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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1908)"

2007 lEOTObT 1 

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CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY. 

SACRAMENTO 



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>6 7> 




and CALti ORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN, 



Vol. LXXV. No. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1908. 



Thirty-eighth Year. 



The Vesuvius Plum. 

The holiday season is probably 
the best time of the year to call 
attention to a creation of Mr. Bur- 
bank's which is chiefly ornamen- 
tal. It is then that, if ever, the 
commercial spirit of the grower 
should bow before the esthetic. 
Mr. Burbank's experience brings 
him face to face with many new 
plant beauties, but his chief pur- 
pose to serve the world along 
eco : ->mic lines compels him to 
ovenook many of them. Once 
in a while, however, something so 
striking crops out that it cannot 
be disregarded and so likely to be- 
come popular that there will also 
be a distinct commercial opportu- 
nity in its propagation. Of this 
nature as it seems to us is the 
Vesuvius plum which is illustrated 
on this page and which is shown 
in color-print in the new publica- 
•> by the Fancher Creek Nurse- 
1 Fresno, entitled "New 
Products of the Trees," to which 
we made general allusion two 
weeks ago. Mr. Roeding claims 
that the tree is worthy of its erup- 
tive name because its color is so 
■ 'irpassingly beautiful that while 
it excites admiration at a distance, 
closer examination only intensi- 
fies the first expression of delight 
which its beautiful foliage is sure 
to arouse. It is something like 
Prunus pissardi, but so superior 
that it is likely that the old purple- 
leaved plum will become obsolete. 
The fruit is of a deep rich color, 
possessed of a pleasant acid flavor. 
It is not a very prolific bearer, 
hence it is recommended as a 
striking foliage tree worthy of a 
place in every garden and park. 
Mr. Burbank writes this descrip- 
tion of the way it came about and 
What he thinks of it: 

"The Prunus pissardi, a crimson- 
leaved form of the Prunus myro- 
balana introduced 20 years ago, is 
the only good purple-leaved plum 
generally known. For the past 
18 years I have been raising 
hybrids of this and the Americana 
and Japan plums, hundreds of 
which are superior to the original 
well-known pissardi in all respects; 
but among all known crimson- 
leaved tree of any kind Vesuvius 
stands alone. The trees are tre- 
mendous growers, taking on a 
picturesque appearance; branches 
deep purplish crimson, leaves 
gigantic (often 4k in. wide by 6 in. 
long), but above all, these great 
leaves are of the most beautiful metallic crimson 
color throughout, both on the upper and under sur- 
face, having a crumpled surface very much like a 
coleus. Nothing in this line can compare with Ve- 




tree which produces such beauti- 
ful foliage should not be ex- 
pected to produce much fruit. 
t The growth and foliage of Vesu- 
' vius will make it the coming tree 
for foliage effect, beautiful in the 
distance, but more so on closer 
inspection." 

Mr. Roeding thinks that Mr. 
Burbank in the foregoing descrip- 
tion does not do full justice to 
Vesuvius as a most beautiful 
foliage tree. It would, however, 
take a poet to make it much more 
impressive, so we suppose every 
beauty-lover will have to grow it 
for himself and awaken the mute 
poetry of his own soul to show 
him how beautiful it is. If, how- 
ever, the reader will remember 
that the leaves shown in the pic- 
ture are less than one-half of their 
natural size and then apply to 
them what Mr. Burbank says 
about metallic crimson color and 
coleus-like surface he must begin 
to get an idea of gorgeousness 
which will do to start with and 
believe that there must be scarcely 
a single deciduous tree which for 
splendor of coloring can lend so 
striking a beauty to the lawn, 
conservatory, or fruit garden. In 
planting and treatment follow the 
usual routine with other varieties 
of plums, only in pruning be care- 
ful, after the head is once estab- 
lished, to prune to an upper bud, 
as this tends, to bring out the 
beautiful weeping effect. 



4 Burbank's New Ornamental Plum — The Vesuvius. 

suvius in color; tree a very strong grower, taking 
the graceful form of the American elm; fruit nearly 
globular, 3$ in. around, fair quality especially for 
cooking, but not an abundant producer of fruit. Any 



Besides buying this year 6600 
of the latest and most expensive 
refrigerator cars for its California 
fruit traffic, the Southern Pacific 
railroad has taken up the prob- 
lem of cooling the fruit before it 
is packed in the cars. The com- 
pany is working on the lines 
shown to be the most successful 
by the experiments of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, which loaded 
fruit just as it came from the 
grower, then after careful selec- 
tion and brushing, and lastly*^ 
after it had been pre-cooled before 
it was put in the cars. AM*this 
fruit was sent a<Titf^|^^<intiiH'nt 
in refrigerator cari^rmrer careful 
observation as to temperature 
along the route and the condition 
of the fruit on its arrival. It was 
found that the pre-cooled fruit 
was far in adva^e of any other. 
The Southern Pacific. Jjas already 
begun the#uilding of pre-cooMng* 
plants, as well as ice-making 
plants to supply its cars % When 
pre-cooling comes to be the general rule, it will mean 
not only the saving of a large amount of fruit that now 
becomes spoiled, but also that the fruit can remain, 
on the trees longer. 



2 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 4, 1!108, 



Pacific Rural Press 



667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 





TWO DOLLARS PER 


YEAR IN ADVANCE 




Advertising rates made known on application. 


Entered at S. F. Postoffice : 


is second-class mail matter. 


DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. 


PUBLISHERS 


B. J. WICKSON ... 


Editor 


EDGAR RICK ARU 


Business Manager 





The Week. 



We are moving into the new year without sensa- 
tions to render the transition memorable. The gov- 
ernor's holidays closed quietly and the general public 
probably did not know whether they were on or off. 
As the banks emerged from the protective period no 
one ran upon them as the timorous thought they 
might; in fact, the report is that more money went in 
than came out, because people were anxious to place it 
where it could be recovered as needed without fear of 
theoretically closed doors. In fact the people have 
not been afraid at all and were pleased to have 
restrictions removed. The bad things in banking, 
the operators of conscienceless bank wrec kers are just 
about as bad as they can be, but the aggregate of it 
was too small to excite general alarm. It would seem 
that the public should learn to be afraid of banks 
which offer depositors extra good things which they 
cannot get elsewhere. Experience is that such insti- 
tutions are unsafe and that the depositor loses more 
than he can gain in interest. When a bank begins to 
offer extra good things there is a large chance that 
they are really extra bad things. The worst of it is 
that they generally attract money from those who 
cannot afford to lose it, and they dissipate the hard- 
earned savings of people who ought not to be tempted 
by attractions which conservative banking does not 
favor. Wildcat banking is even worse than feline 
factors in other affairs, because the public is thrown 
off its guard by the general impression of security 
which the very word "bank" conveys. We enter 
the New Year then with a warning to the unwary 
and with satisfaction that relatively few suffer from 
unwisdom, because unsound financial institutions are 
rare and clearly result from disregard of recognized 
principles and policies. 

The great white fleot^s proceeding well along the 
east coast of South America on its way to California, 
stopping at leading ports to receive the welcome of 
maritime nations along the route. The ships are sail- 
ing from winter into the summer of the other hemi- 
sphere, and will reach San Francisco bay just at the 
opening of another summer — thus pursuing summer 
all its way. The arrival of the fleet will be one of the 
greatest event- ever experienced in California and w ill 
draw many thousands to our coast cities. The present 
year, therefore, bids fair to be as great in summer as 
in winter tourists, and the State will be made propor- 
tionally more prominent. Various treasures of the 
greatness of the voyage have been made, not the least 
interesting being that which Mr. Sidman gives in 
Harper's Weekly of the provision for victualing the 
•xpedition. The size of the task is evident when it Ts 
noted that each of the 16 battleships in the squadron 
has a complement of about 30 officers and 800 men, 
and each of £liy six torpedo boats six officers and 70 
men, making a grand total of more than 13,700 men 
to be fed for five months. They will require 6,500,000 
l>ounds of provisions, including 1,200,000 pounds of 
spring wheat flour, 20,000 pounds or oatmeal, 61,000 
pounds of yellow corn meal, 25,000 pounds of cocoa, 
20,000 pounds prunes, about 175,000 pounds of 
canned " peaces, and other canned fruit, 1,000,000 
pounds of fresh beef, 10(^)00 pounds of mutton, 150,000 
pounds of salt pork 50,000 pounds of bacon, 300,000 
pounds of smoked ham, 15,000 i>ounds of veal, 10,000 
pounds of sausages, 30,000 gallons of beans, 250,000 
pounds of canned string beans, 30,000 pounds of sauer 
kraut, 100,000 pounds of onions, and 800,000 pounds of 
potatoes. All these things are merely the stock pro- 



visions which go into the ships. P'resh provisions 
will doubtless be added at all ports, and when the 
throng strikes California with its naval appetite whet- 
ted, there will be a new demand for our springtime 
products. This is an agricultural view of the event, 
but it is legitimate and indispensable. 

Recurring to the local labor situation upon which 
comments have been freely indulged in in recent 
issues, it is interesting to note that Mr. William R. 
Wheeler, a Californian, and member of the Immigra- 
tion Commission, deplores the action of the Cali- 
fornia fruit growers favoring restricted entry of 
Chinese, because he believes that the opening of the 
Panama canal will largely solve the problem of labor 
on the Coast by opening a short route. The problem 
of distribution, he says, is greater than that of selec- 
tion, it being almost impossible to divert immigrants 
from their intended destination. With the opening 
of the canal, San Francisco will become such " in- 
tended destination" of enough Spanish and Italian 
immigrants to supply the California demand for 
labor. That is possible, of course, and the new route 
may also induce a movement of even more desirable 
immigration from north F.uropean peoples, but it will 
surely be some time before this can become operative, 
perhaps not less than a decade to finish the canal and 
get the ships running. We do not know how long it 
will be. Meantime California, advancing as it has 
done in the recent past, will have a much greater 
demand for labor because so few people come here to 
work for others, but rather to start enterprises for 
themselves. Every such person does not supply labor, 
but increases the demand for it. And while we are 
waiting and hoping for more white laborers, the 
Asiatics who now have entry will be multiplying, 
and we still will be getting the worst of an undesirable 
color instead of the best of it. That is the conclusion 
from the present situation whichever way you look at it. 

We quite sympathize with the effort of the Weather 
Bureau to assure the people of southern California 
that the enlarged Salton sea is not likely to modify 
their climate. We reproduced the Weather Bureau's 
demonstration of that matter some months ago, but 
now the Bureau puzzles us a little, for the Weather 
Review returns to the subject and prints this para- 
graph: 

Without waiting for special local observations of 
temperature or moisture, we can easily demonstrate 
the slight influence of this sea on the general climate, 
especially on the rainfall. The Salton sea has an 
estimated area of 400 hundred square miles and an 
average depth of less than 80 ft. The total volume of 
water may be equivalent to a depth of 28,01)0 ft. over 
one square mile, or one foot over 28,00(1 square miles, 
or about two inches over the 158,000 square miles of 
California, and is much less than falls in almost any 
one area of low pressure during the few days of its 
progress over the United States. 'This amount of. 
water would suffice to provide for the irrigation of the 
whole 300 square miles of tho Imperial Valley for 40 
or 50 years, if that region required only 20 in. in 
depth per annwhi. Therefore the practical question is 
not how much the Salton sea can affect climSe, but 
how its*waters can be used for irrigating the lands 
that surround it. 

The facts with which the paragraph opens are very 
interesting, but the suggestion that the water lie used 
for irrigation is what puzzles us. First, the water 
may be fresh now^Rat thete is such a volume of it, 
but by and by, after evaporation works for a while, 
it will be salt enough to re-open the salt factories 
probably. Again, the water is below sea level atid it 
cannot be made to run upon the adjacent land, or else it 
would notr remain where it is. True, while it is 
fresh enough it might be Dumped out for the irriga- 
tion of its border lands£d that would not pay and 
no one would undertake itwhile the Colorado is pour- 
ing its flood of fresh water*dong a contour line which 
is high enough to irrigate the vast Imperial valley by 
gravity flow. This fact is what led to the settlement 
of the desert and indirectly to the re-filling of Salton 
sea, and if that water could have been pushed back 
into tlje river, all the millions to save the low valley 
would not need to have been spent. 

The greatness of American agriculture is a good 
thing to paste in your New Year's hat. This will do 



for one side of the hat, which can be given to leading 
field crops used for food. The figures are fresh from 



the Department at Washington: 

Acres. Bushels. form value. 

torn 99,9:11,000 2,092,320,000 81,340,446,000 

Winter wheat 28,1:12,000 409,442,000 361,217,000 

Spring wheat 17,079,000 224,645.000 193,220,000 

° ats 31,837,000 754,443,000 334,568,000 

"arley 6,448,000 163,317,000 102,068,000 

U >' e 1,926,000 31,666,000 23,038,000 

Buckwheat 800,000 14,290,000 9,976.000 

l'laxseed 2,866,000 25,851,000 24,713,000 

Hke 627,300 18,738,000 16,081,000 

Potatoes 3,124,000 2J7,942,0O0 183,880,000 

" a y 44,028,000 *R3,H77,000 743,607,000 



♦Tons. 

Keep the other side of the hat empty till we give 
you figures of other products to fill it. 

And now Missouri comes in at the head of the race 
for agricultural students judging prizes at the recent 
International Live Stock Show at Chicago. Not only 
did Mr. T. C. Cochran, of the University of Missouri, 
win first as best all-round judge of the 1907 show, but 
his score of 992 points was the highest ever made by 
any student since the organization of the International 
Show. The animal husbandry students from the Uni- 
versity of Missouri also won two out of the five 
Armour scholarships offered for the most proficient 
work in the judging contest. The showing made by 
Missouri in her first systematic attempt is remarkable, 
considering that her competitors have been training 
judging teams since the beginning of the International. 
Missouri will show them, all right. 

Deputy Horticultural Commissioner E. M. Eh thorn 
recently scored a good point in his excellent protective 
quarantine work by condemning 6000 boxes of apples 
shipped to Sail Francisco from the State of Washing- 
ton for containing a pest known as the bud moth. The 
apples were grown on Orcas island, which lies off the 
Washington coast, just above Seattle. The fruit had 
reached the local market, but was condemned before 
it had lieen offered for sale. The bud moth is a pest 
that originated in Japan and some months ago made 
its appearance in British Columbia. When the moth 
was detected on this continent, a quarantine was es- 
tablished against the British Columbia fruit. It was 
not known that the pest had reached this country 
when it was discovered by the local inspector in the 
( )rcas island fruit. 



Queries and Replies. 



No Apples on Quince Roots. 

To the Editor: I have been grafting a number of 
apples on quince roots. They have made a good 
healthy growth and seemingly made good unions. A 
nurseryman, a while ago, told me they would die out 
after a few years and that I was wasting time in my 
work. What is your opinion as to this? My object 
in usiny; quince roots js to get small trees as the apples 
are an inter-plant in a portion of the walnut orchard. 
Hesiggs, I expected fruit sooner than from apples on 
their own root. Text books say little of apples on 
quince root. How would it do to ask the Ktral 
Press readers' experience?— Experimenter, Stock- 
ton. 

We will do as you request and ask RURAL Press 
readers if they ever succeeded with the apple on the 
quince. We apprehend, however, that your inform- 
ant is right. We have never known of the quince 
carrying the apple successfully, and Professor Waugh, 
in his new book on dwarfed fruit trees, does not men- 
tion the quince for this purpose. The quince root, of 
course, is universally used for dwarfing pears, but the 
Paradise stock (and its varieties) is the only one men- 
tioned for the apple. 

Jerusalem Artichokes. 

To the Editor: I desire to know about the Jerusalem 
artichoke; the places where it can be cultivated in 
this State, and the address of some one from whom I 
can procure seed sufficient to plant several acres. 
Potatoes are raised in this county, and I presume 
from that the artichoke would grow here also. I wish 
to use them for stock feed.— Fa km er, Santa llosa. 

Jerusalem artichokes will grow in any soil where 
the potato does well, but you should plant a few of 



/ 



January 4, 1908. 



146721 

PACIFIC RURAL. PRESS. 



them first to see whether you find them of any value. 
They have been exalted by planters who had tubers 
for sale year after year, yet no great crop has been 
planted, nor have we heard of anyone who has made 
a plantation who cared to extend it. The best way is 
to get a few of the tubers, which you can usually find 
in the San Francisco markets at this time of the year, 
for they are used as sc kitchen vegetable. We cer- 
tainly cannot encourage you in undertaking such an 
enterprise as you propose until you have further evi- 
dence of the satisfactory character of the plant. 

Grape Vines on the Mo/ave Border. 

To the Editor: Kindly forward me any printed 
matter you may have relative to the climatic and soil 
conditions necessary to the successful growth of the 
raisin grape, particularly the Muscat. I am planning 
to put out quite a large vineyard in the vicinity of 
Barstow, on the edge of the Mojave desert, at an alti- 
tude of about 2200 ft., where frequently during the 
winter ice forms half an inch in thickness. The prin- 
cipal question I have in mind is whether or not the 
Muscat will stand the cold. — Enquirer, Los Angeles. 

We have nothing in print which covers the subjects 
you mention. There is no doubt about the Muscat 
vines resisting the temperature which you indicate 
providing the higher temperature is constant after the 
vines begin to grow. If there should be a high tem- 
perature which would start out the vines and this 
should be followed by frost, neither the Muscat nor 
any other grape vines could resist it, so you see you 
need to know more than the extreme low temperature. 
That is the least important. It is necessary to know 
whether you can expect to be free from frost during 
the growing season of the vine. Unless vines have 
already grown in that district nothing but an experi- 
ment will determine the facts for you. You can, 
however, get side lights on the question by ascertain- 
ing whether potatoes and tomatoes are successfully 
grown in that district. They would probably be 
planted out at about the same time of the year that 
the grape vine would become active, unless it is pre- 
maturely active, and that is one thing you have to 
look out for. If you cannot find out how vines 
behave, do not plant many at first. Try a few and 
let them make you wiser. 

String Bean Trying to be Perennial. 

To the Editor: I send you an enlarged bean root. 
Such thing may not be new to you, but it is new to 
me, and I am curious to know what you think about 
it. This root supported a stalk of string beans planted 
last spring. The conduct of the little patch of beans 
was unusual from the first. They were very slow 
about maturing, and very irregular in size, though 
there was a normal amount of moisture in the soil. I 
found a few other enlarged roots when removing the 
old stalks to plant a new garden. — C. 13. Hoover, 
Santa Cruz. 

You have chanced upon an exceedingly interesting 
phenomenon, although not a new one. It is the dis- 
position of the bean to make perennial roots in a cli- 
mate which favors such growth. There are a number 
of beans which do this, but generally of the scarlet 
runner family or its crosses. The freedom from ground 
frosts in California makes these plants perennial. You 
should replant the other roots which you have found, 
and test them to see what value you may find in a 
bean which does not require replanting. 

Tomato Growing. 

To the Editor: A number of farmers, including 
myself, are trying to grow tomatoes, but very unsuc- 
cessfully. They grow all to vines; they ripen slowly, 
and some never ripen; some blossom but never mature. 
The climate is very moderate, averaging 75° for sum- 
mer heat. Fog is regularly seen every third day 
until about noon. I would like to know, is there a 
variety of tomatoes that could be made profitable 
under such conditions ? I have tried hard for three 
years to grow them, but they were always a failure. 
I have transplanted them three different times to try 
and stop sappy growth and I pruned the leading 
branches to change the growth from the vine to the 
fruit. It helped some, but not enough. I learned of 
so many varieties, I come to think that the variety of 
tomatoes was wrong. — Sourbale, Watsonville. 

We apprehend that your tomato plants have almost 
too good a time. You do not speak of watering them, 



but even when this is not done, so much moisture is 
present in a deep rich soil that the plant grows too 
fast. It makes any amount of vine and very little 
fruit. We doubt if it would make very much differ- 
ence what variety you used. The conditions evidently 
tend to make them grow too much top. When you 
find plants growing this way you might cut down 
with a sharp spade about a foot from the plant, which 
ought to check the growth and induce fruiting. Very 
good tomatoes are grown under just about the same 
climatic conditions as you describe, but they are usu- 
ally planted out late, after part of water from winter 
rains has evaporated and during the latter part of the 
season they usually do very well, and are desirable to 
canners after the rush of summer fruits. 

Gas Lime and Vegetation. 

To the Editor: Does 'spent' or ' exhausted ' oxide 
of iron have a baneful effect on soils? This is an orig- 
inal compound used for purifying gas, consisting of 
sawdust, iron filings, copperas, lime, together with a 
slight percentage of sal-ammoniac to hasten action. 
The question refers to such compound as a refuse after 
purification of the gas, and which same, I may add, is 
noticeably impregnated with gas fumes. — Farmer, 
Campbell. 

If the product concerning which you write is com- 
monly known as 'gas lime,' it has to be used with 
exceeding great caution. It is a vigorous plant killer, 
and retains its destructive influence for a long time 
after being introduced to the soil. It was proposed 25 
years ago as a destroyer of lice on the roots of trees 
and plants and subterranean insects generally. It un- 
questionably would work in that way, but the experi- 
ments show that it evidently has to be used in exceed- 
ingly small quantities and very carefully, because of 
the danger of killing trees, etc. We can suggest noth- 
ing except that you try experiments in a cautious way 
to disclose new facts, and would be very glad to know 
the results of your investigations. 

About Speltz. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly give me some 
information about speltz? Does it grow well in Cali- 
fornia? Is it a good forage plant, green or dried? 
How does it compare in production of seed with wheat 
or barley? Is there anything particular against it or 
or in favor of it? Is it a good seed for poultry feed? — 
Enquirer, Placer county. 

Speltz is a kind of wheat which has an adhering 
chaff like barley. It grows well in California but is 
no better than wheat or barley where they do well. 
It is a very hardy grain and therefore is grown in the 
north of Europe, where barley and wheat are liable to 
winter killing. For this reason it may be very desir- 
able in the far north of this continent. It is probably 
just as good for all feeding purposes as ordinary barley 
and, having an adhering chaff, it would be better 
horse feed and poorer chicken feed than wheat. 



Strawberries Out of Season. 

To the Editor: Last spring I set out 4000 straw- 
berry plants (Melindas) and later in the spring I found 
that I could not get water to irrigate them, so kept 
blossoms and green fruit picked off all summer, allow- 
ing none to ripen, and plants got no water all season. 
They look well and are now making good growth, are 
white with berries, and have from 5 to 20 berries to 
each plant. This seems unusual here, and will you 
tell me if this growth of fruit, which can scarcely 
ripen, will affect the regular summer crop? Of course, 
I intend to irrigate regularly this coming spring and 
summer. — Grower, Santa Cruz. 

If the plants become dormant soon, they will prob- 
ably behave normally next spring. It is not unusual 
in the thermal parts of the State to have the plants 
active out of season and still bear well at the regular 
time. 

Artichokes and Crowing Chicken. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly inform me if 
artichokes (Globe) can be affected by frost, and 
also is it anything out of the ordinary for a rooster 
eight weeks old to crow ?— A Subscriber, Sonoma. 

Globe artichokes are hardy against light California 



valley frosts, but lose their tops in some places. Crow- 
ing chickens are not rare. 

California Stock to Be Tried as Yellows-Resistant. 

To the Editor: I wish to try seedlings from Cali- 
fornia peach pits to determine whether they will resist 
yellows. How shall I get several barrels of pits ? 
Would it be practicable to get them from some grower 
who tries to grow extra fine fruit and therefore has 
his trees in the best condition or get them from can- 
ners or driers who have large quantities ? — Peach- 
Grower, Connecticut. 

You might arrange with some grower to save you 
selected pits of some strong-growing peach for another 
year, but canners' pits would be better, as they run, 
because they never buy poor fruit. They are very 
exacting in their requirements of fruit of full size, etc. 
Yellows have never appeared in California, so that all 
California pits may be expected to be yellows free; but 
how the offspring of these trees will be affected under 
conditions favoring the disease, can only be told by a 
test. There will be no loss in the undertaking, 
because California pits are now being quite freely 
used by Eastern nurserymen as a substitute for seed- 
ling pits from Tennessee, and held by some to be 
superior. 

No Such Product. 

To the Editor: Certain food dealers in this State are 
selling olive oil which they claim was made by the 
State of California at its agricultural experiment sta- 
tion at San Jose. Does your experiment station manu- 
facture olive oil? Under what name is it sold? Is it at 
all likely that any has reached this State? — Enquirer, 
Columbia, Mo. 

Neither the State of California nor the experiment 
station is producing olive oil commercially and there is 
no official experiment station at San Jose. We would 
like to see a label from such a package as you describe. 

Old Fruit Trees for Transplanting. 

To the Editor: An old orchard near me is to be 
taken out. A friend advises me to get the roots and 
plant, after sawing trunks perhaps a foot from the 
ground. There are apples, cherries, peaches and pears. 
It is claimed that the mature roots will shoot stronger 
and give fruit much quicker than to plant young trees. 
Would you advise me to do it? They are trees of 5 to 
7 or 8 inches in diameter. If it is advisable, should the 
roots be pruned closely or not? Any points you may 
give me about transplanting will be thankfully re- 
ceived, for I know nothing about an orchard. — Be- 
ginner, Monterey county. 

We should not for a moment think of the old fruit 
tree stumps which you describe as worth anything ex- 
cept for fuel purposes. Prune the roots just as long as 
you can and still get them into the fire-place. Always 
start an orchard or fruit garden with young, vigorous, 
clean trees, usually not over one year of age. 

Starting Squash Plants Under Glass. 

To the Editor: I want to plant squash seed in the 
field early in January and cover with a box with glass 
on the top of box. Now, will it be necessary to re- 
move the glass in the day on account of the heat? If 
so, at what temperature in the sun would it be neces- 
sary to do so? I do not think it would be necessary 
to remove the glass every day. If so it will be too 
expensive on a large scale, say one acre. What tem- 
perature will the squash stand? Would a vent hole 
under the box help out any? — Planter, Coachella. 

We cannot give you the temperatures at which 
squash plants will suffer when under cover. It would 
depend somewhat upon the amount of moisture pres- 
ent. It is quite certain, however, that planting in 
January, it will not be necessary to remove the glass 
every day; in fact, your plants may be pushing the 
glass off for themselves, because it will take a pretty 
high degree of heat to injure the plants if moisture 
enough is present. We should proceed as you intend, 
and if the heat seems to be pretty high move the glass 
a little so as to leave an aperture. ' If the sun is very 
hot it may be necessary ^for you to use a little thin 
whitewash on the glass. Your experiment is very 
interesting, providing you try it on a large scale, and 
we should like to know how you succeed. The method 
has been quite freely used in garden practice on a 
small scale, and under these conditions has proven 
very satisfactory. 



-1 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 4, 1008. 



Fruit Marketing. 



Marketing Citrus Fruits by the Growers 
Themselves. 

By Mr. B. A. Woodford, General Manager of California Fruit 
Growers' Exchange, Los Angeles, at the Marysville Fruit 
Growers' Convention. 

The above method of placing in the markets the pro- 
ducts of our citrus fruit orchards originated practically 
with the advent of the Exchange in 1893, so that in 
treating of this subject we must look largely to the 
operations of that organization during the last J 5 years, 
although various individual citrus fruit growers and 
various associations of growers independent of the Ex- 
change have during the same period, with more or 
less success, handled their own marketing problems 
independent of any other marketing factor in Cali- 
fornia. 

Retrospect. — Oranges and lemons have been 
grown in California for nearly 100 years, but until 
within the last 30 years the only variety of conse- 
quence was the Seedling, planted largely by or through 
the influence of the Fathers who were in charge of the 
early missions. 

Beginning with 187 1, the Washington Navel was 
introduced in California, and that variety now fur- 
nishes three-fourths of the entire orange shipments. 
The Valencia Late is second in volume of output, is 
largely increasing, and bids fair to finally become as 
large in total product as the Washington Navel itself. 
Lemons have only been produced in commercial quan- 
tities during the last 25 years. 

Twenty-five years ago the annual total shipment of 
oranges was barely 30 carloads; 15 years ago, 4000 
carloads; and during the last three seasons approxi- 
mately 30,000 carloads each year. 

Difficulties in marketing arose when the volume of 
business began to increase largely, and reached an 
acute stage when the shipments were only 4000 cars 
yearly, at which time the growers were absolutely at 
the mercy of the speculative buyers, or shippers, on 
commission, the producers themselves having no direct 
voice in the marketing of their product. In the sea- 
son of 1892-3 these marketing difficulties became so 
serious that in instances without number not only did 
the grower receive no returns whatever for his fruit, 
but also, in addition to contributing his crop, was 
compelled to pay the freight and packing charges 
which the gross sale of his fruit did not cover. 

Origin of the Exchange. — Various methods of 
combination among the then existing shippers, and 
among the growers themselves, were tried, with a 
view especially to regulating shipments and distribut- 
ing the fruit evenly in the various markets of the 
country, but these efforts were spasmodic, irregular, 
and short-lived, and only partially successful. 

In some sections growers themselves undertook to 
ship and market their own fruit, and in a few instances 
the growers associated themselves together, mar- 
keting on a mutual basis. Owing to the failure of the 
combinations among speculative shippers, and owing 
to the disasters that beset the growers in the marketing 
of their product individually, and encouraged largely 
by the experience of a few growers who had united in 
associations, a convention of the growers themselves 
was held in Los Angeles on the 4th day of April, 1893, 
the purpose of the meeting being: 

"To provide for the marketing of all the citrus fruits 
at the least possible cost, under uniform methods, and 
in a manner to secure to each grower a certain mar- 
keting of his fruit and the full average price to be ob- 
tained in the market for the entire season." 

Immediately following this convention, organiza- 
tions of associations and district exchanges were 
effected in all the principal citrus fruit districts, the 
associations for packing and the district exchanges for 
marketing, which was done at first through an exec- 
utive committee composed of one member from each 
district. This plan was followed for two years, but on 
October 2 1, 1895, the Fruit Exchange was incorporated, 
since which date the marketing of all the fruit con- 
trolled by the various district exchanges and associa- 
tions has been exclusively in the hands of the South- 
ern California Fruit Exchange, or its successor, the 
California Fruit Growers' Exchange, except during the 
l>eriod of 17 months from April 1, 1903, to August 31, 
1904, during which time the Exchange interests com- 
bined with various speculative aud non-Exchange 
interests under the name of the California Fruit 
Agency. The net results detained during the agency 
were not satisfactory to the growers, and on September 
1, 1904, the Exchange resumed the sale of the fruit it 
controlled indei>endently of any other factor. 

The Agency period proved conclusively that the 
interests of the growers themselves do not readily 
harmonize with speculative interests, and that in order 
to achieve the most complete success obtainable the 



growers must themselves handle their own marketing 
operations. 

How Tin: Exchange Works. — The principle of 
the Exchange lies in each member being entitled to 
furnish his pro rata share of fruit for shipment to the 
various markets of the country, giving every grower 
the opportunity to ship his proportion of the fruit from 
day to day and week to week, and an opportunity to 
obtain his fair share of the average price of all markets 
during the year. All books and accounts are open to 
the inspection of each member, the whole basis of the 
Exchange being one of co-operation. 

Growers near each other, who so elect, unite in 
packing their fruit, own their own brands, make such 
rules as they see fit for grading and conducting their 
business up to the time of shipment. Usually these 
organizations of growers own their packing houses, 
although in some instances the packing houses are 
rented. Every member is given a like privilege to 
pick fruit, and every grower's fruit is separated into 
different grades, according to the quality, weighed, 
and thereafter usually goes into a common pool and 
taki's its percentage of the returns according to the 
grade. Any given brand is the exclusive property of 
the association using it, and the fruit under this brand 
is always packed in the same locality, and therefore it 
is of uniform quality. This is of great advantage in 
marketing, as the trade soon | learns that the pack is 
reliable. 

There are now 86 of these organizations of growers 
operating through the Exchange, covering every cit- 
rus fruit district in California and packing over 200 
reliable brands of oranges and lemons. 

The District Exchanges are composed generally of 
several associations of growers operating in localities 
near each other, or in one locality, and the matter of 
shipping and marketing is controlled by the District 
Exchange, upon consultation with the associations, 
and through the associations with the growers them- 
selves. 

The California Fruit Growers' Exchange, or the gen- 
eral or central body, consists of one stockholder and 
director each, selected by the various local exchanges, 
the governing i>ower of the central organization 
thus remaining in the hands of the district exchanges. 
Thus from top to bottom the organization is planned 
and controlled absolutely by the fruit growers and in 
the interest of all members. No corporation or indi- 
vidual except the growers themselves receives either 
dividends or private gain from the Exchange opera- 
tions. The duties of the central Exchange are found 
largely in the placing of the fruit in the various con- 
suming markets. 

What the Exchange has Done. — While the Ex- 
change has, through its operations in California, freed 
itself from speculative trading by taking its business 
out of the hands of the middlemen here, it has never 
opened retail or jobbing houses in the consuming mar- 
kets, but has and does put the fruit in the hands of 
legitimate dealers for distribution, and to do this has 
established exclusive agencies in all the Eastern cities 
of the country, employing in these agencies active and 
capable men of experience in the fruit business, for the 
most part on a salary, and having no further business 
of any kind to engage their attention. None of these 
Exchange representatives are permitted to handle any 
other than Exchange citrus fruits. These agents sell 
to smaller cities adjoining their headquarters, and over 
all are two general or traveling agents with authority to 
supervise and check up its various offices, the head- 
quarters of these two general agents being Chicago and 
Omaha respectively, where complete information is 
kept of all the business transactions of the Exchange 
in all markets. This information fs gathered from 
day to day and distributed by these general agents 
among all markets, thus making it impossible #>r a 
customer to take advantage of any Exchange repre- 
sentative in any market, and knowing the consumptive 
needs and the price being obtained in all markets, a 
proper distribution of fruit is effected, thus preventing 
an over-supply in one section of the country while a 
shortage might exist in another. 

Approximately 35 to 40 </< of all the fruit shipped by 
the Exchange is sold at public auction at point of con- 
sumption, the remainder being sold at private sale. 

The Exchange has the most complete system of 
gathering trustworthy information regarding supplies, 
market conditions, etc., of any factor engaged in the 
citrus fruit business, and owing to the volume of its 
business the Exchange can furnish this information at 
a much less cost to its growers than any other selling 
agency. # 

During the history of the Exchange the output of 
the State has increased from 4000 to 30,000 carloads 
yearly, and the shipments by the Exchange have 
increased from less than 2000 to above 16,000 cars 
yearly, and in i>ercentage of the whole crop from 25 fo 
in the earlier years to 55% during the season just 
closed, clearly showing the popularity of the Exchange 
with the growers. 

In 1S93, when labor and material were much cheaper 
than now, the charge by the speculative or commis- 
sion shippers for packing each box of oranges was 40 
to 50 cents, to which they added a charge for selling of 
from 7 to 10% on the delivered price, making the total 



cost to the grower for packing and marketing from 60 
to 75 cents per box, as against an average cost of 
about 35 cents per box for both packing and market- 
ing during recent years to Exchange members. Other 
growers, as well as Exchange growers, have benefited 
through the Exchange's handling its business at actual 
cost, in that speculative shippers must charge about 
the Exchange cost if they expect to get fruit from the 
growers. 

During the last three seasons, since the Exchange 
resumed its own marketing operations after the down- 
fall of the Agency, it has shipped a little more than 
43,000 cars of oranges and lemons and has distributed 
among its growers therefor a little over $28,000,000, 
witli a hiss on account of failure to collect and in trans- 
mission of funds of only |810, this amount being only 
a part of the returns on one shipment of the 43,000, a 
record that will hardly be surpassed in the years to 
come by any business organization. 

In addition to packing and marketing the fruit of its 
growers the Exchange has always taken a keen inter- 
est in transportation and tariff matters. The cent-a- 
pound duty on imported citrus fruits was obtained 
largely by the Exchange membership, through a com- 
mittee composed almost exclusively of Exchange peo- 
ple, and the somewhat reduced icing charges, the 
reduction of the freight rate on lemons, as well as a 
smaller reduction in the orange freight rate, were 
brought about either by the Exchange alone or with 
the assistance of other growers not Exchange members, 
through the Citrus Protective League, these transpor- 
tation savings amounting to $1,000,000 yearly. 

The Exchange is not a trust in any sense. It does 
not seek to control production nor arbitrarily to fix 
prices. It does undertake, so far as possible, by co- 
operation, to displace the competition of one grower 
with another in the matter of packing and marketing 
their fruit by purely economical as distinct from trust 
methods. It insures to every grower the full reward 
of growing good fruit and to every association the 
benefit of good grading and packing. 

Through the o[>erations of the growers in packing 
and marketing their oranges aud lemons, as outlined 
above, the industry has greatly prospered and has 
assumed immense proportions. While it is not claimed 
that all the difficulties of an orange or lemon grower 
can l>e avoided by becoming a member of the Ex- 
change, and while difficulties will from time to time 
surely beset the citrus fruit business, just as is the case 
in iron and steel, hogs and cattle, corn and wheat, and 
all other lines of business, still the growers of citrus 
fruits will undoubtedly find in the future as they have 
in the past years that by standing with each other in 
these packing, marketing, and other matters that are 
of common interest to all, the difficulties that have to 
be met from time to time will be reduced to a mini- 
mum and the greatest net amount attainable for their 
products will be received. 

The citrus fruit growers in California who market 
their products through the California Fruit Growers' 
Exchange have an enormous amount of business, large 
enough to maintain their selling organization in every 
part of the world at a reasonable rate of expense. 
There are great possibilities, however, for an enlarge- 
ment of the co-operative marketing plan as now* prac- 
ticed by the Exchange, to the benefit of other Califor- 
nia producers. During the last two seasons many 
applications have come to the Exchange from growers 
and organizations of growers who produce celery, can- 
taloupes, and other fruits of the soil, urging that the 
marketing of their commodities be included with the 
citrus fruits. All such applications have been refused, 
with the single exception of a considerable portion of 
the deciduous fruits of California. 

The benefits to l>e derived from an enlargement of 
the Exchange marketing plan so as to cover other pro- 
ducts of the State would not only be in obtaining these 
marketing services at actual cost by the growers of 
such products, but undeveloped markets, not only in 
this country but throughout the world, could be more 
vigorously exploited than is now the case, when all 
these producing interests act independently of each 
other. Offices in all the principal cities of Europe, in 
the Orient, in Australia, and in other parts of the 
world, under competent local management, advertis- 
ing and pushing the sale of California products only, 
would surely result in an increased demand and 
increased prices for the products of the State. 



The Field. 



Burnet in Santa Cruz. 

To the Editor: Though I have had only limited 
time for testing bumet, or potentilla, I am glad to 
comply with your request in the Pacific RURAL 
Press and add my little experience. 

The little packet of seed I received from the Uni- 
versity last spring, only five or six seeds in all, was 
planted on March 8 by an old redwood stump near 
the roadside, which I thought would be as dry a place 
as there could be anywhere ou the sidehill ground that 



January 4, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



we some time hope to have seeded to pasture. The 
seed came up in due time, and the plants have re- 
mained green to the present time, except the tops of 
stalks that matured seed. I have been gathering seed 
as it ripened all through the fall until 1 have about an 
ounce, which is just planted in the hope of getting 
more seed for another season. I gave the plants no 
cultivation except to keep the weeds down around 
them so that I could save the seed. Of course I can- 
not yet speak of its value as stock food, but I feel sure 
that it has all the merits that Mr. Overacker has dis- 
covered for it, and we have much hope that it will 
prove to be a valuable all-the-year-round pasturage 
plant for our sidehills. Since the recent rains, a fresh 
growth of green is appearing among the older green, 
and we are getting ready to send a lot of appreciation 
to Mr. Overacker and the University. 
Santa Cruz. C. D. Hoover. 



Mr. Etter's Grass Garden Up to Date. 

To the Editor: As the year draws to a close I will 
again write and give you the latest for publication, as 
gleaned from the Ettersburg grass garden. Supple- 
mentary to the series of articles I had published on 
my study of forage plants in Humboldt county in the 
Pacifr Rural, Press last December, January, and 
February, I now take pleasure in giving your readers 
the following account of another season's work: 

I am just in receipt of a communication from Prof. 
M. EL Jaffa in which he gives the analyses of what I 
consider some of our most likely range grasses, or 
grasses for upland culture. These analyses go back of 
my own observations and go a long ways toward sim- 
plifying matters. Before this I had the various 
grasses sized up in a general sort of a way, but now 
we know pretty nearly what they contain and no 
longer need trust altogether to the calf and the billy 
goat. 

It will be remembered that I spoke well of rib grass 
(Plantago lanceolata), and it will l>e seen by reference 
to the table given below that Professor Jaffa sustains 
me in my observations. It will also be noticed that 
some of the other promising species are so far over- 
topped by rib grass that their j>osition is lowered by 
comparison. 

The reader will bear in mind that the first five are 
single analyses, while the last six are average analyses 
of a number of samples: 









i" 




Q 
=r = 


a 


> 
m 






p 







•-: 2 


i 






Name. 


a 
*i 


ST 
i 




&? 
P 

3 

m 


— 
= 

9 




1. 


Rib grass 


10.00 


13.82 


2 06 


48 00 


17.07 


9.00 


2. 


Hookers' brome grass.. 


10.00 


3.97 


0.94 


04.97 


26.45 


3.67 


3. 


Red Fescue (native) 


8.33 


7.20 


1.66 


40.39 


30.999 


6.43 


4. 


Deschampsia elongata 


26.31 


3.33 


1.22 


30.95 


29.36 


3.83 


& 


Festuca, spectabilis 


10.00 


0.01 


1.92 


46.72 


31.30 


5.00 


6. 


Orchard grass 


9.90 


8.01 


2.06 


41.00 


32.04 


6.00 


7. 


Italian rye grass 


8.50 


7.05 


1.07 


40.00 


30.05 


6.90 


8. 


White clover 


9.07 


15.07 


2.09 


39.03 


24.01 


8.03 


9. 


Red clover 


15.03 


12.03 


3.03 


38.01 


24.08 


6.02 


10. 


Kentucky blue grass... 


21.02 


7.08 


3.09 


37.08 


23.00 


6.03 


11. 


Flat pea ilathyrus) 


8.04 


22.09 


3.02 


31.04 


26.02 


7.09 



The last six of this list are for comparison, and are 
from the Year Book of the Department of Agriculture 
of 1894. 

It will be observed by studying the above table that 
rib grass stands exceedingly well among our forage 
plants. When I said that the goat preferred rib grass 
to almost anything else, it stands *hat we can give the 
goat, the father of caprice, wisdom in the choice of 
things that are good to eat. When I made the state- 
ment that dairy cows made high tests in butter fat 
when on pasture containing a considerable admixture 
of rib grass, it will hardly be urged that it is a pest in 
the pasture, even though they do not eat the seed 
stems. 

- Before I took up this study of forage plants on a 
broader basis five years ago, I stood by rib grass as 
one of our most likely range plants, and at that time 
I stated that what we needed most was a companion 
plant that was a better winter grower than rib grass 
is, to supplement it in December and January. 1 
believe burnet is the plant that will do it. It is 
certainly making a very gratifying showiug here 
with me. 

I have a large collection of clovers, some 50 or more, 
growing here, and not one of them is making the 
splendid winter growth that burnet or alfilaria is on 
stalks that came late on cultivated ground and did not 
seed during the summer. 

A strong point I have argued for these deep rooting 
perennials on the range is that they will grow and 
thrive well on open porous soils where the shallow 
rooting annuals do but little. Then again, as I pointed 
out, every little rain is an advantage to them, come it 
early or late. As it happened with us here this year, 
it rained well into June and the rib grass kept right 
on growing. This did no harm in particular to the 
annuals, but when we had another heavy and unusual 
rain in August it leached the dry annuals and did 



them harm. This same rain gave the rib grass 
another boost. The same might be said of the light 
showers later this fall. They spoiled the dry feed 
without starting the new, but where there was rib 
grass on the range it was making feed right along. 

I notice in the Pacific Bubal Press this evening 
that Howard Overacker Jr., of St. Helena, Napa 
county, is succeeding well with burnet. I can corrob- 
orate what he says of the seed obtained from J. M. 
Thorburn & Co., of New York. The only difference 
I could see in the two kinds was that the ' garden ' 
burnet seed was hand picked, and the ' field ' burnet 
was mixed with sainpoinior espersette seed. I sowed 
about 300 yd. of row with one pound of seed which I 
obtained from that firm and it is looking fine at this 
date — December 12. 

In conclusion I would recommend that interested 
parties get a sample of Lotus corniculatus or ' bird's 
foot trefoil' seed from the above-mentioned seed firm 
(38 Barclay street, New York City) and give it a trial. 
I consider it promising. 

I regret that we have no analysis of this burnet. 
It was my intention to put up a sample for this pur- 
pose last May, but a wet spell of weather and a bad 
hand disturbed my calculations. At no distant date I 
hope we will have an analysis. 

Alrert F. Etter. 
Ettersburg, Humboldt county. 



The Forest Service Will Kill Coyotes. 

To the Editor : The offering of bounties for the 
scalps of predatory animals has so often failed to 
accomplish the good hoped for that the l>ounty plan 
has lost favor in many localities. The Wool Growers' 
Association of Oregon has gone on record at its meet- 
ing at The Dalles as favoring the abandonment of the 
bounty system and substituting that of killing the 
animals by private effort and employment of pro- 
fessional hunters. The association will take up the 
work, and ask assistance from the national associa- 
tion. J. N. Burgess, president of the association, 
estimates that Oregon sheep owners lost the past year 
$250,000 by predatory animals, and that the loss of 
other farm stock, including poultry, would increase 
the loss to half a million dollars. 

The United States Forest Service has demonstrated 
that efficient work can be done by trained hunters 
who are sent to the ranges to make a special business 
of killing wolves, and such other denizens of the for- 
ests as prey on flocks of sheep. A number of such 
hunters are now at work, and they are ridding some 
of the ranges very rapidly of the animals which do so 
much damage each year. Wolves are tracked to 
their dens, the pick and shovel as well as the rifle are 
brought into play, and the young are found and 
destroyed. A campaign of that kind strikes at the 
root of the evil. 

So vast, however, is the western country that the 
work of a few hunters can give only local relief; but 
if State stock growers' associations go at it in earnest 
as Oregon's association proposes, the war will soon 
grow decidedly interesting for the four-footed skulkers 
that have grown fat on mutton, pork, veal and 
poultry. 

C'ORRESPOXDEXT. 

Washington, D. C. 



The Dairy. 



Dairy Statistics and Their Value. 

By Mr. Wx. H. Satlor, Secretary, State Dairy Bureau, at the 
California Creamery Operators' Convention, University Farm. 
Davis. 

Your executive committee has assigned to me a 
very dry, and to the average person, a very uninter- 
esting subject. Figures, like facts, do not have the 
fancy that is attractive to the average mind. A lack 
of interest in statistics is not only the case on the part 
of the people to whom they may be presented, but it 
is even more apparent when they are requested to 
contribute their efforts to securing them. One of the 
most difficult undertakings that confronts the United 
States government is the taking of the census every 
ten years, an undertaking that costs the government 
an immense sum of money and many times what it 
should cost were it not for the indifference of the aver- 
age citizen, and even after this great task is com- 
pleted the officials cannot say that it is anything more 
than an approximation. 

There are many persons who look upon efforts to 
secure statistics as unnecessary official inquisitiveness. 
This should not be the case. We are advancing into 
an age of certainty in even,- line of endeavor and are 
no longer groping our way in the fog of guesswork 
and uncertainty. The object of statistics in any line 



is to reduce human effort to a basis of positive kn< 
edge. It is essential to a highly civilized people. 
The savage, surrounded by the gifts of nature, and 
with limited desires, took his chances on securing and 
maintaining his existence, and when these failed him 
an adjustment with his desires was secured by starva- 
tion. But where the world supported one man in the 
savage state, it is called upon to support thousands 
today. What is the number of people that the world, 
a nation, a State, or a community must support? 
What is the sum total of their various desires and to 
what extent are we meeting them and how will we be 
able to meet their future increase? What is the 
extent of the many afflictions and misfortunes that 
befalls mankind and the means with which he works ? 
The answers to these broad questions constitute the 
science of statistics— the accurate knowledge of what 
is taking place in the world. While they possess lit- 
tle interest to the average mind, they are of great 
importance and this is becoming more general as the 
accuracy and reliability of statistics advance, to the 
successful business man, the statesman and the student 
of human events. 

Probably the most unreliable class of statistics that 
we have to deal with, owing to the difficulty of secur- 
ing them accurately, is that relating to agricultural 
production, but even here great progress has been 
made and not only does the dealer in agricultural pro- 
ducts govern his course largely by statistics relating 
to his particular line, but our farmers are also basing 
their dealings largely upon statistics that show the 
extent of the demand for their product and what the 
amount is that is available to meet it. Speaking 
more along the line of agricultural production, it is 
important that we should know where the various 
products of the farm are grown and their volume, as 
well as the cost of their production. By knowing 
these facts our efforts can be directed along more 
economic lines. 

During the past ten years I have had an opportunity 
to study and come in contact with statistics relating to 
dairy production through the State Dairy Bureau and 
I must say that I have found it a most interesting 
study. It has been interesting to note the disregard 
of many of those in whom we must rely to secure 
them and for whose guidance they are intended. It 
has been interesting to me, and I believe equally so 
to every student of progress in our grand State, to 
note the general expansion of the dairy business, and 
especially in the different localities that have con- 
tributed to this progress, and which has brought to 
them corresponding prosperity. 

Sigxificaxce of Statistics. — The object of the 
State law in requiring the State Dairy Bureau to 
secure and issue these statistics is a wise one. It 
enables us to know what the extent of the industry is 
and by knowing this it receives its proper recognition 
and encouragement. The rapid growth in production 
shows to the world our unexcelled possibilities and 
opportunities in the way of dairying. That our but- 
ter outyjut has increased from 23,000,000 pounds eight 
years ago to 44,000,000 is the best testimony as to our 
dairy resources. This showing may mean little to 
the unobserving mind, but for the keen business man 
casting about in his search for opportunities they 
mean a great deal. Were it not for a recognition of 
the magnitude and progress in the butter business in 
California I doubt if we would have a creamerynien's 
convention, such as this one. 

When we find out through statistics that certain 
localities are making more rapid progress in an 
industry than others it is invaluable evidence of the 
adaptability of that community to the industry and 
the showing is a valuable asset of the community. 
The statistics compiled by the State Dairy Bureau 
during the past ten years which show that certain 
counties in this State have grown in butter production 
tenfold in from eight to twelve years,has attracted great 
attention, as it should. It means to the thinking 
dairyman in a community less favored that he must 
be working at a disadvantage and that his brother in 
the business has better opportunities, and if a wise 
business man he adjusts his methods to meet the 
superior opportunities. 

Of greater importance than in merely showing the 
extent of an industry in a community or the opportu- 
nities that it affords is that class of statistics that 
shows disadvantages, drawbacks and failures in an 
industry, since by means of these we are made sure of 
their existence and magnitude, which stimulates us 
to surmount them or find a remedy. It is this feature 
that makes a knowledge of accurate statistics of 
invaluable aid to the legislator, the official and the 
publicist. Show those who are in a position to afford 
relief by figures the extent of a wrong influence and 
you immediately get action. 

As statistics indicating failure, disadvantages and 
drawbacks have a value to public enterprise they 
should also have when they show the failure of the 
individual. This brings me to the most serious prob- 
lem in dairying, which is the greatest obstacle to 
success. I refer to the statistics that have been com- 
piled to show the low productiveness of the dairy cows 
of this country and the correspondingly low returns 
they make for the food and care they obtain. 

This is a line of inquiry that I have been eager to 



6 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



.January 4, 1908. 



ct i sjra s^.t- upon since my first connection with the 
Bureau and have attempted it during several suc- 
cessive years, but through an apparent inappreciation 
among those whom we hoped to benefit, we were 
unable to secure data of sufficient reliability to war- 
rant making the results public. Two years ago, 
through the dairy inspection service inaugurated by 
the Bureau, we were enabled to make some progress 
along this line, but unfortunately lost in the San 
Francisco fire the bulk of the data obtained by our 
inspectors. It is only what was collected between the 
time of the fire and the necessary suspension of the 
most of the inspection work that has become available 
for publication and is therefore necessarily very 
incomplete. 

What tiik Cows Are Doing. — Without trying to 
impose upon your patience by reading figures, I 
would like to call your attention to some of the con- 
spicuous features of a statistical nature brought out in 
this limited inquiry into dairy management. The 
data available represents the work of 598 dairymen' 
with a total of 28,912 cows. The most conspicuous 
feature brought out is that in some of these herds the 
average gross annual earning per cow was as low as 
$20 and as high as $100, depending partly on the dis- 
position of the product, but more largely upon the 
productive capacity of the cows. The gross animal 
income of these 28,912 cows averaged $54.98 during 
the year ending September 30, 190(5. 

Taking the various districts of the State as governed 
by their feed conditions we find a considerable varia- 
tion in the earnings of dairy cows. In the district 
represented by Humboldt and Del Norte counties we 
find the annual gross income j>er cow is $52. Coming 
down to Marin and Sonoma counties, where a large 
part of the product realizes the prices paid for milk for 
city supply and we find the cows earning $57.57, while 
in Los Angeles county, where the bulk of the milk 
produced during the last few years is going into the 
cities as milk and cream, we find the dairy cows are 
averaging an annual earning capacity of $81.16. 
Taking into consideration only the cows in Los 
Angeles county whose milk is sold in the city exclu- 
sively and we find their average gross income to be 
$102.46. I am extremely sorry that our figures do not 
this year cover the San Joaquin and Sacramento val- 
leys, which have not been available. 

Another effort that we have made in connection 
with our statistics has been to ascertain what it costs 
the dairymen to produce these various sums from 
their cows. This, however, is next to impossible and 
even though our inspectors did make a personal can- 
vass among the dairymen it seems that very few of 
them can give any definite information as to what it 
costs to do business. Too often it happens that the 
dairyman does not know that he is losing money by 
his efforts until it is too late. When the question is 
put to him as to what it costs him to feed and care for 
a cow during a year, he even hesitates to make a 
guess. 

Bearing on the high average gross income per cow 
when milk is sold for consumption, the cost of pro- 
duction and selling increases vastly. From the reports 
it is shown that seventy-two per cent of the dairymen 
who produce milk for consumption feed concentrated 
foodstuffs, much of which is purchased in the feed 
market, in order to keep up the milk flow throughout 
the year. On the other hand, it appears from the 
data at hand that the dairymen who produce milk for 
butter and cheese rely almost altogether upon the 
pasturage and roughness that can be produced on their 
laud, grains and millfeeds being used by less than ten 
per cent of the dairymen. This is well shown in the 
case of Humboldt, Mendocino, and Del Norte counties, 
from which the Bureau has almost complete records. 
Out of 296 dairymen in those counties from which 
reports are at hand it appears that only eight per cent 
of them feed grain and millfeeds, relying entirely 
upon the pasturage and rough forage that is grown 
upon the land. Almost the same practice is followed 
throughout the alfalfa-growing districts of the San 
Joaquin and Sacramento valleys. That it is possible 
for a dairyman to secure from cows of even average 
producing capacity a gross annual income of from $50 
to $60, taking into consideration the mild climates that 
eliminate almost altogether the necessity for shelter- 
ing cows, is splendid proof of California's adaptability 
for dairying, at least in those areas from which the 
Bureau has secured its data. 

The Cows and thk Land.— Having arrived at 
the fact that the cows in at least certain areas of Cal- 
ifornia earn from the roughage that grows and that 
may be grown on the land, an average of $52.02, as in 
the case of Humboldt, Mendocino, and Del Norte 
counties, and even better in the irrigated territory, it 
will be worth while to note the area of land that it 
takes on an average to support a cow. In this way 
we can see what land realizes when utilized for dairy- 
ing. Of the 598 dairymen from which data are at 
hand, it appears that 28,912 cows are kept on 152,549 
acres of land, or an average of one cow for every 5.28 
acres of land. If data were at hand including more 
dairies in the irrigated, alfalfa-growing districts this 
average would be materially lower. Thus it is shown 
that in the seven counties soutn of the Tehachapi, the 
average is one cow to 3.19 acres; but even here there 



are included large areas that consist of rough, hilly 
land upon which only natural grasses grow during the 
often brief humid season. In Yolo county, where 
alfalfa is the main reliance for food, we find that on 
an average one cow is maintained on 2.24 acres. If 
we take all the data we have as a basis, which 
includes the coast counties from Del Norte to San 
Diego, but not including the important dairy counties 
of Monterey and San Luis Obispo, we have, as has 
already been stated, an average of one cow to be main- 
tained on 5.28 acres of land and as the gross average 
income per cow has been shown to be $54.98, we may 
say that the acreage devoted to dairying in this large 
district of the State realizes a gross annual average 
income of a trifle over $10 per acre. In considering 
this feature, sight should not be lost of the fact that a 
large proportion of this area is hilly, semi-mountain- 
ous, and generally untillable. 

Cost of Keeping the Cow. — From the very 
nature of the business and from the fact that fanners 
and dairymen do not, as a rule, keep a close account 
of the money detail* of their business, it is difficult to 
secure and present a statement showing the cost of 
keeping cows. However, the Bureau, through its 
inspectors, endeavored to secure some information 
bearing upon this question. The data secured were 
supplied through answers made by dairymen to the 
question, " What is the cost of operating your dairy 
during a year?" and the accuracy depends upon a 
proper conception of the question to those making the 
reply. 

The difficulty of securing any satisfactory informa- 
tion to a question of this kind, aside from the fact that 
the information is taken not from an expense account 
kept by the dairymen, but from memory only, lies in 
the fact that dairymen do not always have the same 
conception of what the cost of operating is. Too often 
they will not make a full charge against their busi- 
ness for the labor of themselves and their families. 
Neither are they always likely to make a full and 
uniform charge for the pasturage consumed, which 
should be on a basis of the rent or interest on invest- 
ment in the land. Assuming that the replies to the 
inspectors in this regard were reliable, we are in a 
position to make the statement that, in the case of 529 
dairymen, owning 26,980 cows, the cost of feeding, 
handling, and disposing of their products was $394,- 
164, or an average of $14.65 per cow for a year. If 
these figures are correct, they certainly speak elo- 
quently of California as a State of wonderful dairy 
possibilities. In States less favored by soil and cli- 
mate, the cost of the hay alone for carrying cows 
through the winter exceeds this figure. In the East 
the generally estimated cost of keeping a cow for a 
year is $30. If cows that will average a gross yearly 
income of $54.98 can be kept at a total cost per year 
of $14.65 it is easy to see the reason for the rapid 
expansion of the dairy business in this State that has 
already been mentioned in this paper. 

Now for a few figures in regard to the kind of dairy 
cows we are keeping in California. It is remarkable 
to note the apparent lack of interest on the part of our 
dairymen in securing the largest possible production 
out of their cows. The interest in breeding for 
increased capacity is astonishingly lacking and I may 
almost say the same in regard to right feeding in 
order to be sure that he is feeding cows capable of 
turning food into the maximum production at a mini- 
mum of cost. 

How to Get Better Cows. — Good cows are most 
economically secured through careful selection and 
breeding to animals of known milking capacity. 
When we refer to cows of known breeding we usually 
refer to thoroughbred cows, which means that their 
ancestry is known for many generations and that they 
carry in their veins the results of generations of breed- 
ing for the special purpose of usefulness in the dairy, 
and that in this breeding there is a prepotency im- 
parted which enables the cow to transmit dairy capacity 
to its descendants that was derived from its ancestors 
by it. When a dairyman seeks to improve his cows 
he secures thoroughbreds of some special breed. That 
California dairymen are doing little along this line 
appears from the fact that out of 28,912 cows owned 
by 598 dairymen, only 318 are thoroughbreds, from 
the data secured. But it is not necessary that a dairy- 
man should, in order to breed up his herd in useful- 
ness, invest in thoroughbred cows. He can accom- 
plish this more slowly, but just as safely, by breeding 
to thoroughbred males, and in a few generations 
eliminate almost entirely from his herd the inferior, 
indiscriminately bred cows and have in their place 
cows in whose veins run the blood and prepotency 
that are the results of careful breeding for the single 
purpose of the greatest usefulness in the dairy. 

The investment in a breeding male whose power 
and prepotency in a certain line are almost a cer- 
tainty, is the first manifestation of intelligence on the 
part of the dairyman. But this spirit of enterprise 
seems to be sadly lacking among California dairymen. 
The data at hand shows that the 28,912 cows referred 
to above are bred to males with apparently no pur- 
lins, on the part of their owners to improve their off- 
spring. The mating of the male and the female 
seems to be only a matter of renewing the lactation 
period of the latter, for which anv kind of a male will 



serve the purpose. The 2s, in 2 cows are bred to 928 
males, or one male to 31 cows. Of these 928 males 
only 171 are thoroughbreds, the remaining 757 being 
animals mostly of promiscuous and unknown breed- 
ing. In other words, we may say that less than 
twenty per cent of the 598 dairymen', from the ilatn at 
hand, pay any attention to the question of improving 
their herds through breeding. 

Woke of tiik Dairy Bureau. — When I accepted 
the invitation of the Executive Committee to attempt 
a discussion of this subject of Dairy Statistics, I had 
hoped that it would be possible for me to make a 
statement of our recent efforts to secure a statement of 
the production of butter and cheese during the statis- 
tical year ending September 30th of this year. This 1 
find impossible, as we are again confronted with the 
tardiness of a number of producers to make their 
reports. This year we are compelled to rely upon the 
voluntary statements which we arc asking producers 
to send in, instead of being able to have our insj>ectors 
make a personal canvass among them, as was the case 
last year. 

I wish to make use of this opportunity to make a 
personal appeal to those present who are identified 
with the production of dairy products, to take more 
seriously the importance and value of dairy statistics 
and co-operate with the Bureau in its efforts to secure 
them promptly and to make them of the utmost relia- 
bility and accuracy. We must depend upon each anil 
every producer and just in proportion as these respond 
to our efforts can these statistics be made accurate and 
reliable. The figures that are compiled annually by 
the State Dairy Bureau are copied throughout the 
State and nation and are made the basis of important 
business considerations. The State owes it to the 
Dairy Bureau and the l>airy Bureau owes it to the 
public that what it puts forth as statistics must be 
correct, and I do not know but that it would be in 
place for this organization to take some action that 
will pledge its co-operation and that of its members 
toward assisting this important work. 

What the State Dairy Bureau has been trying to do 
is not only to determine the extent and progress of 
the dairy industry of California, but it has also tried 
to find out lines along which improvement is most 
needed. It has tried to ascertain what is being accom- 
plished by the many people who own cows in the 
State and to find out what it is possible for them to do 
and to hold up to the dairyman w ho is not doing what 
he should, the success of others as an example. 

I may say in closing, that SO far as returns have 
been received from producers as showing the output of 
butter and cheese for the last statistical year, that 
indications point to an increased production, which is 
somewhat at variance with the general belief during 
the height of the season. Many observers had at that 
time concluded that in a number of districts in Cali- 
fornia dairying had retrograded somewhat on account 
of the lack of labor. 1 myself believed at one time 
that this was the case. Since then returns have been 
coming in and we have been checking them against 
last year's production. I am led to believe that we 
were misled largely by the complaint of the larger 
dairymen about the scarcity of labor, without taking 
into consideration the great expansion of the business 
through the fact that many smaller farmers have 
taken more generally to cow-keeping, especially in the 
interior valleys. The returns also conspicuously show 
that all along the coast, from San Diego to Del Norte, 
the past season has been more favorable to production 
than the previous season. 



Horticulture. 



Some New Apples in Humboldt County. 



To the Editor: I am mailing you samples of ap- 
ples that I think will be of interest and worthy of fur- 
ther attention from California orchardists. One of 
these is the "Keeper," a Kansas seedling, 1 believe, 
and of the Bellflower type. The tree bears well and 
the fruit is of uniform size and greenish yellow now, 
but probably will be yellow when fully matured. It 
is rather tender in flesh but firm and juicy and of ex- 
cellent flavor. The point in its makeup that will be 
of more than passing interest to California apple grow- 
ers is its late maturing habits, it being about the latest 
in ripening of any variety I have fruited here so far. 
The fruit hangs well here until the 1st of December, 
fully three months later than Bellflower in general 
maturity. 

" Indian" is the label on another fine late golden 
yellow apple. It is of large size and very smooth, 
very firm and rather juicy, and its texture and brisk 
acidity make it one of the finest kitchen apples I am 
acquainted with. The tree has all the appearance of 
one that will be productive. I am not certain the 
label is right, as the description I have of the Indian 
does not quite tally with this. 

One of your subscribers wishes to know of the Bis- 
mark apple. I have not seen much of it yet, hut from 
what I now know of it I prefer " Kirk bridge" or 



Continued on Page 15. 



January 4, 1908. 



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The Poultry Yard. 

How to Get Good Eggs For 
Hatching. 

This is a timely question, for the 
hatching season is on, and whether one 
follows fall hatching or spring hatching, 
or both, he is now about in the middle 
of the California hatching season. Mrs. 
S. Swaysgood gives the Petaluma 
Poultry Journal an outline of work for 
securing good eggs and handling them 
in preparation for hatching. The fol- 
lowing is her advice: 

It is about time to think of mating 
the fowls that are to be used for breed- 
ing, if it is not already attended to. If 
trap nests are used a faithful record of 
each individual hen should be kept. 
The fowls should be closely watched for 
individual peculiarities, and same noted 
for future references. 

It is no more trouble to mate up the 
perfect fowls of the flock than the im- 
perfect, if you know where the difference 
lies. 

Every farmer who sells either eggs or 
fowls should have the 'Standard of Per- 
fection;' not only have it for reference, 
but study it until he becomes acquainted 
with the requirements of the breed he is 
interested in. A good bird need not be 
sacrificed for some slight defect of plum- 
age or comb; but if one has the Standard 
it helps in selecting those that will pro- 
duce better birds. Very often good, 
vigorous constitutions and good laying 
qualities can be combined with Stand 
ard requirements when we know what is 
required. Plumage is largely a matter 
of feed and can be controlled, but other 
defects are hard to eradicate except by 
proper breeding. 

It does uot pay to be in a hurry after 
the pens are mated. Let the fowls have 
time to get acquainted with each other 
and with their new surroundings. If 
a male has been moved from one yard 
to another and his flock are strange to 
him he will probably be quite (rots for 
a few days; at least this is so with most 
large breeds. To remove a male that 
is moultiDg will also make him cross, 
and it takes them a little while to set- 
tle down and get agreeable. I would 
not attempt to use eggs under a month 
after mating hens to a strange male. 
So in this climate, where we expect 
hatching to be in lull swing after the 
holidays, they should be mated by this, 
yet for one reason or another many will 
delay until the last. 

After mating it is easier to detect in- 
dividual peculiarities, and time should 
be taken for that purpose. When you 
are sure your fowls are well mated it is 
time to turn your attention to their 
needs. They have been mated for a 



purpose. That purpose is not merely 
to get eggs; you could have gotten the 
eggs without mating. The real pur- 
pose of mating was to secure not only 
eggs, but fertile eggs of the kind of fowls 
you wish to raise. A great many eggs 
are called fertile that just send out a 
few rich streaks as a seed sends out 
rootlets, after which they give up the 
ghost and retire. But you have not 
mated for that purpose. Your object is 
to get fertile eggs that with proper care 
on your part will hatch out strong, 
well-developed, vigorous chicks. No 
other kind are worth having or experi- 
menting with. 

To get this kind of eggs conditions 
must be favorable. The fowls must be 
healthy and vigorous; there must be 
ample opportunity for exercise; not 
necessarily free range for walking con- 
tests, but exercise that calls into play 
every internal organ of the fowl. 
Scratching is the one exercise that 
answers that purpose. It takes the 
place of muscular exercise for men, im- 
proves circulation and aids digestion. 
The better the digestion of the parent 
fowls, the stronger will be the germ in 
the egg and the more chances for it to 
produce a healthy chick. It is easy to 
induce fowls to scratch, provided we 
give them something toscratoh for, and 
furnisned the material to scratch in. For 
the latter there is not anything better 
than leaves or short cut straw, but it 
must be kept dry or the fowls cannot 
utilize it. Scratching feed may be a 
little of everything in the shape of small 
seeds. Split peas, hemp seed, broom 
corn, millet seed, and pinhead oatmeal 
furnish a variety that is greatly relished 
and eagerly sought for by a diligent 
hen. Oats in any form are good feed 
for breeders and should be fed once a 
day at least. If mashes are fed, scalded 
oats are a good grain to put in, and 
boiled potatoes are also good to mix 
with the mash, but mashes should be 
fed rather sparingly, with a scant sup- 
ply of green feed. If yarded, fowls will 
have to be fed some meat in the form of 
beef scraps. Instead of green feed serve 
alfalfa hay and let them pick the leaves 
themselves. A small bale of alfalfa 
hay sprinkled with hot water in which 
a handful of salt has been dissolved is 
a fine relish for all yarded stock. The 
greediness with which they eat it is a 
proof that it is really relished, and it is 
cheaper than grain, which is quite an 
item. Feeding for strong fertile eggs 
is easy enough if cupidity does uot get 
the best of us. We must be content to 
get quality without forcing the quan- 
tity by unnatural methods. Breeding 
stock, to do their best, must be kept and 
fed as natural as possible; nocondiments 
or drugs, no cramming with by-pro- 
ducts of the slaughter shop or horse 
flesh, but just plain food of good qual- 
ity in liberal quantities fed as cleanly 
as possible and diversified sufficiently 
to keep the fowls with a keen appetite. 
They should be always ready to come 
at the call, but not so hungry that they 
will trample each other to get it. The 
hopper system may do for young stock 
or even laying hens, but it does not ap- 
peal to me as being good for breeders. 
The appetite will stall and they will not 
get variety enough or eat sufficient to 
keep them healthy and full of vim. 
That is just what they should be all the 
time — full of life and vim, ready to pick 
a quarrel with their feeder or any one 
that intrudes on their territory. 

If we have taken pains to mate and 
feed for the right kind of eggs, the next 
thing is to take pains with saving them. 
The nests should be kept clean and free 
from all vermin and supplied with a 
liberal cushion of soft straw or hay, un- 
less something else is used as a substi- 
tute. At any rate there should be some- 
thing soft to receive the egg when it is 
laid. This may appear too small an 
item to mention, but I have seen a good 
many eggs broken at the small end 
through being dropped into empty nest 
boxes. A jar that will break an egg 
will surely injure the delicate germ 
upon which we depend for a chick- 
There is nothing lost by taking a little 
extra pains to provide a good cushion 
for the eggs to fall on. The transfer 



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from nest to bucket or basket they a re 
collected in must be done quite as care- 
fully. There should be plenty of straw, 
excelsior, or a similar substitute to lay 
the eggs on, and they should not be 
piled on each other as we pile up eggs 
for market. One layer is sufficient in 
a basket, and pack away immedi- 
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cool place. If dirty, wipe with a damp 
cloth or scrape with a knife, but never 
wash eggs that are to be used for hatch- 
ing. As for turning eggs, there are 
different opinions as to its value. For 



myself, I don't believe eggs should be 
kept so long for hatching that they will 
be injured by staying in one position. 
Yet I have turned them and I have kept 
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PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 4, 1908 



The Home Circle. 



The Builders. 

The Jester built a house one day 
Of cards, with many a color gay; 
And bit his thumbs and twirled his hair, 
As piece by piece, and layer by layer, 
He built his pasteboard palace up, 
Till his deft lingers reached the top. 
And as the final card he laid 
And smiled upon the house he made, 
Alas! an errant wind blew by, 
Scattering all his cards on high, 
But Motley laughed and laughed, and 
then, 

He skipped away, nor built again. 

Sir Wisdom built a castle fair 
Not out of cards, but out of air; 
Adorned with every rainbow shade, 
With turret, dome and bastion made; 
Ah, never yet in Fairy Land 
Did such a wonder palace stand; 
Hut as his spendthrift fancy built 
With radiant hopes and dreams of gilt, 

The castles vanished in the air, 

Though not a wisp was there, 

And Wisdom wept and wept and then — 

A house of Shadows built again. 

— Wm. P. McCormack, in N. Y.Sun. 



To a Golden Singer. 

Sphinx like thou dreamest, yet I know 
Thou art a minstrel holding llute, 
That deep breathed thou hast learned to 
blow, 

And in thy silver songs' pursuit 
Hast wakened echoes high and low 
That else were mute. 

I only know with splendid might 
Thy golden notes melodious fall, 
Flaming their way with liquid light, 
From out thy heart, to hearts of all, 
And that thou canst on music's height 
The world enthral. 

— C. E. Whiton-Stone. 



Mistaken Premises. 

" You'll meet me at the club at eight 
o'clock, then?" Sidney Tremont said, 
dropping on" the electric car at his cor- 
ner. 

"Yes; eight sharp," replied Jack 
King, who stood on the platform ready 
to alight at the next crossing. 

The men were partners in a real estate 
business, young, married, and comfort- 
ably well off. They meant to talk over 
a business deal that night, and with 
this in view Mr. Tremont entered the 
club at seven fifty-five, expecting that 
his partner, who was always prompt, 
would be waiting. 

Mr. King was not there, and at eight 
thirty had not arrived. Sidney Tre- 
mont was about to telephone Mrs. King 
when the club was called by that lady, 
and asked if Jack was there. 

"No," was the reply; "Mr. King 



hasn't been here this evening. His 
partner is here;" and Sidney was called 
to the telephone. An anxious voice in- 
quired, " Do you know where Jack is ?" 

" Why, no," said the bewildered Mr. 
Tremont; " he was to meet me here at 
eight o'clock, and I've been waiting 
ever since." 

"Did you leave him at the office? He 
hasn't been home." 

"Hasn't been home! He came out 
on the same car that I did, at six thirty." 

"Oh, dear!" — there was a sob in the 
voice—" I am so worried, I know some- 
thing dreadful has happened. What 
can I do?" 

"Nothing," decidedly. "I'll hunt 
him up. Don't worry; I'll telephone 
you again in an hour," and Sidney 
rang off. 

Mr. Tremont's cheerful words belied 
his looks when he rushed into the near- 
est police station. Evidently something 
had happened to Jack between the cor- 
ner where he left the car and his home. 
Probably he had been mistaken for a 
certain millionaire whom he closely 
resembled, and kidnapped for a ransom. 
Mr. Tremont told this to the police 
officers, who looked wise, and went out 
(in the trail. 

Sidney telephoned Mrs. King, as 
promised, but there was no news, and 
at midnight, having looked for .lack in 
every place where he might possibly be, 
Mr. Tremont called on Mrs. King, hav- 
ing taken the precaution to bring Mrs. 
Tremont along, in case of hysterics. 

Mrs. King was a sensible woman, and 
decided that she could better watch the 
course of events if that exercise were 
postponed to a more convenient season, 
besides, she was a trifle jealous, and a 
dark suspicion lingered in her mind 
that there might be a "woman in the 
case." This notion acted as a tonic, and 
Mr. Tremont being ignorant of Mrs. 
King's thoughts, congratulated himself 
because his partner's wife was such a 
cool-headed woman, and returned to the 
police station. 

The Kings live at 1015 Ashton avenue; 
1007 on the same street was occupied by 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Hamilton, their 
grown daughter, and two servant girls. 

It was about two in the morning 
when Mr. Tremont again reached the 
police station, and just at that hour 
there was a disturbance in the Hamil- 
ton residence. This commotion was 
inaugurated by most unseemly pound- 
ing, apparently on the cellar stairs, ac- 
companied by pithy remarks as to the 
stupidity iand incompetency of every 
one on earth in general, and the dwell- 
ers in that house in particular. This 
noise was no sooner well established 
when its volume was augmented by 
screams from the two servants who 
slept in the , rear of the house and so 
were awakened first. Their shrieks 
speedily brought Mr. and Mrs. Hamil- 
ton and Miss Hamilton from their 



moms in undress uniform, with seared 
faces and cries of " Oh, what is it?" on 
the part of the ladies, and " What an 
infernal row !" on the part of the man, 
who carried a revolver in one hand and 
a night lamp in the other. "Shut up !" 
he called to the servants. "Marie," to 
his daughter, " for heaven's sake light 
the gas," which the young lady pro- 
ceeded to do profusely. 

Meanwhile, vigorous hammering and 
emphatic profanity continued to roll 
up the rear stairway, which was di- 
rectly over the cellarway. 

Mr. Hamilton, followed by his wife 
and daughter, the servants, whose curi- 
osity had partly overcome their terror, 
bringing up the rear, filed down the 
I nick stairs to the kitchen, where more 
gas was turned on the sc ene. 

"It isn't a burglar," Mr. Hamilton 
declared; "a burglar wouldn't make 
such a racket, it's probably a lunatic." 
Whereat the women fell over each 
Other in their haste to retreat. 

"Help! Help!! Help !!!" in wild 
crescendo came up the cellar stairs. 

" Will you ever get me out of this ?" 

Mr. Hamilton, revolver in hand, gin- 
gerly opened the cellar door an inch. 
"Who are you and what do you want ?" 
he demanded. 

" I'm John King of 1015 Ashton ave- 
nue. I fell through the coal hole in 
your confounded sidewalk and broke 
my leg, and I'll sue you for a million 
dollars. Oh— by George !'' in defer- 
ence to the ladies, as a violent pain shot 
through his injured leg. 

With shocked exclamations of sym- 
pathy, Mr. Hamilton, assisted by as 
many women as were available, car- 
ried Mr. King up the stairway and laid 
him on a couch in the library, where 
Jack promptly fainted. 

Active use of the telephone speedily 
brought doctors, and Mrs. King, who 
came with a heart full of remorse be- 
cause she thought of what might have 
happened. 

"Jack! Jack!" she sobbed, "the 
police are looking for you; we thought 
you were kidnapped." 

" Somebody better 'phone the depart- 
ment," one physician said. And so it 
happened that Mr. Tremont learned 
that his partner had been found with 
a broken leg in the cellar at 1007 Ash- 
ton avenue. 

After the bones were set and a bad 
cut in his head dressed the patient was 
carefully taken home. During the 
weeks that followed, Mrs. King was 
cured of her budding jealousy; in fact, 
husband and wife became better ac- 
quainted than at any time during their 
three years of married life. 

In time it was learned that when 
Jack reached Mr. Hamilton's house a 
load of coal had just been dumped in 
the cellar. The driver went to the 
back door to get a receipt, carelessly 
leaving the coal hole uncovered. It 
was dusk, and King, his mind full of 
the business on hand, walked into 
the trap, which, the driver, returning 
two minutes later, closed. Besides 
breaking his leg, Jack was stunned by 
striking his head on the coal bin. When 
consciousness returned, his cries were 
not heard by the servants, the fam- 
ily being away, until after midnight. 
Between lapses of consciousness, Jack 
dragged himself, inch by inch, to where 
the cellar stairs were likely to be, be- 
ing lucky enough to find them in the 
darkness. He did not sue for a million, 
but Mr. Hamilton insisted upon pay- 
ing a large doctor's bill. — E. A. Dyer. 



" What did you think of my remarks 
on Government ownership?" asked the 
politician. 

" I couldn't tell whether you favored 
it or not." 

" Then the speech was a success. That 
is what I was trying to keep people from 
finding out." — Ex. 



" Did you ever make a mistake in a 
diagnosis?" " Only once. I was called 
to attend a sick man whom I said had 
indigestion, and less than a week later 
I discovered that he was rich enough for 
appendicitis." 



The Neglected Profession of Motherhood. 

What are the mothers of the growing 
generation of American boys and girls 
thinking about? 

Most of them are looking for ' careers,' 
I know, and wishing they had a wider 
sphere of influence — at least so they 
write to me by the score. 

Meanwhile they are neglecting that 
vast field of limitless influence — the 
training and guiding of the little minds 
they have in their care. 

Every day I see young American 
boys — the future men of the nation, the 
possible presidents, millionaires, college 
professors, statesmen, artists— indulging 
in habits that are an offense to good 
taste, and which will be a serious reflec- 
tion upou our national manners when 
these boys become men. 

Mothers, I pray you, instead of sigh- 
ing to lie ' famous,' teach your boys a 
few important items. 

Teach them to stand aside and let 
'ladies' or charwoman or tired colored 
servants enter a public vehicle or pass 
through a door before them, and to 
offer a seat to anyone in woman's attire 
or to an elderly man. 

Kvery day I see women pushed aside 
by Young America in such situations. 

Teach your boys that it is inexcusably 
vulgar to attend to any portion of their 
toilet in the presence of anyone. 

Nails should not be trimmed or other- 
wise treated, teeth should not be touched 
in public places. Train your boys to go 
to their rooms or into retirement for 
such duties. 

Teach them not to lounge or tip back 
in their chairs in the presence of women 
or girls or to enter a room with covered 
heads. 

Make them realize the courtesy of 
touching their hats to women and older 
people, and of uncovering their heads in 
an elevator when a w oman enters. 

All these simple acts render the world 
a more pleasing place for the abode of 
our fellow men. 

Teach them not to lie with their el 
bows on the table while at meals, and 
not to take their food audibly or vora- 
ciously, nor to sit in shirt sleeves and 
suspenders in the presence of the gentler 
sex, nor to talk loud in public places. 

Then turn to your girls. 

Day after day we are shocked by the 
manners of many young girls whom we 
encounter. Little girls coming from 
school, well dressed and fair, give vent 
to loud shrieks of laughter after passing 
some older person. If the person hap- 
pens to be fashionably attired such ex- 
pressions as "Oh, dear, don't she feel 
smart!" or " Isn't_ she trying to be 
somebody !" often greet her ear. If she 
is noticeably poor or shabby ridicule 
often falls from the lips of the future 
wives and mothers of America. 

Teach your little girls, dear madame, 
that kindness and modesty of behavior 
are the first two important factors in 
the education of woman. If she pos- 
sesses every talent and the apparel of 
the Oueen of Sheba she can never be a 
1 lady ' if she is cruel, thoughtless or 
rude. 

Teach your girls to avoid the use of 
slang, not to chew gum in public, not to 
talk loud, not to criticise others, and to 
show consideration and courtesy. 

I saw three young school misses con- 
vulsed with amusement while they 
watched a lady trying to collect her 
scattered purchases which had broken 
out of a parcel on the street. 

The mothers of these girls were in 
fault for not bringing them up to be 
helpful and polite to anyone in embar- 
rassment or trouble. 

They would have proved themselves 
refined little ladies had they gone to the 
assistance of the woman. 

Scarcely a day passes that we do not 
see young girls whispering behind their 
hands in street cars, and giggling while 
they look at some one opposite. 

This is the height of vulgarity. Think 
less about a career, madame, and more 
about the manners of your children. It 
requires close companionship and ten- 
der confidence between parents and 
children to have precept and example 
leave their influence, and once telling a 



IN STARTING A BUSINESS CAREER LOOK BEYOND 
YOUR TIME IN SCHOOL INTO THE GREAT FUTURE 

Careful consideration of the great future will certainly bring 
you to the San Francisco Business College to take your course. 

This school not only gives you the most thorough and prac= 
tical education possible, but it is in close touch with the great 
business opportunities offered in the rapidly rebuilding city. 
We could place five times as many men as we have with good 
firms, where fair wages are paid at the beginning, and every 
opportunity offered to advance. 

We have standing calls from three of San Francisco's great 
business enterprises for competent young men who are 
capable of being advanced to high positions. 

We can furnish excellent board and comfortable room for 
$22.50 per month. 

Write for full particulars regarding our school. 

ALBERT S. WEAVER, President. 

San Francisco Business College 733 fillmore street 

" UUIICgC, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



January 4, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Course in 

Telegraphy 

Good Positions 

Tuition back after one year's service. 
Main S. P. wire in schoolroom. Write 
for particulars. 

PACIFIC COAST 
BUSINESS COLLEGE 

San Jose, Cal. 



child what to do or what not to do can 
hardly be expected to suffice any more 
than one reading lesson suffices. 

Make motherhood a profession. It 
seems to be a new and untried field at 
present. — Ex. 



Femininities. 

Years ago the West knew thousands 
of women engaged in helping their hus- 
bands or brothers to get a start. They 
did much work in riding the range, 
branding cattle and similar duties. Most 
of them prospered so that their riding 
days are but a memory, but Mrs. Harri- 
son Newell of Spring Hill, Wyo., still 
steadily rides the range, although 68 
years of age. A few days ago, on her 
birthday, her horse threw her and she 
was painfully injured. 

Because his mother-in-law would not 
share her home with himself and bride 
and chop all the wood, Red Shirt, a 
Sioux warrior, who resided on the Rose- 
bud reservation, committed suicide by 
shooting. It is one of the few cases on 
record of a Sioux Indian ending his own 
life. 

A remarkable court decision in a big- 
amy case has been handed down at Per- 
guia, Italy, where Charles Balliori, a 
tailor, was acquitted on the charge of 
having two wives because he has two 
hearts. Four physicians testified that 
Balliori had two hearts, and the court 
at once decided that this was ample rea- 
son for him to marry two women. 

The best and easiest way to clean the 
overalls and shirts worn by men on the 
farm is to soak the garments in a little 
lye water, then wash them through the 
last suds. Pull them over the wash- 
board and scrub them with a stiff brush 
having a handle, but rub soap over the 
most soiled spots first. It is easier than 
rubbing on the board, and every bit of 
dirt comes out. When a garment seems 
clean after the scrubbing, lift it out of 
the suds without wringing into the rinse 
water, then into clean water and hang 
it over the line dripping wet. When 
the garments are dry, fold smoothly and 
put them away without ironing. When 
cleaned in this way the fabric will be 
saved as well as time and strength 

A young lady having asked a surgeon 
why woman was made from the rib of 
a man in preference to another bone, he 
gave the following gallant answer: 
" She was not taken from the head lest 
she should rule over him, nor from his 
feet lest he should trample upon her; 
but she was taken from his side that she 
might be his equal, from under his arm 
that he might protect her; from near 
his heart that he might cherish and love 
her." 

We believe there is less discontent 
among .farmers' daughters than is ap- 
parent among girls of the towns and 
cities. A farm girl is brought up to re- 
spect the dignity of honest work and 
takes pride in being able to do the duties 
of the household well and to be as com- 
petent as her girl companions in the 
neighborhood. To be able to cook and 
sew and do her full share of the work 
for which her mother is responsible is an 
accomplishment in her eyes. She does 
not shirk or lie in bed while her mother 
does the work, as do many city girls. 
She does not spend her time idling 
through the shops of the town spending 
more money on dress than her parents 
can afford, nor is she given to the silly 
theater habit. 



Undressing. 

Sometimes, when father's out of town, 
At bedtime mother brings my gown, 

And says to me: 
" The fireplace is warm and bright, 
You may undress down here tonight, 

Where I can see." 

So then I sit upon the floor, 
And mother closes every door, 

Then in her chair 
She rocks and watches me undress, 
And I go just as slow. I guess 

She doesn't care. 

And then I stand up in my gown, 
And watch the flames go up and down 

As tall as me ! 
But soon 1 climb on mother's lap, 
And listen to the fire snap, 

So comf'r'bly. 

Then mother rocks and cuddles me 
Close in her arms, where I can see 

The coals shine red. 
I don't feel sleepy, but some way, 
When I wake up, then it's next day, 

And I'm in bed ! 

— May Kelly, in the Century. 



Pith, Point, and Pathos. 

His Satanic Majesty loves a cheerful 
grafter. 

It's easier to fall in love than it is to 
fall out again. 

Because he acts like a jay a man isn't 
necessarily a bird. 

Beware of the man who is forever 
harping on his honesty. 

It is just as well to forget most of the 
promises people make to you. 

Most of the world's heroes dwell be- 
tween the covers of dime novels. 

Money is the grease paint that makes 
many a bad actor look good. 

The girl who takes the cake is the 
one who can bake good bread. 

A woman speaks volumes with her 
eyes and whole libraries with her tongue. 

Weigh some men and you will find 
them wanting in everything but weight. 

After marriage has opened a blind 
lover's eyes he is entitled to sympathy. 

A man without a collar button is al- 
most as helpless as a woman without a 
hairpin. 

It's easy for a man with money to be 
popular as long as he is willing to 
give up. 

If a man is honest at heart his honesty 
isn't due to the theory that honesty is 
the best policy. 

This world may owe you a living, but 
it isn't to blame if you are too lazy to 
collect your dues. 

When a man takes himself too seri- 
ously he seldom takes other people 
seriously enough. 

It doesn't matter much what you 
think if you are able to keep your 
thoughts to yourself. 

Occasionally a married man goes 
around half dressed because it takes so 
much to dress his better half. 

Asa rule, the girl who is able to weep 
on the slightest provocation imagines 
she was cut out for an emotional actress. 

When it rains too much to suit us 
some one is always there with the re- 
mark that it will be a blessing to the 
farmers. 



The term 'frog' is rather wide, ex- 
tending to 250 species, common to most 
parts of the world, except Ireland. The 
distinction between frogs and toads is 
often lost sight of. The frogs have 
webbed toes, the toads have not. Many 
of the toads and some frogs have the toes 
dilated. Pollywog means a small frog 
or toad. 



English Girl — " You American girls 
have not such healthy complexions as 
we have. I cannot understand why our 
noblemen take a fancy to your white 
faces." 

American Girl — " It isn't our white 
faces that attract them, my dear ; i'ts 
our greenbacks." 



Speed of Animals. 

How fast do animals go? What is the 
greatest speed of each of the animals, 
from the horse to the camel, from the 
ant to the flea? This is the problem 
which has busied the brains of more 
than one investigator, and the results of 
their work have been gathered together 
by Prof. John Ohlshausen in a most in- 
teresting shape. 

A riding horse covers forty inches 
each second while walking; at a jog trot 
it covers eleven feet a second, while the 
two-minute horse covers forty-four feet 
a second. This is quite a contrast to 
the leisurely ox, which moves only two 
feet a second when hitched to a wagon, 
and about twenty inches a second when 
hitched to a plow. 

The elephant, while pulling more 
than six horses, walks over four and a 
half feet of ground each second, and 
running as fast as it can covers only 
eighteen feet a second. The dromedary 
can cover ninety-three miles in sixteen 
hours, which represents its day's march, 
and can do this two or three days to- 
gether, traveling at the constant rate of 
eight feet per second. The dromaderies 
of the Sultan have, however, covered 
116 miles in 12 hours, or at the rate 
of miles an hour. 

Sheep dogs and hunting dogs run at a 
speed of from thirty-three to forty-five 
feet a second, but the fastest hunting 
dogs cover eighty feet a second, almost 
as much as that of the running horse, 
which covers ninety feet to a second for 
a short distance. An English foxhound 
will cover sixty feet a second in captiv- 
ity. A lion is said to be able to run 
faster than the best hunting horses 
while at large. 

The mole passes rapidly through its 
subterranean diggings, extending from 
one hundred to 150 feet, moving at the 
rate of 6.J feet a second, and on the sur- 
face of the earth travels at a speed of 
ten feet a second. 

Authorities differ as to the speed of 
the hare, some stating that it can cover 
sixty feet a second, while others state 
that it can only go one-third as fast. 

The deer of various species are all 
speedy, but when pursued by hounds or 
roebuck has been known to cover sev- 
enty-four feet a second. The wonderful 
little antelope covers from twenty to 
thirty feet at a leap, springing ten feet 
in the air, and the swiftest dogs can 
catch it only when tired out. 

The long-legged giraffe moves over 
the earth at a speed of fifty feet per 
second, while the kangaroo leaps over 
eleven feet a second. 

Swifter than all the animals is that 
-monster bird, the ostrich, which has 
been known to travel at the tremendous 
rate of 160 feet a second or a mile in 
thirty-three seconds, faster than any 
horse can do. 

This is in striking contrast with the 
tortoise, which if five inches long covers 
a half inch a second, and if ten inches 
long 2£ inches a second. A toad hops 
eight inches a second, though it is only 
two inches long; a frog six inches long 
hops but three inches a second, but 
swims 4 $ inches a second. A large 
frog may, however, jump thirteen 
inches a second. 

The chameleon is not much more 
rapid than a tortoise when walking, 
covering nine-sixteenths inches a second, 
and running only three inches a second. 

A rattlesnake moves in a curved line 
four inches a second, and when after its 
prey may travel twenty or forty inches 
a second. — Minneapolis Tribune. 



No monarch in Europe works harder 
than the Sultan of Turkey, writes a Con- 
stantinople correspondent, for he rises 
at four in the morning, winter and sum- 
mer, and goes to his white tiled bath- 
room for his bath, after which he sips 
a cup of coffee brewed by the cafedji- 
bachi, or chief coffee maker, and then, 
with a cigarette between his lips, he 
sits down to work at his desk. He 
works until midday, when he adjourns 
for prayers; then more coffee and an 
entree, an hour's siesta and work again 
until dinner, which is served at four in 
tin' afternoon. 



Domestic Recipes. 

Egg and Cheese Relish.— Poach 
three eggs in a half pint of cream ; re- 
move eggs and place in buttered toast. 
Add one dessertspoonful of Canadian or 
American cheese, a pinch of salt, and 
little cayenne pepper to the cream. Let 
this simmer until cheese is dissolved 
and pour over eggs and toast. Serve 
immediately. 

Pudding Sauce.— One tablespoonful 
each of flour and butter, one-half cup of 
sugar, one egg and one pint of water. 
Mix the flour, butter, sugar, and yolk of 
egg together, beating well, and then 
pour the boiling water over it. Cook 
till thick and add the white of the egg, 
beaten stiff. Flavor to taste. 

Beans. — One cup each of cold boiled 
peas and stringed beans. Season to taste 
and then stir into them a little mayon- 
naise dressing. Place a large spoonful 
of the mixture on a lettuce leaf and ar- 
range the leaves on a platter and cover 
with the mayonnaise. 

Sweet Apple Pie. — Cut apples in 
half, removing the cores, and boil in as 
little water as possible. When tender 
set at back of stove to simmer slowly 
till water has evaporated and then press 
through a sieve and make exactly as 
you would pumpkin pie. 

Orange Loaf Cake. — One-half cup 
of butter, two cups sugar, three cups 
flour, one cup water, two teaspoons 
baking powder, whites of two eggs and 
yolks of four, juice, pulp, and grated 
rind of one orange. This is excellent. 

Cottage Pudding.— One tablespoon- 
ful of butter, one cup sugar, one-half 
cup of milk, one egg, one heaping tea- 
spoon baking powder and one and a 
half cups of flour. Bake in a moder- 
ate oven. 

Mock Mince Pie. — One cup each of 
rolled crackers, sugar, molasses, water, 
vinegar, and seedless raisins, three 
tablespoons butter, one teaspoon cinna- 
mon, nutmeg and salt. Mix in the or- 
der given and bake between two crusts. 

Lemon Pie. — Mix a rounding tea- 
spoon of corn starch with one cup of 
sugar and add to one and one-quarter 
cups of boiling water. Cook three min- 
utes, add one rounding tablespoon of 
butter, beat and cool partly. Add one 
beaten egg and the juice and grated rind 
of one lemon. Use for small patties or 
for a pie without a top crust. 



When Knighthood Was in Flower. 

As Pat O'Hoolihan was walking down 
Broadway he was accosted by a distin- 
guished looking stranger, who wished 
to know the quickest way to the city 
hall. Pat told him, and then inquired 
cheerfully, " And who might ye be?" 

" I," said the stranger, drawing him- 
self up proudly, "am the Hon. John 
Kenneth Edgerton of London, Knight 
of the Garter, Knight of the Bath, 
Knight of Malta, Knight of the Golden 
Fleece, Knight of St. John, Knight of 
the Royal Legion and of the Iron Cross. 
And whom have I the honor of address- 
ing?" 

Pat was staggered for a moment. 
Then he in turn raised his head proudly 
and replied, " Ye have the honor of ad- 
dhressin' Patrick O'Hoolihan of Ho- 
boken tonight, lasht night, night before 
lasht, night before that, tomorrow night 
and ivery otherdom night in the wake." 
— Woman's Home Companion. 



At Grossalmerode, a town nearCassel, 
Germany, a factory has recently been 
established for the manufacture of glass 
telegraph and telephone poles. The 
glass mass of which the poles are made 
is strengthened by interlacing and in- 
tertwining with strong wire threads. 
One of the principal advantages of these 
poles, it is said, would be their use in 
tropical countries, where wooden poles 
are soon destroyed by the ravages of 
insects and where climatical influences 
are ruinous to wood. The Imperial 
1'ost Department, which has control of 
the telegraph and telephone lines in 
Germany, has ordered the use of these 
glass poles on one of its tracts. 



10 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 4, 1908. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



BUTTE. 

More Vineyards. — J. F. Krull, 
whose farm is about six miles soutli of 
this place, is preparing to plant about 
twenty-five acres of Thompson's seed- 
less grape vines. He will prepare the 
land at once. Other farmers are about 
to plant many acres of Muscats and 
Thompson's seedless. 

COLUSA. 

Money in Eggs. — Sun: A Colusa 
lady has kept an account of a small 
poultry yard on her premises. For the 
past several years she did not know 
what it was worth, but for the past year 
she has the figures. She has had about 
20 chickens on hand at a time, some- 
times two or three more. From these 
she has had in 12 months 2,900 eggs as 
counted, has used in the family 07 eat- 
ing chickens, and the cost of raising 
them, outside of table scraps, ht»s been 
$20 a year. Her eggs have supplied her 
family abundantly. She made the sale 
of them on the basis of 20 cents a dozen, 
which came to $32 a year. Now we all 
know that this year 20 cents may be 
reasonably doubled, which would reach 
$64. Now these are the figures for a 
small poultry yard, and they are low in 
estimate. 

ELDORADO. 

Kldokaix) Beef. — Eldorado county 
supplies large numbers of beef cattle for 
the Sacramento and San Francisco mar- 
kets. During the past few weeks one 
firm purchased over 450 head of beef 
stock at Shingle Springs and Clarksville 
in this county, and many more just over 
the line in Sacramento county. The 
mountains of Kldorado county afford 
the finest wild ranges in the world for 
stock during the summer months; but 
the cattle, horses and sheep are driven 
into the foothills or to the valley for the 
winter. 

FRESNO. 

COTTON. — Merced Sun: Cotton has 
been successfully grown just south of 
Selma, thus showing that this valuable 
crop may be raised in that section. 
William Randolph is the man who has 
successfully raised cotton and he has 
taken a fine specimen to Selma which 
he has placed on exhibition. The cot- 
ton is seemingly as good as any grown 
in the South. 

GLENN. 

Alfalfa [and Barley. — Since the 
recent rains much activity has been 
going on in the line of plowing and 
planting grain in this county. Many 
farmers are planting portions of their 
land to alfalfa this season. Barley is 



also taking a jump with the farmers, 
and from present outlook will be larger 
in acreage than the wheat crop. 

Mule's Day Ends. — Sacramento 
lire: The passing of the mule is decreed 
in the transformation of the wheat farms 
into orchards, vineyards, and alfalfa 
fields, and his mantle seems to have 
fallen on the draft horse. About a year 
ago the Gridley Draft Horse Co. secured 
a big Belgian stallion, but the animal 
died a few weeks since. The owners 
have replaced the animal with another, 
and a second organization has just been 
formed for the purpose of improving 
the breed of the farm horses of the 
country. The new company is known 
as the Oridley Belgian Horse Associa- 
tion, and it has brought in a stallion 
that weighs something over a ton. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Children Grow Vegetables. — The 
Venice Chamber of Commerce has au- 
thorized the Ocean Park Board of Edu- 
cation to offer suitable prizes to the 
school children cultivating garden plots 
in the Kinney School gardens for the 
best pumpkins, onions, carrots and all 
other kinds of vegetables. The plan is 
to have the children of Ocean Park pro- 
vide all the vegetables to be used by the 
Chamber of Commerce at the annual 
dinner on Thanksgiving day, 1908. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Good Price for Hogs. — George V. 
Beckman, a well-known farmer resid- 
ing several miles west of Lodi, recently 
shipped five head of blue-blooded Po- 
land-China hogs to Porto Rico. A 
wealthy official and land owner of the 
Porto Rican Government was the pur- 
chaser, and the price paid for the 
porkers was $100 per head. Beckman 
also received orders for all he could 
raise at that price. 

Late Berries. — On one of the cold- 
est days of this month, an Italian gar- 
dener plucked some luscious strawber- 
ries from his patch southeast of Lodi 
that weighed an even pound. Fre- 
quently blackberries have been picked 
off vines as late as January. 

SANTA CLARA. 

Herd of Cows Arrested. — Herald: 
J. Rossi and his head of 95 cattle were 
arrested for disturbing the peace, at 1:30 
a. m. — that is, Rossi was taken into cus- 
tody because the steers were bellowing 
along Santa Clara street, disturbing the 
slumbers of the residents along the main 
thoroughfare. The vaquero was told to 
drive the cattle toward the police sta- 
tion, the officer discreetly marching 100 
yards in the rear. Rossi protested that 
the herd would become disbanded if he 
was compelled to leave them; but the 
officer haled him before Captain Camp- 
bell, who allowed him to go after depos- 



FREE 

1908 CATALOG 

SEEDS 

LARGER, HANDSOMER, 

MORE COMPLETE 

THAN EVER BEFORE 

SEND FOR IT TODAY 

C. C. MORSE & COMPANY 

Successors to Cox Seed Co. 
52 JACKSON STREET SAN FRANCISCO 



THE ONE=MAN ROAD MACHINE 

Easy to guide ; strong, compart and easily adaptable to every condition demanded. It 
needs but one man and two horses to operate It. Notice the "no skid" rudders on the wheels. 
They are raised in the picture; when lowered they guide the machine straight ahead. The 
moldboard 1b six feet long. Baa adjustable shoes shown at ends of moldboard to gage depth 
to which moldboard should cut. J i s a very desirable machine for road-building In city or vil- 
lage. It makes good roads and keeps them so. Although made of steel and malleable Iron, 
still It weighs odly 600 pounds. The 

20th CENTURY GRADER 

saves time of three men and two extra horses. It is easy on the horses. Has blade In front of 
wheels. Moldboard reversible. Machine turns In (i ft. circle, liullt for Road-grading, Ditch- 
ing, Land-levelLng, Foundation-digging, 

FOR IRRIGATION, 
CANAL BUILDING, Etc. 

The price Is lower than most such 
machines. v> e send It on free trial. 
Write us for our handsome book- 
let, "Delightful Beads." It's free 
and tells you all about the 20th 
Century. 

The While Cily Grader Co. 

Box 24 White City. Kansas 

J. GORDON, Hales Agent, 
P. O. Box 167, Sacramento, Cal. 





E. 



FREE 

120-EGG SIZE $,14 

We pay railroad freight. 724 Pdge 

Book. 

E. McCLANAHAN, 

711 South Main Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 



iting $10 bail. While Rossi was in the 
station, the cattle browsed contentedly 
in the City Hall park. He explained 
that he was driving the herd from graz- 
ing grounds near Palo Alto to a corral 
in Coyote. 

SANTA CRUZ. 

Rattlesnake Crop. — While clear- 
ing land for grape planting, near Boul- 
der (reek, a couple of Italians struck 
their axes in the soft sandy soil and 
broke Into a small cavern, says a Santa 
Cruz dispatch. The sharp frost that cov- 
ered the ground and the chilly air doubt- 
less saved their lives. Paying no atten- 
tion to the small hole they had 
accidentally opened up, they worked on 
until the rising sun began to warm the 
atmosphere, when suddenly it seemed as 
though all the rattlesnakes in the State 
had assembled in convention. Grabbing 
their axes, they killed all in sight, and 
then, taking a stand over the hole, as 
the snakes crawled out they speedily 
dispatched 137 rattlers. 

STANISLAUS. 

Orange Crop. — Herald: The Stan- 
islaus orange crop is especially heavy 
this year and the fruit is of large size, 
good color, and excellent flavor. The 
orange industry around Modesto is at- 
tracting more attention every year. A. 
Monotti has shipped over 200 boxes of 
Washington navel oranges to San Fran- 
cisco from his orchard just north of 
town. The oranges are neatly wrapped 



and boxed, the 00*68 l>earing an attrac- 
tive label. 

TEHAMA. 

Peanuts.— The Tung Sang Co., truck 
gardeners near Tehama, made a test of 
peanut raising by planting three acres 
last season and feel highly pleased with 
the success of the venture. The crop 
has just been harvested and amounts to 
900 sacks which average 40 lb. each, 
making a total of 30,000 lb. of peanuts 
from three acres. They sold the crop at 
6c per lb., making au income of about 
$700 per acre. 

YOLO. 

A Sample Prune Crop. — Sacra- 
mento Bee: Roy Coil has finished ship- 
ping his prune crop. From 05 acres of 
trees he dried 276 tons of fruit that 
averaged 50 prunes t<> the pound. He 
sold his crop early in the season for 
something more than $21,000. If he 
had waited a few weeks he could have 
sold for over $35,000. His expense was 
less than $5,000. 

YUBA. 

Will Use Sheep. — The E, Clements 
Horst Co. of Wheatland has decided to 
turn 20U0 head of sheep into their hop 
fields for the purpose of eating away the 
under leaves on the vines and the other 
growth that interferes with the pickers 
in the summer. The sheep are also 
given credit for fertilizing the land to a 
great extent. 



January 4, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



SEEDS, PLANTS, Etc. 



WANTED 

Catlings of the Following for Grafting Purposes : 

Rupestris St. George, Rlparia x Kupestris 330G, 
Hlparla x Rupestris 3309, Riparia x Rupestris 
106-8 and Mourvedre x Rupestris 1202. Address 

FANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

Fresno, California. 

Pacific Nurseries 

San Francisco and Millbrae, San Mateo Co. 

Offers Tor this Season's Planting 
a full line of 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Evergreen and 

Deciduous, Conifers, Palms, Rhododendrons, 

Camellias, Ericas, Azaleas, Roses, Eucalyptus, 

Cypress, Pine, Monterey and Maritima Pittospo- 

rum transplanted into plats. 

Send for Catalogue 

F. LUDEMANN, 3041 Baker Street 

SAN FRANCISCO 

FOR SALE 

200,000 Berry Plants, including Phenom- 
enals, Mammoths, Blackberries, Himalaya 
Giants, LucreUa Dewberries and Raspberries. 

Send for Catalogue to 

R.J. HUNTER. OAK VIEW BERRY FARM 

Gridley, Cal. 

Orange Seed Bed Stock. 

SWEET AND SOUR 

Orders Booked Now for Delivery 
Spring of 1908. 

SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, 

F. H. DISBROW, Proprietor. 
Both Phones. R. D. 1, Pasadena, Cal. 

WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed 



Postal for prices. 



A. A. MILLS, 



Anaheim, Ca). 



BARTLETT PEARS. 

I have a large stock of Bartlett Pears that can- 
not be excelled for size and quality grown on 
whole roots one year old. Prices reasonable. 
Those desiring in any quantity, address, 

R. P. EACHUS, LAKEPORT. CAL. 

NOW READY 

THE BOOK OF 

ALFALFA 

History, Cultivation and Merits. Its Uses as a 
Forage and Fertilizer. By F. D. CobUKN, 
Secretary Kansas Department of Agriculture. 
The appearance of F. D. Coburn's little book on 
Alfalfa, a few years since, has been a complete 
revelation to thousands of farmers throughout tuo 
country and the increasing demand for still mora 
information on the subject has induced the author 
to prepare the present volume, which is, by far, the 
most authoritative, complete and valuable work on 
this forage crop ever published. 

One of the most important movements which hai 
occurred in American agriculture is the general in* 
troduction of alfalfa as a hay and pasture crop. 
While formerly it was considered that alfalfa could 
be grown profitably only in the irrigation sections 
of the country, the acreage devoted to this crop is 
rapidly increasing everywhere. Recent experiment* 
have shown that alfalfa has a much wider useful- 
ness than has hitherto been supposed, and good 
crops are now grown in almost every state. N>, 
forage plant has ever been introduced and suc- 
cessfully cultivated in the United State? possessed 
of the general excellence of alfalfa. 

The plant although known in the Old World 
hundreds of years Before Christ, was intro- 
duced into North America only during the last 
century, yet it is probably receiving more attention 
than any other crop. When once well established 
it continues to produce good crops for an almost 
indefinite number of years. The author thoroughly 
believes in alfalfa, he believes in it for the big 
fanner as a profit bringer in the form of hay, or 
condensed into beef, pork, mutton, or products of 
the cow; but he has a still more abiding faith in 
it as a mainstay of the small farmer, for feed for 
all his live stock and for maintaining the fertility 
of the soil. 

The treatment of the whole subject is in the 
author's usual clear and admirable style, as will be 
seen from the following condensed table of contents: 

History, Description. Varieties and Habits, Uni- 
versality of Alfalfa. Yields, and Comparisons with 
Other Crops, Seed and Seed Selection, Soil and 
Beeding, Cultivation, Harvesting, Storing, Pastur- 
ing and Soiling, Alfalfa as a Feed Stuff, Alfalfa 
in Beef-Making, Alfalfa and the Dairy. Alfalfa for 
Swine, Alfalfa for Horses and Mules. Alfalfa for 
Sheep-Raising. Alfalfa for Bees, Alfalfa for Poul- 
try. Alfalfa for Food Preparation. Alfalfa for Town 
and City, Alfalfa for Crop Rotation. Nitro-Cultuxe. 
Alfalfa aa a Commercial Factor, The Enemies of 
Alfalfa, Difficulties and Discouragements. Alfalfa 
in the Orchard, Practical Experiences with Alfalfa. 
Illustrated. 6 1-2x9 Inches. 336 pages. 
Cloth. Price 82.00. 

PACIFIC RURAL PRES3 



The Crocker Bartlett Pear 



DOES NOT BLIGHT 

If proven different, purchase price of trees 
bought from us in 1907 will be refunded. Fruit 
highly recommended by Luther Burbank. 

Sample of pears sent on receipt of 25 cents. 

See U. S. Year Book of 1905. 

Peach Trees, 15c— all leading varieties. 

Cherry Trees, 20c -all leading varieties. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

Loomis, Placer County, Cal. 



High In Quality 



Low in Price 



OUR SEEDS GROW 

Vegetable, Flower 
and Farm Seed 



J. SEULBERGER, 

414 Fourteenth Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 



GREGORYS 

SEEDS 



ha ve earned a worl d -wide reputation . Thon- 
sands of fanners and gardeners rely upon 
them absolutely because they are sure grow- 
ers. If you have never planted them. Just 
try them this year. Our new calalogue helps i 
1 solve all the problems of planting— will be 
L l ikely to set you right when in doubt, 
^v^^ IT'B FRKB. Write for a copy. A 
^#J. J. H. GREGORY S SON 

<**WS« M«BHLEHE«0. MMt. 



ALMONDS 

I.ewelling, Texas Prolific, Drake, Three sure 
bearers. 

PEACHES 

Muir, Elberta, Lowell, Orange and Tuscan 
Cling, etc. 

CHERRIES 

t hapman (earliest), Royal Ann, Ring, Tartarian, 
etc. 

WALNUTS AND PECANS 

drafted and Seedlings. 

ELLWOOD WALNUT 

EUCALYPTUS— Twenty varieties, in 10,000 or 
50,000 lots. 

Leonard Coates Nursery Co., Inc. 

Morganhiil, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



Franquette 
Santa Hosa 

Finest 
Varieties 

Bur bank's 
Best 



Bur bank's 
Crimson Winter 



WALNUTS 
CHESTNUTS 
Opulent Peach 
Rhubarb 

Grown at Sebastopol 

T. J. TRUE, 



Grafted on 
Calif. Black 



Grafted 

Finest 
(iuality 

Also other 
stock 



Rural Route 1. 



MODESTO 



Trees 



French Prunes and Apri- 
cots; Muirs aid Tuscan 
Clings, and many other 
varieties of Peach Trees, 
all fine budded stock. Large stock of all the 
leading varieties of Apples, grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also a fine stock 
of Cherries, Pears, Plums, etc. 
Send for price list. 

A. F. SCHEIDECKER. Sebastopol, Cal. 

Proprietor Pleasant View Nursery. 



Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

$1.50 per Doz. $6 per 100. $40 per 1000. 

Now is good time to plant. Pedigreed Stock. 
500 Valencia, one year, extra fine, $60 per 100. 
J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist, Pas- 
adena, Cal. 

BROOM CORN AN D BROOMS.— A treatise on 
raising broom corn and making brooms on a 
small or large scale. Illustrated. 59 pages 
6 by 7 Inches. Cloth $0.60 



Trees that Grow and Bear Fruit 



SOUTHERN TREES ARE BEST, BECAUSE THEY ARE THOROUGHLY 
DORMANT AND HAVE NO SOFT WOOD ABOUT THEM. 

Our trees are carefully and well grown. Buy direct from the grower and 
save the middleman's profit. Special attention given to orders from large 
planters. We have a general assortment of deciduous, citrus and ornamental 
trees. Also an extensive line of ornamental and flowering plants, including a 
large assortment of roses. Write for price list — it is free. 

Orange County Nursery & Land Company 

FULLERT0N, CAL 



Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

We Grow on New Virgin Soil all Leading Varieties of Fruit Trees and Grape Vines. 
We Guarantee all Stock True to Name and Free from Disease. 

SPECIALTIES— Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Figs, Apricots, 
Cherries. Wine, Table and Raisin Grapes. 

We grow only Standard Commercial Varieties— Money Makers. Life is too short 
to experiment with so-called Novelties which have been untried. We have been 
pleasing our customers for 18 years. We refer to any bank or business house in 
Fresno as to our standing and reliability. Write us for prices. Large Catalogue 
and Souvenir Picture showing Largest Tree in the world mailed Free. Address 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. WILSON, Proprietor. Box r. r. 42. Fresno, California 



Ask US 

about 

Walnuts 



The kind 
for 

Common i I 
P.a ting. 



Lirge, 

Rich and 

Prolific 



Costs nothing to investigate. 
Ask for our Walnut Booklet. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

SALEM, OREGON. 

Salesmen Wanted. 




The Sower ~V Has 

No Second Chance 

Good sense says make the most 
of the first. 

FERRY'S 

SEEDS 

have made and kept Ferry's Seed Busi- 
ness the largest In the world— merit tells. 

Ferry's Seed Annual for 1908 

tells the whole Seed Story— sent FREE for 
the asking. Don't sow seeds till you get it. 

D. M. FERRY & CO.. Detroit. Mich. 



Strawberry Plants 

Brandywine, Excelsior, Texas, Arizona, Al, 
Lady Thompson and Midnight, Pedigree Plants. 

Blackberry Plants 

Mammoth Blacks, Early Crandal, 

Giant Himalaya. 

Raspberry Plants 

Surprise (earliest known), Millers, Cuthbert. 

Dewberry, Loganberry, 

Phenomenal Berry Plants. 

Mention this paper and get catalog of prices 
and cultural directions. 

G. H. HOPKINS, Burbank, Cal. 



SUGAR GUM AND RED GUM TREES 

in large or small numbers. 
HENRY SHAW. RIVERSIDE NURSERY 
320 River St. Santa Cruz, Cal. 




Best Stock on the Coast 
Every Tree True to Name 

CITRUS 

Any quantity in all of the leading Stand- 
ard Varieties. All grown at Exeter, where 
they develop perfectly. 

DECIDUOUS 

The best of everything in all sorts, strong 
and healthy, with well developed roots. 
Properly packed and shipped promptly or 
when desired. Place your orders now. 




NEW W 

CREATIONS 

We are sole propagators and disseminators 

Santa Rosa Plum 
Rutland Plumcot, Gaviota Plum 
Formosa Plum, Vesuvius Plum 
Royal and Paradox Walnuts 

Send 10c. for our valuable hooklet, beauti- 
fully Illustrated in colors, which tells all 
about these wonderful new creations. 

GRAPEVINES 

On their own roots and grafted on 
Phylloxera Resistant Roots. 

Calimyrna Figs, Ornamental 
Trees, Roses, Palms, Plants. 

Our large new catalogue sent free. 

PAID-UP CAPITAL 9 200.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

2GS0.C Roeding Pres. & Mgr. 
Box 18 Fresno.California.USAW 



12 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 4, 1908. 



Clean Skimming 
Means Good Living 

The hoe trough is no place to put 
butter. 

Wiile awake farmers want the | 
cream separator that skims the clean- 
est. It means more profit— better 
living. That separator is the Sharpies 
Dairy Tubular— the separator that's 
different. 

Sharpies Dairy Tuhulnrs have 
twice tlie skim mini; force of any other | 




separators- skim twice as clean. 

Prof. J. L. Thomas, instructor in 
dairying at the agricultural college of 
one of the greatest states in the Union, 
says: "I have just completed a test of 
your separator. The skimming is the 
closest I have ever seen — just a trace 
of fat. I believe the loss to be no great- 
er than one thousandth of one per 1 
cent." 

That is one reason why you should 
insist upon having the Tubular. Tub- 
ulars are different, in every way, from , 
I other separators, and every difference J 
| is to your advantage. Write for cat- 
alog S- hi and valuable free book, ] 
"Business Dairying." 

The Sharpies Separator Co., 

West Chester, Pa. 
Toronto, Can. Chicago, III. 



Florist and Gardener. 



Beautiful Vines for California 
Gardens. 

Gteorgina S. Townsend, whose home 
is evidently in southern California, 
though mueh that 9he says is also ap- 
plicable to valleys and foothills in other 
parts of the State, has written for Floral 
Life an account of the garden vines 
which she lias the fullest affection for 
and states the reasons for it. 

"In laying out your grounds, have 
arbors wherever they will look artistic, 
and enclose the barnyards and chicken 
cdi ra Is with high trellis fences. Have 
a lath house for young plants, and a 
summer house or two, and you will find 
plenty of places for vines." Of course 
it is only a few who can make places 
for vines in this fashion, but every one 
has porches and fences and sheds which, 
when covered with vines, are a constant 
joy and which beautify marvelously. 

The Bourgainvillea, while its color is 
very strong and will not harmonize 
with anything, is a very handsome vine 
when grown by itself. It is a strong, 
vigorous vine, and is in bloom fully 
eight months of the year. Its leaves are 
glossy and dark green and the bracts 
are brilliant in their peculiar shade. I 
know of one arrangement which is very 
effective. An old reservoir which was 
unsightly in the front of an estate was 
covered with a bamboo wickup, and the 
BoargainvUlea was planted at each pole. 
The whole is now covered with the dense 
foliage and profuse bloom, and is a sight 
worth going out of one's way toadmire. 
When the vine is in full bloom late in 
summer the leaves are hidden by the 
mass of bloom. 

In arranging vines, one must know 
the color scheme and the time of bloom- 
ing. Another vine of discordant color, 
yet especially handsome by itself, is 
Bignonia Venusta. It blooms in the 
spring and is an orange yellow. It 
starts growth slowly, but when once 
well established it makes a splendid 
growth, covering everything it can 
reach, both up and across. Its bloom 
ing season is not long, but while it lasts 
it is brilliantly gorgeous. These two 
vines are, I believe, the only ones which 



must have a place to themselves on ac- 
count of their peculiar colors. But it is 
worth while to be governed by their 
eccentricities because the result is so 
satisfactory. 

The finest scarlet vine is the Tasconia. 
It might be mistaken at first sight by a 
newcomer for one of the passion vines, 
but it is a family by itself. An arbor 
covered with one in bloom is a remark- 
able sight. One can see the scarlet 
Mowers as far as the eye can reach. It is a 
particular favorite of mine and should 
be more generally planted. It is not 
as well known as it should be. 

The wistarias — blue, purple and white, 
and the double white — are spring beau- 
ties and do exceedingly well. Many 
Eastern newcomers having been familiar 
with the wistaria in their old homes, do 
not think of planting it in this warmer 
climate, but it does even better here 
than in the colder climate. It grow- so 
large and strong that care must be taken 
not to let it get wound about posts or 
trees or anything that it can injure in 
ts tight clutch. Its blooming period is 
not long, but its growth in the summer 
months is luxuriant. It is deciduous 
and for that reason many people do not 
like it, but for my part I enjoy seeing 
vines and trees drop their leaves and 
come out in the early spring with tender 
new growth. 

TheSolanum grandirlorum is one of the 
most popular of our vines. Its growth 
is coarse and luxuriant, but its profuse 
panicles of lavender-blue bloom are very 
showy and handsome. It is rather 
more tender than some other vines, as a 
cold snap will chill it and make it drop 
its leaves, but as it recovers easily and 
sends out new leaves and buds at once, 
it is always a delight. Its blooming 
season lasts for months. In very warm 
weather the flowers will fade out to an 
almost white. It and the pale blue 
Plumbago are the light shades of blue 
in the vineland. 

The Plumbago is the most exquisite 
blue that I know of in the floral king- 
dom, and is a profuse bloomer. I have 
it extensively beside the pale pink 
Tecoma whose trumpet-shaped flowers, 
in great clusters make it, in my opinion, 
the handsomest flowering vine we have. 
The moonflowers are all beautiful, the 
white and the deep blue which remains 
open half the day, and the shell pink 
ottering a fine assortment of colors. The 
white Plumbago is not so beautiful as 
the blue, and there are many other 
white flowering vines which are more 
desirable — for instance, Constance Elliott 
Passi flora, which blooms in the early 
summer and fruits in orange-colored 
egg-shaped pears. They are very or- 
namental all summer, if one does not 
care to eat them. The purple Passiflora 
is also handsome. The yellow and white 
Jasmines offer fragrance, but are not 
striking for their appearance. But to 
the garden they are indispensable be- 
cause of their odor. 

The Bignonia Tweediana has a clear 
yellow trumpet flower without a hint 
of orange and blossoms at the same time 
as the blue Plumbago, and they present 
a harmonious combination when planted 
near each other. The fragrant honey- 
suckle is the true delight of the southern 
garden. Everyone knows the honey- 
suckle. The Dolichos is a splendid vine 
for dry places as it makes a good growth 
with very little water. The trumpet 
flower, as it is called in the Kast — one 
of the orange-red bignonias — is seldom 
seen, but when it is grown it is worth 
while. In fact all the bignonias are 
desirable vines. 

Our choicest vines are the clematis, 
the royal purple Jackmanii is certainly 
a gorgeous sight when in full bloom, 
but it is a delicate and difficult vine to 
successfully grow. I have had at least 
six different roots and have never raised 
one, but I have seen it where it would 
completely cover a porch. The enormous 
white blossoms of Henryii make one 
stare in amazement. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State 
For sale by all the large groceis, or 
D. A. SNOW. Lincoln Avenue, San Jose, Cal. 




A True Plane 

When you buy an ordinary plane you have to find out by 
actual use whether it is true or not. 

You know a Keen Kutter Plane, or any Keen Kuttcr 
tool, is true before you buy it, because it is stamped with 
the trademark which guarantees it. 

You know it will be perfect in hang, balance, 
temper, finish and adjustment, because all Keen 
Kutter Tools are tested and inspected and found 
worthy to uphold their well-earned reputation as 
Tools of Service before the name and trademark 
are stamped upon them. This mark is your safe- 
guard in buying tools. It costs you nothing, but 
means if anything goes wrong you shall not be 
the loser. To be sure of lasting, accurate, and 
practical tools, ask for 



KSM KUTftR 

Tools and Cutlery 

The name Keen Kutter covers Saws, Chisels, Hits, Drills, Gimlets, Awls, Planes, 
Hammers, Hatchets, Axes, Drawing-knives, Screw-drivers, Files, Pliers, Glass- 
cutters, Ice-picks, and a full line of Farm and Garden Tools— 
Pork*, Hoes, Scythes, Trowels, Manure-hooks. I.awn-mowers, 
Grass-shears, Rakes, etc. Also a full line of Scissors and 
Shears, Pocket-knives and Table Cutlery. 

Keen Kutter Tools have been sold for nearly 40 years 
under this mark and motto : 

"The Recollection of Quality Remains Lont After the thrice is 

Forfotlen." — K. C. Simmons. Trademark rttgUterod. 

If not at your dealer's, write us. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY (Inc.), 

St. Louis and New York, U. S. A. 



1 1 1 'oli 1 1 'tit' 1 3? 1 W 1 5P 1 'sd' 1 1 



yi. l ?iM?i. l fi. l ?i. l ri.,.y.i.y. l .?. l ff. l ff.,.v. l .^ l ff., 



DE LAVAL 
SEPARATOR 

will enable you to get the greatest results from your cows. 
A 20TH CCNTUBY BABCOCK TESTER and an IDEAL 
MILK SCALE will indicate just what each cow is doing, and inform 
you what returns you should receive from the creamery. Some 
cows are profitable, others are not. Get rid of the poor 
ones and buy good ones. Ask for catalogues A and B. 

De Laval Dairy Supply Co. 



GENERAL OFFICES: 
Drumm and Sacramento Ms., s. I . 
107 First Sc., 123 N Main St. 
Portland Los Angeles 

1017 Post Si., Seattle 



HOYT'S TREE SUPPORT 



PATENTED NOV. 26, 1901. 
PATENTED SEPT. 22, 1903. 




Hoyt's Tree Support on the Tree. 

Over Three Million Sold Since Introduction in 1903 

After your trees have broken down, overloaded with fruit, don't howl about 
your hard luck. The preventive is CHEAP, EFFECTIVE, PERMANENT. 

For Full Particulars and Descriptive Booklet write 

MacDONALD & SONS 

WATSONVILLE, CALIFORNIA 
General Agents for the H0YT TREE SUPPORT COMPANY. 



January 4, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



The Stable. 



Mule Raising in Washington. 

Mr. A. H. Hotchkin of Walla Walla, 
Washington, writes for the Pacific- 
Homestead his ideas on mule raising, 
which will be reviewed with interest 
by California growers of this indis- 
pensable product. 

How to breed and raise good mules is 
one of the questions which is perplexing 
to a number of our farmers, as a great 
many prefer raising mules to horses, 
but, it seems, they know more about 
the horses and how to attend to them to 
get the best results, while they have 
had very little experience with raising 
mules. 

In the first place, to obtain the best 
success in raising good mules, a man 
should select mares that have a strain 
of good blood and of fair size. "The 
best sized mares are from 1100 to 1300 
lb." With a good sire this grade of 
mares is best for the following reasons: 
The mare generally has good life, which 
has a tendency to produce a mule with 
his head up, and this sized mares have 
proven to produce mules that weigh 
from 1100 to 1500 lb., with lots of style, 
which command the best prices in the 
market. Bigger mares produce well, 
but if the mare is large she is nearly 
always lubberly. No one wants clumsy, 
lazy mules. The upheadedness is not 
as a rule obtained from the jack; how- 
ever, in selecting a jack a man doesn't 
at any time want a dead head. The 
jack should be black with white points, 
of good size, with a good disposition. 
The disposition should be taken largely 
into consideration. 

Tlie best time to breed your mares is 
May, June, or July; this brings the 
colt when the grass is green and the sun 
is warm. The mare needs grass to 
suckle her colt. She gives lots of milk 
on this feed, which strengthens the colt 
and makes him stretch in the sun and 
exercise lots. As soon as he begins to 
eat, which is generally at three or four 
months old, give him a little chopped 
feed and fix a trough in his pasture 
where he can get it at any time. Keep 
him away from the mare during the 
day after he is four months old, and 
when you come to wean him he will 
eat, thrive, and continue to grow. He 
should be weaned at six months old, 
and if he has learned to eat well the 
thing from this time on is to give him 
a good pasture with plenty of good 
water and chopped feed in his trough 
all the time. 

The secret of mule raisiug is to keep 
them growing and feed, exercise and 
sunshine will make them mature. Here 
is an instance which happened the past 
summer. One man had a mare weigh- 
ing 1040 pounds which foaled a mule 
colt the last of April. This colt vvas 
allowed to run in pasture with its 
mother every night and was given all 
it could eat. The owner sold this colt 
for $135 when the colt was six months 
old. Another man owned two mule 
colts, both foaled in May, from mares 
weighing 1100 and 1200 pounds each. 
These mares were kept on dry feed all 
the time they were suckling these colts 
and he sold the mules for $65 in Octo- 
ber. 

The care has very much to do with 
the outcome of your colts. During the 



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feeder is striving to make a looo 
lb. steer in a year's time, when Nature would 
take much longer. He is making a 200 lb. hog 
in one-fourth the period unassisted growth 
would require for the same operation. More 
than this, he is asking the cow, whose capacity 
for milk secretion was limited to the brief in- 
fancy of the calf, to do violence to Nature's plan 
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breeding season care should be taken to 
see that the mare is returned and tried 
on the 18th to 21st day after she is bred 
and should she prove not to be in season 
try her again on the 27th day from ser- 
vice and you will find it will add to 
your stock of colts the next spring. 

Persistence is the secret of success. 
A good way for a man to try his mare 
is to require a few dollars deposit at the 
time of the first service, then, if he for- 
gets he has a mare, he will wonder 
what has become of that five or ten- 
dollar gold piece that he has hoarded 
away in his pocket, and when he re- 
members that he has a mare he will 
get busy and take the mare to get tried. 
I have tried this system, and it is sur- 
prising how well they remember and 
the result is that my jacks have 85 per 
cent of mares with foal. 

No man can have good success in 
breeding an animal, "no matter how 
good care he gives that animal," un- 
less the mare owner takes care of her 
also, and the person who takes good 
care of his mares has the most to gain. 
Should she go over a season without a 
colt her owner has lost $50 to $100 and 
the country is no better off because he 
owned a mare. 



Patrons of Husbandry. 



Tulare Grange Meeting. 

To the Editor: Tulare Grange met 
in regular session on the 21st and con- 
ferred the 3rd and 4th degrees on a class 
of two. 

The special committee to prepare a 
program for the Farmers' Institute to be 
held in Tulare on the 13th and 14th of 
next month reported and the report was 
adopted. 

The sessions will be held in the fore- 
noon, afternoon and evening of each 
day, two lectures and question box each 
session, with music afternoon and even- 
ing, all lectures on subjects of special in- 
terest to the leading industries of this 
locality. The first evening will be de- 
voted to a lecture by Brother Miot, 
Secretary of the County Board of Trade, 
on the products and possibilities of the 
county, with stereopticon views. 

Brother Hunsaker who, with Brother 
Henry, represented Tulare Grange at the 



Promotion Committee meeting in Fres- 
no, made an interesting and a good re- 
port of that meeting. 

Officers elected for the ensuing year 
will be installed at the first meeting in 
January, Brother F. H. Styles, the re- 
tiring Worthy Master, installing. 

The committee having in charge the 
preparation of a program of subjects for 
consideration at each meeting of the 
Grange for the next six months reported 
the subject to be considered at each 
meeting and the Brother or Sister who 
will open the discussion. 

Under the head of ' Good of the Or- 
der,' the subject of a State mutual fire 
insurance for members of the Order was 
fully discussed. The reports of proceed- 
ings of the National Grange show that 
such Patrons' fire insurance associations 
are now maintained in 14 States with 
manifest advantage in reduced rates and 
in safety of insurance to the insured and 
with an increased and more stable mem- 
bership to the Order. There is no valid 
reason why the insurance laws of Cali- 
fornia should not provide for a fraternal 
fire insurance. Its desirability or its 
safety cannot be questioned. This is 
shown by its working results in 14 of 
our States. Every State having a fra- 
ternal organization such as ours to con- 
trol and promote it should have one. 
Governor Gillett has appointed a com- 
mission to revise the insurance laws of 
this State — a work sadly needed; this is 
deemed an opportune time to enact a 
State fraternal fire insurance law. We 
have State fraternal life insurance, 
which, desirable as it is and safe- 
guarded as they are, can never be made 
as safe as a fraternal fire insurance on 
farm property only. 

The following resolutions were passed: 

Resolved, By Tulare Grange, Patrons 
of Husbandry of California, the ' Good of 
the Order ' requires we should have the 
insurance laws of this State revised so as 
to provide for fraternal mutual fire insur- 
ance. Other States have it; the Order 
needs it; we need it. 

Resolved, The Worthy Master and Ex- 
ecutive Committeeof the State Grange are 
hereby requested to make every effort to 
have the insurance laws of California re- 
vised and amended so that fraternal asso- 
ciations may be able to protect their 
members against fire. 

Resolved, A copy of these resolutions be 
forwarded to the Worthy Master of the 
State Grange, a copy to his Excellency 
Governor Gillett and a copy to the Com- 
mission for the Revision of the Insurance 
Laws of California. 



Tulare, Cal. 



J. T. 



Glenn Ranch 

GLENN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

For Sale in 
Subdivisions 



This famous and wellknown farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, "The Wheat King," as been 
surveyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale in 
any sized Government subdivision at remarkably 
low prices, and In no ease, it is believed, exceed- 
ing what Is assessed for county and State taxa- 
tion purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west 
bank of the Sacramento river for fifteen miles. 
It is located in a region that has never lacked an 
ample rainfall and no irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year 
and freight and trading boats make regular trips. 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Cali- 
fornia, and inquire for P. O. Elbe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdivisions and prices per acre, address 
personally or by letter 



F. C. LUSK, 



Agent of N. D. Rideout, Administrator of the 
Estate of H. J. Glenn, at Chico, Butte County, Cal. 



HEALD'S 

Business College and School of Engineering 

THE LEADING COMMERCIAL AND 
ENGINEERING SCHOOL IN THE WEST 

HAS BRANCHES AT 
OAKLAND, STOCKTON, FRESNO, AND SANTA CRUZ 

ESTABLISHED OVER 40 YEARS 

80 Teachers ; nearly 100 Typewriting Machines; 
20,000 Graduates; 1,000 annual enrollment; 600 
average daily attendance; 600 calls annually for 
graduates of the college. Mining, Electrical and 
Civil Engineering departments. All depart- 
ments open the entire year. Both sexes. Indi- 
vidual instruction. Catalogue free. 

HEALD'S BUSINESS COLLEGE 

425 McAllister Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

HENRY B. LISTER, 
ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 Pacific Hldg., Fourth and Market Sts., 
San Francisco. 

Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 



i4 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 4, 1908. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Dec. 30, 1907. 

WHEAT. 

The tendency of the Chicago wheat 
market has been strongly upward during 
the last few days. In this market, as us- 
ual during the holidays, very little has 
been done. There is a strong demand for 
choice milling grades, and the millers 
would take large quantities, but there is 
very little offering in California and hold- 
ers in the northern States are unwilling to 
ship the best grades to this market at 
present. There are moderate offerings of 
lower grades, but there is no great interest 
taken in them and the market shows lit- 
tle feature. There is no change in spot 
prices. 

California White Australian.. 1.75 @1.82| 

California Club 1.67J@1.72jj 

California Milling Nominal 

California lower grades 1.60 ©1.65 

Northern Club 1.65 ©1.72J 

Northern Bluestem 1.75 ©1.77J 

Northern lied 1.62J@1.70 

BARLEY. 

Trading has been rather active in May 
options, which declined slightly last week. 
The cash market has been very dull all 
week, owing to the holidays, and receipts 
have been liberal. Theonly article which 
has not changed in price during the week 
is chevalier, which is practically nominal, 
everything else showing a further decline. 
All lines on which there has been any 
trading have fallen off about 2.J cents. 
The shipping demand is unusually quiet, 
business being little over half the volume 
of last year. 

Brewing $1.60 @1.65 

Chevalier 1.76 ©1.85 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctl.. 1.50 (3)1.55 

Common to Fair 1.47i@1.48^ 

Shipping 1.57j@1.60 

OATH. 

There has been no further changes in 
prices on oats, and trading on the ex- 
change has been of a holiday character, 
with few transactions reported. There 
is no pressure to sell on the partof holders, 
however, as stocks have been diminishing 
rapidly for some weeks. Arrivals have 
been much smaller than last month, and 
the market shows a lirmer tone, with an 
expectation of more activity after the first 
of the year. 

Clean Black for seed $2.50 @3.00 

Choice Bed, per ctl 1.85 @1.90 

Gray 1.55 @1. 70 

White 1.55 @1.70 

Choice Bed, for seed 1.90 @2.10 

CORN. 

Little California corn is offering, and 
the few samples shown attract little at- 
tention. Arrivals from the Western States 
have been unusually large for this season, 
1200 centals arriving in one day, but trad- 
ing is still of small proportions. California 
large yellow is lower. 

California Small Round Yel- 
low, per ctl Nominal 

Large Yellow 1.65 @ 

White Nominal 

Western State sacked Yel- 
low, old 1.62J@ 1.65 

White, in bulk 1.55 @ 

Mixed, in bulk 1.52 @ 

Brown Egyptian 1.40 @ 

White Egyptian 1.35 @ 

New Yellow 1.47 @ 

RYE. 

Conditions in rye show very little 
change. There is practically no demand, 
and offerings are small, with prices on all 
lines being held at figures which have 
been current for some time. 

California $1.45 © 

Utah 1.40 @1.45 

Oregon 1.45 @ 

BEANS. 

The bean market is quiet, with prices 
steadily held on most lines. There is little 
demand at present from any direction, 
and local dealers are limiting their ac- 
tivities during the holiday season, though 
a better movement is looked for in a few 
weeks. Pinks and whites, especially large 
whites, are a little lirmer, but limas have 
fallen a little. 

Bayos, per ctl $3.15 @3.25 

Blackeyes 3.75 @4.00 

Butter 4.50 @5.00 

Cranberry Beans 2.75 @3.25 

Garvanzos 3.75 @4.00 



Horse Beans 3.00 @3.25 

Small White 3.50 @ 

Large White 3.35 @3.45 

Limas 4.85 @5.00 

Pea 3.50 @3.75 

Pink 3.15 @3.25 

Red 3.40 @3.50 

Red Kidneys 3.40 @3.50 

SEEDS. 

Seed prices are very firmly held at 
former quotations, though during the 
present week there is little demand, and 
business is quiet. The prospect for the 
remaining winter months is excellent, 
and active buying is expected within the 
next few weeks. 

Turkestan alfalfa 18 @ 

Alfalfa 17J@ 18 c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton fi22.00@25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 3 @ 3|c 

Canary 4}@ 4Jc 

Flaxseed 23® — 

Hemp 4}@ 4Jc 

Millet 3 @ 3jc 

Timothy nominal. 

Yellow Mustard 5 @ 5Jc 

FLOUR. 

As usual at this time of year, the flour 
market is rather quiet, with no great 
amount of buying going on. Prices are 
firmly held at current figures. More ac- 
tivity is expected after the first of the 
year, when there is likely to be some 
buying to replenish jobbing stocks. 

California Family Extra, per 

bbl $5.40 ©6.00 

Bakers' extras 5.40 @5.65 

Superfine 4.20 @4.50 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4.75 @5.25 

HAY. 

Receipts of hay at San Francisco have 
been comparatively light this week but 
more than sufficient to supply the de- 
mands of the local trade. As was the 
case last week, buyers have been deferring 
their purchases until after the first of the 
year and probably buying will not be 
very free until after the first of next week. 
One encouraging feature of the situation 
is a good demand that has sprung up at 
some interior points and this promises to 
do much toward relieving the San Fran- 
cisco market. Prices are practically the 
same as before, in some instances being 
quoted a little higher, but the market 
favors buyers and it is probable that con- 
cessions from quotations could be had to 
effect large sales. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $15.50@17.50 

Other Grades Wheat 11.00@15.00 

Wheat and Oat 12.0O@15.00 

Tame Oat 11.00©16.00 

Wild Oat 10.00@13.50 

Alfalfa 9.00@14.00 

Stock 8.00@10.00 

Straw, per bale 45@ 85c 

MILLSTUFFS. 

Though feedstuffs arequiet as compared 
to a few weeks ago, there is still consider- 
able activity. Prices on all varieties are 
very firmly held on all descriptions at 
figures previously quoted. Most of the 
receipts, which are moderate, are sold 
prior to arrival, and there is no great 
accumulation. 

Alfalfa Meal (carload lots) 

per ton $22.00© 

Jobbing 23.00® 

Bran, ton 28.(.()@29.50 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl 90c@ 1.00 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills (in 10-ton lots) 25.00® 

Jobbing 26.00® 

Corn Meal 37.00® 

Cracked Corn 38.00® 

Mealfalfa 21.50® 

Jobbing 22.60® 

Middlings 31.O0@32.0O 

Mixed Feeds 22.00@24.00 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 38.50®39.5» 

Rolled Barley 35.0O@36.00 

Shorts 28.50@30.00 

POULTRY. 

Arrivals of turkeys were unusually light 
last week and supplies ran short just be- 
fore Christmas, sending prices up with a 
jump, but little was realized from the ad- 
vance, as most of the stock had already 
been disposed of. Regular prices were 22 
to 27 cents for dressed stock, but the last 
lots sold up to 30 cents. There was prac- 
tically no market on any line of poultry 
at the end of the week, though prices were 
sustained, with an anvunce on Saturday. 
Dressed turkeys are now selling at 24 to 
27 cents, with a fair demand. Other va- 
rieties of poultry are In fair request, with 
the market moderately supplied. Most 
lines have advanced. 



Broilers $4.50 @ 5.00 

Small Broilers 3.00 @ 3.50 

Ducks 4.t @ 7.00 

Fryers, large 5.00 @ 6.00 

Geese 2.50 @ 3.00 

Hens, extra 7.00 @ 3.00 

Hens, per doz 6.00 @ 7.00 

Small Hens 4.50 @ 5.00 

Old Roosters 4.00 @ 5.00 

Young Roosters 6.50 @ 9.00 

Pigeons 1.00 @ 1.25 

Squabs 2.50 @ 3.50 

Hen Turkeys, per lb @ 

Gobblers, live, per lb 22 @ 24 c 

Turkeys, dressed 24 @ 27 c 

BUTTER. 

Last week's firmness in butter was 
of short duration, and fresh extras fell 
back immediately after Christmas to 
about former quotations. The decline 
still continues, the best price now being 
33 cents. At that price, however, it is 
described as firm, with no further decline 
immediately expected, and arrivals con- 
tinue very light. Stocks are fairly well 
cleaned out. Firsts are correspondingly 
lower, and a decline of 3 cents is noted on 
both California and Eastern storage 
goods. 

Cal. (extras) per lb 33 c 

Firsts 31 c 

Seconds 25 c 

Thirds 24 c 

Fresh Eastern, extras 

Fresh Ladles, extras 

Fresh Ladles, firsts 

Storage, Cal., extras 24Jc 

Storage, Cal., firsts 23<c 

Storage Eastern, extras 24Jc 

Storage Ladles, extras 20 c 

EGGS. 

L T nder heavy receipts, there was a sharp 
decline on fresh eggs just before Christ- 
mas, and dealers were anxious to clean 
up before the holidays. A further break 
took place on Thursday, with no jobbing 
demand, the price of extras standing at 
40 cents. This price is still quoted, but 
there is a more active feeling, with buyers 
ready to take all that ofl'ers on the ex- 
change at that figure. Firsts are slightly 
lower, but there is no change in storage 
goods, which are in about average de- 
mand. 

California (extra) per doz 40 c 

Firsts 38 c 

Seconds 30 c 

Thirds Nominal 

Storage, Cal., extras 28 c 

Storage, Eastern, extras 22 c 

CHEESE. 

With accumulating arrivals and a very 
quiet market at the close of last week, the 
price of fancy fresh California cheese fell 
back to 15 cents, though firsts have ad- 
vanced to 14 cents. New Young Americas 
and fancy Oregon, storage have both de- 
clined slightly. Trading on all lines has 
been comparatively quiet since Christmas. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb 15 c 

Firsts 14 c 

New Young Americas, Fancy 16 c 

Storage, do 15ic 

Eastern, New 18ic 

Eastern, Storage 17<c 

Cal. Storage, Fancy flats 15 c 

Oregon, Fancy 15 c 

POTATOES. 

The market on potatoes has remained 
very dull and weak, though there is no 
appreciable change in quoted prices. Re- 
tailers have apparently laid in sufficient 
stocks to last them through the present 
week, and are now taking no interest in 
the market. While fresh arrivals have 
not been so great as last week, stocks are 
still heavy, as there has not been enough 
market to make much impression on 
them. Sweet potatoes are still quoted 
at last week's high figures, but larger ar- 
rivals have caused an easier feeling. 

Oregon Burbanks $1.00 @1.26 

Burbanks, Salinas, ctl 1.25 ©1.50 

Burbanks, River 75 @1.00 

Sweet Potatoes, per ctl 2.00 @2.50 

VEGETABLES. 

Little attention is paid to onions this 
week. Stocks are large, and move very 
slowly at reduced prices. Receipts of 
miscellaneous vegetables from the south 
are light, and clean up easily, with firm 
prices on all lines of attractive stock. 
String beans are especially firm, with an 
advance of nearly 10c per pound. Toma- 
toes are also in good demand. Celery, 
though plentiful, is higher under a strong 
demand, and green peppers are in the 
same position. 

Garlic, per lb, new 5 @ 7c 

Green Peas, per lb 3 @ 6c 




NORTHERN GROWN 

SEEDS 

Are tested and proved best 
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Green Peppers, per lb 5 @ 7c 

Cabbage, per ctl 75 @ 

Onions, per ctl 1.85 @ 2.00 

String beans, per lb 12A© 17ic 

Tomatoes, large box 1.00 ® 1.75 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton.. ..10.00 ©20.00 

Carrots, sack 75 @ 

Hubbard Squash, ton 10.(H) @20.00 

Summer Squash, V box 1.25@ 1.35 

Celery, crate, small 75 © 1.00 

Egg Plant, lb 5 @ 12Jc 

FRESH FRUITS. 

There are few varieties now offering in 
the way of deciduous fruits, and what 
there is moves rather slowly on account 
of the rain. A few strawberries came in, 
but were not as well received as was ex- 
pected, selling off' at $2 a crate. Cranber- 
ries are scarce, and some have sold at an 
advance. Apples and pears are rather 
quiet, and the few grapes offering bring 
poor prices. 

Christmas Apples 1.00 @ 2.50 

Apples, fancy 2.00 @ 2.50 

Apples, common to choice... 60 @ 1.00 
Coos Bay Cranberries, box.. 3.50 @ 4.00 
Cape Cod Cranberries, per 

bbl ll.fO @12.00 

Grapes, half crate 50 @ 75c 

Pears — 

Winter Nelis 2.00 @ 2.25 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

A livelier market was expected on or- 
anges, but so far little interest is taken in 
them, and nearly all lines of citrus fruits 
move slowly at lower prices. Though ar- 
rivals since Christmas have not been es- 
pecially large, supplies on hand are more 
than enough to fill 1 he demand, and every- 
thing is inclined to weakness. 

Choice Lemons $1.50 @2.00 

Fancy Lemons 2.50 @3.00 

Standard 75 @1.25 

Limes 3.50 @4.00 

Oranges — 

Fancy 1.75 @2.00 

Standard 1.25 @1.76 

Tangerines, large box 1.00 @1.25 

Grape Fruit 2.25 @3.00 

DRIED FRUITS. 

There is some demand for California 
prunes in the East, though no large 
amount of business is reported. Jobbing 
prices on dried fruits are generally weaker, 
though there is no change in prices to 
growers, according to the local packers, 
and the feeling through the country is 
improving. Considerable quantities of 
raisins are being taken on by the seeders, 
and prices are strongly held. 

Evaporated Apples 8£@10 c 

Figs, black 3f@ 

do white 4J@ 

New Apricots, per lb 19 @22 c 

Fancy Apricots 23 @ 

Peaches 10 @13 c 

Prunes, 4-size basis, 1907 crop.. 4 @ 4jc 

Pitted plums 12J@15 c 

Pears 11 ©14 c 

KAISINS. 

2 Crown 5 @ 

3 Crown 5J@ 

4 Crown 5j@ 

Seeded, per lb 6J@ 8§c 

Seedless Sultanas 6 @ 8 c 

London Layers, per box $1.40@1.50 

London Layers, cluster 2.00@3.00 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 




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Meadowdale, Wash. 
"Holly Chick Feed is all right and if 
my chicks do not grow I will look else- 
where for the reason." 

D. O. Bbunner, Spokane, Wash, 

Sold by Dealers 

Made by 

The Chas. H. Lilly Co., Seattle 



NUTS. 

There has been a considerable decline in 
jobbing prices on nuts since the holiday 
demand was filled, and stocks held by 
growers are said to be moving at previous 
prices, though the market is very quiet. 



Almonds, Nonpareils 16Jc 

I XL 16 c 

Ne Plus Ultra 15£c 

Drakes 13^c 

Languedoc 12Jc 

Hardshell 9 c 

Walnuts, Softshell No. 1 15 c 

Softshell, No. 2 12 c 

Italian Chestnuts 10@12^c 



WOOL. 

The extreme dullness in wool continues, 
and the market is in a bad condition for 
holders, considerable reductions being 
quoted on all grades in this market. 

Humboldt and Mendocino, year's 



staple 22 ©23 ic 

Fall clip: Northern free, moun- 
tain 8 @11 c 

do. defective 6 @ 8 c 

San Joaquin and Southern 5 @ 8 c 

Fall Lambs, Northern 9 ©11 c 

Fall ^arnbs, Southern 7 © 9£c 

Nevada 12 ©16 c 



HOPS. 

Hops are quiet in all markets, the activ- 
ity being over for the time in the North. 
Prices on 1907 crop are lower, 9c being the 
highest, while the poorer grades sell down 
to 3 J cents. 

1906 crop 2 ©3 c 

1907 crop 3£©8 c 

MEAT. 

The meat market shows very little fea- 
ture this week, being quiet and inclined 
to easiness, with supplies fairly plentiful. 
There are no notable changes in quota- 
tions. 



Beef : Steers, per lb 7 @7i c 

Cows 6 © 6Jc 

Heifers 6 @ 6Jc 

Veal : Large 7 © 9 c 

Small 9 ©10 c 

Mutton : Wethers 10 ©11 c 

Ewes 9 ©10 c 

Lamb 11 ©12 c 

Hogs, dressed 10 ©11 c 

LIVESTOCK. 

Steers, No. 1 8 © 8ic 

No. 2 7 © l\c 

No. 3 6 © 6£c 

Cows and Heifers, No. 1 6J@ 7 c 

No. 2 53© 6 c 

Bulls and Stags 3J@ 4 c 

Calves, Light 5 © 

Medium 4J@ 

Heavy 3£© 4 c 

Sheep, Wethers 5 © blc 

Ewes 4J@ 5 c 

Lambs 6 © 6£c 

Hogs, 100 to 200 lbs 6 © 6Jc 

200 to 300 lbs 5 © b\c 

Boars 50%, stags 30% to 40%, and sows 



10% to 20% oft" from above quotations. 



For Sale : Jerusalem Artichokes 

THE GREAT WINTER HOC FEED 

Address 

Fancher Creek Nurseries, Fresno, California. 



SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION 

N. W. Cor. California and Montgomery Streets. 



For the half year ending December 31st, 
1907, a dividend has been declared at the 
rates per annum of Four and one-tenth 
(4 1 /io) per cent on termi deposits and 
Three and three-fourths (3%) per cent on 
ordinary deposits, free of taxes, payable 
on and after Thursday, January 2nd, 1908. 

Depositors are entitled to draw their 
dividends at any time during the suc- 
ceeding half year. A dividend not drawn 
will be added to the deposit account, be- 
come a part thereof and earn dividend 
from January 1st. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. - 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society 

526 California Street. 



For the half year ending December 31, 
1907, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of three and eight-tenths (3% ) per 
cent per annum on all deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after Thursday, 
January 2, 1908. Dividends not called for 
are added to and bear the same rate of 
interest as the principal from January 1, 
1908. 

GEORGE TOURNY, Secretary. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 

THE SAVINGS and LOAN SOCIETY 

101 Montgomery St., Cor. Sutter, 

has declared a dividend for the term ending 
December 31, 1907, at the rate of three and eighth 
tenths (3»/i ) per cent per annum on all deposits, 
free of taxes, and payable on and after Thursday, 
January 2, 1908. Dividends not called for are 
added to and bear the same rate of Interest as 
principal. EDWIN BONNELL, Cashier. 

FOR RENT 

POULTRY FARM 

Established, thoroughly equipped, comprising 
10 acres land, with good 4-roorn house, barn, in- 
cubator house with 4 Incubators, hot and cool 
brooder houses, breeding pens and yards of all 
descriptions. One thousand fowls on place at 
present; 2% miles from railroad station. Open 
for rental with this if desired— 50 acres bearing 
apple orchard and choice farming land. 
Address 

LILIENCRANTZ &. SON 

APTOS, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CAL. 

Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they have 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and our 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

Temporary Address 
Grayson and Sixth Streets, BERKELEY, CAL 
West of San Pablo Ave. 



Pneumatic Fruit Grader 



A perfect Sizing Machine for Oranges 
Capacity 500 Boxes a Day- 
Runs Easily by Foot Power 
Cannot Damage the Fruit 
Price $50.00 



WRIGHT BROTHERS, 

Riverside, Cat. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing, &,nd Assaying. 
5100 TELEGRAPH AVE. OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 

Open all Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pree't 
Assaying of Ores, $26; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon 
Assay, $26 ;Blowplpe Assay, $10. Full Course of 
Assaying. Established In 1864. Send for circular. 



Some New Apples in Humboldt 
County. 

(Continued from Page 6.) 



" Kirkbridge White" as sometimes 
listed, to it for a kitchen apple. Their 
season is almost the same here, Oct. 1st, 
and to my taste both are somewhat too 
tart for a good dessert apple. 

As for the "Champion," of which I 
also enclose a specimen, I have little 
commendation to offer. The Ben Davis 
is a fine apple beside it. The tree 
grows well and bears well, and the fruit 
looks well, but it is a very poor cooker 
and little better to eat from hand. It is 
one of the apples that would go to glut 
the market with poor fruit. 

The much advertised "Missing 
Link" is another specimen I send you. 
The tree is a great grower and will bear 
well I think, but it is not going to be a 
very late keeper as grown here, not as 
good as Rome Beauty. In quality I 
would consider it as in the class with 
sweet apples, but it has a rather more 
pleasant flavor than most sweet apples. 

The specimen of Lawver enclosed is 
for a standard to compare the others, 
being chosen because it is so well 
known. 

Albert F. Etter. 
Ettersburg, Humboldt county, 

December 15. 
[Mr. Etter's comments are well borne 
out by the specimens he sends and 
which we are very glad to see. Apple 
growers of the northern coast districts 
will f'nd his descriptions helpful. — Ed.] 



PILES CURED IN 6 TO 1 4 DAYS. 

PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cvire any 
case of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or Protruding 
Piles in 6 to 14 days or money refunded. 60c. 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short- 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petaluma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Shorthorned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY. 

BREEDERS OF SHORTHORN CATTLE 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



BROWN LEGHORNS AND BARRED PLY- 
mouth Rocks. A fine lot of young cockerels 
for sale — good, strong, well-matured birds. 
WALTER CURRY, R. D. No. 21, San Jose, Cal. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



SWINE. 



GEO. C. ROEDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 
C. A. STO WE, Stockton, Cal. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



17 YEARS an Exhibitor of Berkshire Hogs at the 
California State Fair. Thos. Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan St., San 
Francisco. Manufacturer and Dealer in 

POULTRY SUPPLIES 

of every description. Send for Catalogue— FREE 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years. 
Importer and Breeders of all Varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St., S. F. 



ATTENTION, DAIRYMEN! 

We would like to furnish you with a young 
registered Holstein Bull, from 12 to 27 months 
old, grandly bred at the low price of $100. Write 
us and tell us what you want. Do It to-day. We 
will send you pedigrees and markings and 
records of ancestors. 

PIERCE LAND & STOCK CO., 

Phone Main 1697. Stockton, Cal. 



FOR SALE 

A few thoroughbred registered Poland China 
service boars. 

Registered Holstein Friesian service bulls and 
bull calves from Advanced Registry Stock. 

STANFORD RANCH, : Vina, Cal. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 

Pacific Rural Press 

(— ) Indicates every other week or once a month 

Page. 

Bean Spray Pump Co jg 

Beckman, Geo. V 15 

Bird & Co.. J. A. & W _1 

Blake, Moffltt & Towne 13 

Bosanko Medicine Co., Dr ifi 



Breeders' Directory 15 

California Fertilizer Works 7 

Coates Nursery Co., Leonard 1 [ 

Croley, George H 15 

Curry, Walter 15 

Cutter Analytical Laboratory 15 

De Laval Supply Co 12 

Dewey, Strong & Co 16 

Disbrow, F. H ]i 

Driver, E. S 15 

Eachus, R. P u 

El Dorado Oil Works Z 

Fancher Creek Nurseries n 15 

Ferry & Co., D. M u 

Folding Sawing Machine Co _ 

Fresno Agricultural Works _ 

Fresno Nursery n 

German Savings and Loan Society 16 

Glenn, Estate of H. G 13 

Golden Rule Nursery u 

Gregory & Son, J. J. H u 

Hart, Ed 16 

Heald's Business College 13 

Hess & Clark, Dr 13 

Hopkins, G. H n 

Howard Cattle Co 15 

Hoy t's Tree Support Co 12 

Hunter, R. J jj 

Jackson & Co., T. W 7 

Lawrence-Williams Co 7 

Liliencrantz & Son 15 

Lilly Co., Chas. H u 15 

Lister, Henry B 13 

Ludemann, F n 

Lynch, John 15 

McClanahan, E. E T..™ 10 

Meacham, Frank A .._ 

Mills, A. A ^ 11 

Morse & Co., C. C 10 

Mountain Copper Co 7 

National Wood Pipe Co ir 

Oaklarjd Poultry Yards 15 

Orange County Nursery & Land Co 11 

Oregon Nursery Co n 

Pacific Coast Business College 9 

Pacific Guano & Fertilizer Co 7 

Pear Blight Remedy Co 16 

Pierce Land & Stock Co 15 

Rex Company, The — 

Rhodes Mfg. Co — 

Roedlng, Geo. C 15 

San Francisco Business College 8 

San Francisco Savings Union 15 

Savings & Loan Society 16 

Scheidecker, A. F n 

Seeds and Plants 10, 11, 16 

Seulberger, J n 

Shaw, Henry n 

Sharpies Separator Co 12 

Sllva <fe Bergtholdt Co 16 

•Simmons Hardware Co 12 

Smith, Francis — 

Snow, D. A 12 

Stanford Ranch 15 

8towe, C. A 16 

Stratton, W. A. T — 

Sullivan, W 16 

Sure Hatch Incubator Co 13 

Teague, R. M _ 

Temple Pump Co — 

True, T. J 11 

Tuttle's Elixir Co — 

Van Der Nailien, A 15 

Vermont Farm Machine Co — 

Wagner, J. B 11 

Waite, Thos 15 

Western Meat Co 7 

White City Grader Co 10 

Wright Brothers 16 



BUFF ORPINGTONS 

Largest clean legged bird In tho list, lay the 
year around, and bring a dollar each and more 
when turned to market. Postal will bring you 
prices and our show record. 

W. SULLIVAN, 

Agnew, Santa Clara County, Cal. 
State V. P. Nat. S. C. B. O. Club. 

FOR SALE 

One six years and one two years old 
.lacks. If interested, address 

P. 0. Box 345, Vacaville, Cal. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 4, 1908. 



^OU never buy a cheap horse and expect 
to get a good one. Some fruit ranchers 
buy the cheapest tree they can get, but an 
orchardist — never. Our trees and vines are 
not the cheapest, but they are the best that 
care in selection and growing can produce. 
We propagate only from parent trees and 
vines that are the best specimens of their 
kind, and our stock will give you good ser= 
vice for a lifetime. That is what you want. 



OUR STOCK 




Comprises all profitable 
commercial sorts of 



PEACHES, 
PLUMS, 
PEARS, 
APPLES, 



CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS 
APRICOTS 
and GRAPES. 



Vv^lNyX^ ^ ^ SCnd Cata, ° gUe and Price 1 ist 

V^^^ c !^^ Contract now the trees you want 



WRITE US 



PLACER NURSERIES 

SILVA & BERGTHOLDT CO. 



NEWCASTLE, CAL. 



MORE 


FRUIT 


WITH IE 


SS LABOR 




You can positively insure a larger crop, clean fruit and 
healthy trees at a savins: of fully one-third the labor 
ordinarily required and with a much less outlay of time 
and money by using a Bean Magic Spray Pump. 
The reason is because it sprays thoroughly with high, 
even pressure, but the operator is working against only 
one-half the pressure indicated on the gauge. It's on 
account of the spring which makes the Magic Spray 
Hump the easiest running, most perfect spray pump 
ever made. No other pump can compete with it in 
tin essential points of quality and durability, and we 
challenge comparison with all other makes regard- 
less of price or construction. 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

arc the result of careful study and experience In 
pump manufacture. We have no other line. Weare 
specialists in pump-making, and the name BEAN 
on a spray pump or appliance is a guarantee that it 
is the best that money and brains can produce. 

The most successful raisers of fancy fruit agree 
that spraying is the only and most effective method 
of securing the best results. The increase in profit 
from securing fancy fruit will alone soon pay for the 
outfit. Whether you have a large or small orchard 
you can no: afford to be without a Bean Magic Spray 
Pump. Write for our special offer, also free illus- 
trated catalog. 



BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., 

H.iJ W. Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 



PEAR-BLIGHT We can CURE IT 

^ m ^* * mmmim%M 1 Our Work has Extended 



Over a Period of 3 Years 



Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

PEAR BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 



All Soils Alike to Wood Pipe 




The heaviest adobe, the most corrosive alkali, the lightest sand— all 
are alike where wood pipe Is used. It resists them all. Wood Satu- 
rated, Air Excludod— Can't Rot. Metal In Hulk, Galvanized, Asphalted— 
Can't Kust. High Factor of .Safety In Banding— Can't Leak. Our book- 
let, "The Whole Story About Wood Pipe," contains valuable tables of 
the carrying capacity of pipe. Mailed free upon request. 

Continuous Stave Pipe. Machine Banded Pipe. Bored Wood Pipe. 

Hational Wood Pipe Company 



404 Equitable Savings Hank Hdg., Los Angeles. 
Olympla, Washington. 



2fi8 Market St., San Francisco. 
Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, "tan. 



SOILS 

By 1'KOF. E. W. HILGARD, of the University of California. 

An excellent work by an authority. Of inestimable value to up-to-date 
horticulturists and farmers. Covers the formation, properties, composition 
and relations of soils to climate, and plant growth in humid and arid regions. 
$4.00 593 pages Well Illustrated. $4.00 

Sent postage prepaid on receipt of price. Address: 

Book Dept. Pacific Rural Press, 667 Howard St., San Francisco. 



PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to Inventors, sent free on 
request; containing nearly 100 mechanical move- 
ments and full Information about Patents, 
Caveats, Trademarks, and Infringements. 

DEWEY. STRONG & CO.. 

1105-fi Merchants Exchange Hldg., San Francisco 
Established 1860. 



BEST FILL. ON EARTH 

JBaopla who are sick with drspepsla, headache 
£^aud biliousness, havlngyelfow complexion and 
pimples, do not wan t to experiment, but wanta 
medicinethat has had the test of time. We have 
cured these diseases for 25 years with DR. o inn's 
ihprovkd livsb pills. They drive out the cause 
of sickness, making the complexion clear and 
hi-althy. 25cts. a box at druggists, or by mail 
Write Dr. Bosanko Co., Phllada., Pa. Sample Free. 
ONLY ONE FOR A. DOSE 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



VoLLXXV. No. 2. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY U, 1908. 



Thirty-eighth Year. 



"Journeys of Observation." 



California Is certainly emerging from provincialism 
when one of our leading publishing firms produces 
a grand volume about other parts of the world than 
our own. California authors deal with world sub- 
jects in the various departments of literature, it is true, 
and win wide honors therein; but, if we mistake not, 
all their great works find publishers in other centers of 
literary activity, and the good things which California 
publishers have brought out have been in the main, 
at least, for California exaltation in some form or 
other. We count it then an indication of advance- 
ment that a widely traveled Californian should choose 
a California publisher for a work of unique character 
and ample dignity in which no California considera- 
tion whatever intrudes. We are evidently growing 
into the world and our mature life therein promises 
great publishing enterprise and industry in world lit- 
erature. Our authors are there already, as we have 
suggested; our publishers will catch up to them. 

"Journeys of Observation," by Mr. T. A. Iiickard, 
editor of the Mining and Scientific Press, is a noble 
book, from the bookmaker's point of view: a royal 
octavo of nearly 450 pages with about 100 unpaged 
plates and 25 text drawings of exceptional excellence. 
It is printed upon ' Old Cloister' paper with deckle- 
edges in large handsome type. The Dewey Publish- 
ing Company has therefore undertaken a work of 
notable dignity according to printers' standards, and 
the publisher's designs have been beautifully carried 
out by the Stanley-Taylor Company of San Francisco. 

We hope the author will forgive us for thus com- 
pletely inverting the accepted standards in reviewing 
and speaking first of things which usually follow an 
attempt at literary judgment. Our first thought, on 
sight of the work, was of it as a material California 
product, creditable in style, expressive of advanced 
industrial art, significant of the progress of the State; 
and such it unquestionably is. But we do not intend 
to emphasize these features unduly. The fact that we 
think so much of them proves that we ourselves are 
drunken with the provincialism which the book itself 




View on East River, New York, With a Sky- Scraper Background. 



draws us away from and yet there may be some claim 
for a degree of sobriety based upon the admission that 
we are intoxicated. 

"Journeys of Observation" is the work of a man 
cultured by many institutions and experiences and 
broadened by many travels who carried the point of 
view of a technical profession, in which he has made 
very creditable achievement, with him as he wan- 
dered. By this we do not mean at all that he saw 
everything from the point of. view of his profession; 
that is exactly what he did not do. The travel was 
given definite aim and purpose by seeking opportuni- 




Collective View of New York's Tall Buildings as Seen From the Harbor. 



ties of research and observation as a mining engineer, 
but the seeing and thinking, as the way led amid the 
beauties of nature, the charms of historical associa- 
tions or, the variations of human life and occupation, 
were those of a man of the world endowed with taste, 
scholarly perceptions and appreciation of the real 
truth and significance of things. All these qualities 
of the writer are clearly discernible in the writing and 
they give the composition a picturesqueness, a charm 
and attractiveness which bring the reader into the 
very scenes described as only the best literature of 
travels can do. We have seldom seen sketches which 
more make one feel that he really knows 
the scenes and the people as Mr. Rickard's 
chapters do. And as he passes along 
through various experiences, looking upon 
natural grandeur or beauty and mingling 
with many peoples, recalling their his- 
tories and traditions and almost living 
their lives with them, he comes now and 
then upon the mining industries which 
give them livelihood, and then the pro- 
fessional point of view arises and descrip- 
tions of the closest technical accuracy and 
detail fully occupy the writer. Although 
perhaps to the general reader these tech- 
nical features of the book may not fully 
appeal, the accounts are replete with facts 
of history and evolution of methods which 
nearly everyone, with industrial sense in 
any line, will enjoy and appreciate. But 
the author does not restrict his industrial 
references to mining: he writes carefully 
and intelligently of the agriculture, manu- 
facture and trade of the important sec- 
tions he traverses and shows us the people 
at work and at play, at their political and 
social diversions, and in a word gives us 
living pictures >f the varied popuJsj^ons 
with whie! he corned io < ••tf.°,;tf. 



1 8 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 11, 1!>08. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



the ambition to become good and prosperous American 
citizens. There is just as much room for them as ever 
and the faster they multiply the sharper the demand 
will be for the kind of labor which we are now seeking 

to secure. 



wires " of one of the great dailies brings this abomina- 
tion: "Five hundred brilliant, beautiful butterflies 
gathered in Peru, Brazil, and even India were turned 
loose to-night over the heads of the wonderfully 
dressed women at the ball given " by a Philadelphian 
who has millions of money, a pin head, and a rocky 
heart. The account continues: " The gorgeous insects 
fluttered about helplessly, rested upon the bare shoul- 
ders of the women, perched on the flowers and inci- 
dentally fell into the plates." Poor dying butterflies 
in the soups and salads! and yet "this was the star 
feature of an affair that has been looked forward to as 
the one real thing of the season," the exalted scribe 
remarks. We are also told that "collectors spent 
months getting the butterflies, many of which died on 
their way to this country. Scores dropped to the floor 
during the dancing and were crushed under the 
dancers' feet. The cost of the ball is said conserva- 
tively to have been $100,000." Well, perhaps after 
all we are advancing. Moated Babylon does not have 
record of such cruelty. Never before, perhaps, has a 
dancing floor been glossed by the juices of crushed 
butterflies. The whole affair has to us the aspect of 
most startling and advanced degeneration. 

Mr. Arthur H. Briggs, president of the State Board 
of Trade, has issued a timely call for a meeting of 
those interested in the fruit industries of California to 
be held at the rooms of the Board, Ferry Building, 
San Francisco, on January 10, at 11 v. m. Mr. Briggs 
says: " According to present advices from the several 
sources to which we have to look for information, the 
situation is pregnant with danger to this important 
industry in which a large number of fruit growers in 
various sections of the State have embarked their 
capital. Hesitancy and delay will surely bring dis- 
aster widespread and irremediable. Full discussion 
of the various phases of the question should be had at 
once by those primarily interested and prompt action 
agreed upon and taken before it is too late to bear 
results for the protection of growers during the com- 
ing season." According to what we know of the 
affair, it seems to us that Mr. Briggs is justified in 
sounding the above note of alarm. Pacific Coast 
people should certainly come together on the subject 
without delay. 



Queries and Replies. 



If There Is no Walnut Blight. 

To the Editor: 1 very much desire information as 
to the best variety of walnuts to propagate by grafting, 
to be planted out in this locality. We are about 20 
miles from the ocean and have an altitude of about 
050 feet. There are no high hills between the ocean 
and our locality, and we get the sea breeze unstinted 
during the season. I have about 7000 seedlings of the 
California, black walnut, and soft-shell English varie- 
ties, and intend having three to four thousand grafted 
this winter. I have been advised to graft from the 
Placentia Perfection, but one of the persons I have 
written to for scions informs me he would not advise 
propagating from this variety as it seems more affected 
by the blight than other varieties. I have an orchard 
of 10 acres of walnuts, in bearing ten years, from seed- 
lings. There are some good trees, but I do not think 
I could get enough scions for my use from trees I could 
now pick Out that are reliable. Thus far my trees 
have not been irrigated. The walnut blight has not 
put in an appearance in this valley as yet. I want to 
know what variety of walnut you would advise plant- 
ing here and where scions can be had of the variety 
recommended, from a reliable grower; also 1 would 
like your opinion as to the relative merits of the Cali- 
fornia black and English varieties for stock for this 
locality. — Grower, Ventura county. 

The points in your letter are so close to the unknown 
that we do not feel like advising you with any confi- 
dence. We had not heard that the Placentia Perfec- 
tion was particularly subject to blight, but know that 
it has been, and is being, largely grafted into seedling 
walnuts, and in fact, most of the grafts put in in the 
south, until very recently, at least, are of this variety, 
although some growers are now taking scions from 
their own trees, which seem to be particularly prolific 
in spite of the blight, and this is a rational practice. 
We are not sure that any of the introduced French 
varieties have made a record for blight resistance; the 
varieties, however, which are chiefly used in this part 



Advertising rates made known on application. 
Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 



DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. 



PUBLISHERS 



IE. J. WICKSON 
EDGAR RICK ARD 



Editor 
Business Manager 



The Week. 



More rains have come in the central and northern 
regions of the State and all kinds of farm work is ad- 
vancing under very favorable conditions, as the distri- 
bution of water has been such that work has been 
facilitated and not delayed. In some parts of the State 
the total precipitation is a little short of the average, 
but probably up to the average in effectiveness, be- 
cause of the way it came. The outlook then is for a 
good year and for a notable contribution from Califor- 
nia toward the restoration of confidence and the ban- 
ishment of financial grouch, if any of it should remain 
until another harvest is gathered. It is, of course, a 
presidential-election year, and this may be expected to 
tie down the timorous to what they consider industrial- 
rock-bottoms, and thus curb the spirit of enterprise 
and investment somewhat; but neither grouch nor 
politics can engender depression while production rolls 
up great surpluses for sale to the world at large and 
full prices for them. Therefore we say: Shake off the 
whole group of discontents and get busy and pros- 
perous. 

Several readers are writing us interesting communi- 
cations on the labor supply and we expect to find room 
for all these earnest expressions in coming issues. 
We of course sympathize fully with the claim that we 
should have more white people and should treat them 
as white people, or any other people, for that matter, 
should be treated. But, as we have said before, we are 
getting more white people all the time, and they like 
to work for themselves and to hire others, not to work 
for others; so they build up the State, but they do not 
help those who now need help to handle enterprises in 
which large investments have already been made. It 
does not seem possible to get any adequate supply of 
desirable Europeans, and that is why we have asked 
a fair show for the best of the Asiatics. This effort to 
get good Europeans is succeeding nowhere, although 
it is being tried in different parts of the country. In a 
recent issue the Breeders' Gazette says: " It does not 
appear that State effort to promote the immigration of 
Europeans into the South to take part in agricultural 
labor has so far eujoyed any great measure of success. 
A press cablegram a few days ago brought the in- 
formation that the imperial Austrian government had 
issued a statement warning its subjects that they would 
better stay away from the State of Mississippi for the 
reason that others who had located in that common- 
wealth had not been treated well there." This may be 
true, but as the Austrian government perhaps does 
not want to lose war-timber, it is not likely to make 
many efforts to promote such immigration as the 
United States need. The Gazette continues: " Immi- 
grants imported by the shipload into Maryland would 
not stay on the farms, but hied to the cities whenever 
they got a chance. In Mississippi the planters and 
lumber companies have, if all the stories are correct, 
seen to it that no such chance was afforded. Altogether 
the statements do not appear to warrant any predic- 
tion of success for immigration promoted by State 
officials." The conclusion seems to be that if assisted 
immigrants have their own way they crowd into the 
cities; if they are prevented from doing this they com- 
plain of peonage, etc. So the enterprise does not work 
as expected either one way or another, and does not 
meet the demand for laborers who will stay with their 
jobs, do what they promise, and be content nth wlra*- 
the industries can pay. A certain adequate supply ,f 
i«^r is essential to our undertakings, .aid efforts 
cuf*4t ;irr " 1 " enace to continued settlement 
ai"! a* eloj ivnt by ' >ple who have good heads and 



With the dense population which the decades are to 
bring to California, it is well that provision is being 
made for recreation grounds and breathing places. 
The national forest reserves will be viewed as great 
endowments as their rational use becomes better un- 
derstood and present fiction smoothes away. The 
State parks like the Big Basin redwood forest should 
be multiplied and supplemented by private gifts of 
forest land for public uses. We have always had 
hopes that something of this kind would be realized 
with the Armstrong Forest in western Sonoma 
county. The very interesting announcement is now 
made that Mr. William Kent of Marin county has 
made a gift to the United States of Redwood Canyon 
and its giant trees that shadow the base of Tamalpais, 
and the tract of 295 acres has been accepted by the 
Department of the Interior to be a public park for- 
ever. It seems that a local water company had filed 
a suit in condemnation proceedings to compel Kent to 
sell it the canyon and its trees. There appeared to be 
no way out of it, and under the law of eminent domain 
the tall redwoods were as good as condemned to exe- 
cution. It was suggested that Mr. Kent might escape 
the attack of the water company by giving the land 
outright to the government, because a law had been 
enacted on January 8, 1006, under the terms of which 
the president was empowered to receive donations of 
land valued for scenic beauty or scientific resources. So 
Mr. Kent wrote his deed giving the redwoods to the 
Government, and asked Mr. Gifford Pinchot, the 
head of the forestry department, to exert his influ- 
ence to procure the prompt acceptation of the gift. 
Last week Mr. Kent received a telegram from Pinchot 
in Washington, telling him that Redwood Canyon had 
been accepted by the Government and Mr. Kent is 
placed in charge as deputy fire warden. He will save 
the trees all right. 

Many Californians will be interested in the present 
prominence of the old Shorthorn breed, although their 
own stock may be rather remote from the blue blood. 
The Shorthorn has done more for the elevation of Cal- 
ifornia cattle than any other breed. It came first of 
the improved breeds and it has always remained first, 
though others have become more or less prominent. 
The provocation to this generalization is found in this 
remark in the Breeders' Gazette: "One of the most 
important features of the lately held International 
Live Stock Exposition was the superlative exhibit of 
Shorthorns. They came before the judges by hundreds 
far transcending any other breed in this respect, and 
they carried off the grand championship of the show 
in the section for fat bullocks. It was veritably a 
Shorthorn year at the big exhibition at the Chicago 
stock yards." There is another point which has been 
strongly contended for in California and that the chief 
value of the Shorthorn was not in being red. This 
point is also made at the Chicago show, for the Ga- 
zette continues: "There were fewer straight reds 
than usual on show in the classes for bulls and not 
many more among the females. Most of the entries 
forward were roans, and at times it looked as though 
the whites outnumbered the reds, though this condi- 
tion is not borne out by a tabulation of the colors given 
in the catalogue. In the official list the color is not 
given in many instances. Of the animals the colors of 
which are mentioned 123 were roan, 63 red, 25 white, 
and 17 red-antl -white. The color scheme was there- 
fore greatly different to what it was a few years ago." 
Thus surely we advance in real value rather than 
fancy points. Finally the Gazette says: "The Short- 
horn show at the International holds out bright prom- 
ise that creed and dogma are to be finally laid to rest 
and the energies of the interest bent toward the pro- 
duction of i ittle that can and will hold their own in 
the markets of the world." 

The next theme does not please us as much. It 
looks as though we were advancing in cattle and retro- 
grading in mankind. One of the "special leased 



January II, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



iq 



of the State for grafting are the Franquette and May- 
ette. As you have a situation free from blight and 
some distance from other orchards, it would seem to 
be wise to take scions from your own best trees, sup- 
posing there are some of notable excellence, rather 
than take the chance of introducing the blight by using 
wood from other localities. You cannot test them for 
blight, of course, but you will get a uniformly good 
crop. Suppose you did not have scions enough for all 
your stock, you could work the English walnut roots 
and let the California blacks go another year, or more, 
or plant them out in orchard and graft when they get 
to available size. This works very well and is becom- 
ing quite a popular practice in the central part of the 
State. This advice is somewhat vague, but until we 
get clear information of the existence of trustworthy 
blight-resistant varieties, or until further progress is 
made with the rational scheme of selecting resistant 
varieties from trees now in bearing, one cannot be 
very definite or satisfactory as a counsellor. 

The Bearing of Olives. 

To the Editor: We have some olive trees about 18 
years old. We had some very heavy crops when the 
trees were small, and came first into bearing. Of late 
they just simply failed to bloom, except on the outside 
and most exposed places. On some sandy blocks the 
trees bear blooms but fail to set. I observed on the 
trees standing in light soil a greater amount of bloom 
than on those in heavier soil. At rare intervals I find 
trees that set their blooms and now bear abundantly. 
The fruit, after once setting, grows to excellent size 
and, with almost no exception, does not shrink. 
Would it be a good plan to prune heavily, especially 
cutting the top back to produce a more lateral growth ? 
Would it be a good plan to cut the trees of every other 
row completely back and let them grow new tops, as 
they are up to 25 and more feet high at present, and 
keep tiiem after they are pruned back, never letting 
them grow too big, in order to preserve the strength 
that now is taken up by the many branches? Or 
would it be still better to graft them over to new vari- 
eties? We have begun to remove alternate rows 
diagonally to give them more air and soil space. — 
Grower, Los Angeles county. 

You certainly plan to carry out some very interest- 
ing experiments in your treatment of your olive trees 
and, so far as we can judge from your descriptions, 
your experiments are exceedingly well planned and 
should furnish information of great value in your 
future operations. The olive tree must have air 
and light enough and yet not be too much open 
to the sun. It must have strength enough to 
make new wood each year for the following year's 
bearing, and yet not be induced to run to too strong 
a growth of wood, which is inimical to fruit bearing. 
The balance of these opposing conditions constitutes 
wisdom in olive growing and it is pretty difficult to 
describe definitely what must be learned by observa- 
tion and afterward followed according to the dictates 
of individual judgment. We make this cautious reply 
because we know of plantations which have been 
treated to all culture conditions which can be thought 
of and yet have failed to bear profitably. In other 
cases better light, food, and drink for the trees have 
been repaid by ample bearing. The olive tree in 
many cases merits the refrain: 

" If she will she will; you may depend on't. 
If she won't she won't; that's the end on't." 

The next generation will know more about the olive 
in California than we do. 

Eucalyptus in the Fog Belt. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly tell me which vari- 
ety of eucalyptus is best for this extremely damp, 
foggy corner of. California ? The sawmill is clearing 
the pine, etc., off fast, and I wish to try eucalyptus. 
What about the camphor tree in this climate? Do you 
think it would be a success? Is eucalyptus good for 
fence po^ts — that is, durable in so damp a climate? — 
Reader, Eel River Valley, Humboldt county. 

The eucalyptus species does not object to fog and 
moisture; most of them are, however, sensitive to 
freezing, so that it is unsafe to plant eucalyptus where 
the temperature goes to about 15° above zero, and 
some species, like the common blue gum, are likely 
to be injured at 18° or 20° above zero. Eucalyptus 
rostrata is one of the most hardy, and you can get 
trees or seed from seedsmen and nurserymen advertis- 
ing in our columns. The camphor tree should succeed 



in your locality, as it grows freely in Japan and is 
somewhat hardier than the eucalyptus. No eucalyptus 
yet largely grown in California can be counted good 
for fence posts. The posts rot very quickly unless they 
can be protected by the modern method of creosoting 
which is now being experimentally used by the rail- 
road companies for the treatment of railroad ties, etc., 
and which has been tested by the forestry service for 
eucalyptus, as we hope soon to find space to describe. 

Mottled Leaves on Orange Trees. 

To the Editor: Will you please give me some in- 
formation as to the cause and cure of the yellow leaves 
or what some call mottled leaves on orange trees. 
They seem to turn yellow at the age of 4 to 8 years 
and the trees become stunted. I would like to know 
what kind of soil is best adapted for tableolives, what 
kind to plant, and where, in your estimation, is the 
best location in this State for olive culture. — 
Enquirer, Oakland. 

If the soil is well drained and moisture sufficient, 
yellowing of the leaves of orange trees may be due to 
the lack of nitrogen in the soil, and in such case the 
free use of stable manure, applied this time of the 
year so that the rains will leach the soluble contents 
into the soil, will bring the trees into good color again. 
If, however, the soil is shallow and irrigation water 
is held stagnant by the occurrence of hardpan or clay, 
the roots get into bad condition and the foliage be- 
comes sickly. In such case the remedy is under" 
drainage to remove surplus water. From what you 
say of the behavior of the trees, we apprehend that 
the soil is too shallow, or too poor, or moisture condi- 
tions are not right. There may be too much or too 
little water. There is another and specific cause of 
yellowing of orange leaves, and that is the occurrence 
of excess of lime in the soil, but in that case there is a 
whitish layer of marl, which is recognized by its pe- 
culiar appearance, and is only manifested in certain 
localities of the State. It is now being specially 
studied by Professors Hilgard and Loughridge of the 
University Experiment Station. 

The olive tree will succeed in all fertile California 
soils, from heavy to light. The most satisfactory re- 
sults are now being attained by olive trees in the inte- 
rior valley where the soils are deep and growing con- 
ditions favorable for the production of large fruit. 
The districts where the largest and best olives are 
now produced are in the San Joaquin Valley and Sac- 
ramento Valjey. Of course there may be other situa- 
tions just as good because similar conditions prevail. 

Not a Place for Inter-Cropping. 

To the Editor: I have an assorted peach orchard 
planted on a sidehill. It has not a very good record. 
I would like some advice. One question: Will the 
mangel or feed beet produce the best results if planted 
on the sidehill between the peach trees? It will be 
impossible to irrigate, and the summers are hot and 
dry. I wish also to raise small fruits, such as straw- 
berries, loganberries, blackberries, raspberries, goose- 
berries, and currants. — Beginner, Placer county. 

We would not for a moment think of growing any 
crop between peach trees on such soil as you describe 
unless you have ample irrigation facilities. They 
will take out all the moisture that belongs to the trees. 
It is probable that peaches themselves failed to make 
a good record, for lack of water. None of the small 
fruits you mention will do anything worth while on 
dry uplands in the foothills without irrigation. You 
are up against it ! 

Seedless Citrus Fruits. 

To the Editor: Please answer me a few questions in 
regard to seedless citrus fruits: Is Bahia the only seed- 
less orange ? What is the cause of the seedlessness of 
Bahia ? Are there besides oranges other citrus fruits 
known to be seedless? Is there a book which gives 
the biology of citrus flowers in general, and that of 
Bahia in particular and in detail ? — Student, Pull- 
man, Wash. 

The Washington Navel orange, which came to 
California from Bahia, is practically seedless, although 
occasionally seeds do appear. It is seedless because it 
is a monstrosity, in which the seed bearing parts are 
displaced and aborted. Why such a monstrosity oc- 
curred no one knows, but such things are frequent in 
the citrus family. No other citrus fruit is so nearly 



seedless as the Navel orange; some pomelos are 
proximately so, and some lemons have very few seeds. 
There is no book fully treating the biology of citrus 
flowers so far as we know, but results of examinations 
have been published in various journals showing that 
the blossom of the Washington Navel is defective in 
its reproductive function, and that its seedlessness is 
not caused by lack of pollination, but by organic rather 
than functional derangement. 

Grape and Plum Troubles. 

To the Editor: I have Zinfandel grapes grafted on 
Rupestris St. George. The vines are four years from 
the graft (field grafts). In my best ground (heavy 
sandy loam) my grapes do not set. There are a couple 
of berries left on the bunches or none. I pruned them 
two buds to an arm and left between 10 or 12 arms 
on a stem. I believe there is something wrong with 
my pruning. 

I have a few hundred plum trees— Kelsey, Wickson 
and Hale. When the green shoots come out in the 
spring they are alive with a kind of plant louse. The 
lice stay about the green shoots and the stem of the 
fruit. The lice seem to have many enemies, like the 
ladybug, the yellow wasp, and the blue bottle fly; but 
still they get the best of some of the trees. Many 
people around here told me what to do, and I have 
tried different things, but it seems to me they know 
about as much as I do. — Puzzled Reader, Lathrop. 

Your Zinfandel grapes do not bear better because of 
lack of pollination, and is called 'coulure.' We sup- 
pose you are on the lookout for mildew. Sometimes 
grapes set better after early sulphuring, but just 
what the particular trouble is in your case we do not 
know. The pruning is probably not connected with it. 

You will have to spray your plum trees with kero- 
sene emulsion just as soon as you see the first indica- 
tion of the appearance of the lice. Some of the insects 
which you describe as eating the lice are beneficial, 
but unfortunately are not often numerous enough to 
prevent the spread of the lice. Therefore, get in early 
while the lice are very scarce with a thorough treat- 
ment of the kerosene envision with such a nozzle that 
will enable you to reach the under surfaces of the leaves. 
If you do this you will cut off the multiplication of the 
lice, which is the seat of the trouble. 

The Manna Gum. 

To the Editor: I send you a box containing a small 
eucalyptus limb and seed pods. Will you kindly tell 
me the name of it and its uses ? They are quick grow- 
ers and will stand lots of frost. We wish to put out a 
grove of several acres, if they are used for anything 
but wood. They make fine wood. — Grower, Mo- 
desto. 

The tree is the manna gum (Eucalyptus viminalis). 
It is one of the most rapidly growing eucalypts, prob- 
ably being exceeded only by the common blue gum ; 
and it is very resistant to both low and high tempera- 
tures. This is about all, however, that can be said in 
its favor, for it makes very inferior lumber and is not 
considered so good for fuel as most species. It is, 
however, a beautiful tree and is valuable for shade 
and windbreaks, etc., where other species will not 
grow, but for general purposes the red gum (Euca- 
lyptus rostrata), or even the blue gum, are to be pre- 
ferred, where the frosts are not too sharp for the latter. 

It is an interesting fact that thirty years or more 
ago, the viminalis was widely planted as the red gum 
(rostrata) because early importations of seed of ros- 
trata were not true to name or because pioneer grow- 
ers of tree were not all as conscientious as they should 
have been. 

Iron in Weed Killing. 

To the Editor: An important matter, it seems to 
the Sentinel, that the Pacific Rural Press has 
omitted in its answer to questions about weed-killing 
with copperas is whether or not the solution will 
injure the productiveness of the soil. — Skntinel, 
Lodi. 

There is no danger whatever to the soil from spray- 
ing with copperas solution — in some cases the copperas 
thus applied might pay for itself as a fertilizer or plant 
stimulant. In most instances, however, California 
soils have all the iron the plants have any use for, but 
a little more would not be injurious. 



20 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 11, 1908. 



The Field. 



University Distribution of Seeds for Trial. 



liy E. J. Wickson, Director of Agricultural Experiment Station, 
University of California. 

The University distribution of seeds and plants 
which began in a small way in 1880 has been contin- 
ued annually since that date and last year reached over 
1000 applicants, through 325 postoftices situated in 51 
counties of California. This distribution is not for the 
purpose of supplying seeds of well-tested varieties 
which are offered by seedsmen; in fact, it is intended 
to avoid whatever is in the trade, though for some 
special reason such may be occasionally included. The 
purpose is to distribute things which have not been 
widely tried, and they are not commended for plant- 
ing on a commercial scale, but merely for trial to 
determine whether they merit wider planting and to 
enter the lists of the seed growers and dealers. 

The weak point in the distribution is that too many 
recipients forget the obligation they assume, viz: to 
report the results of their trials of the plants which we 
introduce to them. We desire to know of both suc- 
cesses and failures, of both value and worthlessness 
found in the plants, in order that their behavior in the 
hands of our co-opeorating exj>erimenters may be clearly 
made out. 

A free distribution is not undertaken. We require 
the applicant to pay a small amount for each article, 
partly to bear the cost of collection and distribution, 
but chiefly as a guaranty that he has not merely an 
idle desire for what can be had for nothing, but in- 
tends to make trial for a definite end and will report 
results to us. 

The Camphor Tkee. — This beautiful light-green, 
evergreen tree is very hardy from a California point 
of view. The seed which we offer this year was taken 
from an old tree growing at our branch station near 
Tulare, where the minimum temperature record dur- 
ing the life of the tree is 18° Fahr. The frost killed 
some of the lower leaves and small laterals, but the 
upper parte Of the tree were untouched. This observ- 
ation constitutes the camphor hardier than the olive, 
the orange, the blue gum ( Eucalyptus globulus) and 
others of the less hardy eucalyptus. At Tulare also 
the camphor tree demonstrates its resistance to a 
small amount of alkali. 

Although the camphor tree on the east coast of 
Asia is the basis of important industries in the pro- 
duction of camphor gum and camphor wood, it has 
thus far been grown in California only as an orna- 
mental. It is of handsome form and commanding 
size: in its habitat it attains a height of 100 feet and a 
trunk upwards of 3 feet in diameter. California trees 
have attained about half those dimensions in about 30 
years. It is satisfactory as a single door yard tree, or 
in clumps or as a street tree where an evergreen is 
desired. The seed sprouts readily when sown in plant 
beds or boxes of light loam with some fibrous mate- 
rial, kept mc >i<t but not wet and partially shaded as 
heat comes on. The tree transplants readily at the 
usual season for evergreens. Seed in packets, 5c post- 
paid. 

Eucalypti's Trees. — The interest in eucalyptus 
planting which is now keener and wider than in any 
previous year since this important genus was intro- 
duced from Australia over fifty years ago. This inter- 
est is inciting commercial propagators and our nurser- 
ies are therefore offering large collections of well 
grown trees at prices which encourage forest and 
w-ood lot planting, and these are the species which 
should be planted on a large scale. Aside from species 
thus available we have several growing at the Uni- 
versity Forestry Station at Santa Monica from which 
seed has been gathered for this distribution to those 
who desire to grow species which usually do not enter 
into large plantings, viz : 

1. Eucalyptus botryoides (" Bastard mahogany"): 
An upright and spreading tree highly recommended 
by all Australian writers, as one of their best timber 
trees, if it is grown where there is plenty of water. 
The first fourteen months after the young grove was 
put on the Station Grounds at Santa Monica the aver- 
age height was nearly thirteen feet. It will stand a 
small amount of frost. 

2. Eucalyptus citriodora ("Demon scented gum"): 
Very ornamental, having lavender and cream colored 
deciduous bark, the leaves are long and narrow, the 
branches are pendent, giving the trees a weeping 
effect. The wood is claimed by the Australians to be 
valuable for wagon work. The average growth of 
this species is about five feet a year for the first 
twelve, then the average is somewhat smaller. The 
leaves when crushed give off an aroma, from which 
the species is named. 

3. Eucalyptus cornuta var. lehmauni : This 
variety is a dwarf, having very small, thick, dark 
green leaves. The buds are borne in large irregular 
masses and the deciduous calyx caps are four and five 
inches in length. The flowers are of a dark green 



color and are in bloom during the late fall. The wood 
is a light brown in color, very hard and easily pol- 
ished. This variety is a curiosity, capable of forming 
a good shade tree if properly trained. 

4. Eucalyptus decipieus: Of a drawf growth at 
Santa Monica Station, but it blooms profusely during 
the late fall and early winter; the bloom is worked by 
large numbers of bees. 

5. Eucalyptus diversieolor (" Karri gum "): One 
of the tallest growing trees in Australia, producing a 
very valuable wood for wagon work. This tree will 
stand frost nearly as well as some of the better known 
and hardy species. 

6. Eucalyptus eugenioides : This stringy bark 
produces a fairly durable timber and one that can be 
used in building, although it is of slow growth. Its 
range is not definitely known. 

7. Eucalyptus gunnii ("Tasmanian cedar gum ") : 
One of the hardiest gums in Australia. It attains a 
fair size in this country and has a fairly large range. 

8. Eucalyptus leucoxylon ("Ironbark gum "): An 
upright and rather rapid grower and the timber is 
very hard and durable. The trees are found growing in 
the southern part of the State. The white flowers are 
in bloom during the winter. 

9. Eucalyptus melliodora ("Yellow box tree") : 
Produces a wood valuable for wagon work, etc. In 
contact with the soil it is very durable. This is one of 
the best bee trees among the eucalyptus and is in 
bloom all winter and early spring. 

10. Eucalyptus piperita (" White stringy bark ") : 
An upright and much spreading growth. The wood 
is valuable for shingles and other building purposes, 
while the leaves are rich in volatile oil. 

11. Eucalyptus punctata (" Leather-jacket "): Pro- 
duces a very hard, heavy ard durable, dark brown 
wood. The flowers of this species are borne in great 
numbers during the fall months and are much sought 
by bees. 

Eucalyptus seedlings are quite easily grown in boxes 
of light, sandy loam not disposed to bake or crack; 
cover the seed very lightly and then keep moist, but 
not wet, regulating the sunshine by a lath cover, or 
something of that sort, but do not exclude the air too 
much. Hither sow very thinly, or sow thickly and 
then prick out seedlings at greater distances in other 
boxes when they are about 2 inches high. Such little 
seedlings placed about 2 or 3 inches each way will 
grow in the boxes until about a foot high, and can then 
be put out in place, cutting with an old carving-knife, 
so as to give each little tree a block of soil which the 
roots will hold together until set in its new place, or 
the roots may be dipped in soft mud to keep them 
from drying out. One soon gets the knack of growing 
these seedlings by experience, the main point being to 
have moisture enough and yet not too much, also to 
guard carefully against drying out while the seedling 
is very small. 

Seed in small packets, 5c, postpaid, for each kind 
ordered. 

Acacias. — Although California nurseries have good 
collections of acacias, we offer the following which are 
growing at the Santa Monica station as less available 
and yet deserving to be better known: 

1. Acacia baileyana ("Coolamundra wattle"): This 
is the most beautiful species of all the acacias. The 
dense fernlike foliage, in whirls and of a silvery hue, is 
a most pleasing sight to the eye. The light yellow- 
colored flowers are borne in great profusion during the 
latter part of the winter and early spring. 

2. Acacia detrichiana: Slow of growth, but up- 
right and oj>en. The foliage is scattering; the leaves 
are very narrow, more so than those of the Acacia 
nerifolia; the average length of the leaves is 4 inches. 
The trees are in bloom during the spring months. 

3. Acacia nerifolia: A narrow-leaved acacia; the 
foliage is very dense and when properly trained it 
makes a good shade trade for lawns. The flowers are 
yellow in color and are borne during the summer 
months. 

4. Acacia longifolia sophone: Very low and 
spreading in growth; suitable for low wind-breaks. 
The trees are in bloom during the spring months. 

Acacia seeds should be placed in very hot water and 
allowed to soak for 24 hours. Plants can be grown as 
already suggested for eucalypts. Seed in packets, 5c. 
for each kind, postpaid. 

Paspaxum Dilatatum. — This grass was introduced 
to California by this station more than 20 years ago 
and the seed was first distributed by us in December, 
1888. At that time its growth on the University 
grounds at Berkeley warranted expectation that it 
would be measurably drouth resistant. The plant has 
been grown for many years at our branch station near 
Tulare, where it has shown striking resistance to 
drouth and alkali and is readily eaten by stock. It 
seems to welcome high heat, and this may explain the 
limited estimate of its value which is received from 
the coast regions of the State. It shows indisposition 
to grow during the season of frost, and therefore com- 
mends itself particularly for trial in hot interior val- 
leys and in situations where alkali discourages other 
tame grasses. J. T. Bearss made a special test which 
he describes as follows: 

"On March 21, 1907, I took up two large plants, 
divided the roots and planted them in very heavy 



alkali soil, A short time after planting, 1.40 inch of 
rain fell, which was all the water they have received 
this season. Not a plant died and all have made a 
fair growth and some produced seed in October. Had 
the soil been fairly good, there is no doubt but they 
would have made a much better growth. My observa- 
tion of the older plants is they grow better in dry, hot 
weather than many other well known grasses. The 
plant with us does not get down to business until June 
and the first heavy frost checks all growth. About 
one-half of the old plants were irrigated the first of 
July, but made no better growth than the non-irri- 
gated portion. Heavily impregnated alkali soil is 
cold and vegetation slow in starting. On ordinary 
soil I believe growth will commence much earlier and 
continue later, and the species will prove a valuable 
forage plant." 

During the past two years Paspalum dilatatum has 
received wide attention in California through the pub- 
lications inspired by an Australian seed grower who 
reports that large dairy values are based upon it in 
New South Wales. It may aso prove of high grazing 
value in moist and alkaline lands in regions of high 
heat in California. It should be known, however, 
that under such conditions the grass is a prolific seeder 
and root grower and may be difficult to eradicate if 
such lands are desired for other purposes. In situa- 
tions which please it, it may behave like Johnson 
grass, but it is a plant of much higher feeding value. 

We can furnish seed at 5c per packet, postpaid, or 
roots at 25c per package, express paid by receiver. 

Shokt Season Wheats. — Two varieties are offered 
in this class : 

Canning Downs No. 5077. From New South Wales. 
Kipens early and produces fair quality of grain. It 
has been grown for several years on strong alkali land 
at our Tulare sub-station with success, and its farther 
trial on such soil is suggested. 

Allora No. 5075. From New South Wales. This 
is another early maturing variety. It is offered for 
trial particularly for San Joaquin valley in compari- 
son with Sonora. 

Dkum ok Macaroni Wiikats. — These wheats are 
highly commended for trial in the semi-arid sections 
of the State. They may be sown later than most 
wheats and generally mature earlier, thus escaping 
rust and drouth. 

Kubanka No. 2240. This is one of the best drum 
wheats and is especially recommended for the San 
Joaquin valley and Southern California. It should l>e 
grown without irrigation. 

Black Don No. 8232. A drum wheat and recom- 
mended for the same conditions as Kubanka. 

BARLEYS, — The following deserve wide trial as 
hardy and prolific : 

Haunchen No. 10585. A 2-rowed, early maturing 
variety which yielded at Tulare in 1907 at the rate of 
50 bushels j>er acre under dry land culture. 

Kitzing No. 10583. Very similar to the previous 
one. Yielded at Tulare, 1907, at the rate of 57 bush- 
els j>er acre. 

All wheats and barley are offered at 15c per lb. 
package, postpaid, for each variety desired. 

Tin: Student Paksxip. — For some reason, the 
parsnip as a vegetable has received little or no recog- 
nition in California. This may be because we have 
such an abundance and variety of other vegetables fit 
for the table at the time when parsnips are at their 
best and which are held in greater esteem, or, it may 
be on account of the rather inferior type of root which 
has hitherto been grown here. Californians in some 
respects are almost 'epicurean in their tastes and 
nothing But the best will appeal to them and consum- 
ers have probably argued that there was no necessity 
to eat poor parsnips while high grade vegetables of 
other Kinds were available. There is no question but 
that the parsnip can be well grown in this State, and 
with the idea of demonstrating that a root of high 
grade excellence can also be produced, if the right 
kind is used, we are this year offering seed of the va- 
riety known as the Student. 

The Student is a hollow crown variety of recognized 
standing in the East and Europe, but for some years 
past it has been almost impossible to obtain the true 
stock. Two years ago we were fortunate enough to 
secure from Messrs. Suttons of England a strain 
which is the best we have seen. The strain is re- 
markable for the flavor and succulency of the roots, 
the two characteristics most desired in a parsnip. The 
seed offered was grown in Berkeley from selected 
roots and is of excellent quality. 

Culture. — In growing parsnips, care should be taken 
to work the soil to a considerable depth, so that no 
impediment to the downward growth of the roots may 
be presented. The ground should be richly manured 
the previous season, but no manure should be applied 
during the same season as the sowing as this induces 
the roots to fork and become ill-shapen. In the coast 
region, where the roots will succeed l>est, the sowings 
should be made about the month of January. The 
drills should be about fourteen inches distant from 
each other and the plants in the drills thinned down 
to individual plants which should be about eight 
inches apart at the final thinning. Frequent weeding 
and cultivation will complete the care of the crop. 
Seed in small packets, 5c prepaid. 



January 11, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



21 



Tomatoes. — During the past season 100 varieties of 
tomatoes have been placed under trial at Berkeley and 
those kinds, seed of which is offered, have been chosen 
for being markedly superior to other varieties in some 
special particular. 

Nos. 1, 2 and 3 are early trucking kinds ; 4, 5, 6 and 
7 are mid-season trucker's varieties ; 8, 9, and 10 are 
those best for canning purposes, and 11 and 12 are suit- 
able for making into preserves. 

1. Sparks Earliana (Berkeley strain) — Two years 
ago we offered seed of a comparatively hew tamato 
called Spark's Earliana. The variety is now in estab- 
lished use in the State as one of the best, if not the 
best, of all early tomatoes, but it proved somewhat 
unproductive. Some breeding work has been done 
during the past two seasons to remedy this fault and 
we are confident that the strain we offer is consider- 
ably more productive than that which we offered two 
years ago. 

2. Early Hammond — Before the advent of Spark's 
Earliana, this variety was considered about the best 
for early use. With some growers it is still preferred 
owing to its very productive nature. As California 
seedsmen are not offering seed of this variety we give 
the public an opportunity of acquiring seed of a first- 
class strain. 

3. Imperial — The best early purple variety. The 
plant is productive and the fruit handsome and of 
splendid flavor. 

4. Matchless — This is a mid-season variety of 
splendid appearance. The fruit is almost ideal in 
shape, the coloring is of the brightest red and the texture 
firm and fleshy. The fruit carries well and is attractive 
in the extreme. 

5. Combination — A variety little known in Cali- 
fornia, yet possessing distinct merit as a trucking kind. 
The fruits are large, handsome and produced in great 
abundance. 

6. Beauty — Another mid-season variety but purple 
in color. The fruits are somewhat small but of most 
excellent flavor and this feature makes the variety a 
desirable one for the home garden. 

7. Kinoo — This variety is now offered to the public 
for the first time. It has a perfectly smooth fruit of 
almost globular outline, purple in color and quite dis- 
tinct in appearance from all other kinds upon the mar- 
ket. The variety's chief merit lies in its exceptional 
productiveness ; one small plantation of about eight 
acres near to San Jose yielded over 18 tons to the acre 
and the yield would have been greater but for a some- 
what early frost. 



8. Trophy (Berkeley strain) — Since the Stone vari- 
ety lost caste as a canning variety in this State, the 
Trophy has been considered by most canners to be the 
best suited for their purposes. For some years past, 
however, this variety has been steadily deteriorating 
in certain features, except where growers have taken 
considerable pains in selecting their seed stock. Two 
undesirable features in particular which have been 
developed, is the habit of ripening the apex of the 
fruit so long before the base, that the apical portion of 
the fruit becomes soft and overripe before the basal 
part is well colored. Another defect is the corrugated 
contour of the fruit so undesirable to the canner. The 
Trophy was once a fruit with a comparatively smooth, 
even contour and the seed which we offer has been 
taken from plants which have been bred to regain 
this characteristic and to ripen their fruit uniformly. 

9. Ponderosa — Sometimes known as the Healds- 
burg variety, is a well known canning kind. While 
not so productive as the Trophy in the number of 
fruits produced, it yields a large tonnage of fruits to 
the acre owing to the weighty nature of its fruits. 
The variety is not esteemed so highly as the Trophy 
by the canners because the fruit lacks solidity of 
texture and is paler in coloring. Among growers 
in the northern part of the State, however, it enjoys a 
greater popularity than any other kind and for this 
reason seed from selected fruits is offered. 

10. Livingstone's New Globe — This variety has a 
smooth, roundish fruit of good size and pink color and 
the plant is a good grower and fairly prolific in fruit 
bearing. It did not succeed so well at Berkeley as 
either Trophy or Ponderosa, but its Eastern reputation 
induces us to offer seed to enable experimental plant- 
ings to be made elsewhere. 

11. Sutton's Golden Nugget — Judging from the 
number of enquiries which come to us, it appears that 
there is a decided demand by the people of this State 
for a yellow tomato suitable for making into a pre- 
serve. To meet this demand we are offering seed of 
Sutton's Golden Nugget which in our estimation is the 
best of the yellow preserving kinds. Quite a number 
of yellow varieties were placed under trial at Berke- 
ley during the past season and although several had 
distinct merit, none had such a combination of the 
characters which go to make up an ideal preserving 
tomato as did Golden Nugget. The fruit is about one 
inch in diameter, perfectly globular in form, the 
brightest yellow in color and possesses a delicious 
flavor. The plant is a vigorous grower and extremely 
productive. 



12. Sutton's Golden Perfection — Another good yel- 
low variety, not so productive nor attractive as the 
above, but having a much larger fruit. 

Applicants for tomato seed may select as many 
kinds as they desire at 5c each, postpaid, but only one 
packet of each kind. 

Prompt Orders Desired. — Application, with the 
amount specified for each variety ordered, should be 
made as soon as this announcement is received. We 
are unable to continue distribution throughout the 
year. Address : E. J. Wickson, Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Berkeley, California. 



Horticulture. 



Walnut Grafting' in Oregon. 



Mr. Ferd. Groner, of Hillsboro, Or., gives the Oregon 
Agriculturist tnis account of his grafting experience : 
This year I planted five two-year-old trees grafted on 
California black at random in a row of 25, and they 
made a growth on an average of about 10 inches, and 
I planted 65 seedlings in the same field under the same 
conditions and they averaged 6 or 7 inches. Six hun- 
dred seedlings did not make any better growth last 
year in the same field. 

I also planted this year 170 two and three-year-old 
grafted trees in another field, which received the same 
care, and they averaged from 10 to 12 inches. 

Last spring Mr. George C. Payne of California and I 
root-grafted 11 trees in a field of seedlings above men- 
tioned, and nine of them grew and made a growth of 
from four to six and one-half feet. This is considerably 
above the average growth of the field, and three of 
them made a greater growth than any seedling in the 
field of 600, and they were not on the best land in the 
field, either. On the two that failed I trained up a 
sprout, and they were ahead of the grafts in the fore 
part of the season, and now they are a little more 
than half as tall. We also grafted scions on about 70 
trees of various ages, from 4 to 18 years, English and 
American black walnut trees, and the grafts made an 
average growth of from six to eight feet, some grow- 
ing eleven feet and some reaching one and one-half 
inches in diameter. I attribute this remarkable 
growth to the superior quality of the scion wood. 



Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution 

NOT RESTING ON ITS LAURELS, 
BUT MOVING ON ITS MERITS. 



One year ago through this medium, we told you spraying could be made easy, profitable, 
and perfect by using Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution. To emphasize this we called your 
attention to the fact it had been fully demonstrated by the use of several carloads that had 
been shipped and used in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Colorado during the winters of 1905 
and 1906. This must have been some evidence to your mind for it brought to us many in- 
quiries from every fruit district in California; many of these inquiries developed into orders 
and the orders during season just past amounted to more than 3,000 60-gallon barrels, but this 
was not the sum of results, for already the orders placed for Rex Lime and Sulphur Solu- 
tion to be used during fall and winter of 1907 and 1908 amount to more than 6,000 barrels. 
Now all this has not happened because we said Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution was per- 
fectly made, better than home made, as cheap or cheaper than satisfactory home made, was 
uniformly made, consistently made, made and shipped in concentrated form that you might 
use every pint in a 50-gallon barrel. No waste. No sediment. No boiling. No toiling. No 
Bwearing. Always dependable, convenient, handy, ready to use, always the same. 

Not because we said all this did Rex please the user, but because what we said was true 
and has been proven. Rex is what we said it was. A perfect spray for trees and vines 
made from lime, sulphur and water, the resultant product being a perfect calcium sul- 
phide. We knew this before we asked you to buy it. We were sure of it because it had been 
analyzed by most all the agricultural experiment stations in the United States, particularly 
by those whose interests were closely associated with fruit growers, and in every instance the 
report was the same "We find in your prepared Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution a larger 
per cent of sulphur in sulphide form than any preparation of lime and sulphur known to us." 

We knew we were going to please you for we had what you needed and wanted. You did 
not know it, in fact you doubted it. You told us you did not believe in commercial sprays for 
in your opinion they were made to sell only. You had been disappointed in your com- 
mercial sprays as you may be again unless you use Rex, and did know lime and sulphur 
could be made as we make it. You never will know how to make it perfectly for it is out of 
your line of business and you are not prepared for doing it— (like biscuit you know, power, 
ful good this morning, mighty soggy tomorrow) same flour, same baking powder, same cook, 
don't know why, but it's so. 

What's the use of arguing with yourself about lime and sulphur spray when you can buy 
one that has stood the most critical test (and the only one offered you that has been proven 



byitswork) for2centsper gallon. Just think how ridiculously cheap it is; why ifltrequires 
4 or 5 gallons for a tree the actual cost is only 8 or 10 cents per tree. The question is not can I 
afford to use Rex, but can I afford not to use it. We could present testimonials from grow- 
ers in California that used Rex last season and were not only pleased, but are buying it again 
this season to fill the columns of this paper. If you want to know whether Rex is a good 
lime and sulphur solution, and a safe one to use, ask this paper; they will not misguide you, 
and the information they have is not from us but from your neighbors and fruit growers all 
over the State. 

We earnestly solicit the patronage of every reader of Pacific Rukai, I'kks.s. We want 
your business; our business is to get your business. We have built in California to stay, we 
are identified with you, and are manufacturing a product your best authorities say is profit- 
able for you to use. You must spray, you must use lime and sulphur, let it be Rex. We ask 
you to use the same good judgment and good sense in buying lime and sulphur spray you 
would use In buying trees to plant an orchard. You would never think of buying a tree 
because it was offered you a little cheaper than some other tree. You Insist on knowing its 
pedigree; the statement that it is as good or better than some tried variety does not carry 
much weight, you feel the best is not too good, and when you can buy the best at a reasonable 
price insist on having it. 

Sufficient evidence has come to us to make us feel justilied in making bold the statement 
that we have in Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution the most economical, effectual and best 
spray for grape mildew and black knot ever used by vine growers. During past season Hex 
was given a very severe test as a treatment for these diseases and the results were marvel 
ously successful, best results were shown where Rex was used on vines in dormant state, and 
followed by spraying with weak solution about 1 to 50. 

Dealers offering Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution for sale in California are all the most 
reliable and representative ones. They will sell you a 50-gallon barrel for 812; thus w hi n 
diluted 11 gallons water with 1 gallon Rex will make 600 gallons diluted spray or 2 cents per 
gallon. To this price §3 is added for each barrel; the $3 will be refunded when barrel is 
returned in good order. Where we have no dealer Rex will be delivered prepaid to your 
station for §15 per barrel and S3 refunded when you return empty barrel. We pay return 
freight on empty barrels. Terms are C. O. D. unless cash is sent with the order. Inquiries or 
orders will have prompt attention. 



Omaha, Nebraska 



THE REX COMPANY 

BENICIA, CALIFORNIA 
East Omaha, Nebraska North Yakima, Washington 



Toledo, Ohio 



22 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 11, 1908. 



The Garden. 



Kansas Ways With Gophers. 

Although there is little in the follow- 
ing: which up to date Californians do 
not already know, the new comers may 
derive some help from it. It is a state- 
ment just issued from the Kansas Ex- 
periment Station: 

As a result of much experimentation 
during the past five years, poisoning 
has been found to be the best method of 
getting rid of the gopher, especially if 
the area to be treated is extensive, or if 
a smaller tract is badly infested. The 
little animals do not possess the shrewd- 
ness and sagacity of the common rat, 
and will readily accept many kinds of 
poisoned bait. A poisoned syrup, pre- 
pared by the Kansas station and sold to 
the farmers of that State at actual cost, 
is now very generally used. More than 
1400 quart cans have been sent out, and 
the results as reported or investigated 
have been uniformly favorable. We, 
therefore, recommend this poisoned 
syrup as the best means known to us at 
present for the destruction of pocket- 
gophers. The syrup is intended to be 
used with soaked corn as a bait. A 
particular advantage in the employment 
of a poisoned syrup, instead of baits 
containing crystals of strychnine, lies in 
the fact that large quantities of the corn 
bait can be easily and quickly prepared 
by the former method. A quart can of 
the syrup sells for $1.10, and should be 
shipped by express. It is not mailable. 
Full directions for its use are printed on 
the label of each can. 

Small pieces of potato, sweet potato, 
or apple, about the size of the end of 
one's finger, poisoned with strychnine 
give excellent results. Make a slit in 
the bait with the point of a knife and in- 
sert a crystal or two of the poison; a bit 
of the latter as large as a grain of wheat 
is sufficient. Raisins or prunes treated 
in the same way are readily eaten by 
the gopher. In all these baits the in- 
tensely bitter taste of the strychnine is 
partially disguised until the fatal bite 
is taken. 

No matter what kind of poisoned bait 
is used, the method of introducing it 
into the burrows is the same. Make an 
opening into the runway by means of a 
sharpened stick, and drop in a few ker- 
nels of the corn or an equal amount of 
any of the other baits. A broom-stick 
sharpened at the end, or, still better, a 
spade handle shod with an iron point, 
and having a foot bar bolted on about 
15 inches from the end, will serve to 
make the opening. Do not close the 
opening after dropping in the bait. 
Prod for the runway at a point near 
where the earth of the mound seems to 
have been thrown out, or on a line be- 
tween two adjacent hillocks. Use the 
poison only where fresh mounds are be- 
ing thrown up, and after treating the 
field, level the hills of earth in some 
way so that the work of any survivors 
may be readily detected. Give these 
another dose. 

Trapping gives good results if one has 
the time to attend to it properly. If 
there are but a few gophers on the 
premises, the trap is a sure remedy. 
Experiments involving over 700 set- 
tings of the common steel trap, and also 
of special gopher traps, have demon- 
strated that an average catch of about 
25 <fo may be expected — that is, at least 
one-fourth of the traps set will catch 
and hold the gopher. Sometimes we 
have made a 50 or 75% catch. The 
special gopher traps give rather better 
results than the steel traps, and have the 
added advantage of being more easily 
and quickly set. The box trap of the 
California type is the best of these. 

With us, fumigation methods or the 
use of carbon bisulphide, either on satu- 
rated rags or when evaporated and the 
gas forced into the burrows by means of 
a bellows, have given very poor results. 
The gas is absorbed so readily by the 
loose soil, and the burrows are so long 
and intricate that in aine cases out of 
ten the gopher is unharmed. The 



method also involves a maximum of 
expense in materials and labor. 

Address all communications to J. T. 
Headlee, entomologist, Manhattan, 
Kansas. Theo. H. Scheffer, 
Assistant Zoologist. 

We have always understood that 
some smart Californian sold to one of 
the central States a recipe, well known 
in this State, as a great secret. We ex- 
pect then that this Kansas syrup is made 
by using ordinary molasses in the place 
of the eggs and honey in the following 
recipe: 

Take strychnine, 1 ounce; cyanide of 
potassium, \\ ounces; eggs, 1 dozen; 
honey, 1 pint; vinegar, \\ pints; wheat 
or barley, 30 pounds. Dissolve strych- 
nine in the vinegar; and you will have 
to pulverize it in the vinegar or it will 
gather into a lump. See that it is all 
dissolved. Dissolve the cyanide of po- 
tassium in a little water. Beat the eggs. 
Mix all the ingredients together thor- 
oughly before adding to the barley. Let 
it stand 24 hours, mixing often. Spread 
to dry before using, as it will mold if 
put away wet. 

In the central West corn is naturally 
used instead of wheat and barley. 



Squash Bugs and Race Suicide. 

To the Editor: With more bugs than 
squash vines a number of years ago, 
they are so scarce now that I don't re- 
member of seeing a squash bug for sev- 
eral years past, and the squash vines 
grow all right now. This is the way 
we circumvented the pest here at 
Ettersburg: Our goats are more than 
fond of man-root vines, the natural and 
only native food of the squash bug. The 
goats ate all the man-root vines as fast 
as they appeared, and the poor bugs sat 
around with a long hungry look, and 
between race suicide and old age they 
are no more. The nearest man-root 
patch is three-quarters of a mile away. 
I suppose there are bugs there, but if so 
they do not travel so far from home to 
hunt squash vines. 

Albert F. Etter. 

Ettersburg, Humboldt county. 

This is decidedly interesting, and is, 
so far as we know, an original observa- 
tion. Man-root plants are widely dis- 
tributed on the coast and some of the 
interior valley regions, and so abundant 
in some sections that they constitute a 
bad weed in the vineyards and orchards. 
We hope our squash and melon growers 
in such districts will try to verify Mr. 
Etter's observation, although they will 
have to resort to the weed-cutting culti- 
vator rather than the goat probably. 



A New Winter Muskmelon. 

To the Editor: Last spring I wrote 
you concerning a new melon, and you 
kindly gave me the address of Johnson 
& Musser Seed Co., Los Angeles, the 
firm introducing ' the new winter musk- 
melon.' Later I procured some seed, 
paying 50 cents per packet. The seed 
was planted late in May, and while the 
squirrels and gophers destroyed a large 
per cent of the vines, we succeeded in 
maturing about 40 melons. 

Several of these have ripened, and 
while many of them are not so inviting 
in appearance as I hoped, the melons 
were of excellent quality and delicious 
in flavor; in fact it far exceeds my ex- 
pectations in this respect. There is a 
lusciousness and a spicy flavor found in 
no other melon. The delightful pleas- 
ant melting flavor defies description. 

The new melon is so unlike any other, 
and has so many superior qualities that 
it deserves to be in a class by itself. It 
is a better keeper than the Casaba, and 
is superior to it in every respect. It is 
admirably adapted for shipping East for 
the winter market, and I believe it will 
carry any distance required and arrive 
in perfect condition, and I do not see 




TASH 



in the fertilizer in generous quanti- 
ties makes heavy yields of clean and 
sound vegetables and fruits. 

Strong and lusty plants resist the 
attacks of insects and germ pests. 
Plenty Of Potash in the fertilizer assures 
the best crops. 

Our Book, "Potash in Agriculture," is free 
to farmers. May we send it to you ? Address 
GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau Street, New York 

Atlanta: 1224 Candler Building: Chicago; Monadnock Building 



MEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, Cal., are Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



FERTILIZE WITH 



Nitrate of Soda 

May be purchased in large or small lots from 

R. A. HOLCOMBE & CO. 

50 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




MANUFACTURERS OF 



268 MARKET STREET 
San Francisco 



Special Fertilizers for all Crops 

Our New Catalogue 

"The 
Farmer's 
Friend," 

is just out and we shall be glad to mail you one. 
They are full of practical information to the 
grower and farmer. 



WHEAT GROWERS ! 

SPEND Sl.OO PER ACRE 

for the unsurpassed cereal phosphoric acid fertilizer, SUPERPHOSPHATE, and 
greatly increase your crops. Read what growers are doing in South and West- 
ern Australia. Yields are increased 50 per cent, there by using small quantities 
of superphosphate. 

Wm. Angus, the leading Agricultural Expert of South Australia, writes : 
" In modern agriculture probably no practice has been followed with such mar- 
velous results as applications of superphosphate." 

GET PARTICULARS FROM 

Xlie Mountain Copper Co., Ltd. 

ISO PINE ST., SA.1M FRANCISCO. 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash. 
Best Tree Wash. 
T. W. JACKSON & CO., Temporary Address, 
Sausallto, Cal. 



any reason why a new industry might 
not be added to the list that has made 
sunny California famous. The near 
future may see thousands of cars of 
melons shipped East at remunerative 
prices, and a new delicacy added to the 
winter markets of the Eastern cities. 
I thank you for your kindness in the 
past, and I hope you have had oppor- 
tunity to test this new delicious melon. 

H. A. Scott. 
Porterville, Tulare county, Cal. 

We also believe strongly in the future 
of these winter cantaloupes. They are 
the real breakfast food, and ought to 
drive the miller's by-products to the 
wall. With cantaloupes from Cali- 
fornia from May to Christmas, and 
grape fruit the rest of the time, the 



Eastern people ought to be a brighter 
lot, especially if other meals are duly 
supplied with the other fruits we can 
furnish them in any quantity they will 
buy, both fresh and cured. 



PILES CURED IN 6 TO 1 4 DAYS. 

PAZO OINTMENT Is guaranteed to cure any 
case of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or Protruding 
Piles in 6 to 14 days or money refunded. 50c. 



A MAN SAVED 

BY USINC A FOLDING SAWING MACHINE. 

On* nio mi tftw ■<>rB 

wood with It than two 
In any other way and 
dolteafucr. 9 CORDS 
IN IO HOURS. Saws 
any wood on any 

S round* Bawa trees 
own* Catalog free. 

Pint order i»«ur»i ■gtooy. 

Folding Sawing Macta. Co., 158 E. Harrison St., Chicago, W. 




January 11, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Plants Like Horses Must 
the Proper Food. 



Have 



Farm teams could not do good work 
on an hour's grazing at noontime. They 
merely need oats, cured hay, corn — 
something that makes muscle and 
energy. 

The oats, corn, hay, on which they are 
fed, must also have the right kind of 
food — cannot grow in large stalk, in 
full and solid grain, with rich nourish- 
ing qualities, from the little plant food 
that is left in an old worn soil. 

Soil Loses Its Best Plant-Food 
First. 

If the grocer allows customers to 
select fruits and vegetables from his 
open boxes, the first comers will take 
the finest. Nature compels plants to 
select the best food there is in the soil. 
They are all greedy for 

Nitrate of Soda. 

for they thrive best on that; and when 
there is little of it left they dwindle, 
simply because they are starving. There 
is only one thing to do when the nitrate 
is exhausted: the soil must be supplied 
with more. 

There Are Three Ways of 
Supplying the Soil With 
Nitrate. 

I. You can do it by putting in raw 
nitrogen. You have the raw nitrogen 
in such common fertilizers as weeds, 
leaves, grasses, tankage, offal, dried 
blood, or fish, or any kind of organic 
matter. 

There are disadvantages in this plan, 
however, which it is well to clearly 
understand. In the first place plants 
cannot eat raw nitrogen any more than 
horses can eat cord wood. The plants 
must wait until Nature puts her forces 
to work and changes the raw nitrogen 
into nitrate of soda. This work is done 
by a certain kind of bacteria. These 
bacteria propagate in sufficient numbers 
only when the weather is favorable. 
With continuous warmth and frequent 
light rains, i. e., with perfect weather, a 
part of the work will be done in a 
month or two; but a great deal of the 
raw nitrogen will not be converted into 
nitrate for a much longer time. Low 
grade fertilizers require a year or two. 

You see that the plants will have but 
a small portion of the nitrate from raw 
nitrogen at the particular time when 
they need it. This fact will be referred 
to again. It is a vital fact. 

It is also a fact that much of the 
nitrogen is lost in gases during this 
process of conversion into nitrate. That 
is clear loss. 

Still another fact of special import- 
ance is that in the change, from raw 
nitrogen to nitrate, there is often an acid 
by-product thrown out which sours the 
soil and seriously injures the quality of 
the crop. 

When these losses and hindrances are 
summed up, you will find that all or- 
ganic fertilizers are needlessly expensive; 
and do not give you the crops you pay 
for putting in. 

Nitrate of Soda instead of souring a 
sweet soil will sweeten a sour soil. 
When all its nitrogen is used up the 
residue of soda is wholesome, as you 
well know. 

II. Nitrate of soda can also be sup- 
plied to the soil in " combination." Now 
let us candidly examine this plan and 
see whether it is any better than the 
raw nitrogen plan. This plan is to use 
what are called " Complete Fertilizers," 
which contain a certain per cent of soda. 

Now, if the per cent were really cer- 
tain — if it were not uncertain, both in 
amount and in quality — there would re- 
main but one objection. That objection 
is very practical. The "complete ferti- 
lizer" costs a great deal too much. 



A Straight Talk With Farmers 
on the Question of Fertilizing. 



Figures That Are Interesting. 

At the New Jersey Experiment Sta- 
tion 195 "complete fertilizers" were 
analyzed, and their prices tabulated, 
with the following results. The average 
price was $34.23 per ton. They con- 
tained, on the average, about 16§ per 
cent of actual plant food. To get a ton 
of real plant food you must buy six tons 
of the "complete fertilizer," at an ex- 
pense of $205.38 — for about 20 acres. 

Nitrate of soda, every ounce of which 
is the best possible plant -food, will 
cover your 20 acres with a bigger and 



cannot be made up. 

Nitrate of soda, all of it, as soon as 
you put it in the ground, is ready to be 
taken up by the tender rootlets, and 
assimilated into the fibre and fruit of the 
plant. 

With nitrate plants do not have to wait 
until Nature's little cooks, the bacteria, 
get a late dinner ready — with the cooks 
often on a strike because the weather is 
bad. Ages and ages ago the work was all 
done — the wasted gases all thrown off— 
and here is their pure and perfect food. 

These three plans — the use of Raw 
Nitrogen, the use of Complete Fertiliz- 



MORE THAN TWICE 



THREE OR FOUR TIMES 



THE CROP — THE PROFIT 

That is the story your Timothy will tell 



w3k 1 



when you cut it, if you fertilize with 

NitrateofSoda 



We have arranged to send, free, to a 
number of Timothy growers, enough Nitrate 
of Soda to make a thorough test on a good- 
sized plot — first come, first served, as long 
as our trial supply lasts. 

To each one of the twenty-five farmers who 
get the best results, 
we will present a copy 
of Professor Voorhees' 
great book, «« Fer» 
tilizers " — a money- 
making volume of 
327 fact-full pages for 
every progressive farmer 
(also " Grass Growing for 
Profit," another valuable 
book) if paper is mentioned 
in which this advertise- 
ment was seen. 

We shall ask you to use the fertil- 
iser on a plot of ground, the exact 
dimensions of which we will give you. 
We shall ask that you select that part 
of a field, of wheat or oats or tim- 
othy or truck, which has given an 
i average crop. At the harvest yon 
are to measure and weisjh the vieM 
of the experiment plot and the yield 
of a plot of exactly the same size right 
by the side of it. which has no fertil- 
izer of any kind; and eive us, very 
accurately, the yield of the two plots. 
Send name and complete address on 
post card. 

WILLIAM S.MYERS. Director 
\ John Street and 71 Nassau, 
New York 




finer crop for much less than HALF the 
money. 

III. The right way to replenish a worn 
soil with nitrate of soda is to put in 
■nitrate of soda — the pure stuff, as it 
comes direct, under Government in- 
spection from the nitrate mines of Chili, 
where Nature completed her great 
chemical work ages ago. 

Nitrate of Soda Gives Plants the 
Essential 
"Good Start in Life." 

You know that pigs and calves and 
colts must have a good start. If they 
are not well nourished during the first 
few weeks they become stunted, and 
never can make a full and fine growth. 
You know this is especially true of 
grains — a backward, dwindling start 
never can be made up. 

Plants require their richest nourishing 
when their fine spraying rootlets are 
new and tender. If they do not get it 
then the rootlets quickly harden to a 
small size, and will not expand or ex- 
tend sufficiently for the plants to get 
full nourishment later on. The loss 



ers, the use of The Pure Product in 
Nature made Nitrate of Soda — only 
need this plain statement of facts to 
show you which is the proper method. 

Nitrate of Soda May Be Used Alone 
or With Manures. 

On naturally good soils, nitrate of 
soda alone is frequently sufficient. If 
the soil is badly worn, use 100 pounds 
to the acre. If but partly deteriorated 
75 pounds will give splendid results. 

Results in Cash of Nitrate of Soda 
Alone. 

A large number of experiments on 
Timothy have been made by farmers 
all over the country and reported to 
Professor Myers, at 71 Nassau Street, 
New York. These experiments show 
that the use of 100 pounds of nitrate of 
soda to the acre produced an 

Average Increase 

of 2,775 pounds of field-cured hay over 
the plot where nitrate was not used. 



The nitrate of soda cost at the time 
the experiments were made $2.75. You 
know what you can getfor 2,775 pounds 
of the finest, cleanest, richest, field- 
cured Timothy. You make from 150% 
to 200 f on your investment in three or 
four months. 

Potatoes, Beets, Cabbages, Carrots, 
Oats. 

Similar experiments — by scores of 
farmers throughout the country, using 
100 pounds of nitrate of soda (alone) to 
the acre— show average increase per 
acre of 

Potatoes 3,600 lbs. 

Beets 4,900 " 

Cabbages 6,100 " 

Carrots 7,800 " 

Oats 400 " 

Figure it up yourself and see what an 
enormous profit you have on the small 
outlay necessary for 100 pounds of ni- 
trate of soda per acre. 

Nitrate of Soda is a Magic for All 
Early Crops. 

Peas, beets, lettuce, onions, radishes, 
beans, sweet corn, all truck gardening 
that you want early, with a rapid and 
luscious growth, will get the proper 
nourishment from nitrate of soda, which 
is a perfect plant food ready for them 
on the instant. 

The Only Plant Food That Can Be 
Used Week by Week. 

Blackberries, gooseberries, raspber- 
ries, currants, as every gardener 
knows, should not make a rush growth, 
but a steady and even growth, which 
means that they must be fed little and 
often. 

A sprinkling of nitrate of soda every 
week or ten days will show surprisingly 
fine results. 

Nitrate of soda is the only fertilizer 
that will feed them instantly whenever 
they require special nourishing. 

For Planting in Succession and 
Ripening of Garden Truck. 

Nitrate of soda is the perfect fertilizer. 
It is always ready for assimilation. 
With a trifling outlay for 100 pounds to 
the acre you have fresh, rich, "early 
vegetables" in September — just as lus- 
cious as in June. 

The Need of Common Business Care 
in Farming. 

If railroad men and manufacturers 
neglected their rolling stock and ma- 
chinery as many farmers neglect their 
soils they would go bankrupt in a year. 
With ordinary care in keeping up the 
soil farming becomes a splendid busi- 
ness — the profits doubling and trebling. 

Free Literature on Nitrate of Soda. 

To a limited number of farmers who 
will make experiments under our direc- 
tions, we will send the bulletins con- 
taining results of Agricultural Station 
work, which give actual data of trial 
fertilizing with nitrate of soda. We 
will also send our handsomely illustra- 
ted book of 230 pages on "Foodfor 
Plants." It is brim full of such useful 
and money-making facts as every farmer 
ought to be familiar with. 

We want your word that you will 
meet our proposition candidly, and con- 
duct an experiment with nitrate of soda 
carefully and give us the exact results. 

The offer, of course, is limited. 

Try it for yourself, and learn how 
much money there is in just a little sci- 
ence properly applied to farming. 

If you do not care to make the exper- 
iment, or if too many have applied 
ahead of you, and you still want a lot of 
general information on this matter of 
raising big crops, The Nitrate Propa- 
ganda, 71 Nassau Street, New York, 
will give this valuable free information. 



2 4 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



January 11, 1908. 



The Home Circle. 



Life -What Is It to You? 

To the preacher life's a sermon, 

To the joker it's a jest: 
To the miser life is money, 

To the loafer it is rest. 

To the lawyer life's a trial, 

To the poet life's a song; 
To the doctor life's a patient, 

That needs treatment right along. 

To the soldier life's a battle, 
To the teacher life's a school, 

Life's a good thing to the grafter, 
It's a failure to the fool. 

To the man upon the engine 
Life's a long and heavy grade; 

It's a gamble to the gambler, 
To the merchant life is trade. 

Life's a picture to the artist, 
To the rascal life's a fraud; 

Life, perhaps, is but a burden 
To the man beneath the hod. 

Life is lovely to the lover, 
To the player life's a play; 

Life may be a load of trouble 
To the man upon the dray. 

Life is but a long vacation 
To the man who loves his work; 

Life's an everlasting effort 
To shun duty to the shirk. 

To the heaven-blest romancer 

Life's a story ever new; 
Life is what we try to make it — 

Brother, what is life to you ? 



A Slipper and Some Pajamas. 



Gerald Turner had once been told by 
an editor that he could write better than 
he could talk. The editor was busy at 
the time, but the editor was right. 
Gerald was a passable writer, but when- 
ever he attempted to think or speak on 
his legs he invariably made a woeful 
exhibition of himself. Nobody won- 
dered, then, at the polite but firm re- 
fusal to take part in the private theatri- 
cals which were to be given by Mr. and 
Mrs. Mansell. 

To their daughter, May, he was de- 
votedly attached, but even her entrea- 
ties would not move him from his decis- 
ion. He was perfectly content to write 
odes in her honor, which he had not the 
effrontery to send, but to exhibit his 
want of histrionic powers before her and 
a hundred or more people besides was 
more than he would bargain for. He 
was obdurate, so the rehearsals went on 
with another hero in his stead. 

The night of the performance arrived 
and Gerald, of course invited, had prom- 
ised to be present. Though he was not 
particularly jealous, still he thought it 
as well not to arrive too punctually. 
He was of opinion that he might proba- 
bly come in time to witness his beloved 
in the arms of a rival, a denouement 
which he might or might not take with 
equanimity. Accordingly he rang the 
bell at the Mansell residence more than 
an hour behind the time set for the rais- 
ing of the curtain. 

No one was in the room into which 
he was ushered to take off his coat and 
hat, and on inquiry a servant told him 
the performance had commenced very 
punctually and was then nearly over. 
Being so late, he thought it as well not 
to disturb the audience, so he went into 
a small room off the main passage, tak- 
ing with him a small cardboard box. 
Sitting down he slowly untied the string 
around the box, soliloquizing as he 
did so. 

Gerald was in a quandary. His nerve, 
however, did not desert him. 

"I'm late, but I don't suppose she will 
have missed me in the excitement of the 
performance. However, this will please 
her. She may get others, but — " 

Here he put his hand in his pocket, 
and, drawing out a note, he placed it in 
the box. 

"Every rose has its thorns. Some- 
times you don't know you are touching 



a rose until you get pricked. I wonder 
whether when she discovers this note 
she will feel hurt? I can't think so. She 
has received my attentions openly, and 
— well, one last look and a kiss — she's 
sure to kiss it, and — " 

He opened the box, and, looking into 
it, started back with amazement. 

» Why, what on earth ? Well, that's 
a nice thing — " 

So saying, he took a pair of pajamas 
out of the box and held them up. 

"Oh, I remember! They came from 
the hosier's today at the same time the 
florist sent the bouquet. I must have 
mistaken one box for the other. Well, 
there's no help for it. I must go back 
home and get the flowers." 

At this moment a slight movement 
outside made him hesitate as he rose to 
go. Throwing the box under the sofa, 
he inadvertently kept hold of the paja- 
mas in his hand. The next moment 
May Mansell entered the room. 

Putting the pajamas behind his back 
he bowed, and in doing so retreated 
until he reached the sofa. Once there 
he sat down as if by accident, and 
shoved the pajamas under the pillow on 
the right of the sofa. Then immedi- 
ately rising he blurted out awkwardly. 

" Good evening ! " 

" Why, how do you do, Mr. Turner?" 
said May. "I was waiting for you to 
congratulate me. The others have gone 
to the refreshment room, and so — but 
now I come to think of it, 1 don't be- 
lieve you were in the audience. I cer- 
tainly couldn't discover you." 

" Oh, yes ! I was there," commenced 
Gerald, and then aside, " the fates for- 
give me, but what am 1 to do?" 

"You were? Then—" 

May gave a sudden cry of pain. 

"Why, what's the matter?" ex- 
claimed Gerald. Have you hurt your- 
self?" 

"Oh, no!" gasped Mary. "It's noth- 
ing. My foot has gone to sleep. That's 
all! I think I'll sit down." 

She gave another gasp of pain, limped 
to the sofa, and sat down on the left 
hand side. Gerald took his seat on the 
right, condoling with her. 

" Would you mind getting me a glass 
of water? The heat is unbearable." 

Gerald rose at once, and hurried out 
of the room. 

No sooner had he left the room than 
May put her foot up on the sofa, took 
off her slipper, and gave a sigh of re- 
lief. 

"Thank goodness! That's the worst 
of wearing new things. They always 
hurt so. 

Then she took up the slipper, and 
looked at it, shaking her finger. 

"You heartless little tyrant! If you 
had not been squeezing my foot, he 
might have been squeezing my hand by 
this time! " 

All at once she heard Gerald return- 
ing with the water. She tried to put 
the slipper on again, but it gave her so 
much pain that, as Gerald entered, she 
hid it under the left sofa pillow, and ar- 
ranged her gown so that it would hide 
her unslippered foot. 

Gerald was more than sympathetic. 
He inquired if she Were really not ill, 
but she reiterated that there was noth- 
ing the matter. 

" Won't you let me take you into the 
conservatory," asked Gerald. " Per- 
haps you would like the air?" 

May declined, wishing in her heart 
that he would go away, for, thought 
she, "with two slippers on I might 
want him to stay, but now for once in 
my life I wish he would go!" 

"Surely your foot is hurting you?" 
said Gerald. " Why don't you put it up 
here?" 

So saying he rose, and reached for a 
chair. While his back was turned, May 
changed ber position to the right of the 
sofa so that her foot might l>e the better 
concealed. 

When Gerald came back, he saw that 
she had changed her position, and re- 
membering the pajamas hesitated before 
relinquishing the chair. At last, how- 
ever, he took his seat on the sofa on the 
left. There was a pause, and then Gerald 
sighed. 

" Ah!" said he, abstractedly, " how I 



wish I could sit on this sofa for ever!" 

" I hope devoutedly that he won't!" 
thought May. Then'aloud, "What non- 
sense! You're getting romantic!" 

"No!" continued Gerald, "this sofa 
contains something that I would give 
worlds to possess!" 

" Indeed!" replied May. Then with 
a half frightened saucy air, "It holds 
something which at this moment is 
very dear to me, too!" 

"Something, or somebody ?" 

" What do you mean?" 

" Why, you ?" burst out Gerald. " I 
worship the very ground you walk on!" 

May squirmed. 

" Why should there be any secrete be- 
tween OS?" 
May started. 

" Further concealment is useless !" 

May gasped. 

"I think I know all!" 

May sat up straight, and made up her 
mind on the instant to deny anything 
and everything. 

" Yes," he went on, fervently, "and 
I also live in the hopes of knowing what 
you are hiding — " 

May half rose; and then remembering 
her unslippered foot resumed her seat. 

"Hiding in that warm heart of yours !" 

.May sank hack on the sofa with a 
sigh of relief. 

"This is so sudden !" she gasped. 

"Then I have discovered — " 

"I hope not !" exclaimed May with a 
fresh terror. 

" You hope not?" 

" That is," said May, " you need hide 
nothing from me. I think I know all, 

too!" 

( ierald's face fell. Gould she have 
found the pajamas while he was out of 
the room ? 

"Tell me all," said May archly. 
Gerald hesitated. 

" What is it?" she asked. 

"It isn't it!" began Gerald with a 
determination to be honest, and tell the 
whole truth. "It's them!" 

So saying he turned to May, while in 
surprise she faced him. The sudden 
simultaneous movement disarranged 
both the sofa pillows, so that they fell on 
the floor, disclosing the pajamas, and 
the slipper. 

There was a pause. Then May took 
the pajamas in her hand, forgetting all 
about her unslippered foot, rose and held 
them up. 

"So, Mr. Turner, this is 'them !' " 

Gerald quickly bent down for the 
slipper. 

" And this? Is this yours?" 

"Mine? Oh, dear me, no! Some 
lady must have left it here !" 

"Then," said Gerald, with a quiet 
smile, "I'll go and find her." 

" No, no!" pleaded May. 

" Why not? Don't you want me to 
seek my Cinderella?" 

" Yes; but the lady may have gone 
home !" 

"That's so," acquiesced Gerald medi- 
tatively. Then, with a sudden shout, he 
exclaimed: 

" Look, Miss Mansell ! There's a 
mouse !" 

May gave a shriek, jumped on the 
soafa, and, alas! disclosed her unslip- 
pered foot. 

Gerald made a low bow, and, drop- 
ping on one knee, presented the slipper 
to her. 

"The Prince," said he, with his hand 
to his heart, "has found his Cinder- 
ella." — La Tout-he Hancock. 



An Immediate Response. 

" My son," said the strict mother, at 
the end of a moral lecture, " I want you 
to be exceedingly careful about your 
conduct. Never, under any circum- 
stances, do anything which you would 
be ashamed to have the whole world see 
you doing." 

The small boy turned a handspring 
with a whoop of delight. 

"What in the world is the matter 
with you? Are you crazy?" demanded 
the mother. 

" No'm," was the answer. " I'm jes' 
so glad that you don't 'spec' me to take 
no baths never any more." 



A Happy New Year. 

Said the child to the youthful year: 
" What hast thou in store for me ? 

O, giver of beautiful gifts, what cheer, 
What joy dost thou bring with thee?" 

A great many of us make the mistake 
of thinking that happiness depends on 
what the New Year will bring to us. 
But the right kind of happiness is just 
the other way round, and depends en- 
tirely on what we bring to the New 
Year. 

People who are really happy are those 
who make up their minds to take cheer- 
fully everything as it comes, and make 
the best of it; and to take the people 
who come, too, and make the l>est of 
them. 

" I never get a chance to make nice 
friends," I heard a girl say the other 
day. 

Of course, it is possible that this girl 
may have been peculiarly unfortunate 
in the people with whom she came in 
contact; but I think it is Ear more likely 
that in some way or other she has never 
learned the secret of making the best of 
people, and so they do not show their 
nicest side. 

For, after all, there is a 'nice' side to 
everyone, if one can only come across 
it. " It IS hard if out of a million peo- 
ple you cannot find half a dozen to your 
liking," William Hazlitt once said to a 
friend who had come to live in London. 
And surely it is equally hard if, out of 
all the people a woman has run across 
in the course of a life of twenty years, 
she has not found half a dozen who are 
'nice.' It certainly suggests that the 
fault may lie in her, rather than In the 
other people, doesn't it ? 

So let us all make up our minds to 
have a happy New Year as far as we 
can make it so; and that even if worries 
and troubles come, as come they must, 
we will meet them bravely, and try to 
find out if perhaps even these may not 
have a bright side. 

Madame < Juyon once wrote : " Ah, 
if you only knew the peace of an ac- 
cepted sorrow !" 

An accepted sorrow ! Well, and how 
about an accepted worry? It is while 
we struggle and fight against things 
that they fret us so. When we accept 
and try to make the best of them the 
worst sting is gone. 

And there is another side of the ques- 
tion, too, that ought to appeal to us in 
these beauty-loving days. There is no 
more wearing work than worrying and 
fretting. These things leave their ugly 
finger-marks even on the fairest face, 
taking away something from its beauty 
and serenity; for a week of fretful wor- 
rying and complaining will dig uglier 
wrinkles than months of life cheerfully 
and faithfully lived. 

So let us start this New Year deter- 
mined that however we may have 
wasted and misused former year- we 
will try to do better and be better in 
this; that we will do our utmost not 
only to be happy ourselves, but to make 
other people happy, too. 

And if we do ? Well, when we stand 
on the further shore and look back at it, 
we shall be able to do so without regret, 
and we shall realize that it was in the 
truest sense a Happy Year. — Met all - 
Magazine. 



Couldn't Remember Names. 

A writer in the London Tattler pub- 
lishes the following quaint story from 
a reader who was apparently unper- 
turbed by the recent earthquake: A 
lady in San Francisco engaged a Chinese 
cook. When the celestial came, among 
other things she asked him bis name. 

" My name," said the Chinaman, 
smiling, " is Wang Hank Ho." 

" Oh, I can't remember all that," said 
the lady. " I will call you John." 

John smiled all over, and asked: 

" What is your namee ?" 

" My name is Mrs. Melville Ijong- 
don." 

" Me no memble all dat," said John. 
"Chinaman he do savev Mrs. Membul 
London. I call you Tommy." 



January 11, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Course in 

Telegraphy 

Good Positions 

Tuition back after one year's service. 
Main S. P. wire in schoolroom. Write 
for particulars. 

PACIFIC COAST 
BUSINESS COLLEGE 

San Jose, Cal. 



Gleanings. 

The eagle can withstand a 28-day fast. 
Out of 205 men one is over six feet 
high. 

The pin was invented in England in 
1543. 

The title of Reverend was first used in 
England in 1657. 

Leather trunks were used in Rome at 
the time of Csesar. 

Steel pens were made in Birmingham, 
Eng., first in 1805. 

Great Britain's golfers use half a mil- 
lion balls each week. 

Gloves were first seen in England dur- 
ing the reign of Edward II. 

An ostrich may be stripped of its 
plumage every eight months. 

A Paris insurance company refuses 
risks on men who dye their hair. 

The average length of life of a trades- 
man is two-thirds that of a farmer. 

Saddles were first used by men eques- 
trians in France in the year 600 A. D. 

A new invention provides for the de- 
livery of milk through a hole in the 
door. 

France is responsible for the game of 
billiards. Devigne invented it in 1572. 

The Russian is not free of parental 
bondage until he has reached the age 
of 26. 

Gold fish originally came from China 
and the first were sent to England in 
1691. 

As compared with a normal person, 
the brain of the idiot is deficient in 
phosphorus. 

One couple out of a thousand live to 
celebrate their golden wedding anni- 
versary. 

Only one ounce of soap per head is 
annually used by the people of India. 

Bass were put into the river near Nor- 
ristown, Pa., 36 years ago, and only 
recently have fish been caught in the 
stream. 

A man has been arrested in Paris for 
thefts from his employers during a 
course of 30 years. The firm gave him 
a salary of $1000, and he contrived to 
"save" $40,000 and to live at the rate 
of $2000 a year. 

The destruction of the bride's toys is 
quite an important part of the marriage 
ceremony in Japan. The bride lights a 
torch, which she hands to the bride- 
groom, who with it kindles the fire in 
which the toys are burned. 

There is a dearth of theatrical "su- 
pers" in Paris owing to the extension 
of the cinematograph. There are cine- 
matograph shows everywhere in Paris 
now, and the companies which run them 
need numbers of people as actors and 
actresses for their living pictures. 



Diplomacy. 

" Before we were married," she com- 
plained, " you always engaged a cab 
when you took me anywhere. Now you 
think the street car is good enough for 
me." 

" No, my darling. I don't think the 
street car is good enough for you. It's 
because I'm so proud of you. In a cab 
you would be seen by nobody, while I 
can show you off to so many people by 
taking you in a street car." 

" You dear! Forgive me if I gave 
you pain in saying what I did. 



A False Step. 

Sweet ! thou hast trod on a heart; 

Pass ! there's a world full of men, 
And women as fair as thou art 

Must do such things now and then. 

Thou only has stepp'd unaware, 

(Malice not one can impute) ; 
And why should a heart have been there 

In the way of fair women's foot? 

It was not a stone that could trip, 
Nor was it a thorn that could rend; 

Put up by thy proud under-lip ! 
'Twas merely the heart of a friend. 

And yet, peradventure, one day 
Thou, sitting alone at the glass 

Remarking the bloom gone away, 
Where the smile in its dimplement was, 

And seeking around thee in vain, 
From hundreds who flatter'd before, 

Such a word as " O, not in the main 
Do I behold thee less precious, but 
more." 

Thou wilt sigh very like, on thy part — 
" Of all I have known or can know, 

I wish I had only that Heart 
I trod upon ages ago ! " 

— Elizabeth Barrett Browning. 




Not the Simple Life. 

The American linotype operator, 
seated before the keyboard of his ma- 
chine and deftly turning out columns of 
type by the light touch of his fingers, 
may sometimes imagine that his task is 
a strenuous one, but if he compares his 
work with that of the Asiatic com- 
positor he will find that he has some- 
thing in the nature of a 'snap.' The 
old-timer who picked out his living 
from the little compartments in the 
case would grumble if obliged to leave 
his stool to get an odd letter or punc- 
tuation mark, but he never paused to 
congratulate himself on his forethought 
in selecting white instead of yellow- 
skinned parents. 

The Chinese compositor is literally on 
the run from the minute he takes up his 
large stick until his daily duties are 
ended. He has 11,000 characters to 
draw from in setting up his copy, and 
they are banked up on inclined frames, 
sometimes 100 feet long. If his copy is 
from the pen of a flowery writer who 
prides himself upon the rarity and ele- 
gance of his phrasing, the author has 
either wittingly or unconsciously given 
the typesticker a message to get busy 
and chase himself. 

'Chung Sai Yat Po,' which modestly 
designates itself the largest Chinese 
daily newspaper outside of the Chinese 
empire, is to return to San Francisco 
when its new quarters here are com- 
pleted. In the days following the fire 
the editor, Ng Poon Chew, sought 
refuge across the bay. His plant had 
been destroyed, but he made a make- 
shift of painting his news on cardboard 
with a brush. This was photographed, 
zinc-etched, and printed from the plates. 
This method was continued until some- 
thing like a ton of type was secured 
from China, and the regulation manner 
of printing resumed. As at present ar- 
ranged this type is held in five 'eases,' 
each 10 feet long by 5 feet high, divided 
into partitioned squares for the separate 
characters. With this exception, and 
the absence of the linotype, the plant 
does not differ much from that of the 
average small American newspaper. 
All the latest appliances are noted, and 
electricity is the motive power. The 
paper goes everywhere on the continent. 
The editor's statement that 350 pounds 
of mail are sent out each day was sub- 
stantiated by the presence of a dozen 
youths who were busy wrapping papers 
the other afternoon when I visited the 
place. Part of the mailing was done 
in the kitchen of the building. In a 
corner of that apartment one member 
of the outfit was preparing supper, and 
the appetizing odor of a big pan of fry- 
ing fish was doubtless the whip that 
hurried the mailers on to a rapid con- 
clusion of their work. 



The Norwegians are the longest lived 
of European nations and the Spaniards 
the shortest. 



THE ONE=MAN ROAD MACHINE 

Easy to guide ; strong, compact and easily adaptable to every condition demanded. It 
needs but one man and two horses to operate it. Notice the "no skid" rudders on the wheels 
They are raised in the picture ; when lowered they guide the machine straight ahead. The 
moldboard is six feet long. Has adjustable shoes shown at ends of moldboard to gage depth 
to which moldboard should cut. It's a very desirable machine for road-building in city or vil- 
lage. It makes good roads and keeps them so. Although made of steel and malleable iron 
still it weighs odly 600 pounds. The 

20th CENTURY GRADER 

saves time of three men and two extra horses. It is easy on the horses. Has blade In front of 
wheels. Moldboard reversible. Machine turns in 6 ft. circle. Built for Road-grading, Ditch- 
ing, Land-leveling, Foundation-digging, 

FOR IRRIGATION, 
CANAL BUILDING, Etc. 

The price is lower than most such 
machines. W e send it on free trial. 
Write us for our handsome book- 
let, "Delightful Roads.'' It's free 
and tells you all about the 20th 
Century. 

The While Cily Grader Co. 

Box 24 White City, Kansas 

J. GORDON, Sales Agent, 
P. O. Box 167, Sacramento, Cal. 



How to Drive a Hen. 

When a woman has a hen to drive 
into the coop, she takes hold of her 
skirts with both hands, shakes them 
quietly at the delinquent and says: 
" Shoo, there !" The hen takes one look 
at the object to convince her that it is a 
woman, and then stalks majestically 
into the coop. A man doesn't do that 
way. He goes outdoors and says: "It 
is singular nobody can drive a hen but 
me," and, picking up a stick of wood, 
hurls it at the offending biped. " Get in 
there, you thief!" The hen then loses 
her reason and dashes to the other end 
of the yard. The man straightway 
dashes after her. She comes back with 
her head down, her wings out, and fol- 
lowed by an assortment of stove-wood, 
fruit cans and clinkers and a very mad 
man in the rear. Then she skims under 
the barn and over a fence or two, and 
around the house and back again to the 
coop, and all the time talking as only 
an excited hen can talk, and all the 
while followed by things convenient for 
handling and a man whose coat is on 
the sawbuck and whose hat is on the 
ground, and whose perspiration knows 
no limit. 

By thistime the other hens have come 
out to take a hand in the debate and 
help dodge missiles, and the man says 
every hen on the place shall be sold in 
the morning, and puts on his things and 
goes down the street, and the woman 
has every one of those hens housed and 
counted in two minutes. 



Reluctant Confession. 



" Maybelle, has Harry ever kissed 
you ?" 

"Just once, Gladdy ; but he begged 
so hard I couldn't refuse." 

"When was it?" 

" Last Thursday night." 

" Where did he kiss you ?" 

"In this town, of course." 

" That doesn't answer my question. 
Where did he kiss you ?" 

" At home." 

" That isn't what I want to know. 
Where did he kiss you?" 

" In the conservatory." 

" That is another evasion. Where 
did he kiss you ?" 

" Er — in the dark." 

" You may just as well tell me the 
straight truth. Where did he kiss you ?" 

"On the back of my hand, if you 
think it's any of your business." 



Mrs. Waldo (of Boston): " I have a 
letter from your Uncle James, Penel- 
ope, who wants me to spend the sum- 
mer on his farm." 

Penelope (dubiously): " Is there any 
society in the neighborhood?" 

Mrs. Waldo : " I've heard him speak 
of the Holsteins and Guernseys. I pre- 
sume they are pleasant people." 



Only One "BROMO QUININE" 

That is LAXATIVE BROMO (|UIN1NE. Look 
for the signature of K. W. (iliOVE. Used the 
World over to Cure a Cold i.i One Day. 25c. 



Glenn Ranch 

GLENN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

For Sale in 
Subdivisions 



This famous and wellknown farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, "The Wheat King," as been 
surveyed and subdivided. It is off ered for sale in 
any sized Government subdivision at remarkably 
low prices, and in no case, it is believed, exceed- 
ing what is assessed for county and State taxa- 
tion purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west 
bank of the Sacramento river for fifteen miles. 
It is located In a region that has never lacked an 
ample rainfall and no irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year 
and freight and trading boats make regular trips. 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Cali- 
fornia, and inquire for P. O. Eibe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdivisions and prices per acre, address 
personally or by letter 



F. C. LUSK, 



Agent of N. D. Rldeout, Administrator of the 
Estateof H. J. Glenn, atChico, Butte County, Cal. 



FOR RENT 



POULTRY FARM 

Established, thoroughly equipped, comprising 
10 acres land, with good 4-rooru house, bam, in- 
cubator house with 4 Incubators, hot and cool 
brooder houses, bleeding pens and yards of all 
descriptions. One thousand fowls on place at 
present; 2^ miles from railroad station. Open 
for rental with this if desired— 60 acres bearing 
apple orchard and choice farming land. 
Address 

LILIENCRANTZ & SON 

APTOS, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, CAL. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 

THE SAVINGS and LOAN SOCIETY 

101 Montgomery St., Cor. Sutter, 

has declared a dividend for the term ending 
December 31, 1907, at the rate of three and eight- 
tenths (3x/k,) per cent per annum on all deposits, 
free of taxes, and payable on and after Thursday, 
January 2, 1908. Dividends not called for are 
added to and bear the same rate of interest as 
principal. EDWIN BONNELL, Cashier. 



School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing, and Assaying. 
5100 TELEGRAPH AVE. OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 

Open all Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pres't 
Assaying of Ores, $26; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon 
Assay, $25 :Blo\vplpe Assay, $10. Full Course of 
Assaying. Established In 1864. Send for circular. 



HENRY e. LISTER, 
ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 Pacific nidg., Fourth and Market Sts., 

San Francisco. 



Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST.. SAN FRANCISCO 

PA PGR Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angeles 
mrcn Blake. M cFall & Co., Portland. Oregon 



26 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 11, 1908. 



D 



ANGEROUS 



at well as painful 

Backache Neuralgia 
Lumbago Rheumatism 
Stiff Joints Sprains 

Gombaolt'sCaiistic Balsam 

WILL RELIEVE YOU. 

It ii penetrating, toothing and healing and for all 
Serea or Wound!, Felong, Exterior Cmcen, Burnt, 
Boils, Carbuncle* and all Swelling! where an outward 
application It required CAUSTIC BALSAM HAS NO 
EQUAL. Removes the soreneaa— itrengthens the muiclei. 

Price S 1 .60 per bottle. Sold by druggiati or lent 
bf at expreta prepaid. Write for Booklet L. 

Thi LAWRENCE-WILLIAMS COMPANY, Cleveland, 0. 



Patrons of Husbandry. 



National Grange and Good Roads. 

To the Editor: I enclose copy of reso- 
lutions adopted by this organization at 
its annual meeting held November 12- 
22, 1907, at Hartford, Conn., favoring 
the enactment by Congress of legislation 
making liberal appropriations for the 
improvement of the public highways of 
the country. 

The National Grange, with nearly one 
million members, representing the agri- 
cultural interests of the nation, has under- 
taken to secure recognition of the urgent 
necessity for a broad, comprehensive 
policy of public road improvement. It 
believes that the time has arrived when 
the problem of the deplorable condition 
of our roads in general must be seriously 
considered by the various township, 
county and State authorities, and prompt 
action taken to remedy existing condi- 
tions; and that the National Govern- 
ment should lend its assistance to a 
movement having for its objective point 
the establishment of a complete system 
of properly constructed highways. 

The farmers in all sections of the 
country are convinced that they are not 
receiving their share of the benefits 
from Federal expenditures, and that the 
improvement of the public roads is as 
equally deserving of a share in the 
annual appropriations as is the improve- 
ment of our rivers and harbors. 

Many hundred millions of dollars, in 
the form of cash subsidies or land 
grants, have in the past been given to 
private railway companies to assist in 
the construction of railroads, and there 
is no good reason why a portion of the 
money taken by taxes from the people 
of the whole country should not now be 
appropriated in aid of better public roads. 

The agricultural papers of the country 
can l>e of great assistance in the move- 
ment, by advising their readers as to its 
importance, and urging them to use their 
influence with their Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress to secure the en- 
actment of legislation for this purpose. 

Concord, N. H. 

N. J. Bachelder, 
Master National Grange. 



Tulare Grange Meeting. 

To the Editor : Tulare Grange held 
its semi-monthly meeting at its hall on 
Saturday, the 4th. After the reading 
and approval of the minutes the officers 
for the coming year were duly installed 
by the retiring Worthy Master F. H. 
Styles, Sister A. O. Swauson, Marshal: 
Worthy Master, Bro. J. T. Lawson; 
Overseer, C. A. Henry; Lecturer, John 
Tuohy; Steward, F. H. Styles; Assist- 
ant Steward, A. J. Woods; Chaplain, 
Sister Elsie Fay; Treasurer, George 
Watt; Secretary, Sister B. L Morris; 
Gate Keeper, Henry Hunsaker; Po- 
mona, Fannie Way, Flora, Ada Grif- 
fith; Ceres, Emma Low man; Ladies' 
Assistant Steward, Sister E. B. Lawson; 
Organist, Sister F. H. Styles. 



After all were installed the Master 
and officers made short addresses advis- 
ing the maintenance of the Order, 
prompt attendance at meetings, careful, 
impressive work in conferring degrees, 
each one present doing or saying some- 
thing useful and interesting. This was 
the spirit shown by all present — a de- 
sire to build up and promote the Order, 
that the Order collectively may do for 
themselves and the community what 
cannot be done by individual or casual 
exertion; and this co-operation is what 
the Order was organized for 35 years 
ago. This co-operation has never been 
lost sight of in Tulare Grange. Co- 
operative buying, selling, dairying, 
marketing, insurance and otherwise, 
have been encouraged and promoted 
always successfully in and by this 
Grange and is still further advocated. 
Surely every farmer owes it to himself 
to be associated with and help to pro- 
mote the good work of the Grange. 

It was agreed that diversified farm- 
ing, for which Tulare county, by reason 
of ils rich soil and salubrious climate, is 
eminently adapted, should be the rule 
of the farmer. One brother, a very old 
resident of Tulare, told his exj>erience. 
He followed wheat growing many 
years until, seven years ago, it brought 
him, at the end of the season, in debt 
$7000. He quit the one crop business, 
and has followed diversified farming 
since. He is an earnest Granger, and 
although he has length of years — be is 
now 86 — he attends Grange meetings 
constantly. His experience counts for 
much at our meetings. He claims, and 
without contradiction, that the dairy 
and the chicken lot each bring to this 
State annually double the value of the 
gold dug therein. The Co-operative 
Dairy of Tulare last year handled 
$269,000 worth of products. His cows 
average for him in cream $10.31 per 
month; 100 chickens pay all the grocery 
bills of the ranch. In ten months his 
cows pay for themselves and in the same 
time the chickens pay double their cost. 

For lack of time the program subject 
of the day was not discussed. It was 
late when the meeting adjourned, but 
all left pleased that they had been pres- 
ent. J. T. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



BUTTE. 

Orange Shipments.— Oroville ad- 
v ices state that the citrus fruit pack in 
this district has been completed for the 
season. The Butte County Citrus asso- 
ciation packed 115 carloads of oranges 
and the Citrus Union forty-six carloads, 
while W. P. Hammon's shipments will 
amount to probably 100 carloads. The 
season has been one of pretty fair profit 
for the growers in spite of the financial 
panic. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Asparagus Farm. — Gazette : The 
Sand Mound district, a tract of some 
3300 acres, which was submerged by the 
last flood, it is said will be able to cut 
400 acres of asparagus in spite of the 
fact that the plants have been under 
water for over six months. 

LOS ANGELES. 

The Orange Crop. — Pomona Times: 
The Riverside Press and Redlands Cit- 
rograph agree that the present orange 
crop will be about as large as that of 
1906-07. Manager Dreher of the San 
Antonio Fruit Exchange agrees with 
those authorities, but is quite sure that 
this valley, which includes Pomona, 
San Dimas, Lordsburg, La Verne and 
Claremont, will have from 15 to 20 per 
cent larger crop than that of 1906-07, 
which crop was short. There will be 
some loss from splits and spots, but 
despite this, with otherwise normal con- 
ditions, the crop of this valley, as be- 
fore stated, will be from 15 to 20 per 
cent larger than the previous crop. The 



BEEF SCRAPS 

Guaranteed 65 per cent Protein 

RAW BONE 

Guaranteed 25 per cent Protein and 45 per cent Bone Phosphate 



PURE ANIMAL MATTER 



POULTRY FOODS 

Write us for price list and samples ; they are free. 

We want you to see the kind of Poultry Foods that are manu- 
factured from CLEAN, RAW MATERIAL. This means 
HEALTHY ANIMAL FOODS for your poultry. 

Western Meat Company 

South San Francisco, San Mateo County 



f 



MORSE SEEDS SPROUT -YOU 
AND NATURE DO THE REST 



SEEDS 



PLANTS 
TREES 



Pacific Coait Headquarters for : 

Alfafa Seeds 

Blue Grass Seeds 

Clover Seeds 

All Staple Field Seeds 

All Standard Garden Seeds 

Flower Seeds 

Seeds of Novelties 

Ornamental Plants and Trees 

Fruit Trees 



^ A full lis! with price* and 
illustrations can be found in 
our beautiful new catalogue 
for 1908. 

For your name and address 
we will send free of charge 
what we believe to be the 
handsomest Seed Catalogue 
ever issued on the Pacific 
Coast <J Write for it. 



c. c. 

Successors to 

COX SEED CO. 



MORSE 



SAN F RAN CISCO 



&CO. 

4 1 JACKSON ST. 



Thanksgiving oranges shipped from 
this section will net the growers $1 a 
box, perhaps a little more. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Will Plant Vines.— It is reported 
that a Fresno company will undertake 
extensive culture at Coachella. M. H. 
Nutting bought 200 acres adjoining 
Coachella, and promises a great and 
comparatively new industry here. The 
land is all to be set within three months 
and it is understood more is to be 
steadily acquired for the same purpose. 
The company will devote the first tract 
to Thompson Seedless and Malagas 
meantime experimenting with several 
rare varieties heretofore found hard to 
grow in this county, but which are ex- 
pected to thrive in the valley climate 
and soil. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Gka pes Proittarle.— Tribune: The 
season just closed has been one of the 
most profitable for many years past to 
the grape growers and wine makers of 
the county. A. York reported that his 
winery had a record of 15,000 gallons 
for the season. Mr. York told of one 
man in the grape growing section west 
of Templeton who sold $900 worth of 
grapes from four acres. 

SOLANO. 

Asparagus ox Marsh Lands. — 
Joseph Danielson, of Suisun valley, pro- 



DON'T BUY GASOLINE ENGINES 



alcohol engine, superior to any one-cyllnd 
aick^easl 



Lees to Buy— Less to Kun. Quick! 
jnglne. Send fob Uatalooub. 



UNTIL YOU INVESTIGATE 
'THE MASTER WORKMAN," 

a two-cylinder gasoline, kerosene or 

engine: revolutionizing power. Its weight and bulk are half that of single cylinder engines, with greater durability. Costs 
''" ! lbrtt,lou practically overcome. Cheaply mounted on any wagon. It Is a combination portable, stationary or traction 
EMF1VE riHP CO., Mfrs.. Meagher and 1.1th Mis.; Chicago. THIS IS OUK FIFTY-FIFTH YEAK. 



Uy started 
T. 



poses to experiment in growing aspara- 
gus on some of his salt marsh land near 
Denverton. He has already reclaimed 
about seventy acres, which he intends 
to sow in oats and barley this year. 
After harvesting the first crop he will 
proceed to plant asparagus. It is re- 
ported that B. L. Stewart of Denverton 
will do some experimenting on the same 
line. 

STANISLAUS. 

Olive Planting. — Modesto News : 
Stanislaus county bas proved to be an 
ideal place for the culture of olives, the 
fruit being large and of high grade, 
w hile the oil made from them is equal 
to any in the world. There is no doubt 
that more attention will be given to 
olive culture here in the future and it is 
reported that a number of groves are to 
be set out in the spring. 

SUTTER. 

Barley and Potatoes. — Bee: John 
Eldredge, superintendent of the E. 
Clements Horst Company hop farm at 
Bohemia, is making arrangements to 
plant 0,000 acres of the Chard ranch to 
barley. The method of farming the 
land adopted by the company is to sub- 
let small tracts to the farmers of the 
vicinity, they to do the putting in of the 
grain, the company to furnish the seed 
and receive one-half of the crop. The 
fields have been almost token by the 
thistles. They are now being plowed 
preparatory to seeding, and as the 
ground has been used for stock, the 
farmers anticipate an exceptionally 
large crop. The - low lands along the 
river, which are subject to overflow, 
will|be planted to potatoes in the spring. 



January 11, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



SEEDS, PLANTS, Etc. 



WANTED 

Cuttings of the Following for Grafting Purposes : 

Rupestris St. George, Riparla x Rupestris 3306, 
Rlparla x Rupestris 3309, Rlparia x Rupestris 
106-8 and Mourvedre x Rupestris 1202. Address 

FANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

Fresno, California. 



FOR SALE 

200,000 Berry Plants, including Phenom- 
enals, Mammoths, Blackberries, Himalaya 
Giants, Lucretla Dewberries and Raspberries. 

Send for Catalogue to 

R. J. HUNTER, OAK VIEW BERRY FARM 

Grldley, Cal. 

Grafted Vines and 
Resistant Cuttings 

Malaga, Muscat, Emperor on Rupestris St. Geo. 
Muscat on 3306. CUTTINGS of Rupestris St. 
Geo., 3306, 3309, 1202. Address 



MINNEWAWA VINEYARD. 



Fresno, Cal. 



Trees 



French Prunes and Apri- 
cots; Muirs and Tuscan 
Clings, and many other 
varieties of Peach Trees, 
all fine budded stock. Large stock of all the 
leading varieties of Apples, grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also a fine stock 
of Cherries, Pears, Plums, etc. 
Send for price list. 

A. F. SCHEIDECKER. Sebastopol. Cal. 

Proprietor Pleasant View Nursery. 

Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

$1.50 per Doz. $6 per 100. $40 per 1000. 

Now is good time to plant. Pedigreed Stock. 
500 Valencia, one year, extra fine, $60 per 100. 
J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist, Pas- 
adena, Cal. 

WALNUT TREES 



Grown from carefully selected seed 
Postal for prices. 



A. A. MILLS, 



Anaheim, Cal. 



BARTLETT PEARS. 

I have a large stock of Bartlett Pears that can- 
not be excelled for size and quality grown on 
whole roots one year old. Prices reasonable. 
Those desiring In any quantity, address, 
R. P. EACHUS, LAKEPORT, CAL. 



WALNUTS 



Franquette 
Santa Rosa 



Finest rilfCTMIITC 
Varieties LIltMlllJla 



Grafted on 
Calif. Black 



Grafted 



Bur bank's 
Best 

Bur bank's 
Crimson Winter 



Opulent Peach 
Rhubarb 

Grown at Sebastopol 

T. J. TRUE, 



Finest 
Quality 

Also other 
stock 



Rural Route 



MODESTO 



High In Quality 



Low in Price 



OUR SEEDS GROW 

Vegetable, Flower 
and Farm Seed 



J. SEULBERGER, 

414 Fourteenth Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 



AMERICAN GRAPE GROWING AND WINE 
MAKING.— By George Husmann, of California. 
New and enlarged edition. With contributions 
from wellknown grape growers, giving wide 
range of experience. The author of this book is 
a recognized authority on the subject. Illus- 
trated. 269 pages. 5 by 7 inches. Cloth 81.50 

PLANT LIFE ON THE FARM.— By M. T 
Masters, M. D., F. C. S. A sketch of the physi 
ology or life history of plants; of the way in 
which they are affected by the circumstances 
under which they exist, and how they in turn 
react upon other, living beings and upon natural 
forces. 132 pages. 6 by 7 Inches. Cloth $1.00 



GRAFTED VINES 

FIELD GRAFTING 
BENCH GRAFTING 

done by contract anywhere in central 
California. Fifteen years experience. 
Only competent men sent out. Write 
for estimates and references. 

JOHN L. AMES, 

Elk Grove, Cal. 



ALMONDS 

Lewelling, Texas Prolific, Drake, Three sure 
bearers. 

PEACHES 

Muir, Elberta, Lowell, Orange and Tuscan 
Cling, etc. 

CHERRIES 

Chapman (earliest), Royal Ann, Bing, Tartarian, 
etc. 

WALNUTS AND PECANS 

Grafted and Seedlings. 

ELLWOOD WALNUT 

EUCALYPTUS— Twenty varieties, in 10,000 or 
00,000 lots. 

Leonard Coates Nursery Co., Inc. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



The Crocker Bartlett Pear 



DOES NOT BLIGHT • 

If proven different, purchase price of trees 
bought from us in 1907 will be refunded. Fruit 
highly recommended by Luther Burbank. 

Sample of pears sent on receipt of 25 cents. 

See U. 8. Year Book of 1905. 

Peach Trees, 15c— all leading varieties. 

Cherry Trees, 20c— all leading varieties. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

Loomis, Placer County, Cal. 



Make yourplantlnga success 
by sowing good seed. Ourfiower 
and vegetalileseeds areguaranteed. 
fresh and pure, and are sold at rea-' 
sonable prices. We supply farmers 
who plant by the hundredacres,down 
to collections for the kitchen garden. 

W e have a number of new varieties that 
every farmer needs. Our new potato, "Big 
Crop," produced this season on our own 
farms at the rate of 836 bushels per acre. 
Our new catalogue isan invaluable guide 
lor all growers. It's free. 
J. J. H. GREGORY & SON, Marble head, Mass. 




nSEEDS 

^ \ss^ For fresh- 
ness, purity and reli- 
ability, Ferry' sSeeds 
are in a class by them- 
selves. Farmers 
have confidence 
in them because 
they know they 
can be relied up- 
on. Don't experi- 
ment with cheap 
seeds — your sure- 
ty lies in buying 
seeds sent out by 
a conscientious 
and trustworthy 
house. 
Ferry's Seed Annual 
for 1008 Is FREE. Address 

D hi Ferry & Co., Detroit, Mich. 



Strawberry Plants 

Brandywine, Excelsior, Texas, Arizona, Al, 
Lady Thompson and Midnight, Pedigree Plants. 

Blackberry Plants 

Mammoth Blacks, Early Crandal, 

Giant Himalaya. 

Raspberry Plants 

Surprise (earliest known), Millers, Cuthbert. 

Dewberry, Loganberry, 

Phenomenal Berry Plants. 

Mention this paper and get catalog of prices 
and cultural directions. 

G. H. HOPKINS, Burbank, Cal. 



Trees that Grow and Bear Fruit 

SOUTHERN TREES ARE BEST, BECAUSE THEY ARE THOROUGHLY 
DORMANT AND HAVE NO SOFT WOOD ABOUT THEM. 

Our trees are carefully and well grown. Buy direct from the grower and 
save the middleman's profit. Special attention given to orders from large 
planters. We have a general assortment of deciduous, citrus and ornamental 
trees. Also an extensive line of ornamental and flowering plants, including a 
large assortment of roses. Write for price list — it is free. 

Orange County Nursery & Land Company 

FULLERTON, CAL 

Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

We Grow on New Virgin Soil all Leading Varieties of Fruit Trees and Grape Vines. 
We Guarantee all Stock True to Name and Free from Disease. 

SPECIALTIES — Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Figs, Apricots, 
Cherries. Wine, Table and Raisin Grapes. 

We grow only Standard Commercial Varieties— Money Makers. Life is too short 
to experiment with so-called Novelties which have been untried. We have been 
pleasing our customers for 18 years. We refer to any bank or business house in 1 
Fresno as to our standing and reliability. Write us for prices. Large Catalogue 
and Souvenir Picture showing Largest Tree In the world mailed Free. Address 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. WILSON, Proprietor. Box r. r. 42. Fresno, California 

200.000 Eucalyptus Trees 

" I (IM VARIFTY) 



(IN VARIETY) 



Transplanted in flats of 100 each. We prefer orders of 1000 rather than 
10,000 ; outside limit, 20,000. Our trees are up to our usual standard. Cor- 
respondence invited. Our booklet, telling when, how, and what to plant, free 
to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Nurseryman 

PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 




Ask us 
about 
Walnuts 



The kind 
for 

Commercii.1 
Planting. 



Large, 

Rich and 

Prolific 



Costs nothing to investigate. 
Ask for our Walnut Booklet. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

SALEM. OREGON. 

Salesmen Wanted. 



Pacific Nurseries 

San Francisco and Millbrae, San Mateo Co. 

Offers for this Season's Planting 
a full line of 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Evergreen and 

Deciduous, Conifers, Palms, Rhododendrons, 

Camellias, Ericas, Azaleas, Roses, Eucalyptus, 

Cypress, Pine, Monterey and Maritima Pittospo- 

rum transplanted into plats. 

Send for Catalogue 

F. LUDEMANN, 3041 Baker Street 

SAN FRANCISCO 



SUGAR GUM AND RED GUM TREES 

In large or Bmall numbers. 
HENRY SHAW. RIVERSIDE NURSERY 
320 River St. Santa Cruz. Cal. 



' » ft D H * * 



GOOD TREES AND 
BIG PROFITS 

At no time In the history of 
citrus culture in California have 
growers made so much money as 
during the season just closing. 
This has led to a big demand for 
trees. In view of this, intending 
planters should get their orders 
in early, as stocks are limited. 
Our book on citrus culture has 
long been recognized as an 
authority. Finely illustrated, 
with beautiful colored plate of 
Washington Navel Orange. Price 
25c. Write us your wants and 
let us quote you prices. 

The San Dimas Citrus Murseries 
San Dimas. Cal. 

R. M. IBAOtJB, PUOl'KIETOR. 



Orange Seed Bed Stock. 

SWEET AND SOUR 

Orders Booked Now for Delivery 
Spring of 1908. 

SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, 

F. H. DISBHOW, Proprietor. 
Both Phones. R. D. 1, Pasadena, Cal. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State 
For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Avenue, San Jose. Cal. 



28 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 11, 1908. 




r You Can Cure 

Lameness, Curb, Splint, 
Spavin, Founder, Dis- 
temper, Cholic, Bony 
Growths, Sprains, Swell- 
ings, Shoe Boils. 

Are you content to be always at the 
mercy of the veterinary? 

Why not be prepared to handle all the 
common ailments of your horses yourself? 
A reward of $100 is offered for a failure to cure any of the 
above, where cure is possible, by 

Tuttle's Elixir 

It Never Fails to Locate Lameness 

Fully described on circular around bottle. 
Remedy for all blemishes. An unexcelled Leg Wash for 
race and work horses. Used by Veterinarians. 

Beware of all blisters; they offer only temporary relief, if any. 

Tuttle's High-Class Speciiics 

Tuttle's Family Elixir, for ailments of the human family. 
Tuttle's White Star, matchless liniment for healing and drying. 
Tuttle's American Condition Powders, for purifying blood. 
Tuttle's American Worm Powders, a positive worm expeller. 
Tuttle's Hoof and Healing Ointment, for hard and cracked hoofs and 
hoof diseases. 

PRICES 

Family and Horse Elixir, each $4 
per dozen bottles. 

Condition Powders, $2 per doz. 

Worm Powders, $2 per doz. 

Hoof Ointment, $i per doz. 

White Star Liniment, $4 per doz. 
Bottle by mail, §0.75. 

Free Veterinary Book 

100 pages, fully illustrated, by our 
Dr. S. A. Tuttle, a veterinarian 
for many years. Gives symptoms 
and specific treatment for all ordi- 
nary diseases. Title of book, 
"Veterinary Experience." Write 
for copy. Postage 2c. 

TUTTLE'S ELIXIR CO., 

33 Beverly St.. Boston, Mass. 

Montreal. H. A. Tuttle, Mgr.. 32 St. Gabriel St. 
So. Farmlngton. N. S.. C. H. R. Crocker. Mqr. 
Chicago. C. f. Tuttle. Mgr.. 311 East 63rd St. 
Los Angeles, W . A. Shaw. Mgr., 1921 New England Ave. 






You can positively insure a larger crop, clean fruit and 
healthy trees at a saving of fully one-third the labor 
ordinarily required and with a much less outlay of time 
and money by using a Bean Magic Spray Pomp. 
The reason is because it sprays thoroughly with high, 
even pressure, but the operator is working against only 
one-half the pressure indicated on the gauge. It's on 
account of the spring which makes the Magic Spray 
Pump the easiest running, most perfect spray pump 
ever made. No other pump can compete with it in 
the essential points of quality and durability, and we 
challenge comparison with all other makes regard- 
less of price or construction. 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

are the result of careful study and experience in 
pump manufacture. We have no other line. Weare 
specialists in pump-making, and the name BEAN 
on a spray pump or appliance is a guarantee that it 
is the best that money and brains can produce. 

The most successful raisers of fancy fruit agree 
that spraying is the only and most effective method 
of securing the best results. The increase in profit 
from securing fancy fruit will alone soon pay for the 
outfit. Whether you have a large or small orchard 
you cannot afford to be without a Bean Magic Spray 
Pump. Write for our special offer, also free illus- 
trated catalog. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., 

163 W. Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 



NATIONAL WOOD PIPE CO. 

Patent Machine Banded WOOD DIDC M:lJe from California Redwood 

Patent Continuous W UU 
404 Equitable Savings Bnk. Bdg. 
Los Angeles 

Olympia, Washington Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, Utah 

A Booklet: "The Whole .Story About Wood l'ipe,' mailed free upon request. 



Selected Puget Sound Yellow Fir. 
268 Market St., San Francisco 



The Dairy. 



Moisture in Butter. 

A wider understanding of this vexed 
matter may be had from the following 
statement by Prof. G. L. McKay, of the 
Iowa Agricultural College: 

The writer has received many letters 
from makers of this State and other 
States concerning the question of churn 
overrun. Some of these complain that 
they do not get enough overrun and 
others that they have some difficulty in 
keeping within the limit of the law. 

Last winter the writer and a number 
of others went to Washington to urge 
Secretary Wilson to have the maximum 
amount of moisture for butter at 16%. 
We did not ask this with any idea of 
having the makers crowd this standard 
to the limit. In fact, I have no sympa- 
thy for the maker who attempts such 
methods. A few weeks ago we received 
a letter from a maker who claimed they 
did not get any overrun during the 
month of August. Another party 
claimed that he had been fined 1700 for 
going over the limit. He claimed that 
the samples taken by the internal reve- 
nue officers were not correct. He said 
that officers tipped out the butter and 
took their sample with a spoon from the 
lower end of the package. In regard to 
the latter case I will say that we have 
analyzed lots of butter and we did not 
find any perceptible difference between 
upper and lower portions of the tubs. It 
is true that moisture content of a tub 
may vary in different parts from one- 
half to three-fourths of one per cent. 
This is due to little pockets of water be- 
ing caught up sometimes in the sample. 

There is no reason for any maker 
incorporating excessive moisture at this 
time of the year, es|>ecially with all the 
different moisture tests on the market. 
The maker who never endeavors to go 
beyond 14 J or 14 % will not be likely to 
get in the clutches of the law. I cannot 
make it too strong that buttermakers 
should take no chances on the question 
of excessive moisture in butter. Water 
is a natural constituent of butter the 
same as fat and casein. When we churn 
butter in the natural granular condition 
from about 95 to 98 % of the water con- 
tent comes from the milk, which has 
been secreted from the blood by the cow, 
and we believe there is no necessity for 
making butter in any other way. The 
excessive churning of butter or working 
it in water certainly injures the grain 
and is not to be recommended. 

In some of our experiments conducted 
last year at the large creamery at Straw- 
berry Point, we had no difficulty in re- 
taining all the moisture that was neces- 
sary when we churned in the regular 
granular condition. Different lots of 
butter made from the same cream varied 
in the per cents of moisture from 12 to 
15.88%, according to the different 
methods used, and yet all this butter 
was churned in a granular condition. 
This butter was sent to three leading 
English markets as well as to New York 
market, and of the scores of the high 
and low moisture were practically all 
the same. Twenty-five tubs of this but- 
ter are held in storage and will be scored 
later on, to test its keeping qualities, 
when final results will be published in 
bulletin form. From the general appear- 
ance of this work it would seem that 
the water content up to the percentages 
named above has no effect on the qual- 
ity, especially when butter is churned 
in a granularcondition. A thick cream, 
or one containing 30 or 40% fat, will 
give a larger overrun than a thin cream 
or a cream containing about 20% fat, 
unless some artificial methods have 
been used in the latter case. 

By churn overrun we mean the 
amount of casein, salt, and water incor- 
porated with butter, other than fat. 
Salt in butter usually runs from 1 to 
3£%, and is held in solution in the wa- 
ter. Where excessive salting is resorted 
to, it will appear gritty in the butter. 
Water in butter will take up about 18% 
of its bulk in salt in a saturated solution. 



Lost Strayed or 
Stolen— One Cow 



That Is about what happens each year 
for the man who owns live cows and 
does not use a Tubular cream sepa- 
rator. He loses in cream more than 
the price of a good cow.The more cows 
he owns the greater the loss. This is a 
fact on which Agricultural Colleges, 
Dairv Experts and the best Dairymen 
all agree, and so do you if you use a 
Tubular. If not, if.- high time you 




did. You can't afford to lose the price 
of one or more cows each year— there's 
no reason why you should. Get aTu* 
bular and m more ami better cream 
out of the milk;save time and labor and 
have warm sweet skimmed milkfor the 
calves. Don't buy some cheap rattle- 
trap thing called a separator; that 
won't do any good. You need a real 
skimmer that does perfect work.skims 
clean, thick or thin, hot or cold; runs 
easy; simple in construction: easily 
understood. That's the Tubular and 
there is but one Tubular, the Shar- 
pies Tubular. Don't yon want our 
little book "Business Dairvmen," and 
our Catalog A. 131 both free? A postal 
will bring them. 

The Sharpies Separator Co. 

West Chester, Pa. 
Toronto, Can. Chicago, III. 



When going beyond this amount the 
salt will not dissolve, hence the higher 
per cent of water the greater amount of 
salt can be used. 

The casein in butter varies slightly, 
usually running from 1 to 1£%. When 
cream is very sour, so that casein is pre- 
cipitated ami the butter is not washed 
much, the amount of casein may run 
sometimes from 2 J to 3%. It is not de- 
sirable to increase the j>er cent of casein 
above normal conditions, as there would 
be a tendency to injure the quality of the 
butter. 

The greatest varying factor in butter 
is water. The variation in dairy butter 
sometimes runs from 9 {to 25%. It is 
not desirable or honest to incorporate a 
high j>er cent of water. The law of the 
land has recognized 10% as the maxi- 
mum amount of water that butter may 
contain. The controlling of moisture in 
butter to a per cent is a difficult prob- 
lem, therefore a maker would be safe in 
not trying to go over 14 per cent. 

Cream is only milk containing a large 
amount of fat. Butter fat exists in 
cream in the form of microscopic 
spheres known as fat globules. Under 
proper conditions the concussion of the 
churning makes the globules strike to- 
gether and the impact causes them to 
form masses. The masses continue to 
increase in size with the progress of 
churning and rise to the surface of the 
buttermilk. 

Butter made from thin cream and 
churned at a low temperature gathers 
very slowly for the following reasons: 
First, the fat globules are distributed in 
a large volume of milk serum, and the 
chance of striking one another is less 
than in thick cream. Second, the low 
temperature hardens the fat so that the 
globules do not cohere readily, and may 
probably strike together several times 
before adhering. The surface of such 
granules usually becomes smooth and 
the granule itself becomes very com- 
pact. 

A rich cream that has been kept at a 
comparatively high temperature will 
churn very rapidly. The globules are 
in close proximity and there are natur- 
ally many chances of striking together 
to "form large masses. Butter churned 
from this kind of cream has a tendency 
to gather in irregular shaped granules, 
which are not driven together so vio- 
lently; consequently they hold more 
water or moisture. If cream ischurned 
at a very high temiierature the result is 



January 11, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



HELP THE COWS i 

I Even the best cows can't 
I makebig profits forthedairy- 
j man who persists in using j 
(pans or crocks or a poor , 
skimming separator. Cream i 
J is cash, and if yours is just I 
' average " herd, thenf 
IhoW much more necessary toi 
Jskim out every drop! Why[ 
help the cows boost i 
J your profits by skimming I 
heir milk with a reliable* 

I UNITED STATES I 
ISEPARATORi 



SKIMS OUT 
ALL THE i 
CREAMi 




HOLDS 
WORLD'S RECORDt 



1A cream separator is an ac-i 
Jknowledged necessity 
I profitable dairying, but be- 
fore you buy why not look{ 
Ivery carefully into the 
J matter and buy the best onei 
I the start? It's cheap- 
jest in the long run. Weill 
J gladly send you, FREE, t 
j illustrated book, telling whati 
1 separator can and ought I 
t do. Please write us today / 
"Send your book No. J 48 , 

fVERMONT FARMl 
/MACHINE CO. (48,)i 
I Bellows Falls, Vermont 



Prompt Delivery Assured California cus- 
tomers from Stockton Warehouse. No delays. 
Address all letters to Bellows Falls, Vermont. 



that butter will gather quickly and in- 
corporate an excessive amount of water 
and casein, which will affect the body 
and color. An excessive amount of wa- 
ter has a tendency to make the butter 
lifeless and pale in color. A 35 to 38 <f 
cream will give as good satisfaction in 
churning as cream of any other per cent. 
Churning at 50 or 52°, or at a low 
enough temperature so that the butter 
will gather in 40 or 45 minutes in gran- 
ules about as large as wheat and not too 
soft or too hard, will produce butter of 
the very best quality. Long churnings 
or quick churnings are not desirable. 
A large sized granule is conducive to 
high moisture. Therefore the factors 
that control moisture are thickness of 
cream; temperature of churning; amount 
of cream churned at a time, remember- 
ing that a churn two-thirds full will give 
greaterjoverrun than a churn half full, 
under normal conditions; and the last 
factor, the kind of churn used. It would 
be well for every creamery to have two 
churns, one large and one medium sized, 
so that when the supply of cream falls 
off the smaller churn could be used. 



The Poultry Yard. 

Times for Hatching. 

Mrs. Ella Layson takes up the subject 
of times for hatching which we have 
already under consideration, in her con- 
tributions to the Petaluma Poultry 
Journal, as follows: 

It cannot be arbitrarily stated when 
is the best time to hatch to obtain mar- 



ket eggs when prices are high, as there 
are several things to be taken into con- 
sideration which vary according to cir- 
cumstances, and any one in doubt as to 
the best time to do most of their hatch- 
ing would do well to experiment along 
this line. One year hatch as early as 
eggs are available, keeping strict ac- 
count of the cost of eggs used, the per- 
centage of each hatch, the number of 
chicks raised, how long before pullets 
began laying and the number of eggs 
laid the first season. Also note the time 
of molt and when laying is resumed. 

Then the next year hatch eight or ten 
weeks later, keeping account as before 
and comparing results. This is to be 
done when one does all their hatching in 
one season, but when at all convenient 
it will be of advantage to hatch out 
some chicks in the fall, as these pullets 
will do their best work when the early 
hatched are beginning to fall off in lay- 
ing and they will molt late in the sea- 
son, continuing to lay during the fall 
months when eggs are at a premium. 
Also the hens late in molting, molt the 
quickest. The early molt takes place 
during the resting season when the 
natural forces are sluggish and laying 
is deferred for some months, but late in 
the season nature replaces the plumage 
very quickly and soon the hen will be 
laying. 

Eggs are rather high priced in the 
fall, but the surplus cockerels may be 
disposed of for a good price, as they can 
be put on the market when young stock 
is scarce. The eggs most suitable for 
hatching at this season are from the late 
hatched pullets of the previous year, but 
these hens are most always lacking in 
size and should be mated with large, 
extra vigorous males. Also the eggs 
from the early pullets may be used after 
they have been laying awhile. In order 
to get good results these pullets should 
be mated with two-year-old males so 
that there will be no weakness in the 
chicks owing to immaturity of the 
breeding stock. But the regular run of 
hens that are just starting to molt or are 
exhausted from months of steady layirrg 
cannot be depended upon for eggs that 
will pay for hatching. It is not to be 
supposed that the late hatched pullets 
have been laying all summer and 
through the fall without a rest, for there 
will be brief periods of rest lasting per- 
haps a week or two which is common to 
all hens of the non-sitting class, or if 
Plymouth Rocks they doubtless became 
broody during the summer; but in any 
case fall generally finds them in good 
laying condition. 

Pullets hatched along in January will 
begin to lay and then molt just when 
they should be laying and if they belong 
to the heavier breeds, unless care is 
taken how they are fed, they will take 
on fat instead of laying. To have them 
hatched so that they will begin laying 
late in the season means that they will 
continue to lay regularly unless checked 
by a spell of bad weather. But the 
January hatched birds, if well managed, 
make the best breeders as they are large 
and more perfect in shape. 

If one could hatch all the pullets 
needed in March they would make no 
mistake in doing so. This seems to be 
a popular time for hatching, as the de- 
mand for eggs for hatching during 
March was more general than at any 
other time, although there was a de- 
mand for large numbers in the fall and 
early winter for hatching broilers. The 
breeding stock is likely to be in good 
condition at this time so that eggs will 
be fertile and chicks hatch out lively and 
strong. Warm spring days are just 
ahead, so they have every opportunity 
to make rapid growth and there will be 
but little loss, while many times the loss 
resulting from too early hatching is very 
large, for it is so easy for the little fel- 
lows to get chilled during the change- 
able days of winter, or if confined too 
closely they will develop weak legs and 
become stunted. Therefore in hatching 
so as to insure eggs when they are high 
one should consider the cost and the loss 
that may be entailed in getting started. 
In the poultry business it is never safe 
to consider one thing by itself, but due 
attention must be paid to other things 
that relate to it in any way. 



When Eggs Are Eggs 



How do you manage your poultry business ? Are you content 
to gather a moderate supply of eggs in springtime when prices 
are low, or do you aim to get your greatest number during the 
winter months when prices are up and "eggs are eggs?" The 
way to succeed with hens is to do what others don't do. When 
your neighbors' hens are on strike, then see that yours "get busy." 

If you will begin now to feed Dr. Hess Poultry Pan-a-ce-a 
your hens will not stop laying at all. Of course the moulting 
season is an "off time," but even then Poultry Pan-a-ce-a will 
make a few eggs, and if you continue to give it regularly, you will 
get an abundance all through the cold winter days when others 



get none. 



DR. HESS 
Poultry PAN-A-CE-A 

is the prescription of Dr. Hess (M. D., D. V. S.) and is composed of 
elements which assist digestion, make good blood and cleanse the 
system of clogging poisonous matter. It is also a germicide and 
prevents poultry diseases. It has the unqualified endorsement of 
pou'ltrymen in the United States and Canada, hastens the growth 
of young chicks and helps fatten old or market fowls. A penny's 
worth a day is sufficient for 30 hens. 

Sold on a written guarantee. 
1 1-2 lbs. 35c 5 lbs. 85c 
12 lbs. $1.75 25 lb. pail $3.50 

8-page 



Send 2 cents for Dr. Hess 48-page V'"3?>v 
Poultry Book free. 

DR. HESS & CLARK, 

Ashland, Ohio. 

Instant Louse Killer Kills 

Lice. ^^i. Jj >g 

THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., 
I'etalumn. Cat.. 
Paclnc Coast Distributers. 



PEAR-BLIGHT ? 



can CURE IT 

Work bas Extended 
Over a Period of 3 Years 



Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

PEAR BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 



i \ RHODES DOUBLE CUT 

< it PRUNING SHEAR_ 




Dept. 
2« 



RHODES MFG. CO. 

GRAND RAPIDS, niCH. 



HTHE only 
pruner 
made mat cuts 
from both sides of 
the limb and does not 
bruise the bark. Made in 
all styles and sizes. We 
pay Express charges 
on all orders. 
.^^^^ Write for 

circular and 
^^^^IB' prices. 



Francis Smith & Co. 



Manufacturer 

of 




FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 

Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office, 63 Fremont Street. Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, California. 

Water and Oil Tanks — all sizes. Coating all sizes of Pipes wlthAsphaltum. 



Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they have 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and out 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

Temporary Address 
Grayson and Sixth Streets, BERKELEY, CAL. 
West of San Tablo Ave. 



Pneumatic Fruit Grader 



A perfect Sizing Machine for Oranges 
Capacity 500 Boxes a Day 
Runs Easily by Foot Power 
Cannot Damage the Fruit 
Price $50.00 



WRIGHT BROTHERS, 

Riverside, Cal, 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 11, 1908. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Jan. 8, 1908. 
WHEAT. 

There are constantly increasing evi- 
dences that the demand for wheat is grow- 
ing stronger as the season advances. The 
Chicago market is active, and Eastern 
millers have been taking on considerable 
quantities of grain. The speculative mar- 
ket here is strong and much more active 
than it has been for some time. There is 
a great deal of inquiry for cash wheat, es- 
pecially on the higher grades for milling 
purposes, though the amount of business 
in this line is still comparatively small. 
Holders are very firm in their ideas, in 
view of the known shortage, and are still 
in a position to hold back, but so far the 
millers are unwilling to pay the prices 
asked. 

California White Australian.. 1.75 ©1.82J 

California Club 1.67i@1.72J 

California Milling Nominal 

California lower grades 1.60 @1.65 

Northern Club 1.65 @1.72J 

Northern Bluestem 1.75 @1.77J 

Northern Red 1.62i@1.70 

BARLEY. 

All dullness and weakness in the barley 
market seems to have disappeared and the 
market opened the week very firm, after 
several days of activity, with the May 
option higlier. Feed grades are especially 
strong, nothing of choice grade going now 
for less than $1.66, while the lower grades 
of feed are several cents above last quota- 
tions. Arrivals are only moderate, and 
under the present strong demand it is ex- 
pected that there will be further advances 
all along the line. While quotations show 
no change except on feed grades, every- 
thing is firm and active. 

Brewing $1.60 @1. 65 

Chevalier 1.75 @1.85 

Good to Choice Feed, per oil.. 1.55 @1.57J 

Common to Fair 1.50 @1.52$ 

Shipping 1.57j@1.60 

OATS. 

Oats are still comparatively dull, with 
no strong demand in this section, andsev- 
eral grades show a decline this week. 
The expected activity on seed grades has 
not yet appeared, and choice red are 
lower. White also shows a slight de- 
cline, and gray have fallen off consider- 
ably. Dealers, nevertheless, report a 
strong feeling, as no large lines have been 
arriving, and offerings are light. There 
are very few black on the market. 

Clean Black for seed $2.50 ($3.00 

Choice Red, per ctl 1.85 @1.90 

Gray 1.52J@1.60 

White 1.52J@1.70 

Choice Red, for seed 1.90 ($2.00 

CORN. 

Quotations on corn show absolutely no 
change since last week. No new supplies 
have come in, and stocks are light, 
amounting on Jan. 1 to only 72 tons, a 
slight increase since last month. Trading 
is of little importance, with the demand 
as light as before, but everything is firmly 
held. 

California Small Round Yel- 
low, per ctl Nominal 

Large Yellow 1.65 @ 

White Nominal 

Western State sacked Yel- 
low, old 1.62J® 1.65 

White, in bulk 1.55 @ 

Mixed, in bulk 1.52 @ 

Brown Egyptian 1.40 @ 

White Egyptian 1.35 @ 

New Yellow 1.47 @ 

RYE. 

Rye still shows no movement worth 
mentioning, there being no particular de- 
mand in this market. Offerings are 
small, and are held steadily at prices 
formerly quoted. 

California $1.45 @ 

Utah 1.40 @1. 45 

Oregon 1.45 @ 

BEANS. 

Beans are beginning to move again in 
considerable quantities, though the de- 
mand is so far limited to the district west 
of the Missouri river, the eastern interest 
still holding off" from the market. Busi 
ness for the local interest is small. The 
feeling is much better, and dealers here 
are resuming activity, though there is 
little speculative buying. Prices are firm, 
with little change. 



Bavos.perctl $3.15 @3.25 

Blackeyes 3.75 @4.00 

Butter 4.50 @5.00 

Cranberry Beans 3.00 @3.25 

Garvanzos 3.75 @4.00 

Horse Beans 2.75 @3.00 

Small White 3.50 @ 

Large White 3.35 @3.45 

Limas 4.85 ©5.00 

Pea 3.50 @3.75 

Pink 3.15 @3.25 

Red 3.40 @3.50 

Red Kidneys 3.25 @3.50 

SEEDS. 

The first of the new Ctah alfalfa is now 
offering on this market, and is very 
firmly held at high prices. All varieties 
of alfalfa seed are again moving well 
under astrong demand from the rural dis- 
tricts. Other lines also show a consider- 
able increase in activity since a week ago. 

Utah Alfalfa 18 @ 19 c 

Turkestan alfalfa 18 @ 

Alfalfa 17*® 18 c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $22.00®25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 3 @ 3]c 

Canary 41® 4Ac 

Flaxseed Nominal. 

Hemp 4J@ 4ic 

Millet 3 @ 3Jc 

Timothy nominal. 

Yellow Mustard 5 @ 5Jc 

FLOUR. 

The demand for flour is about average, 
but the market is not very strong. There 
is still no business in this market for the 
foreign interest, and there is likely to be 
none at prevailing prices. Quotations 
are unchanged. 

California Family Extra, per 

bbl $5.40 @6.00 

Bakers' extras 5.40 @5.65 

Superfine 4.20 @4.50 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4.75 ®5.25 

HAY. 

Arrivals for the week show a total of 
3290 tons in comparison with 4040 tons for 
the week preceding. This lessening in 
shipments was very opportue, for the 
market was becoming badly crowded and 
prices were again showing a decline. 
With the turn of the year there has been 
a general improvement in business 
throughout the city, and it is expected 
that the hay market will also show bene- 
ficial results; provided, however, that dis- 
cretion be used in regulating shipments 
here. The interior demand is fast help- 
ing to reduce surplus stocks and at the 
moment the outlook is encouraging. Al- 
though some receivers of hay are cutting 
prices in order to effect ready sales, quo- 
tations continue about as they have been 
for the past two weeks. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $16.50@ 

Other Grades Wheat 11.00@16.00 

Wheat and Oat 11.00@15.00 

Tame Oat 11.00@16.00 

Wild Oat 10.00@13.00 

Alfalfa 9.00@13.00 

Stock 8.00® 9.50 

Straw, per bale 50@ 85c 

MILLSTUFF8. 

The market has been practically bare of 
bran for the past week or two, and liberal 
shipments arriving from the north at the 
end of the week had very little effect, 
though there is no extensive buying. 
Shorts are very scarce, with practically 
no spot goods offering, and all new arri- 
vals are eagerly taken. None can now 
be had under $2*9 a ton. Other lines are 
steady to firm at prevailing prices. 

Alfalfa Meal (carload lots) 

per ton $22.00® 

Jobbing 23.00® 

Bran, ton 28.d0@29.50 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl 90c@ 1.00 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills (in 10-ton lots) 

Jobbing 

Corn Meal 

Cracked Corn 

Mealfalfa 

Jobbing 

Middlings 

Mixed Feeds 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 

Rolled Barley 

Shorts 



25.00@ 

26.00@ 

37.00® 

38.00® 

21. .50® 

22.50® 

31.00@32.00 
22.00@24.00 
38.50@39.50 
35.00@36.00 
29.00@30.00 



POULTRY. 



Last week closed with the poultry mar- 
ket very well sustained, and some lines 
decidedly strong, with a continued de- 
mand for everything except turkeys, late 
arrivals of which were inclined to drag. 
This week receipts of native as well as 
Eastern stock have been very moderate, 
and the market is in very good shape for 



choice stock of all descriptions, all arrivals 
cleaning up easily under a brisk demand. 
Most attention is given to the best chick- 
ens, but prices on ducks, geese, and squabs 
are kept up by their scarcity. Good 
dressed turkeys are taken readily, though 
live stock is neglected at present. 

Broilers $4.00 @ 5.00 

Small Broilers 3.00 @ 3.50 

Ducks 4.( @ 7.00 

Fryers 5.00 @ 6.00 

Geese 2.00 @ 2.50 

Hens, extra 7.00 @ 9.00 

Hens, per doz 5.50 @ 6.50 

Small Hens 4.00 @ 5.00 

Old Roosters 4.00 @ 4.50 

Young Roosters 6.50 @ 8.50 

Pigeons 1.00 © 

Squabs 3.00 @ 3.50 

Hen Turkeys, per lb 17 @ 19 c 

Gobblers, live, per lb 16 ® 18 c 

Turkeys, dressed 18 @ 21 c 

BUTTER. 

At the beginning of this week San Fran- 
cisco is said to have been the lowest priced 
butter market in the United States. It is 
said in some quarters that strictly fresh 
stock is scarce, but that jobbers are selling 
firsts as extras, causing the latter to be in 
very little demand. At any rate the 
movement is of small proportions, and 
buyers seem unwilling to pay the low 
price that is asked. It is said that there 
is some pressure to sell storage goods, 
which has a tendency to limit the sale of 
lower grade fresh stock. 

Cal. (extras) per lb 31 c 

Firsts 26ic 

Seconds 25 "c 

Thirds 24 c 

Fresh Eastern, extras 

Fresh Ladles, extras 

Fresh Ladles, firsts 

Storage, Cal., extras 24 c 

Storage, Cal., firsts 23ic 

Storage Eastern, extras 24ic 

Storage Ladles, extras 20 c 

EGGS. 

Cold storage eggs are in heavy supply 
this year, and there has been some pres- 
sure to sell on the part of holders for some 
time, which caused the week to end with 
a sharp decline on the lower grades of 
fresh stock. Extras sold off 41c under an 
effort to clean up increasing receipts. 
This week opened with still larger arrivals, 
and the selling interest in a poor position, 
extras standing at 32c, though buying 
has been stimulated by the drop, and 
supplies clean up faster than before. 

California (extra) per doz 32 c 

Firsts 28 c 

Seconds 25 c 

Thirds Nominal 

Storage, Cal., extras 27 c 

Storage, Eastern, extras 21 c 

CHEESE. 

Fancy California flats are weaker again 
at 141c, with plentiful stocks and no 
pressing demand. Young Americas are 
inclined to firmness. New Eastern is 
nominal, there being no business on this 
line at present. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb... 14ic 

Firsts 14"c 

New Young Americas, Fancy 16 c 

Storage, do 15$c 

Eastern, New Nominal 

Eastern, Storage 17jc 

Cal. Storage, Fancy flats 15 c 

Oregon, Fancy 15 c 

POTATOES. 

The dullness in potatoes last week 
brought about a slight decline in Salinas 
Burbanks, but by this time the market is 
again in a good condition, stocks having 
been closely cleaned up since the first of 
the year. Arrivals have been light for 
some time, and the market is now firm, 
with a prospect of better prices. Sweet 
potatoes are very plentiful and weak, 
with a decline since last week. 

Oregon Burbanks $1.00 @1.25 

Burbanks, Salinas, ctl 1.10 @1.30 

Burbanks, River 75 @1.00 

Sweet Potatoes, per ctl 2.00 @2.25 

VEGETABLES. 

Onions are now in a good position for 
holders, two carloads of Oregon stock ar- 
riving on a bare market Monday being 
cleaned up at once. Supplies are now 
very small, and prices show a decided ad- 
vance, while the demand is brisk. Mis- 
cellaneous lines find about as good a mar- 
ket as usual at this time of year, and 
choice stock moves easily at good prices. 
Poor stock is weak, but little of it comes 
in. Beans, peas, green peppers, and egg 
plant are all in good demand. 




NORTHERN GROWN 

SEEDS 

Are tested and proved best 
for the West — all other sorts 
being discarded. Why experi- 
ment, why take chances? 
You can absolutely depend on 
I'14\f seeds. Our catalogue 
for 1908, consisting of 112 
pages, 16 colored pages made 
'rom actual photographs, 
with full cultural directions, 
is yours for the asking. You'll ' 
Iso find that seeds are 

SOLD BY DEALEBS 

The Chas. H. Lilly Co. 
Seattle, Portland, San Franclsoa 



Garlic, per lb 5 @ 7c 

Green Peas, per lb 3 @ 5c 

Green Peppers, per lb 5® 

Cabbage, per ctl 75 @ 

Onions, per ctl 2.25 @ 2.50 

String beans, per lb 12A@ 15c 

Tomatoes, large box Nominal. 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton. ...10.00 @15.00 

Carrots, sack 75 @ 

Hubbard Squash, ton 10.00 @15.00 

Summer Squash, ~f box 1.00@ 1.25 

Celery, crate, small 75 @ 1.00 

Egg Plant, lb 8 @ 11c 

FRESH FRUITS. 

Deciduous fruits are decidedly quiet, 
business being entirely of a routine nature, 
and dealers will take no extensive lines. 
Most of the apples offered are from cold 
storage, and prices are easier, some deal- 
ers offering concessions. Aside from a 
few strawberries, which sold out at $3 per 
crate, pears are the only other article now 
offering. 

Apples, fancy 1.50 @ 2.50 

Apples, common to choice... 60 @ 1.00 
Pears — 

Winter Nelis 2.00 @ 2.25 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

In spite of the recent rise in orange 
prices at the shipping points, quotations 
here remain the same, and goods move 
slowly at former prices. The lack of 
activity is said to be due to the cold and 
rainy weather. Other citrus fruits show 
no feature, and prices are unchanged. 

Choice Lemons $1 .50 @2.00 

Fancy Lemons 2.60 @3.00 

Standard 76 @1.26 

Limes 3.50 @4.00 

Oranges — 

Fancy 1.75 @2.00 

Standard 1.25 @1.7o 

Tangerines, large box 1.00 @1.25 

Grape Fruit 2.25 @3.00 

DRIED FRUITS. 

The general weakness of the dried fruit 
market is now observed in changed quo- 
tations, nearly every variety showing a 
slight decline. The market, however, 
is beginning to show signs of life. There 
is a firmer feeling in prunes, with con- 
siderable interest in the New York mar- 
ket, and some large shipments are going 
forward. Raisins are still weak, as East- 
ern buyers are waiting developments. 

Evaporated Apples 8 @ 9 c 

Figs, black 2|@ 3 c 

do white 3 @ 4 c 

New Apricots, per lb 18 @21 c 

Fancy Apricots 22 @ 

Peaches 10 @13 c 

Prunes, 4-size basis, 1907 crop.. 4 @ 4jc 

Pitted plums Nominal. 

Pears 10 @12 c 

KAISINS. 

2 Crown 4J@ 

3 Crown 5j@ 

4 Crown 5J@ 

Seeded, per lb 7}@ 7}c 

Seedless Sultanas 6J@ 7Jc 

London Layers, per box $1.40@1.50 

London Layers, cluster 2.00@3.00 

NUTS. 

The same quotations are still given on 
nuts, though the jobbing market is weak, 



January 11, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 




CHICK 
FEED 

A nourishing, wholesome and 
complete food for young chicks. 
A mixture of eleven different 
grains proportioned to supply 
the food needs of growing chicka 
and to fully nourish them. 

These letters verify our claims. 

"I have about COO chicks and find the 
Holly Chick Feed superior to any chick 
feed on the market." 0. A. Ahrens, 
Gilroy, Cal. 

"We used your Holly Chick Feed and 
like it quite well." A. H. Cantrell, 

Meadowdale, Wash. 
"Holly Chick Feed is all right and if 
my chicks do not grow I will look else- 
where for the reason." 

D. 0. Brunner, Spokane, Wash, 

Sold by Dealers 

Made by 

The Chas. H. Lilly Co. , Seattle 



and a further decline is reported on some 
varieties of almonds. There is very little 
business in this market. 



Almonds, Nonpareils 16£c 

I XL 16 c 

Ne Plus Ultra 15Jc 

Drakes 13aC 

Languedoc 12£c 

Hardshell 9 c 

Walnuts, Softshell No. 1 15 c 

Softshell, No. 2 12 c 

Italian Chestnuts 10@12Jc 



HONEY. 

Honey is very slow, and while there is 
no change in quoted prices it is said that 
some country shippers who had been 
holding back are now willing to make 
concessions in order to clean up. Con- 
siderable quantities are coming forward, 
and dark amber is again on the market. 



Water White, Comb 16 @17 c 

White 15 @ 

Water White, extracted 8 @ 8^c 

Light Amber 7 @ 7£c 

Dark Amber 6J@ 61c 



WOOL. 

No material change is reported by local 
buyers, who report very little demand, 
though some shipments have been made 
to the East from country districts. Prices 
are nominally the same. 

Humboldt and Mendocino, year's 



staple 22 @23:c 

Fall clip: Northern free, moun- 
tain 8 @11 c 

do. defective 6 @ 8 c 

San Joaquin and Southern 5 @ 8 c 

Fall Lambs, Northern 9 @11 c 

Fall ^ambs, Southern 7 @ 9£c 

Nevada 12 ©16 c 



HOPS. 

The quietness in hops continues, as the 
growers are holding back, and the buyers 
are waiting to see what action will be 
taken by the Hop Growers' Association, 
which has found strong support in all the 
growing districts. 

1906 crop 2 @ 3 c 

1907 crop 4 @ 8 c 

1908 (contracts) 10 @11 c 

MEAT. 

Beef and mutton show considerably 
more firmness than last week, nearly all 
lines of dressed stock showing consider- 
able advances. There is some scarcity in 
this district. Livestock is unchanged, and 
hogs continue rather weak. 



Beef : Steers, per lb 7 @7i c 

Cows 5 @ 6ic 

Heifers 5 @ 6£c 

Veal : Large 8 @ 9 c 

Small 9 @10 c 

Mutton : Wethers 10J@11 c 

Ewes 9i@10 c 

Lamb... HJ@12Jc 

Hogs, dressed 10 @11 c 

LIVESTOCK. 

Steers, No. 1 8 @ 83c 

No. 2 7 @ 7*c 

No. 3 6 @ 6jc 

Cows and Heifers, No. 1 6J@ 7 c 

No. 2 5J@ 6 c 



Bulls and Stags 3£@ 4 c 

Calves, Light 5 @ 

Medium 4£@ 

Heavy 3J@ 4 c 

Sheep, Wethers 5 @ b\c 

Ewes 4£@ 5 c 

Lambs 6 @ 6Jc 

Hogs, 100 to 200 lbs 6 @ 6Jc 

200 to 300 lbs 5 @ 5jc 



Boars 50%, stags 30% to 40%, and sows 
10% to 20^> off from above quotations. 



WANTED 

By an experienced middle aged man, a position 
as manager of a large ranch. Address Box 36, 
care of Pacific Rural Press. 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short- 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petaluma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Shorthorned 
Durhams. Address E. 8. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY. 

BREEDERS OF SHORTHORN CATTLE 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



SWINE. 



GEO. C. ROEDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 
C. A. STO WE, Stockton, Cal. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodl, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



17 YEARS an Exhibitor of Berkshire Hogs at the 
California State Fair. Thos. Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan St., San 
Francisco. Manufacturer and Dealer In 

POULTRY SUPPLIES 

of every description. Send for Catalogue— FREE 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years. 
Importer and Breeders of all Varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St., S. F. 



BUFF ORPINGTONS 

Largest clean legged bird in the list, lay the 
year around, and bring a dollar each and more 
when turned to market. Postal will bring you 
prices and our show record. 

W. SULLIVAN, 

Agnew, Santa Clara County, Cal. 
State V. P. Nat. S. C. B. O. Club. 



FOR SALE 

One six years and one two years old 
Jacks. If interested, address 

P. 0. Box 345, Vacaville, Cal. 



ATTENTION, DAIRYMEN! 

We would like to furnish you with a young 
registered Holstein Bull, from 12 to 27 months 
old, grandly bred at the low price of $100. Write 
us and tell us what you want. Do it to-day. We 
will send you pedigrees and markings and 
records of ancestors. 

PIERCE LAND & STOCK CO.. 

Phone Main 1597. Stockton, Cal. 



FOR SALE 

A few thoroughbred registered Poland China 
service boars. 

Registered Holstein Friestan service bulls and 
bull calves from Advanced Registry Stock. 

STANFORD RANCH, : Vina, Cal. 



For Sale : Jerusalem Artichokes 

THE GREAT WINTER HOCJ PEED 

Address 

I anchor Creek Nurseries, Fresno, California. 



SURE CURE FOR PILES 

ITCHING Pllea produce moisture and cause itching. 
This form, as well as Blind, Bleedlug or Protruding 
Piles are cured by Dr.Bosanko's Pile Remedy. 
Stops Itching and bleeding. Absorbs tumors. 50c a 
Jar atdrugglsts or sent by mall. Treatise free. "Write 
me about four case. DR. BOSANKO, Phllada.Pa. 



LIVE OAK STOCK FARM 

Six Miles N. W. from Petaluma, on 
the Petaluma and Sebastopol Road. 

FRANK A. MEHCAM, Prop. 

Importer and Breeder of 

Red Polled Cattle 

Color Deep Red. Both Sexes for Sale. 
Address all communications PETALUMA, SO- 
NOMA CO., CAL. 




FRANK A. MECHAM 

Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep 

They were all Imported from England 
or bred direct from Imported stock. 




We have also bred American Merinos— Hornless 
Sheep— for 30 years. They are a large sheep with- 
out wrinkles. Rams will produce 20 to 25 pounds 
of long, white wool yearly. Sheep of both sexes 
for sale. 




FRANK A. MECHAM, Importer and Breeder 

Shipping Points: PETALUMA and SANTA 
ROSA. SONOMA CO. CAL. 



The Fresno Scraper 




Send for Raisin Machinery Catalogue. 



FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO. CALIFORNIA. 



MUSHROOMS; HOW TO GROW THEM. — By 
William Falconer. This U the most practical 
work on the subject ever written, and the only 
book on the growing of mushrooms published 
In America. The author describes how he grows 
mushrooms, and how they are grown for profit 
by the leading market gardeners, and for home 
use by the most successful private growers. 
Engravings drawn from nature expressly for 
this work. 170 pages. & by 7 Inches. Cloth 81 

ASPARAGUS. — By F. M. Hexamer. Thlslls 
the first book published In America which is 
exclusively devoted to the raising of asparagus 
for home use as well as for market. It Is a 
practical and reliable treatise on the saving ot 
the seed, raising of the plants, selection and 
preparation of the soli, planting, cultivating, 
manuring, cutting, bunching, packing, market- 
ing, canning and drying, insect enemies, fungous 
diseases and every requirement to successful 
asparagus culture, special emphasis being given 
to the Importance or asparagus as a farm and 
money crop. Illustrated. 174 pages. 6 by 7 
Inches. Cloth $0.60 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 

Pacific Rural Press 

(— ) Indicates every other week or once a month 

Page. 



Ames, John L 27 

Bean Spray Pump Co 28 

Beckman, Geo. V 31 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne 25 

Bosanko Medicine Co., Dr 31 

Breeders' Directory 31 

Coates Nursery Co., Leonard 27 

Croley, George H 31 

Cutter Analytical Laboratory 29 

Dewey, Strong & Co 31 

Dlsbrow, F. H 27 

Driver, E. S 31 

Eachus, R. P. 27 

El Dorado Oil Works 31 

Fancher Creek Nurseries 27, 31, 32 

Ferry & Co., D. M 27 

Folding Sawing Machine Co 22 

Fresno Agricultural Works 31 

Fresno Nursery 27 

German Kali Works 22 

Glenn, Estate of H. G 25 

Golden Rule Nursery 27 

Gregory & Son, ■». J. H 27 

Hart, Ed 31 

Hess & Clark, Dr 29 

Holcombe & Co., R. A 22 

Hopkins, G. H 27 

Howard Cattle Co 31 

Hoy t's Tree Support Co — 

Hunter, R. J 27 

Jackson & Co., T. W 22 

Lawrence-Williams Co 26 

Llliencrantz & Son 25 

Lilly Co., Chas. H 31, 32 

Lister, Henry B 25 

Ludemann, F 27 

Lynch, John 31 

McClanahan, E. E — 

Meacham, Frank A 31 

Mills, A. A 27 

Minnewawa Vineyard 27 

Morse & Co., C. C 26 

Mountain Copper Co 22 

Myers, Wm. S 23 

National Wood Pipe Co 28 

Oakland Poultry Yards 31 

Orange County Nursery & Land Co 27 

Oregon N ursery Co 27 

Pacific Coast Business College 25 

Pacific Guano & Fertilizer Co 22 

Pear Blight Remedy Co 29 

Pierce Land & Stock Co 31 

Rex Company, The 21 

Rhodes Mfg. Co 29 

Roedlng, Geo. C 31 

Savings & Loan Society 26 

Scheidecker, A. F 2T 

Seeds and Plants 26, 27, 32 

Seulberger, J 27 

Shaw, Henry 27 

Sharpies Separator Co 28 

Silva & Bergtholdt Co 32 

Simmons Hardware Co — 

Smith, Francis 29 

Snow, D. A 27 

Stanford Ranch 31 

Stowe, C. A 31 

Stratton, W. A. T 27 

Sullivan, W 31 

Sure Hatch Incubator Co — 

Teague, R. M 27 

Temple Pump Co 26 

True, T. J 2T 

Tuttle's Elixir Co 28 

Van Der Nalllen, A 25 

Vermont Farm Machine Co 29 

Wagner, J. B 27 

Walte, Thos 31 

Western Meat Co 26 

White City Grader Co 26 

Wright Brothers 29 



PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to Inventors, sent free on 
request; containing nearly 100 mechanical move- 
ments and full Information about Patents, 
Caveats, Trademarks, and Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., 

1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San Francisco 
Established 1860. 



Cocoanuf Oil Cake 

THE BEST FEED 
FOR STOCK, CHICKENS AND PIGS. 

FOR SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT BY 

EL DORADO OIL WORKS 

24Q4 Broad/way, San Francisco, Cal. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 4, 1908. 



Y^OU never buy a cheap horse and expect 
to get a good one. Some fruit ranchers 
buy the cheapest tree they can get, but an 
orchardist — never. Our trees and vines are 
not the cheapest, but they are the best that 
care in selection and growing can produce. 
We propagate only from parent trees and 
vines that are the best specimens of their 
kind, and our stock will give you good ser= 
vice for a lifetime. That is what you want. 



OUR STOCK 



Comprises all profitable 
commercial sorts of 




PEACHES, 
PLUMS, 
PEARS, 
APPLES, 

Send for Catalogue and Price List 



CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS 
APRICOTS 
and GRAPES. 



Contract now the trees you want 

WRITE US 

PLACER NURSERIES 

SILVA & BERGTHOLDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CAL. 




Our New Catalogue 

Is profusely Illustrated and con- 
tains much valuable Information 
about trees and nursery stock. 
Printed In English or Spanish. 
Sent free to any address. Price 
list mailed on application. 




Our Large Nurseries 

Experimental Kami, Plant No. 1, 
(HO Acres. 

Nursery and Propagating Depart- 
ment', Plant No. 2, 130 Acres. 

General Nursery, Plant No. 3, 640 
Acres. 

Citrus Nursery and Citrus Or- 
chards, Exeter, Tulare county, 
100 Acres. 




Citrus 



Every One True to Name 

Deciduous Ornamental Vines 



Palms Roses 



Our trees are all grown In the finest soil and under perfect 
conditions for the production of strong, healthy trees with 
well developed roots. 

Our Citrus Trees 

All are grown at Exeter, In the great Thermal Belt of 
Tulare county. The stock Is the very best, and the deep, 
black soil In which they are grown develops trees with 
magnificent root systems and line thrifty tops. Oranges, 
Lemons, Pomelos, Limes, Citrons in the best varieties. 

Our Deciduous Trees 

All are grown In a deep, alluvial, river bottom virgin soil; 
consequently, the root systems are as perfect as good soli 
can make them. < >ur assortment of apples, pears, peaches, 
plums, prunes, apricots, etc., Is very complete in all of the 
best varieties. 



Roses and 
Ornamental Trees 

Our rose stock is the finest we have 
ever grown. Can be supplied In 
bush and tree form. 
We have the largest stock of 
ornamental trees on the Coast. 
Order now. 




mm 

CREATIONS | 

Santa Rosa Plum Gaviota Plum 

Formosa Plum Rutland Plumcot 

Vesuvius, the beautifal loliage plant 

Royal and Paradox Walnuts. 

We are sole propagators and disseminators. 
Send 10 cents for our Illustrated booklet about 
these new and valuable creations. 



our system of packing trees and plants for shipments 
makes It certain that when received all will be In perfect 
condition. 

Walnuts 

Framiuette (Vrooman Strain) and other leading French 
and California types In grafted trees and also seedlings 
grown from selected seeds. All strong, healthy trees with 
well developed roots. 



Grape Vines 



Paid-Up Capital $200,000 

Fanchcr Creek 
Nurseries (Inc.) 

GEO. C. R0EDING, President and Manager. 

P. O. Box 18. Fresno. California 



We are the largest growers of vines on the Pacific Coast- 
All the leading raisin, wine and table grapes. We make a 
specialty of vines grafted on phylloxera-resistant roots, 
and can furnish them In any quantity, as well as vines on 
their own roots. 



Calimyrna Figs 

There are several varieties of 
Smyrna figs, but the Calimyrna Is 
the most profitable and best for all 
commercial purposes. It Is the 
genuine Smyrna tig of commerce. 





and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXV. No. 3. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 1908. 



Thirty-eighth Year. 



Burbank's Formosa 
Plum. 

The third of the trio of 
new plums which Mr. 
Burbank is offering this 
year through the Fancher 
Creek Nurseries at Fresno 
is shown upon this page. It 
is an unusually handsome 
fruit which runs surpris- 
ingly uniform in size, in 
many respects resembling 
the fruit of the Kelsey 
and Wickson, but much 
more uniform and hand- 
some in appearance than 
either. In flavor, firm- 
ness and coloring, it sur- 
passes the older varieties 
in every sense of the 
word. It is said by Mr. 
Burbank to be of rather a 
mixed parentage, blend- 
ing probably fifteen to 
eighteen varieties in its 
origin. It ripens about a 
week later than Santa 
Rosa. "Professor E. J. 
Wickson describes it as 
follows: " I have never 
seen this fruit before, and 
I find it large ( two and 
one-half inches longitudi- 
nal and two and one- 
fourth inches cross diam- 
eters ) and handsome, 
red, shading from rather 
light to deep cherry color, 
the coloring being more 
even than the original 
Wickson as it grows with 
me. The variety also 
seems to have a tendency 
to greater symmetry, the 
heart-shape being less 
pronounced and the gen- 
eral exterior points of the 
fruit striking me as su- 
perior. Comparison o f 
flavor points could hardly 
be made unless one had 
the two varieties grown 
under exactly the same 
conditions." 

Mr. Burbank gives the 
following account of For- 
mosa : "This is a plum 
which has been very fully 
tested for the past five 
years in close comparison 
with all others, and has 
been pronounced 'the 
best plum in existence ' 
at the present time. The 
trees are wonderful grow- 
ers (so far as known 
nothing comparable t o 

Formosa is now in cultivation in this respect), with 
unusually large, thick, healthy, light green foliage; 
strong, hard, wiry wood, which is always capable 
of holding the great crops of fruit which the trees so 




Burbank's Formosa Plum. 

far have never failed to bear. Even this year when 
all ordinary plums are either a partial or complete 
failure, Formosa is loaded with fruit of great size, 
unusual beauty, and unequaled in quality with per- 



haps the exception of the 
new Santa Rosa first in- 
troduced last season. 

Formosa blooms with 
the Burbank and Abun- 
dance, and always escapes 
late spring frosts, and al- 
ways bears profusely even 
when continuous rainy 
weather prevents full pol- 
lination in most other 
plums. No disease has 
ever found lodgment with 
Formosa. The fruit is of 
uniform size, averaging 
about six inches in cir- 
cumference one way by 
eight the other. Fruit 
yellow with a pale bloom 
until nearly ripe, turning 
to a clear rich red. Flesh 
pale yellow, unusually 
firm, sweet, rich, de- 
licious, with a delightful 
apricot flavor, nearly free- 
stone. Formosa has been 
very thoroughly tested 
for its keeping qualities, 
which are unequaled ex- 
cept by Santa Rosa, Wick- 
son, Burbank, and a few 
others." 

In his announcement 
Mr. Roeding gives fur- 
ther points as to Formosa, 
what is expected of it and 
suggestions as to the treat 
ment of the tree. 

Formosa, like all the 
plum family, finds con- 
genial conditions over 
wide geographical areas. 
In view of this its trial 
culture can be recom- 
mended not only in the 
Pacific States and Terri- 
tories but throughout the 
Eastern United States, 
Europe and of course all 
countries enjoying a cli- 
mate similar to that of 
California. 

In habit of growth it is 
rather sprawling, hence 
the tree should be pruned 
quite severely when 
young and headed back 
to 18 inches from the sur- 
face of the ground. Plum 
trees are more or less 
subject to sun scald, which 
is overcome by having the 
branches start down to 
give ample shade to the 
body of the tree. The 
first four seasons follow- 
ing planting, practically 
the same method of prun- 
ing as directed for other fruits should be adopted. 
After the tree has acquired its form and the main 
branches are sturdy and strong enough to support a 
crop, no further pruning is necessary. 



34 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 18, 1908. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Advertising rates made known on application. 

Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 

DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. - - - PUBLISHERS 

JS. J. WICKSON Editor 

EDGAR RICK ARD - - Business Manager 



The Week. 



The winds are beating the clouds around the sky, 
titful rains in considerable quantities are falling in 
some places, the rain-makers are hopeful of realizing 
on their " heads-I-win; tails-you-lose " contracts, and 
generally the winter may be said to be going on. A 
good, steady rain which shall extend to southern 
California is now a desideratum. The south caught 
on to the Mexican summer rainfall system last fall 
and secured early rains, but has not yet connected 
with the California winter rainfall system, and is 
therefore still dry and awaiting refreshment. Judg- 
ing by the frequency of rains in the northern and cen- 
tral parts of the State it will not be long before a 
cyclonic movement of sufficient seriousness to embrace 
the south glides in from the Pacific. In the central 
parts of the State the frequency of showers is keep- 
ing the surface rather too wet for the grain seeding 
which some growers are anxious to finish, and this 
work is kept backward both at the south and at 
the north, though for opposite reasons. Such condi- 
tions are worth noting once in a while, simply to 
show the infinite diversity of California. Fortunately 
such troubles are usually only temporary, and are 
inore vexatious for, the moment than ever afterwards. 
Meantime a large amount of work is being done in 
.Teat valley. flowing and planting are being 
push id Wid< i'. . NureerfCto are handling stock in large 
Many are using the lessened rate for 
the more abundant supply of 
mechanic^' labor to carry on improvements. Many 
tourists of" the home-seeking class are in the land, and 
everything looks like a year of considerable advance- 
ment and development. 

One phase of winter work — the lifting of the great 
potato crop on the low lands around Stockton — is just 
now particularly active, and there is enough in sight 
according to local authorities to keep the growers busy 
until March. Potatoes are going directly from the 
fields to the cars to be rolled to Texas and adjoining 
states. Large buyers in the Middle West are not as 
free with orders as could be desired, but are expected 
to improve as local supplies become more reduced. 
Prices are rather low, but something like one million 
sacks of potatoes are calculated to be in this winter's 
crop in the Stockton district, and that will mean a lot 
of money, especially if the price advances as the coun- 
try gets more hungry, as is expected. 

Thinking of this great resource of the river-side 
region in the center of the State reminds us of the im- 
portant movements now in progress to make that dis- 
trict safer and the shipment of its produce by water, 
as well as by rail, more easy. That means the im- 
provement of the rivers. Nothing can be more in- 
dustrially important to the State, and it can be 
attained by continually working for it. The River 
Improvement and Drainage Association of California, 
of which Mr. R. P. Jennings of this city is president, 
has received information that its invitation to the 
United States Board of Engineers in charge of Rivers 
and Harbors to visit California has been accepted, and 
that members of the Board, including Daniel \V. 
Loekwood, Colonel, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., and 
Chairman of the Board, and Lieutenant-Colonel S. S. 
Leach, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., and Captain 
Webber, Assistant Engineer, and other members of 
the Board, will be here during the month. Hearings 
in the river section have been arranged. At Stock- 
ton, January 18, 1908, 10 a. m., there will be a hear- 
ing with reference to the improvement of the San 



Joaquin river and its tributary, Stockton channel, 
from San Francisco bay to Stockton. At Sacramento, 
January 20, 1908, 1 p. M., there will be a hearing in 
reference to Sacramento river from its mouth to 
Feather river. In advising the Association of the 
above hearings, the United States Engineers state: 
"The object of the Board's visit is to secure informa- 
tion setting forth the commercial necessity of the im- 
provement specified in the law, and all persons inter- 
ested in the matter under consideration are invited to 
attend the hearings, and to present such information 
as is available bearing upon these questions. While 
oral statements are of value, the Board suggests that 
especially important facts and statistics should be sub- 
mitted in writing, in order that they may become of 
record." This will be a great opportunity, and, if 
these distinguished engineers do not have full knowl- 
edge of what Californians know about these great 
rivers and think about them, it will be a great 
mistake. 

We turn from this moist subject to another of quite 
a different kind. We have received a pressing invi- 
tation from Mr. Fisher Harris, president, to attend 
the Second Session of the Trans-Missouri Dry Farm- 
ing Congress, which meets in Salt Lake City, Jan. 22- 
26, 1908, and are asked to give our readers information 
of the Congress and its purposes. The objects of the 
Congress are an increase of the cultivatable area of the 
country through recourse to rainfall farming. As the 
limitations of the reclamation of our arid lands by 
means of irrigation are brought nearer realization, 
the necessity for the general adoption of a system, or 
systems, of scientific soil culture that shall bring under 
cultivation the immense areas of land for which no 
water can be obtained, save such as falls in the shape 
of snow or rain, becomes more and more urgent and 
important. We thoroughly sympathize with this pur- 
pose and urge consultation as to its attainment though 
we would again, as we have in the past, urge conserv- 
ative attitude and a freedom from booming on a dry- 
farming basis, which is the most dangerous thing now 
in sight in the West. Booming under irrigation is 
dangerous and booming without it is not less so. To 
expect too much from culture systems or from plant 
endurance is unwise. But what can lie expected from 
systems and from hardier plants is a thing which 
every progressive person wants to know. Conse- 
quently we say take a cool head to Salt Lake and con- 
fer about these things. 

As already stated in these columns, the opening of 
asparagus fields to free movement of dry summer air 
and the use of sulphur, which check the rust in Cali- 
fornia, do not work that way in the moist summer air 
of the Atlantic States. We have just received a letter 
from Mr. C. W. Prescott, of Concord, Mass., who has 
charge of experimental work for the Massachusetts 
Asparagus Growers' Association, which shows that 
they are relying upon two other lines of escape: 
First, strengthening the plant by fertilization of the 
soil; second, effort to secure resistant varieties. It 
seems that they have found two or three sections of 
the country which were inflicted with rust many 
years ago, got rid of it, and have not been troubled 
during the recent outbreak. They have secured seeds 
and plants from fhese localities. Mr. Prescott says it 
has been pretty generally demonstrated that Argen- 
teuil and Palmetto are more resistant than other vari- 
eties, and these are being largely planted for that 
reason. We hope to have later a fuller account of 
what the Massachusetts Association is doing. 

The financial disturbance is interfering with Califor- 
nia winter activities somewhat, because many who 
wintered here will not do so this year. We usually 
get the light end of trouble, though. We read that in 
Berlin, Germany, the "American financial trouble," 
for they haste to credit us with it, results in depression 
which causes the problem of the unemployed in Berlin 
to assume most serious proportions. According to 
official calculations, the number out of work aggregates 
30,000, more than 20,000 of whom either belong to 
unions or have some trade or other regular occupation. 
They seem to be having, also, a very cold winter 
across the water, and all charitable agencies are un- 
able to prevent suffering which makes the heart sad _ 



Hard times are terrible upon the poor in any event, 
and doubly so when climatic rigors are added. 

We wrote recently about a demand in some foreign 
country for a revolving machine to hash up the crust 
and improve alfalfa better than the ordinary disk har- 
row can do it. A Connecticut Yankee has announced 
the following: 

I made a machine several years ago to boe timothy 
and redtop. The machine had seventy-two blade-, 
made in an oval about :? inches long, ground to a 
sharp edge. Every time this machine rolled around 
there would be seventy-two of these knives penetrate 
an average of two or more inches in every 12 inches in 
width— in other words, seventy-two oval knives 34 
inches wide, 2 inches deep, every 4 feet in length the 
machine was drawn. I am going to take that 
machine and take a section of the alfalfa field and go 
over it in several directions and shave this dodder 
root from the alfalfa plant. The alfalfa w ill stand a 
great deal of cutting without damage, and these 
knives passing through the alfalfa stems cutting in 
every direction down through it and otherw ise, I 
believe, will kill out the dodder before the alfalfa will 
be killed. ' 

How this will act on the alfalfa crowns our readers 
can figure out for themselves and make such a 
machine if they desire to try it. We only wish to 
remark that such cutting will have no effect on the 
dodder unless it is used just at the right time, that is 
before the dodder makes its seed. There is no pur- 
pose in shaving the dodder root from the alfalfa plant; 
the root lets go for itself when it is through, because it 
is an annual and not a permanent parasite of the 
alfalfa. If it can be kept from seeding its course is 
run. This is the reason why burning and close pas- 
turing keep it down. Hashing up the alfalfa crowns 
after the season's growth is made will have no effect 
upon the dodder seed, which will be in the ground at 
that time. 

The President has just signed a proclamation cre- 
ating the Verde National Forest in Arizona. This 
new national forest has an area of 721,780 acres and is 
located in Maricopa and Yavapai counties. It lies on 
the west side of the Verde river and includes a large 
portion of the watershed of that stream. The greater 
part of the area of this fin est is covered with a growth 
of brush without commercial value. The protection 
of this, however, is just as important as heavily for- 
ested land, for, as in the case in southern California, 
this scrubby growth is the only thing that conserves 
the water supply and protects the watershed of the 
Verde river from serious erosion. The creation of this 
new national forest is considered necessary by the 
Reclamation Service for the best administration of the 
Reclamation Act, and the watershed has an important 
relation to the full development of the irrigable lands 
of Salt River Valley. 



Queries and Replies. 



Killing Morning Glory. 

To the Editor: You were kind enough to advise me 
last March of a method of reducing morning glory by 
the use of a weed knife. Beginning shortly after that 
date I have used the knife on several patches of the 
weed aggregating 10 acres. One four-acre field I 
examined yesterday. This field has been thoroughly 
treated twice a week for the entire season. There arc 
about 8] inches of finely pulverized dusty soil over 
the field, and no green shoot has appeared on the 
surface. On hoeing away the dust in infected spots I 
found the undisturbed soil quite moist, and iu most 
instances I found white threads of morning glory 
roots in this subsoil which were juicy and had ap- 
parently retained their N ihility. This is a disappoint- 
ment to me, and I report it to you for your informa- 
tion and consideration. — Farmer, Santa Barbara. 

We were careful not to say how long it would take 
to kill morning glory in the way prescribed. We 
have never given any guarantee of the amount of 
time necessary to kill morning glory by never allow- 
ing it to reach the light and attain green color, but 
we are perfectly sure that if you continue the treat- 
ment this pest will be subdued. Cutting once a week, 
or possibly even once in ten days, should be often 
enough. The philosophy of the treatment is to allow 
the plant to make growing effort and yet never allow 
it to form chlorophyl. It is possible that this constant 



January 18, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



effort may minister toward a weakening of the roots, 
providing they are never allowed to receive refresh- 
ment by light action. We hope you will continue 
your experiments and observations, even though it be 
only in the interest of better knowledge of the subject. 

Spraying for Weed-Killing on Drying Ground. 

To the Editor: Since your prescription for spray- 
ing to kill weeds on walks I have been wondering if 
the lye and arsenic sprayed around where chickens 
were running would be a bad thing, or if a horse 
should nibble around and get some of the poison, would 
it be strong enough to do damage ? Or would the 
effects wear away in a few days after spraying ? If so, 
I could keep them shut up. Could I dissolve salt in 
water so I could make a spray strong enough to spray 
on weeds now (they are about one or two inches high) 
to kill them, say for this year, and repeat next fall? 
If so, how strong ? — Reader, Santa Clara. 

There would probably be no danger in using the 
arsenic mixture providing you keep the stock shut up 
until the vegetation is killed and withered down. We 
should guess that they would not get enough by lick- 
ing the ground to do any injury, but we have no ex- 
perimental knowledge on that subject. You can cer- 
tainly kill the weeds by spraying with brine, and so 
long as the salt continues strong enough in the surface 
soil nothing will grow. It may be two or three years 
before the salt would be leached out sufficiently to 
admit growth. We cannot tell you exactly how strong 
to make the brine; you will have to experiment with 
it a little. You might begin with one pound of salt to 
five gallons of water and work either up or down, as 
the behavior of the grass indicates. 

Berry Plants— White Alkali. 

To the Editor: Would it be better to buy logan 
plants from a reliable nurseryman than to get them 
nearby free, when the plants were badly neglected last 
season ? I want to set out quite a quantity of straw- 
berries and find there is considerable white alkali. I 
have heard gypsum was good. How much should be 
used per acre? How much risk do I take? — New- 
comer, San Diego. 

Nobody can tell you whether you should buy logan- 
berry plants or take them as a gift, without seeing the 
plants. If they are thrifty, though small, they will 
advance rapidly under favorable growing conditions, 
which you may have prepared to give them. 

There is little chance of growing strawberries in 
alkali soils, and gypsum has no effect on white alkali. 
Gypsum is sometimes used to turn black alkali into 
white, and thus render it less corrosive, but it does 
not in any way diminish the amount of alkali present, 
and it has no effect whatever on white alkali. 

Persimmon Growing. 

To the Editor: If I should plant a few acres into 
persimmons for commercial purposes, what varieties 
are the best for it? I would not care to plant more 
than two or at most three varieties. Which loquat is 
the best variety for commercial purposes? — Reader, 
Stockton. 

If we were to undertake planting Japanese persim- 
mons, we should select bright red varieties which had 
a little difference in the ripening season, if possible. 
We are very sure, however, that we would not under- 
take planting any large area of Japanese persimmons 
for commercial purposes. They have been grown for 
a good many years and have never sold at the East as 
they were expected to when planting began 25 years 
ago. It has never been possible to sell more than 
three carloads a year, and they seem to be required 
only for decorative purposes. In California markets 
a few persimmons often sell well, because of the Asi- 
atic demand, but large quantities cannot be disposed 
of unless they can be profitably shipped to China or 
Japan, where the fruit is better understood and more 
highly esteemed than it is ever likely to be in this 
country. Although it is true that we are making 
some progress in curing the fruit as the Japanese do, 
it is quite unlikely that our people will ever be very 
fond of such a dead sweet fruit, which has to be, as 
some one has very coarsely expressed it, "nearly 
rotten before it becomes edible." 

The best loquat is probably the Advance, originated 
by Mr. C. P. Taft, of Orange. 



Walnut Budding. 

To the Editor: 1 am somewhat at a loss to know if 
my walnut buds put in last August will grow next 
spring, or have I made them blind ? My operation 
was this : I cut the bark the shape and size I wanted 
my bud, then I took the bud off carefully not to bruise 
it. Then I cut the bark on the stock of the black wal- 
nut to receive the bud to suit the same way as I would 
a peach bud, and slipped it in place. Now then there 
is a small indenture left in the bud or corcule, and in 
slipping in, it is pushed in tight so that it may dis- 
turb the cambium layer or the indenture at the cor- 
cule may affect it. Now will either of these blind the 
bud ? I manipulate my buds in a way that I believe 
three-fourths will live, but for the buds to grow 
next spring I have my doubts. If I am successful I 
will write you later. I haven't any buds to spare to 
make the ring or annular bud. — Experimenter, 
Eresno county. 

We cannot answer. You will have to tell us after 
the buds tell you. We see no reason why some of the 
buds which you put in should not grow next spring, 
unless they have already dried out and died, but bud- 
ding by the method employed with ordinary fruits, 
like peaches, seldom succeeds with the walnut. Plate 
budding, that is, entirely removing a piece of bark of 
the stock, cutting a bud of the exact size and planting 
it upon the cambium layer and binding with wax 
cloth to wholly exclude the air, is more successful, and 
this is done where ring budding is not practicable. 
Keep watch of your buds and write about them later. 
If the bark keeps alive but the bud, instead of grow- 
ing, sort of crawls into itself, you have blinded it all 
right. 

Growing Grapes From Seed. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly advise me how to 
proceed in planting grape seeds to get them to grow ? 
I was impressed with the Satalkanski and got a box of 
them after the fair here. Now the question is how 
best to plant the seed to get them to grow. I may be 
able to get something good in the line of a new vari- 
ety. — Reader, Sacramento. 

There is no particular difficulty about getting seed- 
lings from grape seed, if the seed is well matured and 
fertile. It should not be allowed to fully dry, but still 
does hold its germinating power even after a certain 
amount of drying. Cover about one-quarter of an inch 
in sandy loam with a little fibrous material, or using a 
mixture of sand and leaf mold such as florists gener- 
ally employ. If you have a great quantity of seed, it 
can be handled in a garden-bed; if only a few, it is 
easier to grow in boxes and transplant. If you use the 
box method, you can get a quick start in a green- 
house or in a warm house room, and take the box into 
the open air as the season advances. After the plants 
start, they will be quite hardy and need no protection, 
except from frost. 

Early Winter Pruning. 

To the Editor: Will you please kindly advise me 
as to the propriety of pruning in the fall of the year, 
especially prune trees? Prunes, peaches, and apricots 
rotted badly before they got ripe last year, but possibly 
it was owing to something in the soil or to excessive 
irrigation. — Grower, San Jose. 

Fall pruning is more and more largely practiced for 
deciduous fruit trees and is, on the whole, a desirable 
method, except for trees which are disposed to retain 
active foliage and grow late in the season. They 
should be pruned later. The rotting of fruits is often 
due te an invasion of a fungus, like the 'brown rot,' 
which is much more active in a moist atmosphere, 
resulting from a too free use of water, but seasonable 
and even liberal irrigation, if the trees require it, is 
not harmful, providing good cultivation is done as 
soon as the ground is in good condition to receive it. 
If your trees are growing thriftily your soil is not at 
fault. Failure of the fruits seems to be due to other 
causes. 

The Berry Scale. 

To the Editor: The enclosed specimen is a section 
of a cane of the Phenomenal berry. Kindly tell me 
what is the matter with it, and how I shall proceed to 
remedy the evil. — Amateur, Stockton. 

Your berries are infested with a scale insect known 
as Diaspis rosae, which is very common on berry 
bushes as well as rose bushes. Prune out all the 



spent canes and burn them, and spray all that yo 
retain for next year's fruiting with kerosene emulsion, 
being careful to prepare the emulsion so as not to 
have free oil. It may be well to remove the earth a 
little so as to reach old stubs and bases of canes which 
carry the insect, at the same time being careful not to 
allow the wash to collect in too large quantities at the 
roots of the plant. 

Peach Twig Borer. 

To the Editor: Last season our Muir peaches were 
badly infected with twig borer, which caused the 
fruit to drop prematurely, and it was also very wormy 
at cutting time. We also had the brown rot in our 
Muirs. I would like to hear from you in regard to a 
remedy for these diseases. — Orchakdist, Red Bluff. 

The University bulletin on the peach worm is out 
of print. This is the insect which appears as a twig 
borer, ai*d is also the worm found in the fruit later in 
the season. The proper treatment is to spray with 
lime, salt and sulphur just before the color appears in 
the bloom buds in the spring time, because the same 
temperature which causes the tree to blossom also 
causes the insect to emerge from hibernation, and if 
thorough spraying is done at that time not only will 
the twigs be saved, but the fruit will be also largely 
free from worms. This same treatment should kill 
the spores of the brown rot which may be resting 
upon the bark. Subsequent treatment for brown rot 
consists in the use of the Bordeaux mixture after the 
fruit is set. 

Grape Coloring Again. 

To the Editor: I would be grateful for some infor- 
mation in regard to land suitable for raising Tokay 
grapes. Would it be possible for you to ascertain by 
analysis of soil whether a particular piece of ground 
was suitable for Tokays, provided you knew the 
geographical location of the land? It is popularly 
supposed that the Tokay will produce its best color in 
but few places. Before investing in some property, 
with a view to planting this variety of grapes, the 
writer would like to satisfy himself as to the apparent 
truth of this to guard against encountering future 
overproduction. — Enquirer, Oakdale. 

No examination of soil will inform you as to 
whether the Tokay grape will color properly. Color- 
ing is apparently not so much a matter of soil as of 
local climatic conditions. The only satisfactory evi- 
dence of whether the grapes will color well on the 
kind of soil you have in mind is the fact that they are 
coloring well on similar soil in the immediate vicinity. 

Straightening up Eucalypts. 

To the Editor: Will you advise what is best to do 
with Eucalyptus rostratas that were set out from 
flats last March ? They have grown finely, some of 
them 12 feet, but the branches have blown over and 
made the trees lean over a great deal. Will cutting 
the lower branches off help to straighten the trees, or 
will they straighten by themselves in time? They 
are planted 8 by 6 ft. in 6 rows across my land. — 
Farmer, Turlock. 

We suppose that you have so many trees that tying 
up to stakes would be out of the question. If this is 
so, and the trees seem to be pulled over by the weight 
of the branches, they certainly should be helped to- 
ward assuming an erect position if these branches were 
removed, but in such close planting they would get up 
any way. 

Planting Knotted Roots. 

To the Editor: Is there no way of treating the soil 
at planting that will tend to prevent the growth of 
root knots ? How would a heavy sprinkle of sulphur 
do, sprinkled on the pits in the furrow before they are 
covered? Is there likely to be any more knots in the 
second crop of trees on the same soil? Are Muir pits 
any more liable to disease than any other pit? — 
Grower, Kings County. 

So far as we know all the methods of treating the 
ground for the destruction of root knot fungus have 
not succeeded. Cases reported to us would indicate 
that the number of trees affected is likely to be in- 
creased from year to year, and for this reason new 
ground is continually being sought for nursery pur- 
poses. We are not aware that seedlings from Muir 
pits are more susceptible than others. We sadly lack 
definite and satisfactory information on this subject. 
We are simply giving you the best we have. 



*6 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 18, 1906. 



Horticulture. 



Work of the State Horticultural Commissioner. 

From the opening address of Mr. J. W. Jeffrey, 
State Horticultural Commissioner, acting as chairman 
of the Marysville Fruit Growers' Convention: 

The office of State Commissioner of Horticulture is 
largely executive, and is charged with duties and en- 
dowed with powers neither possessed nor needed by 
any other department. It is a clearing house of hor- 
ticultural information, not a bureau of scientific inves- 
tigation other than is necessary in making effective 
its quarantine department, and its control of insect 
pests and plant diseases; it is the horticultural patrol- 
man of the State, its badge of authority the quaran- 
tine code; it is not the detective of soil salts, the dis- 
coverer of varietal adaptations, the sleuth of patho- 
logic troubles in plant life or the officer to bring to 
book the thousand secrets of nature that perplex or 
impoverish the farmer. The office of State Commis- 
sioner of Horticulture is not the State schoolmaster of 
horticulture charged with the duty of bringing back 
to the soil the escaping young men, or to educate the 
rural people in the technical departments of horticul- 
ture. These matters properly belong to the Univer- 
sity. Rather is the commissioner's office the statisti- 
cian, the secretary of correspondence with horticultural 
societies, colleges, and schools upon applied knowl- 
edge, ami, above all the medium through w bieh pro- 
tection is afforded to the orchards of the State, and 
pursuant of which this great office is empowered to 
bring into business-like co-operation the County Hor- 
ticultural Commissions in the enforcement of the laws 
designed for the exclusion of insect pests and dis- 
ease, their extermination or control, and in meeting 
any emergency that may threaten the fruit growing 
enterprises of the State. To secure this co-operation 
the law has made your State Commissioner member 
ex-officio of every County Board of Horticulture, 
and I shall try to fulfill this duty to the best of my 
ability. 

Beneficial Insects. — Upon the policy of protec- 
tion from insect pests there is an idea extant that the 
new administration will be at variance with the old, 
especially in the search for and use of beneficial in- 
sects. Statements have been made that, if true, should 
disqualify me from holding my present position, and 
as far as I know the belief in these statements is the 
(inly bar to my acceptability as your Commissioner. 
I would not refer to this personal matter if it did not 
touch so closely the work of this office. And then you 
have the right to know my attitude upon a question 
so paramount to the success of fruit-growing. A cir- 
cular was sent all over the State last summer in 
which, with other remarkable matter the statement 
was made that my candidacy was a direct challenge 
to Mr. Cooper's policy of using parasitic insects in the 
control of orchard pests. The charge needed no denial 
in the south, and it is useless to deny anything in the 
w armth of a contest of this kind. I think it is proper 
now, however, to suggest that the authors of this cir- 
cular depended entirely upon their imagination for 
their facts, for my faith in the efficacy of parasitic and 
predaceous insects is now and always has l>een as 
firmly grounded as that of any other individual's in 
the State. * * * 1 believe, however, that some of 
us have lost the sense of proportions between the so- 
called natural and the artificial methods of fighting 
insect pests, and 1 hold that these proportions may be 
equalized in the public mind without abating in any 
degree the search for the new insect friends or relax- 
ing in the nurture and distribution of our native bene- 
ficial species. I know by experience how easy it is to 
exaggerate the achievements of parasitic insects. 

Within the next three months we hope to have the 
insectary built. Time will prove this institution one 
of great value. Its successful operation will be in 
line with my predecessor's most cherished policy, and 
I propose, when the insectary is finished, to have 
placed in its entablature this inscription, " Founded 
by Klwood Cooper," and then a line indicating the 
years of his services to the fruit growers of the Golden 
State. 

Legislation That Is Xkkdkd. — It is a shame 
that this great office under whose auspices you are 
assembled today has to plead for a bare existence 
when it should be equipped to give back to the Stale 
ten thousand times its cost every year. It would not 
drink from the finger-bowl nor swallow the knife, nor 
eat the bouquet if given a seat with the more scien- 
tific institutions that are so richly sustained with 
means of doing the work they have so well in hand. 
The scope of the office which I represent is broad 
enough. It should have officers with executive ability 
and should be backed with tha funds to make its work 
felt throughout the length and breadth of the State. 
To this end the laws concerning the appointment and 
support of our County Boards of Horticulture should 
be wiped off the Statute books and re-enacted in a 
new and effective spirit; the county quarantine ordi- 
nances should be destroyed and a uniform system 



adopteil that would be more stringent and effective, 
without driving our nurserymen to distraction as they 
are driven under the present lack of system. I be- 
lieve this feasible, if every fruit growing county were 
compelled to maintain an efficient Horticulture Com- 
mission, appointed solely on merit and supported by 
an able corps of inspectors. These appointments 
should be divorced from politics and governed entirely 
by fitness for the work required. I shall carry this 
idea into the administration of the State Commis- 
sioner's office, for merit will govern every appoint- 
ment, and no one in the State will expect any other 
policy to prevail. Time will not permit further refer- 
ence to the work that this office should do, or to refer 
to many other topics that demand attention. 

PRACTICAL Fruit Gkoweks. — At the risk of your 
impatience 1 must pay a tribute to the chief of the 
forces that stand for betterment of fruit growing in 
California — the men and women of the country homes, 
the artisans who have built the grandest horticultural 
structure in the world, and have established here the 
highest degree of rural civilization upon the face of 
the earth. Twenty-seven members on this conven- 
tion's program are represented by these people. Who 
shall say their achievements are not far beyond those 
of all other forces combined ? These are the architects 
of the State's real grandeur. These are the people to 
w hom the elimination of an unfit fruit is greater than 
the creation of a hundred varieties, the delineation of 
suitable soils for the cultivation of their crops of more 
value to them than an encyclopedia of horticulture, 
the possession of an honest nurseryman of more worth 
than another farm. Tney are here to speak for them- 
selves. They pay for all and all should listen. All 
honor to the fruit growers of the State. May their 
prosi>erity never grow less nor their influence in these 
conventions be abated. 



Suggestions on Top Grafting. 

By Mr. Frank Fkmmons of Ahwahnee, Madera County, In the 
Town and Country Journal. 

Almost every orchard grower has more or less 
experience with unprofitable trees. Some of them 
bear little fruit, and that of others is inferior or worth- 
less. The old scriptural suggestion was to use the ax 
and hew them down, but we don't like to destroy a 
fine, thrifty, growing tree and then wait for another 
to grow in its place. Now and then there are trees 
that it is just as well to destroy, root and branch. 
With most, it is better to convert them into some- 
thing better— something that will return some value 
and pleasure from their use of the ground, and so we 
resort to grafting, which is nothing more than putting 
a new and better life into the tree, that by its fruit we 
shall know and care for it; and who is there that does 
not love an old apple tree, that, from its generous 
heart presents to us each year the rich overflowing 
bounty of its nature ? 

Perhaps we have no history of who first conceived 
the idea of grafting cions of one variety into the stock 
of another. Far back in the ages, some horticultural 
genius, either from long and careful study or the in- 
spiration of some passing fancy, thought he could 
change the fruitfulness of some tree in his garden. 
Perhaps it was only some accidental experiment, 
crude in workmanship, no doubt, but in results one of 
the grand achievements of the human mind. With 
w hat wonder must his friends and neighbors have 
seen the results of his skill ! It was a mysterious 
change. It was no less than the conjuring of nature, 
and by a simple process conferring upon the world a 
benefit that, even now, we scarcely realize. From 
that one discovery far back in the primitive ages, 
dates all the advancement in the science of horticul- 
ture as we know it today, and we still owe a debt of 
gratitude to its unkuown founder. But for the dis- 
covery that one variety could be grafted upon another 
and thus perpetuate the choice types we would still be 
gathering the wild fruits of nature, and though we 
might recognize that some of them were very fine we 
would have no certain way of preserving the variety 
and it would die with the parent tree. 

Horticulture and mechanical ingenuity have de- 
vised many forms of grafting and most of them have 
their place and advantage under the different con- 
ditions in the age and size of the trees or stock to be 
worked upon; but I wish to say something about what 
is generally known as 'top grafting' large trees. 

SIDE GRAFTING. — After sawing off the branches 
w here we wish to insert the cions, it has long been the 
usual custom to split the stock in some form with 
some tool and hold the cleft open to receive the ciou, 
but it was almost a barbarous method and often, with 
the greatest care, invited decay and disease and en- 
dangered the usefulness and life of the tree. There 
have been many efforts made to find some method to 
avoid splitting. I know one Scotch horticulturist, 
who by his knowledge and skill, has made a reputa- 
tion on three continents, and friends wherever known, 
Who has used his knife to cut a V-shaped recess in the 
side of the stock in which to place the tapered end of 



the cion, but the process w as so slow that it is only 
used in occasional work. A few years ago a little 
hand machine was invented and advertised here in 
California to cut the recess. The idea seemed a good 
one at first sight, but, like many others, proved so in 
theory only. The knife was hard to keep sharp, and 
the bark of the stock was apt to be torn and lifted 
around the cut. We have heard nothing from it foi 
several year-. 

Saw-Gkaftixg. — A few years ago a rather new 
idea originated with a Mr. W. S. Co burn of Hotch- 
kiss, Colorado. In case of splitting the stock, he 
made a kerf with his pruning saw into the side of the 
stock, perhaps a half inch deep at the up|>er portion 
and extending down the side far enough to give the 
cion a proper seat— about one and a half inches — and 
then with a saddler's or other knife, formed a V- 
shaped recess. This was much better than the old 
method, but the tools and the time required seemed 
to make it rather slow, and I tried several combina- 
tions of saw and knife, to do the work more speedily, 
but they all seemed to be more or less a failure. 

Among my old tools was what used to be called a 
hand saw, a small saw about a foot long, a thin blade, 
with a stiff back and about twenty teeth to the inch. 
Dressing it as a rip saw (my old wood-working 
friends will know what that means), running an oil 
stone lightly along the side of the teeth to make them 
smooth and true; boring a hole through the handle 
for a buckskin string to pass over the wrist, I soon 
found I had a tool, that, with a sharp pocket knife, 
was just what was wanted. The saw being so thin and 
the teeth so fine, a V-shaped recess was easily cut out 
that required little if any dressing out or smoothing to 
receive the graft and a tap or two with the handle of 
the knife used to shape the cion placed in it firmly, 
ready for waxing. 

The width of the wedge-sha|>ed piece sawn out of 
the stock should, of course, correspond with the size of 
the cion placed in the recess formed. The essential 
feature in having the saw do its work properly i- that 
the teeth are very fine, true and sharp. It is said that 
1 a workman is known by his chips,' but his best work 
in either chips or the final result very much depends 
on the shape and quality of the tools he uses. I have 
used this method for the past two years and it has 
proven itself so satisfactory that now I would use no 
other that I know of in grafting bearing trees and it 
can be used on stocks as small as half an inch in diam- 
eter. 

The wounds heal over more quickly than the old 
splitting method; no sour sap oozing from the stock as 
is so often seen and a sure sign that nature is having 
a hard struggle with decay and disease; the cions 
grow with a more uniform vigor and a less jK'rcentage 
of loss and besides the method is so simple, requir- 
ing so few tools and so few different motions in the 
work that it very soon come- easy to the hand and 
almost a pleasure instead of a painful duty. The 
pruning saw is to cut off the limbs, which you lay aside 
as soon as you have cut from the tree what you wish, 
and then with your cions, your little saw hanging on 
your right wrist in easy reach of the hand and your 
pocket knife sharp, you an- all ready to do your work, 
and w hen it is properly finished, Nature left in a way 
to easily do hers. 



Irrigating Apples in Washington. 

Growing apples with irrigation in the North Yakima 
district of Washington is deseril>ed by Mr. S. O. 
Jayne in a bulletin of the Irrigation Investigations of 
the United States Department of Agriculture as fol- 
lows : 

Apples, peaches and pears are the three fruit- of 
greatest commercial importance. Of these, apples, 
and especially the winter varieties, easily lead. The 
best practice in planting is to place the trees al>out .10 
feet apart each way, by what is called the triangle 
system. In many of the older orchards they are only 
20 to 25 feet apart, but experience has shown this to 
be too close for apple trees, although about right for 
j>ears. Very often, with the apple trees 30 feet apart, 
peaches will be set between them, and as they mature 
much quicker than the apple, several crops may be 
obtained before the apple trees are large enough to 
bear, and the peach trees may then be taken out. 
Potatoes, corn, or other crops are grown between the 
trees when they are small, in order to get some reve- 
nue from the land while the orchard is growing. A 
crop should be selected which requires about the same 
amount of water as the trees, for when strawberries, 
for instance, which require much more water, are 
planted l>etween the rows, the growth of the trees will 
be retarded in a very marked degree. 

The orchards are irrigated entirely by the furrow 
system, although there is more or less variation as to 
time of watering and as to the quantity applied. 
Where they are planted on deep loamy soil, three irri- 
gations are usually considered sufficient if thorough 
cultivation follows each, but if the trees are in such 
shape that the ground cannot be well tilled, more wet- 
ting is necessary. On the deep soils it is commonly 



January 18, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



not necessary to irrigate until early in June. The 
next application is made about the middle of July, 
and the last near the middle of August. Where the 
soil is gravely or has a gravel subsoil the irrigation 
begins about the first of April and continues till the 
middle of September. Some orchardists make the 
irrigation furrows on each side of the trees 4 to 6 feet 
distant from them and allow the water to run in each 
furrow for a couple of days, or until the ground ap- 
pears to be sufficiently moist, when it is turned into 
other furrows. This is perhaps the most common 
practice. Cultivation is considered to be of very great 
importance, and all of the best orchards are kept per- 
fectly free from weeds, with the soil at all times 
worked so as to have a deep mulch over the surface, 
which conserves the moisture. 

With few exceptions, the orchards are small, rang- 
ing from 5 to 20 acres. The labor, however, required 
to properly care for 10 acres of bearing orchard is 
greater than that of a much larger farm with ordi- 
nary crops, but the returns are large in proportion. 



More About the Fig Insect. 



To the Editor: I have read with great interest 
your column "Queries and Replies" in the Pacific 
Rural, Press under the date of November 30, rela- 
tive to the introduction of the fig wasp (Blastophaga 
Grossorum) and I again repeat that it was due to 
Mr. Roeding's efforts that this insect was successfully 
introduced into this State. Mr. Swingle is or was an 
agricultural explorer at the time the insect was sent 
over by him and he was visiting foreign countries, not 
for the purpose of looking into the scientific aspect of 
successfully introducing the fig wasp, but was in for- 
eign countries on some other mission connected with 
the Department of Seed and Plant Introduction. While 
it is true that Mr. Roeding did not visit Asia Minor 
until after the fig wasp was established, the general 
public must not lose sight of the fact that Mr. Roeding 
from the year 1890 until the insect was actually intro- 
duced devoted his energies and money trying to find 
some feasible way to get the insect here. Swingle 
being a typical American and possessed with a keen 
insight and natural desire to do anything in entomo- 
logical lines or otherwise to accomplish a certain at- 
tainment to further the interests of any particular in- 
dustry, took up the matter of looking into the blasto- 
phaga problem and trying if possible to bring it to a 
head. I contend and always will contend that it was 
Roeding and no one else that first started Mr. Swingle 
on his investigating this important problem. Had not 
Mr. Roeding suggested the matter in hand, Mr. Swin- 
gle would have entirely overlooked the matter of in- 
troducing the fig wasp, but would have probably de- 
voted his time and attention in some other direction, 
as, for instance, looking up new varieties of pistachio 
nuts, date palms, and other commercial nuts and fruits. 

Before Mr. Swingle succeeded in sending consign- 
ments of the fig wasp, Mr. Roeding had previously 
received a number of consignments from correspond- 
ents in Asia Minor, but unfortunately they arrived in 
Fresno in poor condition and up to the time that 
Mr. Swingle commenced to send consignments, all 
shipments of the blastophaga arrived in such poor 
condition that they eventually died and proved entirely 
worthless. 

To make a long story short I again repeat that had 
not Mr. Roeding suggested to Mr. Swingle and the 
Department of Agriculture the importance of getting 
the insect here so it could reproduce itself in the Capri 
figs of California, the Smyrna fig industry would be 
a failure as to this particular fig, unless it was capri- 
fied through the agency of the insect in question. 
Mr. Swingle was therefore a very important factor in 
getting the Smyrna fig established on a commercial 
basis, inasmuch as he was a very good messenger with 
enough intelligence and scientific knowledge to use 
good judgment in the manner of packing the insect 
within the Capri figs, in order to get it here in good 
condition. 

No one knows better than myself what obstacles 
Mr. Roeding had to contend with. In the first place 
there are no scientific men in Asia Minor. Take for 
instance the matter of fertilizing the Smyrna fig. 
Ask any of the Armenians and Turks today in 
America and Asia Minor, " Why is it necessary to 
have the wild or Capri fig in order to produce the 
Smyrna fig of commerce ? Why is the insect neces- 
sary to carry on this fertilizing process? What is 
their answer? They don't know. They will simply 
shrug their shoulders and work their arms up and 
down like the handle on a pump and say: " I don't 
know why, my father he did it, my father's father he 
' hang ' Capri fig in Smyrna fig. No ' hang ' him no 
catch 'em rig crop." 

That is as far as they know of the subject. They 
know one thing, unless the Capri fruits with insects 
are hung in the branches of the commercial Smyrna 
fig, in order to fertilize them, the Smyrna crop of figs 
will not mature. 

In conclusion, I again repeat that Walter T. Swingle 
was the actual messenger that sent to Mr. Roeding a 
consignment of Capri fig fruits containing the fig wasp 



that Mr. Roeding received said consignment, put 
them on his Capri fig trees with the result that they 
made themselves at home and reproduced themselves 
in his Capri fig trees and finally kept on multiplying 
until we have enough insects in California to fruit 
every Smyrna fig in the State. Who started the ball 
a-rolling if it was not Roeding? He is entitled to all 
the credit, for if Mr. Roeding had not kept hammering 
with his dogged persistency, Mr. Swingle would not 
have been inspired in the matter of looking up the im- 
portance of introducing the insect. 

Mr. Swingle intimates that Mr. Roeding made no 
attempt to introduce the insect. Just how he draws 
these conclusions I am unable to state. After Mr. 
Roeding got his fig orchard established it did not take 
him long to come to the conclusion that something 
was needed to make the figs mature and that some- 
thing was a small insect to carry on the fertilizing. 
Mr. Rowley and others at the time thought the insect 
business all superstition, inasmuch as the White Adri- 
atic and other figs did not require anything of the kind 
to cause the figs to mature. After Mr. Roeding got 
the insect established, Mr. Rowley and other horticul- 
turists would not be convinced until Mr. Roeding 
actually demonstrated the matter beyond a doubt, that 
it was absolutely necessary to have the insect before 
the commercial Smyrna fig would be a success. 

The writer is well acquainted with Anthony C. 
Denotovich, whom Mr. Swingle mentioned. Mr. 
Denotovich was a Smyrna rug peddler. He posed as 
a great man and one that knew all about Smyrna fig 
culture. The fact of the matter is he did not know 
that an insect was required to fertilize the Smyrna fig, 
until Mr. Roeding informed him of the fact. After 
Mr. Roeding told him fully about the caprifying pro- 
cess he seemed to recollect when he was a boy that 
something of the kind was done in Smyrna. He de- 
scribed the matter about as follows: " My papa 
he ' catchem ' fig trees in Smyrna. Every June he 
catchem some figs from some fig that grows in ' de' 
mountains. He put him fig on 'de ' fig tree growing 
on home place. After he put ' him ' mountain fig on 
home tree, home fig he swell up, make ' him ' heap big 
fig," etc., etc. 

This is as much as Mr. Denotovich knew about the 
fertilizing process. Mr. Roeding in his book "The 
Smyrna Fig at Home and Abroad," taught those 
Smyrnites more than they ever knew before. They 
called the fig wasp Blastophaga Grossorum " knat " 
and it never was known until Mr. Roeding pointed out 
to them that the insect did the business. 

Before Mr. Swingle sent several consignments of 
Capri fruits containing the insects which finally ar- 
rived here at the proper time when the California 
Capri fruits were ready to receive them, Mr. Roeding 
was and had been laying his plans to have some one 
go to Smyrna, dig up a few Capri fig trees, box them 
in large boxes in order to get a few Capri fig trees 
with fruits thereon, containing the insect and thus get 
them established and started. Mr. Roeding has been 
busy on this ever since 1890. 

It is true that Mr. Swingle did send Mr. Roeding 
Capri fig fruits with insects from Algiers and that the 
figs arrived here in good condition and as a conse- 
quence they became established in Mr. Roeding's fig 
trees. This consignment solved the problem. The 
question is, however, who gave Mr. Swingle the clue 
to look into this matter in the first place; if it was not 
Roeding, who was it? We have to thank Mr. Swingle 
for the careful manner in which he prepared these 
bugs for shipment, but Roeding must get all praise 
for the inspiration. 

Chas. A. Chambers. 

Fresno, Cal., November 30. 

[It will be noticed that Mr. Chambers wrote his let- 
ter in advance of others which we have since pub- 
lished. This is due to a mishap through which 
Mr. Chambers' communication was mislaid. His 
statements are, however, still of interest. 



Walnuts and Filberts in Humboldt County. 

To the Editor: I am sending you several specimen 
collections of walnuts grown in the Mattole valley. 
For years I have regarded Mattole as a section of 
California well adapted to walnut culture. With the 
common English walnut filling so well and bearing 
regularly and abundantly, why should not the im- 
proved French varieties grow to perfection ? The 
English walnut puts forth a trifle early and is liable to 
suffer from late spring pests, and still it never fails to 
produce at least part of a crop. The French Bijou on 
Geo. B. Etter's place in Upper Mattole, as character- 
istic of the French type, is late in leafing out and is 
never caught by pests, and annually bears as full as a 
plum tree. 

I have no means of comparing the quality of the 
Mattole nut with those of other sections other than 
with those of the retail stores. They arc certainly as 
well or better filled and superior in flavor to such as 
we are able to buy in this part of California. 

One advantage of this section for walnut culture is 



our moisture supply, making irrigation unnecessary. 
With a little nursing to establish them, they will take 
care of themselves. There is no question but that 
there is plenty of land on our mountain sides that is 
deep and moist enough to grow a walnut tree to per- 
fection. Judging by the thrift of the native oak and 
madrone, and the immense size they attain, it seems 
we may justly infer that the walnut ought to grow 
correspondingly well, and all the evidence of trees 
now growing would so indicate. Any comment you 
have to make will be thankfully received, for I am 
one who doesn't think this part of Humboldt county 
ought to remain in the backwoods forever. 

Albert F. Etter. 

[The nuts are rather inferior in external appearance 
and have the general aspect of Chile walnuts rather 
than of the accepted California type except one from 
Upper Mattole, which is of the Franquette style and 
well worth growing. The Bijou is rather small of its 
kind but is otherwise good. Evidently better varieties 
should be introduced as Mr. Etter suggests, and the 
nuts will need bleaching a good deal to sell well. It 
seems, however, that Mr. Etter is right that walnut 
growing is justified in the district — if followed along 
rathed more advanced lines. 

Mr. Etter sends also some very good filberts of the 
roundish, cob-nut type and not at all the Red Aveline 
for which it was bought. The full bearing he reports 
is, however, another good point for filberts near the 
coast. — Ed.]. 



Effects of Cyanide Waste. 

Mr. E. L. Koethen of Riverside writes the Fruit 
World about the spent cyanide from the jars used in 
the fumigation of citrus trees: With us at Riverside it 
has been the custom for the Horticultural Commis- 
sioner to advise emptying it out in the irrigating 
ditch, or out beyond the orchard, so that no possible 
injury should occur. As to the nature of the injury, 
the cyanide kills certain roots, and then the injury 
can be traced up the trunk to a limb fed by that par- 
ticular root, showing that every root in the orange 
tree is needed for the sustenance of a definite part of 
the tree, and this suggests some things in orchard prac- 
tice. First, that all the roots are important. Second, 
that the ground occupied by all the roots need equally 
good treatment. Third, that we cannot afford to use 
fertilizers that in themselves have the power to injure 
these precious roots. 

To return to the value of this material as a fertilizer. 
We never could see why stress should be laid on its 
value, for whatever quantity its value, the few ounces 
used in fumigating could not possibly cut such figure 
in fertilizing an orchard. Certainly not enough to 
justify risking the life of the trees. 



Pears Blighting Little in Colorado. 

The Denver Field and Farm names several pears 
from the point of view of blight resistance. Beurre 
d'Anjou is but little subject to blight which injures so 
many of our pear trees. It is considered a good 
bearer under irrigation but naturally does not do so 
well in dry situations. The blossoms are imperfectly 
self-fertile; and another variety more abundantly sup- 
plied with pollen and blooming at the same time 
should be planted not far off in order to secure fructi- 
fication. Other varieties which do well in Colorado 
and comparatively free from blight are Kieffer, Mt. 
Vernon, Garber, Howell, Seckel, Le Conte, Boac, and 
Sudduth. Winter Nelis is fairly resistant, while 
Clairgeau seems to suffer severely from attacks in the 
trunk and larger branches. Flemish Beauty, Clapp, 
and Idaho are just now out of popularity. 



Agricultural Engineer. 



The Opportunities for Rural Engineering 
Instruction in California. 

By Samuel Foktikr, Chief of Irrigation Investigations, U.S. 
Office of Experiment Stations, at a meeting of Agricultural 
College instructors in MadlBOh, Wisconsin, December 27, 1!K)7. 

Fifty-five years ago James Laurie and his associ- 
ates, following the example of their English brethren, 
founded the American Society of Civil Engineers. In 
looking back to this event, over half a century of 
remarkable progress in all branches of engineering, it 
seems to stand at the threshold of much of the material 
progress of this nation. From the erection of wooden 



*8 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 18, 1!»08- 



bridges, the location of railroads, and the excavation 
of canals, the work of the engineer has increased until 
it now extends through all the manufacturing, trans- 
portation, and municipal enterprises of the country. 
The power required by manufacturers and the complex 
processes involved in converting raw materials into 
salable products require a large army of educated and 
highly trained engineer-:, in former times, when the 
streets of American cities were hub-deep with mud, 
when the sewage was collected in cesspools in the rear 
of each lot and just beyond the house well, when the 
streets were lit by oil lamps, and when horses were the 
chief mode of transportation, the ward politician took 
upon himself all the duties of the municipal engineer. 
How the water system, the sewer system, electric 
traction, heating, and electric plants of the municipal- 
ity are each in charge of a body of engineers specially 
fitted by training and experience for such duties. The 
same may be said of railroad, hydraulic, irrigation, 
naval, mining, electrical, mechanical, or any other 
branch of engineering one may mention. Each branch 
is subdivided into a number of more or less distinct 
parts which call for special training in their execution. 

Agricultural engineering occupies today a position 
similar to civil engineering half a century ago. The 
opportunity for progress is as unbounded, and there is 
scarcely any limit to the branches into which it may 
in time be divided. The application of engineering 
skill has worked wonders in changing the conditions 
of the modern city, but the same training and experi- 
ence when applied to the farms and farm homes of 
America will produce a greater change. The exten- 
sion of rapid transit lines into the country districts 
adjacent to towns and cities, the extended use of the 
automobile, the building of better country roads, the 
use of power on the farm, the care and operation of 
farm machinery, the conveyance and application of 
water for the irrigation of land, and the use of water 
for domestic purj>oses open up a wide field of useful- 
ness to the rural engineer. 

The engineering training demanded in thesu'-eessful 
operation of the modern farm and the knowledge of 
engineering subjects required by the up-to-date farmer 
render it imperative that we regard this branch of 
agriculture in a broader light. An attempt has been 
made to confine it to farm mechanics, but this is only 
a small part of a big subject. Farm mechanics, prop- 
erly speaking, should be confined to the mechanism, 
operation and propulsion of farm implements and farm 
machines. This excludes road-building and the trans- 
portation of soil products, domestic water supplies, 
farm buildings and structures of all kinds, as well as 
irrigation and drainage systems for the farm. 

In a State like California the subject of farm mechan- 
ics is much less important than some others that belong 
to a rural engineering course. A large part of the 
arable land is too dry in summer to produce profita- 
ble crops unless it is irrigated. Water for irrigation, 
its conveyance, distribution and use becomes, therefore, 
the chief engineering problem of the irrigated farms 
of the State. There are other fertile tracts which 
aggregate many hundreds of thousands of acres that 
are subject to overflow in the early spring months. 
Such lauds have to be protected by levees. Still 
other portions are in need of drainage, and ditches 
have to be dug and tiles laid to remove the surplus 
waters. It is thus evident that the handling of water 
is a much more important problem than the operation 
of farm machinery, although California ranks high in 
labor-saving devices. 

One of the chief reasons that induced the State Leg- 
islature to purchase and equip a large farm in the 
Sacramento Valley was to afford adequate training for 
the youth of the State in all that pertains to irrigated 
agriculture. On this farm of 780 acres, located at 
Davisville, 75 miles north of San Francisco and near 
the centre of the State, irrigation is to be not alone 
the foundation, but a large part of the superstructure. 
Every acre of this university farm can be irrigated. 
One of the best irrigation systems in central California 
furnishes an abundant water supply, and in course of 
time the entire farm can be used to illustrate irrigation 
practice. Particular tracts are now being set apart for 
the purpose of demonstrating standard methods for 
preparing land and applying water. This is an im- 
portant matter throughout the arid region In the 
Mississippi Valley it is seldom that the cost of farm 
machinery and farm implements exceeds seven per 
cent of the total value of the farm, but on the majority 
of irrigated farms the value of water for irrigation and 
the cost of preparing the soil and applying the water, 
together with the necessary farm equipment, averages 
more than 45 per cent of the total value. 

In addition to the graded fields, water channels, 
measuring devices, and irrigation structures of the 
farm, the plan contemplates the erection in the near 
future of a commodious rural engineering building. 
Here will be Installed the best appliances for the meas- 
urement and division of irrigation water. The instal- 
lation of a pumping plant operated by a gasoline 
engine and the storage of water in an elevated tank 
will give students an opportunity to learn how to 
operate and repair gasoline engines and pumps, while 
the stored water in the tank will afford an excellent 
opportunity to study and observe the action of water 
as it passes through orifices and closed channels. 



This rural engineering building is to contain carpen- 
ter and blacksmith shops, as well as drafting rooms 
for the designs and drawings of ordinary farm struc- 
tures, such as fence gates, bridges, headgates, sheds, 
barns, and dwellings. 

Another division of the rural engineering building 
is to be devoted to farm implements and farm machin- 
ery of the most approved type. Students will be 
taught how to erect, handle, repair, and care for such 
machinery. They will also be required to study the 
good and bad features of each and to determine their 
relative efficiency. 

Still another division of the engineering building is 
to be devoted to road-building, the making and laying 
of cement and concrete structures, and the application 
of crude oils to road and irrigation canal surfaces. 

The people of California believe that if a boy can be 
taught how to use surveying instruments, how to 
locate and build farm ditches and prepare land for 
irrigation, how to measure and divide water, how to 
run a gasoline engine, how to build good roads, how 
to operate and care for farm machinery, and how to 
design and erect ordinary structures, he has acquired 
much of the experience and skill necessary tor the 
twentieth century farmer. 

While the practice of irrigation Is as ancient as the 
tillage of the soil, the scientific problems relating to 
the use of water are all new. We are just beginning 
to learn something of the scientific aspects of the sub- 
ject, and this field of inquiry is certain to expand as 
the arid region becomes settled. For several years the 
U. S. Office of Experiment Stations has been co-oper- 
ating with the State of California in carrying on inves- 
tigations for the purpose of obtaining greater economy 
in the use of water. The State expends fully $12,000,- 
000 annually in obtaining water for irrigation and in 
applying it to crops. It is no exaggeration to state 
that less than one-third of the water which is annually 
applied subserves a useful purj)Ose in nourishing plant 
life. The large balance is wasted — wasted in careless 
use, in porous channels, and in passing from the soil 
into the atmosphere in the form of vapor. This, there- 
fore, is another of the great problems which confronts 
the people of California, and in the efforts that are 
being made by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture to find the right solution the University 
Farm may be of great service. This large farm, rep- 
resenting as it does the typical climate and soil of a 
large part of the irrigable lands of the State, can be 
used in part in an experimental way to carry on scien- 
tific investigations. The irrigation and drainage 
branch of the U. S. Office of Experiment Stations has 
already joined hands with the University in an exper- 
iment to determine the cheapest and most effective 
linings for irrigation ditches and canals, in order that 
the large percentage of water now lost by seepage may 
be lessened. This, it is hoped, will be the first of a 
long series of experiments on various phases of the use 
and application of water to cultivated crops. 

I may state in conclusion that the effort to extend 
the benefits of engineering knowledge and experience 
to the agricultural classes of California meets with the 
united and hearty support of both President Wheeler 
and Director Wickson. The president has done much 
to build up a strong department of irrigation in con- 
nection with the University, and Director Wickson 
realizes that much of the agricultural development of 
the future depends on irrigation. 



Forestry. 



Mr. Cooper's Eucalyptus Growing. 

Mr. Elwood Cooper, of Santa Barbara, recently 
wrote about his experience with eucalypts as follows: 

I planted about 250,000 trees of the different 
species, in all probability about 80. The best results 
I had was blue gum, 11 years old, 28 inches in diame- 
ter, and 104 feet high. I have sold about $4000 worth 
of wharf piles. This species will last about three 
times as long as the redwood or the Sound pine. That 
is, it resists the attacks of the limnaria and the teredo 
much longer than the woods above mentioned. 

It is a very strong and valuable wood, and has no 
equal for burning purposes, except it may be Eastern 
hickory. The red gum (Rostrata) is a wonderful 
wood for any purpose. When finished it cannot be 
told from mahogany. It is a hard wood, easily 
worked, is better than mahogany, quarter-sawed oak 
or walnut for furniture. 

New that the white oak forests, hickory and black 
walnut have disappeared, it is of the greatest import- 
ance that these trees should be extensively planted. 
There are about 20 species that should have prefer- 
ence. The Marginata is a wood that will not decay 
in the ground, and is not attacked by the teredo. 
This species did not do well on my place, but should 
be tried in a very different locality. I have a red 
gum 31 years old, 2 feet 6 inches in diameter. An- 
other probably 2 feet, and the trunk about 60 feet 
high — that is, it carries its size and contains nearly 
2000 feet of lumber, and if sawed, dried, and ready 
for finishing offices, banks, etc., it would have a value 



of about $200. Many varieties are very hard ami 
heavy, and have a value not equaled by any other 
wood. The eucalyptus genus is adapted to the Cali- 
fornia climate, and cannot succeed anywhere in the 
Bast, as they will not stand heavy frost. 



The Manna Gum (Eucalyptus Viminalis). 



To the Editor: In answer to your question as to the 
use of the term " Manna gum " in connection with 
Eucalyptus viminalis, I have found the following in 
Maiden's Useful Plants of Australia : " From the 
bark of this tree a kind of manna exudes. It 
is a crumbly white substance, of a very pleasant 
sweet taste, and in much request by the aborigines. 
The white, nearly opaque manna from the normal 
E. viminalis was found * * * in small pieces, about 
the size of peas, but of irregular flattened shape. In 
appearance it very much resembles lime which is 
naturally crumbled or slaked by exposure to a moist 
atmosphere. It is composed of an unfermentable sugar 
* * * together with a fermentable sugar. * * * 
The manna is derived from the exudation of the sap, 
which, dried in the hot parched air of the midsummer, 
leaves the sugary solid remains in a gradually increas- 
ing lump, which ultimately falls off, covering the 
ground in little irregular masses." 

It seems that the exudation of the sap is caused by 
some boring insect. H. M. Hall. 

University Experiment Station, Berkeley. 

This may explain the fai t that we have never seen 
any " manna" on the tree in California; no insect, no 
manna. Probably the special insect was left behind 
in Australia. If anyone has seen the manna In this 
State we would like to know it. 



Eucalyptus in the Coast Region. 

To the Editor: I have a number of acres of very 
light sandy ground in Santa Cruz county that is very 
wet during the winter months. During the summer 
months it dries out for about a foot down, but at the 
driest time of the year water can be reached at from 
five to six feet. I would like to plant some kind of for- 
est tree on it if there is any that would thrive fairly 
well. Could you recommend any variety of tree, or 
would any of the eucalyptus variety grow there? — 
Suhsckibek, Santa Cruz. 

The situation which you describe ought to give you 
a splendid growth of eucalyptus trees, providing your 
winter temperature does not fall below 15* F. There 
are some low places where hard freezing is likely to oc- 
cur, which is fatal to the eucalyptus, otherwise we should 
expect you to succeed admirably with a hardy variety 
like the Eucalyptus rostrata, or red gum, which you 
can now get in any quantity from the nurserymen, 
who are propagating it largely. 



Roadside Trees. 

The district attorney of Santa Clara county gave 
the board of supervisors of that county some desired 
information on the question, " Who has control of 
shade trees growing in a public highway?" which 
may be of interest to others. He says: 

"As some persons view the matter, an abutting 
owner whose estate extends to the centre line of the 
highway has the right to pluck nuts growing on his 
land within the line of the highway, and so, they 
argue, must have an equal right to remove the tree 
itself, or chop it up into stovewood if he so desires. 
The matters are not the same. The board of super- 
visors has power to pay to persons who plant and cul- 
tivate ornamental trees the sum of $1 for every living 
tree thus planted, when it has attained an age of four 
years. It is absurd to suppose that thousands of such 
trees might, on the next day, l)e felled by the abutting 
owners. 

"Section 2742 of the Political Code provides, that 
whoever digs up, cuts down, or otherwise maliciously 
injures any shade or ornamental tree on any highway, 
unless the same is deemed an obstruction by the road 
overseer and removed under his directiou, forfeits 
$100 for each such tree. Jso special privileges are 
conferred on abutting owners by this section." 



Approves Burnet. 

To the Editor : I have been requested by Mr. H. 
Overacker of St. Helena to give you my opinion of 
the plant known as potentilla or burnet. Judging 
by my experience, I believe that itcannot besurpassed 
as a forage plant, especially for unirrigated lands or 
hills. It thrives very well in this locality. 

M. J. Loi'kz. 

San Luis Obispo. 



January 18, 1908. 



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Co-operative Marketing. 



What Oregon Onion Growers Are 
Doing. 



Onion growers in the Willamette val- 
ley, Oregon, formed an association 
about a year ago, and so far seem 
pleased with results. The organization, 
known as the Confederated Onion 
Growers' association, boasts over 100 
members, who control about 500 acres 
of onions. The crop this season amounts 
to about 280 cars, according to a report 
furnished Orange Judd Farmer. Of this 
total some 100 cars were grown for seed. 

Oregon onions are sold largely in 
Portland, Tacoma, Seattle and Spokane. 
Many are sent to Alaska, however, and 
during the spring months San Fran- 
cisco takes liberal quantities. 

The association has been experiment- 
ing in increasing the quantity of onions 
grown and improving the quality of the 
crop, also in encouraging better methods 
of cultivation, packing and marketing. 
Last year growers made an average of 
about 55 cents per bushel on their 
onions. There are local associations in 
various towns, and these are repre- 
sented in the confederated association by 
one or more trustees, in proportion to 
the membership of the local organiza- 
tion: These trustees are, E. J. Thomas 
of Cedar Mills, K. P. Brown of Hills- 
boro, J. N. Miller of Cornelius, F. E. 
Rowell of Scholls, M. F. Johnston, J. C. 
Smock and B. G. Leady of Sherwood, 
John Nyberg and J. G. Thompson of 
Tualatin, W. T. Johnston of Milwaukee, 
C. N. Seeley of Woodburn, Ole Olesen 
of Beaverton, E. Black of Vancouver 
and Scott Brenner of Gaston. 

Writing from Tualatin, J. R. C. 
Thompson says: "The culture of onions 
in this section is, on the average, very 
profitable. The kind of land that will 
produce onions of good quality and give 
satisfactory yields is somewhat limited 
in extent, as it is marsh, or what we 
call beaver dam land. The average 
yield is about 300 sacks (100 pounds 
each) per acre. The variety mostly 
grown is the Oregon Yellow Danvers, a 
very fine flavored onion and a good 
keeper. Fertilizers are used to some 
extent, good barnyard manure being the 
most favored. We do not irrigate in 
this part of Oregon. Our local associa- 
tion has 15 members." 

" I have been growing onions for 12 
years," says F. E. Rowell of Hillsboro, 
"and have received an average of $1.32 
per sack year in and year out. It now 
costs us about 75 cents per 100 pounds to 
grow aud market our onions, the high 
price of labor having tended to increase 



this lately. In some localities fields 
yield 350 to 400 sacks to the acre, but 
these are very heavy crops. Generally, 
yields are from 200 to 250 sacks to the 
acre. Our association has been organ- 
ized about 11 months, and although we 
have some plans which will have to be 
altered, it has generally proved quite a 
success." 



Correspondence. 



Grain on Tule Land in Modoc 
County. 

To the Editor: In answer to your 
note of inquiry about my grain crops 
I will say that my land is reclaimed 
tule land, said to be more peat and less 
sediment than the islands of the Sacra- 
mento. There are 28 ft. of fall in 12 
miles of distance over the tract. Two 
large canals near the east and west 
margin make perfect reclamation. Seven 
cross canals, with head-gates, made irri- 
gation cheap and thorough where the 
land was used for raising grass. Irriga- 
tion is not used for grain. 

Last year we raised 5000 sacks of 
wheat and 21,000 sacks of barley — fine 
heavy grain — on about 1850 acres. This 
year we had ice on August 9 and 10 
which about ruined our wheat for mill- 
ing and diminished the yield of late 
barley one-half. Some of our early 
barley sown in April yielded full 90 
bushels to the acre. About 200 acres of 
wheat sown in May and 400 acres of 
barley sown in May and June were cut 
for hay on account of frost. It was as 
fine looking grain as any one ever saw. 

We harvested 34,500 sacks of light 
grain from about 2000 acres, not one- 
half what there would have been with- 
out frost. 

My ground is very soft when wet, but 
quite solid when dry. I ran two 18-ton 
traction engines, pulling combined har- 
vesters last summer, and had no trouble 
anywhere except where water had per- 
colated from cross canals. 

We had report last year from Fair- 
field, Wash., of 14.4% sugar from beets 
sent there and from the Union Sugar 
Co., Betteravia, Cal., of 14.5%. I shall 
send some more in a few days. If the 
result is better, I will write you. 

We grew onions last year and they 
are 16 in. in circumference, but the land 
is so damp and rich we have difficulty 
in maturing them. I sent last year to 
Yorkshire for a gardener. He sowed 
onion seed in August and will trans- 
plant in the spring. He will make a 
fine showing next year with asparagus, 
celery, etc. Frost did not hurt it at all. 

George H. Bayley. 

Likely, Modoc county, California. 



A Coyote Story. 



To the Editor: There seems to be 
considerable agitation now in some sec- 
tions about the coyote. The subjoined 
remedy is vouched for by a neighbor of 
mine, who lived in San Mateo county 
years ago, when coyotes were as thick 
as hops: 

A day was appointed and each farmer 
took an old plug of a horse or worthless 
cow to a convenient spot (preferably 
near water) and there tapped one of the 
jugular veins, making the incision 
lengthwise. He then managed to inject 
about two ounces of strychnine — no 
more, as it is not so effective; then closed 
the wound and held it until the muscles 
began to swell, as first noticed in the 
legs; then shot the animal and immedi- 
ately left. In two or three days coyotes 
were lying everywhere — in fact, in some 
places they were so plentiful that they 
had to be collected and hauled off by the 
wagon-load. They were exterminated, 
and no one saw a live coyote until they 
straggled in from the outside country. 
The above I believe to be correct, and, 
if not too long for the query department, 
would like to have it published for the 



404 Equitable Savings Bank Bdg., Los Angeles. 
Olympia, Washington. 



benefit of our infested friends. Please 
ask them to report results to your 
paper. Reader. 
Boulder Creek. 

We look upon this as a fairy story of 
the coyote brand. 



The Stockyard. 



Feeding Alfalfa, Corn Stover, etc. 

The Nebraska experiment station 
reaches some interesting conclusions 
after feeding a lot of steers during the 
winter of 1906-7. Sixty high grade 
Angus two-year-olds were selected in 
October, 1906, from a herd numbering 
about two hundred, all reared under 
range conditions, having had, previous 
to their purchase, nothing but grass 
supplemented with native hay during 
the winter months. They were divided 
into lots and differently fed. From 
elaborate weighings and records the fol- 
lowing conclusions were drawn: 

1. Prairie hay when fed with corn 
alone to fattening cattle gives small and 
unsatisfactory gains and very little or 
no profit. 

2. Alfalfa hay with corn alone gives 
large and profitable gains. 

3. The use of well-cured corn-stover 
with alfalfa and corn, while it may not 
produce larger gains, will make the 
gains less costly because of its low mar- 
ket value, thereby increasing the profits 
over the corn and alfalfa alone. 

5. The results of two experiments in- 
dicate that liuseed-meal is a little more 
valuable than cotton-seed meal and 
much more valuable than wheat bran 
for supplementing corn when fed with 
prairie hay or corn-stover. 

6. When alfalfa is made at least 



268 Market St., San Francisco. 
Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, T Ttah. 



half the roughness with prairie hay or 
corn-stover, good gains may be made 
and at less cost than when no alfalfa is 
fed, the protein being supplied by the 
use of linseed-meal. In other words, it 
is possible to grow protein on the farm 
at a price much below what it will cost 
on the market in the form of some com- 
mercial protein food. 

7. Corn-stover, cut immediately after 
the ears ripen and cured in shocks, pos- 
sesses a value fully two-thirds as great 
as prairie hay. The part usually con- 
sumed, viz., the leaves and upper por- 
tion of the stalk, is quite the equal of 
prairie hay pound per pound. 

8. The results of a single experiment 
in which but a little more than half a 
full feed of corn was supplied two lots 
of fattening steers suggest the possibil- 
ity of making a larger use of hay in fin- 
ishing cattle for market than is ordina- 
rily made and at less cost, especially 
where hay is relatively low and corn 
high in price. 



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PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 18, 1908. 



The Home Circle. 



That Good Old Feather Bed. 

When a boy I climbed the stairway lead- 
ing up into my room 

I would see hobgoblin faces peering at me 
through the gloom; 

And a sort of creepy feeling up and down 
my spine would go 

As I saw these ghostly figures swiftly 
wavering to and fro, 

And my teeth would fairly chatter with a 
nameless fear and dread, 

Till I smuggled 'neath the covers of that 
good old feather bed. 

And the sweetest hopes were fashioned in 

those boyhood's happy days — 
How I'd climb the steps of glory and fair 

honor's trail I'd blaze; 
All the world would fall before me and 

bow low the bended knee 
When they recognized my presence and 

its grand authority, 
Till at last kind sleep would woo me, and 

the raindrops overhead 
Would sing lullabies so tender to me on 

my feather bed. 

Now I was a soldier, longing for the com- 
ing of the strife; 

Now a multimillionaire, who married a 
crown princess for his wife; 

And anon the scene swift changing, I 
would sail for ports afar, 

And would be served up for dinner by the 
blacks of Zanzibar; 

Hut the sun arose next morning, and these 
visions all had fled, 

And found me most softly lying on that 
good old feather bed. 

Years have passed, but still at seasons 

memory will backward stray 
To the happy times of childhood, when 

life's cares thronged not the way. 
Forms and faces come back clearly, and 

they will not let me be, 
But with outstretched hands they beckon, 

and their voices call to me. 
Times have changed, but I remember — all 

are scattered now and dead. 
Hut it all comes back when sleeping on 

that dear old feather bed. 

— Bernard Aubrey Pitman. 



Mari&'s Burglar. 

He is called Maria's burglar because 
I hired him on her account. As the 
children would say, he was not a 
"really" burglar. One glance at his 
gentle frankness, his serene respectabili- 
ty must have convinced you of that 
fact beyond peradventure. Moreover, 
he was my daughter's fiance, and no 
decent citizen, so far as I am aware, 
would sutler an avowed lawbreaker to 
remain in his household in that capa- 
city. 

Maria's burglarphobia exhibited its 
first symptoms the night we moved into 
our new home. 

We were sleeping for the first time 
under its roof. Hardly had I dosed off 
when I felt the gentle impact of Maria's 
fist on my ribs and the soft sibilance of 
her whisper in my ear, "(iet up, John. 
There's some one on our roof." I raised 
my head and listened attentively. 
"There's no one there," I announced, 
definitely. Maria insisted there was: 
adding that there were two of them, 
and that one wore hob-nailed shoes. 
My query as to the size of the shoes met 
with no response. At last, to satisfy 
her, I arose and went to the little 
closet on the top floor which marks 
the entrance to our scuttle. In one 
hand I carried a lamp; in the other an 
unloaded revolver. Twice I called, 
"Who's there?" and twice was I an- 
swered only by the moaning of the wind 
as it swept along the chimney tops. 1 
did not raise the scuttle lid; time for 
that in the morning. Though fully re- 
galed with the details of my expedition 
Maria remained awake for at least four 
hours. She told me about it the next 
day. 

In the morning we found an old felt 
hat on our roof. Maria gloated. Our 
neighbor's son claimed it later in the 
day, saying he had dropped it on our 
roof while playing on his own some 
weeks previous. 



Our burglars next api>eared on the 
front steps about four o'clock of a frosty 
winter's morning. From her trembling 
place under the blanket Maria could 
almost distinguish the words of their 
conversation; something I failed to ac- 
complish, even though I stood for three 
whole minutes in the vestibule with my 
ear at the front door keyhole. That we 
arose the next morning to find our- 
selves alive, our silverware intact, and 
our doors securely bolted, Maria was in- 
clined to attribute to a renascence of the 
age of miracles. After that we were 
besieged no less than three times a week; 
sometimes oftener. 

"Maria," I said, at last, "what is it 
about a burglar you fear so abjectly? 
If one wants to get into our place 
he'll get there, never fear. Whatever 
he takes will be replaced by the insur- 
ance people, anyway." 

"And if he kills us where we lie 1 
presume that will be liquidated by the 
insurance people as well — if either of us 
is here to collect it." This in Maria's 
most sarcastic manner. 

"So it's bodily injury you fear? Why? 
Am I not here?" Our hero spoke these 
words with calm confidence and fine 
fearlessneas. Under the circumstances 
Maria's responsive sniff was hardly com- 
plimentary. Bluntly she inquired — 
if a burglar saw tit to enter our room 
with a loaded pistol in his hand and a 
ferocious scowl upon his countenance — 
what would I do. 

"I'd jump out of bed and grapple him 
where he stood. I'd put my knee on 
his neck and throttle him until he howled 
for mercy. I'd pummel him with all 
uoy might, and leave him lying inert on 
the floor while I went off to fetch an 
ambulance in which to remove his bat- 
tered carcass — that is, of course, pro- 
vided he was not inconsiderate enough 
to take to his heels before I had time to 
complete my vengeance." So that due 
modesty might attend my claim, I 
vouch-safed the opinion that all bur- 
glars are cowards at heart. 

"Indeed!" said Maria. The subli- 
mated sarcasm and skepticism contained 
in that brief word determined me. 

My prospective son-in-law, Clarence 
Colburn, failed to evince instant enthu- 
siasm over my plan, even though I 
ottered to purchase on his behalf the 
real thing in the shape of a mask, a 
jimmy and a lantern. Before he agreed 
to carry out the part I had assigned 
him I was obliged to promise several 
things. First, the wrath of his pros- 
pective mother-in-law must be appeased 
by me, in case of the discovery of his 
identity at whatsoever expense. Second- 
ly, my demonstrations of bravery must 
be strictly passive and largely oratorical. 
I might command him to desist; to 
leave the house under threat of speedy 
apprehension; to abandon his plunder 
where he found it — but I must not leave 
my place. I was not to touch the floor 
until he had full opportunity to clear 
the room. Lastly, my pistol must re- 
main unloaded -"in case we get too ex- 
cited, you know." These details fixed, 
we set Thursday as the date, and prompt 
midnight as the hour of our adventure. 

Maria was very nervous that night. 
Three evenings before the Sanborn house 
in our street had been entered and its 
contents removed to parts unknown. 
That morning we had learned of two 
other burglaries in our immediate vi- 
cinity. Eagerly Maria scanned the obit- 
uaries in the local journal; I fancy she 
was disappointed at the lack of funeral 
announcements. Before we finally re- 
tired she saw fit to recount all three 
affairs mosaically, and to remark dole- 
fully that she was sure that our turn 
was coming soon. 

"Nonsense," said I, having left the 
door unlatched. 

The town clock bell had completed its 
dozen peals, and we were lying cozily 
in our places when there came a soft 
creaking on the hallway stairs, followed 
by the muffled tread of footsteps out- 
side of our door. 

"John," Maria whispered, "did you 
hear that?" 

"What?" I asked, fearlessly. 
"Someone is at our door. (Jo out and 
shoot him. Oh-h-h!" The door opened 



softly and a circle of light was planted 
on the opposite wall. 

Our visitor made straight for the 
bureau and started to fill his pockets. 

I rose in my place. Impressively I 
demanded, "What are you doing there, 
r-r-rascal?" 

For answer he flashed the light into 
our faces. My own was unruffled; smil- 
ing even. On Maria's I saw such a look 
of frozen terror that 1 was sore temhted 
to abandon our experiment then and 
there. It was only my promise to 
Clarence that impelled me to see it 
through. 

"See here, sonny," said he, as he 
took my watch. "Get your thinking 
apparatus busy locating where you 
keep the decent things. This is junk. 
The stuff I got down in your dining 
room is enough to make anybody mad. 
You ought to be ashamed Of yourself." 

"Out of my house this instant, or, 
by Heaven, you perish where you stand! 
Begone, villain. Vanish! Vamoose!" 

"Vamoose" was Clarence's cue to de- 
part. Instead of that he strode over to 
our bedside and dealt me a smart cutt' 
on the ear. This was no part of the 
agreement, and I hastened to voice 
my remonstration. 

"Not do what?" was the answer, 
gruffly given. "That is funny. Ha, 
ha! Keep quiet, you fossil, or I'll run 
a rapid transit tunnel right through 
you." A ball of fire flashed into my 
eyes and I felt the impact of cold steel 
on my forehead. 

"Spare us ! Spare us !" came in muf- 
fled tremolo from under the blanket. 
"Give him that $100 you have under 
your pillow, John." 

He did not wait for me to give it. He 
pushed my head aside and thrust his 
hand under the pillow. As the gleam 
of the lantern was turned aside for an 
instant I caught a glimpse of the pistol 
as it went by me. It was a tiny auto- 
matic revolver. And I had bought 
Clarence a horse pistol ! 

"Give me your diamonds," growled 
the intruder. "Quick, or I shoot." My 
tongue clave to the roof of my mouth 
and my teeth rattled. As speedily as I 
could I withdrew my head under the 
coverlet and kept it there until the 
sound of retreating footsteps made 
known that the burglar had gone. 

It was Maria's voice that I heard as I 
emerged. Her tones, I must confess, 
were slightly hysterical. "Grapple him, 
throttle him, pummel him; pummel 
him, throttle him, grapple him." She 
said this over and over again. 

I did not Stop long to listen. I Jumped 
out of bed and made for the window. 
I called for help, and an answering 
whistle told me that my call had been 
heard. As I left the window 1 spied 
some one coming up on the run. I 
rushed down the stairs and ran through 
the hallway. On the porch 1 ran into a 
policeman. There was another man 
with him — held tightly. 

"Here's your burglar," said the offi- 
cer. "I got him as he was coming back. 
Said he came up to help you; good 
nerve, eh ? His partner wasn't quite so 
cool about it. I saw him running away 
with a bag. He was too quick for me 
so I nabbed this one." 

The captive removed his mask and 
showed us his startled, white counte- 
nance. Yes. It was Clarence. 

We have tried to explain matters to 
Maria. Time and again we have as- 
sured her that it was all a joke perpe- 
trated for her especial benefit. No use. 
Each time she rewards both of us with 
a cool stare and asks icily, "Where, 
then, are my coffee pot and my silver 
spoons and the soup ladle?" Besides, 
she invariably concludes, had Clarence 
been the burglar, she has small doubt 
that I would have grappled him, throt- 
tled him and pummeled him. Cold 
type does not reproduce the possibilities 
lurking in her tone.— N. Y. Tribune. 



Progressive Woman. 

Singleton — Your wife seems to be an 
up-to-date woman. 

Wedderly — Huh ! She's away ahead 
of the date. Why, she has a lot of 
trouble borrowed for next year. 



Lincoln and the Lad. 

While officially resident in Washing- 
ton during the civil war, I once had oc- 
casion to call upon President Lincoln 
with the late Senator Henry Wilson, 
upon an errand of a public nature in 
which we were mutually interested, 
wrote the late ex-Governor Rice in his 
memorial volume. We were obliged to 
wait some time in the anteroom before 
we could be received, and when atlength 
the door was opened to us, a small lad, 
perhaps 10 or 12 years old, who had 
been waiting for admission several days 
without success, slipped in between us 
and approached the President in ad- 
vance. The latter gave the Senator and 
myself a cordial but brief salutation, and 
turning immediately to the lad said, 
" And who is this little boy?" The boy 
soon told his story, which was in sub- 
stance that he had come to Washington 
seeking employment as a page in the 
House of Representatives and he wished 
the President to give him such an ap- 
pointment. 

To this the President replied that such 
appointments were not at his disposal, 
and that application must be made to 
the door-keeper of the House at the 
Capital. " But, sir," said the lad, still 
undaunted, "I am a good boy, and have 
a letter from my mother, and one from 
the supervisors of my town, and one 
from my Sunday-school teacher, and 
they all told me that I could earn 
enough in one session of Congress to 
keep my mother and the rest of us com- 
fortable all the remainder of the year." 
The President took the lad's papers and 
ran his eye over them with the pene- 
trating and absorbent look so familiar to 
all who knew him, and then took his 
pen and wrote upon the back of one of 
them: " If Captain Goodnow can give 
a place to this good little boy, I shall be 
gratified," and signed it " A. Lincoln." 

The boy's face became radiant with 
hope, and he walked out of the room 
with a step as light as though all the 
angels were whispering their congratu- 
lations. 

Only after the lad had gone did the 
President seem to realize that a Senator 
anil another person had been some time 
waiting to see him. 

Think for a moment of the President 
of a great nation engaged in one of the 
most terrible wars ever waged among 
men, able so far to forget all as to give 
himself up for the time being to the 
errand of a little boy who had braved an 
interview uninvited, and of whom he 
knew nothing but that he had a story to 
tell of his widowed mother and of his 
ambition to serve her! 



Curious Facts. 

In the last 60 years the speed of ocean 
liners has increased from 8i to 23 J knots 
an hour. 

The earliest mention that is so far dis- 
closed of the use of the crozier is of one 
carried by Altadus, Archbishop of 
Reims, who died a. d. 033. An ancient 
Saxon or Norman font in Winchester 
Cathedral has a very old representation 
of a bishop with a crozier, probably the 
earliest example to be found in England. 
A crozier of rude shape is cut on the 
tomb of Bartholomew, Bishop of Exeter 
from 1101 to 1184. 

The new coins made from models by 
St. Gaudens are not the first on which 
the American eagle is shown with 
plumage furled or at rest. Among the 
" individual coins" which were issued 
in the days of the civil war, when there 
was a gold and silver famine, a one-cent 
piece issued by a grocery concern in 
New York State bore on one side the 
inscription, "Good for one cent — D. L. 
Wing," and on the reverse side had an 
eagle much like the St. Gaudens bird. 
Another "good for one cent" coin put 
out by a New York restaurant had an 
eagle perched at rest on a beer barrel. 



When a woman is really in love with 
a man she feels certain the train he is 
traveling on will be wrecked. 



January 18, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Course in 

Telegraphy 

Good Positions 

Tuition back after one year's service. 
Main S. P. wire in schoolroom. Write 
for particulars. 

PACIFIC COAST 
BUSINESS COLLEGE 

San Jose, Cal. 



Gleanings. 

The doll is the oldest toy. 
The marksman's eye is gray. 
Soap has been in use for 3000 years. 
The piano contains about one mile of 
wire. 

London eats 180,000 tons of fish a 
year. 

Swans have been known to live 300 
years. 

One hundred cod livers yield a gallon 
of oil. 

The load for a full-grown elephant is 
two tons. 

Japan exports large quantities of 
mushrooms. 

John Bull annually eats $50,000,000 
worth of fruit. 

The average weight of the British 
salmon is eight pounds. 

Newspapers are sold on the streets of 
Spanish cities by women. 

It is said that cold tea will kill the 
microbe of typhoid fever. 

This century will have twenty-four 
leap years, the greatest possible number. 

Four hundred millions of sardines are 
taken yearly off English coasts. 

An orange tree has been known to 
produce 15,000 fruit at one crop. 

Taking the flags of 25 leading national 
powers, red is found in 19 of them. 

There are 1047 women to 1000 men in 
England, but in Italy only 995 to each 
1000. 

That metals get tired from overwork 
is clearly proven in the case of telegraph 
wires. 

The Mauretania has four funnels and 
four locomotives abreast could pass 
through them. 

The brain of the female commences to 
decline at the age of 30; the male's ten 
years later. 

The United States has still 400,000,000 
acres of forest, Australia 60,000,000, In- 
dia 45,000,000. 

The output of cast iron sash weights 
in the United States has reached 85,000 
tons a year in recent years. 

Free electricity travels at the same 
rate as light — 186,000 miles a second. 
Through wire, only 16,000 miles a sec- 
ond. 

There is a clearing house for packages 
lost on the British railways, and about 
1000 packages a day are handled. 

Among the richer classes 343 in 1000 
live to 60 years of age, in the middle 
classes 175 do so, and 156 only of the 
laboring class survive to reach 60 years. 

What is said to be the largest wagon 
in the world is doing service at Nome. 
It is 26 ft. long, and 7 ft. high from the 
axle and has wheels 10 ft. in diameter. 



The Spine Located. 

A class of boys in a West iPhiladel- 
phia school have been studying physiol- 
ogy with remarkable results. They 
were ordered to write a composition on 
"the spine." Many interesting papers 
were turned in on this subject, but there 
was one that was a gem. The boy 
wrote: "The spine is a bunch of bones 
that runs up and down the back and 
holds the ribs. The skull sits on one end 
and 1 sit on the other." — Philadelphia 
Record. 



The Dawn of Peace. 

Put off, put off your mail, O kings, 
And beat your brands to dust ! 

Your hands must learn a surer grasp, 
Your hearts a better trust. 

Oh, bend aback the lance's point, 

And break the helmet bar; 
A noise is in the morning wind 

But not the note of war. 

Upon the grassy mountain paths 
The glittering hosts increase — 
They come ! They come ! How fair their 
feet ! 

They come who publish peace. 

And victory, fair victory, 

Our enemies are ours ! 
For all the clouds are clasped in light, 

And all the earth with flowers. 

Aye, still depressed and dim with dew; 

But wait a little while 
And with the radiant deathless rose 

The wilderness shall smile. 

And every tender, living thing 

Shall feed by streams of rest; 
Nor lamb shall from the flock be lost, 

Nor nursling from the nest. 

— John Ruskin. 



Indian Love of Dog Meat. 

The romance and poetry that sur- 
round the Indian in his native environ- 
ment are lost forever to the paleface, who 
rashly goes into a wigwam to dine, says 
Estelline Bennett in What to Eat. 
When the pans and kettles have been 
put away and the night wind or the 
afternoon sunshine has swept through 
the canvas opening; when the squaws 
have taken up their bead work and the 
Indians have stretched themselves out 
on their blankets with their long pipes 
of kinnekinick, the Indians at home are 
as picturesque as Remington pictures 
make them, and the charm of the 
shadowy tepee lighted only by the fire 
in the centre, is something a man never 
forgets. But neither is the odor of the 
dog stew that simmered in the black 
kettle over the fire a thing to be for- 
gotten as long as a man lives. It is the 
worst odor in the world, excepting none. 
It is the most insidious smell that ever 
crept into one's clothes and hair. If 
you have gone into a tepee while the 
stew was cooking, you smell dog, taste 
dog, breathe dog for weeks to come. 
And it is the favorite dish of the Sioux 
Indians. Out on the Pine Ridge reser- 
vation, where most of the Indians are 
farming their allotted lands, and the 
compulsory education law is in full 
force, an old, old squaw lives alone in a 
tepee, perhaps the only Indian on the 
reservation who utterly disdains a house 
and raises dogs to sell. They swarm 
around her dirty little tepee, a gaunt, 
hungry tribe, looking as though they 
were good for nothing in the world. 
But even now, at a stage of civilization 
where the ghost dance is a thing of his- 
tory, and the war bonnet a curio, the 
Indians buy them and make them into 
soup. They dry the meat by hanging 
it over a line in the sun, as one does the 
family washing, and it forms a staple 
part of the daily living. It all goes to 
prove that the final, decisive test of civ- 
ilization is the food we eat. Dog meat 
is the last remnant of his savagery which 
the Indian gives up. The entrails of 
the beef given out by the Government 
is still a delicacy to the Indian girl after 
she has learned to make white bread 
and broil chicken. 



Not News. 

Titus Titmouse was infuriated, but 
the editor of the Western Wind shut 
him up in two seconds, says an exchange. 

"Is this the newspaper office?" in- 
quired Mr. Titmouse. 

"It is," responded the man at the 
desk. 

" Didn't this paper say I was a liar?" 
" It did not." 

" Well, some paper said it." 

"Perhaps it was our contemporary 
down the street," suggested the editor, 
as he picked up a paper weight. "This 
paper never prints stale news." 



How to Train a Collie. 

In the first place allow me to say, on 
the authority of my grandfather, who 
spent his life in the Highlands of Scot- 
land and was considered one of the best 
dog trainers, that in order to secure the 
best results with dogs as workers they 
should be broken by the one who is to 
handle them. I have one bitch that I 
have offered to work in competition 
with any dog in our country, and yet I 
have never seen her do reasonable work 
for anyone else. For some people she 
will not go a rod. In the first place I 
would want to know the kennels a 
puppy was from and would want it 
when from 2 to 4 months old. It should 
be fed by the hands of its master and 
should learn to love home. Never kick 
or strike a collie. Scold him or pull his 
ear for punishment. And never call 
him to you for this. Make him 'down' 
where he is and go to him. If you call 
him to you he is liable to suspect you 
and make a sulky dog. His first lesson 
should be to 'come here.' Use it when- 
ever you call to feed him, and he will 
get into the habit of coming when 
called. Next teach him to 'down' by 
saying 'down,' and pressing down with 
the hand. Be very thorough with this 
lesson and make him keep his position 
while you go any distance from him 
and stay any length of time. He should 
be taken among the stock from the first 
and learn to like them. If you keep 
him constantly with you he will soon 
try to help you in whatever he sees you 
doing. By petting and encouraging 
when he does right and scolding when 
he does not please you, he will soon do 
as you bid him. But remember 'lick- 
ing' spoils more collies than all other 
things combined. Never try to teach 
but one thing at a time and have that 
well learned before you try to make 
him learn another. Patience and perse- 
verance will make a good work dog of 
any bright and well-bred dog.- — Ameri- 
can Sheep-Breeder. 



Insomnia. 

Every cause capable of increasing the 
amount of blood ordinarily circulating 
through the brain has a tendency to 
cause wakefulness. If the brain is often 
kept for long periods on the stretch, 
during which the vessels are filled to 
repletion, they cannot contract even 
when the exciting causes cease. Wake- 
fulness, as a consequence, results, and 
every day the condition of the individ- 
ual becomes worse, because time brings 
the force of habit into operation. Every- 
thing that tends to throw the blood un- 
duly to the brain, or to accumulate it 
there, should be avoided. This is a 
vital matter, and prevention is better 
than cure. 

Tight or ill-fitting articles of dress, 
especially about the neck or waist, 
and tight boots and shoes, should be 
discarded; the feet should be kept 
warm, so that circulation may be pro- 
moted. Wearing cork soles in the 
boots and shoes, and changing the socks 
every day, are excellent means to this 
end, and strongly recommended. Apart, 
however, from physical causes, there 
are various moral causes acting on the 
brain equally inimical to sleep — what- 
ever keeps the attention fully aroused 
keeps the blood vessels of the brain dis- 
tended, and the consequences of that we 
know. On the other hand, when the 
attention begins to flag the tendency is 
for the vessels to contract and for sleep 
to ensue. — Health. 



"Johnny, is the new baby at your 
house a boy or a girl ? " 

"Ma says. it's a girl, but it ain't 
a-goin' to be baptized till next Sunday, 
an' if I have my way about it she'll 
change her mind before then." 



"Thomas A. Edison has perfected a 
way to build a three-story house in 
twelve hours, at a cost of $1000." 

" Now, if he'll perfect a way to 
house-clean it in twelve hours he'll be a 
daisy." 



Useful Hints. 

Make Chair Seat Good as New. — 
Sunken cane seats in chairs will be as 
good as new if washed in soap suds and 
left in the open air to dry. 

Repairing Torn Music. — When the 
covers to sheet music become detached 
bind them together with white passe 
partout paper. This paper being of a 
tough texture makes a firm and durable 
binding and if applied to new music 
will prevent much mutilation. 

To Bore Holes in Glass. — Any 
hard steel tool will cut glass with great 
facility when freely wet with camphor 
dissolved in turpentine. A drill may 
be used, or even the hand alone. A 
hole bored may be easily enlarged by a 
round file. The ragged edges of glass 
vessels may also be easily smoothed thus 
with a flat file. Window glass may be 
readily sawed with a watch spring saw 
by aid of this solution. 

Make Old Floor Like New. — 
About seven years ago I moved into an 
old cottage, the floors were of old wal- 
nut, beyond polishing. I used building 
paper, mitered the corners, put thin 
warm flour paste on the floor with an 
old whitewash brush, rubbed well in, 
then put the paper on. I painted with 
floor paint, a tan, as that color matched 
up with my rug. 



His Revenge. 

In the small compartment of smokers 
at the rear end of a train going out of 
Norfolk a few weeks ago sat three com- 
mercial travelers and an old farmer 
whose dilapidated exterior made very 
plausible the story he told the con- 
ductor. 

" I'm only a poor lone man," he said, 
with tears in his eyes. " I haven't a 
cent in the world. But my daughter is 
dying" — here he almost broke down — 
and I want to see her, " please don't 
put me off. It's only 60 miles." 

" Nothing doing," said the con- 
ductor, though with a touch of pity. 
"Orders are orders. You'll have to 
get off at the first station." 

"It's all right, conductor," said one 
of the drummers, "I'll pay for him. 
" How much ?" And he drew out a 
roll of bills. 

" Not on your life !" cried the farmer. 
Thank you all the same, though." And, 
drawing out his own rather substantial 
roll, he paid his fare. The conductor 
grinned and passed on. 

" Gentlemen, I owe you an explana- 
tion," said the farmer to his astonished 
companions. " Five years ago this darn 
railroad ran over one of my cows — ran 
over her in broad daylight, before wit- 
nesses. I sued the company for forty 
dollars, but their cussed lawyers beat 
me out of it. Since then I've been tryin' 
to get my forty dollars every way I 
could, and by hook or crook I've beat 
'em out of thirty-seven of it. It was 
the other three I was tryin' for just 
now. — Harper's Weekly. 



Ordinary maps of the world are 
very deceptive. It would seem from 
them that the shortest course for ships 
entering the Pacific by way of the Pan- 
ama Canal and bound for China or 
Japan would take them directly across 
the ocean from the Isthmus. But the 
fact is that a material saving in distance 
is made by coming north along the 
coast to San Francisco, following what 
is styled the "great circle" principle of 
sailing. It is for this reason, as well as 
for the necessity of recoaling steamships 
on so long a voyage, that the Navy De- 
partment believes the canal will make 
San Francisco a great coaling and naval 
rendezvous and the paramount port on 
the Pacific. And this will tend to the 
profit and advancement of all California, 
for it will provide abundance of ship- 
ping to carry the products of the State 
to the leading ports of the Atlantic and 
Pacific— Sacramento Bee. 



Dainty Indian muslins are made from 
the fibres of the banana tree. 



42 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 18, 1908. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



BUTTE. 

Feed fok Stock. — For the first time 
in several weeks the owners of large 
flooks of sheep are breathing easier. The 
delay of the fall rains caused a short 
food supply for the woolly animals, and 
they ate up everything in the shape of 
dry feed that could be made to support 
them. Now the grass is coming on rap- 
idly, and many of the owners are getting 
on to their winter ranges. W. R. 
Rhinehart, who has about 3000 sheep, 
has taken his animals on to the Myers 
place in the Marysville buttes and the 
feed is good. In the warm valleys of 
the buttes the feed comes on several 
weeks earlier than in the more exposed 
portions of the Sacramento Valley. 

ST KA W BERRIES ON CH K1STMAS 

Day.— Uridley Globe: Just to demon- 
strate what this section can produce, 
Mrs. J. F. Schaeffer on Christmas Day 
went into her strawberry patch and 
picked a number of ripe strawberries. 
She left a few samples at this office and 
they are fine big well-developed ones. 
The vines also carry innumerable green 
berries and blossoms, giving promise of 
a continuous crop for several weeks to 
come. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Fink Promise. — Gazette: There is 
fine promise, in the way the wheat is 
greening the earth, of a plentiful crop of 
wheat around Knightsen and Brent- 
wood. 

GLENN. 

Bi<; Acreage in Alfaeea.— One 
thousand acres of the Boggs ranch, near 
Princeton, will be planted to alfalfa, 
which will be irrigated from the Central 
Canal Co.'s river ditch. Teams have 
begun work on the first tract of 300 
acres which will be prepared for the 
crop. A large number of teams will 
be engaged in the work, which will bo 
completed in a short time if the weather 
permits. S. J. Johnson, a recent ar- 
rival here, who is an expert on alfalfa 
planting, has charge of the work. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Marketing Walnuts. — Anaheim 
Gazette: Walnut growers from many 
sections of southern < alifornia met in 
Los Angeles and discussed plans for 
marketing their crop. It is understood 
growers are dissatisfied with the manner 
brokers treated them the past season, 
and numerous complaints have been 
heard. For instance, after prices are 
fixed, if markets are firm and show a 
rising tendency, brokers acquire all nuts 
contracted for and reap additional profit. 
On the other hand, when prices decline, 
they show a disposition to fudge, and 
many individual losses was the result. 
This horseplay was worked upon grow- 
ers the past season, the Hurry in finances 
being alleged to be the reason for 
numerous refutations of consignments 
already contracted for. A reduced 
price was the result, while brokers con- 
tinued to be doing quite well. A con- 
sensus of opinion at the meeting was 
that growers should in future market 
their crops without the interruption of 
middlemen. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

GINSENG, — Index: A party of capital- 
ists has been investigating conditions 
relative to the cultivation of ginseng. 
Their conclusions were that this soil, 
climate and water are most favorable 
to that industry, and they are preparing 
to engage in the growth of that plant 
on an extensive scale. It is asserted by 
these men that their experience in the 
East in the cultivation of the plant has 
proven that there, under less favorable 
conditions and with poorer soil, an acre 
in this plant may be made to yield 
$24,000 of the root in a season. The 
profit-taking logins the third year after 
planting, and is continuous thereafter. 
According to these men there is a de- 
mand for all the roots that can be 
raised. Indeed, it is stated that the 
production is not keeping pace with the 



demand, and the price of the product is 
on the increase. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Cotton. — Press: Texans living in 
Imperial valley have planted small 
fields and grown several hundred cot- 
ton plants, and they will plant some 
acres in cotton this season. They are 
not chasing rainbows, but they are 
ready to put up a cotton gin just as soon 
as the acreage required is assured. It 
has been demonstrated that cotton grows 
better here than in Texas. The plants 
are much taller, reaching a height of 
six feet, and the yield is from three to 
six times greater. Experienced grow- 
ers pronounce the cotton superior in 
quality, and they are certain that Im- 
perial valley is one of the best cotton 
regions in the world as to soil and cli- 
matic conditions. There is no guess 
work about it. Cotton will be grown 
here because the crop is profitable, and 
because the picking will give steady 
employment between fruit seasons, and 
constitute a very desirable supple- 
mentary industry. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Colts Poisoned. — A Farmington 
correspondent of the Stockton Record 
say- that H. A. Benton lost a pair of 
tine eolts, which were poisoned by eat- 
ing bluestoned wheat. Siuclair Orr, 
who rents Mr. Benton's ranch, was sow- 
ing grain and left some of the wheat in 
the field, which the colts found and ate. 
They died a couple of days later. Mr. 
Benton had, only a few days before, 
refused $200 for one of the colts. 

Must Dip Cuttings. — Sacramento 
Bee: In order that the vines in the Lodi 
section will not become further diseased 
in any way, striugent regulations re- 
garding vine cuttings affected with mil- 
dew or odium are being posted by the 
district horticultural inspector and C. L. 
Tubbs, a member of the Horticultural 
Board, representing the district, who 
recently came into possession of a letter 
written by District Attorney George F. 
Mr Noble to I. N. Southrey, president of 
the Horticultural Commissioners of San 
Joaquin county, and in it are the follow- 
ing facts, a copy of which will be sent 
each vineyardist that due precaution 
may be taken: "The County Board, 
through information from the State au- 
thorities, recommends that lall cuttings 
affected with mildew or odium be ini- 
mersed in a solution called Bordeaux 
mixture of winter strength. As the law 
provides that the proper horticultural 
authorities may confiscate, burn up and 
destroy all such products which are 
found to be affected with mildew or 
odium, I want to state to you directly 
that you are authorized to instruct your 
deputy inspectors to go into the vine- 
yards and wineries, or any other place, 
and if they find vines or cuttings affected 
with disease hereinbefore mentioned, it 
becomes their duty and not their discre- 
tion to destroy same, by gathering them 
and having them burned, unless the 
owners, or those in possession of the 
affected material, proceed and obey the 
instructions of the circular and have 
them properly treated with the Bor- 
deaux mixture or some like treatment." 
District Inspector Costello also states 
no cuttings will be received at the local 
depot for shipment anywhere unless they 
bear the stamp of approval by him, and 
that will mean that they shall have 



cc. MORSE & co 

Plants SEE DS Tr <* s 



This picture represents the 
cover of our handsome new 
^ catalogue done In colors, 
•X showing the Mowers and 
3SV fields true to life. 



41 Jackson St. 
San Francisco 




.Send us your name and 
address and we will mall 
this new 1908 Catalogue free. 



Send us $1.00 and we will send one 
each of thc-Be three line Toses (Strong 1 
year old roots): Frau Karl Uruschkl, Mildred 
Grant, Madam Caroline Testout. Or send 
us 20c and we will send you a large packet of our 
beautiful new Sweet l'ea — Florence Morse Spencer. 



undergone a Bordeaux mixture treat- 
ment. 

STANISLAUS. 

EARLY Sowing. — Modesto Herald: 
Taking a lesson from last season, the 
farmers of this portion of the country 
did not wait until the rains set in before 
beginning to sow grain. Much of the 
summerfallow, of which there was not 
a very large average, was seeded dry 
several weeks ago, and some of the 
early sown grain has been up for a 
month. Last week's rains put the soil 
in pretty good condition for plowing 
and the ranchers are making every 
minute count. So far this season has 
been mild, more like a California win- 
ter, differing from the past two, which 
were cold and frosty, and it is hoped 
that this presages a return to normal 
weather conditions and that the season 
of 1908 will remunerate our farmers for 
the two hard years just passed through 
with abundant crops and good prices. 



WANTED 

Cuttings of (he Following tor Grafting Purposes ; 

KupestrlsSt. George, Klparla I Kupestris :«0H, 
Hlparla x Kupestris 3309, Illparla x Kupestris 
106-8 and Mourvedre x Kupestris 1202. Address 

FANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

Fresno, California. 



Pneumatic Fruit Grader 



A perfect Sizing Machine for Oranges 
Capacity 500 Boxes a Day 
Runs Easily by Foot Power 
Cannot Damage the Fruit 
Price $50.00 



WRIGHT BROTHERS, 

Riverside, Cal. 




"Old Trusty' 
Incubators 



Sold on 30, 60 or 90 days free trial. Send 
today for catalog and trial offer and guarantee. 
Low prices to all who order this month. We 
pay freight. 



£. £. McCLANAHAN 



rn So. Main Street 



Los Angeles. 



Burbank Says: 

"Best way to get a Walnut 
Grove — Plant California Black Wal- 
nuts, graft them when 4 years old to 
Franquette or Santa Rosa." 

We have extra good stock of 

CALIFORNIA BLACK 

.5 to 6 feet. Write for prices. 

JOHN SWETT & SON 

MARTINEZ, CAL 

ENCINAL NURSERIES. 



BPJ» I A.LTIKS:— Apricot on 1 Cot and Genu- 
ine Franquette Walnut on black walnut 
root. Strong, thrifty trees grown on new soil, 
entirely without irrigation, and surrounded 
by all safeguards possible, from selection of seeds 
and buds to the digging of the tree, to have them 
healthy, tree from disease and true to name. 



F. C. V\ I l.l. son proprietor. Sunnyvale, 
Santa Clara County. California. 



SUGAR GUM AND RED GUM TREES 

In large or small numbers. Eucalyptus 6 to 
12 In. ready for planting; packed and sent to 
you, express or mall, 100 for S2.00 (four pound 
package.) 

HENRY SHAW. RIVERSIDE NURSERY 
320 River St. Santa Cruz. Cal. 



Grafted Vines and 
Resistant Cuttings 

Malaga, Muscat, Emperor on Kupestris 8t. Geo. 
Muscat on 3306. CUTTINGS of KupestrlB St. 
Geo., 3306, 3309, 1202. Address 

MINNEWAWA VINEYARD. Fresno. Cal. 

FOR SALE 

200,000 Berry Plants. Including 1'henom- 
enals. Mammoths, Ulackberrles, Himalaya 
Giants, Lucretla Dewberries and Raspberries. 

Send for Catalogue to 

R. J. HUNTER. OAK VIEW BERRY FARM 

Grldley, Cal. 



January 18, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



SEEDS, PLANTS, Etc. 



ALMONDS 

Lewelling, Texas Prolific, Drake, Three sure 
bearers. 

PEACHES 

Muir, Elberta, Lowell, Orange and Tuscan 
Cling, etc. 

CHERRIES 

Chapman (earliest), Royal Ann, Bing, Tartarian, 
etc. 

WALNUTS AND PECANS 

Grafted and Seedlings. 

ELLWOOD WALNUT 

EUCALYPTUS— Twenty varieties, in 10,000 or 
50,000 lots. 

Leonard Coates Nursery Co., Inc. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



The Crocker Bartlett Pear 



DOES NOT BLIGHT 

If proven different, purchase price of trees 
bought from us in 1907 will be refunded. Fruit 
highly recommended by Luther Burbank. 

Sample of pears sent on receipt of 25 cents. 

See U. S. Year Book of 1905. 

Peach Trees. 15c— all leading varieties. 

Cherry Trees, 20c— all leading varieties. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

Loomis, Placer County, Cal. 



Pacific Nurseries 

San Francisco and Millbrae, San Mateo Co. 

Offers for this Season's Planting 
a full line of 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Evergreen and 

Deciduous, Conifers, Palms, Rhododendrons, 

Camellias, Ericas, Azaleas, Roses, Eucalyptus, 

Cypress, Pine, Monterey and Maritima Pittospo- 

rum transplanted into plats. 

Send for Catalogue 

F. LUDEMANN, 3041 Baker Street 

SAN FRANCISCO 



Strawberry Plants 

Brandywine, Excelsior, Texas, Arizona, Al, 
Lady Thompson and Midnight, l'edigree Plants. 

Blackberry Plants 

Mammoth Blacks, Early Crandal, 

Giant Himalaya. 

Raspberry Plants 

Surprise (earliest known), Millers, Cuthbert. 

Dewberry, Loganberry, 

Phenomenal Berry Plants. 

Mention this paper and get catalog of prices 
and cultural directions. 

G. H. HOPKINS, Burbank, Cal. 



Trees 



French Prunes and Apri- 
cots; Muirs aud Tuscan 
Clings, and many other 
varieties of Peach Trees, 
all line budded stock. Large stock of all the 
leading varieties of Apples, grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also a fine stock 
of Cherries, Pears, Plums, etc. 
Send for price list. 
A. F. SCHEIDECKER, Sebastopol. Cal. 
Proprietor Pleasant View Nursery. 



Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

$1.50 per Doz. $6 per 100. $40 per 1000. 

Now is good time to plant. Pedigreed Stock. 
500 Valencia, one year, extra fine, $60 per 100. 
J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist, Pas- 
adena, Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed 
Postal for prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



BARTLETT PEARS. 

I have a large stock of Bartlett Pears that can- 
not be excelled for size and quality grown on 
whole roots one year old. Prices reasonable. 
Those desiring in any quantity, address, 
R. P. EACHUS. LAKEPORT. CAL. 




Best Stock on the Coast 
Every Tree True to Name 

CITRUS 

Any quantity in all of the leading Stand- 
ard Varieties. All grown at Exeter, where 
they develop perfectly. 

DECIDUOUS 

The best of everything in all sorts, strong 
and healthy, with well developed roots. 
Properly packed and shipped promptly or 
when desired. Place your orders now. 

mm 

CREATIONS 

We are sole propagators and disseminators 

Santa Rosa Plum 
Rutland Plumcot, Gavlota Plum 
Formosa Plum, Vesuvius Plum 
Royal and Paradox Walnuts 

Send 10c. for our valuable booklet, beauti- 
fully Illustrated In colors, which tells all 
about these wonderful new creations. 

GRAPEVINES 

On their own roots and grafted on 
Phylloxera Resistant Roots. 

Calimyrna Figs, Ornamental 
Trees, Roses, Palms, Plants. 

Our large new catalogue sent free. 

PAID-OP CAPITAL 9 200.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

GeO.C.ROeding Pres. & Mgr. 

Bg]ci8Fresno^a^ 

A 

Good 
Harvest 

We aim to insure a good harvest 
if you plant 

Gregory's Seeds 

Always sold under three guarantees, in- 
suring freshness and purity. Our free 
catalogue contains lots of information 
of value to farmers and gardeners. 



J. J. H. GREGORY^ 
1 SON, 




Ferry's Seeds 
are the best known and 
the most reliable seeds grown. 
Every package has behind it the reputation 
of a house whose business standards are the 
highest in the trade. 

Ferry's 1908 Seed Annual will be mailed FREE 
to all applicants. It contains colored plates, many 
engravings, and full descriptions, prices and directions 
for planting over 1200 varieties of Vegetable ana 
Flower Seeds. Invaluable to all. Send for It. 

D. M. FERRY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 



Trees that Grow and Bear Fruit 



SOUTHERN TREES ARE BEST, BECAUSE THEY ARE THOROUGHLY 
DORMANT AND HAVE NO SOFT WOOD ABOUT THEM. 

Our trees are carefully and well grown. Buy direct from the grower and 
save the middleman's profit. Special attention given to orders from large 
planters. We have a general assortment of deciduous, citrus and ornamental 
trees. Also an extensive line of ornamental and flowering plants, including a 
large assortment of roses. Write for price list — it is free. 

Orange County Nursery & Land Company 

FULLERTON, CAL 

Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

We Grow on New Virgin Soil all Leading Varieties of Fruit Trees and drape Vines. 
We Guarantee all Stock True to Name and Free from Disease. 

SPECIALTIES— Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Figs, Apricots, 
Cherries. Wine, Table and Raisin Grapes. 

We grow only Standard Commercial Varieties — Money Makers. Life is too short 
to experiment with so-called Novelties which have been untried. We have been 
pleasing our customers for 18 years. We refer to any bank or business house in 
Fresno as to our standing and reliability. Write us for prices. Large Catalogue 
and Souvenir Picture showing Largest Tree in the world mailed Free. Address 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. WILSON, Proprietor. Box R. R. 42. Fresno, California 

200.000 Eucalyptus Trees 

' I (IN VARIETY! 



Transplanted in flats of 100 each. We prefer orders of 1000 rather than 
10,000 ; outside limit, 20,000. Our trees are up to our usual standard. Cor- 
respondence invited. Our booklet, telling when, how, and what to plant, free 
to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATT0N, Nurseryman 

PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 



BROOM CORN AN D BROOMS.— A treatise on 
raising broom corn and making brooms on a 
smajl or large scale. Illustrated. 59 pages 
6 by 7 inches. Cloth $0.50 




Ask us 

about 

Walnuts 



The kind 
for 

Commercial 
Planting. 



Large, 

Rich and 

Prolific 



Costs nothing to investigate. 
Ask for our Walnut Booklet. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

SALEM, OREGON. 

Salesmen Wanted. 



High In Quality 



Low in Price 



our SEEDS gkow 

Vegetable, Flower 
and Farm Seed 

J. SEULBERGER, 

414 Fourteenth Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 



AMERICAN GRAPE GROWING AND WINE 
MAKING— By George Husmann, of California. 
New and enlarged edition. With contributions 
from wellknown grape growers, giving wide 
range of experience. The author of this book is 
a recognized authority on the subject. Illus- 
trated. 269 pages. 6 by 7 Inches. Cloth $1.50 



GRAFTED VINES 

FIELD GRAFTING 
BENCH GRAFTING 

done by contract anywhere in central 
California. Fifteen years experience. 
Only competent men sent out. Write 
for estimates and references. 

JOHN L. AMES, 

Elk Orove, Cal. 



Franquette 
Santa Rosa 

Finest 
Varieties 

Burbank's 
Best 

Burbank's 
Crimson Winter 



WAINUTS 
CHESTNUTS 
Opulent Peach 
Rhubarb 

Grown at Sebastopol 

T. J. TRUE, 



Grafted on 
Calif. Black 



Grafted 

Finest 
Uuallty 

Also other 
stock 



Rural Route 1. 



MODESTO 



Orange Seed Bed Stock. 

SWEET AND SOUR 

Orders Booked Now for Delivery 
Spring of 1908. 

SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, 

F. H. DISBROW, Proprietor. 
Both I'houes. R. D. 1, Fasadena, Cal. 

Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State 
For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW. Lincoln Avenue, San Jose. Cal. 



44 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 18, 1908. 



■ nniiPfiM free Bookon 

l UUUrUII p 0U |t r y Profits 

Cut Out, SIffn and Mnll This, and by return 
• mail you will receive our great l-*ree Book* 

It riling How 140,000 Men and Women are 
Making Money with the 1 among Sure 
Hatch. Book fa full of valuable help to be- 

■ ginners ami profeneionnl poultry raisers. Tells 
m why the Sure Batch excels h1 1 other incnbptoj*. 

I We ship Sure Hutches on Unlimited Trial direct 
to you from Los Anrelea or Suit I>ake City, 
Don't delay— fill out and mail coupon UOW. 

SURE HATCH INCUBATOR CO. 
Box 181, Fremont, Nob., or Dept. 1BI, Indian* 
I apoils, tnd.i 

Bend book to (write plainly) 
| Nemo 



Labor Supply. 



More Asiatics Not Desirable. 

To the Editor: Having read care- 
fully the article from G. H. Henke on 
the labor supply from a fruit grower's 
view point in the Pacific RURAL 
Press of Dee. 28, I wish to present 
herewith a few points on the same ques- 
tion but viewed from a slightly differ- 
ent point. The articles on this question 
but viewed from a slightly different 
point. The articles on this question in- 
variably appear to emanate from men 
with large holdings of orchard, vine- 
yard or hopfields; it may therefore not 
be amiss to look at it from the point of 
the small owner, the owner of not over 
25 acres of fruit land. 

In the first place, what is more desir- 
able in the interest of the welfare of the 
people and for the greatness of this State: 
Is it large holdings requiring many 
hired hands and yielding certain net 
profits going to one individual or is it 
small holdings, requiring more im- 
provements, yielding more taxes, with 
intenser farming, more produce, and 
giving independence and a competence 
to many instead of one. We have read 
the answer to this question time and 
again. But then the argument was 
used in regard to those large areas of 
grain lands; will it not be applicable to 
any very large holding by one owner? 

The writer has in mind one immense 
estate in Tehama county, consisting of 
thousands of acres of vineyard and or- 
chard, besides untold thousands of acres 
of arable and pasture lands. A small 
town, consisting mostly of saloons, 
with a hundred or thereabout of poor 
white people and a lot of Chinamen, 
living in a dirty manner, is all that de- 
rive a living from this wonderfully 
fertile ranch, besides, of course, the 
owner and some superintendents. 
Seven miles from this town is located 
another town, a splendid place, with 
hundreds of fine houses inhabited by 
over 1500 j>eople surrounded by thou- 
sands of acres of orchard owned by hun- 
dreds of men making a living there- 
from, requiring little If any hired help. 
The hustling town comprises many 
large general stores, hotels &c, but no 
saloons. The above statement is easily 
to be verified and seems conclusive in 
the matter of the present controversy. 
That the large owner wants the door 
opened to the Chinamen is, if not pa- 
triotic, very natural; but in his station 
he is not compelled to come so much in 
contact with them as the smaller owner, 
nor is his family, and herel iesoue of the 
most serious dra wbacks of the presence 
of large numbers of any kind of Asiatic 
people. The presence of the negro in 
the South has retarded the progress of 
that section more than anything else. 

Having come from the East a few 
years ago, the writer knows that 
the presence of above-named people in 
this State keeps a far greater number 
of white people from coming here than 
is generally thought. At one time I ad- 
vertised in an Eastern paper for some 
hired help and received over 50 offers, 
some mentioning the fact that in spite 
of their wish of many years to come to 
California, they had always been kept 
back through what they had heard 



about the competition of the Chinamen. 
So much has been written lately about 
the Japanese question, exclusion acts, 
and so forth, that it has led a large 
number of Eastern people to believe 
that this State is crowded with Asiatics. 
And here come men that want to re- 
open the doors to them. Has not San 
Francisco had enough trouble and dis- 
order lately, and do we want to give 
the white labor element there fresh rea- 
sons to get unruly? 

The white man is not so much averse 
to migrate from one place to another as 
he is to be influenced by the conditions 
under which this has to be done. When 
the large owners provide decent quar- 
ters, it will no doubt be possible for 
them to hire a certain amount of white 
help through some labor contractor as 
well as a railroad company or other 
enterprise can do it. 

Agricultural progress and, as a con- 
sequence, the greatness of our State, is 
furthered immeasurably more by the 
addition of the Eastern immigrants ac- 
quiring mostly small places than it is 
retarded by the lack or want of labor, 
and as a consequence failure of some 
large owners to get the full benefit of 
their holdings. It would not be an un- 
mixed evil, though it might entail 
financial loss, if some of the larger prop- 
erties would have to be cut up and 
owned by several parties. 

In conclusion, I would say that the 
writers of the articles favoring read- 
mission of the Chinaman have proba- 
bly no idea of the storm of protest that 
will raise once the daily press once be- 
gins to discuss the pros and cons of this 
matter. 

John Stahkl. 
Kelseyville, Lake county. 



The Yellow Peril. 

To the Editor: During something 
more than 30 years' residence in Califor- 
nia I have felt compelled to reflect seri- 
ously on the various aspects of what are 
called labor problems. 

One point of view shows that enter- 
prising men are apt to undertake more 
than they can accomplish by their own 
hands or help within their control, the 
help of their own families being usually 
insufficient. 

The result has been that fruit growers 
have often such extensive plantations 
that in certain seasons they are forced 
to rely on uncertain transient laborers, 
and we have lately seen a State conven- 
tion of fruit growers publicly petitioning 
for an increase of Asiatic help. 

It has always seemed to me that pub- 
lic and private welfare will be and al- 
ways has been best promoted by mod- 
erate fruit growing, such as families can 
control, rather than those 10 or 20 times 
as large, with 50 or hundreds of aliens, 
whose neighborhood or national inter- 
ests are not the same as ours. 

Better 50 citizen fruit growers, count- 
ing the women and children as citizens, 
than 50 aliens controlled like slaves for 
the benefit of one citizen owner. 

No argument is necessary on this 
point, but we have had and now have 
continued planting so extensive and 
reckless as in some cases to overstock 
the markets, and one result is that every 
large orchardist demands a number of 
coolies to do the work, at least part of 
the year. On many accounts this is a 
deplorable result. Better give us the 
greatest good for the greatest number of 
American citizens. 

Soon the competition of these cheap 
fellows will come in lines we can 
not evade or prevent. They will grow 
and manufacture cotton on their own 
soil, successfully competing with our 
^factories. In other ways we may event- 
ually be subdued by the " yellow peril," 
but in the name of civilized life let us 
postpone this result as long as possible. 
I do not much care to live to see the 
day when our families shall be denied 
harmless luxuries — when, in fact, we 
cannot afford to have families. War is 
bad enough, but insidious, peaceful con- 



IT'S FREE 



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It's the RESULTS that count in farming and our Fertilizers produce 
POSITIVE RESULTS, that show in the QUALITY of the products as well 
as the QUANTITY. 

Orange and other fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly 
recommend our fertilizers as producing the grandest results in quantity 
quality of products and profits. Our fertilizers have the largest sale west of the 
Rockies because they make sure and good crops. Lack of fertility means 
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MANUFACTURERS OF 



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GET PARTICULARS FROM 

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quest by races trained to be content with 
mere existence is perhaps worse. 

In such condition all the little lux- 
uries of musical and social life would be 
impossible. We might with the cheap 
labor have good roads, but no perfected 
conveyances to use upon the roads. We 
might in careless moments whistle or 
sing, but musical instruments there 
would be none in such a reduced scale 
of wages. Most of the ornaments and 
conveniences of our homes would be un- 
attainable. 

One of my ancestors told his children 
to fear falsehood, but never to be afraid 
of the dark. In spite of this revered 
family tradition, I fear the results of 
economic conquest by races trained for 
untold generations to exaggerated parsi- 
mony. In connection with this fear, I 
tremble in view of the predominance of 
great wealth. 

It is the real or supposed interest of 
rich people and great corporations to 
wish for cheap labor, and, so far as they 
can control legislation and public opin- 



ion, they will, and use all possible 
efforts to pave the way for the suprem- 
acy of the cheap Asiatic laborers. 

Henry Shaw. 

Santa Cruz. 



To the Editor: I have read Mr. 
Hecke's article. I wish to state that you 
can get plenty of cheap white labor by 
the owners forming an organization 
and starting free employment offices, 
getting out circulars stating where and 
when men are wanted. Or you can 
send to the Industrial Workers of the 
World, 510 Larkin St., S. F., or 40!» E. 
Seventh St., Eos Angeles. You should 
advertise where to go and how to go. 
The Easterners do not know where to 
go to look for work. 

James Palmes. 

Pasadena. 

[We do not know anything about the 
organization mentioned and do not com- 
mend it. — Er>.] 



January 18, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



4«; 



Because You 

Need 
The Money 

It's your business and if yon don't 
attend to it, who will? You cannot i 
afford to keep cows for fun. That isn't I 
business, and, furthermore, it isn't I 
necessary. There is money in cow 
keeping if you go at it right, and be- 
sides there is more fun in going at it 
right than there is in staying wrong. 




You need a Tubular Cream Sepa- 
rator because it will make money Tor 
you; because it saves labor; because 
it saves time; because it means all the 
difference between cow profits and 
cow losses. 

Look into this matter; see what a 
Tubular will do for you and buy one 
because you need it. 

How would you like our book j 
"Business Dairying'" and our catalog 
B. 131 both free. Write for them. 

The Sharpies Separator Co. 

West Chester, Pa. 
Toronto, Can. Chicago, III. 



Sheep and Wool. 



Sheep Grazing on the Forest 
Reserves. 

By W . C. Clok, U. S. Inspector of Grazing, at the 
American Rambouillet Association conven- 
tion in Chicago. 

The national forests are created to 
preserve a perpetual supply of timber 
for home industries, to prevent destruc- 
tion of the forest cover which regulates 
the flow of streams, and to protect local 
residents from unfair competition in the 
use of forest and range. 

It is evident that the purposes for 
which the national forests were created 
cannot be fully accomplished without 
regulation of grazing, consequently such 
regulation was necessary in view of the 
notorious abuses of the range formerly 
committed by all classes of users. These 
abuses are facts too prominent to be 
denied or even excused, and there is 
abundant evidence to prove that the 
range, as well as the various classes 
of people dependent upon its use, 
suffered great loss under the old "open 
range" system where all did as they 
pleased, to satisfy the demands of the 
present, without regard to the conse- 
quences and the needs of the future. 
Thoughtful minds, however, antici- 
pated the inevitable results years ago, 
and public sentiment at last has con- 
demned the old destructive practices 
and demanded and obtained relief from 
the then existing evils by means of 
Government control of the range within 
the national forests, a large number 
of which were created in answer to nu- 
merous petitions from the nearby 
settlers and small stock owners, 
this being the only means of protec- 
tion available for them against the op- 
pressive aggressions of the large stock 
owners. The change, however benefi- 
cial in its intentions, was not effected 
without mistakes; yet reasonable minds 
could not expect such an evolution to 
take place otherwise, and apologies are 
unnecessary because the errors have 
been corrected or are being corrected as 
fast as possible. The resources and pro- 
ducts of forests and range are intended 
for us, but this use must be conserva- 
tive not wasteful, therefore the range 
must be used in such a manner that its 
usefulness is not decreased but increased. 
Consequently the leading objects of the 
grazing regulations are: 

(1) The protection and conservative 



use of all national forest land adapted 
for grazing. 

(2) The permanent good of the live 
stock industry through proper care and 
improvement of the grazing lands. 

(3) The protection of the settler and 
home builder against unfair competi- 
tion in the use of the range. 

The protection and conservative use 
of all national forest land adapted for 
grazing necessarily conditions the en- 
forcement of protective measures, rules, 
and regulations intended to effect the 
greatest good to the greatest number. 
The Government is the owner of the 
range, it cannot concede legal claims to 
land unless the title of such land has 
legally passed. Continued use of the 
range by individuals does not lead to a 
servitude on the part of the Government, 
consequently the right of the Govern- 
ment to administrate the use of the 
range within the national forests is in- 
disputable, yet this administration is 
not arbitrary. The grazing regulations 
are designed to aid in the maintenance 
of a maximum number of prosperous 
homes in the neighborhood of national 
forests. The people are given a voice in 
the allotment of the range and in the 
adjustment of grazing by means of the 
advisory boards. These advisory boards 
consist of committees of five appointed 
by any live stock association whose 
membership represents a majority of the 
committees of the respective national 
forest or even a certain portion of it. 

In the practical allotment of grazing 
privileges, the small owner and home 
builder living near the national forests 
are given the preference. They consti- 
tute Class A and are provided for before 
all others. Then come the larger owners 
(Class B), and finally if there is still 
room the transients or rather the more 
distant owners (Class C) may be accom- 
modated. Priority in the occupancy of 
the range is taken into account, the 
older occupants receiving additional 
consideration. If it is found necessary 
to reduce the number of stock grazing 
upon a certain forest, the reduction is 
made on the basis of a sliding scale, 
large owners being reduced a heavier 
per cent, but ample time is given them 
to dispose of their surplus stock, and 
the reduction is gradual. 

It is the policy of the Forest Service 
to assign individual allotments and 
allow the stock to use the same range 
in succeeding seasons wherever this is 
possible. But this must not be under- 
stood as guaranteed because it is evi- 
dent that it cannot be done in every in- 
stance. The Government has a right 
to control the range at all times, and, 
in return for the protection, benefits, 
and services rendered, to collect a rea- 
sonable charge or grazing fee. No valid 
objections can be possibly offered to this, 
and the present "per capita" fees are 
very reasonable, and there is no inten- 
tion to increase them during the present 
administration. 

Applications for regular grazing per- 
mits must be made by the owners of the 
stock and the grazing fee must be paid to 
the fiscal agent before the animals are 
allowed to enter the national forests. 

The permanent good of the live stock 
industry is accomplished by systematic 
range improvements under the direction 
of the Forest Service. The large number 
of such improvements may be divided 
into two groups: Improvements of the 
means concerning the proper handling 
of the stock and improvement of the 
range itself. 

Fencing of the range in order to control 
the stock upon national forests is per- 
mitted under proper restrictions. 

Permits to construct drift fences may 
be secured wherever such fences are 
necessary and will not create a mo- 
nopoly. 

Pastures may also be enclosed provid- 
ed they do not interfere with the rights 
of other permittees or the proper man- 
agement of the range as a whole. 

Corrals may be constructed wherever 
there is an apparent necessity for them. 

As much of the range has suffered 
more or less from reckless overgrazing 
in the past, due attention is paid to 
proper development of the forage, and 
during the past season extensive experi- 



ments have been carried on by the 
Forest Service in co-operation with ex- 
perts of the Department of Agriculture 
for the purpose of determining the best 
methods in the handling of stock, the 
determination of grazing capacities, as 
well as the most valuable forage plants 
and the possibilities of their increase by 
re-seeding. 

The poisonous plants have also been 
investigated by competent experts, and 
as soon as possible the public will be in- 
formed of the positive results, showiug 
just how this danger can be avoided 
and the evil corrected. 

The development of water is another 
very important object that the Forest 
Service is pursuing. Springs and seeps 
will be troughed, and piped if necessary. 
Reservoirs for watering stock will be 
built and windmills will be put up 
in such a condition so as to warrant the 
expense. 

The Forest Service has also taken up 
an active hand in the fight against pre- 
datory animals, and professional hun- 
ters and trappers have been engaged in 
many localities. 

In view of all this, the Forest Ser- 
vice certainly is entitled to claim the 
support instead of the opposition of the 
persons engaged in the grazing industry, 
since it has proven itself to be the best 
friend of the live stock industry of the 
West. 

A great many problems will yet need 
to be solved, but the best and quickest 
results will be obtained if the public 
will try to understand the good inten- 
tions and beneficial purposes of the 
Forest Service, and assist and co-ope- 
rate with its officers for the greatest 
good to the greatest number, which 
means the successful and continued 
maintenance of the maximum number 
of prosperous homes. 



The Garden. 



Rocky Ford Growers Coming to 
California. 

An Imperial Valley exchange states 
that among recent arrivals in Imperial 
Valley is L. C. Sloan, who has been 
growing melons at Rocky Ford for 
seven years and has been attracted by 
the superior advantages of this region. 
Mr. Sloan has rented land on the Mc- 
Guire place, a mile and a half south of 
El Centro, and intends to plant 14 acres 
in cantaloupes and 6 acres in water- 
melons with seed which he brought 
from Rocky Ford. 

Comparing conditions in Colorado 
and in Imperial Valley, Mr. Sloan said: 
" Planting begins at Rocky Ford about 
May 1 and gathering the crop about 
August 5. Here they plant in February 
and begin shipping by the middle of 
May. Rocky Ford land, valued at $100 
to $300 an acre, produces from 100 to 
250 crates, worth from 75 cents to a dol- 
lar a crate. Imperial Valley produces 
from 300 to 400 crates to the acre and 
the price runs from $1.85 to $2.(50 per 
crate. The quality of Imperial Valley 
cantaloupes is said to be better." 

As no other melon-growing region 
produces so early a crop as Imperial 
Valley, there can be no competition to 
greatly reduce market prices, and Mr. 
Sloan says he sees no reason to fear that 
the raising of melons ever will be over- 
done here. He intends to buy land and 
become a permanent resident and he 
knows a number of Rocky Ford grow- 
ers who are coming here to rent land 
and put in crops during the next season. 



PILES CURED IN 6 TO 1 4 DAYS. 

PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any 
case of Itching, Hlind, Bleeding or Protruding 
Piles in 6 to 14 days or money refunded. 50c. 



BEST PILL ON BARTH 

Feople who are Bick with dyspepsia, headaclie 
and biliousness, liaviugyeliowcomplexion and 
pimples, do not wan t to experiment, but wanta 
medicine that has had the test of time. We liavo 
cured these diseases for 25 years with dr. ounn's 
IMPROVED liver fills. They drive out the cause 
of sickness, making the complexion clear and 
healthy. 25cts. a box at druggists, or by mail 
Write Dr. Bosanko Co., Phil:ida., Pa. Sample Free. 
ONLY 03STE3 FOR -A. DOSE 



Heavy Steers 

A steer receiving a small amount of 
Dr. Hess Stock Food twice a day in his 
grain will consume, digest and assim- 
ilate larger quantities of coarse fodder 
and make steady growth from start to 
finish. This is because Dr. Hess Stock 
Food acts upon the digestive organs, 
keeping them in perfect health and 
activity. 

Dr. Hess Stock Food is 
the prescription of Dr. Hess 
(M.D., D.V.S.) and con- 
tains tonics, iron and ni- 
trates necessary to 
aid digestion, make 
good blood and 
cleanse the system. 

D B HESS 



STOCK 




Is a perfect animal tonic. It causes 
rapid growth, increases milk yield and 
insures good health and condition in 
all farm animals. 

Sold on a written guarantee. 

100 lbs. $7.00; 25 lb. pall $2.00 

Smaller quantities at a slight advance. 

Where Dr. Hess Stock Food 
differsinparticular 
is in the dose— it's 
small and fed but 
„ twice a day, which 
proves it has the most 
digestive strength to 
the pound. Our Gov- 
ernment recognizes 
Dr. Hess Stock Food as 
a medical compound 
and this paper is back 
of the guarantee. If 
your dealer can't supply you.we will. 
DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio. 

11,0 manufacturers of Dr. Hes* Poultry Pan.B^ce>a and 

Instant Lous« killer. 

THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR COMPANY 
Pelaluma, Cal. Pacilic Coast Distributers. 




Glenn Ranch 

GLENN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

For Sale in 
Subdivisions 



This famous and wellknown farm, the home o 
the late Dr. Glenn, "The Wheat King," as been 
surveyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale In 
any sized Government subdivision at remarkably 
low prices, and in no case, it is believed, exceed 
ing what is assessed for county and State taxa- 
tion purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west 
bank of the Sacramento river for fifteen miles 
It is located In a region that has never lacked an 
ample rainfall and no irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year 
and freight and trading boats make regular trips. 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is Invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Cali- 
fornia, and inquire for P. O. Eibe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdivisions and prices per acre, address 
personally or by letter 



F. C. LUSK, 



Agent of N. D. Hideout, Administrator of the 
Estate of H. J. Glenn, at Chico, Butte County, Cal. 



School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing, and Assaying. 
5100 TELEGRAPH AVE. OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 

Open all Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pres't 
Assaying of Orfs, $26; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon 
Assay, $25 ;Blowplpe Assay, $10. Full Course of 
Assaying. Established in 1864. Send for circular. 



HENRY B. LISTER, 
ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary 1'ubllc and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 Pacific Hldg., Fourth and Market Sts., 

San Francisco. 



Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers in 1400 FOURTH ST- SAN FRANCISCO 

PAPER Klake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angeles 
ritrcn Blake. McFall & Co., Portland, Oregon 



4 6 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 18, 1908. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1908. 
WHEAT. 

Eastern and foreign speculative markets 
have been unsteady during the week, 
with a slight firmness toward the close. 
There is considerable activity in the East- 
ern milling centres, where spot grain is 
firm and in strong demand. The export 
demand, on the whole, is improving, and 
there is a good movement for export from 
northern ports. The falling ofl'in the de- 
mand for Hour in the oriental countries, 
and the consequent inactivity of the 
northern mills, is said to have put more 
grain than usual on the export market. 
In this market futures opened the week 
lower, and cash wheat is described as 
quiet and easy, though quotations are un- 
changed. 

California White Australian.. 1.75 @1.82J 

California Club 1.67J@1.72J 

California Milling 1.70 ©1.72J 

California lower grades 1.60 @1.65 

Northern Club 1.65 @1.72£ 

Northern Bluestem 1.75 @1.77J 

Northern Red 1.62J@1.70 

BARLEY. 

May options opened the week with a de- 
cline. Receipts have been moderate, and 
mostly sold prior to arrival, but the activ- 
ity observed last week has fallen off, and 
there is now little interest on the part of 
buyers. Quotations have remained steady 
to firm, however, except on feed grades, 
which are weak at a slight decline. The 
best feed at present will not bring over 
$1.55, and several sales have been made at 
$1.52£. 

Brewing $1.60 @1.65 

Chevalier 1.76 ©1.86 

Good to Choice Feed, per etL 1.65 @ 

Common to Fair 1.50 @1.52j 

Shipping 1.57J@1.60 

OATS. 

Spot stocks of oats in this market are 
still rather light, as there have been no 
heavy arrivals from the north, and most 
of what has come in has been sold prior to 
arrival. The market, however, is very 
dull, with little apparent demand, but the 
market shows no weakness, as holders are 
firm and confident of better prices. The 
Oregon market has a firmer feeling, as 
half the crop is sold, the mills have taken 
on large lines, and a large Government 
contract is expected. Speculative buying 
there is active, and higher prices are 
looked for. 

Clean Black for seed $2.50 @3.00 

Choice Red, per ctl 1.85 @1.90 

Gray 1.52J@1.60 

White 1.52i@1.70 

Choice Red, for seed 1.90 @2.00 

CORN. 

Considerable corn has come in from 
California points during the week, more 
in fact than has appeared for some time, 
and it is said that there is likely to be 
more of this grain on the local market as 
the mills here resume activity. The 
market has been dull as usual most of the 
week, with several Western lines offering 
at low prices. 

California Small Round Yel- 
low, per ctl Nominal 

Large Yellow 1.65 @ 

White Nominal 

Western State sacked Yel- 
low, new 1.60 @ 1.65 

White, in bulk 1.49 @ 

Mixed, in bulk 1.47 @ 

Brown Egyptian 1.40 @ 

White Egyptian 1.35 @ 

RYE. 

Stocks of rye are light, and there is 
very little activity. Occasional sales are 
reported, but there is not enough demand 
to cause any movement of Importance. 
Choice California grain now sells up to 
$1.47*. 

California $1.45 @1.47J 

Utah 1.40 @1. 45 

Oregon 1.45 @ 

BEANS. 

The feeling in the bean market shows 
still further improvement, with a ten- 
dency to greater firmness in most descrip- 
tions. The speculative market now shows 
some activity, and, while Eastern buyers 
still show little interest, the movement to 
the Western States, especially Texas, has 
increased considerably. Practically all 
the crop has been bought, but first-hand 



stocks in this market are light. The only 
change in quotations is on limas, which 
are a little lower. 

Bayos, per ctl $3.15 @3.25 

Blackeyes 3.75 @4.00 

Butter 4.50 @5.00 

Cranberry Beans 3.00 @3.25 

Garvanzos 3.75 @4.00 

Horse Beans 2.75 @3.00 

Small White 3.50 @ 

Large White 3.35 @3.45 

Limas 4.75 @4.85 

Pea 3.50 @3.75 

Pink 3.15 @3.25 

Red 3.40 @3.50 

Red Kidneys 3.25 @3.50 

SEEDS. 

Great activity is beginning to api>ear 
ini miscellaneous garden seeds, owing to 
general rains and good growing weather. 
Aside from these, leading features are all 
varieties of alfalfa, and timothy seed, 
which is now on the market at appear- 
ing quotations. All these descriptions are 
very firm, with prices on alfalfa un- 
changed. Other lines quoted are quiet. 

Utah Alfalfa 18 © 19 c 

Turkestan alfalfa 18 @ 

Alfalfa 171@18c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $22.00@25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 3 @ 3Jc 

Canary 4\@ 4jc 

Flaxseed Nominal. 

Hemp 4}@ 4Jc 

Millet 3 @ 3j|c 

Timothy 7 @ 7Jc 

Yellow Mustard 5 @ 5Jc 

FLOUR. 

Flour holds quite steady, with prices at 
the same figures that have ruled for some 
time. The demand for local interest is 
quiet and without feature, jobbers being 
reluctant to take on new lines. The for- 
eign demand in the north has fallen off 
greatly since the rise in prices was an- 
nounced, and few mil Is there are working 
to their capacity. 

California Family Extra, per 

bbl $5.40 @6.00 

Bakers' extras 5.40 @5.65 

Superfine 4.20 @4.50 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4.75 @5.25 

HAY. 

There has been a further falling off in 
hay arrivals during the past week, the 
total showing 2580 tons in comparison 
with 3290 tons last week and 4040 tons for 
the previous week. The market, how- 
ever, continues dull, and is still far from 
cleaned up. Coastwise business and trad- 
ing with the interior continue, and if the 
Federal Government makes the expected 
large purchase for Manila, that will help 
out the situation. Alfalfa shows some little 
improvement, and number one straw is 
in light supply and slightly higher. Stan- 
dard grades of hay show no material 
changes. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $16.50@18.00 

Other Grades Wheat 11.00@16.00 

Wheat and Oat 11.00@15.50 

Tame Oat 11.00©15.00 

Wild Oat 10.00@13.00 

Alfalfa 9.00@13.50 

Stock 8.00@ 9.50 

Straw, per bale 50@ 90c 

MILLSTUFFS. 

There is no change in quotations on 
feedstuff's, all descriptions remaining 
about as firm as last week. There is still 
a marked shortage of bran and shorts, and 
moderate arrivals of both lines from the 
North were needed to fill back orders, 
leaving the market practically bare. This 
shortage, in view of the inactivity of the 
Northern mills, is likely to continue in- 
definitely. 

Alfalfa Meal (carload lots) 

per ton $22.00® 

Jobbing 23.00® 

Bran, ton 28.0O@29.5O 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl 90c@ 1.00 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills (in 10-ton lots) 25.00@ 

Jobbing 26.00@ 

Corn Meal 37.0O@ 

Cracked Corn 38.00@ 

Mealfalfa 21.50@ 

Jobbing 22.50@ 

Middlings 31.00@32.00 

Mixed Feeds 22.00@24.00 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 38.50@39.50 

Rolled Barley 35.00@36.00 

Shorts 29.00@30.00 

POULTRY. 

Prices on chickens are remarkably well 
sustained, some lines even showing an 
advance over last week. There have been 



liberal arrivals of Western stock already 
this week, though supplies of California 
poultry are light. Most of the arrivals 
consist of large fine stock, which has 
cleaned up fairly well under a moderate 
demand. Receipts of turkeys are rather 
liberal, and only strictly fancy stock is 
taken at appearing quotations, poor offer- 
ings being neglected, and only moving 
when liberal concessions are given. 

Broilers $4.50 @ 5.00 

Small Broilers 3.50 @ 4.50 

Ducks 4.( @ 7.00 

Fryers 5.50 @ 6.00 

Geese 2.00 @ 2.50 

Hens, extra 7.00 @ 9.00 

Hens, per doz 5.50 @ 6.50 

Small Hens 4.00 @ 5.00 

Old Roosters 4.00 @ 4.50 

Young Roosters 6.00 @ 7.50 

Pigeons 1.00 @ — - 

Squabs 2.75 @ 3.00 

Hen Turkeys, per lb 16 @ 18 c 

Gobblers, live, per lb 16 @ 17 c 

Turkeys, dressed 18 @ 20 c 

BUTTER. 

After several days of marked weakness, 
the week closed with a somewhat better 
feeling in butter, at least in regard to 
extras, which, under a good demand, and 
light supplies of choice Humboldt county 
stock, advanced to 33c. This week's ar- 
rivals were late, and of very moderate 
proportions, and as the lower prices had 
caused a livelier market, there was a fur- 
ther reaction, quotations now standing at 
34c. Lower grades, on the other hand, 
are weak at a decline, with seconds at 24c, 
as inferior fresh stock still has the com- 
petition of cheap storage goods. The lat- 
ter are weak, but unchanged. 

Cal. (extras) per lb 34 c 

Firsts 24 c 

Seconds 22 c 

Thirds 

Fresh Eastern, extras 

Fresh Ladles, extras 

Fresh Ladles, firsts 

Storage, Cal., extras 24 c 

Storage, Cal., firsts 23ic 

Storage Eastern, extras 24Jc 

Storage Ladles, extras 20 c 

EGGS. 

Fresh extra eggs have a better tone, the 
market having cleaned up extremely well 
under the strong demand induced by last 
week's easy prices. Arrivals for the last 
few days are unusually light, owing to 
the demand for use in the incubators. 
After the incubators are set, a lower range 
of prices is expected to rule. Last week's 
prices on extras turned the demand away 
from low-grade and storage stock, both of 
which are weak, the latter with lower 
prices, as there is still some pressure on 
the market. 

California (extra) per doz 36 C 

Firsts 30 c 

Seconds 25 c 

Thirds 22 c 

Storage, Cal., extras 24*c 

Storage, Eastern, extras 21c 

CHEESE. 

All grades of California cheese are 
weak, with plentiful supplies and a lignt 
demand. Fancy and first new 'flats, as 
well as new Young Americas, are lower. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb... 14 c 

Firsts 13jc 

New Young Americas, Fancy 15 c 

Storage, do 15Jc 

Eastern, New Nominal 

Eastern, Storage 17jc 

Cal. Storage, Fancy flats 16 c 

Oregon, Fancy 15 c 

POTATOES. 

Potatoes are again in good supply, with 
large arrivals from all growing districts. 
Business, however, is quite active, as the 
market has been closely cleaned up, and 
dealers are anxious for new stock. Sweet 
potatoes are firm, with a strong demand. 

Oregon Burbanks $1.00 @1.25 

Burbanks, Salinas, ctl 1.10 @1.30 

Burbanks, River, bag 65 @ 1.00 

Sweet Potatoes, per ctl 2.25 @2.50 

VEGETABLES. 

Receipts from the south are light. 
Most of the new arrivals consist of peas, 
which are accordingly weak. Egg plant 
and string beans are very firm, but in 
other lines there is sufficient to supply the 
demand, as business is naturally light at 
this season. Receipts of onions have been 
considerable, but cleaned up well with a 
lively demand. 

Garlic, per lb 5 @ 7c 

Green Peas, per lb 3 @ 5c 



Sena for this 
Catalogue 

Of Northern Grown Seeds— Tried 
and proved Best for the West. Con- 
tains 112 pages and 16 colored pho- 
tos of Farm. Field and Flower Seeds 
with full cultural directions. A re- 
quest will bring it to your home free. 
Cham. H. Lilly Co., Seattle, Wn. 




Sold by Dealers 



Green Peppers, per lb 5@ 

Cabbage, per ctl 75 @ 

Onions, per ctl 2.25 @ 2.75 

String beans, per lb 12<@ 15c 

Tomatoes, crate 2.00"@ 2.50 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton. ...10.00 @15.00 

Carrots, sack 75 @ 

Hubbard Squash, ton 10.00 @15.00 

Summer Squash, ^ box 1.00@ 1.25 

Celery, crate, small 1.00 @ 1.25 

Egg Plant, lb 10 @ 12Jc 

FRESH FRUITS. 

The movement of apples is only fair, 
and is mostly confined to the better grades, 
such as Newtown pippins and Spitzen- 
bergs, with little demand for cheap stock. 
The few strawberries that come in find a 
slow market. 

Apples, fancy 1.50 @ 2.50 

Apples, common to choice... 60 @ 1.00 
Pears — 

Winter Nelis 2.00 @ 2.25 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

There is a heavy stock of oranges on 
hand, over 20 cars remaining unsold last 
Monday morning. There is little buying 
for the regular trade, most dealers taking 
only small amounts, and the principal 
business being done with peddlers. Prices 
accordingly drag, with great weakness on 
fancy stock. Lemons are also weak, but 
grapefruit is steady. 

Choice Lemons $1.50 @2.00 

Fancy Lemons 2.00 @2.50 

Standard 75 @1.25 

Limes 3.50 @4.00 

Oranges — 

Fancy 1.75 @2.00 

Standard 1.25 @1.76 

Tangerines, large box 1.00 @1.25 

Grape Fruit 2.25 @3.00 

DRIED FRUITS. 

All varieties of dried fruits, as well as 
raisins, appear to be in a little better de- 
mand, and the movement has increased 
since last week. Growers at Fresno have 
been getting S| to 3fc for raisins. There 
has so far, however, been no rise in quota- 
tions on this market, and sales of London 
layers and clusters have been made on a 
lower basis. 

Evaporated Apples 8 @ 9 c 

Figs, black 2|@ 3 c 

do white 3 @ 4 c 

New Apricots, per lb 18 @21 c 

Fancy Apricots 21 @22 c 

Peaches 10 @13 c 

Prunes, 4-size basis, 1907 crop.. 4 @ 4$c 

Pitted plums Nominal. 

Pears 10 @12 c 

RAISINS. 

2 Crown 4J@ 

3 Crown 5}@ 

4 Crown 5J@ 

Seeded, per lb 7J@ 7Jc 

Seedless Sultanas 5J@ 7§c 

London Layers, per box $1.26@1.40 

London Layers, cluster 1.30@2.00 

NUTS. 

The market on nuts is in about the 
same position as last week in regard to 
business, few sales being reported. The 
jobbers are well stocked, and movement, 
both for local and Eastern interest, is 
slow. The little business done has estab- 
lished a new and lower range of values. 



January 18, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



47 



Almonds, Nonpareils 15 c 

I XL 14£c 

Ne Plus Ultra 14 c 

Drakes 13 c 

Languedoc 12 c 

Hardshell 8 c 

Walnuts, Softshell No. 1 14£c 

Softshell, No. 2 12 c 

Italian Chestnuts 10 @12Jc 



HONEY. 

Honey so far shows no further change, 
jobbing prices being the same, and no con- 
cessions are offered by local dealers, 
though stocks are larger, and prices to 
growers are weak. 



Water White, Comb 16 @17 c 

White 15 @ 

Water White, extracted 8 @ 8£c 

Light Amber 7 @ 7£c 

Dark Amber 6J@ 62c 



WOOL. 

Locally wool is about at a standstill, as 
the Eastern clothing mills are going slow, 
and there is no demand for California 
stock. What business comes is only 
brought by concessions. 

Humboldt and Mendocino, year's 



staple 22 @23ic 

Fall clip: Northern free, moun- 
tain 8 @11 c 

do. defective 6 @ 8 c 

Ban Joaquin and Southern 5 @ 8 c 

Fall Lambs, Northern 9 @11 c 

Fall ^ambs, Southern 7 @ 9£c 

Nevada 12 @16 c 

HOPS. 



Quotations remain the same in this 
market, though some growers are re- 
ported to have sold for lower prices. The 
better grades, however, are becoming 
scarce in the north. 

1906 crop 2 @ 3 c 

1907 crop 4 @ 8 c 

1908 (contracts) 10 @11 c 

MEAT. 

Beef in general is firmer, under an in- 
creased demand. Dressed lambs also 
show a slight advance. Most varieties of 
live cattle are about \c over last week's 
quotations. 



Beef: Steers, per lb 7 @7i c 

Cows 6 @ %\c 

Heifers 6 @ 6Jc 

Veal : Large 8 @ 9 c 

Small 9 @10 c 

Mutton: Wethers 10i®ll c 

Ewes 9i@10 c 

Lamb 12 @12Jc 

Hogs, dressed 10 @11 c 

LIVESTOCK. 

Steers, No. 1 8i@ 9 c 

No. 2 7|@ 8 c 

No. 3 6£@ 7 c 

Cows and Heifers, No. 1 6|@ 7 c 

No. 2 6 @ 6Jc 

Bulls and Stags 3£@ 4 c 

Calves, Light 5 @ 

Medium 4£@ 

Heavy 3|@ 4 c 

Sheep, Wethers 5 @ 5£c 

Ewes 4J@ 5 c 

Lambs 6 @ 6£c 

Hogs, 100 to 200 lbs 6 @ 6Jc 

200 to 300 lbs 5 @ 5^c 



Boars 50%, stags 30% to 40%, and sows 
10% to 20% off from above quotations. 



FINE CALENDARS. 

We have received from the Advertising 
Department of the International Har- 
vester Company a set of their new 1908 
Calendars, which are the finest we ever 
saw. We desire to make it plain to our 
readers that each interested party may 
secure a calendar (one calendar) of the 
particular harvester in which he is inter- 
ested by inquiry upon the local dealer 
handling that particular machine. Some 
local dealer within easy reach of our read- 
ers will be handling one of the machines 
manufactured by the International Har- 
vester Company, and will be pleased to 
send to each reader the one particular cal- 
endar which he wishes. 



THE CEREALS IN AMERICA. — By Thomas 
F. Hunt, M. 8., D. Agr., Professor of Agronomy 
In College of Agriculture, Cornell University. 
This Is primarily a textbook on agronomy, but 
Is equally useful to the farmer as to the teachei 
or student. It Is written by an author thar 
whom no one is better qualified. The subject- 
matter includes an accurate, com prehenslve, and 
succinct treatise of wheat, maize, oats, barley, 
rye, rice, sorghum, and buckwheat, as related 
particularly to American condition. The author 
has made a comprehensive study of the topics 
treated, drawing freely from the publications of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, 
American experiment stations, and recognized 



'ournals related to agriculture. First-hand 
knowledge, however, has been the policy of the 
author In his work. Illustrated. 460 pages. Wi 
by 8 Inches. Cloth $1.76 



THE REX SULPHUR-LIME COMPOUND. 

A representative of the Pacific Rural 
Press called on The Rex Company, of 
Benicia, Cal., a short time ago, and found 
them very busy people. We doubt very 
much if our readers have any conception 
of the proportions of this company and 
the splendid equipment operated by them. 
It was a revelation to see Lime and Sul- 
phur Spray being manufactured and 
shipped out in amounts of a carload per 
day. The plant seems an ideal one, and 
is operated by machinery that is pro- 
tected by patents lately granted The Rex 
Company. To show their painstaking 
method of doing things, we learned every 
ounce of Sulphur and Lime used is accu- 
rately weighed, even the water used is 
measured, barrels are filled by actual 
scale weight. No guessing done at any 
place. The Rex Company have an in- 
vestment of about $10,000 for the manu- 
facture of Lime and Sulphur Spray only. 
The four immense boiling vats used by 
them are completely lined with sheet 
lead, which probabiy cost as much or 
more than a fair sized fruit ranch. Evi- 
dently the idea in mind with this com- 
pany was to make a perfect factory to 
carry on the work. We know what they 
are making, and do not hesitate to say it 
is good, and they should be liberally pat- 
ronized. It is not a secret formula prod- 
uct, the only secrecy is the process by 
which it is made, and having spent many 
years and many dollars to perfect this, it 
is proper they should be protected by 
patents. 



BOOKS FOR THE FARM 



For Sale by PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



FARM DRAINAGE.— By Judge French of 
New Hampshire. The principles, process, and 
effec ts of draining land with stones, wood, ditch- 
plows, open ditches, and especially with tiles; 
including tables of rainfall, evaporation, filtra- 
tion, excavation, capacity of pipes, cost and 
number to the acre. 384 pages. 6 by 7 Inches. 
Cloth. 81.00 

THE NEW RHUBARB CULTURE— A com- 
plete guide to dark forcing and field culture. 
Part I— By J. E. Morse, the wellknown Michigan 
trucker and originator of the now famous and 
extremely profitable new methods of dark 
forcing and field culture. Part II. — Other 
methods practiced by the most experienced 
market gardeners, greenhouse men and experi- 
menters In all parts of America. Compiled by 
G. B. Flske. Illustrated. 130 pages. 5 by 7 
Inches. Cloth 80.50 

THE HOP.— Its culture and care, marketing 
and manufacture. By Herbert Myrick. A 
practical handbook on the most approved 
methods In growing, harvesting, curirg and 
selling hops and on the use and manufacture of 
hops. It takes up every detail from preparing 
the soil and laying out the yard to curing and 
selling the crop. Illustrated. 300 pages. 6 by 7 
Inches. Bound In cloth and gold. 81.50 

THE POTATO.— By Samuel Frazler. This 
book Is destined to rank as a standard work 
upon Potato Culture. While the practical side 
has been emphasized, the scientific part has not 
been neglected, and the Information given Is of 
value, both to the grower and the student. 
Taken all In all, it is the most complete, reliable 
and authoritative book on the potato ever pub- 
lished In America. Illustrated. 200 pages. 

by 7 Inches. Cloth §0.75 

IRRIGATION FARMING. — By Lucius M. 
Wilcox. A handbook for the practical applica- 
tion of water in the production of crops. The 
most complete book on the subject ever pub- 
lished. New edition, revised, enlarged, and re- 
written. Illustrated. Over 500 pages. 5 by 7 
Inches. Cloth 82 

SOILING CROPS AND THE SILO. — By 
Thomas Shaw, professor of animal husbandry 
at the University of Minnesota. How to culti- 
vate and harvest crops; how to build and fill a 
silo; how to use silage. The newest and most 
valuable of all books for the dairyman. It tells 
all about growing and feedingall kindsof soiling 
crops that have been found useful In any part of 
the United States or Canada — climate and soil 
to which they are adapted, rotation, sowing, cul- 
tivation and feeding. Also about building and 
filling silos, what to use and how to fill and feed 
it. Illustrated. 264 pages. 5 by 7 inches. Cloth. 
81.60 

THE BOOK OF CORN.— By Herbert Myrick, 
assisted by A. D. Schamel, E. A. Burnett 
Albert W. Fulton, B. W. Snow, and other most 
capable specialists. A complete treatise upon 
the culture, marketing, and uses of maize in 
America and elsewhere, for farmers, dealers, 
and others. Illustrated. Upwards of 500 pages, 
6 by 7 Inches. Cloth 81-50. 

THE NEW EGG FARM. — By H. H. Stod- 
dard. A practical, reliable manual upon pro- 
ducing eggs and poultry for market as a profit- 
able business enterprise, either by Itself or con- 
nected with other branches of agriculture. It 
tells all about how to feed and manage, how to 
breed and select, incubators and brooders, its 
labor saving devices, etc. 12mo. 331 pages. 140 
original Illustrations. Cloth 81 



For Sale : Jerusalem Artichokes 

THE GREAT WINTER HOd FEED 

Address 

Fancher Creek Nurseries, Fresno, California. 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short- 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petaluma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Shorthorned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY. 

BREEDERS OF SHORTHORN CATTLE 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



HROWN LEGHORNS AND BARRED PLY- 
MOUTH ROCKS. Eggs for hatching a 
specialty; cockerels for sale. Walter Curry, 
R. D. No. 21, San Jose, California. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



SWINE. 



GEO. C. ROEDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 
C. A. STO WE, Stockton, Cal. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



17 YEARS an Exhibitor of Berkshire Hogs at the 
California State Fair. Thos. Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan St., San 
Francisco. Manufacturer and Dealer In 

POULTRY SUPPLIES 

of every description. Send for Catalogue— FREE 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years. 
Importer and Breeders of all Varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St., S. F. 



ATTENTION, DAIRYMEN! 

We would like to furnish you with a young 
registered Holsteln Bull, from 12 to 27 months 
old, grandly bred at the low price of 8100. Write 
us and tell us what you want. Do It to-day. We 
will send you pedigrees and markings and 
records of ancestors. 

PIERCE LAND & STOCK C O., 

Phone Main 1597. Stockton, Cal. 



FOR SALE 

A few thoroughbred registered Poland China 
service boars. 

Registered Holsteln Frieslan service bulls and 
bull calves from Advanced Registry Stock. 

STANFORD RANCH, : Vina, Cal. 



NOW READY 

THE BOOK OF 

ALFALFA 

History, Cultivation and Merits. Its Uses as a 
Forage and Fertilizer. By F. D. COHUKN, 
Secretary Kansas Department of Agriculture. 
The appearance of F. D. Coburn's little book on 
Alfalfa, a few years since, has been a complete 
revelation to thousands of farmers throughout the 
country and the increasing demand for still more 
information on the subject has induced the author 
to prepare the present volume, which is, by far, the 
most authoritative, complete and valuable work on 
this forage crop ever published. 

One of the most important movements which haa 
occurred in American agriculture is the general in- 
troduction of alfalfa as a hay and pasture crop. 
While formerly it was considered that alfalfa could 
be grown profitably only in the irrigation section! 
of the country, the acreage devoted to this crop is 
rapidly increasing everywhere. Recent experimente 
have shown that alfalfa has a much wider useful- 
ness than has hitherto been supposed, and good 
crop3 are now grown in almost every state. N?, 
forage plant has ever been introduced and suc- 
cessfully cultivated in the United States possessed 
of the general excellence of alfalfa. 

The plant although known in the Old World 
hundreds of years Before Christ, was intro- 
duced into North America only during the last 
century, yet it is probably receiving more attention 
than any other crop. When once well established 
it continues to produce good crops for an almost 
indefinite number of years. The author thoroughly 
believes in alfalfa, he believes in it for the bis 
farmer as a profit bringer in the form of hay, or 
condensed into beef, pork, mutton, or products of 
the cow ; but he has a still more abiding faith in 
it as a mainstay of the small farmer, for feed for 
all his live stock and for maintaining the fertility 
of the soil. 

The treatment of the whole subject is in the 
author's usual clear and admirable style, as will be 
seen from the following condensed table of contents: 

History, Description, Varieties and Habits, Uni- 
versality of Alfalfa. Yields, and Comparisons with 
Other Crops, Seed and Seed Selection, Soil and 
Seeding, Cultivation. Harvesting, Storing, Pastur- 
ing and Soiling, Alfalfa as a Feed Stuff. Alfalfa 
in Beef-Making, Alfalfa and the Dairy, Alfalfa for 
Swine, Alfalfa for Horses and Mules, Alfalfa for 
Gheep-Raising, Alfalfa for Bees. Alfalfa for I'oul- 
try Alfalfa for Food Preparation. Alfalfa for Town 
and City, Alfalfa for Crop Rotation, N'itro-Cultnre 
Alfalfa as a Commercial Factor, The Knemies of 
Alfalfa, Difficulties and Discouragements, Alfalfa 
in the Orchard, Practical Experiences with Alfalfa. 
Illustrated. 6 1-3x9 Inches. 336 page* 
Cloth. Price S2.0O. 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 

Pacific Rural Press 

(— ) Indicates every other week or once a month 



Page. 

Ames, John L 43 

Bean Spray Pump Co 48 

Beck man, Geo. V 47 

Blake, Moffltt& Towne 45 

Bosanko Medicine Co., Dr 45 

Breeders' Directory 47 

California Fertilizer Works 44 

Coates Nursery Co., Leonard 43 

Croley, George H 47 

Curry, Walter 47 

Cutter Analytical Laboratory 39 

Dewey, Strong & Co 47 

Disbrow, F. II 43 

Driver, E. 8 47 

Eachus, R. P 43 

El Dorado Oil Works _ 

Fancher Creek Nurseries 42, 43, 47 

Ferry & Co., D. M 43 

Folding Sawing Machine Co — 

Fresno Agricultural Works — 

Fresno Nursery 43 

German Kali Works — 

Glenn, Estate of H. G 46 

Golden Rule Nursery 43 

Gregory & Son, S. J. H 43 

Hart, Ed 47 

Hess & Clark, Dr 45 

Holcombe & Co., R. A 44 

Hopkins, G. H 43 

Howard Cattle Co 47 

Hoy t's Tree Support Co 48 

Hunter, R. J 42 

Jackson & Co., T. W 44 

Lawrence-Williams Co 39 

Lilly Co., Chas. H 46 

Lister, Henry B 45 

Ludemann, F 43 

Lynch, John 47 

McClanahan, E. E 42 

Meacham, Frank A — 

Mills, A. A 43 

Mlnnewawa Vineyard 42 

Morse & Co., C. C 42 

Mountain Copper Co 44 

Myers, Wm. S — 

National Wood Pipe Co 39 

Oakland Poultry Yards 47 

Orange County Nursery & Land Co 43 

Oregon N ursery Co 43 

Pacific Coast Business College 41 

Pacific (Juano & Fertilizer Co 44 

Pear Blight Remedy Co 48 

Pierce Land <& Stock Co 47 

Rex Company, The — 

Rhodes Mfg. Co — 

Roedlng, Geo. C 47 

Scheidecker, A. F 43 

Seeds and Plants 42, 43, 48 

Seulberger, J 43 

Shaw, Henry 42 

Sharpies Separator Co 45 

Sllva & Bergtholdt Co 48 

Simmons Hardware Co — 

Smith, Francis — 

Snow, D. A 43 

Stanford Ranch 47 

Stowe, C. A 47 

Stratton, W. A. T 43 

Sullivan, W 47 

Sure Hatch Incubator Co 44 

Swett & Son, John 42 

Teague, R. M — 

Temple Pump Co — 

True. T. J 43 

Tuttle s Elixir Co — 

Van Der Nalllen, A 45 

Vermont Farm Machine Co — 

Wagner, J. B 43 

Waite, Thos 47 

Western Meat Co 39 

Willson, F. C 42 

Wright Brothers 42 



PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to Inventors, sent free on 
request; containing nearly 100 mechanical move- 
ments and full Information about Patents, 
Caveats, Trademarks, and Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., 

1105-fi Merchants Exchange Bldg., San Francisco 
Established 1860. 



BUFF ORPINGTONS 

Largest clean legged bird in the list, lay the 
year around, and bring a dollar each and more 
when turned to market. Postal will bring you 
prices and our show record. 

W. SULLIVAN, 

Agnew, Santa Clara County, Cal. 
State V. P. Nat. 8. C. B. O. Club. 



4 3 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 18, 1908. 



Y^OU never buy a cheap horse and expect 
to get a good one. Some fruit ranchers 
buy the cheapest tree they can get, but an 
orchardist — never. Our trees and vines are 
not the cheapest, but they are the best that 
care in selection and growing can produce. 
We propagate only from parent trees and 
vines that are the best specimens of their 
kind, and our stock will give you good ser- 
vice for a lifetime. That is what you want. 



OUR STOCK 



Comprises all profitable 
commercial sorts of 




PEACHES, 
PLUMS, 
PEARS, 
APPLES, 

Send for Catalogue and Price List 



CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS 
APRICOTS 
and GRAPES. 



Contract now the trees you want 

WRITE US 

PLACER NURSERIES 

SILVA 6 BERGTHOLDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CAL. 



MORE FRUIT 
WITH LESS LABOR 




You can positively Insure a larger crop, clean fruit and 
healthy trees at a savine of fully one-third the labor 
ordinarily required and with a much less outlay of time 
and money by using: a Bean Slavic Spray Pump. 
The reason is because it sprays thoroughly with high, 
even pressure, but the operator is working against only 
one-half the pressure indicated on the gauge. It's on 
account of the spring which makes the Magic Spray 
Pump the easiest running, most perfect spray pump 
ever made. No other pump can compete with it in 
the essential points of quality and durability, and we 
challenge comparison with all other makes regard- 
less of price or construction. 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

are the result of careful study and experience In 
pump manufacture. We have no other line. We are 
specialists in pump-making, and the name BKAN 
on a spray pump or appliance is a guarantee that it 
is the best that money and brains can produce. 

The most successful raisers of fancy fruit agree 
that spraying is the only and most effective method 
of securing the best results. The increase in profit 
from securing fancy fruit will alone soon pay for the 
outfit. Whether you have a large or small orchard 
you cannot afford to be without a Bean Magic Spray 
Pump. Write for our special offer, also free illus- 
trated catalog. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., 

163 W. Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 



DEAD. CI inilT We can CURE IT 

W% 1 1 UIhIUI Our Work has Extended 



Over a Period of 3 Years 



Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

PEAR BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 



HOYT'S TREE SUPPORT 



PATENTED NOV. 26, 1901. 
PATENTED SEPT. 22, 1903. 



A USEFUL THING IS A JOY FOREVER 

The Propless Prop that Properly Props a Tree 




Hoyt's Tree Support on the Tree. 

Over Three Million Sold Since Introduction in 1903 

After your trees have broken down, overloaded with fruit, don't howl about 
your hard luck. The preventive is CHEAP, EFFECTIVE, PERMANENT. 

For Full Particulars and Descriptive Booklet write 

MacDONALD & SONS 

WATSONVILLE, CALIFORNIA 
General Agents for the HOYT TREE SUPPORT COMPANY. 




Vol. LXXV. No. 4. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 25, 1908. 



Thirty-eighth Year. 



Pruning Young Vines. 

Those who are now growing young 
vineyards in California will be greatly 
helped by a publication just issued from 
the University Experiment Station at 
Berkeley. It is Bulletin No. 193, and 
was written by Prof. F. T. Bioletti, 
who has unfortunately just retired from 
the public service to plant a commercial 
vineyard in San Benito county. We 
take from this bulletin a few pictures 
and brief notes, which will help begin- 
ners in the development of a good stump 
for a short-pruned vine. 

The way the vines are to be pruned 
will depend altogether on the growth 
they have made. If the growth has 
been small all the canes are removed 
entirely, except the strongest, and this 
is cut back to two buds. Any vines 
which have made a strong growth and 
possess at least one cane of which a suf- 
ficient length is well ripened may be 
pruned for tying up. All the canes are 
removed entirely, except the strongest, 
and this is cut back to 10, 15, or 18 
inches, according to the height at which 
it is intended to head the vine (see Fig. 
1, a). In no case should two canes of any 
length be left, and in all cases where it 
is impossible to obtain the full length of 
well-ripened wood for tying up, the cane 
should be cut back to two buds. It is 
very bad practice to leave some of the 
canes of intermediate length, as this 
causes the vines to head out at various 
heights, and produces an irregularity of 
shape which can never be remedied. 
The idea to be kept in mind is to cut 
back each winter nearly to the ground — 
that is, to two buds — until a cane is pro- 
duced with a length of well-ripened 
wood and good buds equal to the height 
at which the vine is to be headed. 

The treatment during the second and 
third spring and summer is of great im- 
portance to the future welfare of the 
vine. A little judicious care at this 
period will avert many troubles in later 
years. It will be necessary to go over 
the vineyard four or five times to do 
the suckering, topping, and tying which 
are necessary. 

The shoots starting from the vines 
which have been cut back to two buds 
should be thinned to a single one. This 
thinning should be done as soon as pos- 
sible in such a way that it is never 
necessary to remove a shoot more than 
three or four inches long (see Fig. 
1, b). A few weeks after the first thin- 
ning, the single shoot which has been 
left will have grown 10 or 15 inches. 
At this length it should be tied up to 
the stake (see Fig. 1, c). Strong grow- 
ing vines should be topped within one 
or two inches of the top of the stake, if 
the stakes have been chosen and driven 
so as to indicate the height chosen for 
heading the vines (see Fig. 1, c). This 
will insure the growth of laterals just 





Fig. 1. Treatment of an average vine dining second season. 

a. Winter pruning. 

b. Spring pruning— removal of suckers (S) and thinning of shoots (W). 

c. Summer treatment— tying to stake and topping. 




Fig. 2. Treatment of average vine during the third season, or of a vigorous vine during second. 

a. Vine pruned to one cane and tied to stake. 

b. Removal of suckers (S) and lower shoots (W) in spring. 

c. Vine in summer at time of pinching. 




Fig. 3. Three-year-old vines after pruning. 

a. Average vine with two spurs. 

b. Vigorous vines with three spurs, the lowest of which Is to be removed the following year 
o. Vigorous vine with three spurs. 



where they are needed for the next win- 
ter pruning. As a rule, all shoots be- 
tween the ground and the middle of the 
stakes should be taken off. Fig. 2 gives 
hints as to the treatment of the vine 
during the summer after tying up. 

The shoots coming from the upper 
half of the cane are to form the spurs 
for the following winter pruning, and 
can often be left to grow without 
further treatment. 

If the growth is very rapid and suc- 
culent, however, it is necessary to pinch 
them, or the first heavy wind may 
break them off (see Fig. 2, c). 

Pinching consists of the removal of 
one or two inches of growth at the ex- 
treme tip of the shoot. This delays the 
growth in length temporarily. Pinch- 
ing should be repeated at least once. 

After the leaves have fallen at the 
end of the third summer, every vine 
should have a well-formed, straight 
stem with two, three or more canes 
growing from the upper part, and the 
formation of the ' head ' or crown 
should commence. Any vines which 
have not been brought to this condition 
must be pruned like two or one year old 
vines, as the case may be. 

If the work up to this point has been 
well done, the formation of the head is 
a simple matter. It consists in leaving 
two, three, or four spurs, arranged as 
symmetrically as possible near the top 
of the vine. The stronger the vine, as 
evidenced by the number, length, and 
thickness of the canes, the larger the 
number of spurs and buds that should 
be left. 

A spur consists of the basal portion of 
a cane, and normally of two full inter- 
nodes. This leaves two buds besides 
the base bud. The number of buds to 
leave on a spur depends on the strength 
or thickness of the cane from which the 
spur is made. A thin, or weak, cane 
should be cut back to one bud or even 
to the base bud. A strong cane, on the 
other hand, should be left with three 
buds besides the base bud. 

The pruning of each vine requires 
judgment, and it is impossible to give 
an inflexible rule to follow. The ideal 
of a perfect vine should be kept in mind 
and each vine pruned as nearly in ac- 
cordance with this ideal as circum- 
stances permit. Pig. 3 represents 
nearly perfect three-year-old vines con- 
sisting of two or three symmetrically 
placed spurs of two buds each near the 
top of the stem. 

Sometimes it is necessary to leave a 
spur lower down (see Fig, 3, b). This 
spur will be removed the following year 
after it has produced two or three 
bunches of grapes. Sometimes a vine 
may be very vigorous but have only 
two canes properly placed for making 
spurs. In this case the spurs should be 
left longer— three buds and even in ex- 
treme cases four buds long. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 25, 1!)08 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 

Advertising rates made known on application. 

Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 

DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. - - - PUBLISHERS 

B. J. WICKSON Editor 

KDGAR RICKARD .... BuslneBB Manager 

The Week. 



We have to speak again of sulphur and the 
relation of its horticultural use to the fruit inter- 
ests of California. In common with all to whom 
these interests are of vital importance, we have 
hoped continuously for more than half a year 
that study and investigation would convince 
those who are entrusted with the administration 
of the new and beneficent pure-food laws that 
the rational use of sulphur as a proper agency 
for preventing discoloration, fermentation and 
insect invasion would be accepted as one of the 
most important and valuable industrial processes 
of the day, and that the fruit growers of Cali- 
fornia would find in these administrative officers 
most powerful allies in promoting the proper ase 
and preventing the abuse of such an agency. For, 
like most other good things, this agency has its 
abuses. The attitude of the producers has been 
clearly this, from the beginning of the contro- 
versy: "Teach us how to use this agency aright; 
help us to prevent a wrong use .of it which trans- 
forms a benign agency into a cloak to conceal 
unwholesomeness and fraud." 

The keenest disappointment and the most de- 
pressing apprehension now prevail throughout 
California, as there is reason to fear that those 
who promulgated a regulation, which was de- 
fenseless because those who made it proceeded 
without demonstration of its character and 
effects, are disposed to arbitrarily adhere to their 
preconception of its character and to deceive 
themselves as to its effects by idle suggestions 
of changed processes which are not only imprac- 
ticable in themselves but an insult to the intelli- 
gence of California fruit growers, since these 
suggestions manifest such an utter lack of the 
most elementary knowledge of the natural agen- 
cies and economic conditions which are involved 
in the great dried-fruit industries of California. 



Current report, through press telegrams and 
many letters from Californians now in Washing- 
ton, is that the regulation-making power of the 
pure food legislation proposes to prohibit the use 
of sulphur either by direct condemnation of the 
product or, by making it hateful or an object of 
suspicion, to render it largely unsalable. As a 
compensation for this destruction of an industry, 
which it has required the best work of Califor- 
nians a quarter of a century to build up, these 
regulation-makers offer a great discovery of 
theirs, viz., that the fruit be cured in steam 
evaporators, and this they claim to believe would 
be of great advantage to California. This is a 
proposition so fresh and rank in its verdure that 
Californians, who were only hurt and fearful six 
months ago, are now losing their temper, as, 
clearly, insult is being added to injury. 

To consider the matter as calmly as possible, 
which is surely the proper thing to do, even in 
the face of so great an offense, there are several 
things which must be said, because, perhaps, 
some people do not know them. The contentions 
of the California fruit growers include the fol- 
lowing : 



L Properly sulphured cured fruits are whole- 
some. 

2. The use of sulphur is fundamental in the 
preparation of products which have made Cali- 
fornia famous. 

3. The use of sulphur is not only preservative 
and protective, it is sine qua non in productive 
enterprises which are characteristically and 
uniquely Californian. 

4. The use of sulphur enables Californians to 
minister to trade and consumption which is and 
will be thus satisfied and not otherwise. 

5. The use of sulphur is not only the sheet 
anchor of commercial safety in vast aggregate 
production but enables individual fruit growers 
to realize, with almost nominal investment, profit 
from cured fruits which may not at the time com- 
mand such value in a fresh state. 

6. The use of sulphur makes it possible 'not 
only to safeguard value in the finest fruits, but 
justifies investment in large acreage, for which 
the production of cured fruits is the primary 
purpose. 

7. Thus it is no exaggeration to claim that 
there is in the disturbance over the use of sulphur 
a serious menace to the present prosperity and 
future development of California which only 
those who know our industrial processes inti- 
mately and accurately can at all appreciate. The 
final adjustment of the matter should be reached 
by an unbiased tribunal which would receive and 
consider all evidence presented to it, and pursue 
such original investigation as it deems wise. 



Let these several propositions be briefly ex- 
plained and supported: 

1. California fruit growers support the theory 
and practice of the pure-food laws most zealously. 
They expect to secure from them protection 
against falsification, at home and in distant 
States, which has debased pure Californian pro- 
ducts by adulteration and displaced them In 
inferior products under California labels. They 
also have the highest regard and loyalty for the 
public health. If they believed that any of the 
California processes made human food unwhole- 
some they would abandon them without protest 
at whatever cost. If the abuse of any of these 
processes results in unwholesomeness, they urge 
the prohibition of such abuse. But they be- 
lieve just as sincerely that wise use of sulphur in 
the curing of fruits promotes wholesomeness and 
does not menace it. They have a profound con- 
viction that the opposition to such wise use of sul- 
phur is a preconception, arbitrarily and unreason- 
ably adhered to, because of ignorance and preju- 
dice. They do not accept any alleged unwhole- 
somenesf|;of properly sulphured fruits as satisfac- 
torily demonstrated. They do not accept any evi- 
dence of the unwholesomeness of sulphites which 
has yet been brought to their attention as rele- 
vant to the condition of California cured fruits 
because in the culinary treatment of such fruits 
such sulphites are not eaten. They demand that 
tests for the presence of sulphites or sulphates or 
of the free acids of sulphur, shall be made in the 
fruit as it is formed for consumption and not 
otherwise. They contend that properly sulphured 
fruit is cleaner, freer from undesirable fermenta- 
tion and from disgusting insect life than is fruit 
cured in any way without sulphur, and therefore 
the proper use of sulphur during the curing pro- 
cess as employed by honorable and conscientious 
growers, is impelled by the spirit of the pure-food 
law and in no w r ay in opposition to it. 



2. Before the employment of the sulphur pro- 
cess, California cured fruits were suitable only to 



the lowest culinary uses. They were of undesir- 
able color, devoid of natural flavor, offensive by 
content of insect life. They had no value which 
would induce production and no discernible 
future. Placing the trays of freshly cut fruit in 
boxes or small "houses," in which were the 
fumes of burning sulphur, made it possible to pre- 
serve its natural color and flavor during the evap- 
oration of its surplus moisture in the clear sun- 
shine and dry air of the California summer. It 
also prevented souring, which is otherwise not 
preventable in such open air drying, and it pro- 
tected the fruit from insect attack during the 
drying process. The present effect of such use 
of sulphur is a production of cured fruits, for 
which sulphur treatment is desirable, to a total 
valuation of about fifteen million dollars. It is 
practically impossible to continue such produc- 
tion without sulphuring, and the growth of the 
industry, which has been advancing at the rate 
of about one million dollars per year on the aver- 
age, is also cut off. By the use of sulphur and 
by no other agency has it been possible to lift the 
production of cured fruits of certain kinds from 
a low-value hap-hazard by-product to a primary 
product for which Californians have planted 
orchards, constructed packing houses and made 
a name in the world \s markets. 

The action of sulphuring is not alone to protect 
the fruit, it facilitates evaporation so that about 
one-half less time is required therefor. Not the 
least important bearing of this fact is the feasi- 
bility of curing fruits in larger pieces. The grand 
half-peaches, half-apricots, half-pears of the Cali- 
fornia cured fruits are a corollary of the sulphur 
process. Without it the fruit must be cut into 
small sections or ribbons, which in cooking break 
down into an \ininviting mass, while, with the 
sulphuring, it is ordinary practice to produce the 
splendid halves with their natural color so pre- 
served that they lie in cut glass dishes in sugges- 
tive semblance to the finest product of the can- 
hers, secured at a fraction of the cost. This is 
the great horticultural and economic achievement 
which Californians will not abandon without a 
struggle. 



3. But, according to the correspondence from 
Washington, California is to be forced to abandon 
what it has taken a quarter of a century to de- 
velop and to fit out with world-connections and 
for which its name is glorified in all parts of the 
•rlobe which have climates that enable them to 
grow our fruits and employ our methods and is 
to be taught a better way. It is even seriously 
suggested that we disregard the fact that our sun 
and air favor open-sky evaporation, build drying- 
houses and insult the god of day with the smoke 
of machine evaporation, as people are compelled 
to do in countries of summer rains and moist sum- 
mer air. This silly suggestion makes Californians 
furious, because a third of a century ago they 
tried all these artificial devices and abandoned 
them as wholly lacking in capacity and economic 
operation, which are essential to a great cured- 
fruit industry. No recourse is now had to them 
except in a small way in stress of unusual weather 
conditions, and they are only installed ii2 r fct few 
places. The cost of such arrangements and their 
operation would place the curing of fruits out of 
reach of thousands of our growers who now can 
make splendid products with home-made sulphur 
boxes and the God-made sun, free to all. But this 
is not all. It is perfectly easy to make some of 
our most unique and characteristic cured fruits in 
the sunshine and exceedingly difficult to make 
them in a machine-drier. The apricot is a particu- 
larly rebellious fruit in a drier, and unless they 



January 25, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



5' 



can be successfully sun-cured the trees will go for 
firewood. The half-peach is more responsive, but 
few will take the risk of investment for machine- 
curing it. Apples of course take to the machine, 
but apples are not largely for us and that only 
as a by-product to save waste, and not as a pri- 
mary product. 



4. We expect to be told by these fruit-drying 
reformers that the natural colors of our fruits 
need not be preserved; that something a few 
shades darker will be just as good or better. We 
have but few words for that impracticable sug- 
gestion. It is the customer who fixes that matter. 
He simply will not buy dark-colored fruit; he 
never did in any quantity and he never will, and 
the attempt to force him to do so will ruin this 
generation of producers in any event. Is it any 
wonder that those who have their capital and, 
their livelihood at stake grow impatient at such 
suggestions? They cannot forget the u de 1 cj,siQns of 
the Germans who, in response to agrarian pres- 
sure, raised an anti-sulphuring embargo against 
California cured fruits, and then removed it be- 
cause German consumers demanded what German 
chemists pronounced innocuous. To have such an 
experience abroad and to be menaced with prohi- 
bition in their own country of a food-product of 
unparalleled beauty and trade favor, makes it 
almost impossible to listen calmly to suggestions 
of changing the style which has been developed 
with so much effort and commercial success. 



5. The important economic relation whi'dh the 
sulphured product bears to the whole fruit inter- 
est of California and to the success of individual 
producers, has already been suggested in other 
connections. There are usually three avenues of 
disposition open to California growers : Fresh 
fruit shipments, sales to canners, curing at home. 
The third is obviously the regulator of the first 
and second, for it is always in competition with 
them. Since the sulphur process has secured such 
a fine and valuable product the grower has been 
independent of unfavorable conditions which 
might arise in sales to shippers or canners. 



6. It is not merely a question of saving what 
is unsuitable or is rejected. The price commanded 
by well cured fruits holds the minimum price for 
other uses at a good figure, and is also so good 
that planting for this purpose alone is consider- 
able. This not only could not occur if it were 
merely a waste-saving proposition, but it can no 
longer exist at all if the placing of this highest 
grade fresh fruit in the cured form which the 
world's trade demands, is in any way seriously 
interfered with. There is no hope of shipping in 
a fresh state nor of selling to canners even the 
present output of certain fruits. They must be 
sun-cured or the trees must be uprooted. 



7. California fruit growers do not impugn the 
motives or doubt the sincerity of purpose of those 
who have thrown the cured-fruit industry into its 
present condition. They are, however, quite sure 
that those who have made the first attempt at 
regulating the use of sulphur have no adequate 
knowledge of California practices and the effects 
produced, nor have they the point of view from 
which the process must be finally judged. The 
growers are disposed to insist that some higher 
tribunal should pass upon all matters involved, 
after receiving the showing of the framers of the 
regulations and of those also who consider their 
industries unjustly affected by these regulations. 
For these reasons the California growers are 



likely to hail with satisfaction the telegraphed 
announcement that President Eoosevelt has de- 
cided to obtain expert information regarding cer- 
tain questions of chemistry involved in the appli- 
cation of the pure-food law. He has written to 
the presidents of Yale, Johns-Hopkins, North- 
western University, University of Illinois, Univer- 
sity of Virginia and University of California, re- 
questing that they submit names of several prac- 
tical scientists, from which he proposes to select 
a board of five to consider the regulations which 
have been made by the Department of Agricul- 
ture regarding the use of sulphur in preserving 
fruit, the use of benzoate of soda in the preser- 
vation of catsup and other food products, the use 
of glucose in syrups, besides several other chem- 
ical questions. The President indicated that he 
had taken this course to please Representatives 
Needham, Hayes and Smith, of California, who 
called at the White House to protest against the 
sulphur regulations. They regard this manner 
of settling the controversy as entirely satisfac- 
tory, and we believe the California growers will 
also approve it. 



Californians are getting ready to place their 
side of this question before commissioners, execu- 
tive officers, legislative committees or, in fact, any 
constituted authorities whatever. They are most 
emphatically in earnest. A notable meeting was 
held in this city on January 16, under the auspices 
of the State Board of Trade, at which the atti- 
tude of the growers was very strongly set forth. 
A committee consisting of Gen. N. P. Chipman. 
W. A. Schaeffer, Mrs. L. P. Bancroft, J. C. Daly, 
W. H. Brailsford, and F. H. Babb, after due con- 
sideration reported earnestly in favor of organi- 
zation of growers and energetic work to prevent 
the enforcement of existing regulations through 
sending a representation to Washington to urg- 
ently present the matter to the Government. This 
action was enthusiastically taken, and the follow- 
ing were chosen to act as they see fit as repre- 
sentatives of the growers : Arthur R. Briggs, C. 
C. Royc'e, J. C. Daly, E. D. Pettitt, B. E. Hutch- 
inson, W. H. Brailsford, George W. Pierce. Since 
this action was taken, President Roosevelt has 
decided upon the commission mentioned in the 
previous paragraph, and it may be that the work 
of the committee may be addressed to the com- 
mission. They will be ready, however, to act in 
any way that seems wise, and they are men full 
of knowledge, strength and tact. They may be 
trusted to do the best that can be done. 



Queries and Replies. 



One Should Be Taken, the Other Left. 

To the Editor : Enclosed find leaves of a lemon 
tree from my place. The tree does not thrive. It 
looks worn and broken up, with leaves as you see 
them. I have tried different kinds of washes. 
About fifteen feet away is another lemon tree 
in full bearing, which has over 300 lemons on it, 
fine, healthy and bearing for the last six years. 
Please tell me what I can do with the poor one, 
as I am going to plant more, and want the right 
kind of advice. The tree I am asking about has 
no life, and looks dead, or near it. — Reader, Santa 
Cruz. , n , a 

The lemon leaf which you send is covered with 
sraw't, the smut being a fungus growth upon the 
honey-dew exuded from the scale insects which 
are present upon the higher leaves. This leaf 
shows that you have the "soft orange scale," and 
this particular scale can be cleaned off by dili- 
gent use of kerosene emulsion. 

Whether the work of this scale is to be credited 
wholly with the condition which you describe is 



very doubtful. The trouble with this particular 
tree may be in the soil, or in the fact that the 
water settles around the roots, or to other condi- 
tions which one cannot tell from a leaf. It may 
be another kind of a lemon. It would be inter- 
esting for you to experiment by grafting from the 
lemon which bears well and graft over the unsat- 
isfactory tree, after cleaning it of scale, although 
from what you say of its behavior it might be 
better to dig out the tree, make a good hole to 
see whether you are over a rock or over a grav- 
elly bed, and, if not, put in fresh soil aud start a 
new tree. These are things which you must exer- 
cise your own judgment about, as it is impossible 
to tell from a leaf specimen exactly what to do. 



Killing English Sparrows. 

To the Editor: Will you please publish some effect- 
ive method of poisoning sparrows. I and my neigh- 
bors have had our orchards much injured by them. 
A large colony shelters in some olive trees, and in the 
spring they eat all the blossoms off the neighboring,, , 
prune trees. Would wheat and cornmeal, soaked in, 
dissolved and sweetened strychnine, be an effective 
means of destroying them ? or would bird seed or 
chopped meat be more attractive to them? — Pkune 
Grower, Morgan Hill, Cal. 

We recently published a formula for poisoning of 
wheat and barley for squirrel killing. The same grain 
will kill sparrows, so long as they can be persuaded to 
take it. Sometimes powdered strychnine mixed 
with coarsely ground cornmeal will be attractive to 
them, and sometimes the use of strychnine dissolved 
in water is very effective in bird killing in the dry 
season, but will not be so attractive to them in the 
winter. Most poisoners, however, conclude that a 
double-barreled shotgun with fine bird-shot is the best 
recourse against English sparrows, because of the 
danger of killing other more desirable birds by the 
use of poison. 

A Striped Ladybird. 

To the Editor: I send you some bugs found on a 
small palm set out last spring. During the summer I 
noticed some of these bugs on the leaves but made no 
investigation as no damage was apparent. On looking 
closely the other day we found in the blue grass at the 
foot of the palm literally thousands of these fellows. 
My wife scooped up nearly two gallons of them. 
Never saw them here before and are suspicious, but 
they do not seem to have done the palm any injury. 
Please give them a certificate of character so that we 
may know how to treat them. — Farmer, Dos Palos. 

The insects which you find in such abundance are 
ladybirds, quite different from the conventional type 
of a ladybird because they look rather more like the 
striped squash and cucumber beetle, or Diabroticas, 
which are such pests in the garden. The proper name 
of the insect is Megilla vitigera. It seems to have the 
same method of collecting in large masses for hiber- 
nating purposes which the common reddish and yel- 
lowish species do. So far as it is of any agricultural 
account it is presumably beneficial. , | r . 

Post Hoc Sed non Propter Hoc. 

To the Editor: When our lemon trees were covered 
with black scale they were otherwise healthy aud we 
had good crops. Since the scale was destroyed by the 
enemy the trees have gradually dwindled and are now 
practically dead. Do you suppose there is any con- 
nection ? — Amateur, Hay wards. 

The failure of your lemon trees has nothing to do 
with the disappearance of the black scale. They 
were simply stricken with some other trouble. The 
most dangerous 1 , 1 perhaps, would be dying back, caused 
by collection of water about the roots, such as might 
result from seepage or from too liberal application. 



Bearing of the Bartlett. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly inform me tli rough 
your valuable paper whether the Bartlett pear will 
produce well when planted in a single row— -as, 
for instance, around the edge of a vineya rd ?— HEADER, 
Stockton. 

The Bartlett is generally self-fertile in California. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 25, rM& 



Forestry. 



Creosoting Perishable Wood for Posts and 
Stakes. 

There is so great demand for fence posts and vine 
stakes that any way of rendering perishable wood 
durable is of interest. The use of creosote has been 
favorably reported by the Forestry Service. Whether 
a creosoted stake can be safely driven down among 
the roots of a vine has still to be determined. 

The U. S. Forestry Service has just issued Circular 
117, by Mr. Howard F. Weiss, on " The Preservative 
Treatment of Fence Posts," from which we take facts 
which seem locally most interesting. 

The material employed is creosote, or dead oil of 
coal tar. In the making of coal gas, coal is subjected 
to high heat without the presence of sufficient air to 
permit combustion. The process gives two main pro- 
ducts — illuminating gas and coal tar. The coal tar is 
then distilled and separated into the light oils, the 
dead oils (creosote), and pitch. Creosote can be ob- 
tained by the barrel in many of the larger cities of the 
United States. 

Apparatus Used. — In the experiments at St. 
Louis and at Elhvood, Santa Barbara county, Cal- 
ifornia, the apparatus used consisted of a cylin- 
drical tank made of ; Kits-in- sheet iron, about 4 ft. 
in diam. and 4 ft. in depth, with a perforated iron 
plate in the bottom. The tank was built on the side 
of a hill in order to facilitate the handling of the posts, 
and was set upon brick piers so that a fire could be 
built under it. Creosote was then poured into the 
tank and the posts were placed in it. The total cost 
of su?h a tank is about $45. 

The essential requirements are that the creosote shall 
be heated in the vessel to about 215° F., and that the 
butts of the posts shall be submerged up to about six 
inches above their ground line. In special cases, 
where a thorough top treatment is necessary, the ves- 
sel should be of sufficient size to allow the whole post 
to be submerged. 

RESULTS. — The Forest Service has so far experi- 
mented with 18 kinds of wood cut for fence posts. In 
the accompanying table the species are arranged in 
five groups, according to the manner in which they 
absorbed the creosote during the experimental treat- 
ments. The posts, in all cases, are peeled. By hot 
creosote is meant that which has a temperature of 
about 215° F. 

RESULTS OF TREATING FENCE POSTS. 

[All the posts were round, except the sycamore and cotton, 
wood, part of which were split.] 



Hours in Hours In itesult- 

Hpecles. Condition. hot cold Ing pene- 
creosotc. creosote, tratlon.ln. 

Blue gum Green 2 * 

Red gum " 2 * 

Sugar gum " 2 * 

Iron bark " 2 * 

Willow " 4 12 0.3 

Elm Seasoned fi 12 0.4 

Maplet " 6 12 0.5 

Douglas fir " 6 12 0.7 

Q,uaklng aspen " 6 12 0.8 

Black walnut " 5 12 1.2 

Sycamoref " '- 12 1.5 

Cotton wood t " 2 12 1.5 



*ln posts of the eucalyptus the creosote will be found princi- 
pally In the pith rays and the tubes called " vascular ducts." It 
Is best to stand these posts butt up after treatment, so that the free 
oil In them will run toward the top. 

tC|uaklng aspen, willow, maple, sycamore, and cottonwood, 
should alBO be given top treatment. 

The heartwood of sycamore and cottonwood takes 
treatment readily and posts of these woods may be 
either round or split. 

A post may be top-treated by simply plunging its 
top into hot creosote, or by applying creosote with a 
brush, like paint. The former method, however, is 
better, because it allows the creosote to penetrate all 
the season cheeks, and any surplus creosote runs back 
into the tank and is used again. The brush form of 
top treatment should not be given while either the 
wood or the air is cold, because the creosote will then 
simply harden upon the surface instead of penetrating 
into the wood. If the decay in the top is very rapid, 
as in the loblolly pine posts in the South, the best re- 
sults are accomplished by impregnating the whole 
post with creosote. In such cases the heating tank 
should be of such size that, when filled with creosote, 
the posts will be completely submerged. 

The results of a series of tests show the effect of 
the temperature of the hot creosote and of the duration 
of the baths in hot and in cold creosote. The hotter 
the creosote the greater the absorption and penetra- 
tion. Within fixed limits increased duration of the 
bath in hot creosote (other factors being equal) gives 
greater absorption and penetration. 

There is no exact relation between penetration and 
absorption. A detailed discussion of the causes for this 
or the determination of the controlling factors would 
be chiefly theoretical and not included here. 

Cost of Treatment.— The total cost of treated 
fence posts varies so much in different regions that 
general figures are out of the question. Since the 



users of fence posts In various parts of the country 
know the cost of untreated posts, only estimates 
on the cost of treatment must suffice. If the de- 
termining factors are known the cost of treatment 
in any locality can be easily estimated. 

The cost depends upon the cost of the apparatus, the 
price of labor, the number of jK)sts treated per day, 
the absorption of creosote per post, and the cost of cre- 
osote. 

The cost of the apparatus may lie merely nominal if 
an old boiler is used. An apparatus like that used in 
the experiments costs from $30 to $45. 

The price of labor varies with the locality. It can 
be easily ascertained. 

The number of posts that can be treated per day 
depends upon the size of the tank and the size and 
form of the posts. In general, a tank with a bottom 
12 square feet in area will hold between 40 and 50 
posts li inches in diameter at the butt. With such a 
tank, this number of posts would be the daily capac- 
ity, except with lodgepole pine posts, with which two 
runs per day can be made. 

The absorption of creosote per post differs widely for 
thespecies: Eucalyptus, green, 1/u, gal.; elm and maple, 
ho gal.; fir, aspen and walnut, 9io willow, ^ 

gal.; sycamore and cottonwood, vio gallon. 

The price of creosote varies at present from 10 cents 
l>er gallon in the East and Middle West to 27 cents 
l>er gallon in theKocky Mountain States. On the Pa- 
cific coast it is about 16 cents per gallon. 

If a man does the work himself or in co-operation 
with his neighbors, the cost per post will, of course, 
be much less. 

In general, the cost of treating a j>ost will vary from 
4 to 15 cents, depending upon the factors just given. 
In order to get the total cost of a treated post, the cost 
of treatment must, of course, be added to the cost of 
the post. A post properly treated should give service 
for at least twenty years. 

Conclusions. — The resistance of all treated posts to 
decay is alike, regardless of the kind of wood used; 
hence only the cheaper woods should be used, and the 
more valuable kinds saved for other purposes. Since 
sapwood can be impregnated better than heartwood, 
posts with much sapwood are the best. 

Posts cut from woods whose heartwood cannot he 
treated are best left round. When the heartwood 
takes treatment readily either round or split posts 
may be used. 

Posts should be air dry before they are treated or 
set. They should be cut at least a month before treat- 
ment. Wood dries fastest in the spring or summer, 
but with those species which check badly, such as the 
oaks, cutting is best done in the autumn or early 
winter. 

Even the inner bark should be removed before the 
posts are treated or set, especially from that part of the 
post submerged in the creosote. Bark reduces the 
penetration of creosote into the wood, besides itself ab- 
sorbing the creosote without increasing the durability 
of the post. 

The lops of posts should be cut slanting, preferably 
with an ax, so that rain water will not remain on 
them. When they are cut with a saw the pitch should 
be greater, especially in posts where there is a marked 
difference in hardness between the springwood and 
the summerwood. 

If butt treatments in the open tank can not be given, 
and yet some preservative method is desired, plunge the 
butts of the posts into a vessel of hot creosote or car- 
bolineum, or apply either liquid with a brush. Ap- 
plication of any of the methods mentioned will tend to 
make the posts more durable than they would be if 
set green. 

Whenever possible use an apparatus similar to the 
one described for open-tank treatments. 

Use as heavy a grade of creosote as can be ob- 
tained. 

Aim to get the creosote to soak as far into the posts 
as possible. With woods having shallow sapwood 
(about one-half inch deep) treat all the sapwood. 
With woods having deep sapwood, or with heartwood 
that takes treatment readily, secure a penetration of at 
least 1 inch. The heartwood of very few species can 
be treated. For this reason round posts are better 
than split posts, since a penetration is obtained en- 
tirely around them. Species with a deep sapwood, 
like lodgepole pine, will absorb much more creosote 
than species with shallow sapwood, like chestnut. 

A long bath in hot creosote, followed by a shorter 
one in cold creosote, will probably give best results. 
Csually, woods with a porous structure, like the pop- 
lars, can be treated more readily than dense woods, 
like oaks, and hence need not be left in the creosote 
for so long a time. 

Never heat the creosote above 250° F. In most 
cases a temperature just above the boiling point of 
water is best. Heating the creosote above 250° F. 
weakens the wood and causes a large amount of cre- 
osote to vaporize. 

Never brush-treat posts when the air or the post is 
so cold that the creosote simply solidifies on the sur- 
face of the post. 

Keep the posts as dry as possible before treatment, 
and keep rain and snow out of the tank by roofing it, 
if necessary. 



The Field. 



The V&lue of Burnet. 



To the Editor : I should like to add my personal ex- 
perience with potentilla or burnet as now called to the 
already numerous recommendations it lias received. 

Early in the spring of 1904 I received from Mr. 
Howard Overacker, Jr., one head of seeds of the plant, 
which I planted in a neighbor's garden where the seeds 
could be properly irrigated and cultivated. It made 
a fine vigorous growth. In July the plants were two 
feet high and in blossom when a cow broke into the 
garden and ate the plants to the very ground. As the 
cow ate nothing else in the garden and was chewing 
away at the largest stalks when her owner found her, 
the evidence is very strong that she preferred the po- 
tentilla to garden truck. 

The roots from the plants from which the cow ate 
the stalks threw up new shoots and a crop of seeds 
was collected. 

The following spring I tried the seeds thu> collected 
in dry ground. The earth where a brush pile had 
been burned was cleared and the seeds lightly raked 
in. I planted two patches about 20 ft. square, one 
with an eastern exposure and one with a western ex- 
posure. I covered the patches with brush. The young 
plants came up promptly and continued to grow all 
through the dry summer. The cattle trampled down 
the brush and ate the plants as closely as they could, 
still the potentilla was vigorous and growing, thus 
showing how well it grew and thrived under adverse 
conditions. 

These two personal experiences show conclusively 
that potentilla or burnet is eagerly eaten by cattle and 
that it will grow on the dry hillside without water or 
cultivation. 

J. S. BOVNTON. 

St. Helena. 



Cantaloupe Growing in Imperial Valley. 

We have had many references to the comparatively 
new industry of cantaloupe grow ing in the new south- 
east county of the State, Imperial. The following 
outline of the commercial assets of last season's re- 
sults was recently given in the New York Fruit Trade 
Journal by Mr. L. M. Lyon, president of the firm 
which handled the output of the Brawley Cantaloupe 
Growers' Association of Brawley, Cat, last year and 
which has a new contract for 1908. 

One of the striking features of the statement made 
by Mr. Lyon is the large average made for fancy stan- 
dards, 1(2.50 per crate, and choice standards averaged 
$1.61. Fancy ponies averaged $1.74 and choice $1.08. 
These were the Crown brand, principally grown by 
the Association. Jumbo, fancy, averaged $2.4:1, and 
choice, $1.59. Mr. Lyons states that there were only 
21 members of the Association, and he paid them net 
$146,918.93. 

In speaking of the conditions in the Imperial Val- 
ley, Mr. Lyon said that naturally the big returns 
which growers received last season greatly encouraged 
the cantaloupe industry, and that there would be more 
cantaloupes grown there next year than ever before. 
The Brawley Cantaloupe Association will have 75 
members next year instead of 2:1 as last season, 
and the acreage will represent about 2,500 acres. The 
Brawley Association, as is known, grow the Crown 
brand cantaloupes, and they will also grow Crown 
brand grapes, tomatoes, watermelons, etc. 



Fruit Preservation. 



Prune Problems in Oregon. 

Mr. P. K. Escott writes to the Portland Oregonian 
some things about prunes in Oregon which are inter- 
esting if not directly pertinent to prune handling in 
this State. The references are of course to machine- 
dried prunes and therefore different from ours. .Mr. 
Escott writes: 

If it is true, as reported from the Last, that Oregon 
prunes were rejected by the buyers because they were 
moldy and 'off-count,' the Oregon prune industry has 
suffered an injury from which it will bike a long time 
to recover. There is the possibility, of course, that 
buyers who were caught by the financial stringency 
have sought with a microscope for enough mold to 
justify rejection of a carload of fruit, and have split 
hairs in weighing out a pound of prunes with such 
exactness as to discover a mistake in the count. This, 
however, is not probable. Prune packers on the 
Coast have too much at stake to let contracts be can- 
celed unless there is in fact a material basis for objec- 
tion to the fruit. It is fair to assume, therefore, that 



January 25, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Oregon prunes have been found moldy and too small 
in size and that the buyers had good grounds for turn- 
ing down the goods when received. 

With the Packer. — The fault lies unmistakably 
with the packer and upon him the fruit growers of 
Oregon should fix the responsibility. The injury must 
be borne by the grower as well as packer, for the 
result must inevitably be a lessened demand for 
Oregon fruit and a closer scrutiny of future shipments. 
While it is true that the cause of moldy fruit can in 
general be traced back to the grower, it cannot be 
traced to any grower in particular. The packer is the 
man who had the opportunity and the duty of pre- 
venting the marketing of prunes that would mold, 
and, if he has failed in this respect, his responsibility 
can be fixed beyond question by the brand upon the 
box of fruit when it is opened in the East. 

Those familiar with the prune business know that 
the chief cause of moldy prunes is poor drying. A 
prune properly cured will keep indefinitely if kept 
dry. One under-dried will mold almost before it can 
be packed. It is also well known that prune packers 
make a practice of putting water on dried prunes be- 
fore packing them and that an excess of water will 
produce mold. Since the packer inspects the fruit 
before receiving it from the grower, he has the oppor- 
tunity to reject any that may be under-dried. He 
also has the exclusive control of the watering of the 
fruit in the process of packing. Upon him, therefore, 
must rest the responsibility for fruit that will not keep. 

Tempted to Undekdry. — Growers are tempted to 
underdry their fruit because they can reduce expense 
in that manner and in addition increase the weight of 
their produce. An underdried prune is larger in size 
than one thoroughly dried and brings a larger price. 
The same circumstances tempt the packer to put in 
too much water, increasing the weight of each prune 
and of the total. The price varies according to the 
number of prunes required to make a pound, the 
smaller the number the greater the price. By too 
close grading, the packer sometimes fails to make his 
fruit count correctly in the test and in consequence 
suffers a rejection in the East because the fruit is ' off- 
count.' 

We have in this State a law which forbids the pack- 
ing of infected fresh fruit and one which requires the 
placing of the name of the grower and the packer 
upon every box of fresh fruit, the purpose being to 
prevent marketing of diseased fruit and injury to the 
reputation of our fruit product. The law is a good one, 
for experience has shown that growers, as a whole, 
must be protected from those individuals who would 
sell inferior goods. Apparently we shall need a sim- 
ilar law to protect the industry from those packers 
who put up prunes in such a manner that they will 
mold before they can be shipped from Oregon to the 
Atlantic. 

If the prunes were not moldy, the packers owe it to 
themselves and the State to establish that fact by in- 
sisting that the fruit be accepted and paid for accord- 
ing to contract. If they were moldy, the responsi- 
bility should be fixed and the irresponsible packers 
exposed. 



Horticulture. 



Apple Growing in the Willamette Valley. 

From an address by Mr. M. 0. Lowssdale of Lafayette, Ore- 
gon, at the California Fruit Growers' Convention. 

The growing of apples in the Willamette valley 
was one of the first industries undertaken by the old 
Oregon pioneers. To these adventurous souls, these 
crusaders to a holy land, the great valley with its 
fertile soil, abundant moisture and delightful tem- 
perature, seemed the natural home of fruits that were 
the joy of childhood days. The planting of apples re- 
sulted at first in a tentative way by the trial of seed- 
lings. The remarkable productiveness of these seed- 
lings was everywhere noted and soon led to the 
introduction of grafted trees. In the fall of 1847 the 
first grafted apple trees were planted in the Willamette 
valley, and were the first grafted trees to be planted 
on the Pacific Coast. Other sections may appropriate, 
other sections may imitate, but the Willamette valley 
will always be the true, the original " land of big red 
apples." 

The varied industries of farmers in the fertile valley 
where so many lines of industry thrived caused the 
orchards of those early days to be neglected, forgotten, 
and they soon passed into ghostly semblance of their 
primal glory. But we of a younger generation, be- 
lieving somewhat in a reincarnation of souls, propose 
to give a new life and vigor to these old orchards by 
cutting them back to the ground, allowing them to 
grow a year and top grafting into Yellow Newtowns. 
Then by stringent legislation to compel owners to 
keep these rejuvenated trees from pests. 

There is practically an unlimited market in England 
for Yellow Newtowns to which we propose to cater. 



This variety is a very low grower in our valley and 
needs just the virile root-system of these old orchards 
to give it thrift and vigor. However, it is not upon 
these pioneer orchards that the Willamette valley de- 
pends for the maintenance of fame as the " home of 
the big, red apples." Large commercial orchards 
have been planted in various sections of the valley 
and are annually producing great quantities of fruit 
that in each succeeding year bring higher and higher 
prices in Eastern markets. The work of growing 
apples for these sensitive and hypercritical markets 
has become a specialty with many Oregon orchardists. 

The extreme care necessary to produce Spitzenbergs, 
for instance, running 72 and 80 to the Oregon box, all 
of high color and without blemish, fruit that brings 
from $2 to $5 per box, makes orcharding an operation 
of delicate exactness and of constant watchfulness. 
The cheaper grades of apples like Baldwins, Ben 
Davis, Rome Beauties, etc., do not need to command 
such extreme prices to be profitable. Yet the best 
orchardist is he who tries to approach as nearly as 
possible the standard in everything he grows, and so 
there is great rivalry in the specialty work of apple 
growing in Oregon. 

We of the Willamette valley claim to produce the 
highest type of Spitzenbergs grown on the Pacific 
Coast — which means in the world. To bring the 
radiant Spitzenberg to her greatest perfection a moist 
atmosphere is desirable — an abundance of moisture in 
the soil is imperative, and a valiant sweep of a tem- 
perate sun to soften the asperity of the autumnal 
frosts necessary. Dry climates or soils that lose their 
moisture rapidly are not to be trusted with the bring- 
ing up of a Spitzenberg family. Trees of this family 
are hard drinkers and also lose more moisture by 
transpiration than almost any of the standard varieties 
of apples. They require double the cultivation that 
would suffice for Baldwins, and varieties should be so 
interplanted as to allow of the extra cultivation of the 
thirstiest trees. 

The worst enemy of the apple grower in the Wil- 
lamette valley is apple scab, as the very condition 
that produces the high flavor and lusciousness of our 
fruits — an abundance of moisture in the air — furnishes 
the best medium for the development of the scab 
fungus. As yet we have not thoroughly mastered the 
obstinate fellow though we have a strong hold upon 
him and keep him in fair subjection. In the handling 
of these fungoid diseases we find that local conditions, 
atmospheric and otherwise, are often unique, and are 
always so variant in different localities that it is im- 
possible to formulate a universal rule for the treatment 
of such troubles. For instance, winter treatment of 
the scab fungus seems to be of no value in our valley 
and we are compelled to dodge the rain storms of late 
spring and in a moment, as it were, dose our trees 
with syrups of Bordeaux mixture or similar fungi- 
cides. As soon as the blossoms drop we are out com- 
bining with Bordeaux one of the arsenicals for the 
many beetles and measuring worms that inevitably 
make their homes in an apple orchard. No effort is 
made to fill the calyx with poison for codling moth, as 
in other apple-growing districts. Moths do not ap- 
pear in the Willamette valley before June 25 and it is 
useless to attempt to hold the poison in the calyx cup 
until that time. The poison is taken up in the process 
of fruit evaporation, or is dissipated by dews, fogs, 
and rains so that it disappears in about three weeks 
after an application, which would be considerably 
before the appearance of the moth in our valley. 

The labor of thinning begins as soon as the little 
apple-children begin to show the blessed precocity of 
youth. In the best practice we thin to about eight 
inches, and for better protection against moths and 
blemishes of fungus, we cut away all foliage that 
touches the fruit or obstructs the coloring rays of the 
sun. It is this infinite. solicitude, this tender care for 
the nursling, that gives the immediate vigor, the 
energy to push fruit along to the special high grade 
our finnicky market demands. Size, form, type, the 
ability to color well under the proper impulses, are all 
given when the little fruits are in swaddling clothes, 
as it were. Neglect at this time will cause a slow 
development, an inability to throw off fungoid dis- 
eases, and will leave many footholds for the attacks of 
apple worms and beetles. Weak pollinators, or . so-: 
called self-sterile trees like Spitzenbergs and Graven- 
steins, will often carry unfertilized fruit to a fair 
maturity if given such an extra impulse just as the 
same begins to increase in size. 

The paraphernalia of a large apple orchard and the 
elaborate processes of handling fruit are as spectacular 
in their operation as in any of the great orange groves 
of the south. Of late years trees have been groomed 
as faithfully as are thoroughbred horses in great rac- 
ing establishments. It is by attention to detail that 
fruit is brought to that perfection that enables us to 
get the highest prices paid in the world today for 
apples. As you have all learned years ago, the hap- 
hazard leads to the brush heap and every detail of our 
specialty work is the result of much study and experi- 
ence. 

Study with pruning knife and microscope, study of 
the physical characteristics of a tree with the same 
minute attention the physician or surgeon gives to the 
human system — study of the needs of this market and of 



that, of new and attractive methods of packing, study 
of even more abstruse subjects than these, all require 
an expert attention and demand that the large 
orchardist shall seldom go fishing. Exactness in the 
matter of spraying, heedful both of time and thor- 
oughness; exactness in the matter of cultivation, of 
thinning and watching the summer development of 
the fruit; exactness in allowing no foliage to touch 
the fruit, nor two apples to touch each other; such 
care in picking as is known to no other apple-growing 
section; the thorough washing and careful sizing of 
fruit with specially constructed machinery before it is 
stored in warehouses; the storing on ventilated trays; 
the control of drafts among the stored fruit — these are 
some of the requisites that go to make the growing of 
high grade apples a specialty proposition today and 
are methods used by the best growers in the Wil- 
lamette valley. 



To the Credit of Ben Davis. 

Mr. Louis Erb recently gave the Missouri Board of 
Horticulture some facts and fancies about the Ben 
Davis apple which we quote in part, because there are 
many Pacific Coast growers who think more of Ben 
than his current reputation at the East would seem to 
justify. Mr. Erb said: 

Now what are the facts about Ben Davis? You all 
know that it is as beautiful as a Kentucky horse and 
as useful as a Missouri mule. It is one of the most 
attractive apples to the eye, and if grown at Cedar Gap, 
Mo., a most delicious apple to the taste. Commer- 
cially it is considered the most profitable grown in all 
this southwestern country. As a showy stand apple it 
is gaining favor every year, and the export dmand for 
it is continually increasing. For cold storage purposes 
it has no superior, and can be kept in a good cold stor- 
age house in perfect condition till late in spring. I 
say a good cold storage house advisedly, because a bad 
one is worse than an old woodshed. 

Now these are the general facts about this king ot 
apples, and no man of sense, unless he is a crank and 
surcharged with prejudice, will deny them. But there 
are some facts, and one fact in particular, about Ben 
Davis, which is of far more importance to some of us 
commercial growers than all the rest, namely, we are 
not getting enough money for it when there is an aver- 
age crop of apples in the country. 

There is no good reason why Ben Davis apples 
should sell as they did last year all over the southwest, 
from 75 cents to $1.25 per barrel packed, and thus 
leave the growers without a profit on their invest- 
ments. Irregular as apple crops are in the southwest, 
No. 1 Ben Davis should never be sold under $2.50 per 
barrel to make apple growing profitable. Any man 
who says he can grow Ben Davis for a dollar a barrel 
and make money is talking through his hat. It can't 
be done, and I know it, and those of you who keep 
books know it as well as I do. 

Take an average of five years after the trees get into 
bearing, put on your specs and figure, if you know 
how to figure, and you will find that you can no more 
sell No. 1 Ben Davis at $1, or even $1.50, per barrel 
packed and make money than a man can grow straw- 
berries at 50 cents per crate and be prosperous. 



Planting and Care of Young Trees. 

We have many new readers who are doing their 
first tree planting in California this year. They will 
be greatly helped by a discussion of such operations i n 
the Fruit World, prepared by Mr. Leonard Coates, of 
Morgan Hill, one of our best informed fruit growers 
and nurserymen: 

To begin with, when the trees are received the bun- 
dles should be at once opened and the trees spread in a 
trench so that the roots are all covered with fine earth. 
Let the trench be shallow, so that in case of rains com- 
ing on the roots will not be in a soggy, water-logged 
soil. As the bundles are opened the roots of every tree 
should be noticed, and anything doubtful or showing 
any sign of knot or other disease should be laid aside 
for further attention. Any diseased or injured tree is 
not sent from the nursery intentionally by a reputable 
nurseryman, who, if he loses his reputation, loses his 
all. If any farmer will for a moment remember that 
with a lot of men — ten, twenty or a hundred — be they 
white or colored it is absolutely impossible to prevent an 
occasional tree getting into a bundle which should 
have been thrown on the brush pile. 

It should also be remembered that in no State in the 
Union are the conditions for handling trees more ad- 
verse than in California. This I say as a result of over 
30 years' experience here, and some knowledge as to 
how things are done elsewhere. It is not often that the 
digging and shipping season in California can be well 
started much before January 1. That is the beginning 
of the rainy season, with fair prospects of half the 
month at least being too wet for outdoor work, and by 
the middle of February almond and apricot trees are 
in bloom, springtime having come. During that time 







PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 25, 1908. 



1 00,000 to 1,000,000 trees and shrubs have to be dug, 
sorted out, packed and shipped or heeled in ready for 
shipment; new land has to be plowed and subsoiled 
and planting of seed and seedlings commenced, to 
which may be added grafting, cultivating and a host 
of other details which may be imagined rather than 
described. 

In the East the season begins with October, when 
digging is done, some trees being shipped early, but 
mainly stored; the cold weather stops outdoor work, 
which is resumed in the spring and continued long 
after the time allowed in California, as we are ship- 
ping ripe cherries in April. 

PLANTING. -The holes should be wide rather than 
deep, not less than 2 ft. in diameter and U ft. in depth 
and ti in. added both ways would be better. The bot- 
tom of the hole should !>e convex, and the roots should 
he spread in a natural manner. Do not trim the roots 
except to remove dead or bruised parts. The ' String- 
fellow ' method, however good it may be elsewhere, is 
worse than useless in California. I have seen it tried 
faithfully, hut with disastrous results. This plan is to 
cut both root and top practically to a stump. Firming 
the soil about the roots should be done with caution. 
If the soil is dry or sandy, the firmer the better, but if 
too moist, heavy, or adobe, care should be exercised 
that it be not pressed so that it will pack or become 
-baited and hard in the spring. A little fine top dirt 
may be found to press around the roots with the 
hands, which should be done in any case. 

SHADING. — Immediately after planting the trees 
should be pruned, which consists mainly in cutting off 
the top about 18 or 20 in. from the ground, the tree 
being planted so that the point of union between bud 
or f;raft and root is well covered. The amount of top 
removed must depend upon the tree, for it is necessary 
that there be good wood buds below the cut. For this 
reason a small or medium sized tree is more preferable 
bj large, overgrown or sappy trees, in which the 
strength has been forced to the top, there being no 
good buds at a foot or two from the ground. The ex- 
tremes should be avoided in having no trunk at all, 
which is the result when a tree is topped too low, and 
in having an old-fashioned 'standard' tree with 3 to 5 
ft. of trunk. 

When this topping is done, the trees should be 
shaded either by using some patent ' tree protector,' or 
by wrapping with burlap. I much prefer the latter 
plan. Cut old sacks into strips 2 or 3 in. wide and 
wind around the tree, beginning at the bottom an inch 
or two below the surface and to within 6 or 8 in. of the 



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top, where it is sewed and prevented from slipping 
down with the help of a sack-needle and twine. Bur- 
lap will last at least two years, so the cost is almost 
nothing except for the labor. It has advanta^ - in 
being porous and, therefore, cool in its pliability, by 
means of which, as soon as branches are formed or 
when trees have been planted a year, the sacking is 
loosened and extended up above the first branches, 
where it is again secured by a stitch with the needle. 
This point or crotch is a critical one, where sunburn 
and consequent borers will often occur. This is where 
a stiff protector, such as those made of paper or tube, 
is not so good. The only objection raised to the use of 
burlap is that it harbors insects. As these consist 
largely of ladybirds and spiders, the former deserving 
protection and the latter at least harmless, the objec- 
tion is overruled. A tree with its trunk thus pro- 
tected for three or four years will have no bark disease 
or borer, and even the inexperienced observer cannot 
fail to note the difference in the appearance of the bark 
of a tree so wrapped and one not properly protected. 

Young trees should be sprayed as a preventive 
measure. Use the Bordeaux mixture in November 
on peach trees for peach blight, and on all trees early 
in the spring before buds open to prevent mildew, 
curl leaf, scab, etc. 

Pruning. — Let everything grow the first year, ex- 
cept suckers from below the ground, and at the first 
pruning, one year from planting, select two or three 



of the strongest shoots situated several inches apart, 
and not in the form of a V or crotch, and cut them 
back to three or four buds, removing all other growth. 
Also bear in mind that trees should always be pruned 
when young so that more growth is left on the side 
of the prevailing wind during the summer or grow- 
ing *58»rJ, iwually on the west. The reason for this 
is obvious if one will notice the leaning condition of 
many orchards, which might easily have been avoided. 
If the winds are very strong, it is even best to lean 
the trees a little towards the wind when planting. 
In all after pruning when trees are young, care should 
be taken that there be not too many main limbs left, 
and that they do not start from the young tree too 
close together, which causes a weak superstructure, 
and also a point where gum will often exude. 

At least let the owner do his own pruning for the 
first few years, if he will be willing to learn how to do 
it, rather thau trust to hired men. To start right is 
more than half the battle. 



Ai.i,-the-year-kouxd demand for oranges has in- 
creased to such an extent that California growers have 
found it necessary to propagate more very early and 
very late varieties, until now there is hardly a day in 
the year in which citrus fruit shipments are not made 
from this State. The bulk of the crop, however, is 
handled between January 1 and July 1. 




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AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



ALAMEDA. 

Pleasanton Times: H. A. Betten- 
court learned that horses could be made 
to eat poor hay with great relish if it 
were sprinkled over with a little cheap 
molasses and water. He tried it and 
has made a great success. The horsBs> 
no longer waste the hay but clean up 
every wisp of it that is thrown in the 
manger, and they look well. This has 
been tried in the southern part of the 
State, where hay is scarce and where 
cheaper qualities of food have to be 
used. 

BUTTE. 

Sacramento Bee: John Moreland 
and R. J. Hunter of Gridley propose to 
plant an extensive berry farm and as 
a rather unusual adjunct to berry farm- 
ing will grow eucalyptus trees on a por- 
tion of the place. They plan to plant 
ten acres of berry vines and ten acres of 
eucalyptus. About 1000 to 1200 trees 
will be planted on an acre, and it is be- 
lieved by the owners that they will be 
able to cut ties and poles within five or 
six years, after which the crop will be 
inexhaustible, for, as fast as the trees are 
cut down they will start up from the 
roots, and by the time the last of the 
original planting of trees has been cut 
those cut first will be replaced by mer- 
chantable timber. 

The Diamond Match Co. has plans 
under consideration for the establish- 
ment of a big plant at Chico or Stirling 
City for the manufacture of turpentine, 
wood pulp, and paper. 

It is claimed that the district imme- 
diately north of the Marysville or Sutter 
Buttes is eminently adapted to almond 
orchards. For some reason the trees 
bear when all the other orchards of the 
Sacramento Valley fail. The great pile 
of volcanic rocks seems to influence the 
local climate to the extent that frosts 
do not nip the early blooming almond 
trees. An Eastern man is looking into 
the matter, and is negotiating for a 
tract of 1000 acres which he intends to 
plant entirely to almonds. 

EL DORADO. 

Advices from Shingle Spring#state 
that farmers are having hard times 
with their grain. The grain must have 
been killed by a carbon preparation used 
by the warehouse men to kill the rats 
in the storerooms. The farmers not 
only lose the cost of the grain, but their 
time, labor, and the cost of putting it 
in. The land is too wet to sow the 
second time, so the farmers will be com- 
pelled to lose the use of the ground this 
year. 

GLENN. 

S. R. Johnson, who recently arrived 
from Canada, has taken a contract to 
plant 1000 acres more of land to alfalfa 
on the Boggs ranch near Princeton. 
Three hundred acres of this land will be 
planted at once and the other will re- 
ceive attention in the spring. All this 
land will be irrigated from the river 
canal, which belongs to the Central 
Canal Co. 

NEVADA. 

Bee: The farmers in the vicinity of 
Lovelock are alarmed over the presence 
of millions of black mice which are de- 
vastating the alfalfa beds by destroying 



the roots. The farmers are trying all 
known means of exterminating the pests 
but so far without success. The mice 
breed with astonishing rapidity, and it 
is stated that one year ago very few 
were found. At the present time, how- 
ever, the fields are literally alive with 
them, and the meadows are all honey- 
combed by the burrows made by the 
little pests. Hundreds of gulls from 
Honey Lake have come to the valley 
and are feeding on the mice, and the 
coyotes also destroy them, but they 
multiply much faster than they are de- 
stroyed. 

PLACER. 

The Southern Pacific is tearing down 
the temporary experimental pre-cooling 
plant erected at Roseville last summer. 
As it was a greater success than ex- 
pected, men are now at work on the 
immense plant that will pre-cool twenty 
cars at the same time in order to have 
the plant ready in time for the next 
fruit season. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

Citrograph : Oranges are now going 
(Easfeata lively rate, more than ten per 
cent of the crop having already been 
marketed up to January 10. The ship- 
ments total 2550 cars, as against 1792 
last season, an excess of 758 cars. At 
the rate oranges are going out the sea- 
son will be ended much sooner than last 
year. Prices do not look good yet, al- 
though the market is slowly stiffening. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO. 
Berry Planting. — Tribune: A new 
berry farm, located in Templeton, is a 
late undertaking. Dan Gambel and 
Monroe Gillis are at the head of the en- 
terprise. They bought the north sloping 
side hill in the Templeton addition and 
have cleared the same of the oaks that 
were on it, and set out 1000 loganberry 
and blackberry plants. Templeton soil 
has been proven to be well adapted to 
berry culture. The location chosen is an 
ideal one. Several other farmers are 
putting in berry plants this year in con- 
siderable quantities. 

SISKIYOU. 

Calf by Express. — There was re- 
ceived at the local ^express office, con- 
signed froWSiabina, Ohio, to a rancher 
between Port Jones and Greenview, a 
calf. The calf was in a large crate, and 
looked to be an ordinary creature, but 
proves to be a thoroughbred. It was 
about five months old, and would ordi- 
narily bring about $12 or $15 at the 
butcher's. The express charge from 
Ohio to this point alone was $65, and it 
will cost another $10 to ship him on to 
his destination, which will make $75 for 
transportation charges. 

SOLANO. 
Large Shipment op Prunes. — Re- 
publican: The J. K. Armsby Co., own- 
ing packing houses at Suisun and various 
other towns in northern and central 
California, is now engaged in filling one 
of the largest orders for dried prunes 
ever received by California packers. 
The order calls for 1000 tons of this fruit 
to be shipped to New York. About 450 
tons will be shipped from the packing 
establishment here and the rest from 
San Jose and other points where the 
company has houses in operation. A 
large force of packers has been at work 
on this order for the past month and 
nearly enough fruit has now been packed 
to fill it. Much of the fruit shipped 
from Suisun has been transported to San 
Francisco by water and some of it by 
rail. The fruit is being shipped to New 
York by means of ocean vessels. 

STANISLAUS. 

Grain Prospects Encouraging. — 
Herald: Supitia/isor Davison states that 
grain prospects are better now than they 
have been for several years past. The 
ground is in the finest possible shape 
for plowing and seeding, and early- 
sowed grain, which is coming up, is be- 



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ginning to look fine. There has been 
just enough rain to put the ground into 
shape, and the cool, foggy weather is 
keeping it in condition, as well as afford- 
ing the best conditions for the sprout- 
ing grain. Indications are that the 
acreage planted to grain this year will 
be far in excess of the acreage planted 
in any of the last three years. The sea- 
son is beginning to " look mighty good" 
to the grain men, and a bumper grain 
crop next season, coupled with the re- 
turns from orchard and vineyard, which 
is just coming into bearing, from the 
creameries and from the Oakdale and 
Modesto canneries, will bring a flood of 
gold into the coHrnty; 

TRINITY. 
Sheep Tax Case. — The celebrated 
sheep tax case, brought by the sheepmen 
of Tehama county against Trinity county, 
was decided in favor of Trinity county 
in every particular. The suit involved 
about $2000. The sheepmen have sig- 
nified their intention of appealing the 
case. 



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56 



The Home Circle. 



Old Mothers. 

I love old mothers— mothers with white 
hair, 

■And kindly eyes, and lips grown softly 
sweet 

With murmured blessings over sleeping 
babes. 

There is something in their quiet grace 
That speaks the calm of Sabbath after- 
noons; 

A knowledge in their deep unfaltering 

eyes 

That far ontreaches all philosophy. 
Time, with caressing touch, about them 

weaves 

The silver-threaded fairy shawl of age, 
While all the echoes of forgotten songs 
Seem joined to lend a sweetness to their 
speech. 

Old mothers! As they pass with slow- 
timed step, 

Their trembling hands cling gently to 
youth's strength; 

Sweet mothers! As they pass, one sees 
again 

Old garden walks, old roses, and old 
loves. 

— Charles S. Ross, in the Century. 



Song of the Pilgrim Soul. 



March on, my soul, nor like a laggard 
stay! 

March swiftly on, yet err not from the 
way 

Where all the nobly wise of old have trod, 
The path of faith made by the sons of 
God. 

Follow the marks that they have set 
beside 

The narrow, cloud-swept track, to be thy 
guide; 

Follow, and honor what the past has 
gained, 

And forward still, that more may be 
attained. 

Something to learn, and something to 
forget; 

Hold fast the good, and seek the better 

yet, 

Press on, and prove the pilgrim hope of 
youth — 

The deeds are mile-stones on the road to 
truth. 

— Henry VanDyke. 



The Triumph of Opposition. 

"If," said the young man, "we could 
only tolerate one another." 

"Instead of hating each other," agreed 
the girl. 

"I don't exactly hate you," he said, 
generously; " it is only the idea of being 
forced to associate with you constantly 
that is repugnant to me." 

"Well, I hate you, anyhow," said the 
girl. Apparently she meant it. 

"When I said I didn't hate you," 
amended the young man suddenly, "I 
was only sparing your feelings." 

"Thank you," said the girl, scorn- 
fully. 

"When I marry," she continued, "it 
will be a man who is going to make a 
name in the world." 

"You mean," suggested the young 
man, "one who tells you he is. I could 
say it myself, come to that." 
' "You!" she cried. 

"I don't see that it's so absurd," he 
said, shortly. 

"Naturally you wouldn't." 

"The girl I shall marry," he an- 
nounced aggressively, "will be one who 
is capable of thought; a clever girl." 

"That's what you say; whereas you'll 
probably marry a girl who thinks you 
clever." 

"Well?" he demanded. 

"Nothing," she said; "that's all." 

"1 suppose," he suggested, after a 
moment of intense thought, "you think 
that's smart." 

The girl nodded brightly. 

"Whereas," he pointed out firmly, 
"it's merely rude." 

"The truth," said the girl, with a far- 
away look in her eyes, "would natur- 
ally appear rude to some j>eople." 



PACIFIC RU 



The young man leant back in his 
chair with a sneer and lit a cigarette. 

"Anybody could talk like that," he 
remarked at length, "if they didn't 
mind much what people thought of 
them." 

"Well, I don't mind what you think 
of me," said the girl, honestly. 

"I suppose not," he assented. "W T hen 
a girl's been thrown over — " 

"You haven't thrown me over," she 
cried, a trifle breathlessly. "I've 
thrown you over." 

"Excuse me," said the young man, 
coldly, "who proposed the marriage?" 

"Of course," she said, "if you blame 
me for my uncle's actions." 

"I'm not blaming you at all," he 
stated, "I'm simply pointing out facts." 

"Uncle is a perfect idiot!" she burst 
out. 

"Oh, well," demurred her companion, 
"it's only natural he should want to see 
you happy. You've been like a daugh- 
ter to him." 

"That's where he's an idiot," said 
the girl, blandly. "He wants me to be 
happy and yet marry you." 

"Don't you find," suggested the 
young man mildly, "that it is just as 
easy to be polite as rude?" 

"No," was the decided reply. 

"I'm glad," was the genial comment, 
"you're doing it because it's easier. I 
was thinking perhaps you thought it 
was clever." 

There was a long pause. 
. "I dare say that some girls might 
like you," said the girl reflectively. 

"That must be a fearful strain on your 
imagination," suggested the young 
man. 

"Because," she went on conclusively, 
"even our curate's married." 

"That's a pity," said the young man, 
vindictively, having seen both the cur- 
ate and his wife; "otherwise there might 
yet be hope for you." 

"If you weren't my guest!" cried the 
girl, rising. 

"Pardon me," he protested, "I'm not 
your guest." 

"Oh!" she gasped, gazing round help- 
lessly. 

"I'm here as a prospective part 
owner," explained her cousin. "If I 
marry you we shall share it between 
us." 

"If you marry me!" cried the girl, 
controlling herself with an effort. 

"I think that was what uncle said." 

"You mean if I marry you!" she 
cried, stormily. 

"Comes to the same thing," he ar- 
gued. 

"You needn't look so upset," he went 
on. "You'll be all right. Horace is 
bound to suit you." 

"What is he like?" she inquired, 
curiosity overcoming her anger. 

"O— h, all right. Bit soft, you know. 
Doesn't smoke or drink, or — fact is, he 
doesn't do anything much." 

"And you think he'll suit me?" she 
said, slowly. 

The young man nodded. 

The girl jumped to her feet. 

"You're a horrid, mean cad!" she 
cried. 

"Seems to me," said the young man, 
aggrievedly, "I'm only wasting my 
time when I try to be nice to you." 

"If you have been trying to be nice," 
she said, emphatically, "you are." 

With a vindictive glance she made 
for the door. 

"Where are you off to?" he demanded. 

"I'm going to tell uncle that I hate, 
loathe and despise you," she said delib- 
erately. 

"Tell him you won't marry me?" 

"I shall let him— er — deduce that," 
she said, as she slammed the door be- 
hind her. 

******* 

"So," said the uncle after dinner that 
evening, "nothing will induce you to 
marry?" 

"That's about it," said his nephew. 

"I'd sooner beg my bread from door 
to door," cried the girl. 

"An unsatisfactory means of getting 
a livelihood," commented her uncle. 

"Horace will be down tomorrow," he 
continued, "so there will be no need to 
confine yourself to a bread diet for a few 



RAL PRESS. 



days. I may say, candidly, that I'm 
very pleased at the decision you've 
come to. Horace will be a much more 
suitable match for you, Millicent. You 
may regard my suggestion as to you — 
er — coming to some arrangement with 
John as withdrawn. Even were you to 
alter your mind I should refuse to con- 
sent." 

"Milly is of age," said the young 
man, suddenly. "You couldn't stop her 
if she wanted to." 

"Quite so. I meant that my will 
would be altered in favor of Horace and 
the Home for Imbeciles. This decision 
naturally removes any reason for a 
match between you two." 

"Just so," said the young man. "I 
see what you mean." 

The girl stole a glance at him. 

"Yes," she agreed, "that would re- 
move any — reason." 

One afternoon, about a week later, 
the young man threw down his tennis 
racket w ith a sigh. 

"Just after lunch, too," he said, with 
a gasp. 

The girl gave a smile. 

"Care to come on the river?" he 
asked. 

"I promised to go out with Horace," 
was the reply. "He's dressing himself, 
I believe, for the occasion." 

"Right — oh," he agreed, carelessly. 

"Well, I'm oft' tomorrow," he added 
casually. 

"Tomorrow?" cried the girl. "I 
thought you were staying another 
week?" 

"Yes, but you see — " 

"Because of Horace?" 

"We — get on each other's nerves, so, 
of course, I'm off. You needn't pretend 
to be sorry." 

"I shouldn't think of pretending to be 
sorry," she said, indignantly. 

"I suppose," began the young man, 
doubtfully, "you don't really mean you 
— Hello! here's Horace." 

"Quick!" she cried, darting around a 
clump of laurels. 

"What's the matter?" called her 
cousin, who was close on her heels. 

"Nothing; only I — well, the river 
will be cooler." 

In the boat the girl grew reserved 
again. 

"Well, what do you think of Horace?" 
inquired her cousin. 

"He — he's very nice," said the girl, 
vaguely. 

"We're not a bit alike, are we?" 

"Good gracious, no!" she cried. 
" One's quite enough in a family." 

"One of whom — Horace or me?" 

The girl dabbled her hand in the 
water. 

"Oh, one of each," she replied, am- 
biguously. 

"Do you know," said the young man, 
curiously, "if I didn't know you so well 
I should almost think you meant to be 
nice." 

"Really!" she said, with a laugh. 
"Of course — of course, you do know 
me?" 

"Well, rather," was the confident as- 
sertion. 

"It's a great gift," she murmured, 
with a half glance at him, "to be able 
to judge people so easily." 

The young man modestly applied 
himself to the sculls once more. 

"What will Horace say to you when 
we get back?" she asked sullenly, after 
a long pause. 

"Say? Nothing." 

"Oh!" 

"What would you say if you were 
he?" 

"Punch my head," said the young 
man curtly. "I mean punch his — that 
is — punch the fellow's head who was 
with you." 

"Would you?" She surveyed him 
with some interest. "Do you mean 
really punch?" 

"Yes," he said stoutly, oblivious of 
the injustice of such a proceeding. 

"How lovely!" sighed the girl. 

She looked at him dreamily. 

"Why?" she asked at length. "No, 
you needn't tell me," she cried, hur- 
riedly, as the young man rested on his 
oars. 

"Because," he said, disregarding her 



January 25, 1908. 



protest, "life wouldn't lie worth living 
when you weren't with me, and — " 

"You mustn't," she cried desper- 
ately. "I told you not to." 

"You shouldn't have asked at all if 
you didn't want to hear," he said sulk- 
ily- 

For a while she leaned back in her 
seat with closed eyes, while he con- 
tinued to pull stubbornly at the oars. 

"What was the other reason?'' she 
murmured at length. 

With a few strokes the young man 
turned the nose of the boat toward the 
hank, and shipped his oars. 

From a window which looked on the 
lawn the old man interestedly watched 
a retriever sidle up to a bone which lay 
unregarded by the side of a dozing 
Irish terrier. 

His eye wandered across the lawn to 
the boat house. Just then the young 
couple came from the landing stage 
across to the house. 

Most unembarrassedly they walked 
hand in hand. They were in a world 
where they were the only inhabitants. 

A sudden growl again drew his at- 
tention to the Irish terrier, now wide 
awake and now gnawing his bone with 
relish, w T hile the detected thief slunk 
hurriedly away. 

"H'm!" said the old man, with a 
curious smile. — F. Harris Deans, in the 
Sketch. 



Emergency Suggestions of the Home. 

In every household where there are 
children accidental hurts will require 
treatment, and every housekeejier should 
be prepared for such emergencies. Very 
simple applications are usually effective, 
and the following suggestions will be 
found reliable: 

Slight burns and scalds can be relieved 
by wrapping the parts in a soft cloth 
saturated with a strong solution of 
borax. A dressing of carbolized vase- 
line, olive oil, or white of an egg are all 
excellent to exclude the air from a burn. 
II blisters have formed they should lie 
Opened by pricking and dressed at once 
to protect from the air. 

A cut should be cleaned by washing 
with warm borax water, the edges 
drawn together and kept in place with 
strips of court plaster. 

Bruises resulting from falls or blows 
should be bathed in hot water and a 
cloth wrung out of very hot water ap- 
plied to them. 

Earache may be relieved by the appli- 
cation of dry heat over the ear, such as 
a heated hop pillow, a hot water bag or 
a heated flannel cloth. The heart of a 
roasted onion put in the ear, or a drop 
or two of warmed sweet oil and arnica 
may be used with a certainty of easing 
the pain. 

Stings of bees and other insects may 
be healed with a number of simple rem- 
edies, the best of which are a piece of 
raw beef, a slice of onion, a solution of 
ammonia, vinegar and salt, or borax 
moistened with lemon juice. 

A cloth dipped in turpentine and ap- 
plied will relieve cramps in the limbs. 



A Fortune Spent for Picture Post-Cards. 

Cheap as the price of a single post-card 
may be, however, the aggregate amount 
of money that is expended in purchas- 
ing them during the year is something 
enormous. As an example one may 
take the New York City postoflice, 
where an average of 100,000 cards are 
handled every day. Basing one's calcu- 
lations on the cheapest cards — the two- 
for-five and three-for-five varieties — this 
would represent an original expenditure 
of fully $750,000, while the British postal 
authorities have estimated that the 
value of the cards mailed and delivered 
by them during 1906 was in excess of 
$5,000,000.— From "The Picture Post 
Card," by John R. Meader, in the Bo- 
hemian for January. 



The deepest hole in the earth ever dug 
is in the coalfields of Paruschowitz, 
Upper Silesia. It extends to a depth of 
6570 ft., or 1 J mile. 



January 25, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Course in 

Telegraphy 

Good Positions 

Tuition back after one year's service. 
Main S. P. wire in schoolroom. Write 
for particulars. 

PACIFIC COAST 
BUSINESS COLLEGE 

San Jose, Cal. 



Pith, Point, and Pathos. 

It is funny how certain a woman is to 
ask a man about the thing he was most 
certain she wouldn't. 

Christmas is one season of the year 
when a man fully realizes how many 
relatives he has. 

When a man gets wisdom and looks 
it, it is a signal for his neighbors to 
grow suspicious about him. 

A real friend is one who understands 
you thoroughly and yet stands for your 
vagaries. 

The best way to please a woman is to 
make her think you are going to entrust 
her with a secret. 

The difference between hope and ex- 
pectation is that expectation generally 
has a working basis of fact. 

No woman ever fully understood why 
a man is so eternally prejudiced against 
overshoes. 

It is wonderful how so many of our 
friends think of the same gift for you at 
Christmas. 

Regrets would vanish from the world 
if there was only a way to make con- 
science work in advance. 

These are the days when the bachelor 
revels in neckties and easy slippers. 

It is funny how certain the relative 
you forget is to send you the costliest 
gift. 

This is the season of year when friend- 
ships are made, even if only for the 
present. 

Most married men will find after to- 
day that the annual honeymoon season 
has ended. 

The way of the transgressor is hard 
unless he happens to have a pretty good 
bank account. 

You can tell if a woman thinks her- 
self homely by the way she clings to the 
mistletoe. 

A truly modest woman is awfully 
puzzled as to whether it is nice to hang 
up her stocking. 

The poets can manage now to get rid 
of the majority of those unsold volumes 
they have on hand. 

The average woman isn't half so sur- 
prised over the gift you send her as the 
one she expected, but which you didn't 
send. 

Men have to go around and tell their 
friends they would have sent them 
something if they themselves hadn't 
had so many relatives. 



Some Extremes. 

The coldest place on earth inhabited 
by man is Verkhoyansk, above the 
Arctic circle, in northeastern Siberia. 
The thermometer there drops to 90° 
below zero in January, but sometimes 
rises to 86° above zero in the shade in 
July, dropping, however, to the freez- 
ing point on the warmest summer 
nights. 

The hottest place in the world is the 
interior of the great Sahara desert, in 
Africa, where the thermometer rises 
to 122 degrees. 

The wettest place is Greytown, Nica- 
ragua, where the mean annual rainfall 
is 260 inches. 

The place of least rain is Port Nol- 
loth, in South Africa, where less than 
an inch sometimes falls in a year. 



Baby. 

Where did you come from, baby dear ? 
Out of the everywhere into the here. 

Where did you get those eyes of blue ? 
Out of the sky as I came through. 

What makes the light in them sparkle 

and spin ? 
Some of the starry spikes left in. 

Where did you get that little tear ? 
I found it when I got here. 

What makes your forehead so smooth and 
high? 

A soft hand stroked it as I went by. 

What makes your cheek like a warm 

white rose? 
I saw something better than any one 

knows. 

Whence that three-corner'd smile of 
bliss? 

Three angels gave me at once a kiss. 

Where did you get that pearly ear ? 
God spoke and it came out to hear. 

Where did you get those arms and 
hands ? 

Love made itself into bonds and bands. 

Feet, whence did you come, you darling 
things ? 

From the same box as the cherub's wings. 

How did they all just come to be you ? 
God thought about me, and so I grew. 

But how did you come to us, you dear ? 
God thought about you, and so I am here. 

—George Macdonald. 



Freckles. 

Freckles are like "riches," — some 
people are born freckled, while others 
have freckles thrust upon them. 
Freckles, or what the skin specialist 
calls lentigo, are generally found affect- 
ing people of fair complexion and lym- 
phatic temperament, but especially those 
who have auburn or red hair and very 
white skins, and thus they appear to 
be produced by an unequal distribution 
rather than by an excessive develop- 
ment of the pigmentary matter of the 
skin. Freckles are congenital, or ap- 
pear during childhood in the perma- 
nently freckled; but spots, ranging from 
a bright saffron-yellow, through tawny, 
to a reddish brown, which in no way 
differ from congenital or infantile 
freckles, are produced in certain persons 
on exposure to the sun's light, and ap- 
pear mostly in summer. They occupy 
most commonly the face, and to a less 
extent the hands, but in persons of out- 
door occupations, whose arms and chest 
are habitually bare — the agricultural 
laborers, for example — freckles are com- 
mon on the forearms and exposed part 
of the chest. Those who are perma- 
nently freckled are especially liable to 
ephemeral freckles, so that freckling is 
intensified during the summer. The 
congenital or infantile stains generally 
last for life, and there is no cure for 
them, but sometimes they disappear 
during adolescence. Those caused by 
the rays of the sun generally disappear 
when their cause ceases to operate, and 
thus, as is generally the case, freckles 
are more easily prevented than cured, 
and those with a predisposition to freck- 
ling, should, as far as possible, avoid 
exposure to the sun, or a veil or shade 
of some sort should be worn. As to the 
cure, there are many local remedies em- 
ployed — sulphuret of potash, sulphate of 
zinc, acetate of lead, sub-carbonate of 
potash, and weak spirituous and acid 
lotions— but the remedy of the ' beauty 
doctor' is a solution of perchloride of 
mercury (one grain to the ounce) in 
spirit and rose water. — Hawk. 



A curious barometer is used by the 
remnant of the Araucanian race, which 
inhabits the southern-most province of 
Chili. It consists of the cast off shell of 
a crab. The dead shell is white in fair 
dry weather, but the approach of a 
moist atmosphere is indicated by the 
appearance of small red spots. If the 
moisture in the air increases sufficiently, 
the shell becomes entirely red. 



Hints to Housekeepers. 

If the clock needs cleaning, put a 
piece of cotton saturated with kerosene 
on the floor of it, and the fumes arising 
will loosen the dirt and give the wheels 
a new lease of life. 

In poaching eggs, stir the water till it 
is whirling rapidly. Then drop your 
egg in quickly, and the edges will be 
round and smooth. 

For insomnia a glass of hot milk, or 
better still, hot malted milk, taken just 
before retiring, will often have the de- 
sired effect. 

Try dipping your pork chops and 
pork tenderloins in flour before frying 
them, and see how delicious they are. 

In pickling alum helps to make the 
pickles crisp, while horseradish and 
nasturtium seeds prevent the vinegar 
from becoming muddy. 

Stone jars for bread and cake boxes 
should be scalded twice a week in the | 
summer weather, sunning, if possible, 
to keep mold from gathering. 

Lamp wicks can be prevented from 
smoking by soaking them in vinegar 
and drying thoroughly. 

A cloth wrung out in very hot water; 
and often renewed will remove diss 
coloration from bruises. 

Benzine rubbed on the edges of carpet : 
is a sure preventive of moths. 

All of the combs and hair brushes; 
should be washed weekly in a quart of > 
warm water in which a teaspoonful of: 
ammonia has been placed. Place only 
the bristles in this solution as the water 
will loosen the glue in the back of the 
brush if it is submerged. Wipe well 
and place in the air to dry. 

To make a cup of coffee almost as 
nourishing as a meal, stir into it an egg 
well beaten. First beat the egg in a 
cup, add a little cream, then the sugar, 
and lastly the coffee poured in gradu- 
ally. When adding the coffee beat con- 
stantly with a small egg-beater. 

In preserving fruits the syrup used for 
juicy fruit should be rich and that for 
fruits which are rather dry and require 
long cooking should be rather thin. The 
proportions of a rich syrup are one pint 
of sugar to half a pint of water, the two 
ingredients to be boiled together for a 
quarter of an hour. 



Curing Ham and Bacon. 

The average hog at the time when 
killed on most farms weighs around 
two hundred pounds. For curing the 
hams and bacon of such an animal 
about 1} gallons of salt will be needed. 
Add a tablespoonful of saltpetre to the 
salt and heat the mixture in an iron 
kettle. Then spread it over the salting 
block and lay the meat upon it to rind 
down. Then cover the meat with the 
rest of the hot salt and let it remain a 
week or ten days. Then scrape off the 
salt, turn the meat over and salt with 
the same mixture. After another 
period of eight days the meat may be 
smoked, placing it in muslin sacks and 
using a smoke of hickory wood or other 
suitable fuel. 



Lesson for Husbands. 

The late Mary A. Livermore liked to 
tell a story of a young friend of hers in 
Melrose, for she believed that in this 
story lay a lesson for husbands. 

Mrs. Livermore's friend was passing 
a month alone, her mate having been 
summoned to Europe on a business 
matter. 

"And you are very lonely without 
your husband now V" the elder said to 
the younger woman one morning. 

"A little lonely," was the qualified 
answer. 

"But surely," said Mrs. Livermore, 
"you miss your husband very much, 
now he is away." 

" Oh, no," she said. "At breakfast I 
just stand his newspaper up in front of 
his plate, and half the time I forget he 
isn't there." 



Chaff. 

Yeast — What would happen if some 
people could take their money with 
them into the next world, do you sup 
pose ? 

Crfmsonbeak — Why, it would burn in 
their pockets ! 

"With 1100,000," said the man of 
expansive ideas, " I could make a for- 
tune/in Wall Street." 

"Yes," rejoined the piker, "but 
whose fortune will you make? " 

Sunday School Teacher — Willie, do 
you know why the Bible was written ? 

Willie — Well, I'm not sure, but ma 
uses it to keep rent receipts in. 

" Would you like to take a chance ?" 
she asked sweetly. 

"No, thank you," he replied, "I've 
already been married three times." 

Daughter — Father went off in a good 
humor this morning. 

Mother— My ! That reminds me. I 
forgot to ask him for any money. 

Fond Mother — Why don't you like 
your roommate at college, Reginald? 
The professor told me he would be a 
good companion for you, because he 
studies so hard. 

Young Collegian— But, mother, he 
uses so many sesquipedalian words. 

Fond Mother — That settles it, my 
son. I don't want you to be contami- 
nated by association with anybody who 
uses such dreadful language. 

Stern Female Customer — I don't 
want any of these ribald comic opera 
songs in my house. Is this music you 
are recommending entirely of an irre- 
proachable character ? 

Astute Salesman — Madam, that music 
is of such a high character that it should 
not be played on any but an upright 
piano. 

" He seems to be making quite a lot 
of money now. Is his system of physi- 
cal culture a good thing?" 

" Well — er — everyone who pays for it 
is." 

Boyce — They say that large bodies 
move slowly. 

Joyce — That depends on whether they 
slip on a banana peel or are riding in a 
hack. 

New Tenant— Can you tell me to 
whom to apply for my heat? Our rooms 
are very cold. 

Imposing Personage — I have no idea, 
I'm the janitor. 

The whale had become entangled in 
the ocean cable. 

" Well," he remarked, as he thrashed 
himself loose, " 1 hope this wireless 
business isn't one of Marconi's dreams." 

" Accept me," cried the lovelorn 
youth, "and I shall smother you with 
kisses." 

" And if I refuse?" exclaimed the 
maid. 

"Beware! If you refuse I shall go 
to the ends of the earth ?" 
"And then?" 

" Why, I will smother you with 
souvenir postal cards." 



There is a German dairyman and 
farmer whose place is not far from Phil- 
adelphia, who greatly plumes himself" 
upon the absolute superiority of his 
products above all others in the vicinity. 
On one occasion he personally applied to 
a Germantown housekeeper for a trans- 
fer of her custom to himself: " I heard 
dot you haf a lot of drouble mid dot 
eggman of yours," he said: " Yust you 
gif me your gustom und dere vill be no 
drouble!" "Are your eggs always 
fresh?" asked the woman. "Fresh!" 
repeated the German in an indignant 
tone, " Let me dell you, madam, dot my 
hens nefer lay anyding but fresh eggs! " 
—Exchange. 



Polish women are engaged at work as 
navvies on the dams now being con- 
structed near Bredstedt, Schkswi^, 
Prussia. They are said to work as well 
as men and for less money. 



«>8 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 25, 1908. 



Tuttle's Elixir 

Greatest maker of sound horses in the 
world. Tested many years, never fails if 
cure be possible. $100 reward if it does. 
For lameness, curb, splint, 
spavin, ringbone, swellings, 
etc 

Tuttle's 
Family Elixir 

liniment for household use. Ask 
for Tuttle's American Worm and 
Condition Powders and Hoof 
Ointment. "Veterinary Experience," perfect horse- 
man's guide free. Symptoms and treatment for 
all common ailments. Write for it. Postace 2c. 
TUTTLE'S ELIXIR CO., 33 Beverly St.. Boston. Mass. 
Loa Angelas, W. A. Shaw, Mgr., 1921 Haw England Av, 
y Beware 0/ all btistert: only temporary relief, if any. 




The Apiary. 



Apiary Waste for Fowls. 



Mr. F. G. Fox, of Erwinna, Pa., 
writes to Gleanings about feeding drones 
to fowls: Two years ago, while carrying 
some drone comb from my beeyard, 
which contained drones in all stages, 
the thought came to me, " Why not 
give the larva? to the chicks?" No 
sooner thought of than tried; so to the 
brooder-house I went, where there were 
about a hundred chicks a few weeks old, 
mothered by a brooder. At first I 
picked a few larva 1 out with a toothpick, 
and soon one chick grew bold enough to 
sample it. Then he came back for more. 
Soon the others took the hint, and I 
could no longer pick them out fast 
enough. When the larvae were all gone 
I pared the heads and cappings off the 
comb that had drones nearly ready to 
emerge. At first they were rather 
afraid of the large dark fellows; but 
finding they tasted the same they soon 
pulled every drone out of his cradle and 
devoured him. 

The following day I took a trap filled 
with drones to the brooder-house, and, 
seating myself on the floor, I began to 
open the trap. Of course the chicks 
were expecting a treat, and crowded 
around me quite curiously. Then I 
pinched a few drones and offered them 
to the chicks. In less time than it takes 
to tell it they 'caught on,' and such a 
screaming of delight I never heard 
among chicks before. Why, they 
climbed all over me in their eagerness 
to get the drones, and every drone that 
had his head through the perforated 
zinc lost it in a twinkle. I just slid 
back the trap-lid and the chicks caught, 
killed and devoured the drones as fast 
as they could crawl out. They also ate 
the dead drones with as much relish. 
Not knowing what the result might be 
of this new feed, no more drones were 
given for several days; but as no bad 
effects were developed, the feed was 
continued. You should have seen how 
the chicks thrived on the diet. 

As the poultry cannot range my 
apiarrjfl do not know whether they 
would rmve been more effective drone- 
catchers than mv traps or not. These 
same chicks, 4rtrfen they were put on 
free range, did not appear to molest the 
honey-l>ees as they gathered nectar from 
the blossoms through which the poultry 
ranged. 

The secret is this: Teach your little 
chicks to like the taste of drones by first 
feeding them in the larval form, then 
gradually lead the chicks on till they 
eat the drones that are fully developed. 
After this you can feed them alive or 
dead, as you prefer. 

Upon the foregoing Mr. Root cTJTti- 
ments as follows: Whenever there-wre 
drones or drone brood in your hive it is 
much better to give the chickens the 
benefit of it than to throw it away as is 
often done. In transferring them from 
old box hives I have often seen great 
quantities of drone brood thrown out to 
rot and smell bad; and I have already 
discovered that they make excellent 
chicken feed. Now, then, do not be in 
haste to permit useless drones to be 
reared in your apiary; but if you do, 
untili/.e them for chickens before the 
drones are large enough to tty. 



The Penryn Fruit Company. 



The Penryn Fruit Co., Penryn, Placer 
county, announces some changes in its 
official personnel, occasioned by the 
death, on November 14 at San Jose, of 
Mr. A. C. Short, president and manager, 
who had been the head of the company 
for 17 years past. Mr. N. B. Lardner, 
formerly vice-president, has been elected 
president of the company, and Mr. H. E. 
Butler, for the past seven years assistant 
manager and treasurer, is now made 
manager. For several years prior to 
his death Mr. Short spent but a portion 
of his time at Penryn, and the details of 
the management accordingly devolved 
to a large extent upon Mr. Butler. 
With Mr. Butler nominal as well as 
actual manager, the business will be 
conducted on the same lines as hereto- 
fore, and patrons will continue to receive 
the same liberal treatment which has 
made the company for over 20 years 
popular and successful as producers and 
shippers of California deciduous moun- 
tain fruits. 



Farmers ! You Should Spray 

Spraying is cheap but effective insurance 
against crop destruction— the best policy is a 




DEMING 

Sprayer 



Eighteen Rtyiea, bnllt 
for hard serrice with 
bratw working parts throughout— 
nut affected hy chemical action. 
Consult yonr own interests and 
liiTeBtigate the M Demtng." 

Glad to send onr Nineteen Eight 
catalogue and " Expert Testi- 
mony " on request. 
THE DEMING COMPANY 
t>95 Depot St-, Salem, Ohio. 
Hm ion * Hubt>«II, Aft*.. Chimgo, II! 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



RESISTANT CUTTINGS. 

About 8000 well rooted Rupestris St. 
George cuttings. For price apply to P. O. 
Box 58, Auburn, Cal. 



CONOVER'S COLOSSAL. ASPARAOIN 
PLANTS. 

Plants exceptionally strong and true to 
name. Price given on application. Ad- 
dress W. A. Stewart, 

Rio Vista, Cal. 



RED GUM AND EUCALYPTUS SUGAR GUM 

6 to 8 inches high; packed and delivered you 
by express or mall. I'repald tUO per 100. 
Safe delivery guaranteed. 

HENRY SHAW. 
320 River St. Santa Cruz, Cal. 



Grafted Vines and 
Resistant Cuttings 

Malaga, Muscat, Emperor on Rupestrls St. Geo. 
MuBcat on 3306. CKTTLi*;s of Kupestrls St. 
Irlks 



Geo., 3306, 3309, 1202. Addrgfe 
MINNEWAWA VINEYARD. 



Fresno, Cal. 



FOR SALE 



200,000 Berry Plants, including l'henom- 
enals, Mammoths, Blackberries, Himalaya 
Giants, Lucretla Dewberries and Raspberries. 

Send for Catalogue to 

R. J. HUNTER. OAK VIEW BERRY FARM 

Grldley, Cal. 



Red Gum 
Sugar Gum 
Gray Gum 
Desert Gum 



for 

timber, 
posts, piles, 
poles, etc. 



Best Four. Get Our Prices. 

Cling and Free Peaches, Apricots, Almonds, 
Cherrels, Walnuts, and a few French I'runes. 

Peppers, Acacias, Casuarlnas, Italian and 
Monterey Cypress, Pine, Cedar, etc. 

Leonard Coates Nursery Co., Inc. 

Morganhill. Santa Clara Co., Cal. 




Relieves You ot Worry 
It Makes Big Crops Certain 

We want you to prove it for yourself, as thousands 
of other farmers have done. We will send you enough 

Nitrate of Soda, Free 

of all cost, for a trial pl..t of Wheat or Rye or Barley, 
on the simple condition that you follow our direc- 
tions in using it, and give us exact re- 
ports of the extra yield. To the twenty- 
five farmers who show the best results 
will be sent, as a prize, Prof. Voorhees' 
valuable book, "Fertilizers," dealing 
with nptural, home-made and manufac- 
tured fertilizers, with suggestions as to 
the use for different crops. 327 pages, 
handsomely bound; also another valuable 
I \ book, "Grass Growing for Profit." 



\ APPly for Nitrate of Soda at once, as this offer 

Vis necessarily limited. A few copies of l, Fooaf<*r 
Plants" a 240-Pafe book, are left for distribution. 
Send name and complete address on Post card. 



WILLIAM 

John Street 



S. MYERS, Director 

ind 71 Nassau. New York 



ENCINAL NURSERIES. 

SPECI.\I.TIES:-Apricot on ' Cot and Genu- 
ine Franquette Walnut on black walnut 
root. Strong, thrifty trees grown on new soil, 
entirely without irrigation, and surrounded 
by all safeguards possible, from selection of seeds 
and buds to the digging of the tree, to have them 
healthy, tree lrom disease and true to name. 



F. C. WILLSON proprietor, Sunnyvale, 
Santa Clara County, California. 



Strawberry Plants 

Urandywlne, Excelsior, Texas, Arizona, Al, 
I.ady Thompson and Midnight, Pedigree Plants. 

Blackberry Plants 

Mammoth Blacks, Early Crandal, 

Giant Himalaya* ■ 

Raspberry Plants 

Surprise (earliest known), Millers, Cuthbert. 

Dewberry, Loganberry, 

Phenomenal Berry Plants. 

Mention this paper and get catalog of prices 
and cultural directions. 

G. H. HOPKINS, Hui hank, Cal. 



Trees 



French Prunes and Apri- 
cots; Mulrs and Tuscan 
Clings, and many other 
varieties of Peach Trees, 
all fine budded stock. Large stock of all the 
leading varieties of AppleB, grafted on whole 
roots and Tree from all pests. Also a fine stock 
of Cherries, Pears, Plums, etc. 
Send for price list. 
A. F. SCHEIDECKER. Sehastopol. Cal. 
Proprietor Pleasant View Nursery. 



Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

$1.50 per Doz. $6 per 100. $40 per 1000. 

Now Is good time to plant. Pedigreed Stock. 
600 Valencia, one year, extra fine, 860 per 100. 
J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist, Pas- 
adena, Cal. 



Orange Seed Bed Stock. 

SWEET AND SOUR 

Orders Booked Now for Delivery 
Spring of 1908. 

SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, 

F. H. DI8BRUW, Proprietor. 
Roth Phones. R. U. 1, Pasadena, Cal. 



BARTLETT PEARS. 

I have a large stock of Rartlett Pears that can- 
not be excelled for size and quality grown on 
whole roots one year old. Prices reasonable. 
Those desiring in any quantity, address, 
R. P. EACHUS. LAKEPORT. CAL. 



AMERICAN GRAPE GROWING AND WINE 
MAKING.— By George Husmann, of California. 
New and enlarged edition. With contributions 
from wellknown grape growers, giving wide 
range of experience. The author of this book is 
a recognized authority on the subject. Illus- 
trated. 269 pages. 6 by 7 inches. Cloth fl.60 



GRAFTED VINES 

FIELD GRAFTING 
BENCH GRAFTING 

done by contract anywhere in central 
California. Fifteen years experience. 
Only competent men sent out. Write 
for estimates and references. 

JOHN L. AMES, 

Elk Grove, Cal. 



Franqnette 
Santa Rosa 

Finest 
Varieties 

Iiurbank'8 
Rest 



Bur bank's 
Crimson Wlnte 



WALNUTS 
CHESTNUTS 
Opulent Peach 
r Rhubarb 

Grown at Sebastopol 

T. J. TRUE, 



(i rafted on 
Calif. Black 



Grafted 

Finest 
Quality 

Also other 
stock 



Rural Route 1. 



MODESTO 



The Crocker Bartlett Pear 



DOES NOT BLIGHT 

If proven different, purchase price of trees 
bought from us in 1907 will be refunded. Fruit 
highly recommended by Luther Iturbank. 

Sample of pears sent on receipt of 26 cents. 

Sell.'. S. Year Book of 1906. 

Peach Trees, 15c— all leading varieties. 

Cherry Trees. 20c— all leading varieties. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

Loomls, Placer County, Cal. 



Pacific Nurseries 

San Francisco and Millbrae, San Mateo Co. 

Offers for this Season's Planting 
a full line of 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Evergreen and 

Deciduous, Conifers, Palms, Rhododendrons, 

Camellias, Ericas, Azaleas, Roses, Eucalyptus, 

Cypress, Pine, Monterey and Maritima Pittospo- 

rum transplanted into plats. 

Send for Catalogue 

F. LUDEMANN, 3041 Baker Street 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WA. V 

In use all over the State 
For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Avenue, San Jose, Cal. 



January 25, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



SEEDS, PLANTS, Etc. 



Burbank Says: 

"Best way to get a Walnut 
Grove— Plant California Black Wal- 
nuts, graft them when 4 years old to 
Franquette or Santa Rosa." 

We have extra good stock of 

CALIFORNIA BLACK 

3 to 5 feet. Write for prices. 

JOHN SWETT & SON 

MARTINEZ, CAL 



Ask us 

about 

Walnuts 



The kind 
for 

Commercial 
Planting. 

Large, 

Rich and 

Prolific 



Costs nothing to investigate. 
Ask for our Walnut Booklet. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

SALEM, OREGON. 

Salesmen Wanted. 




SJ $30,000,000 

Is the estimated value of the 
coming crop of citrus fruits 
in California. This unprece- 
dented volume has greatly 
increased the demand for 
good orange and lemon 
trees. Hence if you are con- 
templating planting, we 
advise that you get your 
order in early for your trees. 
Our book on "The Citrus 
Fruits" tells about the cit- 
rus question; from the seed 
bed to marketing the crop 
and getting your check. 
Sumptuously illustrated, 
and about 20,000 words of 
text. A copy is yours for 
25 cents. 

San Dimas Citrus Nursery 

SAN DIMAS, CAL. 

R. M. TEAGUE, 




High In Quality 



Low In Price 



our SEEDS 



GROW 



Vegetable, Flower 
and Farm Seed 

J. SEULBERGER, 

414 Fourteenth Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed 
Postal for prices. 



A. A. MILLS, 



Anaheim, Cal. 




TRUE TO NAME 

Every planter knows the necessity 
of having trees true to name, and 
recognizes the advantages of buy- 
ing from a firm of known responsi- 
bility. Our twenty-five years' expe- 
rience, our im-mcuse nurseries com- 
prising over 1500 acres, and the 
superior character of our trees are 
valuable points you should consider. 
'Every tree is true to name, strong 
anil thrifty, with well developed 
roots. We are the largest growers 
and shippers on the Coast. 

Citrus, Deciduous, 



j 

All the STANDARD VARIETIES. 

APPLES, APRICOTS, PEACHES, 
PLUMS, PRUNES, PEARS, ORAN- 
GES, LEMONS, LIMES, POMELOS, 
CHERRIES, FIGS, GRAPE VINES, 
OLIVES, ALMONDS, WALNUTS, 
PECANS, CHESTNUTS, BERRY 
PLANTS, PALMS, ROSES, ETC. 
We can give you valuable sugges- 
tions and information regarding 
trees and what to plant. 

OUR CATALOGUE FREE 
Best book of its kind ever published 
on the Coast. Fully illustrated; 148 
pages. Sent free on request. 

BURBANK'S NEW CREATIONS 
Send 10c for our Illustrated booklet, 
in colors, describing these valuable 
new tree, products. We are sole 
propagators and disseminators. 
PAID-OP CAPITAL 9 200.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

GeO.C ROeding Pres. & Mgr. 

Boxi8Fresno^a^ 



We catalogue 
1 this season sev- 
, r eral choice new 
' vegetables of 
sterling merit. 
EARLY MORN PEA, 
the earliest, largest podded pea known. One 
fanner harvested 80 bushels from one planted 
and received from $3 to $3.60 per bushel. Quality 
of the best. 

GREGORY S EARLY EXCELSIOR, the best second 
early low growing pea without any exception. 
A great favorite with the leading gardeners. 

"Bl« Crop," our new white potato, out-yields 
all the well-known varieties, is less affected by 
rot, is deliciously mealy. Let us tell you all 
about it. Catalogue free. 

J. J. H. GREGORY A SON. Marblehead, Mais. 



The Sower ^ Has 

No Second Chance 

Good sense says make the most 
of the first. 

FERRY'S 

SEEDS 

have made and kept Ferry's Seed Busi- 
ness the largest in the world— merit telli. 

Ferry'* Seed Annual for 1908 

tells the whole Seed Story— sent FREE for 
the asking. Don't bow seedB till you get it. 
D. M. FERRY S CO.. Detroit. Mich. 



BROOM CORN AND BROOMS. — A treatise on 
raising broom corn and making brooms on a 
small or large scale. Illustrated. 59 pages 
6 by 7 Inches. Cloth $0.50 



DOLLARS MAKE THE DOLLARS 
STRAWBERRIES— STRAWBERRIES— STRAWBERRIES 
THE "DOLLAR" BERRY 

The most prolific and best shipping strawberry ever placed on 
the market. The best berry produced by the best berry country. 
This berry was produced in Placer County and has met with com- 
plete success wherever introduced. 

PLANTS— PLANTS— PLANTS 
Other breeders quote you "Dollar" plants at 
from $5.00 to $10.00 per thousand. 
Our Price: $2.50 per thousand, f. o. b. Loomis, Cal. 
Rush your order if you want them, for they will go like "hot 
cakes" at this very low price. 
Address 

LIVE STOCK AND DAIRY JOURNAL EXPERIMENTAL FARM 

Loomis, Placer County, Cal. 
We planted 20 acres of Burbank Phenomenals last year. 
Watch our prices on plants for 1909. 



Trees that Grow and Bear Fruit 



SOUTHERN TREES ARE BEST, BECAUSE THEY ARE THOROUGHLY 
DORMANT AND HAVE NO SOFT WOOD ABOUT THEM. 

Our trees are carefully and well grown. Buy direct from the grower and 
.save the middleman's profit. Special attention given to orders from large 
planters. We have a general assortment of deciduous, citrus and ornamental 
trees. Also an extensive line of ornamental and flowering plants, including a 
large assortment of roses, it Write for price list — it is free. 

Orange County Nursery & Land Company 

FULLERTON, CAL 



Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

We Grow on New Virgin Soil all Leading Varieties of Fruit Trees and Grape Vines. 
We Guarantee all Stock True to Name and Free from Disease. 

SPECIALTIES— Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Figs, Apricots, 
Cherries. Wine, Table and Raisin Grapes. 

We grow only Standard Commercial Varieties — Money Makers. Life Is too short 
to experiment with so-called Novelties which have been untried. We have been 
pleasing our customers for 18 years. We , refer to any bank or business house In 
Fresno as to our standing and reliability. Write us for prices. Large Catalogue 
and Souvenir Picture showing Largest Tree in the world mailed Free. Address 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. WILSON, Proprietor. Box r. r. 42. Fresno, California 



200,000 



Eucalyptus Trees 

(IN VARIETY) 



Transplanted in flats of 100 each. We prefer orders of 1000 rather than 
10,000 ; outside limit, 20,000. Our trees are up to our usual standard. Cor- 
respondence invited. Our booklet, telling when, how, and what to plant, free 
to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Nurseryman 

PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 
"TToT 



THE BEST 




THAT GROW 



FLOWERS— VEGETABLES— FARM SHRUBS— TREES AND 
BERRY PLANTS 

Write To-Day (a postal card will do), and yo\i will receive Free 
Our 1908 Seed and Plant Annual. 

TRUMBULL SEED COMPANY, 

Successors to Trumbull & Beebe. 
545 Sansome Street, . San Francisco 



6o 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 25, 1908. 



nsnriTcAiys rob] 



you 



Look 'through a microscope at milk i 
set to cream In pans or cans andyoull I 
see how they rob yon. You'll see the I 
caseine— the cheese part— forming a 
spidery web all through the milk. 
You'll see this web growing thicker 
and thicker until it forms solid curd. . 
How can yon expect all th e c ream to 
rise through that ■ It can't. This 1 




caseine web catches a third to half the 
cream. You stand that loss Just as 
long as you use pans or cans for they 
haven't enough skimming force to 
take out all the cream. But, just the 
min ute yon commen ce using Sharpies 
Dairy Tubula r Cream Sep a rator, y..u 
stop that Iobs. 

Sharpies Dairy Tubular Cream 
Separators have 10,000 times more 
s kimming force than pans or cans, 
and twice as much as any other separ- 
ator. They get all the cream-get It 
nuick-get it free from dirt and in the 
best condition for making Gilt Edge 
Butter. Caseine don'tl) 
ular. The Tubular Is 
t ain to. g reat ly in crease 
profits, so write at once for catalog 
1-131 and our valuable free book, 
"Business Dairying." 

The Sharpies Separator Co. 

West Cheater, Pa. 
Toronto, Can. Chicago, III. 



tmg Gilt Edge 1 
wther the Tub- 1 
positively cer- / 
ise your dairy fi 



Fruit Marketing. 



Co-operative Strawberry Selling. 

We read that the past year has been 
one of the most successful in the history 
of the strawberry growing in the Glen- 
dale and TropiCO district of Los Angeles 
county. There are about 450 berry 
growers in the Berry Growers' Associa- 
tion, and about half of that number are 
members who represent about 1200 acres 
of strawberries and 400 acres of raspber- 
ries. The total gross business trans- 
acted by the members of the Association 
a It me this year was $256,000, while the 
net business was $211, 663.78. 

There has been handled through the 
warehouses the past 12 months more 
than 6,312,815 baskets of berries, which 
hold about } lb. each. The average 
price received for these berries was 
almost 31c. per basket. Out of the ton- 
nage of berries handled by the Associa- 
tion this year 848 tons were ; sent to the 
Los Angeles canneries at the times when 
the Los Angeles markets were over- 
crowded. 

Branch packing houses are being con- 
ducted in Burbauk, Whittier, and Ar- 
cadia, and at each place the houses are 
kept busy during the berry season. 

Quite a large number of acres have 
been set to raspberries the past season, 
and although the season is short for this 
product it has been found profitable. It 
is understood that the acreage planted 
to this berry will be considerably in- 
creased. 



Fertilizers and Fertilization 



WANTED 

Cuttings of the Following for Grafting Purposes : 

Kupestrls St. George, HlparLa x Kupestrls 3306, 
Rlparla x Kupestrls 3309, Klparla x Kupestrls 
lOfi-8 and Mourvedre x Kupestrls 1202. Address . 

FANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

Fresno, California. 
HENRY B. LISTER, 

ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 PBOlfifi Bldg., Fourth and Market Sta., 

San Francisco. 



Figures on M&nures. 

Mr. E. L. Koethen, of Riverside, who 
has made a close study of the practice of 
fertilization for many years, answers 
in the Fruit World some questions 
which have been asked him about the 
value of barnyard manure, as compared 
with commercial fertilizers. In making 
such a comparison, it is necessary to 
assume that we are reckoning with 
the excrement of the animal, and not a 
material composed of straw in the major 
portion of its make-up. So that in this 
computation, after all is said, you will 
have a comparison of horse manure 
with tankage, rather than the inferior 
article usually sold on our market for 
manure, and due allowance should be 
made for it. 

The Department of Agriculture is 
authority for the following analysis of 
well-kept horse manure, which has been 
kept from fire fang and treated from 
time to time with gypsum, to retain its 
ammonia. It includes both solid and 
liquid excrement, and was protected 
from leaching: 

Nitrogen, I9ji ; phosphoric acid, 29$ ; 
potash, 48%. Figuring these at the 
rate of 17c. for the nitrogen, 7c. per lb. 
for phosphoric acid, and 7c. per lb. for 
potash (which is about the present retail 
rate for plant foods), it gives a value of 
$2.73 per ton for horse manure. As it 
takes about 75 ft. to make a ton, and as 
the usual price for horse manure deliv- 
ered in the orchard is 4c. per ft. at this 
time, the purchaser pays $3 for what is 
worth at the above figures just $2.73. 

Now let us get at it in another way. 
Say we are to put 10 ft. of stable manure 
per tree, on a 10-acre ranch. This will 
require 10,000 ft. at 4c, equals $400. 

Ten thousand feet is equal to 133.35 
tons, or 266,660 lb. Multiply this by 
0.0049%, in order to get the number of 
pounds of nitrogen in the manure for 
the 10 acres, and we get an aggregate 
of 1306.6 lb., which, at 17c. per lb., is 
equal to $222.12. Likewise multiply by 
0.0048 to find the number of pounds of 
phosphoric acid, and we have 683.3 lb., 
which, at 7c, is equal to $47.83. So 
also with the 1279.9 lb. potash, at 7c, 
equals $89.59. This, added, sums up to 
$359.54. 

Now let us apply the same calculation 
to a good grade of tankage which sells 
in the retail market for $38 per ton, in 
10-ton lots. 

Say the grower uses 20 lb. to the tree, 
which is a liberal application, more lib- 
eral than is usually applied, but no more 
than enough for good results among 
old trees. Ten tons equal $380. 

Suppose the analyses to be 10 <f phos- 
phoric acid, and we will have 3800 lb. 
phosphoric acid to the 10 tons, which, 
at 7c, equals $266. 

Now let us have the nitrogen content 
from an analysis of 4.95%, which is 
equal to 990 lb., which, at 17c, is val- 
ued at $168.30. The sum of these is 
$434.30. 

We now find that $4(10 (first cost) 
worth of manure is $359.54. While at 
the same rate for the elements, $380 
worth of tankage is $434.30. In other 
words, supposing that the manure was 
of equal high grade (which it is not) as 
the tankage, one is sold to you under a 
guarantee of analysis, and the other is 
not; the grower who uses the tankage is 
$74.76 to the good in the outlay. This, 
of course, presupposes that the grower 
will obtain his humus and nitrogen from 
the cover crop, in a large measure de- 
pending upon the tankage to balance 
up the ration. Now it can be proven 
that the cover crop will cover its cost to 
the grower in the other advantages to 
the orchard without considering the 
humus and nitrogen, namely, the loosen- 
ing of the subsoil, the preventive of 
winter wash, and the greater abundance 
of humus than one can possibly obtain 
from 10 ft. of stable manure. 

From these figures, it will readily 
appear, good tankage and cover crop is 
a much cheaper method of keeping up 
the fertility of an orchard than by barn- 
yard manure alone. 




AR REETS 



Heaviest yields per acre and largest sugar 
contents are secured by the liberal use of 



POTASH 



It is essential that the fertilizer contain at least 
io% Potash. 

Send for "Farmer's Ouide," a book which we shall be glad to send 
you free. You will find it packed with money-making information. Address 

GERMAN KALI WORKS 
New York— 93 Nassau Street, Chicago Monadnock Building 
Atlanta, (ia. 1224 Candler Building 



MEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, Cal., are Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



FERTILIZE WITH 

Nitrate of Soda 

May be purchased in large or small lots from 

R. A. HOLCOMBE & CO. 

50 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




MANUFACTURERS OF 



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San Francisco 



Special Fertilizers for all Crops 

Our New Catalogue 

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is just out and we shall be glad to mail you one. 
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" In modern agriculture probably no practice has been followed with such mar- 
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GET PARTICULARS FROM 

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ISO PINE ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



GREENBANK 



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Sausallto, Cal. 



FRANCIS SMITH & CO., 



Manulaclurers 
of 




FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 

Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office 63 Fremont Street. Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, California. 

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T* A nM^TWn^C obtained IN Trademarks Registered. Opiniont 

PATE1M lb all countries ^s:^^^ss!^s: 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., 1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg. , San Francisco 



January 25, 1908. 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



( 





er Hens' 



/ - 



1. 1 



Over-fat and lazy fowls — always 
' ready to eat, never ready to lay — 
take the profits out of your hen 
, business. Put such by themselves, 
/ reduce the feed a few days, and 
then begin the use of Dr. Hess Poul- 
' try Pan-a-ce-a once a day. This 
' course will soon turn robber hens 
into profit-paying fowls. 

DR. HESS 

Poultry PAN-A-CE-A j 

is the prescription of Dr. Hess (M.D., D.V.S.) 
himself an expert poultry man, and was for- 
mulated with the express purpose of providing 
something to strengthen the fowls' digestion 
and compel the largest possible assimilation of 
nutriment. That it does this is the testimony 
of poultry men in all the United States and 
Canada. It holds bitter tonics, iron for the 
blood and cleansing nitrates to purify the sys- 
tem. Makes laying a habit and helps young 
chicks grow fast. It is also a great preventive 
of diseaafe. Costs but a penny aday for 30 fowls. 
Sold an a Written guarantee, 

VA lbs. 35c; 5 lbs. 85c: 
12 lbs. $1.75; 25 lb. pall $3.50 
Send 2c for Dr. Hess48-page Poultry Book, free. 

DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio. 

THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO.. 
Petaluma. Cal., 
Pacific Coast 
Distributers. 

Ins/an/ Louse 
Killer Kills 
Lice, 




The Poultry Yard. 



Raising Chicks. 

Mr. J. F. Smallman writes for the 
Petaluma Poultry Journal his way of 
raising chicks, and it would be an un- 
grateful chick which would not raise 
under such treatment: 

On the morning of the twenty-first 
day light the lamp or fire in your 
brooder, and be sure that the brooder is 
running right and keeping an even 
temperature. Have the floor of the 
brooder covered with one or two inches 
of hay, chaff or cut straw. Over this 
lay two thicknesses of burlap. Keep 
your brooder running all night at a 
temperature of 95°, at which tempera- 
ture the brooder should run the first 
week. On the morning of the twenty- 
second day remove the chicks from the 
incubator. Toe-mark them and at the 
same time cull out the weaklings and 
cripples, as such chicks take up room 
that a good strong chick should have. 
It will save you trouble and disappoint- 
ment later. Give the chicks nothing to 
eat or drink whatever on the twenty- 
second day. Keep them in the brooder 
and keep it as dark as possible. On the 
morning of the twenty-third day put 
before them warm water. The water 
should be clean and kept where the 
chicks can get it at all times. If your 
drinking dishes are white, so much the 
better. A good way to make a drink- 
ing fountain for little chicks is to take a 
shallow saucer; then take a small can, 
wash clean, fill full of water, place the 
saucer on top of the can and then turn 
bottom up and be quick in doing so. 
Place where the chicks can get at it. 
Then sprinkle on the surface of the 
water a little fine charcoal. The chicks 
seeing these black specks on the water 
in their saucer, of course they get the 
water too, learning how to drink very 
quickly without much trouble to you. 
In the afternoon, say about three o'clock, 
put before the chicks — that is, in front 
of the brooder — a board on which 
sprinkle some fine chick-size grit with 



some fine charcoal mixed and keep it 
before them till dark. As darkness 
comes on you must be with your chicks 
and see that they all return to the 
brooder. 

If you see during the day or any time 
till the chicks are a week old that they 
are trying to get under one another, it 
shows that they are getting cold. Then 
you must gently run them to the 
brooder. Do not pick them up, but let 
them learn their way, and this you 
must teach them. On the morning of 
the twenty-fourth day they get their 
first meal, this being a cornmeal cake, 
made of equal parts cornmeal, bran, 
and middlings. This must be well 
mixed with milk if you have it, not too 
wet nor too dry. If you have any in- 
fertile eggs from the incubator, mix 
them in, shells and all. Bake it well in 
a hot oven. If the cake is burned a 
little, so much the better, as it will do 
no harm and lots of good. Peed the 
chicks in the morning about 8 o'clock, 
and one more meal in the evening at 
5 o'clock. See that they all get their 
share and that there is no chick in the 
brooder. Clean the brooder on the 
twenty-fourth day for the first time, 
and every day after that. Every night 
put in clean straw and clean burlap. 
Then your chicks have a good clean 
bed. In the morning remove the bur- 
lap, which takes out all the droppings, 
and leaves the straw clean, which must 
be taken out in the evening and more 
straw and clean burlap put in. The 
burlap you used last night wash well, 
and you can use it tomorrow. The first 
feeding day the chicks can be fed twice, 
the second day three times, and the 
third day four times; from then on 
every two hours till six weeks old, and 
then feed four times per day till ten 
weeks old. At that age they can be 
removed from the brooder. Peed just 
what they will eat up clean in three to 
four minutes. Keep clean fresh water 
before them at all times. Change the 
water three or four times per day, wash- 
ing their fountains each time; also have 
plenty of charcoal, grit, and shells be- 
fore the chicks all the time. 

When the chicks are four days old 
you can start feeding beef scraps or 
finely cut green bone. Feed the beef 
scrap every two or three days in the 
feed till they are five weeks old. Then 
feed a small feed every day. About 
two teaspoonfuls to fifty chicks at a feed- 
ing is plenty. Two or three times per 
week mix in their feed charcoal, grit, 
and fine bone meal. The cornmeal cake 
must be ground fine in a hand mill. 
Mix enough charcoal, grit, and bone to 
last all day. Feed it to the chicks on a 
board kept for this purpose. This board 
must be taken up when the chicks are 
done eating and put where it will not 
get soiled. Green feed must be fed 
every day if there is none in the runs. 
On the floor of the brooding house 
spread one or two inches of cut straw, 
cut about one inch long. This straw 
must be removed when the chicks have 
been in the house a week and the house 
should be washed out every three weeks. 
In the litter on the floor the chicks must 
be fed their grain feed. This can be 
any of the prepared chick foods or it 
can be one part each cracked wheat, 
corn, and steel-cut oats. A small hand- 
ful between meals, and the last meal at 
night should be grain, fed in the litter. 
During the night when you make your 
round, you can throw a handful in the 
litter, so the chicks will have some- 
thing to scratch for in the morning. 
The first thing to do in the morning is 
to get your water warm and give it to 
the chicks. Be sure to give them water 
before you give them the first meal. If 
you notice any bowel trouble among 
the chicks, give them a feed of boiled 
rice. To every quart of boiled rice add 
four teaspoonsful of cinnamon. Feed 
one feed a day of rice and cinnamon till 
the trouble is over. 

Keep the brooder at a temperature of 
95° the first week, 90° the second, 85° 
the third, and about 75° from then on. 



The 

Temper 

of a 

Fork 

Try the temper of a Keen 
Kutter Fork — spring it, 
twist it, pry with it. After 
you've tried it you'll be 
willing to Ivork with it. 




mm mrm 

farm tools don't break — each has a fine oil temper which 
makes it withstand strain and keep a good edge or point. 
The Keen Kutter trade-mark covers Forks, Hoes, Rakes, 
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Bevels, Squares, Drawknives, Gouges, etc. 

If not with your dealer, write us. 

" The Recollection of Quality Remains Long After the Price is Forgotten."— E. C. Simmons. 

Trade Mark Registered. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY (Inc.), St. Louis and New York, U. S. A. 




| RHODES DOUBLE CUT 

.PRUNING SHEAR 




Dept. 

24 



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Write for 
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A Booklet: "The Whole Story About Wood Pipe,' mailed free upon request. 



PILES CURED IN 6 TO 1 4 DAYS. 

PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any 
case of Itching, niiud, Weeding or Protruding 
Plies In 6 to 14 days or money refunded. 50c. 



You will find when the chicks are in 
the brooder that the temperature will 
raise. Then, of course, you must turn 
down your light — that is, when they are 
three and four weeks old — and relight it 
the first thing in the morning. Be sure 
they have plenty of heat to keep them 
comfortable through the night. Keep 
the brooder warm all day. At seven 
weeks no heat is needed at any time 
unless the weather is very cold. To 
keep the chicks free from lice is very 
troublesome to a great many. When 
you make up your mind that you are 
going to get rid of the pests you can do 
it. Put on the floor of the brooder 
three or four moth balls under the bur- 
lap in the litter in front of the brooder, 
and keep them there all the time. Do 
not use moth balls in the brooder before 
the chicks are two weeks old. For a 
good spray on the walls inside of the 
brooding house take one gallon of coal 
oil and one pound of moth balls. Mash 
the balls up fine and mix well with the 
oil. Spray the walls of the house well, 
once a month, and you will never see 
any lice on your chicks. Do not put 
more than 100 chicks in one lot if you 
want to raise many of them. 

I write this from my own experi- 
ence, and no one else, and I had good 
hard work to learn it. I hope it will 
do many good. It may seem to some 
that this style of raising chicks is too 
much work; but when 1 can get $4 per 
dozen for chicks at the age of nine 
weeks, raised by this method, I think 
it pays well to work a little. 



The worm isn't the only thing that 
will turn; even a hair will turn gray. 



Glenn Ranch 

GLENN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

For Sale in 
Subdivisions 



This famous and wellknown farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, "The Wheat King," has been 
surveyed and subdivided. It Is offered for sale in 
any sized Government subdivision at remarkably 
low prices, and in no case, It Is believed, exceed 
lng what Is assessed for county and State taxa- 
tion purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west 
bank of the Sacramento river for fifteen miles. 
It Is located In a region that has never lacked an 
ample rainfall and no Irrigation Is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year 
and freight and trading boats make regular trips. 

The closest personal Inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers Is invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Cali- 
fornia, and Inquire for P. O. Kibe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdivisions and prices per acre, address 
personally or by letter 



F. C. LUSK, 



Agent of N. D. Hideout, Administrator of the 
Estate of H. J. Glenn, atChlco, Butte County, Cal. 



WANTED 

liy an experienced middle aged man, a position 
as manager of a large ranch. Address Box 3fi, 
care of Pacific Rural Press. 



62 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 25, 1!H)&. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Fba.ncisco, Jan. 22, 1908. 
WHEAT. 

Wheal values in general are lower than 
last week, the decline on most grades 
being about 2 Vic. from top quotations. 
Eastern and foreign markets are also 
lower, and receipts at Chicago have been 
heavy. The eastern market is dull at 
present, with buyers holding off for a 
further decline. There is little demand 
for shipment this week. The speculative 
market here is weak and dull, and the 
cash grain is also quiet, though there is 
rather more inquiry than before the de- 
cline. One feature that prevents buying 
is the fact that milling grades of Cali- 
fornia wheat are still firmly held at for- 
mer prices, and as this is the only line 
for which tnere has been any marked 
demand here, the movement is still lim- 
ited. 

California White Australian.. 1.75 @1.80 

California Club 1.67}®1.70 

California Milling 1.70 ©1.72} 

California lower grades 1.60 (31.65 

Northern Club 1.65 @1.70 

Northern Bluestem 1.67}@1.75 

Northern Red 1.60 @1.62} 

BARLEY. 

Barley is still very dull, and now shows 
a decided weakness, with a decline all 
round on both future and spot grain. 
While arrivals have not been excessive, 
the demand is very poor, and there is 
considerable pressure to sell, even at con- 
cessions. There is some poor northern 
feed on the market, which brings low 
prices, as the demand for all feed grades 
has fallen off. Shipping and brewing 
grades also remain quiet, with little in- 
quiry. 

Brewing $1.55 @1. 60 

Chevalier 1.75 @1.85 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctl.. 1.50 @ 

Common to Fair 1.47 @1.48} 

Shipping Nominal 

OATS. 

There is less demand for all feed 
grades of oats than formerly, and the 
movement of some descriptions for seed 
purposes has also largely fallen off. A 
fair demand is reported for choice red, 
but black are neglected, and show a de- 
cline. Under these conditions there is 
little activity, speculative business being 
again quiet in this market, though there 
is some activity in the north. Prices 
show no tendency to decline, as stocks 
on hand are not excessive, and all sup- 
plies in the north are firmly held. 

Clean Black for seed 12.50 @2.75 

Choice Red, per ctl 1.85 @1.90 

Gray 1.52}@1.60 

White 1.52}@1.70 

Choice Red, for seed 1.90 ©2.00 

CORN. 

So far the consumption of corn here is 
small, and the demand is light, with no 
particular feature. There have been few 
arrivals from any quarter, and no im- 
portant transactions. Prices are as last 
quoted. 

T*W< 

California Small Round Yel- 
low, per ctl 1 Nominal 

Large Yellow J. .65 @ 

White Nominal 

Western State sacked Yel- 
low, new 1.60 @ 1.65 

White, in bulk 1.49 @ 

Mixed, in bulk 1.47 @ 

Brown Egyptian 1.40 @ 

White Egyptian 1.35 @ 

RYE. 

Prices on rye show absolutely no 
change, the movement being so small as 
hardly to establish quotations at present. 
With no particular inquiry, stocks 
hand are extremely small. t 

California $1.45 ©1.47} 

Utah 1.40 @1.46 

Oregon 1.46 @ 

BEANS. 

Activity continues to increase on the 
bean market, and shipments are now 
going forward from growing centers 
which have been practically out of touch 
with the market for several months. 
Tnere is a stronger feeling here on pinks 
and whites, though there is no quotable 
change in values on any description. 
There is now a good steady inquiry from 



the eastern markets, and extensive lines 
are being shipped to various western 
points. 

Bayos.perctl $3.15 @3.25 

Blackeyes 3.75 @4.00 

Butter 4.50 @5.00 

Cranberry Beans 3.00 @3.25 

Garvanzos 3.75 @4.00 

Horse Beans 2.75 @3.00 

Small White 3.50 @ 

Large White 3.35 @3.45 

I a mas 4.75 @4.85 

Pea 3.50 @3.75 

Pink 3.15 @3.25 

Red 3.40 ©3.50 

Red Kidneys 3.26 @3.50 

SEEDS. 

The demand for seeds continues to im- 
prove, especially in miscellaneous garden 
varieties, though there is a continued 
active business in the various descrip- 
tions of alfalfa. Prices on all lines are 
firmly maintained according to last ap- 
pearing quotations, and stocks on hand 
are about sufficient to supply the current 
demand. 

Utah Alfalfa 18 @ 19 c 

Turkestan alfalfa 18 @ 

Alfalfa 17}@ 18 c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $22.00@25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 3 @ 3}c 

Canary 4}@ 4}c 

Flaxseed Nominal. 

Hemp A\@ 4Jc 

Millet 3 @ 3}c 

Timothy 7 @ 7}c 

Yellow Mustard 5 @ 5}c 

FLOUR. 

Local and northern flours are quoted 
steady at former prices, but oiierings of 
Kansas and Dakota stock on this market 
show a slight advance. The demand is 
still quiet, but the movement keeps about 
up to the average in a local way. There 
is no shipping business worth mention- 
ing from this market. 

California Family Extra, per 

bbl $5.40 @6.00 

Bakers' extras 5.40 @5.65 

Superfine 4.20 @4.50 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4.75 @5.25 

HAY. 

The hay market is weak with a tend- 
ency toward lower prices all along the 
line. This is due chiefly to the increased 
supplies which have been met with no 
increase in the demanu. The arrivals 
this week have totaled 3180 tons, a con- 
siderable increase over last week. Most 
or the hay in second hands is being held 
back in the hope of better prices later on. 
In the opinion of many, the arrivals can 
not continue at the present range of 
prices, as these are too low to afford a 
profit to the growers. Alfalfa has been 
arriving in rather small quantities and 
this does not show the same weakness 
that is manifest in other varieties. The 
same is true of straw, which continues 
in good demand at the former figures. 
Fancy grades of wheat are also holding 
up fairly well as arrivals of strictly fancy- 
have also been light. The greatest weak- 
ness is in the ordinary grades of grain, 
and especially of volunteer hay. 

Choice W T heat, per ton $16.00@17.50 

Other Grades Wheat 11.00@15.00 

Wheat and Oat 11.0O@15.50 

Tame Oat \t» 11.00@15.00 

Wild Oat 10.00@12.50 

Alfalfa 9.00@13.50 

Stock 8.00® 9.50 

Straw, per bale 50@ 90c 

MILLSTUFFS. 

The tendency in miscellaneous feed- 
stuffs is now downward, after a long 
period of firmness. This is probably a 
result of increasing green feed, causing 
a smaller demand. Rolled barley is dull, 
with a decline of $1.50 a ton, correspond- 
ing to the drop in the raw grain. Sup- 
plies of bran, shorts and middlings are 
still very small, and prices on these lines 
are not affected. In fact, middlings are 
still in fair demand, and show another 
considerable advance. 

Alfalfa Meal (carload lots) 
per ton $22.00@ 

Jobbing 23.00® 

Bran, ton 28.00@29.50 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl 90c® 1.00 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills (in 10-ton lots) 25.00® 

Jobbing 26.00® 

Corn Meal 37.00® 

Cracked Corn 38.00® 

Mealfalfa 22.00® 



Jobbing 23.00® 

Middlings 32.00@35.00 

Mixed Feeds 22.00@24.00 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 38.50@39.50 

Rolled Barley 33.50@34.50 

Shorts 29.00@30.00 

POULTRY. 

Three cars of western chickens came in 
Monday, and liberal supplies since then, 
in addition to considerable native stock. 
Choice western stock, however, still finds 
a steady demand, and prices are very well 
held, with nothing lower than last week, 
and some lines showing an advance. Lit- 
tle attention is paid to native stock, in 
view of the liberal supply of western. 
Receipts of turkeys are becoming lighter, 
and most of the dressed stock is taken 
up by a few large retailers, who are will- 
ing to pay up to 20c. a pound. Squabs 
are firm and higher. 

Broilers $4.50 @ 5.50 

Small Broilers 3.50 @ 4.50 

Ducks 4.00 @ 7.00 

Fryers 5.50 @ 6.00 

Geese 2.00 @ 2.50 

Hens, extra 7.00 @ 9.00 

Hens, per doz 5.50 @ 6.50 

Small Hens 4.50 @ 5.00 

Old Roosters 4.00 @ 4.50 ' 

Young Roosters 6.00 @ 7.50 

Pigeons 1.00 @ 1.25 

Squabs 3.00 @ 3.25 

Hen Turkeys, per lb — @ — c 

Gobblers, live, per lb 16 @ 18 c 

Turkeys, dressed 18 @ 20 c 

BUTTER. 

The market for fresh butter is weak, 
and shows comparatively little change on 
extras, which advanced Vic. under light 
supplies late in the week. Offerings are 
now plentiful, but the market is active, 
and clearances are readily effected. Sec- 
onds are considerably stronger, standing 
for some time at 30 cents. Storage goods 
are freely offered at low prices, but find 
little market, as the decline on fresh 
stock has turned the demand in that di- 
rection. 

Cal. (extras) per lb 34ic 

Firsts 30 c 

Seconds 22 c 

Thirds 

Fresh Eastern, extras 

Fresh Ladles, extras 

Fresh Ladles, firsts 

Storage, Cal., extras 24 c 

Storage, Cal., firsts 23 c 

Storage Eastern, extras 24 c 

Storage Ladles, extras 20 c 

EGGS. 

There is another sharp decline in fresh 
eggs, which sold down to 29c. last week, 
and this week opened with strong pres- 
sure to sell, as it was generally believed 
that the rain would cause a great in- 
crease in the production, and large re- 
ceivers are anxious to keep as closely 
cleaned up as possible. In spite of a bet- 
ter demand for fresh extras, this heavy 
selling has caused a further decline to 
27M>c. There is still more pressure on 
local storage stock, as holders are very 
anxious to unload, and prices are much 
lower. Eastern storage are weak, and 
probably sell below quotations. 

California (extra) per doz 27}c 

Firsts 26}c 

Seconds 24 c 

Thirds 22}c 

Storage, Cal., extras 18 c 

Storage, Eastern, extras 20 c 

CHEESE. 

Eastern storage stock is weak, but at 
unchanged price, and no new eastern is 
offering. Fancy California flats have ad- 
vanced to 15c, with some improvement 
in the demand, but firsts are still low. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb... 15 c 

Firsts 13}C 

New Young Americas, Fancy 15 c 

Storage, do 15}c 

Eastern, New Nominal 

Eastern, Storage 17}c 

Cal. Storage, Fancy flats 15 c 

Oregon, Fancy 15 c 

POTATOES,- 

Potatoes were rather quiet at the be- 
ginning of the week, as all dealers were 
liberally supplied after the active buying 
of last week. The market is well cleaned 
up on the best grades, however, and firm 
prices are the rule. Lompoc stock is now 
a leading feature, being of superior qual- 
ity. 

Oregon B urban ks $1.00 @1.25 

Burbanks, Salinas, ctl 1.00 @1.25 




NORTHERN GROWN 

SEEDS 

Are tested and proved best 
for the West — all other sorts 
being discarded. Why experi- 
ment, why take chances? 
You can absolutely depend on 
seeds. Our catalogue 
for 1908, consisting of 112 
pages, 16 colored pages made 
from actual photographs, 
with full cultural directions, 
Is yours for the asking. You'll 
Iso find that flUi£} seeds are 

SOLD BT DEALERS 

The Chas. H. Lilly Co. 
Seattle, Portland, San Francisco. 



Lompoc Burbanks 1.30 @1.40 

Burbanks, River, bag 65 @1.00 

Sweet Potatoes, per ctl 2.75 @ 

VEGETABLES. 

Onions are again higher, and find an 
active demand, liberal supplies being 
readily cleaned up at the advance. Re- 
ceipts of green produce from the south 
are larger, and some lines show a decline. 
Mushrooms are plentiful and weak. Some 
rhubarb is now offering, but moves 
slowly. 

Garlic, per lb 5 @ 7c 

Green Peas, per lb 5 @ 7c 

Green Peppers, per lb 5 @ 

Cabbage, per ctl 75 @ 

Onions, per ctl 2.50 @ 2.70 

String beans, per lb 12}@ 15c 

Tomatoes, crate 2.00 @ 2.50 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton. ...10.00 @15.00 

Carrots, sack 75 @ 

Hubbard Squash, ton 10.00 @15.00 

Summer Squash, $ box 1.00 @ 1.26 

Celery, crate, small 1.00 @ 

Egg Plant, lb 10 @ 12}c 

Rhubarb, box 1.75 @ 

FRESH FRUITS. 

Trade in apples has been very fair, in 
spite of rainy weather. There is a good 
steady demand, and prices on fancy stock 
are well maintained. Southern straw- 
berries have been plentiful, and choice 
goods bring up to $1.50 a half-crate, 
though most of the arrivals are poor and 
hard to move. 

Apples, fancy 1.50 @ 2.60 

Apples, common to choice... 60 @ 1.00 
Pears*^ 

Winter Nelis 2.00 @ 2.26 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

The movement for the local trade is 
very dull, with the regular dealers tak- 
ing, pnly small amounts. The rain pre- 
vents much movement in a peddling way, 
and the market would be at a standstill 
if it were not for a good demand from 
towns around the bay. Orange prices are 
very weak, and there is a bad overstock. 
Grapefruit is easily disposed of. Limes 
and lemons show no change. 

Choice Lemons $1.50 @2.00 

Fancy Lemons 2.00 @2.60 

Standard 75 @1.26 

Limes 3.50 @4.00 

Oranges — 

Fancy L75 @2.00 

Standard 1.25 @1.75 

Tangerines, large box 1.00 @1.25 

Grape Fruit 2.25 $3.00 

DRIED FRUITS. 

A weaker tone to dried fruits is again 
reported in the eastern market. There »s, 
however, no change in quotations here, 
and packers generally are firm in their 
ideas. It is reported that certain packers 
are trying to corner prunes, but this i6 
naturally denied. Nothing new is reported 
in regard to raisins. 



8 @ 9 c 


2J( 


$ 3 c 


3 < 


|4c 


18 ( 


«21 c 


21 < 


a 22 C 



January 25, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



6 




*£ake the manure tmnq you 
$ & a torn U (1 

Thousands of Successful Farmers Are Doing It 



There is no charm or stcret about It. 
You simply spread it with a machine, and 
thus make it go twice as far, get twice as 
much good from it on the first crop, do 
your land more permanent good, and save 
half the time and labor of handling. 

Manure is generally estimated to be 
worth S2.00 a ton handled the old way. 
There is no doubt that it is worth twice as 
much to the farmer who spreads with a 
machine. 

Three of the most practical and valuable 
machines manufactured for farm use to- 
day are the Corn King, Cloverleaf, and 
Kemp 20th Century manure spreaders. 

They are each made in a number of sizes. 

These machines differ somewhat In 
constiuction and operation, but all three 
are right working and of great durability. 

They are proven machines. They em- 
body the best mechanical ideas, the ma- 
terials used in construction are the best 
for the purpose, they are made as simple 
as possible, and they handle manure in all 



conditions to the perfect satisfaction of 
users. Proof of all this is to be found in 
the record each machine has made in the 
field. 

Is it not to your interest to own and use 
one of these spreaders on your farm? 

Figure out for yourself and you must 
agree that it will be a paying investment, 
even if you do not have over twenty-five 
loads of manure to spread in a year. 

You can't help but be pleased with the 
work, the easy handling, the light draft 
and the substantial making which saves 
you the annoyance of breakage and 
repairs. 

Call and see these spreaders with the 
local International agent. He will gladly 
point out to you the superior features of 
these machines, as well as supply you 
with catalog, colored hanger or other 
Information. 

If you cannot do this, write nearest 
branch office for catalog. 



WESTERN GENERAL AGENCIES: Denver, Colo.. Portland, Ore., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Helena, Mont. Spokane, Wash., San Francisco. Cal. 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OE AMERICA 

(Incorporated) 
Chicago, U. S. A. 



Peaches 10 @12 c 

Prunes, 4-size basis, 1907 crop.. 4 @ 4£c 

Pitted plums Nominal. 

Pears 10 @12 c 

RAISINS. 

2 Crown 4|@ 

3 Crown 5j@ 

4 Crown 5|@ 

Seeded, per lb 7|@ 7£c 

Seedless Sultanas 5|@ l\c 

London Layers, per box fl.25@1.40 

London Layers, cluster 1.30@2.00 



NUTS. 

Nuts are still quoted at last week's fig- 
ures. There is comparatively little in- 
quiry from any quarter, and the market 
is quiet. All offerings, however, are 
strongly held, and no further decline is 
looked for. 



Almonds, Nonpareils 15 c 

I X L 14£c 

Ne Plus Ultra 14 c 

Drakes 13 c 

Languedoc 12 c 

Hardshell 8 c 

Walnuts, Softshell No. 1 14£c 

Softshell, No. 2 12 c 

Italian Chestnuts 10 @12£c 



HONEY. 

Some honey is still coming in, but it is 
said that most stocks held back by grow- 
ers have now been disposed of. While 
there is more on hand than a month ago, 
stocks of the best grades are still light, 
and no decline is looked for. 



Water White, Comb 16 @17 c 

White 15 @ 

Water White, extracted 8 @ 8£c 

Light Amber 7 @ 7$c 

Dark Amber 6£@ 6fc 



WOOL. 

The movement of wool continues very 
small, with no movement except at con- 
cessions, and present quotations are ac- 
cordingly nominal. The prospect, how- 
ever, is said to be improving. 

Humboldt and Mendocino, year's 



staple 22 @23:c 

Fall clip: Northern free, moun- 
tain 8 @11 c 

do. defective 6 @ 8 c 

San Joaquin and Southern 5 @ 8 c 

Fall Lambs, Northern 9 @11 c 

Fall ^ambs, Southern 7 @ 9$c 

Nevada 12 @16 c 



HOPS. 

Prices on last year's crop are slightly 
higher, though the market shows no great 
activity. There is a fair demand in the 
north, where the better grades are becom- 
ing scarce. 

1906 crop 2 @ 3 C 

1907 crop 5 @ 8ic 

1908 (contracts) 10 @11 c 

MEAT. 

Heavy hogs are weak, with large sup- 
plies. Dressed cows, heifers, and lambs 
show a slight advance. Spring lamb is 
now offering at firm prices. 



Beef : Steers, per lb 7 @1\ c 

Cows 6J@ 7 c 

Heifers 6J@ 7 c 

Veal : Large 7j@ 9 c 

Small 9 ©10 c 

Mutton : Wethers c 

Ewes 9£@10£c 

Lamb .'. 12 @13 c 

Spring lamb 15 @16 c 

Hogs, dressed 10 @11 c 

LIVESTOCK. 

Steers, No. 1 8J@ 9 c 

No. 2 lh© 8 c 

No. 3 6£@ 7 c 

Cows and Heifers, No. 1 6£@ 7 c 

No. 2 6 @ 6£c 

Bulls and Stags 3$@ 4 c 

Calves, Light 5 @ 

Medium 4£@ 

Heavy Z\@ 4 c 

Sheep j Wethers 5 @ 5£c 

Ewes 4J@ 5 c 

Lambs 6 @ 6£c 

Hogs, 100 to 200 lbs 6 @ 6^c 

200 to 300 lbs 5 @ 5£c 



Boars 50%, stags 30% to 40%, and sows 
10% to 20% off from above quotations. 



Cocoanut Oil Cake 

THE BEST FEED 
FOR STOCK, CHICKENS AND PIGS. 

FOB SALE IN LOTS TO SUIT BY 

EL DORADO OIL WORKS 

2404 Broadway, San Francisco, Cal. 



MORE POULTRY MONEY. 

The Sure Hatch Incubator Company 
has been compelled to get out another 
edition of the book on " Poultry Profits " 
to meet the many calls for free copies that 
keep coming in from people all over the 
United States. This book contains the 
experience of hundreds of the most suc- 
cessful poultry raisers in the country. It 
tells how to get best results from the use 
of the incubator. How to build chicken 
houses. How to feed and care for chick- 
ens. How to destroy vermin, etc. It tells 
the secrets of poultry raisers' success. 

The Sure Hatch Incubator Co., box 151, 
Fremont, Neb., or Dept. 151, Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., is claimed to be the largest Incu- 
bator concern in this country, and its 
"Sure Hatch" Incubators are wonder- 
fully succesful. They are built of Cali- 
fornia Redwood, and fitted with the most 
scientific hot water heating system made. 



CONTROLLING NATURE. 

It is indeed a battle to keep strains of 
plants pure, 'find up to the standard they 
have already attained, let alone any im- 
provement. The practical results are 
accomplished by man operating largely 
fbrijjoiye of the work, like Luther Bur- 
bank in California, and Eckford in Eng- 
land, as well as by the greatest seed mer- 
chants, D. M. Ferry & Co., of Detroit, 
Mich., who are not only eternally vigilant 
to hold what ground has been gained, but 
have a corps of trained specialists backed 
by ample means to conduct new experi- 
ments. The results of their experiences 
can be found in their 1908 Seed Annual, 
which they will send free to all applicants. 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short- 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petaluma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FUR SALE— Hhorthorned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY. 

BREEDERS OF SHORTHORN CATTLE 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



BROWN LEUIIORNS AND BARRED PLY- 
MOUTH ROCKS. Eggs for hatching a 
specialty; cockerels for sale. Walter Curry, 
R. D. No. 21, San Jose, California. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



SWINE. 



GEO. C. ROEDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 
C. A. STO WE, Stockton, Cal. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



17 YEARS an Exhibitor of Berkshire Hogs at the 
California State Fair. Thos. Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan St., San 
Francisco. Manufacturer and Dealer In 

POULTRY SUPPLIES 

of every description. Send for Catalogue— FREE 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years. 
Importer and Breeders of all Varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St., S. F. 



ATTENTION, DAIRYMEN! 

We would like to furnish you with a young 
registered Holstein Bull, from 12 to 27 months 
old, grandly bred at the low price of £100. Write 
us and tell us what you want. Do It to-day. We 
will send you pedigrees and markings and, 
records of ancestors. 

PIERCE LAND & STOCK CO, 

Phone Main 15!)". Stockton, Cal. 



FOR SALE 

A few thoroughbred registered Poland China 
service boars. 

Registered Holstein Frlesian service bulls and 
bull calves from Advanced Registry Stock. 

STANFORD RANCH, : Vina, Cal. 



Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST., SAN FRANCISCO 

DADCD Blake, Motlitt & Towne, Los Angeles 
rnrCIV Blake. McFall & Co., Portland. Oregon 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 

Pacific Rural Press 

(— ) Indicates every other week or once a month 



Page. 

Ames, John L 58 

Bean Spray Pump Co 64 

Beck man, Geo. V 63 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne 63 

Bosanko Medicine Co., Dr 56 

Breeders' Directory 63 

Coates Nursery Co., Leonard 58 

Croley, George H 63 

Curry, Walter 63 

Cutter Analytical Laboratory 65 

Deming Co., The 68 

Dewey, Strong & Co 65, 60 

Disbrow, F. H 68 

Driver, E. S S 63 

Eachus, R. P. 68 

El Dorado Oil Works 63 

Fancher Creek Nurseries 69, 60, 63 

Ferry & Co., D. M 69 

Folding Sawing Machine Co 65 

Fresno Agricultural Works 55 

Fresno Nursery 59 

German Kali Works 60 

Glenn, Estate of H. G 61 

Golden Rule Nursery 68 

Gregory & Son, J. J. H 59 

Hart, Ed 63 

Hess & Clark, Dr 61 

Holcombe & Co., R. A 60 

Hopkins, G. H 58 

Howard Cattle Co 63 

Hoy t's Tree Support Co 64 

Hunter, R. J 68 

Jackson & Co., T. W 80 

Lawrence-Williams Co 55 

Lilly Co., Chas. H 62 

Lister, Henry B 60 

Live Stock and Dairy Journal Experimental 

Farm 69 

Ludemann, F 68 

Lynch, John 63 

McClanahan, E. E — 

Meacham, Frank A 

Mills, A. A 59 

Mlnnewawa Vineyard 68 

MorBe & Co., C. C 66 

Mountain Copper Co 60 

Myers, Wm. S 58 

National Wood Pipe Co 61 

Oakland Poultry Yards 63 

Orange County Nursery & Land Co 69 

Oregon N ursery Co 59 

Pacific Coast Business College 57 

Pacific Guano & Fertilizer Co 60 

Pear Blight Remedy Co 64 

Pierce Land <Si Stock Co 63 



Reeves & Co 

Rhodes Mfg. Co. 
Roedlng, Geo. C 



Scheidecker, A. F 58 

Seeds and Plants 58, 59, 64 

Seulberger, J 59 

Shaw, Henry 58 

Sharpies Separator Co 60 

Suva & Bergtholdt Co 64 

Simmons Hardware Co 61 

Smith, Francis 60 

Snow, D. A 58 

Stanford Ranch 63 

Stewart, W. A 58 

Btowe, C. A 63 

Stratton, W. A. T • 59 

Sullivan, W ! •' 63 

Sure Hatch Incubator Co — 

Swett & Son, John 69 

Teague, R. M 69 

Temple Pump Co — 

True, T. J 68 

Trumbull Seed Co 59 

Tuttle's Elixir Co 58 

Van Der Nalllen, A 63 

Vermont Farm Machine Co 64 

Wagner, J. B 68 

Watte, Thos 63 

Western Meat Co 55 

Willson, F. C 58 

Wright Brothers 63 



Pneumatic Fruit Grader 



A perfect Sizing Machine for Oranges 
Capacity 500 Boxes a Day 
Runs Easily by Foot Power 
Cannot Damage the Fruit 
Price $50.00 



WRIGHT BROTHERS, 

Riverside, Cal. 



School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing, ind Assaying. 
5100 TELEGRAPH AVE. OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 

Open all Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pres't 
Assaying of Ores, $26; Bullion and Chlorlnation 
AHsay, $26 :Blowplpe Assay, $10. Full Course of 
I Assaying. Established in 1864. Send for circular. 



BUFF ORPINGTONS 

Largest clean legged bird in the list, lay the 
year around, and bring a dollar each and more 
when turned to market. Postal will bring you 
prices and our show record. 

W. SULLIVAN, 
Agnew, Santa Clara County, Cal. 
State V. P. Nat. S. C. B. O. Club. 



For Sale : Jerusalem Artichokes 

THE GREAT WINTER HOd FEED 

Address 

Fancher Creek Nurseries, Fresno, California. 



6 4 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 25, l'tos. 



"Y^OU never buy a cheap horse and expect 
to get a good one. Some fruit ranchers 
buy the cheapest tree they can get, but an 
orchardist — never. Our trees and vines are 
not the cheapest, but they are the best that 
care in selection and growing can produce. 
We propagate only from parent trees and 
vines that are the best specimens of their 
kind, and our stock will give you good ser- 
vice for a lifetime. That is what you want. 



OUR STOCK 



Comprises all profitable 
commercial sorts of 




PEACHES, 
PLUMS, 
PEARS, 
APPLES, 

Send for Catalogue and Price List 



CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS 
APRICOTS 
and GRAPES. 



Contract now the trees you want 

WRITE US 

PLACER NURSERIES 

SILVA 6 BERGTHOLDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CAL. 



MORE FRUIT 
WITH LESS LABOR 




You can positively Insure a larger crop, clean fruit and 
healthy trees at a saving of fully one-third the labor 
ordinarily required and with a much less outlay of time 
and money by using a Bean Magic Spray Pomp. 
The reason is because it sprays thoroughly with high, 
even pressure, but the operator is working against only 
one-half the pressure indicated on the gauge. It's on 
account of the spring which makes the Magic Spray 
Pump the easiest running, most perfect spray pump 
ever made. No other pump can compete with it in 
the essential points of quality and durability, and we 
challenge comparison with all other makes regard- 
less of price or construction. 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

are the result of careful study and experience In 
pump manufacture. We have no other line. Wearo 
specialists in pump-making, and the name BEAN 
on a spray pump or appliance is a guarantee that it 
is the best that money and brains can produce. 

The most successful raisers of fancy fruit agree 
that spraying is the only and most effective method 
of securing the best results. The increase In profit 
from securing fancy fruit will alone soon pay for the 
outfit. Whether you have a large or small orchard 
you can noc afford to be without a Bean Magic Spray 
Pump. Write for our special offer, also tree illus- 
trated catalog. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., 

lu _ W. Santa Clara St.. San Jose, Cal. 



PFAR-RI IfiHT We can CURE IT 

LiF^II Vftaimi Our Work has Extended 



Over a Period of 3 Years 



Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

PEAR BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 



HOYT'S TREE SUPPORT 



PATENTED NOV. 26, 1901. 
PATENTED SEPT. 22, 1903. 



A USEFUL THING IS A JOY FOREVER 

The Propless Prop that Properly Props a Tree 




Hoyt's Tree Support on the Tree. 

Over Three Million Sold Since Introduction in 1903 

After your trees have broken down, overloaded with fruit, don't howl about 
your hard luck. The preventive is CHEAP, EFFECTIVE, PERMANENT. 

For Full Particulars and Descriptive Booklet write 

MacDONALD & SONS 

WATSONVILLE, CALIFORNIA 
General Agents for the H0YT TREE SUPPORT COMPANY. 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXV. No. 5. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, ^FEBRUARY 1, 1908. 



Thirty-eighth Year. 



IN TROPICAL MEXICO. 



In our reference to Mr. Rickard's 'Journeys of 
Observation' three weeks ago we alluded to the 
author's appreciative way with whatever forms 
of life and action fell beneath his eyes as he 
journeyed. Of course he was impressed with the 
plant growth of tropical Mexico and we shall in- 
vite him to comment upon it for us in connection 
with the suggestive pictures on this page which 
are reduced from the work. Writing of the jour- 
ney from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico, Mr. 
Rickard says : 

At thirty miles from Vera Cruz, near Soledad, 
the foothills are reached and in this well-watered 
tract the tropical vegetation is luxuriant in the 
extreme. The ridges of lava that mark the base 
of Orizaba are absolutely smothered with rich 
verdure from foot to crest, and in the canadas or 
ravines now visible, as the train emerges from 
successive tunnels, there is a foliage of increas- 
ing gorgeousness. Between Camaron and Cor- 
doba the botanical wealth of the tropics is lav- 
ishly displayed ; nature, stimulated by warmth 
and moisture, has clothed the earth with splen- 
dor. There are the scarlet hibiscus, purple bou- 
gainvillea, the lavender plumbago, crimson olean- 
der, pink azaleas, the yellow and red flags of the 
coleus, even magnificent orchids, with creepers 
of every shade of green festooning the forest. 

Soon the train passes coffee plantations. The 
wild undergrowth has been cleared, but the 
larger trees are left in place, so as to give shade 
to the coffee shrubs (five to six feet high), which 
are planted between them. The young coffee 
shrub is delicate and must be protected from the 
direct rays of the sun for at least two years: 
maturity is attained in the fourth year. The 
plants live 25 years and require comparatively 




In a Coffee Plantation af Cordoba. 



little care — less than sugar, for instance. Speak- 
ing of these matters, it may be noted that choco- 
late is indigenous to Mexico and the word itself 
comes from the Aztec "chocolatl." 

Shade is imperative for the young coffee plant ; 
in many cases it is cultivated under the protec- 
tion of banana palms. This is the practice also 
in Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. It is said that the 
best coffee in the world comes from the famous 
Youngar valley, in Brazil, where it is grown in 
an old cemetery under bananas. The yield is only 




Tropical Vegetation in the Region of Vera Cruz. 



a few quintals per year, but this coffee fetches 
enormous prices. As a rule the small berries 
(Caracolillo) are preferred, but the Youngar cof- 
fee is of large grain. Owing, however, to rank- 
ness of verdure, many of the Mexican plantations 
looked so overgrown as, by reason also of the 
trees retained for sheltering the coffee, to seem 
like the bush primeval. 

Soon we saw the yellow gleam of oranges and 
limes amid dark foliage; picturesque hamlets 
appeared, with red-tiled roofs and thatched 
houses, and white-clad peasants. At the railway 
stations there was always a crowd of fruit-sellers ; 
bunches of roses and magnificent bouquets of 
gardenias were purchasable for a song. But the 
panorama of life and color suffered eclipse as 
the darkness of the tropical night came suddenly, 
without any intervening twilight. 

In the town of Orizaba most travelers have a 
perfect cup of coffee made from berries grown 
near the neighboring town of Cordoba. Karly 
breakfast in the patio (courtyard) bowered by 
bougainvillea, to the music of a fountain, gave 
the bracing morning air a perfume and a fra- 
grance long to be remembered. Orizaba moun- 
tain is visible from the town, but the view is not 
impressive. On resuming the train journey, we 
were soon climbing a heavy grade, circling the 
famous Maltrata valley and ascending 4000 feet 
more in a distance of 30 miles. One looks dow n 
over precipitous slopes of vivid green along nar- 
row gorges that lead to a valley cradled among 
the onlooking mountains and checkered with 
squares of cultivation. The little huts and the 
clusters of trees look like the playthings of a 
doll's house, infinitely Ear away and quite de- 
tached from the busy life that throbs through the 
train with every effort of the locomotive. 



66 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 1, 1908. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 

Advertisine rates made known on application. 
Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 
DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. PUBLISHERS 

E. J. WICKSON Editor 

EDGAR RICK ARD - Business Manager 

The Week. 



We have to say sulphur again this week because 
according to the telegrams, Dr. Wiley of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture told a congressional 
committee that a dip in salt water may be substi- 
tuted for sulphur vapor and therefore the sulphur 
issue could be averted by this change in Cali- 
fornia practice. Dr. Wiley exhibited apples dried 
aff,er brine-dipping, and they were, according to 
his idea, of desirable color. In answer to this 
claim it must be noted that experiments were 
tried about fifteen years ago and the recourse to 
brine-dipping was pronounced unsatisfactory for 
several reasons. While salt does prevent oxida- 
tion and discoloration to a certain extent, it does 
not produce the light shades the trade demands. 
While it may be strongly claimed that in the case 
of dried apples a light brown may be better than 
a pallid white, producers cannot afford to under- 
take to reform purchasers' tastes. Producers 
must please purchasers in esthetic points or aban- 
' don their production. 

Though for apples and possibly for pears, where 
both are cut in, rings or small sections, the salt 
dip may be found practicable from a producing 
point of view, the salt dip will not do at all for 
peaches, nectarines, apricots, nor for apples and 
pears cut in halves, because the dip in salt water 
retards subsequent evaporation instead of advan- 
cing it, as the sulphur treatment does. The re- 
sult is that this large-cut fruit becomes very dark 
by prolonged exposure in drying and is apt. to 
ferment in the center of the large pieces before 
the juice is made dense enough by loss of water 
to preclude fermentation. In this way the pro- 
posed salt-water dip either perverts or prevents 
the characteristic California methods of curing 
fruits in large pieces to preserve as far as possible 
the natural form. 



Again, a liquid dip is objectionable because of 
its tendency to become abominably dirty by fre- 
quent use, for it concentrates dust and other 
impurities, as it is progressively used, and becomes 
soon a method of befouling freshly cut fruit sur- 
faces, instead of a deansing agency. The sugges- 
tion that this could be avoided by constantly 
renewing the dip with fresh salt and water should 
be considered in connection with the cost of pro- 
viding a large water supply in connection with 
drying grounds, which cover acres of land even in 
the case of individual producers, and the cost of 
handling the fruit through a water-dipping pro- 
cess. For these reasons, in addition to the fact 
that the brine-dip does not produce the results 
desired, the recourse to water-dipping is imprac- 
ticable. 

If it should be urged that a liquid dip is now 
largely used for prunes, and capacious machinery 
has been devised to render it practical and eco- 
nomical, the reply would be that prunes are treated 
as a whole-fruit, and the pulp is protected by an 
unbroken skin. For this reason the pulp is not 
affected by a dip as freshly cut peaches, apricots, 
etc., are. No analogy can be drawn between the 



handling of fruits which are cured in natural 
form and those which are cut into sections. 



We called the other day at the office of Deputy 
Horticultural Commissioner Edward M. Ehrhorn 
in the Ferry building and were greatly interested 
in the bad things he had in alcohol representing 
various pests which .had been stopped at the 
threshold of California by the horticultural quar- 
antine service. It is a very interesting and in- 
structive exhibit for anyone. According to a 
report which Mr. Ehrhorn recently made to State 
Horticultural Commissioner Jeffrey, there was a 
much larger amount of diseased fruit, vegetables, 
and trees received at San Francisco during 1907 
than in 1906, officers of the commission having to 
destroy 15V2 per cent of the shipments last year, 
as against only 2 per cent the year previous. This, 
says Mr. Ehrhorn, was due to the finding of a 
new pest in the apple shipments from the Puget 
Sound country, a new disease in onions, and the 
condemnation of all Japanese oranges infested 
with cladosporium citri — a fungus which causes 
ugly blemishes on the skin. One shipment of 6005 
boxes of apples from Bellingham, Wash., was 
shipped back, and in one instance 2424 boxes of 
Japanese oranges were carried out to sea and 
dumped. A number of other shipments had to 
be destroyed for one cause or another. The report 
shows that during 1907 there were received at 
San Francisco from 250 steamers 61.642 boxes, 
crates, packages, etc., of fruit and vegetables and 
616 of trees and plants; 3458 cases, crates and 
boxes came by rail, and 1180 loose lots were 
examined. Of the total number 10,329 were de- 
stroyed. . 



The Hood River apple growers are certainly 
among the most energetic and wide awake of the 
Pacific Coast, if indeed they do not actually lead 
therein. They are pushing their Oregon apples 
into the most distant markets. A Hood River 
grower passed through San Francisco the other 
day on his way to Shanghai and Hongkong to 
complete the sale of between 10,000 and 20,000 
boxes of Hood River apples, the first to go to the 
Orient. In Oregon as in California, some of the 
most aggressive work is being done by profes- 
sional and business men who had no previous 
experience on a farm until they took up large- 
scale commercial fruit-growing. 



The second "dry-farming congress" was duly 
held in Salt Lake last week, and if some of the 
transactions thereof, as they come in our ex- 
changes, seem to have edification for California 
dry farmers, we shall haste to set them forth. 
Dry farming is, however, an old California way, 
and was discovered at the moment that American 
homemakers in the State determined that the old 
Spanish system as practiced at the missions was 
not the only way to grow things in this State. 
The question in California is not one of a "nov- 
elty" in dry-farming, as some of our own people 
are disposed to look upon it, but simply whether 
any of the new methods of dry-farming are in any 
respect better than the way we know. They may 
be better than we do in most cases, because we 
do not begin to do as well as we know, and there 
may be a spur or incitement in what is being done 
elsewhere in the old line. From this point of view 
it is interesting to note that the Salt Lake Con- 
gress opened with 282 delegates in attendance, 
and closed with nearly 600. It created a perma- 
nent salaried secretaryship, inaugurated a system 
of annual dues and life memberships, and estab- 
lished a bureau of information which will instruct 
the membership in all discoveries and develop- 



ments in the science of arid land culture. The 
next annual meeting will be in Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming. The Salt Lake meeting was very moderate 
in its requests for legislation. A law increasing 
the acreage of homesteads in the arid region from 
160 to 320 acres ; the establishment of more experi- 
mental farms in the States, and the boring of 
experimental wells at State expense, are the prin- 
cipal boons asked from the lawmakers. The con- 
gress refused to be drawn into the warfare that, 
has arisen over the forestry policy of the Govern- 
ment, although an attempt was made to bring the 
matter up for debate. These are the matters men- 
tioned in the telegraphic reports which have been 
received. We hope fuller advices will give us 
more about how to make profitable crops with 
minimum rainfall, for without that all machinery 
of organization will be an empty show. 



We rejoice in everything which gives opportu- 
nity to se;t forth the point of view of the West. 
Not that we believe that the West is infallible, 
or its contentions unimpeachable: far from it. 
But it is necessary, not alone for the West, but for 
the unification of the whole country, that the 
Western point of view should be recognized and 
appreciated for what it is worth. For this reason 
we hear with interest of the progress of an organ- 
ization known as the Rocky Mountain Club of 
New York, an organization of Western men in 
the East, which started a year ago with seven 
members and now has 386. The object of the club 
is to promote good fellowship among Western 
men in the East, and to furthering the interests 
of Western States in the East, The club will not 
only maintain a social headquarters, but will co- 
operate with all the commercial organizations in 
the Western States, and will assist them in fur- 
thering the interests of the respective Western 
communities. It is expected that within another 
year the membership will reach 700, and that the 
club in five years will become one of the leading 
organizations of New York. If the great plateau 
region can do so well, the Pacific Coast ought to 
make itself known in the metropolis in a similarly 
broad way. We believe California is already 
organized there, chiefly on the social side. 



Queries and Replies. 



Walnut Grafting Again. 

To the Editor: I am desirous of knowing the 
best manner of grafting the English walnut on 
the common black, when to do it. and the height 
at which trees from six to twelve inches in diam- 
eter may be cut. In about what time after graft- 
ing may trees of above sizes be expected to begin 
bearing ? — Reader, Stockton. 

With such large trees we should graft in the 
branches above the forks, unless they are alto- 
gether too high from the ground. We have seen 
trees grafted in the branches at a height of ten 
or twelve feet from the ground, producing satis- 
factory results. The trouble with cutting off 
large trunks is that it is practically impossible to 
keep the old wood from decaying between the 
grafts, and although the growth may be satisfac- 
tory, the trunk is liable to decay and the branches 
to be blown off by the wind. Working in smaller 
branches above the forks obviates this danger. 

The speed with which grafts on old stocks will 
come into bearing will depend something upon the 
rate of growth. Exceedingly vigorous wood- 
growth postpones bearing. In the third year you 
might, however, expect to have fruit— possibly 
even in the second. In grafting walnuts you can 
use some form of side graft very successfully, or a 
split graft on one side of the pith, being careful 



February 1, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



to wax thoroughly to prevent entrance of mois- 
ture. Such grafting can be done just before the 
growth starts, or even later. 



Not Very Good Hay Crops. 

To the Editor : I write for information regard- 
ing "Hairy Vetch" and "March Rape." Please 
tell me the time to plant these? We want some- 
thing that will yield heavily and something from 
which we can make hay. We have deep red soil 
and some water for irrigation. Is it necessary to 
irrigate "Hairy Vetch" or "March Rape"? — Be- 
ginner, Tuolumne county. 

Neither hairy vetch nor March rape would 
probably give you any satisfaction as a hay crop. 
Barley or oats must probably be your main reli- 
ance for hay, unless you can grow alfalfa or red 
clover with irrigation. The vetch and rape give 
green pasturage during the winter season, and 
for this reason are very desirable in places where 
the temperature does not fall too low for them 
to grow well. The "sand," or winter vetch is 
perhaps as good as the hairy vetch, and is being 
quite successfully grown in Shasta county and 
elsewhere. 

You will have to do a little experimenting with 
all these new plants to see whether they are really 
of any value in your location. One cannot judge 
by the published descriptions, which may be true 
enough in the places from which they emanate. 
You can learn a good deal by observation of the 
operations of your neighbors, both what to do 
and what not to do, and will also be profited by 
such experience as they may describe to you— 
observing ordinary rules for the judgment of evi- 
dence, etc. 



A Bitter Squash. 

To the Editor : Under separate cover I am 
sending you a "cooked squash" which is peculiar 
in the fact that it is so bitter that one who tasted 
it thought she was poisoned. We went through 
all the other squashes and found them sweet, and 
I thought that possibly there was some peculiar 
condition which it would be beneficial to know. 
I have never noticed this in squash before. Can 
you explain it? — Reader, Oakland. 

The bitterness which one is apt to encounter in 
single specimens of vegetables of different kinds, 
particularly those of the squash and melon fam- 
ily, is believed to be due to some hardship in 
growing conditions which prevents the proper 
development of the plant. Exceptional bitter- 
ness often results in cucumbers, cantaloupes, etc., 
from insufficient water supply, and so one plant 
may produce a bitter product while perhaps oth- 
ers in the same field may produce normal and 
desirable products. Sometimes a oimilar effect is 
produced by other agencies which prevent the 
satisfactory growth of the plant. It is not sur- 
prising then to find that one out of many fruits 
may be quite different from the rest and show 
this bitter flavor. This conclusion would do for 
general purposes. Of course, such bitterness, 
if ill-results should be experienced from the eat- 
ing, or there were other circumstances to indicate 
that poison might have been applied for some 
reason, would suggest careful chemical examina- 
tion and pursuit of such poison ; but we appre- 
hend that in your case no such conditions arise. 



Shavings in Manure Again. 

To the Editor: I would like to ask for infor- 
mation. I have hauled some manure on my 
orchard, and it was mixed with some pine shav- 
ings which had been used for bedding. I would 
like to know if pine shavings injure or do any 
harm to the land.— Farmer, Kingsburg. 

You need not expect any poisonous effect from 
a moderate amount of pine shavings upon the 



roots of trees, but you will have to be careful 
about introducing too much of this material, be- 
cause it does not decay readily and its presence 
will make the soil so light and loose that it will 
dry out too rapidly. If you are working on a 
sandy loam this effect is quite likely to occur; if, 
on the other hand, you have a heavy loam, or clay 
soil, the introduction of a certain amount of fine 
shavings will not be objectionable. 



A Little Too Apprehensive. 

To the Editor: I am sending you by this mail 
three cuttings from a Satsuma plum tree. From 
U. S. Bulletin No. 17 on peach yellows, I think they 
were badly attacked by the rosette last summer. 
I have dug out and burned most of them, but 
have three of the best ones that I would like to 
save if I can. Was told a while ago that I might 
save them by cutting back and cutting off the 
Worst buds and touching the spots where cut off 
with crude carbolic acid. I have partly done so 
with one, and find I can not cut back much with- 
out cutting off all the new growth that have good 
buds. On these three most of the limbs have made 
a satisfactory growth of new wood the past sum- 
mer. One of the cuttings shows the old growth 
that is attacked and the largest of the new 
growth. I have adjoining about forty fine peach 
trees that are in bearing. Don't think they were 
ever sprayed until now. Last summer the leaf 
curl attacked a couple of them, and I sent leaf to 
you and found out what it was, and in a week or 
two it was over, as you said it would be. I will 
spray again for curl about middle of February. 
Would you advise me to give them any other 
sprayings during the summer if nothing attacks 
them and they seem to do all right. I am afraid 
the peach will next be attacked by the rosette, 
and want to do everything possible to prevent it. 
Had rather loose all my other trees than the 
peach, for canned peaches from our own trees are 
half of our living this winter. — Amateur, Los 
Angeles. 

You must not be angry if we respectfully state 
that you are very much in the position, with ref- 
erence to horticultural troubles, that the ordinary 
person is with reference to physical disabilities 
after he has been indulging in copious reading of 
doctor books. You are recognizing things that 
you do not have. We never had any reason to 
think that the "rosette" was in California at all, 
and if it were here we should not expect to have 
it attack the plum tree. It is probable that some 
unfavorable soil or moisture condition, or possibly 
too high temperature for a stone fruit, induced 
the bunchy growth of leaves which you describe. 

The Satsuma plum is one of the freest bearing 
and most satisfactory for southern California, 
and we should certainly give the trees another 
year's trial, with good cultivation and as much 
water as might be needed if you find the soil 
becoming very dry. At the same time, guard 
against too much water, which will certainly 
bring the tree into distress. You will keep your 
peach trees healthy with the use of the Bordeaux 
mixture, and if the foliage is good do not do any 
summer spraying at all. 



Grafting Over Prunes. 

To the Editor : We have an orchard of about 
twenty acres of almonds grafted to prunes. The 
almonds did not bear well. The trees were thrifty 
and the grafts took well, with unions so complete 
that a novice would not notice the fact of graft. 
The prunes are hot satisfactory. The trees are 
vigorous. The almond trees were cut down low 
when grafted, and roots are about thirteen years 
old. We want to either graft to peaches or set 
out peaches between the rows of trees. Which is 
the better? Would you graft into the prune wood 
or cut below the old union? Will the union be 
good on prune wood? For drying would you 
commend Lovell or Early Muir or Late Muir?— 
Grower, Kern county. 

We would certainly put peach grafts into the 



prune branches above the forks, so as to get the 
advantage of all the strength there is in the frame 
work of the tree as it now stands. To go below 
this and put grafts into the old almond trunk will 
give a growth exceedingly difficult to keep in 
shape, and likely to blow out or bend out with 
the weight of the top growth. The peach is some- 
times not successful on the prune, but we should 
expect a good growth under the conditions you 
describe. 

For drying we would put in all the varieties 
you mention, so as not to have all the fruit ripen- 
ing at the same time. 



Too Late to Start With Burr Clover. 

To the Editor: Would it be too late to plant 
in an orchard a crop of burr clover now, and plow 
it under late in the spring? — Subscriber, Sacra- 
mento. 

It is now too late to sow burr clover to advan- 
tage. It should have been sown two or three 
months ago. You could not now get enough* 
growth before the early plowing under, which 
must be done in order to get the land into good 
condition for summer cultivation, to make it 
worth while. The best thing to do would be to 
plow under such of the volunteer growth as you 
can, and try the burr clover experiment next fa! 1 :. 



Muir Seedlings Are Still Seedlings. 

To the Editor: I have purchased a lot of 
peach trees grown from Muir pits, which have 
been neither budded nor grafted. The parties 
who sold them to me tell me they will produce 

Muir peaches true to name. 1 wish you would 

tell me if such is the case, or must they be budded 
or grafted to insure the fruit grown on them to 
be Muir peaches true to name. — Reader, Kings 
county. 

The Muir peach comes quite true from seed, 
much more so than other peaches, but still you 
are likely to encounter so much variation that 
you could not call them Muirs. The only way to 
get a Muir true to name is to bud, as in the case 
of other peaches. 

On Deck or Below? 

To the Editor: I wish to treat my lemon and 
orange trees with about two pounds per tree of 
suphate of potash, and I would like you to tell 
me whether or not it is intended to be used as a 
top dressing, like nitrate of soda, or to be plowed 
in deep? My trees are now fifteen years old. — 
Orchardist, Sanger. 

Although sulphate of potash is quite soluble and 
could be used on the surface like nitrate of soda, 
it is not so likely to go off in the drainage water 
as the nitrate of soda is, and it would be perfectly 
proper to plow it in for trees as old and having as 
wide-spreading roots as yours should have. 

The Bottle Tree. 

To the Editor: Will you be kind enough to 
give me the botanical name of the bottle tree, not 
the bottle bush (Metrocedrus), but the shade 
tree called Bottle-tree. We have a few in this 
lacality, and they make a very nice street tree- 
Villager, Porterville. 

The bottle tree is Brochychiton rupestris, an 
Australian tree, which is proving very desirable 
in this State. 



Non-Suckering Elm. 

To the Editor : I would like to plant a few elm 
trees in my bluegrass lawn, and would like to 
know if there is a variety that does not send out 
rootlets which interfere with the growing of the 
grass as some varieties of the elms do, in fact, 
ruin a nice lawn. — A Subscriber, Modesto. 

Our observation is that the cork bark elm is the 

worst offender, and that the American or Eastern 
elm behaves itself in this regard. 



68 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February I, 1908. 



The Dairy. 



SOME RELATIONS OF THE DAIRY INDUSTRY 
IN CALIFORNIA. 



Accepting your kind invitation to address your 
convention, I desire first of all to tender sincere 
thanks to the California Creamery Operators for 
their earnest and persistent support of the meas- 
ures which have secured for the Agricultural De- 
partment of the University of California the pos- 
session of this grand farm as an addition to its 
equipment for instruction in policies and prac- 
tices which minister most directly and surely to 
success in the rural industries of California. As 
the law prescribes, the University Farm will ad- 
vance in equipment until it is "producing the 
general crops of the State and as many as may 
be of all the crops and products successfully 
grown in California." 

In the various branches special instructors will 
be provided who will be expert in knowledge and 
apt to teach. Professor E. W. Major and Mr. E. 
H. Ilagemann are now at work on equipment in 
dairy lines and Dr. Leroy Anderson will soon re- 
turn to the service of the University after his 
most successful and creditable work in building 
up the California Polytechnic School at San Luis 
Obispo. These men, and others who will assist 
them, will carry the special instruction in various 
phases of dairy production, and in due time 
announcement will be made of the details of the 
undertaking. It is timely for me, perhaps, to pre- 
sent a few general considerations in favor of 
dairy promotion, and to claim that dairy advance- 
ment rests largely upon special efforts in research 
and instruction, which it is the duty of the Uni- 
versity to put forth. My subject, then, will be 
"Some of the Relations of the Dairy Industry in 
California." 

Relation of the Dairy to State Development. — 
The annual output of products of an estimated 
value of twenty-two millions of dollars consti- 
tutes the dairy industry, one of the leading agri- 
cultural interests of California. The fruit pro- 
ducts are thrice as great, and the grain crops 
have, in years good in price and yield, been twice 
as great ; but fruits and grains have attained their 
pre-eminence along avenues of export. Our dairy 
products are almost wholly consumed within our 
own State lines, and though expansion through 
export seems attainable, it has thus far been real- 
ized only in a very small degree. It is fair to 
claim that what has thus far been accomplished 
in the development of dairy husbandry in Cali- 
fornia is but a promise of future greatness, and 
that present opportunity is vastly greater than 
achievement. This fact has been clearly per- 
ceived for several years, and commendable effort 
has been continually put forth by dairy propri- 
etors and their skilled employees to lift their work 
to the exactness of practice and uniform excel- 
lence of products which are attained by faithful 
adherence to modern dairy principles and meth- 
ods. "Without such advancement the industry can 
only remain provincial and must suffer within 
its own territory by competition with high-class 
dairy products brought from other regions, many 
of which are less favored naturally. So long as 
we are buying butter, cheese, and pork products 
by the million dollars worth from the producers 
of other States, it is of very great advantage to 
the State to promote dairying upon the lines of 
the best methods and the highest quality of pro- 
ducts, because it will cancel the great tribute we 
are paying to other States for what we can pro- 
duce ourselves, and because it will enable our 
people to easily pay taxes upon an increased home 
valuation instead of really paying taxes here upon 
the increased valuation in other States, as they 
are now doing. 

Relation of Dairying to Land Values. — T have 
spoken of the increased assessed valuation of Cali- 
fornia through the extension of the dairy interest 
as desirable and of the taxes as easy to pay. This 
is true because the dairy if properly conducted 
will make productive and profitable much land 
which is now almost a burden to the owners. Our 
grain lands are coming close to the line of actual 
loss because of the reduced product per acre. 
With our cheaper methods of seeding and har- 
vesting, grain growing would still be profitable 



if larger crops could be had. The dairy will 
render profitable much land which is not well 
adapted to other agricultural specialties. Fruit 
trees and vines have been planted on thousands 
of acres upon which they will never yield profit. 
The sooner these lands are turned over to some 
proper line of animal industry, the better it will 
be for the owners and for the State. These lands 
are of several kinds, and they are found all over 
the State. There are dry lands which produce 
small fruit and stunted trees which, if properly 
handled, will yield rich winter pasturage; there 
are low lands which are too frosty for fruits, or 
too wet in winter for the health of the trees, 
which need only good farming to secure immense 
yields of summer pasturage or silo crops. There 
are also large areas of lands capable of reclama- 
tion, upon which large herds of dairy stock could 
be very profitably maintained. All these direc- 
tions of making scantily profitable lands yield 
satisfactory income constitute the dairy of dis- 
tinct and important value to the State. 

Relation of the Dairy to Soil Fertility. — A dairy 
by-product which is seldom figured is the manure. 
Careful experimentation has shown that the ex- 
creta of a dairy cow are worth about 8 cents per 
day, computed at the standard valuation of the 
plant-food substances which they contain. This 
for a year would be $29.20 per cow, and for the 
405.616 milch cows which the Department of Agri- 
culture credits to California in January, 1907, the 
total value would be $11,843,987. The worth of 
manure is conditioned upon the character and 
amount of the food supplied to the animal and 
the current estimates of value may be based upon 
higher feeding than California dairymen practice. 
Suppose then we discount the above total one- 
third, we would still have about $8,000,000 as the 
Value of manure as a by-product of California 
dairying. This by-product is not sold. If the 
dairying is properly done, every possible part of 
it is restored to the soil, not only maintaining but 
increasing its fertility. The dairy is, in fact, not 
only restorative, but productive of new plant food 
in the soil. If then it is claimed that the value 
of the manure should not be counted, because it 
is not sold but is restored to the land and used in 
subsequent production of dairy products, the 
answer is that the dairy must be credited with 
this value because it is doing what other leading 
agricultural industries do not do. Our fruit in- 
dustries make no adequate return for what they 
take from the soil, and fruit growers are each 
year paying a larger part of their gross receipts 
for commercial fertilizers. Our hay and grain 
and other field crops are robbing the soil until 
its poverty is becoming conspicuous, and still very 
few growers can command knowledge and cour- 
age enough to be generous with the soil. The 
dairy, if at all properly conducted, is a great con- 
servator, and returns to the State continually 
more than it takes. On this ground alone the 
dairy industry is of great value to the State, and 
its improvement and extension are matters of the 
clearest public benefit. 

Relation of the Dairy to Mixed Farming.— An- 
other element of value in the dairy lies in the 
fact that the cow is the cornerstone in successful 
mixed farming. It is becoming more manifest 
each year that there is greater safety and pros- 
perity in developing in each region, and in many 
cases on each farm as well, certain related lines of 
production to which the conditions are suited. 
The dairy is a leading factor in diversification, 
because it is capable of intensive culture and it 
returns a high-priced product upon which much 
labor and investment can be profitably bestowed. 
Not only is this of great help in making single 
farms profitable and their owners prosperous, but 
it distributes its benefits all through communities, 
it gives regular employment to thousands, it stim- 
ulates local trade and builds up towns and vil- 
lages and assists in the development and progress 
of all good enterprises. 

Proper rotation of cropping and pasturage will 
restore the grain yield to better figures and it 
will bring into our pockets the millions in value 
of plant food which our purchase of dairy pro- 
ducts leaves to enrich distant supply regions. 
Wherever dairying has been properly introduced 
into the grain districts of the State there is to 
be found abundant testimony to the truth of this 
claim. Dairy extension will increase our grain 
product and make it profitable. 



Relation of the Dairy to the Labor Supply. — 

Although the unsatisfactory labor supply is at 
present one of the greatest drawbacks to dairy 
production, the extension of dairying at present 
prices, which bid fair to be indefinitely main- 
tained, will actually increase the local labor sup- 
ply because of the attraction which it offers for 
profitable regular employment. In fact the dairy 
industry has a clear corrective influence upon 
what are considered some of the evils in the labor 
situation in this State. Our present possession 
of dairy cows employs upward of 20,000 people, 
and they are continually employed and comfort- 
ably housed. In the dairy connected with other 
crops the hands can give part of their time to 
other work, as required, and thus the dairy is the 
key to continuous employment of nearly all farm 
labor, except in harvest rushes, and will point the 
way to the better general condition of our farm 
laborers which is so earnestly desired by all. Thus 
the dairy becomes a valuable reform agency, min- 
istering not only to the prosperity and comfort, 
but to the moral welfare of our laboring popu- 
lation. 

Relation of the Dairy to California Agricultural 
Science. — Dairy progress is one of the most strik- 
ing and significant demonstrations of the value 
of applied science along agricultural lines, and is 
perhaps the most widely recognized of all the tri- 
umphs of agricultural college and agricultural 
experiment station work. In California there are 
conditions which suggest opportunities for the 
enlistment of trained young men and women in 
the upbuilding of a new dairy interest which 
shall vastly surpass anything thus far attained 
in this State. 

One thing which is particularly interesting in 
the dairy industry of California is the great vari- 
ety of conditions to which local practice must be 
intelligently adapted. Though there are, of course, 
lines of policy and practice which are every- 
where alike, there are others which are, or should 
be, strikingly different, and therein lies the oppor- 
tunity for insight, research, and great aptness 
in selection of materials and modification of meth- 
ods. This is true in all departments of dairy 
work, from the selection of forage plants and the 
care of stock all the way through the dairy curric- 
ulum to the manufacture and care of the product. 

There is no such variation on the Atlantic slope 
as can be found in California, but there is some- 
thing analogous in Europe, if one includes in this 
view the dairying of the Alpine valleys, of the 
moist dyked lands of Holland, of the heated irri- 
gated plains of Italy, and of the coast lands of 
Normandy with their perennial pastures born of 
equable temperature, abundant rains and fogs. 
Close resemblances to all these various conditions 
can be found within the boundaries of California, 
and how to secure for each of them suitable for- 
age plants and most productive cattle and types 
of product which shall best present their distinc- 
tive adaptations acceptably to the consumer, is a 
question of much complexity. 

Shall California compare her conditions with 
those in distant regions which they seem to re- 
semble and try to borrow wisdom from the results 
of centuries of old-world experience? That is the 
method which was tried at first with our fruit 
products. The utmost effort was made to learn 
exactly the ways by which the French made 
prunes. Now California is producing one hundred 
and thirty-five million pounds of prunes a year 
in ways the French never thought of, and is ex- 
porting a surplus to Europe — even selling some of 
them in France. The utmost effort was made 
twenty-five years ago to ascertain just how irri- 
gation was done in Italy, in Algiers, and in India. 
Now commissioners come from all arid countries 
to study the California methods of irrigation. 
There is full reason to think that our dairy devel- 
opment will also proceed along original lines, and 
it rests with the rising generation of technically 
educated men and women to master the situation 
and to invent the methods of advancement which 
are likely to be characteristically Californian. 

Relation of the Dairy to Special Lines of Re- 
search. — But though this element of originality 
will mark the methods which are finally adopted 
as best suiting our conditions, their attainment 
will be promoted by the same attitude of mind 
and the same diligence in research and experi- 
ment which prevail in all advanced dairy circles. 
These powers of the trained dairy student have 



February 1, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



6< 



rich opportunities for achievement in this State, 
some of which may be suggested: 

Which ones of the many dairy breeds will best 
befit the various regions of California? Many 
have been brought here, their influence upon the 
common dairy stock of the State has been good, 
and we have, as a rule, very creditable grade cat- 
tle for dairy purposes. But here, as elsewhere, 
dairy profits are reduced by feeding cows which 
do not pay their way. It is also undetermined 
that the good ones are as good as they may be, or 
as well suited to the distinctive conditions of the 
different regions. Experiment and close obser- 
vation are needed in all parts of the State to lift 
cow-power to the highest attainable point. 

Which are the forage plants which under the 
influence of local climates and local soils will 
enable the best cows to reach their fullest produc- 
tion? Ever since the first years of the American 
occupation alfalfa has been grown in California, 
and yet its area has increased more in the last five 
years than in all the preceding forty. We are, 
perhaps, doing more with alfalfa than any other 
State or country in the world, and yet we have 
hardly learned the vast value of the plant and the 
best ways to use it in feeding practices. Alfalfa 
probably still contains more potential wealth for 
the State than any other single member of the 
plant creation. A priest and prophet of alfalfa 
has not yet appeared above the common level of 
mankind. And yet alfalfa has serious limitations 
and is not adapted to great districts of the State. 
Other plants must be sought. For twenty years 
the College of Agriculture of the University of 
California has been introducing forage plants 
from all parts of the world to determine by experi- 
ment which would thrive under trying conditions 
in this State, and some notable results have been 
attained, but the opportunity for enriching the 
pastures of California and mvdtiplying their pro- 
duction in livestock and dairy lines still remains 
for devoted effort and close observation. 

What foods can be best locally grown or manu- 
factured to profitably supplement pasturage? This 
is an almost unexplored field of investigation so 
far as the general dairy practitioner is concerned. 
Too many are keeping but one cow to four or 
five acres of land, which should support twice as 
many if more intelligently administered. This 
is in part involved in the pasturage, which has 
already been mentioned, but, beyond that, the 
production and conservation of supplementary 
food remains as a wide field for improvement. 
There is seldom reason why a cow should go a day 
without succulent food if her owner has the 
knowledge and the energy to provide it. There 
is no reason why she should pass a third, or a 
quarter, of the year in idleness while her inhuman 
owner robs himself by half-starving her because 
she is yielding nothing. 

There are several hundred silos in the State 
which conserve succulent forage, as the jar pre- 
serves table fruit, and keep the cow up to her 
fullest production and in the jolliest comfort, 
though the pastures be bare as the roadway. 
There should be a hundred times as many, and 
there will be as soon as their value and plain prac- 
ticability are better understood. The science of 
suitable and adequate feeding affords an almost 
limitless opportunity for advanced research, 
thought and practice. 

Although California has, deservedly, a good 
reputation for excellence in the butter product, 
and for such high average quality that "cooking 
butter" is always scarce, there is still opportu- 
nity for improvement. Though we have excep- 
tional advantages in attaining high quality, be- 
cause of the dryness of the air while the tempera- 
ture is high measurably prevents unsound fer- 
mentation in the milk, it is still true that much 
of our butter is below the high standard which 
modern commercial dairying prescribes. We 
need better conception of quality, better knowl- 
edge of how to attain it, and a wider use of the 
agencies recently devised to secure the largest 
amount of the best product at the least cost. Here 
are manufacturing problems than which the 
whole list of agricultural arts presents none which 
make such sharp requirements upon the talent 
and training of the operator. He has to deal with 
a most perishable material, full of unstable com- 
pounds, absorptive of all atmospheric ills, endan- 
gered by slight changes of temperature and com- 



mercially ruined by any lapse of perception or 
judgment upon his part, and is required to baffle 
all adverse conditions and agencies until he has 
at length imprisoned others light as the fragrance 
of a flower in a golden solid, pure and permanent 
and permanent because pure. Our grandmothers 
did this empirically sometimes, by the roll or fir- 
kin : our butter-makers of today must do it day by 
day, and by the carload. It can only be accom- 
plished by the acutest perceptions ministering to 
true conceptions of ends to be sought, and attend- 
ed by the fullest knowledge of the nature of the 
materials and the efficacy of all agencies employed. 
To know this problem is to become an advocate 
of dairy education. It is the only power which 
can help the industry. 

The Duty of the State to Dairy Improvement.— 
The demonstration of great value to the State in 
the dairy industry places a clear obligation upon 
the State. Dairy success today is only attainable 
by the most complete understanding of materials 
and methods and the most effective protection 
against impurity, sophistication and fraud. These 
results can only be accomplished by the most pa- 
tient investigation in the search for new truth and 
the most effective instruction of all concerned, so 
that all work shall be done in the full light of 
the latest knowledge. The State should make a 
liberal provision for dairy statistics, and the 
enforcement of the laws for dairy sanitation and 
bovine health, upon which dairy progress is clearly 
seen to rest, and for which other States have used 
public money freely, with the most significant 
results and most enthusiastic popular approval. 
The value which the dairy industry now presents 
to the State is but a fraction of what it will pre- 
sent in the future, and the resulting benefits will 
be widely distributed. Dairy ownership, dairy 
labor, and dairy commerce will all be enabled to 
contribute more largely to the prosperity and sta- 
bility of the State, according to the degree in 
which State aid is generously given and wisely 
expended in the interest of local dairy develop- 
ment and progress. 



Doings of a Bunch of Holsteins. 

Mr. L. A. Hall of Modesto gives the Dairy 
Review a report of one year's work of five cows 
in his Cream Cup herd : 

Name of Cow. 



which is $35, but is this too high a valuation for 
calves from cows producing over 400 pounds of 
butter fat in a year? The probabilities are that 
Jie will sell the males before they are a year old at 
twice or three times the amount. The valuation 
of about 30 cents a hundred on skim milk may 
also seem high, but it is not when you have good, 
high-class calves, poultry and hogs to feed it to, 
and when you know how to feed it." 



Age. 


Lbs. Milk. 


Av. Test. 


3 


yrs. 


12,937 


3.0 


pet. 


3 


yrs. 


10,362 


3.6 


pet. 


5 


yrs. 


16,495 


3.1 


pet. 


3 


yrs. 


13,184 


3.7 


pet. 


4 


yrs. 


13,095 


3.6 


pet. 



i Total pounds of milk, 66,075. Average test, 3.40 per 
Cent. Total pounds of butter fat, 2,010.68. Average price 
per pound, 31 cents. 

Value of butter fat $ 623.31 

Value of skim milk 200.00 

Six calves at $35 210.00 

Total $1033.31 

Cost of feed 325.00 

| Profit i $ 708.31 

All of these cows are thoroughbred Holstein- 
Priesians. I started in with ten head, but sold 
five of them before they finished the year. I have 
bought six more to take their places, so in the 
coming year I will be able to give The Pacific 
Dairy Review a record of the eleven head. 
: These cows were fed alfalfa hay, ground bar- 
ley, and bran the year round, with the exception 
of three months. They also had some pasture. 
Some may think I value my skim milk rather 
high, but I would not sell it for that price, as il 
is worth more to feed pure bred calves and hogs. 
The reason for the six calves is that one cow had 
twins. The cows milked twice a day and every 
milking weighed and recorded. I did not figure 
the work myself. 

In commenting upon the foregoing, the Dairy 
Review says: "In the records of the State Dairy 
Bureau is evidence of the fact that there are in 
the State the average dairyman lias cows that it 
requires just four to do the work of one of the 
kind that Mr. Hall reports upon. His cows gave 
him a gross annual income of $200 a year. The 
State Dairy Board found the i>toss average in- 
come of 28,000 cows, many of whose milk realized 
the high prices secured for milk for city supply, 
to be $54. Some one may say that Mr. Hill places 
too high a valuation on the calves of his cows 



The Poultry Yard. 



VARIETY IN FEEDING ESSENTIAL. 

I Mr. Walter Sullivan of Agnews, the well known 
breeder of Buff Orpingtons, has prepared for the 
'•Town and Country Journal an interesting outline 
Of his conclusions about poultry feeding, from 
Which we take the following : 
[ We are all helped by the experience of others 
find from among the various methods tried fully 
by others we can find a system for our own needs 
that will insure the results we seek. Many times 
fve believe one way or another of feeding is con- 
demned by one who tries for the reason he fails to 
barry out the plan far enough to be sure it is 
pot adapted to his needs; that is, feeds this way 
k short time, switches to another method before 
the flock becomes accustomed to the change, and 
again upsets the birds, which is as bad or worse 
perhaps than changing from one pen to another 
every few days, which is, we know, a sure method 
()f decreasing egg production. 
, Changes in Feeding. — These changes in manner 
bf feeding, if it is thought desirable to have a 
plan altogether different from what has been fol- 
lowed, are usually best brought about by gradual 
iphange, increasing the allowance in one direction 
perhaps and withholding in another until the full 
ration of the new plan is being put out, often 
taking two weeks or more for the change, by 
Which time the fowls are being differently fed 
Without being aware of it themselves or showing 
any change in the egg basket. Again, what seems 
perfectly satisfactory at one season will not give 
the same results another, and when such seems 
to be the case, perhaps with many, it is the too 
sudden change in system or entire change to dif- 
ferent mixture if fed in same manner that keeps 
the flock in an unsettled condition, giving the 
owner the impression that neither method has 
been right, and another is tried, with the final 
conclusion that the fault lies with the breed or 
yariety, they being less of layers than was ex- 
pected from statements made when the flock was 
started. 

I The writer has tried many methods of feeding, 
find still tries some advocated by friends and ac- 
quaintances, others of his own at times, to find 
What will answer best from time to time with 
changes of the seasons, and this would be of little 
)f any help without giving some of his experi- 
ences along this line. The dry mash feed is gain- 
ing many friends ; some I know who have fed this 
ivay altogether for three years find it most satis- 
factory, and the flock — a large one— shows that 
there is little to be asked for in general appear- 
ance, and the statement of the owner that egg 
yield is satisfactory leaves little room for doubt 
is to this being the right way for him at least. 

Dry Mashes. — Dry mashes composed of four 
parts bran, three parts middlings, one and one- 
lalf parts corn meal, one-half part willow char- 
fcoal, one part alfalfa meal, and one-sixth to one- 
fceventh part meat meal — the latter according to 
imount of animal food to be obtained on range, 
ind seeming needs of the birds at moulting time 
— is the mixture used by one. This is placed in 
ielr-feed'ing boxes, grain fed at evening all they 
will clean up just before roost time. Another is 
ibout the same, with barley meal substituted for 
•orn meal. Young and tender grass just starting 
where fowls can have all they want would allow 
he withdrawal of the ground alfalfa from the 
mash, and the writer has tried wetting of this 
jdfalfa and feeding in troughs separately, allow- 
ing the hens to have such as they wished without 
feompelling them to take a certain amount, and 
Where green food is scarce they eat this readily 
and appreciate it. Trices of grains at times will 
necessitate some study for best combination that 



70 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 1, 1908. 



will lessen cost. Kaffir corn, while about the 
same as common wheat, is slightly more fatten- 
ing, and to overcome this one naturally would 
feed more meat and be sure of sufficient green 
food to counteract the effects of a too concen- 
trated diet; overfeeding of meat will cause bowel 
trouble and other disorders. 

Anything that lessens labor increases profits, 
and we find in the dry feeding of mashes a sav- 
ing in this; large boxes need filling seldom and 
where under cover contents are safe for two 
weeks before any danger of becoming unfit for 
use, and the mash is fed at one time for the four- 
teen days, that would mean fourteen trips, and 
put out in about one-seventh of the time. Moist 
mashes seem to be the right thing in many cases ; 
one flock near the writer, of upward of 1200 lay- 
ers, has never been fed differently. With the 
grain fed in the morning gives good returns, and 
the man handling them shows returns of over 
$1000 per year for his work with them. 

More Meat. — It is desirable at times to feed 
more heavily of meat than at others in case of 
hens, perhaps just before turning to market, as 
they are at the last of their profitable laying and 
one'wishes to get all there is in them in a short 
time then perhaps, and probably it is more profit- 
able to feed the mash moist as when given in this 
form it is one of the full feeds and they are com- 
pelled to take a given amount of whatever the 
mash is composed of. Other plans have been bran, 
middlings and meat meal alone in hoppers, and 
grain fed by hand perhaps three times daily where 
birds were more closely confined, the feeding of 
three times a day in litter giving the needed exer- 
cise, with the meat ;it hand tempered with bran 
and midds, to prevent over-indulgence. 

As an experiment, there are now something 
like fifty chicks about seven weeks old, started on 
dry feed, and these will be fed nothing but dry 
food until matured. Later we shall have a full 
report of our success with our plan for this 
method of rearing. 



The Field. 



Grasses on Trial in Imperial Valley. 

The "El Centro Press, Imperial county, states 
that forage plants that thrive in wet and over- 
flowed land are useful to stock raisers below the 
Mexican line and in some parts of Imperial Val- 
ley. Investigations by the Department of Agri- 
culture have resulted in the discovery of several 
varieties of grass adapted to wet ground, among 
them a South American plant called Para grass, 
which endures flooding, grows continuously, 
yields large crops of hay and is as nutritious as 
timothy. Para grass has been introduced in 
southern Texas and Mexico, to the great benefit 
of stock growers. It grows in favorable ground 
an inch a day, and yields more than ten tons of 
cured hay to the acre. 

Mr. Horace Metcalf, who has taken great inter- 
est in the matter, recently brought 10,000 cut- 
tings of Para grass from Texas and planted them 
on overflowed lands of the C. M. ranch along the 
Hardy Colorado. While selecting localities suit- 
able for the plants, Mr. Metcalf found several 
patches of Paspalum, another grass adapted to 
the same conditions, which has proved successful 
in Australia and some parts of Oregon. Whether 
Paspalum was introduced in the Colorado delta 
by early colonists, as there is some reason to be- 
lieve, or was distributed accidentally by the river, 
is an open question, but the fact that it occurs in 
small patches along New river indicates that its 
introduction was not of very recent date. 

Paspalum sends runners along the ground, and 
from each joint spring blades of grass. It thrives 
in wet ground, and is not injured by being sub- 
merged for two or three months at a time. The 
runners often climb small trees, and along the 
Hardy it is common to find great masses of cured 
hay hanging amid the branches of mesquites and 
cottonwoods. Paspalum makes a heavy growth 
of succulent grass, and produces fine hay. It does 
not propagate from seed, but spreads by the car- 
riage of joints in flowing water and their deposit 
at subsidence of the flood. 



The Vineyard. 



Those Lathrop Zinfandels. 



To the Editor : In your issue of January 11th, 
a grape grower of Lathrop tells of Zinfandel 
grapes grafted on Rupestris St. George which 
do not set fruit properly on his best ground 
(heavy sandy loam) ; the vines being four years 
from the graft. 

The gentleman can confer a favor by giving 
further data on this subject. First. How do 
such vines behave in other parts of that vineyard, 
and what is the soil and elevation in those other 
parts? Have others in that neighborhood Zin- 
fandel vines on that stock, and, if so, are they 
generally a success, or are they a success only 
on certain soils? How about Zinfandel on other 
stocks? 

The question of what resistant stock is best 
for the Zinfandel is an important one for this 
locality, where the Zinfandel has long been a 
favorite on its own roots. So far as the Rupes- 
tris St. George has been used for the Zinfandel 
here it has generally given good results, but the 
trials have been on a limited scale, and for a few 
years only. The soil is generally of but moderate 
depth, say a foot to eighteen inches, and of vari- 
able texture, from clay to gravelly, and underlaid 
by clay in some places, and by hardpan in others. 

Is it possible that the vines complained of at 
Jjathrop are supplied with sap by their stocks 
too freely? They remind us of a certain lot of 
Lemon Cling peach trees which we once owned 
on a creek bottom, that made an enormous 
growth but were a disappointment as to crops, 
though Muirs, Orange Clings and Salways bore 
heavily. The rush of sap seemed to throw the 
fruit off while yet small. 

The owner of these Zinfandels might possibly 
learn something to his advantage if he would 
girdle or scarify some of the bearing arms. The 
French have a special instrument for this pur- 
pose, but the experiment can be tried with a 
pruning knife, cutting just through the bark to 
the sap wood with a twisting motion to the blade 
so as to scrape the sap wood slightly on each arm 
or spur near where it joins the older wood. The 
usual effect is to produce finer fruit. 

Another possible solution of the trouble at 
Lathrop suggests itself. That heavy sandy loam 
is likely to be the lowest part of the vineyard, 
or in a depression at least, and the unusually 
heavy rains of last March may have raised the 
water-table and caused the vines to suffer from 
'cold feet.' Vines or trees may be set out in such 
a place and have several seasons with a moderate 
rainfall so distributed as to favor their develop- 
ment, and then a heavy rain late in the season 
may produce disastrous results. In that same 
peach orchard we lost a considerable number of 
the Orange Cling trees when about two years old, 
from sour sap. They stood in a sag, and we re- 
planted with pears. 

If your Lathrop correspondent on examination 
finds that drainage is what is wanted, perhaps he 
may get it by boring through the stratum that 
holds the water, or blasting it at its lowest point, 
more cheaply than by ditching. 

To return to the adaptation of stocks to soil 
condition, Prof. F. T. Bioletti says, in Bulletin 
No. 131 of the University of California Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, pages 14 and 15, dis- 
cussing the merits of the Rupestris Martin and 
Rupestris St. George: "Where the soil is some- 
what compact the St. George is to be preferred, 
but neither of them should be planted where, on 
account of an impervious subsoil or a high water- 
table, deep penetration of the roots is impossible. 
Where water is too near the surface, Rupestris 
is liable to fungus root-rot. * * * For looAe, 
moist soils on northern slopes, and in those situa- 
tions where a horizontal root development is 
desirable or permissible, the Riparia Gloire de 
Montpellier is extremely promising. It should be 
planted wherever Riparias of any kind have 
proved to do well, as in certain soils of the San 
Francisco Bay region, and in the sub-irrigated 
soils of parts of the San Joaquin valley." 

We have also heard high praise for Riparia 
Gloire on deep alluvial soils near Santa Rosa. 

The Riparia Gloire has the additional merit of 



making a trunk which nearly equals the vinifera 
varieties in stoutness. 

C. H. Dwinelle. 

Fulton, Sonoma County. 



The Garden. 



Gardens and Their Kinds. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Professor W. L. Jkpson of the University of California. 

There may be said to be two kinds of flower gardens 
— flower gardens in which the plant is the thing, 
formal gardens in which plants are subordinated to 
the design. This is not by any means the universal 
conception of a formal garden but it is the one held to 
by W. Robinson, the great English gardening and 
landscape authority, whose most recent book is en- 
titled "The Garden Beautiful," albeit the subtitle, 
"Home Woods and Home landscape," better sug- 
gests the substance of the book which is published by 
John Murray, London. 

Thirty years ago Robinson declared war and no 
quarter on the formal garden in England and achieved 
through the influence of his periodical, The Garden, 
and his books, "The English Garden" and "The 
Wild Garden," a most notable victory. The formal 
garden in England today has by his tremendous on- 
slaught been made utterly absurd by his fusilade of 
ridicule. 

The true flower garden, he says, holds a relation to 
art. The formal garden is a product of the drawing 
board draughtsman and decorative schemer. The 
true test of a flower garden lies in the picture. Do we 
frighten the artist away or do we bring him to see a 
garden so free from ugly patterns and ugly colors 
that, seen in a beautiful light, it would be worth his 
seeing and perhaps painting? There is not and can 
never be, says our author, any other true test. The 
work of the true artist is always marked by respect 
for nature and by keen study of it. 

But apart from this we have a great many men 
who do what is called "decorative" work, useful but 
still not art in the sense of delight in, and study of, 
things as they are — the whole class of decorators, who 
make our carpets, tiles, curtains, and who adapt con- 
ventional or geometrical forms mostly to flat surfaces. 
Skill in this way may be considerable without any 
attention whatever being paid to the art that is con- 
cerned with life in its fullnes-. 

This it is well to see clearly, he continues, as for the 
flower gardener it matters much on which side he 
stands. Our gardeners for ages have suffered at the 
hands of the decorative artist, when applying his 
"designs" to the garden, and designs which may be 
quite right on a flat surface, like a carpet or a panel, 
have been applied a thousand times to the surface of 
the reluctant earth. And so for ages the flower gar- 
den was marred by absurdities of this kind as regards 
plan, though the flowers were in simple and natural 
ways. In our own time the same decorative idea 
has come to be carried out in the planting of flowers 
under the name of " bedding out," "carpet bedding," 
"mosaic culture" in which the beautiful form of 
flowers are degraded to the level of crude color to 
make a design without reference to the natural form 
or beauty of the plants, clipping being freely done to 
get the carpets or patterns true. When these tracery 
gardens were made by people without any knowledge 
of the plants of a garden, they were found difficult to 
plant, hence there were attempts to do without the 
gardener, and get color by the use of broken brick, 
white sand, and painted stone. Robert Southey tells 
of a garden that was a scroll-work cut very narrow, 
and the interstices filled with sand of different colors 
to imitate embroidery ! 

Formal gardening has no great vogue in California 
and is more conspicuous, perhaps, in public parks than 
in private gardens. Wherever we see parti-colored 5 
or 6-pointed stars or crescents on lawns, or figures in 
imitation of colored advertisements, calico prints or 
kitchen-table oil-cloth applied to beds — there the 
formal gardener luxuriates after the way of his kind. 

Lest there be mistaken inference it may be well to 
say that one may properly have a square garden with 
square beds and straight walks, for such an arrange- 
ment may give the best use of the space, and such a 
garden may, too, be beautifully planted. To repeat, 
it is the flower we love, not the design. 

The term "landscape gardener," says Robinson, is 
good because the gardener has to do with the growth 
and grouping of trees in natural forms, and study of 
forms of the earth for purposes of beauty. The term, 
" landscape architect," is bad, implying the union of 
two absolutely distinct studies, one dealing with varied 
life in a thousand different kinds and the natural 
beauty of the earth, and the other with stone- and 
brick and their putting together. The training for 
either of these arts is wide apart from the training 
demanded for the other, and the earnest practice of 



February 1, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



71 



D5 HESS 
STOCK F06D 

Animal growth and milk production are 
dependent lor lull development upon a healthy 
digestion. The key to the feeder's problem 
then, is a suitable tonic to prevent derange- 
ment ol the digestive organs. Dr. Hess 
Stock Food is such a tonic. By making the 
greatest proportion ol lood digestible, it keeps 
the animal in health, causes rapid growth and 
a lull measure ol production. 




Professors Quitman, Winslow and Finley 
Dun endorse the ingredients in Dr. Hess 
Stock Food. It iB the prescription of Dr. Hesfl 
(M. D., D. V. S.) and Is sold on u written 
guarantee. 

100 lbs. $7.00 25 lb. pall $2.00 
Smaller qnan titles at a slight advance. 

Where Dr. Hess Stock Food differs In par- 
ticular is in the dose— it's small and fed but 
twice a day, which proves it has the most di- 
gestive strength to the pound. Our Govern- 
ment recognizes Dr. Hess Stork Food as a 
medicinal compound, and this paper is back 
of the guarantee. 

If your dealer cannot supply you we will. 

DR. HESS & CLARK, ASHLAND. OHIO. 

also Manufacturers of DR. HESS POULTRY I'A Ni • 

CE-A and INSTANT LOUSE KILLER. 
THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO.. 
PETALCMA, CAL., 
Pacific Coast Distributers. 



the one leaves no time, even if there 
were genius, for the other. 

The most interesting part of this new 
book relates to home woods. Cali- 
fornian conditions are so utterly differ- 
ent from those of England that the 
details regarding planting would not, 
as a whole, apply here, but there are 
certain fundamental propositions well 
stated. The home woods are but a 
noble part of the garden and the plant- 
ing should always be in mass, because 
it is here that beauty and profit go 
hand in hand. For the sake of beauti- 
ful woods, for the sake of economy in 
care, and for the sake of making good 
timber, never plant scattering trees. 
With a gift of quiet humor and a keen 
sense of the ridiculous he gibes the 
planting of scattered specimen trees as 
"toy tray" and "dotting work." 
Plant useless land to trees, he cries, 
and in mass. Few know the power of 
evergreen trees to grow on the poor- 
est land. The wood is a mighty worker 
for man — there is no Saturday night in 
the woodland. ic )V/ 



Labor Supply. 



Distribution of Aliens. 



To the Editor : There is herewith 
inclosed a copy of Section 40 of an Act 
of Congress creating the Division of 
Information, the object of which is to 
promote a beneficial distribution of 
aliens admitted into this country. 

We particularly desire to reach those 
who are in need of farm laborers or 
are likely to require this class of help in 
the future. The Division is therefore 
communicating with the editors of vari- 
ous periodicals devoted to agriculture 
asking that they publish a news item 
setting forth our efforts to bring to the 
attention of admitted aliens and unem- 
ployed citizens the need for their ser- 
vices in localities where there exists an 
actual scarcity of labor. Samples of 
blank forms are transmitted, and it is 
respectfully requested that at least the 
one applicable to "Farm Labor" be 



reproduced for the benefit of your 
readers, and that they be asked to write 
the Division of Information, Bureau of 
Immigration and Naturalization, Wash- 
ington, D. C, if they need laborers or 
domestics or have farms to rent on 
shares. 

The services of the Division are abso- 
lutely free and no money or stamps 
should be sent in any instance. We de- 
sire to know of specific opportunities; 
what wages will be paid; what chances 
for advancement exist; whether em- 
ployment will be permanent; and it is 
urged that applicants write their names 
and addresses plainly in order that con- 
fusion may be avoided. We will place 
this information where it will benefit 
employer and employee. 

I trust that you may aid us and that 
much good may accrue through the 
medium of your paper, and thank you 
for any courtesy you may extend. 

T. V. POWDERLY. 

Department of Commerce and Labor, 
Washington, D. C. 

WHAT THE LAW PROVIDES. 

'.The following is the section of the 
Act of Congress creating the informa- 
tion agency under Mr. Powderly: 

Sec. 40. Authority is hereby given 
the Commissioner-General of Immigra- 
tion to establish, under the direction 
and control of the Secretary of Com- 
merce and Labor, a division of informa- 
tion in the Bureau of Immigration and 
Naturalization; and the Secretary of 
Commerce and Labor shall provide 
such clerical assistance as may be neces- 
sary. It shall be the duty of said divi- 
sion to promote a beneficial distribution 
of aliens admitted into the United States 
among the several States and Terri- 
tories- desiring immigration. Corre- 
spondence shall be had with the proper 
officials of the States and Territories, 
and said division shall gather from all 
available sources useful information re- 
garding the resources, products, and 
physical characteristics of each State 
and Territory, and shall publish such 
information in different languages and 
distribute the publications among all 
admitted aliens who may ask for such 
information" at the immigrant stations 
of the Uniied States and to such other 
persons as may desire the same. When 
any State or Territory appoints and 
maintains an agent or agents to repre- 
sent it at any of the immigrant stations 
of the United States, such agent shall, 
under regulations prescribed by the 
Commissioner-General of Immigration, 
subject to the approval of the Secretary 
of Commerce and Labor, have access to 
aliens who have been admitted to the 
United States for the purpose of present- 
ing, either orally or in writing, the 
special inducements offered by such 
State or Territory to aliens to settle 
therein. While on duty at any immi- 
grant station such agents shall be sub- 
ject to all the regulations prescribed by 
the Commissioner-General of Immigra- 
tion, who, with the approval of the 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor, may, 
for violation of any such regulations, 
deny to the agent guilty of such viola- 
tion any of the privileges herein granted. 

BLANKS FOR INFORMATION. 

As stated in Mr. Powderly's letter, 
blanks are issued upon which the in- 
formation which he desires may be sent 
to him. Tnose who want laborers sent 
in their direction should certainly place 



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Write us for price list and samples ; they are free. 

We want you to see the kind of Poultry Foods that are manu- 
factured from CLEAN, RAW MATERIAL. This means 
HEALTHY ANIMAL FOODS for your poultry. 

Western Meat Company 

South San Francisco, San Mateo County 



full information of the chance for work 
and of opportunities for settlement in 
the hands of the Government. 



Sparrows Damage Orchards.— 
Modesto Herald: Orchard men state 
that the almond and apricot trees are 
now putting out their new fruit buds, 
and that as fast as the buds come out 
they are eaten off by the sparrows, of 
which there are thousands in the vicin- 
ity of the orchards. Of course if the 
entire county was planted to orchard, 
the depredations of the birds would be 
hardly noticeable, but when bearing 
orchards are so comparatively small in 
extent here, as yet, the loss occasioned 
by the birds will be large. One almond 
grower states that his small orchard 
should, next year, net him several hun- 
dred dollars, but that the birds have 
cleaned off the buds and he doubts if he 
will get any nuts at all. Other growers 
report the same state of affairs. D. S. 
Fellows, who is suffering from the de- 
predations of the birds, says that he has 
nearly cleaned the little feathered pests 
out at his place by the use of poisoned 
wheat. He takes 50c. worth of strych- 
nine to a gallon of wheat, and pours 
enough hot water over the whole to 
soften the wheat, andjCauses it to absorb 
the poison. The mass is well mixed, 
of course, and then is scattered through 
the orchard. The plan is a good one for 
general usage, as the sparrows are rapa- 
cious pests. 



FOREMAN. 



A young energetic fruit grower, for two years 
in my employ, desires to find position as fore- 
man in orchard or vineyard. I can recommend 
him as absolutely reliable. He has a knowledge 
of general farming, but more particularly of 
prune and raisin growing. Apply to, 

G. H. H. 



SE3ST FII_iT_i ON - EARTH 

People who are sick with dyspepsia, headache 
and biliousness, bavingyeliowcomplexion and 
pimples, do not wan t to experiment, but wanta 
medicine that has had the test of time. We have 
cured these diseases for 25 years with dr. gunn's 
improved liver pills. They drive out the cause 
of sickness, making the complexion clear and 
healthy. 25cts. a box at druggists, or by mail 
Write Dr. Bosanko Co., Philada., Pa. Sample Free. 

oisrr_."v one for .a. dose 



WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed 
Postal for prices. 



A. A. MILLS, 



Anaheim, Cal. 



$5 A THOUSAND 

RES1STAIMT GRAPE CUTTINGS FROM 
IMPORTED STOCK. 

VARIETIES-3306, 3309, 1202 
A. W. LUTHER Healdsburg, Cal. 



For Sale : Jerusalem Artichokes 

THE GREAT WINTER HOO FEED 

Address 

Fancher Creek Nurseries. Fresno, California. 



SURPLUS STOCK 



130 Opulent peach, 20 to 40 c. 

220 Tuscan cling, 15 to 20c. 

100 Burbank plum, 12^ to 20c. 

120 Early peaches, 12)4 to 25c. 

50 Muir, 10 to 15c. 

6(5 Maynard plum, 20 to 25c. 

10 Sultan plum, 10 to 20c. 

25 Chapman cling on Mahaleb, 20 to 26c. 

28 Til ton apricot, 15 to 20c. 

114 Grafted Chestnuts, Ridgely, Combale, 

Q,uincy, Paragon, 20 to 40c. 
100 Franquette walnuts on Cal. Black, 81.00 to 

81.25. 

47 Santa Rosa walnuts on Cal. Black, 81.00. 
400 Cal. Black walnuts, 10 to 15c. 

T. J. TRUE 

Rural Route J MODESTO. 




rsSEEDS 

For fresh- 
ness, purity and reli- 
ability, Ferry 'sSeeds 
are in a class by them- 
selves. Farmers 
have confidence 
in them because 
they know they 
can be relied up- 
on. Don't experi- 
ment with cheap 
seeds — your sure- 
ty lies in buying 
seeds sent out by 
a conscientious 
and trustworthy 
house. 
Ferry's Seed Annual 
for 1908 is FREE. Address 
D W.Ferrt SCo.. Detroit, Mich. 



ENCINAL NURSERIES. 

SPECIALTIES:— Apricot on ' Cot and Genu- 
ine Franquette Walnut on black walnut 
root. Strong, thrifty trees grown on, new soil, 
entirely without irrigation, and surrounded 
by all safeguards possible, from selection of seeds 
and buds to the digging of the tree, to have them 
healthy, tree from disease and true to name. 



F. C. WILLSON proprietor, Sunnyvale. 
Santa Clara County, California. 



Red Gum 
Sugar Gum 
Gray Gum 
Desert Gum 



for 

timber, 
posts, piles, 
poles, etc. 



Best Four. Get Our Prices. 

Cling and Free Peaches, Apricots, Almonds, 
Cherreis, Walnuts, and a few F'rench Prunes. 

Peppers, Acacias, Casuarlnas, Italian and 
Monterey Cypress, Pine, Cedar, etc. 

Leonard Coates Nursery Co., Inc. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

FARM CON VENIENCES.— A manual of what 
to do and how to do It. Describing all manner 
of home-made aids to farm wdrk. Made up of 
the best Ideas from the experience of many prac- 
tical men. With over 200 engravings. 266 pages, 
5 by 7 Inches. Cloth 81.00 



72 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 1, 1908. 



The Home Circle. 



Friendship. 

When life looks dark and troubles drear 

Seem never at an end, 
We mostly fmd someone sincere, 

A loyal, faithful friend. 

Who'll grasp you firmly by the hand, 

An honest, hearty shake, 
And by your side lie' 1 1 bravely stand, 

For purely friendship's sake. 

The weary load you had to bear, 

Seems lighter to have grown, 
The cloudy sky will look more fair 

When friendship's love is shown. 

What blessed pleasure we must fmd, 

To dream and sweetly know, 
That loving eyes are never blind 

To see us in our woe. 

Though sorrow's tears may often start, 

Through no fault of our own, 
If they but melt a tender heart, 

True friendship's love is shown. 

That love within the human breast, 

Must soon or later end — 
But Christ the truest and the best, 

Will ever be our friend. 

If we but travel in the light 

Of His pure, watchful eyes, 
And know for sure we're living right, 

His friendship never dies. 

— George K. McKen/.ie. 



DIANA AND THE SPIDER 

The "Baud, Gusset and Seam" is 
a society recruited from an exclu- 
sive circle of Nob Hill's youthful 
matrons. It meets during the win- 
ter, with aggravated activity dur- 
ing Lent, at houses of the members ; 
"First flannels to the indigent"; its 
symbol, a thimble or, crossed by a 
pair of scissors argent, on a back- 
ground of flannel gules surmounted 
by a spool of thread couchant. 

The demure maid who serves bouil- 
lon, tea and chocolate to the soci- 
ety's fair Dorcases, hears tales from 
every quarter of the globe, of life in 
the summer colonies along the New 
England coar-t, of yachting cruises 
through Norwegian fiords in the yel- 
low wake of the midnight sun, of 
walking tours in the Landes, and 
camping trips in the north woods. 
She knows her planet better than 
many whose orbits are less circum- 
scribed, and can safely be relied 
upon for information regarding elk 
in Oregon or salmon in the Colum- 
bia, the proper time to hunt the griz- 
zly in Assiniboia, and the relative 
merits of the Andahisian donkey and 
his twin brother, the Rocky Moun- 
tain burro. 

After serving the Bradamante of 
the society with a cup of tea and a 
caviare sandwich, she retires to a 
dusky corner of the room, refills the 
lamp under the brazen kettle, and 
re-arranges the Dresden cups and 
saucers and the jewel mounted 
spoons upon the t-iakwood table. 

When the fluffy-haired Mrs. Jack, 
the society's president and the host- 
ess of the occasion, begins her story, 
there is a lull in the talk, which the 
wind fills in with a neatly executed 
arpeggio. 

Mrs. Jack's mouth droops in wist- 
ful curves, and beside her eyes an 
infant's would seem unsophisticated. 

"Jack says I must go with him to 
Africa, but 1 shall never dare to look 
a tiger in the face, after my experi- 
ence on the Big Muddy." 

Mrs. Jack's adventures have fa- 
miliarized the society with Tin Cup, 
Big Bog; Bumble Bee, and Medicine 
Hat But the Big Muddy offers de- 
lightful fields for speculation, for it 
has not yet found a place on any 



map and its only high roads are the 
half obliterated trails left by the 
Utes when they unwillingly departed 
for new hunting grounds. 

"You remember the big-horn I 
wliot after Jack and the guides had 
(racked him for ten days over the 
Rattlesnake Range in Wyoming?" 
Mrs. Jack continues plaintively. 

The society remembers the big- 
horn, as well as the giant shark in 
the Mexican Gulf; the mountain lion 
and the cinnamon bear with the am- 
ber eyes picked off by Mrs. Jack's 
rifle in the San Francisquito Moun- 
tains. The idea of her not daring to 
look a tiger in the face under any 
circumstances taxes the credulity of 
the society. Has she ever known 
iear. ever quailed before beast, bird 
or fish — this modern Artemis? 

When she accompanies her hus- 
band on his hunting expeditions, she 
wears the woods' autumn livery — 
leaf-brown and scarlet — an abbrevi- 
ated skirt, and leggings of brown 
corduroy, a scarlet leather shirt with 
elk's teeth for buttons, a hat fes- 
tooned with trout and salmon flies 
and shining leaders. A cartridge 
belt girdles her slender waist, with 
its depending revolver and hunting 
knife. 

It is remarkable that Mrs. Jack 
has escaped the cinnamon's embrace, 
and Bruin might well be pardoned 
such an indiscretion. 

"Jack has always said that my 
physical courage first attracted him. 
But I had never confessed to him 
that there was one test to which I 
should be unequal. It came on the 
Big Muddy. Listen 

"We were camped in the quaking 
aspen. Snow had fallen and the elk 
were coming down. You could hear 
them bungling on every side before 
dawn. It is easy to stop a band of 
elk, as they pass near your camp, 
by imitating their call upon an 
empty cartridge shell. I have learned 
the trick, and Jack had no hesita- 
tion in permitting me to choose my 
own trail one morning and follow it 
alone afoot, he and the guides scat- 
tering in other directions. The taste 
of the camp coffee was still upon my 
lips; my cheeks tingled with the 
frosty breath of the morning air as 
I kept cautiously to the windward 
of the elk, whose trumpeting stirred 
me like mart'al music. 

"A stray bear track showed here 
and there in the fresh snow. But I 
was after elk. A hundred miles lay 
between our camp and the nearest 
settlement. Ah, the solitude of those 
woods ! ' ' 

Mrs. Jack leaned back in her chair 
and sighed reminiscently as she 
gazed into the blazing hearth fire — 
a charming picture in her house- 
gown of blue, brightened with 
gleams of Persian embroidery, inter- 
woven with uncut jewels. 

"I had gone three miles, perhaps 
four, over fallen spruce up the steep 
side of a ragged mountain, when 
crash, across my trail came a band 
of elk, headed by a magnificent bull. 

"Crouching behind a boulder, I 
waited. I have waited so often for 
big game, from Alaska to the gulf. 
Jack says that I have seen more than 
he can ever hope to see, if he lives 
to be a hundred. My hand was 
steady. Jack often gets buck fever. 
I never do. I took deliberate aim. 
The elk carm? toward the bullet and 
dropped dead without a struggle. 
Blazing the trail, as I retraced it 
toward camp for the pack animals, I 
saw that thcr«> were new bear tracks. 
T was not out that day for bear, and 



did not care to come upon one alone, 
although I had no thought of shirk- 
ing the encounter were it forced 
upon me. 

"A bear in a bear pit is a clumsy 
creature. In the wood he challenges 
your admiration by his clever fash- 
ion of covering the ground without 
apparent effort. The one I soon des- 
cried ahead of m.j was lumbering 
along like a bunch of tumble-weed, 
lengthening the distance between us 
at a rapid rate. 

"Foolishly I indulged myself in a 
shot at him, striking his shoulder. 
He turned upon me with a roar of 
pain At that instant I needed all 
my nerve. This time I chose a tree 
for cover and waited. He came on, 
without a halt, straight toward me. 
I fired again, missing him. I was 
just about Co try a third shot when 
the test came or which I have 
spoken." 

"The test?" murmurs the society 
breathlessly 

"The test to my courage to which 
I had always felt I should be un- 
equal. The thing I had dreaded in 
my forest wanderings with Jack." 

"W T hat?" the society demands, 
with one voice. 

"I had raised my rifle when I felt 
something tl uttering in my hair. I 
fancied a leader had slipped from 
my hat rim. Oh, horror, it was a 
spider! — and as I shook my head 
violently to dislodge it, it struggled 
into my ear. 

"I have never been conscious of 
having fired that third shot. Some- 
how the rifle was discharged, and by 
the same chance the bullet laid the 
bear low. 

"I fainted, and when I came to 
myself, I was lying across the bear's 
body, with six strange men standing 
around me. Ten thousand boiler fac- 
tories were at work in my brain. 

" 'Hear the noises.' I cried. 'Will 
no one stop them? 

"And now comes the strangest 
part of my story. The engineer of 
Jack's yacht once got a rnosquito 
in his ear. It drove him quite mad 
before we could find a doctor. He 
hung over the yacht's side, held by 
six of the crew, begging for death. 
When the doctor arrived upon the 
scene, he a] plied a handkerchief, 
wet with ether, to the man's ear, 
quieting the mosquito's struggles 
and restoring the man to sanity. 

"I believed myself in the man's 
plight, stark, staring mad, when, 
upon this peak of Darien, five hun- 
dred miles frrm an ambulance and a 
surgeon, I heard one of the men to 
whom I had so wildly appealed re- 
ply, quietly, 

" 'Have no fear, madam, you are 
in safe hands, for we are all doc- 
tors.' 

"They deluged my ear with water 
from a nearby stream, which they 
brought in a tin cup. Finding the 
spider still unsubdued, one of the 
doctors asked for a hypodermic syr- 
inge. Five were instantly proffered. 
An icy arrow penetrated, seemingly 
to the seat of the gray matter, still 
without effect upon the spider, whose 
pernicious activity caused me inde- 
scribable agony. 

" 'Ether i.; the only remedy,' I 
said at last, and as coherently as I 
could repeated the story of the engi- 
neer. 

" 'Ether is the only remedy,' I 
doctor who was attending to me — 
'why, of course. Brown, fetch out 
your ether bottle, ' and if Brown did 
not produce from the depths of his 
waistcoat pocket a small bottle of 



ether, may I be instantly retired 
from the presidency of our society. 
It transpired later that Brown was 
a physician with an alien hobby- 
entomology — and carried ether with 
him everywhere to anaesthetize his 
specimens. 

"In an instant relief came — such 
blessed relief as only one who has 
passed through an experience like 
mine can appreciate. 

"The rest of the story is soon told. 
When I gathered myself together, 
the six doctors presented themselves 
to me with due formality. They 
dined that night at our camp, on my 
elk. 

"Jack was thoroughly ashamed 
of me. For what did the elk and the 
bear matter, with the tnemory of the 
spider fresh in our minds? 

"No, decidedly." Mrs. Jack re- 
peats, as the maid fetches her a sec- 
ond cup of tea, "I shall never dare 
to look a tiger in the face, after my 
Waterloo on the Big Muddy." 



Useful Information. 



Ignorance of the law excuses no one. 
The act of one partner binds all the 
others. 

A contract made on a Sunday is void. 
A principal is liable for the art- of bis 
agents. 

An agent is liable to his principal for 
errors. 

A receipt for money paid is not le- 
gally conclusive. 

A .signature made with a lead pencil 
is good in law. 

An agreement without consideration, 
expressed or implied, is void. 

A contract made with a minor cannot 
be enforced. A note made with a minor 
is voidable. 

Each partner is liable for the whole 
amount of the debts of his firm. 

A partial payment of an outlawed 
debt revives the obligation. 

Notes obtained by fraud, or made by 
an intoxicated person, are not collectible. 

If no time of payment is specified in 
a note it is payable on demand. 

A note which does not state upon its 
face that it l)ears interest will bear in- 
terest after maturity. 

An indorser may avoid liability by 
writing "without recourse" under his 
signature. 

Don't accept a note until you are cer- 
tain that it is dated correctly; specifies 
the amount of money to be paid; names 
the person to whom it is to be paid; in- 
cludes the words "or order" after the 
name of payee, if it is intended to make 
the note negotiable; states a place where 
payment is to be made; states that the 
note is "for value received"; and is 
Bigned by the maker or his duly author- 
ized representative. 

Don't accept a deed to property until 
all the following conditions are complied 
with: 1. It must be signed, sealed and 
witnessed. 2. Interlineations should be 
memtioned iu the certificate of acknowl- 
edgement. 3. All the partners must 
join in a deed from a partnership. 4. 
A deed from a corporation should bear 
the corj>orate seal and be signed by 
officers designated in the resolution of 
the directors authorizing it. 5. A deed 
from a married woman should be joined 
in by her husband. 6. A deed from an 
executor should recite his power of sale. 
7. The consideration must be expressed. 
In some States a deed from a married 
man must be joined in by his wife. See 
that a deed is recorded without unnec- 
essary delay. 

Mortgages — A mortgage is a convey- 
ance of property to secure payment of a 
debt. When the debt is paid the mort- 
gage becomes void. In real estate mort- 
gages the person giving the mortgage 
retains possession of the property, re- 
ceives all profits and pays all expenses. 
A mortgage, like a deed, must be ac- 
knowledged before a proper public of- 
ficer, and recorded iu the office of the 
county clerk, recorder or whatever of- 
ficer's duty it is to record such instru- 



February 1, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



7? 



Course in 

Telegraphy 

Good Positions 

Tuition back after one year's service. 
Main S. P. wire in schoolroom. Write 
for particulars. 

PACIFIC COAST 
BUSINESS COLLEGE 

San Jose, Cal. 



ments. Mortgages must contain a re- 
demption clause and be signed and 
sealed. The time when the debt becomes 
due must be plainly stated and the 
property conveyed clearly described, lo- 
cated and scheduled. A foreclosure is a 
statement that the property is forfeited 
and must be sold. 



Pith, Point and Pathos. 

After the honeymoon comes the si- 
moon. 

Some men are born small and some 
others shrink. 

Love will find a way — even if it is 
only the way out. 

Success is the result of beating the 
other fellow to it. 

Some dreams go by contraries, but 
the majority don't go at all. 

If it wasn't for the fool and his money 
lots of wise guys would starve. 

The average man would rather pay 
half a dozen grudges than one debt. 

One man doesn't look good to another 
unless he has more dollars than sense. 

All the world's a stage, and all the 
actors try to monopolize the spot light. 

We would never suspect how smart 
some people were if they didn't tell us. 

People soon forget the good advice 
you hand them, but they never forget 
the other kind. 

Occasionally a man is compelled to 
stretch the truth in order to make both 
ends meet. 

It takes a woman graciously to permit 
a man to apologize for some injury she 
has done him. 

Some people refuse to sow seeds of 
kindness because they fear the results 
will be a crop of ingratitude. 

It was a Philadelphia girl who re- 
fused to share an admirer's lot because 
she wanted to be cremated. 

There isn't much hope for the man 
who is unable to convince himself that 
he isn't just a little better than his 
neighbor. — Chicago News. 



To Corn Beef. 



The following answers several cor- 
respondents, and differs somewhat from 
formulas which have been given previ- 
ously. Fifty lbs. of meat requires 4 lbs. 
salt. Sprinkle a layer of salt in keg or 
barrel, put in a layer of meat, packing 
very closely, then a layer of salt, then 
more meat and salt, until all is used, 
leaving just enough salt for a good 
layer on top. Let stand overnight, then 
dissolve 1 oz. baking soda, 2 lbs. 
sugar, 2 oz. saltpeter in 2 gal. tepid 
water, and after it is cold pour it over 
the meat. Two gallons should cover 
the 50 lb. if packed right. If not, use 
same proportions in making more. 
Weight down with a board and stone 
and let stand from 30 to 40 days before 
using. If kept into hot weather watch 
the brine, and if it gets ropy pour it off, 
wash the meat and cover with new 
brine. 



Prejudice. 

"Robert, this spelling paper is very 
poor," complained the small boy's 
teacher. " Nearly every word is 
marked wrong." 

"It wouldn't have been so bad," pro 
tested Robert, " but Annie corrected my 
paper, and she's mad at me, and for 
every little letter that I got wrong she 
crossed out the whole word." 



Utilizing the Zebra. 



The development of the African 
colonies has been retarded, says a 
writer in the New York Sun, on ac- 
count of the difficulties of transpor- 
tation. In South Africa trek oxen 
are used, but vast numbers of these 
are killed by the dreaded tsetse fly. 
North of the Zambesi, horses, mules, 
donkeys and draft animals of every 
kind are found impossible, owing to 
the same scourge. Yet if an efficient 
service of draft animals could be ob- 
tained, the trade would be doubled. 

A year ago it occurred to Captain 
Nys of the Belgian Grenadiers that 
if the zebras, which roam in innu- 
merable herds, could be trapped and 
tamed they would solve the trans- 
portation problem. For the zebra is 
said to be immune from the deadly 
effects of the tsetse fly. He made 
known his idea, and the sum of $20,- 
000 was appropriated for experi- 
ments. 

Captain Nys had hard work get- 
ting his caravan together. The Con- 
go tribes seldom work, preferring to 
leave this disagreeable part of life 
to their wives. He succeeded, how- 
ever, in collecting twenty-five men, 
and established a camp in the mid- 
dle of the zebra country. Some of 
the herds that he saw numbered 
3000. In their wake trailed troops 
of lions and leopards. 

After trying, unsuccessfully, dif- 
ferent methods of trapping the ze- 
bra, Captain Nys had an immense 
corral, or staked enclosure, built, 
with a funnel-shaped mouth, into 
which the animals could be driven 
by beaters. Once inside, the zebras 
would find grass and fresh water, 
and all their natural surroundings. 
In the various corners stables would 
be built, and here the animals might 
gradually be tamed. 

After many difficulties, an army 
of some 700 natives was engaged 
and instructed. Captain Nys had to 
travel many hundreds of miles to 
get these men from their chiefs, al- 
ways going on foot, for horse or 
mule is impossible in the tsetse fly 
country. 

It took several months to con- 
struct the stockade, which enclosed 
200 acres. Then, one morning, the 
army of beaters spread out, fan-like, 
for fifty or sixty miles, and gradu- 
ally drove in some 3700 zebras. 

When the captain saw this im- 
mense herd nearing the funnel of his 
corral, he thought his troubles were 
at an end ; but disappointment 
awaited him. Suddenly the herd 
stampeded. A large troop of lions 
were worrying them in the rear, and 
overwhelming the army of beaters, 
they doubled back into the wilder- 
ness. Barely twenty-five animals 
were taken. 

Three times the zebras were driv- 
en back by the lions, but the fourth 
time the hunt was a success; and 
1700 animals were entrapped in the 
enclosure. They fought and bit one 
another, raced hither and thither, 
and dashed their pretty bodies 
against the solid fences, crippling, 
and in many cases killing, them- 
selves. For four or five days many 
of the zebras refused to eat or drink. 
Some even starved to death. But 
gradually most of them grew accus- 
tomed to their new life, and were 
forced into the stables. 

In about a fortnight the creatures 
became used to the presence of men. 
and a few permitted themselves to 
be harnessed into light carts. 

Thus Captain Nys has demon- 



strated that there is in Central Af- 
rica an indigenous animal, proof 
against the tsetse fly, and capable of 
doing the work of mule or horse, in 
a region where both are impossible. 
It is hoped that gradually the long 
trains of native porters and women 
will be superseded as beasts of bur- 
den. 



"When I Have Time." 

When I have time so many things I'll do 
To make life happier and more fair 
For those with lives now crowded down 
with care; 

I'll help to lift them from their despair — 
When I have time ! 

When I have time the friend I love so 
well 

Shall know no more these weary toiling 

days; 

I'll lead her feet in pleasant paths always 
And cheer her heart with words of sweet- 
est praise — 

When I have time ! 

When you have time the friend you hold 
so dear 

May be beyond the reach of your intent; 
May never know that you so kindly 
meant 

To fill her life with joy and sweet con- 
tent — 

When you had time! 

Now is the time! Ah, friend, no longer 
wait 

To scatter loving smiles and words of 
cheer 

To those around whose lives are now so 
dear; 

They may not need you in the coming 
year— 

Now is the time ! 

— Unknown. 



No Advantage Taken. 

"George," said the pretty girl, "I 
know you're awful bashful." 

This was portentious, with leap year 
so new. He blushed assent. 

" And you'd have proposed to me ex- 
cept for that? " 

This, too, he was bound to acknowl- 
edge. 

" Well, I would have accepted," she 
went on, "and so that's settled." 

Discussing the matter later she ex- 
pressed a natural pride that she had not 
taken any advantage of the season. — 
Philadelphia Ledger. 



Tommy's Error. 

Mrs. de Smythe — Tommy, do you 
want some nice plum jam? 

Tommy — Yes, mother. 

"I was going to give you some to 
put on your bread, but I've lost the key 
to the pantry." 

" You don't need the key, mother. I 
can reach down through the window 
and open the door from the inside." 

"That's what I wanted to know. 
Now just wait till your father comes 
home." 



The Assyrian was scratching some 
hieroglyphics on a brick. " What you 
writing?" asked his chum. 

"Hanged if I know," responded the 
engraver, " but I guess some of those 
Assyriologists of the twentieth century 
can translate it all right." — Philadelphia 
Public Ledger. 



RESISTANT CUTTINGS. 

About 8000 well rooted Rupestris *t. 
George cuttings. For price apply to P. O. 
Box 58, Auburn, Cal. 



Farmers ! You Should Spray 

Spraying is cheap but effectlTe insurance 
against crop destruction— thebest policy is a 

DEMING 

Sprayer 

Eighteen styles, built 
for hard service with 
brass working parts throughout— 
not affected by chemical action. 
Consult your own Interests and 
Investigate the 11 Deming." 

Glad to send our Nineteen Eight 
catalogue and M Expert Testi- 
mony on request. 
THE DEMI NO COMPANY 
:>!>.-» Depot Salem, Ohio. 
Honion * Hobbell, Agts., Chinfo, III 

"-BOO 




CONOVER'S COLOSSAL ASPARAGUS 
PLANTS. 

Plants exceptionally strong and true to 
name. Price given on application. Ad- 
dress W. A. Stewart, 

Rio Vista, Cal. 



RED GUM AND EUCALYPTUS SUGAR GUM 

6 to 8 inches high; packed and delivered you 
by express or mail. Prepaid 12.60 per 100. 
Safe delivery guaranteed. 

HENRY SHAW. 
320 River St. Santa Cruz. Cal. 



Grafted Vines and 
Resistant Cuttings 

Malaga, Muscat, Emperor on Rupestris St. Geo. 
Muscat on 3306. CUTTINGS of Rupestris St. 
Geo., 3306, 3309, 1202. Address 



MINNEWAWA VINEYARD, 



Fresno, Cal. 



Trees 



French Prunes and Apri- 
cots; Muirs arjd Tuscan 
Clings, and many other 
varieties of Peach Trees, 
all fine budded stock. Large stock of all the 
leading varieties of Apples, grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also a fine stock 
of Cherries, Pears, Plums, etc. 
Send for price list. 
A. F. SCHEIDECKER. Sebastopol, Cal. 
Proprietor Pleasant View Nursery. 



Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

$1.50 per Doz. $6 per 100. $40 per 1000. 

Now is good time to plant. Pedigreed Stock. 
500 Valencia, one year, extra fine, $60 per 100. 
J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist, Pas- 
adena, Cal. 



Orange Seed Bed Stock. 

SWEET AND SOUR 

Orders Booked Now for Delivery 
Spring of 1908. 

SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, 

F. H. DISBROW, Proprietor. 
Both Phones. R. D. 1, Pasadena, Cal. 



The Crocker Bartlett Pear 



DOES NOT BLIGHT 

If proven different, purchase price of trees 
bought from us in 1907 will be refunded. Fruit 
highly recommended by Luther Burbank. 

Sample of pears sent on receipt of 25 cents. 

See U. S. Year Book of 1905. 

Peach Trees, 15c— all leading varieties. 

Cherry Trees, 20c— all leading varieties. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

Loomls, Placer County, Cal. 



Pacific Nurseries 

San Francisco and Millbrae, San Mateo Co. 

Offers for this Season's Planting 
a full line of 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Evergreen and 

Deciduous, Conifers, Palms, Rhododendrons, 

Camellias, Ericas, Azaleas, Roses, Eucalyptus, 

Cypress, Pine, Monterey and Maritima Pittospo- 

rum transplanted into plats. 

Send for Catalogue 

F. LUDEMANN, 3041 Baker Street 

SAN FRANCISCO 



Strawberry Plants 

Brandywlne, Excelsior, Texas, Arizona, Al, 
Lady Thompson and Midnight, Pedigree Plants. 

Blackberry Plants 

Mammoth Blacks, Early Crandal, 

Giant II lmalaya. 

Raspberry Plants 

Surprise (earliest known), Millers, Cuthhert. 

Dewberry, Loganberry, 

Phenomenal Berry Plants. 

Mention this paper and get catalog of prices 
and cultural directions. 

G. H. HOPKINS, Burbank, Cal. 



74 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 1, 1908. 



cc. MORSE & co 

Plants SE EDS Trees 



This pic-tare represents the 
cover of our handsome new 
l& catalogue done in colors, 
S^k showing the flowers and 
HBk fields true to life. 



41 Jackson St. 
San Francisco 




Send us your name and 
address and we will mail 
this new 1908 Catalogue free, 



Send us $1.00 and we will send one 
each of these three line roses (Strong I 
year old roots): Frau Karl Druschkl, Mildred 
Grant, Madam Caroline Testout. Or send 
us 25c and we will send you a large packet of our 
beautiful new Sweet Pea — Florence Morse Spencer. 



Trees that Grow and Bear Fruit 

SOUTHERN TREES ARE BEST, BECAUSE THEY ARE THOROUGHLY 
DORMANT AND HAVE NO SOFT WOOD ABOUT THEM. 

Our trees are carefully and well grown. Bay direct from the grower and 
wave the middleman's profit. Special attention given to orders from large 
planters. We have a general assortment of deciduous, citrus and ornamental 
trees. Also an extensive line of ornamental and flowering plants, including a 
large assortment of roses. Write for price list — it is free. 

Orange County Nursery & Land Company 

FULLERTON, CAL 

Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

We Grow on New Virgin Soil all Leading Varieties of Fruit Trees and Grape Vines. 
We (iuarantee all Stock True to Name and Free from Disease. 

SPECIALTIES— Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Figs, Apricots, 
Cherries. Wine, Table and Raisin Grapes. 

We grow only Standard Commercial Varieties— Money Makers. Life Is too short 
to experiment with so-called Novelties which have heen untried. We have been 
pleasing our customers for 18 years. We refer to any bank or business house in 
Fresno as to our standing and reliability. Write vis for prices. Large Catalogue 
and Souvenir Picture showing Largest Tree in the world mailed Free. Address 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. WILSON, Proprietor. Box R. R. 42. Fresno, California 

200.000 Euca| yp ,us Trees 

W J (IN VARIETY' 

Transplanted in flats of 100 each. We prefer orders of 1000 rather than 
10,000 ; outside limit, 20,000. Our trees are up to our usual standard. Cor- 
respondence invited. Our booklet, telling when, how, and what to plant, free 

to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Nurseryman 

PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 



THE BEST 




THAT GROW 



FLOWERS, VEGETABLES, FARM. 
SHRUBS, TREES AND BERRY PLANTS. 

Write TODAY (a poBtal card will do) and you will receive Free our 1908 Seed and Plant Annual. 

TRUMBULL SEED COMPANY, 

Successors to Trumbull & Beebe. 
545 Sansome Street, . San Francisco 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



BUTTE. 

Several of the farmers of Biggs who 
contemplate preparing land for rice w ill 
be asked by the local Chamber of Com- 
merce to plant a quantity of matting 
grass roots. The conditions under 
which the plant grows are similar to 
those needed for rice, and it is hoped 
that the experiments will lead to the 
introduction of a profitable industry. 

COLUSA. 

Ripe tomatoes on the table on Janu- 
ary 1 2 is a record that many Easterners 
will say is another "California fib." 
Missourians want to be treated, by be- 
ing shown the fine big red fellows smil- 
ing on the vine. The vine covers 
nearly the whole side of a woodshed, 
and is at least eight feet high and more 
than twelve feet loug. It is loaded 
with hundreds of tomatoes, from the 
small green to the large ripe red ones. 

GLENN. 

Glenn county will in the near future 
have a 1000-acre eucalyptus grove if the 
negotiations now pending are consum- 
mated. A gentleman from Colorado 
has made an examination of lands for 
this purpose and has practically settled 
on the tract and proposes to plant 1000 
acres to these trees. 

The report of Deputy State Sheep 
Inspector Yj. K. Masterson of Glenn 
county shows that at present there are 
82,324 old sheep and 32,060 spring 
lambs in that county. During the past 
year 29,305 sheep were sold and 31,697 
migratory sheep were driven through 
the county. There are about 85,000 
resident sheep at present in this county. 

MONTEREY. 

Pajaronian : The Japanese compa- 
nies have during the past year 
taken long leases on several choice tracts 
of laud in this valley suitable for berry 
culture and orchard purposes. For a 
number of years the Japs seemed to 
be satisfied to work in the berry fields 
for wages or on what is known as the 
"crop share" plan, but recently they 
have been branching out and are going 
into business for themselves. Several 
tracts of land on both sides of the river 
are leased to Japanese companies, which 
means that during their tenancy of the 
places no white man will find employ- 
ment thereon in any capacity and the 
trade of the little brown men will go to 
their own kind of people. Very recently 
the Kosano Co. leased fifty acres in the 
Aniesti district for a term of fifteen 
years, paying therefor an annual cash 
rental of $20 per acre. At present the 
company is setting out the whole tract 
to strawberries and at the same time 
will plant out a 50-acre orchard of Belle- 
fleur and Newtown Pippin trees. Ten or 
12 Japs will be employed throughout 
the most of each year on this tract. 

SACRAMENTO. 

Bee: The Pacific Coast Hop Growers' 
Union has filed articles of incorporation 
in the office of the county clerk. The 
purposes of the Union are to buy, sell, 
contract, and deal in hops and supplies 
for hop growers and to promote the 
interests of the growers. The Union is 
incorporated under the laws of Cali- 
fornia, and its life is fifty years. The 
principal place of business is Sacra- 
mento. The following fifteen directors 
have been elected for the first three 
years: Joseph T. Grace, E. T. Wood- 
ward, Santa Rosa; P. M. Cunningham, 
I'kiah; M. H. Durst, Alameda; W. E. 
Luvilal, I). Flint, A. A. Merkley, 
C. M. Bandy, Charles Calanhoun, S. B. 
Slight, Sacramiento; W. P. Slusser, 
T. B. Miller, H. Finley, Timothy Shea, 
J. Purrington, Santa Rosa. The mem- 
bership fee is $1 and all members have 
an equal voice in the Union. The names 
of about seventy of the original signers 
of the articles are attached. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Press: Imperial Valley melon 
growers are getting ready for the com- 
ing season, signing up acreage in the 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

Gombauli's 

Caustic Balsam 




Has Imitators But No Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint, Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrurh, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 

As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, etc.. It is Invaluable, 
livery btntle of Caustio Balaam sold Is 

Warranted to (rive satisfaction. Price $1 60 
per bottle. SoM by druiik-lsls. or sent by ex- 
T'ress, chsrarr. paid, wan full directions for 
Its u»o tTT.Send for descriptive circulars, 
tcMtlmunials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 



associations, securing seed and making 
contracts with distributors of the pro- 
ducts, and the indications are that more 
than double the acreage of last year 
will be planted. Last year 535 carloads 
of cantaloupes were shipped from the 
valley, bringing returns to the growers 
of between $500 and $600 per car on the 
average, or a total net return of more 
than a quarter of a million dollars. 
Distributing agents, who have been 
perfecting organization of eastern 
agencies and studying market condi- 
tions, are confident that 1,200 carloads 
can be placed during the coming sea- 
son, and the valley is preparing to 
supply the prospective demand. Until 
all the associations sign contracts with 
distributors, the total acreage cannot be 
estimated closely. Last year 2,000 acres 
were planted. Owing to lack of experi- 
ence, to inattention and to careless cul- 
tivation, a considerable area was un- 
productive. Successful growers gath- 
ered from 100 to 300 crates per acre, 
the average for the entire area planted, 
taking the good with the bad results, 
being about 85 crates. On that basis, 
making the same allowance for failures, 
the 5,000 acres, roughly estimated as 
the coming season's planting, would 
just about supply the 1,200 carloads re- 
quired to meet market demands. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Bee: An accidental though valuable 
scientific discovery in plant life was 
made early last fall by Mrs. Charles 
Williams, residing in east Lodi, which 
is no more nor less than a seedless 
squash — and a very remarkable thing. 
Upon being given some squash seed by 
a friend, Mrs. Williams spaded up a 
little patch of ground in her dooryard 
and planted them. They failed to 
sprout or show any signs of life, so she 
planted a few more seeds, but of a 
different variety, where the other seeds 
lay, and soon there was a yard full of 
growing squash with vine runners in 
every direction. Mrs. William-, was 
highly pleased with her goodly squash 
crop, but her surprise was great when 
she cut one open and found it seedless 
and almost as smooth inside as outside. 
Her neighbors received samples of the 
' Williams seedless variety,' and they 
pronounced them of excellent quality 
and good flavor. However, the only 
theory advanced for this peculiar freak 
is that it is possible the seed pollen may 
have mixed, resulting in the freak 
yield. Samples have been sent to 
higher authority to have explained fully 
the cause of the remarkable happening. 

SISKIYOU. 

Searchlight: L. T. Hebbring must 
appear before the Board of Supervisors 



Only One "BROMO QUININE" 

That is LAXATIVE BROMO QUININE. Look 
for the signature of K. W. OKOVE. Used the 
World over to Cure a fold in One Day. 28c. 



February 1, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



7S 




Top Prices for Poultry 



Suppose your flock of chicks or old 
fowls will average a certain weight at 
market time. Suppose you so handle 
them as to make each weigh a full pound 
more than you expected. That would be 
a nice, clean, extra profit, wouldn't it? 

Do you know that 

DR. HESS 

Poultry PAN-A-CE-A 

given as the makers direct, will help a fowl to 
digest and use Buch a large portion of the daily 
feed that it actually grows larger and heavier 
than it would be possible to make it without 
Poultry Pan-a-ce-a? This is true. Poultry 
Pan-a-ce-a contains the bitter tonics to act 
npon the digestion, iron for the blood and ni- 
trates to expel poisonous matter. It is the pre- 
scription of Dr. Hess (M.D., D.V.S.) and is a 
guaranteed egg -producer as well as flesh-former. 
Makes chicks mature early and also prevents 
poultry disease in old or young. 

Poultry Pan-a-ce-a is endorsed by poultry- 
men in United States and Canada. Costs but a 
penny a day for 80 fowls. 

Sold on a wrirfen guarantee. 

1>: lbs. 35c 5 lbs. 85c. 

1-J lhs.SI.:r. 85 lb. pail $3.50 

Send 2 cents for Dr. Hess 48-page Poultry 
Book, free. 

DR. HESS A. CLARK, Ashland, Ohio. 

Instant Louse Killer Kills Lice. 
THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., 
Petal umo, Cal., PaclOe Coast Distributers. 



and show cause why his appointment 
as horticultural commissioner shall not 
be revoked. The board cited him to 
appear in deference to a numerously 
signed petition from orchardists living 
in Little Shasta Valley, who allege that 
Hebbring makes them spray their trees 
whether they need it or not, and that 
he refuses to consent to the shipment of 
fruit from trees that have not been 
sprayed. Mr. Hebbring owns one of 
the largest orchards in the valley. He 
sprays his own fruit trees and ships his 
fruit without official hindrance. The 
petitioners allege that Mr. Hebbring is 
not reasonable in his official demands 
and hence they seek his removal. 

SOLANO. 

County Veterinarian Sullivan of 
Suisun is still waging a relentless war 
on glanders in the livestock of the 
county and has just ordered killed five 
horses belonging to R. Stewart on the 
Hatch ranch in the Suisun Valley. It 
is claimed that the horses have been 
known to have glanders for several 
months, but were not destroyed until 
the county officer heard of their infec- 
tion and went to investigate. 

STANISLAUS. 

The Crop Outlook. — Oakdale 
Leader: Since the soil has been in a 
condition for plowing and seeding, dur- 
ing the past three weeks, the farmers 
have been putting in full time. Should 
the season remain favorable for this 
work two or three weeks longer, it is 
the consensus of opinion among farmers 
and those interested in grain growing 
that an average acreage will have been 
seeded in this locality. Although some 
farmers in this vicinity have experi- 
enced more or less difficulty in securing 
men to drive plow teams, they have 
used with energy the means at their 
command and by pushing work early 
and late much has been accomplished. 
In our daily interviews with farmers 
and others we learn that the early sown 
grain is growing rapidly and never 
looked better at this season of the year, 
and to this crop a large acreage is being 
added. E. N. Moulton has about 2000 
acres already seeded, James Rafter 



about 1500 acres, Marion G. Carmichael 
a still larger acreage, while William 
Stokes, John H. Mulroy, Robert Reid, 
Dorsey Bros., and many others have 
considerable land already seeded and 
will continue to add to their already 
large crops so long as the weather is 
favorable and the season is not too far 
advanced. With favorable weather 
until the crop is matured the grain 
yield in the country adjacent to Oak- 
dale will- be up to the average. Not- 
withstanding the opinion has frequently 
been expressed that grain growing on 
a large scale is an abandoned industry 
in Stanislaus county, this season's opera- 
tions on the part of our farmers afford 
indisputable evidence that that view is 
not well founded. 

SUTTER. 

J. H. Yates, one of Meridian's 
farmers, has on exhibition in Yuba City 
Indian corn grown on his ranch in No. 
70 District. The corn is as large and 
fine looking as the best Eastern corn, 
and this year he harvested eighty 
bushels to the acre. It is the yellow 
variety, and grows in the district to 
perfection. 

Farmer: From some parts of the 
county where grain has been sown and 
beginning to sprout the reports are that 
the meadow larks are destroying con- 
siderable of it. The lark drills his long 
bill into the ground for the kernel and 
digs it out, together with the green 
shoot. These birds are protected by law 
on account of being song birds. The 
farmer don't mind hearing them sing 
so long as they keep their bills out of 
the ground where the grain is sprout- 
ing. 

TEHAMA. 

Co«n-Fed Sheep. — The sheepmen of 
this county have found that corn makes 
a fine winter feed, and although Mis- 
souri corn is about $10 per ton higher 
than usual, it is cheaper than to have 
an overabundance of range, and at this 
time of the year, while feed is short, it 
strengthens the sheep and keeps them 
in a fine wool-growing condition. It 
is found by those who have been feed- 
ing that the best way to feed corn is to 
scatter it broadcast on the feeding 
ground and let the sheep rustle to pick 
it up. 

OREGON. 

Chicago Packer: Complete returns 
from Hood River's 1907 apple crop 
show that the growers will receive in 
round numbers $200,000 for their prod- 
uct, notwithstanding the money trouble, 
car shortage, and reduced crop. This is 
approximately what the Hood River 
crop brought last year when it was in 
the neighborhood of 20,000 boxes more, 
and is accounted for by the fact that the 
apples brought a much larger price. 
The entire crop is now placed at 110,000 
boxes, about 75,000 of which were han- 
dled by the Davidson Fruit Co. The 
company's purchase from the Hood 
River Apple Growers' Union amounted 
to 52,313 boxes, for which it paid that 
organization the sum of $94,724.29, or 
an average price for the lot of $1.81 per 
box for everything. The average last 
year was $1.40 per box so that growers 
in the union received 41c. more per box 
for their apples this year than last, 
which almost equals the entire cost of 
production. In addition to the union 
crop, the Davidson Co. handled 25,000 
boxes from other growers and about 
30,000 boxes were shipped by independ- 
ent growers and the union, which sold 
in the neighborhood of 10,000 boxes of 
fancy fruit included in the latter figure, 
none of which went for less than $2, 
f. o. b. Hood River. With everything 
taken into consideration, the season 
there is looked, upon as far and away 
the most prosperous ever experienced at 
Hood River, and it is learned from the 
sale slips of the Davidson Co. that the 
least which Hood River apples have 
brought in the New York markets this 
year was $2.20 per box, which was for a 
five-tier apple running 85 to the box, 
and which are not ordinarily sent to 
Eastern markets. W T ith this as the 
lowest, the Hood River product brought 
as high as $5 per box. 



$ $ 
$ 



DOLLARS MAKE THE DOLLARS 

$ STRAWBERRIES— STRAWBERRIES— STRAWBERRIES 

$ THE "DOLLAR" BERRY 

$ The most prolific and best shipping strawberry ever placed on 

$ the market. The best berry produced by the best berry country. 

$ This berry was produced in Placer County and has met with com- 

$ plete success wherever introduced. 

$ PLANTS— PLANTS— PLANTS 

$ Other breeders quote you "Dollar" plants at 

$ from $5.00 to $10.00 per thousand. 

$ Our Price: $2.50 per thousand, f. o. b. Loomis, Cal. 

$ Rush your order if you want them, for they will go like 'hot 

$ cakes" at this very low price. 

$ Address 

$ LIVE STOCK AND DAIRY JOURNAL EXPERIMENTAL FARM 

$ Loomis, Placer County, Cal. 

$ We planted 20 acres of Burbank Phenomenals last year. 

$ Watch our prices on plants for 1909. 




TRUE TO NAME 

Every planter knows the necessity 
of having: trees true to name, and 
recognizes the advantages of buy- 
ing from a Arm of known responsi- 
bility. Our twenty-live years' expe- 
rience, our immense nurseries com- 
prising over 1500 acres, and the 
superior character of our trees are 
valuable points you should consider. 
Every tree is true to name, strong 
and thrifty, with well developed 
roots. We are the largest growers 
and shippers on the Coast. 

Citrus, Deciduous, 



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All the STANDARD VARIETIES. 

appi.es, apricots, peaches, 
plums, prunes, pears, oran- 
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« herries, figs, grape vines, 
olives, almonds, walnuts, 
pecans, chestnuts, berry 
plants, palms, roses, etc. 

We can give you valuable sugges- 
tions and information regarding 
trees and what to plant. 

OUR CATALOGUE FREE 
Best book of its kind ever published 
on the Coast. Fully illustrated; 148 
pages. Sent free on request. 

BURBANK'S NEW CREATIONS 
Send 10c for our illustrated booklet, 
In colors, describing these valuable 
new tree products. We are sole 
propagators and disseminators. 
PAID-UP CAPITAL 9 300.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

Kmc 

GeO.C Roeding Prea.&Mgr. 

Box 18 Fresno.California.USAw 



High In Quality 



Low In Price 



our SEEDS gkow 

Vegetable, Flower 
and Farm Seed 
J. SEULBERGER, 

414 Fourteenth Street. Oakland. Cal. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 



My Free Catalogue 
Now Ready 

Giving Cuts and Descriptions. 
Everything ready to ship. 



5,000 Superlative Raspberry 
1,000 Golden Drop Gooseberry 
300 Ponderosa Lemon 
500 Giant Bishop Black Currant 
50,000 The Dollar Berry, Strawberry 
55,000 Burbank's Phenomenal 
75,000 Mammoth Blackberries 
10,000 Giant Crimson Rhubarb 



A. Miffing 



17 to 23 Kennon SI. 



Santa Cruz, Cal. 



Ask us 

about 

Walnuts 



The kind 
for 

Commercial 
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Large, 

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Costs nothing to investigate. 
Ask for our Walnut Booklet. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

SALEM. OREGON. 

Salesmen Wanted. 





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BROOM CORN AND HROOMK A treatise on 

raising broom corn and making brooms on a 
small or large scale. Illustrated. 59 pages 
5 by 7 Inches. Cloth 80.50 



7 6 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 1, 1908. 



Forestry. 



Growing Eucalyptus Trees. 

D. C. Burson, writing for the Los An- 
geles Times, answers various questions 
in regard to the growth of the trees 
in the drier parts of the State: 

"What kind of soil, and how should 
it be prepared for the successful grow- 
ing of the eucalyptus?" 

Any good land free from alkali or 
lardpan. In fact, it is a tree adapted to 
a great variety of soils, yet the better 
the land the greater the growth. The 
1 reparation of the lands depends largely 
upon the condition of the soil, but in all 
cases I would advise deep plowing. And 
should there be a clay or tough subsoil, 
I would use a subsoil plow. Work the 
surface until it is perfectly friable. 

"How often and how long should the 
; oung trees be irrigated?" 

That also depends upon conditions. 
High, dry land, where water is a long 
way from the surface, requires pretty 
thorough irrigating, sufficient at least 
to keep the root moist through the hot 
dry season, for at least two summers. 
Low moist land would not require more 
than one season of irrigation. 

"Is 6x6 feet far enough apart to plant 
the eucalyptus for all practical purposes?" 

I would say if your object is poles or 
spars, it is, but if the object is saw tim- 
ber (which is doubtless the most profit- 
able part of eucalyptus growing) I would 
give more room on account of having it 
grow several years longer before cutting: 
8x8 will give sufficient space for grow- 
ing large trees. 

"What other values, except for poles, 
spars, ties and wood, does the eucalyptus 
possess?" 

In answer to this question I am led to 
believe that from recent investigations 
that these should be classed among its 
minor values, for it has been discovered 
that eucalyptus lumber is susceptible to 
a very fine finish, and as the different 
varieties possess various shades and 
colors, it has an untold value for furni- 
ture, office work or inside of cars or fine 
houses. Numerous samples- of this wood, 
polished, can be seen in Los Angeles. It 
requires an expert to see the difference 
between the E. Rostrata (red gum)- and 
San Domingo mahogany. And it is well 
known that mahogany commands an 
enormous price in our eastern markets. 

It would therefore (from present in- 
vestigations and discoveries) be impos- 
sible to place a future value upon the 
lumber of this important tree. And yet 
from our experience of over thirty years 
in growing other timber trees we are 
inclined to. make a conservative esti- 
mate of possible profits to be derived in 
growing the eucalyptus as a combination 
of saw timber and poles. Saw the butt 
ond use the top for poles and wood. 

With this object in view, and by plant- 
ing less than 700 trees to the acre, with 
a probable future stand of 500, the ex- 
pense would naturally be greater per 
tree than when planting exclusively for 
poles, but, supposing it would double that 
sniount, say 10 cents per tree all told, 
there is no other expense except the 
land, which may be almost any price, but 
we are convinced that good eucalyptus 
land can be bought in southern Califor- 
nia at prices ranging from $20 to $50 an 
acre, according to location. 

We can, therefore, safely place the 
cost of a eucalyptus grove with 500 trees 
to the acre, at $100 per acre. That would 
include first-class land, well located. The 
lesults would, of course, be governed by 
the length of time the trees were left 
standing and the price of lumber at that 
t'me, which doubtless would be much 
higher than at present, as fifteen -or 




Our 

"Special--! 
Hard-Stiff L F r 
■Springy- M^P 
[LIVE Steel rtot ^ 

The development of American Fence. The years of experimenting. 

The hundreds of thousands of dollars which we have invested in perfecting machinery and 
producing the grade of special steel to make American Fence what it is today. 
That is a long story. 
What vitally interests you is the result of this great outlay of time and money. 
What you want to know is that: — 
We have succeeded in producing a special steel that i3 perfectly adaptable for fence making. 
By the use of this special steel, galvanized by our perfected process, the value of 

AMERICAN FENCE 

to the user is greatly increased. We firmly believe it to be as near absolute perfection as possible 
for the purpose. Wire drawn from the steel is hard but not brittle. 

It is stiff and springy but pliable enough to be properly spliced. 

It is live steel — not dead steel. So that every wire in American Fence as now 
made is a live wire, doing business all the time and — 

Always absolutely reliable against emergencies. Dealers everywhere — one 
in your town. See him — examine the different styles — test — compare — and 
judge the merits of the fence. 

American Steel & Wire Co. 



Chicago 



New York 
San Francisco 



Denver 



twenty years hence we shall be close on 
the heels of a timber famine. 

The older the tree the better the 
sawed timber, but by placing the time of 
cutting fifteen years from the time of 
planting, we are warranted by experi- 
ence and observation in saying that the 
first sixteen feet of each tree will cut 
150 feet of inch boards. As we are mak- 
ing a very conservative estimate, we will 
place the cut at only 100 feet, with the 
supposition that it will take half of that 
to cut and saw it, which will leave but 
fifty feet to each tree, or 25,000 feet to 
the acre. 

As to its future value, we will make 
no prediction — it may be worth 10, 20, or 
even 30 cents per foot, but we will esti- 
mate it at the present price of common 
pine lumber — 3 cents per foot, or $1.50 
per tree. As the trees would probably 
be over 100 feet in height at the time of 
cutting, the balance of the trees would 
easily bring $1 for poles and wood. This 
would place each tree at the low price 
cf $2.50, or $1260 per acre, or $125,000 
for a 100-acre grove costing less than 
$10,000. 

Now it looks like an enormous per- 
centage on a fifteen-year investment, yet 
every indication points to three or four 
times that amount. Why will capital 
permit a timber famine? 



How to Get Forests. 



To the Editor: In regard to forest 
reserves, the following suggests itself to 
me as a good plan: Let any rancher, be 
lie big or little, all over the United 
States, be exempt from taxation for say 
10 acres or less in timber in its natural 
or cultivated state. This would help 
many a rancher to put out trees, know- 
ing that in time he would get some reve- 
nue from it. It must remain a timber 
reserve if it shall be exempt from all 
taxation. If grubbed up or cultivated, 
the land must be taxed as usual. This 
plan will put millions of acres in timber 
ip a short time. Let some State try it. 
See how quick the people will settle the 
timber question. Subscriber. 

Healdsburg. 



FERTILIZE WITH 

Nitrate of Soda 

May be purchased in large or small lots from 

R. A. HOLCOMBE & CO. 

50 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




MANUFACTURERS OF 



268 MARKET STREET 
San Francisco 



Special Fertilizers ior all Crops 

Our New Catalogue 

"The 
Farmer's 
Friend," 

is just out and we shall be glad to mail you one. 
They are full of practical information to the 
grower and farmer. 



WHEAT GROWERS! 

SPEND Sl.OO PER ACRE 

for the unsurpassed cereal phosphoric acid fertilizer, SUPERPHOSPHATE, and 
greatly increase your crops. Read what growers are doing in South and West- 
ern Australia. Yields are increased 50 per cent, there by using small quantities 
of superphosphate. 

Wm. Angus, the leading Agricultural Expert of South Australia, writes : 
" In modern agriculture probably no practice has been followed with such mar- 
velous results as applications of superphosphate." 

GET PARTICULARS FROM 

Trie Mountain Copper Co., Ltd. 

ISO PINE ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash, 
lies t T ree W ash. 
T. W. JACKSON & CO., Temporary Address, 
Sausallto, L'al. 



PATENTS 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO 



obtained in Trademarks Registered. Opiniont 
ALL countries as to Patentability and Infringemens 

HANDBOOK FOR INVENTORS FRBE 

, 1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San Francisco 



February 1, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



77 



Patrons of Husbandry. 



Tulare Grange Meeting. 



To the Editor : Tulare Grange 
held its regular meeting on the-,18th. 
There was a good attendance and 
an excellent lunch. Bro. E. C. Shoe- 
maker was present, having just re- 
turned from his old home in Penn- 
sylvania. He was- warmly greeted 
by all members present. / He told of 
attending the State Grange of Penn- 
sylvania, held in Winchester. There 
were 1200 in attendance and 500 
took the sixth degree. While there 
he was assured that the State Grange 
Fire Insurance, for members in good 
standing in the Order, greatly pro- 
motes membership, and gives mem- 
bership fire insurance at actual cost 
with absolute safety. It has done so 
and is now doing it in New Jersey 
and in Pennsylvania, besides many 
other States. 

The committee that arranged for 
the Farmers' Institute held on the 
13th and 14th of this month reported 
a satisfactory session, with Prof. 
Warren W. Clarke conductor, and 
Messrs. Westergard and Robinson 
assistants. All the subjects discussed 
had a direct bearing on local farm- 
ing industries, and all were interest- 
ingly discussed. The talk of Mr. 
Robinson on chickens was interest- 
ingly full of detail. The best paper 
of the session was Mrs. M. E. Sher- 
man's, on dairy stock, from what it 
originated, how it is being built up 
and developed, and what it is. Mrs. 
Sherman, owing to sickness of her 
husband, was not present, very much 
to the regret of those present. Her 
paper was well read by Professor 
Clarke. 

The subject of the day was, "For a 
Profitable Business, What Is the Best 
Poultry Breed?" The subject was 
thoroughly discussed, most of those 
present being familiar with it. For 
eggs, White Leghorns are the best in 
this climate ; they are healthy, are 
the best of layers, the eggs are all 
white and have the preference in the 
San Francisco market, although the 
trade in Los Angeles, a large egg 
market, pays as much for the brown 
egg as the white. For the table, the 
Plymouth Rocks got the preference. 

When poultry raisers buy all the 
feed, it costs about half the egg pro- 
ceeds. When they raise all their 
chicken feed, the home consumption 
is the very best market they have. 
As between commercial and home- 
grown chicken feeds, the home- 
grown had a decided preference. 
Chickens, properly cared for, will 
pay for themselves three times a 
year. 

Taxes. — The time for payment of 
the first installment of this year's 
taxes being about to expire, it was 
asked if a constitutional amendment, 
called "Constitutional Amendment 
No. 1," is not to be submitted to a 
vote of the electors at the next State 
election, providing for a State reve- 
nue from sources other than those 
from which the counties and munici- 
palities derive their revenue, and it 
appearing that but few of the elect- 
ors of the State now know the im- 
portance and effect on our revenue 
system of the proposed amendment, 
it was 

Resolved, That Tulare Grange No. 
198, P. of H, ask the papers of the 
State, daily and weekly, to publish, 
at as early a date as possible, Con- 



stitutional Amendment No. 1, and 
discuss its merits and effects. Par- 
ticularly, we ask the agricultural pa- 
pers, and papers having an agricul- 
tural department, to publish it, and 
ask all their exchanges in the State 
to publish it. 

In considering the subject it was 
agreed that there is no subject be- 
fore the electors of the State, for 
their approval, of more impor- 
tance than Constitutional Amend- 
ment No. 1 ; that the people 
should, by its early publication, have 
time to consider it and mature their 
views. That if its publication is de- 
layed until close to the time of elec- 
tion, misleading constructions may, 
will, be put on it, tending to confuse 
the judgment of a great number of 
our electors. Inasmuch as the sub- 
ject affects every section of the State 
and every taxpayer therein, this 
Grange believes it should be dis- 
cussed by every political organiza- 
tion, by the Commonwealth Club, 
and by every Good Government Club 
in California. 

Subject for next meeting : What 
can be done to organize more 
Granges and increase our member- 
ship? 

Bro. F. H. Styles will open the 
discussion. J. T. 



Cleared $937.25 From Three 
Trees. — A dispatch from Red Bluff 
states that Uncle Sam's timber in the 
forest reserves will be a source of vast 
income to the government in the near 
future as shown by the price realized 
for three large sugar pine trees, which 
were sold for $43.25, or about $14.41 per 
tree, standing in the forest. These trees 
were scaled to board measure and were 
charged for at the rate of $3 per thou- 
sand feet. Each measured 54 inches at 
the stump, and squared to 42 inches at 
the top of the first cut, with the first 
limbs fully 100 feet above the ground. 
They were considered handsome speci- 
mens of the pine forest lying just south 
of Battle Creek meadows. The three 
trees were purchased by Milt Supan, 
who, after consigning fully one-fourth 
of the timber to the brush pile as waste, 
manufactured 98,000 shakes from their 
trunks, which, at the market price of 
$12 per thousand for shakes, the product 
of the three trees will amount to $1176. 
After paying the $43.25 to the govern- 
ment for the three trees, and $2 per 
thousand for hauling the shakes to mar- 
ket, Mr. Supan will realize for his work 
about $937.25. He says good timber 
will make from 4000 to 5000 shakes 
to the 1000 feet, scaled board measure. 
Mr. Supan has made arrangements with 
Forest Ranger Howell for a large sugar 
pine tree 6£ feet in diameter at the butt, 
and he is satisfied this tree will produce 
50,000 shakes. 



Sacramento Bee: The E. C. Horst 
Co. is having a large glass house erected 
in their hop yards near Wheatland for 
the purpose of rushing about 100 vines 
to maturity. The hops, it is believed, 
will be ready for harvesting by April 1. 
The company has a hop-picking ma- 
chine almost perfected and these hops 
will be raised in order to test the ma- 
chine a few months before the picking 
season. Last week the machine was 
shipped to Australia where hop har- 
vest is now in full blast, in order to test 
it there. Last September the machine 
was used some in Oregon and gave con- 
siderable satisfaction, but has not as yet 
reached perfection. 



PILES CURED IN 6 TO 1 4 DAYS. 

PAZO OINTMENT is guaranteed to cure any 
case of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or Protruding 
Piles in 6 to 14 days or money refunded. 50c. 



The California Fruit Canners' Associa- 
tion has contracted for over 300,000,000 
cans, to be delivered at the rate of 
60,000,000 per year. 





A Safe Axe 

Every Keen Kutter Axe is fastened 
to the helve by the Grellner Ever- 
lasting Lock Wedge (used only in 
Keen Kutter tools) — a simple de- 
vice which once driven home in 
any tool unites head and handle so 
securely that only fire can sepa- 
rate them. Hence a 



mnfflffiR 

Axe cannot fly off to the annoyance 

and danger of the chopper. 

Look for the Keen Kutter trademark. It 
covers this "safe axe" and also better, truer 
Saws, Planes, Adzes, Hammers, Augers, 
Braces, Bits, Gimlets, Chisels, Gouges, 
Squares, Bevels, etc., than is possible to find 
under any other name, as well as Forks, 
Hoes, Rakes, Scythes, etc. If not at your 
dealer's, write us. 

"The 'Recollection of Quality 'Remains Long After 
the Trice is forgotten." E. C. Simmons. 

Trademark Registered. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY (Inc.). 
St. Louis and New York, U. S. A. 




99 



Old Trusty 
Incubators 



Sold on 30, 60 or 90 days free trial. Send 
today for catalog and trial offer and guarantee. 
Low prices to all who order this month. We 
pay freight. 

£. E. McCLANAHAN 



ril So. Main Street 



Los Angeles. 



Burbank Says: 

"Best way to get a Walnut 
Grove— Plant California Black Wal- 
nuts, graft them when 4 years old to 
Franquette or Santa Rosa." 

We have extra good stock of 

CALIFORNIA BLACK 

3 to 5 feet. Write for prices. 

JOHN SWETT & SON 

MARTINEZ, CAL. 

GRAFTED VINES 

FIELD GRAFTING 
BENCH GRAFTING 

done by contract anywhere in central 
California. Fifteen years experience. 
Only competent men sent out. "Write 
for estimates and references. 

JOHN L. AMES, 

Elk Grove, Cal. 



WANTED 

Catlings ol the Following lor Grafting Purposes : 

Rupestris St. George, Rlparla x Hupestris 3H0H, 
Rlparla x RupestriB 330U, Rlparla x Rupestris 
106-8 and Mourvedre x Rupestris 1202. Address 

FANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

Fresno, California. 



Pneumatic Fruit Grader 



A perfect Sizing Machine for Oranges 
Capacity 500 Boxes a Day 
Runs Easily by Foot Power 
Cannot Damage the Fruit 
Price $50.00 



WRIGHT BROTHERS, 

Riverside, Cal. 

Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they have 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and oui 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

Temporary Address 

Grayson and Sixth Streets, BERKELEY, CAL. 
West of San Pablo Ave. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing, &nd Assay Int. 
5100 TELEGRAPH AVE. OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 

Open all Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pres't 
Assaying of Ores, $25; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon 
Assay, $26 :Blowptpe Assay, $10. Full Course of 
Assaying. Established In 1864. Send for circular. 

HENRY Q. LISTER, 

ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 1'aclrlc Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts., 

San Francisco. 



78 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



February 1, 1908. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Jan. 29, 1908. 
WHEAT. 

Bad crop reports are expected from the 
Northwest, and it is said that the Hes- 
sian fly has appeared in some sections. 
It is estimated that by March 1 farmers' 
reserves will be down to 125,000,000 bush- 
els, far less than last year. In the local 
market, while there has been no further 
decline, there is a marked inactivity, and 
the feeling is weak. Speculative business 
is very dull, and few buyers are taking 
any interest in cash grain. The millers 
would take liberal supplies of choice 
grades, but as they are unable to get 
them, they are taking lower grades in 
small quantities. 

California White Australian.. 1.75 @1.80 

California Club 1.67}@1.70 

California Milling 1.70 ©1.72} 

California lower grades 1.60 @1.65 

Northern Club 1.65 @1.70 

Northern Blues tern 1.67}@1.75 

Northern Red 1.60 ©1.62} 

BARLEY. 

Buyers are showing no greater interest 
in most grades of barley than last week, 
and both speculative and cash markets 
are weak under the continued dullness, 
though receipts are small. The shipping 
demand continues light. Feed grades are 
the dullest feature, showing a consider- 
able further decline. Chevalier is prac- 
tically nominal, as very little is offered. 
Brewing grades are stiffening up a little, 
spot stocks being about cleaned up, with 
a moderate demand. 

Brewing $1.57}@1.60 

Chevalier 1.75 @1.85 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctl.. 1.45 @1.48i{ 

Common to Fair 1.42}@1.43ij 

Shipping Nominal 

OATS. 

Arrivals of oats were heavy one day 
last week, though the arrivals for the 
week are moderate. The rains have 
caused some improvement in the demand 
for red oats for seeding purposes, but 
otherwise the market is very quiet, and 
shows no particular feature. Black are 
entirely neglected, with very few offer- 
ing. There is no change in prices, as 
holders are firm in their ideas in expec- 
tation of a heavier demand, and there is 
not enough buying to cause any advance. 
It is said that considerable quantities are 
moving east from northern points. 

Clean Black for seed $2.50 ©2.75 

Choice Red, per ctl 1.85 ©1.90 

Gray 1.52}@1.60 

White 1.52}@1.70 

Choice Red, for seed 1.90 ©2.00 

CORN. 

Arrivals from Western points, while 
still comparatively small, are larger than 
at this time last year, as the local mills 
are consuming greater quantities. Sev- 
eral cars arrived last week, and the mar- 
ket closed with higher prices on these 
lines. California stock is dull and un- 
changed. 

California Small Round Yel- 
low, per ctl Nominal 

Large Yellow 1.65 @ 

White Nominal 

Western State sacked Yel- 
low, new 1.60 @ 1.65 

White, in bulk 1.52 © 

Mixed, in bulk 1.50 © 

Brown Egyptian 1.40 @ 

White Egyptian 1.35 © 

RYE. 

Stocks of Utah and Oregon rye on this 
market are entirely cleaned up, and no 
quotations are given. Receipts of Cali- 
fornia stock are larger, and the demand 
is slightly stronger, the last sale being 
at $1.50. 

California $1.47}@1.50 

Utah Nominal 

Oregon Nominal 

BEANS. 

A further improvement is reported in 
the shipping demand for beans, and 
larger shipments are going forward to 
most sections. Under these conditions, 
there is a strong feeling in the market, 
and the movement is rapidly coming up 
to the volume of a few months ago. All 
stocks are firmly held, and prices are un- 
changed. 

Bayos.perctl $3.15 ©3.25 



Blackeyes 3.75 ©4.00 

Butter 4.50 ©5.00 

Cranberry Beans 3.00 ©3.25 

Garvanzos 3.75 ©4.00 

Horse Beans 2.75 ©3.00 

Small White 3.50 © 

Large White 3.35 ©3.45 

Li mas 4.75 ©4.85 

Pea 3.50 ©3.75 

Pink 3.15 ©3.25 

Red 3.40 ©3.501 

Red Kidneys 3.25 ©3.50 

SEEDS. 

With favorable weather, the demand 
for seeds continues strong on all lines, 
and prices are firmly held. There has 
been a heavy demand for red clover, and 
this line has taken a sudden jump, being 
now quoted at 20 cents. Alfalfa is also 
very active, and the supply is shorter 
than was anticipated, though so far there 
has been no advance on this line. 

Utah Alfalfa 18 © 19 c 

Turkestan alfalfa 18 © 

Alfalfa 17i@18c 

Broomcom Seed, per ton $22.00@25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 3 @ 3Jc 

Canary 4}@ 4}c 

Flaxseed Nominal. 

Hemp 4}@ 4Jc 

Millet 3© 3}c 

Timothy 7 @ 7}c 

Yellow Mustard 5 @ 5}c 

FLOUR. 

The local demand keeps up about as 
usual, the market being described as 
quiet. More activity is reported in the 
East. Some shipping is reported from 
the North for the Oriental interest, but 
the movement is far below normal, while 
the shipments to Central America are 
about as usual. A heavier Oriental de- 
mand is looked for within the next few 
months, but at present there is hardly 
enough business to keep the mills busy, 
and they are keeping their output down 
to a small volume. 

California Family Extra, per 

bbl $5.40 ©6.00 

Bakers' extras 5.40 ©5.65 

Superfine 4.20 ©4.50 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4.75 ©5.25 

HAY. 

Receipts of hay showed a considerable 
falling off this week, being only 2350 
tons, or considerably less than for a num- 
ber of weeks past. As there are now 
plenty of cars available and plenty of 
hay in the country, it seems clear that 
the holders have decided to market no 
more at the present prices. There was, 
however, a considerable amount of hay 
in the hands of both dealers and consum- 
ers, and the shortage in arrivals did not 
at once make itself felt here. During the 
last few days, however, the market has 
responded to the new state of affairs to a 
certain extent and the feeling is now 
better than for some time. Quotations 
are practically the same as before. The 
hay consumption in the interior contin- 
ues good. The receipts of alfalfa and 
straw continue to just about meet the 
demands of the trade, the latter being 
now quite fair for both. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $16.00©17.50 

Other Grades Wheat 11.00@15.00 

Wheat and Oat 11.00@15.50 

Tame Oat 11.00@15.00 

Wild Oat 9.00@12.00 

Alfalfa 9.00@13.50 

Stock 7.50@ 9.50 

Straw, per bale 50@ 90c 

MILLSTUFFS. 

With the present inactive condition of 
the flour market, the output of bran, 
shorts and middlings is very small, and 
supplies are hard to get. Receipts are 
small, and the market is kept closely 
cleaned up. All offerings are firmly held, 
with a further advance on both bran and 
shorts. Mixed feed is also higher. Rolled 
barley has not followed the further de- 
cline in the raw grain, but is weak, while 
other lines are unchanged. 

Alfalfa Meal (carload lots) 

per ton $22.00© 

Jobbing 23.00© 

Rran, ton 29.n0@30.00 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl..'... 90c@ 1.00 
Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills (in 10-ton lots) 25.00© 

Jobbing 26.00© 

Corn Meal 37.00© 

Cracked Corn 38.00© 

Mealfalfa 22.00© 

Jobbing 23.00© 

Middlings 32.00@36.00 



Mixed Feeds 26.00@27.00 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 38.50@39.50 

Rolled Barley 33.50@34.50 

Shorts 30.00@31.00 

POULTRY. 

The poultry market developed consid- 
erable weakness during the week, and 
shows no signs of recovery, owing to 
heavy arrivals of both eastern and Cali- 
fornia stock, six cars of the former hav- 
ing come in Monday and Tuesday. Small 
and large broilers and squabs are about 
the only stock that is in any demand, 
the latter having been quite firm for some 
time. There is some sale for good dressed 
turkeys, but at this time of year the de- 
mand is somewhat limited, and prices 
rule low. Live stock is hard to dispose of. 

Broilers $5.0(» @ 5.50 

Small Broilers 4.00 @ 5.00 

Ducks 4.H0 @ 7.00 

Fryers 5.50 @ 6.00 

Geese 2.00 @ 2.50 

Hens, extra 7.00 @ 9.00 

Hens, per doz 5.00 @ 6.00 

Small Hens 4.00 @ 4.50 

Old Roosters 4.00 @ 4.50 

Young Roosters 6.00 @ 7.50 

Pigeons 1.00 @ 

Squabs 3.00 © 3.50 

Hen Turkeys, per lb 15 @ 17 c 

Gobblers, live, per lb 16 © 17 c 

Turkeys, dressed 18 © 20 c 

BUTTER. 

Fresh extras are weak, with larger re- 
ceipts, and supplies ample for all needs, 
prices having declined lVi cents during 
the week. Lower grade fresh stock is de- 
scribed as steady, though firsts are 5 cents 
lower. Business on the exchange is very 
quiet, and there is no great movement 
on the street, as the demand for con- 
sumption has not increased to any extent. 
Nearly all storage goods have fallen off, 
and there is little inquiry for them. 

Cal. (extras) per lb 33 c 

Firsts .25 c 

Seconds 22 c 

Thirds 

Fresh Eastern, extras 

Fresh Ladles, extras 

Fresh Ladles, firsts 

Storage, Cal., extras 23 c 

Storage, Cal., firsts 22 c 

Storage Eastern, extras 23 c 

Storage Ladles, extras 20 c 

EGGS. 

The egg market has been dull and weak, 
with 21 cents on extras as the low mark, 
but there is now a stronger feeling, as 
retail prices have declined, and there is 
a good consumptive demand, increased ar- 
rivals cleaning up at an advance of 2 
cents. Lower grades drag at reduced 
prices. Storage goods are still being 
urged for sale, and sellers are willing to 
dispose of their stocks at almost any 
price. 

California (extra) per doz 23 c 

Firsts 22}c 

Seconds 21 c 

Thirds 20 c 

Storage, Cal.. extras 17}e 

Storage, Eastern, extras 15 c 

CHEESE. 

There is a fair movement of new Cali- 
fornia cheese, though prices on fancy flats 
are M> cent off. Storage Young Americas 
are also slightly lower. Otherwise the 
market is steady at previous prices, with 
supplies about equal to the current de- 
mand. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb... 14}c 

Firsts 13}c 

New Young Americas, Fancy 15 c 

Storage, do 15 c 

Eastern, New Nominal 

Eastern, Storage 17}c 

Cal. Storage, Fancy flats 15 c 

Oregon, Fancy 15 c 

POTATOES. 

Large supplies of potatoes are again 
coming in, from all quarters, and the 
market is overstocked, though there is 
about the usual amount of buying. Ore- 
gon Burbanks and River goods are quoted 
at a lower range of values, and Salinas 
and Lompoc stock is weak. Early Rose 
and Garnet Chiles are selling well for 
seeding purposes. Sweet potatoes are 
firm and active. 

Oregon Burbanks 90 ©1.15 

Burbanks, Salinas, ctl $1.00 ©1.25 

Lompoc Burbanks 1.30 ©1.40 

Burbanks, River, bag 40 © H5 

Early Rose, ctl 1.00 @1.25 

Garnet Chiles 90 @1.10 

Sweet Potatoes, per ctl 2.75 @ 



Sen d for this 
Catalogue 



Of Northern Grown Seeds— Tried 
and proved Best for the West. Con- 
tains 112 pages and 16 colored pho- 
tos of Farm. Field and Flower Seeds 
with full cultural directions. A re- 
quest will bring it to your home free. 
Ohm*. H. Lilly Co., Soattla, Wn. 




Sola by Dealers 



VEGETABLES. 

Fair arrivals of onions are moving well 
at a further advance in prices. Receipts 
of miscellaneous lines from the south are 
light, and while there is no heavy de- 
mand, prices are considerably higher on 
most, descriptions. Choice peas, string 
beans and bell peppers are scarce and 
high, while egg plant and chile peppers 
are plentiful, the former selling for lower 
prices. 

Garlic, per lb 5 @ 7c 

Green Peas, per lb 3 @ 7c 

Chile Peppers, per lb 6 © 8c 

Cabbage, per ctl 60 © 65c 

Onions, per ctl 2.75 @ 3.00 

String beans, per lb 17}@ 20c 

Tomatoes, crate 1.50 © 2.25 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton. ...10.00 ©15.00 

Carrots, sack 75 © 

Hubbard Squash, ton 10.00 @15.00 

Summer Squash, V box 1.50 @ 2.00 

Celerv, crate, small 90 @ 1.00 

Egg Plant, lb 8 © 12}c 

Rhubarb, box 1.50 © 1.75 

Mushrooms, lb 10 @ 25c 

FRESH FRUITS. 

The low prices have checked the ship- 
ment of strawberries from the South, and 
there are none offering. There is a fair 
business in apples, as retail stocks have 
been closely cleaned up, the principal 
trading being on fancy stock, though 
prices are somewhat easier. Pears are 
unchanged. 

Apples, fancy 1.25 @ 2.00 

Apples, common to choice... 60 @ 1.00 
Pears — o n 

Winter Nelis 2.00X© 2.25 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

There is little demand for anything in 
the citrus line, and with heavy accumula- 
tions, increased by new arrivals, prices 
are weak. Grapefruit is the only firm 
feature, with light stocks and prices well 
sustained, while tangerines, lemons and 
limes are still neglected. 

Choice Lemons $1.50 @1.75 

Fancy Lemons 1.75 @2.25 

Standard 1.25 ©1.50 

Limes 3.00 ©4.00 

Oranges — 

Fancy 1.75 ©2.26 

Standard 1.50 ©1.75 

Tangerines, large box 1.00 ©1.25 

Grape Fruit 2.25 ©3.00 

DRIED FRUITS. 

There is some weakness in apples, 
peaches and pears, with lower prices. 
There is a good demand for seedless rais- 
ins in New York, though seeded stock and 
prunes are dull. Fresno raisin growers 
who have to move their crops from leased 
land are said to be cleaning up at 3^ 
cents. The local packers are taking more 
interest in prunes. 

Evaporated Apples 7J@ 9 c 

Figs, black 2|@ 3 c 

do white 3 @ 4 c 

Apricots, per lb 18 @21 c 

Fancy Apricots 21 @22 c 

Peaches 9 @11 c 

Prunes, 4-size basis, 1907 crop.. 4 © 4}c 

Pitted plums Nominal. 

Pears 9}@12 c 



February 1, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



7' 



RAISINS. 



2 Crown 4f@ 

3 Crown 5|@ 

4 Crown 5£@ 

Seeded, per lb 1\@ 7£c 

Seedless Sultanas b\@ l\c 

London Layers, per box $1.25@1.40 

London Layers, cluster 1.30@2.00 



NUTS. 

There has been no further decline in 
nuts, and the market seems to be steady- 
ing up a little, though no business of 
much consequence is reported. 



Almonds, Nonpareils 15 c 

I X L 14£c 

Ne Plus Ultra 14 c 

Drakes 13 c 

Languedoc 12 c 

Hardshell 8 c 

Walnuts, Softshell No. 1 14jc 

Softshell, No. 2 12 c 

Italian Chestnuts 10 @12$c 



HONEY. 

Practically all the last crop of honey 
has now moved out of the hands of pro- 
ducers, and stocks held here are slightly 
greater than last month. The supply, 
however, is still small, and prices are 
firmly held, though the movement has not 
increased to any extent. 



Water White, Comb 16 @17 c 

White 15 @ 

Water White, extracted 8 @ 8jc 

Light Amber 7 @ 7|c 

Dark Amber 6£@ 6§c 



WOOL. 

Prices on wool are unchanged, and the 
market is still very dull, the only trad- 
ing being on low-priced clips. Stocks in 
California are estimated at about 3,000,- 
000 pounds. 

Humboldt and Mendocino, year's 



staple 22 @23:c 

Fall clip: Northern free, moun- 
tain 8 @11 c 

do. defective 6 @ 8 c 

San Joaquin and Southern 5 @ 8 c 

Fall Lambs, Northern 9 @11 c 

Fall ^ambs, Southern 7 @ 9£c 

Nevada 12 @16 c 



HOPS. 

Blue mold has appeared in Oregon. 
Somewhat more activity is reported, both 
here and in the north, and prices on the 
last crop are again slightly higher. 

1906 crop 2 @ 3 C 

1907 crop 6 @ 9 c 

1908 (contracts) 10 @11 c 

MEAT. 

There is a little more firmness in beef, 
veal and lamb. Dressed hogs are lower, 
though live hogs show an advance. There 
have been many receipts of hogs in Chi- 
cago, which may have some effect on this 
market. 



Beef : Steers, per lb 7 @7| c 

Cows 6J@ 9 c 

Heifers 6i@ 9 c 

Veal : Large 8 @ 9 c 

Small 9J@10 c 

Mutton : Wethers 10£@11 c 

Ewes 9£@10ic 

Lamb 12J@13 c 

Spring lamb 15 @16 c 

Hogs, dressed 9 @10Jc 

LIVESTOCK. ,,,, 

Steers, No. 1 8J@ 9 c 

No. 2 7J@ 8 c 

No. 3 6£@ 7 c 

Cows and Heifers, No. 1 6 J® 7 c 

No. 2 6 @ 6Jc 

Bulls and Stags 3J@ 4 c 

Calves, Light 5 @ 

Medium 4J@ 

Heavy 3^@ 4 c 

Sheep, Wethers 5 @ 5£c 

Ewes 4 J® 5 c 

Lambs 5J@ 6 c 

Hogs, 100 to 200 lbs 6 @ 6£c 

200 to 300 lbs 5 @ 5^c 



Boars 50%, stags 30% to 40%, and sows 
10% to 20% off from above quotations. 



THE CEREALS IN AMERICA.— By Thomas 
P. Hunt, M. 8., D. Agr., Professor of Agronomy 
In College of Agriculture, Cornell University. 
This is primarily a textbook on agronomy, but 
is equally useful to the farmer' as to the teachei 
or student. It Is written by an author thar 
whom no one is better qualified. The subject- 
matter includes an accurate, com prehenslve, and 
succinct treatise of wheat, maize, oats, barley, 
rye, rice, sorghum, and buckwheat, as related 
particularly to American condition. The author 
has made a comprehensive study of the topics 
treated, drawing freely from the publications of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, 
American experiment stations, and recognized 
'ournals related to agriculture. First-hand 
knowledge, however, has been the policy of the 
author In his work. Illustrated. 460 pages. b% 
by 8 Inches. Cloth $1 .76 



BOOKS FOR THE FARM 



For Sale by PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



FARM DRAINAGE. — By Judge French of 
New Hampshire. The principles, process, and 
effects of draining land with stones, wood, ditch- 
plows, open ditches, and especially with tiles; 
Including tables of rainfall, evaporation, filtra- 
tion, excavation, capacity of pipes, cost and 
number to the acre. 384 pages. 6 by 7 Inches. 
Cloth. $1.00 



THE NEW RHUBARB CULTURE.— A com- 
plete guide to dark forcing and field culture. 
Part I— By J. E. Morse, the wellknown Michigan 
trucker and originator of the now famous and 
extremely profitable new methods of dark 
forcing ana field culture. Part II. — Other 
methods practiced by the most experienced 
market gardeners, greenhouse men and experi- 
menters In all parts of America. Compiled by 
G. B. Fiske. Illustrated. 130 pages. 6 by 7 
Inches. Cloth $0.50 



THE HOP.— Its culture and care, marketing 
and manufacture. By Herbert Myrlck. A 
practical handbook on the most approved 
methods In growing, harvesting, curing and 
selling hops and on the use and manufacture of 
hops. It takes up every detail from preparing 
,the soli and laying out the yard to curing and 
selling the crop. Illustrated. 300 pages. 6 by 7 
inches. Bound In cloth and gold. $1.60 

THE POTATO.— By Samuel Frazier. This 
book Is destined to rank as a standard work 
upon Potato Culture. While the practical side 
has been emphasized, the scientific part has not 
been neglected, and the information given is of 
value, both to the grower and the student. 
Taken all in all, It Is the most complete, reliable 
and authoritative book on the potato ever pub- 
lished In America. Illustrated. 200 pages. 

by 7 Inches. Cloth $0.75 

IRRIGATION FARMING. — By Lucius M. 
Wilcox. A handbook for the practical applica- 
tion of water in the production of crops. The 
most complete book on the subject ever pub- 
lished. New edition, revised, enlarged, and re- 
written. Illustrated. Over 500 pages. 6 by 7 
Inches. Cloth $2 

SOILING CROPS AND 'THE SILO.— By 
Thomas Shaw, professor of animal husbandry 
at the University of Minnesota. How to culti- 
vate and harvest crops; how to build and fill a 
silo; how to use silage. The newest and most 
valuable of all books for the dairyman. It tells 
all about growing and feeding all kindsof soiling 
crops that have been found useful In any part of 
the United States or Canada— climate and sou 
to which they are adapted, rotation, sowing, cul- 
tivation and feeding. Also about building and 
filling silos, what to use and how to nil and feed 
It. Illustrated. 264 pages. 5 by 7 inches. Cloth. 
$1.50 

THE BOOK OF CORN.— By Herbert Myrlck, 
assisted by A. D. Schamel, E. A. Burnett 
Albert W. Fulton, B. W. Snow, and other most 
capable specialists. A complete treatise upon 
the culture, marketing, and uses of maize in 
America and elsewhere, for farmers, dealers, 
and others. Illustrated. Upwards of 500 pages, 
6 by 7 Inches. Cloth $1.60. 

THE NEW EGG FARM. — By H. H. Stod- 
dard. A practical, reliable manual upon pro- 
ducing eggs and poultry for market as a profit- 
able business enterprise, either by Itself or con- 
nected with other branches of agriculture. It 
tells all about how to feed and manage, how to 
breed and select, incubators and brooders, its 
labor saving devices, etc. 12mo. 331 pages. 140 
original illustrations. Cloth $1 

AMERICAN GRAPE GROWING AND WINE 
MAKING. — By George Husmann, of California. 
New and enlarged edition. With contributions 
from wellknown grape growers, giving wide 
range of experience. The author of this book is 
a recognized authority on the subject. Illus- 
trated. 269 pages. 5 by 7 Inches. Cloth $1.50 

THE NEW ONION CULTURE.— By T. Grelner. 
Rewritten, greatly enlarged and brought up to 
date. A new method of growing onions ol 
largest size and yield, on less land, than can be 
raised by the old plan. Many farmers, gardeners 
and experiment stations have given It practical 
trials which have proved a success. Illustrated. 
140 pages. 5 by 7 Inches. Cloth $0.60 

ALFALFA.— By F. D. Coburn. Its growth, 
uses and feeding value. The fact that alfalfa 
thrives In almost any soil; that without reseed- 
lng it goes on yielding two, three, four and 
sometimes five cuttings annually for five, ten, or 
perhaps 100 years; and that either green or cured 
it is one of the most nutritious forage plants 
known, makes reliable information upon its pro 
duction and uses of unusual Interest. Such In- 
formation is given In this volume for every part 
of America, by the highest authority. Illus- 
trated. 164 pages. 6 by 7 inches. Cloth $0.60 

MUSHROOMS; HOW TO GROW THEM. — By 
William Falconer. This Is the most practical 
work on the subject ever written, and the only 
book on the growing of mushrooms published 
In America. The author describes how he grows 
mushrooms, and how they are grown for profit 
by the leading market gardeners, and for home 
use by the most successful private growers. 
Engravings drawn from nature expressly for 
this work. 170 pages. 5 by 7 Inches. Cloth $1 

ASPARAGUS.— By F. M. Hexamer. Thislls 
the first book published In America which Is 
exclusively devoted to the raising of asparagus 
for home use as well as for market. It Is a 
practical and reliable treatise on the saving ol 
the seed, raising of the plants, selection and 
preparation of the soil, planting, cultivating, 
manuring, cutting, bunching, packing, market- 
ing, canning and drying, Insect enemies, fungous 
diseases and every requirement to successful 
asparagus culture, special emphasis being given 
to the Importance of asparagus as a farm and 
money crop. Illustrated. 174 pages. 6 by 7 
Inches. Cloth $0.60 



A NEW SHEEP BOOK. 

" Modern Sheep; Breeds and Management," 
by " Shepherd Boy," author of " Fitting Sheep 
for Show Ring and Market," is the latest work 
from the American Sheep Breeder press of Chi- 
cago, and it Is perhaps within bounds to say that 
It is the best work on sheep ever published In 
this or any other country. It contains over 100 
halftone engravings, among them being some- 
thing like thirty of different breeds of sheep 
from different parts of the world. The subjects 
covered by this work are divided into eight 
parts: Part I deals with History and Breeds; 
Part II, General Management; Part III, Sheep 
Management in the Western States; Part IV, 
Fitting Sheep for Show; Part V, Raising Hot- 
house or Spring Lambs; Part VI, Dressing Sheep 
and Lambs; Part VII, Pastures, Forage Crops, 
etc.; Part VIII, Diseases. The author of this 
work is one of the world's best known authorities 
on sheep, having had practical management of 
flocks In several different countries, and is at 
present associate editor of the world's leading 
sheep journal. A unique feature of this work is 
that wherein the author seems to upset the 
theory advanced by some scientists that on 
account of the differences of the genus of the 
sheep and goat a hybrid from such a mating is 
impossible, since the pages of this volume con- 
tain a halftone engraving from a photograph of 
the produce of such a mating and the statement 
of a member of the Government Bureau of Agri- 
culture giving his opinion that this hybrid is 
genuine. This is a book that will be read with 
interest and profit by the veteran sheep breeder 
as well as the novice. It can be ordered through 
the Pacific Rural Press at $1.50, postpaid. 



A Chance at Holsteins. 



The Pierce Land & Stock Co. propose 
to let you in on Holstein-Friesians by the 
ground floor. Look for their notice ! 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short- 
horns; mUk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petaluma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Shorthorned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY. 

BREEDERS OF SHORTHORN CATTLE 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



BROWN LEGHORNS AND BARRED PLY- 
MOUTH ROCKS. Eggs for hatching a 
specialty; cockerels for sale. Walter Curry, 
R. D. No. 21, San Jose, California. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



SWINE. 



GEO. C. ROEDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 
C. A. STO WE, Stockton, Cal. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



17 YEARS an Exhibitor of Berkshire Hogs at the 
California State Fair. Thos. Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan St., San 
Francisco. Manufacturer and Dealer In 

POULTRY SUPPLIES 

of every description. Send for Catalogue— FREE 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years. 
Importer and Breeders of all Varieties ol Land and Water 
Fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31, 361 McAllister St., S. F. 



Registered Holstein Bulls 

AT BARGAIN PRICES. 

We must sell Fifty Head at once. Breeding sec- 
ond to none. Prices extremely low. You may 
never again have such an opportunity. Write 
today. 

PIERCE LAND & STOCK CO., 

Riverside Ranch. Stockton, Cal. 

Phone Main 1597. Send for Catalogue. 



BUFF ORPINGTONS 

Largest clean legged bird in the list, lay the 
year around, and bring a dollar each and more 
when turned to market. Postal will bring you 
prices and our show record. 

W. SULLIVAN, 

Agnew, Santa Clara County, Cal. 
State V. P. Nat. S. C. B. O. Club. 



DADD'S MODERN HORSE DOCTOR.— By 
George H. Dadd, M. D., V. S., containing practi- 
cal observations on the causes, nature and treat- 
ment of diseases and lameness of horses— em- 
bracing recent and improved methods, accord- 
ing to an enlightened system of veterinary prac- 
tice, for preservation and restoration of health. 
Illustrated. 432 pages. 6 by 7 Inches. Cloth. 

...81.00 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 

Pacific Rural Press 

(— ) Indicates every other week or once a month 



Page. 

Ames, John L 77 

A merican Steel & Wire Co 76 

Bean Spray Pump Co 80 

Beckman, Geo. V 79 

Blake, Moftitt & Towne 73 

Bosanko Medicine Co., Dr 71 

Breeders' Directory 79 

Coates Nursery Co., Leonard 71 

Croley, George H 79 

Curry, Walter 79 

Deming Co., The 73 

Dewey, Strong & Co 76, 79 

Disbrow, F. H 73 

Driver, E. S 79 

El Dorado Oil Works — 

Fancher Creek Nurseries 75, 77, 79 

Ferry & Co., D. M 71 

Folding Sawing Machine Co — 

Fresno Agricultural Works — 

FreBno Nursery 74 

German Kali Works — 

Golden Rule Nursery 73 

Gregory & Son, S. J. H 75 

Hart, Ed 79 

Hess & Clark, Dr 71, 75 

Holcombe A Co., R. A 76 

Hopkins, G. H 73 

Howard Cattle Co 79 

Hoy t's Tree Support Co — 

Jackson & Co., T. W 76 

Lawrence-Williams Co 74 

Lilly Co., Chas. H 78 

Lister, Henry B 77 

Live Stock and Dairy Journal Experimental 

Farm 75 

Ludemann, F 73 

Luther, A. W 71 

Lynch, John 79 

McCIanahan, E. E 77 

Meacham, Frank A — 

Mills, A. A 71 

Minnewawa Vineyard 73 

Morse & Co., C. C 74 

Mitttng, A 75 

Mountain Copper Co 76 

Myers, Wm. 8 — 

National Wood Pipe Co 80 

Oakland Poultry Yards 79 

Orange County Nursery & Land Co 74 

Oregon Nursery Co 75 

Pacific Coast Business College 73 

Pacific Guano & Fertilizer Co 76 

Pear Blight Remedy Co 80 

Pierce Land & Stock Co 79 

Reeves & Co — 

Rhodes Mfg. Co — 

Roedlng, Geo. C 79 

Scheidecker, A. F 73 

Seulberger, J 75 

Shaw, Henry 73 

Sharpies Separator Co — 

Silva & Bergtholdt Co 80 

Simmons Hardware Co 77 

Smith, Francis — 

Snow, D. A 73 

Stanford Ranch 79 

Stewart, W. A 73 

Stowe, C. A 79 

Stratton, W. A. T 74 

Sullivan, W 79 

Sure Hatch Incubator Co 71 

Swett & Son, John 77 

Teague, R. M — 

Temple Pump Co tSSiSl — 

The Cutter Laboratory 77 

True, T. J 71 

Trumbull Seed Co 74 

Tuttle's Elixir Co — 

Van Der Naillen, A 77 

Vermont Farm Machine Co — 

Wagner, J. B 73 

Waite, Thos 79 

Western Meat Co 71 

Willson, F. C 71 

Wright Brothers 77 



PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to inventors, sent free on 
request; containing nearly 100 mechanical move- 
ments and full Information about Patent*, 
Caveats, Trademarks, and Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., 

1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San Francisco 
Established 1860. 



FOR SALE 

A few thoroughbred registered Poland China 
scrvh c< boars. 

Registered Holstein Friesian service bulls and 
bull calves from Advanced Registry Stock. 

STANFORD RANCH, : Vina, Cal. 



8o 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February I, 1908 



never buy a cheap horse and expect 
to get a good one. Some fruit ranchers 
buy the cheapest tree they can get, but an 
orchardist — never. Our trees and vines are 
not the cheapest, but they are the best that 
care in selection and growing can produce. 
We propagate only from parent trees and 
vines that are the best specimens of their 
kind, and our stock will give you good ser- 
vice for a lifetime. That is what you want. 




Comprises all profitable 
commercial sorts of 



OUR STOCK 



PEACHES, 
PLUMS, 
PEARS, 
APPLES, 



CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS 
APRICOTS 
and GRAPES. 



Send for Catalogue and Price List 

Contract now the trees you want 

WRITE US 



4 



c 



PLACER NURSERIES 

SILVA fi> BERGTHOLDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CAL. 





Yoa can positively insure a larger crop, clean fruit and 
healthy trees at a saving of fully one-third the labor 
ordinarily required and with a much less outlay of time 
and money by using a Bean Magic Spray Pump. 
The reason is because it sprays thoroughly with hign, 
even pressure, but the operator is working against only 
one-half the pressure indicated on the gauge. It's on 
account of the spring which makes the Magic Spray 
Pump the easiest running, most perfect spray pump 
ever made. No other pump can compete with it in 
the essential points of quality and durability, and we 
challenge comparison with all other makes regard- 
less of price or construction. 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

are the result of careful study and experience in 
pump manufacture. We have no other line. We are 
specialists in pump-making, and the name BKAN 
on a spray pump or appliance is a guarantee that it 
is the best that money and brains can produce. 

The most successful raisers of fancy fruit agree 
that spraying is the only and most effective method 
of securing the best results. The increase in profit 
from securing fancy fruit will alone soon pay for the 
outfit. Whether you have a large or small orchard 
you can not afford to be without a Bean Magic Spray 
Pump. Write for our special offer, also free illus- 
trated catalog. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., 

163 W. Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 



PEAR-BLIGHT !° 



can CURE IT 



Work has Extended 
Over a Period of 3 Years 



Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

PEAR BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 




California 
Fruit Exchange 



I INCORPORATED.) 



Head Office: 

SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 

A growers' organization maintaining its own 
exclusive selling agencies for 

DECIDUOUS FRUITS 



All Soils Alike to Wood Pipe 




The heaviest adobe, the most corrosive alkali, the lightest sand— all 
are alike where wood pipe Is used. It resists them all. Wood Satu- 
rated, Air Excluded— Can't Rot. Metal In Bulk, Galvanized, Asphalted— 
Can't Rust. High Factor of Safety In Banding— Can't Leak. Our book- 
let, "The Whole Story About Wood Pipe," contains valuable tables of 
the carrying capacity of pipe. Mailed free upon request. 

Continuous Stave Pipe. Machine Banded Pipe. Bored Wood Pipe. 

National Wood Pipe Company 



404 Equitable Savings Bank Bdg., Los Angeles 
Olyrnpla, Washington. 



2fi8 Market St., San Francisco. 
Dooly hlock. Salt Lake City, "tan. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WA, V 

In use all over the State 
For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW. Lincoln Avenue, San Jose, Cal. 



Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST- SAN FRANCISCO 

DA OCR Blake, Moftltt A Towne, Los Angeles 
r rt r LIN Blake. McFall A Co., Portland. Oregon 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



/ol. LXXV. No. 6. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1908. 



Thirty-eighth Year. 



GLANCE AT LONG PRUNING OF VINES. 



Two weeks ago we had a glimpse of pruning 
mng vines with a view to starting them for 
ort pruning. This was from a bulletin just 
iblished by the Experiment Station of the Uni- 
rsity and written by Prof. F. T. Bioletti. On 
is page a suggestive reference is made to the 
fficulties which arise in long pruning the Sul- 
nina, which is the proper name of Thompson's 
edless, for which acknowledgment is made to 
e same publication, which presents the matter 
fuller form. Prof. Bioletti notes the fact that 
e Sidtanina becomes less productive if provi- 
on is not made for the continual production 
canes which can be long pruned. There is no 
Ivantage in long or high stumps which have to 
3 short pruned at the top. The upper picture 
i this page shows this kind of a vine, which 
rof. Bioletti says is worse than an ordinary 
lort-pruned vine. 

This condition may be avoided for a year or 
vo if, besides the fruit canes, we leave also some 
lort spurs of one or two buds on the main 
;ump. The canes from these spurs will consist 
f fruit wood, and they may be used for fruit 
mes the following year. Unfortunately these 
mrs are so shaded by the foliage on the fruit 
ines that they do not always produce vigorous 
ood, aud finally they fail to grow at all. 

Two methods have been successfully used to 
isure the growth of new fruit wood every year 




in a position where it can be 
utilized. The first consists in 
bending the fruit canes into a 
circle, as illustrated in the pic- 
ture. This diminishes the tend- 
ency of the sap of the vine to 
go to the end of the fruit canes. 
The consequence is that more 
shoots start on the lower parts 
of the fruit canes. All the 
shoots on these canes are made 
weaker and more fruitful by 
the bending, and at the same 
time the sap pressure is in- 
creased and causes strong 
shoots to start from the wood 
spurs left near the bases of the 
fruit canes. These shoots are 
used for fruit canes at the fol- 
lowing winter pruning, and 
new wood spurs are then left 
for the next year. 

The tying and bending of 
the fruit canes require great 
care, and repeated suckering 
and removal of watersprouts 
are necessary to insure strong 
growth of replacing canes on 
the wood spurs. This method 
can be used successfully only 
by skillful hands. 

The other method requires 
some form of trellis. The most practicable trellis 
is a wire stretched along the rows at about l 1 /" 
or 2 feet above the surface of the soil. For very 
vigorous vines in rich soil a second wire 12 
inches above the first is advisable. 

The pruning is the same as for the method 
just ^described. The fruit canes, however, in- 
stead of being bent in a circle and tied to the 
stake, are placed in a horizontal position and tied 
to the wire. The horizontal position has the same 
effect as curving in promoting the starting of 




Sultanina Vine Which Has Been Pruned Long and the Canes Tied up Vertically. 

more shoots on the fruit canes and the consequent 
production of more bunches of grapes. At the 
same time the buds on the wood spurs are forced 
to start, and not being shaded they tend to grow 
vigorously. It is best to tie the shoots from the 
wood spurs in a vertical position to the stake, 
and they should not be topped. Whatever sys- 
tem of winter pruning is adopted with the Sul- 
tanina, careful summer pruning, suckering, 
sprouting, and topping are necessary for the best 
results. 




lending Fruit Canes to Insure Growth of Shoots from Replacing Spurs. 



Method of Pruning Tre'/ijed Sy/fanina Vines. 



Pacific Rural Press 



667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 





TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR 


IN ADVANCE 




Advertising: rates made known on 


application. 


Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 


DEWEY PUBLISHING CO. 


PUBLISHERS 


E. J. WICKSON 




EDGAR RICK ARD - 


Business Manager 





The Week. 



There have been grandly generous rains in all 
parts of the State, and confidence in crops is full. 
The rainfall is close to the normal in most places, 
and a few days more of it would probably induce 
fear that this year's February might be wet all 
through, as last year's was. This is not to lie 
rationally expected, because California's Febru- 
arys very seldom go that way, and it is not desir- 
able that they should. Planting conditions this 
year, though not ideal, have been better than last 
year, and the normal February rainfall is all that 
is needed. What can be rationally expected is 
therefore just what is wanted to bring this year's 
production along toward the high figures which 
it is hoped a few spring showers will carry to 
realization. It is more than usually important 
that such should be the case for, though the strin- 
gency has apparently long passed its climax, 
there is a large amount of confidence still to be 
restored, and the continuation of large agricul- 
tural production with ample surpluses for export 
will be a very influential factor toward that end. 
How much this is counted upon it may| be seen 
from the closing sentences of an essay on the out- 
look in trade and finance in Bradstreet's, as fol- 
lows: 

"It should not be forgotten that there is a large 
and very profitable business to be done in this 
country in supplying the wants of the 84,000,000 
people that inhabit it, and that the warnings to 
the country of the present trouble were so early 
and so numerous that large accumulations of 
stocks and goods were avoided. Buying for some 
time past has been of a healthy character, small 
and frequent instead of heavy purchases being 
the rule. Furthermore, it might be noted that 
some branches of the community, as, for instance, 
the farmers, were slow to feel the trouble, which 
so far has been largely financial or industrial and 
not agricultural, as in previous years of stress. 
Given the lightening of the present stress in the 
money markets, a thing which may be reasonably 
looked for with the quieting down of trade, though 
perhaps delayed by necessary heavy borrowing 
by railroads, a rather quiet business may be ex- 
pected until election possibilities become certain- 
ties and the next growing season gives some index 
as to the crops of 1908." 

It is not expressly stated in the foregoing that 
the farmers, by their crops and by their votes, 
will do away with the current industrial fear and 
unrest, but that is the fact. It looks as though 
the coming presidential campaign Would be bet- 
ter set up for independent and conscientious vot- 
ing than any other has been for the last third of 
a century. There will be more voting upon prin- 
ciple and less upon machine arrangements, and a 
wider effort to get at the real welfare of the 
people, and whenever that condition arises the 
agricultural vote is the balance of power on the 
side of right and against greed and selfishness. 
We shall have then great products and true vot- 
ing and the country will enter upon and pursue 
a new era of prosperity until it becomes neces- 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



sary to readjust something else upon a truer basis. 
These are the peaceful revolutions which consti- 
tute American progress. 



The California Dairy Bureau is struggling along 
in protecting and promoting the interests of one 
of our greatest agricultural specialties as well as 
it can, considering the lack of appreciation and 
appropriation from which it suffered at the last 
legislature. A meeting was held in this city last 
week, and the report of Mr. W. H. Saylor, the 
secretary and executive officer, showed that all 
the small available funds were used in securing 
the sanitary condition of dairies and factories of 
dairy products, and in enforcing the new laws 
enacted at the hist session of the legislature rela- 
tive to the adulteration of dairy products. Dur- 
ing the year 1907 over 700 samples of milk and 
cream were collected by the inspectors, which 
were examined for preservatives and adultera- 
tion. Although the laws did not go into effect 
until last April, the Bureau secured evidence and. 
brought prosecutions against thirty-one violators 
of the laws, the enforcing of which is under the au- 
thority of the State Dairy Bureau. In all but few 
of the cases convictions were secured. This sort 
of work should be decently provided for by the 
next legislature. 



Many readers will be pained to learn of the 
death of Felix Gillet of Nevada City, whose 
name has been synonymous for progressive nut- 
culture on this coast for a third of a century, and 
whose place in our horticultural history is as- 
sured. Mr. Gillet was born in France in March, 
1835, and came to the United States in 1852, and 
to California in 1858, settling the following year 
in Nevada City. He early chose horticulture as 
a pursuit, although he took up other business for 
support and capital. He returned to France for 
nearly a year of horticultural work in 1864. In 
1882 he centered his attention upon horticulture. 
In 1871, according to a writer in the Grass Valley 
Union, he purchased the rocky tract of land in 
the easterly edge of the city which afterward be- 
came known as the Barren Hill nursery. What- 
ever time could be spared he devoted to clearing 
and tilling this land, saying that some time he 
expected to have a nursery that would command 
attention. His friends and acquaintances looked 
upon his plans as visionary, predicting failure. 
He ignored their portentous prophecies and per- 
sistently continued with his labors. Tn 1882 he 
had established such an extensive and profitable 
nursery business that he devoted all his abilities, 
time, and energy to the industry for which he had 
shown such remarkable aptitude. This successful 
struggle in the face of difficulties reflects the char- 
acter of the man. Opposition seemed to give him 
new nerve. His careful and persistent work with 
nut trees would have been more significant to the 
State and more profitable to himself if he had 
worked under better horticultural conditions and 
came into freer contact with his contemporaries 
who were doing similar work, and yet his intro- 
ductions and his advocacy of them are known 
throughout the whole length of the coast, and his 
discussions of topics which interested him have 
been much more widely useful. Readers of the 
RURAL PKE88 will long mourn his departure. 



California dried fruit people do not seem to be 
fully assured that a commission wholly of physio- 
logical chemists is just what they desire to adjust 
the regulations under the pure-food laws. There 
will be, after this week's issue has gone to press, 
a meeting of the special committee appointed by 
the Fruit Growers' Convention held in the rooms 



February 8, 1!M)8. 

of the California State Board of Trade, Januafl 
16th, to adopt plans for a strong organizatil] 
throughout California to protect the interests 111 
the fruit growers, and to take action upon tW 
following subjects: That President Roosevelt all 
point a number of pathologists and practical frill 
growers to act with the chemists; to employ el] 
perts; to appoint a committee to visit Washingtl 
early in February in the interest of the caul 
This indicates that the work is to go on as tH 
growers expect from their committee. It is fol| 
tunate that there is now every likelihood that tfl 
curing of 1908 will not be interfered with. Thl 
view is based upon the assumption that if thli 
commission appointed by President Roosevelt ii 
wholly made up of "medical and physiologicJi 
chemists," as he has intimated, such men will ■ 
obliged to determine so many chemical pointll 
and perhaps to undertake original investigation 
upon them, that much time will be required to 
reach conclusive results. Meantime it is the al 
dent intention of the administration not to intern 
fere with production and trade. The question 
involved are to be settled beyond impeach men 
and this cannot be done in a moment. Meant in 
it is just right for the producers' committee 
keep their eyes and hands upon the situation, i 
they evidently intend to do. 



A year or so we gave an account of purchase 
of raisin Stemming machinery at Fresno for DJ 
by the Spanish packers at Valencia. More r< 
cently there was a demonstration of Calif orni 
field machinery in Spain which drew out a larg 
concourse of church and state functionaries an 
of ordinary people. Now comes a link of thl 
chain, viz: that the Best Manufacturing Woral: 
of San Leandro is preparing to ship one of jfli 
steam combined harvesters to Spain. The hid 
machine is being packed to fill an order plaofl 
by Eviaresto Monne, a wealthy rancher whom 
farms are near Madrid, and who journeyed froK 
Spain to inspect the steam farming implement 
used in California. The traction engine ordereE 
is of 110 horsepower. It is to be used to operaH 
a steam harvester combined with a separatoU 
Monne also ordered disk plows to further equip 
his outfit. Laid down in Spain the engine, hal 
vester and plows will cost $12,000. It is to hi 
accompanied to Spain by mechanics competeal 
to set up and operate the outfit California styh! 
Spain is waking up well in agriculture. The if 
S. Consul at Barcelona writes a government ordal 
has recently been issued creating a sort of ambfl 
lating school for teaching scientific farming in 
the remote agricultural districts of the country-* 
a measure which may have a certain commercial 
significance in the United States, since it wil 
probably develop a demand for better agricuB 
tural implements and machines than those now ill 
use. The Government order referred to provide! 
for a course of experimental and practical instruct 
tion to be given every year by itinerant lecturer* 
selected from among the agricultural engineers at 
the district schools of agriculture. This announce! 
ment, in connection with the fact that California 
machines are already actually being introduces 
is quite significant. 



The Germans evidently prefer to come to thl 
United States than to go to the German colonial 
in Africa, and the authorities are having diffl 
cutty in steering them in the latter direction. Thl 
announcement is made that the number of eml 
grants going to the United States is 90 per cem 
larger than the number of people leaving for 1 he 
German colonies. According to an official of till 
Hamburg-American line, the class of emigrant! 



J. 



February 8, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



going to the United States during the winter 
months consists mainly of people who have saved 
money for years with the intention of putting it 
into American farms or gardens. These people 
have either been to the United States before or 
have received favorable reports from relatives in 
the countries in which they wish to settle. These 
emigrants also believe they can procure land 
cheaper after the financial crisis than six months 
from now. This is all right; if they will only 
bring money enough they will close the financial 
crisis and enjoy the unearned increment occa- 
sioned by the return of flush times. 



Queries and Replies. 



Sweet Oranges and Apples. 

To the Editor: Has the Agricultural Depart- 
ment ever propagated a sweet orange (same as a 
sweet apple is among apples) ? I have six pomelo 
trees in bearing, and I wish to graft. ( pne into a 
citrange and one with a sweet orange, if there be 
such a tree. Some time ago I saw a report of the 
Agricultural Department at Washington saying 
that sweet oranges were being propagated. — En- 
quirer, Santa Clara. 

All the oranges which are commercially grown 
are known as "sweet oranges." The name may 
be something of a fiction as applied to some of 
the oranges which we find in the market, but they 
are sweet oranges all the same in contrast with 
the bitter, or wild orange sometimes known as 
the "orange of Seville." These sweet oranges 
vary widely in sugar content, and some of them 
are sweeter to the taste than they are in fact, not 
because they contain more sugar, but because 
they contain less acid. There is, however, none of 
the sweet oranges which is as different from 
others in the group as a sweet apple is from a 
sour apple, and there is, therefore, in our horticul- 
ture, nothing exactly what you call for. One of 
the sweetest of the sweet oranges is the "King" 
orange of China, which is, however, not grown in 
California, because it is a coarse, loose-textured 
orange, and not solid and fine-textured, as is the 
Washington Navel. You will, however, be able to 
find a tree of this orange at our leading citrus 
nurseries. 

The Department at Washington is producing 
hybrids between the sweet orange and the hardy, 
but worthless, orange of Japan, known as Citrus 
trifoliata ; a citrange is, therefore, a cross of these 
two. The purpose in producing it is to secure a 
variety which will be more hardy than the sweet 
orange, a consideration of no value in California, 
because the sweet orange is hardy enough in our 
climatic conditions. When they say "sweet oran- 
ges are being propagated" it simply means that 
they are selecting from trees grown from seed- 
lings of the sweet orange, some of which seem to 
be capable of resisting a lower temperature than 
the sweet orange usually does. 



Temperature Limits Eucalyptus. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly send me such 
information as you have pertaining to the kind 
of soil that will grow eucalyptus trees? Is it 
possible to grow these three on desert land in 
southwestern Nevada or southeastern California, 
if plenty of water can be secured? — Settler, Los 
Angeles. 

Eucalyptus trees will thrive on almost any kind 
of soil which does not contain alkali. The tree 
will tolerate a certain amount of alkali, but can- 
not be commended for alkali soils generally. The 
amount of growth will be almost directly condi- 
tioned upon the amount of water available. A 
good, deep soil and plenty of water make large 



trees. What you have to look out for is the 
temperature. The Eucalyptus rostrata, one of the 
hardiest species, and one which is now being most 
widely planted, will survive a temperature of 15° 
— possibly a little lower, providing the tree has 
attained some age. The common eucalyptus, or 
blue gum, is more tender and will hardly endure 
more freezing than an orange tree. If you have a 
temperature dropping to zero, or something like 
that, you cannot successfully grow eucalyptus 
trees. So you see that the temperature is the 
ruling factor, and not the water nor the soil. 



Peaches on Sugar Prune. 

To the Editor : A local prune grower planted, 
in connection with his old orchard, 200 sugar 
prunes. The trees made a handsome growth and 
yielded well, but he did not like the prune as well 
as the French, so had them grafted. He was un- 
fortunate in employing an inexperienced person, 
with the result that not one of the grafts grew. 
The work was performed last spring. He recently 
came to me for advice. I viewed the trees and 
found that each stump supported an average of 
ten very healthy sprouts about half an inch in 
diameter. I advised him to bud them as soon as 
the sap began to flow freely. What would you 
advise? And for such work, when would you 
secure the scions or buds ? Is it best to take them 
from trees some time prior to budding? — Eeader, 
Kern County. 

You could put in whip grafts this spring on 
the best of your sprouts that are one-half inch in 
diameter, selecting enough to make a good shaped 
tree, and then after the grafts begin to grow 
vigorously remove all other shoots carefully, 
whitewashing the exposed bark. This would give 
you a start on these trees at the beginning of the 
growing season. You could not put in buds until 
June probably, because you would have to wait 
until well matured buds came on the new growth 
before you would have anything to work with. 
These buds would then remain dormant a time 
and could be forced out into growth and would 
give you some growth during the summer of this 
year, but nothing like as good growth as could 
be had from a graft put in next month. In fact, 
you can go to work taking scions and putting in 
grafts now, and continue until all the trees are 
grafted. If you wish to begin grafting later, be 
sure to take scions while they are still perfectly 
dormant and put them in moist soil in a cool place 
until you are ready to use them. 



Crops for Reclaimed Salt Marsh. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly give me some 
information upon the subject of the best crops 
to plant on reclaimed salt marsh land. Is such 
land better suited for- products for table use or 
for animals' food? — Owner, Pasadena. 

There is little hope of growing anything worth 
while on reclaimed salt marsh land until you ex- 
tract enough of the salt to get a crop of barley. 
If the barley will grow you can afterward intro- 
duce other grasses and forage plants. As you 
know, the amount of salt is continually reduced 
by the action of rain or other applications of fresh 
water, and in this way if the salt water is pre- 
vented from returning to the land it would be 
expected to grow better year after year, and tak- 
ing barley this year, might take some forage plant 
next year, etc. Stock beets are usually the first 
vegetable to succeed on such reclamations. The 
only way you can actually tell what condition 
your particular reclamation is in, is to try some 
few things which you think you can make profit- 
able use of, and determine your future course by 
such experiments. No general rule can be laid 
down because it is an actual question of the 
amount of salt in that particular piece of land. 



Apple on Quince. 

To the Editor: Some one asks: "Can apples 
be successfully grafted on the quince?" I would 
state they can, but in setting out the trees should 
be set about six inches deeper than on other roots. 
This also holds good for the pear. — Jos. F. Fritts, 
Mountain View. 

Do you expect thereby to get these trees on 
their own roots? If so, you sacrifice the dwarfing 
effect, which is the object of using the quince. 

Draining Vineyard. 

To the Editor : I have a few spots in my vine- 
yard where water stands after heavy rains. Am 
thinking of draining, and wonder if the roots of 
vines will interfere with tiling? — Vine Grower, 
Lodi. 

Not if you get your tile on a good grade so that 
no water will gather. Roots have no use for dry 
tiles. 



Cost of Wheat and Barley. 

To the Editor : Please let me know if you have 
any data on the cost of the production of wheat 
and barley in California. There has been consid- 
erable discussion about this, and I understand 
that these figures are available somewhere. — A 
Subscriber, Alameda, California. 

There is a mass of figures on this subject in the 
Report of the California State Agricultural Soci- 
ety for 1895, but if you can make anything out 
of them you can beat us. The cost of a crop 
depends. 

Two Irish Problems. 

To the Editor : Can you explain what is termed 
"lazy soil system" of cultivation of land in Ire- 
land, and oblige? — Subscriber, Oakland. 

To the Editor : I am told by an Irish gentleman 
that there are tracts of low land in Meath and 
W. Meath, Ireland, where the prize beef for the 
London market is fattened by pasture on grass. 
Can you tell me what variety of grass is grown 
on these pastures, and if there is anything akin 
to it in this State? — Reader, Alameda. 

We do not know: who does? 



Tomato Blight. 

To the Editor: Would there be more liability 
to blight on tomatoes from planting them in 
ground where last year's crop was killed by the 
blight? — Reader, San Jose. 

Yes. 



Long Pruning Not Restorative. 

To the Editor: Does it help a Muscat vine to 
leave a couple of long canes, especially where 
there is not much fruit wood, or where dry rot 
has eaten the crown? — Vine Grower, Kings 
County. 

Tf the vines are in bad condition, as might be 
inferred from what you say about bad condition 
of the crown, you will gain nothing by leaving 
the canes long. Longer canes are sometimes de- 
sirable in case of especially vigorous vines, but 
to stimulate the growth of new wood shorter 
rather than longer pruning is desirable. 

Irrigating Walnuts. 

To the Editor : Will you kindly advise me, if 
it would be an advantage for me to irrigate a 
small walnut grove (four acres), which I have in 
this valley. The trees are thrifty, and the ground 
holds moisture well, but I have an idea that with 
irrigation during the summer, I could get better 
results. Do you think that it would pay?— 
Grower, Napa Valley. 

It would be of no advantage to you to irrigate 
your walnut trees if the ground is deep enough 
and holds moisture well enough to enable the 
trees to make good summer growth and not lose 
their leaves too soon ; when these conditions pre- 
vail there is no need for irrigation. 



8 4 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 8, 1908. 



Horticulture. 



NUT CULTURE. 



From a paper by Mr. Henry E. Dosch of Hills- 
dale, Oregon, at the Northwestern Fruit Grow- 
ers' Convention: 

In nut culture of all kinds, but more especially 
walnuts, three things are most essential, and it is 
difficult to say which is most important, viz : soil, 
generation, and variety. 

Nut trees of all kinds do well on moist, well- 
drained soils, even rocky ground, except heavy 
stiff clay soil, as they are gross feeders j but there 
must be no "hard pan." The subsoil must be 
loose and open so the tap-root can grow down as 
far as it desires, for as soon as it strikes hardpan 
the tree stops growing and of course lessens the 
nut crop, as nut trees make few lateral roots. In 
fact, it is suicidal to plant nut trees on very 
heavy stiff clay soils or on soil underlaid with 
hardpan ; this applies particularly to walnuts. 

Generation. — Walnut trees should be "second 
generation," either grafted or grown from first 
generation nuts, but as "generation" is not gene- 
rally understood, and the reason I emphasize the 
fact of securing nuts of "first generation" I will 
explain, so that no possible mistake can be made. 
First generation nuts are produced on original 
trees, or on trees grafted from the original trees. 
These nuts when planted produce second genera- 
tion trees, and the nuts from these second genera- 
tion trees are a little larger than the original or 
first generation, which is due to the peculiar soil 
and climatic conditions of the Pacific Northwest, 
so well adapted to nut culture. Trees grown from 
second generation nuts retrograde very rapidly, 
producing nuts not half so large as even first 
generation, and finally run out altogether. Hence 
we must plant nuts from the original trees, if we 
desire the best results, and nothing but the best 
should or can be satisfactory. 

Varieties. — Varieties which I have found best 
adapted for the Pacific Northwest by extensive 
experiments are. Franquette and Mayette, to our 
soils, climate, and market, with a few Chaberte 
for confectioners' use, giving preference in the 
order named, as I think the Franquette is some- 
what hardier, regular bloomer, and a little more 
prolific, while the Mayette, or Grenoble, under 
which name this nut is known to the trade, is fine 
in quality, not quite so hardy nor so prolific, but 
the nuts generally bring a little higher price, 
which in a measure makes up the difference. 

How to Sprout Nuts. — There are, no doubt, 
many planters who prefer to plant the nuts where 
the tree is to grow them expensive grafted trees, 
and for their especial benefit I repeat the modus 
operandi: The nuts for this purpose must be 
secured in the fall and must be of first genera- 
tion* either from the original trees or grafted 
trees, and known to be true as to that point, else 
you will be disappointed when the trees come into 
bearing. Fill a box six inches with light soil and 
sand mixed, then put in the nuts, pointed end 
up, about one inch apart, cover three or four 
inches deep, and place boxes out of reach of rats, 
squirrels, or gophers, keeping the soil moist. On 
examination in the early part of April you will 
find all sound nuts have sprouted or are ready to 
sprout; that is, they throw up two sprouts from 
the pointed end of the nut. One of these sprouts 
turns down over the nut and forms the tap-root, 
and the other continues upward and forms the 
tree. Now, remove them very carefully, as these 
sprouts are very brittle and easily broken, which 
would make the plant worthless. Plant them 
either where you wish the trees to grow fifty feet 
apart (by far the best way) or in nursery rows 
about five inches deep and transplant the next, 
year. The young trees should be allowed to grow 
straight up, cutting away— every fall — all the 
side branches, till the tree has reached a height 
of six feet, when it should be allowed to branch 
out, but under no circumstances should the main 
stem be cut off. 

Walnut trees usually go into bearing in five or 
six years ; at twelve years are in full bearing. It 
is not a slow grower, as. is commonly supposed. 
Three to four feet is not an uncommon growth in 
a season on good soil ; besides, it is a healthy tree, 



having, comparatively speaking, few pests to 
molest it, and once established, lives to a good 
old age and proves profitable to generation after 
generation with ordinary good care. The ground 
beneath the trees, until they come into full bear- 
ing, can be utilized for berries or vegetables, but 
no grain or grass should be grown. 

Harvesting. — At harvest time the nuts fall to 
the ground as soon as the hull bursts — which it 
does when the nuts are ripe — and can be picked 
up easily and must be promptly, as squirrels are 
very fond of them. They should then be cured, 
either in the sun or subjected to a gentle heat in 
an evaporator to prevent mildew or becoming 
rancid. Any nuts remaining on the trees after 
the majority have fallen can be beaten down with 
stick or bamboo fishing pole. 



THE NURSERYMAN'S INTEREST IN THE 
HIGHEST TYPES OF FRUIT. 



From a paper by Mr. F. W. Power, vice-presi- 
dent of the Oregon Nursery Co., at the Oregon 
State Horticultural Society : 

It is probable that no branch of the nursery 
business is so much neglected as that of selection 
and breeding to secure new or better strains of 
old varieties or fruit, or to secure new and im- 
proved varieties. The same might be said with 
equal truth of the horticulturist or grower. 

It is not at all unusual to have a planter say he 
wants this or that type of a variety, as a yellow 
in distinction from a green one, or he wants red 
Baldwins, and the same kind of questions regard- 
ing cherries, pears, and other fruits. That there 
is some excuse for such requests there is no ques- 
tion. Different sections or localities often pro- 
duce a decided change in the form, color, flavor 
or keeping qualities of a fruit, and sometimes 
nearly a new type. 

Nurseries often do not use as much care in 
selecting the best types or strains of each variety 
as they should, one reason for this being that 
many planters are unwilling to pay any more for 
a good tree of the choicest strain of any variety 
than for an inferior tree of uncertain type. 
Cheap (?) trees are therefore often grown in order 
to meet or undersell competitors. Again, nursery- 
men are often perplexed as to where to go to 
secure the choicest strains of a variety as so little 
interest has been shown in this by the planters 
and growers. In the third place, we grow too 
many varieties in our nurseries. It is impossible 
for any nurseryman to grow 500 to 700 or more 
varieties of fruits and as many or more varieties 
of ornamentals, and to grow these 500 or 700 
varieties of fruits on the various roots and by 
various methods to suit the planters, having often 
listed in his catalogue from 1500 to 2000, and to 
personally select all scions or even have his fore- 
man do so he must depend to a certain extent on 
the grower and others to supply these scions, and 
woe to the nurseryman who secures scions not 
true to name or of an inferior strain and happens 
to send them out without discovering it by the 
mere looks of the tree or leaves in the nursery 
rows. 

There is no doubt that much improvement could 
be made in many of the old varieties by selecting 
scions for a number of years from the highest 
colored, best bearers or longest keepers, and grow- 
ing them in selected stocks or seedlings. Here 
is a chance for the progressive grower to open up 
a new line, and, by selection of scions of the very 
best strains and making the fact known, pay for 
a large part, if not all, of his pruning expenses by 
the sale of scions. Do not understand by this 
that great improvement can be made in a single 
selection. 

Pedigree Stock. — I am now approaching dan- 
gerous ground with most nurserymen present, 
and if in a nurserymen's convention would likely 
bring some of the members to their feet at the 
close of this paper, who would argue until they 
were black in the face that a scion from any old 
tree would produce a tree which would bear as 
fine fruit as if the scion had been selected from 
the choicest type of the variety in existence, and 
that scions cut for generations from nursery rows 
would never deteriorate no matter from what 
kind of trees they had been originally budded; 
in other words, that scions from a sterile tree 



will bear as heavily and of as good quality as 
from the best specimen in existence. I will leave 
this, however, to the grower who makes a spe- 
cialty of high-class fruit. If you mention pedi- 
gree nursery stock to the average nurseryman, 
he will ridicule the idea, seeming to think that 
pedigree stock means one whose ancestry can be 
traced back for hundreds of years, as in tho nobil- 
ity of Europe, while a tree with a 'pedigree' of 
over one hundred years might be one of the poor- 
est varieties in existence. As I use the word here, 
pedigree trees are ones of a known type or strain, 
of good quality, that have been selected for some 
certain characteristics — as color, quality, keeping, 
etc., whether for a long or short time, provided 
the results have been secured. 

The nurseryman who will sneer at the idea of 
a 'pedigree' tree will, almost in the same breath, 
try to induce you to purchase some 'specialty' 
he has in stock with wonderful qualities, thus 
unconsciously advocating breeding and selection 
for improved varieties, as usually his 'specialty' 
is merely a selection and has not been specially 
bred for the qualities claimed. Some of our best 
new varieties have been originated by chance, 
probably in a fence corner where , the seed was 
dropped by a bird, but was selected and intro- 
duced by some wide-awake orchardist or nursery- 
man. 

Now, I do not wish to be understood to infer 
that all variation in varieties comes from the 
scion, not by any means, as variation may occur 
through non-selection of the stocks or seedlings 
on which they are budded or grafted. This is 
even a harder problem for the nurseryman than 
the selection of scions, for as we all know, any 
fruit tree from seed varies greatly, and to rais" 
stocks at reasonable prices without using unse- 
lected seed is nearly impossible. When planters 
are willing to pay the added cost of selected 
stocks and scions I think you will find the pro- 
gressive nurserymen only too willing to grow 
them in this manner. As nurserymen Ave must, 
therefore, either admit that we do believe, at 
least a little, in the scientific theory of selection 
of stocks and scions, or else that our well written 
circulars, advertisements, etc., are merely written 
to catch the 'sucker' who plants. 



BUDDING WALNUTS. 



To the Editor: I wish to give you my experi- 
ence with walnuts. Two years ago I planted a 
row of California black walnuts in the garden, so 
I could water them if necessary. About 35 of 
them grew finely, so I applied plenty of water 
during the dry season. By fall they had made 
a growth of from four to six feet; so I set to 
work to bud the largest ones in August. I used 
the Franquette buds and the ring methods of 
budding. I cut out a piece from % inch to \ l /-2 
inches and inserted a piece of bark so as to fit 
fairly well. When it did not go round I just 
took another piece of bark with another bud, or 
without a bud, and tied it to the other side. 
Sometimes there was a space of half an inch 
before the bark would meet. I tied the whole 
with strips torn from a flour sack, without any 
wax, and in a short time it grew together nicely. 
All space was healed over, even where the bark 
did not meet. Last spring I cut the tops off just 
above the buds, and shoots grew to a height of 
from six to nine feet, and formed a perfect union. 
I think this is preferable to grafting, as a bud can 
be put in four to five feet from the ground, or 
into the branches if necessary. I have one tree 
which grew 16 feet from the bud on a 4-year-old 
black walnut root. A Subscriber. 

Ilealdsburg. 



A PLEA FOR WIDER PLANTING. 



To the Editor: People are just going wild about 
planting peaches, both for drying and canning, 
in fact, they don't seem to think or know or can 
say anything but "peach." Last planting season 
and this there has been a continued heavy planting 
of peaches, and there are plenty of young orch- 
ards coming to take the place of the old ones 
that are dying out more or less. At the rate they 
are still planting they will glut the market, as 
they did when they planted the French prune 
fifteen or sixteen years ago. When those trees 



February 8, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



all got into full bearing they could not give that 
fruit away, and it will be the same with peaches. 
The few people who plant apricots will make more 
money if they only get a crop every other year. 
Last year they got 25c. per lb. for dried apricots. 

Now the next rush is the French prune. There 
have been no prunes planted for years. The old 
trees are dying out, and there are no young ones 
coming on to fill their places. The first catalogues 
that came out from the large nurseries quoted 
them at $15 per 100 for first grade, and I have 
always grown just a few, but I always had to 
burn three-fourths of them, and often more. This 
year I got an offer of the catalogue price of 15c. 
each for all I had, and think I will take it and 
make sure for once to get rid of them. Prune 
trees are now up to $25 per 100, and I have had 
call for thousands and can 't fill the orders because 
I can't buy them. 

It will be just as bad before long with the 
apricot; there will be no fruit on the market, 
but I have apricot trees piled up against a fence 
four feet high that I could not dispose of last 
year. It's going to be the same again this season. 

Puzzled Nurseryman. 

Kings County. 



Fruit Marketing. 



OBJECTS TO FACING PRUNES. 

Mr. George C. Flanders had a paper at the last 
meeting of the Oregon State Horticultural Soci- 
ety, from which the following is taken : 

The facing of 25-pound boxes is an unnecessary 
expense. For two years I conducted a packing 
house in this city, and the expense of facing the 
25-pound boxes of prunes cost about 15 cents per 
hundred pounds. It is a fact that those that are 
used to exhibit in show windows make a better 
showing than those that are not faced, but I ven- 
ture to say that there is not one box exhibited in 
this way out of one thousand. This shows that it 
is an unnecessary expense. Not only that. I con- 
sider it, in plain language, a filthy practice to 
face prunes. I have watched the facers, and they 
use methods that I would not tolerate. I would 
never eat a prune from a box that had been faced. 
I always get my prunes for my own use unfaced, 
and if consumers of these fancy packages knew 
the conditions they would come to the same con- 
clusions. 

The direct cost of facing prunes is about $3 per 
ton, but the real cost to the packing house on 
account of this work is not less than $5 per ton. 
This, on account of the delay to the packing 
house work on account of the facers. They always 
retard the work. A good-sized packing house can 
not put out only about 1000 25-pound boxes of 
prunes per day where they are faced. The same 
packing house could put out 2000 boxes with less 
help if the boxes were not faced. 

If it was not for this facing work all of the 
large growers could do their own packing at a 
much less expense than the packing house does it. 
The appliances for packing prunes are very sim- 
ple. A good San Jose dipper makes a first-class 
processor, and all the growers know how to grade 
prunes. In fact, it is a very simple matter to 
pack prunes and do a good job at it. 



RIVERSIDE ARRANGEMENTS ADVANCED. 

Correspondence of the New York Fruit Trade 
Journal is likely to further impress upon distant 
people the enterprise and free investment of Cali- 
fornia citrus fruit producers. Two instances in 
this line are heralded from Riverside: 

Mr. C. E. Rumsey, owner of the Alta Cresta 
groves, is building an unusually good packing 
house, which is now nearing completion. Reach- 
ing out from the packing house are roads that 
radiate like the spokes of a wheel to the several 
orange properties that comprise the Alta Cresta 
groves. They consist of over 150 acres of care- 
fully selected land, the greater part of which has 
been planted by Mr. Rumsey in the last six years. 
The various plots, chosen for their superior qual- 
ity, are planted to Washington navels, Thomp- 
son's improved navels, Valencias, Valencia Late, 



and Tangerines. In view of the important results 
secured through the investigations of the depart- 
ment by G. Harold Powell in the matter of decay 
due to faulty handling from the grove to the car, 
precautions will be taken by Mr. Rumsey in the 
handling of his fruit that do not seem to be 
necessary. However, it is the intention thor- 
oughly to exploit the virtue there may be in the 
careful handling of fruit in all its stages, and no 
expense will be spared this first season in order 
that definite conclusions may be reached. 

Another effort to prevent jarring of fruit is 
seen in the introduction of a motor truck, which 
has been received by the Penn Fruit Company, 
which has been put into service in delivering fruit 
from orange groves to the company's packing 
house. A. L. Woodill, manager of the Penn Fruit 
Company, bought the motor truck on a recent 
visit East, where it has proved a success in the 
handling of perishable products. The car has the 
capacity of 200 boxes of oranges, and a trailer 
can be attached which can handle 100 boxes more. 
It will take the place of four teams. The car is 
of the Atlas make and is manufactured at Spring- 
field, Mass. The cost is $4000. The wheels of the 
car are not wide enough to risk their going into 
soft ground, and no attempt will be made to oper- 
ate the car in the orchards. The use of this car 
is only another move in the better handling of 
oranges and to prevent loss from decay caused 
by bruised fruit. Two similar cars are in use in 
Los Angeles county, where they have proved a 
real success. The car is a 30-horse power gaso- 
line machine and is economical in its operation. 



The Field. 



SHOOTING SQUIRRELS AND RABBITS. 



An importnt economic question will be settled 
if hunters will take it up in sufficient numbers. 
The Breeder and Sportsman says that game for 
the small rifle is ever plentiful. The ground 
squirrel affords the best of marks. Some places 
more numerous than others, he is always to be 
had, and a trip into the country adjacent to most 
points will put the shooter into good game coun- 
try, so far as the needs of his small rifle are con- 
cerned. 

Although not generally known, except among 
the Chinese, the common ground squirrel is very 
well flavored when fat, and if taken young, is 
tender as well. His flavor when fed on barley and 
weed seeds is fully equal to that of rabbit, and, if 
anything, a little more delicate. He is prepared 
the same way, the greatest drawback being the 
difficulty of skinning him, which is easier if per- 
formed at once. The 22 short cartridge is amply 
sufficient for squirrels. In hunting ground squir- 
rels with a rifle considerable fun is to be had 
shooting off matches. A dozen squirrels is a good 
day's bag, no matter how plentiful they may 
happen to be, owing to the tendency of the ani- 
mals to get to their holes, however badly wounded. 
Only a head or chest shot seems to be able to stop 
them on the spot, and in shooting them it is well 
to hold on the eye, for only squirrels in the hand 
can be counted at the finish. 

Picking off 'soldiers' sitting upright on the 
edge of their holes at a hundred yards is not be- 
yond the powers of the 22 gun, and some pretty 
shots can be pulled off occasionally at them on the 
run. The game is well worth the trying. 

Another pleasing variety of small rifle hunting 
is the pursuit of rabbits. Jacks can be shot on the 
run by a capable marksman, but he must be of the 
'up and coming' sort to accomplish anything at 
such a difficult game. 

On a rabbit warren, which are plentiful in many 
localities, a good shot can secure half a dozen in 
an afternoon, if conditions be right. The rabbits 
hole up on a man's approach, but show curiosity, 
and generally expose a pair of ears and a brighl 
shining eye if the hunter stands still. A quick 
shot aimed an inch below the junction of those 
ears generally resurrects bunny and gathers the 
material for a delicious stew. 

Driving along country roads in the evening is 
another good way to shoot rabbits. They some- 
times offer ridiculously easy shots, and can be 
knocked over with ease by a novice. Occasionally 
they will stand for a clean miss without blinking 



an eye, and allow a chance to send another bullet 
to its billet. 

In a few weeks most of the female rabbits will 
be busy wi,th their most serious business of bring- 
ing offspring into the world, but the bucks are 
just as good now as in midwinter. In this coun- 
try they breed more or less the year round, and 
one who held off shooting them on that account 
would not kill very many rabbits. 



Sheep and Wool. 



THE NATIONAL MEETING. 



It is reported that the Forty-fourth Annual 
Convention of the National Wool Growers' Asso- 
ciation at Helena, Montana, January 14-16, proved 
the best attended and most successful meeting 
ever held by this, the oldest live stock organiza- 
tion in the United States. Delegates were pres- 
ent from all the principal wool and mohair grow- 
ing States, and matters of vital importance to 
these industries had the attention of the conven- 
tion. 

Resolutions were adopted protesting against the 
passage of the Burket Bill for the leasing of pub- 
lic lands or the granting of permits for their use 
for grazing purposes; demanding the prompt 
elimination from forest reserves of all land not 
timbered or suitable for re-forestation or reason- 
ably necessary to conserve the flow of streams 
used for irrigation in arid sections; approving the 
present tariff on wool and hides and deprecating 
any attempt to alter or modify it; favoring a uni- 
form bounty law by all the States on predatory 
wild animals; endorsing the establishment of a 
field pathological station in the West by the 
United States Department of Agriculture; peti- 
tioning Congress for the enactment of a law com- 
pelling interstate railroads to transport live stock 
between feeding points at a speed of not less 
than fifteen miles an hour, including all stops; 
endorsing ' the Co-operative Live Stock Commis- 
sion Company, and recommending for favorable 
consideration of wool growers the plan of holding 
wool auction sales in America, similar to those 
held in London. 

A resolution was also adopted endorsing the 
demand of the Angora husbandmen of this coun- 
try for the continued protection of the pres- 
ent duty on mohair; for a protective tariff on 
Angora skins ; for a reduction of the fee for graz- 
ing on the national forests to the same rates ap- 
plying for sheep ; for an enumeration of Angora 
goats in the next census, separate and apart from 
the common or non-shearing animals; for provi- 
sion by the Department of Labor and Commerce 
for procuring and compiling statistical informa- 
tion relating to the annual production, importa- 
tion and consumption of mohair and Angora goat 
skins iq the United States; and, for a continua- 
tion of the efficient work of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry of the United States Department of 
Agriculture in behalf of the Angora industry. 



CALIFORNIA MOUNTAIN WOOL GROWING. 



The Guscetti Sheep and Land Company of 
Sierra county, California, give the American 
Sheep Breeder this cheerful paragraph : 

The past year has been to Western sheepmen 
the most prosperous yet. Our company sold dur- 
ing October a flock of last April's lambs at $4 
per head. During 1897-98 similar lambs sold at 
$2.50. The sheep market is in good condition, 
lambs at $4 (and very few to be found at that 
price) ; breeding ewes at $5.50 and over, and one 
is mighty lucky to get any at all ; cull ewes, $4 to 
$4.50, and in good demand, as they are practically 
all that butchers can get now-a-days; choice kill- 
ing ewes, $4.50; cull lambs are selling too fast at 
$3.50 to $3.75, and will soon all be sold. On ac- 
count of good weather sheepmen kept their flocks 
on the range longer than usual this fall, but De- 
cember 1 found most all flocks off the range and 
either on the deserts or in the feeding pens for 
the winter. Sheep feeders are well equipped this 
year with fat sheep to go into winter quarters, 
plenty of hay and good barns for shelter. What 
more can they wish? Our flocks are all doing 
well and we have added several new rams to our 
stud flocks this past season. 



86 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 8, 1908. 



Entomological. 



The Fig and Fig Insect in California. 

To the Editor: The Smyrna fig 
articles in the columns of the Pacific 
Rural Press have refreshed the mem- 
ories of many of your readers re- 
garding the persistent and expen- 
sive labors devoted to the introduc- 
tion of the Smyrna fig tree and the 
fertilizing insect into California. In 
the interest of truth and fairness, a 
few errors which have crept into the 
discussion should be corrected. 

Mr. W. Herbert Sampson says, in 
his article which appeared in the 
Press of December 28, that "In 1882 
the foundation of this great indus- 
try was laid in the Sacramento val- 
ley by the late Governor Stanford. 
In the spring of 1882 the San Fran- 
cisco Bulletin imported 13,500 of the 
Smyrna fig cuttings. Governor Stan- 
ford was very much interested in 
this importation, the success of 
which was mainly due to his aid in 
facilitating rapid transit across the 
continent, and to the fact that he 
paid most of the expenses." 

The facts are as follows : In the 
fall of 1879 funds were forwarded 
by the Bulletin company to Hon. E. 
J. Smithers, U. S. Consul at Smyrna, 
with a request that he secure 500 
cuttings of the best curing variety 
of figs, together with a small num- 
ber of caprifigs and a few cuttings 
of the best varieties of grapes ob- 
tainable in that country. This lot 
of cuttings left Smyrna on March 
29, 1880, and reached San Francisco 
June 8, in rather bad condition. The 
shipment was turned over to James 
Shinn, the nurseryman at Niles, who 
by careful treatment succeeded in 
saving 200 of the cuttings. 

In September, 1881, orders were 
sent to Alexander Sidi, an American 
merchant in Smyrna (Mr. Smithers 
having been promoted to Chin Ki- 
ang, China, and had left Smyrna) to 
make a large shipment of cuttings. 
Every precaution was taken to make 
this shipment a success, even to for- 
warding moss from New York in 
which to pack them. The cases were 
consigned to II. K. Thurber & Co. in 
New York, who had been instructed 
to open them and, if necessary, re- 
pack the cuttings before starting 
them across the continent. 

The late Dr. J. D. B. Stillman, 
father of Dr. Stanley Stillman of this 
city, who had visited the fig district, 
wished to join in this importation, 
and put into the pot $100; W. B. 
West of Stockton put in $50, and 
James Shinn of Niles, $50. After 
the order and funds had gone on 
the Smyrna, Governor Stanford 
heard of the enterprise through Dr. 
Stillman and sent $100 to the writer, 
who had the management of the en- 
terprise, and requested that he might 
receive a share of the cuttings. The 
total cost of the shipment in Asia 
Minor was £167 8s lOd English 
money, or about $810. Of this 
amount Governor Stanford paid 
$100, and the Bulletin company 
$510. This $100 was all that Gov- 
ernor Stanford paid, except his 
share of the freight. His interest in 
the shipment was a great advantage, 
however, as Mr. Sampson says, in 
facilitating its rapid transit across 
the continent. The cases left New 
York promptly via the southern 
route, but got stalled somewhere on 
the way. The Governor, then Presi- 
dent of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road Company, being appealed to, 



sent out a tracer and, finding them, 
ordered them sent the remainder of 
the way by express. 

The cuttings were obtained with- 
out difficulty from one of the best 
fig orchards in the Aiden district of 
Asia Minor, and were shipped from 
Smyrna, January 14, 1882, reaching 
San Francisco in excellent condi- 
tion. This, with the small shipment 
of the previous year, was probably 
the first introduction of the genuine 
Smyrna fig in California. The Bul- 
letin company's share was distrib- 
uted to over 3000 of its country sub- 
scribers throughout the Pacific Coast 
where the climate permitted the 
growth of the fig. 

While credit is being given for ef- 
forts in introducing the Smyrna fig 
and the fertilizing insect, blasto- 
phaga, it may be well to mention that 
several parties devoted more or less 
time and money to the enterprise. 
Probably Geo. C. Roeding gave more 
careful attention and money to the 
work than anyone else in the State, 
and now has the satisfaction of see- 
ing the little wasp securely estab- 
lished on his own trees, and deserves 
all the credit and profit he is receiv- 
ing for his work. Dr. Gustav Eisen 
of this city lias undoubtedly devoted 
more scientific study and investiga- 
tion to the subject than any other 
man. His most important work is 
Bulletin No. 9 of the Division of 
Pomology of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, published in 1901 
under the title of "The Fig: Its His- 
tory, Culture, and Curing." This is 
an exhaustive treatise of over 300 
pages, and was the result of a tre- 
mendous amount of research, and 
should be in the hands of every one 
who desires to get to the bottom of 
the subject. In addition to this 
great work, he has written many im- 
portant papers on various phases of 
the fig industry, some of which were 
published by the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences, besides many con- 
tributions to the agricultural press. 
Among the latter was a paper read 
November 19, 1885, before the fruit 
growers' convention in Los Angeles, 
in which he describes the process of 
caj)rification. 

Dr. Howard, chief of the Division 
of Entomology of the U. S. Depart 
ment of Agriculture, in one of the 
best articles ever printed on Smyrna 
fig culture in the United States, 
printed in the Year Book for 1900, 
says that Dr. Eisen had been experi- 
menting and corresponding with Eu- 
lopean experts, and was probably 
the first scientific man to fully real- 
ize the importance of blastophaga 
fertilization, at a time when it was 
generally frowned upon. 

To Dr. W. T. Swingle we must 
give the chief credit, however, for 
the introduction of the all-important 
blastophaga into California. Dr. 
Howard says, page 84, Year Book 
for 1900: "At some personal ex- 
pense and on his own initiative, Mr. 
Swingle began in the spring of 1898 
to send a number of caprifigs con- 
taining gall insects to the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture at Washington 
City, for shipment to California, and 
made a careful study of the different 
varieties of caprifigs." Dr. Swingle 
was aware of the efforts being made 
by different parties in California to 
secure the insect, and to a man of 
his attainments, no suggestion was 
needed to enlist him in the enter- 
prise. The device of wrapping each 
caprifig in tinfoil was originated by 
him, and to this ingenious plan his 
success in sending the figs contain- 





in the same soil, with the same seed, 
labor and farm expenses, gives from 

Two to Three Times the Yield of 

POTATOES 

Facts are better than any amount 
of talk. If you want proof of the facts, let us send 
you our Free Book, "Profitable Farming." It 

gives the certified reports of a great number of experi- 
ments made by farmers. It is brimful of scientific, 
practical, money-making information. Write for it 
to-day. Address 

GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau Street, New York 

Chicago— Monadnock Building Atlanta, Qa.— 1224 Candler Building 



MEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, Cal., are Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



FERTILIZE WITH 

Nitrate of Soda 

May be purchased in large or small lots from 

R. A. HOLCOMBE & CO. 

50 Clay Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




MANUFACTURERS OF 



268 MARKET STREET 
San Francisco 



Special Fertilizers for all Crops 

Our New Catalogue 

"The 
Farmer's 
Friend," 

is just out and we shall be glad to mail you one. 
They are full of practical information to the 
grower and farmer. 



WHEAT GROWERS! 

SF»EIMO Sl.OO PER ACRE 

for the unsurpassed cereal phosphoric acid fertilizer, SUPERPHOSPHATE, and 
greatly increase your crops. Read what growers are doing in South and West- 
ern Australia. Yields are increased 50 per cent, there by using small quantities 
of superphosphate. 

Wm. Angus, the leading Agricultural Expert of South Australia, writes : 
" In modern agriculture probably no practice has been followed with such mar- 
velous results as applications of superphosphate." 



GET PARTICULARS I ROM 

Trie Mountain Copper Co., 

150 PINE ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



Ltd. 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash. 
Best Tree Wash. 
T. W. JACKSON & CO., Temporary Address, 
Sausallto, Cal. 



ing the living insects across ocean 
and continent was undoubtedly due. 
Caprifigs containing the live insects 
were first sent from Naples, and 
then from Greece. No results were 
obtained from these shipments. The 
next spring his duties called him to 
Algiers, from which region several 
shipments were made, and one or 
more of these reached Fresno in 
good condition, and Mr. Roeding 
was able to get the insect established 
on his trees. Had not these ship- 
ments proved successful, the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture would 
have sent Dr. Eisen, who was consid- 



ered well equipped for the work, to 
Asia Minor for the purpose of secur- 
ing the insect. His compensation 
had already been agreed upon, and 
he had secured leave of absence from 
the California Academy of Sciences, 
where he held the position of Cura- 
tor of Biology. 

The late James Shinn of Niles, 
with the assistance of a missionary 
friend in Asia Minor, also received 
in the spring of 1891 a number of 



Only One "BROMO QUININE" 

That Is LAXATIVE BROMO QUININE. Look 
for the signature of E. W. UROVE. Used the 
World over to Cure a Cold In One Day. 26c. 



February 8, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



87 




The Louse 
Question 

■When your animals rub incessantly 
at this season of the year, look out 
for lice. This is especially true of 
calves and colts. To meet this con- 
dition Dr. Hess (M.D., D.V.SJ for- 
mulated the famous Instant Louse 
Killer, which kills lice on stock and 
poultry. 

INSTANT 
LOUSE KILLER 

kills ticka on Bheep. It, being a powder, 
can be applied in zero weatber. Do not 
wait for warm weather ; do not let the tick 
eat up your profits; kill bim on tbe spot 
with Instant Louse Killer. Put up in round 
cans with perforated top, full pound 25 eta. 
Sold on a positive written guarantee. 
Be sure of the word "Instant" on tbe 
can ; there are 25 imitators. 

1 lb. 35c. 3 lbs. 85c. 

If your dealer cannot supply you we 
will forward l lb. by mail or express, pre- 
paid, for 35 cents. 

Manufactured by 

DR. HESS & CLARK, 

Ashland, Ohio. 

THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., 
Petaluma, Cal., 
Pacific Coast Distributers. 



msig'iiments of the blastophaga, 
>me of which were alive on arrival, 
it owing to the fact, perhaps, that 
lere was only one variety of the 
iprifig in the Bulletin importation 
I cuttings which were planted in 
le Shinn nursery, the insects failed 
> establish themselves. 
Others besides those already men- 
oned who devoted much time and 
qpense to secure the Smyrna fig in- 
ustry for California were E. W. 
Laslin, who raised from seed of the 
jst imported figs to bearing condi- 
on a large number of trees. The 
,te W. B. West of Stockton took 
reat interest in the fig industry, 
ad imported a large number of for- 
gn varieties, including the so-called 
driatic, from Italy, under the name 
f Verdoni, years before G. N. Milco 
ave it the name of White Adriatic 
ad distributed it as his own impor- 
ition. 

It is a matter of great satisfaction 
lat through the efforts of the radii 
iduals mentioned the Smyrna fig 
idustry has been successfully estab- 
shed in California, adding another 
;wel to her pomological crown. 

G. P. Rixford. 

San Francisco, January 20. 

We are especially grateful to Mr. 
lixford for this delightfully lucid ac- 
junt. It is a most important contribu- 
lon to California horticultural history, 
t should be stated that Mr. Rixford 
ersonally arranged and actuated the 
bulletin enterprise of which he writes, 
nd should be remembered as himself 
he author of enterprise which ante- 
ated the blastophaga undertaking and 
tiade it desirable. We remember Mr. 
iilco's work. He named the White 
Adriatic, but we have the impression 
hat he did not distinctly claim to have 
mported it. He certainly admitted to 
is that he found it here. — En. 



Patrons of Husbandry. 



The Fruit Grower and the Parcels 
Post. 

By Mr. Edward Berwick, of Pacific Grove, at 
the Fruit Growers' Convention at Marys- 
vllle. 

With prunes and raisins at 5 cents per 
pound and canning peaches from $40 to 
$90 per ton, it may be hard to persuade 
the fruit grower that he wants anything 
more this side of Paradise. Of course, 
we must except the extermination of the 
white fly and the control of the pear 
blight. He may feel a little exercised as 
to the labor question; but, as sales f. o. b. 
are easy, he can afford to let the other 
fellow worry over the old vexatious 
transportation troubles. In Los Angeles 
four years ago the fruit growers were 
telling quite a different story. We were 
then as unanimous as Jonah in the belly 
of the whale that our transportation 
troubles would be lessened and our cash 
in hand materially increased if Congress 
would authorize the Postmaster-General 
to institute an up-to-date parcels post, 
such as is enjoyed by other civilized 
countries. 

To agitate for this end, the Postal 
Progress League of California was or- 
ganized. No doubt, many of you have 
since then read or heard various argu- 
ments, favorable or unfavorable, con- 
cerning the matter; but lest many of you 
are not familiar with the parcels post 
idea, let me briefly inform you of a few 
of the facts. 

Almost all the civilized world regards 
it as the function of the postoffice not 
only to carry letters, but also packages, 
varying in weight from ounces to hun- 
dred weights. Switzerland, for instance, 
permits the mailing of anything that 
will pass through the door of a railroad 
car. Rates are various, but extremely 
low. Thus Germany, for 6 cents, within 
a 4b-mile radius, sends 11 lb., and for 12 
cents all through, not only her own do- 
main, but also through Austria-Hun- 
gary, a possible 1500 miles. Great 
Britain sends 3 lb. to farthest India for 
24 cents, or 11 lb. for 72 cents, while we, 
as you know, pay 64 cents for 4 lb. from 
Marysville to Chico. By a curious and 
ridiculous anomaly this same 4-lb. par- 
cel can be sent all the way to London, 
England, for 48 cents — 12 cents less than 
its cost to Chico; so a suit of clothes can 
be mailed from Dublin, in Ireland, for 
less than from San Francisco. At the 
same time, for the British public, the 
American express companies carry all 
parcels up to 11 lb. from New York to 
any point in the United States for 24 
cents. When an American citizen, liv- 
ing in his own country, wants to send an 
11-lb. parcel from Pacific Grove to New 
York, the same express company charge 
him $2.35 for the same parcel. You 
need not suppose that the 24-cent rate is 
given to the Britisher "because they 
love him so;" simply, there are dollars 
in the job for the express companies 
even at 24 cents. It helps to swell the 
$30,000,000 surpluses of the Wells, Fargo 
Co., and to make possible the 200 fo 
stock dividends of the Adams Express 
Co. 

What these express companies do for 
the foreigner your postoffice could do for 
you. But do you want it done? Do 
you believe that cheap transportation 
increases trade? I don't know how 
Marysville feels today, but I do know 
that over three years ago I made a call 
on A. A. Watkins, President of the San 
Francisco Board of Trade. I wanted to 



(Continued on Page 90.) 



SAW YOUR WOOD 




BEEF SCRAPS 

Guaranteed 65 per cent Protein 

RAW BONE 

Guaranteed 25 per cent Protein and 45 per cent Bone Phosphate 



PURE ANIMAL MATTER 



POULTRY FOODS 

Write us for price list and samples ; they are free. 

We want you to see the kind of Poultry Foods that are manu- 
factured from CLEAN, RAW MATERIAL. This means 
HEALTHY ANIMAL FOODS for your poultry. 

Western Meat Company 

6th and Townsend Sts., San Francisco. 



Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

We Grow on New Virgin Soil all Leading Varieties of Fruit Trees and Grape Vines. 
We Guarantee all Stock True to Name and Free from Disease. 

SPECIALTIES— Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Figs, Apricots, 
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We grow only Standard Commercial Varieties— Money Makers. Life is too short 
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and Souvenir Picture showing Largest Tree in the world mailed Free. Address 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. WILSON, Proprietor. Box R. R. 42. Fresno, California 



THE BEST 




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FLOWERS, VEGETABLES, FARM. 
SHRUBS, TREES AND BERRY PLANTS. 

Write TODAY (a postal card will do) and you will receive Free our 1908 Seed and Plant Annual. 

TRUMBULL SEED COMPANY, 



Successors to Trumbull & Beebe. 



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AY 1- J. H. GREGORY S SON 
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GOOD TREES AND 
BIG PROFITS 

At no time in the history of 
citrus culture in California have 
growers made so much money as 
during the season Just closing. 
This has led to a big demand for 
trees. In view of this, intending 
planters should get their orders 
In early, as stocks are limited. 
Our book on citrus culture has 
long been recognized as an 
authority. Finely illustrated, 
with beautiful colored plate of 
Washington Navel Orange. Price 
25c. Write us your wants and 
let us quote you prices. 

'flie San Dimas Citrus Nurseries 
San Dimas, Cal. 

R. M. TEAOUE, PKOl'KIKTOR. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

In use all over the State 
For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Avenue, San Jose, Cal. 

Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST.. SAN FRANCISCO 

DA DC P. make, Moititt A Towne, Los Angeles 
rnrcri make. McFall & Co., Portland. Oregon 



88 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 8, 1908, 



The Home Circle. 



Life's Music. 

There never has been such music since 
ever the world began, 

No melody like it has echoed in the listen- 
ing ear of man, 

As soft as the bells of the fairies, as blithe 
as the song of the bird — 

The laughter, the inlinite laughter, on lips 
of the childheart heard ! 

Oh, if we could echo that laughter, if we 
could catch it again, 

The old sweet note of the golden throat, 
the lilt of its glad refrain ! 

Life would be music forever, if one could 
laugh like a child, 

In the golden day of the fairy way, care- 
lessly free and wild ! 

— Baltimore Sun. 



Air Castles. 

Some day when I get rich, I think, 

I'll hire a lot of men, 
And have them get the things T want, 

And take them back again. 
I'll just stretch out and take my ease, 

Give orders to the bunch ! 
And then I'll lie in bed and sleep 

Until it's time for lunch. 

When I get rich I'll hire a man 

To dress me every day, 
To wait upon me hand and foot, 

To put my clothes away— 
A man to scramble o'er the floor 

When collar buttons fall; 
I tell you what, when I get rich 

I will not work at all. 

When I get rich, I'll keep on hand 

Of fancy drinks a store; 
I'll hire a man to serve them up 

And ask if I'd like more. 
I'll keep a man in every room 

Where I may chance to be, 
And all that he will have to do 

Is just to wait on me. 

When I get rich I'll take my ease, 

And let the others work; 
And oh ! what awful things I'll say 

If they attempt to shirk. 
I'll keep them always on the jump, 

I'll make them wait on me; 
For of our idle rich I mean 

The idlest rich to be. 

—Detroit Free Press. 



THE BREAD LINE. 



Miss Edrington leaned fur out of 
the motor car as it sped swiftly over 
the asphalt in front of the quaint old 
baker shop, whose walls familiarly 
elbowed the sanctimonious gables of 
a church ; her aristocratic little re- 
trousee nose took on a mere super- 
cilious angle, her eyes flashed sur- 
prise that bordered on contempt as 
they alighted on the long unbroken 
row of men that stretched across the 
street, in an uncounted line; young, 
pale faces whose lines of suffering, 
pitiable want for food, told of priva- 
tions endured; old gray-haired men 
with discouragement and frustra- 
tion written in deep furrows; fresh, 
sunny, smiling youths; blear-eyed 
individuals, unshaven and shorn ; 
each awaiting his turn. A frank 
young fellow in an immaculately 
clean but ragged attire, met her 
gaze with a hot, burning blush, and 
lowered his head. One by one they 
passed a step ahead, receiving the 
loaf of bread that the will of the 
great philanthropist had allowed de- 
serving charity for the asking when 
the clock struck twelve. 

"Why, some of them look like 
gentlemen," she cried in astonish- 
ment. "Like people one knows — 
clean, even well dressed " 

"Like — me?" Cushing, driving 
the big car in the seat beside her, in- 
terrogated peculiarly. She affirmed 
with a movement of her head. 

"They — they don't seem like beg- 
gars at all," she was furtively re- 
garding the stripling, whose gaze 



seemed to seek hers beseechingly. 
She fumbled sympathetically in her 
gold purse for some pennies : yet an 
indefinable reluctance checked her 
impulse. Cushing scanned her si- 
lently. 

"What do you call a beggar?" he 
asked abruptly. 

' ' Oh, a tramp ; someone very shab- 
bily dressed, uncleanly, and perhaps 
vicious, who asks alms." She de- 
fined it airily with a nonchalance 
thai irritated him. Yet he was un- 
just in his accusation, he knew. 

"Not vicious," he corrected her 
gently. "Victims of adversity, per- 
haps — but always at heart — a gen- 
tleman. Believe that. They have 
so little — you, Ave, who are far re- 
moved from them in worldly goods, 
should never be harsh in judgment 
on them. Yesterday," he broke off 
irrelevantly, with a short laugh, that 
aroused her wandering thoughts, at 
its mirthlessness, "I sat down and 
made an estimate of my fortune. 
Don't think me egotistical — but I 
wanted to know. The world calls 
me a great financier — successful. I 
don't know that. I do know that 
it's several very vulgar millions that 
I possess — but it's empty — it's noth- 
ing at all to me, unless — " his voice 
sank tenderly in her direction — "un- 
less fate is very kind to me, and 
someone consents to share it with — 
me." She stirred uneasily on the 
luxurious leather cushions, disturbed 
to tangible emotion under his ear- 
nestness. She waited for him to 
continue, but Cushing appeared 
oddly abstracted. lie brought his 
thoughts back to her gradually. 
"They're not bad, those fellows on 
the bread line," he continued, reflec- 
tively, directing the machine up the 
broad avenue toward her home. 
"Luck is against them, that's all — 
it might have just as well been I — 

or you, you know " 

"I—?" She sat bolt upright in 
horror at the suggestion. 

"Why not," he persisted. "For- 
tune is such a trickster. One never 
knows what revolution the wheel 
will make. Those chaps are not vi- 
cious men. They're righting to keep 
body and soul together. They're try- 
ing to keep pure at heart when 
everything around tempts them to 
lie, and cheat, and steal, and com- 
mit crime. They're trying to keep 
straight — to keep from going to the 
dogs, remembering the trust and 
hope of a mother's dear belief — 
Great heavens! Can't you see that 
it's the good in them that keeps them 
there, honestly asking for bread, 
when their turn shall come? Can't 
you realize — " he stopped suddenly, 
his tones breaking curiously, visibly 
excited. She looked at him in won- 
derment. His hands were shaking 
as if he were laboring under intense 
emotion. 

"But why agitate yourself over 
them?" she said calmly. "Our lives 
are so remote from all possible con- 
nection. We have nothing to do 
with them — you and I." He pressed 
his lips grimly together; she was 
endeared to him by an acquaintance 
of the past year; she was beautiful 
and replete with the womanly quali- 
ties that he had hoped always to find 
incarnated in the woman he should 
marry. Yet, there were things that 
tortured him ; taunting in their bit- 
terness; scars on his soul burnt in 
by immortal firebrands. He shiv- 
ered under the remembrance. 

"You are cold?" she asked solici- 
tously. 



"No, dear." That term of en- 
dearment escaped him involuntarily. 
No, it had been impervious to de- 
grees of temper dure; immutable in 
storm or shine, in light or darkness 
— like the stoic 1 ' sphinx of the des- 
ert, shadowing h. i s obtest pleasure 
with its skeleton grimuct s. 

"These beggars," he resumed 
finally. "I'm — I'm a r raid you do 
them a — a terrible injustice, dear — 
I — I had a friend once, who was the 
victim of reverses that made him — 
a tramp. Yes, perhaps you are right 
after all ; he was unclean and shabby 
and there was not a soul to help him. 
But he was always a gentleman — 
always that — " he paused, to give 
the motor a deft swing as a news- 
boy plunged recklessly in front of 
them. His escape was miraculous, 
but Cushing passed it by as a mat- 
ter of indifference. 

"Yes?" her voice encouraged him 
to continue the subject. 

"Oh, it was nothing — life became 
merely mechanical ; he walked miles 
and miles, until his shoes fell off, un- 
til his face was blistered beyond all 
resemblance to his former self, seek- 
ing only to get to the big city, where 
employment of some kind could be 
secured — anything that was honor- 
able and respectable. He reached an 
adjacent town, all torn and dirtier 
than ever, without a cent to buy 
even a paper. But he cleansed him- 
self as best he could at one of the 
public fountains until a policeman 
drove him away; and he slept on the 
park benches — but a terrible, insa- 
tiable hunger gnawed within him. 
Lord ! He would have sold his 
chance of Heaven where his mother 
was waiting for him — almost— for 
just a bite of food — he had been 
days without it — odd buzzing noises 
sounded in his head — and great 
waves of red danced before his 
vision — but he would not steal — 
never that. 

"And it went on that way for an- 
other twenty-four hours — hours of 
anguish and physical suffering for 
food. When night came he heard 
voices near, on an adjacent bench 
planning things that made his blood 
run cold. He listened minutely to 
every word, with a definite purpose. 
It was some thieves who were ar- 
ranging to rob a well known rich 
man's house that night — there was 
murder, too. If he joined in with 
them he would have money enough 
to start him anew again, but he had 
no desire to do that. Instead, he 
noiselessly stole away, then once out 
of their sight ran as fast as he could 
to the nearest police station and told 
his story." Cushing took his hand- 
kerchief and wiped his brow slowly; 
yet the night air was deliciously cool 
and refreshing. 

"Oh, I'm— I'm— so glad," she 
cried breathlessly, with a curious 
catch in her usually unemotional 
voice. He could have kissed her for 
that traitorous betrayal — -but he did 
not dare. "It was all over then, his 
hardships " 

"No," he said harshly. "They 
didn't believe him. They — arrested 
him — and put him — in — jail " 

"Oh," a note of pain cut through 
her intonation. 

"You see," he said very gently, 
very tenderly, trying to fortify him- 
self against her dangerous sympa- 
thy. "He — he didn't have a friend 
in the world — to prove his innocence 
— and his appearance was against 
him — his clothes were ragged, and 
not very clean. But he was not — 



vic'-u*. He was a — gentleman — but 
the iaw didn't know it — that was 
all." 

"But didn't the officers find out 
that he told the truth?" she asked 
eagerly. 

"I believe so — I recollect hearing ; 
of something— of their sending* || 
guard to watch the place — sm II 
catching the gang — but it did not I 
relieve the situation for — my frieim II 
He was there — it may not have hep 
long, according to the calendar- 
but, it was eternity to him. And 
then there came a day when he stoB 11 
out in (iod's sunlight again, wififc | 
shoes on for which he paid by scrub, 
bing the floors: with old discarded 
clothes obtained from a friendly rag 
man. But he was free. Free! I I 
had one dollar in his pocket. Not J 
enough for railroad fare to the A II 
city — that didn't matter; he could 1 1 
walk that. But it meant honest food <\ 
You see, there was no 'bread line'B 
that other town " 

She sobbed softly under her veil 
He caught her hand with rough ten-l 
derness, moved beyond control. ''II 
I should come to you, now, with All 
heart yearning for one little swAj 
word of welcome from you — wfll 
my hopes of paradise resting in yowl 
dear eyes, would you — could yalj 
find that one precious little wordBI 
say to me?" he cried vibrantly. 9 1 
head bent over to hers; "I haftl 
money — beyond the dreams even mil 
avarice — dear — but I would m\ 
nounce it all — for one word frA 
you. That's how I love you. BuA 
I want to tell you something mom 
Something that has been kept buria 
in my heart for twelve long drea« 
years of hard work, which held ol 
from the heights of suffering ami 
labor the flag and banner of succe— 
alluring me on until I obtained I 
That shows my confidence in yA 
the woman I Ibve. There is no nefl 
to tell you these things — and it m* 
put an irr< mediable abyss bctwet 
you — and ine. But, dear, I have li 
to you — in one way. It was no friei 
of mine — it was — myself — that 
beggar." He watched her narrow! 
she did not crouch away from hi] 
but her silence filled him with a pi 
monition of the sorrow she was 
inflict. He perhaps had been unni 
essarily frank, under the circu 
stances, he reasoned, vagal 
alarmed by her manner; yet, 
could not have done anything eli 
loving her. 

His dream was shattered, he tc 
himself despairingly; of what av 
was his wonderful success — witho 
her? And he had dared hope — 
shut his eyes, blindly, under th< 
smarting tears. 

"I — I want to ask — you — " s 
leaned near him. 

"Yes," he hung on her request. 

"Back — back there — at the brei 
line — " she hung her head in el 
barrassment, as if afraid of herse 
"There was a — a young man, wi 
honest eyes — and such a nice frai 
face. Would you mind — if — we ri 
back? I — I would like to — to — h« 
him — " Cushing looked at her sM 
provingly. 

"Oh — you darling — " he start* 
to say, but something choked his ut- 
terance ; for her soft, white haAl 
was lying trustingly in his, and her 
tear-stained cheeks bent revereM 
tially over his hand. She kissed I 
with her soft, pure lips. 

"I — I knew it was you — that mtA 
dear," she whispered, wiping hfl 
eyes. — John Wilmerding, in YoungBj 
Magazine. 



February 8, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Course in 

Telegraphy 

Good Positions 

Tuition back after one year's service. 
Main S. P. wire in schoolroom. Write 
for particulars. 

PACIFIC COAST 
BUSINESS COLLEGE 

San Jose, Cal. 

Mirth at Meals. 

A doctor says, "Don't allow a meal 
to pass without a joke between each 
mouthful." This will enhance the 
value of humor to a great degree. 
Dinner will move along something like 
this: Mouthful of soup — screams of 
mirth, flakes of laughter, and bread- 
crumbs pervading the air. Mouthful of 
roast duck reminds domestic humorist 
of something. 

" Do you know why a duck goes into 
the water?" Long silence and more 
extensive eating. Domestic humorist 
answers it himself as follows: "For 
divers reasons." More bread, vege- 
tables, and general good feeling. " Why 
does he come out?" No answer and 
no sound but that of an old joke under 
the table cracking its knuckles. " For 
sun-dry purposes," explains the ready 
and brainy man, looking casually at a 
memorandum on his cuff. More din- 
ner and then, " Why does he go in 
again ? " 

Nothing can be heard but the low 
mutter of a thinker, perhaps, as he 
grapples with the great problem. "To 
liquidate his bill." Yells of laughter, 
screams of delight, and astonishing feats 
of digestion promoted by mirth. "And 
why does he again come out?" More 
thought and mastication; then the gas- 
tric jester says, " To make a little run 
on the bank," and amid a great shower 
of vest buttons and mirth, the genial, 
all-round tonic humorist and joy pro- 
moter goes on. — Pearson's Weekly. 



Pointed Paragraphs. 

Too many people feather their nests 
with borrowed plumes. 

Every woman thinks she has a right 
to make a fool of some man. 

How it does irritate a woman to be 
out-talked by one of her own sex! 

Married women should let their hus- 
bands be right once in a while — just for 
a change. 

It doesn't take the average man long 
to throw off the greatness that is thrust 
upon him. 

Your enemies are seldom as black as 
you paint them or your friends as white 
as they appear to be. 

This earth is inhabited mostly by 
people who imagine they were intended 
to do something better than their present 
vocation. 

Jealousy is a tree that bears nothing 
but bitter fruit. 

You hold a boy from power when you 
protect him from pain and hardship. 

Don't wait for the dead past to bury 
its dead; cremate it. 

This world hasn't a very high opinion 
of a low-salaried man. 

The less money some men have the 
easier it is for them to be good. 

Character is soon narrowed when you 
try to be liberal in regard to questions 
of absolute right and justice. 

Almost all the world echoes a loud 
amen to those people who pray to be 
delivered from this vale of tears. 

A get-rich-quick scheme is the best 
bait to use when fishing for suckers. 

Weigh some heavy people and they 
will be found wanting in everything 
but weight. 

Occasionally a man gets married so 
that he can put his property in his 
wife's name. 

Time isn't exactly money, but some 
people spend one just as foolishly as the 
other. — Chicago News. 



Domestic Hints. 



Sally Lunn. — Scald a pint of milk, 
add two teaspoonfuls of butter, when 
luke warm add a yeast cake (moistened) 
and one-half teaspoonful of salt, then 
add enough flour to make a batter. Set 
the batter away to rise in a warm place 
for about two hours ; add two well 
beaten eggs and pour into greased tins. 
Let rise for one-half hour and bake in a 
quick oven for 20 minutes. 

Potato Salad. — Take four medium- 
sized, boiled, cold potatoes and cut 
small. Cut two ounces of ham fat and 
one onion very small and fry together 
till onion is dark brown when add a gill 
of good vinegar. Strain the mixture 
over the potatoes and season them with 
salt and pepper. When cold place on a 
bed of lettuce leaves in a bowl and make 
a dressing of one egg, well beaten, two 
tablespoons of vinegar and three of 
cream, one-half teaspoon each of mus- 
tard and salt. Whisk all together and 
boil till it thickens. Stir occasionally 
while cooling and then spread over the 
prepared potatoes. 

Apple and Bread Custard. — Soak 
slices of bread from which the crust has 
been cut in as much milk as they will 
take up without becoming mushy. Put 
a layer of these in a buttered mould and 
on it place a layer of sliced apples, 
peeled and seeded, and on these a 
stratum of seeded raisins. Sprinkle 
with powdered sugar, add a little grated 
lemon peel, and finish the pudding with 
a layer of bread. Pour in two cups of 
milk into which have been beaten the 
yolks of three eggs, and bake until the 
pudding is firm. Make a meringue of 
the whites, heap on the pudding and 
brown lightly. Serve cold with rich 
cream. 



Stray Bits of Information. 

The United States now takes half the 
world's crop of rubber. 

France spends 35 fo of her resources on 
military preparations. 

England makes but a third of the 
machinery used by its farmers. On the 
remainder $1,308,000 worth of it comes 
from America, and $212,000 from 
Canada. 

Germany heads the list as a reading 
nation and Russia is falling to zero. In 
1893, 23,607 books were published in 
Germany as compared with 8082 in 
Russia. In regard to newspapers the 
inhabitants of the United States are 
catered to by 22,000 journals, while 
Russia, with a population of 130,000,000, 
has only 800. 

The immense indirect cost of warfare 
is illustrated by the fact that the Span- 
ish-American war cost $1,000,000 a day 
for over a year, although hostilities 
occupied but three months. 

All watches are compasses. Point the 
hour hand to the sun and the south is 
exactly half way between the hour and 
the figure XII on the watch. 

The world's greatest timber belt is to 
be found in the counties of Clatsop, Co- 
lumbia, Washington, Tillamook, Coos, 
Douglas and Lane, in Oregon. 

The best cheese made in Switzerland 
is usually exported, and is seldom to be 
had even in the famous hotels of that 
country. 



Her Redeeming Feature. 

An only son had just told the family 
that he was engaged, and to whom. 

Ma— What, that girl? Why, she 
squints. 

Sister— She has absolutely no style. 
Auntie — Red headed, isn't she? 
Grandma — I'm afraid she's fidgety. 
Uncle — She hasn't any money. 
First Cousin — She doesn't look strong. 
Second Cousin — She's stuck up. 
Third Cousin— She's an extravagant 
thing. 

The Son (thoughtfully)— Well, she's 
got one redeeming feature, anyhow. 

Chorus— What's that ? 

The Son — She hasn't a relative on 
earth. 

Pa — Grab her, my boy, grab her ! 



RESISTANT CUTTINGS. 

About 8000 well rooted Rupestris St. 
George cuttings. For price apply to P. O. 
Box 58, Auburn, Cal. 



CONOVER'S COLOSSAL, ASPARAGUS 
PLANTS. 

Plants exceptionally strong and true to 
name. Price given on application. Ad- 
dress W. A. Stewart, 

Rio Vista, Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grown from carefully selected seed 



Postal for prices. 



A. A. MILLS, 



Anaheim, Cal. 



$5 A THOUSAND 

RESISTANT GRAPE CUTTINGS FROM 
IMPORTED STOCK. 

VARIETIES— 3306, 3309, 1202 
A. W. LUTHER Healdsburg, Cal. 



Trees 



French Prunes and Apri- 
cots; Muirs and Tuscan 
Clings, and many other 
varieties of Peach Trees, 
all fine budded stock. Large stock of all the 
leading varieties of Apples, grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also a fine stock 
of Cherries, Pears, Plums, etc. 
Send for price list. 
A. F. SCHEIDECKER. Sebastopol, Cal. 
Proprietor Pleasant View Nursery. 



Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

$1.5G per Doz. $6 per 100. $40 per 1000. 

Now is good time to plant. Pedigreed Stock. 
500 Valencia, one year, extra fine, $60 per 100. 
J. B. WAGNER, the Rhubarb Specialist, Pas- 
adena, Cal. 



Orange Seed Bed Stock. 



SWEET AND SOUR 



Orders Booked Now for Delivery 
Spring of 1908. 

SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, 

F. H. DISBROW, Proprietor. 
Both Phones. R. D. 1, Pasadena, Cal. 



The Crocker Bartlett Pear 



DOES NOT BLIGHT 

If proven different, purchase price of trees 
bought from us in 1907 will be refunded. Fruit 
highly recommended by Luther Burbank. 

Sample of pears sent on receipt of 25 cents. 

See U. S. Year Book of 1905. 

Peach Trees, 15c— all leading varieties. 

Cherry Trees, 20c— all leading varieties. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

Loomis, Placer County, Cal. 



Pacific Nurseries 

San Francisco and Millbrae, San Mateo Co. 

Offers for this Season's Planting 
a full line of 

Ornamenial Trees and Shrubs, Evergreen and 
Deciduous, Conifers, Palms, Rhododendrons, 
Camellias, Ericas, Azaleas, Roses, Eucalyptus, 
Cypress, Pine, Monterey and Maritima Pittospo- 
rum transplanted into plats. 

Send for Catalogue 

F. LUDEMANN, 3041 Baker Street 

SAN FRANCISCO 



Strawberry Plants 

Hrandywine, Excelsior, Texas, Arizona, Al, 
Lady Thompson and Midnight, Pedigree Plants. 

Blackberry Plants 

Mammoth Blacks, Early Crandal, 

Giant Himalaya. 

Raspberry Plants 

Surprise (earliest known), Millers, Cuthbert. 

Dewberry, Loganberry, 

Phenomenal Berry Plants. 

Mention this paper and get catalog of prices 
and cultural directions. 

G. H. HOPKINS, Burbank, Cal. 



Burbank Says: 

"Best way to get a Walnut 
Grove — Plant California Black Wal- 
nuts, graft them when 4 years old to 
Franquette or Santa Rosa." 

We have extra good stock of 

CALIFORNIA BLACK 

3 to 5 feet. Write for prices. 

JOHN SWETT & SON 

MARTINEZ, CAL 



GRAFTED VINES 

FIELD GRAFTING 
BENCH GRAFTING 

done by contract anywhere in central 
California. Fifteen years experience. 
Only competent men sent out. Write 
for estimates and references. 

JOHN L. AMES, 

Elk Grove, Cal. 



ENCINAL NURSERIES. 

SPECIALTIES:— Apricot on ' Cot and Genu- 
ine Franquette Walnut on black walnut 
root. Strong, thrifty trees grown on new soil, 
entirely without irrigation, and surrounded 
by all safeguards possible, from selection of seeds 
and buds to the digging of the tree, to have them 
healthy, tree lrom disease and true to name. 



F. C. WILL SON proprietor, Sunnyvale, 
Santa Clara County, California. 



Red Gum \ tor 
Sugar Gum / timber, 
Gray Gum ( posts, piles, 
Desert Gum ) poles, etc. 

Best Four. Get Our Prices. 

Cling and Free Peaches, Apricots, Almonds, 
Cherreis, Walnuts, and a few French Prunes. 

Peppers, Acacias, Casuarinas, Italian and 
Monterey Cypress, Pine, Cedar, etc. 

Leonard Coates Nursery Co., Inc. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



High In Quality 



Low in Price 



our SEEDS gkow 

Vegetable, Flower 
and Farm Seed 

J. SEULBERGER, 

414 Fourteenth Street. Oakland, Cal. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

BARGAIN BERRIES 

Twenty-five Lucretla dewberry, 25 Cuthbert 
raspberry, 25 Mammoth, 25 Loganberry, 250 
strawberry and several other kinds of berry 
plants, also 1 acacia prepaid for (S'2.50. Straw- 
berry plants $3 00 per 1000 prepaid. Larger 
lots 12.15. 

TRIBBLE BROS. Elk Grove, Cal. 
WANTED 

Cuttings of the Following for Grafting Purposes : 

KupestrlsSt. George, KIparia x RupeatrlB 3306, 
Rlparla x Rupestris 3300, Uiparla x Hupestrls 
106-8 and Mourvedre x Rupestris 1202. Address 

FANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

Fresno, California. 

EUROPEAN LINDEN SEED 

Grown in Sacramento; 30 cents per ounce. 
F. A. MILLER, P. O. Box 377, Sacramento. 



9o 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 8, 1908. 



CITRUS FRUITS 

(Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Grape Fruits, etc.) must be 
of good size or they fail to satisfy the market. Says an 
authority on this subject: "An orange that weighs a 
pound would sell in New York for a dime. When it 
takes six to weigh a pound they are worthless." 

You can insure large growth by fertilizing with 

Nitrate of Soda 

It is the Standard Ammoniate, and it is the 

cheapest. Unlike any other ammoniate, no intervening 
process is necessary before the plant can take it 
up as food. 

Wonderful results have been obtained in Florida 
by fertilizing during the cold season. 

Directions for successful Citrus Fruit growing will be sent free upon 
request to all who apply. "Food for Plants," a 237-page book of useful 
information, will be sent free to farmers while the edition lasts, if paper 
is mentioned in which this advertisement is seen. 

Send your name and complete address on post card* 

WILLIAM S, MYERS, Director, John Street and 71 Nassau, New York 



Horse Owners! Use 




QOMBAULT'3 

Caustic 
Balsam 

A Safe, Speedy, and PosIUts Cora 



The safest. Best BLISTER ever need. Takes 
tlie place of all llnamcnts for mild or severe sctlon. 
Removes all Bunch's or Blemishes from Horses 
and Cattle. SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
OK FIRING. Impossible to produce scar or blemish 

Every bottle sold la warranted to give satisfaction 
Price 91.60 per bottle. Sold by drngclsts. or sent 
by express, charges paid, with full directions for 
Its use. Send for descriptive circulars. 
THE LAWHEN'CE-WILLIAMS CO., Cleveland, O. 



The Fruit Grower and the Parcels 
Post. 



(Continued From Page 87.) 



enlist him and his board in an enlarged 
commerce, made possible by cheaper 
transportation of packages by mail. He 
said to me: 

"No, sir; we had a man at Washing- 
ton the last session of Congress purposely 
to oppose the passage of any parcels post 
bill, and we'll do so again ! Why, in 
Marysville the retail hardware dealers 
of northern California just held a con- 
vention and called upon us to take this 
action, and we'll do it." 

Well, it seems to me irresistibly com- 
ical that retail dealers should oppose a 
cheaper method of getting goods deliv- 
ered at their doors. From that time on 
inspired editorials have appeared con- 
tinually in the press telling the store- 
keeper that with parcels post in vogue 
he would be ruined. Who inspired such 
editorials it would be easy to guess. The 
stuff was even published in San Fran- 
cisco as telegraphed from New York, 
and, under the guise of opposing the 
Eastern mail order houses, it gave them 
a splendid free advertisement. It was 
alleged that parcels post would throw 
all business into the hands of the mail 
order houses, who could, would and did 
easily undersell the local trader. On this 
account merchants, as individuals and in 
their various associations, were vehem- 
ently urged to oppose its institution 
tooth and nail. Certain jobliers in San 
Francisco even formed an Anti-Parcels 
Post League. Their organ was the 
Pacific coast merchant. They feared 
that the retailer would avail himself of 
the parcels post to buy his goods direct 
from the various factories, and so bene- 
fit himself and his customers. One such 
jobber with whom I conversed, after 
trying the mail-order-house talk, frankly 
admitted that the parcels post would 
prove a permanent benefit to the local 
merchant, but, he claimed, would injure 
the jobber. 

As to just why the local dealer should 
be hurt by a parcels post, no one has yet 
found out. That the persistent calamity 
howling of the express companies is al- 
ready becoming ridiculous and ineffect- 
ive, the recent endorsement of the 
parcels post by the Society of Retail 
Merchants of New England loudly at- 
tests. 

On the face of it the contention as to 
injury being worked to the local dealer 
bore its own refutation. 

The parcels rate asked of the postoffice 
was 25 cents for 11 lb. Now it is safe to 
say that five- sixths of the population of 
the United States live within such dis- 
tance of some large mail order house as 
to get their goods delivered by freight 
at a rate much less than 2 cents per 
pound. It is also well known that de- 
partment stores, even in California, al- 
ready deliver goods from their bargain 
counters free of charge for transporta- 
tion. In spite of this, I am sure you 
will all acknowledge that in Stockton, 
Oakland, Berkeley, Sacramento, and 
even in Marysville, there were never 
better stores with finer stocks of goods 
than there are today. This absolutely 
free delivery has had no such ruinous 
effects as have been predicted. More- 



PILES CURED IN 6 TO 1 4 DAYS. 

PAZO OINTMENT Is guarauteed to cure any 
case of Itching, Blind, Bleeding or Protruding 
Plies In 6 to 14 days or money refunded. 50c. 



over, were the mail order business so 
exceedingly profitable, it would be easily 
within bounds of imagination to con- 
ceive of branches of these large mail or- 
der houses established at San Francisco, 
Eastern mail order houses the parcels 
Los Angeles or Sacramento sending 
their goods by freight at much lower 
rates than the advocates of a parcels post 
have suggested. 

And, by the by, has it ever occurred 
to the Marysville merchants that they 
were giving these same mail order 
houses the biggest kind of a boost by 
getting the press all over the country to 
proclaim that goods could be bought 
cheaper of those houses than of the local 
dealer? Is not this a free advertisement 
for those houses of the utmost value? Is 
it not a direct invitation to any wide- 
awake buyer to purchase of these houses ? 

I am glad to be here today, not only 
to tell them that if this is really their 
argument, it is "bad business," but 
that their whole opposition to the parcels 
post is, as they are now slowly discover: 
iug, also bad business. 

In the first place, the parcels post has 
proved in other countries a most power- 
ful stimulus to trade. The retail mer- 
chants would in those countries be the 
first to object to its impairment or aboli- 
tion. 

In the second place, the lack of a par- 
cels post has been, and is likely to be, 
the cause of more orders going to mail 
order houses than otherwise would be the 
case. Postal rates and express rates on 
purchases being largely prohibitive, 
buyers naturally turn to freight rates. 
To secure these a minimum freight of 
100 lb. must be paid for. So, if Jones 
wants only 25 lb. of goods, he suggests 
to bis three neighbors — Smith, lirown, 
and Robinson — that they should pool 
issues and ear* send for 25 lb., dividing 
the freight charge among them. Jones 
lends them his mail order catalogue and 
each selects the goods he needs, and the 
local dealer thus loses the sale of 10(1 lb. 
of goods instead of 25 lb. Or Jones him- 
self further scans the catalogue and sends 
for 75 lb. more goods than he would 
otherwise have ordered had it been pos- 
sible to send for his 25 lb. by parcels 
post. This is no far-fetched, fanciful in- 
stance;- it is what is now being done, 
and the best way to check it is to insti- 
tute an up-to-date parcels post. This is 
the true method, of giving the small 
local merchant a chance to compete with 
the big houses. It widens his stock and 
multiplies his capital. As to local buy- 
ers, there is no doubt they prefer buying 
things of local dealers where those deal- 
ers understand their business. The aver- 
age buyer hates to write a letter, or even 
to fill in an order blank. He wants to 
see the articles be is to pay for before he 
parts with his coin. He wants his goods 
now, and not five or six weeks hence. 1 
am glad, therefore, to learn that those 
retail merchants who oppose parcels post 
have reconsidered the matter and de- 
cline any longer to be dupes of the ex- 
press companies. 

Concerning the stale fabrication as 
to the demand for a parcels post being 
raised by the Eastern mail order houses, 
as President of the California Postal 
Progress League, lean vouch for the fact 
that not a dollar has reached our treas- 
urer from any one of those houses, and 
not even a single word of encourage- 
ment. Of course, if there are individual 
retailers who choose to cherish the no- 
tion that paying exorbitant rates to 
swell the extravagant dividends of ex- 
press companies really benefits them and 
their customers, that is their privilege 
as citizens of this free republic. If the 
experience of the past does not convince 
them that all improvement of transpor- 
tation facilities increases commerce, I 
cannot hope that any argument of mine 
will avail. If there be such a one still 
in California, at least let him cease from 
advertising the Eastern mail order 
houses by getting his local editor to tell 
the farmers they can buy cheaper in 
Chicago than they can of him. He had 
better spend his time hustling to buy his 
own goods cheaper by buying direct 
from the factory and getting things de- 
livered by cheap parcels post, where 
there will be no rebates and no special 



rates of any kind. The world moves and 
the retail merchant must keep step or 
lose his place in the procession. He 
must accept the means at hand to hold 
his own, and in this struggle with the 
post is the very weapon he wants to aid 
him in his warfare. By its aid he can 
stand, if he will only cease telling all 
the world they can buy cheaper in Chi- 
cago than they can of him. The fact of 
this having been the one stock argu- 
ment put forward to discredit the par- 
cels post certainly demonstrates that the 
express companies and not the mer- 
chants are the real opponents. It is in- 
credible surely that any body of intelli- 
gent California merchants would be so 
insane as to spread a report up and 
down the length and breadth of the land 
that consumers can profitably send to 
Chicago for their goods instead of buy- 
ing at home. I trust our merchants 
•have such abundant good sense as shall 
lead them to denounce their being any 
longer made cats' paws to rake out hot 
chestnuts for the express companies' 
ravenous maws. 

My time runs short. But permit me 
one word to tell you how British farm- 
ers and fruit growers are subserved by 
the parcels post By the adoption of 
packages of size and weight in accord 
with postal regulations, the British 
farmer can have his produce taken from 
his gate by postal motor or wagon, 
shipped in the railroad cars, and thence 
delivered at the house of the addressee 
in such quantities as suit his convenience. 
Similarly, goods can be shipped to him 
from any part of his kingdom and de- 
livered at his gate. It does not matter 
one whit whether it is cream, butter, 
eggs, fruit, fish or fowls, anything goes, 
goes on time, and gets there on time. 
One firm shipped 70,000 parcels in two 
days. 

Just how useful such an institution 
would be to us each one can readily pic- 
ture for himself. The endless waste of 
time and the constant annoyance of de- 
lay experienced for lack of such service, 
we all too keenly realize. The comfort 
of such an institution, the saving of 
cash and energy, of time and temper, 
also appeals to us all. Whether we are 
to enjoy this inestimable boon to all 
classes depends on ourselves. We are 
too prone to relegate our responsibilities 
to that impersonal thing we call our 
Government. We forget that we are the 
Government, and that unless we, the 
people, issue our mandate, no reforms are 
possible. All reforms come from outside 
pressure, not from spontaneous internal 



^■£K Free Veterinary Book 

^■X' [nfalllbleguide. Makes every man 
|HbU bis own horse doctor. Pontage 2c 

tfSQf's Tultle's Elixir 

^X^SsHw^m intuireasounci horses. Cures splint, 
^HIsHlW spavin, (100 reward 

■ VI ■ for failure where cure Is possible. 
TIB TI TTLE S ELIXIR CO.. 

I MW «■ 33 Bsverly St., Boston, Mass. 

■>! ■ ~1 ■_ H Lo. Angeles, W. A. Shaw, Mgr., 
nlMllSsaatV^nSPH' 1911 Naw England Av. 

Btmare of alt Ulsters: only temporary relief, i/any. 



action. It is for you to instruct your 
Congressman in such forcible and un- 
mistakable terms as shall leave him no 
option Imt to vote for an up-to-date par- 
cels post or make way for oik; who will. 



POSITION WANTED. 

A young energetic fruit-grower, two years In 
my employ, desires to find position as foreman 
In orchard or vineyard. Can recommend him 
as absolutely reliable, lie has a knowledge of 
general farming, but more particularly of prune 
and raisin growing. Apply 

Q. H. HECKE, 

Woodland, t al. 



FOR SALE. 

Jordan and Drake .Seedlings. Nine hundred 
of each of the above varieties, one year old. 
About two-thirds from 1 to 6 ft., balance 3 to 4 
ft.; exceptionally line rooted trees. Apply 

A. R. GURR, 

H. F. D., Merced. 



Eucalyptus 
Red Gum Sugar Gum 

6 to 8 Inches high: packed and delivered you 
by express or mail. Prepaid ?J.o0 per 100. 
Safe delivery guaranteed. 

HENRY SHAW. 
320 River SI. Santa Cruz. ("al. 



The Fresno Scraper 




Send for Raisin Machinery Catalogue. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO. CALIFORNIA. 



For Sale : Jerusalem Artichokes 

THE OR EAT WINTER HOO FEED 

Address 

Fancher Creek Nurseries, Fresno, California. 




Every package has behind It the reputation 
of a house whose business standards are the 
highest In the trade. 

Fern's I 908 Seed Annual will lie mailed FREE 
to all applicants. It contains colored plates, ninny 

i ■ i ..' i ■ ■ . i , . i ftlll descriptions, prices and directions 
for pliintlnc over 1200 varieties of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds. Invaluable to all. Send for It. 

D. M. FERRY Sl CO., Detroit, Mich. 



bruary 8, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



91 



NEW 1908 

DE LAVAL 

CREAM 

SEPARATORS 



1908 marks another great move forward in the develop- 
ment of the Cream Separator — the introduction of a complete 
new line of DE LAVAL Farm and Dairy Sizes of machines, 
ranging in separating capacity from 135 lbs. to 1350 lbs. of 
milk per hour. 

As nearly perfect as the DE LAVAL machines have been 
before, they are now still further improved in practically every 
detail of construction and efficiency, and every feature reflects 
the past two years of experiment and test by the De Laval ' 
engineers and experts throughout the world. 

The principal changes are in greater simplicity of construc- 
tion, ease of cleaning and replacement of parts; less cost of 
repairs when necessary; easier hand operation; more com- 
plete separation under hard conditions; greater capacity, and 
a material reduction of prices in proportion to capacity. 

The DE LAVAL was the original Cream Separator, and for 
thirty years it has led in making every new separator inven- 
tion and improvement. Every good feature is now bettered 
and retained and many new and novel ones added, rendering 
DE LAVAL superiority over imitating machines even greater 
in every way than ever before. 

A new 1908 DE LAVAL catalogue and any desired particu- 
lars are to be had for the asking. 

De Laval Dairy Supply Co. 



1O8 So. Los Anqfles St. 
LOS ANGELES 
42 E Madison Street 
CHICAGO 

74 CORTLANOT STREET 

NEW YORK 



General Offices: 
101 Drumm Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



107 First Street 
PORTLAND, OREG. 
IOI6 Western Ave. 
SEATTLE 
Box 105 2 
VANCOUVER, B. C. 



«• MORSE & co 

Plants SE EDS Trees 



This picture represents the 
cover of our handsome new 
catalogue done in colors, 
showing the (lowers and 
fields true to life. 



41 Jackson St. 
San Francisco 




Send us your name and 
address and we will mall 
this new 1908 Catalogue free. 



Send us 81.00 and we will send one 
each of these three fine .roses (strong 2 
year old roots): FrauKarl Druschki, Mildred 
Grant, Madam Caroline Testout. Or send 
us 26c and we will send you a large packet of our 
beautiful new Sweet Pea — Florence Morse Spencer. 



IGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



MONTEREY. 
I Salinas Index; The Index has had 
I 'tices of green corn, ripe and green 
I ?anberries and blossoms on the same 
[ishes in January, in this glorious 
Inmate of Salinas, and now it is a pleas- 
Ire to note that Mrs. Philipp Vetter has 
I pe strawberries, Jan. 22d, growing in 
I e same warm, sunny belt that pro- 
iced the green corn on Abbott street. 
I pe brought a plate of nice ones to the 
[ idex office. She says the sparrows are 
•bbing her of these berries, which 
puld be quite plentiful except for their 
epredations. 

SACRAMENTO. 

Many acres of asparagus will be 
I [anted in the vicinity of Walnut Creek 
pis year. On Grand Island the Stuart 
tanning Company will plant 1,000 
bres this season, and many holdings of 
ID and 50 acres will likewise be set out 
p asparagus. At Andros Island and 
ficinity all the suitable land is being 
lanted. 

The State Wool Growers' Association 
pet and organized by electing officers 
b follows: President, A. C. Kimball of 
lanford; vice president, T. H. Ramsey 
p Red Bluff; secretary, A. M. Elston of 
KVoodland; treasurer, L. L. McCoy of 
ted Bluff; executive committee, Henry 
[lide of Sacramento, L. L. McCoy of 
ted Bluff, J. H. Hoyt of Suisun, T. H. 
liornella of Honcut, and A. Bullard of 
woodland, to which will be added four 
|thers when the association grows. 




Place Your Order Now 

LARGEST STOCK ON THE COAST 

When buying ROEDING TRUE TREES 
you have the satisfaction of knowing you 
are receiving the best in the country. Our 
trees are backed by 25 years experience 
and are as perfect as the most skillful 
handling and propagating, assisted by 
Ideal climatic conditions and the best soil, 
can make them. Our trees are properly 
packed for shipping and reach their des- 
tination in perfect condition. 

The Best is Always the Cheapest. 

CITRUS and DECIDUOUS 
FRUIT TREES 

NUTS 6 ORNAMENTAL TREES 
GRAPEVINES BERRY BUSHES 
PALMS, PLANTS 6 ROSES 

IN ALL STANDARD VARIETIES 



Peach Specials. 

Write to us for bedrock prices on 
Lovell and Mulr peach trees, 2 to 3 
ft. grade, in 500 to 5000 lots. You can- 
not allord to miss this opportunity. 



OUR CATALOGUE FREE 

Best book of its kind ever published on 
the Coast. Fully illustrated— 148 pages- 
sent free on request. 

BURBANK'S NEW CREATIONS 

Send 10c. for our illustrated booklet, In 
colors, describing these valuable new tree 
products. We are sole propagators and 
disseminators. 

PAID-UP CAPITA!. 9 200.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

GeO.C ROeding Pres. & Mgr. 

3Box 18 Fresno.California.UMC 



After adopting a constitution and by- 
laws, the meeting adjourned to meet 
about two months hence. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Merced Sun: R. Malan of Brawley 
reports that the acreage of cantaloupes 
there for the coming season will not be 
less than 2500 acres, against 800 acres 
last year, says the Imperial Press. This 
tallies with reports received from the 
other sections of the valley of percent- 
age of growth in area, while Imperial, 
Keystone and Calexico will be pro- 
ducers this year for the first time. 
There is every indication that the plant- 
ings of this year will reach an acreage 
of 5000 in the valley, or from four to 
five times that of last season. As con- 
siderable part of this will be in the 
hands of those who are making their 
first venture in the industry, it can be 
expected that there will be quite a 
shrinkage from these figures when it 
comes to the actual harvest. 

SISKIYOU. 

Supervisor Bigelow, of the Klamath 
National Forest Reserve, has received 
from the' department at Washington the 
authorization for the number of head of 
stock that will be permitted to graze on 
the reserve during the grazing season of 
1908. Grazing permits for 9,200 head of 
cattle and horses, 4,100 head of sheep 
and goats, and 3,600 head of hogs, will 
be granted. The summer grazing sea- 
son for cattle and horses is from May 1 
to October 31, and the charges are 25c 
per head for cattle, 35c per head for 
horses, 9c per head for sheep and 10c 
per head for goats. The year-long per- 
mits will cost as follows: On cattle, 40c; 
horses, 50c; sheep, 16c; and goats 18c. 
Applications should be in prior to 
March 1, 1908, otherwise they will not 
be approved, unless some sufficient rea- 
son is given for the delay in making 
such application. 

Searchlight: Eighty bales of hop — 
almost the entire Shasta County crop of 
1907 — were sold here Jan. 10 at 5£c. 
The bales will average 190 pounds each. 
The largest hopgrower in the county, 
Carl Nagle, was not in the pool. He 
declines to sell at the low figure and will 
.hold for a better one. The Whitmore 
and Twin Valley growers were offered 
9jc. last fall at the wind-up of the har- 
vest. As they had received 14c. the 
year before, they thought best to hold 
on. The result has been disastrous. It 
is estimated that it costs 9c. a pound to 
raise hops and prepare them for market. 
So the past season was a losing one for 
the growers, many of whom announce 
their intention of going out of the busi- 
ness, for the current year at least. 

SUTTER. 

Farmer: At a recent meeting of the 
State Prison directors the price of prison 
grain bags was reduced from 7fc to 6ic. 
The output this coming season will be 
5,000,000 bags. According to the new 
ruling of the directors no more than 
3000 bags can be sold to one man or 
firm and an agreement must be signed 
by the purchaser that the bags shall not 
be resold at a profit. 

The dairy industry near Meridian is 
rapidly coming to the front since the 
Sutter County Creamery began opera- 
tions and the territory from which 
cream is being received is being ex- 
tended materially. The parties who 
have recently purchased lands in Dis- 
trict No. 70 from the Syndicate will 
plant alfalfa and go into the dairy busi- 
ness extensively. 

TULARE. 

The Eucalyptus Lumber Company of 
Los Angeles has started to break ground 
on their recently acquired tract of land, 
15 miles northeast of Tulare. Most of 
this tract will be planted to a variety of 
eucalyptus known as the rostrata or 
Australian mahogany, a wood which 
commands a higher price on the market 
than mahogany, and is largely used 
for decorative interior work. The 
company proposes to install a water 
power plant for irrigation purposes and 
the work on the latter will begin at 
once. 



TEHAMA. 

The Horticultural Commission is 
determined to prevent, if possible, the 
importation of diseased trees into this 
section. Every tree shipped here is 
examined, and, if found to be diseased, 
destroyed by burning. A shipment of 
500 Muir peach trees was received from 
an Oakland nursery a few days ago, 
and several were destroyed as having 
root knot and peach blight. Also, two 
other bundles of peach trees from an- 
other nursery were burned. 

YOLO. 

P. J. Prein of Hamilton city recently 
visited this locality in the interests of 
the Pacific Sugar Construction Company 
of Hamilton, his purpose being to grow 
sugar beets for the big refinery at Ham- 
ilton. A number of farmers signified 
their intention to plant from 10 to 25 



acres, and A. W. Morris will plant 300 
acres. D. N. Brown agreed to plaut 
150 acres. 

NEVADA. 

Beet Sugar Factory. — Bee: Walter 
E. Trent, E. E. Hardach and John E. 
Pelton, of Reno, have formed the Trent 
Continuous Filter Co., and incorporated 
for $200,000, with $115,000 paid up. 
This company intends to purchase a 
large tract of land near Reno for the 
culture of the sugar beet and to begin 
the raising of that product. The com- 
pany also intends to build a sugar fac- 
tory here and to provide the factory 
with a new process invented by one of 
the members of the company, which is 
said to be a great success. The gentle- 
men composing the company claim to 
have discovered a new process of filter- 
ing that will revolutionize the making 
of beet sugar. 



9 2 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 8, 190& 



Ihelp THE COWS i 

lEoen the best cows cant 
Imakebig profits for thedairy-^ 
J man who persists in 
Ipans or crocks or a poor , 
sk'mming separator. Creamy 
Jis cash, and if yours is ji 
' average " herd, thenl 
Jhow much more necessary i 
him out every drop! Why[ 
(not help the cows boost I 
I your profits by skimming [ 
heir milk with a reliable [ 

! UNITED STATES I 
ISEPARATORt 

SKIMS OUT 
ALL THEi 
CREAMg 




The Dairy. 



HOLDS 
WORLD'S RECORDl 



J A cream separator is an ac-i 
Jknowledged necessity lot 
{profitable dairying, but be-i 
Ifore you buy why riot look! 
[very carefully into the! 
{matter and buy the best one[ 
J at the start? It 's cheap-. 
Jest in the long run. rVe'lli 
J gladly send you, FREE, an 
Jilluslrated book, telling whati 
la separator can and ought [ 
fto do. Please write us today [ 
'Send your book No. J 45 . 

I VERMONT FAR Mi 
(MACHINE CO. (48,)J 

I Bellows Falls, Vermont 



Prompt Delivery Assured California cus- 
tomers from Stockton Warehouse- Nodelays. 
Address all letters to Bellows Falls, Vermont. 



Pneumatic Fruit Grader 



A perfect Sizing Machine for Oranges 
Capacity 500 Boxes a Day 
Runs Easily by Foot Power 
Cannot Damage the Fruit 
Price $50.00 



WRIGHT BROTHERS, 

Riverside, Cal. 



Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they have 
better results than others do. 
Write for Prices, Testimonials and out 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

WE CUTTER LABORATORY 

Temporary Address 

Grayson and Sixth Streets, BERKELEY, CAL. 

West of San Pablo Ave. 



School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical 
Electrical and Mining Engineering 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing, &nd Assaying. 
5100 TELEGRAPH AVE. OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 

Open all Year. A. VAN UKR NAILLEN, Pres't 
Assaying of Ores, 826; Bullion and Chlorlnatlon 
Assay, $25 :Blowplpe Assay, 810. Pull Course of 
Assaying. Established in 186*. Send for circular 



HENRY B. LISTER, 
ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
S)37 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts., 

San Francisco. 



A Good Starter and How to 
Prepare It. 

By E. H. Hageman of the University of Cali- 
fornia at the California Creamery Operators' 
Convention at Davis. 

The value of selected cultures of lactic 
acid producing bacteria in crearn ripen- 
ing was first demonstrated by Dr, 
Storch, of Denmark, in 1890. Since 
then the use of these cultures has spread 
very rapidly and successfully. 

' Starter ' is the term applied to cul- 
tures of lactic acid bacteria, selected 
artificially in a laboratory, or making a 
selection of the very best flavored milk 
at the dairy or creamery. The word 
1 starter ' is used for the reason that it 
assists and starts the development of 
lactic acid fermentation in cream ripen- 
ing. 

We have the commercial yeast which 
is used in bread making that starts the 
bread to rise. The dough is mixed with 
the ferment, which produces carbonic 
acid from a portion of the sugar pres- 
ent. The carbonic acid is liberated 
from within the dough, and causes the 
bread to rise. And so in cream ripen- 
ing, we have the commercial culture of 
ferment, which if added to the cream 
causes the development of lactic acid 
from the milk sugar present in the 
cream, and gives us the desirable lactic 
acid fermentation for cream ripening. 

I had hoped that the dairy school 
would be in running order, and have a 
number of home-made and commercial 
starters propagated for your inspection 
and examination, from which lessons 
could be drawn, better than I can tell 
you. We judge a starter somewhat in 
the same manner as we do butter, flavor 
and texture being the two principal 
points. The flavor being noticed by 
both taste and smell. It should have a 
clean sharp acid taste, not bitter, nor a 
sting j- acid or sweetish taste, as the 
latter indicates too much acid — too old — ■ 
and danger of putrefactive bacteria set- 
ting in. By putting some of the pre- 
pared starter in a pint milk bottle and 
agitating it thoroughly, we can then tell 
any bad flavors, or otherwise get the 
aroma characteristic of a desired starter. 
The starter is allowed to just coagulate. 
The texture should be smooth without 
gas or pinholes developed through the 
mass, and should at this time contain 
about 0.7 of 1% of acidity. When, 
after mixing it thoroughly, so it has 
the appearance of thick buttermilk, it is 
ready to add to the cream for your next 
churning. 

MAKING a Stakter. — In the prepa- 
ration of a starter, having the proper 
machinery, such as a starter can, steril- 
izing or steaming cabinet, the first requi- 
site is, of course, clean, fresh milk, 
skimmed milk being preferred. Pas- 
teurizing a quart in a previously steril- 
ized quart Mason jar or milk bottle to a 
temperature of 180° F for 30 minutes, it 
should then be cooled quickly to 80° F, 
when it is ready for inoculation with 
the pure culture. It is then thoroughly 
stirred several times and kept at a tem- 
perature of 70° F from 18 to 24 hours, 
when the milk should be sour and 
coagulated. This mother starter is now 
ready to inoculate a greater quantity of 
sweet skimmed milk pasteurized and 
cooled in the same way, which when 
coagulated or showing 0.7 of 1 ft of 
acidity is now ready to add to the cream. 

Home-Made Starter. — In a home- 
made starter the butter-maker is left to 
select his own milk, from which tb 
propagate the desired lactic acid bac- 
teria, and in this a good judge of milk 
is necessary. The milk should be pro- 
cured from an individual cow or herd 
not far advanced in lactation and fed on 
good feed, securing, say, one quart 
jar each from several cows. The milk 
should be put in sterilized jars and 
allowed to sour at a temperature of 80° 
F. When soured or coagulated, skim 
off the top and introduce the sample into 




CREAM 

PROFITS 



If you are selling your whole milk to 
the Creamery you are not getting as 
much profit from your cows as you should . 
In fact you are losing 50 per cent. With- 
out increasing your feed bills one penny or 
milking another cow you can double your 
cream profits. This is demonstrated by 
thousands of dairymen and farmers every 
day in the year. 




The Sharpies 



Tubular Separator 




gets all the cream in the milk — it skims out every 
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Here's one letter that tells the story of how to 
double your cream profits : 



Union Mills, Ind. 
Gentlemen:— We have a Sharpies "'ubular. 
Before we bought it, we had been selling our 
milk to a creamery at Union M ills, getting not 
more than $8.00 a month, but since we have 
the Tubular, we have been getting; twice 
more, and are so satisfied with the Tubular. 

Mrs. John C. Miller 



^MimmTnTTT^ 
^5miITTTTTTT^^ 

^r^SHSsiiiSSfthi 



Such proof as this ought to convince you that 
a "Tubular" will be a money-maker for you . The 
extra profit will soon pay for the separator while it 
will keep right on earning these big profits for years. 
Write today for our new catalog and free copy of 
that valuable book, "Business Dairying." Ask 
for book No. 131. > 

THE SHARPLES SEPARATOR CO., 

West Chester. Pa. Toronto. Can. Chicago. 111. 



SOUTHERN TREES ARE BEST, BECAUSE THEY ARE THOROUGHLY 
DORMANT AND HAVE NO SOFT WOOD ABOUT THEM. 

Our trees are carefully and well grown. Buy direct from the grower and 
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Orange County Nursery & Land Company 

FULLERTON, CAL 



| RHODES DOUBLE CUT 
.PRUNING SHEAR 




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FRANCIS SIVIITH & CO., 



Manufacturers 
ol 




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A Booklet: "The Whole Story About Wood Pipe,' mailed free upon request. 



I bruary 8, 1908. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



93 



i greater quantity of pasteurized 
mined milk, cooled to 75 or 80° F. 

II 18 to 24 hours the starter should show 
ns of coagulation and should contain 
m 0.6 to 0.7 fo acidity, when it is 
idy to add to the cream. Usually 
ir or five pounds of the mother 
rter added to 100 lb. of pasteurized 
mined milk will sour it in 18 to 24 
urs. 

ommercial cultures are sent out from 
! laboratories monthly, but the length 

time a starter can be kept in good 
idition depends a great deal on the 
•e and watchfulness of the operator. 

all utensils used in connection with 
i starter are kept in a sterile condi- 
n, and temperatures are watched, a 
llrter can be propagated a good many 
pnths. 

iphen milk is not available in quanti- 
fy good sweet cream prepared in the 
ne way gives good results, requiring 
ly a small quantity of milk to culti- 
te the mother starter. The practice 
growing to carry a number of mother 
rters, and using only the best ones, 
iss jars are preferred for this purpose 
being more sanitary. 
The thought came to me when given 
s subject of starters that you might 
more interested in getting a desirable 
am first. The gardener does not sow 
a bed with millions of weeds already 
>wn up in it, but hoes them out and 
tivates it until he has a clean seed 
1, and so with the butter-maker, it is 
hardly any use to add a culture 
rter to cream where millions of unde- 
able bacteria already exist. I be- 
ve we should pay more attention to 
steurization and starters. I don't 
ieve in this as a cure-all, but I be- 
ve we could have more confidence in 
'reat many instances that our butter 
uld reach the consumer with better 
?ping qualities. I have made butter 
m very poor cream. When coming 
of the churn it seemed to be fresh 
d quite good flavored, but such butter 
38 not keep well till it reaches the Con- 
ner, and it is there where it counts, 
i not in the creamery under present 
iditions with competition and strug- 
for cream and the creameries glad 
take all kinds of cream, good, bad 
el indifferent. With lax laws as to 
e and delivery of milk and cream 
in the producer, we are up against a 
rd proposition. 

X note of warning has been sounded 
oughout the dairy press, and at dairy 
wentions, of the lowering of the 
ndard of quality of our butter. That 
creameries will be benefited, who in 
meantime keep up the quality of 
ir butter by the very best methods of 
tnufacture, there can be no doubt. 



Portland Cement. 

The country is being carefully 
,rched for material suitable for the 
mufacture of portland cement. De- 
jits thoroughly satisfactory in chem- 

I composition and at the same time 
situated as to permit profitable mar- 
Ling of the product, are exceedingly 
e. The raw mixture which by its 
nkering and grinding forms portland 
nent should contain about 75 fc of 
■Donate of lime. One of the most 
ious difficulties is that of finding 
lestones low enough in magnesia, 
e usual limit in well-established 
icifications is 5 % of magnesium oxide 

the finished cement, although the 
lount is sometimes limited to Sfo. 
hen the magnesia is present to the 
tent of 10 or 15%, the appearance of 
3 stone, the way it effervesces with 
ute hydrochloric acid and its hard- 
ss indicate its presence to that 
lount; but when it is as low as 5 or 
), it is not possible to form by super- 
ial examination any estimate of the 
lount of magnesia. It is of great 
vantage to be able to determine in a 
v minutes, and at a point remote 
■m a laboratory, whether a material 

II probably produce good cement. A 
nple test may be made as follows: 
ter powdering the sample in a mor- 

transfer a measured portion to a 
t-tube. Add to this 1.75 c.c. of hy- 
whloric acid and when effervescence 



What Horses 
Need 



\ 




Conditioning horses for market requires skill 
in feeding. The stomach of the horse is not 
suited, to the consumption of as much rough 
fodder as is that of the ox. The ration for the 
horse then, must be more concentrated — 
largely grains. But food itself is not more 
i mportant than is a proper distribution of food 
after it's eaten. Thus digestion becomes the 
function to which we look for all satisfactory 
growth and fattening. Now long-continued 
heavy feeding may bring stomach derangement, 
dropsical swellings or even colic. Hence the horse needs a tonic to assist and perfect the digestive process. 

D B HESS STOCK mD 

The prescription of Dr. Hess (M.D..D.V.S.) possesses remarkable tonic properties for either horses, cattle, hogs or sheep. It assists 
digestion, thus making a greater amountof food available for building bone and muscle or for forming milk and fat. Besides it in- 
creases the appetite for roughage. Chemical analysis shows that there is less nutrition lost in the manure when Dr. Hess Stock 
Food is fed, which proves that more of the food is digested. The ingredients contained in Dr. Hess Stock Food are recommended by 
the ablest medical writers for improving digestion, purifying the blood, expelling waste material from the system and regulating 
the bowels. sold on a Written Cuarantee 

100 lbs. $7.00; 25 lb. pail $2.00 

Smaller quantities at a slight advance. 
Where Dr. Hess Stock Food differs in particular is in the dose— it's small and fed but twice a day, which proves it has the most 
digestive strength to the pound. Our Government recognizes Dr. Hess Stock Food as a medicinal compound, and this paper 
is back of the guarantee. 

Free from the 1st to 10th of each month— Dr. Hess (M.D., D.V.S.) will prescribe for yonr ailing 
animals. You can have his 96-pageVeterlnary Book free any time for the asking. Mention this paper. 

DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio. 

Also Manufacturers of Dr. Hess Poultry Pan-a-ce-a and Instant Louse Killer. 
INSTANT LOUSE KILLER KILLS LICE. 
THE PETALUMA INCUBATOR COMPANY, Petal lima, Cal. Pacific Coast Distributers. 



DON'T BUY GASOLINE ENGINES 



Less to Buy— Less to Run. Quick! 
jnglne. Send for Catalogue. 



UNTIL YOU INVESTIGATE 
'THE MASTER WORKMAN," 

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Its weight and bulk are half that of single cylinder engines, with greater durability. Costs 
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TilJi TKMPLE PIMP CO., Mfn., Meagher and 15th Sta 



has nearly ceased, boil for a moment. 
Then add enough pure calcium carbon- 
ate to neutralize the excess of acid. 
Boil until steam issues freely from the 
mouth of the test-tube, then add water 
and mix thoroughly by shaking. Filter 
this and allow the filtrate to run into 
another test-tube containing 1.5 c.c. of 
sugar-solution (a cold saturated solution 
of granulated sugar) and 1 c.c. of potas- 
sium-hydrate-solution (30 gm. of pure 
potassium hydrate to 100 c.c. of water) 
which have been diluted with water and 
thoroughly mixed by shaking. If mag- 
nesia is present, a precipitate of mag- 
nesium hydrate will form at the line of 
contact of the two solutions. Its dens- 
ity is roughly indicative of the percent- 
age of magnesia in the stone. The per- 
centage can be estimated pretty accu- 
rately by running a parallel test on 
stone of known composition. If small 
pieces of the rock under investigation 
upon being treated with dilute hydro- 
chloric acid in a test-tube disintegrate 
entirely, clay or shale will have to be 
added to the limestone; if the action of 
the acid ceases before all of the carbon- 
ate is dissolved and recommences when 
the clayey covering of the splinter is 
rubbed off, the stone is apt to need the 
addition of a purer limestone; but if all 
of the lime carbonate is dissolved yet 
the splinter retains its shape, the stone 
probably approaches closely the proper 
composition for portland cement. 




California 
Fruit Exchange 



(INCORPORATED.) 



Head Office: 

SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 



Farmers ! You Should Spray 

Spraying is cheap but effective insurance 
against crop destruction— thebestpolicy is a 

DEMING 

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Consult your own interests and 
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catalogue and " Expert Testi- 
mony " on request. 
THE DEMING COMPANY 
:>:>.-» Depot St., Salem, Ohio. 
Hemon * Hubbell, Agta., Cbimgo, III 

BBS 




SURE CURE FOR PILES 

ITCHING Plies produce moisture and cause itching. 
This form, as well as Blind, Bleeding or Protruding 
Piles are curedby Dr.Bosanko'3 Pile Remedy. 
Stops Itching and bleeding. Absorbs tumors. 50c a 
Jar atdrugglsts or sent by mall. Treatise free. 'Writ* 
me about your case. DB. BOSANKO, Fhllada, .f a. 



A growers' organization maintaining its own 
exclusive selling agencies for 

DECIDUOUS FRUITS 

1/2 Million Eucalyptus Trees 

UN VARIETY) 

Only an announcement that we intend to supply our patrons with Eucalyptus 
trees of our usual high standard; our present stock is nearly exhausted, and we will 



grow 



ONE MILLION 



if necessary — transplanted in flats of 100 each. Correspondence invited. Our booklet 
on Eucalyptus will prove interesting to planters. No postals. Address 

W. A. T. STRATT0N, Nurseryman 

PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 



PFAR.RI IfiHT We can CURE IT 

I kF^tll Vkimil I Our Work has Extended 



Over a Period ol 3 Years 



Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 



obtained in Trademarks Registered. Opiniont 
ALL COUNTRIES as to Patentability and Inf ringemens 

HANDBOOK FOR INVENTORS FREE 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., 1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San Francisco 



PATENTS 



94 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 8, 1908. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Feb. 5, 1908. 
WHEAT. 

The receipts of wh