best heads that can 
be secured. From the one-half acres 
the very finest heads will be chosen and 
enough of the seed selected to plant an- 
other half acre. This experiment will be 
carried on in rotation with each different 
type of seed for several seasons or until 
a pedigreed seed is created. Accurate 
records will be kept by field men on the 
various conditions existing in the differ- 
ent plats and all of the important facts 
Connected with the work will be record- 
ed in order that the exact results secur- 
ed from the large, medium and small 
wheat seed, respectively, may be accur- 
ately and definitely known. In a recent 
article upon cereal crops, Prof. G. W. 




Horse Owners! Use 

OOBBAULT'S 

Caustic 
Balsam 

A Safe, S.at.j, ud Pa.ltl.f Cn 
The safest. Best BLISTER eTer used. Takes 
tue place of all llnaments for mild or severe action 
Removes all Buncnos or Blemishes from Horses 
f ?. d , V**.". 6 ' * UI,EBSKl>E 9 ALL CAUTERY 
"1KIK1XG, hnpotsibU to produce scar or blemUih 
K.very bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction 
rrlce #1.50 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent 
pi express, charges paid, with full directions for 
Its use. Send for descriptive clrcnlars. 
rHE LAWKKXCE-WILLIAM3 CO., Cleveland O 



Land for Sale and to Rent 



Glenn Ranch 

Glenn County - California 

IN SUBDIVISIONS 



This famous and well-known farm, the 
home of the late Dr. lilenn, "The Wheat 
King," has been surveyed and subdivided. 
It is offered for sale In any sized govern- 
ment subdivision at remarkably low prices, 
and In no case, It la believed, exceeding 
what Is assessed for county and State tax- 
ation purpose. 

This great ranch runs up and down the 
west bank of the Sacramento River for fif- 
teen miles. It is located In a region that 
has never lacked an ample rainfall and no 
Irrigation Is required. 

The river Is navigable at all seasons of 
tiie year and freight and trading boats 
make regul r trips. 

The closest personal inspection of the 
land by proposed purcasers Is invited. Par- 
ties desiring to look at the land should go 
to Willows. California, and Inquire for P. 
O. Kite. 

For further particulars and for maps, 
showing the subdivisions and prices per 
acre, address personally or by letter 

F. C. LUSH, 

Agent of N. D. Rldeout, Administrator of 

the estate of H. J. Glenn, at Chlco. Butte 
County, Cal. 



with reference to this crop and would do 
more than any other one thing toward 
improving the yield per annum." 

Sacramento. 
TO PREVENT SPREAD OF VINE DIS- 
EASES— The Sacramento Union: The 
board adopted an ordinance prohibiting 
the importation into the county of any 
grape-vines or roots unless a certificate 
has first been secured from the State 
commissioner of horticulture showing 
that phylloxera, anaheim or mysterious 
vine disease has- not existed in the coun- 
ty in which such vines or roots wore 
propagated for the period of five years 
preceding shipment. It is further pro- 
vided that parties having vines or roots 
shipped into the county shall notify the 
county horticultural commissioners with- 
in twenty-four hours of the arrival of 
the vines and shall not remove the vines 
from the depot until they have been 
inspected. If found diseased the vines 
shall be destroyed. If deemed sufficient, 
the commissioners shall disinfect the 
vines. All vines heretofore brought here 
that are considered dangerous on ac- 
count of disease shall be destroyed. A 
fine not to exceed $500 or imprisonment 
not to exceed six months or both is pro- 
vided as punishment for violations of 



Shaw, who is in charge of the State's . the ordinance. Recently the State hor- 



experinient stations, in speaking of the 
matter of selection of seed said: "This 
matter of the selection of high quality 
of seed is so important that I am con- 
strained to believe that it has had more 
than any other one thing to do with the 
decreasing wheat production, excepting 
only the encroachment of other crops. 
The wonderful increase in the yield of 
corn in Illinois and Iowa has been large- 
ly due to the campaign on the part of 
the station with reference to the selec- 
tion of high grade seed and I am inclined 
to believe that a similar campaign with 
reference to selection of seed wheat in 
California would yield similar results 



ticultural commissioner made a state- 
ment that it was not within his power 
or his province to issue such certificates 
as are called for in this ordinance, a 
similar ordinance having been adopted 
in Sutter county, so it would seem that 
the new lay will prohibit the importa- 
tion of vines into the county, and only 
those grown here can be sold here. 

EGGS ARE EGGS.— The Sacramento 
Union: Eggs are eggs in these strenu- 
ous and prosperous days. They have ad- 
vanced to 40 cents for old and 50 cents 
for fresh, but that is not the worst of 
It — there is not a California fresh egg 
to be had. Whoever just now enjoys 



January 19, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



45 




Them 




You can positively make hens lay the year around if you will give Dr. Hess Poul- 
try Pau-a-ce-a with the regular feed. During this season of the year many valu- 
able layers are idle. In other words, the egg factories are closed down on account 
of impaired machinery. Poultry Pau-a<e-a contains the best touics known to 
medicine for increasing digestion, which is the all important function in egg 
production. This superior poultry tonic supplies iron for the blood, cleanses 
the liver, arouses the egg producing organs, reddeus the comb and brightens the 
feathers 

DR. HESS 
Poultry PAN-A-CE-A 

Is the prescription of Dr. Hess (M.D., D.V.S.) , and in addition to increasing egg 
production, it cures cholera roup, indigestion and many other poultry diseases 
due to digestive difficulties and infection. It has a property peculiar to itself — 
that of destroying bacteria, the cause of so much poultry disease, and throwing 
off impurities through the skin. Dr. Hess Poultry Pau-a-ce-a has the indorsement 
of leading poultry associations in the United States and Canada, costs but a penny 
a day for about 30 fowls, and is sold on a written guarantee. 

1 y 2 lb. package, 35c. 12 lbs. $1.75 

5 lbs. 85c. 25-lb. pall, $3.50 

Send 2 cents for Dr. Hess 48-page Poultry liook, free. 
DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio. 

THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., iVtulumx. California, 
Paelfle Coast Distributors. 

Instant Louse Killer Kills Lice. 




Have Ifou Ever Thought 



of the great conven- 
ience of gas? 



Fl« V «.. (hat you can have the most pc fact 

UO !0U KnOW »ght on your, 



country place? 



Would You Like to Learn How? 

logue No. 4 of the 

SUPERIOR GENERATOR 

When you do that tell ns the number of lights you 
burn and the time they are used each evening, and we 
will tell you the size generator that will make all the 
gas you need for lighting and cooking. 

you 

great- 
ly- 

Write for the catalogue number 4 now, while you 
are thinking about it. 



You Will Be Surprised $£s^5$& 

V est comforts of the cit 



Superior Light and Heat Company 

151 North Clarence Street, Los Angles, Cal. 



Krogh Pumps Are the Best 

For Irrigation, Reclamation, Mining 

We Build Pumps For Direct Connection to Any Kind of Engine or Motor 
WRITE US FOR INFORMATION 

KROGH MFG. CO. 

2132 F lsom Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



an omelet does so on the cold-storage 
plan except he has a batch of friendly 
hens. Not only have the long prevail- 
ing spells of first cold and then wet 
weather put the hens out of business 
in a large measure, but stormy days 
have proved a barrier to the bringing 
of such fresh-laid eggs as there are into 
the Sacramento market. 

Santa Clara County. 

FRUIT OF SOUTH AFRICA WILL 
GO TO NEW YORK.— San Jose Mercury 
and Herald: William F. Pickstone, for- 
merly of Santa Clara, who several years 
ago went to South Africa, to take charge 
of Cecil Rhodes' great orchard project, 
has arranged for the sale of the products 



of the Rhodes' orchards in this country. 
Pickstone has been in San Jose once 
or twice since he first went to South 
Africa, for the purpose of purchasing 
here horticultural machinery for the 
South African venture. 

A prominent New York firm has been 
appointed agent in the United States 
for the Exporters' Association of South 
Africa, which association proposes to 
give especial attention to the building 
up of its fruit trade in this country. Wil- 
liam Pickstone of the Association was re- 
cently in New York City and made the 
appointment while there. He is now in 
the Southern States looking after the 
labor question there and will return to 
New York next week. 



The development of fruit growing in 
South Africa during the past few years 
has been enormous and the growers find 
it necessary to extend their markets. It 
was partially with this end in view that 
Mr. Pickstone visited the United States. 
Though South Africa sounds like a long 
ways off, it is stated that the freight 
rate from the fruit producing sections of 
that country are no greater than those 
from California, and that there is now 
a supply of fruit available in that country 
which can be brought to New York and 
sold at figures which will place it in the 
hands of the middle classes. Formerly 
the limited quantities brought there have 
been for an exclusive trade, but the ex- 
porters realize that in order to increase 
the consumption, it will be necessary to 
place it at figures within reach of a 
larger element of consumers. 

Previously the shipments of South 
African fruits to New York have been 
chiefly peaches and have amounted to 
between 500 and 1000 packages per 
week in season, but it is proposed to in- 
crease this number to 5000 packages as 
quickly as possible and to stimulate 
trade in the interior of the United States, 
and it is also proposed to ship plums and 
other small fruit. This, of course, will 
be done gradually, but it is expected 
that the shipments will be over twice as 
much as formerly in the near future. 

The Exporters' Association of South 
Africa, which Mr. Pickstone represents, 
is identified with the Cecil Rhodes in- 
terests and the Association has been in- 
vesting millions of dollars in developing 
the fruit growing industry in that coun- 
try. The result for the limited period 
that fruit growing has been engaged in 
extensively in South Africa, is already 
wonderful, but Mr. Pickstone states that 
the business is yet in its infancy, com- 
paratively speaking, and that the part 
which that country will play in the 
world's fruit supply in future years will 
make a difference in the markets even 
in this country. 

The shipments of fruit to the United 
States are made via the Union Castle 
Line, the Southampton and thence via 
the American Line to New York. The 
time consumed in transit is about six- 
teen days. 

Santa Cruz. 

THE EASTERN PEACH ROOT BOR- 
ER. — The Pajaronian: During the past 
season a great many peach trees, which 
were found to be infested with the East- 
ern peach root borer, arrived in this 
State by mail. All these trees have been 
condemned or destroyed, as this pest 
does not exi&t in the State at present. 
The State Horticultural Commission has 
sent Commissioner Rodgers of this val- 
ley the following bulletin on the subject: 
"The horticultural quarantine law of 
California prohibits the introduction of 
peach trees from any district where the 
diseases Peach Yellows and Peach Ro- 
sette are known to exi&t. Section 5 of 
the act is as follows: No person, per- 
sons, or corporation, &hall bring or cause 
to be brought into the State any peach, 
nectarine or apricot trees, or cuttings, 
grafts, scions, buds, or pits of such 
trees-, or any trees budded or grafted 
upon peach stock or root that has been 
in a district where the disease known as 
peach yellows or the contagious disease 
known as contagious peach rosette, are 
known to exist, and any such attempting 
to land or enter shall be refused en- 
try and shall be destroyed or returned 
to the point of shipment, at the option 
of the owner, owners, or agent, and at 
his or their expense." In 1891 the State 
Board of Horticulture published a bul- 
letin warning the fruit growers of these 
contagious diseases and gave a list of 
the States and territories where these 
diseases were known to exist. Since the 
publication of this bulletin, I am sorry 



to say, that the areas then known i 
contain these diseases have spread con 
siderably and, as far as> it has been pos- 
sible, I have been able to collect the fol- 
lowing data of the spread in the various 
States: Peach Yellows.— This disease is 
found in New York, Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Del- 
aware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, West Virginia, Michigan, 
Indiana (northern section), Illinois 
(southern section), Kentucky (eastern 
portion), North Carolina, Arkansas and 
Tennessee (eastern portion). It has 
been reported that the whole south- 
ern boundary has advanced south since 
1891, Peach Rosette. — This disease is 
found in Missouri, Arkansas, South Caro- 
lina, Georgia and Kansas. The old areas 
are reported to have advanced northward 
a little. All trees susceptible to these 
diseases and coming from any of the 
above localities must be refused entry 
into the State of California." 

Sonoma. 

PLANS FOR CLOVERDALE'S CIT- 
RUS FAIR.— Solano County Courier: 
Special days have been set apart by the 
Cloverdale Citrus Fair Association tcr 
the fourteenth annual exhibits of fruits 
in February. The exhibition will open 
Tuesday evening, February 19, and the 
day following, Wednesday, will be known 
as Cloverdale day. Thursday will be set 
apart as Elks' day. Friday, Washing- 
ton's birthday, will be the banner day of 
the fair, and will be known as Sonoma, 
Marin and Napa County day. The fair 
will close on Saturday, which will be 
Mendocino and Lake County day. The 
people of the progressive little city are 
making more than the usual prepara- 
tions for the fair. 



A PRACTICAL TEST. 

Some visitors who were being shown 
over a pauper lunatic asylum inquired of 
their guide what method was employed 
to discover when the inmates were suffi- 
ciently recovered to leave. "Well," re- 
plied he, "you see it's this way. We have 
a big trough of water, and we turns on 
the tap. We leave it running, and tells 
'em to bail out the water with pails until 
they have emptied the trough." "How 
does that prove it?" asked one of the 
visitors. "Well," said the guide, "them 
that ain't idiots turns off the tap." 



NOW READY 

THE BOOK OF 

ALFALFA 

History, Cultivation and Merits, Its Uses as a 
Forage and Fertilizer. By F. D. coJSUKN, 
Secretary Kansas Department of Agriculture. 
The appearance of F. I>. Coburn's little book on 
Alfalfa, a few years since, has been a complete 
revelation to thousands of farmers throughout the 
country and the increasing demand for still mora 
information on the subject has induced the author 
to prepare the present volume, which is. by far, the 
most authoritative, complete and valuable work on 
this forage crop ever published. 

One of the most important movements which has 
occurred in American agriculture is the general in- 
troduction of alfalfa as a hay and pasture crop. 
While formerly it was considered that alfalfa could 
be grown profitably only in the irrigation sections 
of the country, the acreage devoted to this crop is 
rapidly increasing everywhere. Recent experiments 
have shown that alfalfa has a much wider useful- 
ness than has hitherto been supposed, and good 
crops are now grown, in almost every state. No 
forage plant has ever been introduced and suc- 
cessfully cultivated in the United State? possessed 
of the general excellence of alfalfa. 

The plant although known in the Old World 
hundreds of years Before Christ, Was intro- 
duced into North America only during the last 
century, yet it is probably receiving more attention 
than any other crop. When once well established 
it continues to produce goud crops for an almost 
indefinite number of years. The author thoroughly 
believes in alfalfa, he believes in it for the big 
fanner as a profit bring 61 in the form of hay, or 
condensed into beef, pork, mutton, or products of 
the cow; but he has a still more abiding faith in 
it as a mainstay of the small farmer, for feed for 
all his live stock and for maintaining the fertility 
of the soil. 

The treatment of the whole subject is in the 
author's usual clear and admirable style, as will be 
seen from the following condensed table of contents: 

History, Description, Varieties and Habits, I ni- 
TersaUty of Alfalfa. Yields, and Comparisons with 
Other Crops. Seed and Seed Selection, Soil and 
Seeding, Cultivation. Harvesting, Storing. Pastur- 
ing and Soiling, Alfalfa as a Feed Stuff. Alfalfa 
in Beef-Making, Alfalfa and the Dairy. Alfalfa for 
Swine. Alfalfa for Horses and Mules. Alfalfa for 
Sheep-Raiding. Alfalfa for Bees, Alfalfa for Poul- 
try Alfalfa for Food Preparation. Alfalfa for Town 
and City, Alfalfa for Crop Rotation. Nil ro-Culture, 
Alfalfa as a Commercial Factor. The Enemies of 
Alfalfa. Difficulties and Discouragements Alfalfa 
in the Orchard, Practical Experiences with Alfalfa. 
Illustrated. 6 1-2x9 inches. 336 pages. 
Cloth. Price »2.0O. 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 
Berkeley, Cal. 



46 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January la, 1907 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



■ over fifty 
years we have been sell- 
ing only tested seeds — seeds 
thai we guarantee to be fresh, 
pure and reliable. To-day thousands 
of farmers and gardeners rely upon 
Gregory's Seeds — know for a certainty 
they are sure growers. Our free cata- 
logue is now ready. It contains lots 
of information of value A 
to farmers and 
gardeners. 

J. J. H. GREGORY & SON 
Marblehead, Mass. 



SEEDS THAT GROW 



Best quality 

Farm Bet 



ami fiirm Sovds, Alfalfa, ^c&^* \\ 
Clover. Si-ed Potatoes. We ^JTrnL 4*(j*X« to-d 
will «■„,! free with eat ^>^ s o havtf S 

alwi..- .. |.kl. of »/- , >^Ni^V1T„e of Nursery 
; '"yAj? • t ' A C><toek Koses, Hants 

overlnteoa/^VaV GERMAN NURSERIES, 
if X S*' ° > ^Bo« 116, 



B EATRICK, 

Nebraska. 



»»*«**. »^ 



AU ABOUT THE 

ORANGE 

AND 

LEMON 

is toM iu our new hook: on Citrus 
Culture, embracing every phase of the 
subject from the seedling but to the 
final disposition of the fruit in ihe 
Hastern market. The largest and 
best book on the subject ever print' d 
— 50,000 -words 100 illustrations. You 
will want atopy which we will send 
you 'or Ihe small sum of 25 ;ents. Re 
number w- are the larg. st growers of 
orange and Union trees in th* world. 

The San Dimas Citrus Nurseries 

SAN DIMAS, CAL. 



L. M. TEAGUE, I' 



riiprielor. 



LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO. 

(Incorporated) 

Offer for sale a few specialties this 

season. 

A NEW WALNUT, ETC. 

General Fruit Tree Catalogue of 
strictly "Pedigreed"' stock will be 
issued during 1907. 

LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO. 

Morganhill 
Santa Clara County California 





Kirkman Nurseries 



"Full line of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees and Vines. Peach and other fruit 
trees at reasonable prices. Grape root- 
ings and cuttings furnished in any quan- 
tity. 400,000 rooted vines in Stanislaus 
county. Main office at MERCED, Cal. 
Branches at Fresno and Turlock." 



TREES 

E. Crawfords, Hale's Harly and many other varie- 
ties of peach trees, all fine budded stock. 

Large stock of all the leading varieties of apples 
on whole roots and free from all pests. Also a fine 
stock of cherries, pears, Burbanks. and S. B. S. S. 
Walnuts, etc. SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 

A. F. Scheidecker, Prof. Pleasant View Nursery 

Sebastopol. Cal. 



Crimson Winter 
Rhubarb 

_ S3 [Original Burbank Strain 

$1.50 per Do/., $6.00 per 100, $40 per 1000 

Now is good 

time to plant. We are tlie only Rhubarb 
Specialists on the Coast. We devote most of 
our time to its cultivation and improvement. 
We have the Best pedigreed plants ever offered 
of this wonderful money maker. Writeorcall on 

J. 6. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist. Pasadena, Cal. 

A Fine Stock of Superlative Raspberry, also Fruit 
Trees and Vines of all Sorts Both Phones. 



Trees 



Analy Nurseries 

T.J. TRUE 

Sebasfopo] 

Write for Price List 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Burbank Beauty (Karly) S3. 00 per M and 
Brandy wines (mid-season) at S2.00 per M. 
Both are excellent table and market berries 
and the best varieties for California. Orders 
booked for present and future delivery. 

G. H. Hopkins, Burbank, Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed. I 
have a fine lot of trees. Call and see 
them. Postal gets price list. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



MORSE SEEDS SPROUT 

You and Nature do the rest 

/ klfa 

from the best Utah alialfa section — clean and free from dodder and weed 
seeds. Al o Turkestan alfalfa — recommended by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture for dry land. S<implt-s and prices of both, on request. If 
interested in Clover and Grass Seeds, and Onion Sets, write us. 

Seed Catalogue now read *- send - vour name 



addresses — for copies free. 

168 ciay st. C. C. MORSE (SL CO. s* 



and your iriends' names and 



Francisco 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash 

Best Tree Wash. 
T. w. JACKSON & CO.. Temporary Address 
Stusalito. Cal. 




True To Name 

The demand for all sorts of fruit 
trees promises to be heavier than 
ever before. Place your order 
now, before our assortment is ex- 
hausted. 

Deciduous 
Fruit Trees 

We have this season a superior 

atock of 
PEACHES PLUMS 
PRUNES PEARS 
APPLES APRICOTS 
CHERRIES OLIVES 
NECTARINES 
All grown under our personal su- 
pervision, in our Nursery Plant 
No. 3, which has a rich river bot- 
ton soil, permitting the most per- 
fect roots. 

Citrus Trees 

All grown at our Citrus Nurseries, 
in the Great Thermal Belt near 
Exeter. 

Nut Trees 

ALMONDS WALNUTS 
PECANS 

In all the leading varieties 



Grapes 



On their own roots and grafted on 
Phylloxera resistant roots. All the 
leading Table, Wine, and Raisin 
sorts. 

BERRY PLANTS 
BURBANK'S CRIMSON 

WINTER RHUBARB 
ORNAMENTAL TREES 
AND SHRUBS 
ROSES, PALMS, 
GREENHOUSE PLANTS 

We are the sole propagators and dis- 
seminators of Kurbank's four new 
and valuable creations. Write for 
illustrated pamphlet. 

Calimyrna 
Figs 

OUR GREAT SPECIALTY. 

None genuine without our seal. 




Also have a fine stock of 
WHITE ADRIATIC, MISSION 

and other standard sorts of Figs. 

NEW CATALOGUE. 

Will be ready for distribution In 
January. It contains points about 
Pruning, Planting, is superbly il- 
lustrated. Will be mailed free on re- 
quest. 

Price list on application. 

PAID-UP CAPITAL 9 20C.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

Geo.C.Roeding pr.s.&Mgr. 
Box '4 rresno.California.USAC^ 



Are % 
You 

Planting 

Trees? 



Owing to the unprecedented de- 
mand we are sold out on many 
sorts, and, though we are selling out 
fast on others, we can still furnish 
the following standard varieties: 

In Peaches: Triumph, St. John, 
Early Crawford, Late Crawford, 
Elberta, Piquetts Late, Salway, 
Phillips Cling, Levi Cling, Sherman 
Cling. 

In Plums: Climax, Burbank, 
Wickson, Diamond, Hungarian, 
Fallenberg, German, Grand Duke. 

In Cherries: Knights Early 
Black, Black Tartarian, Bing, Great 
Bigerean, Lambert, Black Oregon. 

In Pears : Bartlett, Brusse Clari- 
gean. 

In Grapes: Emperor, Cornichon, 
Tokay, Malaga. 

In Quinces: Pineapple, Orange. 

Likewise other varieties not 
standards. 

SUBMIT A LIST OF YOUR 
WANTS. WRITE FOR CAT- 
ALOGUE. OUR PRICES ARE 
RIGHT, WHILE OUR TREES 
ARE THE BEST THAT 
GOOD CARE AND INTEL- 
LIGENT APPLICA TION 
CAN PRODUCE. 



Placer Nurseries 

NEWCASTLE, CAL. 



SUVA, BERGTHOID 4 CO.. Proprietors 



The Fowler Nursery Company 

Has on hand a large lot of thrifty rooted 
vjjvines and peach trees, of all varieties. 
Also strawberries, blackberries and the 
celebrated Himalaya berry. 



STOCK COMPLETE PRICES REASONABLE 



Send for Catalogue and Price List 

■ FOWLER NURSERY COMPANY 
FOWLER ERESN0 CO.. CAL. 



January 19, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



47 




Economical 
Spraying' 

Power Sprayers do the work quicker, do it better and do it cheaper- 

that is, if you buy the right kind. Some people think an engine hitched to a hand 
spray pump makes a Power Sprayer, but it is more likely to make a 'Peck of Trouble.** 

Bean Power Sprayers 

embody the practical experience of the best growers and contains scores of important 
details which are absolutely necessary for rapid, thorough work without annoying 
delays. You know that little things are what cause delays and expense, and it is all 
such points that five years of experience have eradicated from the Sean 
Power Sprayer. 

Every Bean outfit is sent out complete, ready for work. Nothing left to fix up. 
No further supplies needed. It is complete and so simple that no previous experience 
is required for operating. 

How the pressure is Kept constantly even* the licjuid al- 
ways stirred, and why spraying can be done for one-half the 
cost of hand pump work, are all questions we shall be pleased to answer. 

Call in and let us snow you an outfit in operation* 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP COMPANY 




SAN JOSE, CAL. 

163 Santa Clar a Street. 




Cox Seed Co. 

Seed Growers and Nurserymen 

109 Market Street. San Francisco Cal. 

Also Large Stock carried in our Oakland 
Warehouses. 

Alfalfa, Grass Seeds, Clover, 

Beans and Peas. 
Trees and Plants of all kinds 

We carry the largest sicck of Garten Seeds in 
the West 

For over thirty years, Cox's Seeds have been the 
Standard for Purity and Qi ality 

Our 1907 Vatatoque. fvlly illvstrattd, will be mailed 
to all applicants free. H is full of valuable informa- 
tion am/ should be in the homes of all interested in 
Souintj and 1'lantinq. 



Fight the Mildew 

Sulphur Your Vines 

Usa the Champion Duster 



Easy and rapid in operation. 
Keeps the dust out of your way. 
Ahvavs ready. 

Readies upper and under side of 
foliage. 

Assures thorough & effective work 
Thousands in use. 
Weighs about 6 lb. 

ADD HESS 

F.D. NAGLE, Box 14. Sultana, Calif. 

Leggett & Bros , Manufacturers, 
New York, N. Y 



ETTERSBURG GOOSEBRERRY 
Rose Ettersburg Strawberry. 

Ettersburg Gooseberry — Unique, vigorous 
grower, healthy so far as tried, very pro- 
ductive, medium sized berry, very thin and 
tender skin, and practically all meat, as 
there are but few seeds; three-fifths as 
much acid as other varieties and of highest 
quality. Was awarded a Bronze Medal at 
the L. and C. Exposition, which was the 
highest recognition that could be bestowed 
on a single exhibit of a single variety. Fine 
cuttings until February 15, $1.00 per dozen 
postpaid. 

Rose Ettersburff Strawberry — Unique, 
productive, valuable as a home berry on 
light, warm soils. Plants 50c a dozen or 
$2.25 per 100, postpaid. 

For full description see article in this 
paper January 12, 1907. Money orders on 
Bineland, Cal. 

ALBERT F. ETTER, 
Ettersburg, Humboldt Co., Cal. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State. 

For sale by all the large groc rs, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave., San Jose, Cal. 



AUSTRALIAN PERENNIAL G 



The only forage plant Hint 

Ywill give satisfaction on 

overflow, swamp or upland A 

without irrigation. ** 

Seed can be had of S 

^ Vierra Bros., Moss, Cal. S 



r TOKAY ROOTED VINES 



THE CROCKER PEAR 
I We claim does not Blight. 

i- See U. S. Year Book for descrip- 
tion. 

What Luther Burbank says of it: 
"Box of pears received last De- 
cember; samples have been tested 
from time to time and even at this 
date, Feb. 10, are still in best 
condition. Its form, size, color are 
attractive. Fruit is among the 
best; juicy, refreshing and in all 
respects satisfactory and espe- 
cially so at this unusual season. 

Luther Burbank." 
Get the genuine Crocker Pear 
trees from the originator. 

L. L. CROCKER, 

Loomis, 5 
Placer county, Cal. 5* 

LOGAN BERRY PLANTS- Special price per M. 

E- R. ONG, Sebastopol, tal. 



50,000 FOB SALE 

Grown from the Fnmons LODI STOCK 
For terms apply to 

FRANK H. BUCK COMPANY 

VACAV1LLE. CALIFORNIA 



EH0DES DOUBLE OUT 

PRUNING .SHEAR 



DO 



RHODES MFG. 

Dept. 21, 



CO. 



Cuts frnm 
oth sides of 
mb and docs 
bruise 
the bark. 
We pay Ex- 
' • press charges 
^■•^fc^^^ on all orders, 
fcfcb* Write tor 

1 circular and 
I prices. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 




TO IRRIGATORS! 

Don't pay exorbitant 
prices to surveyors. Get 
a California Leveling In- 
strument and do your own 
leveling. Tripod, staff, 
lev e 1 an d sights for $7. 
Tripod and staff only, $5. 
If dealer does not keep 
llicra send to 

B. A. Goodwin, 

Hipon, Cal. 

Money refunded if not 
satisfactory. 




are the things which count. 
Farmers all over the country 
made tests for us last year with 

Nitrate of Soda MS 



In every case the crops which had a 
top dressing of Nitrate of Soda yielded 
a far more abundant harvest than those 
without. We want more tests 

WHEAT 

Rye or Barley 

and to a limited number of farmers will send 
sufficient Nitrate of Soda for the purpose 
the onlv oondi- 

ABSOLUTELY FREE ««» w« that 

they follow di- 
rections for its use. and report on tho result. 
To the twenty-five farmers who show the best 
results will lie sent, as a prize. Prof. Voor- 
hees' valuable book. "Fertilizers," dealing 
with natural, home-made and manufactured 
fertilizers, with suggestions as to the use for 
different crops. 3'J7 pages, handsomely bound 

Apply for the Nitrate of Soda at once, as 
this offer is necessarily limited. "Food for 
Plants." a 'J37-i>age book, sent f ree to any far- 
mer as long as this edition lasts, if paper v. 
mentioned in which this advertisement is seen 
WILLIAM S. MYERS. Director 

.John Street and 71 Nassau. NewVot!: 



Books For The Farm 



Post card replies will receeve early consideration 




POULTRY SUPPLIES 
STOCK FOODS 
BEE S JPPUES 



Send For 

Our 
Catalogues 



SA1 SgsBBt* SU San Francisco 

r,ui— m\ 1 



Twenty Thousand Budded, Grafted and 
Seedling WALNUT TREES Eor Sale. 

Will trade for some logan or phenominal 
berry plants. 

A. Q.. RIDEOUT 

Magnolia Nursery, = Whitfier, Cal. 



Wanted.— Hardshell Almonds 
for seed purposes. We 
have a few tons of Apricot 
Pits for sale for seed pur- 
poses. 

Address: 

EANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

FRJESNO, CAL. 

LOGAN BER li.Y PLANTS 

$2.00 per hundred, $15.00 per M. Cran- 
dell's Early blackberry, Cuthbert rasp- 
berry, Lucretia dewberry, each $1.50 per 
hundred; $10.00 per M. Plants carefully 
packed. 

FAIRVIEW FARM NURSERY, 
G. H. Hopkins, Prop., Burbank, Cal. 

ESTABLISHED 1884 

MARTINEZ NURSERY 

THOS. S. DUASE, Prop. 

Have on hand a full line of of Fruit Trees, including 
Free and Cling Stone Peach , Apple, Apricot, Clurry 
Plum, Prune, Pear and Almond, also Cornichon, 
Black t;mperor and Tokay rooted vines — Cal. 
ISlack Walnut, Orange, teuton, Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs. 

Prices Furnished on Application 

Seed Corn. 

MICKER.Y KING, largest grain. Smallest cob. 
Great fodder producer. $3.00 per 100 lbs. $50.00 
per ton. Casaba melon (Winter Pine apple) seed, 
$1.00 per lb. 

LIIONAk>l> COATES NUKSERY CO., Inc. 

Morgauhill. California. 



A Select List of Eastern Agricultural 
Books which convey a knowledge of 
general principles and suggestions of 
practice, many of which are applica- 
ble in California. 

Sent by mail postpaid for prices 
stated. Pacific Rural Press, Berkeley. 
Cal. 



The New Rhubarb Culture 

A complete guide to dark forcing 
and field culture. Part 1 — By J. E. 
Morse, the well-known Michigan truck- 
er and originator of the now famous 
and extremely profitable new methods 
of dark forcing and field culture. Part 
II — Other methods practiced by ths 
most experienced market gardeners, 
greenhouse men and experimenters In 
all parts of America. Compiled by 
G. B. Flske. Illustrated. 130 pages. 

5x7 Inches. Cloth $0.50 

The New Onion Culture 

By T. Grelner. Rewritten, greatly 
enlarged and brought up to date. ▲ 
new method of growing onions of larg- 
est size and yield, on less land, than 
can be raised by the old plan. Many 
■ farmers, gardeners and experiment 
stations have given It practical trials 
which have proved a success. Illus- 
trated. 140 pages. 5x7 Inches. Cloth 

$9.50 

Irrigation Farming 

By Lucius M. Wilcox. A handbook 
for the practical application of water 
in the production of crops. The most 
complete book on the subject ever 
published. New edition, revised, en- 
larged and re-written. Illustrated. 
Over 500 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth 

|2.M 

Asparagus 

By F. M. Hexamer. This is the first 
book published in America which is 
exclusively devoted to the raising of 
asparagus for home use as well as for 
market. It is a practical and reliable 
treatise on the saving of the seed, 
raising of the plants, selection and pre- 
paration of the soil, planting, cultiva- 
ting, manuring, cutting, bunching, 
packing, marketing, canning and dry- 
ing, Insect enemies, fungous diseases 
and every requirement to successful 
asparagus culture, special emphasis 
being given to the importance of as- 
jaragus as a farm and money crop. 
Illustrated. 174 pages. 5x7 Inches. 

Cloth $0.50 

American Grape Growing and Wine 
Making 

By George Husmann of California. 
New and enlarged edition. With con- 
tributions from well-known grape 
growers, giving wide range of experi- 
ence. The author of this book Is a 
recognized authority on the subject. 
Illustrated. 269 pages. 5x7 inches. 

Cloth $1.60 

The Potato 

By Samuel Frazier. This book Is 
destined to rank as a standard work 
upon Potato Culture. While the prac- 
tical side has been emphasized, the 
scientific part has not been neglected, 
and the information given Is of value, 
both to the grower and the student 
Taken all in all It is the most com- 
plete, reliable and authoritative book 
on the potato ever published in Amer- 
ica. Illustrated. 200 pages. 5x7 

inches. Cloth $0.76 

Soiling Crops and the Silo 

By Thomas Shaw, professor of ani- 
mal husbandry at the University of 
Minnesota. How to cultivate and har- 
vest crops; how to build and fill a silo; 
how to use silage. The newest and 
most valuable of all books for the 
dairyman. It tells all about growing 
and feeding all kinds of soiling crops 
that have been found useful in any 
part of the United States or Canada — 
climate and soil to which they are 
adapted, rotation, sowing, cultivation 
and feeding. Also about building and 
filling silos, what to use and how to 
fill and feed it. Illustrated. 364 pages. 

5x7 inches. Cloth $1.60 

The Hop 

Its culture and care, marketing and 
manufacture. By Herbert Myrick. A 
practical handbook on the most ap- 
proved methods in growing, harvest- 
ing, curing and selling hops and on the 
use and manufacture of hops. It takes 
up every detail from preparing the soil 
and laying out the yard to curing and 
selling the crop. Illustrated. 300 
pages. 5x7 inches. Bound in cloth 
and gold $1.50 



48 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 19, 1907 



HOPS BRING 
HIGH PRICES 

Potash liberally used 
as a fertilizer improves 
the quality, and hence 
the value of hops. 

Xpur fertilizer must 
corf^ffm^.t least io per 
cent. 6|j^ual 

to prod^e nor>cf orb 
is fully 
farm hints, 
send it free. 




GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau St., New York 




quality. This 
other useful 
CGuide." We 



WE GUARANTEE 

ALCOHOL 

Can be used in Improved Peerless and Distillate Engines without 
any change in construction or vaporizer 



V/ 2 H. P. to 25 H. P. 
Belt or Direct 
Connected 




For Pumping and 
General Power 
Service 



BAKER & HAMILTON 

SAIN FRANCISCO SACRAMENTO LOS ANGELES 



Hoyt's Tree Support 

Patented Nov. 26, 1901. 
Patented Sept. 22, 1903. 

THE PROPLESS PROP THAT PROPERLY PROPS A TREE. 

ft Useful Thing is a Joy Forever 




Hoyt's Tree Support on the Tree. 



Over Three 



Sold Since Introduction in 1903 



After your trees have broken down, overloaded with fruit, don't howl about your 
hard luck. The preventative is cheap, effective, permanent. 

FOR FULL PARTICULARS and descriptive booklet write 

MacDONALD & SONS 

WATSONVILLE, CALIFORNIA 

General Agents for the HOYT TREE SUPPORT COMPANY 



(a USe 




MANUFACTURED- 
BY 

fTriE mountain 
I Copper Co.. 

I020 I4^ST. | 

OAKLAND 
CAL 




IF YOUR DEALER DOES NOT CARRY 

MOCOCO 

FERTILIZERS, 
order direct. 

Pamphlet and Price-List free, 
on application. 
Accept no substitute,- insist on 
having MOC PC 



All Soils Alike to Wood Pipe. 




The Heaviest adobe, the most corrosive alkali, the lightest sand; all art 
alike where wood pipe is used. IT RESISTS THEM ALL. Wood Saturated, 
Air Excluded — Can't Rot. Metal in Bulk, Galvanized, Asphalted — Can't Rust. 
High Factor of Safety in Banding— Can't Leak. Our booklet, "The Whole 
Story About Wood Pipe," contains valuable tables of the carrying capacity 
of pipe. Mailed free upon request. 



Continuous Stave Pipe 



Machine Ban-led F pe 



Bored Wood Pipe 



NATIONAL WOOD PIPE COMPANY 



Sixth and Mateo Sts . Los Angeles 
Ols-mpia, Washington 



30! Market St , San Francisco 
Salt Lake City, Utah 



Emery's Poultry Foods are sold by all Dealers and Commission 
Men because they are the BEST. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

The Pacific Guano & Fertilizer Co, Uih & Indiana, San Francisco 



Write for our FREE -l^Jkle'. 



F irm t's Fri ii<1. 



Valuable to all Farmers ami Ranchers. 



CALIFORNIA VEGETABLES 

By PROF. E. J. WICKSON, Author "California Fruits." 



▲ MANUAL, OF PRACTICE WITH AND WITHOUT IRRIGATION. THE BOOK COM- 
PLETELY COVERS ITS FIELD. A FULL ILLUSTRATED CHAPTER EACH ON 
Farmers' Gardens In California Artichokes Peppers 
Vegetable Growing- in California Beans Potatoes 
California Climate as Related to Beets 



Vegetable Growing 
Vegetable Soils of California 
Garden Irrigation 
Garden Drainage In California 
Cultivation 
Fertilization 

Garden Location and Arrango- 
ment 

The Planting Season 

Propagation 

Asparagus 



Radishes 

Cabbage Family Rhubarb 

Carrot, Parsnip and Salsify Spinach 

Celery Squashes 

Chicory Tomato 

Corn Turnip 

Cucumber Vegetable Sundries 

Egg Plant Vegetables for Canning 

Lettuce and Drying 

Melons Seed Sowing in California 

Onion Family Garuen Protection 

Peas Weeds in California 



Price. $2.00 Postpaid 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publishsrs, 



Temporary Office, Berkeley, Cel. 



Prof. Hilgard's New Book on Soils 

The Greatest in the World 

Read "The Week" in Pacific Rural Press of Sept. 29 

Soils, their formation, properties, composition and relations to climate and 
plant grov>th in Humid and Arid Regions. 

By E. W. Hilgard of the University of California. 

Large Octavio 593 pages illustrated $4 

Especially valuable in California and Pacific Slope generally 

Send orders to PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

First National Bank Building, Berkeley. Gal. 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



LXXIII. No. 4. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 26, 1907. 



Thirty-seventh Year 



LIGHTNING FLASH IN CALIFORNIA 

California does so little with lightning flashes that 
catching a good one is not only somewhat notable as 
a camera achievement but as a meteorological event. 
It is true that in the mountain regions we do more with 
lightning than in the valleys and on the elevated 
plateaux there is also more doing in this line. 

The accompanying illustration of an extraordinary 
lightning flash and 
thunder-cloud we owe 
to Mr. A. A. Forbes, who 
took the original photo- 
graph at 9 p. m. on July 
25, 1906, at Bishop, Inyo 
county, California. It is 
an impressive display of 
atmospheric electricity 
and suggests destructive 
power. We are not in- 
formed that anyone was 
injured on the occasion 
of this wonderful mani- 
festation of energy. 

It is 167 years since 
Benjamin Franklin • iden- 
tified the ligtning flash 
with the electricity de- 
veloped by a frictional 
machine. He used his 
celebrated kites to study 
the electrification of the 
air, the kite being pro- 
vided with a sharp-point- 
ed wire to "draw the 
electric fire from" the 
thunder-clouds. In later 
experiments with more 
refined methods, McAdie 
and Henry, "obtained po- 
tentials as high as 3,000 
to 4,000 volts, just before 
the lightning." Some of 
the latest experiments 
were made on the top of 
the Mills building in San 
Francisco, the roof of 
which was (before the 
earthquake-fire) covered 
with bitumen, so as to 
be a good insulator. 

From 700 to 800 lives 
are lost each year by 
lightning stroke, say one 
person in lu0,000. Such 
fatalities are more num- 
erous in the Eastern 
States, for thunder- 
storms occur with fre- 
quency over all the area 
east of the one hun- 
dredth meridian; west of 
that meridian, except in 
the Rocky Mountain re- 
gion, the frequency of 
lightning stroke dimin- 
ishes, reaching a practi- 
cal zero along the imme- 
diate Pacific coast. The 
region most subject to 
them is that of the middle Atlantic States. 

One of the best explanations of lightning is that of 
Mr. Alfred J. Henry, professor of meteorology, as given 
in Bulletin No. 256 of the U. S. Weather Bureau. He 
says : 

"We may, perhaps, better understand the phenome- 
non of a lightning flash by noting the similarity between 



it and the discharge of a Leyden jar. The Leyden jar, 
it may be remembered, consists of a glass jar, coated 
both inside and out, with tin foil for about four-fifths of 
its height. The mouth is closed by a cork, through 
which passes a metallic rod, terminating above in a 
knob and connected below with the inner coating, usu- 
ally by a chain depending from it. The two coatings of 
the jar obviously serve as collecting and condensing 
surfaces and form, in connection with the glass jar, 




Photographic View of an Electric Storm at Bishop, California. 



what is known in electrical terminology as a conden- 
ser. The capacity of a conductor may be enormously in- 
creased by bringing near it another conductor connect 
ed with the earth. This process is called 'condensation 
of electricity.' If the inner coating of a Leyden jSr 
be connected with an electrical machine and the outer 
with the earth, the former will acquire a positive and 



the latter a negative charge. If now a metallic rod be 
brought near the two surfaces of the jar, a spark is ob- 
tained whose power depends on the potential of the 
inner coating and on its electrical capacity. 

"In ordinary fine weather the upper regions of the 
atmosphere are at a different potential from the earth, 
b' the difference in potential or pressure, if we may 
use the last term, is not great enough to produce a dis- 
charge. The sparking distance is too great, and, as in 

the case of the Leyden 
jar, no discharge will 
(take place so long as 
the electrical tension re- 
mains unchanged. 

"It is well known that 
certain conditions of 
temperature, atmospher- 
ic pressure, and moist- 
ure favor the develop- 
ment of thunderstorms. 
Under such conditions 
the potential difference 
between the cloud on 
one hand and the surface 
of the earth on the other 
is increased, not gradu- 
ally and for some time 
in advance of the thun- 
derstorm, but rather sud- 
denly, and more often lo- 
cauy than simultaneous- 
ly over a large extent 
of territory. The cloud 
serves as a condenser of 
enormous extent, as 
compared with those 
used in laboratory ex- 
periments, but, never- 
theless the amount of 
charged surface present- 
ed to the earth may not, 
in the case of summer 
thunderstorms, exceed a 
few square miles. We 
have then, following out 
the analogy between a 
Leyden jar and a flash 
of lightning, a few 
square miles of cloud as-, 
one coating of the jar s 
an equal area of land as 
the other, with the air 
between subject to stress 
or tension. As in the 
case of the overcharged 
Leyden jar, the tension 
may be relieved by in- 
visible or silent dis- 
charges from the top of 
every rock, building, 
tree, wire, or other me- 
tallic object within the 
strained field, as well as 
from the under-surface 
of the cloud. Discharges 
of this character may 
and do take place 
through the human 
body, especially on high 
mountain summits, 
where the discharge at times is so marked as to cause 
apprehension for one's safety. 

"Up to a certain point the air is able to resist the 
stress in it due to the electrification of the cloud mass. 
Whenever the stress passes a certain limit, which may 
be called the breaking point, the air gives way; literal- 
ly it is cracked from cloud to earth as the bolt descends." 



50 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 26, 1907 



Pacific Rural Press 

Published Temporarily at Berkeley, Cal. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IX ADVHX6E 

Advertising rates made known on application. 

Entered at S. F. Poftoffice as second-class mail matter 

DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. .... Publishers 

B. J. WICKSON Editor 

EDGAR RICKARD Business Manager 



to demonstrate and whose demonstration lies in profit- the State for butchers' meats, for cured meats, for 

able accomplishment. He who wishes to invest his choice dairy and poultry products and for garden veg- 

money and labor in agricultural home-making in Call- etables so that he who secures good land and works 

fornia takes no risk if he is sure of his energy and com- earnestly and intelligently to follow methods which suit 

mon sense and has discernment enough to secure good the locality is apt to find himself out of debt and with 

advice. The new comer is much less liable than for- money in bank when his more venturesome neighbor 



merly to be misled by self-serving and ignorant ad 
visers, but bad advice is still current. The truth about larger operations 
California is good enough, but one must be sure that 
he has the truth. 



may be suffering for some error or miscalculation in his 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



THE WEEK 



We have so many readers who are new to California 
that a few generalizations concerning our agricultural 
conditions which, although familiar to older Californl- 
ans„ may be indulged in at this time. California is not 
a new country. For more than a century live stock and 
grains and fruits have been grown and have yielded 
wealth and comfort to a farming population. It is true 
that until the discovery of gold about half a century 
ago the population of European blood was small and 
farming with very little system and energy, but still un- 
der the control of the missionaries there were large 
herds accumulated, vineyards and orchards made pro- 
ductive and considerable quantities of animal products, 
wine and grains secured. Large land owners followed 
the example of the missionaries and possessed them- 
selves of vast herds, traded the produce with visiting 
ship captains and became rich and prosperous- and se- 
cured such degree of agricultural development, and 
home comfort as seemed to them desirable. 

Over fifty years ago the discovery of gold brought 
to California thousands of enterprising and energetic 
men and women of American and European birth and in- 
telligent and systematic agriculture was ere long shown 
to be, on the average, more profitable and sure than 
mining. The experience and the materials of the pre- 
ceding half century of rude agriculture were used to 
their fullest extent and they lie in the foundation of the 
California agriculture which is now the wonder and ad- 
miration of the world. But other elements of the foun- 
dation were greater than these. The bright men of all 
the nations who came to California fifty years ago, 
brought the agricultural wisdom and methods of all 
parts of the world, and the tools, plants, seeds, im- 
proved animals and other materials which they knew to 
be the best in their own countries. They brought also 
energy and understanding and devotion. The result of 
a half a century of agricultural progress secured by 
emigrants from all enlightened nations and their child- 
ren is seen in the present eminence of California. 
Agricultural productions with a value of two hundred 
million dollars a year; cities and towns of great size 
and industry; transportation companies of great mile- 
age and capacity; nobler free universities and common 
schools than are possessed by many States of much 
greater population; agricultural machinery of wonderful 
capacity and effectiveness; a large variety of grains, 
vegetables and fruits than any other State can grow 
and, best of all, homes of comfort and wholesomeness 
for all classes of population — all these are features of 
California's industrial development. 

These are a few facts- about California which is now 
sending her splendid products to all parts of the world 
and is attracting the attention of investors and home 
seekers from all nations as never before. It is im- 
portant to remember that the State is not new. It is 
impossible to have such a tried and triumphant agri- 
culture in a new State or country. Such achievements 
are the result of experience and development and they 
are the guarantee to those now wishing to make in- 
vestments and homes that they are not proceeding 
upon prophecies or prospectuses but upon the basis of 
facts which earnest men and women have labored long 



Many advantages of the naturally rich and deep soils 
of California and of the peculiarly favorable climate, 
could be cited were it not for the command of brevity. 



STANDARD SIZES OF FRUIT BOXES. 

To the Editor: It has often occurred to me that the 
Rural Press could do an immense service to the mul- 
titude of farmers who ship to market if it were to pub- 
The manifest conclusion from study of these characters lisn a schedule D f box and crate dimensions and sizes 
and from knowledge of what is really being accom- and capacity. We farmers read in the daily and other 
pushed is that California is fitted for all products of the papers, that peaches, apples, cherries or other fruits 



temperate and sub-tropical zones, which means that it 
affords a welcoming home to all the usual vegetation 
of the world except that of a strictly tropical character. 
This fact is not so generally known as it should be. 



are selling at so much per box or crate, but the size 
of the crate varies so much we have no idea what the 
standard crate contains. For instance, I sell peaches 
by the crate — one grocer wants 20 pounds, one 25 
pounds, another 16 pounds. Plums the same way. 1 



California's fame has extended so widely through the recently heard three pear growers argue as to what 
growth of semi-tropical fruits that her accomplishments size crate was mean t when pears were mentioned at 



in the products of the upper regions of the temperate 
zone are apt to be overlooked and home-seekers some- 



$1 per box. One said 50 pounds, another 65 pounds, and 
the third 65 pounds. In fact, they were each shipping 
in what they supposed standard sizes, yet all different, 
times choose locations in more northerly parts of the I I recently ordered shooks for 1000 peach crates and 
American continent because of the mistaken idea that my box maker said: "What size do you want? I am 
California is only suited to semi-tropical cultures to ™a kin 6 peach shooks in three sizes." If the Rural 



which they are unaccustomed. This is a most unfor- 



Press were to publish a complete list of fruits with the 
standard size of their boxes or crates — inside dimen- 
tunate misapprehension. Every staple product of the sions and capacity in , )0U nds-it would set things right, 
upper temperate zones is improved in character and I — FRUIT GROWER, Mendocino county, 
yield by its introduction to California — if a proper lo- J We are sorry it cannot be settled so easily as that, 
cation is chosen for it, and practice is modified to meet though we do enjoy our correspondent's tribute to the 
the new conditions as the intelligent farmer can readily influence of our journal. Boxes will vary somewhat ac- 
do. Instead of California being, as is too frequently cording to the local trade, according to size which 
thought, a country of a few great specialties, it is a makes the tiers of fruit cange, etc. The nearest we can 
country of the greatest possible range of products and come to our correspondent's request is to give the 
any man who can do any kind of farming well can find ; dimensions of deciduous fruit packages, standard sizes, 
a place where his labor will yield him greater results in the shipping trade and the amount of fruit contained 
than are possible under less favorable conditions. If, in each. We receive the following table from Hon. Al- 



therefore, a man understands the growing of animals den Anderson 
and manufacture of animal products he can here find ; tributors: 
mountain pastures like those of Switzerland or rich, low, J 
reclaimed meadows like those of Holland and all the 
variations of pasture lands which He between these 
extremes. If he understands the growth of cereals he 
can find localities for all of them from the rye and spelts 
of the north to the wheats of the Mediterranean. If he 
understands fruit growing he can grow the fruits of all 
Europe with a soil and climate which work with him 
instead of against him; and he can largely forsake all 
his laborious arts of protection and trust his trees and 
vines confidently to the kindly skies. 



These few general statements ought to show that Cali- 
fornia is not a State of great specialty farming alone. 
We have, of course, our great grain fields with corres- 
pondingly great machinery for cultivation and harvest- 
ing and our great fruit, dairy, vegetable and other farms, 
chiefly given to a single crop and unique facilities for 
production at a minimum cost on a large scale, but 
these do not comprise our sole means of production. 
We have thousands of moderate sized and small hold- 
ings which are yielding their owners comfort and a 
competence by mixed farming. There is an abundance 
of land to be had at a reasonable price which is wait- 
ing for development and improvement upon the good 
old fashioned plan of growing what is needed for family 
use and surpluses of the same things for exchange or 
sale in small amounts. Soil and climate which favor 
a great diversity of products are an incalculable ad- 
vantage in giving the family varied and wholesome 
food and they open a wide field for an industrious and 
intelligent man to use his labor to the best advantage 
in producing crops which buyers desire to pay money 
for. He can surround himself with farm animals and 
poultry which will turn the food he grows for them into 
products which are in sharp demand. Owing to the 
large acreage given to special farming for export pro- 
ducts there Is a fine opportunity in nearly all parts of 



manager of the California Fruit Dis- 



Standard Sizes. 

Cherries 11 pounds per box 

Peaches 21 % pounds per box 

Pears 50 pounds per box 

Pears for export 

to Europe 24 

Plums 26 

Prunes 26 

Apricots 25 

Nectarines 25 

Grapes 25 

Grapes 56 



pounds per box 

pounds per single crate 

pounds per single crate 

pounds per single crate 

pounds per single crate 

pounds per single crate 
pounds per double crate 



Uniform Package for Different Fruits. 

Apricots 21% pounds per package 

Nectarines 21% pounds per package 

Grapes 21% pounds per package 

Plums 21% pounds per package 

Prunes 21% pounds per package 

Standard Size Packages for Deciduous Fruits. 

— In Inches. — 





Depth. 


Width. 


Length. 




2% 


9 


19% 




5 


11% 


19% 


Pears, box 


9 


11% 


19% 


Pears for export to 










4% 


11% 


19% 


Uniform packages . . . 


4% 


11% 


19% 


Apricots, single crate. 


5 


16 


17% 


Nectarines, single crate 


5 


16 


17% 


Prunes, single crate.. 


5 


16 


17% 


Plums, single crate... 


5 


16 


17% 


Grapes, single crate.. 


5 


16 


17% 


Grapes, double crate.. 


11% 


16 


17% 



Thus it is seen that different boxes are approved for 
different fruits under various circumstances. Uniformity 
is perhaps not attainable under all conditions. 

AN ALKALI WEED OF FORAGE VALUE. 

To the Editor: I enclose plant collected on alkali land 
in October last that I would like to know the name of. 
It grows wild on the strongest of alkali land. It ap- 
pears to be very good feed for cattle after the frost 
comes. We had 230 head of young cattle on and 80 
acres during December and January last year. There 



January 26, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



51 



was no feed but this and salt grass. At the end of the 
time this plant was all eaten up and the salt grass was 
not. The cattle were thriving, even when taken out. 
It will grow where salt grass will not. I am going to 
plant this on alkali land but do not know the best way. 
— JAS. W. McCORD, Hanford. 

Mr. H. M. Hall, assistant botanist of the University 
Experiment station, recognizes the plant as Nitrophila 
occidentalis, a west American species, restricted to alka- 
line soils and perhaps only those which contain a high 
percentage of black alkali. Mr. McCord's information 
concerning its value as forage is very interesting and 
further tests may prove this alkali weed to be of some 
value. It is not particularly abundant over any con- 
siderable area and so may have escaped observation 
of stockmen. It would seem that its strongly salty taste 
would be objectionable to stock, if it were not for his 
statement that cattle eat it freely. Seed could undoubt- 
edly have been gathered at the time this weed was 
taken, since the sample yields a small quantity of small 
black seeds. 

PROTECTING TREES FROM SUNBURN AND 
BORERS. 

To the Editor: I planted out a small lot of fruit 
trees last year. Recently I visited a friend who in- 
formed me that I must wrap the trunks of the trees 
with barley bag strips to prevent them from being sun 
blistered. As soon as I got back I did this but at the 
time I noticed that many of them had dark spots on 
them. Today I uncropped several of them and found 
lots of saw dust looking stuff, and upon further inves- 
tigation with my knife found these black places were 
full of this saw dust and some small white worms'. Tell 
me how to prevent this. Should the trees be wrapped, 
white-washed or painted when first set out? I read in an 
Eastern farm paper last year that apple trees should 
be painted with white lead and linseed oil. I made a 
white lead emulsion paint and gave them all two coats. 
The night I finished this job I read in the next issue ot 
this journal that some one had painted sixty trees, 
forty of which it had killed. What shall I do?— AMA- 
TEUR, Tuolumne county. 

Your whole trouble seems to lie in the failure to pre- 
vent sun-burn and the entrance of borers as a natural 
result. Whenever the bark is injured the parent beetle 
lays eggs from which these whitish grubs hatch. Either 
wrapping with barley sacking or white-washing with 
white-wash in which some salt is dissolved to make it 
more tenacious, will reflect the heat and prevent bark 
burning and all its subsequent ills. All badly burned 
trees should be replaced with new ones and these must 
be protected from the time the planting is made because 
they may burn even before the leaves appear by unusual 
heat in the early spring. 

GROWING COW PEAS. 

To the Editor: W T iIl you kindly give me the informa- 
tion necessary concerning the growing of cow peas in 
Sacramento county? — FARMER, Elk Grove. 

The finest growth of cow peas we have yet seen in 
California was on low ground near the town of Gait 
in the month of July. It was a small piece of creek 
bottom in which the soil retained ample moisture. There 
is no difficulty about getting a very fine growth of cow 
peas during the frost-free period, if there is moisture 
enough available. In some of the more thermal situa- 
tions on the mesas of Southern California a winter 
growth of cow peas is obtained for plowing under in the 
orange orchards, but on low, moist land subject to frost, 
cow peas can only be depended upon for summer growth. 
There is nothing published in California about cow peas 
except occasional items of experience in the horticul- 
tural papers. A general account of cow pea growing 
can be had by sending for Farmers' Bulletins No. 89 and 
225, to the Honorable James Wilson, Secretary of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C. They give quite in detail, 
experience with this plant in Southern states. 

CLOVER AND MALVA. 

To the Editor: I should be thankful to you for some 
information as to the best forage plant for a rather 
rich soil, quite wet in winter and spring. I should like 
to plant some clover if advisable. What is the best 



foliage plant to use in chicken runs for shade, suffi- 
cient water being available? — READER, Shasta. 

Nothing will do better under conditions which you 
mention than the Eastern red clover. Concerning a 
quickly growing foliage plant for temporary use in 
chicken runs nothing is better than the common tree 
malva, which makes a quick growth to a heighth of 
twelve to fourteen feet and affords abundant shade. 

BROWN ROT ON APRICOT. 

To the Editor: There has always been considerable 
rotting of fruit on my apricot trees, but in the last two 
seasons there has been a decided ncrease in this, and the 
rotting has commenced to affect the green fruit while 
hanging on the trees. This is not uniform throughout 
the orchard but seems to be greatest where the trees 
are the largest and in the shadiest places. Is the rotting 
due to shade? The trees have always been well pruned 
and cared for and they are not covered with moss or 
diseased. Is the rotting a disease? If it is, is it due 
to the growth of the germs? Will a winter spray kill 
the germs? There are some of the old apricots still 
hanging on the trees. Could they carry over the germs 
from season to season? If the trees are too shady 
would just a good pruning prevent the rotting, or would 
the pruning need to be accompanied by a spray? — 
GROWER, Monterey county. 

Judging from your descriptive notes you have to do 
with the brown rot, which is particularly bad on the 
apricot, though It does affect other fruits. The proper 
treatment is a thorough winter spraying with the Bor- 
deaux mixture. The disease is apt to spread faster in 
dense shade but it cannot be checked by pruning. The 
spores of the fungus carry over on the old dried fruits. 
All these should be removed at winter pruning. 



LAWN FERTILIZER. 

To the Editor: Would you kindly advise me the 
best way to fertilize my white clover lawn? I have 
plenty of guano from my chicken yards but am in 
doubt as to how and when to apply it should it be de- 
sirable. I also have plenty of green bone which I can 
run through my bone mill. If either of the above are 
good will you kindly advise me in what form and when 
to apply them?— AMATEUR, Santa Cruz. 

The chicken manure is a complete fertilizer, and will 
be excellent for the refreshment of your clover lawn, 
providing you do not use it in excessive amounts. A 
thin application at any time during the rainy season 
will be effective. By thin application we mean a scat- 
tering which does not wholly obscure the ground sur- 
face. You cannot economically grind your green bones 
sufficiently fine for fertilizing purposes. They had bet- 
ter be ground for the chickens and thus be more re- 
motely used for fertilizing purposes. 

DO NOT BEGIN WITH HARD THINGS. 

To the Editor: Please give the most reliable infor- 
mation and descriptive articles on the following: 
The cultivation of hops, grapes, cranberries, vanilla 
beans, pecans, peanuts, walnuts and nuts in general. 
Referring again to the vanilla plant, has it been tried 
and successfully grown in any part of the United States, 
especially California? We are about to locate a colony 
in this county and are desirous of information as to 
what should do best there; also any information re- 
garding anything not commonly grown in this section 
as yet.— SETTLER, Tulare county. 

The vanilla bean is an orchid, can only be grown in 
tropical countries and will not succeed anywhere in Cali- 
fornia. Cranberries have never proved successful in 
California, although frequently tried. Pecan nuts are 
promising in interior situations such as you describe. 
They do not seem to do so well near the coast where the 
temperature is more equable. The pecan tree seems to 
need to be reminded that the season is over by the 
occurrence of sharp frosts. Peanuts do well on light 
loam soil at various points in the interior. They are 
worth trying. You will also have to make determina- 
tion of local adaptation of hops and English walnuts. 
Grapes do very well on the lower lands of Tulare 
county, as instanced by success at the Experiment Sta- 
tion, near Tulare City. Nearly all the plants which 
you mention are, however, not what the new settler 
should undertake. General experience is that rnless 
one has plenty of money and time, it is better to con- 



fine attention to the growth of common grains, h 
vegetables and forage plants which can be used for 
stock, common garden vegetables — things which every- 
body knows how to use and everybody wants. 

MISPLACED CROPS. 

To the Editor: Will you tell me what forage plant, 
or plants, to sow? We tried Kaffir corn last year and it 
did very poorly. Whether it is too cool nights or was 
not on proper ground or properly sowed and cared for 
I do not know. I have seen it do so well in Kansas and 
Nebraska and Oklahoma that I was disappointed. We 
need some forage for our stock, especially milch cows, 
during dry season. Do you know anything of the Won- 
der Forage Plant advertised by John Lewis Childs? if 
it is one-tenth what he says it is, it will bless us. These 
valleys have cool nights and hot days, and are dry in 
summer. Our valley land is sub-irrigated. We also have 
hillside where we can sow. What alfalfa is best for 
us?— BEGINNER, Glenwood. 

Situations too near the coast do not have sufficient 
heat for the growth of Kaffir corn, or any other of the 
sorghum family. They are largely grown in the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin valleys and are very success- 
ful there. You can do better near the coast with com- 
mon Indian corn, both for forage and for grain. The 
"Wonder" forage plant sent out by Mr. Childs is no- 
thing more than the old pearl millet, which has been 
exploited continually for the last twenty-five years. 
Like Kaffir corn, it is not suited to your situation. The 
only place where it has proved of value is in very hot 
interior situations where there is plenty of water for 
irrigation. Even there it is a coarse, reed-like thing 
and only tolerable because more tender vegetation will 
not survive. Alfalfa should do well on your lower lands 
where it can be irrigated or where it will reach under- 
ground water. You will probably not have any success 
on uplands because it will not grow in the winter, ow- 
ing to its dislike of low temperature, and it will not 
find moisture enough to encourage it during the dry 
seas-on. As to whether any of the newly introduced 
alfalfas are better than the common, there has been no 
definite conclusion reached as yet. 

WHO HAS THE PUMPKIN? 

To the Editor: Some months ago I saw in a paper a 
statement (purporting to come from your pen) concern- 
ing a great and prolific pumpkin vine that produced 
about fifteen large pumpkins. Now if you can give me 
the address of some one who would be able to furnish 
me with a few seeds of this monster variety I shall be 
greatly obliged. — READER, Mecca. 

We do not remember exalting such a plant. If we 
did, who has it? 



FOR SAN JOSE SCALE. 

To the Editor: Our apple trees near Guerneville 
have San Jose scale. The winter spray of lime, sul- 
phur and salt is used- every winter, but the scale still 
remains. Can you advise what to do next? We use 
summer sprays — Bordeaux, lead arsenate, Paris green 
— for other troubles.— GROWER, Cloverdale. 

Lime, salt and sulphur if properly made and applied 
ought to make it unnecessary to spray so often. It 
is the best remedy known. Perhaps you cannot reach 
all the scale and have to repeat once in a while, but 
there must be something the matter with your prepara- 
tion or application if it is so ineffective. We know 
nothing else to recommend. 



FUMIGATING ROOTED VINES. 

To the Editor: Is there any safe method of fumi- 
gating rooted vines, or treating them with an in- 
sectide, for phylloxera, when removing them from a 
locality of which one is not absolutely sure to another? 
Have the supervisors of a county any power to pre- 
vent the bringing in of trees, vines, etc., on general 
principles, without showing them to be infested? — 
SONOMA COUNTY READER. 

It is generally held that the danger of carrying 
phylloxera on rooted vines is so great that treatment 
is not favored. Disinfection of cuttings is well thought 
of as described in the Pacific Rural Press of November 
10. County supervisors have the power to pass such 
ordinances as you describe and they are in operation 
at the present time in a number of counties. 



52 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 26, 1907 



HORTICULTURE. 



THE VINEYARD. 



THE SAN JOSE WALIUT.— A MAYETTE SEEDLING. 

To the Editor: Having read your numerous walnut 
articles, I thought perhaps a few of my observations 
might be of interest to you and prospective walnut 
planters. 

While I am not a nurseryman, still for several years 
past I have been interested in the propagation of 
walnuts. By this mail I send you a sample known as the 
"San Jose." The stock was the native California 
black walnut. At five years these were grafted. The 
union of graft was perfect and proved a strong, hardy 
grower, making from 3 to 5 feet growths. Trees are 
planted in different grades of soil (some medium, some 
very heavy) yet all are equally vigorous. The grafts 
are now four years old. The trees blossomed from the 
10th to the last of May. The Catkins were very plenti- 
ful. The nuts ripened from the middle to the last of 
October and produced 3 to T lb. per tree. The sam- 
ple sent is an average taken from ten trees just as 
gathered, no bleach having been used. 

Thus far the San Jose has been free from blight, 
while the Santa Rosa and others growing near here 
have been effected. If you know of any better variety 
I should be very pleased to hear about it or be put in 
correspondence with the party having such. 



RANDOLPH WILTZ. 



16 Lucretia avenue, San Jose. 



Mr. Felix Gillet's Examination. 

The nuts sent by Mr. Wiltz were very fine, indeed, 
and we sent them to our leading walnut expert, Mr. 
Felix Gillet of Nevada City, for examination. The fol- 
lowing is his reply: 

To the Editor: The samples from Mr. Wiltz are very 
fine, indeed, in fact as are all Mayettes, whether from 
grafted or second generation seedlings; the nuts were 
easy to identify, as they are surely second generation 
seedling Mayettes. I find that a great many second 
generation seedling Mayettes in bearing and bearing 
fine nuts, are selected for propagating purposes by 
grafting, which is right, though it would be better, 
whenever possible, to get grafting wood of the stand- 
ard or first generation Mayette. 

Mr. Wiltz tells us that the nut is called the "San 
Jose." That is right; in that way the name is not con- 
fusing, though it might be said at the same time that it 
is, what it really is, a seedling Mayette. Most all the 
samples you sent stand on the big end, like the parent. 

I have two second generation seedling Mayettes 
bearing for years and bearing both the same nut and 
exactly like those from Mr. Wiltz, which I consider as 
regular commercial walnuts, which should bring the 
best prices on the market, for they are of fair size 
(commerce, you know, rejects too large nuts, like the 
mammoths), with a smooth, light-colored shell, needing 
no bleaching whatever; the inside is as fine as the out- 
side, the meat filling the shell well, and being invested 
with a pelicle of very light color. You will observe that 
when the inside of the shell is white, so is the meat; 
and when dark, dark is the meat. Such nuts can be 
put on the market shelled or not shelled, and sell well. 
Those nuts from Mr. Wiltz are another proof of our 
ability on the coast to raise first grade walnuts. It 
shows, besides, what fine variety is Mayette (Mayette 
Blanche, not Mayette Rouge), whether of the first or 
second generation. There is quite a difference from the 
samples you sent me lately from Merced county, the 
party asking you about their "commercial rating." 

I should not be surprised that the grafting wood from 
which this nut of Mr. Wiltz was propagated, came from 
that big grove of French walnuts at Campbell, for lots 
of grafting wood was sold the last eight of ten years 
from several of the second generation Mayette, bearing 
fine nuts, some of them larger than the parent and of 
different shape. 

I must say that the Mayette is the variety that has 
given the best results as a seedling nut, in fact from 
the planting of first generation seed, one-third of the 
trees will come true as to size and shape; one-third 
larger but of a different shape and one-third smaller, 
either of the same shape or more round, while with the 
Franquette. it is very seldom to find a &3edling nut 
which is as fine as the parent, and the majority of the 
trees bear inferior nuts, even ill-shaped. You will ad- 
mit that nuts of the shape like those of Mr. Wiltz' are 
the best to put on the market. 



FELIX GILLKI. 



Nevada City, Cal. 



VITICULTURAL WORK AT THE UNIVERSITY. 

To the Editor: Since 1876 the Agricultural College at 
Berkeley has given more or less attention to the work 
of instruction and research in viticulture. At first Pro- 
fessor E. W. Hilgard conducted this work almost Single- 
handed and, as in so many other departments of agri- 
culture, laid the solid foundations which have contrib- 
uted so much to the improvement of our cultural meth- 
ods. From 1880 to 1894 the Viticultural Commission 
did much to instruct our grape-growers and vine-maker.s 
in the theory and practice of their arts. 

Since 1894 the only institution in California, in fact 
in the United States, which has given especial atten- 
tion to viticulture has been the Agricultural College 
and Experiment Station of the University of California. 
The work has been carried on somewhat spasmodically, 
owing to the lack of regular appropriations. At some 
sessions of the legislature provision has been made for 
this purpose; at others it has been omitted. 

This uncertainty of support makes much of the work 
which ought to be done impossible, and all of it more 
difficult. Experiments are commenced, observers are 
trained, but, before the most valuable results are ob- 
tained, the work has to cease for lack of funds. When 
a new appropriation is made, new observers have to be 
trained and much of the experimental work has to be 
recommenced. This results in loss of time and effi- 
ciency and a much smaller output of valuable informa- 
tion than would be possible if there could be more 
continuity in the work. 

The legislature of 1905 very wisely set aside $lu,00U 
for the furtherence of viticultural research during the 
two years commencing July 1, 1905, and a considerable 
amount of progress has been made. Three bulletins 
and three circulars have already been published and 
others are in preparation. Investigations of problems 
in pruning, fertilization, resistant vines, control of dis- 
eases and cultivation of table and raisin grapes are un- 
der way, as also various improvements in wine-making. 
In order that none of this work shall be wasted ana 
the investigation continued, further legislation support 
will be necessary which it is hoped that the coming leg- 
islature will provide. 

Besides the work of investigation carried out under 
the provisions of the bill passed by the last legislature 
the regular viticultural work of the University has been 
carried on. This work is in the main part educational. 
It consists of courses in grape-growing and wine-making 
to regular students and short coursese in the same sub- 
jects to special students. Short courses and viticultural 
institutes have also been given, so far as our time 
and resources have allowed, for the benefit of those ac- 
tually employed in the industry. 

The short courses at Berkeley to grape-growers and 
wine-makers actively engaged in the occupations have 
not been a success, owing to the small number who 
have been able to leave their work long enough to at- 
tend them. The special viticultural institutes, on the 
other hand, have met with a success that is very en- 
couraging. As this method of instruction seems to meet 
the needs of the actual grape-growers and wine-makers 
of the country, a short account of their nature may be 
of interest. 

These institutes are given, so far as possible, in any 
viticultural center wherever a sufficient demand is man- 
ifested, and the traveling expenses of speakers is borne j 
by the Farmers' Institute appropriation. They last 
either one or two days, usually Saturday, or Friday and 
Saturday. They are not only confined strictly to viti- 
culture, but attempt only to treat one particular part of 
this subject. The part chosen is, so far as practicable, 
one of actual interest at the season when the institute 
takes place. 

The plan adopted is to accompany the lectures by 
practical demonstration in the vineyard. Two or three 
hours in the morning are usually all that is devoted to 
lectures. The afternoon is spent in the vineyards where 
the ideas developed in the lectures are put into prac- 
tice. An evening session is sometimes held to discuss 
the work of the day or to treat some subject unsuitable 
to field demonstration. Some of the subjects taken up 
at the institutes given so far are shown by the following 
programs: 

Institute 1. — Given in October, November or De- 
cember: 

MORNING. 
Principles of Pruning. 
Systems of Pruning used in Southern 



Institute 2. — Given during the same months: 

MORNING. 
Lectures 1 and 2. Same as Institute 1. 
Lecture 3. Pruning Zinfandel and Muscat. 

AFTERNOON. 
Demonstration in vineyard to illustrate lecture 3. 
Institute 3. — December, January or February: 

MORNING. 
Lecture 1. The Phylloxera of the Vine. 
Lecture 2. Methods of Grafting. 

AFTERNOON AND SECOND DAY. 
Demonstration of grafting methods and practical 
grafting by those in attendance. 

EVENING. 
Lecture on Resistant Vines. 
Institute 4. — March, April or May: 

MORNING. 

Lecture 1. Odium or Mildew of the Vine. 
Lecture 2. Methods of Controlling, the Odium. 

AFTERNOON. 
Demonstration of Sulphuring in the Vineyard. 

EVENING. 
Fungus Diseases of the Vine. 

An attempt is always made to adapt the instruction 
to the immediate needs of the locality and season and 
to the time available. Correspondence is solicited re- 
garding these institutes. Other viticultural subjects 
will be taken up when required, such as varieties or 
grapes, planting vines, fertilization of vineyards, fer- 
mentation, cellar treatment of wine, etc. Preference 
is always given to subjects suitable for practical dem- 
onstration. 

Another important phase of the viticultural activi- 
ties of the University consists in an ever-increasing 
correspondence with grape-growers and wine-makers. 
Advice is given, suggestions made and, where practica- 
ble, vineyards and cellars are visited on request. 

Perhaps the most effective part of our work at present 
consists of spreading the knowledge, gained in the older 
districts by veteran growers, among new arrivals and in 
new districts. The repetition of costly mistakes is 
thus often prevented. More of this work should be done, 
but the small number of the staff prevents very great 
expansion at present. Instead of two or three trained 
viticulturists, the extent of California and the magni- 
tude of the industries require a dozen. It is to be de- 
sired that an efficient expert, trained in the science and 
practice of grape-growing and wine making should be 
stationed in every large viticultural section ready to 
advise all who apply. The expense would be compen- 
sated a hundredfold by preventing the frequent repeti- 
tion of many costly mistakes. Easily avoidable loss of 
hundreds of thousands of dollars occur every year 
through ignorance of the best methods of pruning, 
grafting, sulphuring, fermenting, packing and all the 
various operations of the vineyard and cellar. 

Men suitable for such work in California are difficult 
to find. It requires an amount of practical experience 
and technical training which few possess. These re- 
quirements must, moreover, be coupled with personal 
qualifications of industry and judgment that make their 
possessors too valuable in other pursuits to make it 
possible to retain them unless they can be assured con- 
tinuous employment at good salaries. 

When the demand justifies young men in devoting 
themselves to the career of expert viticulturists, suffi- 
cient will be forthcoming, as the University now pos- 
sesses the necessary facilities for training them. 

In the meantime it is to be desired that grape-growers 
and wine makers themselves would make more use of 
the opportunities offered by the University for instruct- 
ing them in the principles of their business. Many 
grape-growers and wine makers would have saved both 
time and money if they had devoted one or even two 
years to study in the Agricultural College before em- 
barking in an agricultural pursuit which was new to 
them. 

FREDERIC T. BIOLETTI. 

Berkeley, Cal. 



THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIST. 



CONDITION OF FARM LABOR IN CALIFORNIA. 



Lecture 1, 

Lecture 2. 
France. 

Lecture 3. 



Pruning Sultanina vines. 
AFTERNOON. 
Demonstration in the vineyard of pruning Sultanina 
vines of various ages. 



From a Report of Mr. W. V. Stafford. California State 

Labor Commissioner. 

'In the first division of Section 3 of the Act creating 
this Bureau, it is provided that the Commissioner shall 
collect statistics on agricultural labor. Up to the pres- 
ent time little has been done along this line. With a 
view to carrying out the provisions of this important 
section, an investigation was prosecuted throughout 
the State during the present year, with the results 



January 26, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



53 



contained herein. Much of this material was collected 
at first hand by the agents of this Bureau and the re- 
mainder by correspondence. An endeavor has been 
made to cover every section of the State, and the coun- 
ties grouped together were so arranged on account of 
the similarity of products and general conditions. 
Tables are given containing data secured from 147 
individual farmers living in 29 counties. The following 
are deductions therefrom: 

In the first group 15 farmers were interviewed in dif- 
ferent sections of Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa and 
Sonoma counties. In this section, small fruits, de- 
ciduous fruits, hay and grain are the principal products. 
Of the 15 farms, 11 are purely agricultural, while the 
remaining 4 are devoted to agriculture and horticulture 
combined. Seventy permanent and 191 temporary white 
employees were employed, and 94 permanent and 17JS 
temporary Oriental employees. The Orientals were 
mostly Japanese. 

One of the discouraging features of California farm- 
ing and fruit-raising is the lack of available reliable 
help. With a view to ascertaining just what was being 
done to encourage a respectable class of people to take 
up this work and become more or less fixtures in the 
community, a question was propounded to each farmer 
interviewed whether or not he employed men with fam- 
ilies and what provision he made for their housing. 
Furthermore, an inquiry was made into the number of 
children in such families. In the group under considera- 
tion, 6 to 15 men interviewed were employing men with 
families, and the families so employed amounted to 17, 
in which there was a total of 25 children. Of the 7 
farmers employing men with families, 5 furnished them 
houses free of rent, and the total number of such free 
houses was 7; so 7 of the 17 employees who are heads 
of families are encouraged to remain by having their 
house rent free. An endeavor was made to ascertain 
in how many instances bathing facilities were furnished. 
In the 15 farmers in the first group, but 4 provided bath- 
ing facilities for their employees. 

The domestic help problem is a factor in the farm- 
er's life as well as of the inhabitant of the cities. Of the 
15 interviewed in the group under consideration, 5 em- 
ployed white female domestic help and 6 Oriental, and 
7 expressed their preference for the white girl, while 
3 thought the Oriental more desirable. Six farmers 
employed women in field work and 4 employed children. 
These employees were engaged mostly in picking fruit, 
berries, etc., and in no instance were used for the 
rougher farm labor. 

In the Santa Clara valley and the Santa Cruz coun- 
try, 26 individuals were interviewed. The Santa Clara 
valley is given up almost entirely to horticulture. 
Prunes constitute the principal crop of a large district. 
This district is broken up into ranches, running for the 
most part from five to twenty acres. For a great part 
of the year the proprietor and his family do the work 
required on the ranch. When a man is hired for this 
regular work, it is usually some one living in the vi- 
cinity. In cherry and prune seasons, work is let out 
by contract on the larger ranches to Italians and Jap- 
anese. The former often bring their families, and all 
assist. The usual price paid for picking up prunes is 
$2.50 per ton. The Japanese sometimes make as high 
as $3 per day at this work. In very few cases do the 
farmers board their help. 

The proportion of permanent white help is smaller 
and Oriental larger in this entire section than in the 
one considered previously. Eleven farmers employ 19 
men with families, in which there are 31 children. On 
12 farms, houses were furnished free and 14 families 
were provided for. In 4 instances bathing facilities 
were provided. Five farmers employed female domestic 
help and 6 Oriental. Seven preferred the white help 
and 3 the Oriental. In 6 cases women, and in 3 child- 
ren, were used in field work. 

In Sacramento and San Joaquin counties more per- 
manent white help and less permanent Oriental help 
was employed. In other respects conditions were prac- 
tically the same as in the preceding division. 

Of the 18 farms considered in Madera, Merced and 
Stanislaus counties, 13 were devoted exclusively to 
agriculture. Many of these are the alfalfa and dairy 
farms around Los Banos. The proportion of permanent 
help, both white and Oriental, is very higb. The former 
are mostly Swiss and Italians, a great number of whom 
have families. In every instance where a family man 
is employed, a house is furnished rent free. Taking it 
all in all, this section has the best labor condition of 
any section investigaed, due no doubt partly to the 
prevalence of permanent help and the efforts put forth 
to provide for such employees and partly to the race em- 
ployed. The Italians and Swiss make among the most 
reliable and steadiest farm employees. 

Fresno, Kern and Tulare counties, in the 26 farms 



considered, furnished several of the largest single hold- 
ings in the State. A great number of the employees of 
these large ranches are classed as permanent, when 
as a matter of fact it is only the work that is permanent, 
the employees changing continually. These were classed 
as permanent, for lack of any better classification. 

The counties of Butte, Colusa and Yolo furnish no 
new features, the conditions being much similar to 
those in the lower San Joaquin valley. 

The 12 farms considered in the large territory em- 
bracing the counties of Lassen, Placer, Shasta, Sis- 
kiyou and Tehama furnish 7 on which agricultural 
products are of most importance. Hay, grain and dairy- 
ing are the principal crops produced. Very few Ori- 
entals are used in this district. 

The last two divisions are in the orange belt. Here 
Orientals are used to a considerable degree in picking 
fruit and irrigating, but most of the latter work is per- 
formed by white labor. Mexicans work on the grain 
farms and are occupied in clearing land and digging 
ditches. 

Wages Paid. — From the fact that some farmers pay 
by the day and some by the month, and in some in- 
stances board is included and in others not, and again, 
often different rates are paid to permanent and tem- 
porary employes, it became necessary to make divi- 
sions covering these different methods. The tables (one 
for whites and the other for Orientals) show first, divi- 
sions into permanent and temporary employees; next, 
under each of these divisions, those paid by the day and 
those paid by the month; and still further under these 
divisions, those whose wages are given in addition to 
board, and those who must pay for their board sepa- 
rately or board themselves. 

In the first division the most common rate for those 
permanent employees paid by the day without board is 
$1.50, and with board $1.25. By the month without 
board $45, and with board $30. For temporary day em- 
ployees without board the rate is $1.50, and with board 
$1.25. For monthly employees without board $40, and 
with board between $30 and $35. For Orientals in the 
same section the rate is $1 to $1.25 per day and $35 per 
month without board. The temporary employees get 
practically the same. There is on instance furnished 
where Oriental field hands are boarded by their em- 
ployers in this section, and but few in the State. Where 
such a rate is given it is usually for cooks and waiters, 
whose wages have been included with the farm la- 
borers. 

In Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties no daily 
wage for permanent white employees is given. The cus- 
tom is to pay permanent help by the month. The pre- 
vailing rate is $40 per month without board. For tem- 
porary white help the rate is $1.50 per day without 
board. Orientals in the same section are paid $1.25 
per day without board. No attempt is made to fix a rate 
for contract work. 

In Sacramento and San Joaquin counties the daily 
rate for white employees is $1.50 to $1.75 and the month- 
ly rate $45 without board. The rate with board is, by 
the day $1.10 to $1.25, and by the month $30. For Ori- 
entals in the same section, without board, daily $1.25; 
monthly, $35. 

The section around Merced county pays its white help 
$1.25 per day and board and $30 per month with board, 
while the Orientals receive a daily wage of $1.50 and a 
monthly wage of $40 without board. 

In Fresno and vicinity white labor without board re- 
ceives $1.75 per day, and $45 when paid by the month. 
With board they receive $1.15 to $1.25 per day and $30 
per month. Orientals get $1.25 per day and $35 per 
month, without board. 

In the next division in northern California white la- 
bor without board commands a daily wage of $2, and 
with board a daily wage of $1.25 and a monthly wage of 
$35. Orentals get about $30 per month, without board. 

The two southern sections pay, without board, a daily 
wage to its white help of $1.50, and a monthly wage 
of from $45 to $50. With board, $1.25 per day and $30 
per month for the same class of help. Orientals get 
a daily wage of $1.50 without board, and from $35 to $45 
per month. 

Taking the entire State, there is very little differ- 
ence between the amounts paid for temporary and per- 
manent employees, except in harvest time, when the 
wages are greatly increased. The wages can safely 
be put at $1.25 per day and $30 per month with board 
for white help the State over, and $1.50 per day and $45 
per month for the same kind of help without board. 
Harvest hands must be rated an exception. Oriental 
laborers command a rate of $1.25 per day and $35 per 
month, always without board. Chinese cooks and 
waiters on ranches, and Japanese working by contract, 
must be rated as exceptions. 

It is believed that this investigation shows conclu- 



sively the actual conditions prevailing in ranch work. 
The constant complaint, heard from every section of the 
State, of the scarcity of farm laborers, plainly indicates 
the necessity of some radical change in our present 
system. The encouragement of permanent employees 
with families, to whom houses are furnished free, and 
the providing of baths, well-cared-for bunk houses and 
improved table fare, will certainly do much toward 
solving this problem, especially where the tendency is 
to cut up the large holdings. 



THE IRRIGATOR. 



DISKING ALFALFA. 

Disking alfalfa has been previously discussed in our 
columns largely from the point of view of experience 
in the middle west. Prof. R. H. Forbes of the Arizona 
Experiment Station has been making some observations 
under conditions more like those prevailing in Cali- 
fornia and gives the following interesting account of 
them: 

The disking of alfalfa is quite generally practiced 
wherever the crop is grown in this country. There are 
several good reasons for this procedure varying some- 
what in the order of their merit according to local 
conditions. 

In the first place, the sharp disks, set at a slight angle, 
split and spread the crowns of many of the plants 
causing them to stool and send up an increased num- 
ber of stems. Little or no damage results from the 
operation, which should be carried on in winter or 
after a cutting, when the alfalfa is in stubble. 

In some localities, also, the resulting mulch of loose 
earth is stated to conserve soil moisture at times when 
rainfall is slight or irrigating water scarce. To this 
should be added the observation that disking incor- 
porates with the surface soil much fertilizing material, 
especially alfalfa leaves which are lost during the 
operations of haying. 

In some sections of the country disking operates 
against certain insect enemies of alfalfa by destroying 
their egg deposits and larvae. In Kansas and Nebraska, 
grasshoppers are said to be reduced by early spring 
disking; and in Arizona it is not unlikely that hiber- 
nating caterpillers of the alfalfa butterfly, Colias eury- 
theme, are to some extent destroyed by winter disking 
alfalfa fields. 

In addition to the reasons for disking alfalfa men- 
tioned above, there are others more or less peculiar to 
the Southwest. Throughout most of this region the mild 
winter season permits the growth of an intercultural 
forage crop of some cereal plant, such as barley, wheat 
or oats. The disk-harrow is an excellent means of seed- 
ing alfalfa fields in the fall with these winter growing 
grains, which make good progress during the months 
when alfalfa is dormant. 

The soil itself, of southwestern alfalfa fields, is suD- 
ject to certain untoward conditions to which disking 
and harrowing may be applied with advantage. As 
elsewhere, the passage of hay making machinery and 
work animals tends to pack the surface soil, thereby 
lessening the penetration of air and water to the roots 
of the crop; and in addition, during our mild winter sea- 
son, alfalfa fields are usually heavily pastured by cattle 
and horses, sometimes for several months of the year. 

More peculiar, however, to Southwestern irrigation 
conditions are the silt-blankets resulting from the use 
of the muddy irrigating waters characteristic of the 
region. These silt-laden waters, when applied to an 
irrigated field, drop their load or detritus upon the sur- 
face of the soil in a layer decreasing in thickness from 
the head to the foot of the field. Inasmuch as alfalfa 
is a perennial crop which cannot be deeply cultivated 
these sediments accumulate from year to year in de- 
posits which frequently attain a thickness of 3 to 4 
inches. Since the sediments composing these deposits 
are usually of a more or less plastic character, these 
blankets are often noticeably impervious to water and 
to air, limiting the supply of these essentials to the 
deep root-systems of the plants. The result is a de- 
creased yield, especially at the heads of the fields, 
where accumulations are thickest. 

To measure the amount of depreciation, three repre- 
sentative fields of alfalfa near Yuma, Phoenix and Sol- 
omonville were selected, divided into plats from their 
upper to their lower ends, and the weight of alfalfa 
hay from each plat taken for one cutting. Comparing 
these weights with the maximum yield at the lower 
ends of the fields, where the least sediment had ac- 
cumulated, the percentage of depreciation in yield due 
to the silt-blanket was estimated as follows: 

Near Yuma, May 19, 1905, depreciation, in second 
cutting, 6.3 per cent. 



54 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 26, 1907 



Near Phoenix, July 10, 1905, depreciation, in third cut- 
ting, 9.7 per cent. 

Near Solomonville, June 23, 1905, depreciation, in sec- 
ond cutting, 27.6 per cent. 

A fourth field near Mesa, Ariz., irrigated with clear, 
pumped water produced its heaviest crop next the ditch, 
where, sedimentary deposits being absent, more thor- 
ough irrigation was secured. 

Cultivation, by means of disk and spring-tooth har- 
rows, is the best available means- of handling these ac- 
cumulations in alfalfa. This treatment breaks up the 
blanket and allows better penetration of water and air 
into the soil. Also, to some extent it incorporates these 
sediments with the soil, thereby making their fertil- 
izing values available to the crop, which consequently 
realizes benefit instead of detriment from them. 

One man with an eight-foot disk and four horses will 
get over about ten acres of alfalfa in a day. This work 
may be done in winter when teams are more at leisure; 
but it is probable that in summer also, after cutting 
and before irrigating, an occasional disking, to break up 
the sediment-blanket, may be well worth while, espe- 
cially on the upper ends of alfalfa fields. 

Summary: At a trifling cost, therefore, varying ac- 
cording to individual circumstances, the disk-harrow 
splits and spreads the crowns of alfalfa plants, caus- 
ing them to develop additional tops; it destroys the egg 
deposits and larvae of certain injurious insects; it 
breaks up the silt-blanket resulting from the use of 
muddy irrigating water, allowing better penetration of 
water and air to the roots of the crop; and to some ex- 
tent it incorporates beneficial sediments and fallen alf- 
alfa leaves with the soil. 

It is quite probable, speaking conservatively, that for 
some or all of these reasons the average alfalfa crop 
in Arizona may be increased ten per cent by disking. 
But the cost of handling the increased crop is not 
greater in proportion; therefore, the net profit of disk- 
ing, on the basis of the above estimate, may be some- 
what more. 



THE BOTANIST. 



A STUDY OF FORAGE PLANTS AT ETTERSBERG, 
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

(Written for the Pacific Rural Press by Albert F. Etter.) 
[Sixth Paper.] 
The different varieties of oats are the chief depend- 
ence on the hills and mountain ranches of Humboldt 
county. Practically every ranch that puts up hay at all 
for horse feed has a hay field where sufiicient hay is 
grown to meet their requirements. Fall sowing is the 
usual practice and the large-seeded red or black oats 
is usually preferred to white or gray varieties. Ac- 
cording to my observation the red oat is somewhat su- 
perior to the large-seeded black oat, and either of these 
is quite superior to the white or gray varieties. The 
favoring quality in the red oat is that the straw is 
sweeter and does not become so harsh and dry, and the 
black variety closely resembles the red oat in this re- 
spect. The more humid the climate, the less noticeable 
is this difference. Likewise it is more noticeable in 
feeding in summer than in winter. I have noticed time 
and again that where a horse was fed both varieties, 
he would eat the red oat hay clean and clear the heads 
off the white oat hay and leave the straw. In point 
of yield, I think the large-seeded black oat is a little 
better than the red oat, and white oats are of so many 
varieties that comparisons are out of question. 

A variety of gray oats introduced here as "Virginia 
winter oat" will often make a good yield on land where 
other varieties will not produce half a crop. It is 
splendidly adapted to Californian conditions of climate, 
and suffers less from drouth than and other variety I 
am acquainted with. It roots deeply, lies close to the 
ground while stooling out and when it is ready to 
shoot up it grows very rapidly. In this latitude it is 
also favored because late enough to get the full bene- 
fit of the late spring rains just at about the time it is 
beginning to shoot up. It suffers less from frost than 
most other varieties. As a threshed grain it is unex- 
celled, being very heavy and of exceedingly thin husk 
and an excellent producer. 

Plantago Lanceolata, or Rib Grass— In taking up the 
discussion of rib grass as a forage plant, I am well 
aware of the fact that I am dealing with a plant which 
is in many parts of the world, looked upon only as a 
troublesome weed. Yet if my knowledge of forage 
plants and observation count for anything, this same 
despised rib grass is one of the most valuable forage 
plants that can be seeded upon many a mountain range 
in California. 

I was amused while taking a careful inventory of the 



exhibit of forage plants in the Government Building at 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis, to find 
a thrifty stalk of rib grass growing in a pot in a group 
designated as "troublesome weeds." Later I noticed it 
on a farm down in Old Missouri, and it was not a very 
rich farm eitner. 

Says my companion, "the clover here ain't much 
good." 

"Well, the rib grass seems to grow all right," said 1. 
"Yes," said he, "that stuff will grow well anywhere, 
and it is getting into our fields in spite of us." 
"Won't the stock eat it?" said L 

"Yes, the stock eat it all right, but it spoils the sale 
of our clover seed," said he. 

I understood. Here in California on the hills and 
mountain sides where clover will not thrive and where 
the seed will be in no danger of getting into our clover 
seed, it is a different proposition. We want a plant that 
can be cheaply sown on our ranges, that will readily 
establish and propagate itself on the range, and, above 
all, say there permanently, and that can be depended 
upon to produce its quota of feed each year. Some- 
thing that will be as good or a little better than the an- 
nual grasses and in another way help to bridge over 
some of their defects. Something that is palatable 
enough to stock so that they will thrive on it, and fatten 
for beef on it in summer, and we don't care whether 
they like some other grass better or whether they enjoy 
life as well on it as they would on native grasses or not. 
I know of nothing that will come as near meeting their 
requirements on many California ranges as rib grass. 

First of all, it is a splendid germiuator, and if sown 
in fall before any rains it is almost sure to make a 
" catch." It seeds abundantly under almost any condi- 
tions, except where pastured by sheep and goats, and 
readily thickens up the stand. Give a goat all the 
things he loves best, and I believe he would eat rib 
grass heads first, and this peculiar taste is shown even 
after the seed head is mature and dry. It may not make 
much of a showing for two or three years after it is 
sown under some conditions, but where there is enough 
moisture left in summer to maintain life in the roots, 
it will establish itself in time. It is peculiarly adapted 
to a kind of soil that does not grow the shallow-rooting 
annual grasses well. On such soils it has the ability 
to root down to a considerable depth, 5 or 6 feet 1 
think, and do exceedingly well where the annual grasses 
make only a poor showing. Where deep-rooting shrubs 
will thrive well, regardless as to whether annual grasses 
amount to anything, rib grass will thrive. On this sort 
of a layout, I have seen it thrive splendidly, and to 
look at the growth of rib grass one would think other 
grasses ought to do better than they do, but land with 
a loose, porous top soil fails to retain moisture near 
the surface to meet the demands of shallow-rooting 
plants or the top soil may be deficient in fertility and 
the sub-soil be all right in both moisture and plant 
food. This deep-rooting character also enables rib 
grass to grow quite well during dry spells in the grow- 
ing season which seriously affects shallow-rooting 
grasses. It is, for this reason, a surer cropper than 
the annual grasses. Another place where it has the ad- 
vantage over annual grasses is in the fall of the year. 
If we get an early spring that sends the annual grasses 
to seed early and then follow up with June rains, it will 
do the annuals very little good, but rib grass will get 
the full benefit of this late wetting and make a new 
growth that will remain green as long as the moisture 
is sufficient. Again, in the fall if we get a good soaking 
rain to begin with the seed of the annuals takes a 
ready start and soon bridges the bad span between good 
dry feed and new green feed. But as we often have 
light showers for a month or two and still insuflicient 
moisture to start the seed grass, where only annuals 
are present, it makes hard times on range stock, where- 
as, on the other hand, where only light showers pre- 
vail, the rib grass will make a start and produce some 
feed to keep the stock up. 

Again, from the time the annual grasses dry until 
the new grass starts in the fall, there is necessarily a 
period when range stock must subsist nearly, if not 
entirely, on dry feed, and anyone knows that stock will 
always do better if they can only have a little green 
grass along with the dry, than with dry grass only. 
Rib grass will remain green and growing for a month 
or six weeks later than the annual grasses, and will 
furnish some green feed in many places throughout the 
entire dry season. 

Some one will ask whether stock will eat rib grass. 
I have known stock to range on rib grass pastures 
for the last twenty-five years, and while I have heard 
that there are cattle that will not eat it, I have not 
seen any of them yet. I have seen cattle that were not 
civilized enough to eat stock beets and- green corn fod- 
der, and they really became very hungry before they 



would touch them and I suppose there are other cattle 
too high-toned to eat rib grass, but instances of this 
sort should in no way disqualify an otherwise good 
forage plant, in general practice. 

I have been noticing particularly what preference, if 
any, cattle had, on a range joining me right here at 
home. This range is perhaps two-thirds natural range 
of annual grasses and clover, and the balance is mostly 
rib grass, with some orchard grass, mesquit and annual 
grasses mixed in. The past season was particularly fa- 
vorable by the late rains to produce well. This fall 
there were considerable areas of annual grass that the 
stock had hardly touched, while on that part of the 
range where there was rib grass, it was far and away 
better cleaned up than was the annual range. As for 
goats, if pastured on rib grass the first year when 
seeded on a burning, unless other grasses, preferably 
annuals, are seeded along with it on light soils, they 
will paw it out and eat it roots and all. 

I think it is generally admitted that rib grass is less 
desirable on moist lands where rye grass and clover 
will thrive than on the hills and mountains. I mean 
desirable to stock, not to the owners, for on such lands 
rib grass runs too much to seed stalks and other grasses 
are supposed to make more and better hay and are 
more easily cured. Still, I think it right to say that 
dairy cows on pastures containing an admixture of rib 
grass will give milk of a higher test for cream than 
they will when run on red clover and rye grass, and 1 
ought to know whereof I speak here, for I was raised 
on just such a dairy ranch. 

A prominent cattle buyer who has been in the busi- 
ness for many years here in Humboldt county, has 
several times told me that beef cattle will, year by 
year, weigh heavier and dress out better on rib grass 
range than they will off the natural range. I also note 
the fact that with us here in the mountains stock of all 
kinds will eat rib grass mixed in the hay quite as well 
as they eat the rest of it. 

For a month or six weeks in midwinter with us, rib 
grass does not grow much, and the fall grown leaves 
deteriorate in the cold, wet or frosty weather after De- 
cember 1, so it is well not to get too much of it in the 
range or perhaps, what would be still better, some hay 
to feed at this time, should be provided for the stock. 
The seed is readily harvested and easily cleaned of 
chaff by running through a fanning mill, and from five 
to ten pounds should be quite sufficient to sow an acre. 
I should think the seed could be grown for four or five 
cents per pound. 

(To be continued.) 



THE FIELD. 



METHODS OF DRY FARMING. 

We recently admitted that though the principles of 
what is called "dry farming" had been fully demon- 
strated by California experience years ago, we might 
learn much from the new efforts in the interior States 
to apply these principles. We shall keep our readers 
informed along this line. The following interesting 
sketch is prepared for the New York Tribune by Mr. 
P. B. Fletcher: 

One of the first men in Utah to look with favor upon 
the novel idea that paying crops could be raised with- 
out irrigation was George L. Farrell, of Smithfield, who 
for the last fifteen years has been raising excellent 
crops of wheat on unirrigated lands in Cache valley, 
where the rainfall does not exceed twelve inches. Other 
farmers, in Davis, Cache and Salt Lake counties, took 
up the work in a small way, but it has remained for 
the last two or three years to see the great awakening 
of interest in the work of reclaiming the desert. 

It is now believed by the men at the head of the 
agricultural interests in the West that the great sage 
brush plains of the Rocky Mountain region will yet 
gleam with yellow wheat fields. What this means to 
the Western farmer can hardly be overestimated. The 
valuable irrigated lands, which seldom sell for less than 
$100 an acre and often as high as $300 an acre, will be 
reserved for the more specialized crops, for the growing 
of the market gardening crops and fruits, while the 
wheat will be grown entirely on arid lands. 

One of the first men to demonstrate that arid farm- 
ing can be successfully carried on is J. W. Paxman, of 
Nephi, Utah, who has a farm of nearly three thousand 
acres in wheat. Three years ago this land could not be 
sold by the State for $2.50 an acre, with ten years 1 
time, while to-day it cannot be bought for $20 in cash 
and much of it brings as high as $50 an acre. 

It is now believed that any land which will grow good 
sage brush will grow wheat, if the special methods of 
cultivation which are adapted for arid farming are 
practiced. 



January 26, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



The intermountain region is not the only one to be 
affected with the "dry farming" microbe. Capitalists 
and promoters are endeavoring to introduce the same 
system into the unproductive plains of western Kan- 
sas and eastern Colorado, where the annual rainfall 
is less than twelve inches, and where there is little 
hope of irrigating canals ever penetrating from the 
distant mountains. Here the system is known as the 
"Campbell system," because it was introduced by H. C. 
Campbell. He began the application of this method of 
farming in South Dakota, and later operated in Ne- 
braska and southern Kansas. The Burlington Rail- 
road, which had large land grants which it was anx- 
ious to sell, backed him in his work, and conducted 
several model farms. 

During the last few months the idea has been taken 
up by wide awake promoters from Denver, with the 
result that a dry farm congress is to be held in Den- 
ver at some early date. An arid farm properly worked 
will yield an average of twenty bushels of wheat to 
the acre. Many of the farms have given yields as high 
as? forty bushels. When it is considered that the aver- 
age for many parts of Kansas and Nebraska is only 
ten bushels to the acre, and often only five, it will be 
seen that the dry farm proposition is a paying one. 

One of the most flourishing of the large arid farms 
now in operation is that of the Utah Arid Farm Com 
pany. This company, which numbers some of the lead- 
ing agriculturists- of the State, including Dr. J. A. Wid- 
stoe, of the Provo Agricultural College, among its stock- 
holders, controls eight thousand acres of laud, six thous- 
and in Dog valley and two thousand in Ferner valley, 
four miles distant. 

Dog valley is an elevated plateau, lying in the heart 
of the mountains at an elevation of 6,000 feet, with a 
rainfall of 16 inches. There is absolutely no water to 
be had in the valley, the nearest spring lying four miles 
distant in the neighboring valley. Yet the land which 
is under cultivation will yield an average of twenty 
bushels to the acre. The last of August the soil, which 
was being prepared for next season's crop, was moist 
enough to germinate grain at a depth of three inches 
from the surface. 

The great secret of success in arid farming is careful 
cultivation. The first and most difficult operation in 
starting the arid farm is clearing the land of sage brush. 
This stands from one to four feet high. For this pur- 
pose the Alvoord sage grubber has proved the most 
useful instrument. Drawn by from three to five horses, 
it will clear from five to eight acres a day, tearing out 
all but the smaller bushes and dumping them in long 
windrows for burning. Two men handle the grubber, 
and two more follow and burn the brush. 

This grubber is in reality a heavy rake with iron 
teeth lying close together and flat upon the ground. 
It is double faced, and when a large windrow of the 
brush has collected the instrument dumps itself. The 
cost of clearing land amounts to about $1.40 per acre, 
everything being furnished by the grubber. 

The land is now ready for the ploughing, which should 
be done as early in the summer as possible. Both 
steam and horse power are used. The larger farms 
use the engines which carry from eight to eighteen 
disk plows. The lesser number is used in plowing new 
land, the greater in stubble land. Some of the land is 
also done by horsepower, the plowing being contracted 
at the rate of $2 to $2.25 an acre. The land owners 
furnish the plows, two-gang plows drawn by four horses, 
and the water, while the concentrators furnish men, 
horses and plow points. 

J: W. Paxman has been using a double cylindered, 
25-horsepower engine on his farm with excellent re- 
sults. The engine pulls three six-disk gang plows on 
the freshly grubbed land, making a plow path fifteen 
feet wide and plowing twelve inches deep. Such an en- 
gine will plow from twenty-five to thirty-five acres a 
day. 

As soon as possible after plowing the ground is har- 
rowed to preserve the moisture. Ground which is har- 
rowed immediately will remain moist for a long time, 
while the plowed land allows the moisture to escape 
rapidly. The harrow pulls together the small sage 
brush left by the grubber, and the land is again turned 
over. The land is then harrowed again, when it is ready 
for the seeding. 

On the large farms the seeding begins in September 
and lasts till late in the season, often till the middle 
of November. Drilling is a necessity in arid farming, 
and many of the early failures can be laid to broad- 
casting. The grain must be placed deep in the soil, 
where there is moisture enough to allow it to germinate. 
A fourteen-drop drill drawn by four horses is much used 
in some parts. 

Next to the cultivation the amount of seed used is 
of prime importance. From a half to three-fourths of 



a bushel is used to the acre in place of one and one- 
half to two bushels used on the irrigated farms. Several 
varieties are considered as being especially adapted for 
arid farming. The Kofoid wheat, otherwise known as 
Winter La Salle, Lofthouse or Druby, is the variety 
most in favor in central and southern Utah. Further 
north the Golden Coin or the Forty Fold, as it is some- 
times called, is commonly used. A small red variety, 
known as the Turkey, is highly recommended by the 
experiment farms. 

In the spring the fields are again harrowed to pre- 
serve the moisture. Then the work is done till the har- 
vest. For the large tracts headers alone are used, 
drawn by four horses and having a cutting capacity of 
thirty-five or forty acres per day. The thrashing may be 
done either by horse or steam power at a cost of eight 
and one-half bushels out of every one hunderd. The 
grain is then bagged in two-bushel sacks and hauled to 
the nearest station, where it is started on its journey 
eastward. 

The wheat fields in the arid farming districts are 
dry fallowed every other year. As soon as possible after 
the harvest the stubble is plowed and left in the rough 
all the winter. Early in the spring it is harrowed, 
every vestige of the plant growth is carefully kept 
down during the summer and in the autumn it is seeded. 
By this means it is thought that the arid farmer will 
escape the weeds which prove such serious pests in 
the irrigated fields. 

Southern Idaho is a notably dry farm district. Cache 
valley in the northern part of Utah has about 100,000 
acres under cultivation. In Cedar valley, where the 
old lands of Fort Crittenden have been recently thrown 
open to settlement, about 75,000 acres of land have been 
taken up for dry farm purposes this year. J. A. Wil- 
stoe, the foremost advocate of arid farming in the West, 
declares that all of the western portion of the great 
basin, large portions of Nephi valley, the Tintic region, 
Cedar valley and Tooele county, in Utah, the southern 
part of Idaho, eastern and western Colorado and parts 
of the arid West — are especially adapted for arid farm- 
ing. 

Just how far the utilization of lands supposed to be 
worthless will go under the improved and scientific 
methods of farming it is hard to say, but it is certain 
that fifty bushels of wheat to the acre is now being 
raised on the very tract of land which was the cause 
nineteen years ago of an honest farmer being lodged in 
jail at $2,000 bail for perjury in swearing that it was 
not desert land, but would raise crops without irrigation. 



POULTRY YARD. 



THE PRACTICE OR DRY FEEDING. 

Mr. Warren Robinson has been writing on the sub- 
ject for some time past, and after reading his reasons 
and the reasons given by others, Mr. W. A. King of 
Petaluma came to the conclusion that the logical 
method of feeding chickens was the "dry method." 
Mr. King gives the Petaluma Poultry Journal this ac- 
count o fhis experience: "I had a very successful 
hatch of chicks last March, the chicks showing that 
the incubators had been attended to properly. I 
placed them in brooders seven feet long and two feet 
wide, with a partition in the center, three hundred 
cichks in each of my brooders. These brooders stand 
fourteen inches above the floor of the "runs," and the 
chicks are compelled to run up and down a slanted 
runway to the floor. On the floor of the runs I placed 
a litter of straw about four inches deep, and in this 
litter I scattered a prepared chick food which is on the 
market and which contains no meat, charcoal or grit. 
After the chicks had reached the age of ten days I 
placed a hopper in the run containing meat scraps, 
and kept this always full, so that they could get all 
of the meat they wanted. I continued to feed the pre- 
pared chick food until they were four weeks old. Then 
I began to give them whole mreat and cracked corn 
and a dry mash consisting of bran- middlings, alfalfa 
meal and ground bone. I kept this dry mash before 
them all the time and saw that there was grain in the 
litter for them all of the time, so that there was some- 
thing there when scratched for. One other point I 
was careful on was to keep charcoal, grit and fresh 
water where the chicks could readily get them. The 
chicks progressed so well that I was able to shut off 
the heat at night when they were three weeks old 
and altogether when they were four weeks old. At 
five weeks I closed them out of the brooders and taught 
them to roost. At six weeks I put them into the roost- 
ing houses, and at three months I had raised eighty- 
seven and one-half per cent of my hatch. This was 
better than I had been able to accomplish in the two 
previous years that I had been hatching and I think 
that my success was entirely owing to two things — 



first, that the chicks were properly incubated, and, 
second, that I had given no wet food and plentyof ex- 
ercise for their grains. Of course, I gave all of the 
greens they could eat, to them every day. 

"Now as to development. The pullets are well shaped 
and muscular, and have the appearance that indicate 
that they will be fair layers. They did not begin to 
lay as early as pullets I had hatched last year, and 
for a time I laid it to the dry mash; but at one of the 
meetings of the Poultry Keepers' Association I stated 
my experience and Professor Jaffa of the experiment 
station said that he did not believe that the delay in 
laying was caused by dry feeding, as he had reports 
from various parts of the state saying that the pul- 
lets were slow about starting to lay that were hatched 
at the same time as mine and that the majority of 
the people so reporting were feeding wet mashes. 

"I have satisfied myself that the dry feeding method 
saves a lot of labor, that the mortality is less, and 
that the birds develop well. 

"I do not agree, however, with those who advocate 
keeping whole grain in hoppers so that the hens and 
chicks can get the same without exercising for it. I 
believe in roosting houses with one side entirely open, 
using one-third of back part for roosting and the other 
two-thirds for a scratching shed, placing a deep litter 
of either alfalfa hay or wheat straw in the same and 
scatter all of whole grain in this litter, so that the 
hens will get plenty of exercise, as I believe that ex- 
ercise is one of the most important features towards 
keeping the hens healthy." 



THE MARKETS, 



Wheat. 

The market for shipping wheat has not been active 
the past few months. Shipping wheat is worth at a 
very conservative quotation $1.22%. The only wheat 
which has been exported for some time is used as 
stiffening. The local market for milling wheat is 
fairly steady, prices ranging from $1.35 to $1.42%, 
the latter figure for grades such as Australian. There 
has been very little wheat brought down from the 
North this year, owing to the fact that most of the 
California crop was club wheat and was used to supply 
the shipping demand. Sonora wheat is in fair demand 
at prices ranging from $1.30 to $1.35. 

Flour. 

The flour market is quiet just at present. There 
is the usual steady bakers' trade and prices in bak- 
ers' grades are well maintained. The flour situation 
is, on the whole, a very promising one, however, and 
as soon as conditions in the Orient are somewhat im- 
proved a heavy demand from that quarter is looked 
for. The steamer Coptic, which left San Francisco 
January 17, had on board 300 tons of flour for the re- 
lief of Chinese famine sufferers. Bakers extras are 
quoted at $4.50; Oregon and Northern bakers' $4.25, 
and Eastern patents, $5.50. 

Barley. 

The market on barley is extremely steady. With a 
few exceptions the crop is now in second hands. Feed 
ranges in price from $1.10 to $1.15. Brewing and 
shipping are quoted at $1.17%. It is believed by promi- 
nent people in the trade that there will be no carry- 
over this year, a thing, which has not occurred before 
in years. This naturally means uniformly good prices, 
for next year's crop. Chevalier is selling as high as 
$1.35, the increase in price being caused by a recent 
heavy demand from Australia. 

Oats. 

Some oats have come in from the North during the 
week and are meeting with a fair demand at the 
ruling prices. Red oats, good to choice, for feed are 
quoted at $1.40 to $1.55 per cental; white oats, $1.42% 
to $1.65; black oats, $1.27 to $1.37y 2 . 

Corn. 

There has been a very dull corn market for some 
time past and but little business has been transacted 
in this grain during the current week. A few quo- 
tations are given although the market is little more 
than nominal. For yellow corn sacked $1.25 is asked; 
for California small yellow, $1.55; Eastern yellow, 
$1.25; Eastern white, $1.25. 

Rye. 

There has been a fair demand for rye at the ruling 
price of $1.37y 2 to $1.42%. Holdings are light and 
the market remains firm at these figures. 

Beans. 

The market on beans is lower than on anything 
else in the food line. In fact, it has about reached 
bedrock and a reaction may be looked for before 



56 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 26, 1907 



long. All varieties of beans are pretty well out of 
farmers' hands. Blackeyes are scarce, practically no 
stock being left in the country and very light stocks 
in the hands of joboers. The yield was extremely 
light and as last year's price reached 5% cents per 
pound it is presumed that there will soon be an advance 
over the present ruling price of $4.65. Red beans are 
quoted at $2.50 to $2.65; small whites, $2.75 to $2.95: 
large whites, $2.00 to $2.25; bayos, $2.25 to $2.40; pea 
beans, $2.30 to $3.25, and limas at $4.25 to $4.35. It is 
believed that there are not many lima beans outside 
of farmers. The quoted price for limas is $4.25 to 
$4.35. 

Wool. 

Owing to the fact that it is just now between seasons 
there is very little business being done in wools of 
any description. The better grades of the fall clip 
have all been disposed of, the only wools now left in 
first hands being the Humboldt wools, which, accord- 
ing to local jobbers, are being held at a figure too high 
to warrant speculation. The balance of the fall clip 
now in the hands of jobbers is being held awaiting 
the completion of the new scouring mills which is ex- 
pected to take place about the first of March. Prices 
for the best mountain wools have ruled about l%c 
less than last year. Free fall wools are quoted at 11 
to 13%c; slightly defective, 8 to 11c; Southern 
slightly defective, 7 to 8y 2 c. The abundant rainfa'.l 
would seem to presage a good spring clip. 

Hops. 

Very meager information is to be had concerning 
the local hop market. Little trading is recorded, as 
growers and jobbers are still unable to make their ideas 
coincide. It is said that dealers have offered 12c for 
1907 hops and that one or two sales have been effected 
at that figure. Growers of the better grade of hops are 
rather reluctant about letting go their holdings at the 
present prices for old hops. Some sales have been 
effected at 11 %c for choice hops. 

Seeds. 

The recent rains give promise of creating a good 
future demand for all varieties of seeds. There is 
very little mustard seed to be had and brown is 
quoted at $4.25 to $4.50; flax seed, $3.00; canary, $4.50 
to $4.75; alfalfa, 13c; rape, 1 to 3%c; millett, 3% cents. 
Bags and Bagging. 

Calcutta bags for June delivery are already quoted 
at 9 cents, and it is believed they will be still higher. 
Jute twine and everything else in that line and in 
kindred lines is very high. The latest advices are to 
the effect that there is a further advance of 1 cent to 
1% cents in the price of twine. Wool sacks are quoted 
at 40 to 50c, as against a quotation of 31% to 33%c 
for the corresponding season of last year. It is said 
that the reason for this advance in price is that there 
is a great scarcity of good raw material this year, 
though it is believed that the total output of all grades 
for the year will be as large as the average. 

Poultry. 

Receipts of poultry have been normal and there 
is a good local demand for all stock now coming in. 
Dressed turkeys are bringing 21 to 23c and live tur- 
keys, 20 to 21c. Large hens are in good demand 
at $7.00 to $9.00 per dozen and all other grades are 
also in good request. Old roosters are quoted at $5.00 
to $6.00 per dozen and young roosters at $9.00 to 

* 10 - 00 - Butter. 

The market for all the better grades of California 
butter is firm. Last week San Francisco receipts were 
184,850 pounds as against 187,600 for the week pre- 
vious. Despite this falling off in receipts and the 
firm tone of the market there has been no marked 
movement in prices. The ruling prices of this week's 
transactions are in the neighborhood of 39 cents for 
California extras, 35 cents for firsts, and 27 cents for 
seconds. Any further shortening up of receipts will 
cause an advance. Eastern butter has ruled steady at 
figures ranging close to 30 cents for extras. Storage 
butter is firm at from 21% to 30c, according to grade 
and quality. 

Eggs. 

Selected ranch eggs are bringing 34% cents on the 
San Francisco Dairy Produce Exchange. Extras sold 
at 33% cents; firsts, 32% cents, and seconds at 30 
cents. At these prices there is a good lively demand 
and the market has a very firm tone. Last week's 
receipts were 108,570, an increase of nearly one third 
over those of the previous week. 

Cheese. 

Cheese has made substantial price advances during 
the week, the ruling prices being at this writing, for 
fancy California fiats 14%c, with the market firmly 
held at this figure. Last week's receipts were 102,240 
lb., as against 194,300 for the week previous. 



Potatoes. 

There is a steady demand for good stock. Very 
little Salinas stock is to be found in the market and it 
is believed that very little remains in first hands. 
River Burbanks are firmly held at $1.25 to $1.50 per 
cental. There have been some arrivals of Oregon 
stock, most of which shows up well as to quality and 
is quoted at from $1.75 to $2.00 per cental. 

Vegetables. 

The vegetable market is in good shape. The heavy 
rains have made it difficult to get produce to the mar- 
ket and the result is quite noticeable in the diminished 
supply of all varieties of vegetables. Peas are rul- 
ing at from 12% to 16 cents, beans at from 7 
to 10 cents, garlic, 2% to 3% cents. Very 
few tomatoes are arriving and such as have come 
in during the past week show the effect of the rains, 
being of very poor quality. Los Angeles tomatoes in 
crates are selling this week at $1.50 to $1.75. Green 
peppers are worth 17 cents per pound and hot house 
cucumbers at from $1.00 to $1.50 per crate. There 
is a good local demand for onions, which is being sat- 
isfied mainly with shipments from Oregon at $1.15 to 
$1.25. 

Fresh Fruits. 

The market is brisk on all varieties of fresh fruits. 
Apples are firm and fancy stock higher in price. Bell 
flowers are quoted by the San Francisco Produce Ex- 
change at $1.25 to $1.75 per box. Oregon apples are in 
the market at $1.00 to $1.50 per box, though arrivals 
of these have been rather meager. Fruit handlers say 
the market is daily gaining strength and they predict 
a lively demand during the next three weeks, especi- 
ally for good, red apples. Artichokes are in good de- 
mand at 75 cents to $1.25 per box. 

Dried Fruits. 

The dried fruit market is steady on all varieties. 
Stocks remaining in the hands of growers are, in the 
opinion of San Francisco handlers of dried fruits, very 
limited. The latter are holding what they have on hand 
for higher prices, believing that this is warranted by 
the great scarcity of all kinds of dried fruits throughout 
both the local and the Eastern markets. The prune 
market remains on a 3-cent basis, with a premium on 
40-50s. 



Raisins. 

The raisin market is very firm and stocks on the 
Pacific coast are very light. .Many theories are being 
advanced, undertaking to explain the very high prices 
of this year's pack as compared with other years. It 
has been contended by some that it is due to a fall- 
ing off of importations of Spanish raisins and an in- 
crease in the exportation of California raisins to Europe 
owing to the failure of the Spanish crop. A theory 
which seems to strike nearer the mark is that the 
crop, while of good size, was not quite so heavy as had 
been expected and jobbers who sold heavily for future 
delivery early in the season have been obliged to cover 
their deliveries by buying raisins at almost any price. 
Fancy choice seeded raisins in 16 ounce cartons are 
selling at 9% cents, other grades being proportionately 
high. 

Honey. 

Honey of all grades is practically cleaned up. It is 
believed that there is very little in the hands of apiar- 
ists, and such as there is is being held for a figure 
higher than the market would seem to warrant. The 
market on white honey is 5% to 6 cents, but with 
no transactions of importance at this figure. 

Nuts. 

Practically the same high figures obtain this week 
as last and there is no evidence of a weaker market. 
Nonpareils are quoted at 17% to 18%c; I. X. L., 16% 
to 18c; hardshells, 9 to 10c. The jobbing prices for 
walnuts are, soft shells, 13 to 16c; hardshells, 11 to 
14 cents. 

Citrus Fruits. 

There is practically nothing in the shape of oranges 
now coming into the San Francisco market. Local 
jobbers attribute the lightness of receipts to the heavy 
rains and the consequent difficulty of gathering the 
crop and forwarding it to the market. The inclement 
weather has also put a damper on the demand so 
that as things now stand, stocks in the hands of deal- 
ers seem fully large enough to supply the trade. Fancy 
navels are selling in the local market' at $2.00 to $2.50. 
The lemon market is dull and prices ruling weaker. 
Lemons are now quoted at $1.25 to $2.50, according 
to quality. 



The P. & O. Canton 



Success Plow ! 




A 

Frameless Plow 
That Will 
X Last a Lifetime 




The Best and Cheapest Plow is the Success. 

Why? 

Because it does the same work as plows that cost a great deal more. 

It costs less than higher priced plows because it is made of fewer parts. 

On account of its having fewer parts it wont get out of order. 

Plows get out of order because they are complicated. The Success 
isn't complicated— it's very simple. 

A plow that wont get out of order is what you want, isn't it ? You 
would call such a plow strong and durable. 

That's why the Success Plow is named "SUCCESS." 

Being less expensive than others, doing first-class work, possessing the 
essential qualities of strength and durability, the Success deserves all we 
claim for it. No use to ask now why it is the cheapest. 

The best is always the cheapest 

Equipped with the best bottoms made ; adjustable 
front axle ; dust-proof removable wheel boxes ; 
adjustable rear wheel; easily set for any depth; 
works equally well with large or small horses ; has 
light draft and is easily operated— a perfect plow* 



P71GIFIG IMPLEMENT GOMP71HY, General 
131 to 153 Kansas Street, San Francisco, eal. 



agents 



January 26, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



57 



GRAND SWEEPSTAKES 

FOR UNITED STATES SEPARATORS 

STATE DAIRYMEN'S CONVENTIONS 



Wl, 



MAINE 

ceiulx-i 4-6, 1906 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Deceiuliur 6-7, IS06 



VERMONT 

January 7-10, 1907 



m 96 9«i 

The UNITED STATES SEPARATOR holds the World's 
ecord for Closest Separation of Cream, and the scores above 
, begin another year's list of the many victories which show that 

The UNITED STATES SEPARATOR delivers the 
Cream in Smoothest and Best Condition for making 
the finest quality of butter. 

Send for free catalogue telling ALL about the U. S. Ask for 
"Construction Catalogue No. 148' ," and write today. 

VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO. 

Bellows Falls, Vt. 

EIGHTEEN DISTRIBUTING WAREHOUSES 



Prompt Delivery Assured 



California customers from San Francisco warehouses. 

No delays. Address all letters to Bellows Falls, Vt. 




TO FARMERS 
AND DAIRYMEN 

It will pay every farmer or every farmer's wife 
to sit right down and write for Sharpies "Bus- 
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formation that can be found in no other book, 
and will help any dairyman to make his 
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How to Feed, What to Feed, How 
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to Care for the Dairy Cow in the way 
to get best results, and the whole book 
is practical. To get all the good out of 
your milk you should of course use 



THE SHARPLES 
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THE SHARPLES SEPARATOR CO., 
WEST CHESTER, PA. 



Ghloago, III. 



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CREIAM SEPARATORS 

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THE DAIRY. 

USING MILKING MACHINES. 

It is interesting to read about milk- 
ing machines and the success being had 
with them and especially to read of ac- 
tual experiences. In Canadian Dairy- 
man A. Price tells of the experience of 
S. Price & Sons, Erindale, Ont., with 
the machines which they have been us- 
ing since last January. 

"Before we got the machines," said 
Mr. Price, "seven men were required to 
milk seventy-five cows. Now we have 
about sixty-eight cows milking and with 
three machines, each of which milks 
two cows, I, alone, can do the milking 
and separating in one and one-half 
hours. The machines were purchased to 
milk 80 to 100 cows in an hour, but so 
far we have used only three of the six 
■machines that were furnished us. By 
using all of them we can easily milk 
80 cows in an hour. One very desirable 
feature is the ease with which we can 
get the milk from cows that have small 
teats and are, therefore, very hard to 
milk by hand. Three sizes of teat cups 
ivere supplied, and the smallest size 
works to perfection on cows that have 
small teats. 

"At first the cows wondered what was 
happening, but only two or three gave 
any trouble, and they soon became quiet 
and were easily milked by the machines. 
The teat cups were supposed to be kept 
on by suction, but now and again, when 
the rubber becomes slightly worn, they 
are easily shaken off. This can be pre- 
vented by putting a belt around the cow 
and under the teat cup attachment. In 
a few cases the noise, caused by the suc- 
tion, made some of the cows nervous ,but 
they soon became used to it. Some cows 
that could not be milked by hand, ex- 
cept by very careful milkers, stood per- 
fectly quiet after being milked a few 
times with the machine. 

"It is not a difficult matter to keep 
the machine and the tubing clean. By 
having a tub of hot water and a tub of 
cold water on hand when the cows are 
all milked, and setting the teat cups in 
the cold water before the power is turn- 
ed off, and transferring them to the hot 
water, the job is done easily and in a 
very short time. The fittings and all 
connections can be washed just as eas- 
ily as an ordinary pail. The teat cups 
are made of copper and tinned on the 
outside. The tubing i s made of sanitary 
rubber composition, which is very dur- 
able. Ordinary rubber will not stand 
boiling, and would impart a rubber 
taste to the milk passing through it. 
The tubing supplied with these ma- 
chines, however, has neither of these 
objectionable features. When the ma- 
chine is not in use the tubes are kept 
in a brine to preserve them. Before be- 
ing used fresh water is allowed to run 
through them for a few minutes." 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY 

TULARE GRANGE MEETING. 

To the Editor: Tulare Grange, P. of 
H., Cal., convened in its hall on Sat- 
urday, the 19th. There was the usual 
attendance and the usual nice lunch. A 
class was obligated in the third and 
fourth degrees. All bills were ordered 
paid, and reports of secretary and treas- 
urer were referred to the finance com- 
mittee. The reports show a good finan- 
cial condition. A communication from 
the College of Agriculture giving the 
courses of instruction therein was read 
and ordered filed. 

A communication from the Audobon 
Society, soliciting the aid of the Grange 
in securing State legislation for the pro- 
tection of certain class of birds, was 
read and referred to a committee of 
three. The subject of sugar beet culture 



I 

in Tulare county was laid over by re- 
quest until next meeting, to give beet 
growers an opportunity to be present. 

The following resolution, introduced 
at the Grange meeting on the third Sat- 
urday in December last and laid over 
until this meeting, was taken up, dis- 
cussed, and passed without dissent: 

Resolved, By Tulare Grange, P. of H., 
California, we approve and advocate the 
resolutions introduced in the State 
Grange, P. of H, at Santa Rosa last 
October, and the resolutions passed by 
the State Horticultural Association, in 
Hanford, this month, favoring a modifi- 
cation of the Chinese exclusion law. 
These exclusion laws have been promot- 
ed by class legislation. The industrial 
prosperity of the coast, particularly the 
agricultural interests thereof, require 
such modification. 

The subject received the same careful 
and thorough consideration and discus- 
sion it did at the Fruit Growers' Con- 
vention. 

The need of more labor for carrying 
on and promoting our agricultural indus- 
tries and the adaptability of Chinese 
labor to the work was admitted and testi- 
fied to by all who had heretofore tried 
the same. Chinese labor has at all times 
been found diligent and faithful in the 
performance of their work, they are the 
same from Monday morning to Saturday 
night, there is not a communist or an- 
archist among them whatever else their 
faults are. The resolution was passed 
without dissent. It was charged and not 
denied that the Chinese send much of 
their earnings to China, but it was also 
charged and admitted that for every dol- 
lar so sent out of the country by China- 
men Americans, themselves, take out 
and squander in foreign countries much 
of it unfortunately at the gaming tables 
of Monte Carlo ten dollars to the one 
sent away by Chinamen. 

Another resolution introduced at the 
December meeting the foregoing was and 
laid over until this meeting was taken 
up and received thorough discussion. 

Resolved, We approve the stand taken 
by President Roosevelt to have a decis- 
ion of the U. S. Supreme Court, which 
will determine the treaty rights of Jap- 
anese children and our own obligations 
under the treaty between the United 
States and the Empire of Japan, and if, 
under this treaty, Japanese children of 
school age admissable to our public 
schools, can be excluded therefrom by 
any State legislation or any rule of a 
local board of education which denies 
to them the same privileges children of 
the most favored nation may enjoy. No 
President of the United States, at home 
or abroad, has received greater commen- 
dation than has President Roosevelt. 
His actions have at all times been in- 
liberty-loving people. 

spired by a sense of American justice 
and equity, and a desire to make Ameri- 
can statesmanship the standard for all 

The subject is one in which the mem- 
bers of the Grange takes much interest 
and nearly every member present ex- 
pressed himself freely on it, during 
which the following amendment was of 
fered, as more specifically expressing th? 
Grange understanding of the case. As 
amended the resolutions were adopted. 

Whereas, Tulare Grange No. 198, P. 
of H., Cal., has carefully considered the 
subject of the exclusion of Japanese 
children from the public schools of Cali- 
fornia from which foreign born children 
of other nations having treaty relations 
with the United States are not excluded, 
and 

Whereas, The United States has enter- 
ed into a treaty with the Empire of Japan 
whereby each accords to the other equal 
rights and privileges with those accorded 
in its territory to the most favored nation 
having treaty relations therewith, and 



Whereas, The Japanese government 
has entered a formal protest against the 
exclusion from the public schools of the 
United States of children, of school age, 
born in Japan and to which children of 
other foreign nations are admitted, as a 
violation of its treaty rights with the 
United States, and 

Whereas, The executive of the United 
States has instituted proceedings in the 
Federal Court and in the Supreme Court 



of California for the determination of 
the constitutional treaty powers of the 
United States and our obligations to 
other nations with whom we have en- 
tered into treaty relations; therefore, be 
it 

Resolved, The course taken by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to have these treaty 
rights determined, is the right and honor- 
able course for him to have taken. It 

(Continued on page 61) 



58 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 26, 1907 



HOME CIRCLE. 



THE RAILWAY ENGINEER. 

There are heroes famed in story, rightly 
famed, for deeds of arms; 

Men who've fought their country's foe- 
men, and in sudden night alarms 

Have rushed out to shots and shouting 
in the smoke and reek and dark, 

Never pausing, never heeding, offering 
themselves a mark; 

Going where their duty called them in 
nation's game of war; 

Finding death or finding glory never 
que&tioning what for. 

But peace has its greater heroes, men of 
throttle and of wheel, 

Men, who crouched in their cab windows, 
drive their panting steeds of steel 

Over moor and fen and mountain, dash- 
ing over trestles high 

Thrown across deep cleft and chasm like 
mere cobwebs 'gainst the sky, 

On whose nerve hang lives of hundreds 
as they leave the station light 

And with straining of steel sinews plunge 
afar into the night. 

Men who, facing swift disaster, are 

keyed up to such a height 
That each nerve joint and muscle springs 

to do the thing that's right; 
Men who, when they can't avert it, go 

to death clear-eyed and brave, 
With strong hand closed on the throttle 

in a last attempt to save; 
Hope of glory or of pension is not theirs, 

no more than fear; 
Aye, indeed, peace hath its hero in the 

railway engineer. 



AT LAST. 

Barbara Waring had practically 
learned and mastered the art of being 
poor, when Fate presented her whimsi 
cally with abundance. Everybody, even 
she, felt it to be more or less a fantastic 
happening. 

She wondered at first what she was go 
ing to do with it all; that was before she 
had learned that, along with a fortune. 
Fate always bestows methods for its 
disposal — sudden and unknown acts of 
duty, family claims that had only been 
sleeping dogs until their opportunity 
awoke them to bark. She found out also 
that a great deal of money may be ex- 
pended upon the getting of simple things, 
if such happen, moreover, not to be the 
simple things for which others ask. 

With a sort of gasping relief she ran 
off to the sea, to a household of merry, 
affectionate, noisy creatures she had 
once schooled and loved. They made 
much of her in their own breezy fash- 
ion, quite unaffected by her change of 
circumstances except that it gave such 
an unfailing excuse for teasing. 

She was discovering among them that 
the girl in herself was not so much crush- 
ed and dead as neglected. She kept 
cropping up and asserting herself in the 
most unlooked-for daily fashion. 

"You are getting prettier and young- 
er every day, Mother Bab," one of the 
girls exclaimed, watching a little excite- 
ment ruffle the quietness of her gray 
eyes and flush her smooth cheek. "Isn't 
she, Edward?" the girl cried merrily. 
The man's watching eyes had a sudden 
spark of something new and strange. 
Barbara drew a blind of blank forbidding 
over the youth in her own. Her cheeks 
flamed, not with the blush of mere re- 
proof, but something fiercer. The man 
saw it, and began to talk instantly with 
much detail of something else. She 
thanked him for it secretly, but with that 
barb implanted by the careless schoolgirl 
hand rankling. 

It was so long that a man had looked 
at her with that flash in his eyes, the 



brief admiration of the moment as she 
called to herself. She thought she could 
meet it calmly enough now, yet the old 
savage throb had leaped in response to 
that look. 

When she was twenty she met a man 
obviously attracted by herself, not by 
any of her attributes — music, deftness, 
or mental quickness of perception — but 
by herself. For the first time her wishes 
were anticipated, her lightest words re- 
membered and quoted, her tastes studied, 
in that old and sure fashion never to 
be set aside or improved upon, in the 
primitive pleasure of a wooer. She 
opened out like a flower to the sun, un- 
til the blow fell. He was not in earnest; 
it was a summer's amusement, no more! 
The realization came crashing across 
her life, destroying not alone her hope 
but some faith in herself. What really 
mattered was not so much the loss of a 
lover as the loss of herself. 

She emerged from the silent conflict 
altered only to herself. She had killed 
that part of her nature, she told her- 
self somewhat grandiosely, and certainly 
the corpse had shown no sign of life un- 
til this afternoon, when a girl's nonsense 
drew that flash from a man's eye and 
that instinctive, cruel response from her- 
self. 

Edward Banks was an elder son of the 
house by another marriage. He was re- 
moved by age and a certain difference, 
not so much age as a change of mental 
outlook, from the merry, pleasure-loving 
throng of half brothers and sisters, whom 
he secretly protected from themselves 
at every turn. There was nothing super- 
ior in his attitude. "Old Ted" was looked 
up to laughingly, yet with much earnest- 
ness underneath the fun, as mingling in 
himself the joint roles of an autocrat 
and a most susceptible chancellor of ex- 
chequer. He was inevitably the arbiter 
of family destines in his quiet, conclu- 
sive way of decision. 

Barbara stepped into the family atti- 
tude straightway. Oddly enough, although 
her years and his own tallied, she regard- 
ed him much as his young sisters did, 
to his own amusement at first. Lately a 
vague doubt crept in. It was never ex- 
pressly defined, not even when his flash- 
ing eyes set her pulses dancing on the 
summer afternoon when they sat looking 
at the blue waters of the bay beyond 
the tamarisk bushes at the garden's end. 

She escaped with only one thought — 
i not that — not that again! A line of 
Browning came to her, then and later as 
the situation developed: 

She had 

A heart — how shall I say — too soon 

made glad, 
Too easily impressed. 

It was not a comment that would have 
come from anybody else on this girl with 
the brown hair, and eyes at which few 
looked long enough to find the hidden 
light that sometimes redeemed them 
from insignificance to positive beauty. 
Edward Banks had discovered the lat 
ter and he looked again, always to en- 
counter that instant withdrawal of the 
vague something that tantalized him be- 
yond the soft reticence of voice and eye, 
that echoed in and out of the music she 
played to herself of an evening in the 
shadows of the great, and, as she thought 
empty drawing room. 

He watched and waited. Barbara elud- 
ed more than ever. He told himself that 
he was too old to make experiments, he 
must be sure, though every day caution 
became harder; she felt that what had 
been was returning, and would not let 
herself see the difference of this, the 
real thing, from that old imitation pas- 
sion. 

He hid his feelings far less cleverly 
than he imagined from their object. She 





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was continually averting their slight ex- 
pression, scheming against betrayal and 
against her own response day after day, 
until she felt forced to act. She dispatch- 
ed a letter that would bring her a tele- 
gram and she would fly. 

She looked across the gay dinner table 
and out of the arial window at the even- 
ing sea. The sound of the sea came like 
a faint song between the pauses of laugh- 
ter and talk of the pleasant company, a 
vague, sad refrain of waves that lapped 
the foot of the cliff below the gardens. 

Barbara thought, not of the beauty of 
the evening, but of how desolate she 
would be tomorrow night away from 
them all, alone! The sound of her own 
name broke in. 

"Why! You will be all by yourselves 
tonight, Ba, you and Ted; I had for- 
gotten we are all going out to this pas- 
torial play rehearsal thing. How rude of 
us" — the speaker laughed without pen- 
itence. "You must entertain one another 
Ba; play to him. Old Ted would like 
that " 

"He would," interpolated Edward. 

"And if he's good he may smoke in 
the drawing-room; he could never be 
happy after dinner without." 

"Couldn't he?" Barbara avoided the 
glance direct across the dinner table. 

They went off in a body, bearing fid- 
dles, mandolin, guitar, and stage proper- 
ties. "We shall be back at ten." 

"It's really too bad to troop off and 
leave you " 

"Goodby, goodby!" 

Without a word to one another the two 
left moved away. Barbara went upstairs 
to the drawing-room, its many windows 
open to the sea that entered like a song. 
She did not attempt to play for some 
time, but sat in the peace of the deserted 
room listening, fearing a step on the 
stairs. None came. He was smoking, 
after all, downstairs in his own room. 
She need not imagine her music was in- 
ducement to bring him here, she told 
herself, yet, just for tonight, the very 

last night . She started. Edward 

was standing in the doorway. He stood 
watching her with that strange flicker in 
his sober eyes. He crossed the room and 
sat opposite her, still silent and smiling. 

"Shall I play? What would you like?" 
She did not wait for his answer, but be- 
gan. The man, listening, knew that it 
was his presence, his obvious presence, 
that kept the magic out of her melody. 
He gave a grim attention to it for a few 
minutes, then got up and went into the 
inner room. She thought he had gone, 
and a faint current of something mys- 
terious crept into her music; it relieved 
her, soothed the unrest of her mood, flow- 
ed with a momentary healing over her 
jarred spirit. 



As she ceased a servant entered with 
a telegram. She was looking at it un- 
opened when he came back. She knew 
escape was too late. 

"Come outside. You have had enough 

music." 

"You mean you have," she corrected, 
trying to talk lightly. 

"You sometimes make a mistake 
about me," he said abruptly. 

There were winding steps that led 
from the drawing room windows to the 
garden. He followed her, going carefully 
to escape her trailing gown. 

There was a sort of rampart at one 
end witth a low sandstone bench that 
overlooked the sea. 

The air was full of soft sounds and 
scents. He could only just see her face 
and the soft sweep of cheek that gave 
distinction to her profile. A little fold 
of her gown trailed across the bench 
as they sat. He took it between his 
fingers. "I like your shadowy black 
frocks. I don't like women, as a rule, 
in black gowns. This is like twilight, 
fine and frail. Is that why you chose It, 
Barbara?" 

For the first time he called her 
by her name. She was dumb. There 
was piercing through her swiftly distaste 
and fear something stronger. He tried 
to see her face in the gloom. 

From sheer incapacity to finesse he 
took the one course that convinced — 
the direct one. 

"I want you," he said. "It's not the 
way to put it; men don't say it bluntly 
like that — men who know how to woo. 
I never did, never tried, or wanted to be- 
fore. I am too old to learn the rules of 
the difficult game. I only repeat I want 
you. Does it seem enough?" 

He took her trembling hands. 

"I want you to marry me. After all, 
it's what they come to in the end, those 
pretty tricks and speeches, those byways 
I can't learn. Let it bring me near you." 

"But if I can't." 

There was an edge, half malice, half 
unconcealed content, in her voice. 

"You must! I'll have to try and learn 
the other fellows' methods if you won't 
come to me like this!" 

She shuddered, and for an instant, in 
the inexplicable ebb and flow of emotions 
she seemed carried from him. 

"You don't know me yet," he went on; 
"you have taken other people's views of 
me. I shall be different to you — quite 
different, if you will let me show you 
myself, apart from everybody else. I 
have a prophetic feeling about us — I 
had it from the beginning. I suspect I 
am going to make you want me more 
than you know." 

Insurgence returned — was overflow- 
ing all. 

"You can't make me want you more — " 



January 26, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



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before, using, and in grinding find a flaw or soft spot ? 
That is the reason that most manufacturers do not give you a hand sharpened tool. 
They let you take the risk. 

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She broke off laughing, then suddenly 
timid. "Don't you see — why?" 

He did, though to the latest day of 
their life together he could never be 
brought to understand how it came 
about. 



"Johnny," said the stern parent, "my 
father used to whip me when I behaved 
at the table as badly as you are doing." 



"Well," rejoined the precocious young 
ster, "I hope I'll never have to make a 
confession like that to my little boy." 



"Is there any known test for true love? 
asked the very young man. 

"Nothing but marriage," answered the 
home-grown philosopher. "If that doesn't 
evaporate it you have got the real thing." 



DOMESTIC HINTS. 



Cream of Pea Soup. — One pint canned 
peas, one quart milk, one tablespoonful 
of butter, two even teaspoonfuls of flour, 
salt and pepper to taste. Press the peas 
through a colander, put the milk on to 
cook in a double boiler; as soon as it 
boils add the peas that have been pres- 
sed through the colander. Rub the but- 
ter and flour together, add a little milk 
at a time until it can be poured easily, 
then add to the hot and stir constantly 
until it thickens, add salt and pepper and 
serve immediately. 

Cheese Salad. — Salads are always pop- 
ular, and any novelty in serving them 
is appreciated. Arrange this salad in a 
bowl, using lettuce, watercress, etc., and 
then make a good mayonnaise sauce. 
Take some soft cream cheese and pound 
it in a mortar, moistening it by degrees 
with mayonnaise. When thoroughly 
amalgamated pour over the salad, gar- 
nish with tomatoes or radishes, and 
serve. 

Fried Vegetable Marrow. — Stew a veg- 
etable marrow in weak stock, then drain 
thoroughly and stamp into neat rounds: 
drain quite dry. Dip into seasoned egg 
and breadcrumbs and fry a golden-brown 
color. Serve piled on a doyley with 
grated cheese scattered. 

Sweet Croutons. — Cut some neat little 
rounds of bread about one inch and a 
half thick and scoop out a part of the 
center. Soak for a few minutes in sweet- 
ened and flavored milk, drain slightly, 
and fry in batter to a golden color. Fill 
the hole in each with preserve, sift sugar 
over, and serve. 

Lettuce Sandwiches. — Spread thin 
slices of bread and butter with mayon- 
naise dressing. Put between the slices, 
from which the crust has been removed, 
small crisp lettuce leaves. Stamp the 
sandwiches with some fancy shape and 
serve at once. 



Common Sense, in the Hennery. 

The American hen is the greatest bird in the 
world. All the gold and silver mined in a year, 
added to the value of sheep and wool, doesn't equal 
the money worth of poultry products Biddy pro- 
duces in 365 days time That sounds big, but it's a 
big fact and can't be expressed in small figures. If 
it's hard to believe, take the same truth in another 
way. Think of a railway train 900 miles long, com- 
posed of 107,818 cars. Well ! If all the eggs produced 
on Cncle Sam's farm in one year were packed in 
crates containing 360 eggs each.it would take just 
such a train to transport them all between any two 
points. Xow, what about our hen ! Nothing small 
in the poultry industry, is there? No, there is not, 
and if every man with a hen used Dr. Hess Poultry 
Pan-a-ce-a, giving a small portion every day in soft 
food, the business would be far more colossal than 
it is. Pan-a-ce-a is the key-note of success in poultry 
culture. 

Some brt eders, crusted with the barnacles of old 
traditions and prejudices, think hens and corn are 
the only two things necessary for making money 
out of eggs. Some again, think there may be some- 
thing in the "tonic idea," bnt lack sufficient faith 
to try it. And in the meantime, while these men 
are growing poorer, thousands of others, with a full 
knowledge of what hens require, ai e giving Poultry 
Pan-a-ce-a and coining money. Poultry Pan-a-ce-a 
is not a stimulant. It doesn't force the hen to a 
short period of large production, only to leave her 
exhausted and unproductive for a much longer 
time. 

Poultry Pan-a-ce-a gets at the root of the trouble 
in another way. It makes the hen feel natural 
when her whole environment is contrary to nature. 
If at liberty to scratch and forage at will she would 
find in Nature's lavish providing most of the things 
she needs to promote the healthful activity of every 
organ Rut, being restricted in range, she needs 
Poultry Pan-a-ce a to take the place of Nature's pro- 
viding by making food available, and by strength- 
ening and assisting the digestive process till the 
largest possible amount of nutrition which nature 
can use is wrung from the food eaten, and directed 
into proper channels for building healthy flesh or 
producing eggs. This statement of fac is not over- 
drawn — hens cannot lay when confined or at 
liberty, if forced beyond a certain point- unless a 
preparation of this kind is given. 

The truth of all this is sufficiently evident in the 
number of deserteil and abandoned "coops" one 
sees about the country, where people have literally 
killed the hen. which laid the golden egg by requir- 
ing the impossible and unreasonable. Dr. Hess and 
Clark (who make Poultry Pan-a-ce-a) are so well 
assured of the real value of the compound, that 
they back i with their personal guarantee — no 
profit from using Pan-a-Cf-a — no pay. If you try it 
and are disappointed, you get your money back, 
that is their offer. 

Very likely your dealer has Dr. Hess Poultry 
Pan-a-ce-a: if not a postal order will bring it. 
Thousands more are using it this year than ever 
before. Try it yourself— get in line for pros- 
perity. 



If the dealers would only be 
fair to you and me, 3 T ou would 
have less lamp troubles and I 
would make more chimneys. 

If a Macbeth lamp-chimney 
was sold every time one is 
asked for, I would make all 
the lamp-chimneys instead of 
half of them. 

The Index explains how to get a Macbeth 
chimney to fit every lamp, and how to care 
for lamps. Sent free to everyone asking for it 

Address, MACBETH, Pittsburgh. 

To Strengthen the Eyes. — The eyes 
will be greatly strengthened by putting 
the face down into a glass or eye-cup 
of water the first thing in the morning 
and opening them under water. This is 
somewhat difficult to do at first, but if 
the water for two or three days be tepid 
and gradually be made colder by imper- 
ceptible degrees until it is no shock to 
put the face into quite cold water, it will 
soon become easy and is very invigorat- 
ing and refreshing. The eyes should be 
wiped after this by passing a soft towel 
very gently from the outer angle inward 
toward the nose. 

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Prices Reasonable 

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TO CUBE A COLD IN ONE DAY 

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GROVE'S signature is on each box. 2 sc. 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX AND 

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VACCINES 

are given the preference by &o% of Cal i 
fornia Stockmen because they have better 
results than others do: 

Wn't< for 'Prices, Testimonials and our New 
Booklet on ANTHRAX and 'BLACKLEG. 

The Cutter Laboratory 

TEMPORARY ADDRESS 

Grayson and Sixth Streets Berkeley, Cal. 

West of San Pablo Ave. 



Until vou investigate 
IE MASTER WOkK.VlA.N" 



I^Ofif M ^^U^T G^L^^OH ^^/S^Gfl\lJ^£) Iwo-cylind 
cylinder engines; revolutionizinggas power. Costs less to buy and less to run. Quickly, easily started. No vibration. Can be mounted on any wagon at 
small cost— portable, stationary or traction. 5, 7, 10, and 15 horse power engines in stock at Oakland. Mention this paper. Send for Catalogue. 
THE TEMPLE ENGINE CO.. Mfrs., David Rutherford, Aite.nt, I 396 Harrison St., Oakland, Calif. THIS IS OUR FIFTY-THIRD YEAR. 



DEWEY, STRONG UO 

CAVEATS 



PAT ENTS 

IO BACON BLOCK OAKLAND. 



All about Bees and Honey 

The Bee-keeper's guide to success. Th« 
Weekly 

American Bee Journal 

tells how to make the most money with 
bees. Contributors are practical honey pro- 
ducers who know how. Interesting — in- 
structive. $1 per year; 3 mos. (13 copies) 
25c. Sample free. 

American Bbe Journal, 
334 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Blake, MoffittdTowne, D P Tp" 

No. 419 Eleventh St., Oakland 
Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angeles. 
Blake, McFall & Co., Portland, Ore. 



60 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 26, 1907 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 

HORSES AND CATTLE. 

GEO. C. ROEDINQ, Fresno, California, 
Breeder of hlrn-srade thoroughbred Hol- 
ateln Bulls and Helfera. Thoroughbred 
Berkshire Boars and Sows. 

RJ VIR8IDE HERD HOLSTKIN CATTLE— 
One of the largest and best In the world. 
Rend for catalogue. Pierce Land * Stock 
Co.. Stockton. Cal. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Short- 
horns, milk strain. High class stock, First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box, 351 Petaluma. Cal. 



HOLSTEINS— Winners at State Fair at every but- 
ter contest since 1885 in Calif Stock near S. F. 
F. H. Burke, 2195 Fillmore St., S. F. 



BOLLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durhams. Andreas E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



▲. J. C. C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted 
strains. Joseph Mallllard, San Qeronlmo, 
Marin Co.. Cal. 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

Gombault's 

Caustic Balsam 



P H. MURPHY. Perkins, Sac. Co.. Cal. Breed- 
er of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 



"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS — Qui n to herd, 77 pre- 
miums California State Fairs 1902-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle, Ad- 
dress temporarily. San Mateo, Cal. 



JERSEYS, HOLSTEINS, & DURHAMS, Bred es- 
pecially for use in dairy. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm, Niles & Co., Los Angeles, Cal., 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



■. H. FOUNTAIN. Dixon, Cal. Importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire 
sheep. Both sexes for sale at all times. 



POULTRY. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large Size good plumage, early maturity. 



BELGIAN HOMER SQCABS in all colors $3 per 
doz. SAM'L M. COPPIN & SONS, Cottonwood 
Farm, Pleasant Grove, Cal. 



SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN AND INDIAN 
Runner Ducks— Eggs $1 50 per setting; $6 00 per 
hundred. Send for illustrated catalogue. John P 
Boden, 1338 Second street, Watsonville. California. 



WM. NILES & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly all 
varieties chickens, geese, ducks, pea-fowl , etc. 



SWINE. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, Sau Joaquiu Co., Cal 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



BERKSHIRES— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages T . Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND - CHINA HOGS 
C. A. STOWE, Stockton. 



GOLD MEDAL Herd of Berkshire Hogs and South 
Down Sheep. Thos Waite, Perkins, 1 al. 

BERKSHIRE, POLAND-CHINA, DUROC HOGS 
Choice, thoroughbred Poultry, William Niles & 
Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Established in 1876. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEORGH H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan Street, San 
Francisco. Manu- ~~ 
facturcr and 
Dealer in 

of every description. Send for Catalogue -FREE. 



Poultry Supplies 



BUFF ORPINGTONS. — We won at State Fair 
ALL FIRST PRIZES in this class 1906 and 1904. 
We have just won at San Jose GRAND SPECIAL 
for BE^T 3 Breeding Pens, 3 Cocks, 3 Cockerels, 
3 Hens and 3 Pullets, ALL VARIETIES COM- 
PETING. Mr. Farmer, YOU NEED THIS BREED 
Write me and learn why 

W. SULLIVAN. Agnews. Cal. 

State Vice-President 
NAT. S. C. B. ORPINGTON CLUB. 



FOR, SALE 

Imported Shire Stallion 

This is a very high class 
Stallion, 5 years old, weighing 
1900 lbs. and a good stock horse. 

HENRY WHEATLEY, 

Napa, Cal. 

OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years 
Importers and Breeders of All Varieties of Land 
and Water Fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



FARM PROFITS 



Experts s.n.1 Ap-lcultural Ex- 



I 

■ Sett 

■ P"l 

■ CYPHERS INCUBATOR. 

I0ur2M pact Book. "How To Maki 
Money With Poultry," -.«lh, laura 
information loan a.j other. FREE bj .end. 
lag a<J drearer af two friends who keep poultry. 
CYPHERS INCUBATOR CO., 
Oakland. Cal., Buffalo, New York, Boa too, 
Chicago, Kansa* City and London, Eng. 



IN POULTRY 
and INCUBATORS 




PILES CURED IN G TO 14 DAYS. 
PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any case 
of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or Protruding Piles in 5 
to 14 days, or money refunded. 50c. 




Has Imitators But No Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 

As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism 
Bprajns, Sore Throat, etc., ft is Invaluable. 

~Kv«..-y bottle of Caustic Balsam sold li 
Warranted to Five sntlhlat'tion. Trice $1 SO 
per bottle. Sold liy druitt-iste. or sent br ex- 
press, chartres paid, witn full directions for 
Its use ty-Send for descriptive circulars 
testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



POSITIVELY CURES 

SORE SHOULDER 

SORE NECKS OR BACKS ON 

HORSES MULES 

IT CURES THEM ANYWAY, 
IN HARNESS, UNDER SADDLE OR IDLE 
ir NOT SOLD IN TOUR TOWN ttC WILL SIND TOO 

I — |-~ j [— f— iampli. it you aond ua 
rnCC t»nnam»<,!,our«*.w>r. 
Put up In 25c, 50c and SI.OO Cans 
MONEY BACK IF IT FAILS 



Security Remedy Co- 

^APOLIS*^ 



Land for Sale and to Rent 



Glenn Ranch 

Glenn County = = California 

H*OJR SALE 

IN SUBDIVISIONS 



Trile famous and well-known farm, the 
home of the late Dr. Glenn, "The Wheat 
King," has been surveyed and subdivided. 
It is offered for sale In any sized govern- 
ment subdivision at remarkably low prices, 
and In no case. It Is believed, exceeding 
what Is assessed for county and State tax- 
ation purpose. 

This great ranch runs up and down th* 
west bank of the Sacramento River for fif- 
teen miles. It is located In a region that 
has never lacked an ample rainfall and no 
irrigation Is required. 

The river Is navigable at all seasons of 
the year and freight and trading boats 
make regul r trips. 

The closest personal Inspection of tht 
land by proposed purcasers Is Invited. Par- 
ties desiring to look at the land should go 
to Willows, California, and Inquire for R 
U. Elbe 

Foi further particulars and for maps, 
showing the subdivisions and prices per 
acre, address personally or by letter 

F. C. LUStt, 

Agent of N. D. Rideout, Administrator oi 
the estate of H. J. Glenn, at Chlco, Butte 

County, Cal. 

The Fresno Scraper 




FRESNO 



3^-4-5 Foot 

AGRICULTURAL 



WORKS 



FUESNO. CALIFORNIA 



Sacramento County. 

ORANGEVALE ORANGES ESTAB- 
LISH REPUTATION. Sacramento 
Union: Oranges shipped from Folsom 
by the Earl Fruit Company to Eastern 
markets have been bringing some top 
notch prices during the past couple of 
weeks, and the results of the sales have 
been very encouraging to the growers. 
The oranges are all from the groves of 
Orangevale, which is establishing an en- 
viable reputation as a producer of the 
golden fruit. 

*A carload of navels sold in Chicago 
brought the handsome average price of 
$3.25 per box. Three cars in Boston 
brought averages of $3.10, $2.87^ and 
$2.85, while in Chicago an average of 
$2.50 was received, and in New York an 
average of $2.42%. 

The $2.87% car in Boston was sold 
on the same day that twelve cars of 
Southern navels were sold, but notwith- 
standing the glutted market the prices 
of Orangevale oranges held up wonder 
fully well, which speaks highly for the 
quality of the fruit. 

PEAR BLIGHT. Sacramento Union: 
In eradicating pear blight from the or- 
chards and dooryards in Sacramento and 
vicinity, P. R. M. Bloomer, the inspector, 
renders the following report for the last 
week: 

Orchards along the American river and 
trees in the dooryards in Oak and High- 
land Parks were inspected. The condi- 
tions in the orchards at Mayhews, par- 
ticularly those of A. B. Humphreys and 
R. D. Stephens, are very encouraging 
Mr. Stephens says he has never cut any 
blight from his trees, nor did the inspec- 
tor find any. Mr. Humphreys has had 
some blight, but the cutting has been 
done in a very skillful and intelligent 
manner. 

Preliminary inspection of over 6000 
trees were made; fifty were condemned 
to be dug up; 600 had twig blight. Final 
inspection was made of 1500 trees. 

Although the weather has not been 
the best, many people throughout the 



What methods of fertilizing orchards 
have produced the best results? 

What definite progress has been made 
in fighting insect pests? 

It is proposed to make this meeting 
one of the largest gatherings of citrus 
growers ever held in California and rep- 
resentatives of all the citrus districts 
of the State are expected to be present. 

The speakers will include Dr. Ben- 
jamin Ide Wheeler, Prof. E. J. Wickson, 
Prof. Ralph Smith, Mr. C. C. Chapman, 
Mr. R. C. Allen, Mr. C. C. Teague, 
Mr. J. W. Jeffry, Mr. S. A. Pease and 
others prominent in citrus culture. 

Santa Clara. 

DANGER IN OLD HIVES.— San Jose 
Mercury and Herald: I will endeavor to 
explain my experience in using old hives 
in which some one's bees died, and not 
knowing what the cause of the bees dy- 
ing. In 1905, during the swarming sea- 
son, I ran short of hives, so I used some 
of the hives that belonged to the fellow 
who had formerly kept bee& where I am 
keeping mine. At one time he had some 
one hundred colonies, but lost all in a 
short time. He said the bees died from 
neglect and moth worms. So I thought 
if the moths were the cause, there would 
be no use in burning out the hives to 
prevent foul brood. This summer I have 
had three or four cases of foul brood, 
which started up in these old hives. This- 
goes to show that his bees died from 
foul brood. Now, my using these old 
hives may cause me to lose all my bees. 
I will say to any one, if you are going 
to use hives that bees have died in, un- 
less- you know for certain that they did 
not die from diseases, I would advise you 
to burn out the insides of the hives thor- 
oughly and everything that goes with 
them. — Farm and Ranch. 

Stanislaus. 

LARGE SHIPMENT OF TREES RE- 
CEIVED AT TURLOCK.— Stanislaus 
County Weekly News: The Shafer Nur- 
sery Company of Elmwood received 
three and one-half carloads of orna- 



city have cut the blighted parts from ment al trees at Turlock on Saturday 



their trees or dug them up. 

All people having blighted trees are 
requested to cut the blight at once, since 
it must be done if the inspector has to 
do it with his workmen, who will be paid 
by the owner of the trees. 

San Bernardino County. 

ORANGE GROWERS PLAN MEET- 
ING. Chino Champion: According to 
the California Cultivator, arrangements 
are being made for a gathering of citrus 
growers at Riverside during the latter 
part of January. Some of the questions 
which will be discussed will be: "What 
feature of the Orchard Management, or 
after Management of Fruit, have pro- 
duced the best Results?" 

The relation of the Citrus Experiment 
Station to the University of California. 

The practical value of Scientific Work- 
in Commercial Results. 

What are the specific requirements 
for producing the largest proportion of 
fancy fruit? 

What are the urgent, practical prob- 
lems to which the Citrus Experiment 
station should give early attention? 

Proposed Experiment Station work. 



from Petaluma. The consignment in- 
cluded one carload of California palms 
for Irwin City. They will be planted 
| along the streets- and avenues that have 
been laid out for the residence part of 
the city that is to be. The remainder of 
the shipment includes many varieties of 
evergreen which will be planted in and 
around Turlock and Irwin City. The 
palm trees were shipped from Oakdale, 
where they are grown in an extensive 
nursery. The company also received one 
carload of peaches from Martinez. This 
is but the first receipt of large shipments 
which have been ordered for the spring 
planting. It is> reported that many of the 
nurseries throughout the State have re- 
ceived larger orders than they can fill, 
and the demand grows heavier as spring 
advances, indicating that an unusually 
large area will be planted to orchard 



9 CORDS IN I O HOURS 




BY ONE BIN. It*« KHfO OP THE WOODS. Savea monc» and 
backache. Send for FREE lUua. c»Uloffiie •howing Ut*«t Improve- 
ment* and testlmonlali from thoo»nda. Flint f.rd«r wenres v*nrv. 

Folding Suwiog Mach. Co., 158 1 . Harrison St, Chicago, 111. 



Emery's Poultry Foods are sold by all Dealers and Commission 
Men because they are the BEST. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

The Pacific Guano 3. Fertilizer Co., 24th & Indiana, San Francisco 



Write for our FREE Booklet. 



Farmer's Friend. 



Valuable to all Farmers and Ranchers. 



January 26, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



61 



Keep Tour Racers Free From Aches 

As the track season approaches, as horse- 
men everywhere are looking anxiously to the 
condition of old campaigners and new candi- 
dates that are expected to take the speed 
honors of the various circuits, Experienced 
Turfmen will not neglect to make 




TUTTLE'S 
ELIXIR 



one of the chief articles in the stock of 
their horses' medicine chests. 
Years of use in the leading stables of the country have proved the 
merits of Dr. S. A. Tuttle's Elixir as a 

Leg and Body Wash 

It is one of the old stand-bys of horsemen — a household remedy. 
Why experiment with unknown cures when a reliable standard is at hand? 
It's a serious business. You cannot afford to take chances on the effect 
of doubtful preparations among your horses at any time — much less during 
the racing season when the horses' condition every day is a matter of the 
utmost importance. 

Dr. Tuttle's Elixir is a remedy for sprains, rheumatism, bruises — for 
outside ailments of the horse as well as inside. Ask veterinarians anywhere. 
Farmers and breeders can use it as well as skilled practitioners. 
Besides the Elixir, the Tuttle Elixir Company offers 
Tuttle's Family Elixir, for ills of men, women and children. 
Tuttle's White Star, the best healing and drying liniment. 
Tuttle's American Condition Powders, the best blood purifier 
for horses. 

Tutt2e's American Worm Powders, absolutely certain in their 
effect, guaranteed in every case to expel all worms. 

Tuttle's Hoof and Healing Ointment, a perfect cure for hard 

and cracked hoofs and all diseases 
of the hoof. 

Price on Tuttle's Remedies. 

On and after this date the price 
of Tuttle's Family and Horse 
Elixir will be $4.00 per dozen; 
Condition Powders, $2.00 per 
dozen; Worm Powders, $2.00 per 
dozen; Hoof Ointment, $4.00: White 
Star Liniment, $4.00. Bottle sen* 
by mail, $.75. 

Horse Book Free. 

We publish a book of 100 
pages entitled, "Veterinary Ex- 
perience" which contains the ex- 
perience of our Dr. S. A. Tuttle, 
who has for many years been a 
successful veterinary surgeon. It is 
a clear illustration and description 
of the horse and his diseases. 

Send for "Veterinary Experi- 
ence" and other printed matter — 
FREE. 

TUTTLE'S ELIXIR CO., 33 BEVERLY STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 

iRtdingtcm & Co., Third St , near Townsend, San Francisco | 
W. A. Shaw, Los Aug. les, Calif., Agents 




mm 



mm 



lit 

When shingles 
have warped, split 
or burned — when 
coal-tar has crumbled and melted — 
when tin has rusted away — you 
will wish you had put on 

T &tirn&i^ Rubber 
Sanded Roofing 

Put it on now — save 
money, worry and repair bills, and 
get perfect protection all the time. 

Booklet "R" will tell you all about it. 
A practical encyclopedia of the best roof- 
ing materials, roofing papers, building and 
insulating papers. It is sent free, with 
samples and prices. If your dealer can 
not supply you write to us today. 

PIONEER ROLL, PAPER CO. 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



during the year. The productiveness of 
the orchards now coming into bearing 
have influenced many who have been 
skeptical before the very profitable na- 
ture of this business, to enter the horti- 
cultural field. In a few years Stanislaus 
will be one of the largest fruit-bearing 
counties of the State. 

Yolo. 

ORCHARD PLOWING BY TRACTION 
ENGINE. — Winters Express: Plowing 
orchards with a traction engine is a new 
scheme, but H. P. Johnson is going to 
try it. He received a machine Sunday 
built for. that purpose. It was made after 
the design and under the supervision of 
his son Albert at Stockton and is the 
first of the kind ever built. The machine 
is made quite low so that it will pass 
under the limbs- of trees and is of thirty- 
two horse power, capable of pulling six 
or eight plows at a time. The traction 
wheels have a surface of twenty-two 
inches and it is not thought they will 
press the soil enough to prevent good cul- 
tivation. Its speed is normally about 
three miles an hour but is can make 
four on the road. This is the first effort 
to plow orchards' with a traction engine 
and fruit growers will watch it with in- 
terest. If it is a success, and of that 
there is probably no doubt, Mr. Johnson 
will be able to get his work done quicker 
and better than was possible before and 
can do it when he wants to. As a sum- 
mer cultivator it ought to be a big suc- 
cess. 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

(Continued from page 57.) 
shows, on his part, a manly conscien- 
tious sense of duty to the whole nation 
and to his official obligations. 

Resolved, The charge so openly and 
so frequently, in the press, that Presi- 
dent Roosevelt is trying to force the ad- 
mission of Japanese children to our pub- 
lic schools i s unjust and untrue. The 
action taken by the President does not 
justify nor excuse such a charge. 

Resolved, President Roosevelt's course 
in the present instance it is in full accord 
with his official course heretofore, which 
course has made the American people a 
leading nation of the world. It was the 
only proper course for him to have taken 
The only course which will maintain for 
the American nation that high standing 
amongst the powers of the world which 
he has, heretofore, so well promoted. 

Whilst much interest was manifested 
in the consideration of the subject, every 
thing said was in a patriotic spirit. It 
was regretted, however, that leading 
papers and leading politicians in Cali- 
fornia have given expression to distorted 
reports of the matter; such expressions 
and reports as indicates a desire, if not 
a determination, on their part that is a 
conflict between California and the rest 
of the Union. 

Californians are, it is true, proud of 
their State and are equally proud of 
their country. 

They are true patriots. They will 
abide by the decisions in the case, what- 
ever they may be. 

They will not, they cannot, be led into 
conflict or nullification of the laws of 
their country. 

J. T. 



ORPINGTON AWARDS. 

We notice that Mr. W. S. Sullivan of 
Agnews took 25 per cent of all the 
awards for his breed at the Los Angeles 
show last week, which is very creditable 
to California bred birds, as they doubt- 
less came in competition with recent di- 
rect importations from England, which 
are quite popular in mat part of the 
State. 




The greatest profit from hens is 
in making yours lay when the other 
fellow' s don' t — an easy thing to do 
when each morning's feed contains 
a small portion of Dr. Hess Poultry 
Pan-a-ce-a. This tonic preparation 
also cures gapes, cholera, roup, in- 
digestion, etc. 

DR. HESS 

Poultry PAN-A-CE-A 

is a wonderful assistant to hen 
nature. By its use, functions and 
organs, which in confinement become 
dormant or inactive, are compelled 
in an easy and natural manner to act 
as nature intended. This is why 
Dr. Hess Poultry 
Pan-a-ce-a fills the egg 
basket in winter. It 
is the prescription of 
Dr. Hess (M.D., 
D.V. S.), and is en- 
dorsed by leading 
poultry associations in United States 
and Canada. It costs but a penny 
a day for 30 fowls, and is sola on 
a written guarantee. 
U lb. package, 35c 12 lbs. $1.75 
Gibs. 85c. 25-lb. pail, $3.50 

Send 1 centi for Dr. Hess 48-page Poultry 
Book, free. 

DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio. 

Instant Louse Killer Kills Lice. 

THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., 
Petaldma, California, 
Pacific Coast Distributors. 





THOMAS PHOSPHATE POWDER 
NITRATE 0E SODA 

THE LEADING FERTILIZERS OF TODAY 

FOR SALE BY 

BALFOUR , GUTHRIE CO. 

San Francisco, Fresno. Los Angeles 

Write to them for Pamphlet*. 



Cocoanuf OH Cake 

THE BEST FEED FOB STOCK, 
CHICKENS AND PIGS 

For Sale in Lots to Suit by 

EI Dorado Oil Works 



NOW READY 

THE BOOK OF 

ALFALFA 

History, Cultivation and Merits. Its Uses as a 
Forage and Fertilizer. By F. I>. COBUKN, 
Secretary Kausas Department of Agriculture. 
The appearance of F. D. Coburn's little book on 
Alfalfa, a few years since, has been a complete 
revelation to thousands of farmers throughout the 
country and the increasing demand for still more 
information on the subject has induced the author 
to prepare the present volume, which is, by far, the 
most authoritative, compute and valuable work on 
this forage crop ever published. 

One of the most important movements which ha* 
occurred in American agriculture is the general in- 
troduction of alfalfa as a hay and pasture crop. 
While formerly it was considered that alfalfa could 
be grown profitably only in the irrigation section* 
of the country, the acreage devoted to this crop it 
rapidly increasing everywhere. Recent experiment! 
have shown that alfalfa has a much wider useful- 
ness than has hitherto been supposed, and good 
crops are now grown in almost every state. No 
forage plant has ever been introduced and suc- 
cessfully cultivated in the United State? possessed 
of the general excellence of alfalfa. 

The plant although known in the Old World 
hundreds of years Before Christ, was intro- 
duced into North America only during the last 
century, yet it is probably receiving more attention 
than any other crop. When once well established 
it continues to produce good crops for an almost 
indelinite number of years. The author thoroughly 
believes in alfalfa, he believes in it for the big 
fanner as a profit bringer in the form of hay, op 
condensed into beef, pork, mutton, or products of 
the cow; but he has a still more abiding faith in 
it ns a mainstay of the small farmer, for feed for 
all his live stock and for maintaining the fertility 
of the soil. 

The treatment of the whole subject is in the 
autlmr's usual clear and admirable style, as will be 
seen from the following condensed table of contents: 

History, Description, Varieties and Habits, Uni- 
versality of Alfalfa, Yields, and Comparisons with 
Other Crops, Heed and Seed Selection, Soil and 
Seeding, Cultivation, Harvesting, Storing. Pastur- 
ing and Soiling, Alfalfa as a Feed Stuff. Alfalfa 
in Beef-Making, Alfalfa and the Dairy, Alfalfa for 
Swine, Alfalfa for Horses and Mules, Alfalfa fo? 
Sheep-Raising. Alfalfa for Bees, Alfalfa for Poul- 
try. Alfalfa for Food Preparation, Alfalfa for Town 
and City, Alfalfa for Crop Rotation, Nitro-Culture, 
Alfalfa as a Commercial Factor, The Enemies of 
Alfalfa, Difficulties and Discouragements, Alfalfa 
in the Orchard, Practical Experiences with Alfalfa. 
Illustrated. 6 1-2x9 inches. 336 pages. 
Cloth. Price 82.00. 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 

Berkeley, Cal. 



62 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 26, 1907 



Seeds, Plants, Etc 



ATuhar W e offer t0 our 
I UUOI customers with- 

out charge a 

fcllh ■ potato which re- 

r Ilk k cently sold in 

England for f i ,246 a single tuber. 

OUR CATALOG 

Ourcatalog (FREE) contains many 
vaiieties of vegetables which we 
were first to introduce. Of these we 
endeavor to keep a pure stock. All 
our seed is tested. Plain 
instruct ions a re given 
* .for cultivation. 
J. J.H. GREGORY & SON. 
Marble-Heao, Mass. 




Apples 4c, lVach 6c, Plume 12c,^^t^ V» have 
Cnerrics 16c. Best quality cV" *r a corn- 
good bearers, praftetl V\ % rfi pleto line 

•tOCk, Hut M-.-lilm(.-S. yS t% -V*/ Of VcK'eMMi-. 

Concord Grapes 2c. y^Wliy /Flower and 
Forest Tree ^-/ft* J) / Kami Seeds. Our 
_ . Vt» e,Ov/ lam illustrated cat- 
1.000 up. WeXkV^*/ "'"fine- 
7. flle ^lo3^ +F\/r GERMAN NURSERIES, 
OV^ox 116 BEATRICE, Neb, 



TREES THAT GROW 




i 



GOLD MEDAL 

Citrus Trees 



Are fully described in our 
treatise "of Citrus Culture 
which is a trifle the beat thing 
of its kind ever published. 
Contains about 50.000 words 
and 100 illustrations telling 
about oranges antl 1-mons 
from the s ed bed to the bear- 
ing orchard. Price 2.s cents. 
Remember we are the largest 
producers of Citrus trees In 
the world and stand rea^v o 
serve you with .irst 
nursery stock that can be 
grown. Correspondence in- 
vited. 



SAN MM4S 
CITRUS NURSER ES 

SAN CIMAS, CAL. 
R. M. TEAGUE, Proprietor. 



LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO. 

(Incorporated) 

Offer for sale a few specialties this 

season. 

A NEW WALNUT, ETC. 

General Fruit Tree Catalogue of 
strictly "Pedigreed"' stock will be 
issued during 1907. 

LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO. 

Morganhlll 
Santa Clara County California 



SEEDS 

POULTRY SUPPLIES 
STOCK FOODS 
BEE SUPPLIES 




i41 Spear St. San Francisco 



Kirkman Nurseries 



"Full line of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees and Vines. Peach and other fruit 
trees at reasonable prices. Grape root- 
ings and cuttings furnished in any quan- 
tity. 400,000 rooted vines in Stanislaus 
county. Main office at MERCED, Cal. 
Branches at Fresno and Turlock." 



TREES 

B. Crawfords, Hale's Early and manv other varie- 
ties of peach trees, all fine budded stock. 

Large stock of all the leading varieties of apples 
on whole roots and free from all pests. Also a fine 
stock of cherries, pears, Hurbanks, and S. B. S. S. 
Walnuts, etc. SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 

A. F. Scheidecker, Prof. Pleasant View Nursery 

Sebastopol. Cal. 



Grimson Winter Rhubarb 

Ori&lmil r>urb.ink Strain 

$1.50 per Do?.. $6.00 per 100. $40 per 1000 

Now is good 

time to plant. We are the only Rhubarb 
Specialists on the Coast. We devote most of 
our time to its cultivation and improvement. 
We hart the Best pedigreed plants ever offered 
of this wonderful money maker. Writeorcall on 

J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist, Pasadena, Cal. 

A Fine Stock of Superlative Raspberry, also Fruit 
WS Trees and Vines of all Sorts Both Phones. 



Trees 



flnaly Nurseries 

T.J. TRUE 

St'.basropol 

Write for Price List 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Burbank Beauty (Early) $3.00 per M and 
Brandy wines (mid-season) at $2. 00 per M. 
Both are excellent table and market berries 
and the best varieties for California. Orders 
booked for present and future delivery. 

G. H. Hopkins, Burbank, Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed. I 
have a fine lot of trees. Call and see 
them. Postal gets price list. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



MORSE SEEDS SPROUT 

~Yom and Nature do the rest 

Alfalfa 

from the best Utah alfalfa section — clean and free from dodder and weed 
seeds. Al-o Turkestan alfalfa — recommended by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture for dry land. Samples and prices of both, on request. If 
interested in Clover and Grass Seeds, and Onion Sets, write us. 

^OOirl r^niAlrAnilO now ready— send your name 
\J%Z*Z\Jk\ V/aldlUgUC a nd your frien, Is' names and 

addresses — for copies free. 

168 Clay St. C. C. MORSE (EL CO. San Francisco 



GREENBACK 



Powdered Caustic Soda anil Pure Potash 
Best tree Wasli 
T. W. JACKSON & CO., Temporary Address 
Sausalito, Cal 




True To Name 

The demand for all sorts of fruit 
trees promises to be heavier than 
ever before. Place your order 
now, before our assortment is ex- 
hausted. 

Deciduous 
Fruit Trees 

We have this season a superior 

etock of 
PEACHES PLUMS 
PRUNES PEARS 
APPLES APRICOTS 
CHERRIES OLIVES 
NECTARINES 
All grown under our personal su- 
pervision, in our Nursery Plant 
No. 3, which has a rich river bot- 
ton soil, permitting the most per- 
fect roots. 

Citrus Trees 

All grown at our Citrus Nurseries, 
In the Great Thermal Belt near 
Exeter. 

Nut Trees 

ALMONDS WALNUTS 
PECANS 

In all the leading varieties 

Grapes 

On their own roots and grafted on 
Phylloxera resistant roots. All the 
leading Table, Wine, and Raisin 
sorts. 

BERRY PLANTS 
BURBANK'S CRIMSON 

WINTER RHUBARB 
ORNAMENTAL TREES 
AND SHRUBS 
ROSES, PALMS, 
GREENHOUSE PLANTS 

We are the sole propagators and dis- 
seminators of Burbank's four new 
and valuable creations. Write for 
illustrated pamphlet. 



Calimyrna 
Figs 

OUR GREAT SPECIALTY. 

None genuine without our seal. 




Also have a fine stock of 
WHITE ADRIATIC, MISSION 

and other standard sorts of Figs. 

NEW CATALOGUE. 

Will be ready for distribution in 
January. It contains points about 
Pruning. Planting, is superbly il- 
lustrated. Will be mailed free on re- 
quest. 

Price list on application. 

PAID-DP CAPITAL 9 200.00000 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

GeO.C ROeding Pres. 8c Mgr. _ 

Box '4 Fresno.California.USA^ 



Are % 
You 

Planting 

Trees? 



Owing to the unprecedented de- 
mand we are sold out on many 
sorts, and, though we are selling out 
fast on others, we can still furnish 
the following standard varieties: 

In Peaches: Triumph, St. John, 
Early Crawford, Late Crawford, 
Elberta, Piquetts Late, Salway, 
Phillips Cling, Levi Cling, Sherman 
Cling. 

In Plums: Climax, Burbank, 
Wickson, Diamond, Hungarian, 
Fallenberg, German, Grand Duke. 

In Cherries: Knights Early 
Black, Black Tartarian, Bing, Great 
Bigerean, Lambert, Black Oregon. 

In Pears: Bartlett, Brusse Clari- 
gean. 

In Crapes: Emperor. Cornichon, 
Tokay, Malaga. 

In Quinces: Pineapple, Orange. 

Likewise other varieties not 
standards. 

SUBMIT A LIST OF YOUR 
WANTS. WRITE FOR CAT- 
ALOGUE. OUR PRICES ARE 
RIGHT, WHILE OUR TREES 
ARE THE BEST THAT 
GOOD CARE AND INTEL- 
LIGENT A P PLICA TION 
CAN PRODUCE. 



Placer Nurseries 

NEWCASTLE, CAL. 

SUVA. BERGTHOID 4 CO.. Proprietors 

The Fowler Nursery Company 

Has on hand a large lot of thrifty rooted 
vines and peach trees, of all varieties. 
Also strawberries, blackberries and the 
celebrated Himalaya berry. 



STOCK COMPLETE PRICES REASONABLE 



Send for Catalogue and Price Ll»t 

FOWLER NURSERY COMPANY 
F. FOWLER FRESNO CO.. CAL. 



January 26, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



63 



COX SEED CO. 

Seed Growers and Nurserymen 

109 Market Street San Francisco, Cal. 

Also Large Stock carried in our Oakland 
Warehouses. 

Alfalfa, Grass Seeds, Clover, 

Beans and Peas. 
Trees and Plants of all kinds 

We carry the largest stock of Garden Seeds in 
the West 

For over thirty years, Cox's Seeds have been the 
Standard forPurity and Quality 

Our MOT Catalogue, fully illustrated, will be mailed 
to all applicants free. It is full of raluable informa- 
tion and should be in the homes of all interested in 
Sowing and Planting. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State. 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave., San Jose, Cal. 



ETTERSBURG GOOSEBERRY 

AND 

Rose Ettersburg Strawberry. 

Ettersburg Gooseberry — Unique, vigorous 
grower, healthy so far as tried, very pro- 
ductive, medium sized berry, very thin and 
tender skin, and practically all meat, as 
there are but few seeds; three-fifths as 
much acid as other varieties and of highest 
quality. Was awarded a Bronze Medal at 
the L. and C. Exposition, which was the 
highest recognition that could be bestowed 
on a single exhibit of a single variety. Fine 
cuttings until February 15, $1.00 per dozen 
postpaid. 

Boss Ettersburg' Strawberry — Unique, 
productive, valuable as a home berry on 
light, warm soils. Plants 50c a dozen or 
$2.25 per 100, postpaid. 

For full description see article in this 
paper January 12, 1907. Money orders on 
Bineland, Cal. 

ALBERT F. ETTER, 
Ettersburg, Humboldt Co., Cal. 



p 15 for $1.00 

llOSftS Field-grown plants, 
IIUOVO 10 in. to 2 feet. 
Send for Catalog. 

GEDRO NURSERY Gilroy, Cal. 



LOGAN BERRY PLANTS. Special price per M. 

E. R. ONG, Sebastopol, Cal. 



THE CROCKER PEAR_ 

We claim does not Blight. 

See U. S. Year Book for description. 
What Luther Burbank says of it: 

" Box of pears received last December ; 
samples have been tested from time to time 
and even at this date, Feb. 10, are still in best 
condition. Its form, size, color are attrac- 
tive. Fruit is among the best ; juicy, refresh- 
ing and in all respects satisfactory and es- 
pecially so at this unusual season. 

Luther Burbank." 

Get the genuine Crocker Pear 
trees from the originator. 

L. L. CROCKER, 

Loomis, Placer county, Cal. 



Seed Corn. 

HICKER.Y KING. Largest grain. Smallest cob. 
Great fodder producer $3.00 per 100 lbs. $50.00 
per ton. Casaba melon (Winter Pine apple) seed, 
$1.00 per lb. 



LEONARD COATES NOKSERY CO., 

Morganhill, California. 



Inc. 



SOW WESTERN SEEDS 
IN WESTERN SOIL 



Here's a SPECIAL OFFER to make New Friends 
for LILLY'S Northern Grown Seeds 




Vegetable seeds are 
grown on and adapted to 
this coast. These 10 varieties are 
the aristocrats of the kitchen-gar- 
den. They represent the acme of 
Lilly effort, the result of years of 
careful seed selection and cultiva- 
tion. This Special Offer gives you 
♦1.50 in these seeds for $1.00. Read 
the descriptions, all of which are 
carefully and conservatively made. 
Living up to the catalogue descrip- 
tion is what has built up the rep- 
utation of Lilly's Best Seeds. 

PUGET SOUND SPECIAL 
TOMATO. 

This miniature, 
from a photo- 
atunckl^l^^ graph, gives you 
winmMk an idea how the 
tomato produces. 
Is an early dwarf, 
stands free from 
the ground, with 
hard, firm, round 
stalks. Yields 
large clusters of round, firm, lus- 
cious fruit, beautiful rich color, 
free from blemish, stands shipment 
splendidly. A three-season leader; 
popular everywhere. Perfected by 
us on our experiment 
grounds at Brighton Beach, 
and can be obtained solely 
from us. Sold only in sealed pack- 
ets. Ounce, 60c; packet, 10c. 

GOLDEN JERSEY WAX BEAN. 
Brittle, tender, broad, thick — 

the best of all the yellow pod bush 
beans. Stringless. Beautiful 
golden color and delicious 
flavor. Vigorous, reliable, 

and an abundant producer, i-lb., 

28c; packet, 10c. 

JACK FROST SWEET CORN. 

Plump, milky kernels, that melt 
in your mouth; tender, sweet, pro- 
lific — really phenomenal. Dwarf 
variety, permitting close planting. 
Very hardy. Jack Frost seed has 
been perfected by ourselves on 
Puget Sound, is thoroughly accli- 
mated and peculiarly adapted to 
Pacific Coast conditions. Not only 
season's earliest, but longest 
and latest producer. We can- 
not say too much in en- 
dorsement of this corn. Large 
packet, 15c. 

LILLY'S GLORY CABBAGE. 
Glorious in flavor, gloriously 
sound, a glorious grower and a 
glorious shipper. Lilly ships tons 
of this cabbage seed across the 
continent, as this variety, perfect- 
ed on Puget Sound, is admitted to 
be the best cabbage grown. Even 
rounder and more solid than the 



Danish Ball Head, and infinitely 

better adapted to Pacific coast con- 
ditions. True to type, every 
head like its neighbor, sym- 
metrical, white inside and 

solid to the core, i-lb., $1.25; 1- 

oz., 35c; packet, 10c. 

PRIDE OF THE PACIFIC 
CUCUMBER. 

Almost a seedless cucumber, the 
seeds being small and few. Per- 
fectly smooth, very dark green, 
beautiful white flesh, perfect cu- 
cumber flavor, exceptionally firm, 
crisp and delicious. Grows 10 to 
18 inches long, always straight, and 
dark green until ripe. Vine 
hardy and vigorous; enor- 
mously productive; yields 
early and late in season, i-lb., 65c; 
2-oz., 40c; oz., 25c; packet, 10c. 

ENGLISH FORCING 
LETTUCE. 

Large, crisp, tender; best vari- 
ety for home culture, because eas- 
ily grown outdoors or in frames; 
rich color, ideal for garnishing. 
Hotels gladly pay one-third more 
for this lettuce. Stands more 
neglect in watering, and does not 
quickly run to seed. Most profitable 
for market purposes because 
quickly ready in fine large 
bunches of beautiful light 
green, which never spot, i-lb., 50c; 
oz., 20c; packet, 10c. 

MT. RAINIER PEA. 
Dark, rich green, well-filled pods, 
creamy and delicious; enormously 
productive. Propagated in Wash- 
ington, and the best early pea ever 
offered to western growers. 
Especially valuable for mar- 
ket gardeners, commanding 
the highest prices through the sea- 
son. Large packet, 10c. 

CRIMSON GLOBE BEET. 

Close grain flesh, very sweet, 
tender, blood red, delicately zoned 
with white. Exceedingly smooth 
surface. Finest in form, flavor 
and color. Free from woody, 
fibrous roots. Grows uni- 
form in size — about three inches 
through. Matures early. Pkt., 10c. 

GOLDEN HALF-LONG 
CARROT. 

Best of all the yellow varieties. 
Very sweet, close in texture, gold- 
en yellow, solid, very smooth, at- 
tains large size, has small core, 
and adapted to all soils; under 
good cultivation yields 25 to 30 
tons per acre. Ready for table 
at all times during growth. 
Equally valuable for stock. 
A market favorite, i-lb., 25c; 
packet, 10c. 



CRIMSON GIANT RADISH. 

The larger it grows the solider it 
gets; twice the ordinary size. 
As hard as a bullet, while 
tender and deliciously crisp. 
Retains goodness long after ma- 
turity, i-lb., 40c; packet, 10c.. 

SPECIAL PRICE OFFER. 

$1.50 worth of above seeds for 
$1.00. 

$1.00 worth of above seeds (one 
packet of each variety, with packet 
of Old Fashioned Flower Garden 
Seeds thrown in free) for 75c. 

Six 10c packets, with Flower 
Garden packet, 50c. 

Three 10c packets, 25c. 

Abo\e prices are postage paid. 

SEEDS AND 
GROW RICH 



Grow 



Plant Lilly's Best Northern- 
Grown Seeds, grown on this coast 
for this coast, and be sure of profit. 
You will find that the saying, "Best 
for the West" is true in every case, 
and that Lilly's Best Seeds will 
give you best results. The above 
are only ten varieties of Lilly's 
Best vegetable seeds. For infor- 
mation as to the full line, write for 

LILLY'S 1907 SEED CATALOG, 

Which will be sent free, postpaid, 
on request. Lilly's 1907 catalog 
surpasses all previous books in at- 
tractiveness and completeness of 
plant information. It is thorough- 
ly dependable, and besides contain- 
ing descriptions, price lists and 
culture directions of thousands of 
varieties of seeds, bulbs, roots and 
cuttings, it is a handbook of in- 
formation on poultry foods, poultry 
supplies, stock foods, fertil- 
izers, garden supplies, sprays, 
horticultural supplies, etc. 
If you want one, free, mark an X 
in the white square. 

HOW TO ORDER. 

Mark an X in each white square 
opposite the variety of seed you 
wish to order, mark the quantity 
in square or on margin, figure up 
the total, clip out the ad., and re- 
mit in same envelope with the 
clipped ad. Be sure and write your 
name and address plainly, filling in 
the following blank: 



Clip ad. and mail to 




Seattle, Wash. 

Enclosed is $ , for which 

please send me $ worth of 

Lilly's Best Vegetable Seeds, as 
marked above. 

Name 

Address R 



have stood the test for over 50 years 
and are still in the lead. Their absolute 
certainty of growth, their uncommonly 
large yields of delicious vegetables and 
beautiful flowers, make them the most 
. reliable and the most popular every- 
k k where. Sold by all dealers. 1907 
Seed Annual free on request. 
D. M. FERRY & CO., 
Detroit, Mich. 



Twenty Thousandpudded, Grafted and 
Seedling WALNUT TREES For Sale. 

Will trade for some logan or phenominal 
berry plants. 

A. RJDEOUT 

Magnolia Nursery, - Whittier, Cal. 



Wanted.— Hardshell Almonds 
for seed purposes. We 
have a few tons of Apricot 
Pits for sale for seed pur- 
poses. 

Address: 

EANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

FR.ESNO, CAL. 



LOGAN BERIiY PLANTS 

$2.00 per hundred, $15.00 per M. Cran- 
dell's Early blackberry, Cuthbert rasp- 
berry, Lucretia dewberry, each $1.50 per 
hundred; $10.00 per M. Plants carefully 
packed. 

FAIRVIEW FARM NURSERY, 
G. H. Hopkins, Prop., Burbank, Cal. 



ESTABLISHED 1884 

MARTINEZ NURSERY 

Martinez, Cal. 

TMOS. S. DUANE, Prop. 

Have on hand a full line of of Fruit Trees, including 
Free and Cling Stone Peach, Apple, Apricot, Cherry 
Plum, Prune, Pear and Almond, also Cornichon, 
Black Emperor and Tokay rooted vines— Cal. 
Black Walnut, Orange, Lemon, Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs. 

Prices Furnished on Application 



TOKAY ROOTED VINES 

50,000 FOB SALE 

Grown from the Famous LODI STOCK 
For terms a|iply to 

FRANK H. BUCK COMPANY 

VACAVILLE, CALIFORNIA 



Seedling Cherry Trees 

Mehelab Seedlings, i & 2 year trees at $10.00 per 
000. K 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERY, Loomis, Calif. 



Trees Trees Trees 

Extra fine stock ot apples, pears, cheeries, plums, 
peaches, quinces, apricots, nectarines, nuts and 
grapes. Elms, catalpas, mapl s and shrubs. Come 
and see and get prices. Eslate of JAMES T. 
BOGUK, Yuba City, Cal. 



R AUSTRALIAN PERENNIAL G 

R 
A 

Seed can be had of 

E Vierra Bros., Moss, Cal. S 



The only forage plant that 

Ywill give satisfaction on 
overflow, swamp or up'and 
without irrigation. 




— TO IRRIGATORS! 



Don't pay exorbitant 
prices to surveyors. Get 
a California Leveling In- 
strument and do your own 
leveling. Tripod, staff, 
lev eland sights for $ 7. 
Tripod and staff only, $5. 
If dealer does not keep 
them send to 

B. A. Goodwin, 

Ripon, Cal. 

Money refunded if not 
satisfactory. 



64 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 26, 1907 




Deere 

Universal 

Lever Harrows 



Deere Universal Disc Harrows 

For Orchard, Vineyard, Garden and 
General Field Cultivation. 

Made in 3, 4, 5 and 6 feet sizes with 18 or 20 inch Discs. 
Gangs are reversible and can be extended on the circle bar 
with ease. 

Double levers for operating- the gangs. 

Write for special circular 




Made in all sizes, from 4 to 24 feet. 
Frames are made of heavy channel steel. 

Patented adjustable tooth clamps lock the teeth whenever set. 

Lever has a relief spring which saves breakage when coming 

in contact with roots or stones. 
Combination draw bars used on all harrows of three sections and 

over. 



Deere Implement <<k, San Francisco, Cal. 




ITme Mountain 
| Copper Co. 
102014m | 

1 OAKLAND 



Basm^ CAL. . ..M 




IF YOUR DEALER DOES NOT CARRY <mm 



M0C0C0 



FERTILIZERS, 
order direct. 

Pamphlet and Price List free, 
on application . 
Accept no substitute? insist on 
having MOC PC 



Increase Your Profits 

What's the use of going to all the expense of spraying and then have poor 
fruit? The secret of securing clean, fancy fruit is in spraying thoroughly with 
high, even pressure. The hired men have reldom done this because the 
pumps ran so hard, but they do it easily 

By Using Bean 
Magic Spray Pumps 

because they save just one-third the labor. 

In the Spring Rests the Secret 

The increase in profit from securing fancy fruit will 
alone pay for the outfit, and the easy-running, no trouble 
features found exclusively in the two sizes of Bean 
Magic pumps merit your immediate investigation. 

It seems almost too good to be true that all the new 
improvements can be had in one pump, but it is true 
and you will understand why when you see a Magic 
in operation. 

Write for our special offer, freight prepaid, and we will 
also send our illustrated catalogue No. 16 describing all 
ten sizes of hand pumps and telling what sprays to use 
and how to prepare them. State number of acres and 
kind of fruit. Write today. Catalogue No. 18 describes 
"Power Sprayers." 

Bean Spray Pump Co. 
163 W. Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 




NATIONAL. WOOI> IMIMv CO. 
WOOD PIPE 



Woodward Patent Machine Banded Wheeler Patten 
Continuous Stave Bored Wood Water Pipe 

Made from California Redwood or Selected Puget Sound Yellow Fir 
Los Angeles Office: 6th mad Mateo Sts. 5/8 11th St., Oakland 

Pu&et Sound Office: Olympia, Wash. 

A Booklet: "The Whole Story About Wood Pipe," Mailed Free Upon Request. 



SHEET IRON & STEEL PIPE 



FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 
Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office and Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, Cal. 

Water and Oil Tanks -all sires Coating all sizes of Pipes with Asphaltum 



Fight the Mildew 

Sulphur Your Vines 

Use the Champion Duster 

Easy and rapid in operation. 
Keeps the dust out of your way. 
Always ready. 

Reaches upper and under side of 
foliage. 

Assures thorough & effective work 
Thousands in use. 
Weighs about 6 lb. 

ADDRKSS 

F.D. NAGLE, Box 14. Sultana, Calif. 

I.eggett & Bros , Manufacturers, 
New York, N. Y 

By PROF. E. J. WICKSON, Author "California Fruits." 

Prie^. $2.00 Postpaid 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publishers, Temporary Office. Berkeley, Oil. 




and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



LXXIII. No. 5. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1907. 



Thirty-seventh Year 



OPENAIR AND GOOUIR WINE MAKiNG. 



One of the most interesting efforts of the California 
Experiment Station and one which has attracted wide 
attention is the continued work to improve the quality 
of California wine by securing temperatures which favor 
a more desirable speed and character in the fermenta- 
tion. To assist toward this result various experiments 



subject can secure on application. We call attention 
to the popular features on this page: The freest pos- 
sible use of the open-air and water-cooling of air to be 
brought into contact with the must during fermentation. 
The pictures suggest this. Prof. Bioletti concludes from 
all his observations and experiments that the main 
lesson of immediate practical importance to California 
wine-makers to be learned from these observations and 
experiments is the oft-repeated one of cool fermentation. 



With regard to the first tnere is undoubtedly a very 
general lack of realization of the benefits to be derived 
from fermenting wines at a low temperature. A wine 
which attains a temperature of 95 to 100 degrees F. 
during fermentation will never have the freshness, bou- 
quet and general high quality of one which never ex- 
ceeds 85 to 90 degrees F. Even though the former 
ferments out completely and remains a perfectly sound 
wine, its quality and especially its bouquet is injured, 




Open-air fermenting-room and cellar in Algeria. 





Medium-sized wine-cellar and fermenting-room in Algeria. 




Open fermenting-room and shallow fermenting- vats of large cellars. 



Re-inforced cement amphoras used for fermentation. 





Amphoras in one of the largest and most modern cellars in Algeria. 



Inside view of celler, showing brick 

have been made in artificial cooling of the must and 
information of methods pursued in other hot countries 
has been secured and disseminated. This work is now 
in charge of Professor F. T. Bioletti, with whose writ- 
ings our readers are famiiiar. Before resuming his 
work in Calforn'a a'ft^r a brief engagement in South 
Africa, Prof. Bioletti made a tour through the south of 
France and Algiers and embodied his observations in 
a bulletin entitled "Manufacture of Dry Wines in Hot 
Countries," which those interested in the details of the 



amphoras. 

. It seems strange that in Algeria, where cool water is far 
more scarce than in California, the wine-makers should 
have been able to make the use of cooling machines 
a practical process, while here little or no progress 
has been made in that direction. The reason L& to be 
found probably in a lack of a real appreciation of the 
need and use of cool fermentation among the wine- 
makers of the regions where dry wines are usually 
madie, and of the difficulty of applying known methods 
in the hotter regions, where the cellars are nearly all 
of great size. 



and the headiness of many California wines, and of 
wines from other hot countries, is undoubtedly due in 
great rfit to the high temperature of fermentation. 

Witi^regard to the production of common or bulU 
wines the problem is to produce a sound wine of good 
keeping qualities as cheaply as possible. The finer 
qualities of bouquet, freshness, and lack of headiness 
are of less importance. One of the essentials of cheap- 
ness is the production of heavy crops. Our cheap wines 
must be made, then, from heavy-bearing varieties of 
vines planted in rich soil. 



66 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 2, 1907 



Pacific Rural Press 

Published Temporarily at Berkeley, eal. 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



Entered at S. K. Postoffice »s second-class mail matter 



not appear that they were imposed upon by false repre- while California fruit trees produce, probably, three 
i sentations or wheedled into their promise. They prob- times as much. But California has been great for halt 
ably besought the false prophet and fell down before a century in agriculture and we are getting used to it. 

— him with supplications and promises just as other fools Comparison in another mining State which is not so 

TWO DOLLARS PER YE7IR IX 71DV71HGE have done since the race first learned folly. That there well agriculturally will be rather surprising to most 

should be such people in this age of wide intelligence readers. According to the published figures, the farms 
and) clear-headedness in business transactions, is the ! of Colorado produced in 1906 the enormous total of 
general shame of it. | $101,000,000, while all the mines together— gold, silver, 

I zinc, lead, copper, tungsten and radium — could roll up 

A generally depressing fact is that the fools are not only $50,000,000. Although the coal production has al- 
cured of their folly by indulgence in it. They seemed most doubled in the last ten years, it has not caught 
to catch at the proposition that when the impostor had up with the combined output of fruit and sugar to 
captured all the first bunch of money, they would wel- sweeten it, as the orchards of Colorado and the beet 
come him back in the spring to capture some more — or, fields together produced $20,000,000 worth of salable 
possibly, for the sake of his business reputation, the products, while the coal mined in the State brought 
rainmaker promised to come back and juggle them some only $18,000,000. The production of the mines for 190b" 
We are always sorry for people when they become m0 re for nothing in the spring. It is probable that was one of the greatest in its history, but it was so far 



DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. 



Publishers 



E J. WICKSON 
HDGAR R.ICKARD 



Editor 
Business Manager 



THE WEEK 



irrational and make themselves the prey of fakirs of 
"science," falsely so called. We cannot bring ourselves 
either to ridicule or revile them, although probably 
the most promising way to reclaim such people is to 
laugh them out of their folly. To submit one's body or 
one's purse to the manipulation of pretentious quacks 
seems to us, however, so sad a thing to do that we 
cannot laugh heartily at them— a forlorn grin is the 
greatest height to which our risibles will rise in such 
a case. Such is the shallowness of our merriment over 
the plight in which the dwellers of the west side of 
the San Joaquin find themselves through their patron- 
age of a rain maker. The story is that last Saturday 
over 100 farmers gathered at Crow's Landing in Stan- 
islaus county for the purpose of "laying off" their rain- 
maker, but he refused to be laid off. Early last fall 
they contracted for demonstrations from November to 
April, and if in that time an average of nine inches 
of rain fell on the West Side, the rainmaker was to be 
paid $250. He was to get an additional $250 if eleven 
inches fell and $1,500 in all for twelve inches. The 
former average rainfall for a season in that section 
was seven inches. This season eleven inches had fallen 
up to last Saturday and it has fallen so continuously 
that the farmers have had no chance to sow their 
crops. Consequently the signers met at Crow's Landing 
and proposed that he cease operations for six weeks. 
He said that if they handed him the additional $500 
now he would do as they desired. The farmers were 
not so sure that the rainmaker had really anything 
to do with the rainfall and so they voted against pay- 
ing the additional $500. He then agreed to cease oper- 
ations as soon as he had secured a rainfall of twelve 
inches and stated that if the late spring turned off 
dry he would return to the West Side and bring the 
late rains. As the rains have continued the contract 
has probably been filled and the West Siders are out 
of pocket $1,500. 

Of course, the greatest thing in such a transaction as 
the above is not the money. No doubt some of the sub- 
scribers to the contract with the fakir argued that if 
no rain came there would not be anything to pay and if 
there was much rain the profit to the signers would be 
so large that such a little money to each would not be 
noticed. That this bluff did not represent their real 
feelings is shown by the fact that they now desire to 
crawfish as to paying the money. The fact seems to 
run counter to the old proverb about a fool and his 
money. Still the greatest thing is not the money, for 
all that. Greater than the money is the humiliation 
which each one should take unto himself. The narrative 
above says that some signers are not so sure that the 
rainmaker had anything to do with the rain, conse- 
quently they voted not to pay him what they contracted 
to pay. That they should have ever thought his incanta- 
tions could have anything to do with it, is the first 
humiliation; that they were not sharp enough to pin 
down the rainmaker, by the terms of the contract with 
him, so that an "act of God" should dissolve it, ought 
to carry shame to their business acumen; that they 
agreed to pay so much for so much rain and refuse to 
do so, reflects upon their common integrity. It does 



such foolish persons are incurable; they may awaken eclipsed by the records of the farms as to seem less 
to wisdom in another world; they seem to be consigned notable. But these comparisons are not intended to 
to cap and bells for this one. Of course, we do not be odiously indulged in. Of course, the success of the 
proclaim against errors of judgment or mistakes, nor do mines is to be credited with a large share of the de- 
we forget that to err is human. There is, however, mand for products which makes agriculture great, 
one form of error which seems particularly discouraging. 

Agnosticism is a virtue when compared with unreason- We always rejoice in undertakings which aim to 
ing credulity. How can intelligent people effectively bring the people of different parts of California into 
defend themselves against blame for being imposed i better acquaintance and fuller knowledge of each other's 
upon by those who fake science? The honest juggler methods and results. For tnis reason we are glad to 
imposes on you and tells you so; his science lies in the hear that the Stanislaus County Board of Trade is ar- 
ability to deceive you and he glories in it as a truly ranging for a big excursion from the Modesto-Turlock 
scientific mm in aay line m e y rightly do. Too many irrigation districts to Los Angeles. It will start Thurs- 
people, however, seem to have more respect for one ' day, February 7, and last ten days. The railroad has 



who deceives them and makes game of them for gain 
and does not tell them so. How people can, in this mat- 
ter of rainmaking, persuade themselves that any man 
can by fumbles and mumbles in a closet arrest the 
progress of natural movements, is to us unfathomable. 



allowed a one-fare rate for the round trip. The objects 
are to establish amicable relationship between the Los 
Angeles Chamber of Commerce and the Modesto and 
Turlock Board of Trade and the people of the two sec- 
tions, generally; and to enable the central Californians 



There is logic in an appeal to a higher power because to learn how the southern Californians "do things" in 
there are transcendental convictions which serve as the way of promotion and securing homeseekers and 



premises, but there is neither logic, reason nor common 
sense in paying good money for that which no man can 



investors. It is also interesting to note in this con- 
nection that Mr. J. W. Webb, well known to many of 



own or deliver. They besought the rainmaker to go | our readers, has accepted the secretaryship of the Stan- 
away; he will reman just as long as people will dupe islaus Board of Trade. Mr. Webb knows the various 
themselves to his advantage. parts of California well and is full of wisdom and en- 

thusiasm in carrying forward the things which he 
undertakes. 



Everybody is talking about the advance in value of 
California real estate. Both in city and country the 
unearned increment is mounting fully as fast as the 
unearned wages. Where shall we go, where shall we 
stop and how shall we stop? That is nearly as puzzling 
as the course of the rainfall on the West Side this year. 
There is one difference, however: It is so wet, in one 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



TOMATO CROWING. 

To the Editor: In reading your valuable paper 1 

came across an inquiry from a subscriber, Stanislaus 

county, asking about tomatoes and what canners pay 
case, that people cannot get in any work and it may be fo ,. them You may gtate fQr me thju ^ year dwlng 



hard to find out where they can recover the money paid 
to the rainmaker. With the rise of prices it is different 
because that is just when people plunge in and buy 
and that makes it go all the higher. There is one con- 
solation, however, and that is that California is not 
alone in the inflation baloon and will get down as com- 
fortably as the rest; in fact, will probably stay up longer 
than they. It is just published that the Bureau of 
Statistics of the U. S. Department of Agriculture under- 
took, in the autumn of 1905, to discover the degree of 



the early part of the season I shipped tomatoes to the 
San Francisco market and received $1.50 per box; 
later they dropped to 15 cents a box; then is the time 
the canners gobble up the tomato. As to the product 
of the tomato plant, it depends, as you say, upon the 
man, the care, ceaseless cultivating, strength of plant 
at the time of transplanting from hot bed, etc. One 
must thoroughly understand how to handle the plant 
from first planting the seed in the hot bed, onward. The 
soil must be in good condition and irrigation at times 
helps wonderfully. I had about 1500 plants out and 



under good care, etc., received from them about a box 
increase in farm real estate in all parts of the country. I (60 pounds) to the plant. Good soil, low, with plenty 
The effort was made to connect this investigation by of moisture and a wind break of trees, etc., surround- 
statistical methods with the census valuation for 1900. ing the plantation on three sides were the conditions. 



You must get the seed from the tomato with the smooth 
skin, not the tomato with the big black spot in the 
center, as they are discarded or placed in the bottom of 

hoods in the United States, and the results obtained ... t . „ „ t^ VT71 „. , . ,, 

the box, out of sight. — MILO E. DYE, \^ alnut Grove. 



Reports were received from 45,000 correspondents, rep 
resenting substantially all the agricultural neighbor- 



from the tabulation of these reports indicated an in- 
crease of farm real estate values during five years of 
33.5 per cent, or an amount approximately equal to 
$6,133,000,000. While the ground is too wet to work 
there may be some entertainment in figuring out, each 
for himself, how much richer he is than five years ago. 



This is very interesting. Such notes of experience 
are very acceptable. Our subscriber on the plains of 
Stanislaus county must calculate with the fact that 
Walnut Grove is on the rich bottom lands on the Sacra- 
mento river, which makes a good deal of difference to 
the tomato when it comes to large product. 



It is also interesting sometimes to figure out how 
much greater relatively the agricultural interest is than 
any other. California, for example, is doing better in 



LAWN MAKING. 

To the Editor: Please tell me what kind of grass 

vou find best for front yard6 in the Santa Clara valley, 
gold producing than for recent years and yet California The water that , 8 used fQr irrigation ls artesian> Dut is 

cows produce more value than California gold mines, | not so very hard. Also what kind of fertilizer do you 



February 2, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



find best for putting on lawns? I had thought that a 
commercial fertilizer would be better because it would 
contain no weed seed; but please tell me what kind, 
and also how much should be used per acre; and should 
it be put on in one application, or in three or four? — 
SUBURBAN, Palo Alto. 

We never see anything which pleases us better than 
Kentucky blue grass and white clover. You can get a 
quicker lawn with a thick seeding of Australian rye 
grass. If you build a cottage to sell, you had better 
try that; it will make a lawn while the painters are 
carrying out their ladders. It also makes a better 
show of grass with less work and water than blue grass 
but is never quite so fine and gets coarser and more 
buuchy with age. Still Australian rye grass is a good 
thing in its way. As for fertilizers, some still use the 
old-fashioned finely ground unstemmed bone meal, but 
a lawn mixture of which those advertising fertilizers in 
our columns will send you description and price is a 
rather more rational proceeding. 

PEAR BLIGHT AT WORK. 

To the Editor: I can see no spots on the young 
wood of my peach trees as some report that they do. 
Does that mean that the blight is knocked out? I 
sprayed well with strong Bordeaux early in December. 
— GROWER, Fresno county. 

Yes, it means that so far the blight is not busy on 
your trees. Keep watching for small circular spots and 
gumming on the young wood and be glad if you do not 
find them. 

BORDEAUX ON VINE STUMPS. 

To the Editor: Will spraying Muscat vines prevent 
mildew and what proportions of bluestone and lime 
would you advise? — A READER, Fowler. 

Bordeaux on the vine stump will kill resting spores 
of mildew and render a spring outbreak less likely and 
less rapid to spread in places where mildew works 
under a handicap of dry heat as it does in normal 
seasons in the interior valley. But stump treatment 
should not lead anyone to relax vigilance or readiness 
with sulphur if the young growth shows need of it. 
Any strength of Bordeaux is safe on the dormant stump 
and effective if the loose bark is given a good soaking. 

PEACH BLIGHT AND CURL LEAF. 

To the Editor: My peach orchard was sprayed quite 
early, finishing December 14, 1906, using ten pounds 
of bluestone and twelve pounds of good lime to fifty 
gallons of water. Some of the trees were pruned be- 
fore spraying and some since, and some are not yet 
pruned. On the ones pruned early, gum can 
be found oozing out between wood and bark of the 
large limbs that were cut off. Is this any indication 
of blight or other diseases? These trees did not have 
any blight last year. Is there any remedy? Will it be 
necessary to spray again for curl leaf? As there is dif- 
ference of opinion on this question I wish to be set 
right.— READER, Fowler. 

The gumming of the old stubs is no indication of 
peach blight. It is due to continued wet weather which 
has prevented drying and closing of the wound. Your 
treatment should have killed the spores of the leaf 
curl if well applied and we should not spray again un- 
less it appears on the young foliage in amount suffi- 
cient to warrant hitting it again with summer Bordeaux. 

FEEDING AND SORGHUM GROWING. 

To the Editor: I have been feeding my milk cows 
alfalfa hay up to this time but it has given out and I am 
going to feed bran, middlings and oil meal. Can you tell 
me what are the correct proportions to feed? Also would 
you advise putting in some rolled barley, and if so 
how much? Will Kafir corn or sorghum do well in this 
locality on bottom land and if so when should it be 
planted?— SUBSCRIBER, Gilroy. 

You can feed about 3 lb. of bran, 4 lb. of middlings 
and 2 lb. of oil meal per cow in connection with barley 
hay or some other roughage. We see no reason to 
add the cost of barley. Kafir corn will do pretty well 
in your valley but probably not so well as farther away 
from the coast. Plant like Indian corn when all dan- 
ger of frost is over. 



ROOT KNOTS ON THRIFTY OLD TREES. 

To the Editor: I am interested in an orchard of 
17-year-old trees grafted on almond root, and notice that 
a large proportion of these trees are affected with root 
knot — I should say very badly affected — though from 
the appearance of the trees they are very healthy and 
fine looking, not generally making much growth of 
wood, but that, however, might be attributed to the 
fact that this last year they had a crop of about six 
tons per acre. What I would like to get at is the prob- 
able longevity and producing power of such trees, es- 
pecially if they were to meet with dry seasons. — EN- 
QUIRER, San Jose. 

We doubt if there is anything that can be profitably 
done with the removal of knots from the roots of trees 
as old as those which you mention. The best way is to 
give them good care and fertilization and encourage 
them to continued profitable production. We have seen 
trees over thirty years old taken up to make way for 
improvements the roots of which were a mass of knots, 
and yet the trees throve and bore well. When a tree 
maintains right-of-way over these encumbrances to a 
vigorous middle age it seems best to encourage it to 
proceed in the same course as long as it proves profit- 
able. Thit), of course, does not prescribe neglect of 
young trees, from which knots can be successfully re- 
moved if they have not succeeded in too far stunting 
the top growth. 

SUN-BLISTER ON NEW WOOD. 

To the Editor: I send a bundle of Muir peach 
branches. I would like to know the cause of the de- 
fect. There have been some grasshoppers among the 
trees, and I sprinkled some arsenate on them at one 
time.— GROWER, Turlock. 

Arsenious acid is destructive to tree bark, sometimes 
to quite old bark, but it would probably require im- 
mersion rather than sprinkling — a wet application and 
not a dry. Your peach twigs do not disclose any par- 
ticular kind of disease. The injury seems to have been 
done by the sun, and if the grasshoppers reduced the 
foliage it could have been very readily done in this way. 



ANOTHER KIND OF FOXTAIL. 

To the Editor: I am sending you a sample of grass 
which is something new in this part of the State. I 
think it must have been shipped here in alfalfa seed 
as it first made its appearance in alfalfa. Please give 
me its name and its value as a forage grass. It does 
well here and will crowd alfalfa out in most soils. — 
FARMER, Tulare county. 

Mr. H .G. Hall, assistant botanist of the experiment 
station, recognizes the plant a.s Yellow Foxtail (Setaria- 
glanca). It is an introduced grass which has previously 
been sent in from the San Joaquin valley. It seems to 
be getting established around Lindsay and Porterville 
but should not be encouraged. The very fact that it 
drives out alfalfa furnishes a good reason for fighting it. 
Although introduced in nearly all the warmer parts of 
the globe, it is universally detested as a weed. It is a 
slender annual, a foot or two high, with narrow cylin- 
drical panicles, or flower-clusters; not be confused with 
the barley grass commonly called foxtail in California. 
Barley grass is also an annual weed but seldom grows 
more than a foot high and was thicker, brush-like pani- 
cles. Although the plant is not one which one should 
try to get, still, as you have it already, such observa- 
tions as you can yourself make upon its growth and 
acceptability to stock, etc., will be very interesting. 

PEACH BLIGHT AND VINE MILDEW. 

To the Editor: At what time and in what strength 
would you recommend the second or spring application 
of Bordeaux mixture for peach tree fungus? Also in win- 
ter spraying of vines with the Bordeaux would a greater 
quantity of lime be of any service or would it be detri- 
mental, say fifteen or twenty pounds to the fifty gal- 
lons of water? Can the Bordeaux be applied after the 
buds swell very perceptibly without injury to the buds? 
—INQUIRER, Selma. 

We have not recommended a second, or spring spray- 
ing with the Bordeaux mixture for the pear blight. The 
whole theory of the treatment for this trouble, thus 



far, has been the use of the Bordeaux mixture in the 
fall, or very early winter in order to check the growth 
of the fungus at that time, because it is the injury done 
at that season which causes the twigs to gum and the 
buds to fall. Experience so far has been that the spring 
application is too late to prevent injury by the disease 
except where the occurrence of late rains in the spring 
cause a reappearance of the disease on the new growth. 
For this reason, it may be desirable to give a spring 
spraying if conditions favor the spread of the disease, 
and an application then of 4-4-40, chiefly upon the new 
growth, should be safe against injury to the foliage and 
effective against reappearance of the disease, but 
whether such sprayng is desirable or not will be deter- 
mined by the character of the spring weather and ob- 
servation of the trees. There is very serious doubt as 
to whether any stump spraying of the vine would be 
worth its cost as a preventative of mildew. Mildew 
spores are carried over so largely in the soil itself and 
so freely distributed as the air becomes dry and warm, 
that applications to the vine stump would be of very 
little, if any, efficacy in checking the disease; in fact, 
careful experiments have shown this to be the case. 
Still, some people rather like to whitewash their vine 
stumps with a strong Bordeaux, before the growth 
starts, and there is no objection to this practice except 
that it will probably accomplish very little. The true 
treatment of mildew is to start in early with sulphur 
and keep at it if weather conditions in the locality favor 
the continuance of the disease. 

HOW TO GET NURSERY STOCK INTO WYOMING. 

To the Editor: The report of the Wyoming State 
Board of Horticulture contains in full the State Horti- 
cultural Law and the regulations governing the ship- 
ment of nursery stock into Wyoming. All of the nur- 
series having any Wyoming business, and which receive 
your paper will be glad to know that a copy of the re- 
port may be obtained upon request. — AVEN NELSON, 
Secretary, Laramie, Wyoming. 

Our nurserymen will note this offer. 

ANOTHER GOOD EUCALYPT. 

To the Editor: I send you some leaves and seeds 
from a gum tree growing in Sanger. Will you please 
tell me what species it is? — L. K. C, Sanger. 

Mr. H. M. Hall recognizes the specimens as belong- 
ing to the Eucalyptus tereticornis or Flooded Gum. It 
is much like the Red Gum (Eucalyptus rosthata) in es- 
sential characters and characteristics. It is hardy 
and grows well, even in the interior. The wood is much 
used in Australia for general building, fencing, fuel, etc. 

FAILURE OF EARLY PEACHES. 

To the Editor: In this State most of the early vari- 
eties of peaches have a tendency to shed their buds at 
the end of winter, and in consequence there is fre- 
quently a great scarcity of peaches until the medium 
varieties commence to ripen. Can you inform me 
whether they have the same defect in California? I 
enclose an official report upon the subject and shall 
be pleased to know if you can offer any other sugges- 
tions as to the cause of the buds dropping. — A. B. 
ROBIN, South Australia. 

Such trouble cannot be said to be prevalent in this 
State. We usually get as many early peaches as can 
be sold to advantage. There was some trouble with the 
Alexander in the foothill district a few years ago which 
was never fully explained and if our readers have recent 
observations upon that we shall be glad to hear them. 
The official report which our correspondent sends is an 
interesting argument that the trees have been kept 
growing too late in the fall and then too vigorously 
pruned in the winter, thus stimulating the vegetative 
energy of the tree and causing it to cast its buds. Such 
a theory, based upon general physiological considera- 
tions, cannot be discussed without more actual knowl- 
edge of the trees which behave that way than we have. 
Who has such trouble in this State and under what con- 
ditions? 



68 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 2, 1907 



HORTICULTURE. 



BORDEAUX MIXTURE. 

To the Editor: The proper mixing and applying of 
Bordeaux mixture is of the greatest importance. A 
weak formula carefully made and well put on is mucn 
more satisfactory than a large one improperly put to- 
gether or carelessly applied. 

The ingredients of Bordeaux mixture are copper sul- 
phate, commonly known as bluestone, and lime. The 
latter should be good stone lime and in large lumps, 
the powdered stuff being rejected. 

The ordinary formula is the 5-5-50, but this is varied 
for different disieases. This means five pounds of blue- 
stone, five pounds of lime and fifty gallons of water. 
The necessary amount of bluestone to make up all the 
spray required, or as much as can be conveniently han- 
dled, is weighed out, placed in a burlap bag and sus- 
pended in a barrel containing a measured amount of 
water, twenty-five gallons for instance for five barrels 
(two hundred and fifty gallons-) of Bordeaux mixture. 

The lime is also weighed out and carefully slaked, a 
little at a time, in a pail or small receptacle. Add only 
enough water to moisten the lime and slake it slowly, 
applying only enough water from time to time to pre- 
vent its burning. This will produce an extremely fine 
paste, a little of which, when rubbed between the thumb 
and fingers, will produce no sensation of grit. After 
the lime cools and is strained, the Bordeaux mixture 
can be made. 

For the best work three barrels are required. Into 
one put the correct amount of bluestone, five gallons 
in this case, and dilute with water to twenty-five gallons. 
Into a second put one-fifth of the lime and dilute this 
to twenty-five gallons. 

Then two men each with a pail can pour the blue- 
stone and lime together simultaneously into the third 
barrel. This method insures a complete uniform mix- 
ture which will remain much longer in suspension than 
that secured by other ways of mixing. 

Where much Bordeaux mixture is required a little 
work will construct a platform from which the lime and 
bluestone can be drawn into barrels on the truck just 
previous to hauling away. 

Stock solutions of bluestone and lime can be made 
and kept on hand. The lime must be held under 
water, for if it dries out enough to check, it& useful- 
ness is gone. 

R. L. ADAMS. 

Anderson, Cal. 



soil chemi&t, for I am nothing in that line. I know a surface of the soil it should stand grazing well. The 

few things about nature's ways and these few things ! seed is of about the same size and germinates as readily 

I have picked up in great part by close observation. as red clover seed. It is a plant that I regard as pos- 

Along in the summer of 1893 I noticed what I tooK sessing sufficient merit to make it worthy of extended 

to be a fungus or blight on red clover in five different trial, but so long as it is found to be a poor seeder and 

spots in fields in central Eel River valley. It may have the price remains so high its extensive culture is not 

been present in other places, too, but I didn't circulate probable. 

as much as some boys do, and these five spots were in Kidney Vetch.-This is also a member of the lotus 

that part of the valley most familiar to me. Three of tamUj. From its behavior here on my grounds, I see 



A NEW BURBANK RHUBARB. 

Mrs. Ida Shepherd Freeman of Coachilla has se- 
cured the sole right and all the stock of Mr. Luther 
Burbank's latest creation, "Burbank's Wonder Winter" 
rhubard. Mrs. Freeman has waited two years for Mr. 
Burbank to perfect this rhubarb and set his stamp or 
approval upon it. Of it Mr. Burbank says, in his letter 
to Mrs. Freeman, of date January 2, 1907: 

"I am shipping you all the stock of "Burbank's Won- 
der Winter" rhubarb. It is a heavier bearer, produc- 
ing larger stalks, of superior flavor, starting earlier, 
and presenting a finer appearance than the "Crimson 
Winter' rhubarb, from which the 'Burbank's Wonder 
Winter' has just been perfected. This variety is des- 
tined to revolutionize the rhubarb industry from the 
outset, as the new creation is grand, with beautiful 
stalks, making a tremendous growth, and multiplying 
with great rapidity." 



THE BOTANIST. 



A STUDY OF FORAGE PLANTS AT ETTERSBERG, 
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 



these bad spots were on land that had been under 
cultivation for perhaps ten years and one other on land 
that had been in clover for the first time and which had 
| been previously cropped but little, and the fifth spot 
was on a piece of land that was cleared, planted to po- 
, tatoes for one year and then seeded to clover, and this 
I clover was only one year old when the fungus- ap- 
peared. So I hope that "clover sick" land is not a 
part of this case and need not be considered in con- 
nection with it. 

So rapidly did these small areas increase in extent 
that in the fall of 1894 I looked upon it as a serious 
menace to the future of clover growing in the valley, 
and I said at the time that five years more and clover 
will not be the great plant it has been in the past. 1 
regret to say there was only too much truth in wiiat 
I then said. Before this fungus made its appearance 
red clover was quite permanent and a stand would 
last for years, but now it runs out in two or three 
years generally. Fall sown clover is often attacked by 
it before it is a year old. It first attacks the leaves of 
the plant, then the stems and follows down to the crown 
of the plant, which it destroys. In the fall of 1894 I 
sent specimen plants of this afflicted clover to Prof. 
Pierce, then U. S. Plant Pathologist at Santa Ana. He 
made an examination of the plants, and while he wrote 
me that there was fungus present, he thought the main 
cause of the trouble was a little white pin worm whicii 
burrowed into the crown of the plant, and, permitting 
moisture to get in, destroyed the plant in that way. As 
noted before I held adverse to this view. 

I have experimented with red clover on a small scale 
here at Ettersberg for several years past, and I regard 
it as of far more promise than alfalfa. It is a long- 
lived plant here and appears to stand the summer 
drouth well. As a companion it will, in a hay field, 
produce a good crop of hay year after year, under con- 
ditions where rye grass will entirely run out in one or 
two years when mown for hay. Land I have reference 
to here is of good depth but does not hold moisture 
enough, with our hot summer drouths to grow a crop 
of corn, even with the best of preparation and cultiva- 
tion. The clover has the evident advantage of being 
able to rest at the driest part of the year, when the 
corn needs considerable moisture just as it is forming 
the ear. 

Alfalfa. — Alfalfa on the sandy, alluvial soils of Hum- 
boldt county is grown with considerable success, but 1 
fancy it would do better if the climate was somewhat 
warmer, as the growth is not so rapid as it is where 
the temperature is higher. Rye grass, too, which is 
present always, whether sown or not, has a tendency 
to choke the alfalfa out, for the double reason that 
alfalfa dislikes a sod and rye grass is a strong winter 
grower and alfalfa is not. 

I have tried common alfalfa here at Ettersberg and I 
don't hold out any hope for success in growing it 
above tne river bottom. The soil seems not to suit it. 
I don't think it is a question of bacteria entirely nor 
does the dry land alfalfa appear to grow particularly 
better than the common variety. Inoculated seed of 
the latter was sown last spring on land which had for 
two seasons grown heavy crops of "hairy vetch," but 
it is making only a rather poor showing so far. I would 
far rather take chances on uplands with red clover. 

Birdsfoot Trefoil. — If I wanted something that looked 



| no reason to believe it can be of any importance to 
, us here. It is in no way comparable to rib grass. 

Dakota Vetch. — Another member of the lotus fatally; 
would be of considerable more importance if we had 
rains in June and July. When we have rains in June 
it makes a good showing, but with early dry season, 
the growth is cut short. Stock do not care much for it 
early in the season, but from the fact that it is still 
green and growing after the annual grasses are dry, it 
is then acceptable to them as a bite of green along with 
the dry. 

Lotus Parviflora.— The above species along with an- 
other native species having a yellow blossom and vel- 
vety leaves, are mildly distributed in this section or 
California. Lotus parviflora has reddish stems and a 
small yellow blossom that with age changes to red, and 
the seed pod is not unlike a miniature bean pod. It 
seeds profusely but the seed is not easily harvested as it 
pops out in the heat of the sun when ripe. It is a good 
winter grower and on rather light black gravely soil it 
seems to do its best. Stock eat it well while young but 
after maturity it is of little value. The other species 
referred to above are generally found most abundantly 
on poor land such as bluffs and gravely bars, and are 
of little importance except for this feature. 

(To be continued.) 



THE STOCKYARD. 



more like alfalfa, with a plant known as Lotus corni- 
(Written for the Pacific Rural Press by Albert F. Etter.) culatus, or birdsfoot trefoil. This species of lotus 



[Seventh Paper.] 
Common Red and Mammoth Red Clover. — The red 
clovers have been grown in Humboldt county for about 
twenty-five years and are probably more extensively 
cultivated than all other legumes combined. It is the 
common practice to have n mixture of red clover and 
rye grass sown at the same time. By thus combining 
these two, cattle grazing in the field are far less liable 
to bloat, and much better winter pasture is secured. 
They are more desirable when mixed for hay produc- 
tion, as the clover is more easily cured. 

When red clover was first introduced into Eel River 
valley it grew like the proverbial weeds, and it con- 
tinued to do well generally until about ten years ago. 
I have no patience with the person who makes the cry- 
that the clover business is overdone and the land has 
become "clover sick," for it is all nonsense. Mind you, 
I don't cut the question out this way because I am a 



looks almost like alfalfa, and it always showed up well 
in the grass garden. It grows early in the spring and 
is not affected by frosts as alfalfa is, and it will con- 
tinue to grow as late in the season as there is moisture 
present. When young it is exceedingly tender, and 
when mature it stands as it grows here about 16 to 
24 inches high. It makes a nice start after the fall 
rains come on, and at all times it made a much better 
showing than a few stalks of alfalfa in the lotus plot. 
The seed of Lotus corniculatus is quoted by J. M. 
Thornburn of 36 Cortland street, New York, at 35 
cents per pound. This is certainly a good round price, 
and whether it is owing to the fact that the plant is a 
shy seeder or otherwise I don't know. It is a shy seeder 
here at any event. The blossom is yellow and the seed 
grows in a pod similar to some species of vetch. Ap- 
parently the plant is long-lived and permanent, and 
as it branches from the crown somewhat below the 



THE STATE FAIRS AND OTHER MATTERS. 

To the Editor: Having been a reader of the Rural 
Press from childhood up, and my father, who was a 
pioneer of pioneers, a subscriber from its inception, I 
beg to say, it has always been a welcome visitor to 
our home. Many valued clippings from it grace my 
numerous scrap books, which I have been years in com- 
piling. It has long been my habit to peruse it from 
cover to cover — advertisements and all — and I doubt 
not, but your paper will meet not only with the appre- 
ciation it deserves but enjoy an increased circulation 
commensurate with the rapid growth of California. The 
issue of January 5 is of special interest. 

It was my father who was the pioneer hop grower 
of this State and the old plantation near San Jose in 
the "Willows" was for many years one of the show 
places of Santa Clara valley. He was the first to use 
sulphur in bleaching hops and apricots and as early as 
1871, had men come expressly from Europe to study his 
methods. To them that year he sold his entire crop on 
the vines, for thirty cents per pound. They pro- 
nounced it the most extraordinary hop field in the 
world, both on account of the unsurpassed fertility of 
the land and the intelligent cultivation thereof. He 
supplied most of the growers throughout the State, Ore- 
gon and the Puget Sound country, with hop roots for 
planting. He shipped dried fruit's and hops to Aus- 
tralia, to New York and to Europe even before the 
completion of the railroad. He made the first con- 
signment over the Central Pacific from the Santa Clara 
valley to New York. He employed from fifty to 300 
Chinese the year around. Even then there was great 
prejudice against the employment of Asiatics but the 
success of his enterprise depended upon cheap labor. 
On that account, he was euphoniously nick-named 
"Hop Coe." 

The first silk manufactured from the native product 
of the United States was grown and made on the 
ranch into a beautiful American flag by the late Paul 
Newman, who superintended the work. It was pre- 
sented to Congress about 1870. It was exhibited at the 
Centennial exposition, later at the World's Fair in Chi- 
cago, and is now in the Smithsonian Institute. The 
coocoons were fed upon the leaves of the first mulberry 
trees in California, near which grew the pioneer weep- 
ing willow of the Pacific Coast, brought to San Jose 
from France. It grew from a twig plucked from the 
tree that graced Napoleon's grave, by a Frenchman 
named Parveau, who also brought the first prune tree 
to Santa Clara valley. Congress was urged at that 
time by the united Californian delegation to, make an 
appropriation to encourage silk culture in this State, 
but the effort was unavailing. If sufficiently interested 
you will see the little story from my pen of my father's 
pioneer life — published in the October Sunset, entitled 



February 2, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



"Oregon's Beginnings," From this small beginning the 
manufacture of silk thread was carried on upon a small 
scale in San Jose, for ten or fifteen years, but with in- 
different success. It was*, however, a very superior 
quality of thread. The cool nights of our climate is 
most favorable for silk culture. 

Like most pioneers in 1873, my father failed. He 
suffered disastrous losses of nearly his entire hop crop. 
During the anti-Chinese agitation, and after the old 
ranch fell into the hands of the "Odd Fellows' Savings 
Bank" they tried white labor in 1877 (the dry year). 
But unfortunately the hoodlum "help" resulted disas- 
trously, and the hop vines were all dug out. The very 
next year, the crop having been a failure in Europe, 
hops commanded in price one dollar and ten cents per 
pound, when the old hop-field which produced from 
100,000 to 150,000 pounds might be afforded, indeed, a 
veritable "bonanza." Such is life in the "Far West!" 
My father was also the first quartz miner in this State. 

Seventy-seven was a disastrous year for the livestock 
interests of half of the State of California. In 1878, 
however, beef commanded extremely nigh prices. The 
few who were the fortunate possessors of "cattle on a 
thousand hills" were to be envied. It was then that 
my brother and myself conceived the ambition of own- 
ing a "bonanza cattle ranch." We made haste to locate 
two quarter sections, five miles apart, covering two 
valuable water rights and controlling a considerable 
free range for stock. 

After twenty-five years of strenuous effort we real- 
ized our dream. We owned "cattle upon a thousand 
hills," but it is no "bonanza." Except upon ranges 
where grass-fattened beef and mutton are ready for 
the early spring demand, rangemen, over a very large 
area of California, fit only for grazing, have found it 
exceedingly difficult to successfully compete upon our 
comparatively high priced lands, cost of fencing and of 
taxes, with the free ranges of Arizona, Nevada, Ore- 
gon and northern California, and are more or less at 
the tender mercies of the wholesaler, who realizes near- 
ly the same price for dressed meats when beef is low, 
as they do when they pay nearly double the price for 
"cattle on the hoof," thus working an injustice upon 
both producer and consumer. The wholesale butchers 
seem to be most prosperous, while the northern and 
central California rangemen are at their wits end to 
make both ends meet. 

This condition of affairs and other considerations 
led me to suggest to Mr. E. H. Howard to call a 



After half an hour or more, I 



cattle sheds and met Isaac Bird, who" Showed me Ms SSj/ 'oSLST" ^ ^ * MadiS ° D SqUare 
string of Shorthorns with no ordinary of nH,. Td auZ Tf * t0 ^ * m0re div ™< 

. quite as great in the way of products as all 



string ot Shorthorns with no ordinary degree of pride. 
Upon expressing my disappointment and disgust in my 
first State Fair— at the lack of interest and paucity of 
visitors— Mr. Bird said, "This shall be my last exhibit. 
I am weary of the expense, intense effort and can ill 
afford the time necessary to bring the pick of my herd 
to exhibit to the same crowd every year. Moreover, 
I have all the 'blue ribbons' I need." Mr. Bird's remark 



States combined. Mr. Mills' remark upon what a pity 
the Sir Knights could not have seen what California 
could produce, stirred up all the pride and love I have 
for my native State and to think what a helpful effect 
such an agricultural, horticultural and industrial fair 
ought to produce. 



set me to thinking. Is Sacramento the best place for ! visTtTo The Ttate c^Tr^ ' ^ *** ^ 
the fair. It was Mr. Bird who carried off the honors ! to *?eZT^£*2££ ^ leT ^ s 
for the finest carload of yearhngs at the World's Fair copied by many papers throughout the State Even The 



cattle show in Chicago and the only Californian who 
had the nerve to compete with not only the East and 
Middle West, but the world. Having known Mr. Bird 
nearly all my life for his sterling judgment I have the 
very highest regard for him. Not having attended even 
a district fair in my own county for a great many years 
and vividly remembering the old time enthusiasm, you 
can imagine my disgust at our so-called "State Fair." 
Prof. Withecombe's address to "stand by the State Fair." 
still rings in my ears. 

We spent three days at Sacramento. En route home 
on the cars I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. W. H. 
Mills, land agent of the Southern Pacific. Upon telling 
him the object of our visit to Sacramento, Mr. Mills 
asking my impressions, I told him of a very creditable 
live stock exhibit that would do honor to any State, a 
fairly good agricultural and manufacturing exhibit, the 
apathy shown and my intense regret that our State 
Fair had in my opinion degenerated into worse than a 
mere district fair. That I believed it possible to revive 
the old time enthusiasm by putting the State Fair 
upon a circuit. Mr. Mills most heartily agreed with me, 
suggesting had the fair been held in Oakland that year, 
it would have enabled the visiting Knight Templars to 
have had a never fogotten day of r'easure, an oppor- 
tunity of seeing what California can produce in the 
way of live stock. And, moreover, the fifty cents per 
capita admission fee of the 80,000 more or less visiting 
Sir Knights, to say nothing of the visitors from San 
Francisco, Oakland itself, and from towns near the 
bay, would put the State Fair fund in position in 
amount adequate to make an exhibition, and to offer 
prizes worth striving for. 

I regret exceedingly my inability to attend the last 
meeting of the Breeders' Association. I see by your 
paper they recommend to the Legislature aid for the 
support of five district fairs. Had I been there I would 



stockmen's convention, which met during the State Fair 
in Sacramento, where we formed the Breeders' Asso- have expressed myself as unalterably opposed to such a 
ciation. Many most able papers were delivered upon | plan - Why not put the state Fair u P° n a circuit'.' 
every branch of the live stock industry. We elected Gov - Pardee ' s chie £ objection in a letter to me on this 



Hon. Chas. D. Pierce, ex-mayor of Oakland, president, 
and I had the honor of placing Prof. Major in nomina- 
tion for secretary. The late Major-General Shatter 
honored the meeting with his presence and became 
one of us. I am proud of the work accomplished by the 
first meeting. And among the many able papers, none 
was so important as that of Judge Shields upon agri- 
cultural education. It lead to a most animated discus- 
sion and a resolution favoring the passage of an ap- 
propriation of $150,000 for an experimental farm. 

Your able paper upon the horticultural uses of said 
farm, in your issue of the fifth instant, has inspired this 
letter. And I have written to Governor-elect Gillett, 
that I trust he will do everything that in his power 
lies, to aid in the good work. Prof. Withecombe of 
Oregon gave us not only a most interesting and valu- 
able paper, suggesting sheep husbandry upon our semi- 
exhausted wheat lands and admonishing us "that no 
country continues prosperous that produces successive 
crops of wheat." He also made to us an earnest plea 
to stand by our "State Fair," stating that among many, 
one of its greatest benefits was "as an educational fac- 
tor." Mrs. Shields and my wife were the only ladies 
present at the meeting and Mrs. Coe told Prof. Withe- 
combe that it was her earnest desire to educate "our 
boys" in the agricultural training. 

Now I had that day visited the "State Fair" for the 
first time in my life, and fearing I am going to tax 
your patience, in a much too long letter, I shall never- 
theless write my impressions and thoughts of what I 
saw. To this I beg to ask your keenest attention and 
shall hope for your co-operation in my endeavor to do 
good, prompted by patriotism rather than business on 
my part. After having visited the live stock exhibit 
I walked over to the "grand stand" to observe nearly 
empty benches upon this supposed "gala day" of the 
State fair. I saw a large crowd, mostly horsemen and 
gamblers. I waited for one "event," looked all around 
and through the grand stand, where I saw seated at 
tables cigarette smoking women and men drinking cool 
beverages, for it was an excessively hot day. 



subject was that the State was too poor to provide fair 
grounds in the various cities. It seems to me that the 
town or city that lacks sufficient enterprise to provide 
suitable and fully adequate exhibit grounds is unworthy 
the honor of having the State Fair. Los Angeles, I 
am sure, made a worthy bid for it. And it seems to 
me, even the little town of Santa Cruz by the sea 
would be a more attractive location and draw a much 
larger crowd than Sacramento, with its intolerable 
heat, dust and mosquitoes. Surely it would be a de- 
light to any ranchero from any of the foothills or 
from the great interior valley of the State to visit the 
sea coast at least once a year, escaping the dust and 
heat, where he can enjoy a needful bath in the surf 
and the delight of sea breezes and capturing a salmon or 
two, as well as a prize for his best horse, yearling, 
pumpkin, rooster or dog. I am not one of those who 
think racing should be abolished in California, but I 
think it needs, like lots of other things, strict regula- 
tion or abuses will certainly wreck the success and 
popularity of our State Fair. 

I have written to Dr. Blemer, editor of the Live 
Stock and Dairy Journal; to Hon. Warren Porter, and 
last but not least Gov. Gillett on this subject. The 
State has tried in past years to aid several district 
fairs, but with very indifferent success. A few political 
"bosses" in their respective localities seem to profit 
by such aid to these district fairs more than the agri- 
cultural interests. If the State Fair could be made 
what it ought to be, it seems to me, within a very few 
years it would be a credit to the whole State, no longer 
a burden to the tax payers, be self maintaining, and 
do a vast amount of good, affording a holiday which 
ought to be a social event for our noblest people. It is, 
then, it seems to me, during fair week, wherever it shall 
be held, that all agricultural, horticultural, live stock 
organizations should meet at least once annually to dis- 
cuss ways and means for improved methods and co- 
operate to their mutual advantage, of both producer 
and consumers. 

Let us make of it "the greatest show on eaith." 
Wny should it not attract the attention of the whole 



little town of Hanford, Kings county, claimed ade- 
quate facilities for holding a State fair. From what 1 
can learn it presents the best district fair in the en- 
tire State. Our State fair is scarcely patronized out- 
side of a few adjoining counties to Sacramento. It is 
not a State fair and I suggest that we sell the State 
fair grounds to the highest bidder and put Sacramento 
on a par with the other cities of the State as to pro- 
viding suitable quarters and grounds for an exhibition 
if they want it. 

The immense advantage of putting the State fair 
upon a circuit would be the encouragement it would 
give exhibitors of the highest types of livestock, unique 
labor-saving inventions, nurserymen and industrial arts 
an opportunity of a more extensive advertisement of 
their i*ock, products of the soil, etc. As Los Angeles 
is the headquarters for many successful Arizonians, 
it will aid the California breeders and manufacturers 
to establish a market in that State and in Mexico; and 
the Salt Lake & Los Angeles railroad would bring 
it within easy reach of those living in Nevada and the 
mining fraternity will be quite as much interested in 
our State fair as we stockmen ourselves. 

I suggest also that the Breeders' Association become 
more wide awake. Let us call it the California Live 
Stock Association. Let the State printer publish in 
pamphlets annually all addresses upon improved meth- 
ods that shall be delivered at our annual meeting (or the 
best ones) with beautiful cuts of all the prize winners 
at the State livestock show, with addresses of exhibit- 
ors, that honor may come to whom honor is due. So, 
also, let viticulturists, fruit growers, be dealt with like- 
wise. Then in a few years the annual meetings will be 
of great permanent value and the booklets combine to 
make a comprehensive library, indispensible to those 
who want to keep abreast of the times. 

At the National Live Stockmen's convention at Port- 
land and at Denver I made an effort to win a conven- 
tion for California. They are coming 2,000 strong some- 
time. I wish we could meet at the Greek Theater at 
Berkeley. This meeting will include the National Wool 
Growers and will represent the most vital interests of 
the Nation. 

CHAS. W. COE. 

San Felipe Valley, San Jose. 

[This was a personal letter to the editor but we see 
no reason to withhold it from the public. It is ex- 
ceedingly interesting and presents topics worthy of 
open discussion. — ED.] 



THE WOODLAND SALE OF SHORTHORNS. 

To the Editor: I am sending you the report of the 
combination sale of Shorthorns recently held at Wood- 
land. Messrs. Ashburner, Gibson and Eakle contrib- 
uted to this sale. The offering of Mr. Ashburner was of 
the "dual purpose" kind. The offering from the Gibson 
farm consisted of their entire calf crop of 1906, and, 
owing to their ages and not being in high condition, 
did not bring as high prices as they probably would 
have had they been older and in better condition. 
H. P. Eakle, Jr., had a draft from his well-known herd, 
and, owing to their condition, sold very well. The 
top price paid for any animal was for the Scotch 
bull, Barmpton Hero. He went to T. B. Gibson for $550, 
and sold none too high. The grand total of the sale 
was forty-eight head; brought $3,965; average per head, 
$80.92. 

Col. G. P. Bellows of Marysville, of Missouri, cried 
the sale and gave general good satisfaction, and was 
engaged to conduct their next sale which is to be held 
November 13. 

I send a detailed statement of the sale: 

Mr. Ashburner Offering. 

Name. Purchaser. Price. 

Bracelet 14th H. E. Wolfe $125.00 

Bracelet 22nd Howard Cattle Co 50.00 

Frantic 55th H.E.Wolfe 35.00 

Frantic 54th 3. N. Merritt 100.00 

Amber E. A. Bullard 100.00 

Anemone E. A. Bullard 130.00 

Azalea H. E. Wolfe 57.50 



70 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 2, 1907 



Baden Gwynne 12th... G. N. Merritt 55.00 

Baden Cherry 7th S. B. Wright 105.00 

9 females brought $757.50, averaging $84.16. 

Ensign G. W. Scott 90.00 

Ambler J. Stephens 80.00 

2 bulls brought $170., averaging $85. 

11 head brought $927.50, averaging $S4.32. 

Mrs. W. B. Gibson and T. B. Gibson Offering. 

Lilly of the Valley J. Reith, Jr 32.50 

Miss G T .. Summy 40 "0 | 

Madam Princess J. Reith, Jr 32.50 

Nellie Erskin G. N. Jacobs 42.00 

Frances J. Reith, Jr 32.50 

Alice's Norde G. N. Jacobs 42.00 

Beauty Spot G. N. Jacobs 42.00 

Woodland Lass G. N. Jacobs 42.00 

8 heifer calves brought $305.50, averaging $38.19. 



Gibson Boy H. E. Wolfe 

Yolo Lad D. B. Lyon 

Blackwater Boy H. E. Wolfe 

Master Billy J3. E. Wolfe 

Woodland Boy H. E. Wolfe 

Duke of Woodland L. Summy 

Haygood Boy F. A. Kauffman. 



Leonard B M. C. Collins 

Master Don H. J. Hough 

Victor Redwood M. C. Collins 

Woodland Rose H. E. Wolfe 

Mr. John M. C. Collins 

Tom's Pride S. J. Hough 

Woodland Lad D. B. Lyon 

14 bull calves brought $624.50, averaging $44.61. 

22 head brought $930, averaging $42.27. 

H. P. Eakle, Jr., Offering. 

Phyllis Lady B. F. Rush 

Phyllis Maid L. Summy 

Nevada Queen G. N. Jacobs 

Miss Dandy 2nd G. H. Fay 

Hopeful 2nd G. N. Jacobs 

Nevada Lady G. H. Fay 

Helen Junior L. Summy 

7 females brought $660, averaging $94.29. 

Nevada Butterfly G. W. Pierce 

Proud Star .Wm. McGraff Co 

Bright Star D. B. Lyon 

Starry Lad E. J. DePue 

Morning Star Wm. McGraff Co 

Star of Hope H. E. Wolfe 

North Star G. N. Jacobs 

Evening Star D. B. Lyon 

Barmpton Lad T. B. Gibson and Mrs. W. 

B. Gibson 

9 bulls brought $1,447.50, averaging $161.07. 

16 head brought $2,107.50, averaging $131.72. 

49 head brought $3,965, average of $80.92. 

H. P. EAKLE, 

Woodland. 



60.00 
41.00 
60.00 
30.00 
25.00 
62.50 
50.00 
40.00 
50.00 
37.50 
40.00 
37.50 
50.00 
41.00 



75.00 

85.00 
75.00 
105.00 
130.00 
120.00 
70.00 

120.00 
105.00 
110.00 
135.00 
150.00 

80.00 
100.00 

97.50 

550.00 



JR. 



no general belief among shipping interests that this at a temperature of 40 degrees will undoubtedly carry 
decay was greater on account of the fruit itself being j to Kansas City and Chicago with the initial icing only, 
more or less damaged in handling, thus making a fer- without material rise of temperature, and with one addi- 
tile field for the ravages of decay spores when condi- tional icing at the Missouri river, to New York 
tions of moisture and temperature were exactly right. ! When the -ability to so handle our shipments has 

Mr. Powell has shown us conclusively not only that been fully demonstrated and the proper method or 
most growers and packers were damaging a very large procedure determined, many expensive ice manufactur- 
percentage of the fruit, but also that under their most in S plants and icing stations in the desert country 
trying conditions, it is almost impossible for a perfect where labor and fuel are necessarily high, will be 
and undamaged orange to decay in the two weeks' abandoned, practically all of the refrigeration being ac- 
journey from California to New York and that, were complished at the point of shipment. Whether Mr. 
it possible to put our fruit in boxes in the same condi- Powell will be ready to definitely advocate some com- 
tion as to brasures of the skin that it is in when upon prehensive and practical plan of initial refrigeration 
the trees, the greater part, at least, of our troubles ] t0 accomplish these results in the near future, I do 
from decay would be eliminated. n °t know, but I am sure that his investigations have 

It would appear that the smaller losses from decayed i sucn an end in view, and personally, I am confident 



fruit that have resulted during the past two seasons, 
that the benefits of the investigations by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture had already shown up in marked 



that such a result will finally be reached. 

The net savings to the industry from the investiga- 
tions already entered upon by Mr. Powell, viz., both 



degree; although during the present season of ex- careful handling and pre or quick cooling, will undoubt- 
tremely heavy rains and a general moist condition in edlv De ver y great, reaching probably a million dollars 
California, we may find that our decay losses will in- 1 yearly, and much more than that sum if all growers and 
crease somewhat over the last two years. The present shippers can be brought to realize the importance of as 
year will doubtless be the most favorable one that Mr. j nearly perfect an application of the principles and rules 
Powell and his associates have had for their investiga- : lai(1 down by Mr. Powell as may be possible. 



FRUIT MARKETING. 



EXPERIMENTS IN SHIPPING CITRUS FRUITS. 

(By B. A. Woodford of Los Angeles, manager of Cali- 
fornia Citrus Fruit Exchange at the University Citrus 
Growers' Institute.) 

Three years ago the citrus fruit growers of Cali- 
fornia were picking and packing their fruits, for the 
most part, under methods that had prevailed for many 
years, this being done with some regard it is true as to 
the necessity of careful handling, more especially on 
the part of a few individual growers and shippers; 
but the great bulk of the crop was handled without 
any real conception of the immense amount of damage 
that was done the fruit by methods then in vogue. 

Largely through the efforts of Mr. J. H. Reed of Riv- 
erside, the Department of Agriculture of the United 
States Government began its investigations as to meth- 
ods of citrus fruit handling under the direction of its 
representative in the field, G. Harold Powell, the re- 
sults of which investigations have been in many in- 
stances announced and their great value recognized. 

For years the orange shipper had been in the habit 
of having his net returns greatly reduced by heavy al- 
lowances on account of decay developing in greater or 
less degree in transit, accepting these losses as un- 
avoidable owing to the great distance to the principal 
markets. We, as shippers, had determined to our 
satisfaction, that under certain conditions of moisture 
and warm weather at time of shipment, together with 
favorable moisture and temperature conditions in 
transit, exceedingly heavy decay resulted. But there was 



tions, owing to the fact that conditions are likely to 
be right for the development of decay. 

Speaking strictly from a commercial standpoint, it 
Is my opinion that on account of the perfectly clear 
demonstrations of Mr. Powell and his assistants show- 
ing us the necessity of careful handling from the tree 
to the car, our losses from decay during the past two 
seasons have not exceeded half of what they would have 
otherwise been. 

Inasmuch as our troubles of this nature do not gen- 
erally appear until the first of February or later, prob- 
ably only some 15,000 cars of oranges yearly have been 
benefited. I think 10 cents a box, or $40 a car would 
be a low estimate of the amount saved to our orchard- 
ists by the more careful handling that they have been 
given, and this amount on 15,000 cars, would total 
$600,000 per year. Had all growers and combinations 
of growers and packers shown the same appreciation 
of Mr. Powell's investigations and the application of 
the recommendations made by him that our most pro- 
gressive growers, packers and associations of growers 
have shown, the benefits to the industry would have 
been much greater. It is to be hoped with the in- 
creased appropriation available for this work, and on 
account of the greater scope of the work, making it 
more general as to localities, that all those engaged 
in picking and packing citrus fruit will become inter- 
ested in demonstrating by their own acts what can be 
saved in the way of careful handling. 

Pre-Cooling. — Aside from the question of careful han- 
dling of the fruit, Mr. Powell opened up another sub- 
ject, viz.: pre-cooling, or quicker cooling of our fruits 
for shipment, the benefits from which, in so far as 
money value is concerned, may prove to be as great 
or greater than savings from care in handling. 

While these investigations would indicate that if it 
were possible to pick and pack every orange without 
damage, fruit so handled would be landed in Eastern 
markets under ventilation in all seasons of the year 



In so far as I know, growers and organizatons of 
growers generally, realize the importance of giving Mr. 
Powell and his assistants every facility to continue 
their experiments and are ready to apply the results 
when announced. It is likely, too, that instead of con- 
fining their operations to the lines that they have al- 
ready worked upon, the representatives of the Gov- 
ernment will show us some other things in which we 
are as radically wrong as we have been in our care- 
less handling of fruit. So that we may look forward 
to the investigations of the Department of Agriculture 
in our midst as one of the surest means of greatly 
increasing the net returns from our orchards, if we 
ourselves but apply the principles that are proved to 
be right. 

In speaking of Mr. Powell as the representative of 
the Government in the work that has been done, we 
must not ignore the fact that he has been most ably 
i assisted by Mr. Steubenrauch, Mr. Tenny and others 
of his force. 

In the discussion following Mr. Woodford's paper, the 
opinion was unanimous that Mr. Powell's investiga- 
tions had been productive of the best results in pre- 
venting damage to fruit in picking, hauling and han- 
dling fruit in the packing house. The damage by 
picking was not by any means all done by hired pick- 
ers, but in one special case where the owner picked 
hinu.-elf there was 65 per cent of one load of fruit dam- 
aged. The remedy recommended was careful super- 
vision in the orchard and everywhere else, and day- 
work in place of piece work. 



FLORIN SALES OF BERRIES AND GRAPES. 

At the recent annual meeting of the Florin Fruit 
Growers' Association, the report of the directors showed 
that 9478 cases of strawberries were shipped by this 
company, which netted the growers for the first crop 
89 cents and the second crop 94 cents. 

Out of a total of 171 carloads of grapes shipped to 
with practically no decay, still such perfect handling Eastern markets New York took 27, average $1.34; 
of the fruit is not practicable or attainable, as even Chicago 18, average $1.33; Philadelphia 11, average 
our best growers and packers will damage some fruit, i $1-32 ; Pittsburg 2, average $1.34. Net average return 
Then, too, after May first, when warm weather be- 1 to the growers on all classes of grapes, 76 cents; net 
comes general throughout the country at large, most average Tokays, 77 cents. Average charge on shipments, 
of the trade prefer to have their oranges come in under I representing freight and commissions, 77 cents. Net 
ice on account of the fresher and cleaner appearance return to growers, $53,293.11. 

of the fruit, as compared with ventilated shipments, The highest gross received for a carload of grapes 
which are subject to wilting by dry hot winds, and to of 1000 crates was $1881. This car netted the growers 
more or less dust and dirt from the engine and roadbed. | $1262.20, and was the first car of the season, while the 
So that for years to come at least, the shipment of j lowest return to the growers was for a car shipped 
oranges under ventilation from April on, will not be- four days later in the same market. 

come general even though the fruit be undamaged 

in picking and packing. Under ordinary icing methods, 
a car of fruit may start out with a temperature of say 
85 degrees and with efficient and full icing as now best 
be only gradual, the temperature perhaps never reach- 
ing as low as 40 degrees and probably not dropping 
below 50 degrees until after half of the journey to New 
York has been accomplished, during which time any 
decay germs that may have become lodged in the 
oranges, have opportunity of development. Then, too, 
the consumption of ice and the consequent cost of re- 
frigeration is greater under the ordinary present meth- 
ods, than would be the case under improved methods. 

There is no question but what some means of appli- 
cation of refrigeration to the fruit will be evolved where- 



SHEEP AND WOOL. 



THE RAM BOU I LLET MERINOS, 



"The 
Judd 



Mr. Thomas Wycoff of Michigan writes on 
Rambouillet's Rightful Place" in the Orange 
Farmer: 

Beginning with the Merino breeds we find the wool- 
producing type appearing in the front ranks with other 
races, because there is money now in producing wool. 
During the 60's, when wool reached the extreme price 
of $1 per pound in currency, no other breed of sheep 
was so popular or so valuable. Sales reached often 
above $100 per head and men made money out of the 



by the temperature of the fruit itself, will be reduced heavy shearing Merinos. History sometimes repeats 
to 40 degrees or thereabouts within forty-eight hours itself. 

after picking, and this at a cost much less than the j In the future of wool, I congratulate Mr. Ball and 
present one. Fruit so cooled and leaving California | others who have kept the Merino faith, stood by their 



71 



flocks or bought the tops of the best flocks 
that have been dispersed, and bred them pure, 
improving them. They now see the dawn of a better 
day and will be recompensed for their faithfulness. 
I believe that the young breeder will do better with a 
few of these sheep than of other breed, as they will 
stand more grief from irregularity in feeding and turn 
more weeds and waste on the farm into convertible 
bonds than any other. 

The mutton breeds all require an abundant, con- 
venient ration at all times for the highest profit, and 
like early apples, mature early, do not keep well as 
the slower Merino races and must be marketed early, 
but will make more money, just the same. 

Rambouillet Lamb for Mutton. — The Merino breeds 
develop slower and continue longer, having more nu- 
tritive capability. I am aware that feeders of lambs 
require an evidence of Merino blood this year, but 
whether it is their higher feeding qualities or more 
abundant fleece, I will leave to them. That Merino 
breeders are in the swim is evident all over the west- 
ern ranges, in Africa, Australia and Buenos Ayres. 
Wool is an object and they must have Merino blood. 
A plain, large Delaine fleeced animal has the prefer- 
ence in the United States, but the Delaine combination 
from the union of the two lines of blood, the Ram- 
bouillet and the wrinkly Merino, finds the market in 
Cape Town, Australia, at from $100 to $500 for the 
first-class specimens. A Merino with a 16-pound fleece 
is more in demand than a six-pound Shropshire. 

A balance must be struck, however, and the increase 
of wool in the Merino may be in our State, in money 
value, equal to the increased mutton of the Down 
breeds. Again, the early maturity of the Down breeds 
and early markets may more than balance the nutri- 
tion, wool and rustling qualities of the Merino. Surely 
the Merino, either American, Delaine, or Rambouillet, 
live long enough for the beginner in sheep breeding 
to get acquainted with them and are a safe investment 
in the future. 

Merinos Hardy. — I will refer briefly to the Rambouil- 
let Merino, as I have had some experience among them. 
They are valuable as a Merino because of the larger 
size and heavier mutton products, and because they 
have been bred for a century to combine a heavy 
maturing animal of the highest degree of nutritive 
capability, with still another object, the finest Delaine 
wool in existence with length, evenness, strength and 
elasticity, and just the proper quantity of oil to pro- 
mote an abundant fleece. 

The Rambouillet Merino is above all a cosmopolitan 
race, thriving better than other Merinos wherever found. 
It can and does adapt itself to every condition and 
every environment, which the exclusive mutton breeds 
will not do so well. 



GOOD ROADS. 



USE OF OIL ON ROADS. 

State Highway Commissioner Ellery, in his biennial 
report, discusses the subject of oil as a road building 
material, giving the way experience has shown is the 
best to apply to oil in successful road-making. 

No material is quite so important to our road im- 
provement as crude asphaltic oil. It may be used as a 
dust preventive, a roof to shed the rainwater from the 
foundation, and as a lubricant to reduce the rate of 
wear to the road surface. While these improvements 
are of vast importance when properly handled, it must 
be borne in mind that only partial results, and in many 
cases no results, are obtained with improper applica- 
tion, selection, and treatment of oil. 

Upon inspection of oiled roads of this State it was 
found that no general system prevailed. In many cases, 
oil was applied to a rutty ioad, uneven and worn out, 
and then allowed to collect in puddles. This was 
labeled an oiled road. It takes but a short time to lose 
faith in work under such methods and it has been due 
to this lack of preparation and care that so many 
counties have discontinued the use of oil. How- 
ever, such work was not found on all roads vis- 
ited, as several counties of California have excellent 
oiled roadways. A good oiled earth highway was par- 
ticularly noticed in Supervisorial District No. 2, Yolo 
county, where a highly intelligent use of oil may be 
seen on the Winters-Davisville road. Here is an earth 
road of splendid cross-section, prepared, and oiled at 
a cost not exceeding $150 per mile, and creating a road 
at this figure fit for heavy travel as well as light ve- 
hicles. The plan followed in this work is presented 
as an extremely sensible and scientific solution of the 
problem. 

The roadway is first cut out to the cross-section de- 
sired, with the crown easily decreasing in elevation to 



a slight gutter about seven feet from the property 
line, and from this point there is a rise to the edge 
of the right of way. The crown is not excessive, per- 
haps eight inches, thus giving ample opportunity for a 
lateral spreading of the travel. After the road is cut 
to a hard, even base and all weak spots remedied, oil 
is applied at the rate of one gallon to the square yard 
of surface; then the grader re-turns the earth, which 
was piled at either side of the road to be treated imme 
diately over the oiled portion. While this is being done 
a drag attached to the rear of the grader, as 
shown in the accompanying view, smooths the earth 
over the oil to a depth of four or five inches. After 
thorough rolling and compacting of the earth on the 
oil, travel is permitted on the roadway. At this point 
an excellent plan is used: The travel necessarily cre- 
ates a rough surface, and if allowed to continue without 
any further work a very inferior road would result. 
But the grader and attached drag go over and smooth 
the surface as necessity requires, keeping the work in 
almost perfect shape. By simply repeating this pro- 
cess, with grader and drag, to keep the road smooth 
until the oil eventually comes up to the surface, an ex- 
tremely hard, oiled road of earth is given. At any 
point, where there appears on the surface too much 
oil for the material, a local application of sand or 
earth is made. This process makes an oiled road by 
fully saturating the oil, giving it a body hard enough 
to withstand heavy travel with scarcely any indenta- 
tion or drag to the tractive power. 

Upon examination of many miles of oiled country 
roads, it was observed that soft, plastic bunches of 
oiled material have accumulated near the edge of the 
travel, showing conclusively that too much oil was used 
for the material involved. The use of an excessive 
amount of oil has given rise to the teamsters' objec- 
tion to the heavy pull — an objection well sustained by 
experience, but one dispelled by the foregoing method 
of oiling. 

In Southern California considerable mileage of good 
oiled roads may be found. Riverside county employs 
a method very similar to the one used in Yolo county, 
with remarkably fine results. The sub-grade is crowned 
to the proper cross-section, when it is watered and 
rolled thoroughly to a solid even form. Upon this is 
placed about four inches of granite stone found handi- 
ly near, which is in turn wet and rolled' until com- 
pacted. On this surface is sprinkled from one-half 
to one gallon of heavy asphaltic oil to the square yard. 
Then over this is deposited about two inches of fine 
granite material, enough in each instance to complete- 
ly keep the oil from reaching the surface for several 
days. Whenever oil appears in a slight puddle on 
the surface it is immediately covered with fine crushed 
rock. This method gives a road closely resembling a 
bituminous macadam pavement, and one which has a 
wearing capacity far beyond the life of the roads treated 
with a top layer of oil. 

From the experience in our State on oiling roads, the 
following deductions drawn are paragraphed rather 
than placed in specified forin, as too many conditions 
arise requiring special treatment in individual cases 
and therefore general specifications might be at fault 
for some special piece of work. 

Road Oil. — Perhaps many miles of California roads 
have received applications of oil which contained but 
a small percentage of asphaltum, and which made a 
failure positive in such cases. The selection of a proper 
oil is very essential, affecting, as it does, the whole 
work. At the city engineer's office, in Riverside, two 
specimens of oil were displayed', after evaporation. 
Both were originally of heavy gravity, and after re- 
duction the asphaltum residuum in one sample was nil, 
while in the other sample a heavy percentage of as- 
phaltum remained. Upon looking at those results it 
was plainly evident why some failures had occurred 
after considerable care had been used in road prepara- 
tion. For such reason it is especially suggested that 
oils to be used for road purposes should be thor- 
oughly tested for asphaltum and amount of foreign 
matter and water contained therein. Good road oil 
should contain 40 per cent of asphaltum and have no 
more than 3 per cent of foreign matter and water. 

Undoubtedly the best and simplest test of the road- 
making value of an oil is to evaporate a weighed sam- 
ple in an open, metal dish, down to hardness of com- 
mercial "D" asphalt and weigh the residue. This plan 
gives both the original asphalt and that formed during 
evaporation, and while this does not exactly corre- 
spond to the amount of asphalt created when sun-dried, 
yet the comparative values of oil are accurate. The 
only apparatus required for this test is an iron pan, a 
scale, and a heating apparatus. 

Another item of interest and discussion in connection 
with oil for road building is whether it should be ap- 



plied cold or hot. Good roads have been obtained b> 
either process, but, as cold oil is considerably cheaper, 
my preference is for cold oil, allowing, however that 
where oil is very heavily asphaltic, heating may be re- 
quired to give fluidity enough to apply the oil. 

The selection of the oil is a matter of vast importance 
Always require a test for asphalt contained, and foreign 
substance, and seek that quality containing the greatest 
percentage of asphaltum. 

Road Preparation for Oiling.— Earth Roads.— Roads- 
made of earth present the easiest mode of construc- 
tion and the least expensive, when first cost only is 
considered, but as such, to have them good roads, re- 
quires constant attention. They should be properly 
drained to meet all conditions of rainfall and crowned 
sufficiently to create a roof for the water to run off. 
Where oil is to be applied, the roadbed should be cut 
evenly and compactly and solidly, in no case, however, 
leaving weak or wornout spots. Upon this should be 
applied from three-fourths to one gallon of good as- 
phaltic oil, the amount varying to meet special condi- 
tions, and then immediately cover it with about four 
inches of earth. If sand or fine gravel is readily avail- 
able, employ this material, as it gives a better body 
to the artificial bitumen. Then compact by rolling the 
earth upon the oil, and care for your roadway with a 
drag and grader as previously outlined. By all means 
give your road a chance to show its efficiency by prop- 
erly caring for it. 

Oil on Alkali. — Where the roadway is composed of 
earth containing alkali or lime a different plan must be 
followed. It is now known that the asphalt of the oil 
is disintegrated by either material into two substances, 
petrolene and asphaltene, neither of which taken sep- 
arately has any road value. Therefore, to obtain an 
oiled road of any reasonable life we must cover the 
alkali soil with some material with which the oil must 
be incorporated. 

Gravel Roads. — The almost universal plan of making 
gravel roads in California is by dumping on the road 
unscreened gravel and allowing the travel to spread 
and pack it down. A change is here necessary for 
oiling purposes. First make a sub-grade of the given 
cross-section evenly compacted by wetting and rolling, 
and then apply about a gallon of oil to the square 
yard of surface. Upon this apply about three inches 
of fine gravel and sand, and then thoroughly roll again. 
Under such a plan there is no reason why gravel should 
not produce a very excellent road of good wearing 
quality. 

Road materials in this State are so distributed that 
no section need be without some form of rock road. 
The streams of the valleys contain extensive beds of 
gravel which may be used to construct oiled graveled 
roads of durability. 

Macadam Roads. — What applies to the sub-grade for 
gravel roads is also applicable to macadam construc- 
tion. On the sub-grade from four to six inches, accord- 
ing to foundation, of crushed rock should be applied 
and thoroughly wet and rolled. On this apply one 
gallon of heavy asphaltic oil per square yardi of sur- 
face, and then cover with two inches of finely crushed 
rock. Upon this should be placed about one inch of 
screenings. This material must then be thoroughly 
rolled and cared for until the oil has reached or nearly 
reached the surface of the screenings. Wherever there 
is a tendency for oil to collect on the surface cover it 
with more screenings. 

In all instances where oil is applied beneath the real 
surface of the roadway, there is a tendency for it to 
rise and not to penetrate downward in direction to any 
great extent. This is due to the weight above forcing 
the material down, and the oil ascends, filling the inter- 
stices. It is my firm belief that this plan, if properly 
followed out, will give exceedingly gratifying results. 
If the top rock is hard the oil will extend its wearing 
life very materially by acting as a lubricant in pre- 
vention of the grinding process, and by having a depth 
of oil, say four inches, in the road gives an elastic bind- 
ing which takes up the weight and shocks of travel, 
reducing the wear and the raveling of the ordinary mac- 
adam road. 

Repairs to Oiled Roads. — Whenever a weak spot or 
rut shows in an oiled road' it should immediately be 
repaired by cutting out a section with vertical sides, 
which shall be filled, in the case of gravel or macadam 
with mixed oil and fine gravel or fine crushed rock. On 
oiled earth roads the rut should be cut out, oil poured 
in, and then the excavation filled with about three 
inches of soil or preferably sand. Thoroughly tamp all 
material placed for repairs and in all cases make the 
fill slightly above the road surface to allow for settle- 
ment. The vertical sides to the excavation give 



72 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 2, 1907 



shoulders beyond which the traffic can not shove along 
the new material or scatter it from its position. 

In the appendix to this report are given two sets of 
oiled road specifications — one for streets in Los An- 
geles city and the other for streets in Santa Monica. 
The latter consists of a departure from the plan out- 
lined and suggested above, but as yet this department 
has no actual knowledge of its results. The result ot 
road oiling throughout California, after a large expendi- 
ture by the counties, has not proved satisfactory, ex- 
cept in a few counties and localities. With this In 
mind it is earnestly believed an appropriation from the 
State for experimental and object-lesson oiled roads, to 
be applied in about five sections under different, ex- 
isting conditions, would prove highly beneficial to those 
having charge of county roads. 

From the data collected by this department there 
seems to be little doubt of the extreme importance of 
oil in making roads, and I therefore recommend that 
an appropriation of $7,000 be made for experimental, 
object-lesson oiled roads. 



THE MARKETS. 



Wheat. 

Though it has been rather a quiet week in the wheat 
trade with only a limited demand, prices are steady 
and taking the world as a whole the situation has im- 
proved in the last few days. Advices from New York 
and Chicago are of a more bullish character than foi 
a long time. On this coast market influences have 
been almost invariably of a bearish character. The 
principal demand for both wheat and flour comes from 
the Orient, where the demand is good, and some good 
sized cargoes of wheat have recently been disposed 
of in the North. Millers there are willing to purchase 
at present ruling figures for some liberal orders re- 
cently received for flour, but sellers are not willing 
to dispose of their holdings at figures quoted, and it 
will take a good premium over these figures to dis- 
lodge any great amount of wheat. Exporters are hav- 
ing trouble once more to secure enough wheat to load 
tonnage chartered. Puget Sound is still in the clutches 
of the railroad companies and no relief has been given 
shippers there as yet. Some of the vessels have been 
lying there over two months and are waiting for wheat 
to load and a great many vessels are claiming demur- 
rage on account of this detention. Vessels are con- 
stantly arriving, and, instead of the situation becom- 
ing better, it is becoming worse daily. 

Flour. 

The flour factors have advanced the price of flour 
20 cents per barrel. The reason of the advance is the 
recent upward movement in milling wheat in the North, 
where the demand for flour for the Orient has 
been quite energetc. The improved demand for 
flour from the other side is not due to the 
Japanese storing it up against possible war 
needs, but is based upon the famine in China, which 
covers a wide area and is acute. An active demand 
for flour for foreign export has sprung up in the East- 
ern States, and as the demand on this coast is also 
active, both for local and export account, the flour 
trade is in better condition than for some time. The 
advance of 20 cents per barrel will probably be main- 
tained without difficulty. It is the opinion of dealers 
that the additional cost of flour and feed production 
would warrant an advance of 25 cents per barrel in 
flour. 

Barley. 

Large handlers continue to report sales of feed at 
full figures and a firm market. Receipts continue mod- 
erate, as a rule. Brewers are out of the market as a 
general thing, having laid in a supply to carry them 
for some time to come. Choice brewing is virtually 
cleaned up. Stocks in first hands are gradually be- 
coming smaller. 

Millstuffs. 

In sympathy with the upward movement in flour, 
the market for feedstuffs has been on the upward 
move, though additional receipts of bran, middlings, 
and shorts from Washington have had some effect to 
keep the feedstuffs market easy, except middlings and 
rolled barley, which are very firm. There is no oil- 
cake meal on the market. Rolled barley is selling at 
$24 to $25; bran, $20 to $22; middlings, $27 to $30, 
and shorts, $20 to $22.50. 

Oats. 

This market is very firm, and prices have an up- 
ward tendency. The bulk of the receipts this week 



have been from Washington. The local demand is 
good and sales are made daily at quotations. Some 
dealers are of the opinion that prices will go higher. 
Stocks are light. California buyers are constantly in 
the Northern markets to secure choice stock, and are 
willing to pay a premium. One of the drawbacks is 
the uncertainty of securing space on steamers to ship 
purchases. Cereal mills are all good purchasers for 
choice stock. 

Corn. 

The corn market continues stagnant with few signs 
of an early resumption of interest. Transactions! are 
small and infrequent. 



Beans. 

While on the surface the bean market has appeared 
to be rather quiet for some time past, there has been 
a fair shipping trade. In December the shipments from 
San Francisco by sea were 1,321,392 pounds. Pink 
beans are firm, with sellers asking a slight advance. 
Otherwise there is nothing new in prices, or in the 
demand. 

Wool. 

Some of the Humboldt wools are still in first hands, 
but jobbers profess to be unwilling to take them at 
present prices. Boston advices say that in California 
the wool sales have been confined largely to middle 
county wools, the northern and southern wools re- 
ceiving little or no inquiry. These middle county wools, 
although short, are nice and desirable wools for felt- 
ing purposes, and they have been taken to the extent 
of about 150,000 pounds, the prices realized being 21 
to 22c, equivalent to a scoured cost of C5c. Oregon 
wools are receiving but little attention in the Boston 
market just now, although there are some lines which 
ought to prove attractive, in view of the high prices 
which the growers in Oregon seem disposed to place 
upon their wools when the next season opens. But the 
actual business is limited to sales of about 30,000 
pounds- of nice, fine Eastern staple, which brought about 
23 cents. 

Hops. 

The general idea is that there will be but little life 
in the hop market until the buyers begin to get a line 
on the size and quality of the coming crop. There 
are large stocks left over in all the Coast States, but 
these are not apt to be much traded in until some- 
thing is guessable as to the new crop. Little is do- 
ing at present in either spot or future hops. 

Hay. 

With the evident disposition on the part of the 
Southern Pacific Company to relieve the hay blockade 
in the Oakland yards, there has been a marked in- 
crease in arrivals by rail during the past week. Total 
receipts amount to 4270 tons, in comparison with 3150 
for the week preceding. The market has readily ab- 
sorbed the increase without any change in prices in 
any way. The present cold weather has created an 
interior demand also, so that on the whole the situa- 
tion is rather strong at the moment. A few days of 
clear skies may weaken things somewhat, especially if 
the grass gets a good start. The local demand still 
seems to be for the very best grades, although both 
alfalfa and stock hay are meeting with a ready sale. 
Straw is arriving but sparingly and holds its own, with 
a little tendency toward higher prices. Although an 
occasional car of fancy wheat hay brings $23, such 
sales are rare. 

Poultry. 

Though the market is sttll firm, taking one day with 
another, it has had some unsteady days this week ow- 
ing to the heavy arrivals of Eastern poultry. Prices 
are quotably unchanged though they have a general 
downward tendency. Game, too, has been easier, the 
abundance of poultry causing a marked decrease in 
the demand. Dressed turkeys meet with a fair inquiry 
at the old quotations, while live were neglected and 
wholly nominal. 

Butter. 

The situation still makes toward firmness. Light re- 
ceipts, together with a sudden spurt in buying for 
local and near-by use, has created a stronger feeling 
in butter, even those dealers who had previously been 
rather shaky regarding the future of the market being 
now very firm in their views. Stocks have been ample 
for all needs, however, and there is no disposition to 
advance prices. 



Eggs. 

Some days ago there was a reversal of the usual 
order of things in the egg market, and the demand for 
lower grades became sharper than for the best. Since 
then the boom in the under grades has continued un- 
abated, and with the receipts insufficient to satisfy 
ordinary wants of buyers, the market has ruled very 
strong and the range of prices has become very nar- 
row, there being only Vfec difference between the quo- 
tation for firsts and seconds. The scarcity of cheap 
stock is diverting more business to the upper grades, 
and they, too, are cleaning up rapidly from day to 
day. 

Cheese. 

The cheese market is possibly a trifle easier this 
week though taken as a whole it is still in good shape 
with nothing dragging very badly. 

Potatoes. 

Potatoes have been short all week. About the mid- 
dle of the week the shortage was very pronounced, 
there being no arrivals from Oregon or the East, and 
only a comparatively small quantity coming to hand 
from the river districts. Oregon and Eastern Burbanks 
are about entirely cleaned out of first hands and the 
arrivals of river goods are quickly disposed of at firm 
rates, some well known brands commanding a small 
premium. A car of sweet potatoes came in and the 
stock is selling at $2.75 to $3.00. 

Vegetables. 

Changes in vegetables are slight. Receipts from do- 
mestic points continue light and choice lots meet with 
the usual prompt sale. Some liberal consignments of 
Mexican tomatoes have come to hand. Onions are 
closely cleaned up and very firm. 

Fresh Fruits. 

Fresh fruit has been very quiet this week with very 
little life in the apple market and nothing else moving 
at all. The cheaper grades of apples are cleaned out 
and there is now nothing to be had at less than $1 
per box. The threatening weather seems to be acting 
unfavorably on buyers-. 

Dried Fruits. 

A quiet but firm market for all kinds of dried fruits 
has prevailed all week with absolutely no change in 
the prices quoted and but little in the volume of de- 
mand. Advices from the East continue to report a 
firming up of the situation as far as prunes and raisins 
are concerned. 

Citrus Fruits. 

Not much interest was manifest in oranges this week, 
though the arrivals have been freer and the quality 
continues to show improvement. Late estimates of the 
size of the orange crop of Southern California place 
the output at 30,000 carloads. 

Wine. 

The main interest in the wine situation is in the 
estimates now being made as to the size of the vin- 
tage for 1906. One large estimate places the yield 
of sweet wine at 16,000,000 gallons, or larger than ever 
before, and the dry wine yield at 26,000,000 gallons. 
This makes a total for the State of 41,000,000 gallons 
a s compared with less than 30,000,000 gallons for 1905. 
According to this estimate the 1906 yield was larger 
than any previous year except the year 1902, when the 
vintage was about 45,000,000. 



CHAFF. 



An Irishman once defined the human head as "a 
bulbous excrescence, of special use to many as a peg 
for hanging a hat on, as a barber's block for supporting 
wigs, as a target for shooting at when rendered con- 
spicuous by a shining helmet, as a snuffbox or a chatter- 
box, as a machine for fitting into a halter or guillotine, 
as a receptacle for freaks, fancies, follies, passions, 
prejudices, predilections — for anything, In short, but 
brains." 



Revivalist — Do you realize, young man, that when you 
retire at night you may be called ere morning dawns? 

Younghub — Yep. The baby has the croup a good deal 
at this season of the year. 



Jane — Well, have you made your choice out of the 
half-dozen fellows who- want to marry you, poor things? 

Grace — Oh, yes; as they say in the city, I've posted 
"letters of allotment and regret." 



February 2, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



73 



THE DAIRY. 



THE CALIFORNIA BUTTER INDUSTRY 

The sixth biennial report of the 'State 
Dairy Bureau of California, by the Sec- 
retary, Win. H. Saylor, contains several 
interesting chapters on dairy affairs in 
the State and statistics relative to the in- 
dustry. Chief in point of interest is the 
statement of the butter output for the 
past two years. The output for the 
year ending September 30, 1906, is given 
by counties in the following table: 

County Pounds 

Alameda 848,953 

Alpine 24,455 

Amador 230,420 

Butte 176,633 

Calaveras 137,316 

Colusa 278,872 

Contra Costa 526,311 

Del Norte 636,431 

El Dorado 223,769 

Fresno 2,644,897 

Glenn 177,954 

Humboldt 4,235,927 

Inyo 123,106 

Kern 334,070 

Kings> 1,677,272 

Lake 109,506 

Lassen 361,068 

Los Angeles 933,896 

Madera 94,642 

Marin 3,603,274 

Mariposa 18,262 

Mendocino 782,387 

Merced 2,361,528 

Modoc 138,945 

Mono 22,456 

Monterey 551,122 

Napa 741,074 

Nevada 135,444 

Orange 517,697 

Placer 260,275 

Plumas 350,145 

Riverside 578,957 

Sacramento 1,617,633 

San Benito 121,567 

San Bernardino 183,558 

San Diego 1,041,207 

San Francisco 

San Joaquin 1,641,374 

San Mateo 272,551 

San Luis Obispo 1,388,551 

Santa Barbara 767,823 

Santa Clara 326,218 

Santa Cruz 399,976 

Shasta 12,368 

Sierra 216,386 

Siskiyou 495,771 

Solano 856,154 

Sonoma 3,794,846 

Stanislaus 2,759,582 

Sutter 224,016 

Tehama 148,176 

Trinity 16,786 

Tulare 2,075,929 

Tuolumne 31,676 

Ventura 145,640 

Yolo 1,387,210 

Yuba 182,516 

Total 44,044,578 

In order to comprehend the full sig- 
nificance of these figures, they must be 
compared with those for former years, 
which appear below: 
Year Pounds 

1897 28,678,439 

1898 23,691,028 

1899 24,868,084 

1900 28,783,859 

1901 29,701,202 

1902 31,528,762 

1903 34,786,289 

1904 35,636,969 

1905 41,961,047 

1906 44,044,578 

It will be noted that a new mark in 

butter production has been made by the 
State, the gain over last year amounting 
to approximately five per cent. This gain 
would have been still greater had it not 
been for the fact that the big dairy coun- 

(Continued on page 75) 



Make Dairying Pay 

Just consider the part the cow takes as a producer for the farm. She not only furnishes in milk many times her own weight 
in a single year, but reproduces herself annually, and her off-spring is either sold to the butcher or raised to go through the 
same process of production for perhaps twelve or fifteen years to come. But to keep cows or run the dairy requires care. You 
can't have inilk without furnishing its equivalent— feed. And the skillful dairyman will carefully increase the ration for his 
cows until he finds the limit of each animal's digestion. At this point is where the profit lies. 

Difficulties, however, are often encountered in arriving at the digestive capacity of a dairy cow. Going off her feed, Indi- 
gestion, Milk Fever, Mammitis are the consequences, but where the proper tonics are administered the digestive organs are 
strengthened and improved and the largest possible amount of food is digested and converted into milk. 

D 5 HESS STOCK FOOD 

18 the medicinal stock tonic and prescription of Dr. Hess (M. D., D. V. S.)- Is especially designed to make cows give more milk, market stock grow 
faster, horses do more work, and to relieve minor stock ailments. It is not a food in itself but makes all the food of the farm produce more milk more 
meat and more work. 

Professors Quitman, Winslow and Flnlay Don, the moBt noted medical writers of the age, tell us that bitter tonics improve digestion, iron makes 
blood and the nitrates assist nature in expelling poisonous material from the system. Such ingredients make up Dr. Hess Stock Food— Isn't this pretty 
strong proof? Sold on a written Guarantee* 

100 lbs. $7.00 25 lb. pail $2.00 

Smaller quantities at a slight advance. 

Where D. . Hess Stock Food differs in particular is in the dose— it's small and fed bnt twice a day, which proves it has the most digestive strength to 
the pound. Our Government recognizes Dr. Hess Stock Food as a medicinal tonic and this paper is back of the guarantee. 

Free from the 1st to the 10th of each month— Dr. HesatM- D., D.V.SO will prescribe for your ailing animals. You can have his 96 page 
Veterinary Book any time for the asking. Mention this paper. 

DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio 

Also manufacturers of Dr. Hess Poultry Pan-a-ee-a andlnetant Lonse Kuler. Instant Louse Killer Kills Lice. 
TI1K PKT ALUM A INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, California, Pacific Coast Distributors. 




To the Editor: At the last meeting 
two members elect signed the bylaws. 
The committee appointed at last meeting 
on a State building and exhibit at the 
Alaskan-Yukon Exhibition of 1909, re- 
ported favorably and the report was 
adopted. 

A communication from the Audubon 
Society asking the Grange support for a 
bill introduced in Congress by Hon. S. 
C. Smith, of this district, for the better 
protection of game, fish, and birds in the 
forest reserves in California was read. 
The subject was generally discussed, and 
Brother Emmet Barber was requested to 
write to the Hon. S. C. Smith this 
Grange's full approval of the bill intro- 
duced by him. 

The committee on county mutual co- 
operative fire insurance reported a new 
application to the Insurance Commis- 
sioner, for his approval, which is ready 
to be sent to him. It has double the 
number of names and double the amount 
of insurance required by the county co- 
operative insurance law and there is no 
reason why he should not approve the 
application. 

The following officers were installed 
for the ensuing year: Installing officer, 
Sister Amanda O. Swanson; marshal, 
Bro. E. C. Shoemaker; Worthy master, 
F. H. Styles; overseer, J. T. Lawson; 
lecturer, John Tuohy; steward, E. C. 
Shoemaker; asst. steward, A. J. Woods; 
treasurer, Emma Barber; secretary, Ber- 
tha I. Morris; chaplain, Mrs. Fay; Po- 
mona, Sister Van Loman; Flora, Sister 
J. T. Lawson; Ceres, Sister Nellie Ham- 
ilton; lady asst. steward, Sister Nelson; 
organist, Sister Ella Styles. 

The installation ceremony was per- 
formed by Sister Swanson, with the ex- 
actness, precision, and spirit as displays 
its beauty and impressiveness in such 
a way as is seldom equalled and rarely 
excelled. J- T. 



INCUBATOR BOOK. 



The new 1907 catalogue of Cyphers Incubator 
Company .which has just been issued. It is really the 
biggest thing yet in poultry books of this kind 
containing as it does 260 pages and over 500 illustra- 
tions. It has six chapters on raising poultry for 
eggs, raising broilers and roasters, raising ducks, 
etc., etc. and also containing testimonials from 
the largest poultry raisers in the country as to the 
reliability and dependability of the Cyphers Incu- 
bators. In sending for this book address the 
Cyphers Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 



THE OLD PAN WAY 

DON'T 



50% 

MORE 
CREAM 




PAY 




THE 

TUBULAR 
WAY 



The old pan way of raising cream don't 
pay — it's too mussyand fussy — too much 
work for the women. And it don't pay 
in dollars and cents because you actually 
lose 50 per cent of the cream you ought to get. You 
can increase your cream product about SO per cent over 
pan setting; 33 per cent over cans set in cold water; 25 per 
cent over patent creamers or dilution cans by using the 

SHARPLES 
TUBULAR SEPARATOR 

Besides you can skim the milk immediately after milk- 
ing — save the handling and the expense of storage. A 
good milk-house costs more than 
a Tubular and isn't half so pro- 
fitable — even if you already have 
the milk-house it will pay in la- 
bor saved , in crocks and pans saved , 
and the increase in cream will be all 
clear profit. Of course, when you buy 
a separator, you want the one that will 
get you the most profit — you'll want 
the Tubular — the reasons why are all 
given in a book which you will want 
and which we want to send to you 
free if you will only write for it, ask 
for book H. 131 



Mr. Mao Tuttle, Danville, 111., says "The flrst week we used 
the Tubular we made a gain of 12 lbs. of butter from five cows." 



Toronto, Can. 



THE SHARPLES SEPARATOR CO., 

WEST CHESTER, PA. 




Chicago, III. 



Farming Prosperity 
ORE1AM SEPARATORS 

There was never before a time in the history of the country when the 
average American farmer had such big crops worth such good prices as he 
has this year. 

There isn't a farmer anywhere who has use for one who can not afford 
to buy himself a 

DE LAVAL CREAM SEPARATOR 

now and do it right away, and there isn't a farmer anywhere having use 
for a separator who really can afford not to do so. 

Its use means more and better cream and butter, with less work and 
trouble for everybody — it means profit, comfort and satisfaction. 

If you already have a "cheap" or inferior separator, "trade it in" for 
what it's worth and replace it with a DE LAVAL. 

Put some of your prosperity into the most profitable farming invest- 
ment ever made— of which a De Laval catalogue, to be had for the asking, 
must convince you. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO., General Agents. 
309 Twelfth St., 107 First St., 123 North Main St., 1017 Post St, 

Oakland, Cal. Portland, Ore. Los Angeles, Cal. Seattl*^ Wash. 



74 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 2, 1907 



HOME CIRCLE. 



GRANDFATHER. 



How broad and deep was the fireplace old 
And the great hearthstone how wide! 
There was always room for the old man's 
chair 

By the cozy chimney side, 
And all the children that cared to crowd 
At his knee in the evening tide. 

Room for all of the homeless ones 

Who had nowhere else to go; 
They might bask at ease in the grateful 
warmth 

And sun in the cheerful glow, 
For grandfather's heart was as wide and 
warm 

As the old fireplace, I know. 

And he always found at his well-spread 
board 

Just room for another chair; 
There was always rest for another head 

On the pillow of his care; 
There was always place for another 
name 

In his trustful morning prayer. 

Oh, crowded world with your jostling 
throngs! 

How narrow you grow, and small; 
How cold, like a shadow across the heart, 

Your selfishness seems to fall. 
When I think of that fireplace warm and 
wide, 

And the welcome awaiting all. 

— Chicago Inter Ocean. 



TALE OF THE OLDEN TIME. 
The Evening Story. 



If a tithe of the romance contained 
in history could be recorded the invent- 
ors of fictitious happenings would be put 
to shame. In the musty records con- 
tained in the Tower of London or in the 
plain unvarnished history of Scotland 
there is a splendid supply of themes for 
English song and story. Here is one 
that needs no elaboration: 

In a cell in a Scottish castle Sir John 
Cochrane, a knight, condemned by the 
king to be beheaded, was taking a final 
leave of his daughter. 

"Farewell, my child," said the father. 
"I am to die at dawn tomorrow." 

The girl looked at him fiercely — so 
fiercely that he almost thought this hor- 
ror had deprived her of reason. 

"Father," she said, hoarsely, "you must 
not die." 

The knight folded her in his arms and 
moaned in broken tones: "The king wills 
it. He has signed my death warrant, 
and it is on its way. It will be here to- 
night. The scaffold and block are ready. 
The headsman is waiting. The sun to- 
morrow will not rise on your father. 
My child, do not deceive yourself. There 
is no hope." 

Withdrawing from his embrace, the 
girl turned and left him. As she passed 
out of the door she paused and, turning, 
sad with the energy of despair: 

"Father, you shall not die." 

The night was dark. A courier dashed 
and splashed along a muddy Scottish 
road. A small pouch was slung to his 
shoulder. Now and again the bough of 
an overhanging tree would sprinkle his 
face with rain water, and his horse was 
continually plunging into a pool or mud- 
hole in the road'. The moorland stretched 
ahead of him, before him and behind 
him. Far in the distance loomed the 
castle in which Sir John Cochrane was 
confined, and the messenger was mak- 
ing straight for it. In the east was a 
faint forewarning of dawn. Noticing it, 
he spurred his horse, muttering: 

"I shall be late. It would be a pity 
to keep a man in suspense. It's to be 
at dawn, and my presence is as neces- 



sary as that of the man who is to part 
with his head." 

He had scarcely finished his soliloquy 
when something sprang up and at him 
from the road. At first he thought it a 
beast, but in another moment he felt a 
pair of arms struggling to deprive him 
of his mail pouch. The courier was not 
a weak man, and' his enemy was of 
slight and slender build, but it seemed 
as if heaven were giving to the latter 
superhuman strength. In vain the cour- 
ier tried to throw him off. He clung like 
a panther. Then the horse, unable to 
support the two struggling weights, fell. 
The courier rolled into a ditch beside the 
road and as he clambered out he caught 
sight of a figure clad in the garments 
of a Socttish knight standing in sil- 
houette against the line where the earth 
and sky met. 

At the castle those who were to offi- 
ciate at the execution emerged from 
their sleeping rooms to witness the pass- 
ing of Sir John Cochrane. Nothing was 
wanting but the official order for the ex- 
ecution, and that was not forthcoming. 
Dawn grew into daylight, and the sun 
rose. Then came the courier, with his 
story that he had been attacked by an 
unknown knight and robbed of his mail 
pouch containing the warrant. The 
headsman rested on the ax while the 
others consulted. There seemed nothing 
to do but send to the capital for an- 
other order and, considering the dis- 
tance and the roads of the period, the 
trip would require two weeks. The mes- 
senger was dispatched, the officials dis- 
persed and the headsman put away his 
ax. 

During the period of waiting the father 
confessor was pleading for Sir John's 
life. Gradually a hope sprang like a 
green sprig from the ground, grew 
stronger, budded and bloomed into a be- 
lief that the condemned man would be 
pardoned. But if so which would arrive 
first, the new death warrant or the par- 
don? In those days of uncertain com- 
munication no one could tell. 

One morning a sentry on the castle 
wall overlooking the moor land saw in 
the distance a horseman coming at a 
gallop. The sentry called the attention 
of others to the comer, and the wall was 
soon covered with Sir John Cochrane's 
wellwishers. As the man came near he 
waved a paper above his head and shout- 
ed, "A pardon!" 

Prison doors were swung open, and 
the prisoner stepped forth a free man. 
Going to his home, followed by a host 
of loyal friends, he was overwhelmed 
with congratulations. He had expected 
his daughter to be the first to welcome 
him, but when he did not see her he was ' 
troubled. He asked for her and was told | 
that she had not been seen since the 
evening she had parted from him in his I 
cell. All day the rejoicings went on, but : 
when night came the man who had 
passed from the shadow of death to the 
light of life was alone. Then came a 
servant to announce that a young knight 
wished to see him. Hoping that the 
stranger bore news of his daughter, Sir 
John ordered his admittance. A slender 
young man of feminine appearance en- 
tered and handed him a parchment. 

Sir John ran his eye over the docu- 
ment and, seeing that it was his death 
warrant, turned pale. Then he threw it 
into the fire. 

'You prevented this from reaching its 
destination?" he asked. 
"I did." 

"And who are you and what interest 
had you in saving my life?" 

The knight threw off helmet, cloak and 
jerkin and stood before the astonished 
man as his daughter. 





GUARANTEED: 65 per Cent. PROTEIN 

RAW BONE 

GUARANTEED: 25 Per Cent Protein and 45 Per Cent Bone Phosphate 
PURE ANIMAL MATTER 

POULTRY FOODS 

Write us for price list and samples; they are free. 

We want you to see the kind of Poultry Foods that are man- 
ufactured from CL KAN, RAW M \TER1AL. This means HEALTHY 
ANIMAL. FOODS for your poultry. 

WESTERN MEAT COMPANY 

SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO, SAN MATEO COUNTY 



FASHIONS. 



Watch for the remnants of the pretty 
pale-tinted batistes, and of these make 
separate blouses. For these the pret- 
tiest way to combine lace is to take an 
all-over Valenciennes, with a small de- 
sign rather widely scattered, so that one- 
quarter yard will make about twelve me- 
dallions if cut with care. Baste these 
| between whatever tucking you may in- 
dulge in, and embroider a vine or a 
wreath of small flowers around the edge, 
then cut away the material beneath and 
a very dainty waist will be the result; 
the cost and labor both in reason. 

The empire gown may have to its 
credit the return to popularity of the 
long train skirt. An empire dress must 
be very long to be at all graceful and 
one unusually long skirt in a room will 
make all the shorter ones look awkward. 
Trains, therefore, are this year extreme- 
ly long, no matter what the style of the 
dress or to just what period it may be- 
long. The empire has been brought 
down to a fine point this season, and so 
cleverly is the material of the dress and 
lining managed that the material appar- 
ently hangs quite loose and yet shows to 
excellent advantage all the good lines of 
the figure. 

A Berlin costumer sends over a cha'rm- 
ing visiting gown of rich, glossy broad- 
cloth, golden brown, in which there is 
a surplice vest of orange velvet em- 
broidered in brown, and although rather 
too striking for any but the ultra smart, 
it offers some pretty suggestions. The 
edges were bound with velvet of the 
same, forming a tiny roll, and the vest 
itself was lined or faced with the brown 
broadcloth so that it could be turned 
back and worn rever fashion. 



HINTS TO HOUSEKEEPERS 

To boil potatoes, take the potatoes in 
their jackets and let them get cold, cut 
in quarters, put into a dish, pour over 
them melted butter, and set in the oven 
to heat, without browning. Sprinkle over 
them, when taking from the oven, some 
chopped chives. 

Cards with P. p. c. in one corner mean 
that the person sending them is leaving 
her place of residence for an indefinite 
or long stay. They are also often sent 
by a person who has been visiting in a 
town when she takes her departure. They 
are sent by hand or by mail, and there 
is no question of compliment or insult. 
It is the correct form to send the cards 
to all on one's calling list on leaving. 

Delicious sandwiches are made of 
chopped sardines, with a little mayon- 
naise, or cucumbers with a little mayon- 
naise, or caviar or green pepper — any of 
these is fashionable and very good. Do 



not have chicken salad; instead serve 
scooped-out cucumber shells filled with a 
salad of cucumbers and tomatoes mixed. 
This is very good, and this served with 
slices of cold chicken would be a variety 
on your usual order. Have for dessert 
the shells of oranges filled with orange 
jelly, in which are nuts — almonds and 
walnuts — with whipped cream and a 
maraschino cherry on top, and cake. 



A Good Introduction. 



Some years ago, Macbeth, the lamp-chimney 
maker of Pittsburgh, sent two hundred boxes of 
chimneys to Australia, to be sold by the box for 
what they would fetch at auction. 

They brought 30 cts, a box more than freight and 
handling ami auctioneers' fees. But, falling into 
the hands of wholesale dealers, introduced them- 
selves; and now Macbeth enjoys the leading 
position in the Australian trade. 




Has been on the market since 1H4*— 
two-thirds of a century, and is made 
in the largest and oldest permanently es- 
tablished plow factory in the world. It is 

The Perfect Plow 




WHY? 

Has a high beam, giving good clear- 
ance at the throat. The beam and handle* 
are long, giving a powerful leverage. The 
handles and beam are thoroughly and 
strongly braced, and the plow will with- 
stand any strain. The bottoms are 
mechanically perfect in shape, ma- 
terial and finish, and have the high polish 
and scouring qualities which have made 
the P. A O. Canton Clipper the 
leader of all plows in all sections. 

Quality and merit wins, and the Canton 
Clipper has both. Hundreds of thousands 
are in daily use — a lasting testimonial to 
their superior features. 

You will make no mistake in buying a 
Canton Clipper, as they never dis- 
appoint. 

General Agents 
Pacific Implement Company 

131 to 153 Kansas St., SAN FRANCISCO 



February 2, 1907 



-^PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 




THE SUPERIOR GENERATOR 

Is the. Best Gas Machine on the Market 

See its points of advantage: 

1. Installed at comparatively small cost. 

2. It is perfectly safe, convenient and economical. 

3. No trouble to operate and care for. 

4. Built on scientific principles for service. 

5. Generates a superior quality of gas. 

6. Can be placed in any house. 



Tell its the number of lights you use and we will give 
you full information as to size of generator required 
and the cost of installing it. WRITE TODAY. Don't 
put off the enjoyment of a good light in every room in 
the house. It will be a constant source of satisfaction 
to every member of the family. Address us this way: 

Superior Light and Heat Company 

151 North Clarence Street, Los Angrles, Cal. 



pounds in 1905 to 1,041,207 in 1906. The 
increase, which amounts to about fifty 
per cent, is attributable to opening the 
country by irrigation. 

The report estimates the value of the 
butter product of the State for last year 
at $11,671,814. 



Krogh Pumps Are the Best 

For Irrigation, Reclamation, Miningl 

We Build Pumps For Direct Connectiou to Any Kind of Engine or Motor 
WRITE US FOR INFORMATION 

KROGH MFG. CO. 

2 1 32 Folsom Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



MILKING MACHINE IN OREGON. 

Mr. M. S. Shrock writes to the Pacific 
Homestead that a new milking machine 
has lately been installed at the dairy 
barn of the Oregon Agricultural College 
at Corvallis. Only a small herd of cows 
is kept at the college, and only one ma- 
chine milking two cows at a time is 
used. It is possible for one man to oper- 
ate three or four machines and thus milk 
six or eight cows at a time. It is remark- 
able how readily the cows adapt them- 
selves to the new method. They were 
frightened a little at first but at present 
writing (less than a week since its in- 
troduction), with a noisy gasoline engine 
in an adjoining room and every other cow 
milked from the wrong side, young heif 
ers and old cows stand perfectly quiet 
and continue feeding while the machine 
is in operation. 



THE DAIRY 

(Continued from page 73) 



ties of Marin and Sonoma showed a 
marked falling off from last year as a 
result of a less favorable season. Los 
Angeles also made a big decline, due 
principally to the diversion of milk from 
buttermaking to market milk as a result 
of the increasing population and also 
to the fact that numerous dairymen have 
moved to other counties where dairy 
lands are cheaper. 

Contrasted with the decline in the 
counties mentioned and some others 
that have made no advancement are a 
number of counties in the irrigated por- 



tions of the State that have kept up their 
progress of forging ahead in butter pro- 
duction year after year. These might 
with propriety be called the new dairy 
counties, from the fact that it is only 
within recent years that they can be 
considered as butter producing sections 
of the State. In its report, the Dairy 
Bureau has compiled an interesting table 
that shows the part the counties in the 
irrigated, alfalfa growing parts of the 
State play and promise to play in the but- 
ter industry of the State. The table is 
given below and shows the annual out- 
put of butter in pounds in eight irrigated 
counties for every alternate year since 
1898, or in other words eight years: 





1898 


1900 


1902 


1904 


1906 




, 291,754 


604,861 


1,025,374 


1,619,746 


2,644,897 


Kern 




129,848 


156,878 


200,936 


334,070 


Kings 




258,750 


727,282 


1,099,400 


1,677,272 






623,608 


712,202 


1,563,771 


2,361,528 




285,984 


742,443 


1,186,135 


1,508,293 


1,617,633 


San Joaquin . . 




506,047 


907,694 


1,015,568 


1,641,374 


Stanislaus 


190,655 


423,185 


677,058 


1,564,749 


2,759,582 


Yolo 


321,218 


533,525 


743,268 


831,185 


1,387,210 


Total 




3,822,267 


l£ 6,135,891 


10,403,648 


14,423,566 



DAIRYING IN WASHINGTON. 

More than 60,000 cows are now used 
for dairying purposes in the State of 
Washington, but there is immediate need 
for double that number, ^nd men who 
have made a study of the situation de- 
clare that 150,000 cows will not more 
than supply the requirements during this 
year. Nearly 300 creameries are in op- 
eration and their output is something 
like 10,000,000 pounds of butter, valued 
at $2,000,000. Besides these there is 
more than $3,000,000 from the sale of 
cheese and milk. 



Prior to 1898 the pairy Bureau in re- 
porting the butter production did not 
give the amount in those counties that 
produced less than 100,000 pounds. In 
this way it happens that there are blanks 
in the column for 1898 in case of four of 
the counties above indicating that they 
then produced less than 100,000 pounds 
of butter annually, although they pro- 



duce at the present time from one to 
two and a half million pounds annually, 
or from ten to fifteen times what they 
did eight years ago. It is doubtful if 
any part of the Union can show such a 
remarkable growth in butter production. 
And irrigated county that is also coming 
to the front as a dairy county is San 
Diego, which increased from 759,111 



THE VALUABLE ALFALFA. 

In the Breeder's Gazette Joseph E. 
Wing says: "Alfalfa-growing land that 
will grow five tons to the acre is worth 
as an investment at least $200 per acre. 
If it will not grow alfalfa it is seldom 
bearing interest on $100. With luxuriant 
alfalfa on the land it will become greatly 
enriched, and when again plowed will grow 
better everything else. I am firmly of the 
opinion that one can afford to expend, 
if necessary, $50 per acre to make alfalfa 
grow vigorously." 



THE 1907 GIRL YOURS FOR THE ASKING. 

The Sharpies Separator Co., of West Chester, Pa., 
have succeeded beyond their hopes in reproducing 
from life, in the softest and dainties colors, the 
sweetest dairy maid that ever graced a cream 
separator calendar or was ever offered by any cream 
separator company as a free picture suitable for 
framing. The Sharpies Separator Co. will send the 
calendar with this picture on it to you, free, for the 
names of two neighbors who keep cows but have 
no Tubular Cream Separator. Or thty will send 
free the same picture, made larger for framing and 
without the calendar pad attached, for the names of 
five neighbors who keep cowsbut have no Tubular 
Cream Separator. Calendar and picture both sent 
free for names of seven neighbors who keep cows 
but have no Tubular; You must mention the name of 
thin paper to get them Address The Sharpies Separ- 
ator Co., West Chester, Pa., Chicago, 111., Toronto, 
Canada. 



THE SECOND SEMI-ANNUAL SALE OF 

STANDARD BRED HORSES AND REGISTERED DURHAM BULLS 

WILL BE HELD 

Thursday, February 28th, 1907 

AT THE CELEBRATED 

OAKWOOD PARK STOGK FARM, DANVILLE, GAL. 

They Comprise 

25. Standard Bred Two-year-old Fillies, Colts and Geldings by Chas. Derby, 2:20; Bonnie Direct, 2: 05 Stam 

B. 2:lli4; Nushagak, 25939; Sire of Aristo, 2:08^4, etc.; Searchlight, 2:03%. 
15 Two-year-old Thoroughbred Cleveland Bay and well bred Work Horses. All halter broken. 
30 Two-year-old Registered Durham Bulls by King Spicy 2d, 154525; Bessie Marguise, 205085; Scotch Thistle, 

167322, and Humboldt Victor 3d, 175071. 
Write for catalogue. Watch this paper for further particulars. 



EDWARD M. HUMPHREY, Manager. 



LOUIS SHAFFER, Auctioneer. 



No matter how good your 
lamp, a Macbeth chimney 
makes it better. 

They are made to fit, and 
do not break from heat. 

My lamp-chimneys offer 
the only practical remedy for 
all lamp-ills — good glass prop- 
erly made. That's why they 
make good lamps better. 

My Index is free. 

Address, MACBETH, Pittsburgh. 



HEALD'S 

BusinessGollege andSchool of Engineering 

The Leading Commercial and 
Engineering School In the West 

Has branches at Oakland, Stockton, Fresno aud 
Santa Cruz. 

ESTABLISHED OVER 40 TEARS. 

So Teachers; nearly ioo Typewriting Machines; 
20,000 Graduates; i. ooo annual enrollment; 500 aver- 
age daily attendance; 600 calls annually for graduates 
of the college. Mining, Electrical and Civil Engi- 
neering departments. All departments open the 
entire year. Both sexes. Individual instruction 
Catalogue free. 

HEALD'S BUSINESS COLLEGE 

1451 Franklin Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



School ot Practical, Civil, mechanical, 

electrical and mining engineering. 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Aesaying 

5100 Telegraph Ave., Oakland, California 
Open all Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pree't. 
Asseying of Ores, $25. Bullion and Chlorination 
As9ay,$25; Blowpipe Assay, $10; Full Course of As- 
saying Established in 1864. Send for circular. 



Pacific Congress Springs 

Santa Cruz Mts., 1 2 Miles from San Jose 

Charming Resort Open all the year 

Prices Reasonable 

Address Lewis A. Sage, Prop. Saratoga, Cal. 



TO CUBE A COLD IN ONE DAY 

Take LAXATIVE BROMO Quinine Tablets. Drug- 
gists refund money if it fails to cure. E. W. 
GROVE'S signature is on each box. 2 sc. 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX AND 

BLACKKLEG 
VACCINES 



are given the preference by 80% of Call 
fornia Stockmen because they have better 
results than others do: 

"Write for 'Prices, Testimonials and our New 
Booklet on ANTHRAX and HLA CKLEG. 

The Cutter Laboratory 

TEMPORARY ADDRESS 

Grayson and Sixth Streets Berkeley, Cal. 

West of San Pablo Ave . 



DEWEY, STRONG &,CO 



CAVEATS 



PATENTS 

FflADEl 

IO BACON BLOCK OAKLAND. 



Al! about Bees and Honey 

The Bee-keeper's guide to success. Th« 
Weekly 

American Bee Journal 

tells how to make the most money with 
bees. Contributors are practical honey pro- 
ducers who know how. Interesting — in- 
structive. $1 per year; 3 mos. (13 copies) 
25c. Sample free. 

American Bee Journal, 
334 Dearborn St., Chicago. 



Blake. MoffittdTowne, D P f r E S B 

No. 419 Eleventh St., Oakland 
Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angeles. 
Blake, McFall A Co., Portland, Ore. 



76 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 2, 1907 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 

HORSES AND CATTLE. 

GEO C ROEDING, Fresno. Oaliiornia, Breeder 
of high-grade thoroughbred Holstein Bulls and 
Heifers. Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and 
Sows 



RIVERSIDE HERD HOLSTEIN CATTLE — 
One of the largest and best in the world. Send 
for catalogue. Pierce Land & Stock Co , 
Stock tun. Cal. 

TOHH LYNCH. breeder of registered Short- 
horns, milk strain. High class stock, First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Beat 
pedigree. P. O. Box. 321 Petaluma. Cal. 



HOLSTEINS — Winners at State Fair at every but- 
ter contest since 1885 in Calif Stock near S. F. 
F. H. Burke, 2195 Fillmore St., S. F. 

BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

A. J. C. C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted 
strains. Joseph Mailliard, San Geronimo, Marin 
Co , Cal. 



P H. MURPHY. Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breed- 
er of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 

"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto herd, 77 pre- 
miums California State Fairs 1902-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle, Ad- 
dress temporarily, San Mateo, Cal. 

JERSEYS, HOLSTEINS, & DURHAMS. Bred es- 
pecially for use in dairy. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm, Niles &'Co., Los Angeles, Cal., 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 

S. H. FOUNTAIN, Dixon, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire sheep. Both 
sexes for sale at all times. 



POULTRY. 




GiaWBaaBaMHaBI 

Horse Owners! Use 

GOMBAULT'S 

Caustic 
Balsam 

A 8«n>, 8p««dj, and rMlttrt Care 
The safest. Beat BLISTER ever nsed. Takes 

the place of all ltnaments for mild or severe action. 
Removes all Buncbcn or Blemishes from Horses 
and Cattle, SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
O K FI KING. Impossible to produce scar or blemish 
Every bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price SI. SO per bottle. Bold by druggists, or sent 
by express, charges paid, with fnll directions for 
Its use. Send for descriptive circulars. 
THE LAWRENCE-WILLIAMS CO.. Cleveland. O . 

SIER<RA KEN?JELS 

E' M. TIDD, Proprietor 




Scotch 
Collies 



At Stud—Imported Craigmore Cracksman- -Fee, $15 

POR SALE 

Puppies, young dogs and bitches, from fco.oo up. 
The breeding of my stock is of the very best. When 
writing particularize \our want. 

SIERRA KENNELS. Berkeley. Cal. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large Size, good plumage, early maturity. 



BELGIAN HOMER SQUABS in all colors 53 per 
doz. SAM'L M. COPPIN & SONS, Cottonwood 
Farm, Pleasant Grove, Cal. 



SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN AND INDIAN 
Runner Ducks — Eggs $1 50 per setting; $6 00 per 
hundred. Send for illustrated catalogue. John P 
Boden, 1338 Second street, Watsonville, California. 

WM. NILES & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly all 
varieties chickens, geese, ducks, pea-fowl , etc. 



SWINE. 



OBO V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes . 



BERKSHIRES— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages. T . Waite, Perkins, Cal. 

BERKSHIRE AND POLAND - CHINA HOGS 
C. A. STOWE, Stockton. 



GOLD MEDAL Herd of Berkshire Hogs and South 
Down Sheep. Thos Waite, Perkins, 1 al. 



BERKSHIRE, POLAND-CHINA, DUROC HOGS 
Choice, thoroughbred Poultry. William Niles & 
Co., Los Angele s, Cal. Established in 1876. 

BREEDERS' SUPPLIES - 

GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan Street, San 
Francisco. Mann- w\ | A r» ■• 

D a ea,er U [n er "* POUltfy Sl^llCS 

of every description. Send for Catalogue— FR EE 



FOR, SALE 

Imported Shire Stallion 

This is a very high class 
Stallion, 5 years old, weighing 
1900 lbs. and a good stock horse. 

HENRY WHEATLEY, 

Napa, Cal. 

OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years 
Importers and Breeders of All Varieties of Land 
and Water Fowls 

St' ck for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St. 

San Francisco. Cal. 



If ake Your 
Hen% Pay 

Blpter Proflti bj getting BIrm H»toh«a * 
and hatch ChlckithatLW*. Begtuxn.M w«U 
m <xp«rtt, do this wlU. the Lfttait PttUrn 
PVDUrDC Incubator. 

l> I rnLnO and Brood.rf^ 

Imprortntenti pc«ie*M<l by Bo otbtn. 90 A tr— trial with Marj*j 
Bfrck GutrtntT. Gel I'fiiLpirt Guide to Poultry Profit PRES. to job 

CTPHER8 INCl'BATOR COMPANY, BUFFALO 
Ne» York. Boston, Chicago. Qnkl.nd, Cal.. Kansai City. 




PILES COKED IN 6 TO 14 DAYS. 

PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any case 
of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or Protruding Piles in 5 
to 14 days, or money refunded. 50c 



BUFF ORPINGTONS. — We won at 8tate Fair 
ALL FIRST PRIZES in this class 1906 and 1904. 
We have just won at San Jose GRAND SPECIAL 
for BEVT 3 Breeding Pens, 3 Cocks, 3 Cockerels, 
3 Hens and 3 Pullets, ALL VARIETIES COM- 
PETING. Mr. Farmer, YOU NEED THIS BREED 
Write me and learn why 

W. SULLIVAN. Agnews, CI. 

State Vice-President 

NAT. S. C. B. ORPINGTON CLUB. 



CHICKENS BRING IN THE MONEY. 

Send for Old Trusty catalogue and learn how 
they do it. 124 illustrated pages and three lec- 
tures on poultry raising 




The 
most 
pleasing 
and 

profitable industry 
in the West. 
BIG DEMAND AT HIGH 
PRICES. Write today 

~~— for price list number 3 and free trial offer. 

Incubator Co., 709 S. Main St., Los Angeles. 



Winery For Sale 

The best winery in Lower California, near Ensenada, well equipped. One 
hundred acres in vines all bearing. Over 300 acres more land for grain and 
grazing. The whole Republic of Mexico for market as no wineries are known 
on the coasts and very few, if any, in the interior. 

Large quantities of wines and brandies are exported to all parts of Mexico 
from California. Import duty on wine is 60 cents per gallon in bulk and more 
in bottles. Owners retiring. Price, $50,000.00 U. S. coin, including everything. 
$20,000.00 cash. Balance in easy payments. 

Address ANDONAEGUI & ORMART, 

Ensenada, Lower California, Mexico 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 

San Bernardino. 

FRUIT SHIPMENTS SWAMP RAIL- 
WAYS.— The Evening Index: The sud- 
den clearing weather after the long wet 
spell which prevented the picking and 
shipping of oranges for weeks, has caused 
a deluge of freight to swoop down on the 
transcontinental lines with the result 
that about eighty-five carloads of Santa 
Fe orange freight is tied up at Colton. 
The Southern Pacific has been handling 
much of the Santa Fe overflow of freight, 
from this city, as far east as Deming, 
N. M., and farther, but with the rush 
of orange freight to its own lines the 
Southern Pacific has had all it can at- 
tend to and yesterday notified the Santa 
Fe that it could handle no more orange 
freight until further notice. The eighty- 
five carloads at Colton, gathered from 
the Santa Fe feeders in the orange sec- 
tion, have been turned back to the Santa 
Fe. The blockade of orange freight 
bears out the fear expressed in this pa- 
per several days ago, that the clear wea- 
ther would serve to feed the eastern 
markets with the golden fruit to the 
detriment of prices. The season, on ac- 
count of the rain is about 2,000 cars be- 
hind the same period last year. 

Santa Clara. 

TO GET BIG ONION CROP. — San Jose 
cipal things in view in raising onions is 
to produce a large yield; and in order 
to do this, all of the soil must be util- 
ized to the best advantage. Most of the 
onion growers allow too much land to 
each onion. Ordinarily, the Onions are 
planted about, twelve inches in each di- 
rection and in this w^ay the land is not 
made to produce all it can. The most 
common distance, where "hand culture" 
is practiced, seems- to be from twelve to 
fifteen inches between the rows and from 
four to four and a half inches in the row. 
Setting the onions out at these distances 
gives a larger number to the acre, vary- 
ing from 100,000 to 120,000 onions or 
more. On the other hand, if "horse cul- 
ture" is employed, the distance between 
the rows is usually increased to at least 
thirty inches-, thus reducing the number 
of onions to the acre. 

Sonoma. 

CLOVERDALE ORANGES.— The Sac- 
ramento Union: The fourteenth annual 
citrus fair, trader the auspices of the 
Cloverdale Co-Operative Citrus Fair asso- 
ciation, will open here Tuesday evening, 
February 19, at which time the North of 
Bay Counties Progressive Association will 
be in session here also. The secretaries 
of the Sonoma County Chamber of Com- 
merce will probably hold a session here 
during the sr.ime week. The programme 
for the opening evening includes music 
by the band and an address by Rev. 
Robert L. Lynch, secretary of the North 
Bay Counties Progressive Association, and 
other visiting delegates. The citrus fruit 
is reaching first-class condition for ex- 
hibition purposes and the growers of this 
valley are more deeply interested than at 
any former season, thus assuring a fine 
exhibit. The days of the week have been 
set aside for special delegations as fol- 
lows: Wednesday, Cloverdale's day; 
Thursday, Elks' day, when a special train 
will be run from San Francisco to Clover- 
dale to carry the members of the order. 
A lively time is promised the visitors 
on that day. Friday will be Sonoma-Napa 
day, and, as it is Washington's birthday 
and a legal holiday, there is sure to be a 
large attendance. Saturday has been set 
aside for Mendocino and Lake counties 
and special trains will be run from the 
north for the occasion. 

Stanislaus. 

TELEPHONE LINES FOR FARMERS. 
— Stanislaus County Weekly News: In 



these days of progress the farmers pro- 
pose keeping pace with others. In many 
sections they have taken up the new sys- 
tem of extending the telephone wires 
throughout the rural districts, says the 
Stockton Independent. In some places 
barbed wire fences have been used and 
other schemes devised, but the latest and 
best service has been offered by the tel- 
ephone company, which is now present- 
ing an entirely new proposition to the 
farmers in Central California. For the 
small sum of $3 a year they can have 
installed instruments, which will be kept 
in repair by the company, providing they 
pay the cost of wiring in the country. 
Matters have reached that stage where 
the telephone is a necessity in every up- 
to-date household, and specially on the 
ranch, where it is necessary to order gro- 
ceries, dry goods, and other articles for 
the place. C. E. Young, who is attend- 
ing to the new suburban lines, is in this 
city making arrangements to take up the 
matter with the farmers. On this Friday 
evening he will lecture at Tracy; Satur- 
day, he will speak at Lodi, and on Mon- 
day evening will talk at Oakdale. It is 
his intention to outline the new proposi- 
tion and interest as many farmers as 
possible. In addition to the $3 a year, 
they pay for the instrument in their 
homes. It will cost about $30 a mile to 
build the lines, but once they are com- 
pleted, they will last for many years. 
The wires will be owned by the farmers, 
and they will be able to connect with 
245,000 subscribers throughout the West. 
No toll will be charged except in long- 
distance messages. In this way ten or 
more farmers can construct private lines 
and have the full benefits of the same 
for the small sum of $3 a year, after the. 
first cost is met. 

MERCED TO HAVE LARGEST 
CHICKEN RANCH IN STATE.— Stanis- 
laus County Weekly News: At last Mer- 
ced is to have an industry — an enterprise 
that will be the biggest thing of its kind 
on the Pacific Coast. It is to be a 
poultry ranch, the property of the Crock- 
er-Huffman Co., and will exceed in mag- 
nitude anything of a similar nature now 
to be found at Petaluma, which is gen- 
erally conceded to be the poultry center 
of California. This Merced enterprise is. 
the outgrowth of experiments made by C. 
H. Schmidt, superintendent of the Foun- 
tain City Creamery, extending over a pe- 
riod of three years. Mr. Schmidt has 
demonstrated, by actual experience, that 
the poultry business at Merced can be 
made very successful and extremely prof- 
itable. 



She had called to consult a fashiona- 
ble physician who was famous for his 
way-up prices. 

"Pardon me, doctor," she began, "but 
do you — er — take anything off for cash?' 1 

"Certainly, madam," replied the M. D. 
"What would you like taken off — a hand 
or a foot?" 



CORED BOO SPAVIN. 

Madison, Ind., April 17, 1905. 
The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, O.: 

Some time ago my colt had a hog spavin. I used 
your GOMBAULT'S CAUSTIC BALSAM and it re- 
moved the spavin entirely. 

LOUIS HUMMEL. 



200 2 5o white wyandottes 1 



EGG FOWLS 



GUARANTEED 



Grand sweep at San Francisco scored by T. B. 
O. M. Secy-freas. A. P. A. Grand sweep at Seattle, 
1907, scored by Past Pres. Holdcn, A. P. A. Win- 
ut-rs of the blue at all leading coast shows for our 
customers. Unequalled for eggs and for the table. 
Catalogue free. Capitol Avenue Poultry Farm. 
A. L. R. Mantz, Rural II, Box 98P., San Jose, Cal. 



BROOKS' NEW CURE 

Brooks' Appliance. New FOR 
discovery. Tfonderful. No 
obnoxious springs or pads. 
Automatic Air Cushions. 
Binds and draws the broken 
parts together as you would 
a broken limb' No salves. 
No lymphol. No lies. Dur- 
able, cheap. Pat. Sept. 10. 'Ul. 
SENT ON TRIAL. 

CATALOGUE FREE. 

C. E. BR0OKS,3i43Brock>' Bids., Marshall, mice. 




February 2, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



77 



HOPS 



Treated with a 
Top Dressing of 



Nitrate 
of Soda 

(THE STANDARD AMMONIATE) 

yield an increase of 82^ 
pounds for each 100 pounds of 
Nitrate. This is what actual 
tests have demonstrated. By 
writing at once you may test 
_ it for yourself 

Without Paying a Cent 

We want two hundred more tests made 
on HOPS, and will send sufficient Nitrate 
of Soda for the purpose, absolutely free 
to those who first apply. Write at once, 
as this offer is necessarily limited. To 
the ten cultivators who obtain the best 
results, we offer as a prize, Prof. Voor- 
hees' valuable book, "Fertilizers." This 
standard work (327 pages), handsomely bound, 
is of greatest assistance to every cultivator. 

Directions for successful Hop growing will be sent free 
upon request to all those who apply. '-Food for Plants," 
a 237-page book of useful information, will be sent 
free to farmers while the present edition lasts, if paper is 
mentioned in which this advertisement is seen. Address 

WILLIAM S. MYERS, Director 

John Street and 71 Nassau, New York 

Post card replies will receive early consideration. 



E$5 




Fight the Mildew 



iSulphur Your Vines 

Use the Champion Duster 



Easy and rapid in operation. 
Keeps the dust out of your way. 
Always ready. 

Reaches upper and under side 

of foliage. 
Assures thorough and effective 

work. 

Thousands are in use. 
Weighs about 6 lbs. 

ADDRESS 

F. D. NAGLE, Box 14. Sultana, Calif. 

Leggett & Bros., Manufacturers, 
New York, N. Y. 



Spraying a Small Orchard 

Requires a small spray pump — but a good one. You want just as good fruit as the 
owners of large orchards who use power sprayers— and you can have it. Any spray 
pump has done its part when it provides a high, even pressure, keeps the spraying 
material well stirred, gives no trouble, and works reasonably easy. 

Bean's Little Giant Pump 

does all this and more. When we say it "keeps the material well stirred" we mean 
it too, and it's important if you want good fruit. And the "no trouble" feature let* you 
feel good natured after the days spraying is over. The valves can't clog, 
— the stuffing box can't leak (because there isn't any) and the pump is so 

/I'Sm In simple it is a pleasure to use it. Of course we have good pumps 
;.' " _ linr. cheaper but Bean's Little Giant is altogether the best barrel 
/ ^^^"^fea pump ever offered for spraying small acreage. Also a splendid white- 
■»k '<lfo> r i t «4 washer 

(M&k Write for our special offer, freight prepaid, and we will also 

flBB Wt?Tfl^c. send our illustrated Catalogue No. 16 describing ten sizes of hand 
'■H 1 F5fc\ ■ ,? pumps and telling what sprays to use and how to prepare them. 

SJHJ | State number of acres and kind of fruit. Write today. 

bj^BSfeOjS **W Catalogue No. 18 describes "Power Sprayers." 

VjJ^^tsjE? II Bean Spray Pump Company, 

~SL_^^L# ' : \ > W. Santa Clara St. San Jose, Cal. 



Twenty Thousand Budded, Grafted and 
Seedling WALNUT TREES For Sale. 

Will trade for some logan or phenomiual 
berry plants. 

A. RJDEOUT 



Ma&nolia Nursery, 



Whittier, Cal. 



Seedling Cherry Trees 

Mehelab Seedlings, i & 2 year trees at Jio oo per 

1000. K 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERY, Loomis Calif. 



Trees Trees Trees 

Extra fine stock ot apples, pears, cheeries, plums, 
peaches, quinces, apricots, nectarines, nuls and 
grapes. Elms, catalpas, mapl s ai d shrutis. Come 
and see and get prices. Esate oi JAMES T. 
BOGUE, Yuba City. Cal. 



R AUSTRALIAN PERENNIAL Q 

The only forage plant Hint D 

Ywill give satisfaction on 11 

overflow, swamp or upland A 
without irrigation. 

ieed t nt, /,. i,a,i of JCj 

E Vierra Bros., Moss, Cal. S 

GRAPES— 50000 rooted Muscat, Tokay, 
Sultana, Concord. 

APPLES— W. W. Pearmain, Winter 
Banana and others. 

PEACHES— Blberta, Henrietta (Levi) 
Cling. 

Deciduous Shade Trees and Flowering 
Shrubs. 

Roses, 100 varieties Soft-shell Walnuts 

Pioneer Nursery, Monrovia, Cal. 

Blackberry and Raspberry Plants 

Mountain grown, hardy, prolific 
RASPBERRY and BLACKBERRY 
PLANTS 

large matured plants, bear this year, 
$4 a hundred, express paid. 

E. V. D. PAUL, Ukiah, Cal. 



EH0DES DOUBLE OUT 



PBUNHJG SHEAR 



RHODES MFG. CO. 




Cuts from 
both sides of 
limb and does 
not bruise 
the bark. 

We pay Ex- 
press charges 
on all orders. 

Write tor 
circular and 
-J prices. 
i4i GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



PAT. 




TO IRRIGATORS! 

Don't pay exorbitant 
prices to surveyors. Get 
a California Leveling In- 
strument anil do your own 
leveling. Tripod, staff, 
lev e 1 an d sights for $ 7. 
Tripod and staff only, $5. 
If dealer does not keep 
}hem send to 

5. A. Goodwin, 

R.ipon, Cal 

Money refunded if no. 
satisfactory. 



Land for Sale an d to Kent 

GiemTRanch 

Glenn County = = California 

FOR SALE 

IN SUBDIVISIONS 



This famous and well-known farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, "The Wheat King," has been 
surveyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale in 
any sized government subdivision at remarkably 
low pi ices, and in no case it is beltived, exceeding 
what is assessed for county and State taxation 
purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west bank 
of the Sacramento River for fifteen miles. It is 
located in a region that has never lacked an ample 
rainfall and no Irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year 
and freight and trading boats make regular trips. 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is invited. Parties desiring to 
look at the land Should go to Willows, California, 
and inquire for P. O. Eibe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdivisions and prices per acre, address person- 
ally or by letter 



F. C. LUSft, 



Agent of N. D. Rideout. Adminis rator of the estate 
of II. J. Glenn, at Chico Butte County , Cal. 



Kirkman Nurseries 



'•Full line of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees and Vines. Peach and other fruit 
trees at reasonable prices. Grape root- 
ings and cuttings furnished in any quan- 
tity. 400,000 rooted vines in Stanislaus 
county. Main office at MERCED, Cal. 
Branches at Fresno and Turlock." 



TREES 

E. Crawfords, Hale's Early and manv other varie- 
ties of peach trees, all fine budded -t.ick 

Large stock of all the leading varielies of apples 
on whole roots and free from all pests. Also a fine 
stock of cherries, pears. Uurbauks and S. B S S 
Walnuts, etc. SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 

A. F. Scheidecker, Prof. Pleasant View Nursery 

Sebastopol. Cal. 



Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

Original Burbank Strain 

$1.50 per Doz., $6.00 per 100, $40 per 1000 

Now is good 

time to plant. We are the only Rhubarb 
Specialists on the Coast. We devote most of 
our time to its cultivation and improvement. 
We have the Best pedigreed plants ever offered 
of this wonderful moneymaker. Write or call on 

J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist, Pasadena, Cal. 

A Fine Stock of Superlative Raspberry, also Fruit 
Trees and Vines of all Sorts Both Phones. 



Trees 



Analy Nurseries 

T.J. TRUE 

Sebastopol 

Write for Price List 



Seed Corn. 

HICKER.V KINO. Largest grain. Smallest cob. 
Great fodder producer $3.00 per 100 lbs. $50.00 
per ton. Casaba melon (Winter Pine apple) seed, 
$1.00 per lb. 

LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO.. Inc. 

Morganhill. California. 

O 15 for $1.00 

!\0SeS ^ekl : grown plants, 

10 111. to 2 feet. 
Send for Catalog . 

GEDRO JVURSERY Gilroy, Cal. 

WALNUT TRttS 

Grown from carefully selected seeu. I 
have a fine lot of trees. Call and see 
them. Postal gets price list. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Burbank Beauty (Early) $3.00 per M and 
Brandy wines (raid-season) at $2.00 per M. 
Both are excellent table and market berries 
and the best varieties for California. Orders 
booked for present and future delivery. 

G. H. Hopkins, Burbank, Cal. 

LOGAN BEK.R.Y PLANTS 

$2.00 per hundred, $15.00 per M. Cran- 
dell's Early blackberry, Cuthbert rasp- 
berry, Lucretia dewberry, each $1.50 per 
hundred; $10.00 per M. Plants carefully 
packed. 

FAIRVIEW FARM NURSERY, 
G. H. Hopkins, Prop., Burbank, Cal. 

ESTABLISHED 1884 

MARTINEZ NURSERY 

Martinez, Cal. 
TMOS. S. IH'ANE, Prop. 

Have on hand a full line of of Fruit Trees, including 
Free and Cling Stone Peach, Apple, Apricot, Cherry 
Plum, Prune, Pear and Almond, also Cornichon, 
Black F.mperor and Tokay rooted vines— Cal. 
Black Walnut, Orange, Lemon, Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs. 

Prices Furnished on Application 

TOKAY ROOTED VINES 

50,000 FOB SALE 

Grown from the Fatnons I.ODI STOCK 
For terms apply to 

PRANK H. BUCK COMPANY 

VACAVILLE, CALIFORNIA 



78 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 2, 1907 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

Let Us Help You « 

Let us help you make your planting a 
success. Our seed experience of over 
fifty years enablesus to give you expert 
advise on the raising of various vege- 
tables. This you will find scattered 
through our catalog. \ou need good 
Seed to start with. We raise and sell 
only that kind, and guarantee all we 
sell to be fresh and reliable. 
Catalogue Free. 
| J.J. H. GREGORt^BHHto|JMarblehead, 
&S0N JMX- JlkMass. 

seed*; 





SEEDS THAT GROW 



Best qu 

and Farm oooiut 
Clover. Seed Potato 
will send free with eat- 



you 



Alfalfa, /cJ^^-V^t Write 
. ^,-.&V^us to-day. 
/ .4% 5j?*X^Uao have full 
■logae a pkt of new ^voJW*-" ' 

lcttuee seed "May V^^S*'\0*' 

King" the beel J^^S^rl 1 ^ 
bead lettuee/^* B 



'line of Nursery 
*k. Roses, Plants 



German nurseries, 
beatrice, 

1 116, Nebraska. 



ORANGES 

AND 

LEMONS 

When the right varieties are pro- ^ 
' P^rly grown and planted, are big 
money makers. Our new booklet 
on Citrus Culture tells all about the 
standard sorts, planting, cultivation, 
irrigation and packing the crop. 
Over ioo illustrations and something 
like 50,000 words of text. The price'" 
is merely nominal, namel", 25 cents. 
May we have your name for a copy ? 

San Dimas Citrus Nurseries, 
San Dimas, Cal. 

R. M. TEAGUE, 
Proprietor 



SEEDS 

POULTRY SUPPLIES 
STOCK FOODS 
BEE SUPPLIES 



Send For 

Our 
Catalogues 



141 Spear St. San Francisco 

COX SEED CO. 

Seed Growers and Nurserymen 

109 Market Street San Francisco, Cal. 

Also Large Stock carried in our Oakland 

Warehouses. 

Alfalfa, Grass Seeds, Clover, 

Beans and Peas. 
Trees and Plants of all kinds 

We carry the largest stock of Garden Seeds in 
the West 

For over thirty years, Cox's Seeds have been the 
Standard forPurity and Quality. 

Our 1907 Catalogue, fully illustrated, mil be mailed 
to all applicants free. It is full of valuable informa- 
tion and should be in the homes 0.1 all interested in 
Soiling and Planting. 



Ask for SNOW'SiGBAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State. 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave., San Jose, Cal. 



Citrus 
Deciduous 
Ornamental 

AND EVERYONE TRUE TO NAME 

When you buy goods of any kind you of course find it to your interest to do business with an old established 
firm that has made a reputation for itself by selling dependable goods. Growing trees is no difficult matter, but 
to have them true to name requires great care and a thorough knowledge of the business, brought about by years 
of hard work and close application. We strive to give our customers, both old and new, square treatment and 
never to make any misrepresentations. 

WE ARE UNIVERSAL PROVIDERS FOR ORCHARDS AND GARDENS. 

We do not confine ourselves to fruit trees alone, but grow also an immense assortment of ornamental trees 
and shrubs, climbing and trailing plants, palms for house decorations and outside planting, roses in tree and 
bush form. 



I 



CITRUS TREES. 

ply you with the leading kinds of Oranges, Lemons, 
ply you with the leading kinds of Oranges, Lemons, 
Pomelos, Limes, Citrons all grown in the great Ther- 
mal belt near Exeter, Tulare county. 



APPLES AND PEARS. 

All standard sorts, budded and 
grafted on whole roots. No piece 
roots used. 



GRAPEVINES. 



CHERRIES. 

A magnificent stock of standard va- 
rieties. Bing, Black Tartarian, Lam- 
bert, Royal Ann. As money makers 
they lead. 

APRICOTS, PEACHES 
NECTARINES. 

We have a good supply, but stocks 
are becoming depleted fast. If you 
contemplate planting this season put 
your order in now. Don't delay. This 
is good advice to follow. 

ALMONDS. 

The new variety Jordan. The lead- 
ing sort in Spain. Also the standard 
Hatch seedlings; Drake's Seedling, I. 
X. L., Ne Plus Ultra. Nonpariel on 
peach and almond root. Our supply is 
limited with a demand more active 
than ever before. 



Galitnyrna 

Our Great 
Specialty 

None genuine without our seal 



On their roots and grafted on Phylloxera Resist- 
ant roots. The largest stock and the most complete 
assortment on the Pacific Coast. Let us figure with 
you on your requirements. It will be worth your 
while. 



CHESTNUTS 
PECANS. 

The most complete line on the Pa- 
cific Coast. Best grafted sorts and 
trees grown from selected seeds. 




We also have a fine stock of 

White Adriatic 
Mission 

and other standard sorts of figs 



WALNUTS. 

No fruit where conditions are favor- 
able have paid such big returns as wal- 
nuts. We have a fine stock of the 
standard sorts in seedlings and 
grafted trees. 

OLIVES. 

In Italy, an olive grove is consid- 
ered as valuable as a gold mine. The 
manufacture of Green and Ripe Olives 
and Olive Oil, is now established on a 
firm footing in California, and a grow- 
er with a good grove is reaping a har 
vest from his olives. Our assortment 
of the leading oil and pickling varie 
ties was never better. 



BURBANK'S CREATIONS. 

For the first time we are offering four of his latest and best creations, SANTA ROSA PLUM, RUTLAND 
PLUMCOT, PARADOX AND ROYAL WALNUTS. Write for illustrated pamphlet telling all about them. 



CATALOGUE AND 

PRICE LIST. 

Our new catalogue is the finest book of its 
kind ever gotten out on the Pacific Coast. It 
is a compendium of valuable information 
and should be in the hands of every fruit 
grower and lover of the beautiful in nature. 
We also print a catalogue in Spanish. Cata- 
logue and price list mailed on application. 



OUR NURSERIES 

AND FARMS. 

Roeding Place, 640 acres. 
Nursery and Propagating Department, 
[Plant No. 2, 130 acres. 

General Nursery, Plant No. 3, 320 acres. 
Citrus Nursery and Citrus Orchards, Exe- 
|ter, Tulare county, 100 acres. 



PAID-UP CAPITAL $200,000.00 



Fancher Creek Nurseries 




(INCORPORATED) 



GEORGE C. ROEDING, President and Manager 



BOX 18, FRESNO, CALIFORNIA 




February 2, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



79 



Are f 
You 

Planting 

Trees? 



Owing to the unprecedented de- 
mand we are sold out on many 
sorts, and, though we are selling out 
fast on others, we can still furnish 
the following standard varieties: 

In Peaches: Triumph, St. John, 
Early Crawford, Late Crawford, 
Elberta, Piquetts Late, Salway, 
Phillips Cling, Levi Cling, Sherman 
Cling. 

In Plums: Climax, Burbank, 
Wickson, Diamond, Hungarian, 
Fallenberg, German, Grand Duke. 

In Cherries: Knights Early 
Black, Black Tartarian, Bing, Great 
Bigerean, Lambert, Black Oregon. 

In Pears : Bartlett, Brusse Clari- 
gean. 

In Grapes: Emperor.Cornichon, 
Tokay, Malaga. 

In Quinces: Pineapple, Orange. 

Likewise other varieties not 
standards. 

SUBMIT A LIST OF YOUR 
WANTS. WRITE FOR CAT- 
ALOGUE. OUR PRICES ARE 
RIGHT, WHILE OUR TREES 
ARE THE BEST THAT 
GOOD CARE AND INTEL- 
LIGENT APPLICA TION 
CAN PRODUCE. 



Placer Nurseries 

NEWCASTLE, CAL. 

SUVA, BERGTHOLD 4 CO., Proprietors 

The Fowler Nursery Company 

Has on hand a large lot of thrifty rooted 
vines and peach trees, of all varieties. 
Also strawberries, blackberries and the 
celebrated Himalaya berry. 



STOCK COMPLETE PRICES REASONABLE 



MORSE SEEDS SPROUT 

Yovi and Nature do the rest 

Alfalfa 

from the best Utah alfalfa section — clean and free from dodder and weed 
seeds. Also Turkestan alfalfa — recommended by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture for dry land. Samples and prices of both, on request. If 
interested in Clover and Grass Seeds, and Onion Sets, write us. 



Seed Catalogue 

addresses — for copies free. 



now ready — send your name 
and your friends' names and 



168 Clay St. C. C. MORSE (SL CO. San Francisco 



GREENBACK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash 
Best Tree Wash 
T. W. JACKSON & CO., Temporary Address 
Sausalito, Cal 



Send for Catalogue and Price List 

FOWLER NURSERY COMPANY 
. EOWLER FRESNO CO., CAL. 



THE CROCKER PEAR 

We claim does not Blight. 

See U. S. Year Book for description. 

What Luther Burbank says of it: 

" Box of pears received last December ; 
samples have been tested from time to time 
and even at this date, Feb. 10, are still in b;st 
condition. Its form, size, color are attrac- 
tive. Fruit is among the best ; juicy, refresh- 
ing and in all respects satisfactory and es- 
pecially so at this unusual season. 

Luther Burbank." 

Get the. genuine. Crocker Pear- 
trees from the originator. 

L. L. CROCKER, 

Loomis, Placer county, Cal. 



ETTERSBURG GOOSEBERRY 



Rose Ettersburg Strawberry. 

Ettersburg- Gooseberry — Unique, vigorous 
grower, healthy so far as tried, very pro- 
ductive, medium sized berry, very thin and 
tender skin, and practically all meat, as 
there are but few seeds; three-fifths as 
much acid as other varieties and of highest 
quality. Was awarded a Bronze Medal at 
the L. and C. Exposition, which was the 
highest recognition that could be bestowed 
on a single exhibit of a single variety. Pine 
cuttings until February 15, $1.00 per dozen 
postpaid. 

Rose Ettersburg - Strawberry — Unique. 

productive, valuable as a home berry on 
light, warm soils. Plants 50c a dozen or 
$2.25 per 100, postpaid. 

For full description see article in this 
paper January 12, 1907. Money orders on 
Bineland, Cal. 

ALBERT F. ETTER, 
Ettersburg, Humboldt Co., Cal. 



ERRY5 

Seeds 

prove their worth at harvest 
time. After over fifty years of 
success, they are pronounced 
the best and surest by careful 
planters everywhere. Your 
dealer seHs them. 1907 Seed 
Annual free on request. 

I>. M. PERKY & CO., Detroit, MlcN 

Leonard Coates Nursery Co, 

(Incorporated) 

ROSES— Very strong bushes ; splendid assortment 

$2.oo per doz. 
EUCALYPTUS in variety. 
ACACIA in variety. 

CALIFORNIA PRIVET-Very strong ; $7.50 per 100. 
CARNATIONS— Field grown ; 6 in pots ; $2 per doz 
WALNUTS 
(Send for special circular.) 
Catalogue of strictly "Pedigreed" Fruit Trees,.&c. 
will be issued this year. Orders for next season 
booked at any time. 

MORGANHILL, 

Santa Clara County California 

Wanted.— Hardshell Almonds 
for seed purposes. We 
have a few tons of Apricot 
Pits for sale for seed pur- 
poses. 

Address: 

EANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

FR.ESNO, CAL. 



PLANT THESE FOR 
GORGEOUS GARDENS 

A Splendid New Collection of Flower Seeds, to Win 
New Laurels for The Chas. H. Lilly Co. 



These varieties are widely different 
and include bed, vine and aquatic 
plants. Each is much improved over 
anything of the same species hereto- 
fore produced, and will excel in color 
effects and profusion anything you 
.have ever before known in these va- 
rieties. Read descriptions carefully, 
and note our attractive Special Offer. 



LILLY'S BEST 
SEEDS. BEST 
FOR THE WEST 



SUPERIORITY 
THE REASON OF 
LILLY SUCCESS 



Grown in Western soil and the recognized 
standard for all Pacific Coast States. Cost 
no more than seeds of unknown quality or 
unadapted Eastern origin. 

LILLY'S GORGEOUS SINGLE DAHLIAS 

Growing 4 feet tall or more, these Dah- 
lias present a riot of rich, luxuriant color. 
The best sorts selected from the newest 
varieties; such valuable novelties as "Twen- 
tieth Century," "American Flag," "Lu- 
cifer," and other late introductions. The 
large blossoms are in many gorgeous shades 
— yellow mottled, black, scarlet with black 
hearts and stems, pure white, bright crim- 
son, spotted — every imaginable combination 
of splendid coloring in brilliant contrasts. 
Blooming begins in June and keeps a con- 
tinuous outburst of beauty until frost. Bulbs 
may be left in ground, where diey remain 

□ read" for sprouting in the spring, 
with.'dt work or thought until time 
for t'le regular spring weeding and 
trimming. The blossoms make luxurious 
bouquets when cut with long stems -< r\- 
and artistically arranged. Per packet 

COLUMBIA GALLARDIA 

This plant blooms perennially, and first 
year of seeding offers a wealth of gorgeous 
yellow blossoms with dark maroon spots 
and discs. When grown in large groups in 
beds is strikingly effective in brilliancy. 
For decorative purposes most handsome. 
Its immense and brilliant flowers on long 
self-supporting stems "vase" handsomely, 
and remain perfect for a week after cutting. 
Blossoms are single and measure from 2 to 



3 inches across. The plant blooms all sum- 

□ mer and is hardy anywhere, being in 
nature a desert flower. Blossoms early 
in spring, and blooms continuously 
until frost comes. After first year the plants 
come on from the nature seeding of -1 rvp 
vear before. Mixed colors, per pkt. J.U*' 

LILLY GIANT EVER-BLOOMING 
LARKSPUR 

Beautiful long spikes of large blue flow- 
ers; great quantities the first season from 
seed. Individual flowers light blue with 
white centers, dark blue with white centers, 
and light or dark blue with dark or light 
blue centers. Individual plants sturdy and 
very productive of new shoots; blooms all 
summer if old sprouts are cut off. They crave 

E-i rich soil, and respond with ready 
)] growth. Very effective with other 
-I tall plants, or behind borders of lower 
plants. Grows 4 to 6 feet first year, 7 to 
8 feet tall second year. All shades in -1 rv p 
the several combinations. Per packet -LU^ 

SWEET-SCENTED SNAP DRAGON 

Form brilliant garden beds, flowering pro- 
digiously and continuously first season from 
seeds. These plants grow about 2 feet high, 
are healthy and stocky and completely en- 
veloped with large snap-dragon flowers of 
splendid texture and substance; are very 
durable under all conditions of weather. 
Their continuous-blooming qualities, ease 
of culture, independence of heat and drought ; 
and pure, bright colors, entitle them to a 
permanent place in all gardens. Although 
perennials, they do splendidly when grown 
as annuals; spring-sown seed produces flow- 

□ ering plants by July, which bloom 
in increasing profusion until frost. 
These flowers are nearly double 
the size of older sorts, and have a most de- 
lightful odor, while the old varieties ■* r\ n 
are devoid of fragrance. Per packet i.U^ 

EGYPTIAN LOTUS 

The far-famed Egyptian Lotus is the easiest 
of all water lilies to grow; produces superb 
flowers and magnificent foliage in splendid 
tropical effect. The flowers are about a foot 
across when fully opened, of a deep rose or 
creamy white, and'exquisitely fragrant. Sow 
in any good garden soil, finely sifted. The 



seed will usually lie dormant for a month or 
more. After sowing, pots should be submerg- 
ed in water, which should be kept at about 

□ 70 degrees. Two inches of water over 
pots is sufficient. As soon as the seed- 
lings make 2 or 3 leaves they should 
be transplanted. Wherever there is a pond, 
lake or other water, the Egyptian ^|-. 
Lotus should be grown. Per packet 

IMPERIAL JAPANESE GIANT 
MORNING GLORIES 

The vines present a beautiful wall of luxu- 
riant foliage thick with flowers of gigantic 
dimensions. These flowers, measuring four 
to six inches across, are of limitless new 
and exquisite colors, while the shadings 
and markings produce a mass of such in- 
comparable beauty that descriptions are 

□ inadequate. The blooms appear 
both double and single, the double 
producing dainty effects in myriad 
color variations. The plant is of strong and 
robust growth, vines quickly reaching -1 rip 
a height of 30 to 40 feet. Per packet 

SPECIAL OFFER 
$1.50 of above Seeds for $1.00. Six 10c 

packets for 50c (including one packet of 
Old Fashioned Flower Garden Seeds free). 
Three 10c packets for 25c. All postage paid. 

LILLY'S NEW 1907 SEED CATALOGUE 

Surpasses all previous books in attractive- 
ness and completeness of plant information; 
contains descriptions, price lists and culture 
directions for thousands of varieties of seeds, 
bulbs, roots and cuttings. Also is a hand- 

□ book of information on poultry foods 
and supplies, stock foods, fertilizers, 
garden supplies, sprays, horticultural 
supplies, etc. If you want one free, mark 
an X in the white square. 

HOW TO ORDER 
This offer of Lilly's Best Flower Seeds is 
intended solely for introductory purposes, 
and is available only through this advertise- 
ment. Mark an X in each white square op- 
posite the variety of seed you wish to order, 
mark the quantity in square or on margin, 
figure up the total, clip out the ad., and re- 
mit in same envelope with the clipped ad. 
Be sure and write your name and address 
plainly, filling in the following blank: 



001^ Co. 

SEATTLE PORTLAND SAN FRANCISCO 

[Order From House Nearest Youl 

Enclosed is $ for which please 

send me Lilly's Best Seeds as marked above 

Name 



Address . 



RP.2 



80 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 2, 1907 





1 



to the extent of 390 pounds, is 
actually removed from the ground in 
& a single crop of twenty tons of sugar 
beets raised on one acre. This loss 
to the soil mu.;t be made good if it is to 
continue to raise good sugar-beet crops. 
Successful farmers have found that a 
fertilizer containing <)% Potash will keep the soil 
toned up to do its best, continuously. 

Read all about this important subject in 
"Farmers' Guide," a 160-page bo'jk which we 
send free. 

GERMAN KALI WORKS 
93 Nassau Street, New York 

. \-f 

MEYERS, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, are Sole Agents. 

WE GUARANTEE 

ALCOHOL 

Can be used in Improved Peerless and Distillate Engines without 
any change in construction or vaporizer 



V/ 2 H. P. to 25 H. P. 
Belt or Direct 
Connected 




For Pumping and 
General Power 
Service 



BAKER &, HAMILTON 

SAIN FRANCISCO SACRAMBNTO LOS A.NOELES 



Hoyt'^ Tree Support 

Patented Nov. 26, 1901. 
Patented Sept. 22, 1903. 

THE PROPLESS PROP THAT PROPERLY PROPS A TREE. 

R Useful Thing is a Joy Forever 




Hoyt's Tree Support on the Tree. 



Over Three Million Sold Since Introduction in 1903 

After your trees have broken down, overloaded with fruit, don't howl about your 
hard luck. The preventative is cheap, effective, permanent. 

FOR FULL PARTICULARS and descriptive booklet write 

MacDONALD & SONS 

WATSONVILLE, CALIFORNIA 

General Agents for the HOYT TREE SUPPORT COMPANY 



and 





FERTILIZERS 

MANUFACTURED- * ; S 
BY 

The Mountain 
Copper Co. 
J 102014m § 




IF YOUR DEALER DOES NOT CARRY 

M0C0C0 

FERTILIZERS, 
order direct. 
Pamphlet and Price List free, 
on application . 
Accept no substitute; insist on 
having;'' MOCOCO" 



All Soils Alike to Wood Pipe. 




The Heaviest adobe, the most corrosive alkali, the lightest sand; all ar« 
alike where wood pipe is used. IT RESISTS THEM ALL. Wood Saturated, 
Air Excluded — Can't Rot. Metal in Bulk, Galvanized, Asphalted — Can't Rust. 
High Factor of Safety in Banding — Can't Leak. Our booklet, "The Whole 
Story About Wood Pipe," contains valuable tables of the carrying capacity 
of pipe. Mailed free upon request. 



Continuous Stave Pipe 



Machine Banded Pipe 



Bored Wood Pipe 



NATIONAL WOOD PIPE COMPANY 



Sixth ami Mateo Sts. , Los Angeles 
Olympiu, Washington 



301 Market St . Sau Francisco 
Salt Lake City, Utah 



Emery's Poultry Foods are sold by all Dealers and Commission 
Men because they are the BEST. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

The Pacific Guano & Fertilizer Co., 24th & Indiana, San Francisco 



Write for our FREE booklet. 



F irrner's Fn 



Valuable to all Farmers n ml Ranchers. 



QALlFORN m VE GETABLES 

By PROF. E. J. WICKSON, 



A MANUAL OF PRACTICB WITH AND WITHOUT IRRIGATION. THE BOOK COM- 
PLBTBLT COVERS ITS FIELD. A FULL ILLUSTRATED CHAPTER EACH ON 
Farm«r«' Gardens in California Artichokes Popper* 
Vegetable Growing in California Beans 
California Climate aa Related to Beets 



Potatoes 
Radishes 



Vegetable Growing 
Vegetable Soils of California 
Garden Irrigation 



Garden Drainage in California Chioory 



Cabbage Family Rhubarb 
Carrot, Parsnip and Salsify Spinach 
Celery Squashes 



CultlTatlon 
Fertilisation 

Garden Location and Arrange- 
ment 

The Planting Season 

Propagation 

Asparagus 



Corn 
Cucumber 
Egg Plant 
Lettuce 
Melons 

Onion Family 
Peas 



Tomato 
Turnip 

Vegetable Sundries 
Vegetables for Canning 
and Drying 

Seed Sowing in California 
Garuen Protection 
Weeds in California 



Price), $2.00 Postpaid 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publishers 



Temporary Office, Berkeley, Cal. 



Prof. Hilgard's New Book on Soils 

The Greatest in the World 

Read "The Week" in Pacific Rural Press of Sept. 29 

Soils, their formation, properties, composition and relations to climate and 

plant grovth in Humid and Arid Regions. 

By E. W. Hilgard of the University of California. 

Largs Octavio 593 pages illustrated $4 

Especially valuable in California and Pacific Slope generally 

Send orders to PACIFIC RURAL PRKSS 

First National Bank Building. Berkeley. Cal. 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



LXXIII. No. 6. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 1907. 



Thirty-seventh Year 



REDUCING TEMPERATURES DURING 
FERMENTATION. 



Last week we gave some interesting 
views illustrating the reduction of temper- 
atures during fermentation as practiced by 
the wine-makers of Algiers as observed by 
Prof. P. T. Bioletti of the University of Cal- 
ifornia during his travels in North Africa. 
California experimenters have for some 
years worked along the line of enforced 
cooling by air-blasts and by artificially 
cooled water and have contrived devices 
for the purpose as shown in detail in the 
viticultural publications of the University 
Experiment Station. Some suggestion of 
these may be of interest. One of these 
coolers is shown upon the outside of the 
wine cellar. The machine consists essen- 
tially of a copper tube 220 feet long and 
IV4, inches in diameter, through which the 
wine is pumped and which is inclosed in a 
canvas irrigating hose 4 inches* in diameter, 
through which cold water runs in a direc- 
tion opposite to that of the wine. The 
whole is supported on a wooden stand as in 
the picture, where the cooler is shown in 
operation. Although the machine is not of 
great cost, it can be made much cheaper by 



the use of iron pipe instead of copper, but 1 
iron is not quite as efficient as copper in j 
such use. The use of iron does not prove j 
objectionable through action of wine acids j 
upon it because the wine is so short a time ! 
exposed. It is also interesting that un- 1 
coated iron can be used even for longer con- 
tact with wine, for one of the pictures shows 
an iron tank-wagon successfully used in Al- 
giers for hauling wine from an outlying 
winery to a large central establishment. 
A smaller picture shows an Algerian ar- 
rangement of a cooling tower used in con- 
nection with a fermenting cellear. 

Two other pictures show a forced air cool- 
er in two forms in which a blast from a 
blower is brought into contact with a thin 
stream of water moving over an arrange- 
ment of flat tubes through which the wine 
is forced by a pump. It consists of an or- 
dinary beer wort cooler, but the wine in- 
stead of flowing over the outside was 
pumped through the tube and cooled by 
allowing the water to drip over the outside 
of the battery of tubes. The cooling was 
made more complete by the use of two 
propeller fans, which caused a strong cur- 
rent of air to pass over the surface of the 
tubes and cool the water by evaporation. 



COOLED WINE 




Wine cooling by double tube method. 




BLOWER 




is 




HOT WINE 

University 3 --blast cooler for reducing temperature of wine. 



V 



This is shown in the construction with the blower fan exposed in the end of 
the rectangular chamber. 

A more compact and efficient cooler is shown in the drawing at the top 
of this page It is identical in principle with the foregoing but is more 
compact and workmanlike in its design and construction, and more efficient 
in cooling, as careful experiments showed. It is also very economical of 
water as compared with the double tube apparatus first mentioned. Where, 




Another form of air-blast cooler for wine. 



Iron tank used for transportation of wine in Algeria. 




Cooling tc/ver in Algiers. 



however, the cost of water is merely 
nominal for the amounts necessary, as 
it is in most California wineries, the 
possibility of cooling nearly twice as 
much wine in a given time with a ma- 
chine of the same size is a great ad- 
vantage. 

It is an interesting fact that while this 
cooling device was contrived merely for 
experimental purposes to show what ad- 
vantages there might be in cooling, it 
proved so efficient, and is at the same 
time so simple in construction and of 
such moderate cost, that it will be found 
useful in nearly all wineries where any 
attempt is made to keep the temperature 
of the fermenting wine within the most 
favorable limits. For this reason the 
construction and work of the cooler is 
described in detail in (he University pub- 
lications, together with some of the pre- 
liminary tests made with small models. 



82 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 9, 1907 



Pacific Rural Press 

Published Temporarily at Berkeley, Sal. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IJV 71DV71SGE 



Advertising rates made, known on application. 



Kntered at S. P. Postoffice as second-class mail matter 



L>EWi:V PCIiLkSIIIHCi CO. 



Publishers 



8. J. WICKSON 
EDGAR RICKARD 



Editor 
Business Manager 



THE WEEK 



The legislature has settled down solidly to its winter 
work, having passed the distractions and discords usual 
to the openings of sessions. As usual, also, it has a vast 
number of proposed laws which the committees are 
working over. Very soon the real contests over the 
issues will be at their height. The prevailing view is 
that the existing legislature is taking itself and its work 
seriously and is praiseworthy in its attitude and in- 
dustry. 

Agricultural propositions before the legislature are 
many and diverse; rather more so than usual, it seems 
to us. The effort toward determining the purity and 
cleanliness of food products and their truth to then- 
distinctive character is prompting many ventures at 
law making. This is in sympathy with the work which 
Congress has recently accomplished and is found In all 
State legislatures. It is becoming fashionable to regu- 
late things and there is plenty of evidence showing 
that things need it. The legislature has propositions* 
to regulate production and manufacture, trade and 
transportation, manners, morals and even religious ob- 
servances and as usual only a small fraction of the 
measures now being heatedly discussed can ever reach 
the point of enactment. 

This legislature, like the last one, has a keen regard 
for educational measures and laws and appropriations 
on educational lines are being rapidly advanced. The 
general motive seems to be to make school work of all 
grades more available to the ma&ses of the population 
than hitherto and this is certainly toward general ad- 
vancement and prosperity. How far the present propo- 
sitions relating to common school policies are calcu- 
lated to serve this motive we do not pretend to say 
because we claim no general expertness in pedagogy 
We can only urge that such measures deserve the 
closest scrutiny and analysis and it is better to study 
them longer than to make mistakes. The people of 
California take a deep interest in the public schools 
and may be trusted to reach sound conclusions about 
them if they have time to do it. 

There is, however, one phase of public interest in 
education which has been quite fully considered and con- 
cerning which the public mind has reached Quite defi- 
nite and it seems to us fully warranted conclusions. 
This is the necessity of making instruction in the art 
of agriculture much more available in this State. We 
have made much progress in the development of the 
science of agriculture in the light of our peculiar natural 
conditions and this science has been of incalculable 
advantage in moulding an art which succeeds and is 
making the State rich, but the knowledge of this art 
is largely restricted to the few who are conducting 
enterprises involving it and their is no adequate con- 
nection between them and the thousands whose comfort 
and prosperity depends upon knowing how the leaders 
in successful practice operate and the materials they 
use. We need, therefore, fuller demonstration of the 
art open to young and old who eagerly desire to know 
how to do things well in California though they may not 
be able to command the time and cost to master the 
science involved in the doing. Not only leading farm- 
ers but people in other callings who take an interest 



in the advancement of our agriculture and of the people 
seeking livlihood therein, have been urging the increase 
and improvement of instruction in agricultural prac- 
tice and rendering it more attainable to those who 
need it. A very strong public sentiment in the favor 
of such provisions has thus been created. It was 
manifested two years ago in the appropriation for a 
University Farm and the equipment thereof for in- 
structional purposes. It was manifested also by lib- 
erality toward the California Polytechnic School at San 
Luis Obispo and by appropriations also for demonstra- 
tion of ways to meet plant troubles in different parts 
of the State. The significance of these acts was un- 
mistakable to anyone who looked upon affairs with an 
open mind and the result has been an increased senti- 
ment in favor of improvement of agricultural education, 
particularly upon its practical side. 

To this increased sentiment is doubtless due the fact 
that measures in the interest of such educational un- 
dertakings were introduced early in the present legis- 
lature and commanded eager support. The people seem 
to be widely assured that the purchase of that grand 
farm at Davisville for University purposes was wise and 
economical in view of its intrinsic value and suitability 
for the purposes in view. This assurance is shown by 
the speed with which a bill making an appropriation 
for buildings, equipment and maintenance of the Uni- 
versity Farm is gaining at Sacramento. It has already 
advanced far upon its passage. Its purpose is to render 
the Davisville land available tor beginning instruction 
during the present year in as many branches of agri- 
culture as possible so that it may attract young and 
old for such length of courses as they can afford, in the 
lines of practice which they desire to pursue. This in- 
volves various kinds of buildings for housing pupils 
and instructors and other buildings suited for the dif- 
ferent arts of agriculture, the purchase of stock, the 
planting of orchards and vineyards, the preparation oi 
land for irrigation and the general preparation and un- 
dertaking of a more diverse system of demonstrative 
agriculture than any other State has ever been called 
upon to undertake, because the adaptations of California 
are so much wider. More can be done in two years 
in getting such a teaching plant into shape than could 
be done elsewhere and for this reason the appropriation 
of $130,000 is commending itself so strongly to the 
legislature. 

There has unfortunately been an impression more or 
less prevalent that this undertaking was not being 
heartily entered into on the part of the University 
and some condemnation of University people has been 
indulged in. It is gratifying to all friends of the cause 
to find that this has been the result of misapprehension, 
possibly of misunderstanding. At a large meeting of 
legislators on Monday evening of this week, Regents 
of the University were present and spoke so earnestly 
of the readiness of the University to develop instruc- 
tion in the art of agriculture on the farm already pro- 
vided for them by the State that doubt cannot longer 
exist on that score. Our own readers already knew that 
much from our utterances on the subject as made pub- 
lic at the Fruit Growers' Convention at Hanford and at 
the Short Course in Agriculture held in Fresno. We 
have, in fact, developed the details of the work to a 
considerable length and stated expressly that the fullest 
possible provision for the clearest expression on this 
subject arose at Sacramento and that the attitude of the 
University is understood. This fact seems to leave no 
doubt as to the enactment of the law generously pro- 
viding for the undertaking. 

Another measure pending before the legislature is the 
appropriation of $250,000 for a proper building for the 
Agricultural College at Berkeley. This provision may 
be reduced to $150,000 and pushed for passage in that 
shape because of the large amount of building which 
the State has to provide for this year. A decent build- 
ing to house the department at Berkeley and to take 



it out of the collection of shacks and sheds into which 
it is crowded at the present time, seems to be conceded 
to be a necessity. A dozen divisions of the work, each 
having its own line of instruction and investigation, are 
suffering at the present time for lack of accommoda- 
tion. Class rooms are crowded to suffication. The town 
of Berkeley provides better buildings for its grammar 
schools than the State has for its College of Agricul- 
ture. This issue for better accommodation at Berkeley 
is being urged upon the attention of the publis by the 
agricultural students themselves. They are good judges 
of the inadequacy of the provisions made for them, and 
they cannot be charged with having any private interest 
to serve as a body of instructors might be. The College 
at Berkeley has done well for the State and every good 
thing it does adds to its discomfiture because it creates 
a demand for greater things. This is inspiring and en- 
couraging to the faculty of the college and at the same 
time depressing and discouraging because the greater 
ihings which could be certainly reached along scientilic 
lines cannot be undertaken for lack of outfit and ac- 
commodation. One has only to come to Berkeley and 
see the instructors and investigators at work to be 
convinced of these facts. And while the California Col- 
lege of Agriculture is suffering in this way, all other 
States are lavishing money for their own institutions 
of the same class and advancing their teaching and 
research work with the very best buildings and equip- 
ments. It is to be hoped that the legislature may find 
it possible to send a committee to Berkeley to look into 
the condition of things for itself. Two years ago this 
was done and the appropriation for a new agricultural 
building passed both houses of the legislature and 
failed because the Governor could not find the money 
lor it in the estimated income of the State. It sub- 
sequently appeared that the State's income was larger 
than estimated and the building might as well have been 
ordered as not. The situation is more urgent now than 
it was two years ago. The demand for agricultural 
work at Berkeley has notably increased. More and 
more people are being packed into the some old sheds 
and the work is hampered and restricted. All this 
popularization of agricultural education and the de- 
mand for investigation brings more and more pupils 
and enquirers. More of everything to serve them is in- 
despensable. Agriculture must maintain itself in the 
University in connection with the sciences which min- 
ister to its progress and in association with the other 
technical branches to which it is intimately related. The 
provision of excellent facilities for improved nstruction 
in agricultural arts does not serve as a substitute lor 
adequate provision for the agricultural sciences. The 
sciences are the vital fires which move the arts. Un- 
less the motive forces are provided for by this legis- 
lature, the verdict of the people upon its work in fur- 
nishing for the practical side will be: This ye should 
have done and not have left the other undone. 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



MATURING PERIOD OF VEGETABLES. 

To the Editor: I am writing to see if you have an- 
other book on vegetables. I have one of your books 
by Edward J. Wickson, which is a great help but I 
want to see if I can get a book telling about how long 
it takes different seed to grow ready for use, then I can 
tell about when to plant different seed. You can see 
I am a beginner and as I am going to raise vegetables 
for the market, I would like to get all information I 
can. — BEGINNER, Los Angeles. 

One has to learn such things largely from his experi- 
ence as noted in his garden diary, a book which every 
one should keep. The time required to bring any veg- 
etable to marketable condition depends upon the growth 
habit of the variety itself upon the local temperature 
and moisture supply of the particular piece of land on 
which it is growing as well as upon the general earli- 
ness or lateness of the region in which this piece of 
land is located. Because all these things are variable, 
no general statement could be more definite than so 



February 9, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



8^ 



many months or so many weeks. The way to proceed 
to get experience which will be personally useful to you 
is to ascertain as nearly as you can by local records or 
the judgment of experienced people in the locality when 
the period of frosts or of cold, wet soil can be expected 
to be over and then begin putting out tender things, 
beginning before that with hardy vegetables whenever 
the ground is- in good condition. You will find that the 
planting calendar in California vegetables will help 
you and the catalogues of the California seedmen should 
also be carefully examined for suggestions. You must, 
however, closely study your local conditions as you go 
along. You will do many things at first that you will 
never do again; that is to be expected; it is the price 
of your education. Do not be too cautious-; do not be 
afraid of making mistakes; they are valuable. Plant 
a collection of varieties of each kind; early, medium 
and late. Plant the same varieties in succession, so as 
to cover much time and always have things ready. 
You cannot figure down as closely as you desire on 
just how much time each variety will require to get 
into readiness for sale, but you will get wiser in that 
line and you will learn how to choose so as to always 
have something ready. 

BLUESTONED WHEAT POISONOUS. 

To the Editor: We have a quantity of bluestoned 
wheat which cannot now be used for seed. Will you 
kindly let us know if it will be harmful to the chickens 
if fed to them.— W. J. H., Redding. 

We never tried it. We should expect it would kill 
them dead as mackerels if they ate enough, but per- 
haps not. The proof is in the eating and not in any 
theoretical view. Who has tried it? 

POTASH FOR ORANGES. 

To the Editor: Will you please state through the 
Press what effect might be expected upon tree and fruit 
of the application of 12 to 14 per cent potash upon fif- 
teen to twenty-year-old orange trees set in stiff red clay 
soil similar to the Redlands type, in connection with 
about 4 per cent nitrogen and 10 per cent phosphoric 
acid, as is the Florida practice. The fruit is rather 
rough and not very sweet without any fertilization. — 
GROWER, Nordhoff. 

There has been no demonstration of this matter which 
would justify anything more than a conjecture. The 
prevailing condition of California growers is that the 
addition of the potash would tend toward the improve- 
ment of the fruit. Try it and let us know your con- 
clusion. 

RESISTANCE OF THE TOKAY ROOT. 

To the Editor: I see advertised in the Press rooted 
Tokay vines. I would be pleased if you will kindly in- 
form me whether the Tokay root is resistant, in any 
degree to the phylloxera or ther vine diseases. — SUB- 
SCRIBER, Santa Cruz. 

The Tokay is not resistant in the sense in which that 
term is technically used but it does endure the attacks 
of the phylloxera longer than other vinifera varieties 
and may thus be said to be relatively resistant in the 
popular use of the adjective. For this- reason planters 
of Tokay vines on their own roots feel safer with that 
variety than with others. It should, of course, be 
known, also, that most vine planters are taking chances 
and are using non-resistant vines on their own roots 
expecting to make a lot of money before they fail. The 
planting of resistant roots comprises but a small frac- 
tion of the acreage which is going in. 

KATYDID EGGS. 

To the Editor: I find some insect eggs on my grape 
stakes occasionally and I do not know what they are. 
I will send you a sample. Please let me know through 
the Press what will destroy them.— GROWER, Wood- 
land. 

They are fiattish-oval polished bodies, about one- 
eighth of an inch long, sometimes gray, sometimes yel- 
lowish, regularly arranged in two rows on twigs or else- 
where in the orchard Or vineyard. They look rather 
more like seeds than eggs. They are the eggs of the 
Katydid, an insect of the grasshopper group, popular in 



juvenile literature and idyllic poetry but of no agricul- ! 
tural account because it is held down below the point 
of injury to crops because its enemies never allow it to 
become numerous. Last year, however, seems to have 
been a good year for katydids because we have received 
more egg samples than usual recently. It is not nec- 
essary to pay any attention though one can crush them 
if he wishes to show his sentiments toward the insects 
which would b3 injurious if they could. 

GROWING FENCE POSTS. 

To the Editor: The high price of lumber suggests to 
me that it is about time for farmers to begin growing 
their own fence posts, thus eliminating carriage and 
all secondary profits. How can I obtain the best in- 
formation on the subject? It has occurred to me that 
osage planted five or six feet apart might attain a size 
of from four to six inches. Locust, also, lasts well 
but I have never seen it planted closely. The Iowa ex- 
periment station has investigated' the durability of dif- 
ferent woods but I do not know how or where to write 
to obtain their results. What to grow and how to 
grow it, and on what soils, that is the problem. — L. J. 
HARBISON, Solano county. 

Much interesting information can be had from the 
publications about growing tree seedlings and forest 
planting by the U. S. Forestry Service, which can be 
had by application to Mr. Gifford Pinchot, U .S. For- 
ester, Washington, D. C. Eastern discussion of the 
growth and value of different trees is not, however, 
always a safe guide for California. You are right, how- 
ever, about the osage orange for it makes good size 
very quickly in California. The locust is also a rapid 
grower here and free from borers which destroy it at 
the East. When thickly planted, however, it makes an 
impenetrable thicket by its thorny suckers. The catalpa 
is a good tree for the purpose. All these trees can be 
easily grown from seed in nursery rows and thus cheap- 
ly obtained for large scale planting. Any experienced 
fruit grower ought to know how to do this work. 

SIZES OF FRUIT BOXES. 

To the Editor: I am interested in the "Standard 
Size of Fruit Boxes" in your issue of January 26. I 
am sorry that you did not include apple boxes in the 
list, for in this valley they vary very much in size, there 
being about five sizes of apple boxes offered for sale 
at the box factories in San Jose. This causes confu- 
sion not only among the growers who require long ex- 
perience to "know" the different sizes at sight, but par- 
ticularly the retail buyer. A box of apples may mean 
anywhere from thirty-three to fifty pounds of fruit, vary- 
ing somewhat as to size and variety. When the house- 
wife orders of her grocer or fruiterer by telephone "a 
box of apples" there is no guide to tell her what she 
may expect for her money. It has gone so far now that 
I see no way for the consumer to be protected except 
by a close study of sizes of boxes, sizes of apples and 
methods of packing, which, in connection with the fam- 
ily scales, which should always be freely used by the 
buyer for the household, some system of ordering may 
be evolved that will bring about a better understanding 
between "the store" and the consumer. Then a fifty- 
pound box of four-tier Bellflowers or a forty-pound 
box of five-tier Skinner's Seedlings or a thirty-five- 
pound box of five-tier Newtowns will mean something 
more than the present method. In all cases, however, 
the quality should be mentioned as "No. 1," "No. 2," 
"Culls," "Windfalls," etc. In the district around San- 
Jose a great many apples go to families direct from the 
growers, being sorted loosely into orchard boxes that 
hold about forty pounds. In this way a great many 
windfalls and seconds are disposed of at a medium price, 
avoiding the fruit dealer's profit. In regard to cherry 
boxes we have always understood that a stand- 
ard cherry box which measueres 2^x9x19% inches 
holds, when properly packed for long shipment, ten 
pounds of cherries. We have never used in this district 
a box 2% inches deep. Of course, the weight of the 
cherries in a box varies somewhat as to variety, size 
and ripeness. A box of 12-row Black Tartarians will 
weigh considerably more than a box of 9-row Royal 
Anns, but the average of the season's pack will not be 
much, if any, over ten pounds per box. There is a local 
box measuring 3^x8x15 inches, which is sometimes 
used for overripe fruit to local markets. It is seldom 
seen in the San Jose district— H. G. KEESLING, 
Edenvale. 

This communication is very acceptable. We shall be 



glad to receive others describing local experience and 
the packages used. Uniformity so far as it can be se- 
cured and still accommodate the sizes of fruit, which de- 
termine the tiers in packing, is certainly desirable. 
It is also desirable to have regard to the interests of 
purchasers and still the old principle that "the buyer 
must beware" can never be displaced probably. The 
buyer must always learn to be wise; not until the mil- 
lenium will the seller be enabled to look upon both 
sides of the bargain. Let us have, however, the sizes 
and contents of any box which is in local use -and it 
may be possible to arrive at recommendations of uni- 
formity or difference at some coming Fruit Growers' 
Convention which would have some effect in reducing 
the current confusion. 

BLOOMING TIME OF EUCALYPTUS RUDIS. 

To the Editor: I do not discover that your pub- 
lications about eucalyptus mention the time of bloom- 
ing of E. radis as a honey plant; nor does the late 
Prof. A. J. McClatchie in his work on eucalyptus; nor 
does Abbot Kinney in his. I do not find it either in the 
University reports, which contain the only table I can 
find that give the date of blooming to enable one to 
select the winter and fall bloomers for honey feed for 
bees. I have planted sixteen varieties for winter feed 
for bees, but this wet season I am afraid has caused too 
many to "damp off" from to much moisture. — PLANT- 
ER, Mentone. 

Our correspondent seems to have sought diligently; 
probably the information must still be gathered from 
observation. We applied to Mrs. M. E. Sherman of 
Fresno, who was among the first to make the desira- 
bility of this species widely known, and have secured 
this interesting statement: "The Rudis here blooms 
early, beginning in April and has a heavy crop of bloom. 
It keeps on with a lesser one until August, when it 
practically has passed its period. It blooms early or 
young, at three and four years old. There is also a 
noticeable difference in the amount of bloom on indi- 
vidual trees, some blooming and producing more seed. 
I think I find more seed on the tree that stands on the 
east side of the house grove, away from the wind. 
The heaviest blooming trees are not as fast growing as 
those that bear less crops of seeds. I doubt if I could 
help much in the sequence as our colder winter holds 
back the winter blooming of the tree. I have noticed 
around the bay in the winter time the trees in bloom 
while our's were not showing a sign. The Rudis blooms 
before the nights are warm and this has given rise to 
the idea that it poisons bees. They regularly go on a 
spree over it and forget to go home to bed before dark. 
The next morning the ground will be covered with dead 
or half dead bees. They suffer for their sins promptly." 
Mrs. Sherman indicates that the Rudis is relatively an 
early bloomer, which may help our correspondent, as 
Mentone is in the warm-winter class. The conclusion 
that the bees are chilled rather than poisoned is also 
interesting. We shall be glad to have other observa- 
tions. 

A SEDGE WHICH WILL PROBABLY STAY WHERE 
IT IS. 

To the Editor: I enclose under separate cover a 
bunch of grass and roots that grew along my creek. 
Will you please tell me what it is and how to get rid 
of it, if you can?— READER, Clayton. 

Dr. H. M. Hall informs us that the plant is not a true 
grass but a sedge (carex). It is a perennial with strong 
root stalks which creep along under the surface, rooting 
and sending up tufts of coarse leaves. It cannot be 
eradicated from stream banks, since the only method 
would be to plow it up and then keep cutting it out 
or plowing as fast as the new shoots made their appear- 
ance. Even this would be a doubtful method, since~it 
would necessitate constant watching and much labor ex- 
tended over a considerable period. In short, the rem- 
edy is the same as for Johnson grass or for Bermuda 
grass, which our readers know to be more trying to 
the planter than to the plant unless some other reason 
exists for constant cultivation and weed cutting and 
helps to pay for it. 



84 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 9, 1907 



HORTICULTURE. 



THE IMPROVEMENT OF CITRUS FRUIT VARIETIES. 

(By E. J. Wickson, Dean of the College of Agriculture 
of the University of California and Acting Director of 
the University Experiment Stations, at the Special 
Citrus Fruit Institute in Riverside, January 22 to 24, 
1907.) 

The possibility of improvement of varieties of citrus 
fruits is obviously conditional upon opportunity mani- 
festing itself in desirability of different types, forms 
and characters from those now familiar to the commer- 
cial or amateur grower. It is idle in this stage of the 
advancement of citrus fruit production in California 



world, which it was the dream and ambition of the 
pioneers to attain by their devoted and discriminu: :ng 
effort. 

In order to be a little more specific as to tin; ; ro' 
gressive rejection of varieties once esteemed, i-i me 
refer to records which I keep of the kinds which in iny 
year seem to command attention of large comnif^i ■>.' 
planters. The following is the number of such varieties 
in each of the recent years named: 

Oranges. Lemons. 

1890 22 9 

1900 8 5 

1905 2 3 

I disregard in all years a few varieties which are 



simply to indulge in a general exhortation of improve- either untried or appeal only to amateurs or are special 



ment to suggest that change is desirable because it 
may secure something different. It is also true, as may 
be insisted upon later, that radical changes in the 



types which certain growers plant in a small way for 
special trade. The two oranges which stand large are, 
of course, Washington Navel and the Valencia Late; 



characters of varieties, which citrus plant breeders are the three lemons are Eureka .Lisbon and Villa Franca; 



attaining in the Eastern and Southern States, are not 
necessarily of any local value to California, and, from 
our point of view, may not constitute any improvement 



the first being greater than the other two combined and 
becoming relatively greater. There are, of course, more 
varieties of oranges and lemons commercially grown 



but more sour. As both sugar and acid are nutritive 
substances, the superiority of the California fruit from 
a dietary point of view is clear. Such an orange, en- 
closed in a thin skin of silky texture and beautiful finis*,, 
comes very close to an ideal upon which to found an. 
industry. How well such a type of orange serves that 
purpose is shown by a production for 1906 estimated to> 
have reached a selling value of twenty million dollars. 
— the greatest value ever attained by any state or na- 
tion in the citrus line, and delivered to purchasers at a 
greater average distance than any other ever attempted. 
Far less in degree but similar in kind has been the 
development of the California lemon industry; and 
though its greater dfficulties have been by no means 
overcome, the advancement in the attainment of suit- 
able varieties has secured something suitable to build 
upon, as already shown. 

Not for Our Purposes. — The improvement of citrus, 
fruit varieties as diligently pursued by expert plant 
breeders of the United States Bureau or Plant Industry 
and of the southern experiment stations is of great pom- 
ological Interest and promise generally. The objects 



at all. We have followed a long and devious path of and they have some distinctive values- which may bring aimed at are, however, of rather remote applicability 



I hem revival, but the contract is limited to those largely 
planted at the time stated, because a man's belief Is 
based not so much upon what he has as upon what he 
will pay to have. 



to California because the conditions to which they en- 
deavor to adapt their new fruits of citrus origin do not 
exist within the range of our large commercial citrus 
industry. They are endeavoring, by hybridization, to 



our own toward the excellence which we now possess 
and reference to it may be instructive to newer Cali- 
fornians. 

The Early Citrus Fairs. — It was my privilege as a 
young man to participate in the citrus fairs which 
were strong promotive and defective agencies in the 
early development of orange and lemon growing in 
Southern California. I remember the first held in Riv- 
erside nearly thirty years ago. Recent comers cannot ! of improvement and it is interesting that each has its i a lemon which can be grown under what are now found 
appreciate the eagerness, the effort for close and correct stren S th and weakness. In an effort during the last to be non-citrus conditions. They are inviting the most 
discrimination the enterprise to secure everything i year t0 secure the conclusions of experienced growers startling changes of types of citrus fruits, that some 

departures may fall on their side. To the Californian 



It may be taken as established that close and long induce a combination of maximum hardiness with qual- 
continued selection has given us> two varieties which ity by which, through selection, they may attain some- 
are of acceptable type and that these types are not to be thing at least tolerable from an amateur's point of view, 
wisely departed from. Each, however, is susceptible They wish to produce something like an orange or like 



which had promise in it and to bring it to judgment, and Propagators as to what remained to be desired in 
which were characteristic of the argonauts of River- the wav of commencial varieties of the orange, I re- 
side and of the rival citrus colonies who ransacked the ceived the following replies from many different people, 
world to secure the golden fleece, not of Kolchis, but t j which I condense to a single declaration to each: 



citrus excellence which should prove effective in the 
success of their unique horticultural enterprise. The 
result of the world-search brought orange and lemons 
from China, India, Persia, the Mediterranean islands 
and countries, the gulf coast of the South, the West 
Indies- and Mexico and from far and wide through 
Oceanica, until there existed in Southern California 
thirty years ago a larger collection of citrus fruit 
varieties than in any other single country under the 
sun. How the visitors at the fairs admired and 
praised; how the judges at the fairs analyzed and con- 
demned them by dozens, reserving only a few for ten- 
tative favor. Praise was met from the idle; merciless 
criticism was the only protection for those who were 
striving to lay the foundation for a livlihood and a 
competence. And so the motley crew of citrus varie- 
ties began to fall before expert judgment which, it must 
be acknowledged, was strikingly accurate and impartial 
because those who were called upon to execute it were 
trained to quick and broad conclusions through their 
previous participation in commercial, financial, educa- 
tional and other professional affairs. The men and wo- 
men who achieved the success of the citrus colonies 
of Southern California possessed probably a higher order 
of intelligence and a richer experience than were ever 
summoned to a single agricultural undertaking before. 



A later Washington Navel, to be good after May 
11; an earlier Washington Navel, to be good before 
January 1 ; a Washington Navel that will hang on the 
tree like the Valencia; that will not crack on the tree; 
that will stand hot sun better; that will be tree from 
puffing, as the Valencia. 

A Valencia that will not turn green after maturing ;a 
Valencia that will bear more regularly. 

A large seedless variety to bridge the gap between 
[ the Washington Navel and the Valencia, and displace 
seedlings ripening at that time; also a variety that 
shall be as good as the navel and late as the Valencia. 

Here we have each variety described, in part, in the 
terms of the other, and new varieties- described in the 
terms of both. It is very clear that we have come to 
a definite attainment of what is desirable in a commer- 
cial orange for our California purposes and that what- 
ever we do for improvement should include no serious 
effort to break from this type but rather' to enforce it 
upon any disposition toward variation. 

Practically the same condition prevails in our ap- 
proved varieties of lemons, for the following are de- 
scribed as desirable improvement: 

Increased disposition in the Eureka and Villa Franca 
to bear summer fruit and with resistance to frost like 
the Lisbon; a Eureka with more uniform shape, smooth- 



Individual and committee decisions and growers' early er skin and coIor Hke the Lisbon; a Lisbon with fewer 

or freedom from thorns like the Eureka. 



the work is interesting. Even if they should fail to se- 
cure an orange which would bear fruit in Pennsyl- 
vania, they may produce orange blossoms and thus 
minister to a charming requirement even of northern 

people. 

Opportunities for Improvement. — But although Cali- 
fornia has no need for such changes of type in 
citrus fruits and has, as shown, worked so diligently 
and long for the attainment of the types which are at 
present supreme in her industry, there is still ample 
opportunity for improvement within the types. Such 
improvement is to be attained not by hybridizing, but 
by selection — the very effort which has opened the way 
for California progress hitherto. But why need this 
work be pursued differently now? 

In the first place the citrus interest of California is 
too great in its commercial and cultural problems and 
responsibilities to serve itself pomologically as it did at 
its beginning. Second, the improvement of a type, re- 
moving its defects and adding to its excellencies, re- 
quires closer work than to recognize the type itself 
and found an industry upon it. It requires the most 
acute perceptions of minute characters and tendencies, 
and most diligent search for them. It necessitates the 
determination of what is absolutely the best in form, 
substance and finish, vigor and productiveness, and the 
conditions under which all these are attained. It 
invites the closest pursuit of the best fruit as it ap- 
pears in packing house or exhibit, or as it secures 
special price and fame in the trade, to the trees whence 



results saved a few of the scores of varieties of oranges 
and lemons for wider and longer trial. Local pride 
intruded measurably also. Each district was willing 
to send its champion to tilt for the awards so long as 
chance remained to it, and local names were proudly 
given. Let me call the roll to awaken the memories 
of the pioneers: "Asher's Best," "Wolfskin's Best," 
"Mayberry's Premier," "Baldwin's Favorite," "Wilson's 
Best," "Kerchoval's Queen," "Riverside Navel," — these 
were some of the names to conjure with for prizes 
twenty-five years ago, because all these appealed to 
local pride and loyalty. There were a few more of 
general growth at that time, but they were neither here 
nor there. Out of the throng came one to survive, the 
Riverside Xavel; but to become the universal champion 
it must forsake its early advocates and promoters and 
stand forth the Washington Navel orange of California. 

California Has Satisfactory Types. — I am indulging in 
these historical reference to emphasize a fact which 
seems to me a ruling importance in this discussion and 



it conies. Its subsequent stops are analysis, measure- 
then, no departure is needed from the | me nt, comparison, i holographic and written records 

and study of environment including culture, and the 
best possible discernment of the relations of all these 
determinations to each other. The supreme test is 
propagation under various conditions to test constancy 
and the last resort is multiplication that the whole in- 
dustry shall have the advantage of the best thing there 
is of its kind to plant. Incidental to the foregoing is 
the test of stock on which such trees are to grow; which 
stocks are best for this or that, or here or there, and 
how it has been demonstrated. 

Such work will require the services of the best 
trained and most expert men in pomological science. 
They must have good eyes and clear heads, not too 
much cumbered with other affairs, and they must have 
full knowledge of why they seek and quick recognition 
of the signs of appearance. 

The State Undertakes the Work. — It is to secure ad- 



In lemons 

type which has been determined by selection hitherto, 
but there may be now characters within the type. Be- 
fore final suggestion is undertaken concerning this ef- 
fort a brief reference to the assurance that we have cor- 
rect types for our purposes may be pertinent. 

The Greatest Orange in the World. — The Washington 
Navel orange as it goes from California into the world's 
commerce is a combined product of grower's skill and 
climatic conditions operating upon its own natural qual- 
ities and characters. Neither of these factors alone 
could achieve its present position. The navel marK Is 
neither peculiar to it nor determinative of it, for there 
are other navels which are inferior here and our navel 
is inferior elsewhere — even in Bahia, whence it came, 
it has no such quality and standing, because in coining 
to California it passed from humid, tropical to arid, 
semi-tropical environment. The tropical orange is not 



in the same class with the semi-tropical from the point vanced work of this kind that alert and influential 



that is that California has attained to singleness of of view of commerce. Trade in tropical oranges is local 



purpose in the matter of citrus fruit varieties by a 
rigid and long continued process of selection, beginning 
with pioneer growers, following with pioneer traders 
and shippers, following again with analytical chemis's, 
consumers and the general development of commerce 
and investment — every phase of it exorcising the prin- 
ciple of selection in its own way, until, on the basis of 
its quality and characters and the wealth produced, 
the Washington Navel is the greatest orange in the 



or limited; trade in semi-tropical oranges is world- 
reaching. The orange produced in an arid, semi-tropica! 
climate is dense and compact, firm and better in keeping 
and carrying characters. It is also of more sprightly 
flavor and richer composition. Those who are disposed 
te exalt the humid-air orange for superior sweetness 
forget that the California orange, as compared, for in- 
stance, with the Florida product, has not less sugar 
but adds to it more acid; being, in fact, not less sweet 



orange growers at Riverside appealed successfully to the 
legislature of 1905 for the provision of a special Citrus 
Experiment Station and made a tender of valuable 
land for it which is now being improved, for the pur- 
rose intended, by the Experiment Station of the Uni- 
versity of California. It is designed to be the home 
for such important pomological work although many 
other cultural phases and experimental problems of 
orange growing will naturally be associated in its ef- 
fort. Our meeting at this time is for the purpose or 



February 9, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



85 



marking its beginning along its designated lines. It is 
eminently appropriate that we should assemble lor tnis 
purpose in Riverside and almost upon the very spot 
where the first citrus fair of the pioneers marked the 
first great break towards the attainment of the world's 
high mark in commercial production of citrus fruits 
which now belongs to California. 



THE BOTANIST. 



A STUDY OF FORAGE PLANTS AT ETTERSBERG, 
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 

(Written for the Pacific Rural Press by Albert F. Etter.) 
[Eighth Paper.] 

Clovers. — The white Dutch clover is a reliable forage 
plant and one of the principal ones used in the dairy 
region of Humboldt county. It delights in the moist, 
rich soils of the lowlands with their cool, foggy sum- 
mers. Because of its permanency and ever-growing na- 
ture and turf-forming habit, combined with high feed- 
ing value, it is an ideal pasture plant, but for hay it is 
not so highly esteemed. However, it is always a 
good filler along with red clover and rye grass, either 
for pasture or hay. Although it thrives best on land 
that holds considerable moisture throughout the year, 
it will stand very drying conditions without perishing, 
but, of course, its producing capacity is not comparable 
to what it is on moist bottom land. 

The Italian white clover is to all appearance a giant 
white clover. In the grass garden here I had the two 
varieties growing side by side and the Italian white 
was much the more satisfactory. It is deeper-rooting, 
more vigorous and continuous grower, both in summer 
and in winter. The leaves are very large, larger than 
red clover, and not infrequently five inches or more in 
spread. The running stems, too, are large and strong 
as compared to the Dutch white clover. Owing to its 
larger growth it would probably be more desirable 
where hay is to be cut than is the common white, and 
I would consider it a desirable plant to experiment with 
in Eel River valley, where the red clover now dies out 
from fungus attack. So far, I have not found a seeds- 
man who has the seed of Italian white clover listed. 

Trifolium Pannonicum. — This is a clover of much the 
same type as red clover but it has a larger blossom of 
a whitish or creamy color. To all appearance it is 
not the equal of ordinary red clover in most respects, 
and I don't know that it has any advantage over the 
common kind. 

Native Annual Clovers. — There are about ten or a 
dozen species of annual clovers on the ranges of Hum- 
boldt county and they furnish no inconsiderable amount 
of the feed and they rank as- probably the most palat- 
able part of the range feed either green or dry. The 
seed of several kinds is quite readily saved and it is 
a desirable mixture with other seeds for saving on 
burnings. It does not appear to catch in such a situa- 
tion as readily as might be expected, but, owing to the 
fact that it re-seeds itself so well, this fault is con- 
siderably overcome. Most varieties will re-seed them- 
selves if they have half a show and some of them can 
hardly be pastured so short that they will not re-seed 
to a fair degree. 

Burnet (Sanguisorba Minoe). — I have had this plant 
here at Ettersberg for eleven years past, but I never 
knew the name of it. It originally came in a sample ot 
espersette seed, and from the fact that it made a fine 
showing where espersette did poorly, and alfalfa did 
nothing, my attention was called to it. 

I sowed seed of the two plants in the plot and sowed 
it out on the range and six years afterward I found it 
still growing, looking well and spreading somewhat 
through its own seeding. As the original plants were 
destroyed when the esperette plot was plowed up when 
two years old it was the perseverence of these plants 
that forced me to recognize it the second time. I brought 
the plants home, gave them a place in the garden where 
they made a splendid growth and seeded well. I now 
have a plot of it of perhaps two square rods and it is 
making a showing that forces everyone to recognize 
it as something out of the ordinary. Two years ago, 
when the plants in the garden were growing thriftily 
and were tender I discovered that it was not bad eating 
and several times, commenting on it to visitors, I said 
I thought an Indian would prefer it to clover. The 
plant has always been of more interest to me than its 
name, and its showing here, more to the point in judging 
its worth than what the books said of it. Lately, how- 
ever, this Burnet plot has looked so encouraging that 
I determined to find a name for it. I sent samples of 
it to Dr. H. M. Hall of our University of California and 
he writes me that this Burnet is a native of temperate 



Europe, where it is a forage plant of some importance, 
and that in the Eastern States it is used to some extent 
as a salad plant. 

I have detailed the foregoing in this style to make the 
point that a plant doesn't need a name to enter the con- 
test here, and on the other hand, all the names and rec- 
ommendations will avail it nothing if it cannot make 
good by a creditable showing with what we have to 
offer in soil, season and climate. I have always en- 
deavored to treat plants with the same consideration 1 
give a lot of seedling strawberries. When one makes 
a creditable showing it gets further consideration, but 
if it fails to do this it goes down and out. 

This Burnet is not a clover, but it somewhat resem- 
bles clover to most people, and I doubt whether ordinary 
livestock could distinguish any difference. It is a deep- 
rooting perennial plant and adapted to poor soils, but it 
has no prejudice against rich soils. The seed resembles 
a four-cornered buchwheat seed, with a rough covering, 
and it is a good germinator. It makes a splended win- 
ter growth and stands frost well, better than the clo- 
vers, and I believe it will stand more drouth. In my 
judgment it is a good companion plant to rib grass, 
and able to help it out in its excellent winter growth. 
I recommend it for trial where rib grass will thrive. 
The seed is listed' by J. M. Thorburn & Co. of New 
York at 12 cents. [This is probably the some plant 
which has been commended by Mr. Howard Overacker, 
Jr., of St. Helena as "potentilla." — ED. PRESS.] 

Alsike Clover. — Alsike clover does well on the low 
lands of Humboldt county, and is sown to some extent. 
So far as I have observed it here, I do not see that it 
possesses any particular advantage aver red clover. 

Espersette. — This plant made but a poor showing here 
in the grass garden. In Eel River valley it does quite 
well but is outclassed by other clovers which are better 
adapted to the country. 

Japan Clover (Lespedesa Striata). — This plant which 
grows so abundantly in the Southern States makes a 
very poor showing in this part of California. I sowed 
a pound of the seed in Eel River valley seventeen years 
ago and while it came up well enough in February it 
was probably caught in a frost, for I never sow a sign 
of it later in the season. In a plot of it I sowed here 
three years ago, on most excellently prepared soil, and 
sown late enough to escape frost it made a very poor 
growth but a few inches high, and did not mature 
enough before frost to seed at all. Red clover volun- 
teering in the plot made fine, strong plants by fall. The 
plant evidently thrives only in a country having sum- 
mer rains, and is of no value in these parts. 

Flat Pear (Lathyrus Sylvestris). — This is a forest pea, 
native to Europe, a long-lived perennial and from its 
excellent growth here, it is certainly worth experi- 
menting with. The leaves and stems of the plant are 
flat, whence its name, for the seed itself is as round as 
any other pea. It begins growth early in the spring and 
remains green with us until October, growing two to 
three feet high and very thick, and I should estimate 
it capable of producing from two to four tons of hay 
per acre after it is well established. By test its value 
in protein is very high, almost twice that of red clover, 
but its actual feeding value, I believe, has never been 
demonstrated. Goats like the hay but horses appear ta 
have little taste for it, either green or dried. I suppose 
sheep and cattle would take to it all right, as they eat 
our native species which are similar to this. Ia cures 
readily in the bright, sunny climate in this part of Hum- 
boldt county, where summer fogs are almost unknown 
and the sun puts in full time, for here we can readily 
dry anything. The plant wiuld probably compare in 
drying with most peas and vetches. It produces an im- 
mense root system and when well established I fancy 
it would take a very sharp plow and a good team to go 
through it, and I can state from my own encounters 
with a piece ten feet square in my garden, that it 
takes a huskier man than I to worst it, with even a 
well-sharpened shovel. It has the reputation of living 
fifty years, but from the manner in which it propogates 
itself, by underground stems, I do not see why it should 
ever want to let go at all. As an instance to illustrate 
its spreading powers, I give the following: Eight years 
ago I sowed an ounce of seed, for plants to re-set, in a 
drill about thirty feet long in light, black soil that, 
owing to a gravel seam under it, has proven to be 
rather trying on an apple tree quite near this row of 
peas. The row is now a sward eight or ten feet wide, 
and last summer the peas were as thick as a dog's hair. 
Flat pea seeds well here on mature plants, but the seed 
does not germinate any too readily. The seed must be 
hand picked because it pops out when dry and when the 
seeds are ripe the vine is still very green and bulky to 
handle. The nicest way to start a field of it is to 
sow the saeds thickly in drills in well prepared soil 



and when a year old take up the plants and drop them, 
with the crowns in position, of course, behind the plow 
in every other furrow about a foot apart when they will 
spread quite readily. 

(To be continued.) 



FORESTRY. 



EUCALYPTUS GROWING IN SOUTHEN CALIFORNIA. 

Jotham Bixby of Long Beach, says a writer in the 
Los Angeles Times, is the owner of 7000 acres of foot- 
hills land, 3000 of which he intends to devote to the 
growing of eucalyptus timber. The ranch lies about 
six miles northeast of Orange, between the Santiago 
and Santa Ana canyons. When Mr. Bixby decided upon 
this enterprise he wrote of his intentions to the Gov- 
ernment Forestry Department, and Stewart J. Flintham, 
an assistant forester, who was in California at the 
time, was sent to him at once. Mr. Flintham, though 
a young man of twenty-eight, is a graduate of the Yale 
School of Forestry, and is probably the best informed 
man on eucalyptus in the country. He has been of 
much assistance to Mr. Bixby and his ranch manager, 
Hugh T. Thompson, to whom Mr. Bixby has given en- 
tire charge of the work. Mr. Flintham visited the 
ranch and looked over the land, in order to decide 
upon the proper variety of tree for the different loca- 
tions. After a thorough study of soil and moisture 
conditions, he furnished Mr. Thompson with a map or 
planting plan of the ranch, showing in colors the exact 
places for planting certain varieties. Therefore all the 
manager needs to do when it comes to setting out the 
trees is to refer to the map for guidance. 

This plan, wihch covers fifty-eight pages of typewrit- 
ten matter and takes in every detail of the ranch, has 
cost the Government between $300 and $400 in its 
preparation. Nothing, however, is asked in return, aside 
from any data that may be furnished on the subject 
for future use in the advancement of such work. Mr. 
Thompson is keeping a full record of the undertaking, 
using the card-index system, which works to perfection, 
and he will undoubtedly be able to send in valuable 
statistics. 

Early in the summer great quantities of seed, amount- 
ing to $90 worth, were purchased in Los Angeles, and 
planted in boxes carefully prepared for the purpose. 
It is interesting to notice the difference in the size of 
the seed. Some are much smaller than a mustard seed, 
while others are as large as a bean. The seed cannot 
be procured under $10 per pound, and $4 per ounce is 
paid for certain varieties, while seed of some of the 
ornamental trees costs as high as one cent apiece. One 
ounce of fine seed produces many plants. About 1500 
are planted to a box. When about two inches high the 
little seedlings are sorted and evenly transplanted to 
other boxes containing a rich fertilizer in the bottom 
and strong, sifted soil on the top. One hunderd are 
placed in each box. Much danger lies in watering all 
varieties alike. Some readily damp off, which shows 
them to be best for dry hills, while others are more 
adapted to moisture, and require more watering in 
the boxes. 

The lath-house under which the plants are grown is 
60x90 feet, and will hold 150,000 trees. The seeds were 
planted in July. If planted earlier the little trees at- 
tain too great a size by transplanting time, and many 
are wasted. As soon after the rains as the conditions 
are favorable — probably by February first — a large force 
of men will be employedi, and the trees will be planted 
on the hills, with a rush. One hundred acres will be 
set out this year and if the trees do well, 500 acres will 
be planted next year and each succeeding year, until 
3000 acres are covered. 

Of the six varieties growing in the nursery, the largest 
percentage will be of "sugar gum" (eucalyptus corynu- 
calyx), of which fifty acres will be planted, because of 
its hardiness in withstanding drought. Thirty acres will 
be devoted to "gray gums" (eucalyptus terticornis), 
which is practically the same as the "sugar gum," but 
requires more moisture and grows faster. Not more 
than twelve acres will be set to "blue gums" (euca- 
lyptus globulus). This variety is a very rapid grower 
and brings the quickest returns, but requires moist land, 
which is scarce in the foothills. It possesses .remark- 
able malaria-destroying qualities and is frequently 
grown for that reason only. A blue gum plantation 
would make an excellent bee pasture on account of the 
great amount of honey produced by the flowers. 

Of the fragrant lemon-scented gum (eucalyptus citri- 
odora), there are about 3000 trees, a sufficient number 
to plant two and one-half acres. In passing one's hand 
lightly over a box of these plants, the sweetest perfume 
is perceptible — sweeter than the flower for which it is 
named. As an experiment about an acre will be planted 
to E. siderophiola and E. cerebra, two of the iron-bark 



86 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 9, 1907 



varieties. The wood is remarkably heavy, hard and of 
gTeat durability. 

When set in the field the trees should be from six to 
eight inches high. They are planted in rows 6x6 feet, 
6x7 and 6x8 ft., 1200 trees to the acre. By the time the 
trees have grown so that the limbs cover the ground 
they need no further cultivation. The idea is to get 
a straight tree. 

"As to the expense of such a plantation," said Mr. 
Thomson, "it costs from $15 to $25 per acre, but after 
two years there is no more expense incurred, except 
for fire protection. A special ranger will be kept pa- 
trolling the hills constantly to prevent, as- far as pos- 
sible, every incipient fire from spreading." 

There are in the nursery two ornamental varieties, 
eucalyptus ficifolia and E. callophylla. The former is 
the "scarlet-flowered gum," and is considered the hand- 
somest tree in the family; the latter is a showy tree, 
producing fluffy white blossoms. Neither are commer- 
cial varieties. Two thousand black locust trees have 
been raised in the same way as the eucalyptus, and 
are to be set in the moist lowlands, eventually to be 
used for fence posts on the ranch. The wood is very 
durable in the ground, and is? prized for insulator pins 
on telegraph poles. 

A eucalyptus plantation is necessarily a rich man's 
proposition. Mr. Bixby expects to wait twelve years 
before cutting his trees. The timber may be utilized 
for a greater variety of purposes than any other tree 
known. Aside from railroad ties and telegraph ^>ole&, 
this wood is coming into use in the manufacture of 
vehicles and implements of all kinds, and the demand 
for it is constantly increasing. It is not Mr. Bixby's 
intention to cut his trees for fuel. Only the brush ends 
will be used for that purpose. 

At El Toro, in Orange county, is situated the Whiting 
plantation of 900 acres, started three years ago in a dry 
location, and now in a most flourishing condition. These 
trees grow without irrigation, as is planned for those on 
the Bixby ranch. 

Twelve years seems -brief, indeed, for huge forest 
trees to mature, compared with the slow, half-century 
growth required in the bleak, Eastern climate, but under 
the sunny skies of Southern California one is not com- 
pelled to wait a lifetime to see the results' of one's ef- 
forts, or to enjoy them. 

Realizing that the timber resources of this country 
are not what they formerly were, the Santa Fe Railroad 
Company has begun the work of providing a supply for 
its own use by planting eucalyptus on the San Dieguito 
ranch, south of Oceanside. This ranch consists of near- 
ly nine thousand acres, and the entire tract will be 
planted to eucalyptus trees, the operation extending 
over a number of years. It has been demonstrated that 
certain varieties of eucalypti are the equal of hickory 
or oak for many purposes. For railroad uses, such as 
ties and bridge timbers, this wood is excellent, being 
strong and lasting almost indefinitely in the ground. 

Chief Gardener F. P. Hosp has begun at Oceanside 
the propagating of 700,000 trees that will be set out this 
year, it being the intention to plant 700 acres each sea- 
sou, 1000 trees to the acre. The varieties used are the 
red and sugar gum and iron-bark, with a few of the 
citriodora or lemon-scented. Two large lath-houses 
have been built and a force of Chinese has been at work 
for some time planting and transplanting the tiny seed- 
lings, a process almost too tedious for white men. The 
company has about twenty-five teams at work on the 
ranch, leveling the ground and diking the San Dieguito 
river, which has a tendency to be unruly at times and 
overflows a part of the site of the future forests. In 
fifteen years the harvesting can begin, as it is estimated 
that by that time each tree will be of sufficient size to 
yield five or six ties, long enough for piling or large 
enough for bridge timber. At the age of five years a 
tree would yield one tie, but the company can afford 
to wait. 



ical and physical properties of the common eucalyptus. 
The tests, made at the State University at Berkeley, 
were to determine whether eucalyptus can be sub- 
stituted for some of the hardwoods that are becoming 
difficult to obtain. 

Blue gum is by far the fastest growing species. The 
height and diameter of trees from which the test pieces 
were taken, is given in the following table. All the 
trees were about fifteen years old. 

Diameter, 
Inches. 



Height, 
Feet. 
101 
73 
72 
60 
47 
43 
38 



Sugar gum E. globulus 30 

Blue gum E, corynocalyx. . 30 

Leather-jacket E. diversicolor. . 16 

Karri E. viminalis 12 

Red mahogany E. rostrata 9 

Red gum E. punctata 10 

Manna gum E. resinifera. . . . 8 

An important point in considering the value of com- 
mercial plantations of eucalyptus is brought out in the 
second table, which shows that the fastest growing 
species are also the strongest. The tests were made 
upon kiln-dry material. 

Bending Crushing 
Age in Strength, lbs. Strength, lbs. 
Species. Years. Per Sq. Inch Per Sq. Inch. 



15 


25,344 


11,290 


30 


23,265 


12,310 


15 


19,267 


10,908 


15 


18,386 


8,795 


15 


16,900 


8,190 


15 


14,550 


7,920 


15 


14,380 


7,723 


15 


13,093 


7,309 



Blue gum 

Leather-jacket . 

Karri 

Blue gum 

Red mahogany. 

Red gum 

Manna gum 15 

A comparison with Forest Service tests on hickory 
shows that the thirty-year-old blue gum is stronger than 
XXX hickory, and that fifteen-year-old sugar gum is 
nearly as strong as black hickory and 91 per cent as 
strong as second-growth hickory. 

The wood of very young and sappy trees is apt to 
warp, but that from more mature growth can be easily 
handled to prevent warping. Early seasoning should 
proceed slowly. Open piling is desirable; the stacks 
should be high to secure weight, and should be covered. 

Several of the eucalyptus grow rapidly in California, 
and, under forest conditions, form straight, tall poles, 
free from branches. They have, therefore, especial 
value as timber trees. 



FLORIST AND GARDENER. 



STRENGTH OF EUCALYPTUS TIMBER. 

The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest 
Service, through its representative, Mr. L. E. Hunt, has 
pursued, ate the University of California, a series of 
tests of eucalyptus for timber. The following account 
is of wide interest: 

The wood of eucalyptus has not been extensively used 
by manufacturers of the United States, because the 
supply has not been sufficient to establish a market. 
Blue gum, the most common species in California, has, 
however, competed with black locust for insulator pins, 
has given satisfactory service in chisel and hammer 
handles, and has been used locally for wagon tongues, 
axles, shafts, spokes, hubs, and felloes. It is hard, 
strong and tough. 

In co-operation with the State of California, the For- 
est Service recently completed a 'study of the mechan- 



NATURE'S GARDEN ON A CALIFORNIA DRY WASH. 

Janet Hay writes appreciatively in Floral Life of 
what may be seen in California during the coming 
months of the rainy season, especially in the southern 
parts of the State but elsewhere, also, wherever tor- 
rential streams run their brief courses. The California 
wash is a flat plain, or kind of dry marsh, covered 
with the sand that has been swept from crumbling 
rocks, broken and pulverized by the onrush of waters 
and the crashing of cobbles and boulders loosened 
from the crags above. Here, in the drying sands, where 
in those early days some cloud-burst has spread acres 
and acres under a white, sandy coverlid, wandering 
seeds have found a home and trees have straggled up 
into somewhat misshapen magnitude, bushes learn to 
grasp the shifting sands in the clutches of their twist- 
ing roflets and the arid waste takes on a coat of 
vegetation. 

Through its center will be the inevitable old stream 
bed 'filled with rounded stones worn smooth by contact 
with their fellows in the ride down stream. These lie 
bleaching in the perpetual summer sun during most of 
the year, but in the spring they have a joyously mad 
dance in the rushing tide. As the snows cease to supply 
the water for the streams, the sands greedily drink up 
the remaining pools and one sees the spectacle of dry 
rivers all over Southern California. These California 
streams are of a most shifting character, and often 
some slight obstruction at the source may swerve a 
torrent from its usual bed to cause it to spread its 
sandy deposit over a new territory, which will later be- 
come overgrown with shrubs as the river bed again 
moves to pastures new. 

During the early fall, that most unattractive period in 
floral life in Southern California, when the spring mois- 
ture has been absorbed and before the early winter 
rains, the wash presents to the unobservant eye its 
most uninteresting face. The artist, loving the mellow 
and warm brown and yellow tones of dying leaf and fad- 
ing flower, finds it a time of inspiration in chromes and 
sepia. When the first fall rains begin to send their 
welcome message to the dormant seeds and sleeping 
roots, in December, there comes over the wash a trans- 



formation as wonderful as if some master painter had 
filled his palette from glowing tubes and spread colors 
over the sands with a mighty and wide-spread stroke. 
Here, between the half dried cactus stalks, the grey 
branches of the white sage, the olive green thickets of 
greasewood, the straggling shrubs of the wild tobacco 
and the staid and melancholy live oaks there will 
spring up almost over night a carpet of flashing gold, 
as the myriad tiny heads of the close flowering plant 
familiarly called "sunshine" pop into view. Taken sep- 
arately this is a most unassuming little flower but 
crowded in masses it is one of the exquisite of the 
spring company. 

Dotting the masses of sunshine plants, as a pattern is 
woven in the rich background of an oriental rug, are the 
heads of the pink Escobita, or paint brush. The Spanish 
name of Escobita means "little whisk brooms." These 
stiff, small, bright heads look at a distance very much 
like tufts of our Eastern red clover but close inspec- 
tion shows them to be of entirely different form. Spikes 
of palish pink flowers are packed closely about an up- 
right stalk about four inches high. The paint brush 
survives after the heads have fallen from the brave 
little sunshine, and then the background is one sweep of 
mauve pink, dotted in turn by swaying heads of the 
yellow tidy-tips and yellow cream-cups. The tidy-tips 
are really the California daisy, being the shape of our 
field daisy, its petals tipped with white, shading to yel- 
low near the deep yellow center. The sister flower, 
the cream-cup, blooming at the same time, is of the 
poppy family, with sage green, hairy stalk, and bud but 
unfurling two rows of petals of delicate cream color 
and sending off a delicate and woodsy fragrance that 
reminds one somewhat of that spring breath of the 
hepatica. 

Daintiest of all the denizens of the sandy wash are 
the little baby blue-eyes of California Blue-bells. Deli- 
cate sky-blue cups they are, with their shy faces up- 
turned as if their fragile stems had caught scraps of 
the overhead blueness in the fall of a shattered sky. 
This plant has a tiny fernlike foliage of the grey-green 
so prevalent in the wild flowers of the West, a har- 
monious setting for the peculiarly soft tinting of the 
blossoms. To me there is a special delight in finding 
tucked in among the other wash bloomers vigorous 
sprays of the old home garden favorite, the wild lark- 
spur, growing riotously here, a free wild thing in the 
open. 

.Meanwhile there has come a fresher tint to the tips 
of gnarled old oaks of the wash, the elderberry shrubs 
have commenced to show signs of bloom at the branch 
ends and the cactus stalks shine fresh and green after 
their bath in the cleansing rains, freed from the ac- 
cumulation of dust which has been the unwelcome gift 
of the summer breezes. Then comes the most wonder- 
ful revelation of all, the blooming of those scarred old 
cactus warriors and their brothers, the sword-leaved 
yuccas. Thick over the sands the tuna or prickly pear 
cactus sprawls its fat leathery oval leaves, if such bulky, 
ungainly stragglers may be called leaves, their fleshy 
sides dotted with clusters of cruel little spines. Beau- 
tiful in its ugliness for a greater part of the year, the 
cactus in the early spring, when the nubs at the sides 
of the leaves have burst into bloom, turns the whole 
area of the wash into what resembles a vast bed of 
gorgeous tulips, the satiny petals of the three colors, 
red, orange and yellow, in brilliant contrast to the vivid 
green parent stems. 

Woe to the verdant tourist who essays to pick the 
bloom of this desert guardian, for he is repaid for his 
vandalism by fingers filled with the exasperating tiny 
yellow spines that work their way deep into the flesh 
and make painful sores. It has been found necessary 
to amputate a toe or finger to prevent death as a result 
of handling or walking upon them. 

While the cactus has been decking itself with color 
the hues of the carpet at its feet have somewhat 
changed and the last of the spring woof in the loom of 
the wash has filled the spots left vacant by the earlier 
comers. This latter arrival is all pink, but a clearer 
rose than the Escobita. It is a member of the gentian 
family, and bears the Spanish name of Canchalagua, 
and is greatly prized by the Spaniards for its medicinal 
properties. Varying in height from six inches to two 
feet, though rarely attaining the latter, this bright little 
star-shaped flower studs the wash in masses and is per- 
haps the most cheery of all the spring visitants. Per- 
haps it is because the hues of the two do not harmonize 
in the picture that the brilliant scarlet larkspur thrusts 
its spikes of brilliant red blooms full six feet into the 
air through the beds of gentians. 

Higher than a man's head these vivid s«arlet flower 
clusters glitter in the sunlight, their very vividness mak- 
ing sharp contrast to the dull yellows of the dying 
grasses. Pull one of these from its beds and one tinds 
this energetic grower to be standing, as it were, on tip- 



February 9, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



87 



toe in the sand seeking to reach its great height with 
only one slim rootlet thrust down into the protecting 
soil, while its many branches serve to keep its balance 
as it sweeps to and fro in the breezes. 

The yucca is the most interesting plant of all in the 
wash life to both the native and the tourist. In July 
this fierce-looking sword-leaved thing begins to sing its 
good-by song to its wash neighbors as it gives up its 
life in one tall spike of sweetness, and the fading bells 
on the massive stalks ring the death-knell of the 
mother plant. Twenty feet or more high these shafts 
ascend, a perfect cone of exquisite satiny bells, white, 
and breathing out a most delicious perfume. As they 
tower above the shrubs and cacti on the wash it is as 
if some soldier has paused and planted his snow-white 
banner firm in the soil while resting and waiting a 
forward call. For several weeks these perfect creatures 
remain undimmed, until at length the curling petals 
and yellowing sword leaves mark the passing of one 
more child of the sands. 



THE FIELD. 



FIGHTING ALKALI ON THE MOJAVE DESERT. 

A writer for the Los Angeles Times, whom we take 
to be Mr. T. S. Van Dyke of Daggett, writes interest- 
ingly of the peculiar alkali conditions which he finds in 
that region and how he overcomes them. 

The desert appeals in the same way that other parts 
of California do to those who love freedom from rain 
and snow, mud and ice. The additional freedom from 
fog and dew is something more than a comfort. Al- 
falfa, cured in the bright dry sunlight, and with the 
nights as dry as the day, is really worth $2 a ton more 
than alfalfa cured near the coast, and almost any one 
will readily pay $1 more for it. The same conditions 
allow baling direct from the field without the expense 
of stacking and feeding the press from the stack. Here 
is another dollar a ton saved, and sometimes more. 
Grain hay is made still more valuable by this differ- 
ence, while the saving in work or time that is often 
lost in waiting for hay to dry to the right point, is 
quite an item. 

The same charm of clear skies and dry air that 
makes much of Southern California so attractive is 
felt in a greater degree on the desert, while scarcely 
any one once used to intensely dry air will give it up 
without regret. In all that appeals to the eye in dis 
tance and color, the desert is far ahead of the rest 
of the State, the bright coloring and light effects of 
morning and evening on the mountains making even 
the dullest sensible of a beauty they never before imag- 
ined. Dust and sandstorms are not common enough 
generally to be considered a drawback on the Mojave 
Desert. There are some passes where the wind may 
raise the dust, but most of the soil is too coarse and 
the wind is rarely strong enough. On much of it there 
is also vegetation enough to keep the wind from getting 
a free swing at the ground. The only insect pest is 
the omnipresent house fly. 

The heat is a positive asset of such value that farm- 
ers are glad to have it to endure. While profitable crops 
of alfalfa may be raised in temperate lands, and even 
where the summer is quite cool, as near the coast, a 
ton at a cutting is near the limit. It is only in a high 
temperature that you can produce two and a half to 
four tons in forty days, even where all the other con- 
ditions, such as perfect drainage, are present. I can 
not see that anything else is benefited by a tempera- 
ture of over 100, but as alfalfa is the principal crop 
of the desert, anything that will increase the yield from 
30 to 50 per cent can be endured with vast compos- 
ure. While many other things may be grown at a 
profit on the desert, there are few places where the 
great expense of irrigating would be justified, if it 
were not for the alfalfa. 

On the other hand, the high heat injures some things 
so that it is impossible to make a commercial success 
of them, even at the high prices of this desert. It 
blights the tassel of corn with such certainty that you 
soon weary of trying to raise it. On manured ground 
I can raise twenty-five tons of melons to the acre, but 
with the same heat, water and manure I cannot raise 
twenty-five pounds of cucumbers, tomatoes or beans. 
It makes the raising of potatoes very difficult, either 
in spring or fall, and to raise even such easy things as 
carrots and beets you have to study out a special 
method. 

The worst drawback is alkali. No man can say 
where it will not appear. From its very nature, it 
should be in all desert soils, because it is a product 
of chemical action in every soil, and if there is not 
rain enough to wash it out it is going to remain there. 
It will probably show no sign of its presence until you 



irrigate heavily enough to produce profitable crops, 
when the water will dissolve it and bring it to the 
surface by capillary attraction. 

It was reserved for me, after twenty-five years' study 
of this subject in Southern California, and seeing about 
all the alkali belts in it, to collide with the genuine 
article, in its worst form, and without a suspicion of 
it. Some twelve years ago a ditch was built at Dag- 
gett, taking from the underflow of the Mojave river 
water as pure as any in the land. Nine different par 
ties tried to raise alfalfa on the mesa lands, and though 
they had plenty of water and were aided with money., 
teams, etc., by the company, all failed most miserably. 
The school district at Minneola and the railroad sta- 
tion were abandoned, and for several years 500 inches 
of water flowed through the ditch with no one to touch 
it. The land had been approved by half a dozen of the 
best-known experts of Southern California. Not one 
ever suspected alkali, and none ever showed where 
parties had failed, except a very little in a very few 
spots, but no more than is seen daily in some of the 
best parts of Los Angeles county. Every resident of 
the desert predicted that I would fail and explained 
the failure of the others by saying the soil was no 
good. It looked that way, indeed. The small patches 
of alfana grown in the gardens of Daggett, to a height 
never seen along the coast, were on ground heavily 
manured and sprinkled every day. 

Five years ago I was induced to come out to see 
what was the matter. It was plain enough that the 
irrigation of the settlers had been very bad. But it 
was equally plain that the alfalfa in the Daggett gar- 
dens had something back of it besides manure and 
daily sprinkling — the latter being the worst possible 
way of growing it for large, quick yields. For big crops, 
rapidly grown, a large root driven deeply into loose, 
well-drained soil is needed. If the growth in the gar- 
dens could be made on a few inches of surface wet- 
ting, it was clear that it could be beaten by proper 
watering, and that same condition besides fertility 
was present. As the proposition was a fine one in 
certainty of water, plenty of Government land and a 
short ditch already built, I was confident enough to 
tackle it, with the aid of a son, who was not afraid 
of work or ashamed of it any more than I was. We 
both discovered, years ago, that there was no work 
as hard as hunting, so we pitched into the worst of 
it, well knowing that unless we worked ourselves we 
could get no good work out of any one else. 

It is now turning out the best business move I ever 
made, but the tribulations we have gone through would 
make a book. I have seen all sorts of pioneering, in 
many States and under all conditions, but never saw 
a place where for so long a time the ground abso- 
lutely refuses to furnish a decent bite for either man or 
beast. There is no wild pasture for a cow, no place 
to stake a horse; the ground laughs at your first at- 
tempts- to raise a potato or even a carrot or beet that 
any fool can raise in a rainy land, and there are none 
of the many makeshifts that carry a poor settler in the 
woods or on the prairie or in the swamp or on the high, 
cold mountain side. 

Alkali ruined every attempt to raise anything. It 
took sixteen months to suspect it and as many more 
to leach it, in some places. The soil is BO coarse and 
the sun so hot that capillary attraction fails to bring 
it to the surface, and on the greater part of the land 
it cannot be made to show with any amount of water 
or mode of applying it. But it kills even worse than 
where it shows. I can now leach it in five days by 
keeping it under pressure of ten inches deep, and I 
raise twelve tons to the acre of alfalfa on ground 
where I could not get enough from ten acres to feed 
two horses until nearly two years aften planting. I 
have taken as high as four tons an acre at a cut- 
ting and have done it twice. A foul ditch, making 
short heads of water, interfered with the experiment, 
but I am centain that I can get fourteen tons to an 
acre a year, and could get sixteen if the hot weather 
lasted ten days longer than it does. I wholesale the 
whole crop for $10 a ton, one of the advantages of this 
part of the de&ert being that you get a price and don't 
have to give away your goods. 

But the man who toys with the desert without plenty 
of money is very foolish. It is no place for the poor 
pioneer. He don't know what he will have to meet in 
a new place, and no one can tell him with certainty. 
He also needs plenty of patience and confidence in 
himself, with any amount of staying quality. Even 
with all this, I believe I would have quit in disgust, 
at the end of the second year, had I not felt that my 
reputation was at stake. I came out only to stay about 
two weeks and get my son started on the work, in- 
tending to return occasionally to see how lie was do- 
ing. That was five years ago, and instead of staying 



only two weeks, I have hardly been away more than 
that. So many perplexing questions kept constantly 
arising that had to be solved only by time and patience, 
so many well-settled rules of farming were complete 
failures that I had to stay. I have succeeded far be- 
yond my expectations, not only with alfalfa, but with 
many other things, but it has been only by reversing 
about every rule of farming and gardening practiced 
on the coast, or anywhere east of the Rocky Mountains. 



POULTRY YARD. 



HINTS ON FARMERS' POULTRY. 

Mrs. Ella L. Layson writes for the Petaluma Poultry 
Journal some hints for those who undertake to add a 
poultry feature to ordinary farming: 

It is not to be expected that a busy farmer can be- 
stow the same amount of care and attention on his 
poultry as the poultryman who depends on his fowls 
for a living, but nevertheless there isn't anything on the 
farm that pays better than a flock of properly housed 
and well-cared-for fowls. On farms where not much at- 
tention is paid to poultry there will be perhaps one or 
two small houses and all the fowls, old and young, are 
crowded into these or forced to roost outside. Very 
often there is a good-sized shed or old barn that could 
easily be converted into a chicken house by battening 
the cracks, dividing it into different apartments by a 
lath partition, making new roosts, and putting in nests 
and perhaps one or two low windows would be neces- 
sary. It would cost but a small amount and the hens 
would do well in such a house. 

It was our experience that there was less sickness 
among fowls that were housed in large high buildings, 
although somewhat crowded upon the roosts, than with 
those accupying small, low houses without any crowd- 
ing. On warm nights it becomes necessary to leave the 
door open for ventilation and before morning the cool, 
chilly air blowing on them produces colds and swelled 
heads. The poultry house we liked best was a build- 
ing fifty feet long, eight feet wide and ten feet high on 
the highest side. This was divided into three separate 
houses by lath partitions, with burlap curtains to pre- 
vent drafts. For each division a yard was provided, en- 
closed with wire netting or a high board fence. 

If one does not care to invest in purebred stock the 
best of the hens should be retained and a few good 
thoroughbred roosters bought to build up the flock. Al- 
ways use the same kind of males and in two or three 
years the result will be practically a pure breed of 
fowls, if care is taken to breed only from the best hens 
each year. 

In Canada, where the poultry business is given the 
recognition it deserves, a few years ago the commis- 
sionmen even bought and distributed free of cost pure- 
bred cockerels and eggs for hatching among the farm- 
ers, knowing that they will be repaid by having a bet- 
ter class of fowls to sell and more of them, which also 
meant better prices for the farmer. Only well-devel- 
oped and mature males should be used. Although more 
precocious, those of the Mediterranean class do not 
reach their full maturity until their second year. Their 
chicks then are much larger and stronger. Males of 
the American class are all right at one year of age. 

No one can tell another how much profit may be made 
from a given number of hens unless both parties are 
working under the same circumstances. It depends 
upon climatic conditions, which vary greatly in this 
State. In localities where there are no extremes of 
heat and cold, the eggs-yield will be much larger than 
where opposite conditions prevail. The profit also de- 
pends upon the price of feed and the market, which 
varies in different sections of the State and even in 
the same town. 

One man may sell to a groceryman who collects eggs 
from his country customers and having large quanti- 
ties to dispose of must ship them as "store" eggs and 
pays for those he buys accordingly. Another party dis- 
poses of his eggs to the groceryman in the same town 
who buys only selected eggs and sells for the highest 
retail price, which enables him to pay prices quoted for 
fancy ranch eggs. Still others sell to commissionmen 
whose prices vary according to individual honesty, 
while those dealing with private customers will realize 
a greater profit than any of the others. 

If one can buy feed in ton lots he will secure his 
feed much cheaper than those who must buy as they go 
along, paying the high retail price. 

However, unless the hens are handicaped by old age 
or disease, one may safely expect a profit of $1 per hen 
over the cost of feeding, and as much more as they are 
willing to work for. But the hens must not be left to 
pick up their own living but be fed regularly. We have 
had hens where they had acres of orchard, woodland 



88 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 9, 1907 



and pasture, alfalfa and clover fields to run over and 
when they came up at night they were actually hungry. 
They would eat heartily of wheat and corn and go to 
roost satisfied. We were well repaid for the extra feed 
by the large number of eggs they laid. 

Hens having free range do not require much variety 
of feed fed in addition to what they pick up, but they 
should be fed at night a full supply of what has been 
lacking during the day — green stuff, or grain as the 
case may be. On rainy days give them something ex- 
tra as they will not go out much to hunt food for them- 
selves, and a shortage of feed means a shortage of eggs 
also. Any irregularity in feeding affects the egg-yield 
for several days. 

When there isn't a good home market for eggs and 
one doesn't have enough eggs to ship it is often a good 
idea for several of the neighbors to club together and 
ship their eggs to the nearest large city, each paying 
his share of the expense of shipment. At least it en- j 
ables one to get cash for his eggs, which is not often 
the case when eggs are disposed of at the grocery store. 
It becomes more convenient then to buy the little ex- 
tras to supplement the home supplies of feed for the 
chickens such as ground feed, beef scraps or blood 
meal, oil cake meal and shells. The result will be a 
good many more dozen eggs to sell. 

When one depends upon hens to do the hatching it 
saves a good deal of time and trouble to set as many 
hens as possible at one time and divide the chicks 
among as few hens as will be able to care for them. 
It doesn't pay to have a hen spend several weeks in 
brooding five or six chicks. When a hen leaves the 
nest it is either because she has been disturbed by lay- 
ing hens or the nest has become infested with mites or 
fleas. The latter when young look like white maggots 
and annoy a hen seriously. When the comb looks white 
it is a sure sign that vermin of some kind is in the 
nect. The eggs must be removed, the straw burned and 
the nest sprayed with coal oil and crude carbolic acid 
or something equally effective. The eggs may then be 
returned, after filling the nest with fresh straw, being 
very careful that the eggs do not touch where the box 
was sprayed. 



THE MARKETS. 



Wheat. 

A scarcity of choice milling wheat is noted, and prices 
are firm, with advances paid for best samples. There 
is a lot of talk of a big surplus of wheat in this country 
and about a slack foreign demand. Nevertheless, the 
leading wheat markets are firm and the tendency is 
rather upward than downward. The wheat crop of the 
United States harvested in 1906 has been officially es- 
timated as 735,000,000 bushels. The available supplies 
of previous production in the country on July 1, 1906, 
including flour, was estimated by a good authority as 
about 100,000,000 bushels. If 65,000,000 of this be 
recognized as marketable, there would, on this basis, be 
80,000,000 bushels to be reached otherwise than by un- 
usual demands from other countries. The domestic re- 
quirements for the year have been estimated as 525, 
000,000 to 550,000,00n bushels of wheat, for all pur- 
poses. If the larger quantity be taken into the calcula- 
tion there would be indicated a remainder of 250,0'to,- 
000 bushels as a possible surplus for exportation. Ow- 
ing to the active shipping to the Orient from the Colum- 
bia River and Puget Sound, it looks as though California 
could not count on much Northern wheat this spring. 
Barley. 

Cash barley is very firm, but there has been no 
change in the range of prices. Feed is selling at $1.15 
for the best. Futures have been fluctuating some anu 
are, on the whole, a little lower. The trade at present 
is counting on an extraordinarily good crop, on account 
of the heavy rains. The demand for shipping grades 
continues good, and sellers have no trouble in disposing 
of all the stock at a fair price, as the demand for ex- 
port is very good. 

Flour. 

This market is steady and active and the outlook for 
a favorable trade for some time to come is good. Most 
of the trade is interfered with by the lack of transpor- 
tation. The demand for flour at present is very good. 
If wheat could be obtained, nearly every mill would be 
able to run to full capacity. Buyers who were skeptical 
last October and November about prices are now in the 
market at the advanced quotations. Shipping from the 
North is dull. Shipments coming down by steamer are 
smaller than ever before, and with the increased tariff 
it looks as if this trade will become smaller, unless the 
consumers in California will pay more for their flour 
than heretofore. Almost the entire export demand is 
centered in North China and some other China mar- 



kets. Exports to Japan are small, and a revival is due 
any day. Northern millers say cables are coming in 
asking for quotations. Buyers there are not loading up, 
but purchase an occasional parcel, and some small lots 
to fill brands that meet with ready call. Central Amer- 
ican trade is good, and millers report more activity be- 
ing displayed. To Europe and South Africa no further 
call has materialized, and it is doubtful whether any 
more trade will be had with either country for some 
time to come. 

Oats. 

There is no material change in the local market for 
oats, nor in the situation. The large local demand con- 
tinues, and prices are still relatively high. Offerings of 
Oregon oats are smaller, and there is some speculation 
regarding the probable amount of oats in that State. 
The general opinion seems to be that the amount is 
larger than a year ago. Another thing that Is setting 
the trade to thinking is whether the recent advance 
in freight rates will not have a tendency to check the 
shipping of Northern oats to this market. Good to 
choice red for feed are selling at $1.40 to $1.55; common 
to fair, $1.30 to 1.37%; red, for seed, $1.50 to $1.65; 
white, $1.42% to $1.65; black, $1.50 to $2.25; gray, I 
$1.42% to ti.60 per cental. 

Corn. 

Choice large yellow corn is higher, and Eastern yel- 
low in bulk has also been marked up. Otherwise, con- 
ditions remain as before. Spot supplies continue light, 
and it is well, for, with the present lack of local mill- 
ing facilities, any average receipts would be hard to 
dispose of. For small round Yellow, $1.55 is asked; 
for California large Yellow, $1.25 to $1.30; White, $1.25 
to $1.30; Western State, sacked, yellow, $1.25 to $1.30; 
white, $1.27% to $1.32%; mixed, $1.25 to $1.27%; White 
Egyptian, $1.25; Brown Egyptian, $1.12%. 

Millstuffs. 

Supplies are still limited. Business for all kinds of 
mill offal continues good, and prices are firm. The 
demand for bran continues unabated. Most of the coun- 
try mills are getting good money for all feed stuffs. 
California buyers are still busy in the North, though 
supplies there are not any too plentiful. 

Hops. 

In San Francisco very little is doing in hops. In the 
vicinity of Santa Rosa some transactions occur from 
time to time. Lately some sales of lots ranging under 
200 bales are reported at 12 cents, a drop of perhaps | 
13% cents within the last month. Some off grade hops 
have sold at a very low figure. 

Hay. 

There has been an improvement in the arrivals and 
a general weakening of the market here. Offerings of 
hay during the past several days have been above buy- 
ers' needs, and the market has turned weak. There is 
not much of a decline, but the tendency among buyers 
is to hold off, and among sellers to make concessions 
to work off the daily receipts. Unless there i& a re- 
currence of the freight blockade, the indications are 
for a weak market for some time. 

Beans. 

More firmness is shown in pink and red Kidney beans, 
with an advance in each case. No other changes in con- 
ditions are apparent. Dealers continue to report a fair 
movement for local and shipping account. 

Poultry. 

The poultry market has been liberally supplied and is 
at present rather weak than otherwise, and. while there 



was anxious to get from under. The result was a strong 
selling pressure on 'Change, with large handlers un- 
loading in lots of 20 and 25 cases. The receipts from 
State points were increased largely and several straight 
cars of fresh stock came in from Kansas. The re- 
ceivers have been asking 35c to 37c for the latter. 
Potatoes. 

Potatoes are strong and in small supply. Of the 1300 
bags by a recent steamer from Oregon about fifty per 
cent were frozen, the damaged potatoes having been 
stored in the stern of the vessel. During a portion of 
the week the market was practically bare of supplies 
as far as first hand sellers were concerned. The ar- 
rivals from the river districts have consisted wholly of 
Early Rose, which are held for seed purposes at $1.65 
per cental. 

Vegetables. 

Onions have been closely cleaned up and very firm, 
though there has been no advance in prices. Rhubarb 
and mushrooms are the only vegetables that were plen- 
tiful, and prices of both are weaker. Offerings from the 
Los Angeles region have been more or less weather- 
beaten and unattractive, but have usually found prompt 
sale nevertheless at good figures. 

Fresh Fruits. 

With the inclement weather keeping many buyers 
away from the market, the dullness in fresh fruits has 
been more pronounced than ever this week. Apples are 
in good supply and are moving slowly in a jobbing way 
at the following figures: Newtown Pippins, $1 to $2 per 
box; Spitzbergens, $2 to $2.25; and $1.10 to $1.40 for 
Bellflowers. 

Citrus Fruits. 

The long drawn out spell of dull trading and the 
steady accumulations of stock have caused a very weak 
market for oranges and lower prices are quoted for all 
grades. The receipts recently have not been very 
heavy, but only a small portion of what has come in 
has gone into consumption, and as a result the goods 
are piled high in the warehouses awaiting buyers. The 
small sizes of navel oranges are an exception to the 
general rule. These are in very light supply and are 
very firmly held. Large oranges are selling at a wide 
range of prices. 

Dried Fruits. 

The dullness incident to this season of the year is 
still in control of the market, but has little influence on 
prices. Here and there a holder, anxious to stimulate 
demand or wishing to reduce stocks which are a little 
heavier than he cares to see them, in view of the slack 
demand, is disposed to shade quotations, but underlying 
conditions are admitted to be good and most holders 
are satisfied to await the demand which they are satis- 
fied will ciear the market long before the 1907 crop 
will become available. The weakness in spot prunes 
is less pronounced and peaches and apricots are held 
with conhdence. Supplies of both the latter are very 
small nere and in the East, and, while the demand 
at this time of the year is unimportant, it is expected 
that the spring requirements for consumption will more 
than equal the supply even at the high prevailing 
prices. In New York it is now hard to get apricots at 
less than i7 cents for standard, 18 for choice, and 19 
for fancy. 

Raisins. 

Recent purchases for the Eastern market have about 
cleaned up the California market on Sultanas. Ad- 



has been no substantial decline, prices of live chickens i vices from New York to the effect that, while seeded 



have a downward tendency. Receipts from domestic 
points have been large and several cars of Western 
have been marketed. Game is rather quiet and several 
kinds of wild ducks are lower. 

Butter. 

Butter is firmer than ever with advancing tenden- 
cies. Stocks of desirable table goods have been limited 
and the demand is of sufficient proportions to keep 
the market well cleaned up. Prices here are still below 
the parity of the Los Angeles market, and shipments 
are being diverted from here to that point. A straight 
car of cold storage stock was sent there from this city 
a few days ago and one local merchant who operates a 
creamery is said to be sending practically his entire 
output to the southern city. 

Cheese. 

Cheese shows some improvement, fancy Western and 
new local flats being fractionally higher. Fancy Cali- 
fornia, new flats, now bring 15%c per lb, and first 12c. 
New Young Americas, fancy, are held at 15 cents. 
Eggs. 

The egg market has gone to pieces under the pres- 
sure of heavy receipts. There have been a succession 
of sharp drops all week. Early in the week buyers held 
off awaiting developments, and as the receipts showed a 
marked increase receivers became wary and every one 



raisins on the spot may in occasiona.1 instances be 
picked up below the quotations, and sales of London lay- 
ers have been made under special circumstances at con- 
cessions, on all other grades the market is firm. Cali- 
fornia Sultanas are in a particularly strong position, of- 
ferings both East and West being very light. 



A year ago a manufacturer hired a boy. For months 
there was nothing noticeable about him except that 
he never took his eyes off the machine he was running. 
A few weeks ago the manufacturer looked up from his 
work to see the boy standing beside his desk. 

"What do you want?" he asked. 

"Want my pay raised." 

"What are you getting?" 

"Three dollars a week." 

"Well, how much do you think you are worth?" 

"Four dollars." 

"You think so, do you?" 

"Yes, sir, an' I've been thiukin' sofer three weeks, 
but I've been so blame busy, I haven't had time to 
speak to you about it." 



"Do you expect to get money out of that mine?" 
"No," answered the conscienceless promoter. "Not out 
of the mine. Out of the subscribers to stock." 



February 9, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 




The Louse 
Question 

When your animals rub incessantly 
at this season of the year, look out 
for lice. This is especially true of 
calves and colts. To meet this con- 
dition Dr. Hess (M.D., D.V.8.) for- 
mulated the famous Instant Louse 
Killer, which kills lice on stock and 
poultry. 

INSTANT 
LOUSE KILLER 

kills ticks on sheep. It, bein? a powder, 
can lie upplied in zero weather. r>u not 
wait for warm weather ; do not let the tick 
eat DP your profits; kill him on the spot 
witli Instant Louse Killer. Putupin round 
cans with perforated top, full pound 25 cts 
Sold on a positive written guarantee. 
Be sure of the word "Instant" on the 
can ; there are 25 imitators. 

1 lb. 35 els. 3 lbs. 85 els. 

If your dealer cannot supply you, 
send your order to us. 

Manufactured by 

DR. HESS & CLARK, 

Ashland, Ohio. 
THE PETALCMA I.Nt I'KATon CO., 
Petulumu, California. 
Pacific Coaft Distributors. 



THE DAIRY. 

OVER-RUN AND QUALITY IN BUT- 
TER MAKING. 

(By A. L. Peterson of Kingsburg, Cal., 
before the California Creamery Oper- 
ators' Association.) 

Perhaps there is no one phase of the 
bnttermaking industry which has re- 
ceived more attention during recent 
years than the subject of over-run and 
the closely related one of water content 
in butter. The subject has been pretty 
thoroughly threshed out by dairy ex- 
perts, college professors, and the dairy 
press, especially in the East. A few ran- 
dom thoughts, however, by one of the 
"men who make the goods," may not 
be superfluous or out of place at this 
time. 

A few years ago, the problem, espe- 
cially with the larger creameries, was 
how to obtain a large enough over-run 
to enable them to dispose of smaller 
competitors. Experts in the employ of 
the large concerns, and even the dairy 
schools, experimented with methods of 
incorporating large percentages of moist- 
ure, and were successful beyond their 
fondest expectation*. 

As a result, the thing has been over- 
done in many instances, and the result- 
ing condition of much of the butter on 
the Eastern markets has been such as to 
cause alarm. The United States Gov- 
ernment has proceeded to search out the 
offenders and inflict upon them the pen- 
alty which has been provided for such 
cases. 

Up to the present time, the West has 
suffered less from the effect of over- 
zealousness in obtaining over-run than 
have the Central and Eastern States. 
However, in localities where competition 
is unduly keen, there is a tendency to at 
least crowd the legal maximum of 16 
per cent water to its limit, and in a num- 
ber of cases, to overstep this limit. With 
butter at present high prices, the tempta- 
tion to get as great an over-run as pos- 
sible, naturally becomes very great. 



It is safe to assume that a great ma- 
jority of creamery operators, if not 
forced by severe competition to do other- 
wise, would not only keep within the 
Jegal limit, but would turn out butter of 
the best possible quality, making over- 
run a secondary consideration. In em- 
ploying a butter maker, the first ques- 
tion asked him, as a rule, is not: "What 
over-run can you get," but: "What scores 
have you received at the conventions?" 
Buttermakers, likewise, do not generally 
boast of their ability to obtain an ex- 
cessive over-run. They would rather 
make good butter, and be satisfied with 
a moderate yield, were they not forced 
by injurious competition to do the oppo- 
site. 

The question, then, which confronts us 
as creamery operators and buttermakers, 
iy, how to maintain a high standard of 
quality and at the same time otitain as 
great an over-run as can be done con- 
sistently. In order to do this, it is nec- 
essary to study the conditions of cli- 
mate, feed, and the like, and their ef- 
fect upon the product. Butter made in 
Fresno county, with its extremely hot 
summers, where cows are fed on irri- 
gated alfalfa, will not stand crowding 
as will that made in Humboldt county, 
with its equable climate and natural 
grass. During my limited experience in 
the San Joaquin valley, I have found it 
easier to obtain 20 per cent over-run in 
the fall and winter than 14 per cent in 
the spring and summer, and still make 
butter of good body. Each locality, there- 
fore, must set its own standard, and this 
must be a variable standard, adapting 
itself to varying conditions. 

It has been asserted by recognized 
authority that butter can be made to 
contain water nearly, or quite up to the 
legal maximum of 16 per cent, without 
injury to body, and with positive 
benefit to palatability. The experts 'vJro 
set this mark doubtless knew what they 
were about. The fact muct not be over- 
looked, however, that this percentage is 
designated as the maximum, and not as 
the standard. Under certain conditions 
the standard must of necessity be much 
lower. 

Water content is not the only factor in 
over-run whicn affects quality. Some 
creameries are using methods of incor- 
porating excessive amounts of casein 
in order to increase the over-run 
without passing the danger line in 
moisture content. The result is that 
their butter is mottled or streaky. A 
moderate amount of casein, like a mod- 
erate amount of water, is not injurious, 
but is rather beneficial in increasing the 
palatability. Pure butter fat, even 
though salted, would be flat, and lacking 
in those qualities which make butter an 
almost indispensable luxury. But ex- 
tremes must be avoided in either case, 
and the successful buttermaker is he who 
has found the happy medium, and applies 
it to his daily make, 

In conclusion, it may be said that, al- 
though there is a close relationship be- 
tween over-run and quality in butter- 
making these attributes are not neces- 
sarily in inverse ratio, except when the 
former exceeds reasonable limits. There 
can be no absolute rule for obtaining 
the best results for all localities and all 
seasons. The butter-maker should use 
his own judgment and determine upon 
the methods best adapted to his own con- 
ditions. Finally, he should not be forced 
to sacrifice quality in an effort to . in- 
crease the yield. 



PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY 

STATE LECTURER'S BULLETIN. 

As many Grange lecturers are assum- 
ing the duties for the first time, a few 
suggestions may be helpful to them, and 



The Difference 



Games Out of YOUR Pocket 

If you don't know that Shar- 
pies Dairy Tubular Cream 
Separators are different, take 
no chances until you find out. 
"Bucket bowl" agents de- 
pend on catching the fellows 
who don't know. Don't let 
them take the difference out 
of your pocket. One differ- 
ence is in the bowl. 

Shake The Insides Out ! 

Before you buy a separator 
shake the insides out of the 
bowl. It will show you how 
heavy, complicated, hard to 
wash, easy to injure, quick 
to rust,"bucketbowls"are as 
compared to Dairy Tubular 
bowls. Sharpies Dairy Tubulars are different. 
Nothing inside Dairy Tubular bowls but a 
small dividing wall of triple tinned pressed steel — no bigger 
than a napkin ring— good for a lifetime. Yet Tubulars have 
twice the skimming force of any other separator — skim at least 
twice as clean. 

You have common sense — want to save your wife work — 
want to save yourself repairs and cream — so why not learn 
about this now? Our free catalog N-131 shows many other ex- 
clusive Tubular advantages of great importance to you. Also 
ask for free book, "Business Dairying," covering everything 
from calves to butter. 

THE SHARPLES SEPARATOR CO., 

Toronto, Canada West Chester, Pa. Chicago, 111. 





A common kind of 
"Bucket Bowl." 
Heavy, hard to 
Trash, easy to rust. 



SHARPLES 



Bowl. Simple, 
light, durable, 
easy to wash. 




GETS BIGGEST PROFITS FROM MILK 

The chief reason you want a separator is ' o get more 
cream — more money — out of your milk. Then u you want to 
get the most you '11 naturally want the separator that 
gets the most cream. That 's the improved 



U.S. 



CREAM 
SEPARATOR 

Holds World's Record for Cleanest Skimming. 

It 's the bowl that skims the cream. Inside the U. S. bowl 
are only two, simple, easy-to-clean strong parts, but it gets all 
the cream — the World's Record guarantees it. Our free, 
new book shows four pictures of the bowl, explains why it 
skims cleanest and how it made the World's Record. 

Also shows the solid low frame, enclosed light-running 
gearing, simple, automatic oiling device — everything about 
the construction and operation of the U. S. 27 pictures. 
Just mailus today a postal card asking f or "Construction Catalogue No. 14 '» 
and learn all about a machine that will get more cream — more money — for you. 

VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO., Bellows Falls, Vt. 

PROMPT DELIVERY. Eighteen Distributing Warehouses. NO DELAY. 



Pr imnt Hotivort/ AcciirO/l California customers frbto San Francisco warehouses. 
I I ulil j>l UOIIYCly rtdaUICU No delays. Address all letters to Bellows Falls, Vi. 



Farmuig Prosperity 
OREIAM SEPARATORS 

There was never before a time in the history of the country when the 
average American farmer had such big crops worth such good prices as he 
has this year. 

There isn't a farmer anywhere who has use for one who can not afford 
to buy himself a 

DE LAVAL CREAM SEPARATOR 

now and do it right away, and there isn't a farmer anywhere having use 
for a separator who really can afford not to do so. 

Its use means more and better cream and butter, with less work and 
trouble for everybody — it means profit, comfort and satisfaction. 

If you already have a "cheap" or inferior separator, "trade it in" for 
what it's worth and replace it with a DE LAVAL. 

Put some of your prosperity into the most profitable farming invest- 
ment ever made-— of which a De Laval catalogue, to be had for the asking, 
must convince you. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO., General Agents. 
309 Twelfth St., 107 First St., 123 North Main St., 1017 Post St., 

Oakland, Cal. Portland, Ore. Los Angeles, Cal. Seattle, Wash. 



it may benefit even the more experi- 
enced "to stir up their pure minds by 
way of remembrance." 

The lecturer has charge of the liter- 
ary and educational work of the Grange. 
He should immediately "take account of 
stock," the available talent, speakers, es- 
sayists, reciters, musicians. The work 
should be planned, not only to interest 



and instruct the Grange, but to develop 
the latent ability, especially of its 
younger members. 

The lecturer's hour should begin when, 
and continue as long as the Master or 
Grange, in consultation with the Lecturer 
may determine. It may be passed, by 
consent, for good reasons, at many meet- 
ings. But when the time arrives, every- 

Coutlnued on Page 93 



90 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 9, 1907 



Irrigation Pumping 

is done easily and economically with an 

I. H. C Gasoline Engine 



WHETHER you are pump- 
ing from deep wells, shal- 
low wells, reservoirs, 
canals, or running streams, an 
I. H. C. gasoline engine is the 
one best power. 

It is the best for a number of 
reasons. 

In the first place, it is easily 
operated. You don't need an en- 
gineer to look after it — in fact it 
requires practically no attention 
whatever — it will run for hours 
at a time, safely and regularly, 
and when it does needattention, 
your small boy or girl can look 
after it as well as you can. 

Western General Agencies: Denver, Colo., 



Next it will not get out o_f 
order. I.H.C. gasoline en- 
gines are made throughout of the 
best materials, and all complica- 
ted parts have been eliminated. 

And again, it is economical. 

Ordinary stove gasoline is the 
fuel it uses, and it gets all the 
powerout of it and wastes no fuel. 
And gasoline is something you 
can always have ready. Buy it 
by the barrel, and it is easy to 
keep a supply on hand. 

And there are many other fea- 
tures which we can't go on to ex- 
plain here — durability, safety, 
convenience, etc. Investigate 

Portland, Ore., Salt Lake City, Vtah, 




them before you buy. It will pay 
you to know all about them. 

I. H. C. gasoline engines are 
made in various styles, — Vertical 
and Horizontal, Stationary and 
Portable, and in sizes ranging 
from 2 to 20-horse power. When 
not in use for pumping they fur- 
nish excellent power for sawing 
wood, cleaning grain, grinding 
feed, shredding fodder, separa- 
ting cream, etc. 

Call on Local Audit or write nearest gen- 



eral agency for illustrated catalogue. 
Helena, Mont., Spokane, Wash., San Francisco, Cal. 
INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OF AMERICA, Chicago, U.S.A. 



(INCORPORATE!) 



(*W se 




HOME CIRCLE. 



The Mountain 
Copper Co. 
1020 wst. 

OAKLAND 

-CAL.,: 




FERTILIZERS, 
order direct. 

Pamphlet and Price List free, 
on application. 
Accept no substitute; insist on 
havino'MOCOCO ' 



? 



Less Work — Better Results 

The first matter of importance when spraying is to secure clean fruit and healthy 
trees; the next thing is to have expended the least possible amount of time and money. 

Bean Magic Spray Pumps 

are peculiarly adapted to do these things. They are entirely 
different from other pumps in almost every respect, but par- 
ticularly because they 

Save One-third The Labor 



In the Spring rests the secret. What's the 

use in working so hard when the same results can be accom- 
plished with a third less labor? Save time and effort by 
dividing the work, doing half at each stroke of the handle 
instead of doing all at one stroke, and meanwhile be work- 
ing against only one-half the pressure indicated on the 
gauge. Magic pumps are built in two sizes and have 
non-clogging ball valves. It is worth your while to see one 
in operation. 

Write for our special offer, freight prepaid, and we will 
also send our illustrated catalogue No. 16 describing all ten 
sizes of hand pumps and telling what sprays to use and how 
to prepare them. State number of acres and kind of fruit. 
Write today. (Catalogue No. 18 describes Power Sprayers.) 

Bean Spray Pump Co. 
ie>3 W. Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 



Winery For Sale 

The best winery in Lower California, near Ensenada, well equipped. One 
hundred acres in vines all bearing. Over 300 acres more land for grain and 
grazing. The whole Republic of Mexico for market as no wineries are known 
on the coasts and very few, if any, in the interior. 

Large quantities of wines and brandies are exported to all parts of Mexico 
from California. Import duty on wine is 60 cents per gallon in bulk and more 
in bottles. Owners retiring. Price, $50,000.00 U. S. coin, including everything. 
$20,000.00 cash. Balance in easy payments. 

Address ANDONAEGUI & ORMART, 

Ensenada, Lower California, Mexico 



SEVEN TIMES TWO. 

By Jean Ingelow. 
You bells in the steeple, ring out your 
changes, 
How many soever they be, 
And let the brown meadow lark's note 
as he ranges 
Come over, come over to me. 
Yet birds' clearest carol by fall or by 
swelling 
No magical sense conveys, 
And bells have forgotten their old art 
of telling 
The fortune of future days. 
"Turn again, turn again," once they 

rang cheerily 
While a boy listened aione; 
Made his heart yearn again, musing so 
wearily 
All by himself on a stone. 
Poor bells! I forgive you; your good days 
are over, 
And mine, they are yet to be; 
No listening, no longing, shall aught, 
aught discover — 
You leave the story to me. 
The foxglove shoots out of the green 
matted heather, 
Preparing her hoods of snow; 
She was idle and slept till the sunshiny 
weather — 
Oh, children, take long to grow. 
I wish and I wish that the spring would 
go faster, 
Nor long summer bide so late, 
And I could grow on like the foxglove 
and aster, 
For some things are ... to wait. 
I wait for the day when dear hearts 
shall discover, 
While dear hands are laid on my head. 
"The child is a woman, the book may 
close over, 
For all the lessons are said." 
I wait for my story — the birds cannot 
sing it, 

Not one, as he sits on the tree; 
The bells cannot ring it, but long years, 
oh, bring It, 
Such as I wish it to be. 



AN EMBARRASSING INTRODUCTION. 

(Original.) 
When the Entwhistle family congre- 
gated at breakfast it was to greet the 
husband and father, who had arrived 
during the night from a long absenct 
abroad. There were Mrs. Entwhistle; 
Joe, aged twenty-two; Clara, aged twenty, 
and Benny, aged ten. The meeting in- 
volved a great deal of hugging and kiss- 
ing between the father and his children, 
the greetings between husband and wife 



having taken place the night before. 
When the excitement had subsided" and 
all were seated at the table Joe Entwhis- 
tle said: 

"But, father, why in the world did 
you make so much noise coming in last 
night? Any one would have supposed 
you were tackling a burglar." 

"I was tackling a burglar." 

"A burglar!" exclaimed all the young- 
sters at once. 

"Yes, a real live burglar." 

"Did he get away?" asked Joseph 
eagerly. 

"He did not. He made a great ef- 
fort to do so, but I held him." 

"What time of night was it?" asked 
Clara. 

"One o'clock. The steamer reached 
the dock at 12, and I got home an hour 
later. Leaving the carriage, I ran up 
the steps, pulling out my night key — I 
have kept it on my ring since I've been 
away — put it in the keyhole and opened 
the door. As I did so a man attempted 
to push by me and go out. Considering 
the hour and his frantic efforts, I sur- 
mised that something was wrong and, 
gathering all my strength pushed him 
back into the vestibule." 

' And came out alive!" exclaimed Jos- 
eph. "Father, you were lucky. It's a 
wonder he didn't kill you. I tell you 
it's no safe job to tackle a burglar." 

"Now that it's all over I fancy he 
must have been more of a sneak thief 
than a regular housebreaker." 

"What did you do?" 

"I took him by the collar and marched 
him down on to the sidewalk and half i 
block up the street, where fortunately I 
met a policeman and gave him in 
charge." 

"What kind of a looking thing was 
he?" asked Clara. 

"His appearance favored the theory 
that he was a sneak thief. He was well 
dressed, though his face was bad. He 
looked like one of those respectable ap- 
pearing persons who call at people's 
houses ostensibly to see some one, but 
really to pick up an overcoat in the hall." 

"Poor fellow!" mused Clara. "And is 
he in prison?" 

"Indeed he is, and I must be at the 
police office at 10 o'clock to appear 
against him. But enough of this. Tell 
me what has taken place while I've been 
away." 

"Clara's " Benny was beginning 

when his mother said "Hush!" 

Then followed an account of the re- 
turn voyage and the perils of the sea to 
which Mr. Entwhistle had been sub- 
jected in a big storm. When the break- 
fast was finished he arose, remarking 
that he must go at once to the police 
court. He was anxious to know if any 
plunder had been found on the burglar, 
though nothing was missed. 

"If there hasn't, will you let him go, 
papa?" asked the sympathetic Clara. 
"I've a mind to go with you to see that 
you do." 

After some discussion the young lady 
was permitted to accompany her father 
downtown, stopping at the police office 
by the way. Her father took her into 
the office, and after an interview with 
the man at the desk the prisoner was 
brought out for inspection. He had no 
sooner appeared than Miss Clara fell on 
the floor in a dead faint. Her father 
picked her up, and a policeman ran for 
water, which was sprinkled in her face. 
When she opened her eyes and saw the 
anxious group about her she looked 
wildly at the prisoner and gasped: 

"(Jh, Aiec!" 

Mr. Entwhistle turned to the man 
with astonishment. 

"There's been a mistake." said the 
burglar ruefully. ".uist night I was 
calling on your daughter. When I left 
I shut the inner door and couldn't open 



February 9, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



r 



An Edge 
Test 



Perhaps your knife, when newly 
sharpened, will cut paper, but whittle 
hard wood for a few minutes — then try 
it. If you want a Knife, a Saw, a Chisel, a 
Plane, a Drawing-knife, or any edged tool that 
will hold its keenness through long, hard service 
ask for the kind marked 

men KurrtR 

This trademark covers a complete line not only of edged 
tools, but tools of all kinds. Saws, Hammers, Screw- 
drivers, Files, Pliers, Glass-cutters, Ice-picks, also Gar- 
den and Farm tools, such as Forks, Rakes, Hoes, Shovels, 
Scythes, Manure-hooks, Grass-shears. 

For 37 years Keen Kutter Tools have been sold 
under this mark and motto: " The Recollection of 
Quality Remains Long After the Price is 

Forgotten." Trade Mark Registered. 

If not at your dealer's write us. 
TOOL BOOK FREE. 
SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY, St. Louis and New York, U.S.A. 







GUARANTEED: 65 per Cent. PROTEIN 

RAW BONE 

GUARANTEED: 25 Per Cent Protein and 45 Per Cent Rone Phosphate 
PUKE ANIMAL MATTER 

POULTRY FOODS 

Write us for price list and samples; they are free. 

We want yon to see tne kind of Poultry Foods that are man- 
ufactured from CJjFAN, RAW MATERIAL. This means HEALTHY 
ANIMAL FOODS for your poultry. 

WESTERN MEAT COMPANY 

SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO, SAN MATEO COUNTY 



Francis Smith «£s Co, 



Manufacturer 

oi 



the outer one. I was penned in between 
the two." 

"Good gracious!" exclaimed the father. 

"Oh, Alec," moaned the daughter, "I 
thought you must be a thief!" 

"W ny the dickens didn't you pound on 
the door?" asked the father angrily. 

"I spent half an hour trying to pick thd 
lock, and by that time every one had 
gone to bed. I couldn't make up my 
mind to rouse them. It was too ridicu- 
lous, you know. When you opened the 
door I thought I'd better make an effort 
to get out and away without saying 
anything." 

"But why didn't you speak before you 
were run in?" 

"Well, I knew you were expected and 
supposed you were Clara's father. I 
thought I'd explain it to the police. But 
they didn t believe me." 

"Some one call a carriage," cried Mr. 
Entwhistle. 

Ten minutes later Mr. Entwhistle, 
Clara and the burglar were at the Ent- 
whistle home. Mr. Entwhistle went up- 
stairs to explain matters to Mrs. Ent- 
whistle. After awhile the two descended 
and found the burglar and Clara in the 
drawing room. 

"John," said Mrs. Entwhistle, "this is 
Alec Chesterton, who during your ab- 
sence has become engaged to Clara." 

The expression on Mr. Entwhistle's 
face as he advanced and took the young 
man's hand was a study for a painter. 

ELINOR J. BYRD. 

DOMESTIC HINTS. 



im n ii i , TT^r~^^w^^— ! ~w B rrif 

FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 
Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office and Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, Cal. 

Water and Oil Tanks— all sizes Coating all sizes of Pipes with Asphaltum 

Emery's Poultry Foods are sold by all Dealers and Commission 
Men because they are the BEST. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

The Pacific Guano & Fertilizer Co., 24th & Indiana, San Francisco 



Write for our FREE Bookie'. 



Farmer's Friend. 



Valuable to all Farmers and Ranchers. 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX AND 

BLACKKLECi 
VACCINES 

are given the preference by 80% of Cali 
foruia Stockmen because they have better 
results than others do: 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and our New 

Booklet on ANTHRAX an J ULA CKLEG. 

The Cutter Laboratory 

TEMPORARY ADDRESS 

Grays«n and Sixth Streets Berkeley, Gal. 

West of San Pablo Ave . 



All about Bees and Honey 

The Bee-keeper's guide to success. The 
Weekly 

American Bee Journal 



tells how to make the most money with 
bees. Contributors are practical honey pro- 
ducers who know how. Interesting — in- 
structive. $1 per year;3mos. (13 copies) 
25c. Sample free. 

American Bee Journal, 
334 Dearborn St., Chicago. 



Giblet Soup with Riffles. — Put giblets 
in cold water, &tew slowly. Stir into 
one egg, flour enough to crumble, shred 
slowly into the boiling soup ten min- 
utes before serving. 

Fish Salad.— Take cold fish of any 
kind, remove all skin, bones, etc., and 
separate the meat into small pieces. 
Pour over a dressing made as follows: 
For each cup of fish take 1 well-beaten 
egg, 1 tablespoon prepared mustard, 3 
tablespoons vinegar, 1 tablespoon butter, 
salt and pepper to taste. Put over the 
Are and let boil to a cream, stirring all 
the time. When cool, pour over the 
fish, to which has been added some 
chopped celery or lettuce leaves. 

Stuffed Green Peppers. — Wash the 
green peppers, cut in halves and take 
out all the seeds. Season one cup of 
boiled rice with a rounding tablespoon 
of grated cheese and a pinch of salt. 
Fill the halves of peppers heaping full 
and set close together in a baking dish. 
Cover the dish and set in the oven for 
half an hour, then uncover for a few 
minutes to color the tops a little. 

Stewed Mutton. — Buy three pounds or 
four pounds of mutton from under the 
shoulders; put a little dripping in the 
frying pan, and fry the mutton a nice 
brown on both s>ides. Cut up a carrot, 
two onions and a head of celery in small 
pieces; fry these lightly, put the veg- 
etables in a saucepan, lay the mutton on 
top, and just cover the meat with quite 
boiling water; let this simmer slowly one 
hour. Then make a suet pudding with 
two breakfast-cupfuls of flour and a tea- 
cupful of suet or dripping; mix with cold 
water to a stiff dough, lay the pudding on 
top of the meat quite flat, like a plate, 
and let the contents- of the saucepan 
simmer one hour more. Turn out the 
stew on a hot dish, sprinkle a tablespoon- 
ful of finely chopped parsley over, and 
serve as hot as possible. 

Orange Pie. — One orange, two cupfuls 
of sugar, two cupfuls of sweet milk, one 
tablespoonful of flour, yolks of six egg&. 
Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff 
froth with six tablespuonfuls of sugar. 
Put on pie after baked, put in oven to 
brown. 



1 think too much of my 
name to put it upon poor 
lamp-chimneys. Evidently 
other makers feel the same 
way. Good lamp-chimneys 
bear my name, and the poor 
ones go nameless. 

I t me send you my Index 
to chimneys. It is free. 

Address, MACBETH, Pittsburgh. 



DEWEY, STRONG &.CO 

CAVEATS 

PATENTS 

*TRADE1 
IO BACON BLOCK OAKLAND. 



SAW YOUR WOOD 



SAWS DOWS 
MiEBS 




With a FOLDING SAWINO MACHINE. 9 V ORDS hy ONE HUH in 

10 hoars. Send for FREE lllus. catalogue showing latest hnprorfl. 
merits and testimonials from thousands. First order seen res agency 

Folding Sawing Mach. Co.. 158 E. Harrison St., Chicago, IU. 



Blake, Moffitt&Towne « 

No. 419 Eleventh St., Oakland 
Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angelei. 
Blake, McFall & Co., Portland, Or*. 



School of Practical, Civil, mechanical, 

electrical and mining engineering. 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying 

§100 Telegraph Ave., Oakland, California 
Open all Year. A. VAN DBR NAILLEN, Pret't. 
Assaying of Ores, $25. Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay ,$25; Blowpipe Assay, $10; Full Course of As- 
saying Established in 1864- Send for circular. 

Something' About Barn Door Latches 

It is safe to say that there has been a 
demand for the right kind of a barn door 
latch, one possessing the necessary require- 
ments, since the first barns for stock were 
built. The requirements of a modern latcli 
for the barn door, as is known by every 
farmer giving this matter a thought, and 
that every manufacturer of them knows 
and attempts with more or less success to 
embody are: ability to automatically catch 
and hold a door either closed or open; one 
that has handles of convenient shape for 
opening the door from either side; conven- 
ience of adjustment to doors of varying 
thickness without fitting, attractive design, 
material and design to possess the greatest 
strength for the weight. While the most 
essential feature and least often produced 
is a latch with no projecting hooks or 
points for catching a harness or the animal 
itself while passing through the door. The 
working parts should be protected from the 
weather, and the finish should as far as 
possible prevent rust. We are pleased to 
note all these features embodied in the 
Whitcomb Steel Barn Door Latch advertised 
in another column of this paper, and it 
should certainly receive the' consideration 
of our readers who are interested in labor- 
saving improvements. — Hoard's Dairyman. 



The "South Bend" 




The Best G hilled Plow 
IN THE WORLD. 

Made in all sizes and in patterns 
especially designed for the Pacific 
Coast. Perfect fitting duplicate 
parts always in stock. 
PACIFIC IMPLEMENT COMPANY 
131-153 Kansas St., San Francisco 



92 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



February 9, 1907 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 

GHO. C. ROKDIXG. Fresno, California, ISreeder 
of high-grade thoroughbred Holstein Bulls and 
Heilers. Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and 
Sows. 



RIVHRSIDE HERS HOI-STEIN" CATTLE — 
One of the largest and best in the world. Send 
for catalogue. Pierce I. ami & Stock Co , 
Stockton. Cal. 

JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Short- 
horns, milk strain. High class stock, First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O Box, 321 Petaluma. Cal. 

HOLSTHINS— Winners at State Fair at every but- 
ter contest since 1885 in Calit Stock near S. F. 
F. H. Burke, 2195 Fillmore St., S. F. 

BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

A. J. C. C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted 
strains. Joseph Mailliard, San Geronimo, Mavin 
Co , Cal. 

P H. MURPHY. Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breed- 
er of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 

"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto herd, 77 pre- 
miums California State Fairs 1902-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle, Ad- 
dress temporarily, San Mateo, Cal. 

JERSEYS, HOLSTEINS, & DURHAMS, Bred es- 
pecially for use in dairv. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm, Niles &'Co , Los Angeles, Cal., 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876 

SHEEP AND GOATS~ 

S. H. FOUNTAIN, Dixon, Cal., Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire sheep. Both 
sexes for sale at all times. 



POULTRY. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed Hart. Clements. 
Cal. Large Size good plumage, early maturity 

BELGIAN HOMBR SQUABS in all colors $3 per 
doz. SAM'L M. COPPIN & SONS, Pleasant 
Grove, Cal. 

SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN AND INDIAN 
Runner Ducks — Eggs $150 per setting; $600 pet 
hundred. Send for illustrated catalogue. Tokn F 
Boden, 1338 Second street, Watsonville, California 

WM. NILES & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly all 
varieties chickens, geese, ducks, pea-fowl, etc. 



SWINE. 



GEO V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 

BERKSHIRES— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages. T . Waite, Perkins, Cal. 

BERKSHIRE AND POLAND - CHINA HOGS 
C. A. STOWE, Stockton. 

GOLD MEDAL Herd of Berkshire Hogs and South 
Down Sheep. Thos Waite, Perkins, . al. 

BERKSHIRE, POLAND-CHINA, DUROC HOGS 
Choice, thoroughbred Poultry, William Niles & 
Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Established in 1876. 

BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 

GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Branuan Street, San 
Francisco. Manu- 
facturer and 
Dealer in 

of every description. Send for Catalogue — FREE 



*x, 037 Draunan street, aan 

Poultry Supplies 



BUFF ORPINGTONS. — We won at State Fair 
ALL FIRST PRIZES in this class 1906 and 1904. 
We have just won at San Jose GRAND SPECIAL 
for BEST 3 Breeding Pens, 3 Cocks, 3 Cockerels, 
3 Hens and 3 Pullets, ALL VARIETIES COM- 
PETING. Mr. Faimer, YOU NEED THIS BREED 
Write me and learn why 

W. SULLIVAN. Ag'news, Cal. 

State Vice-President 
NAT. S. C. B. ORPINGTON CLUB. 



! White Wyandottes | guaranteed 



200-250 
EGG FOWLS 

Grand sweep at San Francisco scored by T. E. 
O. M. Secy- 1'reas. A. P. A. Grand sweep at Seattle, 
1907, scored by Past Pres. Holden, A. P. A. Win- 
ners of the blue at all leading coast shows for our 
customers. Unequalled for eggs and for the table. 
Catalogue free. Capitol Avenue Poultry Farm. 
A. L. R. Mantz, Rural 21, Box 98P., San Jose, Cal. 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

Gombault's 

Gaustic Balsam 




Has Imitators But Mo Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Btrainea Tendons, Founaer, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other hony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 

As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 

Sprains, Sore Throat, etc., it is invaluable. 

Everjr bottle or Caustic Balsam sold Is 
Warranted to pive sntiataction. price $1.50 
per bottle. Sold by drutftfists, or sent by ex- 
press, charges paid, witn full directions for 
its use. ClTSend for descriptive circulars, 
testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 




FOR. SALE 

Imported Shire Stallion 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 

Butte. 

CITRUS EXHIBIT FROM BIGGS — 
The Biggs Weekly Argus: An exhibit 
of citrus fruits was sent to San Fran- 
cisco last night, and will be placed on 
exhibit in the office of Capt. T. F-. A. 
Obermeyer, at the corner of Grove street 
and Van Ness avenue, where it will at- 
tract the attention and delight the eyes 
of thousands. In fact, the exhibit would 
attract attention in Los Angeles, or any 
other citrus country. The exhibit com- 
prises a box of fine lemons grown by 
F. H. Bredimus; a cluster of four very 
large navel oranges grown by V. Bunnell; 
box of magnificent lemons and oranges 
grown by Miss Lola Palmer; two 
branches and a box of those thin-skinned 
lemons grown by E. H. Groin; two 
branches of blood oranges grown by J. 
E. Schellenger, one of these is a close 
cluster of six choice specimens well 
turned in color: a mixed box of navel 
oranges and lemons grown by W. D. 
Parker; a box of very choice navel 
orange$ and a small branch with eleven 
beautiful specimens grown by J. M. Hast- 
ings; a fine branch of eleven large 
oranges grown by A. M. Woodruff; some 
large clusters of tempting oranges grown 
by J. A. Foster; a box of mammoth lem- 
ons, grown by H. S. Brink; and a jar of 
processed olives (Sevillano, true Span- 
ish olives), grown by V. Bunnell. A 
pleasing feature of this* exhibit is that 
the fruit was all grown within the corpo- 
ration limits of Biggs, and could be 
doubled any day, as many people are not 
represented in the exhibit who have 
equally as fine fruit. Such exhibit will 
certainly convince people who "have to 
be shown" that all the claims we have 
ever made concerning this section are 
true. The lands are too finely adapted 



VETERINARY 

ADVICE > 




FREE 



a very high class 
years old, weighing 



This is 
Stallion, 5 
1900 lbs. and a good stock horse 

HENRY WHKATLEY, 

Napa, Cal. 



ARNPR0ni5r».a in,v 



■ D«gi&nm, Eij.-rts t&d Agricultural Ex. 

■ > perimeDt SUtlooJ I'ee tad Recomcmd 

I CYPHERS INCUBATOR. 

IOorSM Book, "How To Make 
Mono? With Poultry," couttloi more 
Information i u uj olh.r. FREE by wnd- 
l&gaddreiMA of two friends who hup poultry. 
• CYPHERS INCUBATOR CO., 
BuHalo.New York. Hoston.rhicago.Kan- 
las City.Oakland, («l.,antl Lrm.lon.Lng. 




Cocoanut Oil Cake 

THE BEST FEED FOE MOCK, 
CHICKEN.- AN1> PIOS 

For Sale in Lots to Suit by 

El Dorado Oil Works 



HOME LIGHT 

Farmers are recognizing the great con- 
venience of a good light, and we ate l're- 
quently in receipt of enquiries as to which 
gas machine will give the greatest satis- 
faction at the smallest cost. We do not 
care to go on record as making your selec- 
tion, but the Superior Generator has al- 
ways met the requirements in the line of a 
gas producer, and the fact that it sells at 
a moderate price makes it doubly attrac- 
tive. The country home is deprived of a 
great comfort if it is supplied with gas. 

The Superior can be arranged to supply- 
gas to any house, whether old or new, and 
the entire piping can be done by any gas- 

^The Superior Light and Heat Company 
have a catalogue which they semi to all 
readers of the Pacific Rural Press who 
write for it. If you state the number of 
lights vou use they will give you full in- 
formation as to the cost of the size gener- 
ator i ..quired and the expense of installing 
it. You will be surprised to learn how 
reasonably it can be done. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years 
Importers and Breeders of All Varieties of Land 
and Water Fowls 

Stock lor Sale Dept. 31. 361 McAllister St.T,_,1 
Sen Francisco, Cal. » »«^. 



THE SECOND SEMI -ANN CAL SALE OF 

STANDARD BRED HORSES AND REGISTERED DURHAM BULLS 

WILL BE HELD 

Thursday, February 28th, 1907 

AT THE CELEBRATED 

OAKWOOD PARK STOCK FARM, DANVILLE, GAL. 

They Comprise 

25 Standard Bred Two-year-old Colts, Fillies, and Geldings, by Chas Derby, 2:20, Bonnie Direct, 2:05%. Stam B, 

2:lli4, Searchlight, 2:031,4, Nushagak 25939, Sire of Aristo, 2:08%, etc. 
15 Two-year-old Cleveland Bay, Thoroughbred, and well bred work horses. All halter broken. 

30 Two-year-old Registered Durham Bulls, by King Spicy 2nd, 154525, Bessie's Marquis, 205085, Humboldt Vic- 
tor 3d, 175071, and Scotch Thistle, 167322. In addition to these there will be offered at private sale a nice 
lot of Registered Devon Bulls, two to three years old. 

Write for Catalogue — A special train will await all morning trains at Port Costa, and return after sale 
to Port Costa. Sale to be held under cover. 

LOUIS SHAFFER, Auctioneer. 



EDWARD M. HUMPHREY, Manager. 



DO YOU IRRIGATE? 



If you would do so successfully, cheaply and with complete 
satisfaction, use Improved Peerless Gasoline Engines and Pumps. 

BAKER & HAMILTON 



San Francisco 



Sacramento 



and lasting 



Los Angeles 



Or. 8. A. Tattle, a veterinary 6ur- 
Roonof long experience bus writ- 
ten a book entitled "Veterinary 
Experience" on the diseases of 
hore.e, giving symptoms and 
treutan-nc In plain terms. It la 
fully illustrated with diagrams 
showing tbe skeleton and clrca- 
, latory and digestive systems with 
■references that make them plain. 
'Tells bow to bay a horse and 
know whcthcrlt 19 sound or not. Every horse owner 
should have one. It Is sent to any one. 

TUTTLE'S ELIXIR 

Is the only guaranti ed eure for Colic, Curb, recent 
• ho* Belle and Calloua. It locates lameness, relieves 
and cures Spavins, Rlno Bona, Ceoklo Joints. Creaae 
Heal, Soratchee, Catarrh, etc. Send today and get the 
book free and information about Dr. Tuttlo'a speclnoaa 

tattle's Elixir Co., 33 Beverly St.. Boston, Hast 

Redindton & Company, San Francisco 
W. A. Shaw. 1 209 West Washington St., Los Angeles 



to the growing of citrus fruits to be 
otherwise utilized. 

Santa Clara. 

A PROSPEROUS YEAR FOR STATE. 
— Gilroy Gazette: The year 1906 was a 
very prosperous one for California, not- 
withstanding the terrible visitation of 
the earthquake. Figures have been com- 
piled by the California Promotion Com- 
mittee and a remarkable showing is 
made. In fruits there was an increase 
in all kinds with the exception of apri- 
cots, which was almost a total failure. 
The total output of fruits amounted to 
more than three hundred million pounds, 
while canned fruits totalled four and a 
half million cases. In addiiion to the 
dried and canned fruits, green fruits to 
a total of two hundred and fifty million 
pounds were sold, not counting citrus 
fruits, of which eighteen and a quarter 
million boxes were shipped from the 
State. 

Solano County. 

HORSEMEN PURCHASE FINE STAL- 
LION. The Solano Republican: M. D. 
Cooper of Elmira attended the auction 
sale at the Fair ranch at Knights Land- 
ing on January 10 and purchased the 
stallion King Leopold, one of the best 
horses offered there. The ranch is now 
owned by Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt, Jr., 
formerly Virginia Fair, and the horses 
bred there are of the finest quality. The 
ranch was purchased by Senator Fair in 
1887 and comprises over five hundred 
acres. 

King Leopold is by the imported 
horse Snow Flake, out of a Belgian 
mare. He weighs over 1750 pounds and 
was purchased four years ago for the 
purpose of breeding the finest type of 
draught horse. He has proved himsel* 
a sure foal getter and transmits to his 
progeny with unusual regularity his 
qualities of strength and stigma, togeth- 
er with his intelligence and gentle dispo- 
sition. Eighteen three-year-olds by this 
horse were offered at the sale, the prices 
ranging from $200 to $275. 

ORGANIZE TO PROMOTE NAPA 
COUNTY. Solano County Courier: The 
Napa Chamber of Commerce has incor- 
porated for the purpose of better carry- 
ing out its work of inducing settlers and 
manufacturing concerns to learn the ad- 
vantages of Napa. The Chamber has 
plans drawn and will soon erect a hand- 



We know of no advertiser who has pur- 
sued a more honorable course, in any and 
every way, than Macbeth, the maker of 
"pearl glass," "pearl top" and "tough glass" 
lamp-chimneys — that get good light from a 
lamp without smoke or smell (provided you 
use the chimney made for your lamp — and 
he prints an Index to Lamps). 

We are glad to record his success. After 
having enjoyed the cream of the American 
trade for many years, he is sending his 
chimneys abroad. Has won Australia, 
strangely enough, almost before beginning 
in England. 



BROOKS' NEW CURE 



Brooks' Appliance. New 
discovery. ..ouderful. No 
obnoxious springs or pads. 
Automatic Air Cushions. 
Binds and draws the broken 
parts together as you would 
a broken limb- No salves. 
No lymphol. No lies. Dur- 
able, cheap. Pat. Sept. ln.'ol. 
SENT ON TRIAL. 

CATALOGUE FREE. 

C. E. BROOKS.3143 Bids 



FOR 




MARSHALL, MICH 



February 9, 1907 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



9? 




taJVD FOR SALE AMD TO REXT 



Glenn Ranch 

Glenn County = = California 

1<X>IV SALE 

IN SUBDIVISIONS 



This famous and well-known farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, " Th« Wheat King," has heen 
surveyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale in 
any sized government subdivision at remarkably 
low pi ices, and in no ca-e it is bel< ived, exceeding 
what is assessed f .r county and State taxation 
purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west bank 
of the Sicramento River for fifteen miles. It is 
located in a region ihat has never lacked an ample 
rainfall and no ir igalion is required. 

The river is navigable at nil seasons of the \ ear 
and freight and trading boats make regular trips. 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchas- rs is invited'. Parties desiring to 
look at ti e land should go to Willows, California, 
and inquire for P. O. Eibe. 

For further particular- and for maps, showing 
the subdivisions and prices per acre, address person- 
ally or by letter 

F. C. LUSH, 

Agent of N. I). Rideout. Adminis rator of the estate 
of a. J. Glenn, at Chico Butte County, Cal. 



The Fresno Scraper 



r- 




FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO. CALIFORNIA 



THOMAS PHOSPHATE POWDER 
NITRATE OF SODA 

THE LEADING FERTILIZERS OF TOOAV 

FOR SALE BY 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE CO. 

San Francisco, Fresno. Los Angeles 

Write to them for Pamphlets. 



some one-story old Mission-style build- 
ing on Brown street in this city. This 
building will be used as the