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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1909)"


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CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY. 

SACRAMENTO 

This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

A book may be kept for three weeks and renewed 
for two weeks longer. 

A fine of five cents a day will be charged on over- 
due books. 



WEMAV 2 5 193S 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/pacruralpres7778unse 




*7/ 4 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 




Vol. LXXVII. No. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 2, 1909. 



Thirty^ 



Tuberculin Test and Its 
Application. 



The agricultural aspect of bovine tuberculosis 
is becoming clearer and the problem involved in 
it for the stock grower is commending itself to 
him more strongly. So long as the radical views 
which health officers at first voiced, were those 
brought to the attention of the animal 
owner they naturally awakened opposition 
and he felt compelled to take up a fight 
against what he believed to be unreason- 
able and sensational. More recently, since 
the importance to the grower of health in 
his animals and the demonstration, by the 
experiment stations and other agencies 
recognized to be working in the producers' 
nterests, that health can be secured with- 
out prohibitive expense and without a gen- 
■al destruction of property, the stock 
vners are coming to look upon the tu- 
berculin test and a subsequent procedure 
based upon it, as rational measures loi tid- 
ing to their own protection and profit 
her than as adverse to them, 
the California Experiment Station at 
Berkeley, through its veterinary division, 
has been for some time studying the occur- 
rence of bovine tuberculosis locally and is 
now beginning to publish bulletins of in- 
formation, advice and assistance which 
will enable our stock interests to advance 
toward the reduction of the disease in the 
up-to-date manner which has been sug- 
gested. The first of the series has just 
been issued. It shows that during the 
last four years Dr. A. R. Ward and Dr. 
C. M. Haring, who prepare the bulletin, 
have had made tuberculin tests of dairy 
cows in the various counties of the San 
Francisco bay region and in the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin valleys. In all, 
1976 tests have been made, of which 543 
(22.9 per cent) showed reactions. Only 
four herds, the largest consisting of 39 
cows, were free from tuberculosis. A 
much smaller proportion of isolated cows 
were affected than those in herds. Of 71 
animals, isolated, or in groups of five or 
less, only 6 (8 per cent) reacted. A more accurate 
statement of the prevalence of tuberculosis, as 
shown by this experience, would be one compiled 
from results of the tests of whole herds the first 
time they had been tested. In this case the figures 
show 1022 animals tested, with 326 condemned 
31.11 per cent). 

Tuberculosis was found in 82 per cent of the 
herds tested. This statement has been care- 
lessly used by some of the papers. It does not 
mean that 82 per cent of the cattle were tuber- 
culous, but that 82 per cent of the herds tested 
had some tuberculous animals in them. This is a 
Very different statement, of course, but it still 
shows beyond controversy that the disease is so 



widely distributed that it causes a constant loss to 
stock owners and that they cannot afford to close 
their eyes to its presence. Every animal owner 
should send to the university for a copy of the 
publication and study it carefully. It tells not 
only of the disease, but gives in detail the ways 
in which it should be proceeded against so as to 
reduce it to the utmost with the least possible 
loss. / 
In this conenction we have in mind to show 




A Tuberculin Test Outfit. 




Manner of Injecting Tuberculin. 

what the tuberculin test is and how it is applied, 
because that is a matter which every agriculturist 
should understand for the sake of general intelli- 
gence, even if he is not called upon to practice it. 
Popularly speaking, tuberculin is a fluid in which 
the germs of tuberculosis have been grown for 
sometime, but in which they have been subse- 
quently killed by long boiling. After this boiling 
it is forced through a filter which removes all the 
remains of the germs and then is subsequently 
treated to prevent change in its character. Tu- 
berculin may then be roughly described as the 
home of the germs from which all the in mates 
have been killed and dragged out. When this 
fluid is injected into animals affected with tu- 



berculosis it causes a rise in the temperature of 
the animal which endures for a time and then dis- 
appears. The detection of this increased heat at 
the proper time is the purpose of the test. There 
is no evidence that it causes an increase in the 
rapidity of the disease in animals already tubercu- 
lous or that it is injurious to them in any other 
way. It does not even temporarily injure the 
quality of the milk. 

The test is simple in its application. It consists 
in taking the temperature of the animal 
with an ordinary clinical thermometer sev- 
eral times to determine its normal, injec- 
ting the tuberculin with a hypodermic 
syringe, and then taking the temperature 
at intervals of two hours between the 
eighth and eigteenth hours after the in- 
jection. Any one with intelligence enough 
to run a dairy profitably should be able to 
perform the labor of the test in a com- 
petent manner. The animals should be 
kept under under favorable conditions, 
and care needs to be taken to record ac- 
curate temperature readings. In inter- 
preting the temperature records a careful 
consideration of the conditions under 
which the test is made and a knowledge of 
the sources of error is necessary. 

The work necessarily has been and must 
be carried on by those having some knowl- 
edge of veterinary science. However, it is 
not necessary that the persons performing 
certain details of the test shall be trained 
veterinarians. An intelligent dairyman 
who will make a little effort to familiarize 
himself with the test and its limitations 
can use it on his own cattle with good re- 
sults. It is only through the co-operation 
of breeders, dairymen and veterinarians 
that there is hope of immediately improv- 
ing the extremely undesirable conditions 
which at present exist. When the ma- 
jority of the dairymen understand the use 
of the test and the importance of isolating 
diseased animals, there will be far better 
prospects ol eradicating the disease than 
if skilled veterinarians are considered in- 
dispensable. The expense of employing a 
professional to perform every detail of the 
test, is not only often prohibitive, but in 
many localities no qualified licensed prac- 
titioner is available. 

The Agricultural Experiment Station of the 
University of California offers to any dairyman 
of the State who will avail himself of it the oppor- 
tunity of learning and perfecting himself in de- 
tails of using the tuberculin test. Not only can 
information be obtained, but under conditions to 
be- personally arranged between the inquiring 
dairyman and the veterinarians of this station, it 
will undertake to supply free tuberculin and give 
direct assistance in interpret ing the temperature 
records. 

The engravings used herewith, taken from the 
bulletin to which we refer, show the outfit needed 
(Continued on page 14.) 



2 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2, 190», 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. - - - PUBLISHERS 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



B. J. WICKSON Editor 

FRANK HONEYWELL .... Business Manager 



California Weather Record. 



The following rainfall record is furnished the PACIFIC 
Rural Press by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Weather Bureau, at San Francisco, for the week 
ending at 5 p. m., December 29, 1908: 



Stations. 


Total 
rainfall 
for 
the week. 


Total 
seasonal 
rainfall 
to date. 


Normal 
seasonal 
rainfall 
to date. 


Eureka 


.98 


12.53 


16.37 


Red Bluff. 


.20 


4.37 


9.79 


Sacramento 


.04 


3.59 


6.92 


Mt. Tamalpais 


.49 


8.07 


8.17 


San Francisco 


.28 


4.09 


8.03 




.09 


2.86 


8.01 


Fresno 


.00 


1.38 


3 41 




.00 


1.80 


3..S7 




.00 


3.84 


5.59 




.00 


4.09 


5.00 




.02 


2.25 


3.03 



The Week 



The New Year conies in with rather a scowling 
face. The temperature has been low, but accord- 
ing to observation it has affected mankind rather 
than plants. A man gets cross when he is chilly, 
and his spirits rise when there is a clear sky. even 
if the frost is sharp; the plant doesn't seem to 
have chilblains, but it droops under a bright sky 
and a sharp frost. Therefore, so far as we have 
seen, the man has been worse affected than the 
plant, and so long as we have plenty of both 
land and sea fogs this condition will probably 
continue. 

The rainfall is scant in most places, consider- 
ably below the normal and the prophets are gen- 
erally too busy and the contract rain-makers 
driving good trade with the gullible. As for 
prophets, we always select a bright one: if you 
get a whack from misfortune you simply double 
the weight of it by anticipatory moaning. .Mis- 
fortune cannot be averted by preliminary howling 
such as the bad boys work upon the teachers. So 
we are for fond anticipation every time because 
that doubles pleasure just as the other kind 
doubles woe. And we take for our weather 
prophet one who gives reason why badness will 
not come. Mr. L. B. Blochman of Santa Maria, 
who has been so good a farmer that even oil ven- 
tures have smiled upon him, has not forgotten to 
keep his eye on the weather as he has for many 
years past. Of his observations he kindly writes 
as follows: 

"This season's w-eather is a little discouraging 
for cattlemen, but farmers are mostly able to 
plow as yet. According to my viewpoint, it is to 
be one of the type of late-opening spring seasons 
of which we have quite a number. It might be 
construed as a possibly dry one but for the fact 
of the absence of northeast winds in this locality 
and heavy rains south early in the month — 
heavier at Yuma than at San Francisco. This 
condition never happens in a dry season, as the 
continental high barometer from Utah to Point 
Conception is so prevalent in dry and half-dry 



seasons as to shut off southerly incoming rains. 
Whilst distant forecasting is a great uncertainty, 
years of observation ought to count for something 
toward a reasonable assurance of general rain 
probabilities, and that is the justification for my 
forecasting." 

Thus Mr. Blochman fixes the outlook all right 
and we have nothing to do but to march forward 
confidently into it. 



Next week the legislature will assemble in Sac- 
ramento, and judging by the abundance of propo- 
sitions which are coming forward in the press and 
current discussion there will be a busy time and 
a peerless opening for statesmanship. California 
seems to be pressing forward strongly toward 
higher standards of living and in the promotion 
of undertakings which promise to protect the 
people from individual greed and ambition and to 
help all toward the attainment of greater pros- 
perity and the State itself to fuller development 
and progress. In the latter line we particularly 
like the present attitude of those who have been 
working in several lines for the improvement of 
the interior rivers both for navigation and for 
reclamation. These great arteries are of immense 
value to the development of the whole State. 
There was a meeting in Sacramento last week in 
which three associations joined and arranged for 
continuous joint action, the next meeting to be 
held on January 11 in Sacramento. The general 
purpose is to agree upon some plan to interest 
the Federal Government in the Sacramento valley 
project, which includes irrigation, reclamation 
and navigation. It was proposed that a commis- 
sion be appointed by the President and Governor 
to outline a plan of co-operation between the Fed- 
eral and State governments for these purposes. 
Ii was decided t<> ask Governor Gilletl to requesl 
President Roosevelt to name a commission of 
three from the Federal departments to act with 
a like number to be appointed by the Governor to 
draw up a plan for developing the entire valley 
along these lines. This looks broad and promis- 
ing. We have had too much patchwork hitherto. 
It would be even broader and better if the San 
Joaquin problem were included, as it should be 
and must be sooner or later. 



We are glad that Mr. William K. Wheeler has 
been induced to lay down his work as assistant 
secretary of commerce and labor at Washington 
and return to California to take up leadership in 
adjusting the unfortunate issue which has arisen 
between California producers and shippers and 
the overland railway lines. Mr. Wheeler is a suc- 
cessful San Francisco merchant and he knows 
what the trade is entitled to and what can be 
done to get it. He is also developing agricultural 
lands ami gives all the time he can to residence 
upon them and has possession of the agricultural 
point of view. lie has therefore a broad educa- 
tion from experience in various producing and 
trade undertakings, as well as the advantage of 
creditable and successful participation in na- 
tional affairs. He will ascertain just where jus- 
tice lies in the issues which arise and will know 
how to open the way to the supremacy of justice 
and that is wdiat reasonable men are longing for. 

Mr. Wheeler will naturally give most attention 
to the especial lines of shipping which are repre- 
sented in the firms and associations which form 
the organization which employes him, and no 
doubt our agricultural associations can affiliate 
therein. It is, however, only indirectly an action 
in behalf of the whole people, as it should be. In 
a recent letter to the attorney general of the State 
Mr. H. D. Loveland, one of the existing board of 



railway commissioners, wrote his conviction that 
"there should be some authority vested in some 
one of our State commissions by which such com- 
mission could undertake in the interest of all the 
people of California to become a party to these 
deliberations and controversies if such arise." 
The attorney general replied that under the ex- 
isting lay there is no way that his commission can 
enter the field. Mr. Loveland is, however, quite 
right. There should be some duly certified repre- 
sentative of the whole people who could act in 
the regulation of such matters, and if Mr. Wheeler 
had good laws and the whole people behind him, 
he would be in a position to accomplish more. 
However, as things are, he is the best man to do 
the best he can. 

We do not know much about cocktails away 
from the poultry yard, but from what is currently 
reported there is one good thing in them, and that 
is a modicum of California cured fruit. Mara- 
schino cherries and pickled olives are chiefly 
mentioned in this connection, and since the cock- 
tail chemists have begun to leave them out it is 
said that shippers have noticed a change in the 
market, and the matter has assumed an aspect 
so important that it has been taken up by officials 
of the Southern Pacific Company. Unless the de- 
mand for cherries and olives picks up before long, 
it is said to be probable that shippers and grow- 
ers will take some action to restore the popularity 
of these fruits. Just how they can do this is not 
quite clear to us. They can, of course, call for 
more fruit in the cocktails they order, and pre- 
suming that they will thereby get less whisky it 
could be commended as a sort of local option 
factor in the temperance question. But we 
imagine that fruit growers do not call for many 
cocktails, and how many railroad men take the 
cocktail route we do not know. And then when 
it comes to eating their own fruit the growers 
could do that at home and save the added charges 
of all the middlemen in the gilded palaces of 
Bacchus. The proposition is to lift oneself by his 
own bootstraps for the grower to take action to 
get his product disposed of that way. and possibly 
make him think he had accomplished it. On the 
whole, the less California fruit growers know and 
care about the fruit contents of cocktails the bet- 
ter probably. The growing demand for Mara- 
schino cherries and olives in the culinary and 
catering arts is likely to far surpass any lack 
which change in bar-tending fashions may cause. 
Get all the cherries you can into formula prep- 
arations, bed them in whipped cream, sprinkle 
them in frosting. Promote all such commendable 
uses and let the cocktail industry alone. 



United States Forester Pinchot is taking reason- 
able ground on the Christmas tree problem. He 
says that the native forests supplied four million 
this year, but that fact does not paralyze him as 
it does some of his sentimental followers, who 
seem to have more regard for a tree than for the 
children. "The number of trees cut this year," 
he said, "is insignificant when compared with 
the consumption for other purposes for which 
timber is demanded. The clearing of an area 
equal to a good-sized farm should not be the sub- 
ject of much worry when it is remembered that 
for lumbermen alone it is necessary to take tim- 
ber from an area of more than 100,000 acres every 
day of the year." This is warrant for the hope 
that Christmas cheer will not be reduced to the 
use of steel-wire Christmas trees, which we see 
some reformers are advocating. For heaven's 
sake don't start a kid on a love for nature with a 
bogus tree. Again, the forestry service is exactly 



January 2, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



right in claiming that Christmas trees ought to be 
grown especially and that the Christmas tree 
business will become a recognized industry, and 
as much care will be given to it as is given now 
to the growing crops of timber for other uses. 
We are not sure but that some of the glorious 
estimates which are now serving the eucalyptus 
planting interests could be quite as safely used 
in Christmas tree growing prospectuses. Think 
of that a little! 



The tariff hearings are over and the Congres- 
sional committee is probably at work on its clear- 
ings — from the multitude of claims presented to 
it. The California member of that committee will 
have to look sharp or he may be robbing Peter 
to pay Paul. It is reported that the grape-grow- 
ers of California have sent a letter to Congress- 
man Needham asking that in the revision of the 
tariff an effort be made that California wines 
are permitted to enter Canada on the same foot- 
ing as French wines. The Californians also urge 
that the tariff on grapes be reduced to Canada, 
which offers a good market for California table 
grapes. These propositions are good as they 
stand, but one is apt to forget that one reason why 
the California barley interest is increasing so fast 
is because it is protected against Canadian barley, 
with which it could not formerly compete in the 
markets of the central West. If we go to trading 
with the Canadians to free our wine they will 
naturally insist that we free their barley. The 
grape men should not be trying to work protec- 
tion and reciprocity also ; the latter is apt to kill 
the former. As for the temperance people, they 
get it in the neck both ways. If the Canadians 
drink our wine we shall drink beer made from 
Canadian barley ; if nothing is done, each will 
take his own liquor. 



Queries and Replies. 



That Alfalfa Nurse Crop Again. 

To the Editor : I intend to put some alfalfa in 
and was intending to sow it with barley or after 
the barle}' had come up. Having been here only 
for a short while, I asked quite a number of farm- 
ers around here their opinion, and nearly all told 
me not to do it. They could not give me a satis- 
factory reason, same saying, the barley would 
choke the alfalfa ; some that the alfalfa sowed 
now would free out. Now I know that in Ger- 
many we usually put alfalfa or any other clover 
in with another crop, about March ; some with 
barley and oats, some with wheat or rye, which 
has been sown the previous fall. I known that 
because I have done it myself. There we do not 
know anything about choking or freezing of al- 
falfa or clover, and I do not see why it should do 
so here, where the climatic conditions are much 
more favorable. The only thing I think is against 
it is the drying out. If I sow my barley in Janu- 
ary and the alfalfa in February or March, we 
might not get enough moisture to bring the young 
plant up. But in that case we would have a 
remedy too. Having a cover crop of barley we 
could easily irrigate without being afraid of bak- 
ing the soil. Having a nice crop of barley and 
making it to hay, one would increase the yield of 
that field considerably without hurting anything. 
— German Farmer, Yolo county. 

Although your theoretical considerations in 
favor of sowing alfalfa with barley seem to be 
very reasonable, it is a fact that California ex- 
perience indicates that the nurse crop should be 
done away with entirely. The chief reason for 
this is that the growing barley takes moisture 
from the alfalfa, causes it to start feebly and does 
not promote the deep rooting of the seedling plant 
which is desirable for a good stand. It is possible 
that the reduction of light may also restrict the 



leaf action, which would also tend to the limiting 
of root growth and general thrift in the plant. It 
is also possible that by the use of irrigation and 
cutting barley soon enough these objections might 
be reduced to a minimum; or possibly removed. 
The only way to determine this would be to try 
it, and as you have such a strong conviction in 
favor of the nurse crop, it would be desirable that 
you should test it out for yourself. Others have 
found it undesirable and have secured a better 
and stronger stand by giving the alfalfa the full 
possession of the land. 



Irrigation by Percolation. 

To the Editor : I wish to ask your advice on a 
matter of irrigation. My ranch is % by % mile 
in area. Along the shorter side there is a "ditch, 
and out of this ditch runs a lateral the length of 
the place. The ditches both have no outlets, and 
water does not run in them. The idea is that they 
shall be kept full of water, and irrigate the land 
by seepage. The main ditch is rather unsightly, 
but I fear to do away with it, because, from the 
contour of the land there is no other way to irri- 
gate a portion of the place at all, as the land is 
highest along this main ditch — too high, however, 
to be reached by flooding from the ditch. There is 
a vacant spot, 420 feet long by 130 feet deep, 
where I will put the dwelling and buildings. As 
I said, it is the highest ground. I have put down 
a well on this spot, 8 inches diameter, 140 feet 
deep. It ends in gravel. I have never had a big 
centrifugal pump on it, and do not know the vol- 
ume of water to be had. It has been suggested 
that I fill up this ditch, relying on the water I will 
take from the well to use for irrigating trees and 
a garden on the home spot, and to water the vine- 
yard. Again, I have been advised to put in six- 
inch tile, leaving the joints open, and what water 
leaks through these joints will do the work. The 
former owner of the place says to keep the ditch 
open and keep it filled with water, and it will sub- 
irrigate the whole vineyard down to the end, half 
a mile away. — Owner, San Joaquin. 

As nearly as we can judge the situation from 
your description, and it seems very clear, we 
should conclude that the former owner of the 
place is right concerning the keeping of a filled 
ditch for irrigation by underflow, rather than 
trusting to loosely laid tiles. The latter are apt to 
become filled by roots of all sorts, which will go 
to them from long distances for the sake of mois- 
ture, and will enter and fill the tiles, so that it 
might not be long before you would have to dig 
them out and re-lay ; in fact, you might have to do 
this at rather frequent intervals. You would also 
get freer movement of water from the open ditch 
than from tiles, and rather free movement is neces- 
sary when you are counting upon reaching such a 
considerable tract of land. It will, of course, de- 
pend much upon the soil and subsoil as to how 
satisfactory this system of underflow will prove. 
It is usually not a very satisfactory and even 
method of distribution, because some parts will 
get too much and some too little. You will cer- 
tainly have to use surface irrigation for some of 
the shallow rooting plants which you may wish to 
grow. 



Heat and Plants. 

To the Editor : How much heat will the leaves 
and blossoms of a fruit tre stand without injuring 
them in any way. Please give as complete infor- 
mation as you can. — Grower, Santa Clara. 

We cannot tell exactly how much heat, fruit 
blossoms will stand, but we have known them to 
go through a heat of 100 degrees in March with- 
out injury. How much more they will endure we 
do not know. As for the leaves, it depends upon 
the kind. Walnut and apple leaves, for instance, 
may be seriously injured by a temperature of 120 
degrees, while pear, peach, plum, apricot and 



grape may not be injured at all, providing the 
tree has moisture enough to compensate for the 
rapid evaporation at such temperatures. This is 
shown by the fact that these fruits are being suc- 
cessfully grown in places in California where such 
high temperature is reached. 



Grape Vine Knot. 

To the Editor : I understand that you published 
a remedy for black knot on vines some time ago 
before I began to keep my copies of the Rural 
Press. I would be very thankful if you would 
print it again, as I am bothered considerably with 
that disease. — Subscriber, Fresno county. 

As you have resolved to reform and will hence- 
forth keep every copy of the Rural and make 
good use of the index, we will gladly comply with 
your request. The treatment consists in remov- 
ing the knots with knife, chisel or hatchet, as 
seems most convenient, and painting the wound 
with Bordeaux mixture. This treatment has pre- 
vented the recurrence of the knot at that spot, 
but as for preventing its outbreak generally, 
nothing is at present known. 

The Bordeaux mixture can be made in this way : 
Dissolve 4 pounds of copper sulphate (blue stone, 
blue vitriol) in 25 gallons of water in a barrel, 
suspending it in a coarse gunny sack near the 
surface of the water. In a wooden pail slack 6 
pounds of fresh quick lime in sufficient water, 
then pour in another barrel and add enough water 
to make 25 gallons and slowly pour the two solu- 
tions simultaneously into a larger cask or tank 
from which it is used. Of course you can make 
any smaller or larger amounts by observing the 
same proportions of lime, bluestone and water. 



Cane Sugar and Grape Sugar. 

To the Editor : AVhy is it that commercial sugar 
cannot be produced from the California grapes if 
they contain from 24 to 32 per cent of sugar, as 
I am informed? It seems to me that this industrv 
could be developed on extensive plans if such 
sugar manufacturing is possible.— Enquirer, Stan- 
islaus county. 

The reason why commercial sugar is not pro- 
duced from grapes is because the sugar in the 
grape is glucose and not sucrose, or cane sugar. 
The sugar in the beet and the cane are identical, 
but not so with the grape. Glucose is a low-priced 
article, because it can be readily produced arti- 
ficially from the starch of corn and other grains. 
There is less demand for it than for cane sugar 
because it is not so sweet. 



Age of Nursery Trees. 

To the Editor: What difference does it make 
in planting an orchard whether the nursery trees 
are one or two years old from bud?— A Subscriber, 
San Jose. 

It makes all the difference between success and 
failure in most cases. The slower growing trees, 
like apples, pears and cherries, can be better used 
as two-year-olds than can the rapid growers, like 
the apricot, peach, almond, etc. If you are sure of 
moisture and are willing to do extra work in culti- 
vation, you can make two-year-olds go, as, for in- 
stance, in suburban garden planting, but nothing 
is so good as a well grown yearling with all the 
common deciduous fruits. 



Pecan on Walnut. 

To the Editor: Can the pecan be grafted or 
budded on the black walnut? The California 
black walnut grows very vigorously here, while 
the pecan is of a much slower growth and is a 
long time coming into bearing. — Reader, Mills. 

We hold that it cannot be done. Who objects 
to the statement? 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January '2, VM)9. 



<Ui7 Bf t. 



Horticulture. 



UNIVERSITY DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETA- 
BLES AND FRUIT. 



For many years, as our older readers know, the 
Agricultural* Department of the University has 
distributed for trial seeds and plants of varieties 
recently introduced, in order that their local value 
or wor'thlessness may be determined. It is not 
intended that such introductions shall take the 
phirr of standard varieties in the regular planting, 
nor do they take the place of the seed trade in 
any way. They are merely to be tried on the side, 
to see if any of them are worth planting for reg- 
ular supply! Nor are they offered, as the seeds in 
the congressional distribution are, as free gifts to 
friends of the lawmakers. The applicant is re- 
quired to pay a sum for what he is inclined to ex- 
periment with which is about equal to the price 
which seedsmen charge for standard varieties. All 
the details of the method of distribution can be 
had bv sending a postal card request for the "seed 
circular of 1908," to the Director of the Experi- 
ment Station at Berkeley. 

As these new varieties may represent in some 
cases important additions to our horticultural 
lists, it seems timely to give descriptions of their 
behavior during the preliminary trials which the 
rniversity horticulturists have made of them, in 
order that the reader may judge for himself of the 
desirability of his entering the co-operative effort 
to which the University invites all growers. 

Large White Bush Squash. — This variety is a 
selected form of the ordinary White Bush Scallop 
squash, and is much like the parent form, except 
that the fruits grow to a much larger size and are 
ateo borne in greater profusion. The stock has 
been rigidly selected for the two qualities just 
mentioned, and this year, the third selection, the 
type seems to be quite fixed. The variety known 
as the Mammoth White squash appears to be 
identical with this, but is offered because a com- 
parison has shown our selection to be certainly 
superior in point of productiveness. The seed has 
been saved from typical, well ripened fruits, none 
»f which had a diameter of less than nine inches. 

Selected Danvers Yellow Globe Onion.- A series 
of onion experiments conducted on the central sta- 
tion grounds at Berkeley has forcibly brought out 
the fact that the Danvers variety differs widely 
with the different seed stocks which are upon the 
market, and that the various strains have very 
unequal merit. This occurs because of the vary- 
ing, amount of care which is expended in the en- 
deavors to breed true to type and size by the dif- 
ferent seedsmen. It is the practice of the average 
«e'ed grower to grow seed from bulbs somewhat 
deficient in weight. As a result of this, there is 
bred into the seed an inherent tendency to produce 
bulbs of medium or small size, and the evil of this 
trait is very apparent when we recognize that all 
the fertilizing which onions receive is with the 
idea of effecting an increase in the size of the indi- 
vidual bulb, and thereby the tonnage per acre. It 
follows, then, that seed bred from only fair sized 
bulbs will require a greater expenditure of fer- 
tilizers in order to secure onions of marketable 
size, than will be the case when the seed is ob- 
tained from a stock bred intentionally to secure 
gf>odly dimension of bulb. 

.The point where the seed which we are offering 
differs from that which can be obtained from seed 
firms, is that our strain is bred for size, in addition 
to form and color. The seed is the progeny of 
bulbs which have been selected for three genera- 
tions for a combined excellence of form, coloring 
and size, particular attention having been paid to 
the latter feature. 

Sutton's Black Seeded Brown Bath Lettuce. — 

To assist the people of California in making their 
choice of a lettuce variety, we grew at Berkeley 
last year about fifty of what we considered the 
best -kinds. The idea was to ascertain which pos- 
jseesed'the greatest merit, and to then grow seed 
-of the selected varieties for distribution. Under 
trial it .proved that there was a very considerable 
difference between the varieties, and no difficulty 
.was. .experienced i« picking out. one or two varie- 
ties which were undoubtedly superior to all the 
others. This year we are only offering seed of one 



of the various types which were tested, the Cos, or 
so-called Romaine lettuce. Compared with the 
cabbage type, the Cos lettuce is hardier and less 
susceptible of frost, it shows more ability to with- 
stand drought, and is also less liable to sunburn, 
the last two features making it better adapted to 
hot and dry localities, while the first is one which 
especially recommends its use as a late kind. Sut- 
ton's Black Seeded Bath is an exceedingly tine let- 
tuce, growing to an immense size, and is to a cer- 
tain extent self-blanching. 

Carter's Daisy Pea.- Carter's Daisy is a pea of 
dwarf habit, rarely growing higher than thirty 
inches, is a prolific bearer, and the peas are of the 
wrinkled type and of delicious flavor. The vari- 
ety is essentially a pea for the home garden, and 
as such we offer it. 

Sutton's Champion Scarlet Horn Carrot. — This 
carrot, seed of which we first imported four years 
ago, has shown up so well when contrasted with 
many other varieties which we have had under 
trial, that we have no hesitancy in saying that it 
is one of the very best kinds for the home garden 
which has come before our notice. 

In growing vegetables for one's own table, qual- 
ity is the desideratum most desired. In carrots 
the French Short Horn is usually taken as the 
standard of table excellence, but Champion Scar- 
let Horn seems to have all the good qualities and 
best features of the French Short Horn plus quan- 
tity. This is our feature offering among vegeta- 
bles, and in this fine carrot we are sure we are 
introducing a most desirable addition to the vege- 
tables for the home garden in California. 

East Indian Musk Melons. — The station is in- 
debted to Mr. Hari Ram Gorowala, director of the 
Gwaliar Farming Syndicate. Quetta, Beluchistan, 
India, for a collection of seed of musk melong 
varieties which are of striking excellence in his 
country. They belong to the late maturing, long 
keeping class which we have come to call winter 
melons in distinction from the cantaloupe group. 
They are usually stored for a time after maturing, 
in order to acquire the qualities which the native 
growers most highly esteem in them, and they are 
so different from the varieties which are com- 
monly grown in this country that some experimen- 
tation will be required to determine how one can 
best handle and use them. 

New Apples Approved in Humboldt County.— 

We are indebted to Mr. Albert F. Etter of Brice- 
land, Humboldt county, for a generous offer to 
supply our correspondents with scions of several 
new apples which he has found notably good in his 
careful tests on his place at Ettersburg, in south- 
western Humboldt county, which is becoming an 
important apple growing region. Mr. Etter is a 
plant breeder who is achieving striking results in 
original work. He describes the varieties offered 
as follows : 

Mank's Codling. — Medium size, clear yellow 
with blush cheek in sun ; flesh white, fine grained, 
very firm and never gets mealy; abundant acid, 
juicy and ranks high as a kitchen fruit; also good 
dessert fruit but rather tart. Season, August 15 
to October 1. Tree dwarfish, compact, upright 
and a good bearer. Recommended for gardens 
where space is limited. 

Keinette Ananas. — Below medium size: deep 
yellow, resembling a small light-colored orange ; 
very juicy, acid and high flavored; never becomes 
mealy. Splendid Bor1 for canning, preserving and 
kitchen use generally; also fine for cider and des- 
sert, though rather tart. Season, September 20 
to January 1 Tree a good grower with very 
symmetrical spreading round head; a good bearer. 
Ought to be desirable for home use in the warmer 
parts of California. 

Northfield Beauty. — Resembling Jonathan in 
tree and fruit, but ripens with Gravenstein ; qual- 
ity high but not as acid as Gravenstein ; keeps and 
holds flavor w f ell for an early apple. Should be a 
desirable apple for either home use or market as 
a dessert fruit. 

No. 80 (Spy X Reinette) . — A winter apple ; quite 
acid and very desirable for kitchen use; striped 
with red and of the size of the Baldwin. Tree a 
good grower and bears well. 

Hyde's King. — Very desirable for wider trial in 
California ; large, bright yellow with blush cheeks : 
resistant to spring frosts and among the best keep- 
ers; flavor very good, but it does not remajn as 



well as with some varieties, remaining apparently 
in prime condition weeks after the flavor declines ; 
tree thrifty in growth and bears heavily ; fruit 
does not sunburn easily and hangs unusually well 
to the tree. 

We have given enough to enable readers of the 
Pacific Rural Press to see whether they desire to 
try any of these things or not. and if they do they 
are invited to send for the detailed circular of 
distribution mentioned at the beginning of this 
statement. 



Citrus Fruits. 



THOUGHTS SUGGESTED BY THE COLD 
SPELL. 



Written for the Pacific Rubal Press 
By Mr. Thomas C. Wallace. 

During the winter we always have cold spells 
of more or less severity, and the recent cold wave 
in the citrus belt is now a subject of discussion. 
That this is a sort of annual discussion makes it 
no less interesting, as the points that arise are not 
by any means settled in the minds of growers. It 
is true that the element of excitement noticeable 
in the earlier yfars of orange growing in Califor- 
nia has given way to calmer thought, as the re- 
sults of such cold as we have are observed to be 
less significant than formerly thought. It is also 
true that the bulk of the citrus properties are now 
on higher lands than many of the old groves occu- 
pied, and man}' of the colder regions have been 
permanently abandoned and turned to alfalfa and 
other farming for which protection from cold is 
not needed. On well selected orange lands the 
recent cold wave has not materially damaged the 
fruit or the trees, and even on many orchards con- 
sidered in the "cold streak" no harm has resulted. 
There are many theories advanced for methods of 
protection, all of which may have some basis of 
fact, but generally they are not well understood 
and formulated. For instance, the theory that 
running water over the soil will protect the trees 
is without sound foundation, though there are hap- 
hazard experiments which seem to point proof of 
it. It is, however, true that an orchard, the soil of 
which is not well stored deep with water, will suf- 
fer from cold that will do no harm to trees in 
soil from which they can fully supply themselves 
with water. The reason for this is that the low 
temperature causes a more rapid transpiration of 
moisture from the leaves and fruit, which induces 
a loss of warmth. This allows an easier penetra- 
tion of cold, even to the extent of congealing the 
sap within the cell as well as without the cell 
walls. If. however, the tree can draw water from 
the deeper soil, which is warmer than the surface 
in continued cold weather, to replace the waste, 
such low temperatures as our winters experience 
do no appreciable harm. If. therefore, a soil is dry 
an irrigation will greatly help to save the trees 
from cold. As I have pointed out previously in 
these columns, there are many trees in which arti- 
ficial pans in the soil have been formed, and in 
such the storage of water is limited to the depth 
of the pan, and these orchards commonly suffer 
from any severe cold wave, and are not saved by 
temporary surface saturation. In fact, saturation 
of the surface of a soil the drainage of which is 
checked by a sub-pan, is a positive detriment, as it 
drives the air out of the soil and estops rather 
than helps the absorption of water by the trees. 
Irrigating the orchard after the cold spell is on a 
par with locking the door after the horse has 
escaped. There is another point of interest for 
growers to think of. It is known that the more 
concentrated the cell sap the higher temperature 
required to freeze it. This shows that feeding the 
tree with the important ingredients of nourish- 
ment is one of the means of assisting it to with- 
stand low temperature. The opinions on smudg- 
ing are varied between those who hold it as effec- 
tive, those who ridicule it as useless, those who 
think that its office is in the protection of the trees 
from the rays of the sun in the early morning to 
prevent rapid thawing, and those who have no spe- 
cial opinion, but just resort to it for fear it may be 
good. Smudging with smoke is of very ancieut 



January 2, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL. PRESS. 



date, and was known to Pliny and practiced in 
Peru before the time of Columbus. The office of 
the smoke is to check radiation of heat, which 
takes place as the cold settles and displaces the 
warmth which arises from the ground and the 
plant life. This checks the cold wave and pre- 
serves the warmth. Here again is food for thought. 
If the soils are well supplied with organic matter, 
the heat arising from its decomposition raises the 
temperature of the atmosphere in the orchard, 
which takes more and longer continued cold to 
force out, so that an orchard well supplied with 
organic material will resist a longer spell of cold 
than a bare' mineral soil. Again, this is an argu- 
ment in favor of cover crops, which give off much 
heat, and so long as they do not seriously inter- 
fere with the water supply for the trees, are an 
advantage, and not a detriment as some have sup- 
posed. If the soil is well supplied with deep 
water there is nothing to fear from the loss of 
such moisture as is absorbed by the cover crop. 
From my observation, I favor co-operative smudg- 
ing, which should include practically the whole 
section or orchards in the district. This could 
probably be done exclusively on the roads, and 
without entering the orchards with apparatus, 
mikI the cost of it would be individually light if 
conducted on a community plan. It is not neces- 
sary that the smudge shall be smoke, as any kind 
of fog will effect the same result. The trouble 
with smoke is that the material used for fire may 
contain more or less compounds which, not being 
consumed, may settle on the fruit, and, as making 
smoke pre-supposes imperfect combustion, some 
material that will create a fog that will not deposit 
a smut is essential for clean smudging. The re- 
sults of too much cold on an orchard are observ- 
able in the wilting of immature growth which has 
not hardened to stand winter weather, and the 
falling of fruit. The first fruit that falls is that 
which is weak from any defect which would have 
consigned it to the cull box in the packing house. 
Good fruit on a healthy tree seldom falls as the 
result of cold, except the soils are deficient in 
water to enable the tree to maintain or promptly 
restore turgidity, on which the useful effects of 
watering frozen plants is based. A temperature 
low and continued long enough to free an orange 
on a tree will not usually cause it to fall if other 
conditions of the tree are perfect. An orange on 
a healthy tree may be frozen quite hard and re- 
main on the tree until dried up to a condition of 
skin and punk, so when the grower sees his oran- 
ges fall as the seeming result of cold weather, he 
may be sure that there are other defects to remedy 
in his orchard. 



Agricultural Science. 



THE POSSIBILITIES OF PLANT IMPROVE- 
MENT IN CALIFORNIA. 

By Dr. G. W. Shaw of the University Experiment 
Station at the State Farmers' Institute on 
the University Farm at Davis. 

It is the intention in this paper to endeavor to 
press home the importance of a line of Experiment 
Station work in California which, in the light of 
modern agricultural development, bids fair to 
have a more far-reaching effect upon the produc- 
ing power of our farms than almost any other 
single line of effort. 

It is doubtful if there is any one agricultural 
problem of greater importance to fanners than 
the improvement of their general and special 
crops, whether this be done through the introduc- 
tion of higher producing varieties or the develop- 
ment of more productive strains from those now 
being grown, or through improved culture. Vil- 
morin, the noted French savant, who has done so 
much for the improvement of the sugar beet, states 
that "no limit can be fixed as to the improvement 
which may be expected from care, thought and 
selection. The gains of the last dozen years may 
surely be taken as the forerunner of better- 
things. " 

The subject is of vital commercial importance 
from the fact that it cost no more to grow the 
better sorts of farm crops than the unimproved, 
while the increased production due to the use of 
the improved seed results in an increment of profit. 



It further awakens in the grower more interest 
in all phases of crop production, extending all the 
way from selection of seed to the marketing of 
the crop. 

The constantly increasing extension of areas 
devoted to agriculture has led to a constant de- 
mand of improved sorts of plants to meet the 
peculiar conditions of soil and climate in each 
new region. We are coming more and more to 
realize that all plants are not adapted to all sorts 
of conditions. 

Another very potent reason for this character 
of investigation is resident in the constantly in- 
creasing value of farm lands on which are grown 
general farm crops of corn, wheat, oats, barley, 
alfalfa, beans, etc. The increase in the value of 
the lands has been such that it is urgently neces- 
sary to increase .the production per acre and im- 
prove the quality of these crops in order to se- 
cure a greater return for the investment. 

With the advance in botany and chemistry in 
their application the agriculturist today, if he does 
not find at hand plants of the desired characteris- 
tics, proceeds to develop a plant to suit the con- 
ditions. It may take a period of 5, 10 or 20 years 
to accomplish the particular thing desired, yet 
how short a time is this when measured against 
the resulting benefits to mankind ! 

On account of the very large number of people 
interested in the production of the general farm 
crops in any system of diversified agriculture, 
which is the only system under which soil fertility 
can be permanently maintained, the results of such 
improvement will have a very far-reaching effect. 
The importance of this character of work is funda- 
mental as regards the individual, the State and 
the Nation, because the production of such crops 
is the basis of the Nation's prosperity. 

Those who have earnestly and intelligently un- 
dertaken the improvement of any plant for a 
period of ten or twenty years are unanimous in 
their belief that an increase of at least ten per 
cent can be expected with absolute certainly 
within a period of twenty years, and that this can 
be secured at a cost of less than one per cent of 
the value, and in many cases at even much less. 
This increase in productiveness is entirely apart 
from that secured through the adoption of better 
methods of tillage, and entirely independent of 
the trial of new varieties from other parts of the 
world, in which there are as great, if not greater, 
possibilities than in the improvement by selection 
alone, and certainly in this direction we may ex- 
pect to get the earliest return. 

Possibility of Securing Results. — For the im- 
provement of already existing types two methods 
are commonly relied upon: 

1. Variation in the plants induced directly or 
indirectly through environment. 

2. Varieties induced by crossing different va- 
riety or species. 

The former method has given by far the most 
important economic results, although the latter 
requires the higher skill of the breeder's art. 

But the question comes, what evidence have we 
to offer as to the possibilities of valuable economic 
results? The answer is that this lies in results 
which have already been obtained through the 
medium of independent workers and also a num- 
ber of the Agricultural Experiment Stations. It is 
pertinent to the occasion to pass in review a few 
of these achievements as they have affected both 
the yield and quality of the product. 

Perhaps the most noted example of improve- 
ment in quality is furnished by the sugar beet, 
which through persistent and continued selection 
and scientific grooming has been gradually de- 
veloped to a delicate, high-bred pedigreed root 
frequently under our favorable climate carrying 
twenty per cent or more of sugar, this develop- 
ment having been accomplished from a four per 
per cent original basis. A most striking example 
of the flexibility of living forms of matter when 
subjected to systematic and persistent selection. 

The effect of this achievement has been to 
change the entire aspect of the world's sugar sup- 
ply to such an extent that the bulk of this has 
been shifted from the cane to the beet root, until 
today two-thirds of our sugar is from the beet. 

The development of a high starch-content potato 
by Cimbals, a German, is another marked aehive- 
nient in the direction of improvement of the carbo- 
hydrate ingredients of plants. In this case the 



yield was raised from 96 ewt. per acre to 224, 
and the starch content from 15 to 26 per cent; 
that is, a production of over 58 cwt. of starch per 
acre. The starch yield per acre was made four 
times as great — a very important factor in Ger- 
many, where potatoes for the manufacture of de- 
natured alcohol distilleries, starch factories and 
other industrial uses are sold on the basis of starch 
content. 

Sea Island Cotton. — Cotton has long been one of 
the staple crops of this country, but it is only in 
comparatively recent years that it has received 
any very systematic attempt at improvement. At 
the outset the sea-island cotton imported from the 
West Indies was a perennial unsuited to the dura- 
tion of the season of the sea islands of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, where it seldom matured fruit. 
Through the continued selection of seed from early 
maturing plants and through better methods of 
culture this valuable cotton has now been thor- 
oughly adapted to the new environment. Not only 
is this true, but under this painstaking work the 
quality and length of fibre has been increased and 
the proportion of seed to lint decreased. The fibre 
from unselected plants is only 1% to 2 inches long, 
while that from selected plants is 2 l /> inches long 
and much more silky in texture. The value of this 
will be appreciated when it is known that these 
long fibre staples from the rigidly selected plants 
command a much higher price than that from the 
general crop, the finest grades selling for 50 to 
60 cents per pound, as against 15 to 30 cents for 
ordinary sea island. Another point of particular 
significance to agriculture is that the practice of 
careful selection of seed has grown up with this 
industry, and today may be said to be inseparable 
from it. Who will undertake to estimate the 
added wealth to the Nation or State if this was 
the universal practice with other crops? 

Work with Cereals. — There might be mentioned 
cases where a change has been brought about in 
the odor and color of plants and the development 
of relatively disease-resistant strains. Further, 
the increase of the hardness of the winter wheats 
has vastly extended the area over which they can 
now be grown. 

Without any attempt to figure the value of such 
improvement of plants as mentioned above 
through the modern application of experimental 
agronomy, let us examine a few others as to the 
financial side a little closer in search for an answer 
to the question, Does it pay the State and Nation 
to invest in this character of work ? 

Some of the most striking examples when meas- 
ured by the economic importance have been ob- 
tained in the Middle West, where the States were 
the first to realize the importance of this line of 
investigation, and early and continually appropri- 
ated money for its uninterrupted prosecution, and 
they are now reaping a rich harvest from a com- 
paratively small outlay, in a number of instances 
$1 expended creating an added wealth of $1000 
to the State's resources. They have now been 
prosecuting the work for a sufficient length of 
time so that new varieties are rapidly coming for- 
ward, and from the general work of plant intro- 
duction and improvement which promises to add 
annually tens of millions of dollars to their pro- 
ducts. 

Minnesota No. 13 corn, which was the first new 
variety distributed in that State and which has 
been an important factor in extending the north- 
ern zone of the dent corn belt to the northward, 
has certainly added millions of bushels to that 
crop. Improved Glyndon wheat (No. 163), the 
product of a single selected plant, now covers mil- 
lions of acres annually and adds a dollar or more 
per acre to the value of the crop. No. 169 wheat. 
a later distribution, adds two dollars per acre to 
the value of the crop and has already covered a 
million or more acres. 

Primost flax No. 25 has added $3 per acre, or 
25 per cent, to the value of flax in Minnesota and 
has reached an acreage of tens of thousands. 

These breeding and testing stations have also 
aided in introducing Manshury and Oderbrucker 
barley, brome grass, various types of alfalfa, 
durum wheat, Swedish oats and other plants of 
value which are taking prominent place in adding 
to the value of the staple field crops of the North- 
west. 

[Next week the financial aspects of plant im- 
provements will be discussed. — Editor. 1 



6 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



January if, 1909. 




SEASON 1908-9. 

ORDER NOW FOR FUTURE 
DELIVERY. 

If your trees are purchased 
from the Fancher Creek Nurseries 
they will be true to name, well de- 
veloped, with good roots. 

FOR 25 YEARS we have been 
engaged in growing reliable nur- 
sery stock. Our thorough knowl- 
edge of every branch of the busi- 
ness makes it possible for us to 
raise and deliver stock that meets 
the demands of this country, and 
gives satisfaction to growers. 

Last season we did the largest 
business in our history. This 
year our stock of DECIDUOUS. 
CITRUS and ORNAMENTAL 
TREES, GRAPE VINES and 
ROSE BUSHES is more complete 
and better than ever. 

We are sole propagators and 
disseminators of LUTHER BUR- 
BANK'S NEW CREATIONS 
Valuable Burbank booklet, illus- 
trated in colors, mailed for 25c. 

SALESMEN WANTED. 

PAID-UP CAPITAL V 200.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

GeO C ROeding Pres. & Mgr. 

Box 18 Fresno.California.USAl 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



MRS. L. L. CROCKER, Proprietress 

Loomis, Cal. 

The celebrated Crocker Bartlett Pear, 
guaranteed immune from blight. 

Golden Rule Summer Apple, dormant 
buds. 

Crocker's New Free Peach, 50 cents 

each; 5,000 left. 
Deciduous Trees and Grape Vines. 

Winegrowers, Take Notice 

I am now receiving orders for 

GRAFTED VINES 

imported from France. Guaranteed to be 
first choice, and free from suckers. 

Orders should be sent before the first of 
November to insure the arrival in time for 
planting. 

Q. de LATOUR, 

Rutherford, Cal. 



TREES 



STANISLAUS 
NURSERY 

Pormerly Analy Nursery, of Sebastopol. 

T. J. TRUE, Modesto, R. D. 1 

PRICE L18T ON APPLICATION. 

PACIFIC SEED CO., 

Kinds of seeds, bulbs, onion sets, aniss, '-lover, al-. 
raKa seedB.- 609 J. St., Sacramento, Cal. Bend 
for catalogue. . . (*>.• 



HORTICULTURE. 

T. A. Murray of El Doraao county has 
an order from the government for 40,000 
of his strawberry plants. 

The first three pools of oranges from 
the Oroville citrus section sold in the 
East at good prices, netting the growers 
| $2 per box f. o. b. 

Berry growers from Bend, Tehama 
county, perfected the organization of a 
marketing association last week. Sixteen 
berry growers have already signed up. 

Congressman Needham is endeavoring 
to secure a tariff on citron shipped into 
this country. In southern California 
there is considerable of this fruit raised. 

Sacramento valley will make the finest 
display of dried fruits at Seattle next 
year ever attempted by any community. 
Already over one carload of fruit is 
pledged for the display. 

A $4000 addition to the Redlands Grow- 
ers' Cash Association building has been 
commenced. One of the improvements to 
be made is a fruit cooling room which will 
do the work in nature's way. 

Three new walnut associations are to 
be formed in Orange county soon to han- 
dle the next season's crop. Orange, Tus- 
tin and Capistrano are the towns where 
the associations are to be formed. 

It is stated that the Limoneira Co. of 
Santa Paula will set out 200 acres to 
lemons the coming season. This com- 
pany already has 400 acres in full bear- 
ing lemons and 200 acres of young trees. 

The supervisors of Santa Clara county 
have appropriated $1500 to be used to as- 
sist in a campaign to exterminate thrips 
in that county. These little pests have 
caused great loss and the effort to be 
made to eradicate them will be thorough. 

Down in the Imperial valley the Braw- 
ley Fruit Growers' Association has rented 
its packing shed, which has the distinc- 
tion of being the largest cantaloupe pack- 
ing shed in the world, to the H. Woods 
Co., and the members will ship as indi- 
viduals through this company. 

An experimental cold storage car has 
been built by the Agricultural Depart- 
ment at Washington which is capable of 
producing a temperature of 15 degrees 
below zero. The car will be sent to Cali- 
fornia and Florida to conduct experiments 
with fruit by cooling it immediately at 
the orchards. 

According to the county statistician, 
Kings county goes heavy on raising 
peaches, there being 257,600 bearing and 
114,700 non-bearing peach trees there, 
the total number of fruit trees of all 
kinds in that county being 593,100. Over 
8000 acres are devoted to grapes, mostly 
of raisin varieties. 

According to H. F. Stoll, secretary of 
the Grape Growers' Association of Cali- 
fornia, nearly all of the wine grape grow- 
ers in the leading sections of the State 
have joined his organization. In the 
upper San Joaquin valley many thousands 
of acres are represented in the organiza- 
tion. In San Bernardino county, southern 
California, 17,500 acres of grapes were 
signed ; in Fresno county he has made a 
good start and expects soon to perfect his 
organization there. 

A new use has been found for the 
apricot pit kernel, which has become such 
a large factor commercially at Winters. 
On Christmas day a prominent family 
giving a dinner there used the apricot 
kernel fcr dressing and it was found to 
be most excellent, and from this a num- 
ber of others are coming to use the pit 



IVIILL 

Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine. 



xo 



Orange 

and Lemon. 



Nursery Stock 
and Alfalfa. 



Fertilizers. 




IVI AIM 

Importers ol 

IMitrate of Soda 
Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Double Manure Salts 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 



Hawaiian Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 



Works 

Honolulu and San Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



REX YOUR TREES WITH 

LIME & SULPHUR SOLUTION 

The well known REX LIME & SULPHUR SOLUTION manufactured by the 
California Rex Spray Company, at Benlela, In no longer an experiment. Of 
the thouaandM of customers that lined It last year, we have scarcely a single 
report but what Is In Its favor. 

It Is the best known Insecticide and fungicide; is a tonic to the tree; Is 
prepared on scientific principles; Is absolutely uniform; every bnrrel that Is 
made at the factory being of just the same strength, namely, 33% solution, 
Iliiiime test; is free from sediment; Is ready for use In the orchnrd without 
hnviug to be boiled; one barrel of !>0 gallons makes <IOO gallons of the strongest 
spray, and Is by far cheaper, at the reduced price at which It Is offered this 
year, than any farmer can afford to make a home-made, imperfect solution. 

Ask your dealer, or address: 

CALIFORNIA REX SPRAY CO. YAKIMA REX SPRAY CO. 

Benicia, Cal. N. Yakima, Wash. 

THE TOLEDO REX SPRAY CO., Toledo, Ohio. 
THE REX COMPANY, Omaha, Neb. 



IT'S FREE 

BONE A1MD BLOOD FERTILIZER 

' FERTILIZE FOR PROFIT.' 

It's the i. suits that count In farming and our Fertilizers product- POSITIVE KKSL'LTS, 
that show In the QUALITY of the products as well as the ijl'ANTlTY. Orange and other 
Qruit growers and farmers all over the CoaBt highly recommend our fertilizers as producing 
the grandest results In quantity, quality of products, and profits. 

Write for Catalogue and Prices. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

OFFICE : 444 Pine SI., San Francisco, Cal. FACTORIES : San Francisco and Oakland. 



ORCHARDISTS and 
FARMERS 



who have used our goods once, will always come to us for their fertilizers. We are 
making a special study of plant life and are therefore In a position to manufacture 
fertilizers that exactly meet the requirements of each plant. Let us know what you 
Intend to plant, and we will name your special compositions. Write for our new 
booklet " The Farmers Friend," for 1909. 

THE PACIFIC GUANO & FERTILIZER COMPANY 

268E Market St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



THE MARSHALL NURSERIES 

FOR FRUIT TREES, GRAPEVINES, 
PALMS, ROSES. 

FULL LINE OF EVERYTHING GROWN BY US. 

S. W. Marshall & Son, Nurserymen. 

BOX 652, FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 



Grafted Walnut Trees 

On Black, Soft-shell and Resistant Roots. 
Seedlings, Citrus, Deciduous, Berry Bushes, etc. 

A. R. RIDEOUT, MAGNOLIA NURSERY, WHITTIER, CAL. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Large Stock— All Varieties 
Hardy and Selected Rapid Growers 
Write for free Illustrated booklet. 
LLOYD R. TAYLOR, Modesto, cm. 



January 2, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Ready 

To 

Ship 

10,000 Superlative Rasp- 
berry, 2 years old 

10,000 Plum Farmer Rasp- 
berry, 1 year old 

50,000 Crimson Winter 
Rhubarb, 1 year old 

100,000 Strawberry Plants 

5,000 Penderosa Lemons 

Also Trees, Seeds, Bulbs, Etc., Etc., Etc. 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 



Send for Catalogue— Ready. 

A. MUTING, Nurseryman 

17 to 25 Kennan St., Santa Cruz, Cal. 



TREES 

Peach Trees 



In connection with our large as- 
sortment of Nursery Stock, we have 
a surplus of extra choice, bright, 
thrifty, well-rooted stock in Muir, 
Lovell, Phillip and Tuscan Cling and 
Elberta Peaches, all grades, includ- 
ing 4 to 6, 3 to 4, 2 to 3 foot and 18 
to 24, 12 to 18 and 6 to 12 inch stock. 

Shipments made promptly. 

CAPITAL CITY NURSERY CO., 
Salem, Oregon. 

EUCALYPTUS EXPERT RETURNED. 

Mr. R. S. Webb has just returned 
from Australia with an abundant sup- 
ply of seeds of the various Eucalypts, 
together with practical information 
from the forests, the mills and the 
manufacturers of Australia. He is 
now in charge of the Eucalyptus 
nurseries of 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO., 

113 N. Main St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

CRIMSON WINTER RHUBARB 

Now Is good time to plant pedigreed plants only. 
81.60 per doz; $6 per 100; $40 per 1000. 



All kinds of small fruit and berry plants, 

J. B. WAGNER, Pasadena, Cal. 

The Rhubarb and Berry Specialist. Dept. I. 



for cooking purposes. Other experi- 
mental work is being done with the pits 
with a view of increasing their value, 
which already is quite a boon to the 
growers. 

Thirty-three million dollars is the value 
of the California fruit crop marketed 
during 1908. Oranges and lemons brought 
$24,375,000. Deciduous fruUs was the 
next largest item, amounting to $8,325,000, 
which does not count the apple crop 
valued at $1,075,000. The past year noted 
the largest crop of fruit ever raised in 
the State, though prices were not as good 
as in 1907. 

AGRICULTURE. 

The Alameda Sugar Company has made 
contracts with farmers of Lodi to plant 
a large acreage to sugar beets the coming 
season. 

It is stated that six thousand acres of 
land in district 70, Sutter county, will be 
planted to sugar beets the coming season. 
The crop will be sent to the Hamilton 
sugar factory. 

The U. S. Plant Introduction Gardens 
at Chico are soon to receive ten carloads 
of bamboo from Japan. This shipment 
is the largest ever brought to this country 
and all will be planted and experimented 
with to secure the best varieties for com- 
mercial purposes. 

The celery crop in the southern part of 
the State is maturing slowly, although 
planted at the usual time. Some growers 
will not commence to harvest till next 
month. The demand in the East is heav- 
ier than usual, and as the acreage is short 
the growers will have a good season. 

LIVE STOCK. 

Heavy shipments of beef cattle and mut- 
ton sheep are being made from Yolo 
county to San Francisco. 

San Diego county produced during the 
past year 000,000 pounds of butter, valued 
at $180,000. There are in that county 250 
dairies and four creameries. 

It is announced that the R. H. Timm 
dairy of Dixon, Solano county, has been 
equipped in model style and the product 
from there will be put up and sold in 
the Bay cities as certified milk. 

The stockmen of Tehama county are to 
hold a meeting at Red Bluff today to 
organize an association for the county. 
One of the objects of the organization is 
to have the stock interests work in har- 
mony with the forestry service on public 
grazing lands. 

Frank A. Garcia, the pioneer sheep 
owner of Fresno county, died there last 
week, aged 60 years. At one time he had 
a sheep camp on the present site of the 
county court house. In those days Fresno 
was not in existence and Millerton was 
the county seat. 

A company of Los Angeles men has 
purchased the Sargent cattle ranch of 
7800 acres, located near the San Joaquin 
river northwest of Stockton. The land is 
now largely overflowed, but the new own- 
ers propose to buid 25 miles of levees and 
reclaim the land. 

At its regular meeting, January 4, the 
city council of Marysville will pass an 
ordinance regulating the sale of milk in 
that city. The new law provides for 
cleanliness in the dairy, washing the cows' 
udder and teats, proper straining of milk, 
and also regular testing of cows for tuber- 
culosis and lumpy jaw. 

Seay and Hollaway have contracted 
with Henry Miller to construct a barn 
56x68 feet on his farm just south of Gil- 
roy known as Reeve ranch. One side will 
be comfortably stalled for horses, the 
other for calves, the center being ar- 
ranged for hay. 

Tulare Register: A. S. Avila, a dairy- 
man of this neighborhood, received a 
cream check for $306.75, and being asked 



how many cows had helped him to get 
the money he said there were 31. This 
is nearly $10 per cow. We mention this 
not because it is better than other dairies 
can show, for perhaps others can beat it. 
The point that we want to make is that 
this earning was during a season of the 
year when feed is short. 

Superintendent Waugh, of the Parrott 
Grant, in Butte county, received by Wells- 
Fargo express from New York last week 
two stallions and two mares of Percheron 
draught stock, direct from La Perche, 
France. They are of the full-blooded type 
and will be used for breeding purposes. 

The Tehama County Live Stock Asso- 
ciation recently passed resolutions asking 
that stock taken up as estrays be adver- 
tised in local papers, that stock going to 
and from range on the public highways 
be not subject to the estray laws, and that 
railways be required to furnish cars for 
shipment in reasonable time. 

Dr. James Withycombe, head of the O. 
A. C. experiment station, says to dairy- 
men: "Oregon is destined to be a great 
dairying State, probably the greatest in 
the nation, but before we can reach this 
distinction the dairy herds of Oregon 
must be characterized by a larger per- 
centage of special-purpose diary cows." 

The Press says the Imperial Valley 
Milk Co. will erect at Brawley a building 
30x50 feet as the beginning of its plant 
which will handle dairy products. A 
skimming station is to be installed at 
once, and later it is planned to enlarge 
the plant into a creamery and cheese fac- 
tory, and possibly a condensed milk fac- 
tory. The company proposes to furnish 
cows to ranchers on small payments and 
to generally foster the development of the 
dairying business in the northern end of 
the valley. 

In his biennial report to the Governor, 
State Veterinarian Charles Keane says 
that the sheep-dipping department reports 
2,981,621 separate animals dipped, of 
which 1,589,505 were dipped by State in- 
spectors and 1,392,116 by the federal in- 
spectors. Of these animals dipped more 
than once there were enough to make 
5,224,975 dippings altogether. The sheep 
enter winter quarters in fine shape, but 
it will take several years to show the 
great value of the work done in the past 
two years. In the cattle tick eradication 
the following territory and counties have 
been cleaned up and released from quar- 
antine: Merced, Nevada, Kern, Tulare, 
and Kings counties. Fresno and San Ber- 
nardino counties have been placed on half 
quarantine, while provisional jurisdiction 
is effective in Santa Barbara, Ventura, 
Los Angeles and Riverside counties. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The seventeenth annual National Irri- 
gation Congress will be held at Spokane 
August 9 to 14 next. 

The Las Aguilas rancho in San Benito 
county was purchased last week by W. B. 
McCreery from the Donnelly estate and 
J. F. Dunne. 

Two hundred thousand Chinook salmon 
eggs were sent from Tehama recently to 
the government of Argentina, the fish 
eggs being from the government fish 
hatchery on Mill creek. 

The Monterey Packing Company has 
just closed its work for the season after 
making the most successful run in its 
history. Over 1000 tons of sardines have 
been packed and canned since about 
August 1. 



DOLLAR STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Have you anv cents (sense) ? then plant the Dol- 
lar for profit. S'rong, healthy runners from 
new plantation, $3 per thousand. 

A. H. BRYDGES. Loomis, Cal. 



CHOICE WINTER PEARMAIN APPLES. 

SO lb. box, 4 tier, $1.00; 4V4 tier, 75c. 
P. O. II. Family or«ler« solicited. 
W. H. HANNIBAL, R D. 1, San Jose. Cal. 




Greater productiveness of tree9 
—larger, cleaner, and finer fruit 
— more money. Isn't that fruit 
growers' reasoning? Nothing 
will contribute to this end more 
than effective spraying. And 
Effective Spraying can best be 
attained with 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

Effective spraying means 
High Pressure Spraying and 
till the advent of the Bean 
Magics a high pressure could not 
be maintained with a hand pump 
for any length of time, on account 
of the body-racking effort 
needed to operate it. The Bean 
patent spring divides the work 
between the two strokes of the 
handle and works against only 
one-half the pressure shown on 
the gauge and saves exactly 
one-third the labor. 

Our illustrated catalog No. 21 de- 
scribes ten sizes of hand pumps, and 
contains much valuable spray infor- 
mation, and formulas. Catalog No. 
22 describes Power Sprayers. Both 
books sent free. Write for our spe» 
cial offer; state number of acres and 
kind of fruit. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO. 

2 1 1 West Julian Street 
San Jose, Cal. 



SIX of the Most Valuable 
New Fruits 

EVER INTRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA. 

"IMPROVED FRENCH" PRUNE. Origi- 
nated by Luther Burbank. 

"CONCORD" WALNUT. French variety. 
Grafted trees only. Better than 
Franquette or Mayette. 

"PAUL" CHERRY. Finest black cherry. 

"PHILIPPI" GRAPE. Handsomer than To- 
kay; a month earlier. Disinfected 
cuttings only for sale; to comply 
with quarantine regulations. 
All these, like Muir, Lovell, and Phillips 

Cling peaches, are of California origin. 

"COMET" RED CURRANT. Much larger, 
earlier and sweeter than any other. 

"MAY-DUKE" GOOSEBERRY. Earliest of 
all; large, smooth skin. 

WRITE FOR FURTHER PARTICULARS 



EUCALYPTUS TREES, 

by the 1000 or 100,000; no stronger stock; 
grown in the open, without lath screen or 
shade; therefore hardened to all weather. 



GENERAL NURSERY STOCK 



LEONARD COMES NURSERY CO., Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. INCORPORATED 1905. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara County, Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grafted or grown from carefully selected 
seed. Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



SPECIAL LOW PRICE 

on Apple and Peach trees, Thompson 
Seedless and Zinfandel rooted Grape 
Vines, and assortment of Berry Vines. 
Write us for prices, stating tpuantity 
desired. 

GRIDLEY COLONY NURSERY, Gridley, Cal. 



8 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2, 1909. 



UNCLE SAM'S FARM. 



James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, 
in his twelfth annual report to the 
President, presents in review the won- 
derful progress made during that period 
in the United States; of the enormous 
wealth, running into billions, created by 
the farmer and improvements secured in 
the working and perfecting of soil. The 
report in part is as follows: 

The farm value of all farm products 
of 1908 reaches the most extraordinary 
total in the nation's history — $7,778,000,- 
000. This is about four times the value 
of the products of the mines, including 
mineral oils and precious metals. The 
farmer contributes 87 per cent of the raw 
materials used in those manufacturing 
industries which depend mostly or con- 
siderably upon agricultural materials, and 
these industries use 42 per cent of all ma- 
terials used in all industries. 

The gain in value of farm products in 
1908 over 1907 is $290,000,000 and would 
have been much larger had not the prices 
of cotton and hay been low. The value 
of products in 1899, the census year, being 
taken at 100, the value for 1903 stands at 
125; for 1904, at 131; for 1905, at 134; for 
1906, at 143; for 1907, at 159; and for 
1908, at 165. During the last ten years 
the wealth production on the farms of 
this country has exceeded the fabulous 
sum of $60,000,000,000. 

Individual Ckoi\s. — Greatest of all crops 
is Indian corn, whose production this year 
is 2,643,000,000 bushels. The value of 
this crop is $1,615,000,000. This crop is 
worth this year nearly as much as the 
great crops of cotton, hay and wheat com- 
bined. Compared with the averages of 
the preceding five years the quantity is 2 
per cent higher and the value 43 per cent 
higher. 

It seems likely that the cotton crop is 
one of the highest three ever produced, 
but with a value next to the highest or 
perhaps more, although the farm price of 
cotton this year is below the price of last 
year by more than one cent. 

For the first time in the history of this 
country's agriculture, the value of the 
cotton crop, including seed, has appar- 
ently exceeded the value of the hay crop, 
which has heretofore held second place. 

The greatest hay crop in history has 
been gathered this year, 68,000,000 tons, 
or 12 per cent above the average of the 
preceding five years. Its price is $2 per 
ton less than it was a year ago, but still 
the farm value of the crop is $621,000,000, 
or 6 per cent above the five-year average. 

Wheat is 1V!> per cent above the five- 
year average in production and 2 per cent 
above in total value. The 660,000,000 
bushels of this crop are estimated to be 
worth $620,000,000 to the farmers, or 
$66,000,000 more than the most valuable 
wheat crop heretofore produced. 

Although the oat crop suffered from 
drought the value is $321,000,000 for 789,- 
000,000 bushels, or 10 per cent above the 
five year average value and 9 per cent 
below the average product. 

The barley crop, 167,000,000 bushels, is 
13 per cent above the five-year average 
and its value, $86,000,000, is 23 per cent 
above. Both have been exceeded only 
once. 

Rye remains in the notch that it has 
occupied in production in recent years, 
but its value, $22,000,000. is 17 per cent 
above the average. 

The largest crop of rice ever raised, 
3^,000,000 bushels, is this year's with a 
value of about $18,000,000, the crop being 
29 per cent above the five-year average, 
and its value is 23 per cent above. 

Foreign Trade.— The exports of agricul- 
tural products In the fiscal year 1908 
were valued at $1,017,000,000, an amount 
greater than for years except 1907, the 



reduction of $37,000,000 under that year 
being chiefly due to the falling off in 
value of cotton exports. 

The natural increase of the population 
of the United States, native born of native 
parents, that is, by excess of births over 
deaths, is now regarded as about 1V4 per 
cent per year, or about 12'i per cent for 
ten years. It is about 8 per cent for ten 
years in Europe, excluding Russia and 
Turkey. Therefore it is inferred that no 
one need fear that the farmers will ever 
be unable to provide for this country's 
population, the assumption being that the 
disturbing element of immigration will 
eventually cease. 

Wage Increase.— From 1895 to 1906 
farm wages increased in a greater de- 
gree than general prices did. The per- 
centage of increase of prices of all com- 
modities, as indicated by Bradstreet's in- 
dex, was 36 per cent, while the wages of 
farm labor by the month for the year or 
season without board increased 38 per 
cent, and with board 41 per cent; wages 
by the day in harvest without board in- 
creased 46 per cent, and with board 55 
per cent; the wages of ordinary labor by 
the day without board increased 56 per 
cent, and with board 61 per cent. 

Trade and PRODUCTION. — During the last 
twelve years the yearly average agricul- 
tural balance of international trade in 
favor of this country increased from 
$234,000,000 to $411,000,000, or 76 per 
cent. 

The number of national forests is now 
182, and the total area 168,000,000 acres. 
At $2 per thousand feet stumpage the 
timber standing in these forests is worth 
$800,000,000. These forests now contain 
one-fifth of the standing merchantable 
timber in the country. 

The fire record shows gratifying results. 
The loss for the calendar year 1907 was 
less than half that for the previous year, 
which in turn was less than in any pre- 
ceding year. The ratio of loss to value 
of timber protected was only about 4 
cents to $1000. 

The amount of timber sold from the na- 
tional forests was 386,000,000 feet, and the 
receipts from timber sales were $850,000. 
The grazing privileges yielded last year 
an income of nearly $1,000,000. 

The work of reforesting naked areas in 
the national forests goes on. Last year 
tree seeds were sown broadcast in 27 for- 
ests in eight States to test the usefulness 
of this method. In the government forest- 
tree nurseries, about 700,000 young trees 
were planted out. Over 2,000,000 trees 
will be ready for planting in 1909. 

Statistics show that tuberculosis in ani- 
mals is on the increase. A recent esti- 
mate, based on the meat inspection and 
the records of the tuberculin test, shows: 
Beef cattle affected. 1 per cent; hogs, 2 
per cent; dairy cattle, 10 per cent. The 
financial loss to stockmen and dairymen 
because of this disease is estimated to be 
fully $14,000,000 per annum. 

There are 15 State agricultural high 
schools and forty others receiving State 
aid, 115 State and county normal schools 
preparing young people to teach agricul- 
ture, and sixteen privately endowed col- 
leges and over 250 public and private high 
schools and academies giving instruction 
in agriculture. Over 2,000,000 people are 
reported as having attended the farmers' 
institute meetings during the year. 



EUCALYPTUS 

GROWN IN SUNSHINE 

with roots balled while growing In Hats. Saves 
all roots; make sure success when removed to 
the Held and good growth the llrst season. 

Sample lots at wholesale rates. Can take 
from Hats and send In tight packages to save 
cost, risk and time. 



HENRY SHAW, 



320 River St, 



Santa Cruz, Cal. 



TREES 



TRUE TO 
NAME 



AND 



Propagated from the Best 
Specimens of Their Kind 

TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS 

PLACER NURSERIES 



(ESTABLISHED 1878) 



Our assortment comprises all the best com- 
mercial varieties of 



Peaches 

Plums 

Pears 



Apricots 
Almonds 
Cherries 



Apples 
Persimmons 
Grapes, Etc. 



and our stock is the best that years of experience, care in selec- 
tion and care in growing can produce. That is what you want. 



ORDER NOW 



WRITE US 



Catalogue and price list mailed on application. 

THE S1LVA-BERGTH0LDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CALIFORNIA. 

Agents Wanted. 



TREES 



PLANTS 



BULBS 



If you are interested in the best seed, etc., etc., write for our 1909 Seed and 
Plant Annual, which will be mailed to you Free. 

Trumbull Seed Company 

(Successor to TRUMBULL & BEKBK | 

61 California St., - - San Francisco. 

Please mention this paper. 



% Million Eucalyptus Trees in variety 



Transplanted in flats of 100 each. We prefer orders of 1,000 rather 
than 10,000; outside limit 20,000. Our trees are of the highest Standard 
in quality. Correspondence invited. Our Booklet telling when, how, and 
what to plant free to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Nurseryman, Petaluma, Cal. 



SMYRNA P ARK NURSERIES 

Trees, Vines, Plants all kinds and varieties. 

Let us know quantity wanted and we will give you special prices on same. 
CAMPIN & MOFFET Ceres, Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Growers ol Commercial and Ornamental Eucalypti. 

EKHTEIN S EK.STEIN, KKSTE1N BKuS., 

Modesto Euc. Nursery Vlgnoio Euc. Nursery 

Modesto, L'al. Anaheim, Cal. 



January 2, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



"THE MAN WITH THE HOE" 

SHOULD SOW 

MORSE SEEDS 

ALWAYS RELIABLE 

Our new general Catalogue is now ready 
for mailing and will be found of great value 
to the planters of 

SEEDS, PLANTS AND TREES 

This Catalogue Is the finest we have ever issued and will 
be mailed free to all who write us. 

C. C. MORSE & CO. 




IP IN THE CITY CALL AT 

Retail Store: 
125-127 MARKET ST. 

(Opposite Junction with California.) 



WHEN WRITING ADDRESS US AT 

44 Jackson Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

AND GENERAL NURSERY STOCK. 

Large supply of Peach trees, Ornamental trees, 
Ornamental plants, and Rose bushes, 
in large quantities. 



WRITE US FOR PRICE LIST AND DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 



ORANGE COUNTY NURSERY & LAND CO. 



FULLERTON, CAL. 

BRANCH NURSERIES: 



Riverside, Cal. 



Corcoran, Cal. 



TREES 



GRAPE VINES 



YOUR ORDER PLEASE. 

Write us if in the market for 

APPLES, PEARS, PEACHES, APRICOTS, PLUMS, PRUNES, 
ALMONDS, FIGS, WINE, RAISIN AND TABLE GRAPES. 

We grow our stock on New Virgin soil insuring a healthy growth. Our prices always 
•right. Send for Descriptive Catalogue, also Souvenir Picture of the Largest Tree in the 
World. All Free. Address: 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. Wilson, Proprietor, .... Fresno, Cal., Box 615. 



GRAPE VINES, BERRIES AND ROSES 

Ornamental, Shade and Deciduous Fruit Trees. 
A Good Class of General Nursery Stock. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

CHICO NURSERY COMPANY, Chico, California. 



YELLOW MONEY 

AND 

YELLOW FRUIT 



Are a pair that travel together in good 
shape in an orange or lemon grove; 
especially is this true if you will plant 
only robust and true-to-name 

CITRUS TREES 

Grown by the San Dimas Nurseries, 
the largest growers of choice orange 
and lemon nursery stock in the world. 
No branch of horticulture offers better 
inducements in the way of profits, nor 
is there one more alluring to the per- 
son contemplating commercial fruit 
culture. For the past twenty years we 
have supplied the leading growers 
with their trees, and hope to number 
many more among our friends and 
patrons. 

Orders now being booked, subject to 
future delivery. Send for book on 
"The Citrus Fruits: Historically, Hor- 
ticulturally , Commercially." Beauti- 
fully illustrated, and some 20,000 
words of text. Price 25 cents. 



THE SAN DIMAS 
CITRUS NURSERIES 

R. M. TEAGUE, Proprietor 
SAN DIMAS, - - - CALIFORNIA 



PEACH TREES 

and GRAPE VINES 

We can supply any kind of Peach trees 
and Grape Vines. Write us what vari- 
ety and quantity you want and we will 
quote prices on same. 

FOWLER NURSERY CO., 
Fowler, Cal. 



The Seed House of the Great Southwest 

1909 SEED CATALOGUE. 

We are now mailing 45,000 copies of the 
most complete Manual of Garden, Field, 
Flower and Tree Seeds, Nursery Stock, 
Eucalyptus, Incubators and Poultry Sup- 
plies ever published on this Coast. 

If you do not receive yours by the 20th 
of December, write for it and get your 
name on the list. 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO. 
Successors to 
Johnson & Musser Seed Co., 
113-115 N. Main Street, - - - - LOS ANGELES. 

IMPROVED BERRY PLANTS 

Strawberry, Rasnberry, Blackberry, Dow- 
berry, Logan, Phenomenal, Mammoth Black 
and Giant Himalaya berry plantw. Crlni- 
xon Winter Rhubarb. Send for Catalog 

G. H. HOPKINS O SON 

BURBANK. CAL. 



The Botanist 



SINGULAR OALIFORNIAN OAKS. 

Written for the Pacific Rural Pkess 
By Willis L. Jepson. 

There has come to me recently a small 
collection of acorns from the foothills of 
Tuolumne county. The nuts are remark- 
able for bearing a sort of irregular ruff 
or broken ridge about one-third the way 
from the apex. Otherwise they are 
smooth. They plainly belong to the spe- 
cies Valley oak (Quercus lobata) being 
the long, slender acorns characteristic of 
that tree. 

The peculiar markings on uie nuts are 
suggestive of artificial mutilation with a 
knife when young. I have seen somewhat 
similar effects produced upon various spe- 
cies of gourds artificially constricted or 
carved when young. But the sender of 
the material, Mr. J. A. Hammond, writes 
that the acrons are alike all over the tree, 
and I have at present no suggestion to 
make in the way of an explanation of the 
peculiar ridges. A study of a larger se- 
ries of nuts, or of the development of the 
acorns, would probably throw some light 
upon the phenomenon. 

Near Fair Oaks, Sacramento county, 
grows an oak tree, very singular in its 
fruit. This tree, which is on the Meader 
ranch, I have not seen; it was called to 
my attention by Prof. B. Babcock, of the 
University of California, early last year. 
In the fall one of my forest botany stu- 
dents, Mr. W. B. Parker, brought an ex- 
cellent collection of the acorns. The tree 
belongs to the Blue oak (Quercus Doug- 
lasii) species. The acorns are remark- 
able for the excessively developed cups, 
which are three or four times as thick 
as usual, the scales being more or less 
replaced by numerous very small buds. 
The nuts are a little more pointed than 
the average in the species, but are other- 
wise normal. I am told that the nuts 
are alike all over the tree. An explana- 
tion of this peculiarity can in all likeli- 
hood be had only by developmental stu- 
dies. 

On the Calhoun ranch, west of Windsor, 
Sonoma county, grows an oak tree re- 
markable for the form of its crown, 
which is shaped like a gigantic toad- 
stool, being about. 25 feet in height and 
40 feet in diameter. Foliage was received 
for identification and I determined the 
species to be Blue oak. During the au- 
tumn a collection of acorns from the tree 
was received. These acorns are not those 
characteristic of the Blue oak, but are 
essentially identical with acorns derived 
from an Oregon oak (Quercus Garryana) 
tree. The explanation of this contradic- 
tion in characters is most easily explained 
by assuming the tree to be a hybrid, and 
this I believe to be the most rational ex- 
planation. 

Such trees as have been described above 
are of the greatest biological interest in 
connection with studies of the forest bot- 
any of the State. They are really scien- 
tific assets, and should on no account be 
destroyed. As our forest resources are 
developed it will inevitably happen that 
detailed and exhaustive studies in hy- 
bridization and in selection will be made 
upon our timber trees. All individuals 
then which have a peculiar scientific value 
should be jealously preserved for scien- 
tific studies. 

University of California, Berkeley. 

WANTED 

1000 Cuttings of Prarie Belle Wild Rose 
1000 Cuttings of Minetta Wild Rose 

Address, J. S. WHITE, Jr., 
Holtville, Imperial Co., Cal. 



Bench Grafts 

ZINFANDEL on ST. GEORGE 

— APPLY 10 — 

J. S. MOULTON, 
Rlpon, - - California 



FOR SALE. 

Logan, Mammoth. Phenomenal, and 
Himalaya berry plants. Send for prices to 

R. J. HUNTER 

Oak View Berry Farm 

GRIDLEY, CAL. 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

Large Assortment. All Varieties. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS. 
Transplanted In flats 100 each. 
Write for prices, giving amount wanted. 
W. A. REINHOLDLT 
Main Street Nursery, - - - - Petaluma, Cal. 



Onion Sets 12k. a Pound 

Special Prices on Larger (Quantity. 

Headquarters for all kinds of Heeds. Catalogue 
upon request- FllEK. 

\ AVI I T BROS., 520 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

FRUIT TREES TREES OF ALL KINDS 

We make a Specialty ol Muir Peaches, 
Bartlett Pears, French Prunes, 
and the Commercial Smyrna Figs. 

8end In list of your wants and get our prices 
before writing elsewhere. 

MAY WOOD COLONY NURSERY COMPANY 
W. Herbert Samson, Prop., Corning. Cal. 



T^Ruehl- Wheeler Nursery 

Fruit, Ornamental and Citrus Trees. 
Strong Field-Grown Roses. 

PHONE BOX 826 

BLUE 1396 SAN JOSE 



10 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January '2, 190i). 



Fruit Marketing. 



THE CALIFORNIA FRUIT 
EXCHANGE. 



To the Editor: In answer to your re- 
quest for information of the methods of 
the California Fruit Exchange, we have 
the pleasure of enclosing you a separate 
memorandum which will give you in a 
general way the answers to your ques- 
tions. The statement is a very careful 
exposition of our Exchange. There are 
some features not under discussion there- 
in that might be well worth considering: 

First, the growers by maintaining and 
increasing the size of this Exchange will 
always be sure of having an avenue to 
market their fruit, free from monopoly 
and completely under the control of the 
growers. This is an exceedingly valuable 
point and one to be considered above the 
cost of operation, etc. 

Another feature is the question of cost 
of operation. A growers' organization 
that handles less than five hundred cars 
will have a hard time to make a very 
satisfactory showing, but after a co-opera- 
tive organization has reached a thousand 
cars and over the question of dividend is 
more easily solved by reason of the fact 
that the large expenses are already cov- 
ered in the handling of the first five hun- 
dred cars, and after that it is a matter 
of additional clerical help, which is small 
as compared with the income; in other 
words, one thousand cars can be handled 
with a slight cost over five hundred, out- 
side of the additional cost of telegrams, 
clerical help and brokerage. 

Another feature in connection with the 
Exchange that appeals to shippers of 
fruit who desire impartial handling of 
their products is that the Exchange is 
non-speculative and does not buy in any 
manner whatsoever, thereby insuring that 
all shippers will receive the same atten- 
tion and fruit will be distributed to the 
market that will pay the highest price 
without fear or favor. 

If the above, in addition to the memo- 
randum attached, is not sufficient for your 
purposes, please advise and we will be 
very glad to give you any further data 
you may desire. W. C. Walkkk, 

Sacramento. General Manager. 

THE PLAN OF OPERATION. 

The following is the statement to which 
Mr. Walker refers: 

One of the most prominent co-operative 
organizations in the State is the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Exchange, organized May 1, 
1901. It now operates in practically all 
of the deciduous fruit centers of Cali- 
fornia. From 1901 until February, 1907, 
this organization worked under the asso- 
ciation law of California, but owing to the 
increase of business it was deemed best 
to reorganize the Exchange into a stock 
company, the Exchange maintaining all of 
the co-operative features as were origin- 
ally intended. 

The by-laws are so arranged that none 
but a bona fide fruit grower can become a 
stockholder and no one individual, asso- 
ciation or corporation can hold more than 
ten shares each, thus making it an or- 
ganization controlled and owned by grow- 
ers exclusively. 

The Exchange is composed of various 
co-operative associations formed on a 
membership basis. There are many ad- 
vantages gained by these local associa 
tions working together, such as obtaining 
supplies at cost by purchasing collectively. 
The expense of an association is defrayed 
by loading charges and profit on supplies. 
At the end of the season, should an asso- 
ciation show a profit above the cost of 
operation the same is divided among its 
members. Practically all of the associa 



tions have paid a dividend at the close of 
the season. 

The grower is charged 7 per cent of 
the gross proceeds of sale of fruit, which 
is to cover operating expenses, etc., of 
the Exchange. Should the Exchange show 
a profit at the end of the year the same is 
divided as follows: 

"Half among all growers who have 
signed contracts and shipped consistently 
with this Exchange during the season 
when this dividend has been earned, based 
proportionately on the gross amount re- 
alized by the fruit of said shippers, and 
the other half to be a further dividend 
on the stock issued." 

From the above it will be seen that the 
grower, no matter whether a stockholder 
in the Exchange or not, will receive a 
dividend on his season's shipment, pro- 
vided, of course, he signs an agreement 
to market his fruit for Eastern shipment 
through the Exchange exclusively. The 
object of such an agreement is to enable 
the Exchange to figure on the season's re- 
quirement as regards shook, etc. 

The California Fruit Exchange is repre- 
sented by salaried agents in the principal 
markets of the United btates and Can- 
ada. Fruit is sold in carlots to the whole- 
sale trade only. There is very little cash 
f. o. b. business. However, a great many- 
orders for shipment are filled. These cars 
are shipped subject to inspection on arri- 
val. Rejections are comparatively few, as 
they aim to load good, marketable fruit 
for reliable trade only. 

The price covering the various fruits 
is made by the Sacramento office. The 
prices are governed, to an extent, by the 
auction markets; supply en route and the 
prospective shipments. 

About 50 per cent of the Exchange 
shipments were sold at private sale; the 
balance were distributed among the va- 
rious auctions. 

"WICKSON'S CALIFORNIA 
FRUITS." 



The San Francisco Chronicle of Decem- 
ber 26, in reviewing the book, says: 

The fourth edition of Professor E. J. 
Wickson's "California Fruits and How to 
Grow Them" has just been issued by the 
P ACETIC Rcral Press. As the plates of 
the third edition were destroyed in the 
great fire, the opportunity was taken to 
rewrite the entire volume and greatly ex- 
tend it. From the date of the first edi- 
tion, in 1889, Professor Wickson's book 
has been the standard, and, in fact, the 
only comprehensive work on California 
horticulture. The present volume de- 
scribes the industry as its exists today 
in the light of twenty years of additional 
and continuous observation by one emi- 
nently qualified to see accurately and de- 
scribe clearly, and whose position near 
the head, and lately at the head, of our 
agricultural college and experiment sta- 
tion, has necessarily made him familiar 
with all phases of our horticultural in- 
dustries in all parts of the State. 

The volume is beautifully printed and 
illustrated by the Kruckeberg Press. 
Any extended review of a work which has 
been for years the acknowledged author- 
ity in its subject is unnecessary. It is 
sufficient to say that the present edition 
excels its predecessors in all important 
respects, and will give to the inquirer 
about all the information which he is 
likely to need in regard to the selection 
of varieties, choice of location, methods of 
propagating, cultivating, protecting and 
harvesting any fruit or nut that is com- 
mercially grown in California. Not the 
least of its good qualities is the excellent 
topical index, which enables the inquirer 
to turn at once to the page which gives 
the desired information. 

Recent editions of this work have found 
sale in all fruit-growing countries of the 



world, and the present edition deserves 
and will receive a wider circulation than 
any former edition has attained. (San 
Francisco: The Pacific Rural Press. 
Price $3.1 



Nobody 
ran know every- 
thing. To boromo export 
moans to Bt>orlallzc. Wo arc spe- 
cial Kts In producing- tho best flower 
and vegetable seeds. In 62 years we 
have become experts. Sow Kerry's 
Seeds and reap the results of our care 
For salo everywhere. Road our 1909 
catalogue and profit by our experience. 
Sent free on request. Address 

D. M. FERRY & CO., Detroit. Mich. 



Is Free 

Contains the be6t of I 
tho old and many new 
varieties that every former 
needs. Ton shonld have a copy cf this 
book as it has been the means 01 turning 
many a failoreinto success. 
GREGORY'S SEEDS 
are raised with the (rreatest care, from 
superior land-selected stock, and are 
sold under three warrants covering all 
seed risks. They are sure growers. 
J. J. H. GREGORY & SON. Mmbumud. I 



BARTLETT PEARS 

I have a large stock of Bartlett Pears 
that cannot be excelled for size and qual- 
ity, grown on whole roots one year old. 
Prices reasonable. Those desiring In any 
quantity, address, 



It. I». BACHUS, 



I.AKKI'OIIT, CAL, 



Ettersburg Gooseberries 

Are Worthy of a Trial In Your Garden. 

New and distinct variety. Prolific and highest 
quality. Skin tender, seeds few, half the acid of 
other varieties. Cuttings root easily; 00 cents 
per dozen by mall. Order before January 12. 
Stamps accepted. 

A I. Hi nt I P. ETTER, Brlceland, California. 



MAN, OH MAN!! 

Why do you neglect your orchards 
when Warnocks Remedy cures blight and 
all the tree diseases. Send for booklet. 
GOLDEN RULE NURSERIES 

I omuls. Cal. 

AGENTS WANTED 




Muirs 
Lovells 
Phillips 
Tuscan and 
Elbertas 

In First-Class Trees of following 
sizes : 

2 to 3 feet. 
18 to 24 inches. 
12 to 18 inches. 
6 to 12 inches. 
SPECIAL rates given when pur- 
chased in lots of 500 or more. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

Salem, Oregon. 



Now is the Time for Ordering Trees. 



We have a large lot of EUCALYPTI'S. 
CYPRESS, PIXK TREES, transplanted In 
flats; also a large variety of ORNAMENT- 
VI, TREES \M> SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
GREEN WD DECIDUOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS, DRACENA. ROSES, ERI- 
CA s. « AMEI.I.I.IAS, AZALEAS, RHODO- 
DENDRON, FRUIT TREES and BERRV 
III SUES. 



THE PACIFIC NURSERIES, 
3041 Baker Street, - - San Francisco, 

And Millbrae, Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Hural Tress. 

MODESTO NURSERY. 
Complete Line of Citrus and Deciduous 
TREES, 

BERRIES, VINES AND ORNAMENTAL STOCK. 

Write for PRICKS NOW. 
SHERLOCK A OARDWELL, Modesto, Cal. 
Box 272. 

Ask lor SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Avenue, Sin Jose. Cal. 



Do You Want to Make Money? 

If so, write us for prices on our Nursery stock. We have a fine stock 
of peaches in such varieties as 

MUIRS, LOVELLS, PHILLIPS, TUSCANS and ELBERTAS. 

These are the varieties for California and our trees have proven 
themselves superior to irrigated stock. We are making SPECIAL rates 
on the smaller grades, subject to withdrawal when stock becomes ex- 
hausted. 

Get your trees from "The Old Reliable" 

ALBANY NURSERY COMPANY 

Albany, Oregon, and they'll be right. 



KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

WHOLESALE GROWERS OF 

Deciduous Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

RELIABLE STOCK AND LOWEST PRICES 

Main Office, FRESNO, CAE. Box 604 B 

BRANCHES AT MERCED AND II HI IK h 



| RHODES DOUBLE CUT 

.PRUNING SHEAR 




""THE only 
prunci 
made that cuU 
from both sides of 
the limb and does not 
bruise the bark. Made in 
all styles and sizes. We 
pay Express charges 
on all orders. 
Write for 
circular and 
prices. 



January 2, 19u9. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Live Stock and Dairy. 



A FUTURE DAIRY SECTION. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Leslie W. Symmes. 

According to authorities Holland has 
been famed for its dairy products as 
early as the ninth century. Motley, the 
historian, referring to this country, speaks 
of oxen of 2000 pounds in weight and of 
the immense production and exportation 
of butter and cheese, in the seventeenth 
century. The influence of the Holland 
cattle has been felt in a great many coun- 
tries. In the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries more or less of the blood of 
Dutch cattle was carried into England and 
Scotland and exercised some influence on 
the milking qualities of the old Leeswater 
and Ayrshire breeds. From Holland the 
first cattle imported into this country are 
supposed to have been sent to the Mo- 
hawk valley about 1621. The wide reach- 
ing effects of the constant and unceasing 
efforts to improve these cattle has been 
facilitated by their native environments. 
So we can look to unusual succulence and 
productiveness of the pastures which grow 
largely on reclaimed dyke lands for a cer- 
tain amount of the improvement in the 
dairy cattle. These unusual pasture con- 
ditions have a worthy rival for honors 
in the great delta region of the San 
Joaquin and Sacramento rivers of this 
State. That conditions on these re- 
claimed islands were similar to those of 
Holland has been known for a number of 
years. In fact, this reclaimed area as a 
dairy region first sprang into prominence 
as the home of the great Julian DeKol 
belonging to the Riverside herd of the 
Pierce Land and Stock Company. This 
noted herd of Holsteins, which has since 
been sold, pastured and thrived on Rough 
and Ready island on the San Joaquin 
river near Stockton. These reclaimed 
islands afford the Holsteins conditions 
similar to those of their native land. 

While this region is yet in its infancy 
as regards its dairying possibilities, every 
year we see more dairy animals gradu- 
ally finding their way into this wonder- 
fully fertile area. Only recently a large 
herd has been gathered on one of the 
islands near Antioch. It now numbers 
about one hundred head of milking ani- 
mals, and such good returns have been 
forthcoming from it the first year that 
the owner expects to double its number 
before long. The owner of this herd is 
a man well along in years, who has spent 
the best part of his life farming on these 
islands. He has finally gone into the 
dairy business after having been a pro- 
ducer of potatoes, beans, onions and as- 
paragus at different times. Anyone fa- 
miliar with these islands and the im- 
mense crops obtained from them, knows 
that good returns must be forthcoming 
from a dairy herd in order that it may 
exist here. So it is interesting to note 
that this herd, as well as those on other 
islands, are gradually being added to; 
more land leased and put into pasture and 
the products of the dairy slowly but 
steadily becoming an important item of 
the region. It will not be surprising 
therefore if this section becomes an im- 
portant dairy district. True, there are 
several dairies and creameries at the 
present time on the borders of this great 
region, but we are referring to the delta 
islands in particular. It is only a few 
years since a large dairy moved from its 
location in the outskirts of Oakland and 
Berkeley to the edge of this reclaimed 
area. 

Proximity to market is only one point 
the dairyman must consider. Proper and 
sufficient pasture is the most important, 
and it is this advantage these reclaimed 
lands have that promises to make them 



a dairy center of the future. The trans- 
portation facilities for the shipment of 
milk or cream to San Francisco or other 
bay cities are exceptional. The rivers 
offer cheap transportation by steamer di- 
rect to the city. A special steamer, com- 
monly known as the "milk boat," was 
under contract to deliver milk from a cer- 
tain dairy on the river to a. company in 
San Francisco by a stated time. By this 
means the evening's milk was delivered 
to consumers in the city the following 
morning. Another method of shipping 
that is employed makes use of both the 
water and railroad facilities. The milk 
or cream is collected by launches and de- 
livered to the creameries or to the rail- 
roads for shipment to the city. So we 
see that this region is afforded ample 
transportation facilities by water or rail 
to the market centers. This section is 
surrounded we might say by railroads, 
but will shortly have still another rail- 
road outlet when the long planned Sacra- 
mento Southern "cut-off" of the Southern 
Pacific Company is completed. It is now 
in course of construction from Sacramento 
to Antioch, running on the east of the 
Sacramento river, tapping the dairy sec- 
tions of this part of the region, crossing 
the San Joaquin river just above Antioch, 
thus the lower islands will also be 
afforded more shipping facilities. 

When we compare the shipping means 
of this possible dairy section with the 
average transportation given other im- 
portant dairy sections, we can justly say 
that it is more than fortunate. While 
the shipment of his product does not cause 
the island dairyman the worry and annoy- 
ance other dairymen often have to put 
up with, he has other troubles. Occas- 
ionally he suffers from too much water, 
which seldom happens to his brother 
dairymen in the alfalfa districts that de- 
pend on canals for their water. 

The luxuriance and wonderful growth 
of pasture grasses and the varieties of 
fodder that can be grown in this region 
should make it a very promising dairy 
section. It is eminently the Holstein 
cow's kingdom, and while other dairy 
breeds seem to do well, here we naturaly 
expect to see the black-and-whites in the 
majority. 

It is an interesting country, this island 
region of nearly a thousand square miles, 
in easy shipping distance of the metropo- 
lis of the tSate, and we evpect to see some 
interesting dairy developments coming 
from it in the future. 



A DEVON CROSS FOR RANGE 
CATTLE. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Leslie W. Symmes. 

The average range cattle of the coast 
have been generally bred from time to 
time to Short-horn or Hereford stock, as 
fancy suited, without due consideration to 
the particular range they were to occupy. 
The range conditions are things we must 
not overlook in selecting stock or grading 
up herds for different ranges in this State. 
In speaking of range cattle we refer, of 
course, to cattle grazed on the open 
ranges for the production of beef. Cer- 
tain cattlemen who graze their stock dur- 
ing the summer months in the Sierra Ne- 
vada mountains had been formerly breed- 
ing to Short-horn bulls for a number of 
years with good results. One year when 
new blood was necessary, one of the larger 
herds was supplied with Hereford bulls. 
At that time I was well acquainted with 
the range conditions and had seen the 
stock driven out of the mountains in the 
fall in very fair condition. The following 
year I was naturally surprised to see 
Hereford bulls coming into the timber 
with these herds. On inquiring as to the 
reason for the change of breeds, knowing 
that they had formerly been strong adher- 



THE "ELECTION" RESULT 
THAT CONCERNED 

SEPARATOR MAKERS 



It wasn't the "dire calamity" of the possible election of 
Bryan which caused the Pennsylvania manufacturer of "job- 
bing" cream separators to "warn" his employes to parade and 
vote for Taft — in a State with nearly half a million Repub- 
lican majority. 

It wasn't the hope of Bryan's election which caused the 
"Iowa" manufacturer of "mail order" cream separators to 
offer to take on all the employes the other man might let go — 
because he was already laying off and cutting down the work- 
ing hours of his own men. 

The ELECTION which actually concerned them both, and 
which had ALREADY taken place and had ALREADY worked 
"dire calamity" to their separator ambitions — "mail order" and 
"jobbing" alike — was the overwhelming tidal wave ELECTION 
on the part of 1908 cream separator buyers to choose the IM- 
PROVED DE LAVAL CREAM SEPARATORS, regardless of 
the claimed "cheapness" of one and the red paint and "talking 
points" of the other. 

And now the makers of both "mail order" and "jobbing" 
cream separators are assured that it's a case of at least "FOUR 
YEARS MORE" for the old DE LAVAL in its newer-and-better- 
than-ever form, on top of its previous THIRTY YEARS of orig- 
inality and leadership. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Co, 



108 So. Los Angeles St. 
LOS ANGELES 
42 E Madison Street 

CHICAGO 
74 Cohtlandt Street 
NEW YORK 



General Offices: 
101 Drumm Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



107 First Street 
PORTLAND, OREG. 

1016 Western Ave. 
SEATTLE 

Box 1052 

VANCOUVER, B. C. 



ents of the Short-horns, I was informed 
that the cattle had not been doing as well 
as they had expected. The fact of the 
matter was that the former season had 
been a trying one for all classes of stock 
in the mountains. The slight falling off 
in the stock had been due to these con- 
ditions rather than any failure on the 
part of the Short-horn blood to meet the 
range requirements. It was a Hereford 
year and the Hereford bulls were promi- 
nent in the mountains where formerly 
the Short-horn had rsigned. The men 
knew the conditions of this range and 
the heavy climbing necessary for feed and 
water. It was not many years, however, 
before a Short-horn year arrived and 
Short-horn bulls were leading these same 
herds into their mountain range. What 
these cattlemen were aiming at was better 
grazing qualities and more ruggedness in 
their herds. For this range country I 
believe they would have had good results 
from a Devon cross. The infusion of De- 
von blood into these herds would have 
added much of the desired qualities. Sev- 
eral herds in California that had heavy 
range conditions to meet were materially 
strengthened by the use of a few Devon 
bulls on grade Short horns. 

The Devons are not for the rich pastoral 
and arable sections, but for heavy hill 
and mountain ranges where the country 
is rough and broken and feed not very 
plentiful. Their active habits and graz- 
ing qualities are of the highest order, due 
to their muscularity and the inheritance 
of the grazing habit. They readily obtain 
a good livelihood on lands where the 
heavy-bodied breeds would probably fail, 
and when feed is plentiful they fatten 
rapidly. They lay on flesh evenly and 
smoothly and the meat is of excellent 
quality. 

Devons are highly prepotent, owing to 
their inherent vigor and to the long period 
during which they have been bred pure. 
I know of a number of herds grazing on 
heavy ranges that would be benefited by 
the Devon blood. As la any other grading 



up process, the best blood is none too good, 
so to get the best results from a Devon 
cross we want a pure-bred animal that is 
a fair type of its breed. They have given 
satisfactory results to the few who have 
tried them and certainly are worthy of 
consideration. 



The Lucerne creamery at Hanford dur- 
ing the month of November last made and 
sold 95,396 pounds of butter at 33.77 
cents per pound. 




CREAM ^ 
SEPARATOR 



The simplest, most 
durable, most eco- 
nomical of all Cream 
Separators, 
every requirement 
of the most modern 
dairy methods. 
Holds World's Rec- 
ord for clean skim- 
ming. 

THE 1909 MODEL 

has solid. lowframe. enclosed 
gearing, hall hearings, and is 
thecnsiest riming separator 
made. Don't buy a separator without first seeing 
our FREE Catalogue No. 148 

VERMONT FARM MACHlNt CO., Bellows Falls.Vt. 



Prompt Delivery Assured California cus- 
tomers from Stockton Warehouse. Nodelays. 
Address all letters to Bellows Falls, Vermont. 



PIONEERS AND LEADERS 
"THE OLD y#Nll5^%V RELIABLE- 




STANDARD 



Used by Three Generations 
For Sale by All Hardware Dealers 
R. E. DIETZ COMPANY, NEW YORK 



WANTED 

TWO WELL BRED 

DUROC JERSEY BOARS 

Htate age, price. Address "H" Pacific Bukai, 
1'kess. 



12 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2, 1909. 



SHORTAGE OF BEEF CATTLE. 



As a warrant for investment in the im- 
provement of beef cattle and of devoting 
time and lands to the production of good 
specimens, the review of the situation as 
recently prepared for the Breeders' Ga- 
zette must be looked upon as very strong. 
The following are the leading features 
of it: 

In ten months of the current year there 
is an approximate shortage of 1,000,000 
at the principal primary receiving points 
of the country west of and including Chi- 
cago. This shortage is on a basis of com- 
parison with the same period of 1907 
when the movement was normal. It has 
been recorded despite the fact that liquid- 
ation has been running its court in the 
West consequent on disintegration of open 
range and fenced pastures herds, and de- 
spite rummaging by speculators through 
the South for cheap cattle last spring 
when attractive prices at St. Louis and 
other Southern markets justified the 
search. That this contracted supply of 
beef has not caused a famine was due to 
industrial depression and the marketing 
of 2,000,000 more hogs than in 1907. 
What will happen with increased con- 
sumption incidental to returning pros- 
perity and a deficient hog crop may be 
conjectured. It is a conaition not a 
theory that faces the country at present. 
The initial stage of a bare spot has been 
reached that promises to enhance greatly 
the value of all cattle especially breeding 
stock. 

Prediction was made several months 
ago in these columns that the annual fall 
glut of Western grass cattle, a feature of 
stock-yard trade for two decades past, 
would be conspicuous by its absence this 
year, and results show that the forecast 
was justified. The advance of approxi- 
mately $1 per hundredweight in cattle 
values during the first two weeks of No- 
vember would have been impossible had 
the usual quota of Westerns been at kill- 
ers' disposal. It is a situation novel to 
the owner of native cattle, who, since 
rangers became a price-making factor, has 
experienced hardship at the market while 
the Westerner was cleaning up. Early 
subsidence of the movement of grassers 
this fall means that the crop of beef made 
on grass and corn in the corn belt will be 
cashed in owing to attractive prices at a 
time when it is usually in the feed lot. As 
the country has made no preparation for 
winter feeding on the usual scale an 
acute shortage between mid-winter and 
the time grass becomes a market in- 
fluence next summer is inevitable. 

In the stock yards talk of $9 and even 
$10 cattle some time during the next six 
months is audible. The purchasing power 
of the consumer will be a factor but that 
power is constantly broadening. In com- 
mission circles where volume of supply 
rather than prices is essential to trade 
prosperity strenuous effort has been made 
recently to approximate probable produc- 
tion of the next six months. Instead of 
resorting to the old-time method of in- 
stituting inquiry by mail, commission men 
have sent investigators through the coun- 
try in automobiles, to travel highway 
and byway, and their reports are invari- 
ably of the same tone. A Chicago man 
who returned from a tour of Iowa last 
week said: 

"I believe the corn belt has not been 
as bare of marketable cattle in twenty 
years. Where I could find trainloads 
formerly, carloads are scarce now. Ida 
county, Iowa, is one of the best feeding 
sections of the United States, but I did 
not find more than twenty loads in decent 
shape in the whole county. There seems 
to be plenty of light cattle, but a year is 
needed to get that kind ready and owners 
are making no pretense of doing anything 



California Short-Horn Sale! 



40 

BULLS 



Get of the noted sires, Imported King Edward and Imported Straight Archer 

from the herds of 

MRS. J. H. GLIDE and HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY 

Sale to be held at Chase's Pavilion, 478 Valencia Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 



20 

HEIFERS 



Write for Catalogue, 

MRS. J. H. GLIDE, 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



ON: 



JANUARY 5th, 1909 



Write for Catalogue, 
HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY, 
Ml Mission St., SAN FRANCISCO. 



J 



but carry them through the winter for 
grazing purposes next summer." 

[It is quite true that beef cattle on this 
coast have not commanded the prices 
they should in view of this condition east 
of the mountains, but that is another 
story and dependent upon local conditions 
which stock growers should combine to 
correct. We hope some well informed 
reader will take up the discussion of that 
aspect of the case. — Editor.) 



SHORT-HORN SUPREMACY. 

Lord Polwarth of Scotland, in the 
course of some thoughts on Short-horn 
cattle which he recently transcribed for 
the Breeders' Gazette, gives the following 
significant paragraphs: 

That the Short horn has a great place in 
the future as in the past I have no doubt. 
It has been proved all over the world to 
be the breed which bears within it the 
most certain power of doubling, yea quad- 
rupling, the value of native races. It has 
done so in the past and it remains with 
our breeders to maintain in its integrity 
the valuable legacy left us. The spread 
of the breed over the world is a matter 
of congratulation and of importance, for 
the time may come when under special 
and careful restriction an interchange of 
breeding animals may be possible to 
mutual benefit. The breeders in America, 
whether in the North or South, have pur- 
chased many of the best animals bred in 
this country and their skillful manage- 
ment along with climatic influences may 
yet prove of recuperative influence. All 
the same, we in Great Britain will en- 
deavor to maintain in its integrity and 
purity the fountain head of pure blood 
handed down by our ancestors. 

The breeder of the future, wherever he 
be, must not forget, the great aims and 
methods of the past. Fashion and trade 
may call for new types, but many of these 
may prove transient and the sound old 
pedigrees still prove necessary. Nothing 
is more remarkable than the way in which 
they rejuvenesce by the re-introduction of 
the same blood long separated. There is 
somewhat of a dislike at the present time 
to inbreeding, and while it undoubtedly 
has its perils in unskillful hands, there 
is no other way of really fixing a type or 
of obtaining one than the harmonious 
blending of kindred blood, always on the 
condition of sound constitution on both 
sides. The breeding of the future no 
doubt has difficulties which the earlier 
breeders had not, but on the other hand 
the material is now widely spread and is 
under such diverse conditions as to facili- 
tate breeding with more or less consangu- 
inity to advantage. 

The Standing of the Short -horn in 
This Country. — If the values obtained at 
such representative sales as those of the 
various beef breeds which have been re- 
cently held at the Chicago International 



are indicative of their relative value as 
producers — and no impartial judge can 
say that such is not the case, as it is 
claimed for these sales, both by the man- 
agement and the breeders themselves, that 
the individuals offered are good represen- 
tatives of the respective breeds — there can 
be no doubt but that the Short-horn breed 
of cattle, animal for animal, is. the best 
investment. 

A comparison of the values obtained 
shows the Short-horn in the lead with an 
average of $403.70 per head, the Aberdeen 
Angus second with an average of $209.50, 
and the Herefords bringing up the rear 
with an average of $160. 



ALFALFA FOR HOGS. 



Some people may think Californians 
are apt to get conceited over their abilty 
to produce alfalfa. If any one should 
charge our readers with that attitude of 
mind show him what Governor Hoard 
says about alfalfa in his Dairyman, for 
he speaks from the point of view of an 
unprejudiced man who is trying to es- 
tablish the plant under rather inferior 
conditions in Wisconsin. He says: 

The man who desires to make the 
cheapest pork, the finest pork and pro- 
duce hogs that shall be in the best pos- 
sible state of health and vigor must in- 
clude alfalfa in his calculation. This has 
been the conclusion of the senior editor 
of this paper for years, and wherever 
thorough going tests have been made they 
all confirm that judgment. For instance, 
the experiments at the Kansas station 
confirm it. At that station a gain of S00 
pounds of pork was made from a ton of 
alfalfa hay and about the same amount 
from an acre of alfalfa pasture. One 
Hundred pounds of alfalfa hay in another 
experiment saved 96 pounds of corn. At 
that rate an acre of alfalfa hay yielding 
four tons would produce 1000 pounds of 
pork. In another experiment 170 pounds 
of fresh green alfalfa fed to hogs was 
equal to 100 pounds of corn, where it took 
six pounds of corn to produce a pound 
of pork. Figuring that 8000 pounds of 
alfalfa hay. or four tons would produce 
1000 pounds of liveweight, as it did in 
some cases, an acre of alfalfa hay fed in 
this way would yield $64 worth of pork 
at four cents a pound, while an acre pro- 
ducing 10 tons green weight would pro- 
duce $S0 worth of pork. 

Reasoning from these figures, as well 
as from our own experiments, we are con- 
vinced that not one farmer in a hundred 
who grows alfalfa has any adequate idea 
of its economic value in producing pork. 
With the high prices of corn, as they are 
likely to exist for a long time, it is mighty 
important that dairy farmers address 
themselves to the alfalfa question. In all 
the Kansas experiments it should be un- 
derstood that they were conducted with 
corn and alfalfa fed together. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered .Short 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. Flrst- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Hox 321. Petaluma, Cal. 

BULLS AND COW'S FOR SALK — Shorthorned 
Durhams. Address E.S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY. 

BREEDERS OF SHORTHORN CATTLE 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



SWINE. 



GEO. C. ROEDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred lierkshlre Hoars and Sowb. 

P. H. MFRPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Breeder 
ofShorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 

1) E It K SHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS 
C. A. STOrt'K, Stockton, Cal. 

GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodl. San Joaquin Co. 
Cal. Registered Poland-China HogB, both sexes 

(i. A. MIRPHY, Perkins, Cal. Hreeder of Cham 
plon Herd of llerkshlres also Shorthorns. 



M. HASSETT, Hox Ufi, Hanford, Cal. Registered 
Poland-China Hogs, and Plymouth Rocks. 



Pure Bred Holsteins 

At present we are ottering a line lot of 
Young Bulls and Heifers at very at- 
tractive prices. All of this stock have 
large Advanced Registry Records in 
their pedigrees and are from the famous 
Riverside Premier Herd of the Pierce 
Land and Stock Co. now owned by the 

OAKWOOD STOCK FARM 

LATHROP, CAL. 

FDR ««AI FT The Imported 
* ^r*. i^J-+.M— iKlu Helglan Stallion 

Desire de Saint Gerard 

Pedigree: 

) Bourgogne ) Hrln d'Qr 

Desire de St. Gerard I 7902 \ ™> 2 

(32008, |Fauvettede) Marie de 

jzuuk >.st. Gerard, - 

j um j <»oych 6831 

This line Helglan Stallion was bred by Mr. 
Martin Tirtiaux of Graux St. Gerard, France, 
foaled February It, 1902, and was Imported by 
Dunham <.v. Fletcher of Wayne, Illinois, July 1U, 
1!W0. He Is a magnificent animal, deep bay In 
color, with star In forehead. Ills weight Is 2200 
pounds. 

For authenticated records, price, terms, etc., 
write to or call on 

M. M. AVELLAR, San Leandro, Cal. 

IFOR SALE 

FOUR THOROUGHBRED AYRSHIRE 
BULLS, Aged 12 to 20 Months. 

If you don't want tuberculosis, breed the 
Ayrshlres. 

J. W. & J. D. McCORD, 

Phone Red 123. Hanlord, Cal. 

GLIDE BROTHERS 

Successors to J. H. Glide <1- Sons 

Famous Blacow, Roberts. Glide 
French Merino Sheep. 

Glide Grade seven-eighths French and one-eighth 
Spanish Merino. Thoroughbred Shropshire Rams 
RAMS FOR SALE AT ALL TIMES 
P. O. Hox Home Telephone 

297 Sacramento, Cal. Dixon, Cal. 

Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST- SAN FRANCISCO 

PAPER Hlake, Moftitt A Towne, Los Angeles 
r nr tl\ Biak*. McFai) A Co., Portland, Oregon 



January 2, 1903. 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



APPLE POMACE FOR HOGS. 



We have some apple pomace and other 
apple wastes in the regions where com- 
mercial apple growing is large. A Ver- 
mont apple grower writes of his experi- 
ence to the Rural New Yorker. He gives 
rather a higher value to the stuff than 
the analysis would indicate and the read- 
er should notice that he only commends 
rather small feeds of it in connection 
with other foods, as follows: 

Seven years ago we began drawing 
apple pomace from the cider mill and put 
it in the silo for the cows; they did so 
well on it that we commenced feeding it 
to the hogs, and found that they would 
eat quite a little of it. We tried different 
ways of feeding it; one year we mixed it 
with the swill, which is a very satisfac- 
tory way of feeding it, but makes lots of 
work where there are very many hogs. 
Our present method of feeding is to feed 
twice a day, first putting the pomace in 
the troughs and then in half an hour 
giving them their swill and grain feed. 
Fed in this way they will eat everything 
up clean. At present we are feeding 45 
shoats that will weigh about 125 pounds 
each; they eat from five to six bushels of 
pomace a day, besides their milk and 
grain. Brood sows will live on it, and 
with a very little milk once a day will 
lay on flesh. 

We consider it worth as much to feed 
as good corn silage. Some advise feeding 
from 30 to 35 pounds a day per cow. 
After quite a little experimenting we 
have found that 20 to 24 pounds a day 
per cow will give better results than if 
fed more. Apple pomace is much easier 
to keep than corn is; just put it in a pile 
anywhere that it will be handy to feed 
and protected from the weather; draw 
and put it on the pile as soon as it is 
made, for it will spoil fast if left ex 
posed in warm weather. When In a pile 
it will settle together like a cheese and 
can be sliced off just like cheese. In 
feeding it do not use a fork, as that will 
loosen the top of the pile and leave a lot 
of loose pieces that will mold very fast 
Slice it off the top of the pile with a 
shovel, going over the surface once in 
two days, and you will have a valuable 
feed that all kinds of stock will like and 
do well on. 

[The reader will notice that he counts 
apple pomace as about as good as corn 
silage. But corn silage has not a very 
high standing as hog feed and can best 
be used with dry feeds like grain, etc. 
Apple pomace must be handled in the 
same way to be satisfactory. — Editor.1 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

GombauH's 

Caustic Balsam 




Has Imitators But No Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 

As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, etc., It Is invaluable. 

Every bottle of Caustic Balsam sold is 
Warranted to pjve satisfaction. Price $1,60 
per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent by ex- 
press chartres paid, witn full directions for 
Its u«e. tlTSend for descriptive circulars, 
testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 



Apiculture. 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES FOR 
BEEKEEPERS. 



Special Report for Pacific Rural Press. 

The beekeepers of the San Joaquin val- 
ley, representing three of the principal 
counties, gathered in the lecture room of 
the Fresno Chamber of Commerce for the 
first of a series of Agricultural Institutes 
under the auspices of the University of 
California on Wednesday and Thursday, 
December 16 and 17. There have been 
some other special purpose Farmers' In- 
stitutes held by the university in the 
State and those have been held along 
horticultural, viticultural and dairy lines. 
The results of this attempt at a distinc- 
tive Agricultural Institute for Beekeepers 
were very gratifying, there being in at- 
tendance at Fresno a goodly number of 
representative beekeepers, some coming 
from as far away as Tulare and Hanford. 
All seemed interested, and much profit 
was gained by the interchange of ideas 
the discussions stimulated. 

The first afternoon was devoted to the 
bee disease situation. Many obscure facts 
in regard to recent advances in our 
knowledge of the several diseases of 
bees were cleared up and the mat- 
ter of practical and effective treatments 
was freely discussed. Mr. J. T. Dunn, 
Inspector of Apiaries for Fresno county, 
reported having found some forty-six 
apiaries in his county infected with foul 
brood. In all but four or five cases burn- 
ing of the infected colonies was resorted 
to. Where treatment by shaking was 
practiced, eradication was not found to 
be nearly as complete as where burning 
was practiced. In the course of the sea- 
son's work some seven or eight hundred 
diseased colonies were destroyed and the 
20,000 colonies of the county are now 
practically free from disease. Only one 
case of paralysis was noted during the 
summer. Mr. Dunn has accurately lo- 
cated each apiary in the county and made 
a record of it. This is real constructive 
work that should be done by each in- 
spector in his county. Such records are 
not only of inestimable value for accu- 
rate work, but constitute some basis for 
work in the event of the change from an 
old to a new inspector, as sometimes 
occurs. 

Mr. Fred M. Hart of Hanford, Inspector 
of Apiaries for Kings county, made a- re- 
port of conditions in his field. In gen- 
eral the 7000 colonies of bees in Kings 
county are in good condition. The bee 
paralysis, which has been very bad for 
several years past, was much lighter this 
year. The cause is not known, but Mr. 
Hart cited that the pear blight was also 
much lighter this year, and suggested a 
possible relation between the two, since 
it is not known exactly what is the cause 
of paralysis among bees. 

.Mr. H. G. Brown, Inspector of Apiaries 
lor Tulare county, spoke of the general 
beekeeping conditions in his county as 
being good. The beekeepers of Tulare 
county are organized and the reflex in- 
fluence of such organization has been 
very noteworthy in facilitating the work 
of the county inspector of apiaries. Mr. 
Brown urged the complete inspection of 
colonies as the only fair way to form an 
accurate estimate of the exact condition 
of the colony in question. He further 
recommended second and third inspec- 
tions late in the season, in view of the 
treacherous way in which disease is 
liable to break out suddenly without pre- 
vious warning. In giving bills of health 
for bees he merely states the conditions 
of the bees at the time of his inspection, 
which, in his estimation, is all that he 
can be responsible for. 




The I. H. C. Auto Buggy Takes 
the Place of Team and Carriage 

You do not have the bother of hitching up and unhitch- 
ing when you ride in the I. H. C. Auto Buggy. You do not 
have horses to feed or care for. The Auto Buggy is always 
ready. It will take you anywhere you can go in a carriage 
or spring wagon, and take you much faster. It has a pow- 
erful and reliable little engine to propel it, and it is built 
with the strength to stand hill climbing and rough roads. 
There are no tire troubles. Its tires are solid rubber. 

It is the modern vehicle for business or pleasure, and it 
has come to stay. You ought to know more about it. Write 
for catalog to 

International Harvester Company of America 

(INCORPORATED.) 

453 M0NADN0CK BUILDING, SAM FRANCISCO, CAL. 



There was much discussion of the 
rights of beekeepers to move their bees 
and the relation of such moves to the in- 
spection work. It was generally con- 
ceded that all moving of bees should be 
immediately reported to the inspector in 
whose field the moving occurs. The State 
law explicitly provides that bees moved 
without a bill of health from one county 
to another should be reported as moved 
immediately to the County Inspector of 
Apiaries into whose field the bees in 
question are moved. The need of co- 
operation among inspectors and the great 
need for State supervision and supple- 
menting of the inspection of apiaries was 
plainly brought out in these discussions, 
as well as the need of investigations into 
the causes and propogation of several 
maladies of bees. 

At the Thursday morning session the 
discussion of the previous evening of or- 
ganized efforts among beekeepers was 
discussed quite freely. A resolution was 
passed to the effect that each county of 
central California of which the Institute 
was representative should be urged to 
follow in the footsteps of Tulare county 
and organize within the next month or 
six weeks local beekeepers' associations. 
This resolution further provided for a 
future meeting of representatives of the 
several counties of central California to 
be held sometime during February for 
the final organization of a central Cali- 
fornia beekeepers' association in affilia 
tion with the State and National associa- 
toins. 

The following are among some of the 
other resolutions passed: 

Resolved, That we appreciate the ef- 
forts of the University of California in 
sending Mr. Ralph Benton to hold an In- 
stitute at Fresno for beekeepers. 

That we appreciate the work being done 
by Mr. Benton at the University, and that 
we urge that every facility and assistance 
be given Mr. Benton in his work. 

That we request the University to print 
the excellent paper by Mr. Benton on the 
"Bee Disease Situation in California." 

That we recommend that the work in 
apiculture at the University be recog- 
nized as an important branch of agricul- 
ture, separate and co-ordinate with the 
other branches of agriculture. 

That we recommend that the Experi- 



mental Apiaries and School of Agriculture 
be established on the University Farm at 
Davis along the broad lines outlined by 
Mr. Benton. 

That the University establish similar 
experimental and teaching work as soon 
as possible upon the Kearney bequest in 
the vicinity of Fresno. 



Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent oi 
California stockmen because they give 
better results than others do. 
Write for Prices, Testimonials and our 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

Temporary Address 

Grayson and Sixth Streets, BERKELEY, CAL. 

West of San Pablo Ave. 



Stickney Gasoline Engines 

ARE THE BEST 



The engine with an outside igniter and 
a modern open 
tank cooling 
system. Our 
iew free cata- 
log and free 
catechism 
tells 57 
reasons 
why' we 
have the 
send for free catalog best engine 
Stationery and Portable 1% to 16h.p. 

We have thoussnds of engines in successful 
operstion becsuse of years of experience of the 
manufacturers in making engines of the best 
material, and most accurate workmanship. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO - LOS ANCELCS - PORTLAND - SEATTLE 



The Fresno Scraper 





8end for Raisin Machinery Catalogue. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO CALIFORNIA. 



14 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2, 1909. 




29 
Vrs 



1909 



99 



Tubular "A 



The latest model of the 
greatest cream separator ever 
built. The Tubular "A" rep- 
resents everything good and 
desirable in cream separator 
construction. An advanced 
type of the best known sepa- 
rator in the world. 

The celebrated Tubulars 
are used by the best dairymen 
in every section of the earth 
where cows are milked. 

Our new illustrated cata- 
logue No. 131 free for the 
asking. 

THE SHARPLES SEPARATOR CO., 
West Chester, Penna, 

Chicago, 111. Toronto, Cao. Portland. Ore 

Sao Francisco, Calif. 



TUBERCULIN TEST AND ITS 
APPLICATION. 



(Continued From Page 1.) 
to make the test and the way they are 
used. The outfit consists of a veterinary 
hypodermic syringe of at least 6 cc. ca- 
pacity, such as is commonly used to in- 
ject liquid vaccine. The same should be 
provided with a number of short, stout 
needles, well reinforced at the base. 

At least two fever thermometers will 
be needed, and where more than five 
animals are to be tested a larger number 
should be provided. Guaranteed clinical 
thermometers can be purchased at any 
drug store. A string should be tied 
around the thermometer and fastened by 
a rubber band. At the other end of this 
string should be attached a small bull- 



Manner of Taking the Temperature. 

dog clamp or wire hook. After inserting 
the thermometer in the rectum the clamp 
is fastened to the long hairs at the base 
of the tail so that if the thermometer is 
thrown out it will not be broken by drop- 
ping to the ground. Thermometers, espe- 
cially for veterinary purposes, made of 
thicker glass and with a ring in the end 
are convenient. 

A small bottle of strong (95%) carbolic 
acid is necessary, to be used in disinfect- 
ing the syringe before beginning the test, 
and to disinfect the needle point before 
injecting each animal, is essential. Vase- 
line Is desirable, to facilitate inserting the 
thermometer, although lard may be sub- 
stituted. Between the times of taking 
temperatures the vaseline Jar Is a safe 
and convenient place to keep the ther- 
mometer, a shown in the engraving. 

The injection should preferably be 



made in the evening, eight hours before 
the mornlng"s milking. It is usually made 
In the side of the neck where the skin is 
thin and loose. A fold of the skin is taken 
in the left hand, and the syringe point 
inserted in the pocket thus formed, and 
the dose injected. When a cow is re- 
strained in a stanchion the position of 
the operator shown insures the greatest 
security from interference or injury by 
the movements of the cow. 

The temperatures are taken by the use 
of the thermometer, as shown in the en- 
graving, at about the 8th, 10th. 12th, 14th, 
16th and ISth hours after injecting, and 
continue in those cases showing a rising 
temperature. Where an animal shows a 
rise above 102.5° F., it is well to take the 
temperature at more frequent intervals. 
In hot weather it is essential that the in- 
jection be timed so that the Sth to 16th 
hours will occur in the cool part of the 
day. 

When tuberculin is furnished by the 
University Experiment Station the tem- 
perature record sheets may be returned 
as soon as the test is completed, and an 
interpretation of the results will be made. 
In case of a reaction (indicating the 
presence of tuberculosis) there must be a 
rise of 1.5° F. or more above the normal 
temperature as determined on the pre- 
ceding day. The interpretation of the 
temperature record of the animals show- 
ing a rise of less than 2° F. requires care. 
The elevation of temperature usually 
comes on gradually, although in the more 
pronounced reactions, where the tempera- 
ture goes above 105.5° F., the rise is fre- 
quently abrupt. This should usually oc- 
cur between the Sth and 16th hours. It 
should remain practically at a maximum 
for two hours or more, and gradually sub- 
side. When the temperature reaches 104' 
F. or more, and is maintained for some 
hours, the animal is certainly regarded as 
tubercular, if no fever was shown before 
the injection. Erratic elevations of short 
duration do not indicate a reaction. 



REPORT OF STATE DAIRY 
BUREAU. 




The State Dairy Bureau of California 
has submitted its report covering the 
past two years to Governor Gillett. The 
members of the bureau are J. A. Bliss of 
Alameda county, F. W. Andreasen of 
Humboldt county, and M. T. Freitas of 
Marin county. Wm. H. Saylor, as the 
secretary and chemist, is in charge of the 
work of the bureau. The report deals 
with the work of the bureau during this 
period in enforcing the dairy laws, and 
has also an interesting feature in the way 
of statistics in relation to the dairy in- 
dustry. Although the bureau has had 
only three inspectors employed, who only 
averaged about half of their time in its 
service, the report states that over 2100 
inspections have been made of dairies, 
creameries and cheese factories to investi- 
gate the sanitary conditions under which 
they are maintained. The chemist and 
secretary, which offices have been consoli- 
dated as a necessary economy, through 
the meagre support that the bureau re- 
ceives from the State, analyzed 690 sam- 
ples of dairy products for the detection 
of adulteration in violation of the dairy 
laws. Eighty-four cases have been prose- 
cuted in the courts against parties for 
violating the laws, a number of them be- 
ing against dairymen for maintaining un- 
sanitary dairies, and others for selling 
adulterated dairy products, chiefly in 
those cities and towns that have no local 
control in the matter of adulteration. 

The report shows a remarkable increase 
in the production of butter in the State 
during the year that ended September 30, 
1908, when it amounted to 48,468,585 
pounds. This is more than double what 
was produced ten years ago. according to 



■A' 



Made of wire that is 
"all life and strength — wire 
that stretches true and tight 
and yields just enough under impact 
to give back every jolt and jam it 
receives. 

Made of materials selected and tested 
in all the stages from our own mines, 
through our own blast furnaces and rolling 
and wire mills, to the finished product. Our 
employment of specially adapted metals is 
of great importance in fence wire; a wire 
that must be hard yet not brittle; stiff and springy yet 
flexible enough for splicing— best and most durable 
fence material on earth. 

To obtain these and in addition apply a quality of gal- 
vanizing that will effectually protect against weather 
conditions, is a triumph of the wiremaker's art. 

Thesearecombined in the American and Ellwood 
fences— the product of the greatest mines, steel 
producing plants and wire mills in the world. 
And with these good facilities and the old 
and skilled employes back of them, 
maintain the highest standard of ex 
cellence possible for human skill 
and ingenuity to produce. 

Dealers everywhere, carry- 
ing styles adapted to every 
purpose. See them. 

American Steel 
& Wire Co. 
Chicago 
Mew York 
Denw 
San 

Francisco 



EEMm 



former figures, issued by the bureau, as 
conveyed in the following table: 

Pounds. 

1898 23,691,028 

1899 24,868,084 

1900 28,793,859 

1901 29,701,202 

1902 31,528,762 

1903 34,786,289 

1904 35,636,969 

1905 41,961,047 

1906 44,044,578 

1907 44,599,211 

1908 48,469,585 

The report credits this growth in the 

industry to its rapid introduction in the 
irrigated districts of the State. It picks 
out nine counties and shows that while 
as late as the year 1900 they only made 
a total of 4,129,882 pounds of butter, they 
last year made a total of 19,759,352 
pounds, or 40'/ r of the product of the 
State. These counties are Fresno, Kern. 
Kings, Merced, Sacramento, San Joaquin. 
Stanislaus, Tulare, and Yolo. Fifteen 
years ago, says the report, these counties 
purchased most of the butter their people 
consumed. Today they are the big butter 
shipping counties. 

The change in the relative importance 
of the counties, as given in the report, 
shows an interesting feature in the re- 
cent development of the industry. In 
1897 the ten biggest butter counties were 
all on the coast, as follows, in the order 
of their production: Marin, Humboldt, 
San Luis Obispo, Sonoma, Monterey, 



Santa Barbara, Mendocino, Los Angeles, 
San Mateo, and Del Norte. Today only 
four of these old dairy counties are left 
in the list of ten. In place of the others 
are six counties in the irrigated sections. 
These are Stanislaus, Fresno, Merced, Tu- 
lare, Kings, and San Joaquin. Humboldt 
maintains her supremacy in butter pro- 
duction by only 300,000 pounds, being 
hard crowded for first place by Stanislaus 
county. The new county of Imperial 
comes into the last report as an impor- 
tant dairy county, having turned out 
1,165,763 pounds of butter. 

Cheese and condensed milk production 
are making no headway, according to the 
report, which it claims is due to the bet- 
ter inducements that butter production 
offers, through quicker returns, and the 
fact that it leaves on the farms the skim 
milk which dairymen value so highly for 
calf, hog. and poultry feeding. 

Prices for butter and cheese have been 
higher during the past two years than 
have ruled for fifteen years past. The 
average wholesale price for fancy cream- 
ery butter on the San Francisco market 
for the year ending September 30, 1907, 
was 30.1 cents, and for the year ending 
September 30, 1908, 27.8. For cheese, the 
average in 1907 was 14.2 cents, and 12.9 
cents for 1908. The State Dairy Bureau 
estimates that the dairies of California 
turned our products for the year ending 
September 30, 1907, to the value of $24. 
416.731, and for the year ending Septem- 
ber 30, 1908, $25,224,151. 



January 2, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



The Poultry Yard. 

THE NEW YEAR IN THE POUL- 
TRY YARD. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Pkess 
By M. R. James. 

Again the seasons have rolled around 
and the poultryman's busy time is at 
hand. His first job should be to balance 
his poultry accounts and find out where 
he stands. Has he secured a good egg 
yield in the three months of maximum 
prices just ended? Has his poultry as a 
whole netted him a fair profit? And if 
not, why not? Now is the time to find 
the solution to this question and to guard 
against the mistakes of the past year and 
to start aright. 

Poultry profits are largely dependent 
upon the fall and winter egg. The poul- 
tryman who fails to secure this desirable 
commodity cannot claim success in the 
poultry business, and now is the time to 
begin working for this golden fruit. 

The first of January the poultry raiser 
should get his breeding pens in readiness 
and select his breeding stock. The farmer 
especially should attend to this matter. 
He can put together a small movable hen- 
house as suggested in a former paper, 
and locate it in a corner of his apple or 
prune orchard or in some outlying pas- 
ture away from the other poultry. If 
coyotes or any varmints are liable to 
prowl about such places the hen-house 
must be protected by inch-mesh wire over 
all openings and the fowls closed in 
nights and let out as early as may be 
mornings. In such locations the dozen 
or so hens and cock of the breeding pen 
will require little more than water and 
grain, as the range should furnish them 
with green feed and sufficient meat in the 
form of insects in the spring and early 
summer. Hens for market eggs give best 
results by being kept in rather limited 
quarters and furnished with a rich mash 
daily; the opposite course must be fol- 
lowed with hens for hatching eggs. We 
should not force egg production, but work 
for the greatest vigor and stamina in the 
eggs — fewer eggs and better. 

The poultryman who has not the ad- 
vantage of the farmer's range or orchards 
and meadows should at least provide a 
good-sized yard for his breeding pen. The 
small yards and egg-forcing of the town 
fancier have done much to prejudice the 
farmer and others against pure-bred stock. 
The few weakly chicks often secured from 
high-priced settings are blamed to the 
stock, not to their handling where it 
rightfully belongs. The breeding stock 
must have exercise to build up an active, 
strong body and the reliable poultry 
breeder will arrange his yards to this 
end. By keeping the ground mellow and 
damp to encourage scratching and dusting 
and by feeding all the grain in deep litter 
or loose earth, a medium sized yard may 
be improved in that direction. The breed- 
ing stock should have always grain ready 
for the scratching and once a day sprouted 
oats or barley with an abundance of other 
greens but no mashes. As they will get 
no insects in the yards, they should be 
given a feed of chopped cooked meat 
mixed with bran two or three times a 
week. 

When the breeding quarters are in 
readiness, the house clean, dry and tight 
on all sides but the north or east, which 
should be partly open and protected by 
wire netting, the yard clean, mellow and 
well drained, then the breeding stock may 
be selected. The best hens for this pur- 
pose are those in their second year, when 
they have just completed their first moult. 
These, if not forced for winter laying, 
will usually begin to lay in January or 
early in February and at the right time 



for the hatching season. Pullets which 
were hatched in February or early in 
March are likely to take at least a partial 
moult in January after laying through the 
fall and early winter. They soon get 
through with this moult and may be 
mated by the middle of February, when 
they make excellent breeders. 

Every hen selected for the breeding pen 
should be in the pink of condition, alert 
and active, with clear, red comb and 
smooth plumage and legs. She should be 
well and strongly built with broad back, 
long body, large but not flabby crops, legs 
set well apart and should be broad across 
the fluff, much more so than across the 
breast, which gives the wedge-shaped con- 
formation. The hens of the Mediterran- 
ean class should have large, rather thick 
combs that are firm, starchy, not hanging 
limp like a rag; their eyes should be full 
and quick-glancing. Such a hen is first off 
the roost and last on it; she is the one 
that always "gets there" when there is 
anything eatable in sight. 

With a pen of such vigorous, well 
formed hens we need a cock to match — a 



of the breed most preferred In the cross. 
For the ordinary poultry raiser and farm- 
er who have not time to study up the sub- 
ject and give it proper attention, line- 
breeding with pure stock would better not 
be attempted. Breed from the vigorous 
and most perfect females, and every sec- 
ond year secure a cock, from the same 
strain if possible, anyway, one that pos- 
sesses the best qualities of the breed. It 
pays to pay a goodly price for such a bird. 

The poultry raiser who mates up his 
pens and cares for them as here indi- 
cated may be use of the strong-germed, 
hatchable egg that will produce the chick 
that can get out of the shell and live to 
lay the golden egg. 



CORNISH INDIAN GAME. 



This sturdy bird comes from Cornwall, 
England. It is a prize-fighter, compact, 
muscular, and broad in build, with hard, 
short feathers and small pea comb. Stand- 
ard weight, 9 pounds for the cock and 
6% for the hen; color, glossy black with 
greenish sheen and small mixture of dark 




"' : '-1. 



Cornish Fowl, Male. 



lusty, gallant fellow, full of vim and fight, 
who shows in every motion that he is 
proud of himself and means to be "cock 
of the walk." In age he should be either 
one year or two years old. It is never 
safe to depend upon an older male with- 
out first testing the hatchability of the 
eggs from his mating. Unless the bird is 
an exceptionally fine one, it is better to 
take no chances, and to dispose of all 
males after the second year. Some males 
retain their generative vigor into the fifth 
year, but it is the exception. The writer 
had one such that was kept on account of 
fine points; but another bird that seemed 
even stronger and had headed a pen with 
excellent results for two seasons, proved 
a total failure at the third mating, and 
was the cause of much loss and dissatis- 
faction in the sale of hatching eggs be- 
fore the fault was located. 

The cock is half the pen, and he should 
be a thoroughbred. No matter how much 
the hens may be off in this respect, the 
cock should be pure-bred. A few poultry- 
men proper, and many farmers, believe in 
cross-bred stock, and such often give first- 
class results; but this is true only of the 
first cross of thoroughbreds. Promiscu- 
ous breeding with such stock finally elimi- 
nates all desirable qualities and runs 
them into the "dung-hill" class. As much 
care is required in cross-breeding as with 
the pure-bred stock. Only females and 
those of excellent points should be used; 
they should be mated to a pure-bred male 



red. A good table fowl but too pugna- 
cious for the ordinary poultry yard. — 
M. R. J. 



POULTRY NOTES. 



A hundred tons of turkeys were raised 
in northern New York, says the New 
York Sun. Farmers residing in Lewis, 
Jefferson, and St. Lawrence counties who 
went into the turkey raising business this 
year are now reaping their harvest. The 
weather during the last summer was just 
about what the farmers who are in the 
turkey business wanted, and with great 
flocks of birds brought to maturity and 
good prices prevailing, the turkey men 
are going to make a clean-up. 

Over $12,000 worth of turkeys were 
shipped from Lincoln county for the holi- 
day trade. 



POULTRY. 



BUFF ORPINGTONS— Sullivan's famous buffs 
excel all others. Eggs for hatching, stock for 
sale. Catalogue for the asking. W. SULLI- 
VAN, Agnew, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



JUST OUT 



Croley s "Little Red Book 
No. 61." Free. Send postal 
GEORGE H. CROLEY, 637 Brannan St., San 
Francisco. POULTRY SUPPLIES. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years. 
Importer and Breeders of all Varieties of Land and Water 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31,*"sw McAllister St., 8. F. 



You Get the Most 
for Your Money 

When buying "Quality S. C. White 

Leghorn" chicks from us at 10c. each, 
because we give you Free the "Chick 
Book" containing full instructions for 
raising them. Order 200 or more. 

RANCHO LOS ENCINAS 

R. F. D. 76. Glen Ellen, Cal 



PETALDMA HATCHERY 

The leading varieties of chicks 
every week. 

L. W. CLARK, 

615 Main St., Petaluma, Cal. 




125 Egg Incubator AIO 
and Brooder B F ° Q V h Vl£ 



I If ordered together we 
'send both for $12 
1 pay freicht. Well 
made, hot water, copper tanks, 
doable wails, double glass doors. 
Free catalog describes them. 
Wisconsin Incnbator Co., 
Box 117, Racine, Wis, 




CALIFORNIA FRUITS 

AND 

HOW TO GROW THEM 



By B J. WICKSON, A.M. 



REVISED EDITION, 500 PAGES. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED 



Price $3 per copy, postpaid. 



Prof. l>. H. Bailey, the lending horticul- 
turist of the East, says of the book: 

"This work is an invaluable addition to 
the literature of horticulture. The condi- 
tions of culture are so peculiar in Califor- 
nia that a particular treatise is demanded 
for them. The present volume deals in a 
clear and comprehensive manner with the 
whole field of California pomology. The 
author has enjoyed unusual facilities for 
the acquisition of facts, and he has every- 
where used the material to good advan- 
tage." 



SEND IN YOUR ORDER TODAY TO 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publisher, 

667 HOWARD STREET, 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Coulson's No. 3 
Condition Powders 

BEST AID FOR GETTING HIGH PRICED EGGS 

A splendid tonic and digestive. Enables hens to lay 
lots of eggs during fall and winter. 



Sold by Dealers. 



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PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 



16 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2, 1909. 




Have you ever thought of the possibilities of ten. twenty, or more, acres 
of dry land if you had an I. H. C. gasoline engine to pump water to irrigate it? 

The land without water is practically valueless. It can be had for a few 
dollars per acre. 

With the land under water you can raise bumper crops of grain, potatoes 
grass, fruits and vegetables 

I. H. C. gasoline engines operate powerful pumping machinery. 

They enable you to reclaim waste land and to make it worth anywhere 
from $25 to BOO per acre. 

They require but little of a man's time to care for them. For the most 
part, the operator may go about his other irrigating or farm duties. The 
engines, when supplied with fuel and started, practically run themselves. 

Water can always be had somewhere The problem is to get it upon the 
land. I. H. C. engines enable you to take water from low lying ponds, sloughs 
or running streams and raise it so that it is available for irrigating the 
higher lands. 

In many places farmers are irrigating from wells, or are using the under- 
flow. I. H. C. engines enable them to pump the water where it is wanted and 
to farm their lands at a good profit. 

Have you on your farm a piece of land that is unprofitable because you 
cannot get the water upon it ? 

Or have you your eye on a tract you would like to homestead if you could 
irrigate it ? 

Investigate the I H. C. gasoline engines and see how well they will solve 
these problems for you. 

International loc al agents will supply you with catalogs and all particulars. 
Or, if you prefer, write to the nearest branch house. 

WESTERN BRANCH HOUSES: Denver. Colo.; Portland. Ore.: Salt Lake City. Utah: 
Helena, Montana; Spokane, Wash.; San Francisco, Cal. 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OF AMERICA 

(Incorporated) 
CHICAGO, V. S. A. 



Patrons of Husbandry. 



TULARE GRANGE MEETING. 

To the Editor: Tulare Grange met in 
regular session on Saturday the 5th, the 
4th being the 42d birthday of the Order 
of the Patrons of Husbandry. 

The order was organized in the city of 
Washington, D. C, at the home of Dr. 
William Saunders, on the evening of De- 
cember 4, 1867, and the following officers 
were elected: Worthy master, Wiiliam 
Saunders, of the District of Columbia ; 
overseer, Anson Bartlett, of Ohio; lec- 
turer, J. R. Thompson, of Vermont; stew- 
ard, William Muir, of Pennsylvania; as- 
sistant steward, A. S. Moss, of New York ; 
chaplain, Rev. A. B. Gosh, of Pennsyl- 
vania; secretary, O. L. Kelley, of Minne 
sota; gatekeeper, Edward F. Farris, of 
Illinois. At the time all of those gentle- 
men were engaged in some department of 
the National Government. 

For some time previous to this, some of 
these gentlemen had been employed by 
the government to investigate the deplor- 
able conditions of farmers at that time; 
all of them had given the subject thought- 
ful consideration, and all agreed that, as 
a means of amelioration and relief to 
them, farmers must be taught to unite in 
efforts for their own benefit, and as a 
means thereto the order was instituted. 

Much thought was given to the form of 
organization which would be attractive 
and binding. It was finally decided the 
new order should be modeled after the 
Order of Free and Accepted Masons, with 
similar forms of application and ceremo- 
nials of admission, the Masonic order be- 
ing the oldest of all moral orders, and the 
particular one after which all similar or- 
ders are modeled. 

It can be truthfully said of the ceremo- 
nies of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry 
when properly rendered, and I have seen 
them thus rendered at Sacramento and at 
San Jose, are as beautiful and as impres- 
sive as are the ceremonies of any order. 

Of the first officers of the National 
Grange, only Brother O. H. Kelley nbw 
survives. Brother Kelley for many years 
in succession was the honored secretary 
of the National Grange, P. of H., as he is 
now its honored pensioner; for to him 
more than to any other one member it 
owes its origin, its usefulness and its cori- 
tinued existence. 

One application for the degrees was 
balloted on and the candidate elected. 

Brother and Sister Lawson, who repre- 
sented Tulare Grange, P. of H., before the 
Commission on Rural Life at its Fresno 
meeting, reported. 

Resolutions of Santa Clara Pomona 
Grange against the proposed railroad 
raise of ten per cent on fruit to Eastern 
points were read and adopted, with an 
additional resolution that the law should 
prohibit any railroad raise of fare or 
freight until approved by the U. S. rail- 
road commission. 

A resolution was passed that at the 
next meeting of this Grange a "mothers' 
club" would be organized, 

Officers for the year were elected, as 
follows. Worthy master. A. C. Henry; 
overseer, Bro. Hawley; lecturer, Bro. 
Tuohy; steward. Bro. Styles; assistant 
steward, A. J. Woods; chaplain, Sister 
Fay; treasurer, Bro. Watts; secretary, 
Sister B. I. Morris; gatekeeper, Bro. Hy 
Hunaker; Ceres, Sister Loman; Pomona, 
Sister Wing; Flora, Sister Griffith; L. A. 
S., Sister Sayre; organist, Sister Styles. 

It is expected that on his return from 
the National Grange and from his old 
Eastern home. Worthy Master Griffith will 
come this way and jointly install Dinuba, 
Orosi and Tulare Grange officers. 
Tulare, Cal. . . . J. T, 



SOWING ALFALFA ON DESERT 
SOILS. 



Those who may have been disappointed 
in getting a stand of alfalfa on desert 
soils in the usual way may like to try the 
way which Mr. T. S. Van Dyke of Bar- 
stow, San Bernardino county, found suc- 
cessful and which he described in the 
Irrigation Age. Mr. Van Dyke is situated 
in what is probably the dryest part of 
the Mojave desert, lying along the Mojave 
river ome 40 miles west of its sink. The 
elevation is about 2000 feet, average rain 
fall about four inches, often less than 
three and that only in winter. Tempera- 
ture in summer 116 occasionally, but sel 
dom over 112 and rarely below 100 except 
at night. Moisture in air about the ex- 
treme minimum of the world. Mr. Van 
Dyke says: 

I have soil of several textures, from 
near clay to the coarsest gravel. In 
spring when it is windy much of the time 
and in summer when it is hot but rarely- 
windy I . find it almost impossible to get 
a decent stand of anything without flood 
ing. The moisture cannot be kept long 
enough at the immedate surface, even for 
seeds like alfalfa (which is up inside of 
five days), unless the surface is sealed 
over. My first planting of alfalfa was in 
the most orthodox manner, with deep 
plowing, fine harrowing and immediate 
seeding and harrowing in on soil wet 
many feet deep. I got about one plant to 
square rod from about 35 pounds of seed 
to the acre. I concluded that air spaces 
drying out the soil under the hot sun and 
dry air had done the mischief and that if 
the seed were drilled in shallow on un- 
plowed ground so dry that loose dirt could 
be easily dragged back over the seed by 
chains that trail behind the feeders of the 
drill and the whole then sealed over by 
flooding that I could get a stand in spite 
of the hardening and tightening of the 
soil. The ground in the other case had 
been irrigated by furrows and they were 
run for some time after planting without 
effect, except in the bottom of the furrows, 
with a few scattering plants along the 
sides. But now I rushed a big head over 
the whole patch; in five days the young 
plants were lifting the thin crust in every 
direction, and I had a stand about three 
times too thick, although I had planted 
the smallest amount of seed the drill 
would feed — about 15 pounds to the acre, 
or naif of what is generally deemed neces- 
sary for sowing broadcast under good con- 
ditions and culture. 



RAT'S-TAIL GRASS IN NEW 
ZEALAND. 



To the Editor: I am frequently read- 
ing enquiries in your paper from all parts 
of California regarding a good grass to 
grow on dry hill land. In New Zealand, 
where I farmed for many years, we had a 
grass known by the name of "rat's-tail." 
This plant will grow practically any- 
where, and throw a lot of feed without 
rain for six months. We used to burn off 
scrub growth in the fall and sow the seed 
broadcast immediately after the ashes 
had cooled off. I have known the seed 
to remain on the bare, hard ground for 
three months and, after we had given up 
all hope of it ever coming on, in the fol- 
lowing summer it would make a start, 
and once it gets root-hold, nothing will 
ever move it. This grass has the advan- 
tage of being able to carry a fire, and 
after rain It sprouts away as strong as 
ever. North of the Auckland district 
there are thousands of acres carrying 
large flocks of sheep and horses, and they 
are turned off as "fats." 

Of course, like other grasses, it has its 
drawbacks. It is a wiry grass and cuts 
down the stock's teeth. It also spreads 



very quickly, its fine seed being blown 
about. Once it gets onto cultivated land, 
it makes it hard to plow, it taking two 
crops to remove entirely. The seed is to- 
day quoted at about 40 cents per pound. 
If any of your readers desire to try it, 
Arthur Yates & Co. of Auckland, N. Z., 
can supply it. 

I have some on order and intend 
sowing it during next February. I can 
assure anyone who possess poor, thin land 
in a dry situation that they will not re- 
gret giving it a trial. 

Los Gatos. F. D. Philips. 



J. B. Neff, the conductor cf Farmers' 
Institutes for southern California, gives 
us the following dates and places at which 
meetings have been arranged: Golita, 
Jan. 4; Oxnard, Jan. 5; Mound school- 
house, near Ventura, Jan. 6 and 7; Santa 
Paula, Jan. 8 and 9. 



PIPE 



PRICE LIST. 

Second Hand Pipe— Merchantable 
Lengths. Standard Threads and New 
Standard Couplings. Dipped In a solu- 
tion of hot Asphaltum, maintained at a 
Temperature of over 300 Degrees. Closely 
Inspected and fully (iuaranteed. All 
prices F.O.B.,San Francisco. 



Size. 


Weight 
per ft. 


Price 
per 
100 ft. 


J inch 


.84 lb. 


$2.50 


i " 


1.12 " 


3.85 


1 " 


1.67 " 


4.50 


H " 


2.24 " 


6.25 


1J " 


2.68 " 


7.25 


2 " 


3.61 « 


10.00 


2i " 


5.74 " 


16.00 


3 " 


7.54 » 


19.75 


4 " 


10.66 " 


30.00 


6 " 


14.50 " 


42.50 


6 " 


18.76 " 


50.00 



ALEXANDER PIPE CO. 

1083 Howard St., San Francisco, Cal. 
\ i / 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and 
Loan Society 

I Member ol Associated Savings Banks of 
San Francisco.) 

526 CALIFORNIA STREET 

Mission Branch, 2572 Mission St.. nr. 22nd. 

For the half year ending December 31. 
1908, a dividend has been declared at tin- 
rate of four (4) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Saturday, January 2, 1909. Dividends 
not called for are added to and bear tin- 
same rate of Interest as the principal from 
January 1, 1909. 

GEORGE TOURNEY. 

Secretary. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 



San Francisco Savings Union 

( Member of AKKocintcd Saving* I'mik* of 
San Frnnclaco), 

N, \V. < <>r. OaUforala A Montgomery st*. 

For the half year ending December 31, 
1908, a dividend has been declared at the 
rates per annum of four and one-quarter 
(4%) per cent on term deposits and four 
(4) per cent on ordinary deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after Saturday, Jan- 
uary 2, 1909. 

Depositors are entitled to draw their 
dividends at any time during the succeed- 
ing half year. A dividend not drawn will 
be added to the deposit account, become a 
part thereof and earn dividend from Janu- 
ary 1st. 

LOVELL WHITE. Cashier. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

THE s\\ IN«;s WD LOAN SOCIETY, 
i Member of Associated Savings Hanks of 
San. Francisco), 

101 Montgomery St., corner Sutti-r SI. 

For the half year ending December 31, 
1908, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of four (4) per cent per annum on 
all deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Saturday, January 2, 1909. Dividends 
not called for are added to and bear the 
same rate of interest as the principal from 
January 1, 1909. Money deposited before 
January 10th will draw interest from 
January 1, 1909. 

WM. A. BOSTON. Cashier. 



PATENTS 

White for our Guide to Inventors, sent 
free on request; containing nearly 100 me- 
chanical movements and full Information 
about Patents, Caveats, Trademarks, and 
Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG * CO., 
1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., si jr. 
Francisco. Established 1860. 



January 2, 1909.. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



i 



The Home Circle. 



The New Year. 



Another year has wing'd its airy flight, 
Still wrapt the future in mysterious 
night; 

An eager haste we feel. 
We long, we hope and e'en swift time 

seems slow, 
Enquiring ask, while yet we would not 

know, 

What may this year reveal? 

What may it not! Ah, one short year 
may send 

To his long home a loved, a valued friend, 

Bring others to our view; 
Lay hundreds low in death. Alas, re- 
place 

Full many a well-known lamented face 
By forms entirely new. 

A year may bring the wounded mind re- 
pose, 

O'erwhelm the happy with unnmberded 
woes, ; 

May ease the captive's doom. 
A fleeting year, ere it is past and gone, 
May add fresh beauty to the form of one, 

Decay another's bloom. 

May ope to sorrow pleasure's blissful 
door, 

Make the poor wealthy and the wealthy 
poor; 

Thus change the form of fate. 
May shower profuse, from golden realms 
above 

On private homes, the joys of peace and 
love ; 

Bring discord to a State. 

Could we look forward but through one 
short year 

How would the smile alternate chase the 
tear! 

The tear its place supply. 
How one sad home would view the mind 
pedplext; 

Perchance relieved and free from care 
the next 
Ere yet the tear was dry. 

But though weak man alone can truly 
see 

What has been, is, not what yet may be, 

We'll fondly paint the best. 
We'll bid the radiant dawn of Hope ap- 
pear ; 

Through its fair glass we'll view this 
opening year; 
And while we hope we're blest. 
(The above poem was first published 
in 1767, but its truths are as real today 
as then. The name of the author is lost 
in the years.) 



Women in the World's Work. 



A farmer's daughter of the Middle 
West made $310 last year with peacocks. 

New England has one switchwoman — 
not the kind that dresses down bad boys; 
but a railroad switchwoman. She is, says 
the New York Sun, Mrs. Mary A. Lamont, 
and besides tending to the switches she 
sends out and receives all the telegrams 
at her station. 

At the recent election in Denver, Colo., 
the oldest voter was a woman, Mrs. Rich- 
ard Sophris. She is in her 98th year, but 
very intelligent and in the full use of her 
faculties. She expresses herself as proud 
to be at last a full-fledged citizen. 

Minnesota has the champion woman 
corn husker. The St. Paul Dispatch says 
Miss Mollie Morgan of Jamaica was of- 
fered $10 by her father if she would 
gather 100 bushels of corn in a day. In 
the morning the young lady started a 
stream of corn flying into the wagon and 
at night she had gathered 104 bushels. 



There is a certain Congressman from 
New England, a self-made man, who is 
noted in Washington for two things — 
his quick wit and pride in his Celtic 
origin. 

He was walking down Pennsylvania 
avenue one line evening, with a fellow 
member from Kansas, when the Western- 
er, looking at the sky, remarked, "How 
bringht Orion is tonight!" 

"A-r-rh!" replied the New Englander. 
"So that is O'Ryan, is it? Well, thank 
the Lord there's one Irishman in heaven, 
anyhow!" — Lippincott's. 



OUR HOME CIRCLE CHAT. 



Breakfast Hints. 



"We should all strive to forgive our 
enemies," remarked the Wise Guy. 
"Yes; then they won't be so apt to 
get back at us," added the Simple Mug. 



Man's first right in the order of the 
day is the right to a good breakfast. 
Thus fortified he is ready for the day's 
work and can meet it successfully, while 
the ill-breakfasted finds everything awry 
— the chill of the morning gets onto his 
spirits and he hasn't the vim to throw 
it off. 

Breakfast as a rule is given scant con- 
sideration; yet this meal is the most im- 
portant one of the day. The system is 
in immediate need of nourishment, some- 
thing that it can readily assimilate; the 
stomach not yet toned to heavy burdens, 
needs something it can easily digest. It 
follows that the breakfast should be 
light, nutritious and gently stimulating. 
A heavy meal made up of a variety of 
rich foods is far from a good breakfast 
and will not afford that strength of body 
and lightness of spirits which sets us 
on our feet for the day. The breakfast 
of cereals, toast, eggs and coffee is not 
far from requirements; but all the dif- 
ference between virtue and baseness lies 
in the quality and preparation of these 
articles. The gummy mush and thin 
milk; the muddy coffee of questionable 
antecedents; the ill-flavored eggs of un- 
certain age; the ill-toasted bread or 
soggy cakes, are enough to drive a man 
to drink! 

The good housewife might better be 
slack elsewhere than careless of break- 
fast comforts. True, she may not al- 
ways feel at her best in the early morn- 
ing and is apt to consider a make-shift 
breakfast sufficient if the dinner and 
evening are up to the mark — or even let 
the "gude mon" get his own breakfast. 
A cheery breakfast room and an appe- 
tizing breakfast table are well worth the 
efforts of a half-hour's earlier rising and 
they give a touch of brightness and com- 
fort to the whole day. 

One may vary the breakfast menu and 
still have what is light and easily pre- 
pared. Such dishes we will consider later 
on, and this week speak of what may 
be called the breakfast stand-by. The 
first in this line is 

Goon Coffee. — For breakfast there is 
nothing which can take the place of 
coffee. Nature must have grown this 
berry especially that man might have a 
"cup to cheer and not inebriate." Buy 
coffee of the better grade; the cheapest 
grades are really the most expensive, 
for they have little strength and less 
flavor and are entirely destitute of that 
delightful aroma which rightfully be- 
longs to a cup of coffee; and take no base 
substitutes for coffee. It is the abuse of 
coffee, not its use, which is harmful. 
Coffee should be as freshly parched as 
possible and always kept in tight cans. 
When it has become somewhat tough and 
flavorless by standing, putting it in a hot 
oven till thoroughly heated will restore 
considerable of its virtue. Never buy the 
prepared coffees. The rule for making 
coffee as strong as it should ever be 
drank is one heaping tablespoonful to 
each cup of coffee and one to the pot; 
half this strength is sufficient for those 
of weak nerves or digestion. Good coffee 
may be made either by dripping or boil 
ing. The army mode is to put it into a 
tight vessel in not quite the full amount 
of cold water; let come to a boil quickly; 
add the rest of the cold water and again 
let come to a boil; now clear by pouring 
a cup out and back and scraping down the 
grounds; cover perfectly tight and let 
stand where it will keep boiling hot, but 
not boil for a few minutes, then serve. 
This is clear and excellent. To settle 
with eggs, etc., mix with the coffee and 
just enough cold water to wet; pour on 
boiling water and let come to a boil, then 
treat as above. It is well to use a fine 
wire strainer in serving it to make sure 
that no grounds slip in. A spoonful or 
more of whipped cream is the most de- 
licious addition, but if only milk is ob- 
tainable always serve it hot with coffee. 
Cold blue milk will ruin the best cup of 
coffee. To repeat: Use good coffee and 
the real thing; have it freshly parched 
and ground; don't let it ever boil more 
than a minute nor stand long before srev- 
ing; serve hot and with cream or rich hot 
milk. 

The Breakfast Egg. — "Anybody can 
boil an egg," is often said. This may be 
true in one sense, but to boil it properly 
is an art which few can attain. There is 
a psychological moment in the evolution 
of the breakfast egg which one must 
catch to have the egg at its best; then its 
consistency is perfect and its flavor at 
the maximum. The first requirement of 




Wedged Heads 

A Keen Kutter Hammer 
can never fly of? the handle. 

It is secured by the won- 
derful Grellner Everlasting 
Lock Wedge which expands 
the wood in the head and 
when driven home is forever 
locked in place. 

This wedge is the only 
perfect and lasting device of 
its kind and is found only in 

MffiR 

Quality Tools 

All Keen Kutter hammers, axes and hatchets 
are secured in this manner. 

The Keen Kutter name and trade mark 
cover tools of all kinds for home, shop, farm 
or garden, also a full line of pocket-knives, 
scissors and shears and cutlery. 

The only tools with all risk removed. Each 
Keen Kutter tool is guaranteed to be perfect 
or your money will be returned. If not at 
your dealer's, write us. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY (Inc.), 
St. Louis and New York, U. S. A. 



the breakfast egg is that it be "strictly 
fresh" in the fullest sense of that much 
abused term; it should be produced in 
the yards of a true poultryman who keeps 
only healthy hens fed in a cleanly whole- 
some manner. To boil, cover with cold 
water and place on a hot stove or blaze 
where it will come to the boil quickly; 
the instant the water begins to boil re- 
move the vessel to the back of the range 
and let stand one minute, then serve at 
bnce; if wanted somewhat firmer leave 
two minutes longer in the boiling water — 
not boil. Eggs should be served instantly, 
and the egg cups warmed; but they are 
better eaten out of their natural cup — 
of betier flavor, hotter and more attrac- 
tive to the eye. 

The Breakfast Toast. — This requires 
good bread and a good fire. Cut the 
slices evenly and some three-quarters of 
an inch in thickness; toast over hot coals 
to an even golden brown; butter and 
place between hot platters and serve at 
once. If toasted in the oven the latter 
should be hot but not hot enough to 
brown before the bread is thoroughly 
heated. Toast crisped to a light brown 
half way through is delicious with coffee 
and excellent for the delicate and dys- 
peptic. 



In the Garden. 



The lawn, smooth and sloping with the 
soft sheen of velvet, is one of the most 
beautiful of garden effects — and the most 
difficult to attain. 

In California, just after the rains begin 
in the autumn is the best time to start a 
lawn — or rather to start tlie preparation 
for a lawn, which is far the most impor- 
tant part of lawn-making. 

The ground should be deeply spaded 
and worked till thoroughly pulverized; 
then spread with poultry manure or the 
well-rotted manure from the barnyard, 
and spaded and worked again. After 
this thorough working and raking, it 
should be leveled with a gentle slope from 
the house; then wet down and allowed to 
lie some three weeks to bring out the 
weed seed. When these are well started, 
spade them under and let the ground rest 
for another period; in fact it would be 
well to repeat this operation three of four 
times in order to catch all of the weeds. 
It is exceedingly tedious — and very ex- 
pensive if you hire it done — to weed 
a new lawn; therefore reduce the weeds to 
the minimum before planting. 

When no more weeds can be coaxed up, 
again thoroughly work and level the 
ground and roll it till it is firm and com- 
pact. Now sow your seed thickly and 
evenly. It is best to do this with a sieve 
which may be readily made by tacking a 
screen wire of the right sized mesh onto a 
box frame from which the bottom has 
been removed. Cover the seed about a 
quarter of an inch deep With sifted sandy 



THE HAMLIN SCHOOL 

2230 Pacific Avenue, also 
2117-2119 Broadway St. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 

A Boarding and Day School for Girls, 
with a full corps of teachers for all de- 
partments in the English branches, Latin, 
Greek, and the Modern Languages, also 
accredited by the University of Califor- 
nia, Leland Stanford Junior University, 
and by Eastern Colleges. 

Special attention is given to lessons in 
elocution, singing, the violin, the piano, 
and to drawing and painting. 

Lectures are given by professors from 
the University of California, and a course 
of study for High School graduates and 
for young women who have left school, is 
also offered. 

Second semester opens January 4, 1909. 

For further particulars address 

Miss Sarah D. Hamlin, 

2230 Pacific Avenue. 
SAN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA. 

Country Boy Preferred 

"Send us one of your graduates that you can 
recommend. We prefer a boy from the country 
—one who has a bright mind and a strong body, 
and who is capable of advancement. Good pay 
from the start, and excellent opportunities to 
advance." 

We receive messages like the above daily from 
San Francisco's leading business houses. They 
call on us because they know we have the right 
kind of young men in our school, and because 
they know we are giving the right kind of train- 
ing. If you are interested in the opportunities 
offered by the new San Francisco write us for 
particulars. 

San Francisco Business College 

733 Fillmore St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



HEAUS'S 



BUSINESS 
COLLEGE 

425 MC ALLISrER ST SF 

WHEN YOU CHOOSE 
A SCHOOL 
Select the one that can give the 
BEST TRAINING and the one 
that can do most for you when 
you are ready to enter busi- 
ness. 

The Winter Term opens 
Monday, January 4. A good 
time to begin. 

Call or write for particulars. 

Address as above. 



HENRY B. LISTER, 
ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 Pacific Bldg\, Fourth and Market Sts. 
San Francisco. 



18 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2, 1909. 



loam put on with the sieve — and be sure 
there are no weed seeds in this sifting or 
all your previous work will go for naught. 
Now roll smoothly and wet down evenly, 
aud keep watch for any stray weeds and 
prevent them getting a foothold. 
The old Kentucky blue grass in its 

Eurity is preferred by some for the lawn, 
ut there are more who like a mixture of 
it with white clover. The reliable seed 
companies, however, whose advertise- 
ments may be found in the Pacific 
Rural Press, have lawn grass mixtures 
which have been especially prepared to 
meet the requirements of our climate and 
soil, and to produce best results. 

For a simple grass plot where one has 
not an abundance of flowing water and 
the necessary time, the native grasses 
may be cultivated successfully with much 
less water and care. The writer has kept 
such a plot since last May by a moderate 
amount of watering and keeping out the 
weeds and the ground from being tramped 
on. A kind of barley or rye grass and 
burr clover grow on it and make a bright 
green oasis which at a little distance 
might vie with a more pretentious lawn. 
The quantity of clippings which this 
small plot has furnished for the fowls is 
truly surprising; in fact it has furnished 
more green feed with less water than an 
equal space in alfalfa, and it is much 
more relished by the fowls. 



Br er Rabbit in Indian Lore. 



The "I'ncle Remus" stories have made 
the world familiar with the Southern 
negro version of Br'er Rabbit and his cun- 
ning, says the N. Y. Bun. It is not 
generally known how Br'er Rabbit 
figures in the animal lore of the North 
American Indians. An effort has been 
made to establish for these stories a negro 
origin regardless of the fact that the rab- 
bit — the great white rabbit — figures as 
the hero, god, trickster and wonder-work- 
er of almost every Indian tribe from Hud- 
son Bay to the Gulf and from Nova Sco- 
tia to the Pacific. Here is a Cherokee 
story which corresponds with our fable 
of the "Tortoise and the Snail:" 

"Br'er Rabbit was a good runner and 
everybody knew it. The terrapin was a 
slow* traveler, as everybody also knew, 
but he was a great warrior and unblush- 
ingly boasted of it. The terrapin also had 
a gift of cunning in no small measure, and 
as the rabbit was always playing tricks 
on the other animals Mr. Terrapin con- 
cocted a practical joke with which he 
proceeded to victimize the old joker. 

"The terrapin challenged the rabbit to 
a footrace; the day was fixed, the start- 
ing place agreed upon. They were to 
run across four mountain ridges and the 
one that came out first at the end was to 
be the winner of the race. 

"Br'er Rabbit said to himself that it 
would be a shame to take anything so 
easy, so he said to the terrapin: "You 
can't run, and everybody knows it. I'll 
give you the first ridge and then you'll 
have' only three to cross while I'll cross 
over four." 

"To this the terrapin assented and went 
home to arrange for the race. He sent 
for his terrapin friends and frankly told 
them that he knew that he could not 
outrun the rabbit, but he wanted to stop 
his boasting. He then explained his plan 
to them, and they agreed to help him. 

"The day came and the animals were 
all out to see the race. The rabbit took 
his station at the starling point and the 
terrapin went ahead as they had arranged, 
and they could hardly see him on account 
of the tall grass. \Vhen the word was 
given the rabbit started out with long 
jumps up the mountain, expecting to win 
the race before the terrapin could get 
down the other side of it. Before he got 
up the mountain he saw the terrapin go 
over the ridge ahead of him. 

"He ran on and when he reached the 
top he looked all around, but could not 
see the terrapin on account of the tall 
grass. Br'er Rabbit kept on down the 
mountain and began to climb the second 



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GEARHART OIL BURNER CO. 

1922-1924 Fretno St., FRESNO, CAL. 




ridge, but when he looked up again there 
was the terrapin just going over the 
top. This was surpising, and Br'er Rab- 
bit began to take longer jumps to catch 
up, but when he got to the top there was 
the terrapin away in front over the third 
ridge. 

"The rabbit was now getting tired and 
nearly out of breath, but he kept on down 
the mountain and up the other ridge until 
he got to the top just in time to. see Mr. 
Terrapin cross the fourth ridge and thus 
win the race. 

"Br'er Rabbit could not make another 
jump, but he fell over on the ground cry- 
ing 'mi, mi, mi, mi,' as the rabbit has 
done ever since when he is too tired to run 
any more. The race was given to the ter- 
rapin, though all the animals wondered 
how he managed it. But he kept still 
and never told. 

"It was easy enough, however, because 
all the terrapin's friends looked just 
alike and he had simply posted one near 
the top of each ridge to wait until the rab- 
bit came in sight and then climb over and 
hide in the long grass. When the rabbit 
came on he could not find the terrapin 
and so though the terrapin was ahead, 
and if had met one of the other terrapins 
he would have thought it was the same 
one because they look so much alike. 
The real terrapin had posted himself on 
the fourth ridge so as to come in at the 
end of the race and be ready to answer 
questions if the animals suspected any- 
thing." 



NEW CALENDARS. 



This office is in receipt of several hand- 
some 1909 calendars, the handsomest one 
being from the California Fruit Exchange 
of Sacramento. The picture on this cal- 
endar represents a bouquet of roses and 
white lilacs, from a painting by R. M. De 
Longpre of Paris, and is a beautiful work 
of art. Another calendar is from the 
Leonard Coates Nursery Co., Inc., of Mor- 
ganhill, and the central picture shows a 
portion of a lot of 515,000 eucalyptus 
trees ready for planting out in forest 
form. The calendar is a good one, but we 
would offer one criticism, that is, the fig- 
ures on the date pad are rather small. 
The Western Gas Engine Co. of this city 
and Los Angeles also sends us a hand- 
some calendar, printed in brown tones 
and very effective. 



The Monarch 
Stump Puller 

The Monarch Is a Puller constructed 
on the most correct and scientific iprln- 
clples and Is made of the strongest and 
best materials obtainable. 




THE MONARCH 

Is the most successful and most popular 
Stump fuller on the market today. We 
have them In stock. 



Write us lor Catalogue ot Slump 
pullers. Farm Implements, Wagons 
and Vehicles. 



PACIFIC IMPLEMENT COMPANY, 

135 Kansas St.. San Francisco. 



'« DUST SPRAY «- 

V1G0RITE BRAND 
HYDRATED LIME 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE HOLMES LIME CO., Inc. 

Mutual Savings Bank Building 
San Francisco 

W rite for Samples and Prices. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco. Dec. 29. 1908. 
(Unless otherwise noted, quotations rep- 
resent prices paid to the growers.) 

WHEAT. 

Since last report the local wheat market 
has shown the effect of the holidays, and 
there has been very little movement. No 
particular activity is looked for. however, 
as the local buyers have taken compara- 
tively little interest In the market for 
some time past. Trading on futures is ex- 
tremely quiet. There is a fairly liberal 
movement from the North for the Califor- 
nia milling interests. Prices unchanged, 
all lines being firmly held. 
California White Australian. $1.75 @1.80 

California Club 1.67% ©1.70 

California Milling 1.70 ©1.72% 

California lower grades ... 1.45 ©1.60 

Northern Club 1.65 ©1.67% 

Northern Bluestem 1.72 %@ 1.77 % 

Northern Red 1.62%® 1.65 

Turkey Red 1.75 @1.80 

BARLEY. 

With liberal receipts, part of which are 
from the North, this market is fairly well 
supplied for present needs, though holders 
are showing considerable firmness in re- 
gard to prices on spot grain. The best 
feed is again selling at $1.45. and sales of 
brewing and shipping grades are reported 
at an advance of 5 cents over the ligures 
recently prevailing. May barley is weaker. 

Brewing $1.45 @1.52% 

Shipping 1.45 @1.52% 

Chevalier 1.57 % @ 1.62 % 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctl. 1.40 ©1.45 
Common Feed 1.35 ©1.38% 

OATS. 

Prices show no further change, and no 
material reduction seems likely, as the 
grain is very firmly held in the North. The 
California demand for seeding purposes, 
however, has so far been much smaller 
than was expected, and very little move- 
ment is going on locally, though there may 
be some Increase in the demand after the 
lirst of tile year. 

Choice White, per ctl $1.70 @1.75 

No. 1, White 1.65 ©1.67% 

Gray 1.65 01.70 

Red, seed 1.75 @1.85 

Feed 1.50 ©1.70 

Black, seed 2.45 ©2.65 

CORN. 

Scarcely any California corn is arriving, 
and there grades are practically nominal. 
There has o far been no increase in the ar- 
rivals from tile Western States, and stocks 
remain small, with the local movement 
Confined to narrow limits. Western prices 
are 2c. below the last quotation. 
California Small Round Yel- 
low, per ctl Nominal 

Large Yellow Nominal 

White Nominal 

Western State Yellow $1.60 ©1.65 

Mixed, in bulk 1.49 

White in bulk 1.53 

RY'E. 

No interest is taken in this grain at 
present, buyers in general having suffi- 
cient to last them until after the first of 
the year. The demand is very light, but 
all offerings are still held at former prices. 

Rye $1.42% ©1.50 

BEANS. 

The market has been of a holiday char- 
acter for the last week or two, and the 
movement has quieted down considerably. 
The decline on limas has induced a little 
business, however, and some buyers have 
placed orders to be shipped before the ad- 
vance in freight rates goes into effect. Ar- 
rivals show a further decline this week, 
and local dealers express the opinion that 
the growers are holding comparatively lit- 
tle stock. While stocks In the warehouses 
are rather large, prices are steadily main- 
tained on most varieties, and some ad- 
vance is looked for. The dealers here are 
holding firmly, in the expectation of a 
large demand later In the winter. Gar- 
vanzos are lower, but greater strength Is 
shown by pinks and horse beans. 

Bayos, per ctl $2.90 ©3.05 

Blackeyes 3.00 ©3.25 

Cranberry Beans 2.75 ©3.00 

Garvanzos 2.25 ©3.00 

Horse Beans 1.60 ©2.00 

Small Whites 4.50 ©4.70 

Large White 3.65 ©3.85 

Limas 4.20 ©4.30 

Pea 4.50 ©4.75 

Pink 2.45 ©2.60 

Red 3.75 ©4.00 

Red Kidneys 3.25 ©3.50 

SEEDS. 

The seed market has been considerably 
affected by the holidays, though a moder- 
ate amount of buying has been done this 
week. A good demand in all lines is ex- 
pected next month. Prices show some re- 
vision, but the market in general is steady 
to firm. 

Alfalfa, per lb 17 ©18 c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $20.00© 25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 3%c 

Canary <%<" 

Flaxseed 2%@ 3 c 

Hemp * 9 

Millet 2%@ 3%c 

Timothy Nominal 

Yellow Mustard Nominal 

FLOUR. 

There is considerably less shipping 
movement from the northern Coast ports 
than a month or two ago, though the ex- 
portation from San Francisco keep about 
up to the usual small average. Local trade 
Is very quiet this week, though a fair 
movement may be expected in the next 
few weeks. 

Cal. Family Extras $5.60 ©6.20 

Bakers' Extras 6.60 ©5.85 

Superfine **Q 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4-50 ©4. ,5 



HAY. 

Arrivals for the last week show some 
decrease, owing to the holidays, and nei- 
ther shippers nor consumers have shown 
the usual interest. The market, however, 
continues to show a decided strength and 
activity unusual at this time of year. 
Prices are well sustained, most grades be- 
ing quoted rather higher this week, and 
all offerings are readily taken at the fig- 
ures quoted. Local conditions are con- 
sidered favorable to a good consumptive 
demand trhoughout the rest of the season, 
while the demand in the interior so far 
shows no decline, and the South is taking 
large quantities. Growers are holding 
strongly, and the outlook is more than 
ever for a further advance before the end 
of the winter. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $20.00@22.50 

Other Grades Wheat 16.00@19.50 

Wheat and Oat 17.00@21.00 

Tame Oat 17.00@20.00 

Wild Oat 15.00© 18.00 

Alfalfa 12.50©17.50 

Stock 12.00©13.00 

Straw, per bale 65© 80c 

MILLSTUFFS. 

Supplies or bran are quite large, as an- 
other shipment has been received from Ja- 
pan. The demand is not especially strong 
at present, and the market is weak, with 
a decline in prices on all grades. Some 
shorts have also come In from Japan, but 
this market Is well sustained, and mid- 
dlings are also firm. There is a steady 
demand for alfalfa meal and mealfalfa, 
the prices for which have been advanced 
$1 a ton. Other varieties are unchanged. 

Alfalfa meal, per ton $23. 00© 24.00 

Bran, ton — 

White 30.00 

Red 28.50©29.50 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl 1.20© 1.25 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills (in 10-ton lots) 25.50 

Jobbing 26.50 

Corn Meal 37.00@38.00 

Cracked Corn 38.00® 39.00 

Mealfalfa 23.00@ 24.00 

Middlings 33.50@35.50 

Mixed Feeds 28.00@32.00 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 38.00@39.50 

Rolled Barley 30.00@31.0O 

Shorts 33.00@33.50 

VEGETABLES. 

Owing to the growing scarcity of onions 
in this market, stock is now being shipped 
In from Oregon. This Is of superior qual- 
ity, and brings as high as $1.40 — as high as 
some replcked lots of local stock. Arriv- 
als from river points have been light, and 
with a good demand for the week, the 
price is considerably higher. Receipt for 
miscellaneous vegetables from the South 
have been light this week, but the demand 
has also been of small proportions, and 
prices are lower on several articles. Cel- 
ery and rhubarb, however, are consider- 
ably higher, and tomatoes are steady, al- 
though a good deal of poor stock Is of- 
fering. 

Onions $ 1.10® 1.25 

Garlic, lb 7® 9c 

String Beans 10@ 15c 

Green Peas, lb 10®12%c 

Cabbage, per ctl $1.00 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton... 10.00@15.00 

Tomatoes, crate 50© 1.00 

Turnips, sack 60c 

Bell Peppers, lb 10® lBc 

Chill Peppers, lb 4© 6c 

Egg Plant, lb 10@12%c 

Cauliflower, doz 50© 60c 

Celery, dozen 40© 80c 

Rhubarb, box 1.50© 2.00 

POULTRY. 
Prices on chickens stand about the same 
as last week, ordinary hens being slightly 
higher. Arrivals from Western points are 
liberal as usual, and sell off readily, but 
the small supplies of California stock re- 
ceive little attention. The stock of dressed 
turkeys for the Christmas market was one 
of the smallest on record, and the demand 
was strong, raising prices to an unusual 
figure. The choicest dressed stock sold as 
high as 38c. a pound, and the day before 
Christmas nothing could be had under 31c. 
live birds bringing about 29c. There is 
no live stock offered at present, and 
dressed turkeys are still In good demand 
at the prices quoted. 

Broilers $ 4.50© 5.00 

Small Broilers 3.50© 4.00 

Fryers 5.50© 6.00 

Hens, extra 7.00® 9.00 

Hens, per doz 5.50® 6.00 

Small Hens 4.00® 5.00 

Old Roosters 4.00® 5.00 

Young Roosters 6.50® 7.00 

Young Roosters, full grown.. 7.50® 8.00 

Pigeons 1.25 

Squabs 2.50 

Ducks 4.00® 8.00 

Geese 2.50® 3.00 

Turkeys, live, per lb Nominal 

Turkeys, dressed, per lb 28® 30c 

BUTTER. 

The butter market is in a good condi- 
tion this week, the trade being well 
cleaned out by the holiday demand. Buy- 
ing is accordingly quite liberal, and al- 
though the receipts are fully up to the 
average, all offerings of flrst-class fresh 
stock are readily taken. Extras are con- 
siderably higher, at 36 %c, with an advance 
of lc on firsts. Other grades are steady 
to firm at former quotations. The follow- 
ing figures are given by the San Fran- 
cisco Dairy Exchange: 

California (extras), per lb 36%c 

Firsts 31 c 

Seconds 25 c 

Thirds 20 c 

Eastern Storage Ladles, extra 23 c 

Cal. Storage, extras 29 c 

Pickled Butter 23 %c 

Packing Stock, No. 1 21 %c 

EGGS. 

The market has been quite liberally sup- 
plied for several days past, as large lots 
that had been held back for the holiday 
trade have been placed on the market. 
There has accordingly been some accumu- 
lation, and a pressure on the part of sell- 
ers has caused a decline of 7e In both ex- 
tras, and firsts. At these quotations trad- 



January 2, 1909. 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



19 



ing has been rather active, and the sur- 
plus is being well cleaned up. The present 
feeling is one of firmness, with a pros- 
pct of somewhat higher prices next week, 
as the production is still light. 
California (extra), per doz. ... 43 c 

Firsts 42 c 

Seconds 37 c 

Thirds 29 r 

Storage, Cal., extras 35 c 

Storage, Eastern extras 30 c 

CHEESE. 

The market on cheese has been of a 
holiday character, with less interest than 
last week, and practically everything on 
the list is weak. Supplies are liberal, and 
fancy flats have been market down V z c. 
Both fresh and storage Young Americas 
show a similar decline. The following 
quotations are given by the San Francisco 
Dairy Exchange: 

Fancy California Flats, per lb. 14%c 

Firsts 14 c 

New Young Americas, fancy. . 16 c 

Oregon Flats 14 c 

Oregon Y. A 16 c 

Storage, Cal. Flats 13 c 

N. Y. Cheddars 17 c 

Storage, Oregon, Flats 14 c 

POTATOES. 
Potatoes continue quiet, with plentiful 
supplies, and buyers show very little in- 
terest in anything but the choicest lots. 
Sales of Early Rose for seeding are small 
this week. Prices, however, are strongly 
held on all lines. Receipts of sweet pota- 
toes are large, but prices are somewhat 
higher, fancy stock bringing an advance 
over quotations. 

River Whites, fancy, ctl 65 @ 90c 

Common 50@ 60c 

Salinas Burbanks, ctl fl.25@ 1.50 

Oregon Burbanks, ctl 1.15@ 1.25 

Early Rose 1.25® 1.35 

Sweet Potatoes, etl 1.35@ 1.75 

FRESH FRUITS. 

Fresh fruits are in rather less demand 
than last week, as all holiday wants have 
been filled, and the market is inclined to 
dullness. Some grapes are still being of- 
fered, but they receive little attention. 
Few cranberries are left, present offerings 
bringing an advance. Ordinary apples are 
plentiful, and easy as to price, though 
choice stock is still firm under a fair de- 
mand. Good lots of pears are higher. 

Apples, fancy 85c@$1.50 

Apples, common 40 @ 75c/ 

Christmas Apples 1.50@ 1.75 

Cranberries — 

Cape Cod, bbl 15.00 

Grapes, crate 50c@ 1.00 

Pears, box, Winter Nelis 75c@ 1.25 

Other varieties 50 @ 75c 

Persimmons, box 50 @ l.OOy 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

Oranges and other citrus fruits are quiet 
this week, as the demand appears to be 
well filled. Plenty of supplies have come 
in, including shipments from the South. 
Navel oranges are slightly higher at the 
inside figure, but otherwise there is no 
change. 

Choice Lemons $2.00@ 2.50 

Fancy Lemons 3.00® 3.25 

Standard 1.25@ 1.50 

Limes 4.00@ 5.00 

Oranges — 

Navels 1.75 @ 2.50 

Tangerines 1.00® 1.25 

Grape Fruit 3.00@ 3.50 

DRIED FRUITS. 
The local market on dried fruits shows 
little feature at present, being quiet, as 
usual at the holiday season. While stocks 
of several varieties are small in the East- 
ern markets, there has so far been no 
sign of any increase in the demand, and 
no immediate change in the range of val- 
ues is looked for, with the possible excep- 
tion of apricots and prunes. Apricots are 
very scarce, and the price is firmly held. 
There is no lange inquiry for prunes in 
the East, but the jobbing trade is fairly 
active, and in view of the scarcity of large 
sizes the packers are inclined to firmness. 
Peaches at present show little strength, 
being slow and inclined to weakness. 
Other descriptions are steady at former 
quotations. The local market on raisins 
remains in a dull and weak condition since 
the decline, and most of the packers ap- 
pear to be taking little interest in the 
offerings of growers. Eastern dealers are 
unwilling to buy, and stocks on hand lo- 
cally are sufficient to meet all immediate 
requirements. Much depends upon the suc- 
cess of the Fresno pool, as that would un- 
doubtdly give more strength and activity 
to the market. Local dealers quote the 
following prices: 

Evaporated Apples 5%® 6%c 

Figs, black 2%@ 3 c 

Figs, white 3 @ 4 c 

Apricots, new crop 8 @ 10 '4-C 

Peaches, new crop 4 @ 5*£c 

Prunes, 4-size basis 3 c 

Pears, new crop 4 @ 7 c 

RAISINS— NEW CROP. 

Loose Muscatels, 4 crown 4%c 

3 Crown 3%c 

2 Crown 3%c 

Thompson Seedless 4 c 

Seedless 3%c 

London Layers $1.10@ 1.20 

RAISINS. 

Some of the local packers are offering 2c 
for raisins in the sweatbox. Fo"" packed 
raisins they ask: 

Loose Muscatels, 4 crown 4 c 

3 crown 3 He 

2 crown 2%c 

Thompson Seedless 3%c 

Seedless Sultanas 3 c 

London Layers, 3 crown $1.00 

NUTS. 

Nuts are quiet at present, and buyers 
show little interest, as this year's require- 
ments have all been filled. Some demand 
may develop soon ofter the first of the 
year, though supplies now seem to be suf- 
ficient to last for some time. All stocks 
are firmly held, both by growers and deal- 
ers, and prices show no change. 

Almonds. Nonpareils 11 

I X L 10 c 

Ne Plus Ultra 9%c 



Drakes 9 c 

Languedoc 8 c 

WALNUTS. 

Softshell, No. 1 12y 2 c 

Softshell, No. 2 8y 2 c 

Hardshells less ? c 

California Chestnuts 10 @12%c 

Italian Chestnuts 10 @11 c 

HONEY. 

Extracted honey is selling at former 
prices, though the movement is slow. 
Comb honey, however, is weak and dull, 
the market showing some injurious effect 
from a poor lot of Nevada stock which was 
received here recently, and prices are 
lower. Prices an water white extracted 
and comb honey are nominal. 

Comb, lb 10 ©13 c 

Water White, extracted l l Ac 

White 6Vt@ S 3/ 4,c 

Light Amber 5 @ 5%c 

Dark Amber 4%c 

HOPS. 

Most of the better California hops have 
already been disposed of, taking care of 
all pressing wants, and whatever high 
grade stock is left in growers' hands is 
being firmly held. Considerable quantities 
of less desirable quality, however, are be- 
ing placed on the market, and in some 
quarters there is pressure to sell. The 
current prices accordingly show a further 
reduction. 

Hops, per lb 5 @ 7 c 

WOOL. 

A large proportion of the fall clip of 
California wool has been moved, though 
prices were not very satisfactory. There 
is very little movement at present, partly 
owing to the holidays, and partly because 
neither buyers nor sellers are taking much 
interest in the market. 
Red Bluff (f. o. b. Red Bluff) 

free 6 @ 7%c 

Defective less 2 c 

San Joaquin (at S. F.) free.... 5 @ 6%c 

Defective 4 @ 5 c 

Mendocino, free 7 @ 9 c 

Defective 5 @ 7 c 

MEAT. 

Receipts of hogs are now rather liberal, 
but the surplus is taken up by the pack- 
ers, preventing any reduction. Dressed 
meats are in general higher, beef, mutton 
and lamb showing a considerable advance. 
Live stock remains about as formerly 
quoted. 

Beef: Steers, per lb 6V 2 @ 7V*e 

Cows 5%@ 6%c 

Heifers 5%@ 6%c 

Veal: Large 7 @ 9 c 

Small 9 @ 10 c 

Mutton: Wethers 8 @9 c 

Ewes 7 @ 8 He 

Lambs 10 @11 c 

Hogs, dressed 8 @ 9%C 

LIVESTOCK. 

Steers, No. 1 4 @ 4 Vic 

No. 2 3%c 

No. 3 3 @ 314 c 

Cows and Heifers, No. 1 3 @ 3': t c 

No. 2 2 34 c 

Bulls and Stags 1%@ 2 c 

Calves, Light 4%@ 5 c 

Medium 4%@ 4'/>c 

Heavy 3%@ 4 "c 

Sheep, Wethers 4 c 

Ewes 3V4c 

Lambs, lb 4 @ 4y>c 

Hogs, 100 to 150 lbs 5% @ 6 c 

150 to 250 lbs 6 iv 6V,c 

250 to 325 lbs 5V 2 @ 5%c 

Boars, 50 per cent; stags, 30 to 40 per 
cent, and sows, 10 to 20 per cent off from 
above quotations. 



SPECIAL CITRUS MARKET 
REPORT. 



Los Angeles, Cal., Dec. 29, 1908.— The 
orange market is in fine shape, though 
prices are not very high, and probably 
will not go any higher just at present. 
This is the time of the usual after-holiday 
slump, but there is no sign of its ap- 
pearance, and it will not show up this 
season if the shippers will confine their 
output to within the needs of the jobbers 
throughout the country. All the output 
for Christmas was handled very nicely — 
in fact, there was not enough stock out 
to supply the legitimate needs of the 
trade, and there were no auctions held 
from Wednesday last week until yester- 
day, simply because there was no fruit 
to auction; it had all been sold that ar- 
rived on time. 

Lemons are dragging and prices are not 
good. A price of $2.75 delivered is about 
the limit, judging from auctions, and the 
shippers here are not claiming anything 
more than $3 delivered on their very best 
stock, and from that down to $2.50. De- 
mand is light and importation quite 
heavy, 18,000 boxes being the next offer- 
ing of the importers, sale to be held on 
January 5. 

It is not believed that the frost has 
done any great damage in this part of the 
citrus belt. There will no doubt be some 
frosted fruit shipped, but the percentage 
will be very small, from present indica- 
tions, though nearly all growers agree 
that it will be another week or ten days 





Doubles the Yield 
of Barley 

Test It for Yourself Entirely Free 

Let us send sufficient Nitrate of Soda 
for you to try, asking only that you use 
according to our directions, and let us 
know the result. To the twenty-five farm- 
ers who get the best results, we offer, as 
a prize, Prof. Voorhees' most valuable book on fertilizers, 
their composition, and how to use for different crops. 
Handsomely bound, 327 pages. 

Apply at once fnr Nitrate of Soda by post-card, as t fit's offer is neceS' 
Sariiy limited. t "Grass Growing for Profit," another book of useful 
information, will be sent tree to farmers while the present edition lasts, 
it paper is mentioned in which this advertisement is seen. 

Send name and complete address on post-card 

Wm. S. Myers, Director, John Street and 71 Nassau, New York 
MEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, Cal., are Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



before the full extent of the damage done 
by the last cold spell can be accurately 
gauged. There has been considerable 
fruit-drop lately, and it is claimed this is 
from the effect of the freeze about the last 
of November. If the last cold snap gave 
the orchards as hard a jolt, in proportion 
to the degree of cold, as the first one did, 
we are likely to see a great many more 
fallen oranges, though growers have a 
theory that the first cold hardens the 
tree so that it is able to withstand much 
more cold the next time without as much 
damage; in other words, it is in a more 
dormant state, with less sap flowing. 

The shipments are now in the neighbor- 
hood of 75 cars a day, and increasing. 
Totals to date are 1339 cars oranges and 
607 cars lemons. To the same date last 
year there had been shipped 1491 cars of 
oranges and 550 cars of lemons. 



PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. 

Owing to the large increase in patron- 
age given the Pacific Rural Press of late 
we have decided to enlarge the paper by 
adding one-fourth to the number of pages. 
Whether this size will be permanent or 
not, the future only can demonstrate. We 
appreciate the generous treatment ac- 
corded the new management, and believe 
the best way to express our feelings is to 
give more value to our readers. 

Of the four pages added, two of them 
will be devoted to the live stock and dairy 
interests of the West. We have secured 
the services of Mr. Leslie W. Symmes of 
this city to aid Prof. Wickson in this de- 
partment. Mr. Symmes brings to the 
work a varied experience, not only in 
dairy and range cattle, but is also an agri- 
cultural engineer, and will from time to 
time give our readers articles along the 
lines of building telephone systems on the 
farm, the use and handling of water for 
irrigation, silo farming, and allied sub- 
jects. To make this department of more 
value to our patrons, we ask each one to 
send us any articles or notes they may 
have along stock lines. 

The horticultural and agricultural parts 
of the paper are well represented already. 
Prof. Wickson being assisted by Prof. F. T. 
Bioletti in viticulture and T. C. Wallace 
in citrus culture. Besides the above de- 
partments, we will continue the strong 
Poultry and Home Circle pages by M. R. 
James, and with special articles and good 
market reports, we believe the Pacific 
Rural Prkss will make greater strides in 
1909 than ever before. 

We want our readers' patronage and 
friendship; we believe we shall merit it, 
and we would like to have their neigh- 



bors as patrons. We want every present 
subscriber to get us an additional sub- 
scription, and above all, we wish you a 
happy and prosperous season during the 
present year of 1909. 



The Porterville Enterprise says that 
owing to the heavy snow in the hills that 
coyotes are coming into the outskirts of 
that town for food. 



Large Land Sale 

The John Crouch Lands 



Situated in Colusa, Glenn, Butte and 
Lassen Counties. 



These lands were acquired by the late John 
Crouch of Butte County. They now belong to 
the John Crouch Land Company, a corporation 
having Its principal place of business at Chlco. 

That corporation now offers for sale these ex- 
tensive holdings. 

The agricultural lands in Butte and Glenn 
Counties are In the richest part of northern 
California and are all highly improved and will 
be sold in subdivisions to suit purchasers. 

The late John Grouch was extensively engaged 
in stock raising, devoting his attention to high 
class sheep and cattle. 

This sale offers the greatest advantages to 
persons desiring to purchase stock properties, 
which are now exceedingly scarce. 

The corporation owns in the foothills east of 
Chico some 25,000 acres of land, all under fence 
and with ample barns and improvements. It is 
the finest winter range In the Sacramento 
Valley. 1 1 would be sold as a whole or cut up, as 
it can well be naturally, Into three ranges. 

It otters a tract of some 3,600 acres in Glenn 
and Colusa Counties, extending for a number of 
miles along Butte Creek, including the rich bot- 
tom lands of that stream, upon which feed of all 
kinds grows luxuriantly. This place would 
make a magnificent stock ranch. 

It also otters large tracts of land In Glenn 
County a little northeast of Butte City, fenced 
and Improved, which could be most admirably 
utilized for stock purposes and other rich lands 
in the same vicinity for agricultural purposes. 
They would be sold separately or as a whole. 

The properties ottered Include the celebrated 
Bowers Ranch on theSacramento River in Butte 
County, composed of the richest river bottom 
agricultural land and upon which alfalfa grows 
most luxuriantly. This ranch Is Improved with 
a fine residence, many barns, good fences and Is 
the best high class stock and agricultural ranch 
for sale along the Sacramento River. The soil is 
adapted not only to alfalfa, but to beets and all 
the grains. 

The Home Ranch of the late Mr. Crouch, near 
Chlco, is so well known as not to require any 
description. It will be mostly sold In small 
subdivisions. It can be Irrigated by a ditch 
from Butte creek, carrying 500 Inches of water. 

The corporation otters also one of the finest 
mountain ranches In the Sierra Nevadas— the 
Crouch lands In Mountain Meadows, comprising 
some 15,000 acres, and upon which an enormous 
tonnage of hay can be cut. This property Is 
also highly Improved with barns conveniently 
located for the storage of hay for winter pur- 
poses. It Is Bufliclently timbered to make it 
attractive from that point of view and possesses 
great value for the storage of water thereon 
for power purposes. The Feather River runs 
through It and the typography of the ground 
admits of great reservoir Bites. 

I'urchasers desiring Information about any of 
these properties, or to examine the same, will 
apply to the undersigned personally, or by 
letter, at the Bank of Butte County In Chlco, 
California. 

JOHN H. ROBINSON. 
President John Crouch Land Company. 



20 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2, 1«09. 



Great Excitement the San Bernardino Shops 




THE officia.s and men of the Santa Ke Railway are very enthusiastic over 
the srubrook-llox DMereatlal Railway Axle Coupler, which is being ap- 
plied to an 80,000 pound capacity oil car at the San Bernardino shops. 
The expression you hear among the men very frequently is, "SAVE YOUR 
MONEY AND BUY AXLE STOCK." 

Mr. Seabrook, a prominent engineer of Los Angeles, has invented a Differ- 
ential Railway Axle Coupler that promises to make more men rich than any 
other railroad device ever invented. Mr. Seabrook has had a very wide ex- 
perience in railroad work, as he was General Manager a great many years for 
a company which employed from six hundred to one thousand men. Consid- 
erable of this work was in repairing and rebuilding locomotives and cars. He, 
therefore, realized the necessity of a Differential Axle for railroads. 

Mr. Seabrook's device Is the only device to which railroads of the world 
can look that will enable them to haul a much greater tonnage and reduce 
the expense of operation and maintenance. 

An axle equipped with u Scabrnnk-Doi Coupler is stronger by 

SO per vent than a rigid nxle. 
It is pressed together in t he same way that the wheels nre 

pressed on the nxle. 
There are no holts, screws, rivets or flnnges employed In this 

axle coupler. 

There are absolutely no loose purls to It excepting the jourunl 

movement, which Is perfect, 
II meets with the M. C. II. standards In every detail. 
II dues not in any way interfere with vested Interests. 
It is Interchangeable. 

II is more efficient in every way than the ri|£l«l nxle. 

It adds to the life of the nxle at leant 100 per cent. 

It .-hIiIs to the life of the mils on curves more than 7.1 per cent. 

It adds to the life of wheels 200 per cent. 

II enables n locomotive to haul from 25 to 3." per cent greater 
tounnge without the expenditure of any additional fuel or 
la bor. 

it never has to be Inspected, 

It does away with ~~> per cent of the flange wear. 

It never has to he lubricated, as this is accomplished nt the 

time of its construction by the use of grnpbltc and will 

las! the entire life of the nxle. 
It is endorsed by Iliiilrond Offlcluls, Superintendents of Motive 

Power, Master Car Builders nnd Muster Mechanics nil over 

the world. 

A small investment in this stock today will net you enormous returns in 
dividends. The stock is now selling at One Dollar per share, but will be sell- 
ing very shortly at Two Dollars. It is the consensus of opinion that this stock 
will be worth Forty Dollars per share In a very few years and should be worth 
Five Dollars one year from today. 

If you wish for further information we should be glad to supply it upon 
request. The stock may be advanced any day to Two Dollars, so be sure to 
send in your subscription immediately to the Fiscal Agents, 

THE WESTERN ENGINEERING COMPANY 



Bank References. 



501-2-3 Herman VV. Hellman Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



This is an opportunity 
of a lifetime ! 

Cut out Coupon and mail at once. 



Please send me further information 
in reference to stock in the American 
Differential Railway Axle Co. 



Name . . 
Address 



— J 



Was Your Last Catalogue Satisfactory? 

1. IN TRADE-PULLING POWER. 

Was the general get-up genuinely attarctive, and did it present your stock 
so that the reader became interested and in a frame of mind to give you an 
order? First impressons go a great ways in establishing a friendly attitude 
toward the offerings of a good book. 
B, IN ftUALITY AND ARRANGEMENT. 

Did the manner of its mechanical appearance and literary expression im- 
press possible patrons of the superiority of the seeds and plants you are 
offering? Was it correct in nomenclature and reliable in cultural directions? 

3. IN VOLUME AND NUMBER PRINTED. 

Did you meet the demand by ending the season with just enough to carry 
you over, or did you have a surplus, or did you fall a few shy? This Is 
Important either way you look at it. 

4. IN MATTER AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

You don't always discuss with your printer all these points, — but then. 
The Kruckeberg Press is different from the general run of printers; it Is 
fitted up to be really helpful to the seed and nursery trade, the live stock 
and agricultural interests, to do this class of work, from the preparation of 
the copy to the finished product. 

Correspondence invited. 

THE KRUCKEBERG PRESS 

HORTICULTURAL PRINTING AND ENGRAVING 
CATALOGUE MAKERS. TRI-COLOR PRINTERS 



123 South Los Angeles St. A 1420 Home. 



Los Angeles, Cal. 



PEAR-BLIGHT We can GURE IT 

lalaTall Uhl VI Our Remedy will not In- 



Remedy 

jure the tree. 



SEND US YOUR ORDER NOW. 



Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

PEAR-BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 



Has 




WOOD 
PIPE 

Made from California 
Itedwood or Selected 
Washington Douglas Kir 



NATIONAL WOOD PIPE COMPANY 

Slave Pipe 2 Inches to 10 II. diameter up lo 400 It. head. 

SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE-318 Market Street. 
Mis ANiiKLES OFFICE— 104 Kquitable Hank Building. 
NORTHERN OKFICE-Oly mpla, Washington. 
SALT LAKE CITY— Dooly Block. 
Prices, specifications, hydraulic data and general information fur- 
nished upon request. 



THE BEST IN THE WORLD; HAS NO EQUAL 

The Original R. I. Knapp Side-Hill Plow 

Orchard and Vineyard Plow received first premium 
at State Fair. 




HAS given entire sat- 
Islactlon for over 
thirty years. Equally 
as good for valley as 
hill sides. We manu- 
facture tl ve sl/.es-from 
one-horse orchand and 
vineyard plow, to the 
strongest grading 
plow. 



SAN JOSE, CALIFORM \ 



H. G. KNAPP & SON. 




Centrifugal 
Pumps 

For high or low heads 
Direct connected or belt driven 

Highest ohtalnahle efficiency. 

Krogh ManTg. Co. 

127 to 133 Beale St., S&n Francisco, Cal. 

Send for new catalogue No. 50 

Just issued. 



YOU WANT THIS 

A New Gas Generator furnishing gas for Lighting, Heating, and 
Cooking at less than 10c. per day for an average family. Used in 
all large Poultry Ranches for heating incubators and brooders, 10 times as 
cheap as acetylene gas or electricity. Write for Catalogue No. 150. 

Western Gas and Power Company 

OAKLAND, CAL. 




Tanks 



Tanks 



WINDELER'S PLANING MILL 

AND COOPERAGE 
GEO. WIN DELER, Prop. 

Water Tanks, Wine Tanks, made from carefully 
selected stock by careful and experienced work- 
men. "Tanks that are well made last a long 
time." It will pay you to get my prices before 
buying. 

GEO. WINDELER. 




WINE TANK. 144-154 Berry St. 



San Francisco. CaL WATER TANK. 



FRANCIS SIVIIXH & CO., 



Manulacturers 




FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 

Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office, 9 Fremont Street. Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, California. 

Water and Oil Tanks-all sizes. Coating all sizes of Pipes with Asphalturo. 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Fotash. 
Best Tree Wash. 
T. W. JACKSON A CO., Temporary Address, 
42 Market St., San Francisco. 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXVII. No. 2. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 9, 1909. 



Thirty-ninth Year. 



A Talk About I. H. Thomas. 

Written tor the PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 
By CHAS. A. CHAS. A. CHAMBERS, of Fresno. 



In the pioneer days of the San Joaquin valley 
of California, there was a nurseryman named 
I. H. Thomas with a world-wide reputation. To 
his intimates he was always known as "Uncle 
Dan " ; to the people of the West he was referred 
to as the "Widow's Friend." He was given this 
latter title owing to the fact that at the end of 
every nursery season he gave away all his surplus 
nursery stock to the widows ; in fact, any widow 
that applied to him, whether a "Merry Widow" 
or a seasoned one, she was welcome to any 
nursery stock left over from the season's sales. 
If whiskers make a man famous, old "Uncle 
Dan" would certainly claim his 
share of the fame, for he carried 
a "bunch of hair" under his chin 
that resembled a hair mattress 
without a ticking. The accom- 
panying cut, showing Uncle Dan 
among his prune trees, does not 
bear out this statement that Mr. 
Thomas carried an extraordinary 
beard, for in later years he de- 
cided to reduce the amount of hair 
on his chin, hence the smaller set 
of whiskers which now adorn his 
face. When "Uncle Dan" was in 
his prime, however, I'll venture to 
say that his whiskers were so large 
and wavy that he could sneak up 
on a band of quail and use them as 
a blind, getting 40 feet nearer the 
quail than any other living man. 

Mr. Thomas was a great adver- 
tiser, not from a newspaper stand- 
point, but from his personal make- 
up. He attended all fruit grow- 
er's and nurserymen's meetings 
and always made himself conspicuous from the 
fact that he always carried in the lapel of his coat 
a certain horticultural emblem. When sunflowers 
were "ripe" Thomas sported a sunflower of the 
largest type; when the orange season was on, he 
would substitute a small bunch of oranges of some 
dwarf species ; anything just so it made an exag- 
gerated bouquet. When attending the various hor- 
ticultural meetings he drew attention to himself 
pretty much like a loadstone would attract a 
tack ; in fact, he was the most popular man the 
West has ever seen. 

Aside from being a heavy grower of nursery 
stock in the early days, Mr. Thomas introduced 
into the San Joaquin valley the famous "Prunus 
Simoni" plum, otherwise known as the Apricot 
plum. He created quite a sensation with this plum 
by shipping it to the English markets, where it 
found a ready sale. This plum is still heavily 
grown by orchardists. but later introductions in 
the plum line has made it take a back seat. The 



greatest drawback to the Prunus Simoni plum is 
that it carries such a pronounced flavor that it 
cannot be shipped in mixed cars of fruit. One box 
of these plums, if packed in a car with other 
fruit, will give the whole shipment the Prunus 
Simoni smell, and this is seriously objected to by 
receivers of mixed cars. This peculiar flavor is not 
objected to as a general thing by the consumers, 
but the distributors do not care to have their whole 
car of fruit with this plum flavor. 

Among the other fruits and vegetables intro- 
duced by this individual was the "Bath Tub" 
squash. This squash carried a pumpkin pedi- 
gree, inasmuch as its "grandfather" was no doubt 
one of those large Texas pumpkins. At any rate 
this "Bath Tub" squash was so large when cut in 
two that it was big enough to make a bath tub of 
regulation size. Other fruits too numerous to 
mention were introduced and originated bv Mr. 




I. H. Thomas, of Tulare County, Among His French Prune Trees 



Thomas, the most important of which was per- 
haps the "Harriott's Seedling" almond, a very 
fine sort commercially, and the tree is considered 
the most ornamental of all the almond family, 
making it a fine avenue tree as well as a profitable 
nut producer. 

Again referring to this so-called "Bath Tub" 
squash introduced by him, Mr. Thomas claimed, 
it is said, that this squash was not only the largest 
vegetable of any kind produced from the soil, but 
it was also a valuable adjunct for draining soils. 
He claimed that by planting this pumpkin or 
squash between the rows of an orchard or vine- 
yard where the land carried a surplus of water, 
such as is the case with sub-irrigated land, the 
pumpkin would absorb so much moisture from the 
soil that it did away to a certain extent with un- 
derground drainage. To demonstrate this theory^ 
Mr. Thomas ran 200 of these pumpkins through a 
Missouri cider mill, with the result that he 
squeezed from this number of pumpkins 50,000 



gallons of pumpkin juice. Whether pumpkins are 
soil drainers or not Mr. Fred W. Roeding, in 
charge of U. S. Department of Drainage on this 
coast will have to determine. 

Mr. Thomas is a quaint character in every sense 
that the term implies. He is even to this date 
known all over the Pacific coast, not only as an 
expert horticulturist, but as a humorist and wag. 
He is always good natured and is continually 
cracking jokes. 

To give the reader an idea of his funny side, I 
will relate a certain happening during his career. 
The late W. H. Mills of the Land Department of 
the Southern Pacific railway system was a great 
admirer of "Uncle Dan" Thomas. They were per- 
sonal friends and, as is well known, during' Mr. 
Mills' occupancy of the land office of the afore- 
said railway system, Thomas was supplied at all 
times with an annual pass. 

One day on changing clothes to 
make a trip to San Francisco 
Thomas neglected to change his 
wallet containing the pass into the 
new suit he had donned to make 
the trip. He did not discover this 
until he had started on his way, 
comfortably seated on the train. 
The conductor came through the 
coach after the general custom, 
calling on every one for their 
tickets, and when Thomas was 
approached it was then that 
"Uncle Dan" discovered that he 
had left his pass at home. Thomas 
explained the matter to the con- 
ductor, but the conductor de- 
manded the pass or a ticket. 
Thomas had neither, and, what is 
more, he would not produce the 
cash fare. Several times the con- 
ductor retraced his steps to where 
Thomas was seated and demanded 
the fare, to no avail, Mr. Thomas 
making the statement that he 
would adjust the matter as soon as he got to San 
Francisco and saw Mills. This kind of talk would 
not be listened to by the conductor and Thomas 
was threatened with ejection at the first water 
tank. Little trivial matters of this kind never 
disturbed Ike Thomas materially. The conductor 
was perplexed at this stage of the proceedings and 
did not know exactly how to make this passenger 
"dig up" his passage money. Finally Thomas 
cocked up his legs and went peacefully to sleep. 
During his slumbers the conductor, with the aid 
of the brakeman, quietly removed the shoes off 
of Thomas' feet and put them in the train locker. 
Shortly thereafter Uncle Dan awoke to find his 
shoes missing. By making careful inquiry Thomas 
deduced the fact that the trainmen had removed 
the shoes from his feet and were holding them in 
lieu of his railroad fare. The conductor, in fact, 
told Daniel that he had pirated the shoes and 
unless he produced the fare he could not redeem 

(Continued On Page 38.) 



22 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 9, 1909. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 



TWO DOLLARS PER 


YEAR IN ADVANCE 




Entered at S. F. Postoffice a 


s second-class mail matter. 


PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. 


PUBLISHERS 


Advertising rates made known on application. 


E. J. WICK80N ... 
FRANK HONEYWELL 


Editor 
Business Manager 





California Weather Record. 



The following rainfall record is furnished the Pacific 
Rural Press by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Weather Bureau, at 8an Francisco, for the week 
ending at 5 p. m., January 6, 1909: 



Stations. 


Total 
rainfall 
for 
the week. 


Total 
seasonal 
rainfall 
to date. 


Normal 
seasonal 
rainfall 
to date. 


Eureka 


3.14 


15.67 


17.93 


Red Bluff. 


2.98 


7.35 


HI. us 


Sacramento 


1.00 


4.59 


7.57 


Bit. Tamalpais 


1.0b 


9.13 


9.04 


San Francisco 


.66 


4.75 


8.91 


San Jose 


.44 


3.30 


8.88 


Fresno 


.42 


1.80 


3 86 


Independence 


.00 


LHO 


3.82 


San Luis Obispo 


.80 


4.64 


6.64 


Los Angeles 


.00 


4.09 


5.63 


San Diego 


.00 


2.25 


3.41 



The Week 



What do you think of our kind of weather 
prophet now? We are delighted with him; just 
see the results within a week — rain in all parts 
of the State, an old-fashioned California warm 
winter rain, apparently good to last a week or 
two, not coming in Hoods to wash away every- 
thing, but a long drizzle-drazzle, sending its water 
down gently to the foundation of agricultural 
things! That is the kind of rain which our 
prophet had in mind when he prophesied, and 
here it is. Readers of last week's paper will re- 
member that he did not defy the elements with 
a bluff, as the rain-makers do. He simply said 
that since from respectable observation of things 
he could not see any reason why we should not 
have a good rainy season, it is rational to expect 
it. So we did expect it, and here it is, just moist- 
ening the land enough to continue plowing or to 
continue growing or to continue expecting, as it 
lies with each team or plant or man to do for the 
greatest accomplishment or comfort. We com- 
mend ourselves for our choice of a prophet. We 
go light on the prophet. It is quite human to 
esteem one's own selection rather than the agency 
selected ; therefore we did it all ourselves be- 
cause we knew how to pick out the right kind of 
a prophet. If old Ahab had had more sense in 
the selection of the right kind he might have 
left a better record. 



The rainfall is considerably short of the normal 
in nearly all parts and our recollection is that 
years which have a light and late beginning do 
not make large seasonal totals. Hut the largest 
total is not the best thing in California. It gen- 
erally means a winter of much idleness, of much 
land unsown, of much land submerged and often 
of large losses from high rivers and low levees, 
not to speak of the local losses from soil brimful 
of water ^for weeks together. It does not look 
like that kind of a winter, although, if we mis- 
take not, there has occasionally been too much 
when there was no particular reason to expect 
it. The better years, however, are those not of 
excess but of moderate total and of even distribu- 



tion, not overlooking just enough at the end of 
the season. That is the kind of a water supply 
which our prophet had in mind, no doubt, and 
that is what we are expecting. 



The most appalling disaster of modern times 
is certainly the upward push of the ocean's floor 
near the island of Sicily which destroyed several 
Sicilian cities last week and cost the census of 
Italy something like 200,000 lives. The phenome- 
non is claimed by experts to be due to the fact 
that the earth is still rising out of the sea. anil 
whenever there is a push-up there is a rush of 
waters over adjacent shores which brings ruin to 
seaboard cities and then flows back to distribute 
itself over the oceans to their most distant boun- 
daries. The event in Sicily seems to be clearly in 
that line, for, like our California mishap of April, 
1896, it was not accompanied by volcanic eruption 
or other explosive phenomena. It really seems 
that this "to solid earth" of the poet is really 
nothing of the kind and words are inadequate to 
expression of the human sadness and sympathy 
which its instability occasionally causes. The 
earth's people are. however, doing the best they 
can to manifest the sentiments which mundane 
kinship of all peoples demands. Possibly a quar- 
ter of a million lives have been lost; possibly a 
billion dollars' worth of property, the result of 
centuries of human sacrifice and self-denial, has 
been destroyed. All that now can be done is to 
send a few millions to save survivors from suffer- 
ing, and this only act of sympathy and consola- 
tion is being shared by all nations. It is well, 
perhaps, not to be too sure of the earth or of what 
man is doing upon it; above all things is vain- 
glory an offence to heaven in the face of such 
events. It will be a comfort to many Americans 
to know that the great fleet of warships circled 
the world just at the right time to lend a hand 
of help and comfort to the Italians in their ex- 
tremity and that the great store-ships, laden to 
the gunwales with food supplies from our Atlan- 
tic ports to refresh our homing sailors, can sail 
at once to succor the starving refugees in southern 
Italy. It is gladsome to think that an excursion 
for display became in the end an errand of mercy. 



The world is in fact somewhat low in spirits 
and the great calamity may preach resignation 
and fortitude. Things have been rather dark and 
dull everywhere: perhaps as a penalty for earlier 
excess and exultation. It is announced from 
Washington that the Bureau of Statistics shows 
that of the twenty-five principal countries of the 
world, whose foreign commerce the bureau re- 
cords month by month, all but four show a falling 
off in exports and imports. Imports from Europe 
in ten months showed a decrease from $625,000,- 
000 in ten months of 1907 to $436,000,000 in a 
similar period of 1908. Those from North 
America and Asia each show a decrease of $45.- 
000,000 from the total of the corresponding period 
of last year, and those from South America a 
decrease of $25,000,000. Exports to Europe show 
a decrease of but per cent, while those to North 
America show a decrease of 21 per cent. This 
shows that the old world has suffered most during 
the era of depression and gives measure of the 
misfortune which has come to European indus- 
t ries. 



But these things are sad: a cloud with a silver 
lining is possibly the present condition of the sul- 
phur question in California fruit curing. The 
growers are finding friends unexpectedly. At 
least two groups of doctors who have had more 
or less favorable experience in their family use 



of California cured fruits have undertaken to test 
the question of the wholesomeness of the fruits 
by accurate observation of effects upon them- 
selves and groups of their associates who are 
willing to enter the test, so that we shall have a 
check upon the poison-squad results of which Dr. 
Wiley has made so much, but which California 
producers do not regard as at all conclusive be- 
cause not conducted at all in the way that the 
cured fruit is eaten. A more rational test is that 
undertaken by Dr. A. J. Atkins of Sacramento 
in co-operation with Eastern physicians who have 
lice, mie interested in the issue. Dr. Atkins" posi- 
tion in the matter is described in his own words: 
"I believe firmly in the pure-food and drug law, 
and in the objects sought to be attained when it 
was enacted, and while I believe a mistake has 
been made at least in the matter of sulphured 
fruits, I shall keep my mind open until the clinical 
experiments have determined it, one way or the 
other." We believe the attitude of Dr. Atkins is 
that of all Californians. fruit producers and deal- 
ers included. They believe in the pure-food law 
and its enforcement, but they do not believe in 
enforcement based upon an arbitrary, individual 
conception of injuriousness, especially when that 
is reached by a wholly artificial and untrust- 
worthy test. These carefully conducted experi- 
ments by qualified physicians are very timely and 
will do much to check the conclusions reached by 
the referee board which is approaching the ques- 
tion by a very different route. Current report 
from Washington is that Dr. Wiley has received 
an intimation that he is not a "bigger man than 
old Grant" and that he has no right to make 
declarations against products concerning which 
regulations are suspended until the results of the 
work of the referee board are known. 



We hardly see what is the use of attempting to 
resuscitate the old Garden of Eden while Cali- 
fornia has one or more in each county, but there 
probably always will be restless people who will 
not let well enough alone. It is reported from 
Constantinople that Sir William Wilcocks has 
been engaged by the Turkish government to per- 
fect his gigantic scheme for restoring the ancient 
Chaldean irrigation works on the Euphrates and 
Tigris, the traditional site of the Garden of Eden. 
He has made a number of trips through these val- 
leys, and is convinced that the construction of 
irrigation works would be comparatively easy and 
inexpensive. If the ancient system of irrigation 
were restored, it is estimated that sufficient grain 
could be grown in the valley of the Euphrates 
alone to alter the conditions of the wheat supply 
of the world. Excavations made at various places 
along this river show that the ancient system of 
canals existed as long ago as 4000 B. C. This re- 
port unsettles a number of modern views, one 
being the claim that the world will soon have to 
be eating chemicals instead of bread. But you 
cannot make much of a Garden of Eden out of 
wheal fields, si. that, as far as the plans have pro- 
ceeded, the California style of the Garden, which 
is truer to the biblical descriptions, is not en- 
dangered. 



The disposition of the surplus raisin product 
seems now assured on the basis of selling for what 
the market will bring, the price to be set by the 
growers according to the best judgment they can 
reach of the conditions. This is thoroughly ra- 
tional and it was reached in Fresno on December 
29 when 600 growers in mass-meeting unani- 
mously voted to accept the contract drawn up be- 
tween the selling committee of the raisin belt and 
all the packers of the valley. The contract allows 



January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



the united growers to set their own price on the 
goods, while the packing firms receive 2 cents a 
pound for packing, shipping and selling the goods. 
Signatures to the contract must be obtained in 
the next twenty days to the extent of 25,000 tons. 
Should the movement succeed the growers expect 
to realize a fair profit through a stable Eastern 
market. Desirable products will go readily 
enough if you can arrange that all distributors get 
them at the same price; this is really more impor- 
tant than what the price itself is, if it is reason- 
able. 

The government is proceeding very energetic- 
ally and enterprisingly in bringing its lands 
newly reclaimed by the Irrigation Act to the at- 
tention of those who can make farms of them. 
Mr. Thomas R. Means is the government engineer 
in charge and he is now negotiating with the 
Southern and Union Pacific roads, Denver & Rio 
Grande, the Burlington and Missouri Pacific to 
bring into Nevada next February and March 1000 
farmers from the middle West in four or five ex- 
cursion parties to inspect the new irrigation dis- 
trict and give them a chance to buy irrigated lands 
in lots not^ exceeding 160 acres. 

The Truckee-Carson project represents $4,000,-. 
000 spent in the construction of dams, ditches and 
drains and by means of them 100,000 acres of 
land are now open to settlement. Some of the 
ditches have been operated for two years. During 
the season of 1906, 21,000 acres were cultivated 
and in 1907 practically 25,000 acres were culti- 
vated. Today about 600 farms are awaiting set- 
tlement by bona fide purchasers. Another neces- 
sary thing to do is to show the Eastern people 
who may take these farms how to use water and 
what they can grow at a profit under the prevail- 
ing conditions. This is also within the plans of 
the Irrigation Service and has been for some time 
;ind is to be realized more fully in the future. 



Doesn't this make you smile? A Los Angeles 
telegram states that an "official report" has been 
issued about the growing of thornless cactus which 
says: "The early fears expressed that the thorn- 
less varieties would revert to the old habits of 
growing thorns have been dispelled by this year's 
results, as the propagation is not from seed but 
from eul tings, which, according to all botanical 
law and history, rigidly conforms to the features 
of the parent plant." That is funny indeed. We 
have "expressed early fears" that it would not do 
to allow the cactus seedlings to grow because they 
might be thorny, and now the official report makes 
a virtue of what we held to be an objection, viz.: 
that the plant could not be allowed to take its own 
course. Let us live and learn. 



Queries and Replies. 



Cypress as a Border Ruffian. 

To t he Editor : A and B are adjoining neighbors. 
Their places are divided by a barbed-wire fence. 
B wants to plant a cypress hedge as a windbreak 
on his side of the fence. A objects to this, claim- 
ing the existence of a law, prohibiting the plant- 
ing of cypress trees on a division fence. He states 
that the roots would take too much nourishment 
out of the ground on his side and in consequence 
Ins roses would not do well alongside the fence. 
Can you tell me what B can do under the circum- 
stances.' — Subscriber, Alameda county. 

We do not know of any such law, but no one 
who cared to keep a cypress hedge would plant it 
on the division line. He would plant it within 
his property far enough to protect the trunks of 
the trees in their expected enlargement. The 
owner of the adjoining property has a right to 



cut off everything which extends beyond the per- 
pendicular erected upon .the property line and he 
has a right also to cut off all the roots which run 
under his land. That is, he has a right to excavate 
to this line (provided he does not cause his neigh- 
bor's property to fall into the hole), and in doing 
this, which is his right, he would be forced to cut 
off his neighbor's tree roots. There is no doubt 
that A is right, that he would have a hard time 
growing roses or anything else over the roots of 
cypress trees, but we are not aware that he has 
any legal rights in the matter except to remove 
everything which extends over or under the su- 
perficial area to which he holds title. 

How About Eucalyptus Clearings? 

To the Editor : I ask for information about the 
planting of eucalyptus, of which I understand 
there are many varieties. Our land is in Solano 
county, the land is level and cultivated, some 300 
acres being mostly adobe. A party has made a 
proposition to us to plant 300 acres with eucalyp- 
tus, with an agreement to buy in a stated time. 
I would like to know which would be the proper 
sort to plant, providing that we consider the 
proposition favorably. Also what would be the 
effect on the land; that is, would the trees take 
out from the soil all its substance, rendering it 
useless for farming purposes after the trees were 
cut? We set out 1000 red gum plants last spring 
(to plant along the driveway) ; they have done 
very well ; not lost one of them. We have a small 
number of blue gum trees in the corral, planted 
some years ago that have attained good size. — 
Owner, San Francisco. 

Everybody is too busy getting eucalyptus trees 
into the ground to think much about getting them 
out again ; and then, that may be a question for 
the next generation to answer. 

If you can grow the blue gum successfully it 
is altogether the best eucalyptus to plant ; not 
only on account of its more rapid and upright 
growth, but because the timber promises to be 
most in demand for various purposes. It seems 
to us that lands which are allowed to carry 
eucalyptus trees for a number of years should be 
permanently occupied in forest, because the sec- 
ond growth starts so readily and can, by thinning 
of shoots, furnish a continuous product and be 
brought finally to a second timber product quite 
as good as the first. We have no data for de- 
termining just what the effect upon the soil will 
be, but it may be doubtful whether the land can 
be cleared of eucalyptus stumps for less than its 
agricultural value, unless all our valley lands 
should greatly increase in price. This is, of 
course, merely a conjecture. Answering your 
question in another way, we know of no reason 
why land cleared of eucalyptus should not be as 
productive as land cleared of other trees, and 
what should be done with it twenty or thirty 
years hence would depend upon conditions then 
prevailing, in the price of land and the uses to 
which it can be profitably put. 



Killing in Tree Holes. 

To the Editor : Could you kindly inform us as 
to the best way of disinfecting soil from borers 
after trees have been taken. We want to be sure 
to have the soil pure before we set out the young 
trees, as we must set them in the same holes. — 
Subscriber, Los Gatos. 

We do not see how there is any danger in car- 
rying over borers in the dirt, for the grub starts 
from the egg deposited on the bark at the base 
of the tree by a clear-winged moth, and this moth 
emerges from a chrysalis which is formed near the 
entrance of the burrow which the grub makes to 
the surface of the wood for that purpose. Neither 
moth, egg nor grub has anything to do with the 
ground except by accident and could not live long 
probably in it. However, if you want to do some 



killing for general purposes, throw back nearly 
all the dirt removed in digging out the old tree, 
pour on two ounces of carbon bisulphide, such as 
is used in killing squirrels, cover with a little 
dirt. After a few hours the tree can be planted. 



Manure for Adobe. 

To the Editor : I have thirty acres of good prune 
land, with the exception of three acres of adobe. 
I can put upon this adobe a large quantity of old 
stable manure. Will that improve it so that it 
would be worth while to set prune trees in it the 
coming spring? — Southerner, Chico. 

Yes. You can spread the manure at once and 
plow deeply when the ground is in good condition 
in February, turning well under the manure and 
green stuff which grows, up to that time. Then 
plant and follow with good summer cultivation. 
You can do this with your late and usually abun- 
dant spring rains, more safely than it could be 
done under other conditions and by working in 
manure or green stuff, or both, during the next 
few years you may be able to get the best trees 
on the spot of which the suitability now seems 
questionable to you — providing the place is not 
boggy from the too high ground water. In this 
case- it will not be worth planting to trees with- 
out drainage. 

Probably Too Much of a Luxury. 

To the Editor : As I intend to fertilize my vine- 
yard this winter with stable manure I should value 
your opinion as to how much to put on per acre. 
It will be fresh manure shipped from the city. — 
Beginner, San Francisco. 

Mighty little to the acre. You do not say where 
your vineyard is, but we do not know of any vine- 
yards near enough to San Francisco to pay for the 
freight on fresh stable manure. Ordinary fresh 
city stable manure may not even be w 7 orth what 
it costs to put it on board ears in the city freight 
yard, much less the freight and the hauling after 
reaching your station. Besides that, it may be so 
loaded with stable disinfectants that it cannot 
decay and is therefore even less valuable. You 
had better buy good commercial fertilizers if your 
iland needs plant food, and get your humus from 
stable manure made on or near the land and from 
cover crops w r hieh you can grow in the winter in 
the vineyard. 

Not Scale Insects. 

To the Editor: Enclosed please find some twigs 
of Smith Cider apples. The bark looks as if in- 
fested with some kind of scale. I only notice it 
on the Smith Cider and White Winter Pearmain. 
What is the remedy? I spray every spring several 
times with Bordeaux mixture, but that don't seem 
to affect it. — Subscriber, Healdsburg. 

The little pustules on the bark are not scale in- 
sects, nor insects of any kind, nor are they the 
usual corky excrescences. They are, however, 
physiological and not pathological and do not 
need treatment. Their appearance on some va- 
rieties and not on others simply indicates varietal 
susceptibility. We use a few big words to demon- 
strate our interest in Subscriber's problems. There 
is nothing on his twigs except what nature does 
to them. 



The Best Silage. 

To the Editor : Which of the two is considered 
the more valuable as feed for stock, when in the 
form of ensilage, alfalfa, or corn cut green? Is 
ensilage of any kind a profitable food for hogs? — 
Subscriber, Alameda County. 

Corn cut when the ears are beginning to glaze, 
put through a silage cutter and evenly packed 
down in a good air tight silo, is the ideal of silage. 
Silage is not a generally accepted food for hogs, 
though some have favored it, especially if feci with 
dry grain feeds. 



24 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 9, 1980. 



Horticulture. 



GET READY FOR APPLE MILDEW. 



Pr6f. K. K. Smith, the plant disease expert of 
the University Experiment Station, helps all who 
will be ready to tight apple mildew next spring 
by the publication of the facts in the case. 

Apple mildew is one of our most serious apple 
troubles in California. It is caused by a fungus 
which seems to find conditions peculiarly to its 
liking here, since in most parts of the country it 
has almost no economic importance whatever. 
The mildew appears as a white powdery covering 
oil the young leaves and blossoms just as they un- 
fold. It develops abundantly on the new tips of 
the twigs as they come out, and when abundant 
kills them back to a serious extent. The growth 
of the tree is hindered and its bearing surface con- 
siderably reduced. 

Spraying with both Bordeaux mixture and sul- 
phur sprays has been carried out at various times 
and on different varieties of apples. We would 
suggest as the most promising treatment for this 
disease the use of the following spray, suggested 
in part by Buleltin 154 of the California Experi- 
ment Station : 

Sulphide of Potash Stock Solution. Granulated 
or powdered concentrated lye, 15 pounds ; sul- 
phur, 18 pounds; water to make 20 gallons. Stir 
the sulphur and lye together dry in a vessel which 
will allow plenty or room for boiling. When well 
mixed, add about one pint of water, placing it in 
a slight hollow in the mixture, and stir slowly. 
The mixture will soon begin to melt and boil, form- 
ing a red fluid; stir until the boiling ceases, and 
then add water to make 20 gallons. This stock 
solution will keep for a while, or indefinitely when 
protected from the air. 

Preparation of the Spray Mixture. — Slake 20 
pounds of fresh lime in water to make a smooth 
whitewash. Strain into the spray tank and add 
25 pounds of sulbimed sulphur- The sulphur will 
not dissolve, but by vigorous stirring and agita- 
tion may be mixed with the water and brought 
into suspension. Add also 10 gallons of the pot- 
ash-sulphur stock solution, and water to make 200 
gallons. This mixture can be made for less than 
one cent per gallon at usual prices for materials. 

Spray the trees with this material just as they 
are coming into leaf in the spring, and once or 
twice later, or at any time when the mildew is 
active. Arsenical poisons may be combined with 
this spray for worms. This sulphur spray should 
be particularly effective for mildews of all sorts 
mi account of its double action. It kills by con- 
tact, destroying fungus spores by poisoning like 
Bordeaux mixture, and also has the gaseous effect 
of dry sulphur, since a large amount of the sul- 
phur is simply in suspension and dry out on the 
tree in its original form. The lime is added to hold 
the sulphur to the twigs and leaves, and also to 
indicate plainly how thoroughly the spraying has 
been done. We recommend adding lime to every 
spray wherever possible without producing any un- 
desirable effect, as there is nothing that will show 
up a poor job of spraying like a little whitewash 
in the spray. If the work is properly done every 
twig and every portion of it will show a uniform 
covering, while if the work has been slighted the 
contrast between the sprayed and unsprayed por- 
tions will be striking. A large part of our spray 7 
ing fails because the twigs, leaves or whatever is 
being sprayed, are not completely covered with 
the mixture. 



TO TACKLE THE THRIPS. 



The Santa Clara county prune growers are in 
earnest about the thrips. A number of the fore- 
most orehardists, bankers and business men of 
the county have formed a citizens' committee for 
the purpose of raising funds with which to con- 
Irol and: if possible, exterminate this pest. A pe- 
tition asking the board of supervisors to appropri- 
ate $1500 to aid in the work is now being circu- 
lated through the country, and is being subscribed 
to almost unanimously. It is the plan of the com- 
mittee to have this appropriation placed at the 
disposal of the local entomological bureau of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, to be 
used for chemicals, skilled labor and other neces- 



sary expenses of the bureau until a larger appro- 
priation can be secured from Congress. It is be- 
lieved that with this money promised, the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture will allow more expert ento- 
mologists than it otherwise would. The commit- 
tee hopes to obtain an appropriation of $50,000 
from Congress to carry on the tight against thrips. 

PRUNING FIGS. 



W. F. Toomey, the fig packer of Fresno, says 
that not one in a hundred of the growers prune 
their fig trees enough. He holds that fig trees 
need as much pruning as vines or any other plant, 
and should be pruned as conscientiously. This is 
certainly not done in the vast majority of cases. 
The result is inevitable. A great proportion of 
small goods, fit only for manufacturing, is pro- 
duced. The percentage of one and two crown figs 
runs very high. The grower gets 1 and lV^c. for 
his figs. Why? Because of the large proportion of 
the one and two crown goods, which has to be put 
up in 50 pound boxes for $40 and $50, and has to 
be handled at a loss. The proportion of the small 
grades this season ran as high as 30% or a little 
more, of the entire crop. This proportion should 
not be more than 5 to 10%, and in ease the right 
sort of pruning is done might be 2 to 'l per cent. 



Citrus Fruits. 



AN IMPORTANT POINT IN IRRIGATION. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Thomas C. Wallace. 

At one of the course of winter evening meet- 
ings at the Riverside Y. M. C. A. recently Mr. 
James Mills, while discussing cover crops, spoke 
strongly of the defective irrigation of orchard 
soils which results in an excessive use of water. 
As I understand it. he holds that the water is 
commonly not distributed deeply, but that a few 
feet of depth is drenched to a state of practically 
flooding. In an overearnest endeavor to impress 
his view of the situation upon his hearers, Mr. 
Mills is reported to have ventured the assertion 
that nearly all the groves in one of the Riverside 
districts receive nearly double the water they 
need, and in consequence are defective. 

This precipitated a warm discussion which has 
assumed a condition of war between the candid 
speaker and the grove owners in the district in- 
volved, and in which the daily press has taken 
sides. We refer to this phase of tin 1 matter in 
fairness to Mr. Mills, who has received severe 
editorial handling. 

Without referring to any district or any par- 
ticular groves, it is undoubtedly correct if the 
intention of Mr. Mills is to take the position that 
most groves are hurt by irrigation because the 
water is not sunk deeply into the soil, and that 
practically twice as much water as the soil can 
properly accommodate is crowded into the surface 
stratas. 

Soils containing a percentage of clay or silt 
sufficient to give them character will not drain 
with sufficient rapidity to stand irrigation applied 
as in common practice. The result is that the sur- 
face foot or two (according to their density) be- 
comes saturated, the air expelled, and even down- 
ward capillarity arrested. A further saturation 
of this condition practically puddles the soil, or in 
a sense sets it afloat, with the result that in dry- 
ing a dense strata is formed within a few feet of 
the surface, so that each time the operation is re- 
peated the condition is aggravated. 

The harm resulting from such a condition is far 
reaching and takes different forms, but the main 
trouble arises from the driving off and exclusion 
of air from the surface rooting system of the trees. 
But where Mr. Mills may be in error is that he con- 
demns the quantity of water used rather than the 
method of irrigation, for nothing short of an in- 
timate acquaintance with the particular soil un- 
der irrigation warrants any of us in assuming 
the quantitative water requirements of a soil. The 
principle involved is that the evergreen plant 
needs air continuously at its surface roots, which 
in some soils are two feet deep, and the flooding 
of the soil so as to expel the air is harmful to the 
plant. A deciduous tree hybernates for several 
months each year, and during that period the ex- 



clusion of air from the roots is believed to be bene- 
ficial rather than harmful. The ideal method of 
irrigation would be to gradually apply water to 
the subsoil, stopping the flow when the loam had 
absorbed what it would naturally lift by eapil- 
liarity. It does not seem possible to give figures 
which could be relied upon as valuable for the 
amount of water soils should have in a general 
sense, yet it is quite practical to fix the amount 
necessary to properly irrigate a given soil. There 
is nothing gained by over-irrigation intended to 
meet evaporation, which can only be controlled by 
cultivation and correct periods of water applica- 
tion. I have already referred to this in previous 
issues of the Rural Press, but to emphasize this 
point and help growers to more correct methods 
of irrigation I shall take occasion at the earliest 
opportunity to lay before your readers the actual 
irrigation requirements of certain soils under my 
hand in actual practice. 



Agricultural Science. 



THE POSSIBILITIES OF PLANT IMPROVE- 
MENT IN CALIFORNIA. 

(Continued From Page 5 of Last Issue) 



By Dr. G. W. Shaw of the University Experiment 
Station at the State Farmers' Institute on 
the University Farm at Davis. 

The Financial Aspect. — The States to which 
these strains are adapted produce annually more 
than a half billion dollars' worth of crops. Ten 
per cent of these is $50,000,000 and the results 
already secured through the liberal support of the 
work by the legislature in these States give a 
basis for the hope that through its continuance 
these crops can still be made to produce more 
than ten per cent additional, and this can be 
brought about at a cost that is absurdly small as 
compared even with the increased values produced 
in a single year. 

That the five or six billion dollars' worth of 
plant and animal products annually grown in the 
United States can be increased ten per cent by 
selection and breeding is not seriously doubted by 
those best able to judge. The addition of ten bil- 
lion dollars' worth of products every twenty years 
by readjusting the hereditary tendencies of our 
crops and animals at a mere nominal cost is as im- 
portant as the development of electrical methods 
and appliances, or as the perfection of systems of 
steel roads and public highways, or as our entire 
foreign commerce. If, as is believed, our plant 
and animal forces can have their heredity so im- 
proved that $5,000,000,000 is increased ten per 
cent at a cost for breeding of only $500,000, one 
dollar creating $1000, it is certainly a good busi- 
ness proposition to develop breeding projects 
rapidly and freely. The evidence shows that this 
proposition is every year developing into a form 
that cannot be ignored. Our country is destined 
to see breeding projects developed, as it has seen 
mechanical projects grow. Our plant and animal 
forces are fully as potent economic factors as our 
mechanical forces and are worthy of as serious 
efforts to develop them. 

Cost of Conducting the Work. — Professor Wil- 
let M. Hays. Assistant Secretary of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, has the follow- 
ing to say as to the cost of conducting such work : 

"The cost of all the work of wheat breeding in 
Minnesota to the date of the introduction was far 
below $25,000. counting every possible expense of 
land, labor, salaries, seeds and general expenses. 
The two new varieties. Minnesota No. 163 and 
Minnesota No. 169, surely will have covered a 
total of a million acres, including the present year, 
1906. The evidence is conclusive that these wheats 
have increased the yield fifteen per cent, more 
than a million dollars. One dollar here has al- 
ready produced forty, and these wheats, before 
they are replaced by better ones now being bred 
in the State or elsewhere, promise to add $25,000,- 
000 to the crop of Minnesota and surrounding 
States, each dollar of original cost producing a 
thousand dollars. There is no better business en- 
terprise on foot than this. 

"The cost of all flax breeding by the Minnesota. 
Experiment Station to date, counting all possible 
expenses, cannot be more than $5000. Primost 



January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



25 



flax (Minnesota No. 25) was sown on at least 
10,000 acres in 1906. Its increased yield is 26 
per cent, or more than three dollars per acre. The 
first year it was introduced, 1905, it produced 
$5000 more value in flax on about 1500 acres than 
the common flax, beside which it grew. The sec- 
ond year, 1906, it covered 10,000 acres and in- 
creased the crop by 30,000 acres, if it spread to 
new farms only as rapidly as was Minnesota No. 
169 wheat and should have increased the crop 
by $100,000." 

If this variety were distributed so as to cover 
one-tenth of the flax acreage, which is mainly in 
.M innesota and the Dakotas, which it should easily 
do before it is overtaken by other varieties bred 
to yield still more, it would be adding a million 
dollars annually to the flax crop. If the seed 
stocks of this variety can be so handled as to re- 
tain their historical identity, it should easily pro- 
duce $5,000,000 worth of additional flax in the 
next decade, again one dollar producing a thou- 
sand. Wheat and flax, however, are two crops in 
which it has been easiest to make important im- 
provements. Most other crops are yielding more 
slowly to the breeder's art, though tobacco is an 
example of still more rapid results at even less 
relative cost. 

If the use of $5000 annually will increase the 
crop by $500,000 annually, and the use of $50,000 
annually will increase the crop by $5,000,000 an- 
nually, the latter is the better proposition. Ac- 
cording to these figures, spending $50,000 gives a 
net profit of $4,950,000, the better proposition by 
$3,960,000. There is no reason why the figures 
here given do not present as clear a business propo- 
sition as any engineering or mechanical project 
by which a great railway system can materially 
increase its net earnings. 

One Dollar Will Earn One Hundred Dollars. — 
California produces annually field crops which 
could be improved by breeding which are now 
worth $75,000,000, and the area is being annually 
increased. To increase this by breeding to $82,- 
500,000 without other additional expense, it would 
pay to use $750,000. It will certainly not take 
$100,000, or say $100 for each dollar of the stated 
increase. The State is now spending probably 
$5000 in plant improvement. 

The legislature of each State and the national 
Congress can easily verify these figures and can 
find similar financial results coming forward from 
planl breeding work by the numerous public 
agencies at work- with our leading staple crops. 
The justification of the use of increased appropria- 
tions from Federal and State treasuries to build 
up the hereditary power of our animal and plant 
forms is rapidly developing into such concrete 
form that expenditure along this line is becoming 
a broad public question. 

(Concluded in Our Next Issue.) 



The Vineyard. 



A RISE FROM A SANTA CRUZ MOUNTAIN 
GRAPE GROWER. 



To the Edit or : In a late issue I note under head 
of "Horticulture" this statement — that a Lodi 
car had been sold in the East for $2000 gross and 
it was the highest price paid for a car of grapes 
this year. 

Now I want you to correct that statement some- 
thing like this: The Earl Fruit Co. car from 
Wright's was sold in Boston, October 30, 1908, 
for $2113 gross, the largest sum reported this 
year. 

The carrying and selling qualities of the Santa 
Cruz mountain grapes has been proved by re- 
turns to growers to be about $1 net after deduct- 
ing freighl and commisison, which amount is not 
exceeded probably this year. 

In support of this statement I submit telegraphic 
reports of one ear sold in Boston and one in New 
Fork as exhibits of the selling and keeping quality 
of our mountain grapes. 

I have been sending grapes East for nearly 30 
years and a dollar net has been received by me 
this year and as a rule in past years. 

If Lodi grapes this year had the carrying and 
selling quality of the Santa Cruz mountain grapes 
the million or so of crates would have returned to 



growers a cool million dollars. Warm, sunny 
slopes are the home of the grape where the fruit 
grows and ripens firmly and sweet and when sent 
East will arrive there for sale in substantially as 
good condition as when picked from vines. 

The Lodi grape grown on rich level bottom land 
is large, thin skinned and watery and will not 
keep for successful Eastern marketing. The truth 
is that orchards and vineyards in this State are 
frequently planted upon lands and under climatic 
conditions that are unsuitable for their successful 
and profitable growth. W. H. Aiken. 

Wrights, Santa Cruz county. 

[Judge Aiken sends us the documents, which of 
course justify his statements of fact on the sales 
of the grapes from his locality. The judge is 
strong on facts. His conclusions as to the relative 
value of hill and valley lands for grapes are open 
to controversy perhaps. There are other things 
which might be said about mountain grape grow- 
ing — but this isn't our fight. Let those who feel 
aggrieved take it up. — Editor.] 

PRIMARY EDUCATION OF VINES. 

Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By P. T. Bioletti. 
In the training of vines, as of men, "well be- 
gun is half done." Mistakes made in infancy can 
never be completely remedied, and attempts at 
remedy often make worse faults. 

If we allow our vine to grow crooked, the at- 



tempt to straighten it may destroy it. If we allow 
several stems to grow where, only one should be, 
the cutting off of some of these stems will entail 
large wounds which may afford entrance to de- 
structive wood-rot fungi. If we allow our vine to 
branch out too low or too high the attempt to cure 
this defect may have the same result. If we neg- 
lect the underground suckers during the first four 
years we will be troubles by suckers as long as 
the vine lives. 

During the first year the main object of the 
vineyardist should be to get a perfect stand of 
strong vines. This is to be obtained by careful 
cutting or root selection, proper preparation of the 
ground and thorough cultivation. At the begin- 
ning of the second year — that is, nine to eleven 
months after planting — the vines should be 
pruned. The strong, healthy vines which have 
heavy growth should be reduced to one cane, 
which should be cut off twelve to eighteen inches 
from the ground. The shorter canes are for 
small growing vines, like Zinfandel, the longer 
for larger varieties, like Flame Tokay. Any vine 
which has not made the required length of strong, 
healthy cane with perfect buds should be reduced 
to two buds. Exceptionally strong vines which 
have produced lateral growth from the main cane 
may be allowed two or three side laterals cut 
back to one bud. No laterals should be left in any 
case nearer than six inches from the ground and 
the nearer the top the better. 

The vines should now be staked, the stake being 
placed to the leeward of the vine. A stake 30 
to 36 inches long and 1 to inches in diameter 
is sufficient. This should not cost on the average 



more than $10 per acre, including labor. The 
stake is simply to keep the vine upright for two or 
three years until it can support itself. 

Every vine on which a cane has been left should 
now be tied up carefully and firmly ; a tie being 
placed above the top bud and another about the 
middle of the cane. A half-hitch should be made 
around the cane with the top tie, but not with the 
other, for fear of strangling the vine when it 
grows. When the vine starts in the spring all 
suckers from below the surface of the ground and 
all shoots within six inches of the ground should 
be removed before the strength of the vine has 
been expended on them. This will insure a strong 
growth from the top buds which will produce the 
shoots which are to become the main arms of the 
vine. These shoots should usually be pinched or 
topped when they have grown about eighteen 
inches to prevent their being broken off by the 
wind. The shoots from the vines cut back to two 
buds should be thinned early in the spring to one 
or at most two and those shoots tied loosely to the 
stake. If these shoots grow vigorously they 
should be topped and thus forced to throw out 
laterals. These laterals at the following winter 
pruning may be pruned back to one or two buds 
and will form the final main arms of the vine. 

Vines treated in this way, if nothing such as 
drought or grasshoppers has interfered with 
their growth, will, at the end of the second year, 
be supplied with a straight trunk of twelve to 
eighteen inches and two to four short spurs or 



rudiamentary arms. Such vines at the end of the 
third year should produce a crop sufficient to pay 
for the year's cultivation. 

That this result is not more commonly obtained 
is due in many cases to errors of treatment during 
the first three years. The most common errors are 
the following: 

1. Failure to prune at the end of the first 
season. 

2. Failure to stake the second year. 

3. Allowing the vine to fork near the ground. 

4. Leaving more than one main stem. 

5. Starting the vines the second year from a 
weak cane. 

6. Starting with a short cane. 

7. Neglect of suckering. 

8. Neglect of those practices which have for 
their object the diversion of all the energies of the 
plant into those parts which are to form the final 
framework of the mature vine. 

IRRIGATION IN HAWAII. 

Word comes from Honolulu that Mr. F. II. 
Newell, director of the reclamation service of the 
United States, is now on the Island of Kauai, after 
having made very complete reconnoissance of the 
islands of Oahu, Maui. Hawaii and Molokai to 
determine the possibilities of reclamation projects 
on these islands. He says that each of these 
islands presents opportunities for reclamation 
projects which will add greatly to the develop- 
ment of the islands. Hawaii, he thinks, offers 
opportunity for many people to engage in agri- 
culture in a climate unexcelled and under con- 
ditions of health and comfort almost unexcelled. 




Well Trained Young Vines in the Lodi District. 



26 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January '•», 19<>9. 



SIX of the Most Valuable 
New Fruits 

EVER INTRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA. 

"IMPROVED FRENCH" PRUTfHS. Origi- 
nated by Luther Burbank. 

"CONCORD" WA1.XIT. Trench variety. 
Grafted trees only. Better than 
Kranquette or Mayette. 

••I'AI I." I'llKHKY. Finest black cherry. 

"PHILIPPP" GRAPR. Handsomer than To- 
kay; a month earlier. Disinfected 
cuttings only for sale; to comply 
with quarantine regulations. 
All these, like Mulr, Lovell, and Phillips 

Cling peaches, are of California origin. 

••< oMKT" RED Cl'RRAXT. Much larger, 
earlier and sweeter than any other. 

••HAV-lil KH" CJOORKHKHHY. Earliest of 
all; large, smooth skin. 

WRITE FOR FURTHER PARTICULARS 



EUCALYPTUS TREES, 

by the 1000 or 100,000; no stronger stock; 
grown In the open, without lath screen or 
shade; therefore hardened to all weather. 

GENERAL NURSERY STOCK 



LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO., Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. INCORPORATED 1905. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara County, Cal. 



TREES 

Peach Trees 



In connection with our large as- 
sortment of Nursery Stock, we have 
a surplus of extra choice, bright, 
thrifty, well-rooted stock in Muir, 
Lovell, Phillip and Tuscan Cling and 
Elberta Peaches, all grades, includ- 
ing 4 to 6, 3 to 4. 2 to 3 foot and 18 
to 24, 12 to 18 and 6 to 12 inch stock. 

Shipments made promptly. 

CAPITAL CITY NURSERY CO., 
Salem, Oregon. 



GOLDEN RULE NURSERIES 

MRS. L L CROCKER, Proprietress 

I (minis. Cal. 

The celebrated Crocker Bartlett Pear, 
guaranteed immune from blight. 

Golden Rule Summer Apple, dormant 
buds. 

Crocker's New Free Peach, 50 cents 

each; 5,000 left. 
Deciduous Trees and Grape Vines. 



Now is the Time for Ordering Trees. 

We have a large lot of EUCALYPTI S. 
t YI'HICSS. I-IXK TKKES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of Oll\ \ M i:\T- 
\l TREES \M> SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
GREEK A\D DECIDUOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS, DRAOBHA, ROSES, ERI- 
< \». < \ M i i i I i \ v L.ZALBAS, llMnnn- 
DBNDRON, l'HVIT TREES and HIOItltY 
III SHES. 



THE PACIFIC NURSERIES, 
4041 Raker Street, - - San Francisco, 

And Millbrae. Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Kural Press. 



CRIMSON WINTER RHUBARB 

Now Is good time to plant pedigreed plants only. 
81.60 per dor.; ?6 per 100; 840 per 1000. 



All kinds of small fruit and berry plants, 

J. B. WAGNER, Pasadena, Cal. 

'be Hhuharh and Herry Specialist Dept. I. 



PACIFIC SEED CO.. sarsfa 

kliulsof seeds, bulbs, onion sets, grass, clover, al- 
falfa seeds. fi09 J. St., Sacramento, Cal. Send 
lor catalogue. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 

HORTICULTURE. 

A fruit cannery, capitalized at $50,000, 
is to be built at Hemet, in southern Cali- 
fornia, this year. 

A local company of Forterville will set 
out a 320-acre orange grove at Ducor, Tu- 
lare county, this season. 

The King's county statistician has 
figured out the production of dried fruits 
last year as 15,523 tons, valued at $974,122. 

The Davis Almond Growers' Associa- 
tion has marketed the 1908 crop of its 
members, which amounted to 322 tons, at 
an average price of 9% cents per pound. 

A grower from near Reedley found a 
way to dispose of his raisins. He shipped 
a car to Dakota and sold them there in 
small lots, netting four cents per pound. 

Local nurseries in the Santa Clara 
valley report a heavy demand for prune 
trees; also that peaches and apricots are 
selling well. Walnuts are receiving more 
attention than ever before. 

Several Watsonville growers have just 
gotten returns from a carload of apples 
sent to New York to be sold from the 
retail stores in competition with Eastern 
fruit. They received 60 cents per box net. 

A farmers' institute is to be held seven 
miles southwest of Yuba City, on January 
14. Profs. Bioletti and Clark of the State 
University are to present the subjects of 
grape culture, deciduous fruits and poul- 
try raising. 

Notwithstanding a short crop this sea- 
son, the shipments of pickled olives from 
California will be heavier than ever be- 
fore. Last year there were sent from the 
State 30,000 cases and this season the 
shipments are figured at 35,000 cases. 

At the two meetings of raisin growers 
forming the pool, held at Fresno and 
Hanford last week, the Gartenlaub seed- 
ing contract was adapted. This gives the 
pool the control of the packing houses in 
the raisin district for the season. As the 
preliminary work is now done, the selling 
committee will devote its energy to dis- 
posing of the 20,000 odd tons of raisins in 
the pool. An effort 1b now being made 
to increase the pool holdings to 25,000 
tons, thereby controlling the situation. 

AGRICULTURE. 

A number of hop sales are reported 
being made in Sonoma county, with prices 
ranging from 5 to 6 cents per pound. 

Kansas now leads all other States in 
the Union In the production of winter 
wheat. Last year It raised $68,SOO,000 
worth on 6,108,000 acres of land. 

Last year Puget Sound ports, Including 
Seattle and Tacoma, increased their wheat 
exports till they are now second only to 
New York are shipping centers for this 
cereal. 

The farmers of Yolo county have al 
ready more land seeded to grain this sea 
son than was planted altogether last year 
The outlook for a good grain crop is ex 
(•client. 

Dzporta of wheat from the United 
States during 1908 increased 26.000.000 
bushels over 1907. Corn exports decreased 
32.000,000 bushels last year from the one 
previous. 

LIVE STOCK. 

Oregon produced over $5,000,000 worth 
of poultry and eggs during 1908. 

A new milk ordinance was before the 
city council of Yuba City Monday night 
for second reading. 

A press dispatch states that hundreds 
of cattle have died from starvation on 
the range in Antelope valley. 

Five carloads of beef cattle from Ne- 
vada were brought to Suisun last week 



MILL 

Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine. 



xo 



Orange 

and Lemon. 



Nursery Stock 
and Alfalfa. 



Fertilizers. 




IVl A N 

Importers ol 

Nitrate ol Soda 
Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Double Manure Salts 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 



Hawaiian Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 



Works 

Honolulu and San Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



REX YOUR TREES WITH 

LIME & SULPHUR SOLUTION 

Tin- "ill known KIOX I.IME & St 1.1*11 1 II Mill THIN mini ufuct urcil by the 
Cm I il'u mi. 'i Hex Spray Company, ill llcnlclii. In no loniter nn experiment. Of 
tin* llioiiMiinilN of cusliiiiirrn tlint lined II ln»t j onr, «r« linve MtKdf n "IiirIc 
report bnf what I* In It* favor. 

If In tin beat kniitYii InNcctlcldc nntl f unKldde ; In a tonic to tin- tree; In 
prepared on Mclcntlllc prlnclpli'N : In nhxolutely uniform; i-vtry hnrrel flint In 
made at tin* factory In-inu of jiiNt i In- name nt n-nui li. iimiiel>. 39*^ Noliitlou, 
I In ii in a- tc»ts In free from sediment; In ready for un( In the orelmrd without 
ha\ liiu to he holled; one hnrrel of Knllonn miikeN flOO KallonN of the NtroiitceNt 
Nprny. and In hy far eheaper. nt the reduced price at which It In offered thlN 
year, than liny farmer can afford fo mukc n home-made. Imperfect Nolullon. 
\»U wuir denier, or uddrcnx: 

CALIFORNIA REX SPRAY CO. YAKIMA REX SPRAY CO. 

Benicia, Cal. N. Yakima, Wash. 

THE TOLEOO REX SPRAY CO., Toledo, Ohio. 
THE REX COMPANY, Omaha, Neb. 



IT'S FREE 

BONE AND BLOOD FERTILIZER 

•FERTILIZE FOR PROFIT.' 

It's the reBults that count In farmlttK and our Fertilizers produce POSITIVK RESULTS, 
that show In the t'l'A LIT V of the products as well as the QUANTITY. Orange and other 
fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly recommend our fertilizers as producing 
tin m amli sl results In 1 1 nan 1 1 ty, quail tj of products, and profits. 

Write lor Catalogue and Prices. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 



Oi l ICE: 414 Pine St., San Francisco, Cal. 



FACTORIES : San Francisco and Oakland. 



ORCHARDISTS and 
FARMERS 



who have used our goods once, will always come to us for their fertilizers. We are 
making a special study of plant life and are therefore In a position to manufacture 
fertilizers that exactly meet the requirements of each plant. Let us know what you 
Intend to plant, and we will name your special compositions. Write for our new 
hooklet "The Farmers Friend," for 190!t. 

THE PACIFIC GUANO & FERTILIZER COMPANY 

268E Market St., San Francisco. Cal. 



KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

WHOLESALE. GROWERS OF 

Deciduous Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

RELIABLE STOCK AND LOWEST PRICES 

Main Office, FRESNO, CAL. Box 604 B 

BRANCHES AT MERCED AND II HUM h 



Grafted Walnut Trees 

On Black, Soft-shell and Resistant Roots. 
Seedlings, Citrus, Deciduous, Berry Bushes, etc. 

A. R. RIDEOUT, MAGNOLIA NURSERY, WHITTIER, CAL. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Large Stock — All Varieties 
Hardy and Selected Rapid Growers 
Write for free Illustrated hooklet. 
LLOYD R. TAYLOR, Modesto, Cal. 



January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



27 




1500 ACRES 



EXPERIMENTAL, FARM. 
IMaiit IVo. 1, 040 Acres. 

NURSERY AND PROPAGATING DEPT. 
IVo. 2, 130 A«-res. 

GENERAL NURSERY, 
Plant No. 3, 040 Acres. 

CITRUS NI RSERY AND 
CITRUS ORCHARDS, 
100 Acres. 



The Sims 
Cling Peach 

IS THE PEACH TO PLANT. 
WE HAVE THE TREES. 



Griffin & Skelly Company, 
16 California Street. 

San Francisco, Calif., Oct. 6, 190*, 

Mr. Geo. C. Roeding, President Fapcher 
Creek Nurseries, Fresno, Cal. — 
Dear Sir: Regarding the Sims Cling 
Peaches, samples of which were deliv- 
ered to our cannery at Fresno: 

We packed these samples, and are 
most favorably impressed with them. 
We find the peaches to be of fine tex- 
ture, rich color and particularly fine 
flavor, and the best late Cling Peaches 
we have ever had in our cannery. They 
seem to ripen between the Orange 
Cling Peaches and the Phillips, and 
there has been an urgent demand for 
Clings that would come in just at that 
time, as it would enable canners to ma- 
terially increase their output of Cling 
Peaches, and we shall welcome the day 
when a sufficient quantity of these 
peaches is available for canning pur- 
poses. If we were planting today, we 
should certainly put out a considerable 
quantity of these Clings. 

Yours truly, 

GRIFFIN & SKELLY CO. 



Every Fruit Grower 

Should have a copy of the following 
hooks: 

THE SMYRNA FIG 
AT HOME AND ABROAD. 
Price, 50 cents. 

LUTHER HURBANK'S BOOK LET. 
ILLUSTRATED IN COLORS. 
Price, -."> cents. 

< A I. IFOR \ I A HORTICULTURE, 
HE FRUIT GROWER'S GUIDE. 
Trice, cents. 



PRICE LIST SENT FR BE. 



PAID-UP CAPITAL 9 200,000.00 

1FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

■ INC. 

1 Geo.C Roeding Pr. 3 .*Mgr. 
«?gox 18 Fresno.CaliforniaUSAW 



for winter feeding by A. Callan of Suisun, 
Phil Steffan of Vallejo and Emery Prase r 
of Rio Vista. 

Walter Beard of Modesto lost 120 sheep 
recently from bloat. The sheep were 
being pastured on alfalfa near Woodland. 

The Oregon sheep men have set aside 
this month to exterminate coyotes. Poison 
and gun are the means used to control 
their greatest pest. 

The government inspector has been con- 
fiscating butter made by the Reno, Nev., 
dairies and creameries that contained 
over 16 per cent moisture. 

Hawaii is trying out various kinds of 
grasses for hogs, that they may save 
themselves the expense of importing near- 
ly $188,000 worth annually from the main 
land. 

A new disease has broken out among 
horses near Iron canyon, Tehama county. 
Horses in good condition are affected in 
the region of the kidneys and later get 
down and are unable to rise again. 

A 140-acre ranch near San Bernardino 
was sold to a wealthy man last week for 
$25,000. The new owner announces that 
he will enclose the place with mesh wire 
and devote it to the raising of fancy fowls, 
deer and other animals. 

The work of building the new creamery 
at Merced has progressed far enough to 
announce that butter-making will com- 
mence within thirty days. It is an- 
nounced that several new dairy herds are 
being gathered there to produce milk for 
the creamery. 

At the close of the beekeepers' institute 
held at Monterey last week a bee associa- 
tion was formed. The association will 
cover Monterey, San Benito, Santa Cruz, 
Santa Clara, Contra Costa and Alameda 
counties. In this territory there are 
nearly 300 bee men who have about 12,000 
colonies of bees. 

The Howard-Glide sale of Short-horn 
cattle, held at the Chase pavilion in San 
Francisco last Tuesday, was quite suc- 
cessful. The sale called together the most 
representative class of stockmen of any 
held for many years. The heifers sold 
fairly well and the bulls brought good 
prices. Under the direction of the auc- 
tioneer, George P. Bellows of Missouri, the 
bidding was lively and the sale as an in 
novation was a success. We will give a 
full account of the transfers in our next 
weeks' issue. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

It is announced that George West & Son 
of Lodi will build a big winery at Tur- 
lock. This firm already has ten wineries. 

A couple of men are figuring on putting 
in a pickling plant at Modesto, which 
will handle cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, 
etc. 

A colony of French-Canadians are re- 
ported to be about ready to start for 
Sutter county to settle in the Sunset 
colony. 

Seven hundred acres of land in Stanis- 
laus county has recently been purchased 
by San Francisco parties which will be 
planted to eucalyptus. 

A. Humphreys of San Francisco is re- 
ported to have recently purchased 1000 
acres of land near Orland and will plant 
half of the tract to eucalyptus. 

San Joaquin and Contra Costa land 
owners are endeavoring to have a big 
canal dug, two and a half miles long, 
which will drain the waters from Franks, 
Bethel and Jersey island tracts. 

George M. Cooley will plant out the 
east end of Little mountain, near San 
Bernardino, with eucalyptus rostrata this 
year. Besides being a good windbrake 
the trees will make fine hardwood timber. 

The California Development Co. recent- 
ly let a contract for the construction of an 



eight-mile canal for irrigation purposes, 
to run from Packard station, in the Im- 
perial valley, toward the international 
line. 

The supervisors of Sacramento county 
last week granted the petition for the or- 
ganization of a big reclamation district, 
comprising 55,000 acres of land in the 
American and Sutter tule basin. This is 
one of the largest reclamation projects 
ever undertaken in the West. 

During the past year there was im- 
ported into the United States $516,000,000 
worth of tropical and sub-tropical prod- 
ucts. Of the various items in the list, 
sugar was the largest, being valued at 
$133,000,000. Coffee was sent to us to 
the value of $68,000,000. Cocoa amounted 
to $14,000,000. Tobacco is another large 
item, amounting to $32,000,000. The item 
of cotton alone was valued at $14,500,000, 
which came chiefly from Egypt. Bananas 
to the value of $11,500,000 were shipped 
in, and of lemons $4,333,000 worth were 
received. 



PEACH TREES 

a™ CRAPE VINES 

We can supply any kind of Peach trees 
and Grape Vines. Write us what vari- 
ety and quantity you want and we will 
quote prices on same. 

FOWLER NURSERY CO., 
Fowler, Cal. 



TREES 



STANISLAUS 
NURSERY 

Pormerly Analy Nursery, of Sebastopol. 

T. J. TRUE, Modesto, R. D. 1 

PRICE LIST ON APPLICATION. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grafted or grown from carefully selected 
seed. Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 

SPECIAL LOW PRICE 

on Apple and Peach trees, Thompson 
Seedless and Zinfandel rooted Grape 
Vines, and assortment of Berry Vines. 
Write us for prices, stating quantity 
desired. 

GRIDLEY COLONY NURSERY, Gridley, Cal. 



Ettersburg Gooseberries 

Are Worthy of a Trial in Your Garden. 

New and distinct variety. Prolific and highest 
quality. Skin tender, seeds few, half the acid of 
other varieties. Cuttings root easily; 50 cents 
per dozen by mail. Order before January 121 
Stamps accepted. 

ALBERT P. ETTER, Brlceland, California. 



MODESTO NURSERY. 

Complete Line of Citrus and Deciduous 
TREES, 

BERRIES, VINES AND ORNAMENTAL STOCK. 

Write for PRICES NOW. 
SHERLOCK & CARDWELL, Modesto, Cal. 
Box '272. 



CIIOH'K WIM'KIl 



BARMAIN AI» 



,KS. 



r,0 lb. box, 4 li«-r, $1.00; 4V- Her, 75c. 
I<\ O. II. Family orders solicited, 
\V. H. HAN IV IB A I,, U. D. I, Sun Jone, Cal. 



Use 



r- DUST SPRAY 

VIG0RITE BRAND 
HYDRATED LIME 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE HOLMES LIME CO., Inc. 

Mutual Savings Bank Building 
San Francisco 

Write for Samples and Prices. 




Greaterproductiveness of trees 
—larger, cleaner, and finer fruit 
— more money. Isn't that fruit 
growers' reasoning? Nothing 
will contribute to this end more 
than effective spraying. And 
Effective Spraying can best be 
attained with 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

Effective spraying means 
High Pressure Spraying and 
till the advent of the Bean 
Magics a high pressure could not 
be maintained with a hand pump 
for any length of time, on account 
of the body-racking effort 
needed to operate it. The Bean 
patent spring divides the work 
between the two strokes of the 
handle and works against only 
one-half the pressure shown on 
the gauge and saves exactly 
one-third the labor. 

Our illustrated catalog No. 21 de- 
scribes ten sizes of hand pumps, and 
contains much valuable spray infor- 
mation, and formulas. Catalog No. 
22 describes Power Sprayers. Both 
books sent free. Write for our spe- 
cial offer; state number of acres and 
kind of fruit. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO. 

211 West Julian Street 
San Jose, Cal. 

^ = as ¥ 



WHICH SPRAY PUMP 

^^^■^^■s" shall you buy? Buy the Pump 
that fully meets the demands of the Government 
Agricultural Scientists and all Practical Frt-. 
Growers. These pumps are known as Demin 
Sprayers made in 23 styles for use in garden 
or orchards. Write for our 1909 Cataloe with 
Spraying Chart. Add 4 cents postage and get 
"Spraying for Profit," a useful guide book. 
THE DEMING COMPANY. 

750 Depot St., Salem. Ohio 




if 



mm 



Ferry's are best because every year 
the retailer pets a new supply, freshly 
tested and put up. You run no risk of 
poorly kept or remnant stocks. W e take 
the pains; you get the results. Buy of the 
best equipped and most expert seed grow- 
ers in America, ft is to our advantage to 
satisfy you. We will. For sale every- 
where. Our 1009 Seed Annual free. 
Write to 
D. M. FERRY & CO., 
Detroit, Mich. 




We sell all our seeds under three warrants. 
Which practically cover all risks. This la the 



reason the largest gardeners ami planters in the 
country sow 

GREGORY'S Seeds 

They take no chances. Everyone interested in 
vegetable and flower growing should send for 
Crogory's Seed Book— It's FREE 
Write to-day for a copy. 
J. J. H. GREGORY & SON. Msrslehuo. Mass. 



WANTED 

10(10 Cuttings of Prarie Belle Wild Rose 
1000 Cuttings of Minetta Wild Rose 

Address, J. S. WHITE, Jr., 
Holtville, Imperial Co., Cal. 



28 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January t», 1908. 



The Irrigator. 



HINTS ON IRRIGATION. 



"Don't irrigate too much. Over satu- 
ration checks the growth of plants and 
trees by lowering the soil temperature 
and at the same time completely shuts 
out the air. This practice takes money 
out of the grower's pocket. Roots, like 
human beings or anything that breathes, 
must have air for life and growth. The 
water-holding capacity of soils runs from 
40 to 60 per cent of the total solid volume, 
and 45 per cent of the whole is about as 
much water as should be put on the soil 
at any time. The best results from the 
application of moisture on ordinary crops 
have been obtained by using 25 per cent 
of the water-holding capacity of the soil 
at planting, decreasing gradually to 15 
per cent, remaining at that point until 
the leaves are formed, then increasing 
quickly to 40 per cent and allowing the 
water to fall rapidly to from 12y 2 to 15 
per cent, and remain there during the 
fruiting and maturing period." 

H. L. Mclntyre, C. E., of Spokane, an 
authority on irrigation subjects, em- 
phasized the foregoing points in his paper 
on "Practical Irrigation," read before the 
Washington Horticultural Association at 
its annual meeting in Spokane, December 
8 to 12. He indicated that practical irri- 
gation is scientific in form and covers a 
broad field in its many phases, and urged 
irrigationists to study dry farming 
methods, as well as read irrigation and 
farm journals, declaring that the first 
requisite to be a successful irrigator is 
to be a first-class dry farmer, adding: 
"If you can't dry farm, you can't irrigate." 
Mr. Mclntyre said it is the practical side 
of irrigation that appeals to the farmer 
and orchardist and fruit grower. They 
want to know how much water to use, 
when to apply it and how. To know these 
things the grower must first ascertain 
certain facts regarding the laud before 
he is ready to irrigate practically and in- 
telligently. The speaker grouped them as 
follows: 

First. The depth of soil. 

Second. The relative position of top 
subsoil. 

Third. Slope of surface for drainage 
purposes. 

Fourth. Slope and characteristic of 
subsoil for under drainage. 

Fifth. The percentage of moisture the 
soil holds stored in its present condition. 

Sixth. The water-holding capacity or 
amount of water the soil contains when 
in a state of complete saturation. 

Seventh. The degree of fineness or 
grain of the soil. 

"With these questions solved," Mr. Mc- 
lntyre said, "the grower is ready to irri- 
gate with some degree of certainty as to 
what the result will be; without the facts 
the grower occupies the position of the 
head of a mercantile house without his 
books and statements and invoices. To 
ascertain these facts is not a complex 
process, as you can see: 

"First. The way to ascertain the 
depth of the soil would be to bore augur 
holes at short intervals over your tract of 
land. Bore one foot in depth at a time, 
pull the auger, save the soil and put it 
in a glass jar and seal it up to prevent 
the moisture from evaporating. Bore the 
second and third foot, and on down to 
the subsoil in like manner until you have 
a sample of each foot of soil. 

"Second. The relative position of top 
and bottom soil you have ascertained by 
boring holes in the first instance. 

"Third. If the surface slope is too 
level to determine by the eye, employ a 
surveyor to run levels over the ground 
and furnish you a map showing the ele- 



vations in one foot contours, or in squares 
of 100 feet. This will always be ex- 
tremely useful to any one in the dis- 
tribution of water for irrigation. 

"Fourth. Knowing the depth of your 
subsoil at all points and the surface slope, 
the relative slope of the two is apparent. 

"Fifth. To ascertain the percentage of 
moisture the soil holds stored in its pres- 
ent condition, take the samples of soil 
you have in the sealed glass jars from 
your borings. Weigh each sample sep- 
arately, not the part of the field from 
which it was taken, then dry each sample 
perfectly and weigh again. The differ- 
ence is the amount of moisture in the soil, 
from which you ascertain the percentage 
of moisture in each foot of soil from the 
subsoil to the top. 

"Sixth. The water-holding capacity of 
the soil may be determined by taking a 
box one foot square and one foot high 
with a fine screen for the bottom. The 
capacity of the box will be one cubic foot. 
Fill the box with soil, pour water on it 
with a sprinkler until the water drips off 
at the bottom through the screen. As 
soon as the dripping stops, weigh the box 
and contents. Then dry the earth and 
weigh again. The difference between the 
two weights gives you the amount of 
water the soil will hold in its water-hold- 
ing capacity. 

"The soil is a sponge and you can only 
fill the voids with water. Having learned 
all th% conditions, you know how much 
water it will require to bring about a 
certain percentage of moisture in the land 
you wish to irrigate. You know how it 
drains, whether it leaches down or runs 
off in the subsoil. You can ascertain at 
any time whether your percentage of 
moisture is too low or too high; also how 
deep you can store water in the soil, and 
know how much it takes to wet it one 
foot down. 

"Seventh. When you begin to experi- 
ment you will find that the saturating 
capacity of soils, even in the same field, 
vary greatly. When the soil is so full of 
water that the air is shut off, no new 
roots are formed, and no new water is 
taken up, and as a result the growth suf- 
fers. The soil requires air and sun as 
well as moisture. 

"Shallow soils with gravel or open sub- 
soil leach the moisture rapidly and there 
is less danger of over-saturation, but the 
continual pouring of water through such 
soil will often carry away the fertilizing 
elements which are in solution and soon 
deplete the soil. Find out how much 
water your soil will hold in suspension 
and irrigate accordingly. The soil is a 
chemical laboratory and you are the 
chemist. The soil must have moisture, 
air and the heat of the sun to keep the 
chemical action at work making plant 
food. When you have too much water in 
the soil there is no air, hence no chemical 
action. With too much air there is no 
moisture and no chemical action. With 
proper moisture and cultivation the 
chemical action is complete, the capillary 
attraction bringing up the moisture from 
the lower levels to the top mulch. Here 
the sun and the air manufacture the fer- 
tilizing elements and the next rain or 
irrigation washes them down to be taken 
up by the roots. The process repeats 
itself without end, so long as we water 
and cultivate properly. 

"Cultivation is more important than 
irrigation, and in the arid regions one is 
of little use without the other. Don't 
overlook the fact that a weed is a pump, 
and that it draws water out of the soil 
at a rapid rate. Of course it is difficult 
to control exactly the amount of moisture, 
but a great deal can be done in this direc- 
tion and will amply repay any one who 
will take the trouble to apply his water 
to crops scientifically. 

"The most economical method of irri- 




"THE MAN WITH THE HOE" 

SHOULD SOW 

MORSE SEEDS 

ALWAYS RELIABLE 

Our new general Catalogue is now ready 
for mailing and will be found of great value 
to the planters of 

SEEDS, PLANTS AND TREES 

This Catalogue Is the finest we have ever issued and will 
be mailed free to all who write us. 

C. C. MORSE & CO. 



IF IN THE CITY CALL AT 

Retail Store: 
125-127 MARKET ST. 

(Opposite Junction with California.) 



WHEN WRITING ADDRESS US AT 

44 Jackson Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

AND GENERAL NURSERY STOCK. 

Large supply of Peach trees, Ornamental trees, 
Ornamental plants, and Rose bushes, 
in large quantities. 



WRITE U8 FOR PRICE LIST AND DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 



ORANGE COUNTY NURSERY & LAND CO. 



FULLERTON, CAL. 

BRANCH NURSERIES: 



Riverside, Cal. 



Corcoran, Cal. 



TREES 



GRAPE VI IKES 



YOUR ORDER PLEASE. 

Write us if in the market for 

APPLES, PEARS, PEACHES, APRICOTS, PLUMS, PRUNES, 
ALMONDS, FIGS, WINE, RAISIN AND TABLE GRAPES. 

We grow our stock on New Virgin soil insuring a healthy growth. Our prices always 
right. Send for Descriptive Catalogue, also Souvenir Picture of the Largest Tree in the 
World. All Free. Address : 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. Wilson, Proprietor, .... Fresno, Cal., Box 615. 



GRAPE VINES, BERRIES AND ROSES 

Ornamental, Shade and Deciduous Fruit Trees. 
A Good Class of General Nursery Stock. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

CHICO NURSERY COMPANY, Chico, California. 



Bench Grafts 

ZINFANDEL on ST. GEORGE 



AI'I'LV TO • 



J. S. MOULTON, 
Rlpon, - - California 



gating land and at the same time one 
that gives the almost complete control 
of the water is the pipe system, deliver- 
ing water under pressure to each tract of 
land. Pipe lines are used in California 
for surface and sub-irrigation systems. 
In some cases as high as 1000 acres of 
land is watered with a flow of one cubic 
foot per second. In Washington, under 
the present open-ditch system of irriga- 
tion, 200 acres with this amount of water 
would be above the average." 



Onion Sets 121c. a Pound 

Special Prices on Larger i|uantity. 

Headquarters for all kinds of Seeds. C'at.-ilugue 
upon request- KHKK. 

NAVLET BROS., 520 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



Th 



■ Ruehl- Wheeler Nursery 

Fruit. Ornamental and Citrus Trees. 
Strong Field-Grown Roses. 
PHONE BOX 826 

BLUE 1396 SAN JOSE 



FRUIT TREES TREES OF ALL KIM)S 

We make a Specialty ot Muir Peaches. 
Bartlett Pears, French Prunes, 
and the Commercial Smyrna Figs 

Send in list of your wants and get our prices 
before writing elsewhere. 

MAY WOOD COLONY NURSERY COMPANY 
W. Herbert Samson. Prop., Corning. Cal. 



January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



YELLOW MONEY 



AND 



YELLOW FRUIT 



Are a pair that travel together in good 
shape in an orange or lemon grove; 
especially is this true if you will plant 
only robust and true-to-name 

CITRUS TREES 

Grown by the San Dimas Nurseries, 
the largest growers of choice orange 
and lemon nursery stock in the world. 
No branch of horticulture offers better 
inducements in the way of profits, nor 
is there one more alluring to the per- 
son contemplating commercial fruit 
culture. For the past twenty years we 
have supplied the leading growers 
with their trees, and hope to number 
many more among our friends and 
patrons. 

Orders now being booked, subject to 
future delivery. Send for book on 
"The Citrus Fruits: Historically, Hor- 
ticulturally , Commercially." Beauti- 
fully illustrated, and some 20,000 
words of text. Price 25 cents. 



THE SAN DIMAS 
CITRUS NURSERIES 



R. M. TEAGUE, Proprietor 
SAN DIMAS, - - - CALIFORNIA 



EUCALYPTUS 

GROWN IN SUNSHINE 

with roots balled while growing in flats. Haves 
all roots; make sure success when removed to 
the tield and good growth the iirst season. 

Sample lots at wholesale lates. Can tafee 
from Hats and send in tight packages to save 
cost, risk and time. 

HENRY SHAW, 

320 River St., - - - - Santa Cf.z, Cal. 

IMPROVED BERRY PLANTS 

Strawberry, Raspberry, Blackberry, Dew- 
berry. Logan, Phenomenal, Mammoth Black 
and Giant Himalaya berry plants. Crim- 
son Winter Rhubarb. Send for Catalog. 

G. H. HOPKINS & SON 

BURBANK, CAL. 

FOR SALE. 

Logan, Mammoth, Phenomenal, and 
Himalaya berry plants. Send lor prices to 

R. J. HUNTER 

Oak View Berry Farm 

GRIDLEY, CAL. 

EUCALYPTUS TREES 

Large Assortment. All Varieties. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS. 

Transplanted in flats 100 each. 
Write for prices, giving amount wanted. 
W. A. REINHOLDLT 
Main Street Nursery, - - - - Petaluma, Cal. 

BARTLETT PEARS 

I have a large stock of Bartlett Pears 
that cannot be excelled for size and qual- 
ity, grown on whole roots one year old. 
Prices reasonable. Those desiring in any 
quantity, address, 

R. P. EACHUS, LAKBPORT, CAL. 



Apiculture. 

CONVENTION N. C. B. K. ASSO- 
CIATION. 



Written for the Pacific Rukal Press 
By Mb. Ralph Benton of the 
University of California. 

On December 21 and 22 the Northern 
California Beekeepers' Association had 
its third annual meeting at Pioneer Hall, 
Sacramento. The attendance was not 
large, but great interest was manifested 
in the topics discussed, and all took part. 
The first afternoon was taken up with 
the usual reports and preliminary busi- 
ness of the Association. This was fol- 
lowed by an exhaustive discussion of the 
marketing of honey. This is one of the 
real problems of the honey producer. Cali- 
fornia annually produces much more 
honey than can possibly be consumed, 
and how to effectively get this product 
into the Eastern market was the kernel 
around which the discussion centered. 
It was generally conceded that the 
beekeepers, not only of northern Cali- 
fornia or of any one locality should or- 
ganize for co-operative marketing, but 
that a honey exchange, embracing the 
whole State, should if possible be formed. 
The matter was again taken up the next 
afternoon, and it was decided to take 
steps looking toward some form of affilia- 
tion with the State Beekeepers' Associa- 
tion, with a view to' establishing a better 
system of co-operation among the bee- 
keepers of the State. It was further de- 
cided that for the present, until a better 
system of co-operation could be effected, 
the members of the Association would at- 
tempt individually to market their honey, 
rather than to hold it longer in an effort 
to market the crop as an Association. 
This arrangement is wholly a temporary 
one, and it is to be hoped that soon a 
more decided step than ever before can 
be taken in the matter of co-operative 
marketing for another year. 

The next forenoon was given over to a 
report of what the University of Califor- 
nia is doing for apiculture and a presen- 
tation and discussion of the bee disease 
situation in California. The matter of a 
better system of inspection comes close 
home to northern California, where there 
never has been much of a concerted action 
in the matter of checking or eradicating 
the diseases common to bees. There has 
been in the past much laxity, in view of 
the fact that the variation of foul brood 
occurring is not generally believed to be 
as virulent as the form found in southern 
California. This theory has become in 
many instances a serious menace to the 
industry, and much loss has been occa- 
sioned through this laconic passivity. 
Sacramento county has had some form of 
inspection for some time, but none of the 
adjoining counties has made it a com- 
munity matter to have inspectors of apia- 
ries, and so the results of inspection work 
in Sacramento county have been most 
disheartening. This serious status of af- 
fairs is greatly enhanced by the constant 
moving in of bees that takes place from 
Nevada, where no system of inspection is 
provided. These diseased bees come in 
by the carload, and are a constant source 
of reinfection of those California apiaries 
that do succeed in getting cleaned up and 
free from foul brood. As a result of the 
present imperfect and incomplete system 
of inspection obtaining in California, and 
the interest aroused in the matter of bee 
diseases at the convention, a committee 
was appointed to draft and present reso- 
lutions, and in the afternoon of the same 
day the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That we recommend to the 
Legislature and heartily endorse the pass- 
age of a bill providing for the conduct of 



TREES 



TRUE TO 
NAME 



AND 



Propagated from the Best 
Specimens of Their Kind 

TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS 

PLACER NURSERIES 



(ESTABLISHED 1878) 



Our assortment comprises all the best com- 
mercial varieties of 



Peaches 

Plums 

Pears 



Apricots 
Almonds 
Cherries 



Apples 
Persimmons 
Grapes, Etc. 



and our stock is the best that years of experience, care in selec- 
tion and care in growing can produce. That is what you want. 



ORDER NOW 



WRITE US 



Catalogue and price list mailed on application. 

THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CALIFORNIA. 



Agents Wanted, 



TREES 



PLANTS 



BULBS 



If you are interested in the best seed, etc., etc., write for our 1!>0!) Seed and 
Plant Annual, whieh will be mailed to you Free. 

Trumbull Seed Company 

(Successor to TRtJMBULL a hkkhK) 

61 California St., - - San Francisco. 

Please mention this paper. 



% Million Eucalyptus Trees on varied, 

Transplanted in fiats of 100 each. We prefer orders of 1 ,000 rather 
than 10,000; outside limit 20,000. Our trees are of the highest standard 
in quality. Correspondence invited. Our Booklet telling when, how, and 
what to plant free to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Nurseryman, Petaluma, Cal. 



SMYRNA P ARK NURSERIES 

Trees, Vines, Plants all kinds and varieties. 

Let us know <|uantlty wanted ami we will i<lve you spec lal prices on same. 
CAMPIN & MOM i l Ceres, Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Grower* of Commercial and Ornamental I ucal vpl i 

KKHTK1N Jt KKHTKIN, K K MI' K I N liltOS., 

Modesto Kuc. Nursery VI(?nolo Kuc. Nursery 

Modesto, Cal. Anaheim, Cal. 



I 



30 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January «J, 1909 



investigations in the diseases and other 
enemies of bees; for the inspection of 
bees passing into the State and from one 
county into another county within the 
State; for the inspection of bees in those 
counties without local inspectors, since 
these counties become a constant menace 
to adjoining counties as sources of con- 
stant reinfection; and for the State super- 
vision of the inspection work now being 
done by local county inspectors, to the 
end that a better system of co operation 
be arrived at among inspectors In their 
work, and that they be afforded expert 
assistance in making bacteriological de- 
terminations of suspected cases of dis- 
ease. That to inaugurate and support this 
work we recommend that there be made 
an annual appropriation of $2500, to be 
placed at the disposal of the apiculturist 
or that person in charge of apiculture at 
the State Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion. 

Provided, That an apiarian pathologist 
be appointed to conduct the hereinbefore 
mentioned investigations, with such other 
assistance as may be deemed necessary, 
and, further, that the apiarian patholo 
gist of the State Agricultural Experiment 
Station, appointed in the usual channels, 
be vested as State supervising inspector 
of apiaries, with authority similar to the 
authority vested in county inspectors of 
apiaries, and that his territory be made 
co-extensive with the State, and that he 
be empowered at any time to deputize in- 
spectors for such a time and to the num- 
ber he may see fit. 

It was further resolved that copies of 
the resolution passed be circulated in the 
counties of northern and central Califor- 
nia, with a view to obtaining the signa- 
tures of beekeepers favoring the measure; 
that copies be forwarded to the State Bee- 
keepers' Association meeting in southern 
California; and that the copies when cir- 
culated and signed should be transmitted 
to the proper legislative committee hav 
ing the bill in charge. Provisions were 
made for carrying on the compaign. 

In the election of officers, vice-presi- 
dents were elected from each of the bee 
keeping counties of northern California 
with a view to strengthening the bee dis- 
ease campaign and other interests of the 
Association by having a strong represent- 
ative at work in each county. 



LURES AND POISON FOR 
COYOTES. 



The new catalogue of the Wisconsin 
Incubator Co., Racine, Wis., is a very fine 
book giving valuable information on in- 
cubators and brooders. This catalogue 
should be in the hands of every one in- 
terested in incubators and brooders, as it 
tells how they are made, and at what 
price they can be made and sold for. It 
also gives good illustrations and instruc- 
tive views, showing their construction. 
Mr. Thomas Collier, manager of the Wis- 
consin Incubator Co., will be glad to mail 
their catalogue if you will write them 
for one. 



Nitrate of Soda 

Nitrate Sold in Original Bags 
NITRATE AGENCIES CO. 

64 Stone Street, New York 
Keyser Building, Baltimore, M J. 
36 Bay Street, East. Savannah, Ga. 
305 Baronne Street, New Orleans, La. 

140 Dearborn Street. Chicago, III. 
Holcombe & Co., 24 California Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 
603-4 Oriental Block. Seattle. Wash. 



Addreai Office Nearest You 



Orders for All Quantities Promptly 

Filled— Write for Quotations 



MAN, OH MAN!! 

Why do you neglect your orchards 
when Wa mocks Remedy cures blight and 

all the tree diseases. Send for booklet. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERIES 
Loomls, Cal. 
AUENTS WANTED 



We judge that coyotes are becoming 
pretty thick in California and probably 
the fact will be pressed upon the atten- 
tion of the legislature which is to assem- 
ble next week. We hear of the pests and 
the losses they occasion in many localities 
and had a realizing sense of their abun- 
dance when we saw from a car window 
last month, a bunch of three trotting 
slowly across a field near the track. This 
was in a closely settled part of the State. 
When coyotes get used to railway trains 
there are evidently too many of them. 

Mr. Vernon Bailey of the U. S. Depart 
ment of Agriculture prepares a statement 
which may be helpful to those who are 
disposed to reduce the coyote supply. He 
says: 

Success in trapping depends largely on 
the use of scent that will attract wolves 
and coyotes to the traps and keep them 
tramping and pawing there until caught. 
Meat bait alone is of little use and often 
scares the animals away. Of the many 
scents and combinations tested the fetid 
bait has proved most successful. Place 
half a pound of raw beef or venison in a 
wide-mouthed bottle and let it stand in a 
warm place, but not in the sun, for two 
to six weeks or until it is thoroughly de 
cayed and the odor has become as offen- 
sive as possible. 

When decomposition has reached the 
proper stage, add a quart of sperm oil or 
any liquid animal oil. Lard oil may be 
used, but prairie-dog oil is better. Then 
add one ounce of pulverized asafetida 
and one ounce of tincture of Siberian 
musk or Tonquin musk. If this cannot 
be procured, use in its place one ounce 
of dry, pulverized castoreum or beaver 
castor or one ounce of the common musk 
sold for perfumery. Mix well and bottle 
securely until used. After setting the 
trap, apply the scent with a stick or 
straw or by pouring from the bottle to 
the grass, weeds or ground on the side 
of the trap opposite that from which the 
wolf would naturally approach. Never 
put scent on the trap, as the first impulse 
of the wolf after sniffing the scent is to 
roll on it. This bait is very attractive 
also to cattle and horses, which are sure 
to tramp over and paw out the traps if 
set where they can be reached. 

Poisons. — No poison has yet proved so 
effective as pure sulphate of strychnine, 
provided the proper dose is used. The 
most effective dose is four grains for 
wolves and two grains for coyotes. The 
common three-grain gelatin capsules sold 
by druggists will hold four grains of 
strychnine and are better than the larger 
capsules. The regular two-grain capsules 
should be used for coyotes. The capsules 
should be filled, securely capped and every 
trace of the intensely bitter drug wiped 
from the outside. Each capsule should 
be inserted in a piece of beef suet the size 
of a walnut and the cavity securely closed 
to keep out moisture. Lean meat should 
not be used, as the juice soon dissolves 
the gelatin of the capsule. 

The necessary number of poisoned baits 
may be prepared and carried in a tin can 
or pail. They should never be handled 
except with gloved hands or forceps. The 
baits may be dropped from horseback 
along a scented drag line made by drag- 
ging an old bone or piece of hide well 
saturated with the fetid scent or they 
may be placed around or partly under any 
carcass on which the wolves or coyotes are 
feeding or along trails which they are in 
the habit of following. Gelatin capsules 
quickly dissolve in the juices of the 
stomaeh. Strychnine taken on an empty 
stomach sometimes kills in a very few 
minutes, but on a full stomach its action 
is much slower and the animal may have 
time to travel a considerable distance. 



ORDERS FOR 

PEACH TREES 

PROMPT DELIVERY OF 

1VIUIRS 

LOVELLS 

PHILLIPS 

TUSCANS 

ELBERTAS 

IN 

2 to 3 feet. 
18 to 24 inches. 
12 to 18 inches. 

6 to 12 inches. 

Sizes INSURED by Ordering NOW. 



Are making CARLOAD shipments 
WEEKLY. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

Salem, Oregon. 



THE SEED HOUSE OF THE 
GREAT SOUTHWEST 

Write for our illustrated one hundred 
and fifty page catalog of Garden, Field, 
Flower and Tree Seeds; a complete line 
of Nursery Stock and Poultry Supplies. 

A Special Fucalyptus Department. 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO., 

113-115 N. Main St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



PEACHES 



OREGON GROWN 



65,000 Elberta 
35,000 Lovell 
10,000 Muir 
12,000 Phillips 
1 0,000 Tuscan 



All grades. Special prices 
in large quantities. Write 
today. 



ALBANY NURSERIES 

ALBANY, OREGON. 
Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Avenue. San Jose. Cal. 

DOLLAR STRAWBERRY PLANTS 

Have vou any cents (sense) ? then plant the Dol- 
lar for protlt. strong, healthy runners from 
new plantation, S3 per thousand. 

A. H. BRYDGES, Lootnis, Cal. 

HENRY B. LISTER, 

ATTORNEY AT I AW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts. 
San Francisco. 



Was Your Last Catalogue Satisfactory? 

1. IX TKADE-PL'LLIXG POWER. 

Was the general get-up genuinely attarctive, and did it present your stock 
so that the reader became interested and in a frame of mind to give you an 
order? First impressons go a great ways in establishing a friendly attitude 
toward the offerings of a good book. 
•i. IX QVALITY AXD ARRANGEMENT. 

Did the manner of its mechanical appearance and literary expression Im- 
press possible patrons of the superiority of the seeds and plants you are 
offering? Was it correct in nomenclature and reliable in cultural directions? 
S. IN VOLUME AXD XVMBER PRINTED. 

Did you meet the demand by ending the season with just enough to carry 
you over, or did you have a surplus, or did you fall a few shy? This is 
important either way you look at it. 
4. IX MATTER AXD ILLUSTRATIONS. 

You don't always discuss with your printer all these points, — but then. 
The Kruckeberg Press is different from the general run of printers; It is 
fitted up to be really helpful to the seed and nursery trade, the live stock 
and agricultural interests, to do this class of work, from the preparation of 
the copy to the finished product. 

Correspondence Invited. 

THE KRUCKEBERG PRESS 

HORTICULTURAL PRINTING AND ENGRAVING 
CATALOGUE MAKERS. TRI-COLOR PRINTERS 



123 South Los Angeles St. A 1420 Home. 



Los Angeles, Cal. 



THE MARSHALL NURSERIES 

FOR FRUIT TREES, GRAPEVINES, 
PALMS, ROSES. 

FULL LINE OF EVERYTHING GROWN BY US. 

S. W. Marshall & Son, Nurserymen. 

BOX 652, FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 



BNCINAL NURSERIES 

SPKt'l Al.TIESi Frauquette Walnut, grafted on Black Walnut root. Absolutely 
genuine. 

Wonder Walnut New; the largest, most prolific, and young.-st bearer known 

Twelve nuts grown on a one year Kraft. In nursery now, placed side by side. Measure 
22 inches, 5 hi to 6% inches in circumference. Thin shell, blight resistant. Fully 
tested for years. 

E. C. \\ II.S(I\, Prop. Sunnyvale, Snnfa Clara Conaty, Cal. 



GRAFTED VINES NOW READY FOR DELIVERY 

PLANT EARLY AND GET A PERFECT STAND. 

20.000 Zinfandel on St. George. 15.000 Alicante Bouschet on St. George. 

Price $60 per 1000. 

JOHN SWEXX & SON, Martinez, Cal. 



January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



31 



Large Land Sale 

The John Grouch Lands 



Situated in Colusa, Glenn, Butte and 
Lassen Counties. 



These lands were acquired by the late John 
Crouch of Butte County. They now belong to 
the John Crouch Land Company, a corporation 
having Its principal place of business at Chico. 

That corporation now offers for sale these ex- 
tensive holdings. 

The agricultural lands in Butte and Glenn 
Counties are in the richest part of northern 
California and are all highly improved and will 
be sold In subdivisions to suit purchasers. 

The late John crouch was extensively engaged 
in stock raising, devoting his attention to high 
class sheep and cattle. 

This sale offers the greatest advantages to 
persons desiring to purchase stock properties, 
which are now exceedingly scarce. 

The corporation owns in the foothills east of 
Chlco some 25,000 acres of land, all under fence 
and with ample barns and improvements. It is 
the finest winter range In the Sacramento 
Valley. It would be sold as a whole or cut up, as 
It can well be naturally, Into three ranges. 

It offers a tract oi some 3,600 acres in Glenn 
and Colusa Counties, extending for a number of 
miles along Butte Creek, including the rich bot- 
tom lands of that stream, upon which feed of all 
kinds grows luxuriantly. This place would 
make a magnificent stock ranch. 

it also offers large tracts of land in Glenn 
County a little northeast of Butte City, fenced 
and improved, which could be most admirably 
utilized for stock purposes and other rich lands 
In the same vicinity for agricultural purposes. 
They would be sold separately or as a whole. 

The properties offered Include the celebrated 
Bowers Ranch on the Sacramento River in Butte 
County, composed of the richest river bottom 
agricultural land and upon which alfalfa grows 
most luxuriantly. This ranch is improved with 
a fine residence, many barns, good fences and is 
the best high class stock and agricultural ranch 
for sale along the Sacramento River. The soil is 
adapted not only to alfalfa, but to beets and all 
the grains. , 

The Home Ranch of the late Mr. Crouch, near 
Chico, is so well known as not to require any 
description. It will be mostly sold in small 
subdivisions. It can be irrigated by a ditch 
from Butte creek, carrying 500 inches of water. 

The corporation offers also one of the finest 
mountain ranches in the Sierra Nevadas— the 
Crouch lands in Mountain Meadows, comprising 
some 15,000 acres, and upon which an enormous 
tonnage of hay can be cut. This property is 
also highly improved with barns conveniently 
located for the storage of hay for winter pur- 
poses. It Is sufficiently timbered to make it 
attractive from that point of view and possesses 
great value for the storage of water thereon 
for power purposes. The Feather River runs 
through it and the typography of the ground 
admits ol great reservoir sites. 

Purchasers desiring information about any of 
these properties, or to examine the same, will 
apply to the undersigned personally, or by 
letter, at the Bank of Butte County in Chico, 
i alifornia. 

JOHN R. ROBINSON, 
President John Crouch Land Company. 



CALIFORNIA FRUITS 



AND 



HOW TO GROW THEM 



By E J. WICKSON, A.M. 



REVISED EDITION, 500 PAGES. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED 



Price $3 per copy, postpaid. 



Prof. L. H. Bailey, the leading horticul- 
turist of the East, says of the book: 

"This work is an invaluable addition to 
the literature of horticulture. The condi- 
tions of culture are so peculiar in Califor- 
nia that a particular treatise is demanded 
for them. The present volume deals in a 
clear and comprehensive manner with the 
whole field of California pomology. The 
author has enjoyed unusual facilities for 
the acquisition of facts, and he has every- 
where used the material to good advan- 
tage." 

SEND IN YOUR ORDER TODAY TO 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publisher, 

667 HOWARD STREET, 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Forestry. 



THE STORY OF A CLOUDBURST. 



In the upper reaches of San Eraigdio 
canyon, Kern county, California, cloud- 
bursts have at many places stripped the 
mountain slopes bare of their forest cover 
and swept great trees and masses of rock 
many miles from their source. Just where 
the creek breaks from the hills is the 
hacienda of San Bmigdio rancho, and the 
superintendent of the rancho, J. S. 
Douglas, who has had ample opportunity 
to observe the cloudbursts, gave the fol- 
lowing description to H. R. Johnson, of 
the United States Geological Survey, who 
has in preparation a report on the geology 
of the San Joaquin valley. Mr. Douglas 
says: 

"The cloudburst issued from Cloudburst 
canyon into San Emigdio canyon about 
eight miles above this ranch house. I had 
been expecting the occurrence, as the pre- 
monitory signs had been very pronounced 
for two or three days previously, viz. : 
immense masses of white snowy clouds in 
the forenoons, changing in color to inky 
blackness in the afternoons, with the ac- 
companiment of thunder. The weather 
was sultry, with occasional gusts of cool 
wind rushing down the canyon, an un- 
usual occurrence during the day in sum- 
mer time. 

"Some time before it made its appear- 
ance, probably fifteen minutes, its dull and 
heavy roar could be heard from up the 
canyon, quite distinct from and rising 
above all the other noises of the storm, 
and reminding me of breakers against a 
rocky shore. As it issued from the nar- 
row mouth of Cloudburst canyon into the 
comparatively broad one of San Emigdio 
it was accompanied by a cloud of dust 
occasioned by the breaking up of huge 
masses of dry soil torn from projecting 
points in its rush down the canyon. 

"Through the dust glimpses would be 
had of great piles of drift, with an oc- 
casional tree turned end over end by the 
moving mass behind. 

"After reaching the main canyon it 
spread to a widtn of probably 200 yards, 
and after descending about one-half mile 
came to a full stop, only to be succeeded 
in a few moments by another wave larger 
and swifter than the first. There was no 
dust about this or any of the succeeding 
waves, but immense masses of rock, many 
of which must have weighed several tons, 
were apparently dancing along, light as 
corks, on the surface, being supported by 
the rocky mass beneath. 

"This wave extended about one-half 
mile farther down the canyon than the 
first, when it also came to a stop, having 
spread to the full width of the canyon 
(about one-fourth mile here). 

"In a few moments another wave of 
mud swept by, followed by others at inter- 
vals of a few minutes, each succeeding 
wave getting thinner and traveling with 
greater velocity than the preceding ones. 

"In answer to your question as to the 
distance and size of rocks moved by cloud- 
bursts, I will give you a description of one 
which lies on the bank of the creek close 
to this house. It is a sandstone bowlder 
which has come from seven miles above, 
and as near as it can be measured, owing 
to its irregular shape, gives the following 
dimensions: Height, 8 feet; length, 16 
feet; width, 12 feet. On the plains (the 
San Joaquin valley) about five miles east 
of here, several masses much larger than 
this can be seen. These were brought 
down the Pleito canyon by cloudbusts." 

Commenting on this description, Mr. 
Johnson says: 

"The interesting point about the cloud- 
burst described is its ebb and swing. It 
has been further learned that the first 
wave, which brings down the coarsest 




are secured by the use of fertilizers rich in Potash. See 

that your fertilizer has enough Potash — at least io%, and 

send to us for Free Literature telling how much each kind 

of fruit ought to have to get best results. 

Valuable Literature on the Cultivation and Fertilization of 
all Fruits, Vegetables and Grains sent Free on Request. 

GERMAN KALI WORK:, 93 Nassau Street, New York 

CHICAGO Monadnock Block 

ATLANTA— Candler Building 



MEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, Cal., are Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 




SUNSET ORCHARD AND VINEYARD GANG PLOW 

To meet the increasing demand for a light, strong, simple and durable tool for 
Orchard and Vineyard work, we now offer the new 

"CANTON SUNSET" ORCHARD AND VINEYARD GANG PLOW 



This is a new implement, especially des 
the best materials obtainable, has been th 
recommend it highly to anyone in need o 

The beams are of channel steel. The h 
holds, and are adjustable to any desired h 
and when the plow is at work the lever 
branches. The beams are high and the bo 
ance for weeds and trash. The land whe 
ling the operator to plow very near to th 
sity of using a hand plow for the last fur 

The plow is equipped with three 8-inc 
be furnished if desired. 

The third beam and bottom can be rem 
required. 

The handles are used attached to the m 
shown in illustration. 



igned for the Pacific Coast. It is made of 
oroughly tested, and we do not hesitate to 
f a plow of this kind. 

andles are of steel, with malleable hand- 
eight. Two levers give perfect control, 
s are low down, thus avoiding trees or 
ttoms set well apart, giving ample clear- 
el is set close In to the frame, thus enab- 
e trees and vines and obviating the neces- 
row. 

h full steel bottoms, but chilled shares can 
oved and the plow used as a two-gang If 
iddle beam, instead of to the rear beam as 



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135 Kansas St., San Francisco. 



WOOD 
PIPE 

Made from California Redwood 
or Selected Washington Douglas 
Yellow Fir. 



National Wood Pipe Co. 

Machine Banded Stave Pipe. Continuous Stave Pipe. 

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Prices, specifications, hydraulic data and general Information 
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42 Market St., San Francisco. 



debris, often forms a dam at or near the 
conyon's entrance. It is as a result of the 
impact between these later waves and the 
debris dam that the greatest damage usu- 
ally occurs, since the breaking of the dam 
at Its weakest point usually results in the 
formation of new deep gulches in unex- 
pected places, down which the liberated 
water and sludge rush toward the flatter 
marginal slopes of the fan, dividing and 
again dividing into smaller, less well de- 
fined channels as they go. So far as ob- 
served, the end point of these cloudbursts 
is to be found upon the lower slopes of 
the fans. These are in some places thick 
enough to obliterate the low, bunchy 
grasses across which they have spread, 
and are characterized by homogeneous, 
regularly cracked surface and an even, 
fine grain. Such thin, irregular mud beds 
are known by the well diggers of the 
region as 'sllckens.' " 



THE "BOSS" 

TREE PROTECTOR 



MADE OF YUCCA PALM, 

Is cheap, durable, ami 
quickly put on the tree. It 
prevents rabbits from de- 
stroying your trees. A sure 
protection against frost, 
sunburn, grasshoppers or 
dry winds. Can be easily 
removed; will last for 
years. Send for samples. 




PRICES 

12 In. long, $ 9.00 per 1000 

14 in long, 10.00 per 1000 

16 In. long. 11.25 per 1000 

18 In. long, 12.50 per 1000 

24 In. long. 1 fi.00 per 1000 

8 Oln. long, 17.50 per 1000 
Ak<'H(m \\ Hilled KicrynlMTi'. 

YUCCA MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

13M0 WIM.OW ST., I, OS AKGEI.KK, C\l.. 



32 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



January 9, 1909. 



Live Stock and Dairy. 



PRESENT DAIRY AND RANGE 
CONDITIONS. 

Written for the PACIFIC Rural Press 
By Leslie W. Symmes. 

We have recently returned from a visit 
to the west side of the San Joaquin val- 
ley, and find rather trying conditions ex- 
isting there. Although this is the trying 
time of the year for both dairy and beef 
cattle, we did not expect to find condi- 
tions in just their present state. We re- 
alize, of course, that at this time of year 
dairy products are noticeably lessened. It 
is the time between the end of green al- 
falfa pasture and the new feed, but the 
weather conditions have visibly increased 
this off period. The long unusual spell 
of cold weather that has followed the 
first rains has held back the growth of 
foxtail and other pasture grasses that go 
to fill in the green feed period and mate 
rially assist both dairyman and stockman. 
Most of the dairymen on the west side 
are now feeding alfalfa hay to assist their 
cows with the short pasture feed, and evi- 
dently the dairy herds are not yet recon- 
ciled to this dry feed. The milk and cream 
returns have fallen off at least 50 per cent. 
Foxtail makes an excellent pasture grass 
at this period, and cattle take to it read- 
ily. When young and succulent it has a 
high nutritive value, though it is cer- 
tainly a pest later in the season, after it 
has become mature. 

The weather conditions have been pe- 
culiar, and the inhabitants have not seen 
the sun for over a month. We ought to 
correct that statement, however, as we 
believe the sun did appear for about an 
hour on Christmas day. Nevertheless, the 
week we spent in that region was cer- 
tainly a rather chilly one, and such a long 
spell of cloudy and foggy weather, with 
an occasional shower, is hardly conducive 
to rapid growth of feed. 

On the ranges the stockmen have also 
been having their troubles. The feed was 
generally pretty well cleaned off last year, 
and the tardiness of the fall rains, fol- 
lowed by the cold weather, has hardly 
more than started the grass on the ranges. 
On some ranges which were not so closely 
pastured the young grass has been pro- 
tected somewhat by the old feed and has 
made a little better growth. 

These conditions are not confined to the 
west side ranges, however, but appear to 
be rather general throughout the State. 
From the south comes word of shortage 
of feed on the southern Government 
ranges, and particularly around Antelope 
valley. According to reports from this 
region, thousands of cattle belonging to 
the cattlemen of this valley are roaming 
the ranges in search of feed, while hun- 
dreds are actually staving to death. 

We hope the reports are exaggerated. 
These conditions happen every few years, 
some seasons being more trying than oth- 
ers, but lead to only one conclusion — that 
cattlemen stock their ranges too heavily 
in the good seasons, and are naturally 
caught in the poor or even in the average 
year. We have seen a good deal of the 
range conditions in different parts of the 
State and, generally speaking, these ran- 
ges are carrying more head than they can 
stand. Heavily stocked ranges have no 
opportunity to recuperate. Some feed 
must be carried over in order that the 
grasses may mature and produce seed. 
This is the natural method, and unless 
artificial re-seeding is done we must ex- 
pect a gradual diminution of feed. These 
are the conditions that have been brought 
about in the Southwest and on other 
mountain ranges, due to overstocking and 
neglect of proper range protection. It is 
well to look to the future, and on the 



Government ranges this is supposed to be 
attended to by the Forest Service employ- 
ees where those ranges are in National 
Forests. These Government officers arc 
seldom experienced cattlemen, and while 
the number of head pasturing in National 
Forests has been generally reduced, it is 
from the experienced cattlemen of the re- 
gion making use of these pastures that 
the proper limitations should come. 

We trust the National Livestock Breed- 
ers' Association, which convenes in Los 
Angeles this month, will take up this mat- 
ter. It is not confined to the Government 
ranges, however, as cattlemen with ex- 
tensive private ranges, and experience in 
the business, whom we would expect to 
know, are often in error on this point of 
overstocking. 

The dairyman has the advantage in this 
regard, as he can, and generally does, feed 
through this period. We believe, how- 
ever, that his returns can be very mate- 
rially increased by the proper use of a 
silo. It is certainly a valuable adjunct of 
any well regulated dairy, and while for 
years in California we considered our nat- 
ural advantages of climate and soil suffi- 
cient without it, each year we find more 
wide-awake dairymen building silos to 
hold up their creamery returns during 
this part of the year. The fact that al- 
falfa makes an excellent silage should 
commend it to dairymen in the alfalfa 
regions. We hope shortly to give our 
readers some practical suggestions and 
cost of construction of various kinds of 
silos. Possibly some of our readers have 
already constructed silos and can give us 
their experience and the cost of construc- 
tion. We shall be glad to hear from them. 



SEX CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 
HORSE. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 

By Leslie W. Symmes. 
In all live stock the changes of disposi- 
tion are traceable to sexual development, 
and it is because of the close connection 
between the two features that many 
breeders consider the characteristic dis- 
position valuable as an indication of fu- 
ture usefulness for breeding purposes. In 
the development of the sexes marked dif- 
ferences of form result. The true male 
form is heavier at the shoulders than the 
female, while the latter is wider in the 
hind quarters. It would be well to re- 
member this when we are examining ani- 
mals, as it might often prevent unjust 
criticism of judges in their selection. A 
male should be expected to be wider in 
the chest than behind, though it should 
not be weak in the latter part. Width of 
hip, however, is not the chief qualification 
of the female form; depth in this region, 
or length of barrel from rib to hip, is of 
more importance, as it makes provision 
for the proper production of the foal. 

The variations in the features of the 
stallion and mare are characteristic, and 
generally recognized. In the stallion the 
head is larger and the face has a harder 
look. The neck is fuller, with a pro- 
nounced crest, surmounted by a heavy 
mane. The mare has a slimmer face, with 
softer expression, the neck rather thin, 
often ewe shaped, with finer and thinner 
mane. In geldings we often have a de- 
cided approach to the characteristics of 
the faminine type. Extreme effeminacy 
on the part of the male, however, is not 
desirable, and often follows from closely 
in-and-in bred animals. Effeminacy in a 
sire means a lack of tone in muscle and 
loss of vigor, and this is very observable 
in sires lacking impressive powers, while 
the most noted sires in the history of 
breeding have been remarkably virile, 
with the characteristics of masculinity 
unusually developed. A stallion should 
have a determined expression, the hard 



features, the high crest and full neck that 
are evidences of masculinity. With these 
there should be the active, vigorous tem- 
perament, which also indicates virility. 

It is a frequent subject for discussion as 
to whether or not the stallions in some 
classes should be judged solely as to their 
individual merit, or also include the merit 
of their pedigree, performance, and pro- 
geny. This question arose in judging stal- 
lions at the last Fresno County Fair, and 
the exceptional value of a worthy stallion 
as a sire was not given due consideration. 
We believe that the conditions relating to 
the awarding of the prizes should be ex- 
plicit enough to avoid discussion on this 
point. All of the attributes that will add 
to the value of the stallion should be con- 
sidered in making awards. Pedigree in 
a breeding class has a value, so has per- 
formance; and for this reason they should 
be given consideration along with the per- 
sonal merit of the stallion and his pro- 
geny. The judge should be able to dis- 
criminate between pedigrees, and also be 
broad-minded enough to include in his 
estimate of the different stallions before 
him the other characteristics that make 
the animal valuable for breeding pur- 
poses. 

In the purchase of a stallion for breed- 
ing purposes the breeder must constitute 
himself the judge, and he should give spe- 
cial attention to the conformation of the 
animal under consideration. A defect of 
conformation in the smallest particular is 
very apt to be transmitted, and for that 
very reason it should be discountenanced 
in breeding stock. It is generally known 
that even such a slight defect as a twist 
of the fetlock, or the turn of the foot in 
action, is very likely to pass from a stal 
lion to his get. A breeder would be better 
justified in using a stallion that has a 
spavin on a well constructed hock than 
one that was without a spavin but had a 
hock that was very defective in confor- 
mation. In the instance of the well con- 
structed hock with a spavin, it is certain 
that the horse was subjected to a severe 
wrench or injury of some kind, else the 
spavin would not be there. With the horse 
with a badly constructed hock, it needs 
only the opportunity which occurs in 
nearly all kinds of work to develop a 
spavin, and the reason there is not one 
there is only because extra care has been 
given to the protection of this part. 

The Royal Commission, composed of the 
leading veterinarians of England, has de- 
cided that the following diseases in horses 
are hereditary; Roaring, whistling, side- 
bone, ringbone, navicular disease, curb, 
bone spavin, bog spavin, thoroughpin, 
grease, and cataract. While all breeders 
may not agree with this opinion, it is very 
important to the prospective purchaser of 
a stallion, or the farmer who makes use 
of a neighbor's animal, to know of these 
tilings and make a careful inspection of 
the animal used for breeding. 



A BUFFALO CROSS. 

We have been interested in reading an 
article by Eleanor Gates in the American 
Magazine for January, entitled "A New 
Meat for the Millions." Those of us who 
attended the last State Fair at Sacra- 
mento will remember the author of this 
article, as the owner and exhibitor of the 
beautiful Arabian horses shown there. 
The article is interesting reading, though 
we believe the author is a little too op- 
timistic on the buffalo cross for economic 
beef production. Several other cattlemen 
have tried the buffalo crossing, without 
satisfactory results, one of thes.' attempts 
having been made in California by a vet- 
eran live stock breeder. Some of the buf- 
faloes that were used in the experiment in 
this State could have been seen grazing 
in the region of the famous Fifteen Mile 
Drive, near Monterey, where they at- 




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LIVE OAK STOCK FARM 

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the l'etalunia and Sebastopol Koad. 

FRANK A. Ml HC A VI, Prop. 

Importer and Breeder of 

Red Polled Cattle 

Color Deep Red. Both Sexes for Sale. 

Address all communications PETALUMA, SO- 
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FRANK A. Ml ( HAM 
Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep 

They were all Imported from England 
or bred direct from Imported stock. 




We have also bred American Merinos— Hornless 
Sheep— for 30 years. They are a large sheep with- 
out m rlnklcs. Rams will produce 20 to 25 pounds 
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FRANK A. MECHAM, Importer and Breeder 

Shipping Points: PETALUMA and SANTA 
ROSA. SONOMA CO. CAL. 



January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



tracted considerable attention. Possibly 
other breeders who have tried the experi- 
ment of crossing the buffalo and beef ani- 
mal gave up the task a little too soon: 
That this was the case we are not pre- 
pared to say, but the fact remains, as the 
author of the article has stated, that the 
returns are not commensurate with the 
expense, that is, at the present time. The 
article is interesting reading, however, 
with some excellent photographs of the 
animals in question. L. W. S. 



THE RANGE AND FEEDING 
INTERESTS. 



At the recent meeting of the trans- 
Mississippi Congress, Col. I. T. Pryor of 
Texas gave a statistical review of the 
meat producing industries of the United 
States and his idea of what they need 
from the government and from other in- 
dustries: 

Numbers and Value of Animals. — The 
trans-Mississippi States represented in 
population in 1900, 19,000,000 out of a 
total of 75,600,000 for the United States, 
or 25 per cent, while, according to sta- 
tistics of the Agricultural Department, 
this part of the country contained meat 
producing animals, excluding milk cows, 
in ratio to the whole country, January 1, 
1907, as follows: 

Cattle in United States 51,565,731 

Cattle in trans-Miss. States 35,847,061 

Per cent in trans-Miss. States. . .70 pet. 

Swine in United States 54,794,439 

Swine in trans-Miss. States 28,841,270 

Per cent in trans-Miss. States. . .52 pet. 

Sheep in United States 53,240,282 

Swine in trans-Miss. States 39,476,685 

Per cent in trans-Miss. States. . .74 pet. 

Milk cows (value) $650,057,000 

Beef breeds (value) 845,938,000 

Sheep (value) 211,736,000 

Hogs (value) 339,030,000 

Total $2,046,761,000 

The producers of this vast number of 
animals, representing the fabulous sum 
of $2,046,761,000, believe those who repre- 
sent the manufacturing districts of the 
United States have dominated and con- 
trolled both branches of our national Con- 
gress up to the present time hence the 
manufacturers received every possible 
consideration and protection Congress 
could grant, while the live-stock inter- 
ests have received little favorable legisla- 
tion. In fact, this great industry has 
been sadly neglected by our lawmakers. 
Especially is this true so far as our for- 
eign markets are concerned. 

Favorable Legislation. — Not one of the 
European countries produces sufficient 
meat to supply the demands of the people, 
while the United States can produce at 
least 30 per cent more than the people 
now use, and we are actually producing 
at the present time 10 to 15 per cent more 
I ban we consume. Hence, a market must 
be provided for this excess. In other 
words, if we are not permitted to offer 
this surplus on equitable terms to con- 
tinental Europe the meat producers of 
this country will suffer from an over- 
supplied market, and the trans-Missis- 
sippi district will bear the principal bur- 
den of this condition. 

To illustrate, I segragate and take one 
class of live stock, viz., cattle. We 
slaughter about 20,000,000 head per an- 
num. Eighty-five to ninety per cent of 
these slaughtered cattle is ample for our 
home consumption, leaving from 10 to 15 
per cent surplus, for which we must se- 
cure a market. If deprived of this Eu- 
ropean market and forced to sell this 
product at home, the 100 per cent would 
bring less to the stockraiser and stock 
farmer than the 85 per cent. In one in- 
stance there would be a good, healthy de- 
mand for the 85 per cent, while the 100 



per cent would be forced on an over- 
stocked and glutted market, the result of 
which would need no prophet to foretell. 
The farmers and stockraisers in the trans- 
Mississippi district would be the prin- 
cipal losers under such conditions. 

Meat Inspection. — This trans-Missis- 
sippi congress will be asked to pass cer- 
tain resolutions indorsing a government 
policy of permanent benefit and advan- 
tageous to this industry. Our Agricul- 
tural Department has accomplished much 
in the improvements it has brought about 
in the live stock business. To reap the 
full benefit, however, of all this marked 
improvement we must have adequate laws 
looking to the introduction of our live 
stock on the hoof into continental Eu- 
rope, and not until this is accomplished 
will we, the live stock producers of this 
country in general, and the trans-Missis- 
sippi district in particular, receive a fair 
price for our products. 

The live stock producers of the trans- 
Mississipi district will demand, during 
the next session of Congress, strong recog- 
nition for their interests in the tariff re- 
vision, which will be undertaken in the 
Sixtieth Congress, and from this time 
the live stock interests not only of the 
trans-Mississippi district, but of the en- 
tire United States, will demand equal con- 
sideration with all other interests of like 
importance in all reciprocal measures 
adopted by the United States, and I sin- 
cerely trust this organization will im- 
press upon those who represent them in 
Congress, the importance and necessity of 
proper consideration for this great in- 
dustry. 

Colonel Pryor also criticised the pres- 
ent freight rates on live stock, saying 
that in many instances the freight con- 
sumed one-seventh of the value of the 
stock. He recommended the enactment 
of laws preventing the loss to cattlemen 
through poor service, delays, etc. 



CROPS FOR THE SILO. 



To the Editor: In your issue of De- 
cember 10 you answer an inquiry from a 
correspondent in Kern county relative to 
silo filling, etc. I have had considerable 
experience with building and filling silos 
for the past 18 years in Wisconsin both 
in a practical way on a farm and at the 
Wisconsin Experiment Station. 

So far as the alfalfa is concerned I do 
not believe in putting it into a silo un- 
less the silo is a very good one in every 
particular. Of course it might be a good 
way to handle the alfalfa where there was 
a large percentage of foxtail mixed in 
with it, but I would be doubtful of good 
results on account of there being so much 
moisture in the first crop of alfalfa. 

I have known of sorghum being han- 
dled very successfully in silos in Texas, 
but in Wisconsin corn was, of course, the 
main silage crop. 

In regard to the corn I must say that 
I think it could be ensiloed with a great 
deal of success under the conditions your 
correspondent describes. I have seen corn 
that was planted very late and failed to 
develop much of any ears, that was dead 
ripe and practically all dry except some 
moisture in the stalks, also corn that had 
been killed with the frost, all cut and 
put in the silo with entire success. I 
don't mean to say that it was as good 
silage as that from corn in just the right 
condition, but it made excellent feed that 
was relished by both dairy cattle and 
sheep. I think the tendency has always 
been to cut corn too green to get the best 
results, particularly where there was but 
a small amount to be harvested. 

I am such a strong believer in the silo 
that I could not refrain from saying what 
I have. I was animal husbandman at the 
Arizona Experiment Station for two years 
and also for the past year at the Wyoming 



Station and can sympathize with your cor- 
respondent when it comes to foxtail, for 
in both places the station farms were 
badly infested with it. 

T. F. McConnkll. 

Morganhill, Cal. 



HOGS AND SHEEP IN YUMA 
VALLEY. 



To the Editor: As a boy 30 years ago, 
while working on a farm in San Benito 
county, I first read the Rural Prkss, and 
although I have never before personally 
subscribed for it (my occupation not 
being in the farming line), I have fre- 
quently read it at friends' houses, and 
have always felt very friendly to it, and 
by my praise of it, no doubt have been 
the means of getting subscribers for it. 
I write all this to justify myself in that 
I wish to ask your advice as to what 
breed of hogs and sheep would do best in 
a warm place like the Yuma valley, where 
corn and alfalfa is at home? I am having 
a farm developed down there and intend 
to raise hogs and sheep. The latter more 
to keep the Bermuda grass down along 
the canals. Would want the sheep more 
as mutton than for the wool, which I 
imagine would not do very well on ac- 
count of the natural warmth. I antici- 
pate getting Duroc hogs and Shropshire 
sheep. If you consider these good breeds 
for that section, at what point or place 
would be the best market to get half a 
dozen? — Old Reader, Angel's Camp. 
REPLY BY MR. SYMMES. 

You should get good results from either 
Berkshires or Duroc- Jerseys, though I 
prefer the first mentioned breed for that 
country. Duroc- Jerseys are good animals, 
but do not fatten so quickly nor are they 
quite as large as the Berkshires. The 
grazing and feeding qualities of both are 
good, with not much difference in their 
breeding qualities. As feeders the Berk- 
shires give a maximum return in flesh for 
the food consumed. 

As you intend to raise your hogs on 
alfalfa and corn, you will be interested 
in the article on "Alfalfa for Hogs" 
which appeared in last week's Rural 
Press. 

As mutton is the prime object, I be- 
lieve the Southdown will suit your con- 
ditions better, as the lack of weight of 
fleece would be in its favor rather than 
against it in that region. It lacks the 
size of the Shropshire, but its grazing 
qualities are superior, as the Shropshire 
requires better pastures. 

We refer you to advertisers of swine 
and sheep in this paper as reliable par- 
ties to procure such breeding stock. 



THE RECOURSE TO MEXICO. 



Of the present disposition to develop 
American range projects in Mexico, a re- 
cent consular report says: Throughout the 
West and Middle West of the United 
States the larger ranches are being grad- 
ually cut up for agricultural purposes, 
which forces these cattle barons to look 
elsewhere for suitable lands for grazing 
purposes. Mexico, with its vast, well wat- 
ered ranges, rich grasses and equable cli- 



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Pure Bred Holsteins 

At present we are ottering a fine lot of 
Young Bulls and Heifers at very at- 
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their pedigrees and are from the famous 
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Land and Stock Co. now owned by the 

OAKWOOD STOCK FARM 

LATHROP, CAL. 



The Imported 
Helglan Stallion 



FX>R SALE 

Desire de Saint Gerard 
Pedigree: 

) Bourgogne I lirin d't|r 

Desire de St. Gerard i 7902 j 7902 

H2008) I F r. a,, Y? tte *J e I Marie de 

(320081 i st. Gerard, - ,, . 

. j 14489 j G °y <-h 6811 

This tine Belgian Stallion was bred by .Mr. 

Martin Tirtiaux of Graux St. Gerard, Prance, 

foaled February 12, 1902, and was im ported by 

Dunham & Fletcher of Wayne, Illinois, July 1U, 

1905. He is a magnificent animal, deep bay in 

color, with star In forehead. His weight is 2200 

pounds. 

For authenticated records, price, terms, etc., 
write to or call on 

M. M. AVELLAR, San Leandro, Cal. 

TULARE LAKE STOCK FARM. 

REGISTERED 

Jacks and Jennets For Sale. 

We breed the Best. Don't write— come and see. 
We can show you. 

JAS. W. McCORD, 
Han ford, Cal. 

GLIDE BROTHERS 

Successors to J. H. GU3>B & Sons 
Famous Blacow, Roberts, Glide 
French Merino Sheep. 

Glide Gradeseven-eighths French anu one-eighth 
Spanish Merino. Thoroughbred Shropshire Kama 
RAMS FOR SALE AT ALL TIMES 
P. O. Box Home Telephone 

297 Sacramento, Cal. Dixon, Cal. 

WANTED 

TWO WELL BRED 

DUROC JERSEY BOARS 

State age, price. 



AddroBS " II ' 
PBBSSi 



Pacific k r R v i- 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Rest 
pedigree. I'. O. Rox 321. 1'etaluma, Cal. 



RULES AND COWS FOR SA EF-Shorthorned 
Durhams. Address K.S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY* 

BREEDERS OF SHORTHORN CATTLE 

K41 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



SWINE. 



GKO. C. BONDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Rerkshire Hoars and Sows. 



I'. IE MCKI'IIY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal. Hreeder 
of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 



BERKSHIRE AND I'oE A N D-Cl l INA HOGS 
C. A. STOWK, Stockton, Cal. 



GKO. V. HKCK MAN, Eodl, San Joanuln Co. 
Cal. Registered I'oland-Chlna Hogs, both sexes 



G. A. MURPHY, Perkins, Cal. Hreeder of Cham 
plon Herd of Herk shires also Shorthorns. 

M . BAS8ETT, liox 116, Han ford, Cal. Registered 
Poland-China Hogs, and Plymouth Rocks. 



34 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 9, 1909. 



mate, is an ideal country, and these cat- 
tlemen who own large herds in the United 
States are now investigating the condi- 
tions offered by Mexico, believing that 
cattle can be raised with less expense here 
and shipped to the United States and fat- 
tened for the market. In addition to the 
advantages mentioned, and the fact that 
the inland and water transportation facili- 
ties for shipment to the United States are 
excellent, the Mexican market is stable 
and the demand for a good quality of beef 
constantly increasing. 

Mexico contains a great many haciendas 
admirably adapted and almost exclusively 
devoted to the raising of cattle, and every 
season shows a decided improvement in 
the care taken of the animals, and also in 
the class imported. Stockmen throughout 
this country have within the last few 
years imported so many pure bred cattle 
from the United States that on many ha- 
ceindas one may find animals which com- 
pare favorably with those on noted breed- 
ing farms of the North. In former years 
they consisted exclusively of the old long- 
horned Spanish and Mexican types, which 
have large bones and frames and long 
legs, but are deficient in flesh. This defi- 
ciency is certainly not due to the coun- 
try, for the climate, grasses, water and 
general topography are decidedly favor- 
able to animal growth and comfort, and 
while it is a generally recognized fact that 
Mexican stock is in general inferior to 
animals raised in the United States, it is 
the prevailing opinion that a cross be- 
tween the pure blood of the North and the 
cow acclimated here produces a large, 
healthy, vigorous offspring:, with an un- 
usually compact muscular development. 



FEEDING BABY BEEF. 



Prof. H. M. Cottrell of the Colorado Sta- 
tion gives the Denver Field and Farm 
some notes which may be interesting to 
California feeders also. He emphasizes 
the fact that one must feed cattle while 
they are growing to get the best results. 
Cattle here in Colorado must be fed on 
grasses and hay, with just enough grain 
to give flavor. On a calf it takes five 
pounds of grain to make a pound of flesh, 
while on a three-year-old it requires ten 
pounds. This is truly an important point. 
Then, again, the shorter the fattening pe 
riod, the cheaper. The calf fat is the best 
in the animal. If this fat is lost, the 
juicy best portion is forever gone. Feed 
the calf all it will eat. Baby beef today 
is quite a staple, and everywhere it is de- 
manded and brings the same price as ex- 
port steers. 

I am anxious to have Colorado feeders 
and stockmen take up this line of work, 
so that the State will become celebrated 
for baby beef. A 14-months-old heifer will 
bring from $40 to $50, and there is money 
in this. Senator Ammons tells me that 
he has sold calves in Denver for $60 each 
after they had been grained a little and 
turned loose on the range the second 
summer. 

The feed lot should be well drained and 
dry. The beef cattle should be given all 
they can eat two hours in the morning 
and two hours in the evening, allowing 
them to lie down and chew their cuds the 
rest of the time. Cattle must lie down 
much to do the best. As high as 200 cat- 
tle can be fed in one lot. If a bunch per 
sists in stampeding, break it up, because 
so long as they stampede they will lose. 
Spray the cattle as soon as they come off 
of pasture, to get rid of mange and other 
skin diseases. In spraying or dipping, the 
water should be at least 140 degrees. The 
shelter is important. It should be out of 
the wind and have plenty of bedding. In 
fact, little shelter is needed if a steer is 
kept. It wants good snappy weather, and 
I have seen a steer go out into a dry lot 
and lie down facing a strong wind at 31 



degrees below zero. Stay with the steers 
all you can. Stir up the grain, pull out 
the alfalfa, and be a friend — especially in 
bad weather. Do not get up at 4 or 5 
o'clock and bother the steers when they 
are lying down. 

Don't feed them before sunrise, and get 
through before sunset. Let them rest at 
night and eat while the sun shines. Carry 
a watch and be on time in caring for these 
animals. Be as regular as possible. Al- 
falfa is our feed in the lower sections, 
and pea hay up to 8500 feet in the higher 
altitude. When corn fodder can be used 
in connection with alfalfa, it will pay to 
feed it. When feed has to be bought, 
corn is the best. Speltz is being tried a 
little and I believe it is good food. Feed- 
ing a limited amount of roots is also ad- 
visable. A ton of beet pulp has the same 
feeding value as 200 pounds of grain. If 
grain alone is fed it will not be satisfac- 
tory. Instead, use grain with other foods 
and the steers will get along much better. 



KALE FOR FALL AND WINTER 
FEEDING. 



In the Pacific Rukal Pkk.ss of June 20 
we gave a detailed account of kale grow- 
ing, which is now so popular in Oregon 
for fall and winter feeding. There are 
parts of California where the plant will 
grow just as well or better than it does 
at the North, and it should be given more 
attention during the coming year in this 
State. In current issues of the Northwest 
Horticulturist we find additional experi- 
ence with it, from which we draw some 
paragraphs. 

Mr. William Schulmerick of Hillsboro 
is raising this year 9 acres of kale for 
his 34 head of Jersey cattle. He plants 
his kale about 2 by 3 feet, getting ti400 
plants to the acre, and is very particular 
to have his ground in good shape, plow 
ing and harrowing just before planting. 
When he plants a field from seed he does 
it in April and drills it into rows, thin- 
ning out when the plants have a good 
start, along about June. This year he 
sold $50 worth of plants at 35 cents per 
thousand from a part of his ground that 
was seeded. In transplanting he has the 
best results, lor he uses a small, well fer- 
tilized piece of ground, and puts in the 
seed with a Planet Jr. drill, in April, and 
in June he transplants, using a tobacco 
transplanter. Results show very plainly 
this year, the difference between the 
seeded and transplanted field, in favor of 
transplanting. The upland that will work 
up well, and is well fertilized, brings him 
the best crops, for the low ground has a 
tendency to hold water in winter and to 
cause the kale to rot and the lower leaves 
to drop off. Timber land that has been 
cleared off and put into good shape has 
given him the best results. 

Ground well fertilized should be planted 
with plants at least three feet apart, giv- 
ing 5000 plants to the acre, and making 
between 40 and 60 tons of kale. Land 
that has not been so well fertilized can 
be planted 2 by 3 feet apart, and will 
make about 6400 plants, yielding from 30 
to 40 tons per acre. 

Never feed kale just before milking, 
for it will be sure to taint the milk. Mr. 
Schulmerick commences feeding kale 
about August or September, and continues 
to feed it until green grass comes in the 
spring: feeding about 50 pounds per day. 
or 25 pounds per feed, just after milking. 

In feeding kale or vetches, he does not 
feed any bran or shorts with it, but feeds 
ground barley or ground corn. Next year 
he will plant Beardless barley and Cana- 
dian field peas, and grind the two together 
to feed with his kale, after finding that he 
gets the best results from that source, 
compared with any other feed. 

Another Record of Experience. — Mr. 
Richard Scott, of Milwaukie, Oregon, 30 



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is attached to the table or detached in a second 
— works so easily a child would enjoy using it 
— wears a lifetime — more easily cleaned than a 
chopping bowl. 

Sold under the famous Kean Kutter name and 
trademark, which always and everywhere guar- 
antee satisfaction or money returned. Ask for 
the Keen Kutter Food Chopper by name. 

If not at your dealer's, write us. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY (Inc.) St. Louis and New York, U. S. A. 





years ago imported the first kale seed to 
this country from Europe. Since that 
time he has advocated kale for winter 
cattle feed. It is of hardy growth, hav- 
ing stood the big freeze-out in 1883, when 
everything else was frozen and turned 
out of the ground, including turnips, ruta- 
bagas, and all other grain. 

This year he has 20 acres of kale, and 
considers it a poor crop if he hasn't over 
30 tons to the acre. 

The thousand-headed kale, which is the 
best known variety, is at its best just be- 
fore its blooms, and at its worst for feed 
when in bloom. While the large leaf kale 
will be effected by frosts, the small leaf 
kale is not affected at all, and will stand 
a great deal more exposure and produce 
more leaves. It branches close to the 
ground, and then each branch will branch 
again, making practically a solid plant 
from the ground up. 

In his experimenting he found that the 
purple kale is much richer in protein than 
the thousand-headed. As can be seen by 
the report from the Oregon Agricultural 
college, on April 14, 1908, as follows: 

Moisture, 88%; Protein, 3.25; ash, 1.01; 
fibre, 1.1; fat, .61; carbohydrates, 6.03%, 
on purple-headed kale, while on thousand- 
headed kale the best they had examined 
was 2.6% protein. This shows over 1% 
more protein to the credit of the purple- 
headed variety. 

In feeding cows he used to commence 
about the first of August and feed all win- 
ter, using about 25 pounds to a feeding, 
or 50 pounds per day per cow. In feeding 
to a milking cow care must be taken to 
feed at least six hours before milking, and 
Mr. Scott held at least eight hours, for 
there is an oily substance in kale that 
will go through a cow's system while she 
is eating it. and will be noticeable for sev 
eral hours after, sometimes for 10 hours, 
if a heavier feed than usual is given. This 
oil will also affect the taste in the milk 
and in butter; in fact, it is almost impos- 
sible to work it out of butter. So particu- 
lar pains must be taken when feeding, but 
results more than offset the additional 
work and care. 

In planting, he tried nearly every way 
possible, seeding as a rule in April, but 
almost equal results can be obtained by 
planting in November. He used the ordi- 
nary plow and planted in every third fur- 



row, keeping the ground perfectly clean 
by hoeing. 

Ail kinds of soil will not do for kale, 
and as it is deep rooted the ground must 
be well drained or it will drown out. On 
ground with proper drainage it can be 
irrigated to a certain extent, but must not 
be flooded. 

Under favorable conditions and in cer- 
tain sections of Oregon, kale has pro- 
duced as high as 75 tons to the acre, but 
the average yield under proper care will 
be from 30 to 40 tons. And its value as a 
winter food has been fully established. 



ABOUT HOLSTEIN MILK. 



Mr. R. F. Guerin of Visalia writes to 
the Holstein Register in favor of their 
style of milk as follows: I have seven 
children, and all have been raised on Hol- 
stein milk, and are as healthy children as 
one will find anywhere. If a child has a 
weak stomach and is not very strong, sep- 
arate the milk. I fed two of my children 
in this way, and they throve on it. The 
cream seems too rich in some cases, and 
when separated the milk fattens the child 
and makes a better food than whole milk, 
which has a tendency to make a young 
child coarse looking. After a year old I 
give them whole milk. One of my chil- 
dren became ill with fever at three weeks 
old and I could find nothing to agree with 
him. A neighbor told me he fed his baby 
separated milk and he got well and fat. 
I tried it and found it a fine food. The 
baby fattened every day on the milk, and 



Bony Growths 

I ruin horse values. You can remove 
all abnormal growths, leaving no 
scar or blemish, with the old reliable 
Kendall's 

SPAVIN CURE 



Horsemen using it 10 
to 40 years say it has no 
equal as a cure for 
Spavin, Ringbone, 
Curb, Splint, Lameness. 

"I have used Kendall's 
Spavin Cure for fifteen 
yean and It never falls." 
C. 1). Forshee, 
Bllllngsley, Ala. 

$1 a Bottle; 6 for $5. At all drug- 
gists. Get it and be ready for emer- 
gencies. Book, "Treatise on the 
Horse," free at drug stores or from 
Or. B. J. Kendall Co.. Enosburg Falls, Vt. 




January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



is now ten years old and never sick. We 
think Holstein milk quite a good food in 
our family. I have one boy two years 
old this month that weights 35 pounds, 
and has always been fed on Holstein milk. 



CORN SORGHUM AND SOY 
BEANS FOR HOGS. 



In the course of a discussion of feeds 
for hogs in the Southern States Mr. D. T. 
Gray of the Alabama Experiment Station 
tells the Breeders' Gazette that the most 
satisfactory results were secured when 
green crops were used along with the 
grain. A few farmers in the South al- 
ready appreciate the value of green crops 
as a hog feed, but the great body of our 
farmers have made no use of them at all. 
It has been shown that the man who puts 
his hogs up in a pen and feeds them 70- 
cent corn is following a losing proposi- 
tion; that is, on the average he is realiz- 
ing not more than 50 cents a bushel for 
his corn, when hogs are selling for 5 cents 
a pound. But the farmer who makes use 
of green crops along with the corn knows 
that he cannot afford to sell his corn for 
70 cents a bushel on the market. He can 
realize more than 70 cents a bushel for it 
when it is fed to hogs in conjunction with 
certain green crops, especially legumes. 

Among the green crops tested, peanut 
pasture has been found to be one of the 
most useful. When corn alone was fed it 
required 611 pounds of grain, at a cost of 
$7.43, to make a 100-pound gain; but when 
the corn was supplemented with peanut 
pasture, but 148 pounds of grain were re- 
quired to make 100 pounds of gain, at a 
cost of $1.85. In another test with peanut 
pasture it was found that when corn 
alone was used each 100 pounds of gain 
cost $7, but when the pasture was used 
along with corn, 100 pounds increase cost 
but $2.22, and when the pasture was sup- 
plemented with both corn and cottonseed 
meal, each 100 pounds made cost but $1.97. 

Sorghum is a crop well thought of in 
the South as a pasture for hogs. Its chief 
advantage lies in its large yields and 
sureness, there being very few seasons in 
which it fails. But it must be remem- 
bered in planning a rotation of crops that 
sorghum is not a legume, and that the 
land will not be made better on account 
of its having been grown. The results 
with sorghum were unsatisfactory as a 
whole. In fact, it seems that it has noth- 
ing to recommend it as a pasture for hogs. 
The daily gains secured from its use are 
always small, and the hogs come through 
at the end in a very poor condition for 
the market. The daily gains of the pigs 
on the sorghum pasture were but .37 of a 
pound daily when they received a half 
ration of corn in addition to the pasture, 
and but .51 of a pound when the corn 
ration was made up of one-third cotton- 
seed meal. A lot of hogs grazing a soy 
bean pasture in a lot adjoining the sor- 
ghum pasture made 1.02 pounds daily 
gains. When the ration of corn and sor- 
ghum was supplemented with a little cot- 
tonseed meal the results were most sat- 
isfactory, but even then the results do 
not compare favorably with those seeured 
by the use of the leguminous crops. Even 
at the best, one acre of sorghum saved, in 
terms of corn, but $1.57. 

Soy beans is another leguminous crop 
which has proved very satisfactory as a 
green crop with which to supplement corn 
in pork-making. The corn required to 
make 100 pounds gain was reduced from 
456 pounds in the case of corn alone to 
157 pounds when the corn was supple- 
mented with the soy bean pasture, and 
the cost of making the 100 pounds gain 
was reduced from $5.70 to $1.96. The 
hogs were turned into the field two weeks 
before the beans themselves were mature, 
so for the first two weeks the animals had 



only the leaves to eat in addition to the 
half ration of corn. The soy bean pasture 
proved to be far superior to the sorghum 
pasture, both in the daily gains and as to 
the economy of gains, the daily gains be- 
ing about three times as rapid when the 
beans were used as when the sorghum 
was used, and the cost of making each 100 
pounds of gain was reduced from $5.46 in 
the case of sorghum to $1.96 with soy 
beans. 

[The trouble with making use of this 
experience with soy beans is that in Cali- 
fornia this bean does not like to make 
summer growth except in moist bottom 
lands, and it is apt to get too much frost 
for winter growth. It does not like our 
dry summer heat, and has to have some 
mosture in the air, such as is apt to come 
from adjacent bodies of water. It should 
therefore be experimented with on a small 
scale, to see how it will act in each local- 
ity.— Ed.] 



A GREAT GUERNSEY RECORD. 

Last March the two-year-old Guernsey 
heifer, Dolly Dimple, 19144, Adv. R. 628, 
finished a year's official record of 14,009.13 
pounds milk, 703.36 pounds butter fat, 
which would be equivalent to 820 pounds 
butter. This is undoubtedly the most re- 
markable year's official record in the 
world, when age of animal is considered. 

October 9, 1908, this remarkable heifer 
dropped her second calf. During the last 
15 days of the month she gave 927.1 
pounds milk, which contained 41.63 
pounds butter fat. During the month of 
November she gave 1898.6 pounds milk, 
which tested 4.49 per cent, and thus con- 
tained 85.25 pounds butter fat. 

She recently gave in a seven day offi- 
cial test the following: 

Lbs. but- 
Lbs. milk, ter fat. 

December 8 62.4 3.202 

December 9 63.0 2.907 

December 10 65.8 3.288 

December 11 63.3 2.852 

December 12 66.4 3.625 

December 13 64.2 3.427 

December 14 59.7 2.733 



Total „ 444.8 22.034 

Statement of feed given: Hay, 70 
pounds; silage, 105 pounds; roots, 140 
pounds; beet pulp, 63 pounds; bran, 12.6 
pounds; pea meal, 8.4 pounds; Ajax, 8.4 
pounds; ground oats, 12.6 pounds; gluten, 
12.6 pounds; oil meal, 8.4 pounds; alfalfa 
meal, 8.4 pounds; cotton seed meal, 8.4 
pounds; hominy, 4.2 pounds. 

It is doubtful if there is a better seven- 
day record for an animal of same age and 
on equal feed of any breed in the world. 

This remarkable heifer is a member of 
the Langwater Farms Guernsey herd at 
North Easton, Mass., and she is now un- 
der her second year's official test. 



TREATMENT FOR MANGE. 



To the Editor: Some years since a rem- 
edy for the mange was published in your 
valuable paper. Through carelessness my 
paper containing said recipe was lost. 
Would it be asking too much to have it 
reprinted. Among the ingredients were 
coal oil, eucalyptus oil and sulphur. — Con- 
stant Reader, Sacramento. 

Probably better results can be secured 
by this treatment: Cleanse the skin of the 
mangy spots by washing with common 
soft soap, or any good potash soap, and 
warm water, rubbing with a brush to 
loosen and remove the crusts of the skin. 
If these crusts adhere too strongly, moist- 



AWAY IN THE LEAD 
FOR 1909 

DE LAVAL 

CREAM SEPARATORS 

The year that is past was one of unusual interest and im- 
portance in a Cream Separator way. Twelve months ago we 
announced to cow owners the introduction of a complete new 
line of DE LAVAL farm and dairy sizes of machines, mark- 
ing another great move forward in the development of the 
Cream Separator. The enthusiastic welcome given these im- 
proved machines by buyers everywhere exceeded even our 
great expectations and nearly carried us off our feet. Orders 
came so thick and fast that stock was soon exhausted, and 
the DE LAVAL factory was forced to run day and night from 
March to July, and continued with increased force on full 
time throughout the entire year. Notwithstanding the uni- 
versal business depression, DE LAVAL sales for 1908 were 
over 50% greater than in 1907. The new machines simply 
swept the field of all separator honors and made the year a 
notable one in separator history. Practical experience in the 
actual sale and use of 100,000 of the new machines has but 
served to suggest still greater refinement of perfection and 
to enable us to offer in the DE LAVAL for 1909 a machine 
that those who know say IS MILES AND YEARS IN THE 
LEAD OF EVERYTHING ELSE IN A SEPARATOR WAY. 
If you have not seen and used an IMPROVED DE LAVAL 
you really cannot know what a Cream Separator is today. 
It's surely in your own interest to do so before thinking of 
buying any other. Why not write at once for catalogue and 
full information, to be had for the asking. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Co. 



108 So. Los Anqei.es St. 
LOS ANGELES 
42 E Maoison Street 

CHICAGO 
74 Cortlandt Street 
NEW YORK 



General Offices: 
101 Drumm Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



107 First Strect 
PORTLAND, OREO, 
1016 Western Ave. 
SEATTLE 
Box 1052 
VANCOUVER, B. C. 




DISTEMPER ALWAYS DANGEROUS 

Valuable horses fall easy victims to this often fatal disease. When it once 
breaks out it spares none. To prevent itsspread and cure the sick put a tea- 
spoonful of CRAFT'S DISTEMPER CURE in the feed or on the tongue once a day 
and your trouble will soon end. Get It from your druggist or we will send it 
prepaid, 60 cents and $1 a bottle. 

1). E. NEWELL, 56 Kayo Vista Ave., Oakland, Cal., Pacific Coast Agent. 



en with olive oil and wash off again the 
next day. Then apply the following mix- 
ture: Creolin, 1 oz.; oil of tar, 1 oz.; soft 
soap, y 2 pint; sulphur, % lb.; alcohol, 1 
pint. Wash it off after two days with 
soap and water, and three or four days 
after repeat the treatment, to be sure that 
all the minute parasites causing the 
mange are killed. 



WHAT A HORSE-SHOER THINKS. 



Are there as many horses being shod 
now as in past years? is one of the lead- 
ing questions of the day, not alone pon- 
dered upon by horse-shoers, but by cer- 
tain of the general public as well, who 
are interested in the general progress of 
the world. The statistics showing the 
number of horses on farm and ranch (not 
including cities) in the United States dur- 
ing the years 1901 to 1907 inclusive, are 
as follows: 

1901 13,537,524 

1902 16,531,224 

1903 16,567,373 

1904 17,057,702 

1905 18,718,578 

1906 19,746,583 

1907 19,992,000 

But these bare figures do not show the 

proportions of horses that are shod, and 
doubtless this varies in each year accord- 
ing to the commercial demand for horse 
power. I believe, therefore, that there 
are more horses being shod now than 
ever before, but at the same time I do 



Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they give 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and our 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

Temporary Address 

Grayson and Sixth Streets, BERKELEY, CAL. 

West of San Pablo Ave. 



not think that the horse-shoeing trade has 
kept pace with the development and ex- 
pansion of other trades. 

This lack of proportionate increase I 
think is due to the greater development 
of steam and electric power and to the 
gas engine. The use of these powers Is 
growing so rapidly that it brings up the 
question whether they will not eventually 
do all the work and relegate the horse to 
the rear rank of commercial uselessness. 



HAS CURE FOR HOG CHOLERA 



As a result of perfecting a serum that 
is an anti-toxin against hog cholera, the 
Missouri Agricultural College guarantees 
the State Legislature that with an appro 
priation of $45,000 a year it will save the 
farmers of Missouri from $1,000,000 to 
$5,000,000 annually. The Agricultural 
College announces unequivocally that it 
now is prepared to vanquish hog cholera. 



DON'T BUY GASOLINE ENGINES 

alcohol engine, superior to any one-cylinder engine; revolutionizing power. Its weight and bulk are half that of single cylinder engines, with groater durability. Costa 
Less to Buy— Less to Run. Quickly easily started. Vibration practically overcome. Cheaply mounted on any wagon. It Is a combination portable, stationary or traction 
jnglne. Bend FOB Catalogue. TB.E TCHPLE PUBP CO., Mfre., Meagher and lfith Mia., Chicago. THIS 18 OUR FIFTY-FIFTH YEAR, 



UNTIL YOU INVESTIGATE 
'THE MASTER WORKMAN," 
l two-cylinder gasoline, kerosone or 



36 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



.January !>, 1909. 



Egg Cases 

OUR PRICES 

Heavy 36-doz. Cases and Fillers. .60 

Heavy ;>6-doz. Cases nailed 46 

Heavy .°»6-doz. Shook and Irons... .40 
Heavy .'5()-do7,. Cases and Fillers... .55 

Heavy 30-doz. Cases nailed 40 

Heavy 30-doz. Shook and Irons... .;:."> 
Heavy 18-doz. Cases and Fillers... .40 

Heavy lK-doz. Cases nailed 30 

Heavy 18-doz. Shook and Irons... .25 

No. 1 Fillers, 10 sets per case 1.50 

Medium Fillers, 12 sets per case... 1.50 

No. 2 Fillers, 15 sets per case 1.50 

1 doz. Egg Cartons and Fillers, 
per 1000 7.00 

BOXES FOR HATCHING EGGS 

15 egg size, per doz 1.00 

30 egg size, per doz 1.75 

We also make a lull line ol paper 
boxes. Paper Babv Chlek boxes; all 
kinds ol Fruit Boxes, Fruit Wrappers, 
etc. 

E. F. Adams 

364 Main St. Petaluma, Cal. 



The Poultry Yard. 



THE GUINEA FOWL. 



Written for the Pacific Rukal Pbess 
By M. R. James. 

Evidently the guinea fowl has a future 
before it in the United States, but it has 
not yet come into its own. In the large 
Eastern cities, however, there is a grow- 
ing demand for this bird. Epicures are 
delighted with the "gamey" -flavor of its 
meat and the superior delicacy of its eggs. 

In the older countries this fowl has 
long been highly prized, its eggs being 
considered a great delicacy, equal in rich- 
ness of flavor to the famed eggs of the 
plover. In Paris a guinea egg sells for 
double the price of one from an ordinary 
hen. These fowls were bred for the table 
as far back as in the days of ancient 
Greece and Rome, and they were taken to 
the West Indies by the first settlers. The 
birds took kindly to those islands and 
flourished and multiplied. In some of 
them they are hunted as game at the 
present day, having long ago gone back to 
their wild state. As their name indicates, 
they originally were brought from the 
west coast of Africa. There are other 
and still more beautiful varieties of this 
bird in Africa, but they have never been 
successfully reared in captivity. 

Even more than the turkey, the guinea 
retains its wild traits. It loves to wan- 
der far afield and roost in the tops of the 
tallest trees; it makes its nests with a 
few sticks and grasses and hides it war- 
ily, and if discovered deserts it. Still, it 
has strong homing instincts and does not 
readily change its headquarters. 

Guineas have not yet been recognized 
by the American Poultry Association, and 
no standard has been set for their breed- 
ing. Uniformity of color and good size 
are considered important points by their 
breeders. In their wild state they mate 
in pairs, but in domestic flocks several 
hens are usually allowed to a cock. For 
breeding purposes, however, the number 
should not exceed four, or the eggs are 
apt to prove infertile; some breeders 
claim that best results come from pairs. 
Their breeding season corresponds with 
that of the wild birds, beginning earlier 
or later in the spring according to climate, 
and lasting through the summer. The 
improved varieties lay some 100 eggs in 
a season, and it is believed that they can 
be bred for winter laying. As market 
fowls the age is from five to eight months. 
The flesh of old birds is tough and dry. 
The broilers, weighing from one half to 
one pound, are considered a great deli- 
cacy, the flesh being very tender and re- 
sembling in flavor that of the partridge or 
quail. In the South, where the guinea 
is more generally grown, the eggs are con- 
sidered better than hens' eggs for fancy 
pastry and meringues, the whites beating 
up lighter and stiffer. The eggs are light 
brown or white in color and speckled like 
those of wild birds; the shell is so thick 
that they cannot well be tested by can- 
dling. In size they are about two-thirds 
that, of hen eggs. 

Cuineas are hardy creatures and have 
no known disease, but when confined they 
are susceptible to raw cold weather. They 
are great foragers and champion insect 
exterminators; the larvae of ants and 
other insects, together with the small 
seeds of weeds, are the natural and favo- 
rite food of the guinea chick. Flocks of 
guineas might be kept to advantage in 
large orchards. They are like turkeys in 
regard to food, and much the same rules 
apply to their feeding; like turkeys, when 
they have a large range where insects 
and grass and weeds abound, they require 
little or no extra food, but they should 



be given something regularly at night to 
encourage them to come to their roosting 
quarters. It is very difficult to accustom 
them to a change of place, and where old 
birds are bought they require to be con- 
fined for some time. It is considered bet 
ter to buy the hatching eggs and hatch 
them under a common hen. The guinea 
hen at best is an indifferent sitter, being 
too active and restless to devote sufficient 
time to the nest; she is liable to be off 
with the first-comers and leave the nest 
of pipped eggs to their fate. The eggs 
require about a week longer for incuba 
tion than hen's eggs, in some cases ex- 
tending to 30 days for the hatching pe- 
riod. The guinea chicks are pretty crea- 
tures, only half the size of ordinary 
chicks, and more like the young of quail. 
They can use their legs and wings with 
amazing agility as soon as they leave the 
shell, and a deep hatching box with net- 
ting over over it is required to keep them 
from losing themselves. After a few days 
they may be trusted to run with the hen, 
when the weather is suitable. Unlike the 
common chick, the little guineas should 
be fed almost as soon as hatched, and 
often thereafter, for their crops are so 
small they eat but a mite at a time. A 
fast of a few hours is fatal to them. They 
require more animal food than chicks, as 
their natural food is almost entirely in- 
sects. Bread crumbs mixed with finely 
minced and cooked beef heart is good for 
the first food; when a few days old, ten- 
der greens chopped fine, and millet and 
cracked grains, may be added. 

The objections to guineas are their 
noise, their wandering habits, and their 
quarrelsome disposition. Their loud cry 
is, however, rather ( regarded as a virtue 
in giving warning of intruders in the 
poultry quarters; their wandering habits 
may be greatly modified by brooding with 
common hens, and providing them a 
house with high perches where they are 
fed regularly. They become very much 
attached to such quarters, and will even 
lay in secluded nests prepared for them. 
As to their pugnaciousness, in any case 
they should not be kept in the same en- 
closure with chickens, and this holds good 
with geese, ducks, and turkeys; they are 
all out of place in the chicken quarters. 

Crosses between the guinea and other 
poultry have been known, but always the 
result is sterility in the offspring. Quite 
an odd incident in this connection oc- 
curred when the writer lived in the 
South. A lost guinea hen located herself 
in our poultry yard, where there were 
some dozen hens and a rooster. She soon 
settled the hens' vigorous protest to her 
presence, and then turned her attention 
to the rooster, for whom she at once con- 
ceived a violent infatuation. She kept 
close to his heels and would cock her 
head sideways and gaze admiringly at his 
flaunting feathers; and worse, she was 
not even willing that his lawful mates 
should share in the admiration, but drove 
them away and kept them from him with 
vicious watchfulness. The cock loathed 
this alien and ardent admirer and treated 
her with scorn; but she took all his re- 
buffs and blows with submissiveness, and 
even after being keeled over by his spurs 
would pick herself up and tag after him 
with loving little gurgles which clearly 
said, "A blow from you is sweeter than 
a caress from another." Whenever the 
cock tried to go to his hens or they to 
come to him, she barred the way like one 
of the Old Guard. It did not take many 
tweaks from her vicious beak to teach the 
hens to fight shy of the couple, and these 
indifferent wives kept, to themselves and 
scratched and enjoyed life and left their 
harassed partner to his fate. The poor 
fellow trudged about all day in the vain 
endeavor to rid himself of his tormentor 
and rejoin his family; even at night there 
was no surcease, for she snuggled up next 



to him and kept the hens at the other 
end of the perch. All the elements which 
go to the make-up of a two-volumed novel 
were at work in this simple poultry yard 
— love and hate, jealousy and despair. Fi- 
nally the struggle began to tell on this 
unfortunate hero; his flaunting feathers 
began to droop, and his whole form wore 
an air of dejection; he no longer crowed 
and he scarcely touched food. A tragic 
end was imminent, when we came to the 
rescue and removed his devoted tor- 
mentor. 



POULTRY NOTES. 

The Sonoma County Poultry Associa- 
tion has entered into a very satisfactory 
contract with the Sonoma County Fruit 
& Produce Co. for the disposal of its eggs. 
The following is the clause in regard to 
grading and prices: 

Term of Contract. — For three years, 
three months and six days, being term 
ending February 29, 1912. First party to 
have privilege of discontinuing contract 
on March 1 of the second or third year 
upon forfeiture of $1000. 

Grades — 

No. 1. White, ranch eggs, no egg to 
weigh less than one-twelfth of 22 ounces. 

No. 2. White eggs weighing less than 
one-twelfth of 22 ounces, and all brown 

eggs. 
Prices — 

Nineteen cents net per dozen, minimum 
for No. 1. 

Seventeen cents net per dozen, mini- 
mum for No. 2. 

No. 1. Two cents under top Exchange 
quotations. 

No. 2. Two cents less than the price 
paid for No. 1 until price of No. 1 is 26 
cents, when 3 cents shall be the differ- 
ence. Maximum price of No. 2 to be 45 
cents. 



"The egg is by nature a gay deceiver," 
says the Detroit Free Press. "Like the 
poet's hypocrite, it may 'look plump and 
fair while rankling venom foams in every 
vein.' It may have lain for unmeasured 
eons in the lockers of the warehouse and 
yet be proffered as any one of the long 
list under which its companions are sold, 
from 'strictly fresh' or 'table eggs' all the 
way down to 'just eggs.' Date the egg 
and save the breakfaster from profanity." 



Drastic laws, says the New York Trib- 
une, for the suppression of the stale egg 
traffic will be demanded of the Pennsyl- 
vania Legislature at its coming session. 
James Foust, State Dairy and Food Com- 
missioner, has prepared a bill demanding 
a long term of imprisonment, together 
with a heavy fine, as the penalty for 
either selling or buying decayed eggs for 
use as food. In conjunction with this, 
legislation will be asked to compel the 
labeling of all cold storage poultry, game 
and eggs as cold storage products. 



PETALUMA HATCHERY 

The leading varieties of chicks 
every week. 

L. W. CLARK, 

61S Main St., Petaluma, Cal. 



You Get the Most 
for Your Money 

When buying "Quality S. C. White 

Leghorn" chicks from us at 10c. each, 
because we give you Free the "Chick 
Book" containing full instructions for 
raising them. Order 200 or more. 

RANCHO LOS ENCINAS 

H . F. D. 76. Glen Ellen. Cal 

The Fresno Scraper 




.Send for Kalsin Machinery Catalogue. 



FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO CALIFORNIA. 



POULTRY. 



IUFF (IRI'ISHTONS- Sullivan's famous bulls 
excel all others. Eggs for hatching, stock for 
sale. Catalogue for the ask-lng. W. SULLI- 
VAN, Agnew, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



BRONZE TurkeyBand Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



IIIQT rtllT <'roley s "Little Red Book 
JUl31 UU I No. 51." Free, send postal 
GEORGE H. CR( >LKY, 637 Hrannan Ht.. Han 

Francisco, poultry supplies. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established M Years. 
Importer and Breeders of all Varieties of Land and tValer 
Fowls 

Htock for Hale Dept. 31, 320 McAllister St., H. K. 



COULSON'S SPECIAL 
CHICK FOOD 

makes them grow. Throw It In the litter and let them work for 
. ' their feed. 

It contains the best quality of 
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FREE SAMPLES AINU PRICES ON APPLICATION TO 

Coulson Poultry and Stock Food Co. 

PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 




January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



37 




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The Home Circle. 



The World Is Bright Before Thee. 



The world is bright before thee; 

Its summer flowers are thine; 
Its calm blue sky is o'er thee, 

Thy bosom pleasure's shrine; 
And thine the sunbeam given 

To Nature's morning hour, 
Pure, warm as when from Heaven 

It burst on Eden's bower. 

There is a song of sorrow, 
The death-dirge of the gay, 

That tells, ere dawn of morrow, 
These charms may melt away, — 

That sun's bright beam be shaded, 
That sky be blue no more, 

The summer flowers be faded, 

And youth's warm promise oe'r. 

Believe it not. Though lonely 

Thy evening hour may be, 
Though beauty's bark can only 

Float on a summer sea, 
Though Time thy bloom is stealing, 

There's still beyond his art 
The wild -flower wreath of feeling, 

The sunbeam of the heart. 

— Fritz-Greene Halleck. 



Women in the World's Work. 

A woman farmer in southwestern Mich- 
igan makes $1000 a year from her pepper- 
mint farm. 

Miss Lathrop of eastern New York, a 
wealthy woman belonging to one of the 
oldest families in the State, has set out 
and is cultivating an apple orchard. Al- 
though starting with no particular knowl- 
edge of horticulture, she has not only 
become an expert, but has made improve- 
ments in the work, and some useful in- 
ventions. The dealer in New York City 
to whom she sells her fruit reported her 
apples the finest that came to his trade 
this year. The New York Tribune says: 
When asked why she had engaged in this 
enterprise, she said: "I come of a race of 
New Englanders who cannot be idle. Why 
not employ my mind and hands in some 
useful work that will amount to some- 
thing, rather than to fritter away my time 
on commonplace things that have no 
merit except as they serve to divert, oc- 
cupy and amuse? This work has given 
me great pleasure. I have enjoyed doing 
all of it possible myself. It has kept me 
in the open. I have found a broad field 
for study in the soil, with plant and in- 
sect life. Withal, for the last two years 
it has paid expenses, and promises to yield 
a substantial income for the future." 

Miss Nellie Cushman, says the Alaskan, 
was a passenger on the Santa Clara en 
route home. And where do you suppose 
she lives? Five hundred miles beyond 
the Arctic circle! It is unnecessary for 
the Alaskan to tell its readers who Nellie 
Cushman is, for there are very few people 
who have resided in Alaska any length 
of time who do not know her. She came 
to Alaska in 1874. She was with the first 
ones who went into the Cassiar country, 
and many a miner will tell you that if it 
had not been for Nellie Cushman they 
would have died in that country from 
scurvy and other diseases. She was the 
nurse on that expedition, and scores of 
men received medicine free of cost if they 
were broke. She was through the Daw- 
son country in "the days of '97," and has 
seen about every camp in Alaska. Four 
years ago she struck for the wilds of the 
Koyukuk, and now calls that home. 

"When you get into a tight place and 
everything goes against you until it seems 
you cannot hold on a minute longer, 
never give up then, for that is just the 
place and time that the tide will turn. — 
Harriet Heecher Stowe. 



"Sweet are the uses of adversity," quot- 
ed the Wise Guy. "Perhaps," said the 
Simple Mug, "but lots of us don ; t care for 
sweets."— Philadelphia Record. 



THE HOME CIRCLE CHAT. 

Breakfast Dishes. 

Cereals may be classed as a breakfast 
stand-by, and, like those already consid- 
ered, there's a difference in their quality 
and preparation. The oat mushes are best 
as being a change from the prevailing 
wheaten foods. There are mary cereal 
preparations floated on the market over 
the claim of some inherent and wonder- 
ful virtues which are equal to any feat, 
short of raising the dead, in building up 
the animal economy. The one who makes 
the most astounding claims for his 
"breakfast foods" and contrives to meet 
the bills for widespread advertising is 
traveling toward the millionaire class by 
the shortest route. As a matter of fact, 
the plain rolled oats are the best of the 
lot. Those in bulk are not recommended, 
being broken and floury and less care 
used in their manufacture, they become 
mushy in cooking. The Eastern brands 
of white oats are largely used here, but 
we have found the Coast brands far supe- 
rior and also cheaper, retailing two pack- 
ages for 25 cents. These are fresh and 
the oats white and unbroken, and make 
a delicious breakfast dish when properly 
prepared. 

The Cooking of Cereals. — Use a smooth 
granite saucepan with a tight lid; let the 
water boil briskly; to each pint of boiling 
water add one level teaspoon of salt and 
one teacup of cereal. Don't stir, but mix 
by gently shaking the vessel; let boil hard 
for a minute, then set on the back of the 
range tightly covered where it will gently 
simmer and steam for 15 minutes or half 
an hour. Take up carefully, so as not to 
break the grains, which if cooked prop- 
erly will retain their shape; serve with 
rich milk or thin cream. 

Authorities on digestion say that mush 
should not be the first course at breakfast, 
as the gluten acts like paste on the empty 
stomach and retards the flow of the gas- 
tric juices. A few sips of hot milk or 
coffee are recommended as a starter. 
These breakfast foods at their best are 
wholesome and nutritious; but they 
should be only moderately indulged in by 
the sedentary, and not at all by the dys- 
peptic. 



As this is the season for wild ducks, a 
few hints in regard to their cooking are 
timely. Those who are not partial to 
the wild flavor should let the birds lie in 
salt water several hours, or parboil them 
in it, with an onion inside of each; after- 
ward rinse with clear hot water, stuff and 
roast. The more plainly game is cooked, 
the better the flavor. 

Roast Duck. — These are considered of 
better flavor without stuffing. Place a 
piece of salt pork or bacon inside, truss 
and skewer, cover with onions and a piece 
of pork or bacon over the breast. Baste 
often. When tender and well browned, 
remove the onions and serve very hot 
with currant jelly, apple sauce or sliced 
oranges. 

Boiled Duck. — Rub with salt and pep- 
per, inside and out; chop an onion with a 
little sage, mix with a lump of butter and 
put inside of the duck; cover the duck 
with a paste made of butter and flour, and 
tie in a cloth; place in a kettle of boiling 
water. Serve with brown gravy made by 
putting a lump of butter in a saucepan 
with minced onion; when light brown add 
a tablespoon of flour and stir constantly 
till well browned; then stir in a pint of 
hot water, let cook several minutes, strain 
and pour around the duck. Garnish with 
watercress and slices of oranges cut in 
quarters. 



There ain't no credit for keeping in the 
right road, when there's barbed wire 
fences on both sides. 



What Is a Gopher? 



"If you should ask a man from the 
Illinois prairies what a gopher was," said 
a man who acted as though he had asked 
a man from Illinois prairies the question, 
"he would say a gopher was a gray squir- 
rel that burrowed in the ground. 

"If you should ask the same question 
of a man from prairies farther west he'd 
say a gopher was a striped squirrel that 
lived in holes in the ground. 

"A Missouri farmer, though, would 
declare to you, if you asked him, that a 
gopher was a mole-footed brown rat that 
digs its way under the ground in that 
State. 

"A man from Georgia would probably 
surprise you therefore when he assured 
you that a gopher was a snake familiar 
to everybody in that State, but not more 
perhaps than a Florida native would 
surprise you when he informed you that 
a gopher was a turtle. 

"The funny part of the matter is that 
every one of these informants would be 
right in his view. A gopher is a gray 
squirrel that burrows, a striped squirrel 
that burrows, a rat that burrows; a snake 
that doesn't burrow and a turtle that 
does, just according to the locality. The 
most interesting of all these is the bur- 
rowing turtle. 

"This turtle is a Florida institution. 
The Florida Cracker, and quite a good 
many Florida folks who hold themselves 
a good deal higher up than the Cracker, 
dote on the gopher and think it the finest 
thing in the edible line ever created. 

"The gopher never leaves its burrow 
except to forage. If it can't get into a 
sweet potato patch it will graze on the 
wild grasses that abound in the localities 
where it lives. 

"The burrow of this gopher is invariably 
shared by its occupant with a family of 
rattlesnakes or lizards. The gopher 
plainly delights in this deadly associa- 
tion, although it is itself as mild and 
harmless as a dove. 

"No dweller in the same region with 



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PATENTS 

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Blake, Moffitt & Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST., SAN FRANCISCO 

PAPPR Make, Morfitt & Towne, Los Angeles 
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the Florida gopher ever goes abroad with- 
out a bag slung over his shoulder. This 
is to carry gophers home in, for he is 
pretty sure to come across them out 
foragini'. The moment the gopher de- 
tects the approacli of danger it shuts it- 
self securely in its shell and the Cracker 
tumbles it into the bag. 

"The gophers are likewise trapped by 
digging holes in the ground close by the 



38 



PACIFIC RUPAL PRESS. 



January 9, 1909. 



entrance of the burrow and sinking a 
box or barrel into it. When the gopher 
comes out it tumbles into the trap and 
can't get out. These queer turtles often 
weigh as much as thirty pounds. They 
are of prodigious strength; a large speci- 
men being able to rise on its legs with a 
man standing on its shell and walk un- 
der his weight." — N. Y. Sun. 



Not a Chip of the Old Block. 



il You want a job, do you, young man'.'" 
said the manager of the department store. 
"Yes, sir." 

"Are you willing to begin at the foot of 
the ladder?" 

"No, siree!" answered the applicant. 
"That's the way my father began twenty- 
five years ago, and he's still carrying a 
hod. I want something a little higher 
up than that." 

So ihe manager, who hadn't encounter- 
ed that type of boy before, nut him in the 
packing department, on the top floor. — 
Chicago Tribune. 



Whale Meat for Japan. 

Whale meat, corned and prepared for 
the market in Japan and other countries, 
put up by the Pacific Whaling Co., this 
being the last of the whale products to 
be put on the market by West Coast 
whalers, formed part of the cargo of the 
steamer Tees, from Kuyquot. She brought 
500 barrels of whale oil. fifty tons of fer- 
tilizer and twenty barrels of whale meat. 



"What is the secret of success?" asked 
the Sphinx. 

"Push," said the button. 

"Never be led," said the pencil. 

"Take pains," said the window. 

"Always keep cool," said the ice. 

"Be up-to-date," said the calendar. 

"Never lose your head," said the barrel. 

"Make light of everything," said the fire. 

"Do a driving business," said the ham- 
mer. 

"Aspire to greater things," said the nut- 
meg. 



"Dennis," inquired Mr. Hogan, glanc- 
ing up over the door of the postoflice 
building, "what is the meanin' of thim 
letters, 'MDCCCXCVIII' ?" 

"They mean 'eighteen hundred an' 
ninety-eight.' " 

"Dennis, don't it strike ye/, thot they're 
carryin' this shpellin' reform entoirely 
too far?" — Everybody's Magazine. 



"So you braced up and asked that man 
to pay the money he had borrowed?" 

"I did," answered the diftident person. 

"With what result?" 

"In addition to going without the 
money I was compelled to apologize." 



"Yes," said the bankrupt, "I lost my 
fortune reaching for an ideal." 

"Very interesting. And what was your 
ideal?" 

"A bigger fortune than I had."— Phila- 
delphia Ledger. 



Wife (reading)— Isn't this funny, my 
dear? Here is an article which says they 
have found a new species of birds in Aus- 
tralia which have four legs. Now, what- 
ever do you suppose they want four legs 
for? 



Husband (yawning i —They are proba- 
bly politicians, my love, and by this beau- 
tiful dispensation of their Creator they 
are enabled to stand on both sides of the 
fence at the same time.— Philadelphia In- 
quirer. 



"Do you believe in the literal idea of 
future punishment?" 

"Not for myself," answered Mr. Sirius 
Barker. "But I favor it for a lot of people 
I kr.ow."— Washington Star. 



A TALK ABOUT I. H. THOMAS. 



(Continutd From Page 21.) 



his shoes, but would have to make his 
departure from the train shoeless when 
he reached his destination. Thomas was 
wild but obstinate at this stage of the 
game. He begged for his shoes, but the 
more he begged the less attention was 
paid to his appeal by the trainmen. 
Finally the Oakland mole was reached 
and the conductor told Thomas that he 
would give him one more chance to re- 
deem his shoes by paying his fare. 
Thomas finally took his departure shoe- 
less and made his way to the ferry boat 
unshod. From a money standpoint 
Thomas considered himself ahead on the 
deal, inasmuch as the shoes only cost 
him $2.25, whereas the fare money 
amounted to $7.10. Uncle Dan could not 
be induced in any possible manner to dig 
up his fare, so he departed toward the 
ferry boat shoeless. Crowds of people 
gathered around him when he was on his 
way across the bay on the ferry, and of 
course every one wanted to know what 
the trouble was with the old man and 
why it was he was shoeless. Thomas 
would not tell the crowd his experience 
with the conductor, but simply stated 
that in all the years he had traveled up 
and down California this was the first 
time he ever had his shoes stolen right 
off his feet. On reaching San Francisco 
he went direct to a small shoe store, 
bought him a pair of $1 cloth shoes and 
headed for the office of W. H. Mills to 
register his kick. Mills laughed for four 
solid hours over this experience of 
Thomas' and in order to protect Thomas 
from any future embarrassment. Mills se- 
cured the services of an East Indian 
tattoo artist and had a pass good for 10 
years from date tattooed on Thomas' 
chest. 

Every one has heard of how Thomas 
got sprayed with a spray pump. How- 
ever, this article would not be complete 
if it was not repeated to make his career 
complete. The spraying incident is as 
follows: 

Mr. Thomas came to Fresno one day 
and wore on the lapel of his coat a large 
beetle which he had embalmed and 
mounted to resemble a stick-pin. As he 
was walking down the street one day the 
Horticultural Commissioner in office at 
that time approached Mr. Thomas on the 
street and wanted to know what the 
beetle was he was wearing on his coat. 
As Thomas is a practical joker he told 
the "bug man" that the beetle he wore 
was of the variety (in the category of 
bugology) known as "Sic Semper Trl- 
folitia," a beetle which was destroying 
the peach orchards of Kern county by 
defoliating the leaves and otherwise de- 
stroying the trees. Well, our inspector 
got busy on the spot and told Thomas 
that if this was the case he demanded 
the removal of the aforesaid beetle and 
it made no difference if the insect was 
dead or alive he must remove same: that 
he did not propose to take chances of 
having this terrible insect introduced in- 
to this county. Thomas insisted that the 
beetle was harmless inasmuch as it was 
embalmed and mounted. Our inspector 
made the contention that the beetle might 
contain eggs which might possibly hatch 
and come forth and he demanded very 
emphatically that the insect be burned, 
to be on the safe side. Mr. Thomas ob- 
jected to such a procedure and did not 
want his bug destroyed after he went to 
the trouble of having it preserved and 
mounted. The inspector insisted that the 
bug be destroyed, but Thomas was ob- 
stinate and would not listen to the de- 
mands of the inspector. What was the 
outcome? Mr. Inspector rigged up a 
spray pump, installed it on a sled, loaded 



it with a liberal dose of liine-sulphur and 

salt and drove around town trying to 
locate Mr. Thomas. Mr. Thomas in due 
course of time was located in a chair in 
front of one of Fresno's leading hotels. 
Without saying a word or before Thomas 
had time to rebel, Mr. Horticultural Com- 
missioner sprayed Thomas from head to 
foot and particularly on his shirt bosom, 
with the contents of the spray pump. 
The "Sic Semper Trifoliata" bug "got 
his," and at the same time our friend 
Thomas was taught a lesson not to wear 
on his clothing anything so dangerous. 

The cut on the front page shows Mr. I. 
H. Thomas among his famous prune trees, 
near Visalia, Cal. He attributes the 
heavy crop on the trees due to the liberal 
use of pumpkin juice with which he irri- 
gated his trees. He has retired from the 
nursery business, much to the regret of 
the widows in particular. At the present 
time Mr. Thomas is living quietly on his 
prune farm near Visalia and continues to 
grow this famous fruit, which is the in- 
spiration of the phrase "full of prunes." 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Jan. 6, 1909. 
(Unless otherwise noted, quotations rep- 
resent prices paid to the growers.) 

WHEAT. 

Stocks of wheat in the California ware- 
houses are somewhat less than a month 
ago. The local market has shown little 
feature for the last few weeks, prices on 
both spot and future grain being firmly 
held, with buyers taking on only small 
quantities. The shipping demand in the 
north is quiet, though a larger Oriental 
demand is looked for in the near future. 
California White Australian. $1.75 ©1.80 

California Club 1.67%@1.70 

California Milling 1.70 ©1.72% 

California lower grades ... 1.45 ©1.60 

Northern Club 1.65 ©1.67% 

Northern Bluestem 1.72Mi@1.77% 

Northern Red 1.62 14 @ 1.65 

Turkey Red 1.75 ©1.80 

BARLEY. 

Sales of choice feed are made at a slight 
reduction from last quotations, and May 
barley Is also a little lower. There is still 
a fair demand for shipping grain, a cargo 
having left this week, but business in this 
department is expected to be less active 
from now on. Good-sized shipments of 
feed continue to arrive from the north, and 
local requirements are well supplied. 

Brewing $1.45 ©1.521& 

Shipping 1.45 @ 1.52 Ms 

Chevalier 1.57 1 />@1.62 , A 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctl. 1.40 ©1.43% 

Common Feed 1.35 @ 1.38% 

OATS. 

Oats occupy about the same position as 
before in this market, the demand con- 
tinuing comparatively light, though stocks 
in warehouses show considerable reduction 
in the last month. It is still expected that 
a strong demand for seed grades will de- 
velop. Prices are quite firmly held, as 
stocks on the coast are mostly out of 
growers' hands, and it is considered that 
the supply is short of requirements. 

Choice White, per ctl $1.70 @1.75 

No. 1, White 1.65 ©1.67% 

Gray 1.65 ©1.70 

Red, seed 1.75 ©1.85 

Feed 1.50 @1.70 

Black, seed 2.45 ©2.65 

CORN. 

The amount on hand has increased con- 
siderably during the month, as the local 
requirements have been very light, and 
small lots have been arriving from the 
Western States from time to time. There 
is no quotable movement of California 
corn and all Western grades are lower. 
California Small Round Yel- 
low, per ctl Nominal 

Large Yellow Nominal 

White Nominal 

Western State Yellow $1.60 

Mixed, in bulk 1.45 

White, in bulk 1.51 

RYE. 

Holders continue to ask the prices which 
have prevailed for some time, but quota- 
tions continue practically nominal, as there 
is scarcely any demand at present. 

Rye $1.42 % @ 1-50 

BEANS. 

There has been very little business In 
beans in the local market the past week, 
only a few lots changing hands among the 
dealers. The stock on hand January 1 In 
this city is estimated at 251.000 sacks. Ar- 
rivals In December were about 54.000 
sacks, leaving the shipments and consump- 
tion at 47,000 sacks, compared with about 
29,000 sacks for December. 1907. While 
the stock on hand is considerably more 
than at the beginning of last year, a large 
proportion of the crop was held in the 
interior. This year a very small part of 
the crop Is held by the growers. The 
market is steady for all varieties, no fur- 
ther change in prices being quoted. Ar- 
rivals are very light and a strong demand 
for any one variety would be likely to 
cause higher values. 

Bayos. per ctl $2.90 @3.05 

Blackeyes 3.00 ©3.25 

Cranberry Beans 2.75 ©3.00 

Garvanzos 2.25 ©3.00 



Horse Beans 1.60 ©2.00 

Small Whites 4.50 ©4.70 

Large White 3.65 ©3.85 

Limas 4.20 @4.30 

Pea 4.50 ©4.75 

Pink 2.45 ©2.60 

Red 3.75 ©4.00 

Red Kidneys 3.25 (Ji 3.50 

SEEDS. 

Prices in general are steady to Hrm. with 
very little change. Local dealers are now 
well stocked in all lines, and look for a 
very active demand as soon as the weather 
clears off. For the present the market is 
quiet, as the continued rain seems to be 
delaying planting operations. Local deal- 
ers ask the following prices: 

Alfalfa, per lb 17 018 «■ 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $20.00® 25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb j> 4 , 

Canary 4 y, r 

Flaxseed 2 % © 3 e 

Hemp 4 9i<- 

Millet 2% © SUc 

Timothy Nominal 

iellow Mustard Nominal 

FLOUR. 

The demand is rather light, as it has 
been for several weeks, but a more gen- 
eral demand is looked for within a few 
weeks, as stocks are believed to be light 
In all quarters. The local millmen have 
made another advance of 20 cents per bbl., 
covering all grades, though outside grades 
show no change. 

Cal. Family Extras $5.80 ©6.40 

Bakers' Extras 5.80 ©6.05 

Superfine 4. 60 ©4.90 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4.50 ©4.75 

HAY. 

Arrivals of hay in San Francisco have 
been very light this week, but business has 
been limited during the holiday season, 
and supplies have been sufficient to fill all 
demands. The year has begun with a firm 
market, and prices on some descriptions 
are higher. There is an active demand, 
the majority of consumers finding it neces- 
sary to replenish their stocks, as usual 
after the first of the year. Prices are ex- 
pected to continue firm, and possibly 
higher, for some time, as there is still a 
heavy country demand, and prices in 
neighboring States have advanced suffi- 
ciently to prevent shipments so far. In- 
quiries for hay are coming from several 
districts which usually raise for their own 
consumption. Alfalfa is higher, under a 
heavy demand from dairymen. The grass 
has not come out well as yet, but will 
probably cause some change in conditions 
before long. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $21. 00© 23.00 

Other Grades Wheat 17.00®20.50 

Wheat and Oat 16.00 ©21.00 

Tame Oat 16.00@20.00 

Wild Oat 15.00@18.50 

Alfalfa 14.50@18.5O 

Stock 12.O0@14.0O 

Straw, per bale 65© 95c 

MILLSTUFFS. 
Supplies of bran are smaller than a 
month ago. but the demand is less urgent 
than formerly and the market is easy, 
with a further deduction of values. Oniy 
the comparatively light supply keeps 
prices at the present quotations." Shorts 
and middlings continue fairly firm at pre- 
vious quotations and rolled barley is 
steady. Other feedstuff s show no particu- 
lar feature. 

Alfalfa meal, per ton $23.00® 24.00 

Bran, ton — 

White 29.50© 30.00 

Red 28.50© 29.00 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl 1.20© 1.25 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills 25.50@26.5O 

Corn Meal 37.00@38.00 

Cracked Corn 38.00 ©39.00 

Mealfalfa 23.00014.00 

Middlings 33.50® 35. 50 

Mixed Feeds 28.00S832.00 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 38.00@39 50 

Rolled Barley 30.00©31.00 

Shorts 33.00@33 50 

VEGETABLES. 

The firmness of the onion market Is in- 
creasing, and all good offerings meet with 
a ready demand. Receipts are light, with 
comparatively little Oregon stock offering, 
and it is understood that the Oregon 
growers are holding for higher prices. 
Nothing is to be had here under $1.15. Mis- 
cellaneous vegetables are arriving in small 
quantities, but many of the offerings are 
unattractive and arouse little Interest. 
String beans, peas and pepeprs are lower. 
Celery is firm, and tomatoes show some ad- 
vance, crated Mexican stock bringing top 
prices. Cauliflower Is also higher, and the 
best garlic brings a slight advance. 

Onions $ 1.15© 1.25 

Garlic, lb 7® 10c 

String Beans 10© 1214c 

Green Peas, lb 8© 10c 

Cabbage, per ctl $1.00 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton.'.. 10.00© 15.00 

Tomatoes, crate 75c 1.50 

Turnips, sack 60<- 

Bell Poppers, lb 1 2 >/• Hi I r,, 

Chili Peppers, lb 3r« .'„ 

ligg Plant, lb 10®12V4c 

Cauliflower, doz 75r 

Celery, dozen 50© 80c 

Rhubarb, box 1.50© 2 00 

POULTRY. 

Receipts of Western stock continue 
large, five cars coming in early in the 
week, but California poultry is arriving in 
very moderate quantities, and good stock 
of any kind c ontinues to sell readily. Pric es 
are somewhat lower on the less attrac tive 
offerings, but the figures for the first class 
stock are well maintained. The heavy de- 
mand for turkeys is over, and prices have 
returned to normal, with little demand for 
live stock. Dressed turkeys bring about 
the same prices as earlier in December. 

Broilers $ 4.00© 5.00 

Small Broilers 3.50® 4 00 

Fryers 5.00© 6.00 

Hens, extra 7.00© 9.00 

Hens, per doz 5.00 Hi 6.00 

Small Hens 4.50© 5.00 

Old Roosters 4.00 © 4 60 

Young Roosters fi.00© 7.00 



January 9, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



30 



Young Roosters, full grown.. 7.00@ 8.00 

Pigeons 1.00@ 1.25 

Squabs 2.00 @ 2.50 

Ducks 4.00@ 8.00 

Geese 2.00@ 2.50 

Turkeys, live, per lb 19@ 21c 

Turkeys, dressed, per lb 20@ 24c 

BUTTER. 

Receipts of butter have been quite lib- 
eral, two large lots coming down from 
Humboldt early in the week, in addition to 
a large carry-over from the holiday sup- 
ply last week. There is accordingly con- 
siderable weakness in the extra grade, the 
decline amounting to 2% cents. The lower 
grades, however, have been well cleaned 
up, and a continued demand has caused a 
general advance. The following prices are 
quoted by the San Francisco Dairy Ex- 
change: 

California (extras), per lb.... 34 c 

Firsts ' 32 c 

Seconds 27 c 

Thirds 27 c 

Eastern Storage Ladles, extra 23 c 

Cal. Storage, extras 30 y 2 c 

EGGS. 

Retal stocks of eggs were cleaned up at 
the close last week, and the market opened 
with a heavy demand in all quarters. The 
arrivals have been very light, and offer- 
ings have been moving off rapidly at ad- 
vanced prices. Extras stood for a time at 
48 cents, but are now sold 2 cents below 
that figure. In view of the high price of 
extras, the lower grades, as well as stor- 
age and Eastern eggs, have been in strong 
demand, and the advance has extended to 
all grades. The following prices are quoted 
by the San Francisco Dairy Exchange: 
California (extra), per doz. ... 45 c 

Firsts 44 c 

Seconds 40 c 

Thirds 30 c 

Storage, Cal., extras 36 c 

Storage, Eastern, extras 33 c 

CHEESE. 

Cheese is showing very little feature at 
present, as suplies are becoming more 
plentiful, and the demand is only of aver- 
age proportions. Most grades are acord- 
ingly inclined to weakness, another slight 
reduction being quoted on new California 
flats. The San Francisco Dairy Exchange 
quotes the folowing prices: 
Fancy California Flats, per lb. 14 c 

Firsts 13 %c 

New Young Americas, fancy.. 16 c 

Oregon Flats 14 c 

Oregon Y. A 16 c 

Storage, Cal. Flats 13 c 

N. Y. Cheddars 17 c 

Storage, Oregon, Flats 14 c 

POTATOES. 

With a general demand from the trade, 
stocks on hand have been well cleaned up, 
and choice stock from the river districts 
now bring as high as %l without difficulty, 
the better lots of ordinary stock also show- 
ing some advance. Salinas and Oregon 
potatoes are in good demand at former 
prices. Early Rose for seed purposes are 
higher, and the better lots of sweet pota- 
toes zring an advance. Ordinary sweet po- 
tatoes, however, meet with little interest. 
River Whites, fancy, ctl 95c@$1.00 

Common 50@ 75c 

Salinas Burbanks, ctl $1.25@ 1.50 

Oregon Burbanks, ctl 1.15@ 1.25 

Earlv Rose 1.35@ 1.50 

Sweet Potatoes, ctl 1.25@ 1.85 

FRESH FRUITS. 

Offerings of deciduous fruits are now 
limited to a very few varieties, the grapes 
and persimmons being entirely cleaned up. 
The market is quiet, as the trade is buy- 
ing only for immediate wants. Apples are 
plentiful, and. pears find very small de- 
mand. Offerings of cranberries are small 
and the best lots bring $16 per barrel. 

Apples, fancy 85c@$1.50 

Apples, common 40 @ 75c 

Cranberries — 

Cape Cod, bbl 15.00@16.00 

Pears, box, Winter Nelis 75c@ 1.25 

Other varieties 50 @ 75c 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

The trade in general is well supplied 
with oranges, and purchases as a rule are 
small, the bad weather tending to limit the 
consumptive demand. The market is really 
oversupplied, and arrivels continue larger 
than is warranted by the present demand. 
Prices, however, are well sustained in all 
lines, everything being held up to former 
quotations. 

Choice Lemons $2.00@ 2.50 

Fancy Lemons 3.00@ 3.25 

Standard 1.25@ 1.50 

Limes 4.00@ 5.00 

Oranges — 

Navels 1.75@ 2.50 

Tangerines 1.00@ 1.25 

Grape Fruit 3.00@ 3.50 

DRIED FRUITS. 
The quietness in the dried fruit market 
continues, little interest being shown by 
buyers, either here or in the East. Re- 
ports from other markets indicate a fair 
amount of trading in a small way, but 
there is not enough business to cause any 
stir locally. Prunes continue compara- 
tively dull, as the large holdover in the 
East is preventing any strong demand, 
while holders on the Coast show little in- 
clination to make concessions, especially 
on the larger sizes. Peaches are dull, but 
strongly held. Few apricots are offered, 
and the prices quoted are very firmly held. 
The prices below are asked by local pack- 
ers, who are not quoting prices to growers, 
as there is very little movement. The 
raisin market appears to be at a stand- 
still, the success of the Fresno pool being 
still in doubt. The consuming demand is 
light all over the country, and Eastern 
dealers are practically out of the market. 
The local packers are unwilling to pay 
over 2 cents for small offerings in the 
sweatbox, and it is understood that some 
.growers have sold below that figure. Pack- 
ers ask the prices given below: 

Evaporated Apples 5%@ 6%c 

Figs, black 2%@ 3 c 

Figs, white 3 <g> 4 c 

Apricots, new crop 8 @ 10 Uc 

Peaches, new crop i @ 5 He 



Prunes, 4-size basis 3 c 

Pears, new crop 4 @ 7 c 

RAISINS — NEW CROP. 

Loose Muscatels, 4 crown 4 Vic 

3 Crown 3%c 

2 Crown 3 Vic 

Thompson Seedless 4 c 

Seedless 3%c 

London Layers $1.10@ 1.20 

RAISINS. 

Some of the local packers are offering 2c 
for raisins in the sweatbox. Fo' packed 
raisins they ask: 

Loose Muscatels, 4 crown 4 c 

3 crown 3 Vic 

2 crown 2%c 

Thompson Seedless 3V£c 

Seedless Sultanas 3 c 

London Layers, 3 crown...... $1.00 

NUTS. 

The Eastern demand for California nuts, 
particularly almonds, is confined to nar- 
row limits, and no business is being trans- 
acted in a large way. The local market is 
also quiet and without feature, with the 
almonds well cleaned out of growers' 
hands, and only moderate stocks held by 
packers. Prices are as last quoted, but are 
practically nominal on the upper grades, 
as hardly any movement is going on. Wal- 
nuts have been very dull, with consider- 
able stock still in the hands of Association 
growers. A reduction has accordingly been 
made in prices, and the remaining stock 
will probably be disposed of, as supplies 
held here are limited. 

Almonds, Nonpareils 11 c 

I X L 10 c 

Ne Plus Ultra 9V4c 

Drakes 9 c 

Languedoc 8 c 

WALNUTS. 

Softshell, No. 1 9 Vic 

Softshell, No. 2 6 c 

Hardshells less 2 c 

HONEY. 

Very little honey is now offered by Cali- 
fornia producers, comb and upper grades 
of extracted being about cleaned up. The 
prices offered are the same as before, but 
the local demand is limited. 

Comb, lb 10 @13 c 

Water White, extracted 7 Vic 

White 6Vi@ 6 He 

Light Amber 5 @ 5%c 

Dark Amber 4%c 

HOPS. 

Prices on hops show a wider range, as 
the result of a slight increase of activity 
during the past week. Ordinary grades 
are not in much demand, and are offered at 
the former low price, but sales of better 
grades have been made at a comparatively 
fair figure. Stocks are now well cleaned 
up, and buyers are not taking much in- 
terest. 

Hogs, per lb 5 @ 8 c 

WOOL. 

The best San Joaquin wools are bringing 
a slight advance, but there is at present 
little movement in any quarter. Local deal- 
ers say that the greater part of the hold- 
ings in California have been disposed of, 
and Eastern buyers are not stiowing much 
interest. 

Red Bluff (f. o. b. Red Bluff) 

free 6 @ 7%c 

Defective less 2 c 

San Joaquin (at S. F.) free. ... 5 @ 7 Vic 

Defective 4 @5 c 

Mendocino, free 7 @9 c 

Defective 5 @ 7 c 

MEAT. 

A general advance of about Vi cent has 
taken place in live cattle. Lambs are also 
a little higher. Supplies in these lines are 
light, as usual at this time of year. The 
shortage has brought about another sharp 
advance in dressed meats, amounting to Vi 
cent on beef, and about 2 cents on mutton 
and lamb. Hogs are practically unchanged, 
supplies being quite ample for the demand. 

Beef: Steers, per lb 7 @ 7%e 

Cows 6 @7 c 

Heifers 6 @7 e 

Veal: Large 8 @9 c 

Small 9 @10VzC 

Mutton: Wethers 10 @11 c 

Ewes 9 @10 c 

Lambs ll%@12V«c 

Hogs, dressed 8 @ 9 Vic 

LIVESTOCK. 

Steers, No. 1 4%@4M>c 

No. 2 4 c 

No. 3 3 Vic 

Cows and Heifers. No. 1 3 Vi @ 3 Vic 

No. 2 3 c 

Bulls and Stags 1%@ 2 c 

Calves, Light 4%@ 5 c 

Medium 4 Vi @ 4 Vic 

Heavy 3%@ 4 c 

Sheep, Wethers 4 c 

Ewes 3 Vic 

Lambs, lb 4 Vi @ 4%c 

Hogs, 100 to 150 lbs 5%® 6 c 

150 to 250 lbs 6 @ 6 Vic 

250 to 325 lbs 5Vi@ 5%c 

Boars, 50 per cent; stags, 30 to 40 per 
cent, and sows, 10 to 20 per cent off from 
above quotations. 



SPECIAL CITRUS MARKET 
REPORT. 



Los Angeles, Cal., Jan. 5.— The orange 
market seems to be in very good shape, 
even though the auction in New York 
city on Monday showed a weakness over 
the close on Thursday last. So much 
fruit had accumulated at that point dur- 
ing the three days of inaction that it was 
rather more than they were willing to 
handle, and the buyers took advantage of 
the situation to get some cheap fruit. 



KENTUCKY DISC DRILLS 

meet every requirement of partic- 
ular Farmers. Constructed on cor- 
irect mechanical principles, of the 
best material obtainable, they are 
strong and lasting. KENTUCKY 
[Conical Disc Bearings are unique. 
[Of fairly large diameter, they are 
narrow, giving greatest clearance 
between discs. Dust proof, oil retaining and adjustable. Over 2500 
in use, giving perfec service, have demonstrated the superiority of 
the Kentucky Disc Bearing. 

Write us for Catalogue of the Complete Kentucky Line. 

PACIFIC IMPLEMENT COMPANY 

135 KANSAS ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 




Other auctions showed up well and it is 
not at all likely that this temporary set- 
back will mean anything unless there is 
still a lot more fruit there unsold. It is 
not possible for any but the elect to know 
the number of cars awaiting sale in New 
York city. The fruit is kept over in Jer- 
sey City until needed on the day of sale 
and then it is freighted over. For rea- 
sons best known to themselves, perhaps 
at the suggestion of interested parties, 
the railroad men refuse to give the figures 
from day to day and so the shipper at 
this end, and even the rank and file of 
the buyers, do not know what amount of 
fruit is at hand. 

At all other auctions the prices were 
good and there does not seem to be an 
over-supply at any point. In fact, it does 
not seem possible that there could be, for 
the shipments have not amounted to ovef 
75 cars a day, and this is not as much as 
has been shipped in former years at this 
time. Shipments from California for 
Thursday and Friday of last week were 
197 cars of oranges and for Saturday and 
Sunday, 108 cars. All the houses are now 
fairly busy, but are ready to stop at any 
time it becomes evident that more oranges 
are going out than are needed. No one 
is anxious enough to rush out fruit to 
overload the markets, except those who 
are afraid that their fruit may have been 
touched by the frost. Even at the points 
where the most damage has been done 
there does not seem to be the activity one 
would naturally expect, and the conclu- 
sion is drawn that the damage has not 
been so great as those who want to "bear" 
the market would like to have the grow- 
ers think. 

Lemon prices are a little better. The 
news from Sicily makes the jobber think 
that perhaps he had better stock up a bit 
on California lemons, as there is no know- 
ing when the Sicily shippers will be in 
shape to send any more fruit. The dam- 
age has been great, many thousands of 
boxes of lemons in storage at Messina 
and other points in Sicily have been de- 
stroyed. 



THE ARMSTRONG REDWOODS 



Three hundred and twenty acres of 
beautiful natural redwood forest adjacent 
to the town of Guerneville in Sonoma 
county may be purchased as a State park. 
State Senator W. F. Price of Santa Rosa 
has prepared a bill to present at the next 
session of the legislature. It will ask [or 
an appropriation sufficient for the pur- 
chase. Something in the neighborhood of 
$100,000 will be required. The property 
is commonly known as Armstrong grove. 

The promoters of the plan have been 
working hard to bring the various in- 
terested heirs to the property into unison 
and have them agree to hold off and let 
the State have a chance to buy the whole 
area as one beautiful park. 



PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. 

John Bird of Bird's Landing sends up 
a letter dated January 1, in which he 
encloses $2 for the thirty-ninth time. Mr. 
Bird says: "As I have taken the paper 
since its first publication, I cannot well 
do without it." The Pacific Rural Press 
has many long-time subscribers and to 
such it owes much of its prosperity. To 
Mr. Bird we extend our best wishes for 
continued prosperity, health and happi- 
ness. 



The Wells Medicine Co. of 28 Third St., 
Lafayette, Ind., with D. E. Newell Co. of 
Oakland as Western agents, advertise 
their Craft's Distemper and Cough Cure 
for horses in this issue of the Rural 
Press. 



T. H. Wilson of the Fresno Nurseries 
sends us the handsomest calendar for the 
New Year yet received. A bowl of fruit, 
done in rich colors, embossed and die cut, 
makes a very pretty effect. We don't 
know whether this firm have them for 
general distribution, but if so they are 
well worth writing for. 



On our last page appears the large ad 
of A. Mitting of Santa Cruz. The berry 
advertised is well shown in the cut ac- 
companying, and we advise all readers to 
look at this page and read what Mr. Mit- 
ting has to offer. 



A new ad will be found in this issue 
from the Deming Spray Pump Co. of 
Salem, Ohio. This is a well established 
firm and fruit men will find it worth 
while to send for one of their catalogues. 



A set of six calendars has been received 
from the International Harvester Co. of 
America. These calendars are works of 
art, being reproductions from fine old 
oil paintings. We understand that a|l 
agents of the company have these calen- 
dars for distribution, and are worth our 
readers' time in securing. This company 
has also prepared for free distribution an 
almanac which is full of information for 
the farmer. 



The Pacific Implement Co. of this city 
send us one of their large, handsomely 
illustrated catalogues. This book covers 
the vast line of implements handled by 
the firm and is worthy of a place in the 
library of every farmer. To show how 
complete it is, fifty plows are illustrated, 
then harrows by the score, wagons, bug- 
gies, silos, ensilage machines, graders, 
scrapers, everything conceivable in the 
implement line is fully described and 
illustrated. 



40 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January '.», 1909. 



THE EVANTS 

The Evants Cultivator, with 9 
Circular V Teeth and Seat. 
Cutting 4 feet; also with 
Wheels and Levers for Lift- 
ing Teeth out of Ground and 
Ratchet for Regulating their 
depth in the Ground. 



CULTIVATORS 

1st Premium at Slate 
Fair 1907-8. 



\\ 



The Best Summer Fal- 
low Plow. 




Light 
Draft and 
great 
saver of 
horse- 
flesh. 
See Cata- 
log for 
testimo- 
nials. 
Send for 
Catalogs. 



BOWEN & FRENCH 

MANUFACTURERS 



659 Washington St., 
Oakland, Cal. 



Great Excitement m San Bernardino Shops 




THE officials and men of the Santa Fe Railway are very enthusiastic over 
the Seabrook-Box Differential Hallway Axle Coupler, which is being ap- 
plied to an 80.000 pound capacity oil car at the San Bernardino shops. 
The expression you hear among the men very frequently is, "SAVE YOUR 
MONEY AND BUY AXLE STOCK." 

Mr. Seabrook, a prominent engineer of Los Angeles, has invented a Differ- 
ential Railway Axle Coupler that promises to make more men rich than any 
other railroad device ever invented. Mr. Seabrook has had a very wide ex- 
perience in railroad work, as he was General Manager a great many years for 
a company which employed from six hundred to one thousand men. Consid- 
erable of this work was in repairing and rebuilding locomotives and cars. He, 
therefore, realized the necessity of a Differential Axle for railroads. 

Mr. Seabrook's device is the only device to which railroads of the world 
can look that will enable them to haul a much greater tonnage and reduce 
the expense of operation and maintenance. 

An axle equipped with a Seabrook-Box Coupler Ik stronger by 

50 per eent than a rlp;id axle. 
It Im prcmcd together in the name way that the wheels are 

pressed on the axle. 
There are no bolts, serews, rivets or flanges employed in this 

axle eoupler. 

There are absolutely no loose parts to It exeeptiug the journal 

movement, whieh is perfect. 
It meets with the M. ('. II. standards In every detnil. 
It tloes not in any way interfere with vested interests, 
it is interchangeable. 

It is more etfleient In every way than the rigid axle. 

It adds to the life of the axle at least 100 per eent. 

It adds to the life of the rails on curves more than 75 per eent. 

It ndds to the life of wheels -00 per eent. 

It enables a locomotive to haul from -."> to 35 per eent greater 
tonnage without the expenditure of any additional fuel or 
labor. 

It never has to be Inspected. 

II doefl away with 75 per eent of the flange wear. 

It never has to be lubricated, as this is accomplished at the 

time of Its construction by the use of graphite and will 

last the entire life of the axle. 
It is endorsed by Railroad Offleinls, Superintendents of Motive 

Power, Muster Car Builders and Master Mechanics all over 

the world. 

A small investment in this stock today will net you enormous returns in 
dividends. The stock is now selling at One Dollar per share, but will be sell- 
ing very shortly at Two Dollars. It is the consensus of opinion that this stock 
will he worth Forty Dollars per share in a very few years and should be worth 
Five Dollars one year from today. 

If you wish for further information we should be glad to supply it upon 
request. The stock may be advanced any day to Two Dollars, so be sure to 
send In your subscription immediately to the Fiscal Agents, 

THE WESTERN ENGINEERING COMPANY 

Bank References. 501-2-3 Herman W. Bellman Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal 



This is an opportunity 
of a lifetime ! 

Cut out Coupon and mail at once. 



Please send me further information 
in reference to stock in the American 
Differential Railway Axle Co. 



Name . . 
Address 



PEAR-BLIGHT ? 



can CURE IT 

Remedy will not in- 
jure the tree. 



SEND US YOUR ORDER NOW. 

Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacavifle. Cal. 

PEAR-BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 



1 9 O 9 



Texas or Oregon 

Evergreen Blackberry 




Introduced from Oregon, it has 
quickly become a favorite with 
fruit growers on the Pacific coast 
Suitable for hedges, with beauti- 
ful cut-leaved foliage which is 
evergreen. Bears fruit all sum- 
men The berries are black, large 
and very sweet The flavor is 
delicious and melting. Core very 
small and comparatively few 
seeds. Excellent for shipping, as 
it is firm and substantial I can 
recommend this sort as one of 
the very best in cultivation, 

READY TO SHIP 
SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

A. JVHTTIN.G 

SANTA CRUZ, CALIFORNIA 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXVII. No. 3. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 16, 1909. 



Thirty-ninth Year. 



Scaly Bark Gum Disease. 

By Prof. R. E. SMITH of the University Plant 
Disease Laboratory. 

In the Pacific Rural Press of December 12 we 
gave an interesting illustrated account of the so- 
called lemon gum disease (because it is prevalent 
upon though not at all confined to the lemon), 
which strikes the tree at or near the ground line. 
The account was drawn from the published con- 
clusions of Prof. R. E. Smith and Mr. O. Butler, 
experts of the University Experiment Station. The 
Plant Disease Laboratory at Whittier is especially 
devoted to such plant problems, and has demon- 
strated great value to the State. At this time we 
present another form of gum disease, which is 
called "scaly bark," or psoriosis, while the lemon 
form is called gummosis. Prof. Smith says that 
scaly bark is distinguished particularly from gum- 
mosis by its occurrence 1 at any point upon the 
branches or trunk of a tree, with no apparent 
direction between the soil and the location of the 
affected area. Also by the scaling off in flakes of 
the outer bark, leaving the inner layer nearly in- 
tact, instead of a separation between wood and 
bark, as in gummosis. Most commonly the disease 
appears first upon the trunk, although often at a 
considerable distance from the ground in large 
trees, but it commonly breaks out in isolated spots 




Orange Tree Affected With Scaly Bark, 



upon the branches, even upon those of quite 
small size. 

The appearance of the disease is sug- 
gested by its popular name. At a certain 
point on the trunk or branch the surface 
layer of bark begins to break out in scales 
which curl up and separate from the inner 
bark. This separation of the bark into 
scales does not occur at the cambium layer 
between the bark and wood, but involves 
simply the outer rough bark. The inner 
bark remains in its proper position and be- 
comes more or less pushed out as the disease 
progresses, owing to the irregular growth 
of the wood beneath. The scaly portion is 
usually only an inch or two in diameter at 
first, but gradually spreads until it covers 
a large patch, or may involve the whole sur- 
face of the trunk and much of that of the 
limbs. There is no very abundant produc- 
tion of gum from the affected portions, but 
here and there a small pustule breaks out 
from which gum exudes of a similar nature 
to that seen in gummosis. The gum is less 
abundant than in the latter disease. Trees 
affected with scaly bark soon lose their 
healthy appearance as the disease develops, 
the foliage becomes sparse and light col- 
ored, and the branches die back so that the 
top of the tree becomes full 
of dead wood. Such trees, 
however, seldom die completely, 
but linger for many years, throw- 
ing out new shoots from the 
trunk and maintaining a feeble 
existence. Scaly bark is most 
commonly seen on old trees 
rather than young ones, and is 
especially common in some of our 
old seedling orchards or the old- 
est groves of the Washington 
Navel. 

The occurrence of this disease 
with reference to any particular 
condition of soil, cultivation, or 
climate is rather less evident 
than in the case of gummosis. It 
has no pronounced relation as in 
the latter case to heavy soils or 
excess of moisture, or at least not 
in the evident manner which is 
seen in the other diseases. 

One feature of scaly bark that 
makes the determination of the 
causes which bring it about quite 
difficult is the fact that in the 
majority of cases affected trees 
have been in their present condi- 
tion for a great many years. The 
disease shows no rapid spread or 
grealy increased prevalence, but 
so far as can be learned has been 
in much the same condition as at 
present for a long time. Many 
trees can be identified which have 




Scaly Bark Area on Orange Limb. 

been affected for at least fifteen years, and while 
their appearance is very had. it would seem from 
what can he learned that their condition has 
changed very little during this period. In the 
majority of cases the trees in an orchard affected 
by the scaly bark are scattered indiscriminately 
about, with no decided relation to each other or to 
any particular condition. 

The treatment of trees badly affected with scaly 
bark is not a promising undertaking. When far 
advanced the condition becomes one of such a 
chronic nature that a satisfactory cure is almost 
out of the question. ( A general survey of the oc- 
currence of this trouble in California makes evi- 
dent the fact that the prevention of this disease is 
much more to be sought after than methods of 
treatment for its cure. Scaly bark is not a dis- 
ease of common occurrence in our best orchards. 
While occasionally a tree may be affected even in 
some of the finest groves, yet such cases occur 
very largely where the soil is of uneven quality, 
and more often scaly bark accompanies poor cul- 
ture, unfavorable soil conditions, or neglect. In a 
great many groves, as we have already mentioned, 
where the present methods of culture are good, 
the scaly bark trees are a relic of former trouble 
and have been in their present condition for many 
years. 

The prevention of scaly bark appears to be best 
accomplished by the maintenance of uniformity in 
regard to moisture conditions. It is scarcely neces- 
sary to go into methods of accomplishing this in 
this article, but according to the nature of the 

(Continued on Page / f 9.) 



42 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1(1, 1909. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 

TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



gorges are filling with snow, which is a surety 
that wet farming will also be well provided for. 
The hard winter which they seem to be having 
at the East will probably be the last impulse 
needed to set the capable people moving westward 
in unusual numbers this spring. 



Whether it is any better from the point of view of 
making a livelihood depends entirely upon the 
French thrift and industry, which alone can lift 
it from the starvation connection. Such things 
under the name of agriculture may be commend- 
able in France: we do not know whether the thing 
is practicable even there, or whether it is the work 
of a visionary, for they have visionaries even in 
France. But it is not practicable even in Califor- 
nia, nor will it be until in coming centuries we may 
reach the small things of Europe — which we are 
glad we shall never see. 

The worst thing about the claims of a livelihood 
from the small areas in California is that they can- 
not be realized while one retains American ideas 
of what is necessary to a livelihood, because many 
of the things proposed to be done cannot possibly 
yield the returns which are necessary to command 
the comforts and decencies which Americans de- 
mand for themselves and their familiies. There 
are, of course, small areas which yield high re- 
turns, because of natural richness of the land, the 
possession of water, the investment of much money 
and time in the growth of trees, etc. It should be 
remembered that the capital thus rendered pro- 
ductive has often been loaned to the land rather 
than developed from it; also that the personal ef- 
fort in direction and in actual labor has been of 
supreme excellence for the particular undertaking 
involved. The investor who makes a good invest- 
ment in a small area of highly productive prop- 
erly buys many things which he does not see; the 
investor in other small areas, because certain the 
first area yields vastly, is very apt to see things 
which do not pass to him with the title, and to 
which he never attains because he lias not the 
knowledge or the energy to endow the land with 
I hem. 



All this is a very roundabout way of saying that 
many of the subdivisions of California land offered 
to people who know nothing of California agricul- 
ture are too small to yield the livelihood which is 
promised with them, not because the land is not 
good, but because the purchaser is not suited by 
knowledge, self-help and frugality to attain it. 
There have been, of course, too many instances in 
which bad land, exaggeration of returns and mini- 
mization of required effort have brought purchas- 
ers to bitter disappointment and loss. We are not 
thinking about such instances now, but rather of 
cases where more good land and a producing pol- 
icy which the purchaser understood and had a 
taste for, would have made more prosperous and 
contented settlers. We heard the other day of a 
plan which seems to us more rational than many 
which have been adopted hitherto. It consisted, 
first, in abandoning the intensive horticultural 
idea, which so few Eastern farmers know any- 
thing about. Development in this direction may 
naturally come later. For a general basis there 
was to be forty acres of alfalfa, five acres of trees 
and vines, a line of eucalyptus trees around the 
property, a small farmhouse, barn and outbuild- 
ings, and enough empty land to make up an 
eighty-acre tract. The house, with its domestic 
water supply, gives the new family a home and 
frees the wife from homesickness while trying to 
live in a shack. The growing alfalfa gives the 
man something to get busy with at once, and feeds 
his animals. The small orchard and vineyard ex- 
cite his curiosity and lead him to begin to educate 
himself in fruit. The bare land gives some pastur- 
age and something to get ready to plant. If as 
much as 80 acres goes into the farm, the cost of 
improvements distributes itself so that the per 
acre price does not run too high to be reasonable, 
in view of the fact that the purchaser has a home 



Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. 



PUBLISHERS 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



J£. J. WICKSON 
FRANK HONEYWELL 



Editor 
Business Manager 



California Weather Record. 

The following rainfall record is furnished the Pacific 
Ri'ral Press by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Weather Bureau, at San Francisco, for the week 
ending at 5 p. M., January 12, 1909: 



Stations. 



Eureka 

Red Bluff. 

Sacramento 

Mt. Tamalpais.... 

Ban Francisco 

San Jose 

Fresno 

Independence 

San Luis Obispo 

Los Angeles 

San Diego 



Total Total 

rainfall seasonal 

for rain fall 

the week, to date. 



2.12 
2.02 
3.09 
2.09 
1.70 
.51 
.s4 
3.43 
.81 
.10 



9.47 
6.61 
12.22 
6.84 
5.00 
2.31 
2.66 
8.07 
4.90 
2.36 



Normal 
seasonal 
rainfall 
to date. 



19.36 

ii. 43 

8.19 
9.81 
9.61 
9.61 
4 18 
4.14 
7.67 
6.0S 
3.87 




There are many thousands coming to make 
homes in California during the present year. We 
hear that transportation experts are anticipating 
a very active season in overland movement of lo- 
cators, and it is sure that our correspondence 
never included so many requests for specific infor- 
mation. The prominence of California topics in 
all sorts of publications, from the heavyweights of 
governmental science and engineering to the airy 
creations of decorative art and magazinery, was 
never so marked. In fact, it is seldom that a piece 
of literary handiwork falls or flies from the press 
without illustrative reference or direct discussion 
of some form of California delightfulness and de- 
sirability, or of some phase of California life and 
work. All this is, of course, attractive, and exerts 
its influence upon all classes of people. The result 
is the wonderful recourse to California for invest- 
ment, for industry, for a place to work hard or to 
live leisurely — as individual fortunes and desires 
may determine. 

As ever, and for the reasons so fully set forth 
in our issue of December 12, California is getting 
the best of the people who are moving. If it is a 
method with millions, we get the men with the 
most of them ; if it is a method with mind, which 
our varied and high-class agriculture especially in- 
vites, we get the men with the most of it. We do 
not intend to divorce money and mind, though 
the last sentence looks like it ; we simply 
mean that California affords a field for both, and 
it is not our fault that people sometimes have 
more of one than the other. California is a good 
place for those who have enough of either, and it 
takes enough of either to get here in proper shape 
for success. 

As there are, then, so many capable people mov- 
ing this way, we are glad that we are having so 
good a year to receive them. The storm of last 
week continues, and it is reaching every part of 
the State. It looks as though there would be 
plenty of water for the only kind of dry farming 
which is worth doing anywhere, and the mountain 



In view of the coming of people to make homes 
upon California land, the old question of what 
they shall do, and how many acres they shall se- 
cure to do it with, again arises. We have always 
maintained that too minute subdivisions of land 
are liable to be disappointing, because they are al- 
ways advocated upon exaggerated notions of what 
can be done upon a small piece, and almost utter 
disregard of the conditions upon which very high 
acre-products are occasionally secured. We have 
before us a gorgeous pamphlet published in the 
Middle West, entitled, "A Fortune in Five Acres," 
and find that the declaration is based upon five 
acres of eucalyptus. It certainly forces one to a 
moderate idea of a fortune, which seems out of 
place in this age of the world. AVe have seen other 
catchy pictorial eucalyptus publications which 
seemed to promise a living from five acres of euca- 
lyptus, with a cottage in the grove and all kinds of 
vegetables and field crops growing beneath the tall 
trees. It looked really cozy and succulent. 

But these conceptions of what can be done in 
California seem really underdrawn as we read of 
microscopic farming in Europe. There is a chari- 
table project now on deck in France which makes 
the California subdivisions look very roomy. It 
is a scheme which may be summed up as "Half an 
Acre and a Homestead." We read that the As- 
sembly sanctioned it in April last. The plan is 
now beginning to come into operation. AVhat AI. 
Ribot and the other promoters of the measure 
aimed at was to give workingmen in the towns and 
laborers in the country an opportunity to acquire 
on easy terms a plot of land and a modest home- 
stead, arguing that this would be the more prac- 
tical kind of provision for the evening of life than 
any old age pension fund. The field or garden 
must not cost more than $240, and its extent is 
limited for the present to 25 ares — a little over 
half an acre. The intending purchaser must pos- 
sess $42.50. If not, he is helped by the State, and 
the moment he deposits the money he becomes 
proprietor of the holding. He must undertake 
that he or his children will cultivate it, and he 
must also insure his life. The State does not deal 
direct with the purchaser, but with an intermedi- 
ary and guarantee company formed in each dis- 
trict. A capital of $20,000,000 has been set aside 
for loans at 2 per cent, and each local company 
must have a capital of $40,000, of which half is to 
be held in reserve. The original idea was to pro- 
vide town or country workers with a home when 
they had reached the age of 50 or 60, but anyone 
who has saved one-fifth of the purchase money 
can at once become the possessor of "half an acre 
and a homestead." 



It is, of course, questionable whether such a sub- 
division of land should be considered capable of 
agriculture at all. It is really nothing but a cot 
tage lot, and its capability of production depends 
upon how closely the cabbages can be brought to 
the door and how quickly one can be brought to 
usefulness and another started in its place. It is 
the most intensive gardening and implies a maxi 
mum of hand work and the abandonment of every- 
thing which entitles agriculture to be considered 
an industry or a business. It is merely the small 
catch-penny vocations of the city pavements trans 
ferred to the country — vastly better in many re 
spects, but the same old struggle against starva 
tion under more wholesome surroundings, perhaps 



January 16} 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



and not merely a place to put one. Of course, the 
total cost may be rather high, but it seems rational 
to start an Eastern farmer with a place to live and 
large enough to enable him to begin farming along 
a line which he understands — and then watch him 
grow in California wisdom. We understand that 
there are plenty of people who have money enough 
to start themselves in such a way, while there are, 
of course, others who wish bare land and the 
chance to make their own improvements. Both 
these classes will make their own way, and we be- 
lieve they are the ones to turn our great valley 
plains into prosperous farms as fast as water is 
brought from ditch or well to pull the plains out 
of dry-farming categories. We have the impres- 
sion that it is more rational to bring lands to in- 
tensive cultures, which yield high returns from 
high requirements, by allowing such cultures to 
develop as newcomers acquire knowledge and 
taste for them, from a basis of eighth-section 
farms, than to block them out at first upon vast 
plains and expect people who do not know any- 
thing about high cultures to make a livelihood out 
of them. 



Queries and Replies. 



Cherries Probably Need Restoratives. 

To the Editor: I have a cherry orchard that is 
about 20 years old and has borne but one good 
crop. They are on sandy soil, and bear no better 
when free from frost. I have Royal Ann, Tarta- 
rian, and Republicans. They blossom very full 
and the cherries get as large as peas, then begin 
to drop, leaving only a few on the trees. What 
can I do to make them stick? If I should put any- 
thing on the ground around the roots, please tell 
me. — Grower, Monterey County. 

As you have varieties associated, your trouble 
is probably not lack of cross-pollination. Prob- 
ably the trees are lacking either plant food or 
water, and perhaps both. You do not say whether 
the trees bore well in their early years or not. If 
they rlid, they can be restored to bearing by giving 
a covering with stable manure, allowing it to be 
leached out by the rains, and plowing in after the 
heavy rains are over. A good irrigation in July 
would probably enable the trees to continue their 
fall growth and make stronger fruit buds for the 
following year. This prescription is somewhat at 
random, because you do not say whether the trees 
are making a good wood growth or not, and we are 
presuming upon the fact that they are not as 
thrifty as they ought to be, and therefore need 
both stimulants and a better water supply. 



Orchard Cultivation. 

To the Editor: I have an apricot orchard of 
about 2000 trees on apricot roots, standing on 
slightly rolling land. The trees are eight years 
old. The cultivation has been three to four inches 
deep and done in such a way that there is a mound 
around most of the trees, four to ten inches high. 
There is no irrigation. We had no late rains last 
spring, but a heavy crop of fruit. I noticed that 
the trees with the highest mounds dropped their 
fruit more than the others. All the trees are 
strong and vigorous. I am frank to say that I 
know nothing about cultivating an orchard, but 
it looks to me, if the land was cultivated six to 
eight inches deep, it would hold the rain better 
and if the mounds were removed it would let the 
rain into the tap roots and stop the dropping of 
the fruit. Would sheep manure be safe to put in 
an apricot orchard? — Subscriber, Ventura. 

We should plow about as deep as you propose. 
Work the mounds up with a mattock, pulverizing 
the ground around the tree, and then work the 
ground from the centers back toward the trees, so 
as to get a level surface as nearly as practicable. 



Working the ground away from the trees too much 
and leaving the mounds of hard soil has promoted 
loss of water by evaporation and produced the 
result which you describe. Working the ground 
in this way is to save moisture everywhere under 
the level surface, for the roots are everywhere. 
It is not to turn more water to the tap roots, prob- 
ably your trees haven't any. 



Alfalfa as a Restorative. 

To the Editor: We have about 30 acres of poor 
soil. The soil is weak. Adjoining soil grows fine 
apple trees. Even this soil will grow apple trees, 
but very slowly and with uncertain results. The 
soil seems wet enough, as the entire ranch is sub- 
irrigated, and on the ground in question water 
can often be gotten at 8 feet. However, it is weak. 
The soil consists of disintegrated granite. A few 
trees at 16 years are 15 feet high, but we had to 
grub out 30 acres of apple trees and almonds. The 
former refused to grow or bear, the latter became 
diseased with gum trouble and root knot. Now I 
believe that we can fertilize the soil so that it will 
get good and do its part. We are too far away 
from other places to get a great quantity of barn- 
yard manure, and too far to pay to haul compound 
mixtures. Is there something that we can grow 
on the soil thus described that will, after planting 
several years, reclaim this soil? We are at an ele- 
vation of 4000 feet, with an average rainfall of 
between 18 and 20 inches, and although we have 
some dry years, yet this soil does not lack moisture 
except perhaps on the surface. The soil looks be- 
tween a good granite soil and a better grade of 
river bottom sand. — Farmer, Mojave. 

Nothing would reclaim your land better than 
alfalfa, if conditions for growing it are favorable, 
because it has the ability to root down into the 
moisture which you describe and maintain itself 
after it reaches it, without irrigation. This plant 
will certainly accomplish the enrichment of the 
soil if you can get it to grow well, and it should 
be started as early in the spring as would be safe 
from danger of sharp frost, so that it will have a 
chance to send its roots down before the moisture 
goes out of the surface soil. 

If alfalfa does not succeed with you, such 
healthy legumes as common field peas and hairy 
vetches, to be grown during the rainy season and 
plowed under green, would be the next best sug- 
gestion. Some such operation as this, or recourse 
to thorough fertilization with a complete fertilzer 
containing nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, 
would be the only thing to suggest, inasmuch as 
free use of stable manure is out of the question. 
This latter treatment is, of course, best from all 
points of view, and if you could find it profitable 
to keep any kind of stock on the land for a time 
its reclamation might be accomplished. 



Grown Crops for Cows. 

To the Editor: I have a farm north of the bay 
which consists of reclaimed tule land and ordi- 
nary upland of varying quality. My idea is to 
run a dairy there, and I find it difficult to grow 
suitable feed for dairy cows through the winter. 
I can grow all the hay I require, but this alone is 
not a satisfactory feed for milk; I can purchase 
bran and mill-feeds, but at the prices which have 
been ruling for these commodities for the last two 
years, there is no profit in using them. During 
the past season I tried pumpkins on a small por- 
tion of the tule land with considerable success, but 
found that although they improved the quality of 
the milk, the quantity fell off, and I was obliged 
to purchase bran to keep the cows from going dry 
before spring. I have a lot of English seeds 
mangels, swedes, kohlrabi and cabbage —and I 
wish to know the best times for planting them this 
spring.- Reader, San Francisco. 

You could have had mangels for winter feeding 
by starting last May or June on land which re- 
tained moisture enough for good germination at 
that time. You could have had cabbage by start- 



ing the plants in September and transplanting 
with the first fall rains. Your work now would be 
productive of feed next summer and fall. All the 
plants which you mention are rather hardy and 
are not generally affected by light frosts. Sowing 
is, however, deferred, not so much for the sake of 
the frosts, but to be sure the ground is not satu- 
rated with cold water from heavy rains, which is 
apt to cause the seed to decay or the plant to 
spindle. If the winter is normal and the soil conn s 
into good condition in February, as is customary, 
we should prefer sowing then than to wait until 
later in the spring. You will have to be governed 
more by proper soil condition than by any other 
consideration. You will hardly be likely to have 
any satisfaction with swedes and kohlrabi, unless 
you get them started early, for growth during the 
cool moist weather. They abhor dry heat, and 
although widely tried have been generally aban- 
doned for stock purposes, even in the coast dis- 
trict of California. 



Alfalfa the Most Likely to Do It. 

To the Editor: I have considerable good land 
which I cannot irrigate. Do you think alfalfa 
will grow and do well on this ground ? Will you 
kindly tell me if there are differenl kinds of al- 
falfa, also what time of the year is best to sow in 
this country? Do you think clover would do bet- 
ter than alfalfa with the above conditions? 
Young Farmer, Shasta County. 

You are up against the old and vexing problem 
of getting forage in the dry season without irriga- 
tion, and no answer is yet ready. Whether you 
can get a permanent stand of alfalfa on the land 
you speak of without irrigation depends almost 
entirely upon whether there is water underneath 
which the plants can reach. If so, it will maintain 
itself. To make a trial the alfalfa should be sown 
as early as convenient after danger of sharp frosts 
is over, in order that it may get rooted as deeply 
as possible with the moisture remaining from the 
winter rains. We know no clover that would be so 
likely to succeed as alfalfa, because others are 
mostly shallow rooting, excepting the so-called 
"Sweet clover" Melilotus alba, which is also a 
deep rooting plant, but is not as a rule relished by 
stock because of its rank flavor. There are two 
kinds of alfalfa now available — one the common 
alfalfa and the other the Turkestan, which it 
might be desirable for you to try, as seed of it is 
offered by our leading seedsmen. 



Small Fruits in the Orchard. 

To the Editor: This and the last year I have 
planted seven acres in cherries. Imperial and sugar 
prune trees. The trees are planted 25 feel apart 
each way. I am considering at present to plant 
berries between the trees. If two lines of berries, 
such as blackberries and the various hybrids, are 
planted between the rows of trees, will that set 
back the growth of the trees? What success can 
be counted on where cultivation would be the 
only means of keeping the moisture to the surface ? 
In this case irrigation would be too expensive. 
Big money, I am told, is realized in berry culture, 
but I have never had the pleasure to meet one who 
has done so. — Grower, Napa valley. 

We should say not. You are a year or two late 
in starting that line, which is not had, because 
you ought not, to start it at all. If you had started 
the berries with the trees and your land was deep, 
rich and retentive you might have done something 
with berries if you know how to grow and handle 
the crop. But you have all that to learn and your 
berries only due to fruit fully when your trees are 
also due to begin bearing and will need all the 
moisture and the best cultivation you can give 
them to retain that. You had better keep out of 
the berry business unless you have a better propo- 
sition. 



44 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1(5, 1!»I9. 



Horticulture. 



THE PEAR BLIGHT IN CALIFORNIA. 



From a paper by Prof. R. E. Smith of the University of 
California at the State Farmers' Institute 
at the University Farm, Davis. 

During the year 11)08 the pear blight, to a very 
great extent, disappeared from the territory which 
had beetf so badly affected in recent years, so that 
but very little new blight was visible. In a great 
number of cases also trees which had been badly 
affected with the disease recovered to a remark- 
able extent, the blight organism dying out in the 
affected tissues and the trees starting a vigorous 
growth. While this condition is a most desirable 
and welcome one, it should not be made the basis 
for any great amount of optimism as to the future. 

In the history of pear blight in this country, 
during the many years it has been known, these 
ups and downs in the occurrance of the disease 
have been very common. The organism which 
causes the trouble is very susceptible to climatic 
and other conditions which affect it directly, and 
also through the condition of the tree, which varies 
with the character of the season. The last season 
was marked by much dry. windy weather, even 
during the winter and spring, and this condition 
was effective in keeping down not only pear blight 
but also peach blight, pear scab, walnut blight, 
ami many other common diseases of trees. The 
absence of blight last year is encouraging in show- 
ing that we may expect occasional seasons of com- 
parative freedom from the disease. But all expe- 
rience goes to show that such freedom cannot be 
expected to continue indefinitely. It is possible 
that the disease may be reduced for one or more 
years following this, on account of the set-back 
which it has received this season, bu1 before any 
very extensive period has elapsed favorable con- 
ditions for blight may come again and the deadly 
germ multiply and spread with all its former 
vigor. 

The Importance of Fighting. — It is not the pur- 
pose of the present paper to dwell at length upon 
the usual methods of pear bligb.1 control, since 
these have been thoroughly exploited in this State 
and every grower has had ample opportunity to 
learn how to handle the blight according to the 
best known system. We are aware that difference* 
of opinion exist as to the effectiveness or profit- 
ableness of this method of treatment, but would 
simply call attention to the fact that at the present 
time the best pear orchards we have, following 
the severe attack of blight of the last few years, 
are those which have received the most careful 
and thorough treatment along the lines which 
were first reeomended by Mr. Waite, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. It is probably 
well known to all of the pear growers present how 
our State Legislature in l!)()f) made an appropria- 
tion for the eradication of pear blight, under the 
direction of the plant pathologist of the State Uni- 
versity, and how in the following two years all 
the pear growing districts of the Sacramento val- 
ley and neighboring territory were thoroughly in- 
spected by a considerable number of men em- 
ployed by the University, the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture and the various county 
boards of horticulture. This work consisted, in 
general, of an effort to encourage the eradication 
of pear blight by inspecting the trees carefully 
and instructing the growers in the best methods 
of work. Every pear grower in those sections of 
the State which are largely interested in this crop 
was visited many times, 750.000 pear trees were 
carefully inspected, numerous meetings and dem- 
onstrations were held to promote the object of the 
work, and in general it can fairly be said that to 
the extent of practicability everything reasonable 
was done to suppress this destructive disease. It 
is difficult to see what further could be done under 
present conditions and in the light of present 
knowledge, but the work done has emphasized the 
necessity of changed methods and increased 
knowledge in certain respects. Along these lines 
appear to be the greatest hope for the future Of 
the pear industry in California. 

Alter the amount of work done in the field by 
the agents of the Experiment Station and Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, it does not appear to the 
writer probable that further work of this sort on 



a large scale could be of much profit. Our pear 
growers have had every opportunity to become 
thoroughly informed as to the methods of control 
advocated and to put them into practice. So far 
as these methods are applicable to existing condi- 
tions, there should be no further necessity for 
t heir demonstration. 

California Behavior of the Blight. — One of the 
most valuable results from the work done thus far 
has been the experience gained as to the behavior 
of the disease under California conditions. Of 
these peculiarities there are two which seem of 
particular importance, since they are the factors 
which have most largely prevented complete con- 
trol of pear blight in California; these are: First, 
the very large amount of infection of twigs and 
green shoots which occurs, with no relation to the 
blossons; second, the large number of trees which 
become infected in the body near the ground or 
in the butt under the ground. In the latter case 
the blight runs down into the roots and often 
girdles and kills trees which in the tops appear 
perfectly healthy, or only slightly affected with 
the disease. So far as the usual form of the disease 
is concerned, occurring in the top of the tree with 
the infection mostly through the blossoms, our 
growers have learned to handle it with consid- 
erable success by the usual methods, so long as the 
work is done carefully and properly. 

The one most discouraging and baffling feature 
of the disease has been that mentioned, where 
Large numbers of trees in an orchard apparently 
free from blight would suddenly be found affected 
in the butts and thus beyond redemption by the 
methods of handling blight in the tops. Could this 
difficulty be overcome, we believe that pear grow- 
ing would again flourish on a sound basis, though 
requiring more care and attention than at present. 

The Battle Under Ground. — During the year 
1907-08 our chief activity in regard to pear 
blight has been along the line last suggested. This 
work has consisted mostly in an effort to deter- 
mine the method by which infection takes place 
in cases where the green twigs and shoots contract 
the disease so abundantly, and also to investigate 
the possibility of growing trees in such a way as 
to avoid the butt blight mentioned above. It has 
been found that the latter form of the disease is 
a result of the other peculiarity mentioned, the 
infection of the butts taking place through green 
sprouts or suckers, sometimes when the latter 
amount to no more than a bud with only one or 
two leaves formed in the rough bark near the butt. 
Infection of this sort appears to be brought about 
in a similar manner to that in blossom infection; 
mainly by insects. Our investigations have shown 
that a great variety of insects which feed on the 
green shoots may carry the blight organism and 
thus produce infection. There is no apparent 
means of prevention of this form of the disease 
beyond that which has already been in use, namely 
the removal of sprouts from the body of the tree, 
and this has not proved very satisfactory. 

The most promise is in the direction of growing 
trees upon a stock more or less immune, thus 
avoiding the killing of the trees by blight in the 
trunk or roots. It is well known that different 
varieties of trees vary in their susceptibility to 
blight. None are entirely immune under all con- 
ditions, but some are much more so than others. 

How to Save the Bartlett. — The whole consid- 
eration of pear blight in California rests primarily 
upon the fact that the word "pear" in this State 
means ordinarily the Bartlett pear. This variety 
is so preeminently satisfactory that while it is one 
of the most susceptible to blight, and other varie- 
ties much less affected are to be found, yet the giv- 
iii'-' up of the Bartlett pear would mean practically 
the giving up of the pear industry. The develop- 
ment of a new variety as satisfactory as the Bart- 
lett, but fairly resistant to th'e blight, would be a 
most uncertain undertaking. Our chief thought 
has been, therefore, as to the possibility of grow- 
ing the Bartlett pear under some system by which 
the tree could be rendered less susceptible to de- 
struction. The ordinary French seedling root 
upon which pear trees arc commonly grown has 
two vital defects in relation to blight. It is very 
very free to sucker and it is very susceptible to 
the disease. These suckers become infected, the 
blight runs down into the butt and roots and the 
tree is killed while the top is still in good condi- 
tion. The Bartlett pear tree trunk also suckers 



rather freely and blights readily. It therefore 
seems that it would be of great practical advan- 
tage if the Bartlett could be grown on a trunk and 
root somewhat resistant to blight and not given 
to sending up suckers. With a Bartlett top worked 
on this combination an orchard could certainly be 
kept free from serious injury much more readily 
than with the present style of tree. 

The Le Conte Foundation. — The extensive expe- 
rience' gained in our work on pear blight has 
shown among the trees now growing in the State 
one suggestion of particular value. This is the 
growing of the Bartlett upon rooted cuttings of 
the Le Conte. The latter variety, while by no 
means blight-proof, is much less easily affected 
than the Bartlett. It roots readily from cuttings 
and produces a trunk decidedly free from suckers. 
Trees of this combination existing in the State 
have shown a most vigorous growth, considerably 
exceeding that of the Bartlett on the ordinary 
root. It should be clearly understood that there 
is no idea that the Bartlett top would gain any 
immunity from blight from growing on the De 
Conte. The sole object is simply to grow the rout 
and trunk free from the disease and confine the 
blight to the top of the tree where it can be more 
readily seen and handled and where its effects are 
less disastrous. As to the growth of the Bartlett 
on the Le Conte, what experience we can gather 
goes to show that the tree thus in-own. while un- 
usually thrifty and vigorous, is very slow in com- 
ing into bearing. This has been learned particu- 
larly from Mr. Richard Burton, of Vacaville, who 
has old trees of this sort, and whose experience 
forms the basis of most of what is said upon this 
subject. It has therefore been suggested that the 
trees be double worked, with some other variety 
•between the Le Conte root and the Bartlett top, 
in order to promote early bearing. The Hardy 
suggests itself as one possibility for this purpose, 
as it succeeds well in California and has shown it- 
self to be quite free from blight. For the purpose 
of a thorough investigation and demonstration 
along these lines, pear trees are being grown by 
the University Experiment Station, trying out va- 
rious combinations as to root and trunk, along the 
lines suggested. The results already obtained give 
considerable promise of success. Our main object 
will be to demonstrate the posibility of growing a 
nursery tree with a Bartlett top which can be 
planted in the orchard ami kept free from blight 
simply by keeping the disease out of the top. 

Who Will Succeed With Pears. We may say in 
conclusion that in our opinion the future of the 
California pear industry lies chiefly in the hands 
of the more careful, observant class of growers, 
who will make a specialty of pear growing and 
give the trees the unusual degree of attention 
which they will demand in the face of the blight. 
I believe, from experience elsewhere, that the dis- 
ease will vary in prevalence from year to year, 
having periods of unusual virulence and again sub- 
siding for a time, but that, in general, its ravages 
will continue indefinitely and that it will have to 
be counted upon as an unavoidable factor in pear 
growing. Under these conditions, anything which 
will help in offsetting the effects of the blight will 
certainly be of the greatest value, and we hope 
that our efforts in the line of growing trees upon 
blight-free roots and trunks may be of some avail. 
Such a tree, if it can be practically produced, will 
certainly be of the greatest value for future plant- 
ings. 



Citrus Fruits. 



THE USE OF GYPSUM AND LIME 



Written for the Pacific Rural Piu.ns 
By Thomas C. Wallace. 

So much misconception exists of the use of 
gypsum and spent lime for soil purposes that we 
feel justified in asking the readers' attention to 
this attempt to get at the facts. There is abun- 
dant evidence of the importance of lime to the 
land and it is a mistake to underrate it. Gypsum 
or any other form of lime cannot lake the place of 
any other plant food, and while it is an important 
part of the tree's diet, it is much more important 
for its physical actions. There is no reliable set of 
figures tabulated for the amount of lime the soil 



January 10, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



needs, as it depends on the nature of each soil and 
the condition resulting from the methods of work 
employed on them. If a soil is heavy because of 
its clay content lime will lighten it by floculating 
the clay, and the amount of lime needed depends 
wholly on the amount of clay in the soil and the 
'depth it is desired to lighten the soil. Lime will 
work its way down into the soil, the time it will 
take to do so depending on the amount of clay, 
the amount of lime and the volume of water. Sup- 
pose we put one ton of gypsum in the first four 
to six inches of a clayey soil which contains only 
enough clay in twelve inches to combine with 
elementary the lime (calcium) of the gypsum, the 
balance of uncombined lime will gradually sink 
into and combine with the second six inches, thus 
Loosening a foot depth of the soil. This action 
of sinkage of lime will become more rapid as the 
upper strata is freed by the Hoeulation of the clay, 
because it allows free circulation of water and 
air. Suppose again, that we have a stiff sub-pan, 
called often a hard-pan, one or two feet under 
the surface and which holds up water so that the 
soil dries out. If a test of this sub-pan shows 
that it will absorb water and disintegrate when 
placed in contact with water in the open air, an 
application of lime to loosen the soil above the 
pan and allow the penetration of air with water 
will affect a loosening of the hard sub-pan if the 
water is properly applied. 

We sometimes hear the expression that "lime 
loosens a clay and binds a sand." This is pe- 
culiarly true of gypsum, which binds together 
particles of sand and makes it coarser, but it can 
hardly be considered to stiffen it. Some silts 
come into coarser soil better with carbonate of 
lime than with gypsum (sulphate of lime), but 
caustic (burnt) lime does the work on silts better 
than either of the other forms of lime. The trouble 
with caustic lime is that it destroys the organic 
matter of the soil so rapidly that heavy manuring 
or mulching must follow its use. The action of 
ground lime rock or spent lime is slow and be- 
comes greater or more noticeable with years, 
while gypsum acts more promptly and caustic 
lime acts the quickest. This physical action of 
lime is its most important service to agriculture, 
and as a rule the majority of soils under irriga- 
tion are benefitted by lime application about once 
every five years. The best results to be obtained 
from cover crops or stable manures can only be 
had with an abundance of lime in the soil. The 
value of commercial fertilizers is often doubled 
by an application of lime and bone and other 
phosphates owe much of their value to the lime 
content. 

While the majority of soils are benefitted 
physically by lime, there are of course soils to 
which lime can give no such benefit. On such 
soils small applications up to as high as five hun- 
dred pounds per acre are advantageous about 
twice in a decade. This is simply to keep up a 
general supply of lime for the needs of the tree's 
food. If, however, bone or any other form of tri- 
basic phosphate is freely used the application of 
lime for food may be omitted, because the lime of 
the bone supplies what is needed for plant feed- 
ing purposes. 

The test of a soil for lime requirements should 
be physical rather than chemical, as it alone 
measures the requirements of the soil in this re- 
spect. A good rule to observe is that all sends 
under cultivation and irrigation need applied 
lime, but the quality required is variable. The 
amount of lime needed for irrigated soils that re- 
quire it for physical effect is from one to even 
three tons per acre at intervals of five or six years. 
Small applications not being sufficiently effective 
are disappointing and lead to false conclusions. 
Looking at the matter from a chemical standpoint, 
gvpsum lime liberates potash which may be pres- 
ent but unavailable to the trees owing to the com- 
pounds in which it exists. Lime assists in con- 
serving the nitrogen liberated from the decompo- 
sition of manures and cover crops, and assists 
nitrification in conjunction with the nitrifying 
organisms in the soil. Lime may be said to 
sweeten the soil, as it readily combines with and 
reduces to basic or alkaline compounds the free 
acids formed in the soil from decomposition ol 
organic matter. 

As a plant food lime may be said to give bone 
strength to the tree and its fruit, hardening the 
wood and ericisting on both walls of the cells to 



fortify them against the strains of cold and heat 
action, drouth and water. Trees have selective 
powers and this function regulates their structural 
capacity in wood and fruit. Trees that are fine 
and produce fine-grained fruit are rich in lime 
feeders and their capacity to grow and produce 
is enhanced by ample lime. It is true also that 
such trees need more pruning than those of 
coarser strain, as in time they become wood hard- 
ened as a result of the very function that makes 
them fine. Such trees need more potash, as it as- 
sists in keeping the wood freer for the transloca- 
tion of starches and consequent sugar formation. 
The use of lime in citrus culture is therefore a 
business transaction, as fruit growing is a busi- 
ness. In farming, as nitrogen is king among the 
organic elements, so lime reigns over the mineral 
ingredients with which it classes. 



Agricultural Science. 



THE POSSIBILITIES OF PLANT IMPROVE- 
MENT IN CALIFORNIA. 

(Continued From Page 24 of Last Issue.) 

By Dr. G. W. Shaw of the University Experiment 
Station at the State Farmers' Institute on 
the University Farm at Davis. 
Relation to California Agriculture. — Having 
thus considered the general status of this subject, 
let us turn to it from a California standpoint. 

California has long been noted for its liberal 
hand in dealing with whatever projects she deter- 
mines to undertake, and I feel certain that when 
she realizes the great economic importance of this 
field of operation, she will stand second to none 
in this line of work'. 

That there is need of it no one will be likely to 
question when the absurdly low average yield of 
many of our field crops is mentioned. The return 
for 1907 shows as follows : 

CALIFORNIA CROP STATISTICS, 1907. 

Total Average Total Average 
Yield, Yield, Farm Value 
Crop. Acreage. Bushels. Bit. Value, per Acre. 
Wheat ..1,388,000 20,520,000 14.0 $20,520,000 $14,70 
Barley ..1,040,000 30,056,000 2S.9 23,444,000 22.54 
Oats .... 136,000 4,556,000 33.5 3,235,000 23.79 

Rye 65,000 1,251,000 19.0 1,063,000 16.16 

Corn . . . 54,000 1,836,000 34.0 1,561,000 28.91 

Other Grains: 
Potatoes — 

Irish... 48,000 6,960,000 1145.0* 6,264,000 130.50 
Sweet 350,000 210,000 

Beans l,945,000f .... 2,917,000 

Onions 750,000 .... 

Alfalfa 838,730$ .... 6,703,000 

Other forage 
crops 109,745$ .... 658,000 



Total value $68,101,000 



*Pounds. t82 pounds per bushel. $Tons. 

And this does not by any means include the en- 
tire list of crops. 

It is safe to say that the twelve leading held and 
forage crops of California annually produce •+/•">,- 
1100,000 worth of plant products, which by means 
of live stock and manufacturing processes 'are 
doubled in value, and if we admit the possibility 
of a 10 per cent increase by the adoption of meth- 
ods above described, the figures speak- volumes. 
Surely such an increase is reasonable, for experi- 
ence has demonstrated it in repeated instances. It 
only requires the financial support of the people 
of the State in the work which has already been 
auspiciously begun under the appropriation of the 
last legislature for beginning the work of cereal 
improvement. Limiting our consideration to this 
line of crops alone, including wheat, barley, oats, 
rye, an<3 corn, the valuation of these crops is as 
follows : 

Average Yield Total 
per Bushel. Value. 

Wheat 14.7 $20,520,000 

Barley 28.9 23,444,000 

Oats 33.6 3,235,000 

Rye 19.0 1,063,000 

Corn 34.0 g»gg 

$49,823,000 



We have a total value of approximately fifty 
million dollars valuation. A ten per cent increase 
in the valuation of this class of crops alone would 
mean an added source of wealth of $5, 000, 000 in 
increased yield alone, to say nothing of the added 
value from an improvement in quality of our 
wheat and barley, especially the former, which 
would mean still another $1,500,000 increase. This 
work is already begun, but under the conditions 
of the present appropriation it is limited to work 
in cereals, and some important results have al- 
ready been secured. 

Work Accomplished. — The work has developed 
a barley of the six-row type about ten days earlier 
than the common sort, and of superior brewing 
value. 

Three varieties of oats have been found of 
markedly higher yielding promise than the com- 
mon red oat, and one of remarkable drouth-resist- 
ing quality on account of its rapidity of growth 
and earliness. These oats, grown alongside of 
the common oats, gave double the yield in 1908 
and substantial increase the previous season. 

Two varieties of wheat which offer exceeding 
promise of being more favorable to our interior 
valley conditions than the common sorts, in that 
they are very heavy producers, mature within a 
short growing period and are of higher quality 
for milling. 

The demonstration of the advantage of drill- 
seeding grain in the Sacramento valley is of great 
moment. On twelve varieties of wheat and four 
varieties of barley, seeded side by side, drilled and 
broadcasted, but, with all other conditions the 
same, gave an increased return of two to four 
bushels of wheat per acre and four to six bushels 
of barley per acre in favor of drill-seeding. The 
general adoption of this practice by farmers would 
produce an added income in grain culture of from 
$3 to $5 per acre, and the added cost is not over 
50 cents per acre. Is it worth while? 

In the matter of direct improvement of the glu- 
ten content by selection and seeding, it may be 
said that it is yet too early to state results, except 
in a most general way. because the causes leading 
to this gluten condition are obscured, and it is a 
much slower process to obtain substantial results 
in this direction than in the matter of yield. Still, 
it may be said that in addition to numerous ex- 
periments upon the fundamental question as to 
the effort of environment, upon gluten, the Sta- 
tion had in the cereal nursery over 60,000 seed- 
lings of individual plants from selected high- 
gluten plants of last season, and many of them 
show a promising increase over last year's selec- 
tion and over the average of the several plantings. 
I > 1 1 1 this work is only fairly begun, and must have 
the element of time for the completion of selection 
and fixing of characteristics. 

We need a continuance of the appropriation for 
the further development of this work, and provi- 
sion should be made whereby it could be extended 
to other lield crops. The ultimate returns will 
repay a liberal support. 

We need a continuance of the appropriation I'"' 
further development of the work, which should 

also be extended to other lines. 

An increase of a single bushel per acre to the 
wheat crop means an added wealth of $1,500,000, 

and to the barley crop i ther .+ 1.000.000, aid 

unless I am greatly mistaken, we have upon our 
stations now grains which will accomplish this 
result as soon as they can be widely distributed, 
and this is at a total cost of about $15,000. 

There are other crops which are awaiting more 
active work on account of the lack of sufficient 
funds to properly handle them. Already there 
are upon our experimental grounds two types of 
alfalfa which are marked improvement over the 
common Chilean type, one that can be cut about 
every twenty-two days, and is much more leafy 
and with hollow stems, all of which improves its 
feeding value. Yet this is possible of greater im- 
provement and wider adaptation. 

The average yield of the Lima bean plant is not 
over 200 grams, but 011 some preliminary work 
during the past, season individual plants were 
found yielding as high as S0O grains, or four times 
the average. There is a wonderful lield lor the 
development of greater financial returns in this 
direction. The adaptation of corn, the improve- 
ment in quality in island grown potatoes, the 
adaptation of green manure crops, and numerous 



46 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 16, 1909. 



other lines, offer abundant fields of opera 
tion. The possible results are fraught 
with as much benefit to the people as the 
development of our irrigation resources, 
in which we are all so interested, and 
worthy of serious consideration. They 
effect an unusually large number of peo 
pie! and the resulting benefits are far- 
reaching. The possibility of increasing 
the field crop product of California by a 
million dollars per year is certainly a sub- 
ject worth the while of her people. 

This is purely a business proposition, 
and, so far as the writer knows, all those 
most competent to judge consider the fig- 
ures and proportionate cost given above 
as a fair business statement. Certainly, 
the results being attained fully warrant 
these statements. 



The State Fish and dame Commission 
is sending Hungarian partridges to vari- 
ous parts of the State, to stock preserves. 



DEAD 



CITRUS 



WOOD 



Is more or less prevalent in 
every orange and lemon grove, 
i. e., trees that arc unprofitable. 
How many such have you in 
your orchard? Would it not 
pay you to put paying trees in 
their stead? 

YOUR HOME GROUNDS 

Should contain at least a few 
trees of the better varieties of 
oranges and lemons. For this 
purpose we have some excep- 
tionally fine trees to offer, be- 
ing grown as specimens. Pos- 
sibly you would like to plant a 
few citrus trees about your 
home this season. If so, will 
you do us the favor to corre- 
spond with us about it ! 

The Citrus Fruits 

Historically, Horticulturally, 
Commercially 

A new treatise, giving mure 
valuable information about va- 
rieties, methods of planting, 
cultivating, pruning, picking, 
packing and shipping than any- 
thing of its kind ever issued, 
which will cheerfully be sent 
you for the small sum of 25 
cents. Correspondence a plea- 
sure. 

San Dimas Citrus 
Nurseries 

R. M. TEAGUE, Prop. 
SAN DIMAS, CAL. 



PEACH TREES 

and CRAPE VINES 

We can supply any kind of Peach trees 
and Grape Vines. Write us what vari- 
ety and quantity you want and we will 
quote prices on same. 

FOWLER NURSERY CO., 
Fowler, Cal. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 

HORTICULTURE. 

A ten-acre orange grove at Globe, Tu- 
lare county, was sold last week for $1000 
per acre. 

A large consignment of dried fruit and 
olives is being prepared by W. S. Ritchie 
of Riverside for shipment to Africa. 

About all the apples have been shipped 
from the Pajaro valley. During the past 
season there were sent out a little over 
3100 cars. 

The late cold spell did not hurt the 
orange trees around Modesto. Several 
more small groves will be set out there 
this spring. 

The seventeenth annual Citrus Fair will 
be held at Cloverdale, Sonoma county, 
commencing February IS and continuing 
till the evening of the 22d. 

Estimates are being prepared for Wat- 
sonville fruit men as to the cost of erect- 
ing a cold-storage plant with a capacity of 
from 150,000 to 500,000 boxes of fruit. 

A good crop of apples was raised at 
Cayucos, San Luis Obispo county, last 
season. One thousand boxes were shipped 
from there to San Francisco last week. 

The Phalanx Rhubarb Co. is now ship- 
ping from Ventura county winter rhubarb 
by the carload. The vegetable is finding 
ready sale at good prices on the Eastern 
markets. 

El Dorado county has postponed the 
appointment of a horticultural commis- 
sion pending the action of the State legis- 
lature in modifying the law governing 
this office. 

Santa Barbara will make a great wal- 
nut exhibit at the coming Seattle expo- 
sition. On "Santa Barbara day" of the 
fair, 2000 sacks of walnuts will be dis- 
tributed. 

A new variety of walnut is reported 
from Santa Clara county. Frank Willson 
of Sunnyvale claims to have in the now 
nut an early bearer, blight resistant and 
the nuts of very large size. 

E. J. Brannigan. from the State horti 
cultural office, was at Marysville last 
week, making an inspection to discover 
whether or not the white fly had been 
exterminated in that section. 

A new board of horticultural commis- 
sioners was appointed for Glenn county- 
last week, consisting of C. L. Donohoe of 
Willows, Frank S. Reager of Orland and 
Fred Crook of the river section. The uew 
board is to serve without pay. 

The orange crop in San Bernardino 
county is not as large as first announced, 
and the conviction is growing that or- 
anges will go higher in price. Buyers 
are said to be securing all the groves pos- 
sible, either in lumps or by the pound. 

An organization of table grape growers 
was perfected at Lodi last Saturday, at 
which time forty-five prominent growers 
joined the organization. Another meeting 
will be held at the same place to further 
the organization, Saturday, January 16. 

Earl Morris, Entomologist of Santa 
Clara county, in his annual report, says 
that the general condition of the orchards 
are such as to expect normal crops in 
1909. He advises not to replant fungus 
infested areas with either peach, apricot 
or almond roots. 

The Horticultural Commission of Fres- 
no county, in its report last week, stated 
that "with the beginning of 1909 we can 
positively state there does not exist today 
in Fresno county any insect pest or dis- 
ease that in any way menaces our horti- 
cultural interests." 

Secretary Pease of the San Bernardino 
county horticultural commission in his 
report for December states that the ex- 



1VII 



TO 



Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine. 



Orange 

and Lemon. 



Nursery Stock 
and Alfalfa. 



Fertilizers. 




MAN 

Importers of 

Nitrate of Soda 
Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Double Manure Salts 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 



Hawaiian Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 



Works 

Honolulu and San Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



IT'S FREE 

BONE AMD BLOOD FERTILIZER 

•FERTILIZE FOR PROFIT.* 

It's the results that count In farming and our Fertilizers produce POSITIVE RESULTS, 
that show In the QUALITY of the products as well as the QUANTITY. Orange and other 
fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly recommend our fertilizers as producing 
the grandest results In (|iiantity, quality of products, and profits. 

Write lor Catalogue and Prices. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

OFFICE: 444 Pine St., San Francisco, Cal. FACTORIES: San Francisco and Oakland. 



ORCHARDISTS and 
FARMERS 



who have used our goods once, will always come to us for their fertilizers. We are 
making a special study of plant life and are therefore in a position to manufacture 
fertilizers t hat exactly meet the requirements of each plant. Let us know what you 
intend to plant, and we will name your special compositions. Write for our new 
booklet "The Farmers Friend," for 1909. 

THE PACIFIC GUANO & FERTILIZER COMPANY 

26SE Market St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



TREES 



GRAPE VINES 



YOUR ORDER PLEASE. 

Write us if In the market for 

APPLES, PEARS, PEACHES, APRICOTS, PLUMS, PRUNES, 
ALMONDS, FIGS, WINE, RAISIN AND TABLE GRAPES. 

We grow our stock on New Virgin soli Insuring a healthy growth. Our prices always 
right. Send for Descriptive Catalogue, also Souvenir Picture of the Largest Tree In the 

World. All Free. Address: 

XHEC FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. Wilson, Proprietor, .... Fresno, Cal., Box 615. 



ENCINAL NURSERIES 

SPECIALTIES! Franqnettc Walnut, grafted on Black Walnut root. Absolutely 

genuine. 

\V I«t Walaut. — Wewi The largest, most prolific, and youngest hearer known. 

Twelve nuts grown on a one yeiir tree in nursery row. placed side by side, measure 
22 inches; each measuring 5 »4 to 6% inc hes in circumference. Thin shell, blight re- 
sistant. Fully tested for years. Limited stock of grafting wood and trees. 

F, c. Wll,l,s<)\, l'riip. Sunnyvale, Simla Clara County, Cal. 



GRAFTED VINES NOW READY FOR DELIVERY 

PLANT EARLY AND GET A PERFECT STAND. 

20,000 Zinlandel on St. George. 15,000 Alicante Bouschet on St. George. 

Price $60 per 1000. 

JOHN SWETT &. SON, Martinez, Cal. 



| RHODES DOUBLE CUT 

.PRUNING SHEAR 




""THE only 
* pruner 
made that cut* 
(torn both sides of 
the limb and does not 
bruise I he bark. Made in 
•11 styles and sizes. We 
pay Express charges 
on all orders. 
Write for 
circular and 
prices. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Large Stock— All Varieties 
Hardy and Selected Rapid Growers 
Write for free Illustrated booklet. 
LLOYD R. TAYLOR, Modesto, Oal. 



January 16, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



47 



SIX of the Most Valuable 
New Fruits 

EVER INTRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA. 

"IMPROVEB FRENCH" PRUNE. Origi- 
nated by Luther Burbank. 

"CONCORD" WALNUT. French variety. 
Grafted trees only. Better than 
Franquette or Mayette. 

"PAUL" CHERRY. Finest black cherry. 

"PHILIPPI" GRAPE. Handsomer than To- 
kay; a month earlier. Disinfected 
cuttings only for sale; to comply 
with quarantine regulations. 
All these, like Mulr, Lovell, and Phillips 

Cling peaches, are of California origin. 

"COMET" RED CURRANT. Much larger 
earlier and sweeter than any other. 

"MAY-DUKE" GOOSEBERRY. Earliest of 
all; large, smooth skin. 

WRITE FOR FURTHER PARTICULARS 



EUCALYPTUS TREES, 

by the 1000 or 100,000; no stronger stock: 
grown in the open, without lath screen or 
shade; therefore hardened to all weather. 



GENERAL NURSERY STOCK 



LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO., Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. INCORPORATED 1905. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara County, Cal. 




PLANTS - BULBS - TREES 

New 1909 
CATALOGUE 

JUST OFF THE PRESS 



116 pages, fully Illustrated, contains informa- 
tion of value to planters. 

General facts about seeds, plants, bulbs, 
flowers and trees; when and how to plant, 
the best garden tools, etc. Sent free on 
request. Write for copy. 

Germain 

SEED AND PLANT CO. 

Dipl. D. LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNIA 



THE SEED HOUSE OF THE 
GREAT SOUTHWEST 

Headquarters for Ranchers, Garden- 
ers, Nurserymen and Poultrymen. 



A SPECIAL EUCALYPTUS DEPARTMENT. 



Write for catalog 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO., 

113-115 N. Main St., Lot Angeles, Cal. 

Now is the Time for Ordering Trees. 

We have a large lot of EUCALYPTUS, 
CYPRESS, PINE TREES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of ORNAMENT- 
AL TREES AND SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
GREEN AND DECIDUOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS, DRACENA, ROSES, ERI- 
CAS, CAMELLLIAS, AZALEAS, RHODO- 
DENDRON, FRUIT TBEES and BEKHV 
BUSHES. 



THE PACIFIC NURSERIES, 
3041 Baker Street, - - San Francisco, 

And Millbrae, Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Rural Press. 



IMPROVED BERRY PLANTS 

Strawberry, Raspberry, Blackberry, Dew- 
berry, Logan, Phenomenal, Mammoth Bluok 
and Giant Himalaya berry planttt. Crim- 
son Winter Rhubarb. Send for Catalog. 

G. H. HOPKINS & SON 

BURBANK. CAL. 

Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW. Lincoln Avenue. San Jose. Cal. 



pense of the commission was $3837 and 
the receipts $10,877. The principal work 
for the month was fumigating orange 
trees. Deciduous fruit growers will soon 
commence spraying with Bordeaux mix- 
ture for the blight and leaf curl. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Two million pounds less of hops were 
consumed in the United States during 
1908 than during the preceding year. 

The 350 acres of cabbages in the Coach- 
ella valley are making good growth, and 
the prospects for a good an early crop 
are fine. 

In the southern part of the State buy- 
ers claim there is plenty of hay in the 
country, but that the fanners are hold- 
ing for higher prices. 

All the seed growers in the Gilroy sec- 
tion predict a good growing season for 
the coming spring, based on the present 
condition of the soil. 

About hall" of the Maine potato crop is 
yet in the hands of the growers. One 
county (Arostook) raised about 13,000,000 
bushels of spuds last year. 

The demand for seed at Corcoran is the 
heaviest ever known there and with a 
favorable season an immense quantity of 
grain and hay will be raised in that vi- 
cinity. 

The rains since the first of the year 
have placed the ground in fine shape for 
growing crops. As most of the grain has 
been seeded the prospects are fine for good 
yields. 

Owing to the competition between the 
two sugar factories, the Sacramento Val- 
ley Sugar Co. and the Alameda Sugar Co., 
the acreage to be devoted to this crop the 
coming season in the Sacramento valley 
will be largely increased. 

Several hundred acres are to be planted 
to potatoes this year on land near Shreve- 
port, La., which had to be given up for 
cotton growing owing to the boll weevil. 
Potatoes from that locality will be ready 
to market two weeks sooner than Arkan- 
sas or Oklahoma spuds. 

LIVE STOCK. 

According to the State Board of Health 
it is unlawful to feed the meat of tubercu- 
losis cattle to chickens and hogs. 

I. W. Hellman, owner of the Alamitos 
ranch, in Los Angeles county, is stocking 
it with high-grade sheep and cattle. 

F. A. Cowee, a dairyman from near 
Gridley, is receiving $135 per month from 
the milk of thirteen cows. His feed con- 
sists of alfalfa grown on the place. 

Prof. W. L. Carlyle has been appointed 
superintendent of the stock department of 
the Alaska-Yukon Pacific Exposition to 
be held at Seattle from September 27 to 
October 9. 

Cattle receipts at the Portland Union 
Stock Yards were very light last week, 
the prices of $4.75 for top steers not being 
tempting to shippers. Higher prices will 
doubtless he had from now on. 

The beekeepers' associations of the 
State will ask an appropriation of $2500 
from the legislature to be used in carry 
ing on the investigation of bee diseases 
and to prevent diseased bees [rom being 
sent into the State. 

A pitched battle between a gang of cat- 
tle thieves and a vigilante committee took 
place near the boundary line south of San 
Diego last week. Several of the cattle 
rustlers were killed and the gang is 
thought to be broken up. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

A box factory is to be erected at Red- 
ding. 

A local chapter of the Grange was or- 
ganized at Visalia this week. 

A new alfalfa mill is being erected near 



Tehama, and will be ready to handle the 
spring crop. 

A section of land three miles from Wil- 
lows, owned by F. N. Lutts, is to be placed 
under irrigation and subdivided for set- 
tlers. 

The old Fair ranch in the Sacramento 
valley, consisting of 9700 acres, is to be 
reclaimed and placed under irrigation and 
cut up into small tracts. 

The Pomona Grange of Santa Clara 
county and all the subordinate granges of 
the county held joint installation services 
at Mountain View last Saturday. 

An effort will be made to have the pres- 
ent legislature pass a law reducing the 
bag limit of ducks from thirty-five to 
twenty-five and to prohibit market hunt- 
ing. 

Marysville is asking the State legisla- 
ture to pass an appropriation to build the 
State Fair buildings on ground to be do- 
nated near that city. Sacramento is not 
favoring the project. 

The raisin growers' pool of Fresno and 
Kings counties has discovered that it can- 
not carry through their proposed seeding 
and packing contracts, as the Cartwright 
anti-trust law stands in the way. The 
legislature is to be asked to repeal the 
law. 

A meeting of the South San Joaquin 
irrigation district members was recently 
held at Stockton, and it was decided to 
give each of the five sub-districts repre- 
sentation on the board of five members 
each. The proposed district as a whole 
contains 00,000 acres. 

A meeting of the wine growers of the 
State was held last week, and the new 
bill piepared by Senator Perkins to le- 
galize the use of sweet wines in the manu- 
facture of patent medicines was approved. 
If the bill becomes a law it will add sev- 
eral million dollars to the wine grape 
growers of California. 

Orange county, the smallest in the State, 
produced $9,000,000 worth of products 
last year, nearly all this wealth coming 
from the irrigated sections. The hay and 
grain crops were valued at $750,000, 
celery at $402,000, oranges and lemons 
over $1,250,000, walnuts nearly $1,000,000, 
dairy products and live stock over $1,- 
000,000. 

FRUIT TREES TREES OF ALL KINDS 

We make a Specialty ol Muir Peaches. 
Bartlett Pears, French Prunes, 
and the Commercial Smyrna Figs 

Send In list of your wants and get our prices 
before writing elsewhere. 

MAY WOOD COLONY NURSERY COMPANY 
W. Herbert Samson. Prop., Corning, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 

Logan, Mammoth. Phenomenal, and 
Himalaya berry plants. Send for prices to 

R. J. HUNTER 

Oak View Berry Farm 

GRIDLEY, CAL. 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

Large Assortment. Ail Varieties. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS. 

Transplanted in tlats 100 each. 
Write lor prices, giving amount wanted. 

W. A. KEINHOLDLT 
Main Street Nursery, - - - - Petaluma, Cal. 



Nitrate of Soda 

Nitrate Sold in Original Bags 
NITRATE AGENCIES CO. 

64 Stone Street, New York 
Keyter Building. Baltimore, Md. 
36 Bay Street, East. Savannah, Ga. 
305 Baronne Street, New Orleans, La. 

140 Dearborn Street, Chicago, III. 
Holcombe & Co., 24 California Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 
603-4 Oriental Block. Seattle. Wash. 



Address Office Nearest Toa 

Orders for All Quantities Promptly 

Filled— Write for Quotations 




Greater productiveness of treea 
—larger, cleaner, and finer fruit 
— more money. Isn't that fruit 
growers' reasoning? Nothing 
will contribute to this end more 
than effective spraying. And 
Effective Spraying can best be 
attained with 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

Effective spraying means 
High Pressure Spraying and 

till the advent of the Bean 
Magics a high pressure could not 
be maintained with a hand pump 
for any length of time, on account 
of the body-racking effort 
needed to operate it. The Bean 

Eatent spring divides the work 
etween the two strokes of the 
handle and works against only 
one-half the pressure shown on 
the gauge and saves exactly 
one-third the labor. 

Our illustrated catalog No. 21 de- 
scribes ten sizes of hand pumps, and 
contains much valuable spray infor- 
mation, and formulas. Catalog No. 
22 describes Power Sprayers. Both 
books sent free. Write for our spe- 
cial offer; state number of acres and 
kind of fruit. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO. 

211 West Julian Street 
San Jose, Cal. 



If yon would 
get the largest yield 
yourground will give, plant" , 
Gregory's Seeds. Always sold 
under three warrants. Here's one 
of the specials we offer this yearj 

EARLY MORN PEA^, 
the earliest, largest ^£ s cettVJ 
podded pea Known, aaTaW rVr^-ED.. 
Quality of the best. 
SEED BOOK FREE 
Our new Seed Book sent to 
anyone. Write to-day. 

J; J.N. GBEBSB.T t SOI. 

marblehud. nisi. 




There is 
scarcely any limit to the 
possible improvement in seeds, 
but it takes time and money. We have 
been improving flower and vegetable 
seeds for over 50 years. More than 2000 
people are working to make Ferry's 
Seeds suit you. Buy the best— Ferry's. 
For sale everywhere. 
HHRVS 1909 SEED ANNUAL 

FREE ON REQUEST. 
D. M. FERRY 4 CO., Detroit, Mich. 

SEEDS 



CRIMSON WINTER RHUBARB 

Now Ik good time to plant pedigreed plants only. 
81.00 per doz; 86 per 100; 840 per 1000. 

All kinds or small fruit and berry plants, 

J. B. WAGNER, Pasadena, Cal. 

The Ithuharb and Herry .Specialist Dept. I. 

French Prunes on I 'each 
and Apricots, Mulrs and 
Tuscan Clings, and many 
other varieties of reach 
'trees; all fine budded 
stock. I, urge stock of all 
the leading varieties of Apples, grafted on whole 
roots and rive from all pests. Also a line stock of 
Cherries, I'ears, l'lums, etc. Send for price list. 
A. E. SCHEI DECKER, Sevastopol. Cal. 

I'rop. Pleasant View Nursery. 



Trees 



48 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 16, 198»! 



The Vineyard. 

THE SHIPPING GRAPES OF 
ALMERIA. 



Written for the Pacific Ruhai, Press 
By Prof. P. T. Bioi.ktti 

Many attempts have been made to grow 
the Ohanez, or grape of Almeria, in Cali- 
fornia. None of these attempts has been 
a commercial success. Usually the vine 
has failed to produce satisfactory crops. 
In the cooler regions the climate is un- 
settled, and in the hotter unsuitable meth- 
ods of training and pruning have been 
adopted. 

An interesting account of the growing 
of this grape in Spain has recently ap- 
peared, and it offers some suggestions 
which may be of value in California. It 
has been proved experimentally that this 
vine can be made to produce large crops 
of grapes by appropriate pruning in the 
upper San Joaquin valley, and it seems 
likely that it could be grown with suc- 
cess commercially, both there and in 1m 
perial county. On rich irrigated land, 
if the vines are planted 8 by 10 feet and 
trained on the unilateral cordon system 
with two wires, there is little doubt that 
in the hottest grape regions good crops 
could be obtained. The grape has such 
superior shipping qualities that with our 
Californian methods of packing we could 
place the grapes in New York in perfect 
condition without the use of cork dust. 

The following is a partial translation 
of the article by M. Poirier which ap- 
peared in a recent number of the Revue 
de Viticulture: 

From Malaga to the Cape of Gata the 
plains bordering the sea produce sugar 
cane, sugar beets, grapes and almonds. 
The adjoining hilly regions produce 
grapes and olive oil. The grape of Oha- 
nez, known all over the world, is pro- 
duced principally on the plain of Al- 
meria. The soil here is covered with a 
compact calcareous crust of Quarternary 
origin, sometimes resembling a conglome 
rate. It has been necessary by means 
of blasting to break this shell, which va 
ries from one to four feet in thickness, 
in order to reach the sandy, micaceous 
soil, fairly rich in humus and more or less 
gravelly, which lies beneath, and which 
is admirably suited to the growth of vines 
in "parales". 

This whole country is a mass of verdant 
vegetation. The vine ripens its fruit on 
a horizontal trellis work placed 10 feet 
above the ground, and whose meshes are 
about 20 inches square. The vines are 
planted 15 to 20 feel apart. The vigor of 
the young vines is so great that they 
reach the trellis the first year. The 
trunks, from which the old bark is care- 
fully removed, then branch into three or 
four arms, bearing from 10 to 20 fruit 
canes for each vine. These fruit canes 
are from 3 to 5 feet long and are tied to 
the trellis. During the winter beans or 
potatoes are grown beneath the vines. 
The "parales" are always established in 
irrigable land. As a rule two or three 
irrigations are given, the first in March, 
at the starting of the buds; the second at 
the end of May, after blossoming, and the 
third in July, when the grapes commence 
to ripen. Instead of the "parales," the 
unilateral cordon system of training is 
sometimes adopted, very long fruit canes 
bent in a circle or even a double circle 
being left. 

At present, phylloxera has spread 
throughout the province. On the plain, 
Riparia gloire is used as a resistant stock 
and in the calcareo-silicious hill soils the 
Hupestris du Lot and the Aramont Ru- 
pestris No. 1 are giving good results. 

The grape known as the Uva de Casta, 
ripening in July, is grown, and supports 



the journey of eight or ten days to Lon- 
don. The principal variety, however, is 
the large fruited, golden yellow Uva de 
Ohanez or Kmbarque. The Ohanez is 
grown in many parts of Spain, and has 
been seen by the author in good condition 
on the vines as late as Easter, at Gijona, 
near Alicante. The Molinera Gorda is a 
remarkable variety, with superb bunches 
and rose colored berries. The Rozada is 
also a valued variety. All these varieties 
have a common characteristic, in that the 
firm crisp pulp adheres strongly to the 
thick tough skin. It is to this character- 
istic that they owe their keeping and 
shipping qualities and the resistance to 
hard usage which has made it possible to 
ship them to all parts of the world. 

During the blossoming period, which is 
very short, the operation of "engarpe" or 
artificial pollination is practiced. These 
varieties are much subject to coulure, es- 
pecially the Ohanez, which has very short 
stamens. Wild vines, called "fiores," 
which produce abundant pollen, are 
planted here and there throughout the 
vineyard. The Aramont Rupestris No. 1 
has also been employed successfully for 
the same purpose. Even with these pre- 
cautions, however, artificial pollination 
is found indispensable, and is carried out 
by band with considerable labor. 

During the blossiming the shoots are 
pinched off at four or five leaves above 
the bunch. The varieties grown are some- 
what subject to cryptogamic diseases, and 
:the "parales" system of training makes 
treatment difficult. The crop can be much 
increased by fertilization and more irri- 
gation, but the keeping qualities of the 
grapes are impaired. The average crop is 
estimated at nine tons to the acre. At 
the commencement of the vineyard work 
!the English merchants, who buy two- 
thirds of the crop, advance the growers 5 
pesetas per barrel. 

Exportation commences about the end 
jof August, the grapes being packed in 
barrels weighing 62 pounds gross and no.fi 
pounds net, representing 2 arrobas of 
grapes. The arroba is about 16 liters. The 
barrels, which cost 15c. not made up. are 
[of Italian or American oak. Certain 
white Spanish woods, and latterly pine, 
are also used. The hoops, of chestnut, 
come from Italy. 

The grapes are packed in coarse cork 
dust from which all humidity and fine 
dust have been removed. For the two 
[million barrels which are annually ex- 
ported from Almeria is needed 3000 tons 
of cork dust, which costs on the average 
2% cents per pound. 

Of Uva de Casta, 150,000 barrels are ex- 
ported, selling this year at $1 to $1.50. 
'The Ohanez is sold in England for from 
75 cents to $2.50, and in America for from 
$2 to $4. Lately the acreage has been 
much increased, and the increasing expor- 
tation reached two million barrels this 
year. The overstocking of the markets 
often results in decreased prices, and the 
packing methods, which are capable of 
much improvement, sometimes lead to 
[serious losses. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grafted or grown from carefully selected 
:seed. Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 

SPECIAL LOW PRICE 

on Apple and Peach trees, Thompson 
^Seedless and Zinfandel rooted Grape 
Vines, and assortment of Berry Vines. 
.Write us for prices, stating quantity 
desired. 

GRIDLEY COLONY NURSERY, Gridley, Cal. 




"THE MAN WITH THE HOE" 

SHOULD SOW 

MORSE SEEDS 

ALWAYS RELIABLE 

Our new general Catalogue is now ready 
for mailing and will be found of great value 
to the planters of 

SEEDS, PLANTS AND TREES 

This Catalogue is the finest we have ever issued and will 
be mailed free to all who write us. 

C. C. MORSE & CO. 



IF IN THE CITY CALL AT 

Retail Store: 
125-127 MARKET ST. 

(Opposite Junction with California.) 



WHEN WRITING ADDRESS US AT 

44 Jackson Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



PACIFIC SEED CO., T 

ikindsof sf-eils. bulbs, onion sets, urass, clover, al- 
falfa seeds. fiOM J . St., Sacramento, Cal. Send 
for catalogue. 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

AND GENERAL NURSERY STOCK. 

Large supply of Peach trees, Ornamental trees, 
Ornamental plants, and Rose bushes, 
in large quantities. 



WRITE US FOR PRICE LIST AND DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 



ORANGE COUNTY NURSERY & LAND CO. 



FULLERTON, CAL. 

BRANCH NURSERIES: 



Riverside, Cal. 



Corcoran, Cal. 



THE MARSHALL NURSERIES 

FOR FRUIT TREES, GRAPEVINES, 
PALMS, ROSES. 

FULL LINE OF EVERYTHING GROWN BY US. 

S. W. Marshall & Son, Nurserymen. 

BOX 652, FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 



KIR KM AN NURSERIES 

WHOI.KSAI.K (iROWKKS OF 

Deciduous Fruit Trees and Grape Vines 

RELIABLE STOCK AND LOWEST PRICES 

Main Office, FRESNO, CAL. Box 604 B 

BRANCHES AT MERCED AND TURLOCK 



GRAPE VINES, BERRIES AND ROSES 

Ornamental, Shade and Deciduous Fruit Trees. 
A Good Class of General Nursery Stock. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

CHICO NURSERY COMPANY, Chico, California. 



Grafted Walnut Trees 

On Black, Soft-shell and Resistant Roots. 
Seedling's, Citrus, Deciduous, Berry Bushes, etc. 

A. R. RIDEOUT, MAGNOLIA NURSERY, WHITTIER, CAL. 



January It,, 1900. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



4 



ORDERS FOR 

PEACH TREES 

PROMPT DELIVERY OF 

MUIRS 

LOVELLS 

PHILLIPS 

TUSCANS 

ELBERTAS 

IN 

2 to 3 feet. 
18 to 24 inches. 
12 to 18 inches. 

6 to 12 inches. 

Sizes INSURED by Ordering NOW. 



Are making CARLOAD shipments 
WEEKLY. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

Salem, Oregon. 



TREES 

Peach Trees 



In connection with our large as- 
sortment of Nursery Stock, we have 
a surplus of extra choice, bright, 
thrifty, well-rooted stock in Muir, 
Lovell, Phillip and Tuscan Cling and 
Elberta Peaches, all grades, includ- 
ing 4 to 6, 3 to 4. 2 to 3 foot and 18 
to 24, 12 to 18 and 6 to 12 inch stock. 

Shipments made promptly. 

CAPITAL CITY NURSERY CO., 
Salem, Oregon. 



PEACHES 



OREGON GROWN 



65,000 Elberta 
35,000 Lovell 
10,000 Muir 
12,000 Phillips 
1 0,000 Tuscan 



All grades. Special prices 
in large quantities. Write 
today. 



ALBANY NURSERIES 

ALBANY, OREGON. 



STANISLAUS 
NURSERY 

Pormerly Analy Nursery, of Sebastopol. 

T. J. TRUE, Modesto, R. D. 1 

PRICE LIST ON APPLICATION 



TREES 



SCALY BARK GUM DISEASE. 



(Continued From Page 

soil and other conditions the grower must 
endeavor to maintain uniform moisture 
rather than to allow the soil to become 
alternately wet and dry. Frequent exam- 
ination of the soil by digging to a con- 
siderable depth in different parts of the 
orchard will be found a most profitable 
practice when there is any uncertainty 
as to the moisture conditions. 

The individual treatment of affected 
trees may proceed on much the same lines 
as that described for gummosis. It is 
useless, however, to attempt to cut out or 
strip off the affected bark if the disease 
is far advanced. When the scaly areas 
are still small they may be cut out, tak- 
ing care to cut all the discolored tissue 
around the edges, particularly at the up- 
per end. The wound may then be covered 
with the wax previously described. Where 
large areas of scaly bark exist on the tree 
it is useless to try to cut them out, and 
in most cases it is practically impossible 
to do anything for permanent benefit. If 
the condition is not too bad, the scaly 
areas may be scraped to take off the 
rough bark, leaving the green inner bark, 
most of which is alive. A few slits may 
be cut through this to allow the escape 
of the gum, and the place then painted 
over with some softened substance, such 
as a one-tenth solution of potash or neat's- 
foot oil. The worst affected trees may 
profitably be pulled out and new ones 
planted in their places, after first work- 
ing over the soil deeply to make sure that 
no injurious condition, such as hardpan 
or large rocks, exists at that point. Fre- 
quently an affected tree can be cut off 
near the ground below the scaly bark 
areas, and upon the sprouts which come 
up buds can be inserted, and a new tree 
can be obtained more quickly than by 
replanting. If these sprouts come from 
above the original point of budding, no 
rebudding will of course be necessary. 



LOOK OUT FOR THE RECOIL. 



We do not do much large tree trans- 
planting in California, because young 
trees grow so fast, but still the following 
story, with a sylvicultural moral, is inter- 
esting. Under the direction of Arthur 
Pettit on Long Island, N. Y., four Italians 
were at work transplanting trees from the 
Jamaica estates to the Garden City es- 
tates. They had got the dirt all removed 
from around the roots of an elm, and by 
ropes which had been previously fastened 
around the upper branches the four men 
pulled the big tree slowly to the ground. 

The roots, although uncovered, were 
still deep in the soil, and the trunk of the 
tree bent like a huge bow until its upper 
branches touched the ground. The Ital- 
ians held it there and Pettit sprang among 
the branches to oversee the rest of the 
work. He gave an order to free the 
roots. 

Instead of one man obeying it, all four 
men dropped the rope together and 
started for the other end of the trunk. 
They had scarcely taken a step, however, 
when the tree snapped back upright like 
a catapult and Pettit was seen flying 
through the air like a stone from a sling. 
He alighted 40 feet away, while the tree 
swayed back and forth. Pettit was sense- 
less from the shock of the fall. Besides 
suffering from shock, he was found to be 
injured internally. 



MODESTO NURSERY. 
Complete Line of Citrus and Deciduous 
TREES, 

BERRIES, VINES AND ORNAMENTAL STOCK. 

Write for PRICES NOW. 
SHERLOCK & CAItDWKLL, Modesto, Cal. 
liox 272. 



TREES 



TRUE TO 
NAME 



AND 



Propagated from the Best 
Specimens of Their Kind 

TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS 

PLACER NURSERIES 



(ESTABLISHED 1878) 



Our assortment comprises all the best com- 
mercial varieties of 



Peaches 

Plums 

Pears 



Apricots 
Almonds 
Cherries 



Apples 
Persimmons 
Grapes, Etc. 



and our stock is the best that years of experience, care in selec- 
tion and care in growing can produce. That is what you want. 



ORDER NOW 



WRITE US 



Catalogue and price list mailed on application. 

THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CALIFORNIA. 



Agents Wanted. 



TREES 



PLANTS 



BULBS 



If you are interested in the best seed, etc., etc., write for our l!)l)9 Seed and 
Plant Annual, which will be mailed to you Free. 

Trumbull Seed Company 

(SUCCESSOB TO TRUMBULL & BEE BE) 

61 California St., - - San Francisco. 

1'leasc mention this paper. 



% Million Eucalyptus Trees (in variety.) 

Transplanted in Hats of 100 each. We prefer orders of 1,000 rather 
than 10,000; outside limit 20,000. Our trees are of the highest standard 
in quality. Correspondence invited. Our Booklet telling when, how, and 
what to plant free to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Nurseryman, Petaluma, Cal. 



SMYRNA P ARK NURSERIES 

Trees, Vines, Plants all kinds and varieties. 

Let us know quantity wanted and we will give you special prices on same. 



CAMPIN & MOFFET 



Ceres, Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Growers ol Commercial and Ornamental Eucalypti. 

k KMT KIN A KKMTKIN, KKMTKIN BROS., 

Modesto Kiic. Nursery Vlgnolo Kuc. Nursery 

Modesto, Cal. Anaheim, Cal. 



50 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 16, 1909. 



Apiculture. 



ORGANIZATION OF THE CALI- 
FORNIA CENTRAL COAST 
BEEKEEPERS' ASSO 
CIATION. 



Written for the PACIFIC Ri rai. Pkkss 
By Ralph Berth? of the University 

of California. 
As a result of the interest aroused in 
beekeeping matters in the Central coast 
counties at the recent Farmers' Institute 
for Beekeepers, held at Monterey Decem- 
ber 28 and 29, a new district association 
was organized, to be known as the Cali 
fomia Central Coast Beekeepers' Associa 
lion. The counties embraced in this new 
organization are Monterey, San Benito, 
Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, San Mateo, San 
Francisco. Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, 
Napa and Sonoma. All beekeepers within 
these counties are invited to become mem- 
bers. When the final meeting for the 
election of permanent officers and the 
adoption of by-laws takes place next 
month it is hoped that vice-presidents will 
be selected in each county, so that each 
county will not only have a representative 
on the board of directors, but so that each 
county will have a local official repre- 
sentative of the association with whom 
beekeepers can communicate in their re- 
spective counties. Temporary officers 
were selected to hold office until the elec- 
tion of permanent officers at the coming 
meeting as follows: President, Vernon 
Townsend, Soledad, Monterey county; 
vice-presidents, .1. Whitam, King City, 
Monterey county, Ed Smith, Hollister, 
San Benito county, Patrick Keating, New 
Almaden, Santa Clara county, W. A. Pryal, 
College avenue, near 59th, Oakland, Ala- 
meda county, and N. S. Stewart, Danville, 
Contra Costa county; and secretary, K. F. 
Iienneken, Monterey, Monterey county. 
li<ckeepers interested in the association 
movement, and we take it this means of 
course all beekeepers, are requested to 
communicate with the nearest temporary 
officer of the association in regard to mem 
bership and suggestive matters to be con- 
sidered at the final meeting for organiza- 
tion in the near future. Some of our 
coast counties have county entomologists 
and these officers will be glad to receive 
names of beekeepers. They are: W. H. 
Volck, Watsonville, entomologist, Santa 
Cruz and Monterey counties; Earl Morris. 
San Jose, entomologist Santa Clara 
county; and J. S. Hunter, San Mateo, en- 
tomologist San Mateo county. 

Monterey county is the only county in 
the district having an inspector of apia- 
ries, Mr. K. M. Henneken holding that 
office. Mr. Henneken's address is Monte- 
rey, and he will no doubt be glad to com- 
municate with beekeepers in regard to 
joining the association or upon other bee 
keeping matters. 

One of the principal topics receiving at 
tention at the gathering of beekeepers at 
Monterey was the subject of bee diseases. 
This subject was approached in its vari 
ous aspects, of causes, symptoms and 
treatments of the several diseases com 
mon to bees. Many of the coast counties 
are infected with the most dreaded of all 
bee diseases, that of foul brood. This is 
a specific bacterial disease, is very conta- 
gious, and its ravages, when once infec- 
tion of an apiary in a community occurs, 
are inestimable unless protective meas- 
ures are promptly taken with a view to 
eradication. The insidious nature of the 
disease is realized when it is borne in 
mind that it is a disease of the brood of 
bees, and as such it attacks the colony at 
one of Its most vital points, namely, the 
young. The life of an ordinary bee is but 
six weeks in the working season to per 
haps six months in the less active win 



ter season, and so a disease in any way 
seriously impairing the rearing in rapid 
succession of a series of young broods, 
strikes at a most vital point in the exist- 
ence of the colony. 

As a result of the discussions on foul 
brood and other diseases of bees, and es- 
pecially as a result of the review of spe- 
cial local problems in the matter of the 
control of bee diseases, a resolution simi- 
lar to the one passed by the Northern 
California Beekeepers' Association at its 
ecent meeting in Sacramento, and pub 
lished in the issue of the Pacific Ri rai. 
Pkkss for January 9, pages 29 and 30, was 
introduced and passed, receiving the 
unanimous support of the beekeepers of 
the coast counties present. Copies of these 
resolutions are being circulated among 
the beekeepers of the several counties in 
the central coast district, and every bee- 
keeper should see to it that he gets his 
name on one of these resolutions in the 
interest of the beekeeping industry in 
California. 

The time and place for the meeting of 
the association in the coast counties will 
be duly announced in these columns when 
it is settled upon, and all beekeepers are 
urged to have the meeting in mind and to 
work for its success. If you have any ideas 
n regard to organization or lines of prof- 
itable cooperative efforts, communicate 
them with some one of the officers, for 
they are looking for such suggestions, and 
it is the duty of all concerned with the 
California Central Beekeepers' Associa- 
tion to be of service to all beekeepers in 
the territory it covers. 



NORTHERN APPLE PRIZES. 



Michael Horan, an orchardist of We- 
natchee, was awarded a prize of $1000 for 
the best apple carload exhibit at the Na 
tional Apple Show held recently in Spo- 
kane. II. M. Gilbert of North Yakima, 
formerly president of the Washington 
Horticultural Association, was given the 
second prize of $500 for a car containing 
70.5G0 Winesap apples. Messrs. Kress & 
Carey of Montana received the third prize 
of $200 for the best car of Mcintosh Reds. 

Horan will receive almost $8000 for his 
carload exhibit. In addition to the $1000 
prize, he won a prize of $200 offered by 
W. T. Clark, and $225 from a spraying 
company. James J. Hill, chairman of the 
board of the Great Northern Railway Co., 
and Louis W. Hill, president of that sys- 
tem, have brought 150 boxes for $1500. 

The fruit bought from Horan is to be 
sent to New York and Boston for exhibi 
tion, afterward going to London. King 
Edward and members of the House of 
Lords are to receive boxes of apples as 
presents. 

About $33,300 was given in premiums 
to growers in other competitions, repre- 
senting practically every apple belt in the 
country. The Wenatchee district carried 
off the majority of first prizes, including 
one for the largest perfect apple. 



AN APPRECIATION OF "CALI- 
FORNIA FRUITS." 



A Fresno county purchaser writes: 

"1 wish to express my profound satis 
faction with your new edition of 'Califor 
nla Fruits.' It is at once a study and a 
delight for months to come. My orchard 
partner has read your chapter on 'Prun 
ing' six times, and he is a practical or- 
chardist of years of experience in this 
and the Santa Clara valleys. 

"We shall hope that a reprint of your 
equally valuable work on California 
Vegetables' will soon appear." 

Our vanity leads us to conclude that 
the six readings were prompted by enjoy 
ment, and not required by the turgidity 
of the writing, and give thanks accord 
ingly. 




Oranges 
Olives 



Peaches 
Apricots 
Walnuts 
Figs 

New Cling Peach 

THE SIMS 



Grape Vines 
Rose Bushes 



Possesses all merits of Phil- 
lips Cling, without any of its 
faults. Fruit large to very large, 
almost perfectly round, skin 
golden yellow, of very fine tex- 
ture, firm ami rich, with excel- 
lent flavor and clear yellow to 
the pit. which is quite small. 
The canning qualities of this 

peach have Iteen fully deter- 
mined by several years of ac- 
tual trial, and we regard it as 
the very best clingstone, for 
canning, in existence today, and 
recommend that it be exten- 
sively planted. The following 
statement from Messrs. Griffin 
& Skelly Company, one of the 
prominent canning and dried 
fruit firms in California, hears 
out our statement as to the com- 
mercial value of til is peach, for 
which we predict a great future. 



Griffin & Skelley Company. 

lti California Street, 
San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 0, '08. 

Mr. Ceo. C. Roeding, Presi- 
dent, Fancher ('reek Nurseries, 
Fresno, Cal. — Dear Sir: Regard- 
ing the Sims Cling Peaches, 
samples of which were deliv- 
ered to our cannery at Fresno. 

We packed these samples and 
are most favorably impressed 
with them. We find the peaches 
lo he of fine texture, rich color 
and particularly fine flavor, and 
the best late Cling Peaches we 
have ever had in our cannery. 
They seem to ripen between the 
Orange Cling Peaches and the 
Phillips, and there has been aii 
urgent demand for Clings that 
would come in just at that time, 
as it would enable canners to 

materially increase their output 
of Cling Peaches, and we shall 
welcome the day when a suffi- 
cient quantity of these peaches 
is available for canning pur- 
poses. If we were planting to- 
day, we should certainly put 
out a considerable quantity of 
these Clings. Yours truly, 

Criffin & Skellev Co. 



Luther Burbank's New Creations 



FORMOSA, 
VESUVIUS AND 
SANTA ROSA 
PLUMS. 



RUTLAND PLUMCOT. 
PARADOX AND 
ROYAL 
WALNUTS. 



We are sole propagators and disseminators. Beautifully illustrated 
Burbank Booklet, containing colored plates and numerous half-tones, '20 
pages of descriptive matter, sent postpaid upon receipt of 25 cents. 



CAUMYRNA FIGS 

Without question we stand 
supreme in the production of 
Calimyrna Fig trees in America. 
The market is wide and the sup- 
ply of real genuine Calimyrna 
Figs very limited. The Cali- 
myrna Fig which originated 
with ns is the genuine Smyrna 
r?ig of Commerce and the only 
Pig that is worth while Plant- 
ing. 



CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURE 

The Fruit Grower's Guide 

By CEO. C. R01DIHQ New— lust Oil the Press 

120 pages, profusely illustrated, 
beautiful lithograph cover, color 
plates inside. This book fully 
describes various kinds of cit- 
rus, deciduous and ornamental 
trees, roses, vines, plants, palms, 
etc. Gives very valuable infor- 
mation about planting and ship 
ping. By far the best book of 
its kind ever published on the 
Pacific Coast. 

Milled Postpaid Upon Receipt of 25 Cents. 



ANNUAL PRICE CATALOGUE MAILED FREE. 

I Paid-Up Capital $200.000.00 1 

Fancher Creek Nurseries 

GEO. C ROEDING, President and Manager. 
P. 0. Box 18. FRESNO. CALIFORNIA. 



January 16, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



LOCATION OF BULLETIN SMYR- 
NA FIG TREES DESIRED. 



To the Editor: The Bureau of Plant In- 
dustry of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture desires the address of every fig 
grower in California who has one or more 
trees of the true Smyrna variety, distrib- 
uted by the San Francisco Bulletin in 1880, 
1882, the winter of 1882-83, or the winter 
of 1885-86. The original record showing 
the name and address of every subscriber 
who received Smyrna fig cuttings, that 
was preserved in the Bulletin office, un- 
fortunately perished in the San Fran- 
cisco fire. 

Investigation shows a considerable dif- 
ference in the quality of the figs of dif- 
ferent localities, especially in thickness 
of skin, in which respect none of the 
California figs yet examined are quite 
equal to the best imported fruit. It is 
well known that the finest imported figs 
are grown in a relatively small district 
in the foothills of the Meander valley in 
Asia Minor. 

The principal object of this request is 
to get in touch with the owners of any 
Smyrna fig trees growing in the foothill 
regions of the Sierra Nevadas or of the 
Coast range, in order to determine by 
trial whether it will prove possible to 
grow thin-skinned figs of the best qual- 
ity in this State. This may be consid- 
ered an open question, since the cooler 
summers and earlier rains at the higher 
altitudes may make the season too short 
for the proper ripening of the best Smyr- 
na figs. 

If any grower has one or more Smyrna 
fig trees that fail to bear, it is probably 
for want of the blastophaga or fertilizing 
insect. The undersigned, having under- 
taken to handle this matter for the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, will in proper 
season, June or July, depending upon the 
climate of the locality, send capri figs 
containing the insect in sufficient quan- 
tity to fertilize from one to three trees, 
free of any expense whatever, on condi- 
tion that the recipient will furnish for 
the Department of Agriculture a dozen 
specimens of his dried product for com- 
parison. 

Please address the undersigned, stating 
the size, age and number of trees, as well 
as the character of the soil and the alti- 
tude of the locality where grown. 

G. P. Rixfokd. 

1813 Pierce St., San Francisco. 



RAISIN POOL QUITS. 

John Fairweather of Fresno, chairman 
of the raisin pool, announced Tuesday 
that, owing to the refusal of the consoli- 
dated packers to handle the pooled crop, 
there was nothing to do but quit. The 
packers claim that, owing to the Cart- 
wright anti-trust law, they could not han- 
dle the crop. The disbandment of the 
pool means that each grower will be at 
liberty to sell his crop as best he can, and 
it is thought that many tons will soon be 
sent east in 50-pound boxes. The small 
stemmers throughout the State are being 
called into use, and already quite an 
amount of raisins has been sent out In 
this way. 



the State. The committee points out that 
much good would result from the forma- 
tion of an alliance among the producers 
of nuts in California, which in 1907 pro- 
duced 12,000,000 pounds of walnuts and 
2,000,000 pounds of almonds, and that or 
ganization would be simply in line with 
the tendency of the other horticultural 
and agricultural interests of the State. 



Acting on the suggestion of the Na- 
tional Nut Growers' Association, conveyed 
in a letter from the secretary of the or- 
ganization, J. F. Wilson of Poulan, Ga., 
the California Promotion Committee has 
taken up with those interested the idea 
of forming an organization among the 
nut growers of California to be styled the 
Nut Growers' Association of California 
or some similar title. It is expected that 
word will be received within the next 
two or three days from the Chamber of 
Commerce of Santa Barbara county about 
the views of the growers of that district 
which is one of the largest producers in 



GRANGE INSTALLATION. 



On Saturday the 2nd, the officers elect 
for the year 1909 of Dinuba, Orosi and 
Tulare Granges were duly installed by 
W. V. Griffith, Worthy Master of the State 
Grange, P. of H., California. 

Orosi Grange invited Dinuba and Tu- 
lare Granges to join them in a joint in- 
stallation of officers at their Grange Hall 
by Worthy Master Griffith. Bro. Griffith 
has just returned from attendance at the 
National Grange at Washington, D. C, 
and stopped over for the purpose of the 
joint installation. 

The installation ceremony when prop- 
erly done, as it was on this occasion, is 
quite impressive, and every officer of the 
three Granges was present and in his 
place. Sister Emily L. Burnham, Secre- 
tary of the State Grange of California, as- 
sisted in the installation. 

Worthy Master Griffith also organized 
a County Pomona Grange, with a member- 
ship of 52, and installed the officers. 

The meetings of Tulare County Pomona 
Grange will be held quarterly, and alter- 
nately in the halls of the three Granges. 
The first meeting will be in Tulare, on 
the 30th of this month. 

There was a fine attendance, about 150 
being present. Dinuba and Tulare 
Granges were the guests of Orosi Grange, 
which had provided and served well a 
most excellent dinner for all. The meet- 
ing, the good attendance and the organi- 
zation of a Pomona Grange is very en- 
couraging, as it will be the means of 
bringing together the members of the 
order and of unifying their work. 

The Worthy Master gave an interesting 
account of the National Grange. A vote 
of thanks was given Orosi Grange for its 
hospitality, and a vote was passed that 
the Delta Orchard of Bros. Thomas and 
Morphew Jacob is by all odds the most 
charming place for a picnic in Tulare 
county, and with their kindly fraternal 
permission and approval the Granges of 
Tulare county will next spring have a 
picnic there. J. T. 



SOWING ALFALFA WITH A 
DRILL. 



We discussed in the Pacific Rubal 
Press of July 11 last the possible advan 
tage of sowing alfalfa later in the season 
on land not so thoroughly pulverized, the 
seed to be brought up by irrigation. The 
use of a drill in this connection may be 
considered. We read Eastern accounts 
of the use of a drill as follows: 

The best way to sow alfalfa is to drill 
the seed in rows, and most growers pre 
fer to sow the seed in drills six inches 
apart, while with grain the farmer de 
sires to plant it in rows seven or eight 
inches apart. Most grain drills have the 
furrow openers set at an arbitrary width 
or distance from one furrow opened to 
the other. However, the Hoosier grain 
drill, manufactured by the American Seed- 
ing-Machine Co., Inc., Richmond, Ind., is 
an exception to the rule, because a farmer 
can change the spacing between the discs 
so as to plant his small grains eight 
inches apart, and then sow his alfalfa six 
inches between the rows. Two styles of 
force feeds are to be had— the double run 
internal or fluted— and they are positive 
in the handling of all known grains and 
seeds. The fluted feed is so constructed 
that it will sow alfalfa without extra at- 




eo 




Doubles the Yield 
of Barley 

Test it for Yourself Entirely Free 

Let us send sufficient Nitrate of Soda 
for you to try, asking only that you use 
according to our directions, and let us 
know the result. To the twenty-five farm- 
ers who get the best results, we offer, as 
a prize, Prof. Voorhees' most valuable book on fertilizers, 
their composition, and how to use for different crops. 
Handsomely bound, 327 pages. 

Apply at once for Nitrate of Soda by post-card, as' this offer is neces- 
sarily limited. t "Grass Growing for Profit." another book of useful 
information, will be sent free to farmers while the present edition lasts, 
it paper is mentioned in which this advertisement is seen. 

Send name and complete address on post-card 

Win. S. Myers, Director, John Street and 71 Nassau, New York 



FERTILIZE WITH 

Nitrate of Soda 



May be purchased in large or small lots irom 

R. A. HOLCOMBE & CO 

24 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Free Literature sent on application. 



tachments, by simply placing the seed in 
the large hoppers. Hoppers are large and 
roomy, with divided lids. 

If this claim proves valuable in han- 
dling alfalfa acreages, no doubt all drill 
manufacturers will render such adjust- 
ments available. 



GOLDEN RULE NURSERIES 

MRS. L. L. CROCKER, Proprietress 

Loomis, Cal. 

The celebrated Crocker Bartlett Pear, 
guaranteed immune from blight. 

Golden Rule Summer Apple, dormant 
buds. 

Crocker's New Free Peach, 50 cents 

each; 5,000 left. 
Deciduous Trees and Grape Vines. 



For 



Use 



EUCALYPTUS 

GROWN IN SUNSHINE 

with roots balled while growing In Mats. s:i\cs 
all roots; make sure success when removed to 
the Held and good growth the tlrst season. 

Sample lots at wholesale lates. Can take 
from flats and send In tight packages to save 
cost, risk and time. 



HENRY SHAW, 



320 River St. 



Santa Cruz, Cal. 



BARTLETT PEARS 

I have a large stock of Bartlett Hears 
that cannot be cxc . ll.-d for size and qual- 
ity, grown on whole roots one year Old. 
Prices reasonable. Those desiring In any 
quantity, address, 

H. I\ BACHUS, LAKBPORT, CAL, 



Onion Sets 12Jc. a Pound 

Special Prices on Larger Quantity. 

Headquarters for all kinds of Heeds. Catalogue 
upon request- fiike. 

NAVLET BROS., 520 K Street. Sacramento. Cal. 



The 



Ruehl-Wheeler Nursery 

Fruit, Ornamental and Cllru» Trees. 
Strong Field-Grown Rones. 
PHONE BOX 826 

BLUE 1396 SAN JOSE 



DUST SPRAY 

VIG0RITE BRAND 
HYDRATED LIME 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE HOLMES LIME CO., Inc. 

Mutual Savings Bank Building' 
San Francisco 

Write lor Samples and Prices 



THE "BOSS" 

TREE PROTECTOR 




MAIJK OK YUCCA 



• ILM. 



Is cheap, durable, and 
quickly put on the tree. It 
prevents rabbits from de- 
stroying your trees. A sure 
protection against in. si. 
sunburn, grasshoppers or 
dry winds. Can be easily 
removed; will last lor 
years. Send for samples. 



PRICKS 



1 U In. long. 
14 In long, 
16 In. long, 
18 in. long, 
24 In. long, 
31) In. long. 



I K.00 per 1(100 

10.00 per 1 I 

1 1.25 per 1000 

12.60 pet 

15.00 pel 



1000 
I 000 



I i 



,11 



AgClltM \\ II It I. 



Kl rri *\ here. 



YUCCA MANUFACTURING COMPANY 



I HMO Willow S'l 



.OS ANGELES, < LL. 



MAN, OH MAN!! 

Why do you neglect your orchards 
when WarnOCkB Remedy cures blight and 
all the tree diseases. Send for booklet. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERIES 
Loomis, Cal. 

AUENTS WANTED 

WANTED 

1000 Cuttings of Prarie Belle Wild Itose 
L0O0 Cuttings of Mlnette Wild Rose 

Address, J. S. WHITE, Jr., 
Holtville, Imperial Co., Cal. 



52 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



January lti, 19()!t 



Live Stock and Dairy. 

SHORT-HORN SALE. 

Written for the Pacific Rural Pbess 
By Lksi.ie W. Symmes. 

One of the largest and most representa- 
tive gatherings of stockmen it has been 
my pleasure to see in this State at an 
auction sale, attended the Special Combi- 
nation Sale of Short horns on January 5. 
The attendance of most of the important 
beef breeders and stockmen of this State 
was augmented by purchasers from Ore- 
gon, and Honolulu, T. H. Mr. H. F. Brown 
of Minneapolis, Minn., president of the 
American Short-horn Breeders* Associa- 
tion, and one of the oldest and most, suc- 
cessful Short-horn breeders in the coun- 
try, was introduced to the gathering and 
spoke a few words. Mr. Brown has been 
a breeder of Short-horns for 39 years, and 
has held 29 annual public sales. He be- 
lieves in the future of this region as a 
cattle producer. 

A vast territory is open to the stock- 
men of this Coast, as the constantly in- 
creasing demand for improved stock for 
the Orient and Mexico is already proving. 
One district in Mexico imported over 1000 
head of pure bred stock in the last year. 
Mr. Brown is the breeder of King Spicy. 
Kingalier, Ramsden Lad, and Pioneer. 
The sain must have had an added interest 
to Mr. Brown, as a large number of the 
animals were sired by bulls of his breed- 
ing. 

Altogether the sale was a decided suc- 
cess, both to purchasers and sellers, and 
it marks San Francisco as the center for 
cattle sales in the future. We understand 
that it will become an annual affair with 
the Howard Cattle Co., and we trust it 
will appeal to other breeders as well. The 
advantages we mentioned before were in- 
strumental in gathering together a num- 
ber of purchasers whom we are quite posi- 
tive would not have felt they could have 
attended if the sale had been held in the 
interior. 

English Lady l. r >th topped the sale, go- 
ing to Mr. J. W. Goodwin of San Fran- 
cisco for $510. She is a large red cow, 
out of English Lady 13th, by Topsman, 
with a red bull calf at foot by King Ed- 
ward. Ed Lancaster, a red yearling bull 
out of Imp. Lancaster Bride, by King Ed- 
ward, topped the bulls, and was also sold 
to J. W. Goodwin, for $450. This was 
probably the best bull in the sale, and one 
with great promise as a show bull and 
herd leader. 

Two young bulls of promise are Tule 
Boy and Tule King, being twins, out of 
Greenwood Mary by King Edward, and 
were calved January 22, 1908. The prin- 
cipal purchasers were J. W. Goodwin, 
president of the Estrella Ranch Co.; Wm. 
M. Newhall, owner of several ranches; H. 
A. Jastro, of the Kern County Land Co.; 
Geo. Chandler of Baker City, Ore.; Henry 
Cowell and T. B. Gibson, Rose Lawn 
Stock Farm, Woodland, Cal. 

Col. Geo. P. Bellows of Missouri came 
to the Coast to do the selling. The list 
of sales follows: 

COWS AND HEIFERS. 

Harrington Maid 2d 15710, red, calved 
February 15, 1907, Henry Cowell, San 
Francisco $105 

Diana Duchess, red, little white, calved 
September 5, 1905, G. Bloss, Atwater, 
Cal $100 

Barrington Maid 15709, red, calved De- 
cember 5, 1904, Sam Aftergut Co., San 
Francisco $185 

Favonia 2nd, roan, calved May 1, 1907; 
J. T. Dunne, Hollister $90 

Violet Queen, red, calved December 24, 
1901; J. W. Goodwin, San Fran- 
cisco $235 



Hopeful 84th, roan, calved February 27, 

190C; J. T. Dunne, Holister $86 

English Lady 15th, red, calved February 
16, 1902, and red bull calf at foot by 

King Edward; J. W. Goodwin $510 

Aster Duchess 3d 19120, red, calved Sep- 
tember 7, 1906; J. W. Goodwin $100 

Spicy 's Diana, red, calved March 20, 1904, 
and red cow calf at foot by The Lad for 
Everybody 2596G9; J. W. Goodwin. $150 
Greenwood Leaf 3G02S, roan, calved June 
5, 1907; Geo. Chandler, Baker City, 

Oregon $225 

Philomena 71st, red, calved May 16, 1904, 
and red cow calf at foot by Lovely 

Acher 290520; J. W. Goodwin $111) 

Philomena Duchess 9th, red, little white, 
calved December 23, 1907; J. W. Good- 
win $60 

Golden Rose 2d, red, little white, calved 
January S, 1907; J. W. Goodwin. . .$220 
Gustina 19122, red and white, calved Oc- 
tober 21, 1906; J. W. Goodwin $80 

Greenwood Maid 36029, red, calved Jan- 
uary 26, 1908; T. B. Gibson, Wood- 
land, Cal $155 

Miss Harold 34th, red, calved May 10, 

1904; J. W. Goodwin $100 

Harold Duchess 4th, red, calved January 

3, 1908; J. W. Goodwin $85 

Greenwood Queen 15714, red, calved 

March 10, 1907; S. H. Cowell $1 10 

Gustina 2nd 19123, roan, calved October 

23, 1906; J. W. Goodwin $75 

Lonella Valley View 3d 15716, red, calved 

January 10, 1907; S. H. Cowell $160 

Gustina 3rd 19124, red, calved October 31, 

1906; J. W. Goodwin $100 

English Lady 17th 36022, red, calved Sep- 
tember 3, 1907; L. W. Symmes, San 

Francisco $150 

Perfection Lass, red, calved February 21, 
1905; J. W. Goodwin $1S0 

BULLS. 

Marksman 303754, red, calved June 15, 
1907; Jerger Bros., Clarksville, Cal. $150 

Hano 276495, red, little white, calved 
March 26, 1906; Grenada Ranch Co., 
Montague $150 

Moscow Mark 292027, red, calved Novem- 
ber 11, 1906; H. A. Jastro, Bakers- 
field $210 

Prince Rover 276499, red, little white, 
calved April 4, 1906; H. A. Jastro, Ba- 
kersfield $220 

Ed Lancaster 299834, red, calved Novem- 
ber 26, 1907; J. W. Goodwin $450 

Quiuto Duke 28th, red, calved June 27, 
1907; H. A. Jastro, Bakersfield. Cal. $125 

Red Star 304971, red, calved September 
16, 1907; Wm. M. Newhall, S. F...$115 

Marksman 292025, red, calved December 
13, 1906; H. A. Jastro, Bakersfield. $165 

Quinto Duke 30th, red, calved July 23, 
1907; Henry Able, Milpitas $130 

Pilot Royal 292028, red, calved March 22, 
1907; Jerger Bros, Clarksville, Cal. $ ISO 

Kink Spicy 106th, red, calved July 31, 
1907; Wm. M. Newhall, S. F $145 

Tule King 304655, red, calved January 
22, 1908; A. W. Foster, San Rafael. $375 

Lord Lancaster 5th, roan, calved August 
5, 1907; Wm. M. Newhall, S. F $155 

Maxwell 292026, roan, calved March 22, 
1907; Wm. M. Newhall $135 

Quinto Duke 31st, red, calved August 7, 
1907; Henry Able, Milpitas, Cal... $135 

Jolly Joe 292024, red, calved April 10. 
1907; Grenada Ranch Company; Mon- 
tague $200 

Quinto Duke 32nd, red, calved August 10, 
1907; Henry Able, Milpitas, Cal... $140 

Onward Lad 304968, red, little white, 
calved August 28, 1907; Mrs. L. R. Fan- 
cher. Merced $230 

Quinto Knight 3rd, red, calved Septem- 
ber 10, 1907; Wm. M. Newhall $115 

Glides Gloster 2nd, 304651, red, calved 
September 2, 1907; T. B. Gibson, Wood- 
land, Cal $100 

Straight Archer 3rd, red, calved October 
31. 1907; H. A. Jastro, Bakersfield. $1 SO 

_Star of Morrow 304972, roan, calvod Oc- 



tober 10, 1907; Wm. M. Newhall .. .$105 

Straight Archer 4th, red, calved Novem- 
ber 5. r.>07; Wm. M. Newhall $115 

Western Star 304974, red. little white, 
calved Noyewbei '.'>, 1907°; Geo. L. Dilli- 
niun, San Francisco $155 

Pioneer Sth, red, little white, calved No- 
vember 27, 1908; Wm. M. Newhall. .$115 

Waterloo 304,973, red, little white, calved 
November 17, 1907; Wm. M. Newhall, 
San Francisco : $115 

Straight Archer 5th, roan, calved Decem- 
ber 26, 1907; Wm. M. Newhall $140 

Grand Star 304963, red, calved December 
8, 1907; Wm. M. Newhall $S5 

Quinto Duke 35th, red, calved February 
13, 1908; F. Steinzel, San Leandro.$125 

Star of Oregon 304516, red, calved Jan- 
uary 2, 1908; H. Cowell, S. F $180 

Satellite 2nd, red, calved March 3, 1908; 
Wm. M. Newhall $125 

Lassie's King 304,652, red, calved Jan- 
uary 21, 190S; W. M. Van Arsdale, San 
Francisco . . .' $200 

Straight Archer 7th, red, calved March 

21, 1908; J. W. Goodwin, S. F $55 

Tule Boy 304654, red, calved January 22, 

1908; Geo. Chandler, Baker City, Ore- 
gon $225 

Lovely Archer 2nd, red roan, calved April 
!», 1908; W. T. Dillingham, Honolulu, 
T. H $100 

Violet King 304653, red, calved February 

22, 1908; Geo. Chandler, Baker City, 
Oregon $175 

Lovely Archer 4th, red, calved April 20, 

190S; Wm. M. Newhall, S. F $S5 

Lovely Archer 6th, red, calved May 2, 
1908; W. G. Rossi, Slatington, El Dorado, 

California $85 

Lovely Archer 7th, red and white, calved 

May 3, 190S; J. W. Goodwin, S. F. . .$S5 

Twenty-three females sold for $3400, an 
average of $147; 39 bulls sold for $6375. 
an average of $163; 62 head sold for $9775, 
an average of $157. 

Mr. J. W, Goodwin, president of the Es- 
trella Ranch Co., was the largest buyer. 
The company owns about 40,000 acres in 
San Luis Obispo and Monterey counties, 
about 15 miles east of Paso Robles, and is 
running about 3500 head of grade Short- 
horns on its ranges. Mr. Goodwin has de- 
cided to raise his own bulls for his 
ranges, judging by the character of the 
animals purchased. He has acquired 
some excellent individuals, which should 
make a wonderful improvement in his 
range stock. It is encouraging to see 
purebred bulls put onto these large 
ranges, as the use of grades of average 
quality has been too common for the good 
of the range stock. 

Mr. Newhall was another heavy buyer 
for his ranch near Paso Robles. Several 
dairymen were present and watched 
closely the offerings from the milk strains 
sired by Oxford Grand Duke 10th, or out 
of the Mazurkas, the best milking strain 
from W. O. Minor's Oregon herd. A num- 
ber of the bulls were sold to dairymen of 
San Lorenzo and Milpitas. 

The average obtained for the animals 
was a little over $159 per head, which 
shows the confidence the buyers had in 
the quality of the offerings. The Howard 
company and Mrs. Glide did well to pro- 
cure the services of Col. Bellows. A large 
part of the success of an auction depends 
on the man handling the bids, and a thor- 
ough knowledge of the Short-horn quali- 
fications and the value of each individual 
is a protection to both seller and buyer, 
which Mr. Bellows assured the stockmen 
at this sale. The sale was held in Fred 
Chase Co.'s sales pavilion, and was easy 
of access and well handled, no delays or 
other inconvenience being met. 

Among those in attendance were J. W. 
Goodwin. A. W. Foster, Prof. E. W. Ma- 
jor, Wm. M. Newhall. H. A. Jastro, Presi- 
dent of the National Livestock Associa- 
tion; H. F. Brown of Minneapolis, Minn.; 




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De Laval Dairy Supply Co. 

SAM FRANCISCO - LOS ANCELES - PORTLAND - SEATTLE 



Pure Bred Holsteins 

At present we are ofT'ering a line lot of 
Young Bulls and Heifers at very at- 
tractive prices. All of this stock have 
large Advanced Registry Records in 
their pedigrees and are from the famous 
Riverside Premier Herd of the Pierce 
Land and Stock Co. now owned by the 

OAKWOOD STOCK FARM 

LATHROP, CAL. 



rriD 6S j\. ¥ In" 1 The Imported 

r JT%. j/A I i r i Belgian Htajllpn 
Desire de Saint Gerard 
Pedigree: 

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< 32008 1 L st. Gerard, r . .„., 

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ThlB line Bel gian Htalllon was bred by Mr. 
.Martin Tirtiaux of (iraux St. Gerard, France, 
foaled February 12, 1902, and was imported by 
Dunham A- Fletcher of Wayne, Illinois, . I uly 1U, 
1906. He is a magnificent animal, deep bay In 
color, with star In forehead. Ills weight Is 2201) 
pounds. 

For authenticated records, price, terms, etc., 
write to or call on 

M. M. AY ELL AR, San Leandro, Cal. 



FOR SALE 

FOUR THOROUGHBRED AYRSHIRE 
BULLS, Aged 12 to 20 Months. 

If you don't want tuberculosis, breed the 
Ayrshires. 
J. W. & J. D. McCORD, 
Phone lied 123. Hartford. Cal. 

GLIDE BROTHERS 

Successors to .1. H. Glide <& Sons 
Famous Blacow, Roberts, Glide 
French Merino Sheep. 

Glide Gradeseven-eighths French ana one-eighth 
Spanish Merino. ThoroughbredShropshlre RaiUB 
RAMS FOR SALE AT ALL TIMES 
P. O. Box Home Telephone 

297 Sacramento, Cal. Dixon, Cal. 



WANTED 

TWO WELL BRED 

DUROC JERSEY BOARS 

state age, price. Address "H" Pacific Hi'ha i 

Press. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding . ^S mooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. U. Box SSFPetaluma, Cal. 

BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE — Shorthorned 
Durhams. Address K.S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



SWINE. 



GKO. C. ROKDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co.. Cal. Breeder 
of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 

BF.KKSIIIKK AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS 
C. A. STO WE, Stockton, Cal. 



GKO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co. 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both se.\es 

G. A. MURPHY, Perkins, Cal. Breeder of Cham 
pion Herd of Berkshlres alBO ShorthornB. 

M. BAHSETT, Box 116, 11 an ford, Cal. Registered 
Poland-China Hogs, and Plymouth Kocks. 



January 16, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



5 



.7. D. Dickerson, Fresno; T. B. Gibson, 
Woodland; P. F. Maloney, San Mateo; O. 
H. Cowell, San Francisco; G. Bloss, At- 
water; J. T. Dunne, Holister; Geo. Chan- 
dler, Oregon; L. W. Symmes, E. J. Molera, 
A. J. Molera, and Sam Aftergut, of San 
Francisco, and A. J. Balfour, of Balfour- 
Guthrie Co., San Francisco. 



THE COMING CONVENTION IN 
LOS ANGELES. 

The convention of the American Na- 
tional Live Stock Association in Los An- 
geles, January 26 to 28, will be one of the 
most significant agricultural assemblies 
ever held in this State. There is, of 
course, always direct significance in a 
formal assembly of those engaged in a 
great industry, and there is reflected or 
indirect significance in the choice of the 
plac e for such an assembly. It was very 
creditable to California that the State 
could offer a stockman like Mr. H. A. Jas- 
tro of Bakersfleld for the presidency of 
a national association, and to have him 
elected to such an honorable position, and 
it was patriotic of Mr. Jastro to secure 
the convention for his own State. We 
trust that all Californians will pay atten- 
tion to the meeting and crowd it to the 
doors. 

It is perfectly true, as Mr. T. W. Tom- 
linson of Denver, Secretary of the Associa- 
tion, writes us in a private note: "As you 
know, there were formerly many ranches 
in California, and the live stock industry 
here in earlier days was of relatively 
greater importance than it is in Califor- 
nia at present. The day of large ranches 
in California is past, and the small farm- 
er does not seem to devote as much atten- 
tion to live stock raising as he should. 
The future prosperity of California would 
be more greatly assured if there were a 
greater diversification of the products of 
the soil, and more attention were paid to 
stock raising than seems to be the case at 
present." 

Concerning the coming meeting, the 1 offi- 
cial call issued by President Jastro gives 
the outline of the needs of the industry 
which will come up for action: 

Never before in the history of the live 
stock industry has the need for concerted 
action been more imperative. Many ques- 
tions of great interest to stockmen will 
be considered by the next Congress and 
the legislatures of the different States, 
and it is vitally important that all con- 
cerned in the prosperity of our industry 
should now forcibly express their views 
through this national organization. 

Some revision of the tariff will un- 
doubtedly be attempted by the next Con- 
gress, and already certain manufacturing 
interests are clamoring for reduction in 
the duties on hides, wool and live stock. 
In all previous tariff legislation the manu- 
facturing interests, by reason of intelli- 
gent organization and persistent effort, 
have been able to secure many favors to 
which they were not justly entitled, and, 
as a consequence, our meat food products 
are barred from many Continental Euro- 
pean countries. In past years this Asso- 
ciation has favored such reciprocal trade 
agreements as would permit the admis- 
sion of our meat products to those coun- 
tries, and now is the time, while the tar- 
iff is under consideration, to secure such 
favorable legislation. The special com- 
mittee, representing the Departments of 
Agriculture, Bureau of Commerce and La- 
bor, and the Treasury, which went to Eu- 
rope for the purpose of ascertaining com- 
mercial conditions abroad relative to an 
increased sale of our farm and live stock 
products, has returned, and their very 
elaborate report will be available for con- 
sideration at our meeting. 

This Association at its last convention 
■recommended, by an almost unanimous 



vote, a bill providing for federal control 
of the grazing on the unappropriated pub 
lie lands in the semi arid States and Ter- 
ritories of the United States. That bill 
was introduced in the last Congress, and 
this winter a vigorous attempt will be 
made to secure its passage. The neces- 
sity for some intelligent supervision of 
the public range, protecting the ranch- 
man and conserving at all times the 
rights of homesteaders, is daily becom- 
ing more apparent, and the increased diffi- 
culties of a promiscuous use of the range 
is continually making new converts to 
such policy. At our convention the sub- 
ject will be open for the widest discus- 
sion and all concerned in this important 
question will be given an opportunity to 
express themselves. 

The administration of the Forest Re- 
serves by the Government will also come 
up for consideration, and the Hon. Gif- 
ford Pinchot, Forester and Chairman of 
the National Conservation Commission, 
will be present and address the conven- 
tion. 



THE SHORT-HORN OUTLOOK. 

President H. F. Brown of the American 
Short-horn Breeders' Association, who is 
well known in California, at the recent 
annual meeting of that association in Chi- 
cago gave the following broad outlook to 
his favorite breed, which includes Short- 
horn activity upon this Coast: 

"How about the future for Short-horns? 
Some of you may say we are going to fill 
up with Short-horns and there will be 
no room for more. Look at our own 
United States; look at our western range 
of country that is yet unoccupied — Colo- 
rado, Nevada, Montana, California, if you 
please; look at the South, though that is 
a small field; and, as I told you last year, 
look at the Republic of Mexico. There 
is a good big field. You may say that 
will soon be supplied. Grant it, if you 
please; but have you thought of the open- 
ing of the Panama Canal and what it is 
going to bring to our door when this 
country is filled up? By the time the 
Panama Canal is opened, we will take it 
for granted that we are going to be pretty 
well supplied, but we will be only starting 
on the road at that time. The opening 
of that canal will bring to our market a 
strip of country on the Pacific Coast 5000 
miles in length, including an area of some 
9,000,000 square miles, containing today 
some 20 small republics, inhabited today 
by a population of about 70,000,000 peo- 
ple — almost as large as the United States 
— and all unoccupied by any of the im- 
proved breeds of cattle, or virtually so. 
The only part of that whole coast of Mex- 
ican, South American and Central Ameri- 
can country that has been improved with 
Short-horn cattle is the Argentine. They 
have been improving their stock down 
there for quite a number of years, largely 
with Short-horns, for the reason that they 
have a great big city down there, and that 
required a better grade of beef. The Ar- 
gentine itself contains only about six mil- 
lion people, but Buenos Ayres is a city of 
twelve hundred thousand people — a great, 
big, prosperous, growing city, growing 
faster than any city of the United States, 
save perhaps New York and Chicago. I 
will hardly except St. Paul and Minne- 
apolis. That was the reason, gentlemen, 
for demanding an improvement of beef 
in the Argentine. See the prices they 
have been paying for Short-horns. Have 
you noticed the sale they had there not 
long ago? Some eighty bulls of home 
production were sold at an average of 
$2200 in gold. The cattle that you are 
selling here today for $200 will before 
very long be bringing $500. 

"Now, to my mind, we have just started 
on the road; it does not even end with 



the countries that I speak of. Cuba is a 
coming field for Short horns, once the po- 
litical questions are settled down there. 
The Orient is just getting ready to start. 
I had a contract almost closed a year ago 
for a shipment of cattle to Japan, and I 
am taking that up now with the originals 
and they are taking their agents here to 
investigate different breeds of cattle; so 
we have a tremendous field to supply. 
When you stop to think of it, you will 
agree with me that we are just in our in- 
fancy in supplying Short-horn cattle for 
the world." 



TWENTY DAIRY SUGGESTIONS. 

The Dairy Division of the Department 
of Anirtfal Industry has recently issued 
the following suggestions to dairymen 
who desire to operate on an advanced 
sanitary plan. All cow-keepers will be 
interested to know the requirements of 
such a plan : 

1. Have the herd examined at least 
twice a year by a skilled veterinarian. 
Promptly remove all animals suspected of 
being in bad health. Never add an animal 
to the herd until certain it is free from 
disease, particularly. 

2. Never allow a cow to be excited by 
fast driving, abuse, loud talking or un- 
necessary disturbance; do not expose her 
to cold or storms more than necessary. 

3. Clean the entire body of the cow 
daily; hair in the region of the udder 
should be kept short by clipping. 

4. Do not allow any strong flavored 
food, like garlic, cabbage or turnips, to be 
eaten, except immediately after milking. 
Changes in feed should be made gradu- 
ally. 

5. Provide fresh pure water in abun- 
dance, easy of access and not too cold. 

6. The cattle should be kept in a stable, 
preferably without qellar or loft, and 
where no other animals are housed. 

7. The stable should be light (4 square 
feet of glass per cow) and dry, with at 
least 500 cubic feet of air space per ani- 
mal. It should have air inlets and out- 
lets, so arranged as to give good ventila- 
tion without drafts of air on cows. 

8. The floor should be tight and con- 
structed preferably of cement; walls and 
ceilings should be tight, clean, free from 
cobwebs, and whitewashed twice a year. 
Have as few dust-catching ledges, projec- 
tions and corners as possible. 

9. Allow no dusty, musty or dirty litter, 
or strong smelling material in the stable. 
Haul manure to field daily or store under 
cover at least 40 feet from the stable. Use 
gypsum daily in gutter and on floor. 

10. Have a light, clean, well ventilated 
and screened milk room, located so as to 
be free from dust and odors. 

11. Milk utensils should be made of 
metal, and all joints smoothly soldered, 
Never allow utensils to become rusty or 
rough inside. Use them only for han- 
dling, storing or delivering milk. 

12. To clean dairy utensils, use only 
pure water. First rinse the utensils in 
warm water. Then wash inside and out 
in hot water in which a cleansing mate- 
rial has been dissolved, and rinse again. 
Sterilize with boiling water or steam. 
Then keep inverted in pure air or sun, if 
possible, until wanted for use. 

14. Use no dry, dusty food just previ- 
ous to milking. 

The milker should wash his hands Im- 
mediately before milking, and milk with 
dry hands. He should wear a clean outer 
garment, kept in a clean place when not 
in use. Tobacco should not be used while 
milking. 

15. Wipe the udder and surrounding 
parts with a clean damp cloth immedi- 
ately before milking. 

1C. In milking, be quiet, quick, clean 



and thorough. Commence milking at the 
same hour every morning and evening, 
and milk the cows in the same order. 

IT. If any part of the milk is bloody, 
stringy or unnatural in appearance, or if 
by accident dirt gets into the milk pail, 
the whole should be rejected. 

18. Do not fill cans in the stable. Re- 
move the milk of each cow at once from 
the stable to milk room. Strain immedi- 
ately through cotton flannel or cotton. 
Cool to 50 degrees F. as soon as strained. 
Store at 50 degrees F. or lower. 

19. Never mix warm milk with that 
which has been cooled, and do not allow 
milk to freeze. 

20. A person suffering from any dis- 
ease, or who has been recently exposed to 
a contagious disease, must remain away 
from cows and the milk. 



Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent o! 

California stockmen because they (five 

better results than others do. 
Write for Prices, Testimonials and our 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

Temporary Address 

Grayson and Sixth Streets, BERKELEY, CAL. 

West of San Pablo Ave. 



PIONEERS AND LEADERS 




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Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
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As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, Btc, it is invaluable. 

Every bottle of Caustic Balsam sold Is 
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CREAMS 
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Address all letters to Mellows Falls, Vermont. 



54 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 16, 1909. 



SILOS AND THE GUILL DAIRY 
NEAR CHICO. 

Mr. John Quill, Jr., of Chico, gives the 
Alta Oalifornlan an interesting account 
of his experience with dairying largely 
on a silo basis: 

The most common style of silo is the 
stave and hoop kind, although many more 
expensive ones are made of cement blocks 
or brick. Nearly all are round, as that 
shape allows the ensilage to settle more 
evenly, and all are high in relation to 
their diameter. Ours are stave silos and 
are 1G feet in diameter by 24 feet in 
height. 

Silos are very popular in the old dairy 
States, especially where corn is the prin- 
cipal crop, although other plants such as 
alfalfa, clover or weeds may be success- 
fully put up. We have sometimes used 
the first cutting of alfalfa, and the cattle 
were very fond of it, even when full of 
weeds. 

In the matter of space a silo makes a 
great saving, for a large amount of feed 
may be put into a small silo. One hun- 
dred tons of corn may be put into a silo 
with dimensions of 16 feet in diameter 
by 2ti feet in height, whereas it. would 
take a barn several times that size to 
hold the dry fodder. 

Ensilage has the same physical effect 
upon stock as green feed, in that it off- 
sets the binding effects of dry hay. Hence 
in time of drought when there is no pas- 
ture the value of a tank of silage is very 
apparent. 

Corn is the principal ensilage crop, for 
in a fair year S or 10 tons, and sometimes 
as high as 15 tons per acre can be grown. 
It is an excellent supplementary feed to 
alfalfa hay, being rich in carbo-hydrates 
while the alfalfa is rich in proteins. 

We use the yellow dent varieties of corn 



as they produce large amounts both of 
fodder and of grain. If possible, we plow 
our ground deep in the fall and then disc 
and work into a good seed bed before 
planting in the spring. 

Planting is usually done about April 1, 
after the danger of heavy frosts is over. 
This is done by a two row drill and the 
depth of planting varies with the condl 
tion of the soil. 

The first cultivations — until the plant 
gets five or six inches high — are often 
done with a pig tooth harrow, the teeth 
being slanted slightly backward. After 
that we have a two-row cultivator to keep 
the weeds down and prevent excessive 
evaporation. 

Corn is not harvested for the silo until 
it passes the roasting ear stage. The plant 
then has its highest feeding value and 
makes a sweeter ensilage. For harvesting 
we have a corn-binder that cuts the stalks 
near the ground and lays them in conven- 
ient bundles. It is our aim to keep up 
with the binder in hauling, so that the 
corn will not wilt. Fresh green corn goes 
through the cutter with least trouble and 
packs best. In case the fodder wilts or is 
dry we add water to it in the silo. 

Our ensilage cutter is a 16-inch ma- 
chine. It cuts the stalks, ears and all, 
into inch bits and will take all the corn 
that one man can pitch into it. It is run 
by a 7% horse-power electric motor. The 
cut corn is thrown into the top of the silo 
by an endless chain carrier, where it is 
spread and tramped. It is necessary to 
keep the surface of the corn higher 
around the edge of the silo, and most of 
the packing should be done there, be- 
cost the corn settles most around the 
edges, and if care is not taken the mass 
in settling will draw away from the sides, 
leaving an air space, which always allows 
a considerable amount to spoil. 



We have used our silos for about ten 
years and would not think of doing with- 
out them. 



NEVER TRUST A BULL. 

We have made many exhortations on 
this point, because tame bulls do nearly 
as much killing as automobiles, and vast- 
ly more than railway trains. Remember 
the recent' case of a prosperous dairyman 
of Merced county, who came near meeting 
with a serious, if not fatal, accident. He 
was attacked by an infuriated bull. As 
it was, he was rendered unconscious for 
a half hour, and lay in the field an hour 
before he was discovered by a neighbor 
who noticed the saddle horse without a 
rider and found the man where he had 
fallen from the horse. The doctor found 
the victim had been injured about the 
head and suffered Internal injuries, causing 
nausea. The man was unable to tell what 
happened after the bull struck the horse 
and both fell. The horse made its escape, 
pursued by the bull, which had always ap- 
peared peaceable until that time. It is 
fortunate for man and horse that the ani- 
mal had been dehorned, but remember 
also that dehorned bulls can deliver a 
killing stroke. 



TOO MUCH WATER IN THE 
BUTTER. 

Butter to the amount of 12,000 pounds 
into which water had been worked, It is 
claimed, to the extent of one-third of the 
entire weight, was seized by Burt Thomas, 
special agent of internal revenue, at vari- 
ous cold storage warehouses, stores and 
wholesale houses last week, as being of- 
fered for sale in violation of the internal 
revenue law directed at oleomargarine 
products. 

All of this butter, says the account in 



the Chronicle, was made by the ChJsin 
Creamery, at Reno, Nev., and brought 
down here by S. H. Overstreet, represent- 
ing the Nevada Packing Co. There is no 
claim that any adulteration other than, 
the product of the pump was used in pro- 
during the butter, but the revenue law 
provides that butter may not contain 
more than 16 per cent of moisture, while 
some of that seized runs as high as 48 per 
cent of moisture, with an average for the 
lot of 33 1-3 per cent. 

Under the law, butter containing more 
than 16 per cent of moisture is taxed at 
the rate of 10 cents per pound by the in- 
ternal Revenue Department, and in addi- 
tion the manufacturer is required to take 
out a special license, at a cost of $600 per 
annum. Wholesale dealers are assessed 
a special tax of $486 per annum, and re 
tail dealers have to pay $48 per annum. 

As in this case the buyers are consid- 
ered innocent of any knowledge that the 
butter had been soaked, it is not thought 
that criminal prosecution will follow, al- 
though the matter has been referred to 
Washington for determination of that 
point. 

In addition to this seizure of 12,000 
pounds by Thomas in this city, 15,000 
pounds has been seized in Reno by Deputy 
Collectors Debra and Blow, acting under 
the direction of Collector Shipley of the 
Fourth Internal Revenue District. Unless 
the license tax is paid it is probable that 
the butter will be destroyed. 



HOGS ON BOTTOM LAND. 



To the Editor: I have a tract of low 
level bottom land suitable for the growth 
of all kinds of root crops, and would like 
to devote this land to the raising of hogs. 
Can you tell me what roots give the best 
results for winter feeding for hogs? Are 



Announcement of Season's Sales 



We axe now permanently located at our new 
for 500 head of horses, 74,000 square feet of space 
shine, afternoon and evening. 

Consign your horses for sale at 
auction for the following dates, .Janu- 
ary 28th, February Kith, March 2nd, 
Kith and 30th, April 1.5th and 27th, and 
1 hereafter every two weeks during the 
entire season. 

We are sole agents for the famous 
double square brand ITI or horses from 
Nevada, weighing from 1000 to H(MI 
Ihs., all broken to work and ride. 

Also the justly celebrated Wagon 
Tire mountain. Horse-shoe bar f\ brand 
ul' burses, from Eastern Oregon, weiirh- 
iii- from Klllll to 1400 lbs., all broke to 



sales yards and stables, located at the S. E. corner Tenth and Bryant streets, with room 
under cover, 200 stalls, all concrete floors. Auction sales take place as announced, rain or 




9Ht 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



100 of These Horses will be Sold at 
Our Opening Sale, 

JANUARY 26, 1909, 

together with a large number of other 
horses of all kinds, including draft 
horses, fast roadsters, and farm, work, 
and all purpose horses. 

As usual, we shall guarantee all 
horses to be as represented and allow 
24 hours for inspection and delivery. 

Over one thousand head now on feed 
and being prepared for this season's 
San Francisco market. 



200 Head will be Offered at our Opening Sale, 

Tuesday, January 26, 1909, 

100 head of the double square brand, and 100 head all purpose gentle broke horses, weighing from 1000 to 1600 lbs. 100 

head will be offered beginning at 1 p. m. and 100 head at 8 p. m. 
All cars transfer to Eight and Tenth street lines, which pass our sales yards. All horses purchased by country buyers delivered f. o. b. 
cars or steamers. Consignors write for terms and dates. No unsound or cast off horses will be offered at these sales. Consigned horses 
should arrive in San Francisco not later than Saturday, January 23rd. 

Western Horse Market, E. Stewart & Co., Auctioneers & Live Stock Dealers 

S. E. GOR. TENTH AND BRYANT STREETS, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



January 16, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



£5 



DE LAVAL CREAM 

SCORES HIGHEST 
AT GREAT DAIRY SHOW 

At the great National Dairy Show held recently in Chicago cream 
skimmed with DE LAVAL separators won all highest honors. The 
cream exhibits were made in two classes and the winners in each were 
as follows, all being users of DE LAVAL hand separators: 

MARKET CREAM 
1st Prize, Gold Medal, G. C. Repp, Ohio .... Score 98% 
2nd Prize, Silver Medal, W. R. Newberry. Ohio - - Score 94 

CERTIFIED CREAM 
1st Prize, Gold Medal, Tully Farms, New York - - Score 94 l / 2 

The contest was under the direction of the Dairy Division of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, and Air. Repp's 
winning exhibit in the Market class was pronounced practically perfect 
and given the highest score ever awarded by the Dairy Division. 

For the past twenty years butter made from DE LAVAL cream has 
won all highest honors in every important contest. Sixteen of the 
largest 1908 State Fairs awarded their first prize to DE LAVAL butter, 
and now comes this sweeping victory for DE LAVAL cream in the big 
Dairy Show contest, which only goes further to prove that DE LAVAL 
machines are head and shoulders above every other skimming device in 
every feature of separator use. 

A DE LAVAL catalogue tells why DE LAVAL cream is always 
superior. Ask for it today, or, better still, let us demonstrate the merits 
of a DE LAVAL separator in your own dairy. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO. 

108 So. Los Angeles St. #»##■ 107 F|RST Street 

los angeles General Offices: Portland, ore. 

42 E. Madison Street in . r»-..™™ 0+-^,-.+ 1016 Western Ave. 

CHICAGO 101 DrUmm Street SEATTLE 

165-167 Broadway CAM fRANCISCO B ° X 052 

NEW YORK VANCOUVER, B. C. 



there any parties in California who are 
raising hogs on a large scale where I can 
see the industry carried on? I would like 
to know the nature of the feed they are 
using in raising hogs without corn, and 
if any success is had without corn. — A. L. 
M., San Francisco. 

I have had excellent results from plant- 
ing the Jerusalem artichoke and allowing 
the hogs to do their own harvesting. This 
root deserves more popularity than it 
seems to have at present. If your soil 
is a light loam, or better, a peat, you will 
get some exceptional yields and a very 
good hog feed. 

Most of the large ranches in the State 
raise hogs in different numbers and by 
different systems. You would do well to 
visit some of the swine breeders adver- 
tising in this paper, who could give you 
much valuable advice and show you the 
industry from the standpoint of the 
breeder of pure-bred stock. Generally 
speaking, the hogs in this State are not 
fed corn to any extent. Alfalfa, and fin- 
ishing with barley, and oftentimes wheat, 
is the most general, though nearly every 
hog raiser has his own particular method 
of finishing— L. W. S. 



PROFITABLE HANDLING OF A 
SMALL BEEF HERD. 

The closing out of so many cattle 
ranches in the Southwest is bringing the 
attention of raising feeders by farmers 
who keep small herds of cattle. This 
phase of cattle raising can be made a 



profitable one to owners of small farms. 
From necessity the farmer of the future 
will be compelled to keep a small bunch 
of cows, whether they be pure breds or 
not, for growing steers. This fact brings 
the cost of maintenance to one of prime 
interest to every farmer. Anticipating 
the condition of the future, the Illinois 
Experiment Station is at work on a prob- 
lem of determining what will be the best 
system to pursue by men maintaining 
herds for steer breeding. The proper feed 
and manner of keeping cows solely for 
the purpose of raising calves is not a new 
proposition by any means. Any farmer 
who has kept one dozen to 50 breeding 
cows has long since solved the system 
by which he derives the most profit. The 
Experiment Station, however, has 30 
grade Aberdeen-Angus cows, very similar 
in size, which they are using for this ex- 
periment. They range from three to six 
years of age, and are one-half to three- 
fourths pure bred. These cows are di- 
vided into three lots of as nearly equal 
age and condition as possible. Lot 1 was 
fed on corn ensilage, clover hay and oat 
straw; lot 2, shocked corn, clover hay and 
oat straw; lot 3, on corn stover and oat 
straw, supplemented a part of the season 
with clover hay. The lot fed silage, clover 
hay and oat straw made on average daily 
gain of 1.07 pounds; on the lot fed 
shocked corn, clover hay and oat straw 
the gain was .75 pound, while on the lot 
fed corn stover and oat straw supple- 
mented by clover hay, the gain was .41 
pound per day. The experiment proves 



conclusively that breeding cows of the 
beef type may be wintered without grain, 
provided they are given good wholesome 
roughage, and also proves what many 
farmers have already worked out by expo- 



riene, that a herd of beef cows can be car- 
ried the year round with practically no 
groin at all and yet yield a handsome re- 
turn in raising a valuable, quick matur- 
ing steer. 




to give back every jolt and jam 
receives. 

Made of materials selected and tested 
in all the stages from our own mines, 
through our own blast furnaces and rolling 
and wire mills, to the finished product. Our 
employment of specially adapted metals is 
of great importance in fence wire; a wire 
that must be hard yet not brittle; stiff and springy yet 
flexible enough for splicing — best and most durable 
fence material on earth. 

To obtain these and in addition apply a quality of 
vanizing that will effectually protect against weather 
conditions, is a triumph of the wiremaker's art 

Thesearecombined in the American and Ellwood 
fences — the product of the greatest mines, steel 
producing plants and wire mills in the world. 
And with these good facilities and the old 
and skilled employes back of them, we 
maintain the highest standard of ex- 
cellence possible for human skill 
and ingenuity to produce. 

Dealers everywhere, carry 
ing styles adapted to every 
purpose. See them 

American Steel 
& Wire Go. 

Chicago 
New York 
Denver 
San 

Francisco 






THE E1VIF»IRE 

Once more the Empire Cream Separator Co. conies to the 
front with a 1909 catalogue that is both beautiful in • 1 < •sign 
and complete with descriptive matter. 

This catalogue should he in the home of every rancher who 
has two or more cows. It will help you to deride on a cream 
separator, and give you some interesting reading matter. 
.Send us your address today and have this mailed you. 

We also have two sizes of Gasoline Engines which are 
being used for all kinds of light work. Every rancher who 
needs a gasoline engine should have one of our catalogues. 



EMPIRE CREAM SEPARATOR CO., Ltd. 

85 North Sixth St., Portland, Ore. 



BULLS 



BULLS BULLS 



SHORT - HORN BULLS 

75 head of high grade yearlings on hand. 
Prices Attractive. 

HOWARD CATTLE CO. 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Mention this paper. 



COMPARE PRICES AND RESULTS 

Analysis (from Bulletin 164, Jan. 1905- -Universitj of California.) 
DIGESTIBLE PROTEIN IN 

Linseed Oil Cake Meal 24.4 per cent Shorts 12.2 per cenl 

Cocoa Cake or Meal 26.4 " Mixed Peed 9.6 

Wheat Middlings 12.2 " Corn Meal 6.4 

Wheat Bran 11.2 " Wheat Hay 3.6 
If you feed for Protein you get Results. 
Ask your jobber for prices or write 

PACIFIC OIL & LEAD WORKS, - - - SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
PORTLAND LINSEED OIL WORKS, - - - PORTLAND, ORE. 



56 



PACIFIC RUPAL PRESS. 



January ll>, 1801 



The Poultry Yard. 



FEATHERS: THEIR USE AND 
SIGNIFICANCE. 



Written for the Pun k RURAL Pkkss 
By Mil. A. WaSHSSh Ror.i.Nsox. 

The saving of poultry feathers is a valu- 
able item overlooked by many poultry- 
men who operate small plants. Official 
figures state that the output of feathers 
in Missouri In 1905 represented 1.26 per 
cent of the total valuation of the poultry 
and egg product. If other States are to 
be rated in like proportion it is estimated 
that the feather crop of the United States 
in 1905 represented a value of $6,300,000. 
During the same year this country im- 
ported crude feathers and down to the 
value of $2,030,791, while the exports of 
feathers for the same year amounted to 
$239,256. 

We import on an average over $2,000,- 
000 worth of feathers, while the exports 
fall short of a quarter of a million dol 
lars. 

According to one of the leading feather 
dealers, there is a yearly consumption of 
poultry feathers in the United States at 
the present time which exceeds 20,000,000 
pounds of the finished material. Vast 
quantities are used In making feather and 
down pillows. In millinery goods and 
feather trimmings. 

For a pillow about three pounds are re- 
quired and their life is about twenty 
years. A cheap grade of feathers is im- 
ported from China. Germany, Austria 
and Russia supply the better grade of 
geese feathers and down. One company 
operating in Germany represents $4,000,- 
000 capital. The price of eider down 
ranges from six dollars to ten dollars per 
pound, and the supply has never exceeded 
the demand. 

The chief source of feathers in the 
United States is the South and West and 
Chicago. It is estimated that the annual 
receipts of feathers in Chicago will exceed 
four hundred carloads. Hen feathers 
range in price from 3'j cents to 7 cents 
per pound, averaging 5 cents for the best 
quality. Duck feathers range from 25 
to 30 cents. White duck feathers would 
sell for as high a price as geese feathers 
were it not for the fact that they have an 
odor that cannot be removed by any 
known method. 

The best white geese feathers bring, in 
the Chicago market, from 45 to 55 cents 
the year round. The ordinary body 
feathers of the turkey sell for from 3 to 
6 cents per pound, the stiff feathers from 
the wings from S to 10 cents, while the 
tail feathers, if they are clean and dry, 
sometimes bring as high as 21 cents. 

Feathers are brought from the farms 
and poultry plants in sacks and are 
cleaned in the large warehouses by steam 
and dry air. Ten pounds of dirt and 
other matter are sometimes removed from 
one hundred pounds of feathers. Fischel, 
the noted breeder of White Plymouth 
Rocks, says that the feathers of those 
fowls bring today 2S cents per pound, 
while those of the parti-colored fowls 
bring only 2\'> cents. 

The value of feathers is an Important 
reason for dry picking the birds, as dry 
body feathers from chickens bring from 
18 to 19 cents per pound. The demand is 
steady the year round. Prime geese 
feathers are listed at from 60 to 62 cents; 
duck, white, 42 to 44 cents; chicken, dry- 
body picked, 3'1' to 4% cents; scalded, 1 
cent. Turkey fenthers, body, dry picked, 
choice, 9\<> cents; white turkey, body, 
prime, 60 to 70 cents. Tail feathers, 
choice and clear, 40 cents. "In picking 
turkeys," says the Shipper's Guide, "save 
all the feathers that grow on the tail, 



also those on the two joints of the wings 
next to the body." 

Picking fowls dry has become an art 
and there are in all the large markets 
men who have become very expert in the 
business. For some years experiments 
have been made in picking fowls by ma- 
chinery, using dry air, or two powerful 
currents of the same, to effect the pur- 
pose. While these machines have not yet 
reached a perfect state, they are proving 
quite successful. 

The feathers of the oldest bird known 
(fossils of which have been discovered) 
were essentially like those of the ma- 
jority of birds now existing and nature 
has not been able to improve upon the 
admirable combination of lightness and 
firmness since the Jurassic period. 

Feathers do not, like hairs, grow in- 
definitely. Where they have attained full 
size the vascular papillae enclosed in the 
quill dries up, forming the pith, and from 
that moment no further growth, nor any 
renewing of tissue takes place. There- 
fore, as soon as the feathers are worn 
out they are all thrown off and replaced 
by new ones. They are thrown off gradu- 
ally on each side of the body, the feathers 
of one wing simultaneously with the cor- 
responding ones of the other. 

A complete feather consists of a shaft 
and a vane, which is the web-like ex- 
pansion along the sides of the shaft, or 
quill, the use of the feathers being to give 
warmth and protection from cold and wet, 
being non-conductors, checking radiation, 
because of the air they contain, forming 
a blanket of dry air around the body. 

Feathers were in use in England for 
filling beds as early as the time of King 
Henry VII, and it is not known how 
much earlier. 

The Romans used feathers for beds. 
Pliny says: "The geese that come from 
Germany are most esteemed. We have 
reached such a state of effeminancy that 
nowadays not even men can lie down 
without the aid of goose feathers and pil- 
lows." The earliest period we have 
knowledge of that quills were used for 
writing in England was in the sixth cen- 
tury, and from that time onward until 
the introduction of steel pens, in the early 
part of the nineteenth century, they 
formed the principal writing implements 
of civilized countries. 

Since the introduction of steel pens the 
quill has disappeared from correspond- 
ence. M. Bardin of Paris raised annually 
2,000,000 geese for their quills for the 
manufacture of quills for writing. The 
substitution of steel pens threatened him 
with disaster, so he hit upon the plan of 
using quills for tooth picks. 

In regard to the feather industry in 
San Francisco a prominent firm of that 
city says: "This market is practically in 
its infancy and as yet has no standing 
among the large buyers of the world. 
The quantity of local grown stock is so 
small and so imperfectly handled by first 
hands that such a thing as fixed types or 
grades has not as yet been arrived at. 

"In the larger markets of the world 
great care is taken in the picking and 
storing of the feathers, thereby establish- 
ing a firm type for market purposes. The 
feather markets of China and Japan are 
very well known to the large handlers 
the world over and the bulk of the low 
priced stock is picked and graded in these 
countries for shipment, these goods being 
disposed of throughout the world from 
samples which are verified by the con- 
tents of the bales. 

"If the local growers of poultry did 
their own plucking, and preserved the 
identity of White duck feathers, white 
goose feathers, chicken feathers, white 
and dark colored and picked them care- 
fully in marketable condition, we would 
be able to establish, from time to time, 
according to the fluctuations of Eastern 



markets, a firm offering for local supplies. 
But as yet there is no section of this part 
of the country which has produced 
enough feathers to warrant any such con- 
dition." 

Years ago a tribe of Indians claimed 
the Yosemite valley as their home. For 
them the valley was named. There they 
hunted the wild game of the adjacent 
towering mountains, caught the wily 
trout in the rapidly, clear flowing Merced 
river as it threaded its winding way 
through the center of the valley and laid 
up in store for their winter sustenance 
acorns, hazelnuts and other humble ar- 
ticles of food. 

We who have any acquaintance with 
the Digger Indians naturally think them 
utterly devoid of all sentiment, and yet 
this mountain tribe, whose grade of in- 
telligence is very low, have had handed 
down to them, through untold years, one 
of the most beautiful legends. They had 
a cherished tradition that a powerful and 
benificent guardian angel constantly 
looked after their welfare. It was she 
who made the valley they loved so well, 
bidden deep in the rock-ribbed everlast- 
ing hills, for their secluded home. She it 
was who defended them from the savage 
attacks of the warlike neighboring tribe 
of Indians and it was by her power that 
the huge Half Dome was cut away and 
removed, no one knows whither. 

As this beautiful provident angel flew 
over the valley on her frequent errands 
of mercy, feathers from her lovely wings 
often floated down through the clear in- 
vigorating mountain air and found lodg- 
ment among the soft green grasses of the 
upland meadow. Here they rooted in the 
turfy soil and sprang up as beautiful 
snow-white violets which annually make 
their appearance and which you, kind 
reader, may gather in large quantity 
whenever it shall be your good fortune 
to stroll through the lovely, indescribable 
Yosemite valley, reminding you of the 
kind and all-powerful Guardian of the 
children of nature, one time numerous in 
that locality, now numbering less than a 
score. 

Twin Lakes, Santa Cruz, Cal., Dec. 15. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. 

Written for the Pacific Rural Phkss 
By M. R. James. 

Poi'ltky Manure. — "Inquirer" of San 
Diego writes. "I have quite a stock of 
poultry. What is the manure adapted for 
in forcing early truck. Do not do any- 
thing in lettuce, radishes or greens; my 
location is almost frostless." 

This fertilizer is a most valuable by- 
product of poultry and should be pre- 
served by keeping till needed in boxes or 
barrels and covered with dry earth. It is 
beneficial to any garden crop and may be 
applied at any time, if mixed with dry, 
sandy soil, as a top dressing. It is espe- 
cially good for truck gardening, for it is 
not a hotbed for grubs, flies and insects 
which prey upon garden sauce like barn- 
yard manure is. The Maine Experiment 
Station bulletin says: "Poultry manure 
is especially adapted as a top dressing for 
grass crops because of its high content of 



nitrogen in the form of ammonia, com- 
pounds, which are nearly as quick in their 
effects as nitrate of soda. Fresh poultry 
manure at the present value of fertilizers 
would be worth 60 cents per 100 pounds." 
A scientific analysis gives the following 
proportions : 

Poultry manure contains 2.43 per cent 
of phosphoric acid, 2.26 per cent potash 
and 3.25 per cent nitrogen, as ammonia 
and organic matter. Compared with well- 
rotted barn manure there are 48.60 
pounds of phosphoric acid in hen manure 
to 6 in barnyard manure; 41 pounds of 
potash to 10 in barnyard manure and 67 
pounds of nitrogen to 11 pounds in barn- 
yard manure. If properly kept and 
judiciously applied to land, poultry ma- 
nure is worth one-half the cost of the 
food the fowls get, and yet little or no 
account is made of the droppings when 
an estimate is made of the profits. 



The new pigeon farm of Drs, Cooper 
and Fox, located near Modesto, is ship- 
ping its output to the San Francisco mar- 
ket. Last week over 1500 pigeons were 
sent out at one time. 



POULTRY. 



MIFF ORPINGTONS— Sullivan's famous bulls 
excel all others. Kens for hatching, stock for 
sale. Catalogue Tor the asking. W. SULLI- 
VAN, Agnew, Santa Clara t o., ( al. 



HK< iN 7.K Turkeys and Kggs. Kd Hart, ( lements , 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity . 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



JUST OUT 



Uroley s "Little Ked Hook 
No. 51." Free. Send postal 
OKORGK H. CKOLEY, 637 Ilrannan St., San 
Francis.,, POULTRY SUPPLIES. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established :«> Years. 
Importer and Breeders of all Varieties of Land and Water 
Fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 31, 520 McAllister St.. S. K. 



PETALUMA HATCHERY 

The leading varieties of chicks 
every week. 

L. W. CLARK. 

615 Main St., Petaluma, Cal. 




125 Egg Incubator (IQ 
and Brooder B F °V h vl4 



made 



f ordered together we 
send both for * l - 
freight. Well 
hut water, , j ,. tanks, 




...... M.'k novel, > > '['!« i WUIkB, 

doable walls, double ri&sb doora, 
Free catalog describes them. 
Wisconsin Incnbator Co., 
Bqi 117, Kacine, WU. Efciii 



You Get the Most 
tor Your Money 

When buying "Quality S. C. White 

Leghorn" chicks from us at 10c. each, 
because we give you Free the "Chick 
Booh" containing full instructions lor 
raising them. Order 200 or more. 

RANCHO LOS ENCINAS 



R. F. D. 76. 



Glen lll. ii. Cal 



HENRY B. LISTER , 

ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 Pacific Bldg.. Fourth and Market Sts 
Kn n Francisco 




COULSON'S SPECIAL 
CHICK FOOD 



makes them grow, 
.'t their feed. 



Throw it in the litter and let them work for 



It contains the best .|uallty i.r 
everything they require for first 
j>"^ six weeks, except nrit. 



rkF.E SAMPLES AND PKLES ON APPLICATION TO 

Coulson Poultry and Stock Food Co. 

PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 



January 16, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



5' 



The Home Circle. 



The Working Man. 

The noblest men I know on earth 
Are men whose hands are brown with 
toil; 

Who, barred by no ancestral groves, 
Hew down the wood and till the soil, 

And win thereby a prouder name 
Than follows king or warrior's fame. 

The working men, whate'er the task, 
Who carve the stone or bear the hod, 

They bear upon their honest brows 
The royal stamp and seal of God; 

And worthier are their drops of sweat 
Than diamonds in a coronet. 

God bless the noble working men 
Who rear the cities of the plain, 

Who dig the mines, who build the ships 
And drive the commerce of the main; 

God bless them! for their toiling hands 
Have wrought the glory of all lands. 



' ' Simple Simon ' ' : His Simple Life. 

The church clock at the top of the hill 
struck eleven. Its deliberate tones floated 
down over the house tops and across the 
fields to where William Dodd was work- 
ing in his garden. A gleam of satisfac- 
tion came over his face. He stood up- 
right, his knuckles at what might have 
been called by courtesy the small of his 
back, and stretched himself. Then he got 
together his fork, his hoe and his wooden 
garden basket and went off to the house. 

He was round and short and elderly. 
Forty years before his pink face, wide 
open eyes,' and air of innocent bewilder- 
ment had earned him the name of Simple 
Simon from his fellow clerks at the Lon- 
don bank at which he had been employed, 
and middle age had only served to make 
it more appropriate. 

He had on a pair of striped trousers, 
very baggy at the knees, a tail coat of a 
greenish hue, still black in places. He 
was wearing out the clothes he had at 
the time of his retirement. When the 
time came to buy another suit, it would 
be of the pattern called pepper and salt. 

It was a fine sunny morning in May. 
Larks were singing, poised somewhere in 
the blue over the meadows. Simple 
Simon had been aware of them in the 
hour in which he had been weeding. He 
had also taken notice of the fresh sweet- 
ness of the country air, of the smell of 
the earth, of the vigorous spring growth 
that was going on, almost visibly around 
him, of the bright colors of the flowers on 
the borders of his vegetable ground. 

He put his tools away in the shed he 
had built for their accommodation, 
cleaned his boots on the iron scraper 
outside it, and then went along the 
bricked path to the back of the house and 
called out, "Now, then, mother! Eleven 
o'clock." 

Mrs. Dodd appeared at the door with a 
tray, upon which were a jug of beer, a 
glass, a hunk of bread and cheese. She, 
too, was stout and round, and her comely 
face wore the same look of placid con- 
tentment as her husband's. She had on 
an immense apron over her neat stuff 
dress. 

"Been making the arbor, father?" she 
asked, as she deposited the tray on a 
wooden bench by the door. 

"Arbor?" echoed Simple Simon, taking 
his seat beside the tray. "Why, your 
wits have gone wool gathering. The 
arbor's from eleven till one. Going to 
start on it now. What have you been 
doing?" 

"Counting the wash and trying to 
knock some sense into that girl's head. 
Now I'm going over the glass and china 
cupboard till dinner time." 

"Ah, you'll like that. Lor, what a life 
it is. Never a moment without some- 
thing pleasant to do, and nobody got a 



right to come along and tell you to do 
something else. Now, mother, is it as 
good as we figured it out, or isn't it?" 

"Go along with you," replied Mrs. Dodd. 
"You know well enough what I think. I 
can't stop talking here all the morning." 

She disappeared into the house. Her 
husband finished his morning's refresh- 
ment, and sat for a few minutes, rub- 
bing his hands on his knees, his. face 
turned toward the sun, that had already 
begun to color it. Then he got up briskly 
and went to his shed for another set of 
tools. 

Simple Simon was in his usual posi- 
tion of having realized a life-long aim and 
of having gained as much satisfaction 
froKi it as he had anticipated. 

When he had mirried, thirty years be- 
fore, with only the salary of a young 
bank clerk upon which to support him- 
self, his wife and a possible family, it 
would have seemed out of the question 
that his prospects would have enabled 
him to buy a little house with a large 
garden in the country and live in it for 
the years that remained to him after his 
work should be finished. But that was 
the end that he and his wife had in view 
all through the years of youth and mid- 
dle age; and the end has been accom- 
plished. 

They had saved a little every year from 
the first, except in the year in which their 
daughter had been born, and that other 
black year in which she had rheumatic 
fever and they had nearly lost her. As 
time went on and Simple Somon's salary 
increased, they saved more. It came to 
be a pleasure to do without things and 
add something to the store. For every 
shilling they denied themselves they 
gained a sovereign's worth in anticipa- 
tion. 

Simple Simon, upon his marriage, had 
gone into a little house in a quiet but 
pokish street in Kentish Town, and he 
had lived in that little house for thirty 
years until he bougnt his own in the 
country. 

He thought of those years now, as he 
measured and sawed and hammered in 
the spring sunshine, with the peace of the 
country surrounding him. 

They had not been bad years. The lit- 
tle house at the end of the dull street, 
under the high wall, had always been 
clean and cozy within, and if in summer 
time it was disagreeably hot and airless 
in the midst of these miles of streets, and 
as disagreeably cheerless in the bad days, 
there was always the great emancipation 
to look forward to and take on a brighter 
aspect by contrast with present surround- 
ings. 

And there was Hampstead Heath not 
far off and the pleasanter suburbs, in 
one of which Simple Simon might even 
then have been living if he had not set 
his heart upon something still better in 
the years to come. He and his wife and 
his little girl made expeditions together 
on holidays and on summer evenings. 
They were known in the street where 
they lived as "The Happy Family." But 
they kept much to themselves. 

It seemed to Simple Simon, as he 
worked away by the blossoming lilac, that 
those years had covered a very short 
space of time. There had been scarcely 
any change in them. There would have 
been none, year after year, if it had not 
been for their growing daughter. 

She supplied the landmarks. In this 
year she had scarlet fever, and they took 
her to Lowestoft for a holiday; in that 
she first played at the school concert; in 
that she gained her scholarship al the 
academy; in that she was so ill: in thai 
she got her appointment as music teacher 
at the big school in which she had been 
educated; in that she was married; in 
that her child was born. 

Simple Simon's face softened as he 



thought of the child. He was the fondest 
of grandparents. 

Yes, she had been a good girl. Life in 
the little house in Kentish Town, even 
with the great emancipation to look for- 
ward to, would have been dull without 
her. 

And perhaps it was just as well that 
her husband, who had been the drawing 
master at the school, was not very well 
off. Simple Simon had been able to help 
his girl, and was helping her now. There 
was plenty for that. He and mother 
would not be so contented as they were 
if they had nobody but themselves to 
think of and spend their money on. 

The church clock struck one. Simple 
Simon drew himself up again and gath- 
ered his tools together. It was time to go 
in and wash and change his clothes. In 
the afternoon, after a nap in the arm- 
chair in the dining room window, framed 
in honeysuckle, he would occupy himself 
with the lighter phases of gardening, pot- 
tering about with a hank of bast and a 
pair of garden clippers until tea time. 
After that he and his wife would go for 
a stroll by field paths and country lanes, 
and return in the evening to their quiet, 
pleasant little home. 

And so the days and the years would 
pass, and they would grow old together, 
in peace and contentment, with their child 
and their child's child to ward from them 
the desolate loneliness of age. 

A thrush sang in the lilacs. A light 
breeze blowing over a bed of wall flowers 
wafted fragrance. The sun shone on a 
clump of tall lilacs. 

Simple Simon lifted his gray head and 
looked round him. His eyes were moist. 
"I don't know what I've done to deserve 
to be so happy," he said. — London Mail. 



Women in the World's Work. 



A woman has been elected county clerk 
for Salt Lake county, Utah. 

Miss M. Heilbron of New York city has 
invented a letter opener that will open 
400 letters in a minute. 

Ada county, Idaho, is represented in 
the State legislature by a woman, Mrs. D. 
McFadden, who will devote herself to the 
pushing of laws tending to the better- 
ment of women and children. 

The Women's University Club of New 
York city, says the Sun, has a member- 
ship of some 785 women and is fast dis- 
proving all the theories of the sterner 
sex as to the ability of women to manage 
a business organization successfully. The 
members boast that they have solved the 
problem of running a club better than 
men have, for they can do it without the 
revenue from a bar. 

An old employe, Miss Jennie L. Doane, 
of the Packard shoe factory in Brockton, 
Mass., has been chosen by the heirs of the 
late proprietor, who died suddenly with- 
out a will, to administer his half-million 
dollar estate and have full charge of his 
business. The late Mr. Packard often de- 
clared that Miss Doane had more brains 
than any two men of his acquaintance. 

One woman in New York city, suddenly 
thrown upon her own resources by the 
death of her husband, is making an ex- 
cellent livelihood for herself and child as 
a "what-not mender" — repairer of "any 
old thing from a silk glove to a kitchen 
range," as she explains it. She gave some 
bits of her experience to a Sun reporter 
that are worth while the consideration of 
women (and how many there are) who 
are up against the question of a liveli- 
hood. This woman, who was unused to 
work except as tin- mistress of a. Southern 
household with negro servants, took her 
satchel in her hand and started out to 
hunt for employment. The first lliing she 
found was a large washing which the 
regular wash-lady had left in the suds, as 



it were. She promptly took hold of it, 
though she had nevsr done "more than 
wash pocket handke "chiefs and precious 
bits of old lace"; bill, she realized that it 
was the only way to get an opening in a 
strange city. She d*d the washing, and 
did it well, but she has never had to do 
the second washing, and has now been es- 
tablished for four years as a what-not 



Burn Air-Save Fuel 




No Odor. 

No Dirt. 

No Danger. 

Used in Factories 
and the Home. 



GEARHART OIL BURNER GO. 

1922-1924 Fresno St., FRESNO, CAL. 



Country Boy Preferred 



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recommend. We prefer a boy from the country 
—one who has a bright mind and a strong body, 
and who is capable of advancement. Good pay 
from the start, and excellent opportunities to 
advance." 

We receive messages like the above daily from 
San Francisco's leading business houses. Tin y 
call on us because they know we have the right 
kind of young men in our school, and bi cause 
they know we are giving the right kind of train- 
ing. If you are interested in the opportunities 
ottered by the new San Francisco w rite us for 
particulars. 



San Francisco Business College 

733 Fillmore St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



Large Land Sale 



The John Crouch Lands 



Situated in Colusa, Glenn, Butte and 
Lassen Counties. 



These lands were acquired by the late John 
Crouch of Butte County. They now belong to 
the John Crouch Land Company, a corporation 
having its principal place of business at Chlco. 

That corporation now otters for sale these ex- 
tensive holdings. 

The agricultural lands In Butte and Glenn 
Counties are in the richest part of northern 
California and are all highly Improved and will 
be sold in subdivisions to suit purchasers. 

The late John Crouch was extensively engaged 
In stock raising, devoting his attention to high 
class sheep and cattle. 

This sale oilers the greatest advantages to 
persons desiring to purchase stock properties, 
which are now exceedingly scarce. 

The corporation owns in the foothills east of 
Chlco some 25,000 acres of land, all under fence 
and with ample barns and improvements. It is 
the finest winter range In the Sacramento 
Valley. It would be sold as a whole or cut up, as 
It can well be naturally, Into three ranges. 

It oilers a tract ol some Ii,ti00 acres in Glenn 
and Colusa Counties, extending for a number of 
miles along Butte Creek, including the rich bot- 
tom lands of that stream, upon which feed of all 
kinds grows luxuriantly. ThiB place would 
make a magnificent stock ranch. 

It also oilers large tracts of land in Glenn 
County a iittle northeast of Butte City, fenced 
and improved, which could be most admirably 
utilized for stock purposes and other rich lands 
In the same vicinity for agricultural purposes. 
They would be sold separately or as a whole. 

The properties ottered Include the celebrated 
Bowers Ranch on the Sacramento Hlver in llutte 
County, composed of the richest river bottom 
agricultural land and upon which alfalfa grows 
most luxuriantly. This ranch is I m proved with 
a tine residence, many barns, good fences and is 
the best high class stock and agricultural ranch 
for sale along the Sacramento River. The soil Is 
adapted not only to alfalfa, but to beets and all 
the grains. 

The Home Ranch of the late Mr. Crouch, near 
Chlco, Is so well known as not to requlro any 
description. It will bo mostly sold In small 
subdivisions. It can be Irrigated by a ditch 
from llutte creek, carrying r,oo Inches of water. 

The corporation oilers also one of the finest 
mountain ranches In the Sierra Nevadas— the 
Crouch lands In Mountain Meadows, comprising 
some 15,000 acres, and upon which an enormous 
tonnage of hay can be cut. This property is 
also highly Improved with barns conveniently 
located for the storage of hay for winter pur* 
poses. It ts sulliclently timbered to make It 
attractive from that point of view and possesses 
great value lor the storage of water thereon 
for power purposes. The Feather Itlver runs 
through It ami the typography of the ground 
admits ol great reservoir sites. 

Purchasers desiring Information about any of 
these properties, or to examine the same, will 
apply to the undersigned personally, or by 
letter, at the Bank of llutte County In Chlco, 
California. 

JOHN K. ROBINSON. 
President John Crouch Land Company. 



58 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 16, 1909. 



mender with an average income of $18 a 
week. She says: 

"The secret of my success has been 
taking what I could get to do and working 
toward what I wanted. I now devote 
nearly all my time to what might be 
called fancy mending, but when a piece 
of rough work offers itself I do it. It is 
my theory that work is degrading only 
when done in a degrading manner. When 
the worker is incompetent or coarse then 
she degrades the work, not the work her. 
Let a worker prove herself a woman of 
refinement and she is pretty apt to be 
treated as such. One of the first evi- 
dences of refinement is to do conscientious 
work and give her patrons the worth of 
their money." 



THE HOME CIRCLE CHAT. 



Breakfast Cakes. 

There are a number of breakfast cakes 
that may be quickly prepared, which are 
quite as light and wholesome as toast and 
much more toothsome for a change, espe- 
cially to the men folks. When time is 
very limited in the morning, the ingredi- 
ents of the cakes may be gotten in readi- 
ness at night and where one has a quick 
oven they may be put together and the 
whole trick turned in half an hour with 
the delicate muffin or biscuit smoking on 
(he table. 

Corn Miffink. — White meal is better 
than yellow for these and sour milk or 
buttermilk than sweet milk for all kinds 
of corn bread. With sour milk use in- 
stead of baking powder one level tea- 
spoon of soda to each pint of milk; if the 
latter is very sour allow a little more 
soda. When neither sour or sweet milk 
is at hand, use water and add a table- 
spoon of butter to this recipe. 

To one beaten egg add two cupfuls of 
sweet milk, into this sift all together one 
scant teacup of cornmeal, one-half teacup 
Hour, one teaspoon baking powder, a level 
teaspoon of salt and a heaping tablespoon 
of sugar; beat quickly into the milk and 
It i Ik- batter is at all thick add a bit more 
milk or water, else the cakes will be dry 
and tasteless, especially if made with 
sweet milk or water. Drop into a hot 
well greased gem pan and bake in a hot 
oven. 

Cur mr Corn Cakes.— Soak stale bread 
or crumbs over night in a quart of sweet 
or sour milk; rub through a colendar and 
add one tablespoon melted butter, two of 
sugar, and either baking powder or soda 
as required and in proportions as in above 
recipe, and enough white meal to make a 
thin batter and last, beat in two well 
whipped eggs; bake in gem pans. These 
are excellent and furnish a good way to 
utilize stale bread. 

Graham Gems. — Two cups sweet milk, 
two level teaspoons of baking powder 
sifted with two cups of flour, two table- 
spoons of molasses, a bit of salt, one 
tablespoon of melted butter, one egg; beat 
well and bake in gem pans. 

White Fi.oitr Muffins or Gems. — One 
heaping teaspoon of baking powder and a 
little salt sifted with one pint of flour, 
one tablespoon melted butter, one teacup 
of sweet milk, two eggs; beat the eggs 
separately and add the whites last; bake 
in muffin rings or gem pans. 

In the line of what are generally known 
as pancakes there is nothing so whole- 
some and delicate as 

Rice Griddle Cakes. — To a cup of cold 
rice boiled dry so that the kernels are 
saparate, add the well-beaten yolk of four 
eggs, one tablespoon of melted butter, two 
pints of sweet milk, a level teaspoon of 
salt and two heaping teaspoons of baking 
powder sifted with one scant quart of 
flour; beat all well together and then add 
the stiffly beaten whites of the four eggs; 
bake on hot well greased griddles to a 
rich brown; place between hot plates and 



serve. For extra occasions these may be 
buttered as baked, sprinkled with maple 
sugar, or spread with nice jelly, then 
rolled and served on a hot plate. These 
are delicious and make a handsome break- 
fast dish. 

Breakfast Biscuit. — These, if rightly 
made and well baked, need not be tabooed 
to even the delicate stomach. With one 
quart of flour sift three well filled tea- 
spoons of baking powder; after sifting 
work into the flour a scant half teacup of 
good butter mixed with a half pint of 
sweet milk; roll thin and cut with biscuit 
cutter; prick with fork and bake an even 
rich brown on both sides in a hot oven. 
Their wholesomeness is assured by being 
cut out thin, not much more than one- 
quarter of an inch and a half an inch 
when baked is right, and baking them 
well. For a quick breakfast these may 
be warmed over in the morning by dip- 
ping into cold water and placing a few 
minutes in a hot oven. If done just right, 
they cannot be distinguished from the 
fresh article. 



Mr. Highbrow — It was Michelet, I be- 
lieve, who oberved that "woman is the 
salt of a man's life." 

Miss Keen — Quite true. Young men 
aren't half so fresh after they get mar- 
ried. — Boston Transcript. 



"So you believe in telepathy?" 

"Yes," answered Mr. Meekton. "My 
wife knows what I am going to think 
about some time before 1 have made my 
mind up on the subject myself." — Wash- 
ington Star. 

THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco. Jan. 13, 19(19. 
(Unless otherwise noted, quotations rep- 
resent priced paid to the growers.) 

WHEAT. 

Some, change in spot prices is noted, the 
first that has taken place for several 
months. The top quotation on White Aus- 
tralian is ."> cents higher, and both North- 
ern Club and Blucstem have advanced 
about 2'/.. cents. The speculative market 
Is very «|uiet. with prices unchanged. The 
feeling is very strong all over the country. 

and Northern shippers are getting stiff 
prices. The local millmen are confining 
their operations to narrow limits, but are 
bringing in considerable grain from the 
North. 

California White Aust ra llan.f 1 .7.1 @1.85 

California Club 1.67 ft & 1-70 

California Milling 1.70 @1.72% 

California lower grades ... 1.45 @1.60 

Northern Club 1.67 V4@ 1.70 

Northern Blucstem 1.76 ®1.80 

Northern Red 1.62 14 ©1.65 

Turkey Red 1.76 ©1.80 

BARLEY. 

Feed is a little higher again, other varie- 
ties showing no change. The market is 
not especially strong, and with only a 
moderate demand trading is quiet. While 
stocks here are moderate, arrivals from 
the North are sufficient for the immediate 
demand. Supplies in the Northern States, 
however, are now running low. 

Brewing $1.4.1 ©1.52V4 

Shipping 1.4.1 ® 1.52 V.. 

Chevalier 1.67 K 01.62 £ 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctl. 1.40 ft) 1.45 
Common Feed 1.35 01.38% 

OATS. 

Some demand for seed oats is reported, 
though the market has not yet taken on 
the active tone that was looked for. Sup- 
plies here are light, and prices have begun 
to respond to the shortage in the North. 
White are nearly 10 cents higher than for- 
merly quoted, and a still greater advance 
has taken place on grays and reds. Black 
oats, however, are somewhat lower. Feed 
grades are quiet. 

Choice White, per ctl $1.77 V6 ® 1.85 

Gray 1.77 % <g> 1.85 

Red, seed 1.80 @1.90 

Feed 1.65 @1.75 

Black, seed 2.30 @2.50 

Feed 1.50 @1.55 

CORN. 

There is practically no California corn 
on the market at present, and it is no 
longer quoted. Some advance is noted in 
Western grades, and while the present 
prices are lower than were quoted a few 
days ago. the market is fairly strong, with 
indication for a further advance. 

Western State Yellow $1.60 ft>1.85 

Mixed, in bulk 1.47 

White, in bulk 1.51 

RYE. 

Practically no rye has been moved for 
some time past, and buyers pay very little 
attention t" the market, all present re- 
quirements being provided for. In the ab- 
sence of business, quotations are nominal 
and unchanged. 

Rye SI. 42%®!. 50 



BEANS. 

Notwithstanding the fact that stocks of 
beans are very light, the amount of busi- 
ness being done is exceedingly small. 
Holders in this city and elsewhere find 
that dealers are disposed to use up present 
supplies and keep their stocks at a low 
point. Probably the higher freight rate 
has some bearing on the case. In spite of 
the slow business, prices are held firm and 
the tendency is rather toward higher than 
lower prices. There has been a slight ad- 
vance in bayos, partly due to the destruc- 
tion of a considerable quantity in a ware- 
house at Sacramento. There seems to be 
a little speculating in large garvanzos, 
and the price for these has been marked 
up somewhat. Small garvanzos are being 
neglected. Both whites anil pinks are 
strong. Late estimates place the stock 
of llmas in California at from 460,000 to 
.100,000 sacks and of blackeyes at 100,000 
sacks. 

Bayos. per ctl $2.90 ©3.10 

Blackeyes 3.00 ©3.20 

Cranberry Beans 2.85 #2.95 

Garvanzos 2.00 ©3.25 

Horse Beans 1.50 @2.00 

Small Whites 4.50 ©4.66 

Large White 3.65 ©3.85 

Limas 4.00 @4.25 

Pea 4.50 ©4.75 

Tink 2.45 @2.60 

Red 3.75 04.00 

Red Kidneys 3.40 03.50 

SEEDS. 

Prices are steadily maintained at the 
same figures as before. Supplies on hand 
are considerable, but from now on there 
should be a good demand. Business is a 
little more active, but a more general buy- 
ing movement should take place as soon 
as the weather clears. Local dealers ask 
the following prices: 

Alfalfa, per lb 17 ©18 c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $20.00® 25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 1%C 

Canary 4V4c 

Flaxseed 2% @ 3 c 

Hemp 4%c 

Millet 2% 3V t c 

Timothy Nominal 

Yellow Mustard Nominal 

FLOUR. 

Eastern brands are a little higher, and 
local grades are quite firm at the recent 
advance. The market is decidedly quiet, 
as there is little export trade from this 
port, and local dealers are holding off as 
long as possible. Stocks, however, are not 
heavy, and more buying is looked for with- 
in a month or two. 

Cal. Family Extras $5.80 @6.40 

Bakers' Extras 5.80 06.05 

Superfine 4.60 04.90 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4.50 04.75 

HAY. 

Receipts of hay are Increasing some- 
what, the total for the week being 2S0<| 
tons, but the demand has proved equal to 
the increase and very little has accumu- 
lated. Prices are as firm as ever and on 
many lines the top figure has been moved 
up a little under the stimulation of the 
increased buying of the past week or two. 
Notwithstanding the rains, which are ex- 
pected to decrease the demand for alfalfa 
and some other grades by increasing the 
amount of green feed available, dealers 
here do not expect any dropping off in 
prices for some time to come. Alfalfa hay 
continues to be brought into California 
from outside points to meet the steady de- 
mand for feeding stock. With the increase 
in green feed and the steady advance of 
prices in other markets, it looks as though 
the importing would soon come to a stand- 
still some heavy shipments of straw have 
reached this market and the price has 
weakened. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $21.OO@23.50 

Other Grades Wheat 17.00021.00 

Wheat and Oat 16.00@21.50 

Tame Oat 16.00(S>21.00 

Wild Oat 1.1.00017.00 

Alfalfa 14.50@18.50 

Stock 12.00® 14.00 

Straw, per bale 50© 85c 

MILLSTUFFS. 

The only change of price this week has 
been on rolled barley, which is consider- 
ably lower. Bran is fairly firm at the re- 
cent decline. The demand here Is now 
rather light, and will probably be still 
lighter, but with small supplies on hand 
and limited production by the mills, there 
is no prospect of any further decline for 
some time. 

Alfalfa meal, per ton $23.00®24.00 

Bran, ton — - 

White 29.50® 30.00 

Red 28.50® 29.00 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl 1.20© 1.25 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills 25.50@26.50 

Corn Meal 37.00038.00 

Cracked Corn 38.00 039.00 

Mealfalfa 23.00@24.00 

Middlings 33.50©35.50 

Mixed Feeds 28.00@32.00 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 38.00@39.50 

Rolled Barley 27.500 30.00 

Shorts 33.00@33.50 

VEGETABLES. 

Oregon onions are now appearing in the 
market in considerable quantities, and are 
moved without difficulty at $1.50 per ctl. 
Local stock Is quite scare and firm, with 
nothing obtainable at the Inside figure 
quoted last week. Plenty of mushrooms 
are offered at 40 to 7.1 cents per box. 
Tomatoes are considerably higher. Green 
peas are easy, and rhubarb is rather plen- 
tiful, with the less attractive lots offering 
at a reduction. Green peppers are higher 
and marrowfat and Hubbard squash shows 
a marked advance. 

Onions — Local Yellow $1.25 

Oregon Yellow 1.50 

Garlic, per lb 8® 10c 

String Beans 12^r<i Lie- 
Green Peas, per lb 6® 8c 

Cabbage, per ctl $1.00 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton . . . $2".00(<i>25.00 
Tomatoes, crate 1.00® 1.50 



Turnips, sack 60c 

Bell Peppers, lb 10© 15c 

Chill Peppers, lb 4® 5c 

Egg Plant, lb 20c 

Cauliflower, doz 65c 

Celery, dozen 5 Oft 60e 

Rhubarb, box 1.25® 2.oo 

POULTRY. 

Arrivals of Western stock are about up 
to the recent average, but the market re- 
mains quite strong, some varieties bring- 
ing a little better prices than last week. 
There is little movement In California 
poultry, as only a few small lots are ar- 
riving, and buyers take little Interest in 
them, but offerings are kept fairly well 
cleaned up. Quotations on turkeys are 
practically nominal,, as there is hardly 
any live stock arriving, and only a few 
lots of dressed. Choice dressed turkeys 
are quoted at a slight advance. 

Broilers $ 4.00® .1.0(1 

Small Broilers 3.50® 4.00 

Fryers .1.50© 8.00 

Hens, extra 8. 00ft) 9.00 

Hens, per doz 6.00ft' 7.00 

Small Hens 4.50© 5.00 

Old Roosters 4.00© 5.00 

Young Roosters 6.00© 7.00 

Young Roosters, full grown.. 7.00® 8.00 

Pigeons 1.00© 1.25 

Squabs 2.00ft 2.50 

Ducks 4.00© 8.00 

Geese 2.50® 3.00 

Turkeys, live, per lb Nominal 

Turkeys, dressed, per lb 20 25c 

BUTTER. 

Butter has been arriving in only mod- 
erate quantities this week, and with a 
good demand prices are firmly maintained 
on all grades, extras being quoted 1 cent 
above last week's market. Trading Is 
quite active, and all arrivals are moved 
off rapidly. The following prices are 
quoted by the San Francisco Dairy Ex- 
change: 

California (extras), per lb.... 35 c 

Firsts 32 c 

Seconds 27 c 

Eastern Storage Ladles, extra 23 c 

Cal. Storage, extras 30>£c 

EGGS. 

There Is a marked shortage In the south, 
and large lots of Eastern stock are moving 
into consumption. The local market has 
been very active, with extras closely 
c leaned up and few coming in. The de- 
mand, however, is now running mostly to 
the lower grades. Little storage stock re- 
mains on hand, and Eastern storage extras 
have been marked up 5 cents. Fresh ex- 
tras and firsts are 1 cent above last quota- 
tions, and a still greater advance has been 
made In thirds. Pullet eggs are now being 
quoted. The following quotations are 
given by the San Francisco Diary Ex- 
change: 

California (extra), per doz.... 4.1 c 

Firsts 45 c 

Seconds 40 c 

Thirds 35 c 

Fresh Cal. Pullets 41>£e 

Storage. Eastern, extras 33 c 

CHEESE. 

Prices on the Exchange are unchanged 
since last week. This market shows no 
feature at present, as the demand is light 
and supplies are fully sufficient for pres- 
ent requirements. New California flats are 
steady to firm, with some weakness on 
storage stock. Y. A.'s and Oregon flats 
are also weak. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb. 14 c 

Firsts 13V4c 

New Young Americas, fancy.. 16 e 

Oregon Flats 14 c 

Oregon Y. A 16 c 

Storage. Cal. Flats 13 c 

N. T. Cheddars 17 c 

Storage, Oregon, Flats 14 c 

POTATOES. 

The potato market shows more activity 
than for some time past. The local con- 
sumptive demand appears stronger and 
speculative buying is a distinct feature. 
Salinas Burbanks are becoming scarce. 
Only a fair amount of Oregon stock is 
offering and river stock Is well cleaned up. 
Prices for all grades of Burbanks are 
higher, hut Early Rose and sweet pota- 
toes are unchanged. 

River Whites, fancy, ctl $ 1.000 1.25 

Common 80© 90c 

Salinas Burbanks. ctl 1.50© 1.60 

Oregon Burbanks, ctl 1.15® 1.35 

Early Rose 1.3.1© 1.50 

Sweet Potatoes, ctl 1.25© 1.85 

FRESH FRUITS. 

The weather has been against an active 
business in fresh fruits, and the trade is 
buying only from day to day. Stocks of 
apples are large and buyers take little 
Interest in them. Pears also are quiet. 
The outside quotation is no longer asked 
for cranberries, the demand for which is 
very small. Occasional lots of southern 
strawberries arrive and bring about |1.60 
a crate. 

Apples, fancy 85c®$1..10 

Apples, common 40 © 75e 

Cranberries — 

Cape Cod, bbl 116.00 

Pears, box. Winter Nelis 75c@ 1.50 

Other varieties 50 75c 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

Business in all lines of citrus fruits is 
confined to narrow limits, and there is a 
heavy oversupply of oranges. Prices range 
about as before, with a reduction on the 
less desirable offerings. Choice grape fruit 
Is higher. Quotations on lemons and Mines 
are unchanged, though concessions are fre- 
quently given to move large lots. 

Choice Lemons $2.00© 2.50 

Fancv Lemons 3.00® 3.2.1 

Standard 1.250 1.50 

I.imes 4.00© 5.00 

Oranges — 

Fancy Navels 2.00ft> 2.50 

Standard 1.50© 2.0(1 

Tangerines 1.00® 1.25 

Grape Fruit 3.00® 4.00 



January 16, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



5< 




Good Matured Tools 

It is not necessary to force Keen Kutter Tools. Keen 
Kutter bits, for example, work quickly and easily in 
any kind of wood. Lips are long, strong and perfectly 
tempered, adding years to the life of the tool. 

Keen Kutter Tools like hard work. The edged 
tools never lose their temper — handled tools never 
work loose or fly off — hammering tools keep their 
faces straight. 

mm KutftR 

QUALITY TOOLS 

include tools of all kinds — Saws, Chisels, Bits, Drills, 
Gimlets, Awls, Planes, Hammers, Hatchets, Axes, 
Draving-knives, Pocket-knives, Screw- 
drivers, Files, Pliers, Glass-cutters, Ice- 
picks, and a full line of Farm and Garden 
Tools, Scissors, Shears, and Cutlery. 

If not at your dealer's, write us. 
SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY (Inc.), 
St. Louis and New York, U. S. A 





STOCKTON VINEYARD HARNESS 

Weight 55 lbs. Price $17.50. 

Saves your trees aiid vines. Will quickly pay for itself. 

ORDER NOW FROM 

THE H. C. SHAW CO. 

Stockton, Cal. 



DRIED FRUITS. 
The market on dried fruits shows no 
particular feature, conditions both here 
and in the East being about as they have 
been since the holidays. Buying in all 
lines of California fruits is very limited, 
and prices show practically no change. 
There is some demand in the East for Ore- 
gon prunes, but California stock is being 
very firmly held at present, on account of 
the strong statistical position, and buyers 
are not willing to pay the prices asked. 
Apples are fairly strong and peaches are 
firm, but little trading is done in either 
line. Apricots are high and firm, and buy- 
ing is accordingly limited to immediate 
needs. The Fresno raisin deal seems to 
have encountered unexpected difficulties, 
and this has further unsettled the market, 
which was dull and easy before. Eastern 
buyers are paying little attention to offer- 
ings, and seem to expect a further decline 
in the near future, while the local packers 
appear very bearish in regard to prices. 
While little fruit is moving out of the 
hands of growers at present, some busi- 
ness is being done and local packers are 
offering the prices quoted below. 



Evaporated Apples 4@ 5c 

Figs, black 1@ 2c 

Figs, white 1& 2V 2 c 

Apricots 7@ 10c 

Peaches 2%<gj ZV 2 c 

Prunes, 4-size basis 2*40 base 

Pears 2%@ 6c 

RAISINS. 

Loose Muscatels, 4 crown .... 2%c 

3 crown 2%c 

2 crown l%c 

Thompson Seedless 2%c 

Seedless Sultanas 2 c 

London Layers, 3 crown 70c 



NUTS. 

The demand is now very small for either 
walnuts or almonds, the trade in general 
being supplied for several months to come. 
Few almonds now remain in growers' 
hands and packers are taking on only an 
occasional lot at reduced prices. No fur- 
ther change is reported in walnuts, the 
Association prices being quoted below. 
Local packers offer the following prices 
for almonds: 



Almonds, Nonpareils 10 c 

I X L dV-c 

Ne Plus Ultra 9 c 

Drakes 8 c 

Languedoc 7 c 

WALNUTS. 

Softshell, No. 1 9%c 

Softshell, No. 2 6 u 



HONEY. 

This market is quiet and shows no new 
feature, as all present requirements are 
amply supplied and little inquiry is re- 



ceived from outside markets. Hardly any 
stock is now being offered by the growers, 
and supplies in first hands are limited. 
Packers offer the following prices: 

Comb, lb 10 @13 c 

Water White, extracted 7%c 

White 6»4@ 634c 

Light Amber 5 @ 5y 2 c 

Dark Amber 4%c 



HOPS. 

Most of the last crop has already been 
disposed of by the growers, only a small 
percentage being held back. The growers 
in general are not exerting any pressure 
to sell and somewhat higher prices are 
quoted on the better offerings. 

Hops, per lb 5@ 10c 

WOOL. 

Prices show no particular change. At 
the current figures there is little difficulty 
in disposing of California clips at pres- 
ent, but the market is very quiet, as offer- 



ings are small. 
Red Bluff (f. o. b. Red Bluff) 

free 6 @ 7%c 

Defective less 2 c 

San Joaquin (at S. F.) free. .. . 5 @ 7%c 

Defective 4 @ 5 c 

Mendocino, free 7 @ 9 c 

Defective 5 @ 7 c 

MEAT. 

The quotation on wethers is a little 
higher than last week, but otherwise the 

quotations stand. There is a pronounced 
firmness on practically all lines, supplies 
of beef and mutton being limited, with 
small arrivals. 

Beef: Steers, per lb 7 @ 7%c 

Cows 6 @7 c 

Heifers 6 @ 7 c 

Veal: Large 8 @ 9 c 

Small 9%@10%c 

Mutton: Wethers 10 fall c 

Ewes 9 @10 c 

Lambs 11 %@ 12 tic 

Hogs, dressed 8 @ 9>/ 2 c 

LIVESTOCK. 

Steers, No. 1 4%@4%e 

No. 2 4 c 

No. 3 3%c 

Cows and Heifers, No. 1 3 V* @ 3%c 

No. 2 3 c 

Bulls and Stags 1%@ 2 c 

Calves. Light 4%@ 5 c 

Medium 4 % @ 4%c 

Heavy 3%@ 4 c 

Sheep, Wethers 4 c 

Ewes 3%c 

Lambs, lb 4 V 2 @ 4%c 

Hogs. 100 to 150 lbs 5%@ 6 c 

150 to 250 lbs 6 @ 6%C 

250 to 325 lbs 5 % @ 5%c 



Boars, 50 per cent; stags, 30 to 40 per 
cent, and sows, 10 to 20 per cent off from 
above quotations. 



SPECIAL CITRUS MARKET 
REPORT. 



Los Angeles, Cal., Jan. 12— Cold weather 
back East and plenty of snow does not 
seem to make our fruit shippers feel very 
blue. They all seem to feel that condi- 
tions are bound to be good, and in the 
very near future. The real basis of the 



expectation is that they believe that 
nearly all the suspected fruit is now out 
of the way, and that when there is no 
very cheap fruit to offer, the jobbers will 
have to meet their prices, or at lest ad- 
vance their ideas, or there will be mighty 
little fruit shipped in the next ten days. 
Already there are indications that they 
mean this, for the shipments are slacking 
up and the rains will still further tend to 
help matters along this line, preventing 
those from picking who are crazy eonugh 
to ship good fruit onto the market under 
present circumstances. Hold back is the 
cry all along the line, but they are like 
race horses at the barrier, all afraid that 
the other horse is going to get away first. 
No need to rush this fruit out and there 
are many reasons why it should not be. 
Give Florida a chance to clean up a little. 
Even if our fruit does bring a little more 
than the Florida stock, it is no reason 
why we should take so much less now 
than we can get later; what's the use? 

Prices are not so bad to date, but the 
bad weather and the amount of fruit may 
combine to hurt prices on the unsold fruit 
now out. It is estimated that there are 
1300 cars of fruit now rolling and the 
greater part is unsold. This stock may 
get pinched very badly, but every car of 
fruit leaving California from now on 
should bring a good price or it should be 
held. 

Lemon prices are very good. At the last 
sale of Sicily lemons held in New York 
last week, prices rose a dollar a box and 
the price may go higher. There are now 
34,000 boxes in sight and available with- 
in the next 30 days, as against 40,000 
boxes last year and 50,000 boxes in 1907. 
Orange shipments are running about 90 
cars a day and lemon shipments 12 cars. 
Citrus fruit shipments have now topped 
the 3000 mark, which is less than had 
gone at this time a year ago. 



PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. 



The H. C. Shaw Co. of Stockton are 
again advertising in our columns. This 
is a very strong house and we are glad to 
carry their announcements. 



A very good firm, new to our columns, 
is the Pomona Mfg. Co. of Pomona, who 
advertise their deep well pumps. Mr. 
Fulton, the head of the company, is a 
master at the work and a very fine man 
to do business with. 



Among the nursery and seedsmen ad- 
vertisers in this issue will be noted the 
large advertisement of the Fancher Creek 
Nurseries, the new announcement of the 
Germain Seed Co. of Los Angeles, and the 
tree ad of Mr. Scheidecker of Sabastopol. 
All good firms. 



Among the new announcements this 
week our readers will notice several in 
our stock department. B. Stewart & Co. 
of San Francisco advertise a big sale of 
horses for the 2(>th inst. ; the Howard 
Cattle Co. have a lot of fine Short-horn 
bulls for sale (send for their catalogue); 
the Empire Cream Separator Co., Ltd., of 
Portland, ask that the merits of their 
separator be investigated before purchas- 
ing; the Pacific Oil and Lead Works are 
again offering their oil cake meals to 
stockmen, and the American Steel & Wire 
Co. call attention to their fence material. 
All the above firms are worthy of patron- 
age. 

MORE KIND WORDS. 

Mr. Chas. A. Chambers, secretary of the 
Board of Park Commissioners, Fresno, 
says: "I have noticed what a fine paper 
you people are getting out at the present 
time. It can hardly be improved in any 



way that I can see. It is full of live 
matter, up-to-date and you are to be con- 
gratulated for bringing it up to this point. 



Our good friend, A. Warren Robinson, 
of Twin Lakes, in a recent letter p iys 
the following handsome compliment: 
"Surely the Rural Press is improving 
wonderfully of late. The last twelve- 
month has seen marked progress in your 
columns. Am glad to add my humble 
tribute, wishing the paper and all con- 
nected with it prolonged and useful lives." 



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Write Us for Catalogue of Kami Imple- 
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PACIFIC IMPLEMENT CO., 

133-153 Kansas St., San Francisco. 



CALIFORNIA FRUITS 

AND 

HOW TO GROW THEM 



By K J. WICKSON, A.M. 



REVISED EDITION, 500 PAGES. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED 



Price $3 per copy, postpaid. 



Prof. I,. II. Bailer, the lending horticul- 
turist of the Bast, aaya of the book: 

"This work is an invaluable addition to* 
the literature of horticulture. The condi- 
tions of culture are so peculiar in Califor- 
nia that a particular treatise is demanded' 
for them. The present volume deals in a 
clear and comprehensive manner with the 
whole field of California pomology. The- 
author has enjoyed unusual facilities for 
the acquisition of facts, and he has every- 
where used the material to good advan- 
tage." 



SEND IN YOUR ORDER TODAY TO 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publisher, 

667 HOWARD STREET, 
San Francisco. Cal. 



DEEP WELL PUMPS 

AND CYLINDERS 

Water gates for pipe lines. Send for catalog* 

POMONA MANUFACTURING CO., 

Pomona, Cal. 



60 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January i<;, i!io9. 



1 KENTUCKY DISC DRILLS 

meet every requirement of partic- 
ular Farmers. Constructed on cor- 
rect mechanical principles, of the 
best material obtainable, they are 
strong and lasting. KENTUCKY 
Conical Disc Bearings are unique. 
Of fairly large diameter, they are 
narrow, giving greatest clearance 
between discs. Dust proof, oil retaining and adjustable. Over 2500 
in use, giving perfect service, have demonstrated the superiority of 
the Kentucky Disc Bearing. 

Write us for Catalogue of the Complete Kentucky Line. 

PACIFIC IMPLEMENT COMPANY 

135 KANSAS ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 




THE BEST IN THE WORLD; HAS NO EQUAL 

The Original R. I. Knapp Side-Hill Plow 

Orchard and Vineyard Plow received tirst premium 
at State Fair. 




HAS given entire sat- 
islaction for over 
thirty years. Equally 
as good for valley as 
hill sides. We manu- 
facture five slzes-from 
one-horse orcband and 
vineyard plow, to the 
strongest grading 
plow. 



SAN JOSE, CAL11 0RN1 V 



KNAPP 



SON. 



All Soils Alike to Wood Pipe 




The heaviest adobe, the most corrosive alkali, the llghest sand— all 
are alike where wood pipe Is used. It resists them all. Wood Satu- 
rated, Air Excluded— Can't rot. Metal In bulk, C.alvanized, Asphalted— 
Can't Hust. High Factor of Safety in Banding— Can't Leak. Our book 
let, "The Whole Story About Wood Pipe," contains valuable tables of 
the carrying capacity of pipe. Mailed free upon request. 

Continuous Stave Pipe. Machine Banded Stave Pipe 

National Wood Pipe Company 



404 Equitable Savings Hank lidg., Los Angeles. 
Olympla, Washington. 



'MH Market St., SanFrancisco. 
Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, C tah. 




Centrifugal 
Pumps 

For high or low heads 
Direct connected or belt driven 

Highest obtainable efficiency. 

Krogh Man'f'g. Co. 

127 to 133 Beale St., S&n Francisco, Cal. 

Send for new catalogue No. 60 
just Issued. 



PEAR-BLIGHT We can CURE IT 

fci^H IrfcilUI Our Remedy will not in- 



jure the tree. 



SEND US YOUR ORDER NOW. 

Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

PEAR-BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure PotaBh. 
Best Tree Wash. 
T. W. JACKSON A CO., Temporary Address, 
42 Market St., San Francisco. 



REX YOUR TREES WITH 

LIME & SULPHUR SOLUTION 

The well known REX LIME & SULPHUR SOLUTION manufactured by the 
California Rex Spray Company, at Benlcla, is no longer an experiment. Of 
the thousands of customers that used it Inst year, vrc have scarcely u single 
report but what is in its favor. 

It is the best known insecticide anil fungicide; Is a tonic to the tree; Is 
prepared on scientific principles; Is absolutely uniform: every barrel that Is 
made nt the fuctory being of just the sume strength, namely, :'.:: solution, 
llnume test; Is free from sediment; Is ready for use In the orchard *\ If bout 
huving to be boiled; one barrel of 50 gallons makes OOO gallons of the strongest 
spray, and Is by fnr cheaper, nt the reduced price at which it Is offered this 
year, than nny farmer cun afford to make a home-made. Imperfect solution. 

Ask your dealer, or add rets: 

CALIFORNIA REX SPRAY CO. YAKIMA REX SPRAY CO. 

Benicia, Cal. N. Yakima, Wash. 

THE TOLEDO REX SPRAY CO., Toledo, Ohio. 
THE REX COMPANY, Omaha, Neb. 



Was Your Last Catalogue Satisfactory? 



IN TRADE-PULLING POWER. 

Was the general get-up genuinel 
so that the reader became intereste 
order? First impressons go a grea 
toward the offerings of a good book. 
IN QUALITY AND ARRANGEMENT. 

Did the manner of its mechanica 
press possible patrons of the super! 
offering? Was it correct in nomenc 
IN VOLUME AND NUMBER PRINT 

Did you meet the demand by en 
you over, or did you have a surplus, 
important either way you look at it 
IN MATTER AND ILLUSTRATIONS 

You don't always discuss with y 
The Kruckeberg Press is different f 
fitted up to be really helpful to th 
and agricultural interests, to do thi 
the copy to the finished product. 

Correspondence invited. 



y attarctlve. and did it present your stock 
d and In a frame of mind to give you an 
t ways in establishing a friendly attitude 

1 appearance and literary expression im- 
ority of the seeds and plants you are 
lature and reliable in cultural directions? 
BSD. 

ding the season with just enough to carry 
or did you fall a few shy? This is 

our printer all these points. — but then, 
rom the general run of printers; it Is 
e seed and nursery trade, the live stock 
s class of work, from the preparation of 



THE KRUCKEBERG PRESS 

HORTICULTURAL PRINTING AND ENGRAVING 
CATALOGUE MAKERS. TRI-COLOR PRINTERS 



123 South Los Angeles St. A 1420 Home. 



Los Angeles, Cal. 




Tanks 



Tanks 



WINE TANK. H4-154 Berry St 



WINDELER'S PLANING MILL 
AND COOPERAGE 

GEO. WINDELER, Prop. 

Water Tanks, Wine Tanks, made from carefully 
selected stock by careful and experienced work- 
men. "Tanks that are well made last a long 
time.'' It will pay you to get my prices before 
buying. 

GEO. WINDELER, 




San Francisco, Cal. WATER TANK. 



FRANCIS SIVIIXH & CO., Manu l g r ure " 



FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 

Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office, 9 Fremont Street. Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, California. 

Water and OH Tanks — all sizes. Coating all sizes of Pipes wlthAspbaltum. 



PIPE 



PRICE LIST. 

Second Hand Pipe— Merchantable 
Lengths. Standard Threads and New 
Standard Couplings. Dipped in a solu- 
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Temperature of over 300 Degrees. Closely 
Inspected and fully Guaranteed. All 
prices F.O.B., San Francisco. 









Price 




Size. 


Weight 


per 




per ft. 


100 ft. 




inch 


.84 lb. 


$2.50 


i 


ii 


1.12 " 


3.85 


i 


ii 


1.67 " 


4.50 


u 


ii 


2.24 " 


6.25 


ii 


u 


2.68 » 


7.25 


2 


ii 


3.61 " 


10.00 


2j 


it 


5.74 " 


16.00 


3 


ii 


7.54 " 


19.75 


4 


ii 


10.66 H 


30.00 


5 


ii 


14.50 " 


42.50 


6 


it 


18.76 " 


50.00 



ALEXANDER PIPE CO. 

1083 Howard SI., San Francisco, Cal. 



The Fresno Scraper 




Send for Raisin Machinery Catalogue. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO CALIFORNIA. 

PATENTS 

White for our Guide to Inventors, sent 
free on request; containing nearly 100 me- 
chanical movements and full Information 
about Patents, Caveats, Trademarks, and 
Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., 
1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San 
Francisco. Established 1860. 



Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 



1400 FOURTH ST., SAN FRANCISCO 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angeles 
Blake, McFall A Co., Portland, Oregon 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXVII. No. 4. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 23, 1909. 



Thirty-ninth Year. 



CERTIFIED MILK. 



WHAT IT MEANS AND HOW IT 18 PRODUCED. 



Written for the PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 
By LESLIE W. SYMMES, Agricultural Engineer. 



The recent increase in the demand and supply 
of this character of milk in California induces us 
to present this subject to our read- 
ers, trusting that it will be of in- 
terest and may possibly explain 
what "certified milk" means; how 
it originated, and the require- 
ments necessary for its produc- 
tion. 

We realize that it is not on 

every farm that certified milk can 

be made, and it is not every man 

who can expect to achieve success 

if he goes into the business. Only 

those who are naturally the most 

careful and painstaking can hope 

to achieve success, and not every 

dairyman can enter into the mak- 
ing of certified milk and make a 

profit above that received from his 

present system. Still, we must all 

bear in mind that past methods in 

milk production will not bring 

success today. The public is de- 
manding a better product; they 

are entitled to it, and must and 

will have it; but it costs more to 

produce, and they must meet the 

producer half way and be willing 

to pay the cost. 

Certified milk was first made for 

the medical profession ; that is, for 

their patients and the infants in 
their charge, so that milk of a 
known quality could be guaran- 
teed them. It is invaluable for in- 
fants and patients, where milk is 
the important food item, so it is 
only right that it should command 
the highest price. It can generally 
be said that the people in most 
cases are getting as good milk as 
they are paying for. Considering 
the increased cost of labor, lands, 
and feed, there is not the margin 
of profit in market milk produc- 
tion today that there was a few 
years ago, while the demand calls for a better pro- 
duct, which requires a greater cost of production. 

The demand for certified milk will be met by an 
adequate supply, as soon as the consumers are 
willing to pay the necessary cost. So it is for a 
cleaner market milk that dairy farmers, as well 
as boards of health and other public officials hav- 
ing the people's milk supply in charge, should 
bend their energies. 

Certified milk is of comparatively recent origin 



in California, and, in fact, it is only within the 
past few years in the East that a trade has grown 
up for so-called "sanitary" or "certified" milk. 
The demand for this kind of milk is growing here 
in California, so we believe a knowledge of what 
it is, and how it is produced, will be of benefit to 
all dairymen, whether or not it is within their 
means or desires to produce it. 

As soon as the demand for this milk was mani- 
fest in the East, unscrupulous dealers be»an to 




Grooming Cows Before Milking at Ideal Farms in Marin County 




Milking Time: Note the Cleanly Appearance of Cows and Milkers 

call anything "certified," with the result that in 
the State of New York a law was passed making 
it a misdemeanor to use the word "certified" un- 
less the milk was made under the inspection of 
some qualified body. Hence certified milk in New 
York State stands for something; namely, a rich, 
pure, unadulterated milk, produced in accordance 
with rules and regulations laid down by some rec- 
ognized medical society or board and indorsed 
(certified) by them. Similarly, in other States 



and cities milk is produced and marketed as "cer- 
tified milk," being endorsed principally by medical 
milk commissions, composed of members of the 
medical profession in the different cities and 
States. 

To Dr. Henry L. Coit, of Newark, New Jersey, 
the consumers of certified milk are indebted for 
the guaranteed excellence of this important food 
product. The organization of a Medical Milk 
Commission in Newark, New Jersey, on April 13, 
1893, was the result of a confer- 
ence of a little band of earnest 
men. Appalled at the yearly death 
rate of young children in their 
own city, they came together to 
discover, if possible, the underly- 
ing cause, and to formulate plans 
for the betterment of this milk 
supply, as Dr. Coit believed this 
food supply of children to be di- 
rectly responsible for the high 
death rate. For years Dr. Coit 
had been endeavoring, through 
the agencies of legislative enact- 
ment and municipal ordinance, to 
better the milk supply of the city. 
After five years of effort it became 
evident that if any progress was 
to be made it would have to come 
from individual initiative. Dr. 
Coit then sought a dairyman who 
would meet the requirements of 
the commission, and found such a 
man in Mr. Stephen Francisco of 
Caldwell, N. J., whose earnestness, 
sympathy and conscientious co- 
operation with the objects of the 
commission have done so much to 
make this movement a success. 

For more than fourteen years 
the Essex County (New Jersey) 
.Medical Milk Commission, found- 
ed by Dr. Henry L, Coit of New- 
ark, N. J., has been incxistence. 
We may rightly call Dr. Coit's 
commission the parent of the nu- 
merous medical milk commissions 
throughout the United States. It 
was organized to establish correct 
chemical standards of purity for 
cows' milk, to become responsible 
In a periodical inspection of the 
dairy under its supervision, pro- 
vide for chemical and biological 
examinations of the milk pro- 
duced, and to secure frequent inspection of the 
stock by a competent veterinarian. 

The commission as now constituted consists of 
twelve members; the number, however, is not 
fixed, but is continued large enough to be repre- 
sentative, and yet not so large as to defeat the 
purpose of the commission. The motives of the 
commission are disinterested, and the members of 
the commission, by the terms of the contract, can 
(Continued On Page 76.) 



62 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 23, 1909. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 

TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. 



PUBLISHKRS 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



K. J. W1CKSON 
FRANK HONEYWELL 



Editor 
Business Manager 



California Weather Record. 

The following rainfall record is furnished the Pacific 
Rural Press by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Weather Bureau, at San Francisco, for the week 
ending at 5 P. M., January 19, 1909: 





Total 


Total 


Normal 


Stations. 


rainfall 


seasonal 


seasonal 


for 


rainfall 


rainfall 




the week. 


to date. 


to date. 




5.56 


23.76 


21.52 


Red Bluff. 


.•S.44 


12.91 


12.42 




3.52 


10.13 


9.16 




6.30 


18.52 


10.85 




3.51 


10.35 


10.70 




.93 


5.93 


6.77 




1.36 


3.66 


4 60 


Independence 


2.18 


4.82 


4.53 




3.00 


11.07 


8.80 




.53 


5.43 


6.76 


San Diego 


.74 


3.10 


4.47 




cur them, but this does not greatly help the indi- 
vidual loser to carry his burden. The whole peo- 
ple should welcome taxation t<> an extent which 
would rule out the possibility of such losses. 



The storms have proved generous in amount 
and duration beyond desire and expectation. 
There have been interruptions of travel and mail 
delivery and loss by land submergence which are 
unavoidable under the present condition of things, 
for until we get our rivers into rational condition 
for ample water carriage and transportation there 
will continue to be such losses and vexations every 
time the rainfall reaches figures which make dry 
farming profitable or irrigation supplies adequate! 
to summer recpiireinents. If those who are work- 
ing zealously for river improvement and for ap- 
peal to the general government to do its part in 
river improvement had had the making of the 
present winter's rainfall serve their measures they 
could hardly have planned better in time and 
measure. The legislature now in session at Sac- 
ramento is having the best kind of an opportunity 
to judge how important such river improvement 
is, and we trust will be suitably impressed by it. 
One who appreciates how valuable water is in 
California is also impressed with the urgency of 
proceeding with reclamation enterprises in the 
Sacramento Valley which will store the surplus 
waters before they enter upon their destructive 
courses through the valley, and let them down 
easily during the dry season when they are needed 
to grow crops and to float boats to carry them to 
tidewater shipping points. All these are proper 
flood-season reflections which California has in- 
dulged in quite freely enough during the last half- 
century, and we hope the present legislature will 
give them a good lift on the way toward realiza- 
tion. How to have such a grandly generous rain- 
fall and not the great losses with it, is the ques- 
tion. At present the joy over the great production 
of 1909 on the basis of plenty of water everywhere 
is dampened by the thought of the losses which 
come to so . many individuals and enterprises 
nearly all of which are capable of prevention. 
From a State-wide view, these losses come just 
at a time when with a maximum amount of pro- 
duction the commonwealth can best afford to in 



Hut we like to escape losses, both privately and 
publicly, if possible, and it may brighten someone 
on a dark day to know that, according to the sta- 
tistics of the Department of Labor and Commerce, 
two chief Pacific ports have escaped from the de- 
cline in foreign trade Which affected the Whole 
country in 1908. These ports are San Francisco 
and Portland. San Francisco shows an increase 
from $27,000,000 in 1907 to $28,000,000 in 1908. 
hut its imports fell off from $50,000,000 to $41,- 
000,000. Portland showed a fall of $1,000,000 in 
imports from a total of $4,000,000 in 1907, and an 
increase from $12,250,000 to $15,750,000 in ex- 
ports. Puget Sound imports fell off from $23,000,- 
000 to $20,000,000. and its exports from $37,000.- 
000 to $35,000,000. Increased exports from the 
Pacific Coast consisted chiefly of wheat. The 
greatest falling off in foreign commerce was at 
Atlantic ports. The total decrease was about 
$500,000,000. We hope all ports will have a dif- 
ferent experience this year. San Francisco is 
pretty sure to go ahead, because these rains will 
give a good surplus of wheat and barley, if not for 
other reasons. 



A very good idea has cropped out in commer- 
cial San Francisco, and the foregoing good news 
of the standing of the port may bring warmer sup- 
port to it. The proposition is to enlist the co- 
operation of the commercial, industrial and civic 
bodies, patriotic individuals and the manufac- 
turers, to start a movement for an industrial week, 
a prosperity week, a progress week, or industrial 
carnival, affording an opportunity to show what 
San Francisco and its immediate vicinity can do 
for its home manufacturing, and to show to the 
world what San Francisco has accomplished with- 
in 'three years. It is suggested that April 18 
may be the most oportune day for the opening 
of that prosperity week or industrial carnival, 
which will the more emphasize that the people of 
San Francisco are again on their feet and that 
commerce and industry arc again normal. It will 
be a great time for floral demonstration, and the 
beautiful open air of the bay district will be at its 
best. Let us bury the city in Mowers for a few 
days. The world will not hear the end of it for 
vears. 



If we are going too fast and too far in national 
projects for forest reservation and dry land recla- 
mation it will be just as well to know it, and if 
we are not going too fast or far, the denumstra- 
tion will help us to go faster and farther. This 
is the way we are inclined to regard the agitation 
for a review of these branches of the public service 
which is being made in the interior range States 
and in some parts of California. Those who are 
complaining may be serving private interests in 
some way or other, but even such a motive may 
result in public service. There can be no doubt. 
\vc think, but that these two great services in for- 
estry and reclamation are the greatest govern- 
mental provisions of recent years, and capable of 
benefits to coming generations which are beyond 
computation, but if the machinery through which 
they operate is not of the best, let us have it im- 
proved. At a meeting of the National Wool Grow- 
ers' Association in Idaho last week it was charged 
that the Forestry Service "make their own laws 
or rules, decide our rights, and enforce their own 
decrees. In the judicial functions of the service 
lies the greatest danger. It passes upon our rights 
involving thousands of dollars, often without evi- 



dence, save reports from forest employees. A 
wrongdoer within the ranks of the navy or mili- 
tary service is tried before a court-martial, which 
has the power to summon and examine witnesses 
as in other courts, but with the administration of 
the Forestry Service, dealing directly with the 
rights of the people, no such power is given." 

Perhaps the plan of the Forest Service is too 
imperialistic ; if so, Congress should look after it, 
correct it if the charge is well founded, or con- 
tinue it if it is good. If such affirmation should 
come from Congress, it would be good for the 
whole country, because there is too much opposi- 
tion now, or at least too much said about opposi- 
t i ii. If the opponents are wrong, let it be known, 
and public sentiment will take care of them. If, 
when they declare in a public meeting that For- 
estry Service agents are men whose "unreliability 
is a by-word in the West."' and when such a meet- 
ing resolves formally against them. Congress 
should take up the matter, even if it is only for 
the purpose of defending public servants who 
cannot adequately defend themselves. 



A somewhat similar state of opposition seems to 
be developing to the Reclamation Service, for Con- 
gressman Elglebright of California has introduced 
a bill limiting the expenditure by the Secretary of 
the Interior of the reclamation fund without con- 
sent of Congress. It forbids examinations and 
surveys, the construction and maintenance or rec- 
lamation of any lands without consent of Con- 
gress. It also requires, besides other reports re- 
quired by law. an annual detailed statement of all 
receipts for the current fiscal year. It also re- 
quires a statement regarding deterioration that 
has taken place in existing works and probable 
cost of restoring them. 

Now we are not at all sure that the best public 
service is to be had in this way. We are inclined 
to believe that the way to get the best service is 
to place it in the hands of thorough experts who 
have given their lives to such work, but certainly 
the facts of their work and the soundness of the 
policies they are pursuing can be made out clearly 
enough by examination by other experts, so that 
the public can judge whether it is being well 
served Or otherwise. For this reason we believe 
that the affairs of both the Forestry and the Recla- 
mation services should be clearly expounded to 
the people, and we entertain this belief because 
we expect that investigation will make for sup- 
port and strengthening. 



A horse thief is one of the most detestable of 
criminals in a rural community, and there is wide 
satisfaction when a bold offender in this line is 
brought to grief. We are, however, in doubt at 
the present moment of the public sentiment to- 
ward one who operates on a uniquely large scale, 
or whether there is some immunity for a great ras- 
cal in this line, as there is said to be for colossal 
stealing in other commodities. It is reported from 
Klamath Falls that stock men have traced to San 
Jose an entire carload of horses that were stolen 
in Klamath county. The horses were shipped by 
Walter Welch to a Sacramento stock dealer named 
Stuart. Welch has since disappeared, and it is 
now believed that Stuart knew that the horses 
were stolen. Deputy Sheriff Walker of Klamath 
county found that 21 of the horses were sold near 
San Jose. Stealing by carload seems rather a 
large way, and we wait to see whether it is any- 
thing else than ordinary horse stealing. 

The agricultural element of our population does 
not as a rule like bonded debt, and it is perhaps 
well to be conservative about it ; but when it comes 
in contrast to two things which are worse, the issu- 



January 23, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



ance of bonds does not look so bad. Two things 
we claim are worse than bonds. First, the present 
condition of our highways, which taxes to death 
everyone who tries to move produce over them ; 
second, the plan of State appropriations for spe- 
cial pieces of road which are not properly con- 
nected through anywhere. The report from Sac- 
ramento is that Governor Gillett is standing firmly 
back of his State highway bond issue of $18,000,- 
000, and it is believed that a number of road bills 
which have been introduced in the Assembly and 
in the Senate will be sacrificed for this bill. Bills 
calling for $150,000 of road work are now in. The 
Governor, however, desires his scheme to be sub- 
mitted to the vote of the people of the State, and 
none of the legislators expect any aid or sympa- 
thy for any separate road bills. The Governor 
makes the point that it would be advantageous 
to await the passage of a bond issue such as he has 
proposed, and to undertake all road building un- 
der a general plan. Still, there are certainly some 
roads which should not wait longer than necessary, 
and these, if honestly built, would make the pro- 
ceeds of the bonds go further or lessen the amount 
of them to be sold. It does not matter in what 
honest way it is done, so much as it does to have, 
or not have, good, durable and serviceable high- 
ways. 



Queries and Replies. 



Corn and Alfalfa. 

To the Editor : I have a piece of land mixed 
with a little adobe ; also red land and loam soil. 
The adobe is greater than either of the other kinds. 
This land is rather low and when we have a wet 
winter a quantity of water stands upon it and 
drowns out plants. Some years it is difficult to 
get anything, such as wheat or barley, from it. It 
lies so that by good drainage methods we help it 
considerably, but not fully as yet. I have been 
thinking of planting it to corn this spring and 
later on — next fall, perhaps — sowing alfalfa upon 
it. It has occurred to me that I might sow both 
the corn and alfalfa together this spring if ad- 
visable. I wish to ask you if such a course would 
be practicable. I want to build up the soil and 
make it pay at the same time. Would the two 
seeds be too strong for the soil if used together? 
Or would it be better to follow the corn with the 
alfalfa seed sown this fall before the rains begin ? 
— Farmer, Solano county. 

You will not get anything satisfactory from a 
combined sowing of corn and alfalfa. If the corn 
is grown in the ordinary way it must be summer 
cultivated in order to get a crop. If (because the 
land is moist, as you describe) you are thinking 
of broad-casting corn for fodder, you can be quite 
sure that the dense growth of corn would destroy 
any alfalfa that might make a start, and the corn 
would probably also use up all available moisture. 
You had better pursue the other plan— put in the 
corn, keep the land well cultivated, and get an 
early start with the alfalfa with this falls' rains. 

Winter Hooding of alfalfa will do no injury 
while it is dormant, but it certainly would be a 
question whether you would get a satisfactory 
stand of alfalfa if the ground water is too near the 
surface during the growing season. In such situa- 
tions alfalfa is always short lived. 



Brown Apricot Scale. 

To the Editor: T have a prune orchard that is 
badly infested with brown apricot scale. I am 
told by some neighbors that it will not hurt the 
fruit, by others that it will. Which is right? 1 
have read that I should use resin wash for spi ny 
ing. Where can I get it? What effect will the 
scale have on fruit and wood growth if not 
sprayed?— Old Subscriber, Sonoma county. 

The brown apricot scale will seriously injure the 



tree when it becomes abundant, and even before it 
noticeably injures the thrift of the tree it will 
render the fruit worthless by the smutting which 
follows the dripping of honey dew from the in- 
sect. The resin wash is the proper dose. It is 
made at home according to the recipe which Prof. 
Quayle, of the University Experiment Station, ap- 
proved after his experiments with this scale : 

Resin 10 pounds 

Caustic soda (76%) 3 pounds 

Fish oil lVa pounds 

Water 50 gallons 

The resin is broken up into small lumps, and 
together with the caustic soda is placed in the 
boiler with three or four inches of water. The 
mixture should be stirred occasionally until the 
resin is dissovled. About one-fourth of the water 
should be added, and at the end of a half hour 
after it has begun to boil it is ready for the spray 
tank when the rest of the water is added. 

The wash when ready for use is a black-looking 
liquid resembling strong coffee in appearance. 
There is no grit or heavy materials present, and it 
sprays very readily through any sort of nozzle. 
The wash when applied warm gives no trouble in 
the nozzles; but the precaution should be taken, 
when through using at night, to run hot water 
through them in order to prevent the resin from 
remaining in the parts of the nozzle and harden- 
ing. The spraying is to be done while the tree is 
dormant. 



Raspberry Borer. 

To the Editor : I send a small insect, with black 
body cross-striped with yellow and looking like a 
small wasp, which I found in a raspberry cane last 
summer. Please tell what it is and how to treat 
it. — Grower, Alameda County. 

The insect which you send is one of the rasp- 
berry borers, known as Bembecia marginata. It 
generally does most harm to the root, finding its 
way to the root after having entered the cane. Its 
work in the cane is generally indicated by a dis- 
coloration of the surface, or sometimes by a wilt- 
ing of the leaf. One should always look out for 
such indications during the summer, and cut be- 
low them, destroying the insect in its burrow. 
Canes which have fruited should be removed as 
soon as they have finished fruiting, so that any 
borers which may be in them may not have a 
chance to go to the root, as -they would if the cane 
were allowed to stand until the end of the season. 
No method of fighting these insects has been sug- 
gested except these efforts to catch it soon after 
its entrance into the plant. 



Pears and Pecans on Alkali. 

To the Editor : I have level land in Tulare which 
can be irrigated. The first six feet is a very fine 
silt soil that contains, per acre, 30,000 pounds of 
salsoda, 2000 of common salt, and a trace of car- 
bonate, evenly distributed through the six feet. 
Under this is a more clayey soil. We struck water 
30 feet down, so strong in salt as to be unfit to 
drink. There is some heavy frost in winter. Will 
you kindly state through the Pacific Rural Press 
your opinion as to the fitness of such soil for the 
cultivation of either the pecan nut or the Bartlett 
pear? — Reader, Visalia. 

It would seem as though pear trees would thrive 
in the soil which you describe, supposing the alkali 
is pretty well distributed through the depth you 
mention and not concentrated on the surface, and 
pear trees would continue to thrive providing you 
practice such thorough cultivation that concen- 
tration of the alkali near the surface by evapora- 
tion would be practically prevented. Of course, 
if you use irrigation with sweet water, and also 
practice cultivation, the tendency would be to the 
reduction of the alkali content, providing the 



drainage water could be disposed of. 

We cannot tell you what the pecan tree would 
do under the circumstances, for lack of observa- 
tion of its behavior. 



Strawberry Elants and Runners. 

To the Editor: Can you tell me how to make 
strawberry plants brought here from a cold cli- 
mate produce plants after the first year? The 
plants brought here produce an abundance of 
plants, but those plants reset make no runners 
whatever. — Enquirer, Watsonville. 

We never heard of such behavior as you men- 
tion, and must doubt the accuracy of your obser- 
vation. Nearly all the strawberries we are grow- 
ing in California came from the East, beginning 
with the Wilson and Longworth Prolific, half a 
century ago. If plants taken from these original 
introductions would not make runners, how in the 
world did we ever get the acreage we noAv have ! 
There may be something in your immediate local- 
ity which represses the plants, but we are quite 
sure that your conclusions will not stand as a gen- 
eral proposition. Who can explain the matter .' 



Eradicating Ferns. 

To the Editor : I am troubled with ferns in a 
field which I plant to grain for hay. I have picked 
up and pulled (after plowing) the roots, but it 
seems they are spreading. How can I get them 
out of the land? The soil is of a sandy composi- 
tion, lying to the north. Most of the soil is deep 
and clear of stones. — Enquirer, San Luis Opispo. 

We know of no way to get rid of ferns exrepl 
by grubbing out and by the use of the land, if it is 
suited to it, for same cultivated crop until the 
ferns are subdued. If it is not practicable to grow 
a cultivated crop you will have to continue grub- 
bing from time to time, or put the land through 
a thorough summerfallowing, either plowing or 
using a flat-toothed cultivator or weed cutter, from 
time to time during the whole dry season. 



Sunburn on Young Trees. 

To the Editor : I have a lot of peach trees 
planted last spring which are somewhat sun- 
burned near the ground. Shall I trust them to 
grew or pull out and put in new ones? — Planter. 
Fresno county. 

If you find the bark dead to considerable dis- 
tances around the little trees it will be much bet- 
ter to plant new ones and protect at once b}' white- 
washing. If the tree has made a good growth and 
is only partly burned, the probability is that it 
will recover and catch up with its more fortunate 
neighbors. You have to determine, then, whether 
to leave or to replant entirely by the conditions 
which you find on examination. 



Bull-pine Corral Scrapings. 

To the Editor: I have on my place a grove of 
sea-shore pines, locally known as bull-pines, whose 
correct name I don't know. For many years they 
have been used as a shelter by the cows, and there 
is a large quantity of compost under them which 
looks as if it would be a valuable fertilizer, hut 
the people here claim that the pine needles are 
poisonous to the soil. Do you know if that is cor- 
rect, of if such a compost would he of any value .' 
— Rancher, Mendocino county. 

We should not hesitate to use the stuff, for if 
the needles are of little account in themselves they 
are valuable for their absorbed contents and ad- 
herents. Because of their lightness and coarseness 
they should he preferably used on clayey rather 
than on sandy soils. On a Light soil you could 
probably render plants unthrifty wilh clean pine 
needles, but they would act as moisture robbers 
rather than specific poisoners, hut comminuted 
needles with corral accumulations are more apt to 
be valuable than otherwise. 



64 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 23, 1909. 



Horticulture. 



SERIOUS DANGERS IN IMPORTED WAL- 
NUTS. 

To the Editor: About two years ago I imported 
a hundred pounds of Mayctte walnuts from 
France, which were to be taken from trees from 
which the scions were to be cut which I had or- 
dered. I made this order, so that I might be sure 
of getting the genuine Mayette. However, this is 
beside the question concerning which I am now 
writing. 

I found that these nuts had been infested by a 
worm while in the growing state: the blackened 
edges of the kernel where eaten showing very 
clearly this to be the case, and the hole eaten 
through the walnut shell, where the worm had 
emerged, also showing the same fact. Not only 
that, but I found quite a number of worms of all 
stages of growths in these walnuts, where they 
were evidently making their winter quarters and 
feeding upon the kernel as they were growing. It 
is needless to say that before I went to bed I 
burned every pound of these nuts in my fireplace. 

I send you herewith No. 337 of the daily Con- 
sular and' Trade Reports, under date of January 
2. 1909, which is a daily publication issued by the 
( r»y eminent of the United States, which contains 
the report of Vice-Consul Charles Roy Nasmith 
from the Limoges district of France, concerning 
English walnuts. You will notice that he casually 
uses the phrase, concerning the crop of 1907, 
"many of the nuts being wormy." Now, I think 
you ought to sound a note of warning about the 
importance of not importing nuts from that coun- 
try : for if they are imported to the walnut grow- 
ing districts of this country, we are sure to get a 
very formidable pest from which we are now free. 
When you have rend the article, kindly return the 
number to me for my files. 

I find these consular reports very valuable, and 
think every fruit grower and business man gen- 
erally ought to send for them. They will be sent 
tree by addressing the Bureau of Manufacturers, 
Department of Commerce and Labor, Washing- 
ton, D. C. S. F. Leib. 

San Jose. 

Judge Leib's note of warning is very important 
and we hope it will be heeded. We have no doubt 
that Mr. Jeffrey, Mr. Ehrhorn and the various 
county authorities will do the best they can to 
exclude dangerous material and all growers should 
be on the lookout also. 

The publication to which Judge Leib refers is 
the more significant from the fact that it is not a 
scare report. Vice-Consul Nasmith mentions the 
subject incidentally in discussing the French wal- 
nut product and the warning must be found be- 
tween the lines. He says in one place: "In 1907 
in most sections where walnuts were harvested the 
quality was poor, many of the nuts being wormy, 
moldy and diseased." In another place he says: 
"My own personal experience has been that the 
quality this year is much better. Last year over 
half the walnuts bought for the table proved to 
be wormv or mold v." 



The county statistician of Yolo county states 
that during 1908 the products raised there were 
as follows : Number of acres devoted to cereals 
and hay was over 100,000, and the value was 
$1,576,860. Total number of fruit trees, 328,270. 
Value of fruit and vegetables, $3,251,183. Value 
of wines. $67,000. Total production of dairy pro- 
ducts estimated in value at $431,785. The county 
has a large number of cattle, which, with its horses, 
Bheep, swine, etc., are estimated to be worth 
$1,218,620. Total value of poultry and eggs pro- 
duced was $132,890. All of which shows that Yolo 
is one of the prosperous counties of the State. 



Sylviculture. 



FROST RESISTING EUCALYPTS. 



species of eucalyptus. The thermometer regis- 
tered 20 degrees, and one morning 18 degrees, 
young eucalyptus seedlings in plots, in the open, 
with no protection, of Gunnii, rudis, crebra, poly- 
ant hema, stuartiana, showing not the slightest in- 
jury: the young growth of tereticornis, rostrata, 
robusta, viminalis, was nipped, and a few of the 
leaves touched; cornuta was nipped rather more 
severely; globulus was badly nipped, and will lose 
many of the leaves; some of the youngest and 
smallest plants were killed; corynocalx was hurt 
more than any. Some, like ficifolia, citriodora, 
etc., were, of course, kept under lath screens. 
Trees one-year planted mi the hillside, of corvno- 
calyx, were not hurt at all ; in the level, bottom 
land the same trees were cut back considerably, 
while the same species two years planted, and 12 
to 15 feet high, were merely nipped a little in the 
young growth in the same way and to the same 
extent as was globulus. If the same degree of 
frost had occurred in November and suddenly, fol- 
lowing warm weather, the damage would have 
been much greater. This sometimes happens, and 
wise planters will consider this element of risk 
in planting low lands or in the main valleys where 
severe frosts are probable. 

I would suggest that irrigation should be dis- 
continued after mid-summer in the eucalyptus 
grove of globulus or similarly tender species, that 
the growth may be checked before heavy frosts 
are due. Even about Los Angeles young trees of 
globulus 10 or 15 feet high are sometimes cut to 
the ground by frost; what would such weather 
conditions mean to a 100-acre grove of a too ten- 
der variety of growing seedlings? 

Prof. W. W. Mackie of the U. S. Soil Survey 
has been making some most valuable experiments 
in the adobe lands of the upper Sacramento val- 
ley, with a view to determining the hardiness and 
adaptiveness of certain eucalypts in that region, 
and, at his suggestion, plantings have been made 
both in the fall and spring, because of the impos- 
sibility of getting such lands into good planting 
condition if plowed late. So far, great success is 
reported with rostrata and tereticornis, but, as 
shown above, there are several valuable species 
that are still hardier. 

Unfortunately — very unfortunately — the prime 
and essential factor with most prospective plant- 
ers is rapidity of growth. "Which is the quicker 
grower?" is the invariable question: and, strange 
t«i say. it is the Easterner, who in his native 
haunts, could not induce a hard-wood tree to 
grow to profitable size in much less than a life 
time, seems to expect to cut timber from a 
eucalyptus plantation in three or four years in 
California. Why this unseemly and unnecessary 
haste? Such a policy can never bring the best 
results. Leonard Coates. 

Morganhill, Jan. 12. 



Citrus Fruits. 



ORCHARD PLOWING. 



the plow, while it chops it up and works it through 
the soil to the full depth of the disc working. 
The disc is not as severe on the tree roots and does 
not cut them out as fully as the plow does, which 
is an advantage on a shallow soil. The conditions 
point to plowing as an unnecessary procedure 
and at the same time argue against its advisa 
bility. It is true that the disc does all that is 
claimed for it as a spring working tool for work- 
ing up a cover crop or putting soil in condition, 
but it does not take the place of the plow on very 
heavy soil when it is desired to open it up to allow 
winter rains to be caught and absorbed or to as- 
sure airing of the soil. But plowing for this pur- 
pose should be done in the late fall or early win- 
ter, and it is now past the time for such work. It 
is not practical to plow citrus orchards in south- 
ern California during the fall and early winter 
and follow the general practice of cover crops, 
which must be growing during the fall and winter. 
After the new rootlets have started, which has 
been observed as early as January 15. and is quite 
common in February, plowing to a depth sufli- 
cient to cut them out is harmful to the trees, and 
a shallow plowing is of no particular value and 
not as efficient as a soil preparing operation as 
discing, while it is more expensive. It is some- 
times argued that some soils are so hard or stiff 
that a disc will not work them and that nothing 
but a plow that turns them up effects a good 
working of them. This is true, and temporarily 
at least such soils need the plow. Bui such soils 
are not fit for orchard trees until they arc soft- 
ened by Looming with both green crops or manure 
and some suitable form of lime, or other sub- 
stance to free them. The physical condition of a 
soil is of such importance that it governs the use 
of fertilizers and it should receive most candid 
attention, the object being to maintain during the 
active growing and fruiting season a free, open 
soil, moist without being wet in the sense of being 
saturated or soggy. Spring plowing of orchards 
is not a necessity and is not often advisable, but 
it is a convenience under adverse soil conditions. 



To the Editor: The recent very severe weather 
has served valuably as an educator in the matter 
of the comparative frost resistance of several 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Thomas C. Wallace. 

"We are getting ready to plow and would lik< 
your advice as to what fertilizer to use," is the 
tenor of several inquiries lately received from 
growers. This suggests some ideas on orchard 
plowing which may be of value to our readers. 

First. Is plowing a necessary or an advisable 
procedure in citrus groves, and, if so, when 
should it be clone? 

Second. What is the object of plowing an or- 
chard and what benefit arises from such practice? 

Third. Is plowing harmful to orchard trees, 
and, if so, under what conditions? 

Most growers of citrus orchards have abandoned 
plowing and depend upon the disc cultivator for 
spring soil stirring. They can cultivate an or- 
chard soil four or five times with the disc culti- 
vator in the same time ami at the same expense 
as one plowing requires, with the advantage that 
such disc working will include both ways of the 
land, while plowing only cuts one way. The disc 
buries the weeds or cover crop as effectively as 



COVER CROP NITROGEN. 

At the January meeting of the Y. M. C. A. 
Winter Course was brought out the finding, re- 
cently published, that while over one hundred 
pounds of nitrogen was added to the soil by a 
cover crop of one ton of pea hay and roots worked 
in, this was only equal to a fraction over fourteen 
pounds of nitrogen from high-grade commercial 
materials for the following nitrogen consuming 
crops. This result is in keeping with some known 
facts which have governed Hie dictum that nitro- 
gen of vegetable materials is not available to 
crops until it has been freed from the carbonaceous 
compounds that make up the bulk of the structure 
of plants. The experiment quoted was not made 
under such climatic conditions as obtained in 
California, nor in such intensely cultivated soils 
as our citrus groves present. It is quite possible 
that much more of the nitrogen of cover crops 
could be recovered by following crops of fruit 
than the experiment suggests, as our systems of 
cultivation undoubtedly hasten the decomposition 
of the vegetable matter and so reduce the period 
in which its elements pass into forms of possible 
plant food. It. however, modifies some of the 
more extravagant claims made for the cover crop 
as a full source of nitrogen food for trees, and in 
that sense may help to steady the popular litera- 
ture and addresses on the subject of nitrogen 
supply. While there are good grounds for the 
belief that under our intensive cultivation for the 
conservation of moisture much nitrogen is wasted 
by escaping as gas into the air from whence it 
came, it is wise to supply the trees with addi- 
tional nitrogen in commercial form to ensure the 
full feeding of the crops, because it is a business 
proceedure. The best we can hope to do with 
cover crops is to simulate virgin conditions of 
nitrogen, and this would take years if ever oc- 
complished. But even the attainment of such 
ideal conditions does not make commercial nitro- 
gen Feeding inadvisable, but, on the contrary, puts 

the soil in a condition to give the best results 
from applied pertilizers. As I have said before, 
we are not dealing with wild plants, but with 



January 23, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



highly cultivated trees which we desire to work 
for the most profitable production. — T. C. W. 

GATHERING LEMONS. 

A reader, Stockton, Cal., writes: "When should 
lemons be gathered — when quite green, partially 
green, or quite yellow?" 

In growing lemons for market we do not con- 
sider the coloring for the purpose of governing 
the picking stage, as they can be prepared for 
market and use in any stage. The object is to 
have lemons of uniform size which will pack 300 
and 360 to the box, the size of which is 27xl4 1 / 4xll 
inches, making a package practically 2 1 /2 cubic 
feet in size to properly load into a box car. When 
the lemons on the tree have attained a size that 
will just prevent them from passing through a 
ring 2% inches in diameter they are picked, those 
undersized being left on the tree to develop. If 
some of the lemons are under size, and are ripen- 
ing or becoming quite highly colored from cold or 
too dry soil conditions, they are picked, as their 
size development after that is very uncertain. If 
the lemons are to be stored for weeks or months 
before shipment they are picked with a 2 5-16 
ring to allow for shrinkage in storage. A dark 
green lemon can be cured in a week or less under 
proper conditions of moisture and a temperature 
of about 90 to 95 degrees Far., but at ordinary 
temperature in dry conditions it takes much 
longer time to cure them. A colored lemon can be 
cured in about four days or gradually over an 
extended time, as desired. Lemons for domestic 
use and not to be marketed can be left on the 
tree until quite ripe, but even then they should 
be cured before use to be of most service. As 
the lemon cures the inside tissues of the skin 
shrink and the juice develops until solid flesh is 
almost lost.— T. C. W. 



The Vineyard. 



VINEYARD WORK AND SPRING FROSTS. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By P. T. Bioletti. 

Spring frosts frequently injure vines and di- 
minish the crop in some of the grape-growing 
regions of California. 

This injury can be avoided to some extent by 
cultural methods. Anything which tends to de- 
lay the starting of the buds or to warm the air 
after they have started will be of help. 

Modifications of the priming may be of use in 
some cases. The higher a vine is from the ground 
the less liable it is to injury. In frosty regions, 
therefore, the head should be as high as is prac- 
ticable. 

It seems to make little, if any, difference in the 
starting of the buds, when a vine is pruned, pro- 
viding it is perfectly dormant, though there is 
some difference of opinion on this point. It is 
generally believed that there is no difference in 
the starting of vines pruned at any time between 
the fall of the leaves and two weeks before the 
starting of the buds. By very late pruning, how- 
ever, the fruit buds may often be saved. This 
depends on the fact that the buds on the ends of 
the canes start first. If the vines are not pruned 
until danger of spring frost is over the lower buds 
remain dormant and start only after the pruning. 

As cultivation is impossible before pruning, a 
system of "double" pruning is sometimes 
adopted. This consists in removing, in the win- 
ter, all the canes which are not needed and cut- 
ting the rest back to spurs of 18 or 20 inches. 
After the danger of frost is over these spurs are 
shortened to the usual length. This method is 
practiced regularly in many districts in Europe 
and seems to have no ill effects. 

The time and methods of tillage and irrigation 
have some effect on the starting of the buds and 
the temperature of the air. 

Vines in unplowed ground start earlier than m 
plowed. This is because the rough surface of the 
soil promotes radiation of heat and evaporation 
of water, both tending to keep the temperature of 
the air lower. The starting of the buds is due 
principally to the warmth of the air. Weeds 
have the same effect as rough ground in dissi- 
pating heat. 

Plowing early in the winter, leaving the ground 



rough, and allowing the weeds to grow until a 
little before the starting of the buds is therefore 
good practice from this point of view. It keeps 
the air around the vine cool and thus delays the 
starting of the buds. 

When the buds have started, however, warm air 
is desirable. A little before this time, therefore, 
the ground should be got into a thorough state of 
clean, flat cultivation. The radiation of heat will 
thus be diminished and the air made correspond- 
ingly warmer. 

Plowing and cultivation should be avoided 
during the week or two when frost is most likely 
to do damage, as newly turned soil evaporates 
more water and reduces the temperature of the 
air. 

Where irrigation is practiced the application 
of water should be timed to have similar effects. 
The wetting of the soil by irrigation has two op- 
posite effects. There is more evaporation from 
wet soil than from dry. This evaporation cools 
the soil and therefore cools the air near its sur- 
face. The water used for irrigation in winter 
and spring, however, is usually warmer than the 
air at night when frosts occur. It therefore has a 
warming effect on the air which at first more than 
counteracts the cooling due to evaporation. 

The warming effect of the water is soon ex- 
hausted and then only the cooling effect of evap- 
oration acts. The effect of irrigation in the win- 
ter is therefore, on the whole a cooling of the 
air and tends to delay the starting of the buds. 
The warming effect may sometimes be made use 
of to prevent frost, but only when the irrigation 
is given just before or during the freezing. 

To sum up : The cultural practices of use in 
diminishing the effect of spring frosts are: 

1. Rough plowing in December, or early Janu- 
ary. 

2. Irrigation during the same period. 

3. Plowing and cidtivating to destroy weeds 
and to smooth and pulverize the ground just be- 
fore buds commence to swell. 

4. Raising the bearing wood of the vine as 
high as practicable. 

5. Double pruning. 

6. Irrigation during a frost after vines have 
started. 

It is doubtful whether it is desirable to use the 
last means as, though a properly timed irrigation 
may prevent any bad effects from one frost, it 
makes the vines more liable to injury from a later 
one. 



WHAT IS A VINE? 

This would he a hard question to answer if we 
were to draw our definition from the use of the 
word in current horticultural literature. 

This source would lead us to suppose thai 
beans, peas, roses, melons 'and even potatoes grow 
upon vines. The Bible warns us against expect- 
ing to gather grapes and figs from thorns and 
thistles. The inference is that grapes can be ob- 
tained only from plants whose nature it is to pro- 
duce that fruit, viz.: vines; and conversely, only 
plants which produce grapes are entitled to be 
called vines. 

If a cucumber plant is a vine then a cucumber 
patch is a vineyard. 

The word vine is related to the Latin word 
vitis, and both are derived from the Latin word 
vinea, which means a vineyard. Only those plants 
which belong to the botanical genus vitis and 
whose fruit is grapes have any right, therefore, 
to be called vines. Any other use of the word is 
unnecessary and confusing. A plant may be a 
climber or a creeper or it may be planted in rows 
and cultivated, but if it doesn't bear grapes it is 
not a vine— F. T. B. 



Agricultural Science. 

ANNOUNCEMENT TO SMYRNA FIG 
GROWERS 

To the Editor: In order to grow Smyrna figs 
economically it is necessary to plant in one corner 
of the orchard a proper assortment of caprifigs to 
furnish a breeding place for the blastophaga, or 
fig insect, at all seasons of the year. Many who 
are attempting the culture of Smyrna figs in Cali- 



fornia have not planted enough caprifigs, and 
especially not enough different kinds. Besides 
the standard varieties which yield the profichi 
used to caprify the Smyrna fig buds in June or 
July, from six to a dozen or more other soils 
should be planted. 

During the past ten years the Depart in. >n1 of 
Agriculture has been introducing the best obtain- 
able varieties of caprifigs from the old world and 
recently has leased the seedling fig orchard 
planted at Loomis, Cal., by Mr. E. W. Maslin, 
which contains a score or more of valuable new 
varieties of caprifigs originated in this State. 

Caprifig Cuttings Offered as a Bonus for Plant- 
ing Seedling Figs.^Rooted cuttings of the im- 
ported caprifigs and ordinary cuttings of the Mas- 
lin seedlings will be sent free by the Department 
of Agriculture to anyone who will agree to plant 
out three seedling figs for each cutting received. 
The seedlings are also furnished free in the form 
of one-year-old pot-grown plants ready to set out 
in condition to start into healthy growth at once. 
It is suggested that these seedlings be set about 
25x8 1-3 feet apart, or something over 200 to the 
acre. Two-thirds of them can be cut out as soon 
as the trees fruit and the poorer ones remaining 
can gradually be weeded out or grafted over. 

Mr. Maslin's seedlings, although not irrigated, 
made a remarkable growth, reaching a height of 
10 to 15 feet and a diameter of 6 to 10 inches 
within three years from the time they were set 
out. Some of them bore fruit two years from set- 
ting and many of them in three years. About half 
of the Maslin seedlings turned out to he caprifigs 
adapted to his particular soil and climatic condi- 
tions. All 'who plant seedlings on these terms will 
be considered as co-operating with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in the fig breeding work and 
will receive free of cost all publications on fig cul- 
ture issued in fixture by the department and w ill 
be given preference in the distribution id' any new- 
varieties of figs or caprifigs introduced from 
abroad or originated by breeding. 

New Types of Smyrna Figs Offered for Trial. — 
Besides the large number of new caprifigs the 
Maslin orchard contains half a dozen or more new- 
varieties of Smyrna figs which deserve careful 
trial in order to determine their value for com- 
mercial culture. Among them are at least two 
sorts that show a valuable characteristic not Found 
in any of the imported varieties of Smyrna figs; 
the mouth of the fig is completely sealed by a drop 
of pellucid gum that hardens as the fig ripens and 
effectively excludes all insects and prevents the 
fruit from souring. One of the new varieties of 
this type — the Rixford — as grown in 1908 at 
Loomis without irrigation, showed from three- 
fourths to nine-tenths of the figs self-scaled in this 
ma nner. 

These and other interesting new Smyrna figs 
that have originated right here in California in 
the Maslin seedling fig orchard will he distributed 
on the same terms as the caprifigs, namely, one 
cutting for ever}' three seedling figs set out. 

Mamme and Profichi Distributed to Smyrna Fig- 
Growers. — California growers having young fig 
orchards have in many cases experienced difficulty 
in securing the mamme needed to stock up with 
blastophaga their- caprifig trees, which when 
young do not carry mamme through the winter. 
Beginning in April. 190!), the Department of Agri- 
Culture will send free by mail mamme from the 
.Maslin orchard to Smyrna fig growers for their 
own use and not for sale. In case profichi arc- 
needed to caprify the Smyrna fig crop in June or 
•Inly the crop of the Maslin orchard will he placed 
at the disposition of the growers. The profichi, 
however, must he sent by express collect and the 
growers must pay the caretaker the actual cost of 
picking and packing — probably about 30 to 60 
cents per 20-pound box. 

Co-operators who have shown their inferesl in 
the fig breeding work by planting seedling ligs 
will be given preference in the distribution of 
mamme and profichi. 

All fig growers are requested to send in their 
names at once to the address given below in order 
that a. circular giving more details aboill the pro- 
posed free distribution of cuttings, seedlings and 
caprifig fruits may be sent to them together with 
application cards ready to sign. 

W. T. Swingle. 

riant Introduction (iarden, Chico, Cal. 



66 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 28, 1909. 



DEAD 



CITRUS 

WOOD 

Is more or less prevalent in 
every orange and lemon grove, 
i. e./trees that are unprofitable. 
How many sueh have you in 
your orchard? Would it not 
pay you to put paying trees in 
their stead? 

YOUR HOME GROUNDS 

Should contain at least a few- 
trees of the better varieties of 
oranges and lemons. For this 
purpose we have some excep- 
tionally fine trees to offer, be- 
ing grown as specimens. Pos- 
sibly you would like to plant a 
few citrus trees about your 
home this season. If so, will 
you do us the favor to corre- 
spond with us about it? 

The Citrus Fruits 

Historically, Horticulturally, 
Commercially 

A new treatise, giving more 
valuable information about va- 
rieties, methods of planting, 
cultivating, pruning, picking, 
packing and shipping than any- 
thing of its kind ever issued, 
which will cheerfully be sent 
you for the small sum of 25 
cents. Correspondence a plea- 
sure. 

San Dimas Citrus 
Nurseries 

R. M. TEAGUE, Prop. 
SAN DIMAS, CAL. 



BARTLETT PEARS 

l have a large stock of Bartlett Pears 
that cannot be excelled for size and qual- 
ity, grown on whole roots one year old. 
Prices reasonable. Those desiring in anv 
quantity, address, 



it. P. KAt lll s, 



LAKEPORT, CAL, 



Onion Sets 12k. a Pound 

Special Prices on Larger tjuantlty. 

Headquarters for all kinds of Seeds. Catalogue 
upon request - KKKK. 

NAVLET BROS., S20 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



Th, 



Ruehl-Wheeler Nursery 

Fruit, Ornamental and Citrus Trees. 
Strong Field-Grown Roses. 
PHONE BOX 826 

BLUE 1396 SAN JOSE 

IMPROVED BERRY PLANTS 

Strawberry, Raspberry, Blackberry, i>c«- 
berry, Lograu, Phenomenal, Mammoth llln.-k 
and Giant Himalaya berry plniitx. Crlm- 
mob Winter Rhubarb. S, nd for Catalog 

G. H. HOPKINS & SON 

BURBANK. CAL. 



MODESTO NURSERY. 
Complete Line of Citrus and Deciduous 
TREES, 

BERRIES, VINES AND ORNAMENTAL STOCK. 

Write Tor PRICB8 NOW. 
SHKKLUCK &CARDWBLL. Modesto, Cal. 
Hox 272. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 

HORTICULTURE. 

A local walnut growers' association 
was formed at Orange last week. 

A large acreage of freestone peaches 
will be set out in the Fresno district the 
coming season. 

A large acreage is being planted to 
raisin grapes and eucalyptus trees in 
Kings county this year. 

The section around Goshen, in lower 
Tulare county, will have a large acreage 
planted to trees and vines this season. 

The supervisors of Imperial county of- 
fer to furnish trees free to all farmers 
who will plant and care for them, along 
the public roads in that county. 

A Kings county orchardist claims to 
have used a spray, composed of one pound 
of concentrated lye to six gallons water, 
with good success in eradicating the San 
Jose scale. 

Merced county is to have the largest 
peach orchard in the State. J. M. Martin 
is preparing to plant 300 acres this season 
and ultimately 700 acres more, on his 
place near At water. 

The 414 acre Orchardale ranch, four 
miles south of San Fernando was sold 
last week for $93,000. This ranch is nearly 
all set out to deciduous trees, 320 acres 
being in full bearing. 

Owing to the refusal of the railway 
company to grant them special rates, the 
members of the Yuma Valley Cantaloupe 
Association have agreed not to raise can- 
taloupes for shipping the coming season. 

Nurserymen in the Fresno district re- 
port that there is a big demand for Mus- 
cat vines, and a large acreage will be 
planted this season. This seems remark- 
able, in view of the hold-over raisin crop 
now on hand. 

As a result of cutting the price of nuts 
by the Walnut Growers' Association, at 
its meeting held in Los Angeles recently, 
the part of the last crop held by the as- 
sociation members is now being rapidly 
disposed of. 

The California Fruit Growers' Ex- 
change is said to be behind the Johnson 
bill, now up for passage in the Califor- 
nia legislature, which allows fruit grow- 
ers' associations to organize and do busi- 
ness without actually issuing stock. The 
object is to prevent associations being 
controlled by non resident stockholders. 

The California Fruit Exchange, at its 
annual meeting held in Sacramento last 
week, elected the old board of directors, 
and from the board the following officers 
were chosen for the year: J. L. Nagle, 
president; H. V. Rudy, vice president; J. 
P. Dargitz, secretary. W. C. Walker was 
again chosen manager. Under Mr. Walk- 
er's management the Exchange has been 
very prosperous. Last year it made a 
gain in tonnage shipments of 92 per cent 
over 1907, and during that time a divi- 
dend of 26V/ e was paid on the capital 
stock. Only growers of fruit can hold 
stock in the organization. 

AGRICULTURE. 

A twelve-pound head of cabbage is on 
exhibition at Porterville. 

About 300 acres of land around Lodi 
will be planted to beets this year, and the 
crop shipped to the Alameda Sugar Co. 

Sixty five hundred acres of land around 
Corcoran is under contract to be planted 
to sugar beets this season; 3000 acres are 
already planted. 

Several carloads of hay have recently 
been shipped from the Imperial valley 
to Los Angeles. The growers received 
from $12 to $17 per ton. 

A heavy increase in the grain acreage 
in the upper San Joaquin valley is re- 



MILL 

Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine. 



xo 



Orange 

and Lemon. 



Nursery Stock 
and Alfalfa. 



Fertilizers. 




rVI A IV 

Importers ol 

Nitrate ol Soda 
Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Double Manure Salts 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 



Hawaiian Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 



Works 
Honolulu and San 



Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



IT'S FREE 

BONE AMD BLOOD FERTILIZER 

' FERTILIZE FOR PROFIT.' 

It's the results that count in farming and our Fertilizers produce 1'OSITIVK RESULTS, 
that show in the QUALITY of the products as well as the QUANTITY, orange and other 
fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly recommend our fertilizers as producing 
the grandest results in quantity, quality of products, and profits. 

Write lor Catalogue and Prices. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

OFFICE: 444 Pine St., San Francisco, Cal. FACTORIES: San Francisco and Oakland. 



ORCHARDISTS and 
FARMERS 



who have used our goods once, will always come to us for their fertilizers. We are 
making a special study of plant life and are therefore in a position to manufacture 
fertilizers that exactly meet the requirements of each plant. Let us know what you 
Intend to plant, and we will name your special compositions. Write for our new 
booklet " The Farmers Friend," for 1900. 

THE PACIFIC GUANO & FERTILIZER COMPANY 

268E Market St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



ROSES 

Rose buyers are requested to send for our 20th Anniversary Catalog, de- 
scriptive of the New Roses and over 186 Standard Sorts. Nurserymen 
and dealers will be sent surplus list upon request. 

ARMSTRONG NURSERIES, Box 117, Ontario, Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Large Stock — All Varieties 
Hardy and Selected Rapid Growers 
Write for free illustrated booklet. 
LLOYD K. TAYLOR, Modesto, Cal. 



Now is the Time for Ordering Trees. 

We have a large lot of EUCALYPTUS, 
CYPRESS, PINE TREES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of ORNAMENT' 
Ali TREES AND SHRUIUIERY. EVER- 
GREEN AND DECIDUOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS, DRACENA, HOSES, ERI- 
C AS. < A >I AS, AZALEAS, ItlMIDO- 

DEMIIIOX, Klil IT TREES and BERRY 
BUSH US. 



THE PACIFIC NURSERIES, 
3041 Baker Street, - - San Francisco, 

And Millbrae, Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Kural I'ress. 



THE SEED HOUSE OF THE 
GREAT SOUTHWEST 

Headquarters for Ranchers, Garden- 
ers, Nurserymen and Poultrymen. 



A SPECIAL EUCALYPTUS DEPARTMENT. 



W 1 ite for catalog 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO., 

113-115 N. Main St., Lot Angelei. Cal. 



PACIFIC SEED CO.. porter of all 

klndsof seeds, bulbs, onion set's, grass, clover, al- 
falfa seeds. KOSt J. St., Sacramento, Cal. Wend 
for catalogue. 



SIX of the Most Valuable 
New Fruits 

EVER INTRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA. 

••IMPROVED FRENCH" PRUNE. Origi- 
nated by Luther Burbank. 

"CONCORD" WALNUT. French variety. 
Grafted trees only. Better than 
Franquette or Mayette. 

"PAUL" CHERRY'. Finest black cherry. 

"PHILIPPI" GRAPE. Handsomer than To- 
kay; a month earlier. Disinfected 
cuttings only for sale; to comply 
with quarantine regulations. 

All these, like Mulr, Lovell, and Phillips 
Cling peaches, are of California origin. 

"COMET" RED CURRANT. Much larger, 
earlier and sweeter than any other. 

"MAY-DUKE" OiOOSEUIOHRY. Earliest of 

all; large, smooth skin. 

WHITE FOR FURTHER PARTICULARS 



EUCALYPTUS TREES, 

by the 1000 or 100,000; no stronger stock; 
grown in the open, without lath screen or 
shade; therefore hardened to all weather. 



GENERAL NURSERY STOCK 

LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO., Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. INCORPORATED 1905. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara County, Cal. 



January 23, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



7 




GOOD 





PLANTS - BULBS - TREES 

New 1909 
CATALOGUE 

JUST OFF THE PRESS 



l IB pages', fully Illustrated, contains informa- 
tion of value to planters. 

General facts about seeds, plants, bulbp, 
Mowers and trees; when and how to plant, 
the best garden tools, etc. Sent free on 
request. Write for copy. 

Germain 

SEED AND PLANT CO. 

Dept. 0. LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 



PLANT BERRIES 

Mammoth Austin, Gardena and Lucrelia 

DEWBERRIES 

California Surprise (earliest of all), Miller 
and Cuthbert 

RASPBERRIES 

Giant Himalaya Blackberry, Loganberry, 
Burbank's Phenominal and Mammoth 
Blackberry and 

STRAWBERRIES 

Write for Catalog 
G. H. HOPKINS & SON 

Burbank, Cal. 



Cluice Kentucky Wonder liean Seed, fi cents 
per pound. 

Pure Drown Australian Onion Seed, SI. 00 per 
pound. 

Satisfaction guaranteed. Cash with order. 

OCEANO TRADING COMPANY 

Oceano, Cal. 

WALNUT TREES 

Grafted or grown from carefully selected 
seed. Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 
SPECIAL LOW PRICE 

on Apple and Peach trees, Thompson 
Seedless and Zinfandel rooted Grape 
Vines, and assortment of Berry Vines. 
Write us for prices, stating quantity 
desired. 

GRIDLF.Y COLONY NURSERY, Gridley, Cal. 

FRUIT TREES TREES OF ALL KINDS 

We make a Specialty ol Muir Peaches. 
Barllett Pears, French Prunes, 
and the Commercial Smyrna Figs 

Send in list of your wants and get our prices 
before writing elsewhere. 

MAY WOOD COLONY NURSf RY COMPANY 
W. Herbert Samson, Prop.. Corning. Cal. 



SEEDS 



For reliable seeds of Utah Alfalfa, Hairy 
Vetch, Peas or Corn, try the 

OAKLAND SEED $ PLANT CO 

OAKLAND. CAL. 

MAN, OH MAN!! 

Why do you neglect your orchards 
when WarnocksRemedy cures blight and 
all the tree diseases. Send for booklet. 
GOLDEN RULE NURSERIES 
Loom is. Cal. 
AGENTS WANTED 



WANTED 

1000 Cuttings of Prarie Belle Wild Rose 
1000 Cuttings of Miuetta Wild Rose 

Address, J. S. WHITE, Jr., 
Holtville, Imperial Co., Cal. 



ported. The condition of the soil is ex- 
cellent, giving a prospect of unusually 
heavy yields. 

H. Demonoskia has sold his 1280 grain 
ranch near Willows to New York parties, 
who expect to sell it off in small tracts. 

The grain acreage around Klamath 
Falls will be doubled this year over 1908, 
which was larger than any previous year. 

The Visalia Delta says that a large 
acreage has already been planted to sugar 
beets near there, and the prospects are 
good for a long campaign there the com- 
ing summer. 

An effort is being made to reorganize 
the Klamath County Agricultural Asso- 
ciation, so that a big fair may be held 
there this year. The association owns 
land but has no money to improve it with. 

The third annual session of the Trans- 
Missouri Dry Farming Congress meets 
in Cheyenne, Wyo., February 23, 24, 25, 
1909. This is an event of national and 
international importance. Dry farming 
is now one of the most important sub- 
jects of discussion and research in agri- 
cultural matters, as it makes possible the 
cultivation of over half the area of the 
Western States. 

LIVE STOCK. 

Sixteen billion eggs are laid by the 
hens of the United States each year. 

A new company, capitalized at $10,000, 
has been organized to build and operate a 
creamery at Lemoore. 

Dr. Loper, the chief of the health de- 
partment of Fresno is after the unsani- 
tary dairies located near there. 

The Maple Grove Creamery Co. of Los 
Angeles has recently completed a fine 
creamery at San Luis Obispo. 

The Pachuca Cattle Co., of Hollister, 
recently received a carload of thorough- 
bred Durham cattle from Missouri. 

Government buyers have recently se- 
cured 400 mules in and around Stockton. 
Prices paid were from $200 to $250 each. 

Last week S. J. Vincent, from near Por- 
terville, shipped the first car of spring 
lambs to the San Francisco market. He 
received $3.50 each, f.o.b. Porterville. 

Glanders have broken out among the 
horses in the southern part of Colusa 
county. Several horses have been killed 
by the county veterinarian. 

It is reported that the Swift Packing 
Co. of Chicago has taken over the Cold- 
brook creamery at Lolita, Humboldt 
county, and will operate it. 

The annual meeting of the American 
Polled Jersey Cattle Co. will be held at 
the Bookwalter, Springfield, Ohio, on 
Wednesday, January 27, 1909. 

Levy Bros, of San Francisco, shipped 
from Visalia last week a bunch of cattle 
fattened on beet pulp. They averaged 
1287 pounds per head and were in fine 
condition. 

A bill to appropriate $25,000 per year 
to provide for the enforcement of the law 
to prevent the sale of dairy products 
from unhealthy animals, is now before 
the State legislature. 

Owing to the contract made with the 
Sonoma County Fruit & Produce Co. to 
handle all its eggs and poultry, the Co- 
operative Poultry Association of that 
county met at Santa Kosa last week and 
closed up its affairs. 

The Santa Barbara and San Luis Obis- 
po forest reserves are said to be able to 
properly graze 12,000 head of cattle. Those 
who desire to graze stock on these lands 
must have their applications in by Feb- 
ruary 1. 

The thirty-fourth annual meeting of 
the Ayrshire Breeders' Association will 
be held in the parlor of the Manhattan 
Hotel, Madison Ave. and 42d St., New 
York, on February 3, 1909, at 2 o'clock 



p. m., for hearing reports of the secretary, 
treasurer, and home dairy test committee, 
and for the election of officers, and for 
any other business proper to come before 
the meeting. 

* MISCELLANEOUS. 

Work is in progress to organize a new 
irrigation district in El Dorado county, 
embracing 9460 acres of land. 

The old winery building on the Stan- 
ford estate, near the university, is to be 
remodeled and made into a men's dormi- 
tory. 

R. K. Masden, the well known raisin 
man, is stated to be figuring on putting 
up a large seeder and packing plant at 
Parlier, near Fresno. 

The Eucalyptus Timber & Land Co. has 
been organized at Modesto. The company 
will plant 600 acres of eucalypts near 
Livingston, Merced county. 

A second freight boat is to be run be- 
tween Petaluma and San Francisco dur- 
ing the fruit season, that fruit and vege- 
tables may arrive at the market fresh. 

It is stated that the Pacific Fruit Cool- 
ing & Vaporizing Co., of Newcastle, has 
decided to build a pre-cooling plant at 
Oroville, to have an earning capacity of 
$50,000 per year. 

The statement is made that the Hamil- 
ton Sugar Co. will run a line of steel boats 
up the river this summer, to carry beets 
from various points between Butte City 
and Monroeville to the factory. 

The Oregon State Land Board has con- 
tracted for the reclamation of 74,000 acres 
of arid land in Crook county. The esti- 
mated cost of reclamation is fixed at $60 
per acre for irrigable land and $2.50 per 
acre for non-irrigable land. 

A letter from Ira W. Adams, of Potter 
Valley, Mendocino county, dated January 
13, states that during the nine days pre- 
vious 10% inches of rain had fallen. The 
lowest temperature of the season to date 
was 19 above. Horse beans and Tangier 
peas were not affected by the cold. 

The new beet sugar factory at Santa 
Ana will be ready to make sugar the 
coming season, and will require nearly 
8000 acres of beets. Besides this large 
amount, the factory at Los Alamitos, in 
Orange county, has contracted for an un- 
usually large acreage. 

During last week the Feather and Sac- 
ramento rivers became floods from the 
heavy rains. A large acreage was flood- 
ed in Colusa, Sutter, Glenn, Butte, and 
Yuba counties. The high waters also did 
some damage at Stockton, and to some 
of the islands near there. The low lands 
in Tulare county were also partly under 
water. 

The third trip of the demonstration 
train which is being sent through the 
State in conjunction with the work of 
University Extension in Agriculture, will 
begin on Tuesday, January 26. The start 
will be made from Tracy, and the San 
Joaquin valley as far south as Bakers- 
field will be covered during this trip. 



Nitrate of Soda 

Nitrate Sold in Original Bags 
NITRATE AGENCIES CO. 

64 Stone Street. New York 
Keyier Building, Baltimore, M J. 
36 Bay Street, E»»t. Savannah, Ga. 
305 Baronne Street, New Orleans, La. 

140 Dearborn Street. Chicago, III. 
He, Icon. he & Co.. 24 California Street 

San Francisco. Cal. 
603-4 Oriental Block. Seattle, Waih. 

Addron Offlcs Ntartit Yoa 



Orders for All Ouantltles Promptly 

Filled— Write for Quotations 




Greater productiveness o f trees 
—larger, cleaner, and finer fruit 
— more money. Isn't that fruit 
growers' reasoning? Nothing 
will contribute to this end more 
than effective spraying. And 
Effective Spraying can best be 
attained with 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

Effective spraying means 
High Pressure Spraying and 

till the advent of the Bean 
Magics a high pressure could not 
be maintained with a hand pump 
for any length of time,on account 
of the body-racking effort 
needed to operate it. The Bean 

Eatent spring divides the work 
etween the two strokes of the 
handle and works against only 
one-half the pressure shown on 
the gauge and saves exactly 
one-third the labor. 

Our illustrated catalog No. 21 de- 
scribes ten sizes of hand pumps, and 
contains much valuable spray infor- 
mation, and formulas. Catalog No. 
22 describes Power Sprayers. Roth 
books sent free. Write for our spe- 
cial offer; state number of acres and 
kind of fruit. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO. 

211 West Julian Street 
San Jose, Cal. 



GREGORYS 

SEEDS 



If you want to be sure of a growing crop, 
plant Gregory's Seeds. Alwayn rurid under 
three warranto. For over tlfty yearsthey have 
been the standard for purity and reliability. 

Gregory's Seed Book— FREE 

to everyone who writes for a copy. It is 
full of practical instruction. One of the 
nioBt valuable books for 
farmers and gardeners ever . 
given away. 
J. J. H. Gregory ft Son 
Uarblehvsd, Hm. 



Nobody 
can k now* every- 
thing: To become export 
means to specialize. We are spe- 
cialists In producing the best Mower 
and vegetablo seeds. In f,2 years wo 
havo becomo exports. Sow Ferry's 
Seeds nml reap t ho results of our care. 
For sale everywhere. Head our 1!K)9 
catalogue, and profit by onrexpcrlcnco. 
Sont free on request. Address; 

0. M. FERRY & CO., DETROIT, MICH. 



Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST- SAN FRANCISCO 

PAPER Blake, MoftHt .v Towne, Los Angeles 
mrcn make. McF»'.: A Co., Portland. Oregon 



CRIMSON WINTER RHUBARB 

Now Is cood time to plant pedigreed plants only. 
8l.r,0 per doz; SB per 100; 810 per 1000. 

All kind! Of small fruit mid berry plants, 

J. B. WAGNER, Pasadena, Cal. 

The Khubarband Horry Specialist Dept. I. 

Kicnch I'ruiics on Peach 
and A pi loots, Mui™ and 

Tuscan (Mings, and main 
OtaM s.nlctlts of leach 
'I res*; nil tine budded 
stock. Large stock ofall 
the leading varieties of A pples, gi aftert on whole 
rootsand fiee from all pests. Alsoallnes 1 ' ck ol 
( berries, Pears, Plums, etc. Send for price 1st. 
A. F_ SCHEIDECKER, Sebaslopof. CtT. 

Prop Pleasant View Nursery. 



Trees 




68 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 28, 190H. 



THE MARSHALL NURSERIES 

FOR FRUIT TREES, GRAPEVINES, 
PALMS, ROSES. 

FULL LINE OF EVERYTHING GROWN BY US. 

S. W. Marshall & Son, Nurserymen. 

BOX 652, FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 



KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

WHOLKHALE GROWERS OF 

Deciduous Fruit Trees and Crape Vines 

RELIABLE STOCK AND LOWEST PRICES 

Main Office, FRESNO, CAL. Box 604 B 

BRANCHES AT MERCED AND TURLOCK 



GRAPE VINES, BERRIES AND ROSES 

Ornamental, Shade and Deciduous Fruit Trees. 
A Good Class of General Nursery Stock. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

CHICO NURSERY COMPANY, Chico, California. 



Grafted Walnut Trees 

On Black, Soft-shell and Resistant Roots. 
Seedlings, Citrus, Deciduous, Berry Bushes, etc. 

A. R. RIDEOUT, MAGNOLIA NURSERY, WHITTIER, CAL. 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

AND GENERAL NURSERY STOCK. 

Large supply of Peach trees, Ornamental trees, 
Ornamental plants, and Rose bushes, 
in large quantities. 



WRITE US FOR PRICE LIST AND DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 

ORANGE [COUNTY NURSERY & LAND CO. 

FULLERTON, CAL. 

BRANCH NURSERIES: 
Riverside, Cal. Corcoran, Cal. 



TREES GRAPE VINES 

YOUR ORDER PLEASE. 

Write us If In the market for 

APPLES, PEARS, PEACHES, APRICOTS, PLUMS, PRUNES, 
ALMONDS, FIGS, WINE, RAISIN AND TABLE GRAPES. 

We grow our stock on New Virgin soil Insuring a healthy growth, our prices always 
right. Send for Descriptive Catalogue, also Souvenir Picture of the Largest Tree In the 
World. All Free. Address: 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. Wilson, Proprietor, .... Fresno, Cal., Box 615. 



ENCINAL NURSERIES 

SPECIALTIES! Frnnqurttf Walnut, grafted on Black Walnut root. Absolutely 
genuine. 

Wonder Walnut. — New I The largest, most prolific, and youngest bearer known. 
Twelve nuts grown on a one year tree in nursery row, placed side by side, measure 
22 Inches; each measuring 5 vi to 6% inches in circumference. Thin shell, blight re- 
sistant. Fully tested for years. Limited stock of grafting wood and trees. 

P. C. WILLSON, Prop. Sunnyvale, Santu Clara County, Cal. 



Entomological. 



WORK AGAINST PEAR THRIPS. 



From a paper by Mr. A. L. Quaiutance 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
at the State Fruit Growers' Convention: 

The adult thrips puts in its appearance 
on the trees late in February and early 
in March, at which time such fruits as 
almonds, apricots and peaches are com- 
ing into bloom. From the middle to the 
last of March and early in April the in- 
sects are out in maximum numbers, when 
prunes, cherries and pears are in full 
bloom. The thrips attack the swelling 
buds, working down between the bud 
scales and by feeding upon the essential 
organs of the young flower, or other 
parts, soon destroy it. In the case of 
some fruits, like the almond and peach, 
these may suffer comparatively little in- 
jury if they are not attacked until the 
period of full bloom. The thrips feed 
upon the nectar in the calyx-cup and the 
little fruit itself may thus escape. The 
insect is worse on pear, prune and cherry, 
as it is most abundant during the period 
of swelling buds, and of blooming, and, 
furthermore, the fruit buds are devel- 
oped in clusters. Buds of these fruits 
are, in extreme cases, so injured that they 
wither and die before opening, and even 
after the blossom has expanded the little 
fruit and other parts may be attacked and 
prospects for a crop quite destroyed. Leaf 
buds are also attacked in the same way, 
and the destruction of these may be so 
general that little foliage is put out, and 
it may be some months before a natural 
growth is developed. The small size of 
the thrips, and its habit of working with- 
in the buds and flowers is calculated to 
prevent its detection by fruit growers, 
and much thrips injury has doubtless 
been attributed to the effect of cold. On 
the other hand, the insect has been 
charged with injury probably due to un- 
favorable weather conditions. 

Life History. — -The adult female thrips 
(no males are known) deposits her eggs 
in almost any tender part of the plant, 
as the fruit and leaf stems, the mid rib 
and veins of the leaves, etc., by the aid 
of a saw-like avipositor, with which a slit 
is cut into the tissues and the egg in- 
serted within. The egg hatches in the 
course of about four days, and the young 
i Imps wiggles its way out and soon be- 
gins to feed on the tender tissues of the 
plant. These larvae were at first very 
small, and when full grown are scarcely 
one-twelfth of an inch in length. They 
prefer secluded places, as on the under 
surface of tender leaves, the growing tips 
and under the protection of the dried up 
calyx before it has been thrown off by 
the swelling fruit. In this latter situa- 
tion they feed upon the young and tender 
fruit, and in the case of prunes and pears 
the injured places develop as the fruit 
grows, into scabby spots greatly disfigur 
ing its appearance and resulting in seri 
oua deformities, especially with pears. 
The injury by the larvae to the fruit 
which may have escaped the adults is very 
important, and in badly infested orchards 
a large per cent of the remaining crop 
may be thus injured. The scabby spots 
on prunes do not shrink uniformly with 
the rest of the skin, and stand out very 
conspicuously, materially reducing the 
grade. 

When full grown, which requires about 
three weeks, the thrips larvae make their 
way to the ground and penetrate the soil, 
to a depth from 3 to 10 or 12 inches, de- 
pending apparently upon whether this is 
soft or hard, the majority in tilled or- 
chards going down some 6 to 10 inches. 
Below the soil each larvae constructs for I 
Itself a little earthen cell of sufficient size | 



to accommodate its body, and here the in- 
seflt remains until the following spring, 
to appear as an adult during the flower- 
ing period of the trees, as already stated. 
In the late fall and winter, however, the 
larvae transforms to the pupa stage, and 
in this condition is much more helpless 
than as larvae. It is not known how long 
the pupal stage continues, but it is prob- 
ably several weeks. There is thus but 
one generation of the thrips each year, 
and they spend much the greater part of 
their time safe below the surface of the 
soil. 

How It Works. — The mouth parts of 
the thrips present an interesting differ- 
ence from those of insects of other or- 
ders, and a knowledge of these organs is 
of importance to fruit growers. There is 
a snout-like projection, armed with sev- 
eral spines. Within the snout are stiff 
setae, or stylets, with which the epidermis 
of the plant surface is first penetrated, 
and then by aid of the bristles on the rim 
of the snout the opening is enlarged, the 
tissues lacerated, and the juices thus lib- 
erated sucked up for food. The thrips 
thus feeds, practically, on the interior 
portion of the plants, and can not be de- 
stroyed with arsenical or similar poisons. 

Practically all deciduous fruits are at- 
tacked, as almond, apple, apricot, cherry, 
peach, pear, plum, and prune. The insect 
is also recorded from fig, grape and wal- 
nut, and such indigenous plants as Ma- 
drona, wild California lilac, and poison 
oak. 

Si-raying. — Unfortunately this question 
cannot be satisfactorily answered at the 
present time. Prom the resume of the 
life history of the pest above given, the 
extreme difficulty of controlling the adults 
with sprays is evident. At first thought 
it might appear useless to try such meth- 
ods; nevertheless, considerable time has 
been given to testing various sprays, as 
to their possible efficiency against the 
adults, and also against the larvae. Dur- 
ing the past year Mr. Moulton has tested, 
at different strengths, the following: 

Whale oil soap; black leaf tobacco ex- 
tract; tobacco decoction from stems boiled 
in water; kerosene emulsion; distillate 
oil; crude carbolic acid emulsion; creo- 
sote oil; lime sulphur wash; arsenate of 
lead molasses spray; arsenate of lead and 
crude oil emulsion. Of these several sub- 
stances none proved especially effective 
except the proprietary tobacco extract, and 
the distillate emulsion. Mr. Moulton con- 
cluded that by timely and thorough use 
of either of these sprays, directed espe- 
cially against the larvae on the under 
surface of the leaves, these can be de- 
stroyed in such numbers as to result in 
protection of the crop for the succeeding 
year. The possibility of doing this will 
be fully tested during the spring of 1909, 
and the work will be done under the most 
favorable conditions for success. To be 
effective, however, spraying operations 
must be done on a large scale, to prevent 
possible overflow of the insects from un- 
treated orchards. It is planned to carry 
out spraying operations in Santa Clara 
county, Contra Costa county, and. if pos- 
sible, in Solano county. Spraying for the 
thrips, should this prove effective, will 
offer, however, several practical difficul- 
ties. Two or three applications of sprays 
will be necessary, perhaps, and in so 
short a space of time as to tax the re- 
sources of the orchardist to accomplish 
the work. 

In the Soil.— The destruction of thrips 
during their long stay in the soil, if it 
may be accomplished, would be a much 
more practicable solution of the problem. 
Mr. Moulton and Mr. Paine during the 
past summer have been carefully investi 
gating various points connected with sub 
terranean life of the insect, as to their 
distribution in the soil; the effect of cul- 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

Large Assortment. All Varieties. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS. 

Transplanted In flats 100 each. 
Write for prices, giving amount wanted. 

W. A. REINHOLDLT 
Main Street Nursery, - - - - I'etaluma, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 

Logan, Mammoth, Phenomenal, and 
Himalaya berry plants. Send for prices to 

R. J. HUNTER 

Oak View Berry Farm 

GRIDLKY, CAL. 



January 28, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



ORDERS FOR 

PEACH TREES 

PROMPT DELIVERY OF 

JVIUIRS 

LOVELLS 

PHILLIPS 

TUSCANS 

ELBERTAS 

IN 

2 to 3 feet. 
18 to 24 inches. 
12 to 18 inches. 

6 to 12 inches. 

Sizes INSURED by Ordering NOW . 



Are making CARLOAD shipments 
WEEKLY. 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 

Salem, Oregon. 



PEACHES 



OREGON GROWN 



65,000 
35,000 
1 0,000 
12,000 
1 0,000 



Elberta 

Lovell 

Muir 

Phillips 

Tuscan 



All grades. Special prices 
in large quantities. Write 
today. 



ALBANY NURSERIES 

ALBANY, OREGON. 

GOLDEN RULE NURSERIES 

MRS. L. L. CROCKER, Proprietress 

Loomis, Cal. 

The celebrated Crocker Bartlett Pear, 
guaranteed immune from blight. 

Golden Rule Summer Apple, dormant 
buds. 

Crocker's New Free Peach, 50 cents 

each; 5,000 left. 
Deciduous Trees and Grape Vines. 

EUCALYPTUS 

GROWN IN SUNSHINE 

with roots balled while growing In flats. Haves 
all roots; make sure success when removed to 
the field and good growth the first season. 

Sample lots at wholesale rates. Can take 
from flats and send In tight packages to save 
cost, risk and time. 

HENRY SHAW, 
320 River St., - - - - Santa Cruz, Cal. 

STANISLAUS 
NURSERY 

Pormerly Analy Nursery, of Sebastopol. 

T. J. TRUE, Modesto, R. D. 1 

PRICK LIST ON APPLICATION 

Ask lor SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 

Kor sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A.. SNOW, Lincoln Avenuf, San Jose, Cal. 



TREES 



tivations as possibly disturbing them in 
their cells, and also the possibility of de 
stroying them by protracted submergence 
in water, as might be practiced in irriga- 
tion. This work thus far has necessarily 
been confined to the insect in the larval 
stage, but will be begun against the pu- 
pae as soon as these appear in the early 
winter. While the results thus far are 
not especially hopeful as against the lar- 
vae, it is not impossible that a method 
will be found effective against the more 
helpless pupae. In addition to cultural 
methods, irrigation, etc., the possible ef- 
fectiveness of various fertilizers, chem- 
icals and fumigants will be tried, and it 
is hoped that some practical expedient 
will be developed from the coming rea- 
son's work. 



PROGRESSIVE WALNUT WORK 
IN FRANCE. 



California is apparently not doing all 
the progressive walnut work in the world. 
Our enterprise and success seems to be 
exciting the European growers. Consul 
C. P. H. Nason deems it of interest to 
American dealers in walnuts to report 
that there has been formed an association 
of French growers of walnuts in the 
neighborhood of Grenoble under the title 
of Syndicat de Proprietaires de Saint- 
Quentin-sur-Isere, Noix de Grenoble, to 
which he adds, under date of October 28: 

It has for its object to maintain the 
reputation and guarantee the quality of 
the walnuts of the lower valley of the 
Gresivauden-nuts, commonly known as 
"Grenobles," and to the trade as "May- 
ettes," to furnish American buyers these 
nuts without admixture with inferior 
qualities, to arrange among themselves 
terms of sales and deliveries, and in gen- 
eral to conduct the business in a thor- 
oughly loyal manner. 

According to the by-laws, the several 
growers are to report upon the quantity 
and quality of their respective harvests 
and to observe, under penalties of failure, 
indicated methods of packing, selling and 
shipping; the sacks or bales of nuts when 
prepared for market to carry a special 
mark, to be fastened and sealed by a lead 
impress, and their contents to be verified. 
It is their purpose also to study the best 
methods of walnut cultivation, to increase 
the number of trees by progressive plant- 
ing, to intensify the fruit by judicious 
grafting, and to improve it in size, color 
and taste in every way possible. 

This year's nuts, spread out for drying 
on latticed floors in the several granaries, 
personally visited, present a fine appear- 
ance in size, uniformity, brightness of 
color, and are of excellent taste. The per- 
centage of unsound nuts is also less than 
usual. The opening prices are in accord 
with estimates previously reported, with 
tendency downward, because it would 
seem American buyers are not hurrying 
as in former years to place their orders. 



FRUIT EXCHANGE STOCKHOLD- 
ERS' MEETING. 



The annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the California Fruit Exchange was held 
in the Y. M. C. A. Hall on the 12th inst. 
Nearly 200 people were present, repre- 
senting all the important deciduous fruit 
growing sections. The meeting was one 
of the best in the history of the Exchange. 
The result, as indicated by the reports 
read, was very gratifying, as is proved 
by the fact that a 26 dividend on the 
capital stock (none but growers are per- 
mitted to hold stock) was declared. It 
was announced that a further dividend on 
the tonnage would be forthcoming. The 
old board of directors was re-elected. The 
Exchange has had a very successful sea 
son the past year. It gained 92% In ton- 
nage. J 



TREES 



TRUE TO 
NAME 



AND 



Propagated from the Best 
Specimens of Their Kind 

TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS 

PLACER NURSERIES 



(ESTABLISHED 1878) 



Our assortment comprises all the best com- 
mercial varieties of 

Peaches Apricots Apples 
Plums Almonds Persimmons 
Pears Cherries Grapes, Etc. 

and our stock is the best that years of experience, care in selec- 
tion and care in growing can produce. That is what you want. 



ORDER NOW 



WRITE US 



Catalogue and price list mailed on application. 

THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CALIFORNIA. 

Agents Wanted. 



TREES 



PLANTS 



BULBS 



If you are interested in the best seed, etc., etc., write for our 1909 Seed and 
Plant Annual, which will be mailed to you Free. 

Trumbull Seed Company 

(Successor to TRUMBULL & BKEBK) 

61 California St., ..... San Francisco. 

Please mention this paper. 



V2 Million Eucalyptus Trees <!■ variety.) 

Transplanted in fiats of 100 each. We prefer orders of 1,000 rather 
than 10,000; outside limit 20,000. Our trees are of the highest standard 
in quality. Correspondence invited. Our Booklet telling when, how, and 
what to plant free to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Nurseryman, Petaluma, Cal. 



SMYRNA P ARK NURSERIES 

Trees, Vines, Plants all kinds and varieties. 

Let us know quantity wanted and we will give you special prices on same. 
< AMPIN & MOFFET Ceres, Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Growers ol Commercial and Ornamental Eucalypti. 

KKHTKIN <V KKHTKIN, KKHTKIN BltoS., 

Modesto K uc. Nursery Vlgnolo Kuc. Nuisery 

Modesto, Cal. Anaheim, Cal. 




70 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2:$, 1909. 



Cereal Crops. 



RESULTS OF CEREAL IMPROVE- 
MENT WORK OF THE UNI- 
VERSITY EXPERIMENT 
STATION. 



By Prof. G. W. Shaw, in Charge of the 
Work. 

At the legislative session of 1905 atten- 
tion was drawn by the Merchants' Ex- 
change of San Francisco, the State Board 
of Trade and the Sacramento Develop- 
ment Association to the fact that the mill- 
ing trade of California was obliged to im- 
port about 100,000 tons of wheat per year 
to maintain the quality of California- 
made flour, which cut an alarmingly big 
hole in the California fanners' home mar- 
ket. Not only this, but the continued fall 
ing off in the yield of grain crops per acre 
had progressed until the average yield of 
wheat was only fourteen bushels per acre, 
and in many cases it seemed impossible 
to longer produce wheat on many soils 
that had previously given good yields. 

With the view of ascertaining the cause 
of this low gluten content of California 
wheat and ascertaining some remedy if 
possible, a bill was passed appropriating 
$10,000 for conducting the investigation 
and ascertaining a remedy for these con- 
ditions. 

This work, which was entrusted by the 
law to the Experiment Station of the Uni- 
versity of California, has progressed since 
that date and some very important results 
have been secured which may be briefly 
summarized as follows: 

The low gluten content of California 
wheat is not due to soil exhaustion; nor 
to the time of cutting after the grain 
reaches the hard-dough stage; nor can it 
be materially increased by the use of fer- 
tilizers. 

It is due (1) partially to the type of 
wheats commonly grown in California. 
( 2 i to the length of the growing period. 
(3) but primarily to climatic conditions. 
To remedy this condition we are depend- 
ent then upon two methods of procedure: 

First. The adoption of better milling 
types of proven field adaptability possess- 
ing a shorter growing period than the 
wheats now used. 

Second. The constant building up of 
the quality of our grain by recognized 
met nods of seed selection and breeding 
along the lines so successfully employed 
in Illinois and Iowa in the case of corn, 
Minnesota and South Dakota in the case 
of wheat and Wisconsin in the case of 
barley. 

The low yield is due to generally poor 
cultural methods, and by the adoption of 
a more thorough and up to date practice, 
the yield is materially increased. The 
experiments so far conducted show that 
the following conditions make for more 
abundant crops. 

First. The deeper preparation of soil 
than is commonly practiced in the cereal 
growing sections of the State. 

Second. The adoption of a rotation 
system and the use of green-crop fertil- 
izers to maintain the humus of the soil, 
which is the most vital factor in Cali- 
fornia agriculture today. Failure to 
recognize the importance of this matter 
has resulted in an extremely poor physical 
condition of the soil ; a lessened ability to 
withstand drought and heat, and an in- 
creased cost of handling the land. 

Third. The selection of the best quality 
of seed. 

Fourth. Thorough treatment of seed 
grain for smut; ten per cent of the cereal 
crop is lost by smut, which can be abso- 
lutely prevented. 

Fifth. The crop can be increased from 
ten to fifteen per cent by the use of a drill 
for seeding instead of broadcasting, as is 
the general practice. 



Careful attention to these details may 
certainly be counted upon to increase the 
yield of grain from 15 to 25 per cent. The 
remedy for these conditions is a cam- 
paign of education and demonstration. 

Out of the 400 varieties of wheat under 
trial four of exceeding great promise as 
milling wheats and very well adapted to 
our field conditions have been found. 
These are now to be multiplied and dis- 
tributed. In the case of one, distribu- 
tion has already commenced. It is de- 
sired to extend this another season. 

Material progress has also been made in 
breeding up our own wheats to a higher 
milling quality and yield, especially the 
White Australian variety. This is a mat 
ter, however, which will require continu- 
ous work on the part of the Station, which 
is true of all such undertakings. 

Two durum wheats have been found 
which will be grown on thousands of acres 
of land now too dry to produce the com- 
mon wheat. 

Besides this work with wheats, as a re- 
sult of the investigations, two oats have 
been found which will certainly give an 
increased yield of 25 per cent over the 
common oats now grown in the State. To 
give an idea of the value of this work it 
may be said that the replacing of the 
common oat by the red Algerian variety 
on the acreage now producing oats in the 
State would mean a gain of $1,000,000 per 
year in the value of this crop. To illus- 
trate, this oat under extended tests 
against common oats gave 65 bushels per 
acre, 40 pounds per bushel, against 33 
bushels per acre at 32 pounds per bushel. 
If nothing else should result from these 
investigations, this alone would return to 
the State many times the cost of the work 
as soon as the oat can be gotten into gen- 
eral distribution. 

Many barleys are also under test, and a 
number under selective improvement. 
With the funds at command it has been 
possible only to direct the attention to 
the matter of yield in the case of barleys. 

The specific study of the brewing qual- 
ity has not been undertaken. This im- 
provement work should be extended to 
other field crops. There is a wonderful 
field for development of greater financial 
returns to the State in this direction. The 
adaptation of corn, the improvement in 
quality of island grown potatoes, the 
adaptation of green manure crops for 
maintaining soil productiveness, the de- 
velopment of an early maturing lima bean, 
and many cultural problems connected 
with these crops, all offer abundant field 
for continuous operation. 

The subject is of vital commercial im- 
portance from the fact that it costs no 
more to grow the better sorts of farm 
crops than the unimproved, while the in- 
creased production due to the use of im- 
proved seed results in an increment of 
profit. It moreover awakens in the 
grower more interest in all phases of crop 
production, extending all the way from 
the selection of seed to the market of the 
crop. 

Another very potent reason for this 
character of investigation is resident in 
the constantly increasing value of farm 
lands on which are grown general farm 
crops. The increase in the value of these 
lands has been such that it is urgently 
necessary to Increase the production per 
acre and improve the quality of these 
field crops in order to secure a greater 
return for the investment. 

On account of the very large number 
of people interested in the production of 
general farm crops in any system of di- 
versified agriculture which is the only 
system under which soil fertility can be 
permanently maintained, the results of 
such improvement will have a very far- 
reaching effect. 

The possible results are fraught with 
as much benefit to the people as the de- 




Oranges 
Olives 



Peaches 
Apricots 
Walnuts 
Figs 

New Cling Peach 

THE SIMS 



Grape Vines 
Rose Bushes 



Possesses all merits of Phil- 
lips ("ling, without any of its 
faults. Fruit large to very large, 
almost perfectly round, skin 
golden yellow, of very fine tex- 
ture, firm and rich, with excel- 
lent flavor and clear yellow to 
the pit, which is quite small. 
The canning qualities of this 
peach have been fully deter- 
mined by several years of ac- 
tual trial, and we regard it as 
the very best clingstone, for 
canning, in existence today, and 
recommend that it be exten- 
sively planted. The following 
statement from Messrs. Griffin 
& Skelly Company, one of the 
prominent canning and dried 
fruit firms in California, bears 
out our statement as to the com- 
mercial value of this peach, for 
which we predict a great future. 



(iriffin & Skelley Company, 

16 California Street, 
San Francisco, CaL, Oct. 6, '08. 

Mr. Geo. C. Roeding, Presi- 
dent, Fancher Creek Nurseries, 
Fresno, Cal. — Dear Sir : Regard- 
ing the Sims Cling Peaches, 
samples of which were deliv- 
ered to our cannery at Fresno. 

We packed these samples and 
are most favorably impressed 
with them. We find the peaches 
to be of fine texture, rich color 
and particularly fine flavor, and 
the best late Cling Peaches we 
have ever had in our cannery. 
They seem to ripen between the 
Orange Cling Peaches and the 
Phillips, and there has been an 
urgent demand for Clings that 
would come in just at that time, 
as it would enable canners to 
materially increase their output 
of Cling Peaches, and we shall 
welcome the day when a suffi- 
cient quantity of these peaches 
is available for canning pur- 
poses. If we were planting to- 
day, we should certainly put 
out a considerable quantity of 
these Clings. Yours truly, 

Griffin & Skelley Co. 



Luther Burbank's New Creations 



FORMOSA, 
VESUVIUS AND 
SANTA ROSA 
PLUMS 



RUTLAND PLUMCOT. 
PARADOX AND 
ROYAL 
WALNUTS. 



We are sole propagators and disseminators. Beautifully illustrated 
Burhank Booklet, containing colored plates and numerous half-tones, 20 
pages of descriptive matter, sent postpaid upon receipt of 25 cents. 



CAUMYRNA FIGS 

Without question we stand 
supreme in the production of 
Calimyrna Fig trees in America. 
The market is wide and the sup- 
ply of real genuine Calimyrna 
Figs very limited. The Cali- 
myrna Fig which originated 
with us is the genuine Smyrna 
Fig of Commerce and the only 
Fig that is worth while Plant- 
ing. 



CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURE 

The Fruit Grower's Guide 

By GEO- C. ROEDING New-Just Off the Press 

120 pages, profusely illustrated, 
beautiful lithograph cover, color 
plates inside. This book fully 
describes various kinds of cit- 
rus, deciduous and ornamental 
trees, roses, vines, plants, palms, 
etc. Gives very valuable infor- 
mation about planting and ship- 
ping. By far the best book of 
its kind ever published on the 
Pacific Coast. 

Milled Postpaid Upon Receipt of 25 Cents. 



ANNUAL PRICE CATALOGUE MAILED FREE. 

• Phi .1-1 p Capital S200.000.00 

Fancher Creek Nurseries 

GEO. C. ROEDING, President and Manager. 
P. O. Box 18. FRESNO. CALIFORNIA. 



January 23, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



71 



velopment of irrigation resources in 
which we are all so interested; and is 
worthy of as serious consideration. The 
possibilities of increasing the field crop 
production of California by $1,000,000 per 
year is certainly a subject worth the while 
of her people. That one dollar thus ex- 
pended may be expected to produce an in- 
creased revenue of $1000 within a period 
of ten years is not only recognized as en- 
tirely reasonable by those who have made 
any serious attempt in the improvement 
of plants, but has been repeatedly demon- 
strated in the States of the middle West 
and in Europe. Our plant and animal 
forces are fully as potent factors as our 
mechanical forces and are worthy our 
serious efforts to develop them. The justi- 
fication of the use of increased appropria- 
tions from Federal and State Treasuries 
to build up the hereditary power of our 
animal and plant forms is rapidly de- 
veloping into such concrete form that ex- 
penditure along this line is becoming a 
broad public question. The importance of 
this character of work is fundamental as 
regards the individual, the State and the 
nation, because the production of these 
crops is the basis of the nation's pros- 
perity. That an expenditure of one dollar 
should be expected to return a profit of 
one thousand dollars to the State is a 
question which the legislature of each 
State can easily verify from the results 
which have come forward through the 
work of numerous public agencies in the 
improvement of our leading single crops. 

This being the case there is no reason 
why such an investment either by the 
State or nation does not present as clear 
a business proposition as an engineering 
or mechanical project, by which a great 
railway system can materially increase its 
earning. 



Forestry. 



TESTING THE CALIFORNIA TAN- 
BARK OAK. 



Prof. Loren E. Hunt, engineer in tim- 
ber tests for the U. S. Forestry Service, 
who is stationed at the University of Cali- 
fornia, has been conducting some inter- 
esting tests and seasoning experiments 
with the California tan-bark oak (Quer- 
cus densiflora), a species which is largely 
confined to this State. His progress re- 
port will be interesting to those in the 
region where the tree is abundant, and to 
wood-workers everywhere. 

The Lumber. — The material selected 
for the tests was selected in three classes 
or shipments, differing in the age of the 
trees and in the season of the year they 
were cut. The first two shipments were 
selected in the summer, during the peel- 
ing season, and represented, in the first 
shipment, the larger and more mature 
trees of the stand, and in the second ship- 
ment, the smaller and younger trees. The 
third shipment was felled in the month 
of October, and represented the same 
wood as obtained in the first shipment, 
but felled in the season when the bark 
was tight, or when the sap was down. 

The field work on the first shipment 
also included a study of the relative 
amount of tanbark and lumber which 
could be obtained from the trees. The 
bark was weighed as soon as it was 
peeled from the tree, and again when it 
had been seasoned six weeks. 

Assuming that 2400 pounds of seasoned 
bark is equal to one cord, the average 
yield per tree was .358 cord. The yield 
in lumber for the trees measured was, 
therefore, 1180 feet, board measure, per 
cord of bark. In sawing the logs of the 
three shipments the actual mill run of 
the lumber slightly exceeded the log scale 
in every instance. 
The Tests. — The plans for the work in 



the timber-testing laboratory include a 
sufficient number of mechanical tests to 
enable a definite comparison of the 
strength of tanbark oak with that of the 
hardwoods now in general use. They 
show that the former compares very fa- 
vorably with Eastern oak. The work al- 
ready completed has been entirely upon 
green material. Some 1200 tests have 
been finished. A partial summary of the 
results is shown in the table: 
Strength of Green Tan-Bark Oak in 
Compression Parallel to the Grain. 

Crushing Strength. 
Number. in Pounds per Square Inch. 
Tests. Average. Maximum. Minimum. 

68 4,805 6,150 3,450 

22 4,681 5,750 3,690 

75 4,754 6,030 3,825 

24 5,120 10,500 3,240 

Seasoning. — A portion of each ship- 
ment, consisting of boards, planks, and 
timbers, 4 by 5 inch in section, was piled 
to season. This material will be tested 
when thoroughly air dried. After from 4 
to 10 months of seasoning the boards and 
timbers show some warping and checking 
due to shrinkage, but not in amount suf- 
ficient to injure the lumber unless too 
rapid drying was allowed. One attempt 
has been made to kiln dry the lumber. 
Some 50 boards and 20 planks 2% inches 
thick were put through a commercial kiln 
of the moist air type in San Francisco. 
The results, while encouraging as regards 
the behavior of the tan-bark oak in a 
moist air kiln, were not satisfactory, ow- 
ing to the imperfect regulation of the 
kiln and the consequent daily variations 
in temperature and humidity. After 40 
days in the dry kiln, a classification of the 
lumber gave the following percentages: 
No. Pet. 

Good boards 28 56 

Boards slightly warped... 12 24 
Boards checked at ends.. 4 8 
Boards badly checked.... 6 12 

Total 50 100 

When tan-bark oak is air seasoning it 
is rapidly attacked by a black fungus 
which will stain the lumber throughout 
in a short time if permitted to grow. 

As thus appears, there has been some 
difficulty in seasoning the boards without 
injury due to worping and checking, but 
Professor Hunt is confident that a suc- 
cessful method of seasoning can be de- 
vised, in which event the lumber will 
find a ready market and prove of greater 
value than the bark of the trees. The 
Forest Service has a supply of the wood 
now in the process of seasoning, but the 
tests of strength for seasoned wood have 
not yet been made. 

Owing to the demand for hardwood 
lumber on the Pacific Coast and to the 
limited available supply of tan-bark oak, 
it is not thought that the lumber will 
have other than local use in the Pacific 
States. 

Hardwoods Used in California. — The 
hardwoods now in use in California come 
principally from the Eastern States. In 
addition, however, there is now being im- 
ported from foreign countries a small 
amount of hardwood material. Probably 
about 10 per cent of the hardwoods used 
in California is imported. 

A compilation of the information ob- 
tained from 14 of the principal dealers in 
San Francisco and about the bay region 
shows that a total of 21 % million feet of 
hardwoods is used annually. Eastern oak 
comes first with about 13 million, hickory 
second with 3 million. Maple, ash and 
cottonwood are approximately equal, with 
iy 2 million feet each. The consumption 
of the other hardwoods does not exceed a 
million feet for any species, and for most 
of them it is less than one-half million 
feet. 

The average cost of all the hardwoods 





pays in the fertilization of 

SUGAR BEETS 

Beets which are treated with a high grade 
Potash fertilizer grow larger and carry 
at the test more sugar and better 
purity than beets which are not 
properly fertilized. See that 
your fertilizer supplies at 
least io% of actual Potash. 

POTASH X 

npAriT S*&L « JMSi^^ Literature, Free, 

1 1 j£S ...vMiiiiSSBiRSS 5|SS^ on fertilizing Beets and 

other crops. 

GERMAN KALI WORKS 
93 Nassau Street, New York 

Chicago— Monadnock Block Atlanta, Ua. — 1 224 Candler Building 

MEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, Cal., are Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



Morse-Seeds 

Our new 1909 Catalogue contains a long list of the standard varieties of 
vegetable, flower and field seeds, plants and trees — also the best of the newer 
things of recent introduction. Mulled free on receipt of niimr and addrettn. 

There are some wonderfully attractive things offered, to which we call 
especial attention as follows: 

Page 8 A new Muskmelon (Fordhook) and a new Pepper (Sweet Up- 
right) 

Page 9 A marvel in Tomato novelties (Dwarf Giant) 

Page 22 A full list of Eastern grown Sweet Corn (especially sweet) 

Page 30 A full line of Florida grown Watermelons (especially uniform 

and solid at the heart) 

Pages 32-33-34 Our own grown Onion Seeds (the best in the world) 
Page 52 A page of Burbank'a Specialties — 16 varieties of beautiful 

flowers, all grown by Mr. Luther Burbank on his own grounds and under 

his personal selection at Santa Rosa. 

Pages 74-75-70-77-78 All about Sweet Peas — Novelties — collections— a 

preferred list — -all grown by ourselves — the largest growers in the world. 
Page 80 The Wonderful new Rose from France (The Lyon Rose) 
Page 83 Other new Roses. 

Pages 93-94-95 A very large assortment of Eucalyptus Trees in boxes 
or pots (note the photographs of the most important kinds on page 94) 
Page 106 A great New White Dahlia (Mrs. Morse) 

C. C. MORSE & CO., Seed Growers and Dealers 

44 JACKSON STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 

Retail Store : 125-127 MARKET ST., S. F. Nurseries : QLEN AVE., OAKLAND 



used on the Pacific Coast is high. Those 
from the Eastern States vary from $57 
per thousand, for oak used for cooperage, 
to $180 per thousand for black walnut. 



FOR SALE — California Black Walnut 
seed in sack lots. Wanted — Mayette, Fran- 
quette and Parisienne Walnut scions; also 
Rupestris St. George, Rip. x Cord, x Rup. 
106-8, Rip. x Rup. 3306 and 3309 cuttings, 
grafting size. Address FANCHER CREEK 
NURESRIES, FRESNO. CAL. 



For 



Use 



DUST SPRAY 

VIGORTTE BRAND 
HYDRATED LIME 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE HOLMES LIME CO., Inc. 

Mutual Savings Bank Building 
San Francisco 

Write for Samples and Prices. 



PIONEERS AND LEADERS 

L RELIABLE' ' 




STANDARD 



SINCE 1B40 



(/*«</ by Thrme Gmntrationt 
For Sale by All Hardware Dealers 
R . E. DIETZ COMPANY, NEW YORK 



THE "BOSS" 

TREE PROTECTOR 



MADE OF YUCCA PALM. 

Is cheap, durable, and 
quickly put on the tree. It 
prevents rabbits from de- 
stroying your trees. A sure 
protection against frost, 
sunburn, grasshoppers or 
dry winds. Can be easily 
removed; will last for 
years. Send for samples. 




PRICES 



Agenti 



rivn. r^n 

12 In. \ong. % 9.00 per 1000 

14 in long, 10.00 per 1000 

16 In. long, 1125 per 1000 

18 In. long, 12.50 per 1000 

24 In. long. 15.00 per 1000 

30 In. long, 17.50 per 1000 
Wanted Everywhere. 

YUCCA MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

13KO WILLOW ST., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

WHICH SPRAY PUMP £ 

stall you buy f Buy the Pump 
that lully meets the demands ol the Governmen 
Agricultural Scientists «nd all Practical I t 
Growers. These pumps are known as DeltilnST 
Hprnyers made In 23 styles foruse In garden! 
or orchards. Write lor our 1909 Catalog with 
Spraying Chart. Adil 4 cents postage and get a 
'^Spraying lor rrofit," a useful guide book. 

THE DEMINQ COMPANY, 
7BO Depot St. , Salem. Ohio 




ALFALFA LAND 

Free Booklet: ' HICKMAN UNO, SMALL IRRIGATED FARMS " 
< heap alfalfa, fruit, berry, and potato la d, at 
IIKAD of FAMOUS TUKLOCK lKKIUATION 
DIHTK1CT. NO OVKKKLOW, ALKALI, or 
MALARIA. Kasy Terms. 

L. W. JEFFERSON REALTY CO., 
350 Market St., San Francisco. 



72 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2:5, 1909. 



Live Stock and Dairy. 



THE OLD GRAY MARE. 



Written for the PACIFIC Ri kal Press. 

I love her, I love her, and who shall dare 
To chide me for loving that old gray 
mare. 

If never the foremost in the race, 
I've driven her oft at a rattling pace, 
When pebbles and sand were in the air, 
Tossed up by the hoofs of the old gray 
mare. 

Never! No never, the touch of a whip — 
I whistled and whispered, 'Let her rip!" 
How she stretched her neck! Then away 

she'd tear; 
What an awful stride had the old gray 

mare. 

At other times, when the road was right, 
She'd take a spin for her own delight. 
The way she'd hustle and make things 
hum. 

You'd think you were going to kingdom 
come. 

Twas look out small boys, mind your eye, 
When the dust and gravel began to fly — 
And all so easy, 'twould make you smile 
To see the old mare cover a mile; 

Old men by the wayside stopped to stare, 
And waved their hats for the old gray 
mare, 

So lively and gentle, don't you know, 
Would stop in a moment, when I said 
"Whoa." 

I sing of the days when I used to drive. 
For the old gray mare is still alive, 
Stiff in the joints, and sore and lame. 
But her eyes are bright, and she's full of 
game; 

Of toil and pleasure she's had her share. 
And now she's resting — the old gray mare. 

I love her, I love her, and who shall dare 
To chide me for loving that old gray mare. 

R. E. C. S. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



THE RAISING AND CARE OF 
BREEDING JACKS. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Jas. W. McCord. 

This industry, although one of the most 
important of the live stock branch of 
farming, has been the most abused and 
neglected. It appears to be the opinion 
of most people that the ass was especially 
made to be neglected and abused. If such 
had not been the case, this branch of ani 
mal industry would have kept pace with 
the breeding and improvements in other 
branches of live stock. 

History informs us that the King ol 
Spain presented Gen. George Washington 
with two jacks to breed to his thorough- 
bred mares for the production of mules, 
and also that these two jacks were six- 
teen hands high. That has been nearly a 
century and a half ago, and yet there are 
very few jacks in the United States that 
exceed that height. If proper attention 
and care had been devoted to this line 
there it no reason that they should not 
be from sixteen to seventeen hands high, 
standard measure, now, and weight from 
twelve to fifteen hundred pounds, and sire 
mules weighing from sixteen to eighteen 
hundred pounds. 

The first thing, of course, is to com- 
mence right, that is, with the best stock. 
In founding a harem of jennets, care 
should be taken to get the very best. It 
i9 not of so much importance as to what 
breed they are, or what cost, so that they 
are known to produce the jacks that sire 
^he best mules. After you have jennets 
of this kind, then get the best jennet jack 
that can be found. The points he should 
have are size and conformation, breeding 
free from blemishes or faults, lively dis- 
position and a prompt server. No jack 
should ever be kept as a jennet jack until 
he has been tested and proved to be one 
of the best sires of mules. 

After you have the right kind of blood, 
the next thing is the care. Plenty of 



pastuie should be provided for the jen 
nets, but this need not be of the best, so 
there is variety and plenty. Hill land is 
well suited for this purpose. The foot 
hills of California would make an ideal 
breeding farm for jacks, but their feed 
must never get scant, and in winter a 
generous supply of hay should be pro- 
vided. Also shelter in which the hay 
should be fed. One main thing should be 
to keep the colts growing all the time till 
they are mature. At about four months 
old the jack colts should be taken from 
the dam and weaned. But before he is 
weaned he should have been taken up and 
taught how to eat. He should then be 
fed regularly with good hay and a little 
rolled barley and bran. He should be 
allowed to run in a pasture where there 
is plenty of grass. It is a good plan to 
let him run with Alleys, in order that he 
may learn their ways. He should be 
watched very closely and looked after 



in this matter. We have been spared the 
calamity of au extension of this Imported 
plague into the great feeding and grazing 
grounds of the West, and the department 
has again proved its ability to serve 
promptly and well the great interests un- 
der its jurisdiction. 



OXEN VERSUS HORSES. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By L. W. Symmes. 

An interesting fact was presented re- 
cently by D. H. Winslow, an engineer of 
the Massachusetts Highway Commission, 
in engineering contracting. It may seem 
somewhat of a novelty to employ oxen in 
place of horses, in these days of rush and 
turmoil, but in a city of Massachusetts 
oxen were employed in the construction 
of a State road at a profit over horses, 
according to the contractor. 

At the outset, oxen can be bought for 



less from the pit. By actual test two sets 
of teams the same day, same haul, same 
foreman, and just enough extra shovelcr:, 
so that no team was kept waiting when 
loaded, the following was obtained: The 
oxen made SO loads, against 64 loads de 
livered by horses, but required the serv- 
ices of two extra shovelers. Eighty loads 
at 50 cents, contract price, equal $40, leav- 
ing profit of $13.10 in favor of oxen, or 
$6.55 per pair for the day. 

Sixty-four loads at 50 cents, contract 
price, equals $32, leaving profit of $7.94 
in favor of horses, or $3.97 per pair per 
day. 

Under these conditions the oxen proved 
to be more profitable by $2.58 a day over 
horses. The data was obtained unknown 
to either teamsters or laborers. There is 
little doubt that the horses might have 
been speeded up a little more, while the 
oxen could not have been, and an increase 
in the length of haul would place oxen at 




IL HARREGUY— Weight 1160 lbs; Owned by Mr. Jas. W. McCord, Hanford. 



regularly, to see that he is kept in a thriv 
ing condition. During this time he should 
be handled. His feet "should be trimmed 
and kept from growing too long or turn- 
ing under or to one side. 

If all these directions are followed the 
owner will have a jack at two years old 
that he will be proud of, and one that will 
sire mules that will be like a check on 
the bank. 

Hanford, Cal. 

QUICK WORK WITH FOOT-AND- 
MOUTH. 



The Bureau of Animal Industry is mak- 
ing short work of the foot and-mouth 
trouble. Up to the end of December the 
department had 250 men at work and 
had killed and buried between 3000 and 
4000 head of cattle,--At this rate, within 
the next 60 days I the outbreak will be 
only a memory. An order has been is- 
sued permitting the people of Maryland 
to ship fat animals to the butcher and to 
move hay from some parts of the State 
that had no disease, and considerable re- 
lief from the rigors of the quarantine has 
been extended to Michigan. The Breed- 
ers' Gazette says that the country is to be 
congratulated upon the celerity and effl 
ciency of the Government's intervention 



5'L- cents a pound on the hoof, and can 
be turned into cash at the end of the 
working season at the same figure. On 
this work none of the oxen had shrunk 
in weight since the beginning of con- 
struction, and several pair had gained in 
weight. 

Horses, on the contrary, must either be 
sold at a loss when construction is shut 
down or else be carried through the win- 
ter months while teaming is slack and 
grain is high. The wear and tear on 
wagons and the item of shoeing is about 
the same with either oxen or horses, while 
with oxen there are no harnesses to 
break. The cost of maintenance per pair 
for one week was $19.20 for oxen and 
$22.20 for horses. Cost per pair per work- 
ing day: oxen $3.20, horses $3.70. 

In comparing work done it will be well 
to bear in mind that horse carts are 
backed into the pit, the teamster shovels 
and the cart is at a standstill while be- 
ing loaded. The ox cart is backed in, 
the teamster does not shovel, but yokes 
his oxen to a loaded wagon or the nearest 
loaded wagon, and there is thus practic- 
ally no lost time for oxen. Notwithstand- 
ing that the teamster shovels and the 
horses walk faster than the oxen, the 
oxen actually delivered more loads per 
day wherever the haul was 600 feet or 



a disadvantage, and they would then be 
more valuable as beef. But the figures 
have certainly proved the contractor's as- 
sertion and the oxen have afforded an in- 
teresting item on the work of contractors. 



MORE GOOD STOCK COMING. 



According to the Drover's Telegram of 
Kansas City, Mr. R. M. Dunlap, "one of 
the most active of the Pacific Coast stock- 
men who believe in improving the breeds 
of cattle," has bought at Kansas City rep- 
resentatives of three breeds, with which 
the cattle of California will be improved. 
Mr. Dunlap's home is at Woodland, Cal., 
and the string of extra choice registered 
young bulls he has collected will be dis- 
tributed in the ranch country of Visalia. 

"Mr. Dunlap got two bulls from H. C. 
Duncan, the well known Short-horn 
breeder of Osborn, Mo., which are about 
the best that he ever raised. One of these 
is Golden Chief, sired by Golden Goods, a 
celebrated bull which was sold last year 
to W. O. Minor of Heppner, Ore., for $3500. 
This calf which Mr. Dunlap takes to Cali- 
fornia is but eight months old and weighs 
800 pounds. He was at the American 
Royal show here this fall and took prizes 
The other bull bought by Mr. Dunlap was 
Robin O'Day, nine months old." He weighs 



January 23, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



73 



900 pounds. Recently two of the brothers 
of this young animal sold for $<i<Mi each. 

"Five young bulls from the herd of 
Allen Thompson, of Nashua, Mo., eon 
stitute the Galloway contingent. They 
are sired by Dragon of Wavertree, sired 
by Mario of Catstlewood, the champion 
of England several years before he was 
brought to this country, where he was 
champion at the Chicago world's fair. Mr. 
Thompson's bull was out of Divina 2d, 
also champion at Chicago. 

"The rest of the shipment that will go 
to California consists of Herefords, from 
the herd of J. M. Curtis, Independence, 
Mo., and were the best this breeder had." 



AQUATIC LIVE STOCK. 

The aquatic pastures are not to be al- 
lowed to enroll their product with the 
grazing industry of the State, but it is 
interesting, nevertheless. For a single 
county, viz., Sacramento, the local game 
warden, Mr. Neale, writes: 

"The resources of Sacramento county, 
or even of the State of California, would 
not be complete without a description of 
its large and varied fish and game inter- 
ests. With over sixty miles of river in 
Sacramento county, many miles of sloughs 
and lakes where fish and game of many 
varieties abound, there can be truthfully 
said, that in no other locality can the 
heart of the sportsman be made glad with 
a greater abundance of game and fish. 

The Sacramento river contains many 
varieties of fish natural to its water, such 
as Sacramento perch, chub, pike, dace 
sturgeon, hard head salmon, all of which 
are of great commercial value. Besides 
these, there has been introduced by the 
California Fish Commission two kinds of 
catfish, shad, black and striped bass, all 
of which grow to an enormous size in our 
waters. The two latter furnish much 
sport to the rod fishermen, besides being 
of marked commercial value. They may 
be taken with the rod and line baited 
with minnow or spinner. 

First of importance of all our fish is 
the celebrated quinat or king salmon. 

From the last statistics, taken in 1904, 
by Mr. Wilcox of the United States Bu- 
reau of Statistics, the following figures 
regarding the amount of fish caught by 
market fishermen in Sacramento county 
will be interesting, especially in view of 
the fact that it is safe to assume that 
these fish are increasing in number as the 
outputs of the State hatcheries are larger 
each year: 

Fish. Pounds. 

Salmon 735,116 

Striped bass 31,000 

Shad 111,322 

Perch 4.S00 

Pike 2,600 

Black bass 8,100 

Catfish 497,614 

The wholesale fish dealers of Sacra- 
mento City are shipping catfish to Mis- 
souri and Mississippi river points — the 
home of the catfish. Many tons of fish 
of many varieties are sent weekly to Chi- 
cago, New York, Denver, Salt Lake, and 
Northern points. 

There are 97 licensed fishing boats oper- 
ating in Sacramento county. Each boat 
is equipped with a complete outfit, and 
represents a value of from $200 to $500. 
During recent years many motor boats 
have been utilized for this purpose. 

LET THOSE KEEP A FEW SHEEP 
WHO CAN. 

The matter of fresh meat on the farm 
in summer is one that has confronted 
housewives for generations past. Salted 
and pickled meats, chicken and eggs do 
well for a time, but when served contin- 
uously, day in and day out, get to be 
.pretty tiresome eating. Some farmers 



are called upon by the butcher's wagon 
regularly three or four times a week, but 
these are in the minority. The average 
farmer should grow his own meat; I hen 
he can have it when he wauls it, and he 
knows that it is fresh and wholesome, a 
thing he is not always sure of when he 
patronizes the local market. 

Mutton, when prepared in the variety 
of good ways the thrifty housewife knows, 
makes most delicious eating. Epicures 
think there is nothing better than good 
crown of lamb roast served with mint 
sauce. The farmer can have this as well 
as not, if he but will. A taste for mutton 
if not present can readily be acquired. A 
lamb or sheep is not so large but that it 
can be used by a single family, even in 
summer, if ice is at hand. If it cannot 
all be used, an exchange with neighbors 
can often be arranged. This exchange 
should be businesslike — equal amounts, 
and of the choice and poorer cuts together 
as they grow being given, then no trouble 
can result. 

Mutton can be grown more cheaply than 
it or other fresh meat can be bought. It 
costs, where pastures and cheap feeds are 
employed, only about a dollar and a quar- 
ter a year to maintain a sheep. Consid- 
ering the value of her lamb and wool, it 
will be seen that her meat is not very 
costly. One cannot get a very big piece 
of meat on the market for a couple of 
dollars, and a whole mutton will not cost 
more than that. 

If one wanted sheep for meat alone, he 
could make no better investment. A flock 
of 10 or 15 will furnish all the meat a 
farmer will want, and will produce 
enough lambs to keep the flock going. 
But don't forget to kill the worthless 
dogs. 



NEVER DRENCH CATTLE. 



By Dr. David Roberts, Wisconsin State 
Veterinarian. 

Perhaps the best way of demonstrating 
the danger of drenching cattle is to ad- 
vise the reader to throw back his head 
as far as possible and attempt to swallow. 
This you will find to be a difficult task, 
and you will find it much more difficult, 
and almost impossible, to swallow with 
mouth open. It is for this reason that 
drenching cattle is a dangerous practice. 
However, if a cow's head be raised as 
high as possible and her mouth kept open 
by the drenching bottle or horn, a portion 
of the liquid is very apt to pass down the 
wind-pipe into the lungs, sometimes caus- 
ing instant death by smothering; at 
other times causing death to follow in a 
few days from congestion or inflammation 
of the lungs. 

We are constantly receiving letters at 
this office describing the sudden death of 
animals that were ailing with such minor 
ailments as constipation or loss of appe- 
tite, and upon investigation find that they 
have been drenched, the cause of their 
death being due to same. This is often- 
times proved by sending out one of our 
assistant veterinarians to hold post-mor- 
tem upon such animals, only to find that 
a portion of the drench was still in the 
lungs; other cases where death had been 
prolonged and later the animal had died 
of mechanical pneumonia. 

I do not feel that the stock raisers of 
this country realize the danger in drench- 
ing cattle and the enormous financial loss 
brought about by same. 



HOW TO STRIKE THE COYOTE. 

It will interest California stock men to 
know what is to be done to the coyotes 
in the State of Oregon, according to the 
plans which have been announced by Sec 
retary Dan P. Smythe of the State Sheep 
Commission and the State Woolgrowers' 
Association. During the month of Jan- 



uary the flockmasters of the State are to 
wage a concerted and systematic warfare 
upon the greatest enemy the wool-grower 
has to contend with. Dogs, guns, traps 
and poison are to be brought into requisi- 
tion, and it is expected that the number 
of coyotes can be greatly reduced during 
the 31 days in the month which has been 
designated for their slaughter. 



HOME MADE HOG PRODUCTS. 



Some of our readers who have a knack 
of butchering and desire to put some time 
into products for which they may find 
local sale at prices which will pay for the 
time, will be interested in what the 
Farmer's Voice says about such an under- 
taking. 

With hogs selling at from 4] to 5 cents 
at country stations it is difficult for the 
farmer to understand why he pays 18 
cents for hams, ten cents for shoulders, 
15 to 20 cents for bacon, 12J cents 
for side meat, 15 cents for pickled pork, 
and 15 cents for lard. The farmer who 
sells hogs and buys pork cannot under- 
stand why he should sell the hog for 
$10 and buy it back for about $18. 

Therefore the question naturally arises : 
Why should the farmer not pack pork 
for his own use, as in fact many farmers 
do? Then the question would arise: 
Why would it not pay him to pack twice 
as much or three times as much as he 
needs for his own use? Why would it 
not pay him to pack 30 or 40 hogs and sell 
the surplus in the nearest town? 

Many farmers could do this at a profit. 
Some who began in this way have de- 
veloped small packing houses on their 
own farms, and, on account of the superi- 
ority of their product are selling it at 
fancy prices not only in the nearest towns 
but in various cities in the United States. 

Charles A. Umoselle has furnished 
some results of his own experience, both 
on the method of breeding hogs and the 
profits resulting, which may be interest- 
ing to our readers, from which we quote 
as follows : 

"From the time the carcass is hung on 
the hooks, the farmer must remember 
that to make the most profit he must not 
follow the usual farm methods employed, 
but, like the large packers, cater to the 
public taste. First, I cut the backbone out 
of the carcass just where it joins the ribs; 
then from each half trim off' the hams 
and shoulders. From the sides remove 
the.spare ribs and lay them aside to sell 
immediately. The parts are now divided 
as follows: The hams, bacons, and shoul- 
ders, to be put down in salt. There are 
two strips of flitch, the backbone, the 
pig's feet, the spare ribs, and the head. 
From these will come the meat for sau- 
sage, the fat for lard, and the trimmings 
for special sale. People are glad to give 
20 cents for a set of pig's feet, while spare 
ribs are a scarce article and are easily 
worth 35 cents a side. After trimming 
the sweetmeat off the backbone, the lat- 
ter, when cut into sections, sells at 7 
cents per pound. The cheeks and meat 
from the head make sausage, while the 
skull boiled is excellent for winter-laying 
hens. In making sausage, I cut the fat 
well out, so it will not be too greasy. Fat 
enough to fry is plenty. If possible get 
three pounds beef loin or flank to mix 
with every 25 pounds of pork to modify 
the taste. After running the meat through 
a sausage grinder, season with salt and 
pepper and moderate with sage or some 
other spices. Sausage equals about a 
pound to the pint and if there is too much 
sausage for immediate sale, put it in a 
three or five-gallon stone jar and run 
about two inches of melted lard over it. 
This will keep it sweet all winter if main- 
tained at an even temperature. It need 
be opened only as enough is sold to empty 
ajar. After rendering the lard .put into 
the stone jars and sell as the demand re- 



Stickney Gasoline En^i nes 

- ARE THE BEST 



The engine with an outside igniter and 
a modern open 
tank cooling 
system. Our 
new free cata- 
log and free 
catechism 
tells 57 
reasons 
why we 
have the 
send for free catalog best engine 
Stationery and Portable into 16h.p. 

We have thousands of engines in successful 

opention becsuse of years of experience of the 
manufacturers in making engines of the best 
material, snd most accurate workmanship. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Co 

SAN FRANCISCO - LOS ANGELES - PORTLAND - SEATTLl 




Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they give 
better results than others do. 
Write for Prices, Testimonials and out 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

Temporary Address 
Grayson and Sixth Streets, BERKELEY, CAL. 

West of San Pablo Ave. 

Pure Bred Holstefirs 

At present we are offering a fine lot of 
Young Bulls and Hellers at very at- 
tractive prices. All of this stock have 
large Advanced Registry Records in 
their pedigrees and are from the famous 
Riverside Premier Herd of the Pierce 
Land and Stock Co. now owned by the 

OAKWOOD STOCK FARM 

LATHROP, CAL. 



The Imported 
Belgian Stallion 



FOR SALE 

Desire de Saint Gerard 

Pedigree: 

) Bourgogne ) Hrln d'tjr 

Desire de St. Gerard! 7902 [ 7902 

(32008) l^ UV c|e"ard, e !. Mar,ede 

j 1«8» j Ooy' 1 ««' 
This fine Belgian Stallion was bred by Mr 
Martin Tirtlaux of Graux St. Gerard, France 
foaled February 12, 1902, and was imported by 
Dunham & Fletcher of Wayne, Illinois, .1 uly lb, 
1905. He Is a magnificent animal, deep bay In 
color, with star In forehead. Ills weight Is 220b 
pounds. 

For authenticated records, price, tei ms, etc., 
write to or call on 

M. M. AVELLAR, San Leandro. Cal. 



TULARE LAKE STOCK FARM. 

REGISTERED 

Jacks and Jennets For Sale. 

We breed the Best. Don't write— come and Mm. 
We can show you. 

JAS. W. McCORD, 
Hanford, Cal. 



GLIDE BROTHERS 

Successors to J. H. Glide It Moms 
Famous Blacow, Roberts, Glial* 
French Merino bheep. 

Glide Oradeseven-elghths French ana oi.e eighth 
Spanish Merino. Thoroughbred ShrcpshVeRami 
RAMS FOR SALE AT ALI TIMES 

P. O. Box Home Telephone 

297 Sacramento, Cal. Dixon, Cal. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 

JOHN LYNCH, breeder ol Uefc-lstered Short 
horns; milk strain. High .-lass stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 821. Petuluma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SAL K — S hor thorn ed 
Durhams. Address E.8. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



SWINE 



CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., NUes, Cal. 
Breeders of Thoroughbred Uerkshlrcs. 



GEO. C. ROE DINO, Freano. California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Hoars and Sows. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Hue. Co., Cal. lireeder 
of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 

BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS 
C. A. HTOWE, Stockton, Cal. 

GEO. V. BECK MAN, Lodl, San Joaquin Co. 
Cal. Registered Poland-Chln.t Hogs, both sexes 



O. A. MURPHY, Perkins, Cal. Breeder of Cham 
plou Herd of Berkshire! alst. Shorthcrus. 



74 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 2.1, 1909. 



((Uires. Good country-made sausage read- 
ily brings 15 to 18 cents per pound; lard 
about 14 to IK cents per pound. 

"After the hams and bacons have been 
smoked they will be ready for marketing 
about February. Last year country-cured 
hams were worth from 14 to 16 cents, ba- 
con 18 to 20 cents, and shoulders 10 to 12 
cents. There is no comparison of the com- 
mercially-cured products of the big pack- 
ers in the same class with the home-cured 
meats, and when people once get the op- 
portunity to buy country products they 
will always be patrons. 

"Now as to financial results. Take a 
hog weighing at home 200 pounds, on a 
basis of a 5-cent market live weight, its 



Horse Owners! Use 

aOMBAULI'S 

Caustic 




Balsam 



1 Bah, Hftrij, and Positive Can 

The safest. Best BLISTER ever used. Takes 
tbe place of all llnaments for mild or severe action. 
Kemoves all Bunches or Blemishes from Horses 
and Cattle. SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
OR FIRING. Impossible to product tear or blemish 

Every bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price SI .SO per bottle, Sold by drugfrlsts. or sent 
by express, charges paid, with full directions for 
Its use. Send for descriptive circulars, 
f UK LAWRENCE-WILLIAMS CO., Cleveland. O. 



THE 

OSBORNE RIYAL DISC 

Has never been surpassed 

As a Pulverizer 



Osborne 




A LINE OF WINNERS 

OSBORNE 
Klv al Disc Harrows 
Columbia Disc Harrows 
"Cotton King" Disc Harrows 
Peg Too'h Harrows 
Spring Tooth Harrows 
Sulky Spring Tooth Harrows 



A h ull and Complete Line of standard and 
Reliable Goods. 



Write I s for Catalogue of Kami imple- 
ments, Wagons and Vehicles. 

PACIFIC IMPLEMENT CO., 

133-153 Kansas St., San Francisco. 



The Fresno Scraper 




value is $10. If fat the hog loses about 
20% or 1 i pounds, leaving 1H0 pounds 
edible portion. Approximately, the dress- 
ing will be: Two hams, :!0 pounds; two 
shoulders, 24 pounds; 4 strips of bacon, 28 
pounds; spare ribs, head, feet, and back- 
bone, ;5o pounds; leaving about 4o pounds 
for sausage and lard. The meats to be 
smoked will increase about 10% in weight 
in the pickle, but lose about the same in 
smoking, so the selling weight is the same 
as the dressing weight. The following 
are very conservative prices for a country- 
dressed hog: Thirty pounds ham, at 14 
cents, $4.20; 2H pounds bacon, at 15 cents, 
$4.20; 24 pounds shoulders, at 9 cents, 
$2.16; 45 pounds lard or sausage, 121 
cents, $6.00; 3o pounds backbone, spare 
ribs, etc , at 6 cents, *2.10; soap fat, about 
25 cents; total, $18.51; cost of hog, $10; 
prolit, $8.51. 

NEVADA SHEEP INTERESTS. 

So many Californians have had, or will 
have pei haps, interests in Nevada sheep 
ranging that they will be pleased to read a 
spirited account oi a run through them 
described for the Kreeders' Gazette by 
Mr. W. ('. Harnes. 

The Ralston and Monitor deserts are 
the winter ranges of the stockmen and 
grand p aces they are for wintering with 
only one drawback— lack of water. De- 
pendence is placed wholly upon the snows 
for water either in the melting and con- 
sequent filling of the tanks and streams or 
else the snow itself. The feed they all de- 
pend upon is white sage and there were 
miles and miles of it well grown and pro- 
mising to the sheepmen especially, a most 
satisfactory winter range for the coming 
winter. 

Many of the large sheepmen come here 
from the extreme northern portion of 
the State to winter, the Kayser Live 
Stock Co. driving down some 25,000 head 
of sluep every winter. The distance from 
their summer ranges in the mountains ly- 
ing close to the boundary line between Ne- 
vada and Idaho to these winter ranges is 
about 250 or :j00 miles, and is, I believe, 
about as great a distance covered in mov- 
ing sheep from summer to winter ranges 
as I have ever heard of, and I feel sure is 
far and above any like movement any- 
where else in the West. 

The sheepmen of Nevada are well fixed 
for making these migrations. They use 
mules mostly for their pack trains and 
have experienced packers who do nothing 
but handle the pack outfits. They use 
the "basque" sheep herders almost entire- 
ly — "bascos," they are commonly called. 
They are of two types, one the French 
basques and the other Spanish or Portu- 
guese. They are stout, or swarthy men, 
very unlike in build and manner our 
southwestern Mexicans; many of them 
wear huge earrings and have a very 
brigandish apiiearance. Every sheepman 
I met spoke highly of their fidelity and 
perseverance in caring for their woolly 
charges. "They are born sheepherders," 
was the general remark, and unlike the 
Mexican are not liable to want to stop 
as soon as they have a few dollars coming 
to them, but instead have a most com- 
mendable desire to get along in the world 
and are regular misers in hanging onto 



their wages. Their one ambition is to 
own a herd for themselves and many of 
them are well-to-do sbeepowners in a few 
years after they begin life in this country. 

The Nevada ranches were a great de- 
light to me, for they were so well kept up 
and have such an air of progress and pros- 
perity about them. The lands are held in 
large bodies, some of them running into 
the thousands of acres of hay and farm 
lands. Pat Walsh, for instance, owns 
10,000 acres of hay lands along the Reese 
River, George Abell 12,000, the Lander 
County Live Stock Co. 0000 or 8000, and 
lots of others from 600 to 1000 acres. These 
holdings are not all in solid bodies but 
scattered along the rivers and streams 
where the land was available. These 
large buildings were accumulated when 
Nevada was given several million acres 
of lands many years ago and which it 
very improvidently set to work to squan- 
der by selling it out at $1.25 an acre. 
Most of it today is worth $75 and $100 an 
acre. The condition holds good all over 
the State, the Golconda Cattle Co., the 
Kayser Live Slock Co., the Sparks Kstate 
near Reno and a dozen more big outfits 
in the north end having immense bodies 
of splendid lands under their exclusive 
control. 



For Lame Horses 

For curb, splints, spavin, wind puffs, sprains or swell- 
ings of any kind, u«e Tuttle's Kllxlr. Results are 
quick and permanent. Tens of thousands of Carmen, 
the owners of great city stables, the race horse men, 
all swear by 

Tuttle's Elixir 

Best for colic, distemper and founder. Also makes 
the most effective leg and body wat*h. 

Only 130 cents a bottle at all deal- 
ers, keep Tuttle's Worm Towders, 
Condition Powders and Hoof Oint- 
ment on hand also. If not at your 
dealers, we'll ship by express. 

Valuable Veterinary Book Free. 
Write for a copy today. Full of 
Important pointers to every horse 
owner. A lCO-page illustrated 
guide free, but It Is worth dollars. 

Tuttle's Elixir Co. 
33 Beverly St., Boslon. Masi. 

Willis A. Shaw. Los Angeles, Cat. Agt. 



All Smashed 

Now Watch 

1908 Tubular Cream Separ- 
ators won crushing victories- 
smashed all records — reached 
an excellence impossible in 
other machines. 

Why? Because 29 years 
experience has taught us to 
build Tubulars on entirely dif- 
ferent, far more correct, im- 
mensely more practical me- 
chanical principles than other 
separators. Tubulars are pat- 
ented. 



Mend fur Kalsln Machinery Catalogue. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO CALIFORNIA. 

WANTED. 



\ Humane Society 



in a 
Dottle 



FROM ONE COW TO TWO HUN- 
DRED GOOD FIRST CLASS GRADE 
OR THOROUGHBRED JERSEYS. 

GEO. A. SMITH, Corcoran, Cal. 



sterling. Colo.. Oct 27, 11)07 
Dr. B. J. Kendall Co.. Ku.i.-hurK Falls, Vt. 

Gentlemen:— I could not (ret along without 
Kendall's Hpavln Cure. Think It Is the only 
remedy that does the work 1 n the same time In 
% hDtuane way. Yours respectfully, T. H. Bragtf. 

Kendall's Spavin Cure 

Cures Spavin, Ringbone, Curb, Splint, Sprain., 
■ II Lamen.s*. 

Invaluable liniment for man and beast, tt m 
■ettl.l 6 lor SS. At all drvik'trl^ta. Ask them 
for book, "Treatise on the Horse," orwrlte to 
Dr. B. J. Kendall Co.. too. burg Fall., Vt. 





29 
yrs 



Now watch the Tubular 
"A" for 1909. Has all the 

features of 1908 and some valu- 
able new ones. Our everlasting 
ironclad guaranty covers every 
one. 1909 Tubulars will win 
still greater victories. 

Catalog No. 131 shows con- 
struction and great advantage 
of every part. Get it— then get 
a Tubular. Better hurrah with 
your neighbor, now, for the 
Tubular, than envy his Tubu- 
lar later on. 

THE SHARPI ES SEPARATOR CO., 

West Chester, Peons. 

Chicago, III. Toronto. Can. Portland, Ore. 
San Francisco, Calif. 



As these lands cover practically every 
available acre of land that there is water 
to irrigate, or rather every drop of water 
available has been appropriated to irri- 
gate these lands, I do not see any very 
great opportunity for new men obtaining 
a foothold in Nevada unless some of these 
great holdings should be broken up ami 
put on the market in small parcels — a 
thing not likely under present conditions. 



Sale of January 26 Postponed to February 2 and 16 




SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



On account 
of rain 
and ttooiN 

horaes 
cannot be 
brought 
to 

San Francisco 
in time. 

Remember 
the new dates. 

E. Stewart 
& Co. 

S. E. Corner Tenth & 
Bryant Streets. 



BULLS BULLS BULLS 

SHORT - HORN BULLS 

75 head of high grade yearlings on hand. 
Prices Attractive. 

HOWARD CATTLE CO. 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Mention this paper. 



COMPARE PRICES AND RESULTS 

Analysis (from Bulletin KM, Jan. 1905— University of California.) 
DIGESTIBLE PROTEIN IN 

Linseed Oil Cake Meal 24.4 per cent Shorts 12.2 per cenl 

Cocoa Cake or Meal 26.4 " Mixed Feed 9.6 

Wheat Middlings 12.2 " Corn Meal 6.4 

Wheat 8MB 11.2 " Wheat Hay 3.6 
If you feed for Protein you get Results. 
Ask your jobber for prices or write 

PACIFIC OIL & LEAD WORKS. - - - SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 
PORTLAND LINSEED OIL WORKS. - - - PORTLAND. ORE. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



75 




DISTEMPER ALWAYS DANGEROUS 

Valuable horses fall easy victims to this often fatal disease. When It once 
breaks out it spares none. To prevent Its spread and cure the sick put a tea- 
spoonful of CRAFT'S DISTEMPER CURE in the feed or on the tongue once a day 
and your trouble will soon end. Get It from your druggist or we will send It 
prepaid, 60 cents and $1 a bottle. 

D. E. NEWELL, 56 Bayo Vista Ave., Oakland, Cal., Pacific Coast Agent. 



FITTED TO LESS 
THAN A HAIR'S BREADTH 

De Laval Cream Separators 

When you buy a DE LAVAL Cream Separator you buy mechan- 
ical perfection. You get the product of the greatest painstaking me- 
chanical skill and the finest of manufacturing tools. Of special note 
in this connection is the fact that the bearings and revolving parts of 
DE LAVAL machines are fitted to less than the one thousandth part 
of an inch, or, in other words, to about one-fifth the breadth of a 
human hair. Such a degree of exactness is invisible to the naked eye 
and can only be determined by the finest of gauges. It is neverthe- 
less the set standard to which all DE LAVAL spindles and bearings 
must be fitted. Any parts which do not come within this degree of 
accuracy are thrown aside by the DE LAVAL factory inspectors, and 
much material and many hours of work are sacrificed in this way an- 
nually. It is this very sacrifice, however, that makes the DE LAVAL 
cream separator so extremely durable and capable of lasting from 
fifteen to twenty-five years under the hardest of farm usage and of 
always doing easily the very best work under any and all conditions. 
It is the reason for their remarkable ease of operation and absolutely 
perfect working in every part. No other separator or farm imple- 
ment made today has anywhere near the care, time, or expense 
devoted to its manufacture that the DE LAVAL has. When you buy 
a DE LAVAL you get the best that money can possibly buy and skill 
can make in a cream separator way. Moreover, you pay less for it 
than for any would-be competing separator of similar actual capa- 
city. The DE LAVAL catalogue explains and illustrates these all- 
important points. It is to be had for the asking. Write today. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO. 

108 So. Los Angeles St. _ . '07 First Street 

los angeles General Offices: Portland, ore. 

42 E. Madison Street ir .. p. o+^ Q o+ 1016 Western Ave. 

CHICAGO 101 Drumm Street SEATTLE 

166 167 Broadway CAU FRANCISCO B0X 062 

NEW YORK VANCOUVER, B. C. 




THE EMPIRE 

Once more the Empire Cream Separator Co. comes to the 
front with a 1909 catalogue that is both beautiful in design 
and complete with descriptive matter. 

This catalogue should be in the home of every rancher who 
has two or more cows. It will help you to decide on a cream 
separator, and give you some interesting reading matter. 
Send us your address today and have this mailed you. 

We also have two sizes of Gasoline Engines which are 
being used for all kinds of light work. Every rancher who 
needs a gasoline engine should have one of our catalogues. 



EMPIRE CREAM SEPARATOR CO., Ltd. 
85 North Sixth St., Portland, Ore. 



CERTIFIED MILK. 



(Continued From Page 61 ) 

receive no compensation for their serv- 
ices and can have no pecuniary or com- 
mercial interests, either in the dairy it- 
self or its products. It was rightly re- 
garded that such an attitude would at 
once defeat the objects of the commission 
and destroy confidence in its work. The 
officers of the commission are a chairman 
and secretary. The secretary is perma- 
nent, while the chairman is elected at 
each meeting. Regular meetings are held 
every two months, with the dairymen and 
visiting veterinarian in attendance. At 
these meetings the reports of the visiting 
section, and from the experts of the com- 
mission, are read and discussed. The vis- 
iting section for the following two months 
is appointed, and the certificate for the 
current two months is issued. The chem- 
ist reports on the chemical findings of 
the milk, its temperature at time of re- 
ceipt, its reaction and specific gravity, the 
percentage of water and total solids, and 
the percentages of fat, lactose, albumen- 
oids and ash. The bacteriologist reports 
on the temperature of the milk at time of 
its receipt, the number of micro-organ- 
isms to the cubic centimeter, and com- 
ments on the findings. The visiting phy- 
sician reports on the number and dates 
of his visits and the general health and 
hygienic conditions of the employees, the 
water supply, etc. 

The visiting veterinarian reports on the 
number and dates of his visits, the phys- 
ical condition of the animals, treatment, 
and feed, sanitary conditions in and 
around the stable, the number of animals 
tested with tuberculin and animals react- 
ing to the test. 

The visiting section reports on the gen- 
eral conditions, relating to dairy stock, 
water supply, and the handling and ship- 
ment of the milk. This is the executive 
body of the commission. 

The experts are employed by the com- 
mission, but paid by the dairymen. It is 
interesting to note that the real beginning 
was made by a dairyman, who was willing 
to undertake these extra expenses and 
seemingly impossible conditions. 

The scope of the commission is profes- 
sional, and has reference solely to the 
production of milk for clinical purposes, 
and docs not certify to anything but milk. 

The real task of this movement was to 
devise a practical working scheme for 
medical control of milk production, and to 
Dr. Coit is due the credit for this scheme, 
which has been followed generally by 
other similar commissions. Few commis- 
sions, however, are as stringent as Dr. 
Coit's commission, although they follow 
very closely the excellent plans he de- 
vised. 

There are three possible methods of 
control over the milk supply, namely: the 
license without inspection of producers 
or distribution of milk; the official appli- 
cation of the municipal ordinance by 
boards of health; and the exercise of pro- 
fessional supervision by medical commis 
sioners. 

The functions of the medical milk com- 
mission are to analyze the relation of the 
milk question to public health, and to in- 
fluence its production in a state of abso- 
lute purity. 

The first commission organized otter 
Dr. Coit's was that controlling the Walk- 
er-Gordon Co.'s supply, of New York, 
which occurred some time later. In some 
cities, as New York aud Cincinnati, a 
"certified" milk and also an "inspected" 
milk is placed on the market. In Cincin 
nati the working standard placed the bac 
terial counts at 10,000 maximum for "cer 
titled," and 100,000 in summer, 60,000 in 
winter, for "inspected" milk. The other 
requirements adopted for "certified" milk 



were applicable to "inspected" milk. 

The idea of the medical milk commis- 
sion is not to undertake to certify the en- 
tire milk supply of a city, except in some 
exceptional instances, but to leave it to 
the board of health to provide a safe gen- 
eral supply of so-called "inspected" milk. 

The term "certified" was suggested by 
Dr. Coit to the first commission, and was 
employed to designate the kind of milk 
that they endorsed or certified to. As the 
organization of medical milk commissions 
throughout the country became more gen- 
eral, the American Association of Medical 
Milk Commissions was organized, and 
held its first annual session in Atlantic 
City in 1907, and in Chicago in 1908. 

There are several conditions which de- 
termine the value of milk for human 
food. First, the physical condition and 
health of the cow; second, its cleanliness 
and the cleanliness of the surroundings 
where it is produced; third, its composi- 
tion; and fourth, its taste, odor, color and 
general appearance. It is of little conse- 
quence to practice extreme cleanliness in 
all of the steps of milk production but 
one, and be filthy about that one, as this 
spoils the whole. Extreme care must be 
used from beginning to end in milk pro- 
duction to produce a pure article. No 
matter how careful all the other require- 
ments be met, if the cow producing the 
milk is not in good condition, you fail. 
She should be examined regularly as to 
her health, digestion and general condi- 
tion. Tuberculosis, skin disease, tumors 
and enlarged joints should send the cow 
to the hospital, not only from the stand- 
point of milk production, but because of 
the general danger to the rest of the herd. 

On many farms it is probably difficult 
to secure anything approaching absolute 
cleanliness of the stable, but most dairy- 
men can do better than they are doing. 
The only practical stable for the produc- 
tion of pure milk is one with the ceiling, 
walls and gutters tight and smooth, and 
the floors of cement. The feed should be 
handled in such a way as to make as 
little dust as possible, and only enough 
for one feeding brought in at one time. 
In fact, the best results are obtained 
where the feeding is done in a separate 
building, or after milking. 

Milk should not be allowed to stand in 
the barn at all after milking, as warm 
milk absorbs odors more readily than 
cold milk. No man can produce the fin- 
est quality of milk if he allows his pails 
of milk to stand in the barn some time 
after it has been drawn. The common 
practice is to deliver the milk from the 
milking pails to a larger one, or a number 
of pails standing conveniently to the milk- 
ers in the passage ways. If simple ex- 
posure to the stable ordors contaminates 
the milk, what then must be the effect of 
the dirt that clings to the cow's body and 
udder, and which may drop into the pail? 
Where best results have been obtained in 
making clean milk it has been found best 
to clip the long hairs from the udder and 
flanks of the cows, to groom them thor- 
oughly, and to wipe off these parts with a 
damp sterile cloth, often moistened with 
a disinfectant. 

The bacterial count, which is the bac- 
teriological determination of the number 
of bacteria in a cubic centimeter of milk, 
is the method by which the certification 
of the milk is mainly determined. While 
this method of estimating the best qual- 
ity of milk does not appear to be ideal to 
all interested parties, it is without doubt 
the best system we have at present, II 
has been proved conclusively thai even 
very small particles of dirt falling into 
milk from the cow's body increase the 
count very decidedly. At Cornell Univer- 
sity 500 c.c. of sterile milk was kept at 
room temperature, and a live fly placed 
in it. At the end of twenty-four hours 
the milk contained 765,000 bacteria per 



c.c, and in twenty-six hours the number 
had increased to over five million per c.c. 
Experiments conducted show conclusively 
the value of sponging the udder as a 
means of reducing bacterial contamina- 
tion. Paying special attention to clean- 
liness in every step of the production and 
care of milk will result not only in clean 
milk, but a marked reduction in the num- 
ber of bacteria it contains, which will 
greatly increase its keeping qualities. 
Certified milk of the Fairfield Dairy of 
New Jersey has been kept forty-five days 
without souring. To most people, who 
have trouble with their milk souring in 
twenty-four hours, this statement may 
seem incredulous, but it only shows the 
value of extreme cleanliness in producing 
aud handling milk. 

The seed ot i his movement for a pure 
milk supply was sown and fostered on 
this Coast by Dr. A. ft. Ward, bacteriolo- 
gist ami veterinarian ot the University 
of California. Dr. Ward is an authority 
of note on sanilary milk production, and 
it was not long after his arrival on the 
Coast to assume his duties at the Univer 
slty that he began sowing the seed that 



has brought about the production of certi- 
fied milk in California. The writer has 
the pleasure of a personal acquaintance 
with Dr. Ward, and has watched with 
pleasure these results from his good work. 

The movement for certified milk in 
California began to take form In 1904, 
through the efforts of the Oakland Home 
Club Milk Commission, which finally suc- 
ceeded in supplying certified milk to Oak- 
land from the Walnut Grove Dairy, then 
in the outskirts of the city, but now near 
Knightsen, some 60 miles from its point 
of delivery. This milk commission, like 
other commissions, is composed of physi 
cians, and has the endorsement of two 
local medical societies. Its work and re 
quirementS are similar lo those of other 
milk commissions. 

Since this beginning in Oakland, a num- 
ber of Other dailies are shipping certified 
milk to several of C lie large cities in the 
State. San Francisco is supplied by the 
Ideal Farms, in Marin county, the Stand 
aid Milk Co., and the Guadeloupe Dairy 
Co. of this city being the distributors. 
This milk is certified by the milk commis- 
sion of the San Francisco Medical Society. 



76 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 28, 190t, 



The Poultry Yard. 



HATCHING THE CHICKS. 

Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By M. R. Jamks. 

Again the peep of the chick is heard in 
the land. From Maine to Puget Sound 
and the Islands of the Sea millions of 
these little creatures will be breaking the 
shell during the next few weeks, and prac- 
tically all of these early comers will be 
brought out by the great foster chick- 
mother — the Incubator. 

Artificial incubation has made possible 
the winter egg and commercial poultry 
raising on a large scale, and, though not 
equal to natural incubators in individual 
cases, yet in a 1000-egg hatch, say, the 
results will compare favorably with those 
from that number of eggs incubated in 
the same length of time by hens as they 
come and go. Many of the shortcomings 
credited to the incubator rightly belong 
to faulty handling and faulty material. 
True, a good sitter might hatch out eggs 
which an incubator could not, but the lat- 
ter is often given eggs which would prova 
too much for the hen. The term "incu- 
bator eggs" has come to mean a rather 
inferior grade of hatching eggs, while 
rarely are the majority of eggs in an incu- 
bator as fresh as those average under the 
hen. Clearly, any difference should be 
in favor of the incubator, since the latter 
does not claim to beat the hen at her own 
job. In successful artificial hatching the 
following points are essential: 

1. A first-class machine in first-class 
condition. 

2. A suitable location, protected from 
varying extremes of temperature. 

3. Fresh, strong germed eggs. 

4. Regular and intelligent care. 

The Incubator. — There are a number 
of first-class machines on the market, and, 
while not unreasonable in price, none of 
these will come under the head of "cheap" 
incubators. A first-class machine cannot 
be cheap in that, sense, for it requires the 
best of material and workmanship in its 
construction — "more skill and better 
workmanship than does the construction 
of the fanning mill and threshing ma- 
chine." In the end such a machine will 
be cheap, while the co-called cheap ma- 
chine will prove exceedingly dear. There- 
fore be willing to pay a good price for a 
good standard incubator. One of the 
smaller sizes, somewhere about the 100- 
egg capacity, is best to start with. Set it 
up carefully according to accompanying 
directions. If these are not fully under- 
stood, get the assistance of an experienced 
person or carpenter. Be sure the machine 
is perfectly level and that it stands sol- 
idly upon Its legs; while the egg germ 
will sometimes survive quite a shake, a 
continual vibration and jarring is certain 
to prove disastrous. See that the lamp is 
in good order and free from smoke and 
dirt; if it has been used before, boil the 
burner in water with a spoonful of wash- 
ing soda or compound added. Always put 
in a fresh wick with each hatch, and have 
the wick perfectly even before putting the 
lamp in the machine. An uneven flame is 
sure to smoke and prove a dangerous and 
unsatisfactory heater. When the wtck 
has been made perfectly even, do not use 
the scissors in the daily trimming, but 
turn the wick so that just the charred 
portion comes above the edges of the 
burner, then with a sharp blade scrape it 
evenly across from both ways; wipe off 
the cinders with a soft cloth, also the 
lamp chimney. Use none but the best 
grade of oil. 

The Lo< ation. — This has an important 
bearing upon results. A basement that is 
dry, airy and clean is the best place, but 
lacking this, choose an unused room, pref- 



erably in the north side of the house, 
where the sun strikes only early in the 
morning and the temperature remains as 
even as possible. The room should be 
kept free from dust, fumes and smoke, 
and should be large enough so that the 
machine will be out of direct currents of 
air, drafts or the rays of the sun when 
the doors and windows are open. 

The Eggs. — These should never be over 
two weeks old, and one week or less would 
be far better. It goes without repeating 
that they should be from vigorous stock 
that are kept in prime breeding condition. 
The care of the eggs before incubation is 
also important. They should be gathered 
noon and night; hens are constantly occu- 
pying the nests in laying, and thus start 
incubation in the fertile eggs. Always 
handle hatching eggs with clean hands; 
endeavor to keep the eggs clean without 
washing, as the natural coating preserves 
their moisture. Set them away with the 
large end up in a cool, shaded place and 
cover with a clean thick cloth to prevent 
evaporation, and leave them undisturbed 
till wanted; the hasty daily turning will 
be more harm than benefit. It is a good 
plan to get from the grocer one or more 
of the cheap egg cases in which Eastern 
eggs are shipped, taking care that the 
fillers are clean. Bore holes in the sides 
for ventilation, and for the same purpose 
use, instead of the ordinary pasteboard 
between the fillers, squares of clean bur- 
lap, and a double thickness over the top; 
set the case in a cool place and the eggs 
will keep at their best. No rough shelled, 
ill shaped egg should be saved for hatch- 
ing, nor any that are abnormally large or 
small, or long or round. The natural 
shape is a beautiful pointed oval. Ac- 
cording to the breed, hatching eggs should 
be as nearly perfect as possible in size, 
shape and color. Put into the incubator 
tray as many eggs as it will hold with 
the eggs lying on the side, large end 
uppermost; but never crowd them by set- 
ting on end or piling on top of each other. 
It is not the number of eggs that you get 
into the machine, but the number of 
chicks you get out of it, that counts — you 
will be sure to get the fewer chicks by- 
crowding the eggs. 

The Care. — A good machine is easily 
cared for. It needs no sitting up nights 
with or fussing over — the less of this the 
better. Simply be regular in attention 
and quick and gentle in handling — don't 
slam the doors, jerk the trays and addle 
the eggs. The person who is quiet and 
gentle of movement succeeds best with 
poultry from start to finish. The incu- 
bator should have but one care-taker. That 
old saw about too many cooks applies 
more forcibly to hatching eggs than to 
broth. Decide upon a time to fill the lamp 
and turn the eggs; donf imagine that any- 
time in the 24 hours will do; this is the 
cause of the lamp's being forgotten — and 
often failure! Let nothing interfere with 
the time set for this work, and soon the 
subconscious mind will promptly warn 
you of its arrival, just as it does the per- 
son who always rises at a certain hour. 
For filling the lamps, the writer prefers 
the hour before dark; this brings the 
stronger heat when the lamp is freshly 
filled, trimmed and cleaned, at night when 
the temperature is lowest. When the eggs 
are taken out to cool, never leave them to 
attend to something else; stay with them 
— "lest we forget!" Full instructions 
come with each machine; hang them over 
the incubator, study them thoroughly, fol- 
low them carefully. Still, conditions will 
arise that call upon one's own intelligence 
for the solution, and some points can only 
be learned by experience. 

In regulating the machine at the start, 
do not consider it a waste of time and 
oil to let it run two or more days before 
putting in the eggs. See to it that the 



thermometer is in the center of the ma- 
chine, with the bulb two inches above the 
bottom of the egg tray. Not a few begin- 
ners have ruined their first hatch by lay- 
ing it upon the bottom of the tray, and 
when the mercury stands at 103 degrees 
in that location the temperature is some 
two degrees too high for the eggs. Also 
have your thermometer tested for accu- 
racy. It is better to start the hatch at 
102V1> degrees and let it run up to 103 
degrees the second week; at hatching time 
let it run to 104 degrees, and on no ac- 
count let it fall at this time, or the pro- 
cess will be checked and many peepers 
fail to arrive. When the machine is 
gauged to the correct temperature, do not 
change the regulator with the outside 
temperature, but raise or lower the flame 
of the lamp. About the thirteenth day 
there will be a sudden jump of the tem- 
perature, caused by the rise of the animal 
heat in the incubating eggs; at this time 
the machine will have to be again regu- 
lated to meet this condition; but it needs 
little tampering with at other times. Reg- 
ulating the flame of the lamp is something 
to be learned; never turn it high; warm 
up gradually; keep it where the damper 
over the chimney will remain steady about 
one-eighth of an inch above it; cold windy- 
weather requires a higher flame also the 
flame should be slightly higher at night. 
Always notice the lamp an hour or two 
before filling, lest the flame should run up, 
and the last thing before bedtime give it 
your attention. All these points require 
intelligence and practical judgment, and 
cannot be taught by instructions; they are 
the small things which make for success 
or failure. The same in handling the 
eggs; in close, hot weather the eggs may- 
be cooled for 30 minutes to advantage: 
in cold, raw weather turn quickly and 
replace the trays at once. Never let the 
trays set in the draft or the sunshine. 
When testing the eggs, cover the trays 
with a piece of soft blanket, and if slow 
at the job, test only part at a time; never 
let the eggs cool below 85 degrees. 

The evening of the 18th day, turn and 
cool the eggs for the last time; see that 
the thermometer is securely in place, 
where the chicks will not kick it over or 
obscure it, then close the incubator and do 
not open it again until the 21st day. Un- 
less the temperature has been run too low 
the chicks will be coming out lively on 
the evening of the 20th day, and all that 
are worth while will be out on the 21st 
day. On the latter day, take out the trays 
and eggshells and give the birdlings more 
room. If you want to try out any of the 
pipped eggs, wrap them in a soft thick 
flannel and put them in a warm basket 
under the stove. A delayed hatch is the 
sign of too low temperature; a shortened 
hatch and cripples, of too much heat. 
Ordinarily, the chicks should be left un- 
disturbed in the incubator, the slides 
open and temperature at 95 degrees on 
the bottom part of the machine, till the 
23rd day; but if at all crowded or the 
weather close and hot. the livelier ones 
should be removed on the 21st day to a 
darkened brooder of the same tempera- 
ture; it is likewise well to darken the 
incubator, in order that the chicks may 
remain quiet to finish their development. 



There is nothing prettier in nature than 
an incubator of chicks all of a kind, and 
the one who has brought them to a suc- 
cessful issue sees more in them than the 
resultant dollars and cents — they possess 
a real fascination which with each recur- 
ring springtime brings again to the heart 
the call of the chick. 



You Get the Most 
tor Your Money 

When buying "Quality S. C. White 
Leghorn" chicks from us at 10c. each, 
because we give you Free the "Chick 
Book" containing full instructions for 
raising them. Order 2tK) or more. 

RANCHO LOS ENCINAS 

R. F. D. 76. Glen Ellen. Cal. 



PETALUMA HATCHERY 

The leading varieties of chicks 
every week. 

L. W. CLARK, 

615 Main St.. Petaluma. Cal. 



POULTRY. 



Ht'FF ORPINGTONS— .Sullivan's famous butts 
excel all others. Eggs for hatching, stock for 
sale. Catalogue for the asking. W. SULLI- 
VAN, A Knew, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



PIT AND CORNISH INDI AN (iAMKH. O. L. 
Crane, R. F. O. No. 3, Santa Rosa, Cal. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



IIIQT HI IT Ooley s "Little Ked Hook 
JUiJ 1 "%J 1 No. 61." Free. Send postal 
(JEOROK H. CROLEY, 837 Brannan St., Han 
isco. POULTRY SUPPLIES. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS 

Established 36 Years. 
Importer and Brtedtrs of all Varitlies of Land and Wain 
Fowls 

Stock for Sale Dept. 81, 820 McAllister Bt., 8. F. 



COULSON'S SPECIAL 
CHICK FOOD 

makes them grow. Throw it in the litter and let them work for 
' . their feed. 

' • f\ It contains the best quality of 

-Zif-'j) z^.,, everything they require Tor first 

- . £D Klx wct ' ks ' «x«pt grit. 

FKEE SAMPLES AND PRUBS ON APPLICATION TO 

Coulson Poultry and Stock Food Co. 

PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA. 




Egg Cases 

OUR PRICES 

Heavy 36-doz. Cases and Fillers. ..$ .60 



Heavy 36-doz. Cases nailed 46 

Heavy .'ifi-doz. Shook and Irons... .40 
Heavy 30-doz. Cases and Fillers... .56 

Heavy 30-doz. Cases nailed 40 

Heavy 30-doz. Shook and Irons... .36 
Heavy 18-doz. Cases and Fillers... .40 

Heavy 18-doz. Cases nailed 30 

Heavy 18-doz. Shook and Irons... .25 

No. 1 Fillers, 10 sets per case 1.60 

Medium Fillers, 12 sets per case... 1.60 

No. 2 Fillers, 16 sets per case 1.50 

1 doz. Egg Cartons and Fillers, 
per 1000 7.00 

BOXES FOR HATCHING EGGS 

15 egg size, per doz 1.00 

30 egg size, per doz 1.75 



We also make a lull line ol paper 
boxes. Paper Baby Chick boxes; all 
kinds ol Fruit Boxes, Fruit Wrappers, 

etc. 

E. F. Adams 

364 Main St. Petaluma, Cal. 



January 23, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



77 



The Home Circle. 



The E'en Brings A' Hame. 

Upon the hills the wind is sharp and cold, 
The sweet young grasses wither on the 
wold, 

And we, O Lord, have wandered from Thy 
fold; 

But evening brings us home. 

Among the mists we stumbled and the 
rocks, 

Where the brown lichen whitens, and the 
fox 

Watches the straggler from the scattered 
flocks: 

But evening brings us home. 

The sharp thorns prick us and our tender 
feet 

Are cut and bleeding, and the lambs re- 
peat 

Their pitiful complaint: Oh, rest is sweet 
When evening brings us home. 

We have been wounded by the hunters' 
darts; 

Our eyes are heavy and our hearts 
Search for Thy coming. When the light 
departs 

At evening bring us home. 

The darkness gathers. Through the gloom 
no star 

Rises to guide us. We have wandered 
far — 

Without Thy lamp we know not where 
we are: 

At evening bring us home. 

The clouds are round us and the snow- 
drifts thicken. 

O Thou dear Shepherd, leave us not to 
sicken 

In the waste night; our tardy footsteps 
quicken: 

At evening bring us home. 

— Fraser's Magazine for January, 1865. 



The City Beau and Mike. 

Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Mary Russell James. 

Joseph was making long strides over 
the strip of bottom land that lay between 
his clearing and the Mills farm. The 
liveliness of his demeanor had gone into 
total eclipse, and his downcast eyes saw 
life through indigo tints. With the flush 
of health and manly beauty on the cheek, 
surely nothing short of a knot in the 
silken thread of love could bring such 
gloom to the brow at twenty-two! 

Anon he came out from the shadows of 
the forest and struck into an upland 
path which ended at the bars of a field 
not long reclaimed from the wilds. It 
was inclosed by a crooked rail fence and 
decorated with charred stumps, shocks of 
corn and piles of yellow pumpkins. The 
youth vaulted lightly over the bars and 
followed the wagon track which led to 
a log house with barn and corncribs in 
the rear. 

"Hello, Joe!" greeted a boy who was 
rolling a back-log into the woodshed. 

"Is he here?" asked the young man 
abruptly. 

"Dad? — no; he's gone to mill." 

"You know who I mean!" impatiently. 

"Oh, the counter-jumper. He hasn't 
shown up since Sunday night. I don't see 
why you mind him," continued the boy, 
as his companion moodily set to work 
helping with the firewood. 

"You would if the girl you cared for 
had gone daft over his city airs and the 
cut of his clothes." 

"I wouldn't care for no girl." 

"Oh, you'll whistle another tune in a 
few years." 

"Nary other. I hate the whole crowd 
of 'em; they're allurs making a feller 
trouble." 

Just then the kitchen door opened and 
n face looked forth that, was fair enough 
to drive away the blues from any red 
blooded youth. 

"Oh, it's you, Joey," said a merry voice 
which suited the sparkling face. "I'm 



just looking for someone to stir the mush. 
Come right in." 

The young man intinctively brightened 
under the smiles of the lady of his heart. 
He followed her into the house, where 
he was warmly welcomed by Mrs. Mills, 
who sat by a far window of the large liv- 
ing room, spinning wool for the winter's 
footgear. 

"I'm awful glad you come, Joey; for I 
hate to stir the mush; the fire burns my 
face," said the girl, as she seated him 
by the big kettle and handed him the 
mush stick. 

It was the days when corn was the 
bread staple, and mush and milk was de 
rigueur for the home supper in the rural 
districts of Illinois. Joseph was a fre- 
quent visitor at the evening board and 
had always felt pleased to be treated as 
one of the family — for did he not hope to 
be a bona fide member of it in the bliss- 
ful future? But tonight he stirred the 
bubbling mush gloomily and made no an- 
swer in kind to pretty Rhoda's gay sal- 
lies. He was thinking what a difference 
it made when it was Mr. Weeks, with an 
emphasis on the Mr. Did he but drop in 
to tea, presto! the mush bowls disap- 
peared and company viands took their 
place. 

"What makes you so glum?" the girl 
broke in upon his meditations as she 
playfully tapped him on the head with 
one of the spoons she was placing by 
the mush bowls. 

"Hi, sis," called Jim, popping his head 
in at the door, "your city beau is climb- 
ing over the bars." 

"Heavens, Mr. Weeks!" exclaimed 
Rhoda, after a quick glance out the win- 
dow. "Mother, do put away that yarn 
and make some biscuit while I get the 
chicken ready. Joe, please set the mush 
kettle in the shed — and do talk to Mr. 
Weeks while mother and I get supper 
ready — that's a dear." 

In spite of his sweetheart's coaxing 
tone, the young man was strongly dis- 
posed to decline the honor and to take his 
leave; but a sturdy persistence in his 
character which has left its impress on 
that section of the State to this day made 
him hold his ground, though he knew 
that an evening spent in company with 
his favored rival would be little short of 
torture. 

In the meantime Rhoda ushered in the 
new arrival, a clerkish appearing indi- 
vidual, much older than Joseph, and fault- 
lessly dressed in clothes which were the 
wonder of the rural district. The young 
hostess quickly excused herself, and the 
rival suitors were left to themselves. Jo- 
eph picked up one of Jim's school books 
and seemed intent upon knowledge, but 
he watched his rival out of the corner of 
his eye; he noted the smallish hands with 
a flashing ring on the little finger, and 
glanced down at his own brown, sinewy 
fists which could send a wedge to the 
heart of an oak log at one blow; he com- 
pared his homespun apparel with the 
store clothes of his companion — the crease 
down the center of the broadcloth pants, 
the snowy ruffled shirtfront — and the poor 
boy dimly felt what is a fact, though 
novelists love to dwell on the affinity that 
draws a youth and maiden together, that 
the fit of a collar, the cut of a pants leg 
often have more to do in deciding a girl's 
preference. It made his blood hot to 
see the man's eyes following the young 
girl's movements and dwelling with open 
admiration on the lovely color in her 
flushing cheeks. Naturally he was in no 
humor to return a civil reply to the occa- 
sional remarks addressed to him. 

"I judge you purpose being an agricul- 
turist, Joseph," said Mr. Weeks In the 
patronizing manner accorded a small boy. 

"I'm a farmer, sir— and what are you?" 
The youth flung out the question like a 
challenge. 



"I — I'm — " stammered the man, for an 
instant staggered by the question; then 
he regained his dignity and answered 
pompously: "I am engaged in the mer- 
cantile business." 

"Ah, I see— a clerk," scornfully. 

Mr. Weeks flushed and started to his 
feet. The announcement of supper pre- 
vented impending hostilities. 

"Joseph, my boy," said Mrs. Mills in 
her motherly way, "you will have to oc- 
cupy Mr. Mills' place tonight and say 
grace for us." 

As the young man took the seat at the 
foot of the table he glanced over the 
"spread" — wheaten biscuit, fried chicken, 
peach preserves, fragrant tea, all served 
in the best china on snowy linen — and he 
thought bitterly of the bowls of simple 
mush and milk which had been superceded. 
As he put his hand over his eyes some 
mischievous imp in his brain twisted the 
words of the conventional lines into this 
parody, which he expressed with all due 
gravity and reverence: 

"Good Lord, accept our grateful 
Thanks to Thee ascended, 
For now we see biscuit and tea 
Where mush-and-milk's intended."" 

There was a deep pause. Then Jim 
choked on a biscuit; Rhoda flashed a 
glance that scorched, and Mrs. Mills 
looked shocked. Only Mr. Mills arose 
to the occasion and led the conversation 
into distracting channels. Poor Joe re- 
alized that he had furnished the prover- 
bial straw to his own undoing. He sat 
miserably through the meal, ignored by 
Rhoda and sensible of a coolness in even 
Mrs. Mills' manner — she who had always 
been his staunch ally. As soon as pos- 
sible he took his hat and departed, leav- 
ing his rival scintillating with satisfac- 
tion and master of the situation. 

Jim followed his crestfallen friend out 
the door. 

"Say, Joe, that was a good one," and 
he gave him a resounding whack of ap- 
proval. 

"I made a fool of myself." 

"Shucks; it is the smartest thing you 
ever got off. You caught up with Rhoda 
all right. Don't let spindle-shanks worry 
you; we'll get away with him or my name 
isn't Jim." 

He threw his arm with boyish affection 
across his friend's shoulders and walked 
with him to the bars, his tow head close 
to Joe's crisp curls. 

Mr. Weeks impaoved his opportunity 
and made it convenient to run down from 
the city quite often, being, as he expressed 
it, "completely gone on the pretty lass 
and determined to cut out the country 
bumpkin." Poor Joe, after his faux pas 
at the supper table was no longer wel- 
comed at the Mills home, and outside 
of Paradise he beheld in impotent rage 
the serpent working his charms. 

On a lovely Sabbath morning in Octo- 
ber, Joe had started to church, having 
come far out of his direct way in order 
to pass the abode of his erstwhile sweet- 
heart on the chance of catching a glimpse 
of her face or form. He paused behind 
a big oak where he could overlook the 
Mills premises, and was rewarded by see- 
ing Rhoda coming toward the bars on her 
way to church. She was as sweet as a 
pink in a new fall bonnet and dress; but, 
alack, his rival was by her side — Mr. 
Weeks, immaculate in snowy ruffled shirt- 
front and shiny broadcloth, and capped 
by a tall beaver. He appeared in fine 
humor and jauntily flirted a red silk 
handkerchief as he walked. With solici- 
tous gallantry he helped Rhoda over every 
little inequality in their p;ith Khoda 
could skim over a twelve rail slake and 
rider fence almost with the ease of B bird. 
The young girl, too, tripped along gaily. 
She knew that she would make something 
of a sensation on entering the district 




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Large Land Sale 



The John Crouch Lands 



Situated in Colusa, Glenn, Butte and 
Lassen Counties. 



These lands were acquired by the late John 
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having its principal place of business at Chlco. 

That corporation now offers for sale these ex- 
tensive holdings. 

The agricultural lands In Butte and Glenn 
Counties are in the richest part of northern 
California and are all highly improved and will 
be sold In subdivisions to suit purchasers. 

The late John Crouch was extensively engaged 
in stock raising, devoting his attention to high 
class sheep and cattle. 

This sale offers the greatest advantages to 
persons desiring to purchase stock properties, 
which are now exceedingly scarce. 

The corporation owns In the foothills east of 
Chlco some 25,000 acres of land, all under fence 
and with ample barns and Improvement?. It Is 
the finest winter range In the Sacramento 
Valley. It would be sold as a whole or cut up, as 
It can well be naturally, Into three ranges. 

It offers a tract ol some 3,600 acres In Glenn 
and Colusa Counties, extending for a number of 
miles along Butte Creek, Including the rich bot- 
tom lands of that stream, upon which feed of all 
kinds grows luxuriantly. This place would 
make a magnificent stock ranch. 

it also offers large tracts of land In Glenn 
County a little northeast of Butte City, fenced 
and Improved, which could be most admirably 
utilized for stock purposes and other rich lands 
In the same vicinity for agricultural purposes. 
They would be sold separately or as a whole. 

The properties offered include the celebrated 
Bowers Ranch on the Sacramento River In Hutte 
County, composed of the richest river bottom 
agricultural land and upon which alfalfa grows 
most luxuriantly. This ranch Is Improved with 
a line residence, many barns, good fences and Is 
the best high class stock and agricultural ranch 
for sale along the Sacramento River. The soil Is 
adapted not only to alfalfa, but to beets and all 
the grains. 

The Home Ranch of the late Mr. Crouch, near 
Chlco, 1b so well known as not to require any 
description. It will be mostly sold In Bmall 
subdivisions. It can be Irrigated by a ditch 
from Hutte creek, carrying 600 Inches of water. 

The corporation offers also one of the finest 
mountain ranches In the Sierra Nevadas— the 
Crouch lands In Mountain Meadows, comprising 
some 15,000 acres, and upon which an enormous 
tonnage of hay can be cut. This property Is 
also highly Improved with barns conveniently 
located for the storage of hay for winter pur- 
poses. It Is sulliclently timbered to make It 
attractive from that point of view and possesses 
great value for the storage of water thereon 
for power purposes. The Feather River runs 
through It and the typography of the ground 
ad mlts ol great reservoir sites. 

Purchasers desiring Information about any of 
these properties, or to examine the mmc, will 
apply to the undersigned personally, or by 
letter, at the Hank of Hutte County In Chlco, 
California. 

JOHN R. ROBINSON. 
President John Cronch Land Company. 



PATENTS 

While for our Guide to Inventors, sent 
free on request; containing nearly 100 me- 
chanical movements and full In format Ion 
about Patents, Caveats, Trademarks, and 
Infringements. 

DBWBY, STRONG A Co., 
1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg , San- 
Francisco. Established I860. 



78 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 23, 1908. 



schoolhouse where services were held, 
for want of a church edifice. The coun- 
try boys hadn't the nerve to escort the 
girls to church, but hung around sheep- 
ishly at the close of the services and fell 
in behind the old folks for the privilege 
of walking home with their daughters. 
Her city beau would give them a lesson 
in courage and gallantry. 

Mr. Weeks had assisted Rhoda across 
a rut and forgotten to release her hand. 
His waxed mustache was much too near 
the girl's pink cheek, and the youth be- 
hind the tree had to bury his nails into 
the rugged bark to keep from rushing 
upon his presumptuous rival and smash- 
ing his plug hat over his eyes. 

Said rival was talking earnestly into 
the pink ear: "You ask me if I love the 
country. To be frank, I had not formerly 
done so. I was born a child of the city, 
and my heart was not attuned to love; but 
you have opened it to that gentle influ- 
ence. Yes, I love the country — its rugged 
wilds and cultivated fields, the song of its 
native birds and the music of its do- 



Through 
Tropic 
Climes 



ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP LINES 
New Orleans-New York Service 



In connection with the Sunset 
Route, between San Francisco- 
Los Angeles, and New Orleans. 

Largest American coastwise 
steamers. 

Elaborately furnished state- 
rooms. 

Electric lighted throughout. 

Perfect dining service. 

First Cabin, $35.00. 
Round Trip, $60.00. 
Second Cabin, $27.50. 

Includes berth and meals en 



route. 



SEE AGENTS 



Southern Pacific 



0T[ QQ Dresses A Man 

m& I _ mm MM lot r N e trill W | y .„, the following : 
W ■ ■ *m »aV one Fancy Worsted Blue op Blark Tliibrt 
bnrs of Clothe* (state color*, oue Merino Suit of Underwear, one 
pair of Best Socks, one Fancy Sunday shirt, one collar, »ne beauti- 
ful tie, one strong pair of Suspenders, one pair of rt,,nga $5.00 
shoas. Send no money. We will shin you all <>f th*>e goods to 
your city with the privilege of seeing them before pay lag one cent, 
and if not found in every way as represented and what your honte 
dealer would charge I'Jf'.lo, return them to OJ and we will pay 
all charges Mir. huiif. Our 

One Fancy Wnmod or Thlhet Salt Price Pric e 

of Clothes, •tale color wanted (12.00 »r,.t!K 

one MerlDo Suit of I'nderwear i.so .!S8 

tiood Pair of Soc*« .35 .07 

<.;xjd Sunday Shirt 1.00 .37 

Itest Collar .15 .01 

Beautiful Tic .85 .12 

Strung Pair of Suspenders .85 .14 

Pair of Donga M.OO Shoes _gr..0U M 

«E;o ~~ tTn 

* rt-lsjht paid if toll ainuunt nf cash is sent with the order to 
any city In the Catted states We have 1,000,000 of the alnve 
twirgau, lot, v.1.h li we 1 ■ 1 t.-u |K>sitive will not last more 
than *> day.; Order today. 

Fre- Clothing_»nd Dry Goods Catalogue, Grocery Liat. Etc. 
DEERIN6 MERCANTILE CO., SO Wabash Are , Chicago 
Department 380. 



mestic fowl and lowing kine; but most of 

all I love " 

As he paused to add impressiveness to 
his climax an ominous sound made him 
glance over his shoulder — when, shades 
of Sheol! what vampire was this on his 
trail! A terrible creature, bird or beast, 
with red eyes and wide hissing mouth, 
was swooping down upon him. Never in 
his worst nightmare had he been so beset; 
he had only a silken handkerchief with 
which to defend himself; his clothes 
would not admit of a hand to-hand strug- 
gle with the brute; his only hope was in 
flight. 

"Gracious on us, it's Mike!" exclaimed 
the girl. "Cut for the fence, Mr. Weeks." 

Mike was an old gander of enormous 
size, who had been teased by the boys till 
he was a terror. It was not safe for a 
strange person or dog to enter the prem- 
ises when the creature was loose, and 
even Rhoda was afraid of him. She flew 
across the clods and was on the fence in 
a trice. But her companion stood with 
bulging eyes and open mouth as if rooted 
to the spot, while Mike, with widespread 
wings and fearful hissings and gabblings 
bore down upon him. 

"Run. Mr. Weeks, run!" cried Rhoda. 
"Mike will pound and bite you black and 
blue." 

Thus stimulated, the clerk started to 
run — but too late. The gander caught 
him by the seat of his pants and gave 
him a blow with its wings that almost 
stunned him. 

"Kick him — throw your hat at him!" 
houted Rhoda. 

It was no time to consider the cost of 
his new beaver; he grabbed it from his 
head and jammed it down over the hiss- 
ing, biting fiend in his rear. 

Ha, a diversion! Mike seized it; he 
flew upon it; he demolished it; then he 
looked for the man. Had he escaped? No; 
in his haste and his unfamiliarity with 
rail fences he had been caught by a tough 
splinter of the hickory rails and held 
fast. Mike eyed him and measured the 
distance. Yes. he could reach up and 
tickle his toes and make a fringe of his 
shining pants legs. His victim kicked at 
him frantically and shouted for help. 
Rhoda, too, called loudly for Jim, and 
endeavored to assist her unfortunate es- 
cort. 

Behind the tree, Joe was enjoying the 
situation too well to hasten to the rescue. 
But he finally got his face straight, and a 
few bounds brought him to the seat of 
trouble. He jumped across Mike's back 
and choked him — but almost tenderly — 
till he let go of his victim. Just then 
Jim, too, appeared with a rope to lead the 
bird back to his pen. 

"This is some of your work, Jim, let 
ting Mike out!" cried Rhoda, with flam- 
ing cheeks. "I'll make pa kill your pet 
this very week." 

"Of course, everything is allurs laid to 
me," grumbled the boy, trying to hide a 
broad grin; but when he was well out of 
sight he rolled on the grass and laughed 
till his face was like a beet. 

In the sorry plight of his rival, Joe 
could afford to be magnanimous. He 
helped him out of his predicament, picked 
up his dilapidated beaver and wiped the 
dust from it, and even offered to assist 
him to the house. But the offer was de 
dined with hauteur. 

Battered, dusty and hatless, with torn 
and fringed trousers, Mr. Weeks limped 
back to the farmhouse, where he had an 
opportunity to meditate upon the transi 
tory nature of human joys while the la- 
dles endeavored to restore somewhat of 
his pristine elegante of fashion and form. 
Meantime he was compelled to occupy a 
pair of Mr. Mills' pants— or a portion of 
them, to be more exaet, for he was able to 
fill only half of their generous propor 
tions. Though Rhoda tried hard to keep 



a serious and sympathetic countenance, 
the laughter would flash into her eyes 
and play about her mouth every time she 
looked at him. A more generous nature 
might have excused her mirth, but the 
man felt deeply injured and resentful and 
not open to generous impulses; and he 
mentally vowed to shake the country dust 
from his feet as soon as he could get it 
off his clothes. Perhaps he divined the 
fact that in the eyes of the young girl it 
is fatal to a suitor's chances to be placed 
in a ridiculous position. In any case, the 
glories of the city beau faded from Rho- 
da's horizon and the rose color returned 
to Joseph's sky. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Jan. 20, 1909. 
(Unless otherwise noted, quotations rep- 
resent prices paid to the growers.) 

WHEAT. 

Wheat is considerably higher in the 
Eastern markets, and Northern markets 
are very firm. No further change has 
taken place locally, as the buying inter- 
ests show no inclination to make pur- 
chases beyond their immediate needs at 
the present range of values. There is lit- 
tle business to report, either on the cash 
grain or in futures. All prices are held 
witli great firmness, on the probability of 
a scarcity in the domestic markets. 
California White Australian. II. 75 ©1.85 

California Club 1.67 %@ 1.70 

California Milling 1.70 @1.72% 

California lower grades ... 1.45 @1.60 

Northern Club 1.67%@1.70 

Northern Bluestem 1.75 @1.80 

Northern Red 1.62>4@1.65 

Turkey Red 1.75 @1.80 

BARLEY. 

The feed market shows some fluctuation, 
standing at present slightly lower than 
last week. Receipts have been light, and 
it is understood that stocks will be no 
more than sufficient to last until the next 
crop, but with limited trading the market 
shows little strength. The shipping move- 
ment from this port is about over for the 
season. Prices for brewing and shipping 
grades are steady as last quoted. 

Brewing $1.45 ®1.52% 

Shipping 1.45 ©1.52% 

Chevalier 1.57%©1.62% 

Good to choice Eeed, per ctl. 1.40 @ 1.43 % 

Common Feed 1.35 ©1.38*. 

OATS. 

No demand of any consequence has yet 
appeared, and the movement is practically 
nothing. The Northern market is In the 
same condition, tile high prices tending to 
limit tlie demand in all quarters. With 
very light supplies, however, everything is 
in a strong position, and holders are firmly 
maintaining prices at the advance quoted 
last week. Ked seed is a little higher. 

Choice White, per ctl $1.77%©1.85 

Gray 1.77 HQ 1-86 

Bed, seed 1.80 ©1.90 

Feed 1.67% ©1.75 

Black, seed 2.30 ©2.50 

Feed 1.50 ©1.55 

CORN. 

This grain shows absolutely no feature, 
California grades remaining entirely nom- 
inal, and Eastern lines being a little bet- 
ter. There have been no recent arrivals 
of any consequence, and local buyers are 
taking little interest In the market. Prices 
are as last quoted. 

Western State Yellow $1.60 OJ) 1.85 

Mixed, in bulk 1.47 

White, in bulk 1.51 

RYE. 

Scarcely any of tills grain is now offered 
in this market, and some inquiry on the 
part of buyers during the past week has 
brought an advance. Nothing is now to 
be had below $1.65, and some sales have 
been made as high as $1.70. As supplies 
are still needed, there is some expectation 
of a further advance. 

Rye $1.65 01.70 

BEANS. 

During the last week no further activity 
lias developed In the bean market, and In- 
quiries are of small volume. Prices show 
comparatively little change, the only fea- 
ture worthy of special notice being the de- 
cline in limas. The weakness which has 
been developing In this variety for several 
weeks past has become very decided, and 
the market in the south has dropped about 
7% cents. Some Inquiry for mixed car- 
loads is reported, and altogether the local 
market is in a satisfactory condition, the 
stocks being limited and prices strongly 
held on most descriptions. Many buyers 
are apparently holding back their orders 
pending the outcome of the freight rate 
discusstOlw Local dealers believe that a 
heavy demand will open up in the spring. 

Bayos, per ctl $3.10 3.20 

Blackeyes 3.00 (fi)3.20 

Cranberry Beans 2.85 02.96 

Garvan/.os 2.00 04.00 

Horse Beans 1.50 fii 2.00 

Small Whites 4.50 (ij-4.75 

Large White 3.65 ©3.85 

Limas 4.00 

Pea 4.50 ©4.75 

Pink 2.4 5 02.60 

Red 3.85 ro-4.25 

Ked Kidneys 3.40 03.50 

SEEDS. 

The heavy rains have given little oppor- 
tunity for seeding, and the market so far 
lias not developed much activity. A heavy 
demand is expected, however, within the 
next few weeks, and more business is 



passing at present than at the first of the 
month. Dealers are well supplied with 
all varieties, and hold prices firmly as for- 
merly quoted. 

Alfalfa, per lb 17 018 c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $20.00® 25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 3* 4 c 

Canary 4i^e 

Flaxseed 2% 3 c 

Hemp 4%c 

Millet 2*4® 3»4c 

Timothy Nominal 

Yellow Mustard Nominal 

FLOUR 

No further change In values Is reported. 
The business here is about up to the aver- 
age, with some slight shipping movement, 
though the local demand has ben small 
since the first of the year. Somewhat more 
activity is expected during the next month. 

Cal. Family Extras $5.80 @6.40 

Bakers' Extras 5.80 6.05 

Superfine 4.60 04.90 

Oregon and Washington, 

Family 4.50 @4.75 

HAY. 

The arrivals of hay have been about 
the same as last week, and market condi- 
tions in general show little change. The 
heavy rains which have fallen throughout 
the State have practically assured plenty 
of green feed at an early date, and grow- 
ers are confident of a heavy crop next 
season. Comparatively little hay acreage 
is believed to have been flooded. While 
rail traffic is tied up, the receipts in this 
market are not apparently affected. Al- 
falfa is still very firm, and supplies are 
likely to be short for some time, as most 
of the supplies of late have ben brought 
in from northern California and Nevada. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $21.00023.50 

Other Grades Wheat 17.00@21.00 

Wheat and Oat 16.00021.50 

Tame Oat 16.000 21. 00 

Wild Oat 15.00017.00 

Alfalfa 14.50018.50 

Stock 12.00014.00 

Straw, per bale 50® 85c 

MILLSTUFFS. 

Another lot of bran has come in from 
the Orient, and supplies on hand here, 
while not excessive, are quite sufficient 
for all present demands. As the green 
feed Is now coming on, some decrease in 
the demand may be expected, but with 
production limited both here and in the 
North, no immediate change in prices is 
expected. Aside from a slight decline in 
broomcorn feed, there is no change in 
miscellaneous feedstuffs. 

Alfalfa meal, per ton $23.00024.00 

Bran, ton — 

White 29.50030.00 

Red 28.50® 29.00 

Broom Corn Feed, per ctl 1.15 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills 25.50026.50 

Corn Meal 37.00038.00 

Cracked Corn 38.00@39.00 

Mealfalfa 23.000 24.00 

Middlings 33.50035.50 

Mixed Feeds 28.00@32.0O 

Oil Cake Meal, per ton 38.00039.50 

Boiled Barley 27.50@30.OO 

Shorts 33.00033.50 

VEGETABLES. 

Onions again show a decided advance, 
everything being quoted at least 50 cents 
higher than last week. The demand is 
about average, and stock is decidedly 
scarce, a little arriving from the north 
this week. Mushrooms contnue a feature 
of the market, the supply being excessive, 
and while 25 to 40 cents a box is quoted 
sales are made practically at buyers' 
prices. Arrivals of green peas are large 
and prices show no Improvement, though 
string beans and green peppers are a little 
higher. Tomatoes are firm at a slight 
advance, though the market Is well sup- 
plied with Mexican stock. Egg plant Is 
lower. 

Onions $ 1.750 2.00 

Garlic, per lb 80 10c 

String Beans, per lb 150 17 Vic 

Green Peas, per lb 6® 8c 

Cabbage, per ctl $1.00 

Marrowfat Squash, per ton.. 20.00025.00 

Tomatoes, crate 1.250 1.50 

Bell Peppers, lb 150 20c 

Chili Peppers, lb 8© 10c 

Egg Plant, lb 15® 20c 

Cauliflower, doz 65c 

Celery, dozen 40 00c 

Rhubarb, box 1.25© 2.00 

POULTRY. 
During the early part of the week the 
market has been practically bare of East- 
ern stock, shipments being delayed by 
washouts on the railroad. Supplies of 
California poultry have likewise been 
small. While the demand has only been 
of usual proportions, It Is In excess of the 
present supply, and prices show an ad- 
vance all along the line, with all offerings 
readily taken. Considerable reduction may 
be expected when the belated arrivals 
come in. Few turkeys are appearing and 
offerings command somewhat higher prices 
than last week. 

Broilers $ 5.00® 5.50 

Small Broilers 4.50® 5.00 

Fryers 6.00® 7.00 

Hens, extra 7.00© 9.00 

Hens, per doz 5.50© 6.50 

Small Hens 5 000 S.R'i 

Old Boosters 4.00© 5.00 

Young Roosters 7.00® 8.00 

Young Boosters, full grown.. 8.00 010.00 

Pigeons 1.000 1.25 

Squabs 2.00& 3.00 

Ducks 5.OO0T 9.00 

GeetM 2.000 :!.oo 

Turkeys, live, per lb 190 21c 

Turkeys, dressed. p*-r lb 22*1 '-'"•« 

BUTTEK. 

Willi unfavorable weather, buying has 
been restricted to immediate nr-s-ds. but 
shipments have been held hack and the 
market Is very scantily supplied. The 
price of extras has been steadily advanc- 
ing, standing at 39 cents. All grades are 
decidedly firm, firsts being 1 cent higher, 
and local storage '/4 cent. 
California (extras), per lb.... 39 c 

Firsts 33 c 



January 23, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Seconds 21 c 

Storage Ladles, extra 23 c 

Cal. Storage, extras 31 c 

EGGS. 

Eggs have been scarce most of the week 
and prices have stood above the last quo- 
tation, but liberal arrivals in the last few 
days have brought about an abrupt de- 
cline in extras, for which the demand is 
limited. The price has dropped 5 cents in 
two days. The range of prices on fresh 
stock is very narrow, an advance of the 
lower grades bringing thirds within 2 
cents of extras. There is plenty of demand 
for Eastern storage, but scarcely any on 
the market. 

California (extras), per doz... 42%c 

Firsts 42 c 

Seconds 41 c 

Thirds 40 c 

Fresh Cal. Pullets 40 c 

CHEESE. 

Business on cheese has been rather lim- 
ited this week, and while receipts are not 
excessive there is plenty of stock on hand 
in most lines. California flats, both fresh 
and storage, are weak, though Oregon 
stock is steady to firm. New California 
Y. A.'s are higher. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb. 14 c 

Firsts 13y 2 c 

New Young Americas, fancy.. 16V2C 

Oregon Flats 14 c 

Oregon Y. A 16 c 

Storage, Cal. Flats 13 c 

N. Y. Cheddars 17 c 

Storage, Oregon, Flats 14 c 

POTATOES.' 

Heavy buying on speculation and a good 
demand for seed stock are the features 
this week. The likelihood of damange to 
the crop along the river has caused a 
strong demand, which, combined with an 
immediate scarcity of Oregon goods, causes 
all offerings to be taken promptly at a 
sharp advance. -Speculators are cautious 
about buying Oregon goods for future de- 
livery, as it is feared that the stock has 
suffered from the cold weather, and ar- 
rivals from tlie north are very light. The 
outlook is for continued high prices for 
both California and Oregon stock. 

River Whites, fancy, ctl $ 1.10® 1.25 

Lompoc Burbanks, ctl 1.60@ 1.70 

Oregon Burbanks, ctl 1.25 @ 1.50 

Earlv Rose 1.G5 

Sweet Potatoes, ctl 1.25® 1.75 

FRESH FRUITS. 

There is nothing now offering in this 
market except apples and pears. Choice 
Oregon apples are now firmer and in fair 
demand. Pears are also higher, as nothing 
is now offered but cold-storage stock. 
Trading as a rule is confined to narrow 
limits. 

Apples, fancy $ 1.00® 1.75 

Apples, common 50® 75c 

Pears, box, Winter Nelis 1.25® 1.75 

Other varieties 50 @ 75c 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

The weather for the last week has been 
highly unfavorable for trading in the fruit 
line, and while there was a fair demand 
to replenish depleted stocks at the begin- 
ning of 'of the week, business most of the 
time has been of very small proportions. 
Arrivals of oranges have been very small 
all week and supplies are by no means 
burdensome, but with the small movement 
supplies are quite sufficient. Fancy lemons 
are considerably lower, and a reduction 
has also been made in the lower grades of 
oranges and grape fruit. Tangerines are 
higher. 

Choice Lemons $2.00® 2.50 

Fancy Lemons 2.75® 3.00 

Standard 1.25® 1.50 

Limes 4.00® 5.00 

Oranges — 

Fancy Navels 2.00® 2.50 

Choice 1-^0® 2.00 

Standard 1.25® 1.50 

Tangerines 1.25® 1.75 

Grape Fruit 3.00® 3.50 

DRIED FRUITS. 

The dried fruit market continues in the 
same uninteresting condition that has pre- 
vailed for some time. Buyers are showing 
little interest in general offerings, either 
here or in the East. Good offerings of 
apricots can be moved, but very few are 
being marketed. Some inquiry for prunes 
has been received, and there is a moderate 
movement for the Eastern markets, but 
buyers as a rule are slow to take hold. 
The local packers are asking somewhat 
lower prices for nearly all varieties of 
fruits The prices asked for raisins show 
some changes, the tendency being down- 
ward, as the market is in a very unsettled 
condition. The announcement in the East 
of the latest developments in regard to the 
pool have caused buyers to hold off even 
more than before, and hardly anything is 
moving. The packers here, however, look 
for larger demands for both fruits and 
raisins next month, as stocks in the East 
are limited in nearly all lines. Small lots 
are moving out of the hands of growers 
in various parts of the country, the prices 
paid being about the same as before. 

Evaporated Apples 4® 5c 

Figs, black }@ ,f 

Fils. white \® 2V2C 

Apricots „J@ ,10c 

Peaches 2%j@ 3%c 

Prunes, 4-size basis 2%c base 

Pears 2%® 6c 

RAISINS. 

Loose Muscatels, 4 crown Vif C - 

3 crown 13/ 

2 crown J J*" 

Thompson Seedless % h . 

Seedless Sultanas z c 

London Layers, 3 crown '"<' 

NUTS. 

While no great demand has arisen in the 
East, stocks of almonds are very closely 
cleaned up. offerings from growers in this 
market being rare. Stocks of nonpareils 
are practically exhausted on the coast and 



very little is held in the East. Prices for 
shipment accordingly show a little more 
firmness, though prices to growers are 
about as before. Walnuts show no new 
feature. The quotations on almonds are 
practically nominal, as very few are of- 
fered. 

Almonds, Nonpareils 10 c 

IXL 9%c 

Ne Plus Ultra 9 c 

Drakes 8 c 

Languedoc 7 c 

WALNUTS. 

Softshell, No. 1 9y 2 c 

Softshell, No. 2 6 c 

HONEY. 

Several carloads of honey have been 
moved from the San Joaquin valley api- 
aries this month, but offerings have been 
comparatively few and small. The local 
market is dull and somewhat lower prices 
are being asked for comb, with little in- 
terest on the part of buyers. For good 
offerings the packers are paying about the 
following prices, but hardly any of the 
upper grades is to be had. 

Comb, lb 10 @13 c 

Water White, extracted 7 , ,4c 

White «V4@ 6 3 ic 

Light Amber 5 @ 5%c 

Dark Amber 4$iC 

HOPS. 

Several small sales of Mendocino hops 
were made during the week, the price on 
most lots ranging about 5 cents. Good lots, 
however, are still firmly held and some 
contracts are being made at 10 cents. 
Stocks in general are light. 

Hops, per lb 5® 10c 

WOOL. 

Wool is decidedly firm at the prices that 
have prevailed for some time, but the 
movement is of small proportions, as most 
of the California wool has been sold. The 
Eastern market is inactive at present, but 
it is reported that contracts are being 
made in Idaho and Nevada at rather high 
prices. 

Red Bluff (f. o. b. Red Bluff) 

free 6 @ 7%c 

Defective less 2 c 

San Joaquin (at S. F.) free.... 5 @ 7%c 

Defective 4 @5 c 

Mendocino, free 7 @9 c 

Defective 5 @7 c 

MEAT. 

The advance continues, both on dressed 
meats and livestock, prices on beef, veal 
and lamb being considerably higher than 
last week. This is attributed partly to 
the interruption of railroad traffic, which 
has shut off supplies from the northern 
part of the State and Nevada. 

Beef: Steers, per lb 7%@ 8M>c 

Cows 6%@ 71/2C 

Heifers 6%@ 7%c 

Veal: Large 9 @ 9V 2 c 

Small 9%@10%c 

Mutton: Wethers 10 @11 c 

Ewes 9 @10 c 

Lambs 12 @12>/ 2 c 

Spring Lamb 13 @15 c 

Hogs, dressed 8%@10 c 

LIVESTOCK. 

Steers, No. 1 4%@ 4%c 

No. 2 4 ® 4 Vic 

Cows and Heifers, No. 1 3 V2 @ 3%c 

No. 2 3 %c 

Bulls and Stags 2 @ 2Vic 

Calves, Light 5 c 

Medium 4y 2 c 

Heavy 4 c 

Sheep, Wethers 4y 2 c 

Ewes 4 c 

Lambs, lb 5 Vi @ 5%c 

Hogs. 100 to 150 lbs 5%@ 6 c 

150 to 250 lbs 6 @ 6 Vic 

250 to 325 lbs 5 Vi @ 5%c 

Boars, 50 per cent; stags, 30 to 40 per 
cent, and sows, 10 to 20 per cent off from 
above quotations. 



SPECIAL CITRUS MARKET 
REPORT. 



Los Angeles, Cal., Jan. 19.— Oranges are 
getting to be very valuable property 
again, not so much that conditions east 
are extra favorable at this writing, but 
because so many speculative buyers are 
In the field paying good prices by the 
pound or by the lump in the orchard. It 
is predicted that this will be one of the 
biggest speculative years in the history of 
the fruit business. Buyers are in at al 
most every point, and they are paying 
from $1.50 to $2 a hundred, a price not 
warranted by the market conditions in 
the East at the present time, though 
present, conditions at this end would 
seem to guarantee very good prices for 
oranges. The shipments have eased down 
from 90 cars a day for the week ending 
January 9 to an average of 50 cars a day 
for the week just passed. The rains were 
the main cause of this slacking tip in 
shipments, and they came just in the 
right time. Beginning with Tuesday (to- 
day), the output will no doubt increase, 
as picking has begun in every district. 

The lemon crop is going to be large. 
The lemon crop is going to be small. Take 
your choice. There are many prominent 
growers and shippers lined up on both 
sides of the question. One man who has 



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meet every requirement of partic- 
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best material obtainable, they are 
strong and lasting. KENTUCKY 
Conical Disc Hearings are unique. 
Of fairly large diameter, they are 
narrow, giving greatest clearance 
between discs. Dust proof, oil retaining and adjustable: Over 2500 
in use, giving perfect service, have demonstrated the superiority of 
the Kentucky Disc Bearing. 

Write us for Catalogue of the Complete Kentucky Line. 

PACIFIC IMPLEMENT COMPANY 

135 KANSAS ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 




always been recognized as very good au- 
thority says there will be a big shortage 
in the crop, and handlers like Teague of 
Santa Paula, Little of Arlington, Call and 
Triolo of Corona, say, just as much as 
last year. There are many more on the 
side of the big crop than on the other 
side. 

The catastrophe in Sicily did not boom 
the lemon market to the extent expected, 
and this is mainly because the main ship- 
ping point, Palermo, was not touched, 
and though the transportation facilities 
were hurt to some extent for the time 
being, it is now said that from this time 
on the shipments will be regular. Lem- 
ons are some higher than they were be- 
fore the catastrophe, and the best stock 
is being quoted out at $2.25 to $2.50 f.o.b. 
There are 34,000 boxes of Sicily lemons 
now on the way to different ports of the 
country. Lemon shipments from Cali- 
fornia have been around 12 cars a day 
for some time, and there is little likeli- 
hood of any large increase, unless it 
should develop that Sicily was more crip- 
pled than is now thought for. 

Shipments to date have been 2698 cars 
of oranges and 843 cars of lemons. To 
the same time last year, 3584 cars of or- 
anges and 777 cars of lemons. 

The weather over east has been very 
bad for business. Cold weather and bliz- 
zards at nearly all points. There cannot 
be much speculative demand at such 
times, but fortunately such conditions do 
not long continue, and even now the in- 
dications are for lively trading, both in 
oranges and lemons. 



PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. 



SUITS THEM. 

We are getting somewhat puffed up 
over the many compliments that we are 
receiving for the Pacific Rural Prkss 
these days. But the compliment that 
pleases us most is the letter that con- 
tains a renewal remittance and the name 
of a new subscriber which is sent with 
It. Quite a number of old subscribers 
have attested their appreciation of our 
efforts to give a better and larger paper 
in this way. If all would take a few 
moments of time to speak to their neigh 
hors and recommend the Pacific Rru.u. 
Pkf.ns we would very soon be able to add 
more pages to the paper. 

Here are a few extracts from letters 
received: "I would not be without your 
valuable paper, for it has more than paid 
for itself since I have been a subscriber. 
Wishing you a million subscribers for 
1909." — Fred Copeland, Princeton, Cal. 

"Have been a regular subscriber over 
thirty years and get full value received." 
— C. P. Bailey, San Jose. 

"May the PACIFIC RtlBAI, Phf.ss never 



grow less in its work and influence for 
the good of the farmer." — .las. W. Mc- 
Cord, Hanford. 

A Los Angeles reader says in his let- 
ter, "If there ever was a paper that would 
appeal to the rural population it cer- 
tainly is the Pbess." 

As we said before, such kind words 
make us "swell up" some, and we will 
try to continue to merit them. But if 
you. who are now reading this article, 
will send us your renewal (if you haven't 
already done so) and will send at the 
same time a new subscriber, the work 
will be easier at this end of the line. In 
any event send in your renewal promptly. 



The fourth edition of "California 
Fruits," by Professor E. J. Wickson, is 
meeting with wonderful favor at the 
hand of the fruit growers, not only in 
California, but all over the country. 
Until this week we have been unable to 
fill orders as fast as received, since the 
book was first out two months ago. Now 
that we have caught up, we can supply 
orders as fast as received. The new edi- 
tion is away ahead of former ones issued, 
both in quality and quantity of contents' 
and style of production. Here is what 
Charles H. Jacobs of Nordhoff says of the 
book: "I congratulate you upon the ex- 
cellence of the fourth edition of your 
work "California Fruits." I have taken 
time to read and study the book some- 
what carefully and am finding it simply 
invaluable." Pacific Ri uai. Phkss, pub- 
lisher: price: Cloth, postpaid, $3 per 
copy. Leather binding, $4 per copy. 



J. S. Armstrong of Ontario is adver- 
tising roses in another column. Mr. Arm- 
strong has a good nursery and is a fine 
man to deal with. 



The Ocean Trading Co. advertise seed 
in another part of the Pacific Hi km. 
Pbess. 



The Schmeiser Mfg. Co. of Davis have 
an attractive ad on our last page of their 
hay derrick. This is a good firm, and 
while new to our subscribers, yet we be- 
lieve they are worthy of patronage by 
readers of the Pacific Ri ua:. Phf.ss. 



Owing to the Hoods in the Sacramento 
valley the past week, the auction sale of 
horses advertised in our columns last 
week to be held on January 2G by E. 
Stewart & Co., has been postponed to 
February 2 and Hi. Rend their announce- 
ment in our stock department. 



Two handsome calendars have been re- 
ceived during the past week. One from 
the De Laval Cream Separator Co. and 
the other from the Simmons "Keen Kut 
ter" people of St. Louis. 



Geo. A. Smith of Corcoran is adver- 
tising to buy Jersey cows in this issue. 



80 



January 2:5, 1909. 




THE 



SCHMEISER 

PORTABLE 

AUTOMATIC 

DERRICK 

Time is money in the Hay- 
field. This Derrick will not 
only save time but it will 
save you Money. 



Write for Descriptive Circular 
today and we will tell you how It 
can be done. 



SCHMEISER MANUFACTURING. CO., Davis, Cal. 



REX YOUR TREES WITH 

LIME & SULPHUR SOLUTION 

The well known REX LIME & SULPHUR SOLUTION manufactured by the 
California Ilex Spray Company, at Benlcla, 1» no longer an experiment. Of 
the thousands of customer* that used It lust year, »r have Hcarcely a Hinsjle 
report but what in In its favor. 

It Id the bent known innectlelde and fungicide; is a tonic to the tree; is 
prepared on scientific principles; Is absolutely uniform; every barrel that Is 
made at the factory being of just the same strength, namely, 33% solution, 
Ilaume test; Is free from sediment; Is ready for use In the orchard without 
having to be boiled; one barrel of 50 gallons makes (100 gallons of the strongest 
spray, and is by far cheaper, at the reduced price at which It is offered this 
year, than any farmer can afford to make a home-made, Imperfect solution. 

Ask your dealer, or address: 

CALIFORNIA REX SPRAY CO. YAKIMA REX SPRAY CO. 

Benicia, Cal. N. Yakima, Wash. 

THE TOLEDO REX SPRAY CO., Toledo, Ohio. 
THE REX COMPANY, Omaha, Neb. 



PFAR-RI IRHT We can CURE IT 

IbF^IB VblUll I Our Remedy will not In- 



Remedy 

jure the tree. 



SEND US YOUR ORDER NOW. 



Process and Formula Patented. 
Address Correspondence to Vacaville, Cal. 

PEAR-BLIGHT REMEDY COMPANY 





HOW TO GROW THEM 



By E J. WICKSUN, A.M. 



REVISED EDITION, 500 PAGES. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED 



Price $3 per copy, postpaid. 



Trof. I.. H. HuMcy, the leading horticul- 
turist of ;h ■ Kusf, says of the book) 

"This work Is an invaluable addition to 
the literature of horticulture. The condi- 
tions of culture are so peculiar In Califor- 
nia that a particular treatise Is demanded 
for them. The present volume deals In a 
clear and comprehensive manner with the 
whole field of California pomology. The 
author has enjoyed unusual facilities for 
the acquisition of facts, and he has every- 
where used the material to good advan- 
tage." 



PUMPS 

Deep well pumps com- 
plete for fifty foot 
well $11 up. 

Gasoline engines ready to 
run $42.50 up. 

Special low prices for water pipe, cas 
ing, windmills, redwood tanks, sheet iron 
pumps, gasoline storage tanks, etc., on 
application. 

We furnish gasoline, electric or steam 
pumping outfits and install them any- 
where in the State. 

Twelve years experience in this line. 
\\ rite us stating your requirements. 

LeBOYD BROS. 

Alameda, Cal. 



SEND II YOUR ORDER TODAY TO 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publisher, 

667 HOWARD STREET. 
San Francisco. Cal. 



DEEP WELL PUMPS 

AND CYLINDERS 

Water gates for pipe lines. Send for catalog. 

POMONA MANUFACTURING CO., 

Pomona, Cal. 



HENRY B. LISTER, 

ATTORNEY AT IAVV. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts 
San Francisco. 



THE EVANTS CULTIVATORS 



The Evants Cultivator, with 9 
Circular V Teeth and Seat, 
Cutting 4J feet; also with 
Wheels and Levers lor Lilt- 
ing Teeth out ol Ground and 
Ratchet ior Regulating their 
depth In the Ground. 



\\ 



1st Premium at Slate 
Fair 1907-8. 




see Cata- 
log for 
testimo- 
nials. 
Bend for 
Catalogs. 



B0WEN & FRENCH 

MANUFACTURERS 



659 Washington St., 
Oakland, Cal. 



OSBORNE ORCHARD TOOLS 




The i: Osborne" is the most popular Disc Harrow ever introduced 
for the Orchards and Vineyards of the Pacific Coast. Thousands of 
them are in successful operation. They are made to suit all kinds of soil. 

This illustration shows the Osborne "Cotton King" style of Harrow, 
with the Gangs extended. They can be closed in or reversed as desired. 
This Harrow is light, strong and very durable. It can be equipped, if 
required, with extension standards, raising the seat and main frame for 
the purpose of cultivating tall crops. 

ALL STYLES AND SIZES OF DISC, PEG AND SPRING TOOTH 
HARROWS FOR ALL KINDS OF WORK. 

Full Particulars on Application. 

PACIFIC IMPLEMENT COMPANY 

General Agents 

131-153 KANSAS ST. SAN FRANCISCO. 



HORTICULTURAL 



PRINTING 

AND 

ENGRAVING 



CATALOGUE MAKERS 
TRI-COLOR PRINTERS 

Tell us your needs and we will give you estimates 

The Kruckeberg Press 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Publishers "The Rural Callfornian" and PrlnterB of "California Fruits and How to 
< irow Them." 



WOOD 
PIPE 

Made from California Redwood 
or Selected Washington Douglas 
Yellow Fir. 



National Wood Pipe Co. 

Machine Banded Stave Pipe. Continuous Stave Pipe. 

SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE— 318 Market St. 
NORTHERN OFFICE-Olympla, Wash. 
LOS ANGELES OFFICE— 404 Equitable Bank Bldg. 
SALT LAKE CITY OFFICE— Dooly Block. 
Prices, specifications, hydraulic data and general Information 
furnished upon request. 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash. 
Beat Tree Wash. 
T. W. JACKSON A CO., Temporary Address, 
42 Market St., San Francisco. 




and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXVII. No. 5. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 30, 1909. 



Thirty-ninth Year. 



Quantity and Quality of Citrus Fruits 
and Marketing Conditions. 

Written for the PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 
By Mr. T. C. WALLACE. 



The great interest which centers in the citrus 
crop represented by the orange and lemon makes 
it of such deep and widespread importance as to 
warrant and even call for extended reference to 
the phases which cover or affect the marketing of 
the fruit. These are quantity and quality of fruit ; 
handling and shipping; marketing methods: ad- 
vertising, and extension or 
curtailment of acreage for 
production to meet demand. 
A study of fruit and grocery 
stores, booths and vendors' 
wagons in American cities 
shows the orange the leader 
in fresh fruits throughout 
the year, while the dining 
room, the soda fount and the 
picnic spread bespeak the 
popularity of both the or- 
ange and the lemon. The 
orange is the acknowledged 
leading fruit, so that it is 
not strange that it should as 
well be the most profitable 
orchard crop in a collective 
sense. Every orchard is not 
a financial success, for two 
leading reasons, which are, 
location or soil, and good 
farming or marketing judg- 
ment. 

The great importance of 
the orange and lemon crop 
to California is set before us 
in the aggregate sum of $21,- 
000,000 above transportation 
expenses received by the cit- 
rus growers the past fruit 

year for their crop, of which six-sevenths was for 
oranges, and for which over 28,000 cars are re- 
quired to move from orchard to market. As the 
railroads received approximately $10,000,000 for 
freight, and about three-quarters of a million was 
expended for ice, the importance of this crop to 
transcontinental traffic is a striking item. As or- 
ange and lemon culture is intensive farming, and 
this great sum is produced from about 100,000 
acres, it shows a production of over $300 per acre. 

What is the secret of this great income ? Why 
do the California navel oranges stand out pre- 
eminent in the fruit markets of the American con- 
sumer? We can all appreciate the simple law of 
supply and demand that brings the price for the 
Valencia orange when the market is practically 
bare of high-class fruit, but we must look farther 
and deeper for the reasons why the California 
navel is the queen of the auction market, where 
fruits are bought in competition and where the 



will of the buyer sets the price and there is no 
hold-up. That the navel is a seedless orange is 
undoubtedly in its favor, as we all know who have 
been orange consumers in the Eastern cities. That 
the flavor of the perfectly ripe navel is delicious 
and satisfying cannot be contradicted, but as well, 
nearly all ripe oranges are delicious, and we know 
that navels top the market when they are not at 
their best, even while other varieties are in their 
prime. No, with all the advantages of being seed- 
less and delicious, there are still deeper reasons 
for the popularity of the California oranges with 
the fruit dealers, who arc. after all, the true mar- 
ket makers for the fruit. 




Six-Year-Old Orange Trees in Rhodesia, South Africa. 



HV are indebted to Mr 
orchard 0) 



II. Mel lii-iii in- of Salisbury, Rhode 
oranges and plums amid thepeculi 



. Smith Africa, for the accomi 

indigenous trees of that disfm 



A study of the marketing conditions of the mar- 
ket reveals the true inwardness of the popularity 
of California fruit, and why some producers get 
more than others for their fruit. There is, of 
course, a grade in price following quality, and 
smooth, clean, finegrained navels bring the fancy 
price. The choice, or second grade, depend more 
on uniformity than on grain, but as well appear- 
ance and fineness affect the value. A pack of 
standards must lie of very good eating quality 
or find a bare market to make good returns. Some 
producers do not thus grade their fruit, but pack 
orchard run and standard, depending upon the 
proportion of fine fruit to get a better price for 
the choice, and thus obtain an average figure for 
their crop, with less expense of grading, while 
they consider they meet the demands of the orange 
buyer. 

Occasionally we find some grower or packer 
claiming superiority for the fruit of a certain or- 



chard or district, and while such claims are not 
always groundless, an investigation usually points 
more strongly to the superior methods of handling 
and packing than to the actual quality of the fruit 
on the trees. The fruit buyer with whom the pro- 
ducer does business is a wholesale dealer. The 
dealer has retail trade to satisfy, and the retailer 
in turn has his family trade to suit. The house- 
wife wants clean, even-sized oranges of as good 
quality as the price she is paying at the time will 
purchase. She wants the fruit to look nice in the 
dish, as it is part of the decoration of her dining 
room. She wants it edible, to be a delicacy, so 
that tustele«s or sour fruit is undesirable, and if 
she is using it in the culinary 
department she appreciates 
the seedless varieties. If the 
fruit in the box .-it the gro- 
cery, or at the fruit stand, is 
not of even size, the con- 
sumer insists on picking it 
over to obtain the best sizes, 
and as a result the vendor 
soon has a balance of small 
fruit left, for which his price 
seems exorbitant, and his 
trade is thereby injured. The 
retailer wants fruit that will 
keep, as he cannot sell rot- 
ting oranges to his custom- 
ers. The successful whole- 
saler has studied all these and 
many other peculiarities of 
his trade, and in seeking sup- 
plies chooses the packs that 
meet such demands. The or- 
ange packer in California in 
turn aims to give the East- 
ern dealer just what he de- 
mands, and so equips his 
packing house with the best 
machinery for gentle han- 
dling of fruit, neat packing, 
and employs efficient graders 
and packers to ensure the 
turning out of a first-class pack, such as the trade 
demands. 

To illustrate that this is not always the aim of 
fruit packers the world over, I will instance a 
happening which I once saw. A friend from Lon- 
don who had traveled in America became enthusi- 
astic over the apples produced in the Anapolis 
valley. Nova Scotia, and at his request I ordered 
several barrels of Gravensteins and other fruit for 
him from a highly reputable exporter. I hap- 
pened in London when the fruit arrived, and saw 
it opened, showing fine fruit at each end of the 
barrels, with small, inferior and even wormy fruit 
in the middle, and even trash packed to make 
bulk. 

The grower of oranges in California is of course 
a variable quantity, but in the aggregate he has 
handed the packer good fruit, carefully picked, 
clean, and with uninjured skin, and as a result 
(Continued On Page 86.) 



anytnff view of a smatt 

\t country. 



82 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 80, 1909 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 

TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. - - - PUBLISHERS 



Advertising rates made known on application. 

K. J. W1CKS0N Editor 

FRANK HONEYWELL .... Business Manager 



California Weather Record. 

The foflowing rainfall record is furnished the PACIFIC 
Rural Press by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Weather Bureau, at San Francisco, for the week 
ending at 5 P. M., January 26, 1909: 



Stations. 


Total 
rainfall 
for 
the week. 


Total 
seasonal 
rainfall 
to date. 


Normal 
seasonal 
rainfall 
to date. 


Eureka 






23.47 


Red Bluff. 


4.:;(i 


17.27 


13.44 


Sacramento 


2.66 


12.79 


10.15 


Mt. Tamalpais 


4.32 


22.84 


12.03 


San Francisco 


3.70 


14.05 


11.89 




4.24 


10.17 


7.40 


Fresno 


1.53 


5.19 


4 92 


Independence 


1.48 


6.30 


4.87 


San Luis Obispo 


8.90 


19.97 


9.73 


Los Angeles 


4.66 


10.09 


7.41 


San Diego 


2.00 


5.10 


4.84 



The Week 



The storm has continued. January has exceeded 
its record since American occupation for number 
of rainy days. The water thrown down for the 
season exceeds the normal, as the figures above 
demonstrate. The injuries by floods reach very 
high figures upon lands from which it was hoped 
the rivers had been excluded by levees better than 
had been broken before, and upon lands covered 
with water held back and incapable of clearing in 
time for winter sowing. Much more land is also 
belated: some of it likely to be idle the rest of 
the year, while other areas will clear in time for 
barley or for some hay grain. Just at present, 
when the soil it saturated, the air chilly and likely 
to drop to freezing Avhen the skies clear, the out- 
look for the season's production is unduly dark- 
ened. The higher temperature and bright sun- 
shine of February will lighten the heart and warm 
and dry the soil, so that much more can be profit- 
ably done with it than one can now think. Cali- 
fornia passes from the fear of drouth to the fear 
of drowning very quickly, and as, fortunately, the 
memory of the water is never so wet as the water 
itself, the burden of idle days and hungry teams 
will be largely forgotten as we pass on into the 
realization of the delightful growing and working 
weather which is just before us. Our readers in 
some parts of the State may wonder why we write 
in this comforting strain, because the amount of 
water they have received is just enough for jubi- 
lation, and is itself a comfort and a warrant for 
maximum production. It is that way in Califor- 
nia ; so various are the works of God and man that 
generalizations do not really generalize. It may, 
however, be said of rainfall, as a bad man once 
said of a liquid which he liked better than water— 
a little too much is just enough. 

It is, of course, still true, as we stated last Aveek, 
that a vast area of land usually dry -will produce 
largely this year, and that our fruit lands will 
yield largely in return for the water which has 
gone to their foundations. It is also true that this 
winter's river losses will give increased force to 



the demand for the systematic restraint and ar- 
rangement of increased services from our high- 
waterways for navigation and irrigation. It looks 
indeed as though we would have, on the whole, a 
great California year, and a year which will make 
all succeeding years better and more fruitful. 



It is evident, in spite of all that has been said, 
that the California public is sleeping upon the 
question of water transportation, and if this year's 
legislature should enter upon the work proposed 
for the rivers we shall consider it a sign of awak- 
ening. Just see what desperate efforts are being 
made to use the river in the shallow run which 
now marks its summer courses. It is announced 
that several Hat-bottomed steel boats will be put 
on the Sacramento river this season by the Sacra- 
mento Valley Sugar Co. to haul sugar beets from 
points along the river to its million-dollar refinery 
at Hamilton City. These boats will draw but 16 
inches of water, and will be able to land at even 
the shallowest points along the river to take on 
loads of beets. The plant has been handicapped 
each season by inability to obtain sufficient beets 
to run to full capacity, and by operating boats it 
can reach many available lands on which owners 
are willing to grow beets. This is a good move, 
and we hope it may help all to realize how much 
the future of the great valley depends upon water 
transportation and river-bank activities. 



What a delusion this denatured alcohol propo- 
sition is in the form in which certain free writers 
are placing it before the public. One account de- 
clares that a group of farmers can put up a plant 
to cost $2500 and then "bring their cornstalks and 
other such refuse to the 'mill' and receive in re- 
turn the alcohol. The farmers are eager to find 
a cheap source of energy. Nowadays multitudes 
of them use gasoline for such purposes as grinding 
feed, cuting fodder, and running the corn shelter, 
circular saw, horse clipper, and grindstone. But 
gasoline is expensive. Alcohol is comparatively 
cheap, and when manufactured from the farmer's 
own vegetable refuse it would cost next to noth- 
ing." Such writers ignore entirely the cost of 
operating the plant, the cost of gathering and 
hauling, and the further fact that such materials 
as are specified in the foregoing account do not 
contain alcohol enough to warrant operating, if 
operators would work for nothing and board 
themselves. Why do not these zealous advocates 
propose to handle city garbage and light the 
streets, and not give so much of their valuable 
time to fake agriculture? 



Concerning the benzoate of soda, it is now clear 
that Dr. Wiley has received it in the cervix — to 
speak away from slang. If the benzoate' will 
take the stiffness out of that peninsula of his, we 
shall certainly rejoice. Not that benzoate is par- 
ticularly agricultural: we are hoping that Dr. Wi- 
ley will get sulphur in the same place — not yet, 
but soon. For it is now telegraphed that the use 
of benzoate of soda, which Dr. Wiley hoped to 
wholly prohibit as a food preservative, on the 
ground that he had demonstrated its injury to 
health, has now been pronounced innocent by the 
"referee board" which President Roosevelt ap- 
pointed last summer to review Dr. Wiley's physio- 
logical chemistry. This report announcing the 
suitability of benzoate will be published, and may 
be received, we presume, as canceling Dr. Wiley's 
proscription of that substance. The referee board 
conducted three separate investigations by feed- 
ing benzoate to people in their food, and they 
found : First, that it is not injurious to health in 
the quantity that it is used as a preservative; sec- 



ond, that large doses of it are not poispnous; third, 
that neither large nor small amounts of it inter- 
fere with the nutritive value of food. This seems 
to be a pretty straight knock-out for Dr. Wiley's 
regulation, and an impeachment of the data upon 
which he based such a regulation. The newspa- 
pers seem to think that he will resign his position. 
Perhaps so, but we really do not see why he 
should, if he can look at the experience as t In- 
human kind usually does. No one doubts his sin- 
cerity, and we do not see why he should not be 
willing to carry his share of human errors. If he 
has the true scientific spirit, he will be as glad as 
anyone that truth is demonstrated, with reference 
to his previous declarations of what he conceived 
to be true. He is a man of great force and ability, 
and his place is at the head of the pure food move- 
ment which he has done so much to get under way. 
if he can overcome his tendency to preconception 

and pr e j udgme nt There is souk alert in the 

benzoate outcome for the California fruit driers, 
because it has apparently established the fact that 
demonstration is to precede regulation^ and this 
is the real thing for which they have been con- 
tending. What the demonstration is to be in the 
case of sulphuring must be patiently awaited. 



If the membership in the Ananias Club is full, 
through the President's recent nomination, we re- 
spectfully suggest that .Mr. A. Bidault of Texas 
be placed on the waiting list. He writes to an ex- 
change that he is successfully growing European 
grapes in that State, at which we are glad, and. to 
a certain extent, credulous. But when he proceeds 
to say: "After trying some two dozen varieties, I 
found one-half dozen that are good for the South, 
and the flavor is greatly improved on the Calif OT- 
nias on account of the mild nights we have here 
(the nights in California being cold and foggy, it 
prevents the fruit from getting their full flavor, 
so it is with their peaches)." There is nothing 
Which can meet such a statement except to say 
that the writer of it is. a liar— in a horticultural 
sense, of course. California has, of course, all 
sorts of nights in the different parts of it, but in 
the parts where most grapes are grown for ship- 
ment, there are not only no fogs, but even dews 
are largely absent, because of the dryness of the 
air or because the heat is too high for condensa- 
tion. The general fact, of course, is that ripening 
conditions for fruits in California, in places where 
such fruits are largely grown for commercial pur- 
poses, are exceptionally favorable, and it is so 
plain and common a fact that it makes one weary 
to find a person calmly throwing a contrary state- 
ment into parenthesis. Mr. Bidault should paren- 
thesize himself. 



Referring to Mr. Michael Horan of Wenatchee. 
Washington, whom we credited in our issue of 
January Hi with taking a thousand dollar apple 
prize at the Spokane apple show, and selling the 
exhibit afterward for $7000 more, we are not sur- 
prised to find that he is a graduated Californian. 
It is true that the record says he came to Califor- 
nia in 1876, "to engage in breaking horses," and 
was afterward punching cows in Washington until 
1900. when he planted the orchard which won the 
prize money on land which he bought at 50 cents 
an acre, and has since refused $2000 per acre for 
it: in fact, he now values it at $250,000 — for the 
50 acres. That settles it in our mind: Mr. Horan 
learned something besides breaking horses in Cali- 
fornia. It sounds so natural! 



In connection with the recent reference by Pro- 
fessor Smith to the use of the Le Conte root to get 
a blight-free bottom, and thus confine blight-cut- 



January 30, 19U9. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



8 



ting to the top of the tree, it is interesting to read 
in the proceedings of the New Jersey Horticultu- 
ral Society that the pear blight is again spreading 
in that State, and that the Bartlett, both in sod 
and cultivated, is almost wiped out in localities. 
The Le Conte is much injured, and I he Duchess is 
reported quite resistant. This standing of the 
Dutchess in New Jersey is interesting, because it 
is a widely distributed variety in the old orchards 
of California, and its behavior should be observed. 
It does not appear, however, that i1 can lie grown 
as readily from cuttings as the Le Contc. and 
therefore might not serve the purpose now pro- 
posed for that variety; but that is a subsequent 
consideration. We would like to know first how 
the Duchess stands for blight in California. 



It is fortunate that legislation at Sacramento is 
being shaped so that fruit growers can organize 
for fruit selling without endangering a conflict 
with the anti-trust law of the State. A bill now 
pending allows three or more persons engaged in 
the "production, preserving, packing, shipping or 
marketing of agricultural or horticultural pro- 
ducts " to form a so-called "non-profit" associa- 
tion without issuing capital stock. One of the 
reasons for framing the hill was to allow fruit 
men to keep control of their organizations and not 
suffer interference from outsiders who chanced to 
get stock. Cnder the bill, members would be 
allowed only non-transferable right in return for 
their investment, all transactions between pro- 
ducer and buyer passing through the organization 
as through a mere agent. It is believed that the 
bill, if made a law, will solve the problem of re- 
straining harmful combinations and at the same 
time allow of the co-operative marketing of vege- 
tables and similar products. 



Queries and Replies. 



Buying Stable Manure. 

To the Editor: I noticed your reply in last 
week's Rural Press to the inquiry about fresh 
manure shipped from the city, and would value 
an explanation of your answer very much, as I am 
shipping fresh manure from the city to my ranch 
in Santa Clara valley, and figure I am getting a 
very cheap fertilizer. My shipments so far of 
about 80 tons cost me delivered at my station 
about $80. Now if I invested this $80 in com- 
mercial fertilizer, I would have delivered at the 
same place about two tons. Of course the dis- 
tributing of the manure would cost more, but is 
there much more plant food in two tons of com- 
mercial fertilizer than in 80 tons of fresh stable 
manure? I have put it on my orchard just as 
thick as I can plow it under, but none at all near 
the trees. Why do you suggest putting on mighty 
little? — A Subscriber, Santa Clara county. 

We advised very little because we supposed it 
would cost more than it is worth to place it on the 
ground. It was simply the commercial value in- 
volved in the transaction. We have prescribed 
stable manure for fruit trees too often to leave any 
reader in doubt of its desirability if he can afford 
it. We are surprised to learn that stable manure 
can be landed at any station remote from the city 
at $1 per ton and would like to know how you get 
such cheap handling in the city and from the 
railway— even supposing that you got the stuff 
for nothing. 

Our advice to our correspondent, whom we 
knew had to deliver the manure in the upper pari 
of Sonoma county by rail, was to use mightly little 
because we guessed that it would cost him more 
to lay it down on his land than il was worth. Pos- 
sibly, judging by your experience, we made a. poor 
guess. However that may be, the value of stable 
manure, from a multitude of analyses, is given by 



Dr. Harry Snyder, in his "Soils and Fertilizers" 
(the latest work on the subject) as follows: 
"When the value is calculated on the same basis 
as commercial fertilizers it will be found that 
stable manure is worth from $2 to $3.50 per ton." 
This means, of course, when it is valued according 
to the plant food it contains. This varies accord- 
ing to the poor or rich feeding of the animals. I lie 
relative amount of bedding, etc. We guessed that 
it would not be possible to land it in the country 
for the average value which might be $2.75 per 
ton. As you are doing better than that, our ad- 
vice to you would be different, viz. : to use all you 
can without over-feeding your trees and getting 
too much brashy wood growth and too little fruit. 
Because in using stable manure you are giving the 
soil the humus which you do not get from com- 
mercial fertilizers and you are rendering the soil 
more lively with desirable nitrifying bacteria, 
more amenable in cultivation, more retentive of 
moisture. All these things are desirable when they 
do not cost too much and when you cannot get the 
same soil effects for less cost by growing green 
manure crops on the land. 

Distinctive Names for Farms and Products. 

To the Editor: I intend to introduce a bill pro- 
viding for registering names of farms as trade- 
marks so that exclusive use may be had of such 
names for marketing the fruit or other products 
of the farms so named and registering their trade 
names. I would be glad to have you publish the 
fact that I propose such a measure in order that 
through your columns I may best reach those most 
interested and get their views on the subject. — 
Lawrence Wilson, Assembly Chamber, Sacra- 
mento. 

We are very glad to do this, for the proposition 
is a very good one. Not a few who have named 
their farms have been chagrined to see the same 
name taken by others not far away and we have 
known instances in which a name long used was 
changed because its distinctive character was de- 
stroyed by such thoughtless infringement. The 
original choice and use of a name ought to be pro- 
led ed as Mr. Wilson proposes because it is really 
proprietary. When it becomes recognized in the 
markets it is a commercial quantity of consider- 
able importance to the owner in the successful 
conduct of his enterprise. Mr. Wilson represents 
the Sixteenth district in the Assembly now in 
session in Sacramento and we hope many of our 
readers will give him desirable data for the sup- 
port of his measure. . 



Watermelon Seed. 

To the Editor: Will you give me some informa- 
tion on watermelon seeds? Would you advise 
planting seeds that were saved from melons that 
were grown here last year. There were pumpkins 
and piemelons grown less than a half mile away. — 
A Subscriber, Dinuba. 

If the seed was taken from selected melons true 
to the type which you think desirable it ought to 
give good results it' it, the parent melons, were 
isolated to the extent you mention: But if you 
are in doubt whether the parenl melons were se- 
lected or not. you woidd do well to get such seed 
from a reputable seedsman and look out for your 
own selection hereafter. 



Killing Peach Blight in the Ground. 

To the Editor: Can you tell me the best way to 
treat the ground after a tree has been pulled that 
has been badly affected with peach blight. I have 
usually burned brush in the hole and left the ashes 
for a while and sometimes I have sprinkled the 
ground with Bordeaux mixture. — (Jrowor, Solano 
county. 

It seems that you have done everything that you 
possibly can to render the holes hospitable to the 
new peach trees, inasmuch as there is exceedingly 



little danger of .the disease being communicated 
from the soil, and we should not give ourselves any 
forther concern in that matter. We hope you have 
not pulled out good peach trees simply because 
they had the blight. If the trees were otherwise 
desirable they could have been reinvigorated by a 
good cutting back and spraying with Bordeaux 
or lime-sulphur wash. 



Peas in Orchard. 

To the Editor: I am a subscriber to your paper 
and wish to know in regard to field peas. I am 
advised they may be sown in young orchars, leav- 
ing six feet on each side for cultivation of trees. 
When should they be planted and about what time 
should they be ready to cut for hay? Can planting 
be done by sowing broadcast or musl they be 
drilled? What variety do you prefer for making 
hay? — Farmer, Fresno county. 

You are probably one of the throng of new sub- 
scribers we are securing in the San Joaquin valley 
or you would have seen our earlier comments on 
this question. Peas, like other legumes, are the 
best kind of plants to grow between young trees, 
from the point of view of the trees, because they 
can gather nitrogen from the air and leave it in 
the ground with their decaying roots. It is best 
when possible to gel a Fall and early winter growth 
when there is plenty of moisture and the crop can 
be cleared away early enough in the spring to get 
the land in good summer condition. If you have 
irrigation you can see that the trees do not suffer, 
even if you do grow the crop later. Under such 
conditions you can sow as late as February and cut 
for hay after some small pods are formed but be- 
fore the vines begin to dry much. It is better to 
put in with a drill, but the seed can be broad- 
cast and covered with a shallow plowing or disked 
in. Any variety which makes plenty of vine is 
good for hay; the Canadian or the common field 
pea will do. 



A Busy Summer Fallow. 

To the Editor: Is there some way by which I 
can get returns from my summer fallow, instead 
of letting it lie idle for the entire year 1 I t bought 
by sowing the cow pea and pasturing the crop I 
could increase the fertility for the following crop, 
and at the same time cut a crop of pea hay or use 
it as a pasture. — -Farmer, San Benito County. 

Cow peas make a fair growth in California on 
bottom lands where there is ample moisture in the 
soil and where the air does not become so dry as 
on the uplands. The only way to tell whether 
they will make satisfactory growth with you 
would be to try a small piece and watch the re- 
sults. Cow peas can only be grown in the summer, 
because they are really beans, and are very sensi- 
1 i ve to frost. 

Yon might get a growth of field peas during the 
rainy season, because they are not injured by 
frost, and you might get enough pea vine hay to 
make it worth while: but summer fallowing in 
California is undertaken in large measure for the 
purpose of retaining moisture in t he soil, and this 
cannot be done if you undertake to ripen a crop 
of pea vines for hay. If you should get a winter 
growth of them and feed them oil' green, and then 
plow and harrow well, or if you should plow in 
the green peas deeply in the spring, and then har- 
row, so as to prevent baking of the soil and evapo- 
ration of moisture during the summer, you might 
be able to combine a certain amounl of forage 
plant growth wilh (he summer fallow. But as 
summer fallow is largely for the purpose of gain- 
ing two years' rainfall for one crop, anything that 
you do to use up that moisture by growing a crop, 
or to lose it by not plowing and harrowing your 
summer fallow well, works directly against the 
purposes which you have in summer fallowing. 



84 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



.January 89, 191)0. 



Horticulture. 



METHODS WITH APPLES IN EASTERN 
WASHINGTON. 



Conditions in eastern Washington and Oregon 
are in some respects like interior elevated situa- 
tions in California, and culture methods found 
successful are mutually suggestive. We find some 
paragraphs in the paper of Mr. C. L. Smith at the 
meeting of the Washington Horticultural Society 
at Spokane which are entitled to such rating: 

To grow apples successfully without irrigation 
it is necessary to exercise judgment in the selec- 
tion of soil, location, varieties, quality of stock, 
preparation of land, planting, cultivation, prun- 
ing, thinning, and spraying. All of these pertain 
to the growing of apples. This, however, is only 
half of the problem. The gathering, packing, and 
marketing is the bigger half. If the first half is 
well done, it makes the second half much easier. 
Neglect of any one of the factors will modify or 
entirely wipe out any possible profit. 

Planting. — The best orchard site is a moderately 
sloping hillside, a northern slope having some 
slighl advantage, with higher ground near on one 
side ;i!id lower ground on the oilier. A basin or 

lint should be avoided. The soil should be deep; 
ihc deeper the belter. It is seldom profitable to 
plant an apple on-hard where there is less than 
three feet of good soil over the rock or where there 
is a hardpan within three feet of the surface. A 
day loam is preferable. The average Palouse 
hills have just about the ideal soil conditions for 
the best growth of both tree and fruit. 

As a rule it would be found unprofitable to try 
to grow apples on sandy or gravelly soils without 
irrigation. The ground should be worked deep 
and fine before planting. If trees can be secured 
that have ripened their wood early, then late fall 
planting is better than spring. Spring planting is 
all right, but the earlier it is done the better. Get 
clean, thrifty, but not over-grown one-year-old 
trees; three to four-foot size is better than the 
Larger sizes. If trees are ordered from a nursery 
insist on careful handling and packing, and when 
the trees are received, immediately heel them in. 
being careful to work fine soil close to and around 
the roots. Do this even if you expect to plant next 
day. Never expose the roots to sun or wind, or 
allow them to get dry. Trim off all bruised or 
broken roots. Make the holes large enough to 
spread the roots naturally ; set one or two inches 
deeper than they grew in the nursery; work the 
fine soil firmly around the roots — not against 
them : when the roots are well covered, firm down 
with the feet, pressing the earth down and toward 
the tree. Cut back to eighteen inches. 

Keep the ground well cultivated. There is no 
serious objection to growing any hoed crop in the 
young orchard, like potatoes, squashes, beans or 
peas, but these should not be planted too close to 
the trees, or allowed to interfere with continuous 
en It i vat ion. 

Pruning and Training.— It will be found much 
easier and more profitable to train the young tree 
and shape it as it is growing than to let it grow 
wild and then try to cut or saw it into proper 
shape, [f more than live branches start on the 
young tree, pinch them off. If the branches grow 
unevenly, pinch the ends of the stronger shoots 
to check their growth. For the first four years 
prune in March to stimulate the wood growth and 
get the tree in proper shape. Usually cut away 
about one-third to one-half of each season's 
growth, so as to get a low-headed and stock tree, 
do over the young trees three or four times during 
June and July and pinch the ends of all young 
shoots that you do not want to grow to permanent 
branches. Leave these stubs or spurs on the main 
branches — the more you have of them the better; 
they will develop fruit spurs just where they are 
the most valuable, close to the body and main 
branches of the tree. If the young tree is trained 
in this way until it comes into hearing, very little 
pruning will be necessary thereafter, and this 
should be done in June. When trees are headed 
low. the main branches covered with fruit spurs 
their entire length, the fruit thinned so as to stim- 
ulate animal bearing, the strength of the tree will 
!»■ expended in the production of fruit rather than 
surplus wood that must be cut off and burned. 



Cultivation. — When the season is a favorable 
one a large percentage of large apples may be 
grown with very little cultivation; but the grower 
who neglects to cultivate well every year will 
often fail to secure marketable fruit the very sea- 
son that prices are the best. The most successful 
orchardist is the one who gives thorough cultiva- 
tion each and every year. The past season. BIOS, 
was the driest for many years, and yet wherever 
the cultivation was thorough and intelligent the 
results were satisfactory: in fact, the size and the 
quality were without exception a fair index of the 
method and thoroughness of cultivation. In one 
orchard 16 years old we secured over 60% of four- 
tier apples, of such varieties as Baldwin. Greening, 
Spitzenberg. and Ben Davis. This orchard was 
plowed early in April, the plowing being done 
deep in the center of the rows, eight to ten inches, 
and four to five inches close to the trees. The 
ground immediately around the trees was then 
dug over with a mattock, then disked crosswise of 
the plowing twice, then run over it with a clod 
crusher, then harrowed: thereafter it was har- 
rowed every week from May 1 to August 15. Al- 
together 19 cultivations, at an expense of $6.50 
lor man and team per acre and $2 for hand work, 
a total of $8.50 per acre. While this might seem 
at first glance a little too expensive and intensive, 
the results more than justified the economy of the 
continued cultivation, as in another orchard where 
all the conditions were the same and the cultiva- 
tion was the same, except one disking and three 
harrowings were omitted, saving $1.25 in expense 
and making a difference of over $50 per acre in 
the value of the fruit. Another orchard of the 
same age, the same varieties, the same soil, was 
disked twice and harrowed twice, and produced 
only 10% or marketable fruit. Owing to the fact 
that less than 10% of the orchards are as well cul- 
tivated as they ought to be. you will pardon me 
for repeating what I have so often said before: 
"The soil from October to April should be rough 
and loose, to catch and hold the moisture; from 
April to October maintain continuously a fine dust 
mulch over the entire surface. If this is done there 
there will be no weeds. 

Cover Crops. When the soil inclines to run to- 
gether when wet and bake hard when dry. it lacks 
humus. If barnyard manure is available, it is the 
best and cheapest means of supplying the humus 
or organic matter to the soil. The best method of 
applying this is by top dressing during the winter 
season. If the manure is not available use a cover 
crop, preferably vetch and winter wheat. When 
this is done the spring plowing can safely be de- 
layed until the first week in May, but not later, 
unless it should be a very cold, wet season. Turn 
under the cover crop good and deep and immedi- 
ately follow with a disc twice or three times, then 
harrow continuously every week until August 15. 
If because of rainy weather, which does sometimes 
happen, or if from any other cause whatever, the 
ground gets hard or weedy, then disc and clod 
crush until the surface is a fine dust, free from 
weeds, and then maintain the dust mulch by con- 
tinuous harrowing. 

When a cover crop is to be used, seed it at the 
last cultivation as near to the middle of August as 
pracl ieable. 

Thinning. — To secure Eruil uniform in size, to 
prevent overbearing, and to secure annual crops it 
is necessary to thin the fruit radically. It is bet- 
ter to hire someone to do this by the day or hour. 
Very few men have the nerve to thin their fruit 
as it ought to be thinned. If the pruning has been 
properly done and the fruit spurs are properly dis- 
tributed over the entire tree, then thinned so the 
apples will not touch each other, there will be as 
many left as the tree ought to carry. The fruit 
will be larger, better matured, and much more 
uniform than when allowed to grow in clusters. 

Following the address some discussion was par- 
ticipated in, a part of which is as follows: Ques- 
tion.— "When do you begin thinning? Mr. Smith. 
— "When the apples have attained the size of your 
thumb." This answer brought a number of dis- 
senting opinions. Some thought it advisable to 
thin as soon as petals have fallen, others begin 
when apples are the size of peas. One man advo- 
cated the forming of thinners' associations, each 
member thinning another member's apples be- 
cause, as .Mr. Smith said, few men have the nerve 
to thin their own fruit. 



MR. JUDD AND THE DUST SPRAY. 

To the Editor: Through an article by Mi-. Dar- 
gitz in your valuable paper of a recent date my 
correspondence has been so increased that 1 am 
compelled to ask you to publish the following as 
my experience with dust spray. 

The machine is the Cyclone No. 1. Two men 
with it. drawn by one horse, sprayed 52 acres of 
apples orchard in 22 hours, in April, 1908. I use 
as a formula 40 pounds hydrated lime. 2 pounds 
paris green, 2 pounds sal bordeaux. 2 pounds 
double sublimed sulphur — used when the trees are 
about one-half full bloom. This spraying will 
catch all the leaf or fruit eating insects that are 
hatched or will hatch during the spring, and. 
what is also a desirable thing in fruit raising, a 
crop is secured by the above formula. Being a 
fungicide also, it kills the spores of fungi that are 
so abundant at blooming time, and kills the an- 
thers, thereby destroying the pollen. Again, the 
dust settles in the forks of the blossom stems, pre- 
venting the fungi from causing the fruit to drop 
when formed. Again, the terminal buds are just 
unfolding their very tender leaves, which are an 
easy prey to that distressing disease called pow- 
dery mildew. The above formula is the only sure 
cure so far tried here, the dust being dry, and put 
on dry; when the weather is dry, no chemical 
action sets up that destroys the value of either 
ingredient or makes them injurious to foliage or 
bloom. Again, it is always ready, not like wet 
spraying, that has to be done over again when it 
gets dry because it forms a cement coating, there- 
by locking up both insecticide and fungicide from 
further use. Again, the dust gels to the bottom of 
the fine fuzz on the very young fruit and leaves 
(the fuzz being put there to protect them from the 
wet, which causes them to rot), and awaits the 
coming of the foe. The surplus dust the wind dis- 
tributes again and again, so nothing is lost. 

Six weeks before harvest use the same amount 
of lime and one-half of each of the others, one 
one-half your orchard, and let the rest go: this 
will prove the necessity or not, of more than one 
spraying. To prove that neither wind nor rain 
will remove the dust, lake a clean, new ami dry 
plate or saucer, dip it one-half its depth in the 
mixture, moving it through it once or twice; then 
blow off all you can. or let a good force from the 
faucet play on it for a while. Then check it oil' 
in squares with a (doth over your linger: then put 
it under the faucet again, and note that even the 
sharp points of the squares are not even blurred 
in the least. 

Again, dust does not drive away your friends 
the parasites, as nasty wet spray will. In conclu- 
sion I will say that I have used the above formula 
four years, only once each year and when in 
bloom; had a good crop every year and no pests 
of any kind; no scab, no shothole fungi, and at a 
nominal cost of 10% of wet Spray. 

A. X. Ji m.. 

Watsonville. 

THE HIMALAYA BLACKBERRY 



To the Editor: Having seen several articles in 
your paper concerning the Himalaya blackberry, 
and being a grower of berries, 1 give my experi- 
ence for the benefit of the public. 

1 have about six acres of them, which bore for 
the first time last season, and now I am able to 
recommend them. They were recommended to me 
as being the most productive, most profitable and 
most delicious of all the blackberries, and I could 
not express my opinion of them until I had seen 
them fruiting. They are very hardy, and seem to 
to be adapted to both dry and moist land, as I 
have two patches of them, one on moist and the 
other on dry land, and they were all the same and 
made a wonderful growth the first year, often 
reaching 25 feet in length. Tin y should be trained 
on wires by driving stakes .'5(1 feet apart and 7 feet 
high in the rows, and stretching two wires on 
these stakes, one 3^ feet from the ground, the 
other on top of the stakes, and confining them in 
place with staples. 

The long runners should be trained and woven 
in these wires, so as to be able to hold up the load 
of fruit. The second year these runners will send 
out arms or laterals thickly all over, about 2 to 2 1 - 
feet in length, projecting outside of the mass id' 
vines, causing the berries to be exposed for easy 



January 30, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



picking, unlike the other varieties of blackberries, 
which grow so much of the fruit inside, as we all 
know. These laterals are loaded with berries, and 
at ripening; time the trellises are about feel 
wide and 8 feet high, and, the berries being on 
the outside, present a fine show of blackberries 
from one end of the other. Consequently, they 
should be planted in rows 10 feet apart, and 10 
feet apart in the row. 

I see some of the growers of I his berry estimate 
the yield at 12 to lf> tons per acre, which I do no1 
doubt now, since I picked such an enormous yield 
from my vines last year. 

They were tested by the canneries last season 
and accepted as good, but as they were also Found 
to be good shippers, and so desirable for the table 
and general family use, canning, etc.. 1 sold to a 
shipper, who sent them in all directions through 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys and to 
San Francisco. It is a very bright, clean, shiny 
black in color, about the size of the ordinary 
blackberry, and begins to ripen about duly 10, 
and continues until frost. The long season, to- 
gether with the amount of vines, which send out 
numerous runnel's loaded with berries, account 
for its enormous yield. During the blossoming 
season I noticed the vines alive with the honey bee 
every day; there was a continual hum from morn- 
ing until late in the evening; the bees seem to 
neglect all other blooms and swarn to these vines, 
which 1 though indicated a great amount of honey 
and sweetness in the bloom, and when the fruit 
was cooked, canned and used on our table, we 
found it formed a superior rich syrup of a deli- 
cious flavor. 

B. S. Kennedy. 

Sebastopol, Cal. 

PRUNING PRUNE TREES. 



To the Editor: In reply to your kind letter of 
the 13th inst., asking me to describe my pruning, I 
must say that I was very much surprised. 1 have 
been greatly ridiculed by many orchardists as to 
my method of pruning, but, however, I will try to 
demonstrate to you my method. 

Pruning trees is like everything else: start them 
wrong and they will always be wrong. First, see 
that your tree is healthy; trim the roots well, so 
as to insure a good start. Plant it in a good sized 
hole. See that you have good healthy buds to the 
south. Plant the tree while in the dormant state. 
Have the union two or three inches below the sur- 
face of the ground. Reduce the lop according to 
size : a large tree can be topped higher than a 
small one. Cultivate and pulverize the ground in 
the spring and into the summer months. 

When the bottom growth (below the main 
branches) is about three inches long, nip it, and 
continue this operation until late in the summer — 
always nipping on the new growth. The follow- 
ing winter you have three or four good strong 
limbs on top to cut on, and a lot of tine healthy 
spurs and laterals on the body. Cut the crown 
off (which means one top cut) down to two good 
limbs, and top them to good size wood. With such 
care and pruning you will get good results. 

The second year's pruning you have two stand- 
ards as a crotch, each one of these standards hav- 
ing three or four good limbs. Crown them again, 
so as to get your tree up in shape. Top the two 
or three limbs you have left on each standard. 
This means top cuts <>uly. Continue this system 
until your tree is out of the way and well balanced 
to the north. Then cease topping, only taking oul 
leaders which are top cuts: these leaders will get 
choked out in time. You can take side limbs off 
when the tree comes to a normal size. Make all 
cuts close. 

If the tree you set out has side branches, cut the 
top off to one of these branches and head these 
branches to the buds. Never strip I he body of a 
tree, with the idea of forcing that much energy 
into the tops. 

I could tell you a few things more as to why I 
prune this way, but, as a matter of fact, I have 
been ridiculed so much by men who have made 
money in the prune buiness (but not at pruning), 
that I consider such an explanation immaterial. 

Gilroy, California. E. P. Rom 

| This is verv interesting: no one can afford to 
laugh at pruning methods unless he can show valid 
Objections. We shall be glad to hear more ot Mr 
Rose's methods and why he follows them.- kD.J 



Citrus Fruits. 



QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF CITRUS 
FRUITS AND MARKETING 
CONDITIONS. 

[Continued From ra.gr. SI.) 



the I" i • 1 1 it as il has gone into the Eastern market 
has been uniformly packed and is in a condition 
to keep because it has been carefully handled. 

The scratching, rubbing and bruising of Cali- 
fornia oranges has been avoided to such an extent 
that they can usually be relied upon, so that the 
fruit dealer can afford to pay all the market af- 
fords. In this fact lies the main point of the popu- 
larity of California navels, and it is further 
proved by the growing confidence of dealers in 
our fruit, as the result of improved methods of 
picking and handling, and in which the grower 
is showing himself progressive. This has been 
strongly emphasized during the past year, when, 
notwithstanding the financial stringency which 
has forced economizing upon consumers, the most 
carefully handled fruit broughl lucrative prices. 
It is uo1 the intention of this article to go into the 
details of fruit packing and handling, but merely 
to assert its importance as a leading factor in 
keeping the queen or the orange market on her 
throne. 

But to go a little behind the scene and point out 
a still deeper and more intricate factor in the 
production of the fruit seems opportune while we 
have the attention of the grower. This refers to 
the production of the fruit in the orchard, which 
would seem after all the most vital subject for 
the grower. A study of navel groves shows that 
in the older ones are many that have deteriorated 
or are deteriorating, owing to imperfect methods 
of soil and tree handling and fertilizing. This re- 
fers to irrigation, cultivation, pruning, loaming 
and tree feeding. Not only do the trees show it in 
I he reduction of crop, but as well in the quality 
of Fruit, ami it is strongly brought out by com- 
parison with orchards in which the more intelli- 
gent methods have prevailed. Again, in the young- 
groves are Found many trees showing inferior 
Fruit, as well as pool- yields, due presumably to 
the use of inferior buds or stock. Some growers 
know this, and it is pleasant to observe that ef- 
forts are being made to correct these troubles. 
This phase of the situation is forced upon the 
grower by the improved methods commonly 
adopted by the packing houses, as it is clearly up 
to (lie grower to second the packer by the produc- 
tion of the best, as well as by careful picking. In- 
deed, the grower soon finds that he can gain the 
greatest advantage of the improved marketing 
methods by producing superior fruit. The outlook 
today is that the California citrus grower is so far 
in advance of all other fruit producers that he 
can hardly be overtaken, being quick to grasp op- 
portunity, as is shown by the development of co- 
operative marketing through the Exchange, which 
stands pre-eminently before the world as the 
ureatest fruit marketing institution in existence. 

The crop now on the trees, part of which has 
been marketed during the fall and early winter, 
is generally judged to be slightly under the fig- 
ures of the year just past, and while many and 
diverse reasons are given for this, it is hard to 
lix the trui' cause without reflecting on men and 
methods in such a way as to touch feelings which 
are as well not aroused. Suffice it to say that last 
sping and summer gave us climatic conditions for 
which all were not fully prepared, and which re- 
sulted in a heavy Fall of young fruit. The sizes 
of this season are not large, though much more 
desirable than al lirsl predicted, and as the fruit 
will not be picked early, it is quite possible any 
small sizing may disappear as the season advances. 

The'proportion of high-grade Fruit will be greater 

than For some years, the reasons making for this 
being better pruning, soil handling and fertilizing, 
as well as more attention to budding having been 
observed of late years, both in young orchards 
and in rebudding. No inclination to puff is at 
present shown, and altogether the condition of the 
crop is extra good, 'flic cold weather has done 
no material damage in well regulated groves on 

proper elevations, ami perhaps it may be consid- 
ered a general blessing, though it scared the own- 



ers of weak orchards into early disposal of their 
crops. The outlook is that the Hxehange will 
have quite as much fruit this year as last, and if 
the fruit sizes well (and 1 pedict it will), they 
should ship fully 13,000 cars of oranges and 3000 
cars of lemons. The falling off, if any, would 
seem to he among the independent packers and 
the Citrus Union, among whom I cannol estimate 
quite 11,000 cars of oranges, with a possible lemon 
output, including growers who ship their own 
fruit, of 1200 to 1300 cars. This estimate may, 
hawever, be upset by the early shipments oF the 
"scared ones," which seem to have been made 
mostly through the independent packers, the Fx- 
change managers having discouraged such ship- 
ping and put backbone into their growers wher- 
ever possible. As a whole, there seems no reason 
to fear that the citrus crop of this Fruit year will 
bring less money to our growers than during the 
past period, but on the contrary the outlook seems 
better, partly for the reason that financial condi- 
tions among our customers are better, and as well 
due to the steadily improved methods of handling 
which puts upon the market a fruit practically 
immune from decay and high in general quality. 

Of late considerable discussion has developed 
among growers and packers as to the advisability 
of a concerted effort at advertising our citrus 
fruits, and the consensus of opinion seems to favor 
such a camapign. It is probable that a plan of 
advertising will be formulated, as there is a gen- 
eral sentiment in favor of it, but its success de- 
pends much on the genius selected to carry it out. 
as men capable of influencing the public at long 
range are born rather than made by education. 
It would make this too long an article to enu- 
merate the details of the advertising schemes sug- 
gested, for never has the orange business pre- 
sented such an array of valuable facts which 
would work to its advantage if well presented to 
the public, but it would appear a subject for sepa- 
rate handling, which I hope to have the privilege 
of taking up later. There does not appear to he 
much increase in the acreage in citrus fruit in 
what we usually understand as southern Califor- 
nia (below Tehachipi), though there has been con- 
siderable planting in Tulare county, so that, ex- 
cept for fall and holiday fruit, there is no serious 
addition in view for an increased output on that 
score, most of our present acreage being in bear- 
ing. In fact, the additional planting scarcely 
more than make up for the destruction of orchards 
by new additions formed for townsites and the 
taking out of groves here and there which have 
been found to be on poorly selected lands. That 
there cannot be much new orchard exploited this 
year is evidenced by the scarcity of stock for set- 
ting, as reported from the nurseries. 



CLOVERDALE CITRUS FAIR. 

The premium list of the seventeenth annual 
Cloverdale (Sonoma county) Citrus Fair Associa- 
tion has been issued, and shows a large number of 
splendid awards For designs submitted at the pa- 
vilion. The fair will open on February 18, and 
will conclude on Washington's birthday, Febru- 
ary 22. The people of Cloverdale are enthusiastic 
over their coming exhibit, and there is great unan- 
imity among them in regard to making splendid 
exhibits of their golden Fruits. The Fruit is ripen- 
ing nicely at the present time, and rounding out 
into fine form and delicious flavor. 

For the best display made of oranges, lemons 
or of all citrus fruits combined, $7f> will he given 
as the prize; $50 will go to the second prize, $40 
to the third, $30 for the fourth. $20 for the fifth, 
and $10 each for the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, 
tenth, eleventh, anil twelfth. There arc the usual 
awards of prizes for the best oranges, besl lemons, 
the Ix'sl individual varieties of the different citrus 
fruits, the besl exhihil of canned goods, the best 
exhibit of jellies and ma rma lades, the best exhibit 
of nuts and dried fruits, best exhibit of olives and 
olive oils, and the best exhibit of apples. 

For the best exhibit of wines, not to consist of 
less than 150 bottles artistically arranged, the 
prize will be $20. Cut flowers and plants in pots 
will also be awarded prizes. The space is assigned 
free to all exhibitors, and all designs must be com- 
pleted by noon on the opening day of the fail". The 
seventeenth annual exhihil promise's to be by far 
the best that has ever been held. 



86 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 80, 1909. 



DEAD 



CITRUS 



WOOD 



Is more or less prevalent in 
every orange and lemon grove, 
i. e., trees that are unprofitable. 
How many such have you in 
your orchard 1 Would it not 
pay you to put paying trees in 
their stead? 

YOUR HOME GROUNDS 

Should contain at least a few 
trees of the better varieties of 
oranges and lemons. For this 
purpose we have some excep- 
tionally fine trees to offer, be- 
ing grown as specimens. Pos- 
sibly you would like to plant a 
few citrus trees about your 
home this season. If so. will 
you do us the favor to corre- 
spond with us about it? 

The Citrus Fruits 

Historically, Horticulturally, 
Commercially 

A new treatise, giving more 
valuable information about va- 
rieties, methods of planting, 
cultivating, pruning, picking, 
[lacking and shipping than any- 
thing of its kind ever issued, 
which will cheerfully be sent 
you for the small sum of 25 
cents. Correspondence a plea- 
sure. 

San Dimas Citrus 
Nurseries 

R. M. TEAGUE, Prop. 
SAN DIMAS, CAL. 



Now is the Time for Ordering Trees. 

We have a large lot of EUCALYPTUS, 
I'VPRESS, IMNK TREES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of OHNAMEVI'- 
M. TREES \\l> SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
GREEN AM) DECIDUOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS. I>RACE\A, HOSES. ERI- 
CAS, < LMELLLIAS, LZALEAS, KIIODO- 
DENDRON, FRUIT TREES and HERIM 
BUSHES. 



THE. PACIFIC NURSERIES, 
3041 Baker Street, - - San Francisco, 

And Millbrae. Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Hural Press. 



NORTHERN GROWN 

BEST FOR THE WEST 




SOLD BY DEALERS 
CATALOG v CHAS. H.LILLY CO. 

F "EE- PORTLAND 



KOK SALE — California Black Walnut 
seed in sack lots. Wanted — Mayette, Fran- 
queUe and Parisienne Walnut scions; also 
Kupcstris St. George, Hip. x Cord, x Uup. 
10B-8. Rip. x Uup. H306 and 3:i0i) cuttings, 
grafting size. Address* FANCHEH CREEK 
XniKSRIKS. 1'ItKSNO. CAT.. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



HORTICULTURE 

Raisin growers of Sanger as shipping 
raisins to the East in car lots, looking for 
markets. 

Rodger Bros, are preparing a large 
tract of land near Roseville for planting 

to grapes. 

Large fields of strawberries will be 
planted this season in the Bend country, 
Tehama county. 

S. H. Reed is planting 160 acres to 
grapes on his ranch south of K\ Centra, in 
the Imperial valley. 

Raisin buyers are reported busy at Han- 
ford, and quite a tonnage is being pre- 
pared for the market 

Local daily papers state that there are 
at the present time 300,000 boxes of ap- 
ples held in cold storage in San Fran- 
cisco. 

Kenneth McRae of Rialto has organized 
a company which is to collect nitrogen 
from the air and by infusing it into lime 
make a fertilizer for orange groves. 

New settlers in the Jordan Atwater 
tract, in Merced county, will plant a large 
acreage to peach trees this season, and 
also plant 350 acres to sweet potatoes in 
the spring. 

Shipments of walnuts from Fullerton 
for the past season amount to about 100 
cars, netting the growers about $250,000. 
Most of the walnut crop in that vicinity 
has been sold. 

The California Grape Growers' Associa- 
tion will ask the legislature for a $15,000 
biennial appropriation to be used in ex- 
perimental work to improve grapes and 
grape growing. 

An apple experiment station is to be 
established on the Englehardt-Stover 
ranch, near Beaumont, to investigate the 
best methods of raising and marketing 
apples in that locality. 

The Sebastopol Times says that berry 
growers who sold their fruit to canners 
on a basis of $35 per ton, with a contin- 
gency of $5 extra, have received $37.50 
per ton on the average. 

The Merced County Sun says that in 
every section of that county land is be- 
ing prepared for planting to grapes and 
peaches. Never before in the history of 
the county has such extensive planting 
been planned. 

The Kearney estate, at Fresno, is cred- 
ited with having just completed the lar- 
gest single deal of raisins ever consum- 
mated in that county, it having sold about 
1200 tons to the Canners' Association. The 
price is stated to be on a 2-cent basis for 
both the 1907 and 1908 crops. 

AGRICULTURE. 

During the recent high waters near Ar- 
paugh 1000 acres planted to flax by the 
Iowa Land Co. was badly damaged. 

Tobacco growing will be tried out by 
Beveral farmers in the Imperial valley 
this year. The Government is furnishing 
the seed. 

H. J. Whitley, of Los Angeles, has im- 
ported from Egypt seed of the long fibred 
variety of cotton, and will plant it on 
land at Corcoran, believing that climate 
and soil there will produce good crops. 

Over 900 cars of celery from the peat 
lands of Orange county have already been 
shipped. The crop is now going East at 
the rate of 25 cars per day. The total 
crop for the season is estimated to be 
about 1800 cars. 

Since the recent cold snap, potatoes are 
going up In price. A shortage is reported 
in surrounding States, which is using up 
the California supply. Of the 500,000 
sacks on hand, it is stated that a Japanese 
named George Shima, of Stockton con- 



IV1ILL 

Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine. 



TO 



Orange 

and Lemon. 



Nursery Stock 
and Alfalfa. 



Fertilizers. 




MAN 

Importers ol 

IMitrate ol Soda 
Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Double Manure Salts 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 



Hawaiian Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 



Works 

Honolulu and San Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



BONE 



IT'S FREE 

AND BLOOD FERTILIZER 



'FERTILIZE FOR PROFIT.* 



It's the results that count In Iteming and our Fertilizers produce l'< iSITl VK REHULTB, 
that show In the QUALITY of the products as well as the QUANTITY, orange and other 
fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly recommend our fertilizers as producing 
the grandest results in quantity, finality of products, and profits. 

Write lor Catalogue and Prices. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

OFFICE : 444 Pine St., San Francisco. Cal. FACTORIES : San Francisco and Oakland. 



ORCHARDISTS and 
FARMERS 



who have used our goods once, will always come to us for their fertilizers. We are 
making a special study of plant life and are therefore In a position to manufacture 
fertilizers that exactly meet the requirements of each plant. Let us know what you 
Intend to plant, and we will name your special compositions. Write for our new- 
booklet " The Farmers Friend,'' for lMOil. 

THE PACIFIC GUANO & FERTILIZER COMPANY 

26SE Market St.. Sun Francisco. Cal. 



RAIN! 



REX! 



RAIN! 



USE 



REX! 



RAIN! 



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The enormous rain storms of the past weeks have been great producers of fungi 
on the growing fruit trees of the Pacific Coast. More than ever will it be necessary 
between now and the time that the buds open, for the orcbardist to spray his trees 
with lime and sulphur solution in order to prevent Curl Leaf and Twig Borer on his 
peach and almond trees, and Scale and Fungi on the other trees. The vines should 
also be sprayed to prevent Mildew. Rust. Tbrip and the other insect pests incidental 
to moist weather. The California Rex Spray Company, at Benicia. Calif., are pre- 
pared to furnish the celebrated RF.X I. IMF. & Sl'LFHFR SOLUTION in any quantity 
on short notice. 

ASH YOUR DEALER. OR ADDRESS: 

CALIFORNIA REX SPRAY COMPANY 

BenlcIa, Cal. 



FRUIT TREES and VINES, Etc. 



BERRIES EUCALYPTUS WALNUTS 
A Good Class of General Nursery Stock. 
Our Prices are Attractive. 



ROSES 



HANNAY NURSERY CO., 



SAN JOSE, CAL. 



EUCALYPTUS 



l.argH stock -All Varieties 
Hardy and Selected Rapid (Growers 
Write for free illustrated booklet. 
LLOYD It. TAYLOR, Modesto, cal. 



THE SEED HOUSE OF THE 
GREAT SOUTHWEST 

Headquarters for Ranchers, Garden- 
ers, Nurserymen and Poultrymen. 



A SPECIAL EUCALYPTUS DEPARTMENT. 



Write for catalog 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO., 

113-115 N. Main St., Lot Angeles, Cal. 



BARTLETT PEARS 

I have a large stock of Bartlett Hears 
that cannot be excelled for size and qual- 
ity, grown on whole roots one year old. 
Prices reasonable. Those desiring In anv 
quantity, address, 

It. P. BACHUS, LAKKPORT. CAL. 

rwni French Prunes on lvach 

'I l~% <\ find Apricots, Mulrs and 
1*1 Jl>fcJ Tuscan i lines, and many 

I WT WT ^fc other varieties 

M. M. W/kS irees; all fine budded 
stock. Larue stock of nil 
the leading varieties of Apples, grafted on w holt- 
roots and fiee from all pests. Also a tine stuck of 
Cherries, Pears. Plums, etc. Send for price list 

A. I . SCHEIDECKER. Sebastopol, Cal 

Prop Pleasant View Nursery. 



January 30, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



87 




LARGEST AND 
FINEST 
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1500 ACRES. 
Experimental Farm 

Plant No. 1, 640 acres. 
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No. 2, 130 acres. 
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Plant No. 3, 640 acres. 
Citrus Nursery and 
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100 acres. 



PEACHES APRICOTS 
WALNUTS FIGS 

ORANGES OLIVES 
ROSE BUSHES 
GRAPE VINES 

THE SIMS 
CLING PEACH 

Is the peach to plant. 

We have the trees. 



OUR CATALOGUES 

California Horticulture — The 
Fruit Grower's Guide 

Beautifully illustrated. De- 
scribes 2(100 different varieties 
of trees and plants. Contains 
valuable suggestions on plant- 
ing, pruning and care of or- 
chards. 

.Mailed Eor 25c. in stamps. 



ANNUAL 
PRICE CATALOGUE 

Mailed Free on Application. 



BURBANK'S 
NEW CREATIONS 

Send 'i")!'. for beautifully il- 
lustrated booklel in colors, de- 
scribing the Santa Rosa. Gavi- 
ota, Formosa, and the Vesuvius 
Plums, the Rutland Plumcot, 
Royal and Paradox Walnuts. 
We are sole propagators and 
disseminators. 

PAID-VP CAPITA!. * 200.008.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

GeO.C ROeding Pres. & Mgr. 

3Box 18 Fresno.California.USAC 



trols nearlj' half. This man controlled 
the potato situation two years ago, when 
he cleared a nice sum. 

Prof. H. P. Roberts of the Kansas State 
Agricultural College claims to have by 
experimenting succeeded in perfecting a 
new variety of wheat that will raise the 
average crop of Kansas from 14 to 20 
bushels to the acre. 

The Gridley Vegetable and Fruit Grow- 
ers' Association at their meeting last 
Thursday decided on the varieties of to- 
matoes and potatoes they will plant the 
coming season. President Gilstrap re- 
ports buyers as already getting in line to 
handle the output of the association. 

LIVE STOCK. 

Local butchers of Grass Valley are hav- 
ing fat hogs shipped to them from Sutter 
county. 

The Imperial Valley Milk Condensing 
Co. is having plans and estimates made 
for its new factory. 

A co-operative creamery company has 
recently been organized and will establish 
a creamery at Santa Clara. 

A co-operative retail milk depot is to 
be established at Los Angeles by dairy- 
men to afford them a market. 

The State of Washington is short on 
eggs and is looking to California for sup- 
plies for the next three months. 

P. H. Christensen has purchased the 
Riverside creamery in Humboldt county. 
This is one of the leading creameries in 
that section. 

The city council of Redlands has adopt- 
ed an ordinance requiring all cows to be 
tested with tuberculin before their milk 
can be sold in that city. 

Fresno county has appointed N. P. 
.lusty to fill the new office of sheep in- 
spector, to see that sheep afflicted with 
scab are properly dipped. 

The big Hardin ranch, near Lovelock, 
Nevada, has recently secured a carload of 
two-year-old Hereford bulls from Col. Jas. 
Marzen, to place on their range. 

W. M. Forrester, of San Luis Obispo 
county, has driven 1500 head of Angora 
goats from his home ranch to the Imperial 
valley, where he proposes to establish a 
big goat farm. 

It is stated that fully 3000 acres will 
be planted to alfalfa this season in Dis- 
trict No. 70, near Yuba City. The in- 
crease in alfalfa acreage means more dai- 
ries for Sutter county. 

The Hanford Journal says that G. L. 
Young, living near there, is feeding nearly 
100 head of hogs on raisins. He claims 
that the hogs are gaining nicely on a 
three-pound ration daily. 

An addition to the building of the Lu- 
cerne creamery is to be made, which, with 
new machinery to be installed, promises 
convert this creamery into one of the 
largest and finest in the State. 

At a recent meeting of Kings County 
Beekeepers' Association the proposition 
of State supervision and inspection of 
bees was endorsed, and an appropriation 
of $2500 for the purpose was asked from 
the legislature. 

A break in the levee on the Colusa side 
of the Sacramento river, above Meridan, 
last week, caused great damage, particu- 
larly to live stock. Several hundred head 
of cattle are reported to have been 
drowned. 

At the National Wool Growers' Conven- 
tion, held at Pocatello, Idaho, January 
14 10, it was decided to establish a wool 
storage warehouse at Chicago on the co- 
operative plan. Over 1000 delegates at- 
tended the meeting. 

Seventeen cows belonging to the St. 
Vincent Orphanage, in Sonoma county, 
were drowned last week. The flood caused 



a dyke to break, letting water into the 
field with a rush and drowning the cattle 
before they could be rescued. 

The Oregon Poultry Association held 
its fourteenth annual show at Portland, 
closing last week. The show room space 
was all taken by birds entered for prizes, 
and the attendance was sufficient to make 
the exhibition self-sustaining. 

With a large number of representative 
live stock men of practically all States 
west of the Missouri river present, the 
twelfth annual convention of the Ameri- 
can National Livestock Association con- 
vened at 10 o'clock January 20, for a three 
days meeting at Los Angeles. The Pa- 
cific Ri'kai. Pkkss representative is at- 
tending these meetings, and we expect a 
full report in our next issue. 

The settlement of the Sturgeon ranch, 
south of. Newman, in Merced county, has 
been one of the most important events in 
the development of the West Side during 
the past year. Of the 1540 acres com- 
prised in the ranch, about 1000 are now 
in alfalfa, and it will be but a short time 
until the West Side staple crop will cover 
the entire acreage. The output of cream 
from this ranch alone, when it is fully 
seeded, will be equal to that of many com- 
munities that call themselves dairy cen- 
ters. At a very conservative estimate 
this ranch is capable of producing $5000 
worth of butter-fat per month. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

A new market building, to cost $21,000, 
is to be erected and ready for occupancy 
at San Jose by April 1. 

A big dredge is being installed by the 
Crocker-Huffman Co., to be used in clean- 
ing mud cut of their big irrigation canal 
in Merced county. 

The State board of prison directors has 
lowered the price of grain bags from Co 
to 5% cents. The supply of prison bags 
on hand now is about 7000. 

A bill has been presented in the Cali- 
fornia legislature appropriating $150,000 
for a State Normal School for Fresno, pro- 
vided that city donates a site for the 
building. 

Wholesale prices for meat were reported 
as being higher at Los Angeles this week 
than for the past five years. The high 
prices affect quotations on cattle, sheep 
and hogs. 

It is claimed that glowers in Sonoma 
county have 2000 bales of the 1908 hop 
crop still on hand, with no market de- 
mand. The hold-over crop in the State 
is estimated at 32,000 bales. 

The prospects are that the present ses- 
sion of the California legislature will ap- 
propriate $400,000 to meet a like appro 
priation asked for from the U. S. Gov- 
ernment, to lie used on reclamation work 
on the Sacramento river. 

The People's Ditch Co., of Kings county, 
has decided to commence work at once to 
rebuild the headgate, washed out by the 
floods two weeks ago. The time required 
to build a new headgate will be several 
weeks, and the cost heavy, as 35,000 feet 
of lumber will be required. 

The great Rancho Del Puerto, consisting 
of 18,000 acres, bordering the San Joaquin 
river in Stanislaus county, is to be cut up 
into small tracts and sold to settlers. This 
tract extends from Crows Landing to 
Grayson and Westley, and contains some 
of the finest land in California. The trad 
is to be irrigated from the San Joaquin 
river. 



MODESTO NURSERY. 

Complete Line of Citrus and Deciduous 
TREES, 

BERRIES, VINES AND ORNAMENTAL STOCK. 

Write for PRICES NOW. 
SHERLOCE &CARDWBLL, Modesto, ( al. 
Box 272. 




Greater productiveness of trees 
—larger, cleaner, and finer fruit 
— more money. Isn't that fruit 
growers' reasoning? Nothing 
will contribute to this end more 
than effective spraying. And 
Effective Spraying can best be 
attained with 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

Effective spraying means 
High Pressure Spraying and 
till the advent of the Bean 
Magics a high pressure could not 
be maintained with a hand pump 
for any length of time, on account 
of the body-racking effort 
needed to operate it. The Bean 

Eatent spring divides the work 
etween the two strokes of the 
handle and works against only 
one-half the pressure shown on 
the gauge and saves exactly 
one-third the labor. 

Our illustrated catalog No. 21 de- 
scribes ten sizes of hand pumps, and 
contains much valuable spray infor- 
mation, and formulas. Catalog No. 
22 describes Power Sprayers. Both 
books sent free. Write for our spe- 
cial offer; state number of acres and 
kind of fruit. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO. 

211 West Julian Street 
San Jose, Cal. 



PEACH TREES 



To insure prompt delivery order 
at once 

A CHOICE LOT OF 

IVfUIRS 

LOVELLS 

PHILLIPS 

TUSCANS 

ELBERTAS 

in different sizes 

SPECIAL rates on 500 or 
more trees. 



FIRST here 



FIRST served. 



OREGON NURSERY COMPANY 
Salem, Oregon. 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

Large Assortment. All Varieties. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS. 

Transplanted In Hats 100 each. 
Write for prices, giving amount wanted. 

w. A. RBINHOLDLT 

Main Street Nursery, - - - - Petaluma, Cal. 

CRIMSON WINTER RHUBARB 

Now Is good time to plant pedigreed plants only. 
flJSO per dOCj SH per 100; 510 per 1000. 



All k IikIh of small fruit and berry plants, 

J. B. WAGNER, Pasadena, Cal. 

The Rhubarb and Berry Special lit Dept. i. 



88 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January :iO, 1909. 



The Field. 



POINTS OF POTATO GROWING. 

Mr. L. D. Westfall of Jefferson, Ore., 
gives in the Pacific Homestead a detailed 
account of his ways with potatoes which 
are suggestive for California conditions 
also, -except that in some parts of the 
State his dates of planting are later than 
are desirable. The farther you go south 
the earlier should be the planting, except 
in low, frosty places or where the soil 
may be too cold and wet. We take the 
following paragraphs from Mr. Westfall's 
account. 

"Anyone can raise potatoes." So can 
anyone raise wheat, corn, walnuts, or 
prunes. But haphazard work in any cul- 
ture is unprofitable. 

The desideratum of the potato grower 
should be to produce tubers of even, mar- 
ketable size and in paying quantities. The 
head work should begin one year before 
the crop matures. 

Seed selection should, where practicable, 
be made in the field. Pass by all vines 
having green or yellow leaves. Choose 
hills having vines all naturally ripe. The 
hills earliest ripe are preferable. Such 
tubers will naturally produce their kind: 
early and evenly maturing potatoes. Up- 
on looking over the average Oregon potato 
field, many vines stand green and tall, 
while most of them are, and all should be, 
dead ripe — with vines stripped and often 
prostrate. 

Those proud-like, green vines are ab- 
normal. They are the upshoots of run- 
out seed. Their tubers are often many, 
but small. Many of them are pointed. 
Sometimes scores of narrow, worthless po- 
tatoes are found under a large, imposing 
green vine. By the usual method of se- 
lecting seed from the bin, many of these 
potatoes which were small and numerous 
in the hill, with green vines, are chosen. 
So the next season the percentage of 
worthless potatoes is greater. Here is one 
cause, and the main one, of potatoes "run- 
ning out." 

Select for seed those tubers of shallow 
eyes and having wide-like ends of about 
even size. It is too late this season to 
select seed in the patch. As you sort your 
harvested crop, choose for seed those that, 
in shape and character, are true to the 
type of their variety — true to the best 
type. Thus can the stock be kept up; 
yes, improved to pedigree potatoes. To 
this end reject all pointed, deep-eyed and 
slim seed. The last kind — long, thin, 
with many eyes, often called "ladyfingers" 
— are the kind that shoot up the tall, 
proud, never-maturing green vines. 

The seed should be stored in a place 
of even temperature, not warm enough to 
sprout nor cold enough to chill. 

About a month before planting, in- 
vigorate the seed potatoes by spreading 
them thinly on shed, or barn floors and 
exposing to all light avoidable. By this 
means will be started short, stout, green 
sprouts, that will, aftar harvesting, soon 
spring up as vigorous vines. 

Do not allow the seed to become ener- 
vated by throwing out long, white, sickly 
sprouts in the bin. 

Before planting treat the seed for scab, 
by dipping in a solution of formaldehyde 
and water — one-fourth pint of formalde 
hyde to ten gallons of water. This is one- 
fourth stronger than is used for grain. 

Planting. — In this climate for early po- 
tatoes plant from the 25th of March to 
the 15th of April. Whole potatoes may be 
planted during the winter, but they will 
do as well if planted April 1. Always a 
larger crop may be secured by planting 
whole tubers. Moreover the crop will be 
of more even size. Fifteen bushels of 
seed planted whole on one acre will yield 



more potatoes than five bushels of cut 
seed on the same area. But fifteen bush 
els cut and planted on three acres of equal 
fertility will yield more than a like 
amount on one acre. So If the seed is 
plenty and cheap, plant whole: if high 
and scarce, cut. Never cut very small. 
There should be two or more eyes and 
some chunk of spud to each piece. 

Soils and Tiikiis Preparation. — The po- 
tato grower should, where practicable, 
avoid heavy clay soils, also gravel and 
coarse sandy soils; yet, by using heavy 
applications of barnyard manure these 
may be made to produce pay crops. The 
volcanic soils, i. e., those formed by dis- 
integrated basaltic rock, are especially fit 
for the growth of the best quality of po- 
tatoes. Such soils in the eastern part of 
Oregon and Washington yield potatoes in 
large quantities; while the red lands of 
the Willamette valley produce the best 
quality, yet usually a smaller quantity. 

The overflow sandy lands of the Pa- 
cific coast are almost ideal for potato 
culture. The deposits of the overflows 
are nature's best, free fertilizers, and the 
loose sandy loam is the natural home 
of tubers. 

The eating qualities of the bottom 
grown potatoes are inferior to the hill- 
grown, especially those grown in the red 
hills or iron-dyed basaltic lands. 

Successive crops have proven the over- 
flow, sandy bottom lands the most profit- 
able for growing potatoes for market. 
These lands usually yield large crops of 
smooth, even-sized spuds. 

The uplands of clay and gravel usually 
mark their potato crops with knots and 
rough jackets. 

However, if in the form of straw ma- 
nure and especially green crops, large 
quantities of humus are added to these 
uplands, they will yield large crops of 
good quality. A potato growers at New 
Era, Ore., one of the most successful in 
the Northwest, says that green clover, that 
would mature $25 worth of seed per acre, 
is worth more than $25 for potato fer- 
tilizer. Green vetch is a full second to 
green clover as fertilizer. Don't hesitate 
to bury with the plow the nitrogenous 
green herbs. You will realize their resur- 
rection in future pay crops. 

Planting and Cultivation. — If the land 
is clean it is well to plant in drills. About 
21 inches apart in rows 42 inches apart. 
If the land is foul, plant both ways — rows 
42 inches apart, check-rows 30 inches 
apart. Use a marker with three or five 
runners. Make the main furrows with a 
two-row marker that will furrow five or 
six inches deep; or a single shovel plant 
may be used to run the main, deep fur- 
rows. The reason for using a marker 
with no more than two runners for mak- 
ing the deep furrows is because one with 
more runners would not furrow suffi- 
ciently deep. This marker, to run the 
proper depth, should have runners made 
differently from ordinary markers. For 
each runner take a piece of timber four 
inches on the ground, eight inches tall by 
two feet long. Cut the front ends of the 
runner vertical and wedge-shaped. This 
shaped runner will cling to the ground 
and run deep, instead of sliding over the 
surface like a sled. 

Potatoes planted in these furrows can 
be quickly covered by harrowing the 
ground crossways. Harrow the ground 
again after a week or ten days, then again 
as the potatoes are coming up and once 
more in a week. 

Cultivate deep twice, afterward more 
shallow. Check-rowed potatoes should be 
cultivated deep both ways. This will, in 
addition to subduing the weeds, aerate the 
soil and loosen up the bed for the coming 
potatoes. 

Later cultivation should be shallow so 
as not to break roots or injure the tubers. 



EUCALYPTUS TREES 

AND GENERAL NURSERY STOCK. 

Large supply of Peach trees, Ornamental trees, 
Ornamental plants, and Rose bushes, 
in large quantities. 



WRITE US FOR PRICE LIST AND DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE. 



ORANGE COUNTY NURSERY & LAND CO. 



FULLERTON, CAL. 

BRANCH NURSERIES: 



Riverside, Cal. 



Corcoran, Cal. 



THE MARSHALL NURSERIES 

FOR FRUIT TREES, GRAPEVINES, 
PALMS, ROSES. 

FULL LINE OF EVERYTHING GROWN BY US. 

S. W. Marshall & Son, Nurserymen. 

BOX 652, FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 



TREES 



GRAPE VINES 



YOUR ORDER PLEASE. 

Write us if In the market for 

APPLES, PEARS, PEACHES, APRICOTS, PLUMS, PRUNES, 
ALMONDS, FIGS, WINE, RAISIN AND TABLE GRAPES. 

We grow our stock on New Virgin soil Insuring a healthy growth, i lur prices always 
right. Send for Descriptive Catalogue, also Souvenir I'lcture of the Largest Tree in the 
World. All Free. Address: 

THE FRESNO NURSERY 

F. H. Wilson, Proprietor, .... Fresno, Cal., Box 615. 



KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

WIIOI.KSAI.K Q BOWERS OF 

Deciduous Fruit Trees and Crape Vines 

RELIABLE STOCK AND LOWEST PRICES 

Main Oiiice, FRESNO, CAL, Box 604 B 

BRANCHES AT MERCED AND TURLOCK 



% Million Eucalyptus Trees in variety., 

Transplanted in Bats of 1 00 each. We prefer orders of 1,000 rather 
than 10,000; outside limit 120,000. Our trees are of the highest standard 
in quality. Correspondence invited. Our Booklet telling when, how, and 
what to plant free to our patrons only. Address 

W. A. T. STRATTON, Nurseryman, Petaluma, Cal. 



ENCINAL NURSERIES 

SIMCCIAI.TIIOS: Frananette Wiilmit. grafted on Rlack Walnut root. Absolutely 

genuine. 

Wonder Walnut Xrw: The largest, most prolille, and youngest bean r known. 

Twelve nuts grown on a one year tree in nursery row, placed side by side, measure 
22 inches; each measuring ." V 2 to C % inches In circumference. Thin shell, blight re- 
sistant. Fully tested for years. Limited stuck of grafting wood and trees. 

I''. C. w ll. I. so\. Prop. Sunnyvale, Santa Clara County, CaL 



GRAPE VINES, BERRIES AND ROSES 

Ornamental, Shade and Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

A Good Class of General Nursery Stock. 
SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

CHICO NURSERY COMPANY, Chico, California. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Growers ot Commercial and Ornamental Eucalypti. 

KKSTR1N ,v KKSTKIN, KKMTKI N BROS* 

Modesto Kuc. Nursery Vlgnolo Kuc. Nursery 

.Modesto, Cal. Anaheim, CaL 



January 30, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



SIX of the Most Valuable 
New Fruits 

EVER INTRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA. 

"IMPROVED FKENCH" PRUNE. Origi- 
nated by Luther Burbank. 

"CONCORD" WALNUT. French variety. 
Grafted trees only. Better than 
Franquette or Mayette. 

"PAUL" CHERRY. Finest black cherry. 

"PHILIPPI" GRAPE. Handsomer than To- 
kay; a month earlier. Disinfected 
cuttings only for sale; to comply 
with quarantine regulations. 

All these, like Muir, Lovell, and Phillips 
Cling peaches, are of California origin. 

"COMET" RED CURRANT. Much larger, 
earlier and sweeter than any other. 

"MAY-DUKE" GOOSEBERRY. Earliest of 
all; large, smooth skin. 

WRITE FOR FURTHER PARTICULARS 



EUCALYPTUS TREES, 

by the 1000 or 100,000; no stronger stock; 
grown in the open, without latli screen or 
shade; therefore hardened to all weather. 



GENERAL NURSERY STOCK 



LEONARD COMES NURSERY CO., Inc. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. INCORPORATED 1905. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara County, Cal. 




GOOD 





PLANTS - BULBS - TREES 

New 1909 
CATALOGUE 

JUST OFF 1 THE PRESS 



11<> pages, fully illustrated, contains Informa- 
tion of value to planters. 

General facts about seeds, plants, bulbs, 
flowers and trees; when and how to plant, 
the best garden tools, etc. Sent free on 
request. Write for copy. 

Germain 

SEED AND PLANT CO. 

Dept. LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 



PLANT BERRIES 

Mammoth Austin, Gardena and Lucretia 

DEWBERRIES 

California Surprise (earliest of all) , Miller 
and (Juthbert 

RASPBERRIES 

Giant Himalaya Blackberry, Loganberry, 
Burbank's Phenominal and Mammoth 
Blackberry and 

STRAWBERRIES 

Write lor Catalog 

G. H. HOPKINS & SON 

Burbank, Cal. 



Choice Kentucky Wonder Hean Seed, 6 cents 
per pound. 

Pure Brown Australian onion Heed, SI. 00 per 
pound. 

Satisfaction guaranteed. Cash with order. 

OCEANO TRADING COMPANY 

Oceano, Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

Grafted or grown from carefully selected 
seed. Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



Th, 



Ruehl- Wheeler Nursery 

Fruit. Ornamental and Citrus Trees. 
Strong Field-Grown Roses. 
PHONE BOX 828 

BLUE 1396 SAN JOSE 



The roots are spreading wide and the 
tubers growing fast when the bloom ap- 
pears. Thereafter the soil should be un- 
disturbed, unless it be a shallow mid-row 
work to throw dirt toward the row, thus 
guarding against sunburnt potatoes. How- 
ever, if you do harvest some of the latter, 
store them. Sunburnt potatoes excel in 
vitality. They are poisoned for feed, but 
are strengthened for seed. 



Forestry. 



PROSECUTION FOR FOREST 
FIRING. 



Pour townships, making 144 square 
miles, or 92,160 acres of pine, fir, spruce 
and other valuable timber, burned wan- 
tonly for the purpose of clearing the brush 
so that he might be better enabled to hunt 
deer, is the record which the federal grand 
jury has inscribed in an indictment 
against Louis R. Webb and upon which he 
will be tried. Should the trial result in 
a conviction the court may impose a fine 
of $5000, together with imprisonment in 
the State penitentiary for two years. 

The arrest of Webb was brought about 
by special agents of the government sent 
to this coast to prevent the destruction 
of government timber. It had come to 
the knowledge of the authorities in Wash- 
ington that many of the devastating forest 
fires on this coast and elsewhere had been 
caused by hunters, who have a perilous 
habit of burning chapparal and other 
brush for the purpose of making clear- 
ings so that they might trail deer and 
other wild game more easily. These 
agents have been working on this coast 
for several months and the arrest of Webb 
will be followed by that of several other 
offenders. 

Webb lives with his family and his 
brothers in Oregon just north of the Cali- 
fornia boundary line and 50 miles from 
Grants pass. Last summer Webb, with 
his two brothers and two of his neighbors, 
crossed the line into California for the 
purpose of hunting deer, which are very 
plentiful in that region. They established 
their rendezvous in two small log cabins 
in a little clearing in a dense forest of 
sugar pine and fir. It was at this spot 
that the government officers discovered 
that the fire started that laid waste the 
greater part of four townships. 

Webb's defense is that the fire was 
started by unknown persons at consider- 
able distance from his camp, and that he 
and his associates were obliged to back- 
fire in order to save themselves and the 
cabins from destruction. 



THE CALAVERAS BIG TREES 



It is telegraphed from Washington that 
largely through the efforts of Mrs. Lovell 
White, the prospects for getting Senator 
Perkins' Calaveras big tree bill through 
the House are improving. Mrs. White re- 
cently saw the President regarding the 
bill, and he advised her to consult with 
the California delegation, promising that, 
in case it should be thought necessary, he 
would send a special message on the sub- 
ject to Congress. Senators Perkins and 
Flint and Congressman Smith met Mrs. 
White by invitation, and after discussing 
the matter, it was agreed that as soon as 
Speaker Cannon returns to town he shall 
be visited by the delegation and that he 
be asked to permit the bill to be called up. 
Flint, Perkins, Smith, Fnglebright and 
Needham will probably compose the dele- 
gation. There seems to be no opposition 
to the passage of the bill by the House. 
It already has passed the Senate. It calls 
for no appropriation, but merely for the 
exchange of lands or timber for the big 
tree grove. 



TREES 



TRUE TO 
NAME 



AND 



Propagated from the Best 
Specimens of Their Kind 

TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS 

PLACER NURSERIES 



(ESTABLISHED 1878) 



Our assortment comprises all the best com- 
mercial varieties of 



Peaches 

Plums 

Pears 



Apricots 
Almonds 
Cherries 



Apples 
Persimmons 
Grapes, Etc. 



and our stock is the best that years of experience, care in selec- 
tion and care in growing can produce. That is what you want. 



ORDER NOW 



WRITE US 



Catalogue and price list mailed on application. 

THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO. 

NEWCASTLE, CALIFORNIA. 

Agents Wanted. 



ROSES 

Rose buyers are requested to send for our 20th Anniversary Catalog, de- 
scriptive of the New Roses and over 135 Standard Sorts. Nurserymen 
and dealers will be sent surplus list upon request. 

ARMSTRONG NURSERIES, Box 117, Ontario, Cal. 



Grafted Walnut Trees 

On Black, Soft-shell and Resistant Roots. 
Seedlings, Citrus, Deciduous, Berry Bushes, etc. 

A. R. RIDEOUT, MAGNOLIA NURSERY, WHITTIER, CAL. 



FRUIT TREES TREES OF ALL KINDS 

We mBke a Specialty ot Muir Peaches. 
Bartlelt Pears. French Prunes, 
and the Commercial Smyrna Figs 

.Send In llHt of your wants and net our prices 
before writing elsewhere. 

MAYWOOD COLONY NURSERY COMPANY 
W. Herbert Samson, Prop., Corning, Cal. 



SEEDS 



For reliable seeds of Utah Alfalfa, Hairy 
Vetch, Peas or Corn, try the 

OAKLAND SEED & PLANT CO- 

OAKLAND, CAL. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 
For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Avenue. Sao Jose. Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 

GROWN IN SUNSHINE 

with roots balled while growing In Mats. Saves 
all roots; make sure success when removed to 
the field and good growth the llrst season. 

Sample lots at wholesale rates. Can take 
from Hats and send In tight packages to save 
cost, risk and time. 

HENRY SHAW, 

320 River St., - - - - Santa Cruz, Cal. 



TREES 



STANISLAUS 
NURSERY 

Pormerly Analy Nursery, of Sebastopol. 

T. J. TRUE, Modesto, R. D. 1 

PRICK U«I ON APPLICATION 



90 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 86, l»09. 



jsvGreat Fences 



I 



Made of wire that is 
life and strength — wire 
that stretches true and tight 
and yields just enough under impact 
to give back every jolt and jam it 
receives. 

Made of materials selected and tested 
] in all the stages from our own mines, 
" s through our own blast furnaces and rolling 
and wire mills, to the finished product. Our 
employment of specially adapted metals is 
'■ of great importance in fence wire; a wire 
that must be hard yet not brittle; stiff and springy yet 
flexible enough for splicing — best and most durable 
rence material on earth. 

To obtain these and in addition apply a quality of gal- 
vanizing that will effectually protect against weather 
conditions, is a triumph of the wiremaker's art. 

Thesearecorabined in the American and Ellwood 
fences— the product of the greatest mines, steel 
producing plants and wire mills in the world. 
And with these good facilities and the old 
and skilled employes back of them, we 
maintain the highest standard of ex- 
cellence possible for human skill 
and ingenuity to produce. 

Dealers everywhere, carry- ,^^^^HSLj 
ing styles adapted to every 
purpose. See them. 

American Steel 
& Wire Co. 

Chicago 
New York 
Denver 
San 

Francisco 



FFMriF 



ALFALFA SEED 



Now is tli<' best time to sow A 1 fulfil 
ureal. No crop can lie n'own with leas 
expose or greater profit. 

With good moist soil from four to »l\ 
cro|>M of liiiy ran lie secured in one 

seaaoB. 

i . C. MOItSi: A I II. are by far the 
larccMi dealers in Ufalfa m-eal on Un- 
pad fir Coast. 

We have just received several cars 
from Utah with seed from the best and 
cleanest fields in the choicest farming 
section, and n i» the prettiest seed ere 
hni r ever had in our house. 

The market is steadily advancing and 
We would prefer to quote only on re- 
Hiicsl. Write us and we will mail yon 
njiiii|iI<-n and present market price. 

C. C. HORSE * CO. have just issue. 1 
the handsomest and most useful Seed 
and Plant Cataloisne ever sent out by 
any Seed House on the Pari He Coast. It 
eaa i>e had free or receipt to US of »mir 
inline anil aililri'MN. 

Remember; we grow and deal In all 
Maria of Sri'iU. Plaata and Tree* — the 
catalogue tells you all about It. 

C. C. MORSE & CO. 

Seed Growers and Dealers 

I I .laekNOn St.. Itetail Seed Store. 

Sun Krinielweo. I— Market SI. 



The Irrigator. 



DRAINAGE AND HOW TO GET IT. 

As we are having such a heavy winter 
and so much soil saturated, with the loss 
by deferred plowing and danger to tree 
roots, a plain discussion of drainage 
methods will interest many of our readers 
and help not a few. Mr. C. F. Brown has 
a detailed account in the Irrigation En- 
gineer which has many good suggestions 
for California conditions. 

Wkt Spots on Dry Laxps. — One of the 
most important things in farm drainage 
in arid countries is to know just when 
it becomes necessary. An excellent rule, 
adopted by Mathew Baer, manager of the 
Sommer farm in Tremonton, Utah, is 
never to allow a wet pot to appear a sec- 
•nd season. The experience on this farm 
is that wet spots, due to seepage, appear 
from year to year in different parts of 
ihe farm. By draining these spots as 
the}', appear this farm continues to yield 
annually. 

So much for wet spots which come this 
spring. Our immediate concern is those 
wet spots year before. It is not hard to 
tell even now where the wet spots are. 
They fail to dry even when the wind 
blows for days, and the surface generally 
is dry enough to plow. If you will re- 
member, they needed very little irriga- 
tion, if any, last season. If the crop is 
alfalfa, the tender sprouts are yellow, or 
there is nothing but dry stubble. If an 
orchard, you might have noticed the 
leaves curling last year from the effects 
of alkali. 

When such indications as these exist it 
is time to go exploring below the surface. 
It is surprising how few farmers ever think 
of digging a few holes in the ground even 
when confronted with most certain indi- 
cations of seepage and waterlogging. Be- 
sides showing how thoroughly the soil is 
saturated, test holes will reveal just what 
difficulties will be encountered if draining 
is attempted. In many instances it must 
be put by water bearing strata of sand or 
impervious strata of clay or hardpan. If 
a clay loam is underlaid with a strata of 
sand carrying considerable water, the 
drains should cut into it; if, on the other 
hand, the soil is underlaid by a hardpan 
or impervious strata, there is no need to 
cut through it. 

It may he necessary to secure the assist- 
ance of a surveyor to determine the prac- 
ticability of constructing drains, or if 
there is no question as to fall and proper 
outlet, the services of a surveyor may be 
dispensed with. 

Kinu.s OF DnviiKs. — In many instances 
the open ditch drain is chosen by neces- 
sity. While this method has the advan 
tage of a low first cost and often no out- 
lay of cash, it is always more expensive 
in the end. I have seen it used to ad- 
vantage and especially when used as a 
supply ditch in times of irrigation, rais- 
ing the water to the surface by means of 
check boxes and as a deep drain between 
irrigations. Its use in this way, however, 
is limited to clay soils which stand well. 
The greatest objection to open ditches is 



Nitrate oi Soda 

Nitrate Sold in Original Bags 
NITRATE AGENCIES CO. 

64 Stone Street, New York 
Keyser Building, Baltimore, Md. 
36 Bay Street, East, Spvannah, Ga. 
305 Baronne Street, New Orleans, La. 

140 Dearborn Street, Chicago, III. 
Holcombe & Co., 24 California Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 
603-4 Oriental Block, Scaule, Wash. 

Address Office Nearest You 

Ordera for All Quantities Promptly 

Filled— Write for Quotations 



that they are always partially filled by 
sliding, their efficiency destroyed when 
they should be the most effective. In 
addition, they require considerable land. 
There are instances, though, when open 
ditches are almost self-cleaning, but care 
must be taken in planning them or ex- 
cessive cutting and washing will result. 

Covered drains are the most satisfac- 
tory and efficient. Experience up to date 
is that hard burned, round clay tile is the 
best and most enduring material for cov- 
ered drains. Lumber box drains are also 
used with considerable success when tile 
is too expensive and lumber cheaper. The 
boxes are made with open bottoms or a 
simple ditch culvert with cleats on the 
bottom for clay ground, and with bottoms 
on and small openings at the bottom cor- 
ners for loam and sandy soils. An S-inch 
board on top and 5 or 6-inch sides make 
a fair sized farm drain. It is not known 
just how long such boxes will endure, but 
it is safe to say from five to ten years at 
least. The price of lumber locally will 
determine the cost of such drains. In 
locating lines avoid deep-rooting trees, 
such as thrive in water. When draining 
orchards arrange the lines midway be- 
tween the rows and place them deep if 
possible. I have observed that the roots 
of fruit trees are shallow in wet soils, 
but they are likely to go deeper after the 
soil is drained and actually go into drains 
for moisture in dry seasons. If lines are 
well laid and straight, they may be 
threaded with a joint rod and wire and a 
root cutter pulled through them occasion- 
ally to keep them open. Alfalfa roots will 
enter drains and obstruct they if allowed 
to grow over the lines for more than one 
or two years. Beet roots will also ob- 
struct tile drains. 

Latino Oct Drains. — The proper way 
to lay out drains is with a chain and 
level, setting stakes every 50 or 100 feet, 
a grade stake Hush with the surface of 
the ground and a guide stake for marking 
the staking and cut. A few preliminary 
levels will tell when the lines may be laid 
so as to obtain the required grade. After 
the stakes are set. and the levels run, it 
would be well to dig a few test holes to 
determine the necessary depth and grade. 
For a minimum grade in clay soils use 
1-10 per 100, in sandy soils 2-10 per 100. 
If it is necessary to lay a branch on the 
upper end of a line with a heavier or 
steeper grade than is used below in sandy 
soils, put in a curb 4x4 and two feet be 
low grade for a sand box. It is desirable 
to have the heavier grades near the out- 
let. Ordinarily larged-sized tile is neces- 
sary in irrigated countries, and especially 
in open or sandy soils. Do not use any- 
thing smaller than a four-inch tile. 

Capacity of Drains. — The mains should 
have a capacity of the combined branches. 
Approximately, the carrying capacities of 
round tile on the same grade are propor- 
tional to the squares of uie diameter. To 
determine the relative capacities square 
the diameters and divide the greater by 
the smaller number; the quotient will rep- 
resent *the number of lines of small tile 
which may be used as feeders to a larger 
tile. If the branches are unequal, as four, 
five or six feet, the sum of the squares of 
the branches should be equal to the sur- 
face of the main. If the main is laid on 
a heavier or steeper grade than the 
branches it may be some smaller than 
that called for by the above rule. 

Get a Good Gradk. — The first requisite 
for a well constructed drain is an accu- 
rate and convenient survey of lines. In 
all but clay soils it is absolutely neces- 
sary to have some other guide than the 
running water, because the tile must be 
laid and covered as fast as the trench is 
dug. The reason for this is that the sides 
of the trenches are so apt to slide in; and 
when once they do, the line frequently 



has to be abandoned. As mentioned be- 
fore, do not neglect to place sand boxes 
at points where grades change from 
heavier to lighter ones. An occasional 
observation well at junction points is con- 
venient in watching the subsequent opera- 
tion of the different lines. 

Putting in Ttub. — Digging should al- 
ways begin at the outlet and at no place 
should trenches be dug in which tile can- 
not be readily laid the same day. This 
requirement prevents several men from 
digging by the piece on the same ditch. 
Many farmers will want to try team work 
for the first foot or two. In most in- 
stances they will lose money. Experi- 
ence in the lighter soils has taught that 
the best way to proceed is by a team of 
two or three diggers working together one 
after the other and a tile layer following 
close; often as near as three to five feet 
from the end of the finished trench. For 
digging, 18-inch ditching spades are the 
best. The spading should be regulated so 
that the last one will be full eighteen 
inches. The last digger should not get 
within that distance of the bottom of the 
trench. Don't think that we do not know 
what the "long handled shovel" is. This 
is experience with "long handled shovels," 
garden spades, rounded tile spades and 
ditching spades. A 6 or 8-foot non-ad- 
justable tile scoop with a long handle is 
best for finishing and grading the trench. 
Spades cost $1.75 and scoops $2.50. The 
best scoop we ever used was made by a 
blacksmith for $1.80. 



Onion Sets 125c. a Pound 

Special 1'rlrCBon Larger Quantity. 

Headquarters for all klmls of Meeds. Catalogue 
upon request- KHEK. 

NAVLET BROS., 520 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



January 30, 1909. 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



91 



The most accurate and handiest method 
of digging to grade is by means of a 
light wire set parallel to the grade a foot 
or two above the surface of the ground 
and a light measuring stick with arms on 
top. As the nearest edge of the trench 
should be one foot from the grade stakes, 
the wire may be set directly above the 
stakes. Make the measuring stick 7 feet 
long with a 2-foot arm on one end. To 
set the line put it as much above the 
grade stake at each station as the differ- 
ence between the cut at that station and 
seven. When the ditch is just at grade, 
the top of the perpendicular arm of the 
measuring stick is standing straight in 
the ditch. To avoid knocking the wire 
down, throw the top earth on the side of 
the wire before it is put up, and the other 
on the opposite side. Back sights set up 
on the same principle are sometimes used, 
but the tile layer is always in the way 
when a sight is desired and not all diggers 
can sight well. 

In clay ground with a firm bottom, tile 
laying is comparatively simple. If the 
trench is properly graded, the bottom will 
be hollowed slightly so that the tile will 
not be easily displaced. They should be 
tinned until the tops come together well.' 
Put a few shovelfuls of earth at the sides, 
tamping slightly, then cover to a depth of 
six to eight inches by hand. 

In the lighter soils, and especially when 
there is much water flowing, tile laying 
is the vital part of draining. If the bot- 
tom of the trench is not firm enough to 
stand the weight of a man on a tile, it 
should be made so. Gravel and inch lum- 
ber are used for these purposes. In such 
soils neither digger nor the tile layer 
should stand in the bottom of the trench. 
One cannot appreciate how readily such 
soils are taken up by the water and de- 
posited in the tiles below until he has had 
this experience. When the tiles are laid 
under these circumstances, they should be 
covered with gravel or clay. 



For 



Use 



DUST SPRAY 

VIGORITE BRAND 
HYDRATED LIME 

MANUFACTURED BY 

THE HOLMES LIME CO., Inc. 

Mutual Saving's Bank Building 
San Francisco 

Write for Samples and Prices. 



Ferry's are best because every year 
the retailer gets a new supply, freshly 
tested and put up. You run no risk of 
poorly kept orremnant stocks. We take 
the pains; you get the results. Buy of the 
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Write to 
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SEED OATS \ 

See Salzer's catalog paee 129. 
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speltz, com, potatoes, grasses and clovers and 
farm seeds in the world. Big catalog free: or. 
send lOe in stamps and receive sample ot 
Billion Dollar Grass, yielding 10 tons of hay 
per acre, oats, speltz, barley, etc., easily worth 
$10.00 of any man's money to get a start, and 
catalog free. Or, send 1 4c and we add a sam- 
ple farm seed novelty never seen before by you. 
V THE 8ALZER SEEP CO.. L»Cro«»». Wl»( 



FARMERS' EDUCATIONAL AND 
CO-OPERATIVE UNION. 



PACIFIC SEED COMPo-for^ 

kinds ol seeds, bulbs, onion sets, grass, clover, al- 
falfa seeds. 609 J. St., Sacramento, Cal. Send 
for catalogue. 



To the Editor: In view of the fact 
that perhaps only a few of the readers 
of the Pacific Rural Prkss may be fa- 
miliar with the Farmers' Educational and 
Co operative Union of America, which 
has only recently taken root in the State, 
it is believed that a little information 
concerning the movements may be appre- 
ciated. Unlike any former organization 
for farmers, the Farmers' Union, as we 
call it for short, has had a growth thus 
far that indicates its staying qualities. 
There are several features that seem to 
appeal to even the most skeptical. 

It is my purpose, therefore, to call at- 
tention to a few brief facts as regards 
the organization and what it is doing in 
this State just now. 

To begin with, I may say that it was 
during the month of October, 1902, Newt 
Gresham of Point, Raines county, Texas, 
conceived the idea of organizing the 
Farmers' Educational and Co-operative 
Union of America, not only for the better- 
ment of the farmers in his own neigh- 
borhood, but the farmers of the Nation. 

From its first local, organized by Bio. 
Gresham, which had but ten members, 
the union has grown until it now has 
more than 2,500,000 members; it has a 
State organization in 26 States, and its 
growth is even now more phenomenal 
than ever before in its history. The ex- 
pense of membership is very small. The 
admittance fee is but $2, while the na- 
tional dues are only 60 cents per year. 
Local dues, of course, are what the local 
people decide they shall be. 

In the Southern and Middle West 
States, where the union has been longer 
in operation, remarkable results have 
been secured through it. Not only does 
the union prove an advantage to its mem- 
bers in selling their products, but in buy- 
ing supplies and staples as well. In a 
word, the union has the feature of bring- 
ing the producer and consumer together. 
Its national strength aids the member- 
ship everywhere. 

It would require a great amount of 
space to recite the many instances where 
the union did valiant service in rescuing 
the cotton growers of the South from the 
hands of the speculators. The "stunt" 
of playing havoc with the growers' pro- 
dust in the matter of manipulating the 
market may be great fun for the specu- 
lator, but it is not very satisfactory to 
the producer. Hence, when the cotton 
growers of the Southern States decided 
to do business through union channels, 
the outcome was watched with more than 
ordinary interest. Instead of selling the 
cotton to the speculators, who wouldn't 
give more because they could get it for 
less, the cotton growers managed to make 
a shipment to Manchester, England, to 
the spinners' direct, which netted them 
more than twice what they had been able 
to secure through the usual channels for 
a number of years before. That the 
union was a success in that matter was 
thus demonstrated. And if it could thus 
handle cotton, why not other products? 

In California the movement began first 
at Kingsburg. That was less than three 
years ago. Three locals were organized, 
one near Kingsburg and two near Reed- 
ley. These locals struggled along, gain- 
ing a few members. Those who had 
interested themselves to join became 
staunch workers and they sowed seed, in 
season and out of season. They needed 
some one who understood the movement 
and knew how to organize. It was some 
time before such a person was sent to 
us by the national union. Last fall, how- 
ever, the national union decided to send 



Doubles the Yield 
of Barley 

Test it for Yourself Entirely Free 

Let us send sufficient Nitrate of Soda 
for you to try, asking only that you use 
according to our directions, and let us 
know the result. To the twenty-five farm- 
_ ers who get the best results, we offer, as 
a prize, Prof. Voorhees' most valuable book on fertilizers, 
their composition, and how to use for different crops. 
Handsomely bound, 327 pages. 

Apply at once for Nitrate of Soda by post-card, as this offer is necet' 
sari/y limited. "Grass Growing for Profit." another book of useful 
Information, will be sent free to farmers while the present edition lasts, 
if paper is mentioned in which tiiis advertisement is seen. 

Send name and complete address on post-card 

Win. S.Myers, Director, John Street and 71 Nassau, New York 



FERTILIZE WITH 

Nitrate of Soda 



May be purchased in large or small lots from 

R. A. HOLCOMBE & CO. 

24 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Free Literature sent on application. 



W. W. Welch to this State as the State 
Organizer, in whose hands the work of 
organizing the State was put. Bro. 
Welch has been much handicapped by 
reason of the serious illness of his good 
wife, but he has been able to arouse in- 
terest to such a degree that since his 
coming the membership of the counties 
of Fresno, Kings and Tulare has grown 
to more than 1500. Within the past couple 
of weeks Mr. Welch has secured the serv- 
ives of some good organizers whom he 
keeps in the field, directing the work from 
his office in the city, for Kingsburg is 
the State headquarters. Interest is 
aroused in this part of the State to a 
point where people are clamoring to have 
locals organized in nearly every school 
district. Prom reports sent in by the 
organizers, we learn that the membership 
is growing at the rate of perhaps 250 
per week, and there would be more if the 
organizers could cover the field more 
rapidly. 

It is the purpose of the union in this 
State to pay attention especially to fruit 
and raisins, but all lines of products are 
to be benefited through the operations of 
the union. The raisin and dried fruit 
situation is a serious one, and with the 
people in central California this is the 
all-absorbing subject. The union expects 
to so organize the growers that they 
will be able to market their product direct 
to the consumer in the East and South. 
The union owns and controls now more 
than 5000 warehouses. The managers are 
employed at a salary, are under heavy 
bonds and handle the growers' produce at 
cost. The idea is to furnish to the con- 
sumer such things as may be wanted at 
the actual cost. 

The scheme is a very simple one. It 
has been worked with other lines of pro- 
ducts, and those most acquainted with the 
plan insist that the matter of raisins and 
dried fruit will work as well as anything 
else. 

At Fresno, February 3 next, Is to lie 
held a general mass-meeting In the Bar 
ton opera house. Rates of a fare and a 
third have been made from all points In 



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12 in 

14 in long, 

16 in. long, 

18 in. long. 

24 in. long. 

30 in. long, 

AK'<*ut8 Wautt'il 



PRICES 

long, % 9.00 per lOOu 

10.00 per 1000 

11.25 per 1000 

12.50 per 1000 

15.00 per 1000 

17.50 per 1000 

very tvhero. 



YUCCA MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

13SO WILLOW ST., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



the State. The purpose of this meeting 
will be to discuss the plans of the union 
as to how it is proposed to handle the 
raisin and fruit crop of this State. The 
warehouse system of the organization is 
to be explained. An invitation is ex- 
tended all who may be interested, and 
Inquiring ones will be given special atten- 
tion. It is hoped to have the national 
president, Charles J. Barrett, of Union 
City, Ga., present to address the meeting, 
but this cannot be definitely announced 
at this time. In any event there will be 
those present who will be able to give the 
details of the workings of the union 
system in marketing products. 

One thing, however, is to be noted: 
The State organizer makes frequent re- 
mark that the union can do nothing un- 
less the membership does some hard 
work. The organization without hard 
work on the part of the members will 
avail nothing. But when the membership 
does work, the result desired seems to 
come easier through the Farmers' Union 
than by any plan tried heretofore. 

I'. V. Adhxsbach. 

Kingsburg, Cal., .January 20, 1909. 



92 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



.January 80, 190*. 



Live Stock and Dairy. 



CERTIFIED MILK. 



What It Means and How It is Produced. 



Written for the PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 
By LESLIE W. SYMMES. Agricultural Engineer. 



(Continued From Page 

The requirements as recommended by 
the United States Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry for a sanitary dairy, which have 
been adopted by both the Oakland and 
San Francisco milk commissions, must be 
complied with, in order that the milk 
receive their certification. As these re- 
quirements are similar in most respects 
to those imposed by other milk commis- 
sions in the United States, we give them 
in detail. A careful reading of these 
requirements will give our dairymen con- 
templating the production of certified 
milk a very good idea of the conditions 
which must be met in order to receive 
certification from a medical milk com- 
mission : 

The milk commission proposes to cer- 
tify to the purity of milk which comes up 
to a certain standard and to provide for 
the protection of both dairymen and users 
of milk by prescribing rules by which 
that standard of purity is to be attained, 
including the sealing of each bottle of 
"certified milk" with a special cap. It 
proposes further to arrange for systematic- 
inspection of the dairies furnishing "cer- 
tified milk" by competent veterinarians, 
bacteriologists and chemists. 

The most practical standard for the 
estimation of cleanliness in the handling 
and care of milk is its relative freedom 
from bacteria. The commission has fixed 
upon a maximum of 10,000 germs of all 
kinds per ccm. of milk, which must not 
be exceeded to obtain the endorsement 
of the commission. This Standard must 
be attained solely by measures directed 
toward perfect cleanliness, proper cooling 
and prompt delivery. 

The milk certified by the commission 
must contain not less than 3.50% of but 
ter-fat and have all the other character 
istics of pure, wholesome milk. Milk must 
not be sold as certified more than 24 hours 
after the time of milking. 

Dealers. — In order that dealers who 
incur the expense and take the precau- 
tions necessary to furnish a truly clean 
and wholesome milk may have some 
means of bringing these facts before the 
public, the commission offers them the 
right to use caps on their milk jars 
stamped with the words, "Certified by the 
Milk Commission of the San Francisco 
County Medical Society." The dealers are 
given the right to use these certificates 
when their milk is obtained under the 
conditions required by the commission 
and conforms to its standards. The sealed 
cap to be authorized by the commission 
must be used on all "certified milk." These 
caps will be sent only to the farm where 
the milk is bottled. The name of the 
farm from which the milk comes must 
appear on the bottle cap. Each bottle of 
milk must bear the date and time of bot- 
tling. The conditions required in order 
to obtain a certificate of the commission 
shall be as follows: 

Examination ok Milk and Dairy In- 
spection. — In order that the dealer and 
the commission may be kept informed of 
the character of the milk, specimens taken 
at random will be taken at intervals by 
experts appointed by the commission. 1. 
The commission reserves to itself the 
right to make inspections of certified 
farms at any time and to take specimens 
of the milk for examination, and to with- 
draw its certificate for repeated or delib- 



of Last Week's Issue.) 

erate violations of the requirements of the 
commission. 2. The commission also re- 
serves the right to change its standards 
in any reasonable manner upon due notice 
being given to the dealers. 3. The ex- 



feet, of the building; for keeping or han- 
dling milk. 

The surroundings of all buildings shall 
be kept clean and in good order. • 

The accumulation of dirt, rubbish, ma- 
nure, or decayed matter shall not be per- 
mitted. 

Water Supply. — The dairy shall be sup- 
plied with an abundance of pure water, 
the source of which shall not be within 
250 feet of the stable or of any barnyard, 
privy, or other possible source of con- 
tamination. 

Water from wells or springs which are 
not protected against the entrance of 
flood and surface water shall not be used 
for cooling milk or cleaning utensils. 



one will not notice a stale, disagreeable 
or strong animal odor on entering the 
building. 

The stalls shall be comfortable, at least 
3 feet wide, or feet for a large cow, 
and so long that the animal need not ha 
bitually stand with feet in the gutter. 

The stable yard shall be well drained, 
so as to be usually dry, and no pools al 
lowed to form. 

A suitable place about 200 feet from the 
stable building shall be provided for cows 
not approved by the veterinarian, and 
those separated from the herd by any 
cause except calving. 

A special room, conveniently located, 
shall be provided for the milkers to wash 




In the Bottling Department at Ideal Farms, Marin Co. 



penses of making the regular milk re- 
ports and the inspect ions are to be borne 
by the dairymen. 4. The names of the 
dairymen who comply with the require- 
ments of the commission will be printed 
on cards and sent each month to all mem- 
bers of the San Francisco County Medical 
Society. 

Location of BUILDINGS, Pastures, Etc. 



A sample of the water shall be fur- 
nished to the commission at any time re- 
quested, and the water shall be examined 
at least once a year. 

Stables. — The stable shall be arranged 
with a view to the comfort of the animals, 
and so as to facilitate the work of clean- 
ing, milk, etc. 

The floor shall be kept dry by the use 



in before and during milking. 

Stable shall be kept scrupulously clean. 

The interior walls shall be kept clean 
and light colored. If whitewashed, a fresh 
coat shall be applied at least three times 
a year, and oftener if necessary, to keep 
the walls clean and white. Mould spots 
shall not be permitted. 

At least half an hour before milking 




— The location of the buildings and pas- 
tures shall be subject to the approval of 
the commission. 

All buildings shall be so located that 
they will have good drainage. The stable 
shall be on relatively elevated ground. 

No building used for dairy purposes 
shall be within 200 yards of any marshy 
ground or stagnant water, and no chicken 
coop, hog pen, or harse stable, privy, wa- 
ter closet, or urinal shall be within 100 



Bottled Milk Packed in Ice for Shipment. 

of sawdust or gypsum. 

The gutters behind the cows shall be 
kept open and witli sufficient incline to 
cause good drainage. 

The side walls and ceiling shall be so 
tight as to prevent dust sifting through, 
and they shall be so constructed as to be 
easily cleaned and kept free from cob- 
webs and dust. 

There shall be no lofts in the stables. 

The ventilation shall be so efficient that 



time stables shall be thoroughly cleaned, 
ventilated, and all manure removed from 
the building. 

The stable floors shall be sprinkled, 
when necessary, to keep down the dust. 

When cow r s are kept in the stable con- 
tinuously, as in stormy weather^it shall 
be cleaned often enough to be kept as 
free as possible from the odor of manure. 
If necessary, gypsum shall be used for 
absorbing liquids and odors. 



January 30, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAl_ PRESS. 



93 



At least once in every two months the 
mangers shall be scrubbed with a brush 
and water and soap, lye or a washing 
powder like borax. 

Animals of other species shall not be 
kept in the same room with milk cows. 
No strong smelling material shall be al- 
lowed in or near the stable. It' manure is 
on the premises it must be at least 100 
feet from the stable. 

| Next week the regulations will be con- 
tinued, with specific instructions as to the 
handling of the herd and the milk. — Ed- 
itor. I 



CALIFORNIA CHEESE MAKING. 

That California does not produce any 
more cheese than a decade ago is a fact 
quite in contrast with the increase in 
butter, city milk supply, etc., which was 
noted in our issue of January 2. 

The report of the State Dairy Bureau 
recently submitted to Governor Gillette 
furnishes data upon which the standing 
of our cheese interest may be defined. It 
shows the production in each county for 
the year ending September :'»0, 1908, the 
total for the State being 6,104,514 pounds, 
or just about the same amount that was 
made ten years ago. During the same 
period, butter production increased from 
2:5,000,000 pounds lo 48,000,000 in 1908. 
The following table shows the production 
in the counties that produced cheese dur- 
ing the year ending September 30, 1908: 
County. Pounds. 

Contra Costa 11,450 

Kern 44,(!02 

Kings 70,304 

Lake 46,784 

Lassen 63,01 1 

Los Angeles 360,962 

Marin 425,383 

Mendocino 19,281 

Monterey 1,505,465 

Napa 20,600 

Riverside 17,325 

Sacramento 567, 686 

San Benito 178,882 

San Joaquin 127,761 

San Mateo 632,534 

San Luis Obispo 153,775 

Santa Clara 432,424 

Santa Cruz 429,384 

Siskiyou 48,112 

Solano 1,400 

Sonoma 355,168 

Sutter 338,711 

Tulare 130,000 

Yolo 181,510 

Total 6,162,514 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

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Caustic Balsam 




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Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 

As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, etc., it is invaluable. 

Every bottle ot Caustic Balsam sold Is 
Warrnnted to give satisfaction. Price $1.50 
per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent by ex- 
press, charges paid* with full directions for 
its us*. : r*"Se»i(l for descriptive circulars, 
testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 



According to the above showing, 24 conn 
ties out of 58 in the State have produced 
cheese during the past two statistical 
years. A comparison with former years 
is presented in the following table: 
Year. Pounds. 

1897 6,399,625 

1898 5,148,372 

1899 5,294,938 

1900 4,989,960 

1901 5,681,366 

1902 6,503,441 

1903 7,218,639 

1904 6,133,898 

1905 6,020,672 

1906 6,418,480 

1907 5,928,942 

1908 '. 6,262,194 

Commenting on these figures the report 
attributes the lack of interest in cheese 
production in California to the fact that 
the general conditions of the State are 
better adapted to butter production than 
to cheese making and to the further fact 
that butter has been found to be more 
profitable. Dairymen are beginning to 
realize more and more the value of the 
skim milk that is produced through the 
production of butter. In cheese produc- 
tion this valuable by-product is not left 
in the hands of the dairymen, and unless 
the relation between the prices of butter 
and cheese changes materially, in order 
that prices obtained for cheese will over- 
come the advantage that butter produc- 
tion presents, the State Dairy Bureau 
does not look for much progress in the 
cheese industry. 

A factor that largely puts cheese pro- 
duction at a disadvantage is the fact that 
returns to the dairymen are more quick 
in case of butter. Cheese production re- 
quires a long period in curing and in ad- 
dition is carried longer in the stock of 
wholesale dealers than in case of butter, 
so that either final returns must be de- 
layed or enough capital invested to carry 
stocks. Even with this, the industry is 
confronted with the factor of uncertainty, 
since the producer must look upon prices 
as problematical and neither can he rely 
upon what the quality will be until it is 
often too late to change the make of pos- 
sibly many weeks. 

The report firings out the fact that 
while the cheese business in general has 
made little progress there has been one 
line that has done very well. This is in 
the line of production of soft, or sweet 
curd, cheese. In the vicinity of Peta- 
luma several factories that make a spe- 
cialty of this class of cheese have been 
established, their combined output being 
425,000 pounds. The output includes such 
varieties as camembert, brie, romatour, 
schloss, brick, neufchatel and others. 
The industry started with a small begin- 
ning several years ago, but has grown to 
an extent that it takes the place of a 
large lot of varieties that would other- 
wise be imported from Europe. 

Monterey is still the banner cheese 
county of California. Santa Clara, San 
Benito, San Mateo and Santa Cruz were 
large producers years ago, but the de- 
mand on the cows of these counties for 
fresh milk, cream and butter is setting 
them back. Their loss is made up by 
counties in the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin valleys. Los Angeles county at 
one time had a factory which at one 
time reported an annual output of about 
a million pounds of cheese. This past 
year the total make of the county was 
less than half of that amount. 

BUY YOUR HERD HEADERS 

from my herd of Prize Winning 
Jersey Cattle, Poland-China Hogs, 
M. B. Turkeys 

A large herd of all ayes to select from. Prices 
right. (Stock guaranteed. Let me 
know your wants. 
GEO. A. SMITH, - - Corcoran, Cal. 



IN THE LEAD 



For 



I 9 O 9 



The 1909 Model U. S. Cream Separators 

retain all features that have given them their great reputation for dura- 
bility and efficiency, and have several improvements that make them even 
to a greater extent than ever before, the ideal machine for dairymen who 
are posted and who demand the best. 
And by intensifying the circuitous and tortu- 
ous currents of the milk in its passage through 
the separator bowl, we have been able to 

Greatly Reduce the Diameter 
of the Bowls 

which makes them operate easier than ever 
and still retain their great milk capacity. 

Notwithstanding most manufacturers 
were complaining all last year of dull times 
and small sales the UNITED STATES 

SEPARATOR had one of the largest 

Sales in its history and since this fall season 
began, sales are larger than last year. 

Do not forget that the United Slates has 
beaten every separator in endurance tests 
and holds the WORLD'S RECORD. 

No dairyman can afford to purchase a 
cream separator until he has first exam- 
ined the construction and operation of the 

1909 Model 

Sales agents in nearly every dairy section. If no agent In your town, write 
direct to lis for Catalog No.i48 iini l we will also quote prices, 
We have distributing warehouses in every dairy section in the I'niteil States and Canada. 

VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO., Bellows Falls, Vt. 




Sale of January 26 Postponed to February 2 and 16 



5 Eewar t $ 




j LIV 

i ° 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



< )u account 
of rain 
and floods 
horses 
cannot 1m' 
brought 
to 

San Francisco 
in time. 
Remember 
the new dates. 

E. Stewart 
& Co. 

S. E. Corner Tenth & 
Bryant Streets. 



BULLS BULLS BULLS 

SHORT - HORN BULLS 

75 head of high grade yearlings on hand. 
Prices Attractive. 

HOWARD CATTLE CO. 

641 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Mention this paper. 



Pure Bred Holsteins 

At present we are offering a fine lot of 
Young Bulls and Heifers ut very at- 
tractive prices. All of tbis stock have 
large Advanced Registry Records in 
their pedigrees and are from the famous 
Riverside Premier Herd of the I'ierce 
Land and Mtock Co. now owned by the 

OAKWOOD STOCK FARM 

LATHROP, CAL. 

HENRY B. LISTER, Attorney-at-Law 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds 

for New York. 
937 Pacific HI'I : Fourth and Market Sts 
San Franc'sco. 



The I in ported 
Stallion 



FOR SALE 

Desire de Saint Gerard 
Pedigree: 

) Hourgognc ) lirln d'Qr 

Desire de Si. Gerard i ™' 2 j ™> 2 

fwnnm I '^"\'? tte ', le I Marie do 

(32008) . Nt. Gerard, _ , 

J 14480 I Ooyeh M8I 
'1'hls line Belgian Stallion was bred by Mr 
Martin Tlrtlaux of (iraux St. (lerard, France 
foaled February 12, 1H02, and was Imported by 
Dunham A- Fletcher of Wayne, Illinois, . I uly 10, 
UlOfi. He Is a magnificent animal, deep bay in 
color, with star In forehead. Ills weight Is '2200 

pounds. 

For authenticated records, price, tet ins, etc., 
write to or call on 

1Y1. M. AVELLAR, San Leandro, Cal. 

Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST- SAN FRANCISCO 

PAPER Ulakc, Uoffltt & Towne, I .oh Angeles 
rnrr.rv Blake, McFall A Co., Portland, Oregon 



94 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 80, 1909. 



EDUCATIONAL BUTTER SCOR- 
ING CONTEST. 



To the Editor: The attention of Caii 
tornia butter makers is hereby called to 
the University of California educational 
butter scoring contest, for which the first 
entries will be called during February. H 
you did not reply to our former announce 
merit, you should send In your application 
Immediately, if you care to enter. The 
contest is designed for the busy butter 
maker who cannot leave the churn long 
enough to take a short course, but who de- 
sires to improve his product. He can, 
however, ship an entry at specified times, 
have it scored and criticised, and will 
profit greatly by so doing. All butter mak- 
ers In the State are Invited to partici- 
pate. Mr. Mitchel, the Federal butter ex- 
pert at San Francisco, will assist at each 
scoring. This is an opportunity which 
any worthy butter maker cannot afford to 
miss. 

The following plan will be followed: 
Each contestant to submit an entry at 
six specified periods during the year — bi- 
monthly. 

Each contestant limited to one 20-pound 
cublOBj package at each scoring. 

The butter submitted to represent the 
regular run. 

The score card recommended by the U. 
S. Dairy Division to be used. 

The contestant to pay all transporta- 
tion charges and donate one entry for the 
premium fund. The receipts for the re- 
maining butter to be remitted to contest- 
ants. 

Only one class will be made, namely, 
creamery butter. 

A first and second prize cup will be 
awarded in the class indicated, to the 
holders of the highest and second high 
est average, respectively, of the six sepa- 
rate scorings during the year. 

A certificate of merit will be awarded 
to each contestant whose six scorings 
average 92. 

A new contest begins each .January, and 



CREAMERY OUTFIT 

FOR 

50c. on the % 

'l'lic following articles have been 
used aboul 9Q days, and arc as 
good as new. They were DQUghl 

from Baker & Hamilton, ami can 
In- had for just one-half what they 
cost. 

In iiddit ion to the main articles 
here enumerated, there are a lot 
of small things which go with a 
complete creamery oi 



1 300 gal. Jensen Peerless Cream 
Ripener. 

1 4 hp. Economist Boiler, with fit- 
tings and 20-foot stack. 

1 600 lb. Simplex Combined Churn 
and Butter-worker. 

1 No. 5, 3000 lb., Jensen Pasteur- 
izer. 

1 No. 5, 3000 lb., Jensen Cooler. 
1 No. 2, L-2, 1200 lb., Simplex 
Turbine Separator. 

1 No. 3 Jumbo Butter Mold and 

Cutter. 

2 200 gal. Jensen Sanitary Receiv- 

ing Vats. 
1 24 bottle Facile Turbine Tester 

for 9 inch bottles. 
1 80 gal. Double Weight Can. 
1 30 gal. Haughdahl Starter Can. 
1 Burrell Acidmeter 

1 Trommer Cream Sampling Scale. 

2 No. 1 Rotary Milk Pumps. 
1 Jen?en Milk Heater. 

W. N. WOODSON 

CORNING. CAL. 



the prizes become the property of the 
winner. Each entry will be scored, criti- 
cised and tested for moisture. 

As there have been so few applications 
from makers of dairy butter or cheese, 
classes for these have not been provided. 
Directions for packing and shipping will 
be sent each applicant. Th'ose who have 
already responded need not do so again. 
Address all applications or letters of In- 
quiry to Herbert A. Hopper, University 
Farm, Davis, California. 



IRISH MULES 



FEEDING WHOLE COTTON SEED 



To the Editor: Please tell me, as soon 
as you can conveniently do so, what you 
can about the feeding of whole cotton seed 
to stock and hogs, the results of so doing, 
comparison with other stock foods, etc. — 
E. W. II., Sacaton, Arizona. 

No cotton seed is grown in California, 
consequently we have no experience in 
feeding the seed, except as meal after oil 
is extracted. Professor Henry, in his 
"Feeds and Feeding" says: 

"Seed as left by the cotton gin is now a 
common feed at the South for steers and 
dairy cows. It is usually supplied to cat 
tie without treatment of any kind, though 
In some cases it is roasted, boiled or 
steamed before feeding." 

"Trials at the Texas Station by Qulley 
and Curtis show that seed at $7 per ton 
made cheaper, though somewhat smaller 
gains than cotton-seed meal costing $21) 
per ton. Council and Carson, of the same 
station, conclude that boiled or roasted 
cotton seed is more palatable, less laxative 
and produces more rapid gains than raw 
cotton seed, but that the latter makes the 
cheaper gain. They slate that the ad 
vantages obtained from roasting Hie seed 
do not pay for the expense involved. 

"At the Mississippi Station, Lloyd, sum 
maiizlng three years' work, concluded 
that steamed cotton seed is better and 
cheaper for producing milk and butter 
than either raw seed or cotton seed meal. 
Butter produced from cotton seed meal 
cost twice as much as that produced from 
steamed or raw seed. The wise planter, 
knowing the value of whole cotton seed as 
a stock food, will not dispose of good seed 
to the oil mills at prices below its worth 
to him." 



BEETS AND CARROTS FOR HOGS 

To the Editor: Kindly Inform me as 
to the value of beets and carrots as hog 
feed. Also if there is a variety of Egyp- 
tian corn that blackbirds will not eat. and 
if so, its value as hog feed.— A Header. 
Oakley. 

Moth beets and carrots are excellent for 
hogs, and they are worth about the same, 
weight for weight. Large mangel beets 
can, however, be much more easily grown 
and more cheaply handled. It is usually 
easier to get a good stand, and as they are 
large and much above ground, the hat- 
vesting is much easier. Who can answer 
the blackbird question? 



A COMPLIMENT TO THE HORSE. 

A French newspaper, the Parlsien, re- 
cently organized a competition, by voting, 
to discover the animal most useful to 
mankind. The horse won by a small mar- 
gin, obtaining 1,2(19, S72 votes, against the 
1,243,117 of the cow, placed second. Then 
followed the dog, 1,203.473, the chicken 
and the bullock being separated by 300 
votes for the next place. The pig, the 
sheep — whose comparative unpopularity is 
no doubt due to the poor quality of French 
mutton— the camel, the lamb, and the bee 
were placed next In order, all with less 
than a million votes. 

This ought to make a horse laugh, after 
all the knocks he has had from bicycles, 
trolley cars and automobiles. 



For the first time in the history of the 
port of New York a bunch of Irish tuples 
were landed recently. They are big, sleek, 
thrifty, useful looking mules, and were 
consigned to James Hutler. a grocer of 
New York, and Mr. Hutler was asked 
about tin' matter. 

"Tlie explanation is very simple." said 
Mr. Hutler. how 1 happened to Import 
these mules. Last summer while on a 
trip abroad I spent two weeks outomobll 
Ing all over Ireland with my family. I 
bad not been there lor a number of years, 
and I saw many changes, all of them, I 
may say, for the better. Among the new 
sights were the number of line looking 
mules we met and passed on the road. 
They were at work in harness, singly, in 
pairs, anil occasionally a mule four In 
hand. They showed breeding and high 
spirit; looked hardy and plucky to me, a 
superior type that I bad never seen in 
In land before. On inquiry I found that a 
new industry had started up in the horse 
breeding section of Ireland. 

"About ten years ago the Hritlsh gov 
eminent imported a number of the finest 
Spanish jacks for the purpose of crossing 
on the native mares with the view of rain- 
ing an improved type of mule. The great 
need for such an animal from a British 
source was shown during the Uoer war. 
The Irish hunter is famous as the best of 
his kind, and is a cross between the Kng 
lish thoroughbred and the native Irish 
part bred mare. I use hundreds of horses 
in my grocery business, and I became in 
terested in the Irish mule I bad dlffl 
culty in finding any for sale, so great is 
the home demand, but secured a number 
of the finest specimens for work purposes. 
They will be put to work shortly on the 
grocery delivery wagons." 



BLACK SPOTS ON PORK. 



Prof. E. F. Permit writes that during 
tile butchering season of the year the Ore 
gon Experiment Station frequently re 
r. ives specimens of pork that present an 
unmarketable appearance. The rind, or 
skin, taken from the abdominal region 
and inside the legs is found to be dotted 
with black wart like growths of various 
sizes, ranging from that of a pin head to 
a bazlenut. Many of these spots in the 
early stages contain a small amount of 
pus. and by careful examination a small 
Quite will be found buried deeph in the 
skin. 

The mite causing these pustules and 
subsequent black spots is known as Demo 
dex CaUloulorum vat suis. a very large 
name tor such a small mite, that may be 
seen only by the aid of a magnifying 
glass. 

.lust when the mite attacks the hog is 
not well known, and as It burrows deeph 
into the ■kin, treatment or the use of 
insecticides Is of little value; besides, 
there is no indication of its presence until 
the time of butchering, Whan the damage 
is already done. 

These blackened spots, although un 
sightly, do not injure the meat for food, 
and they may lie completely removed with 
the skin. 



COST OF CAMEL CARRIAGE. 

Some of our readers who are running 
freight wagons may like to compare their 
rates with the cost of camel carriage. 
Consul-General William n. Michael, of 

Calcutta, reports that under a new con 
tract for transporting goods by camel 
park between Nushkl (the end of the new 
railroad line in Afghanistan I and Dewan 
Chah, on the Nushkl Selstan route into 
Persia, during the year from May 1, 1908, 
the following rates prevail: Nushkl to 
Dalbandin, 7 marches, 24 cents per camel 



Get a Tubulai 
Separator" 



That's the best advice the 
"American Farm World" could 
give to an Inquiring subscriber. 

Hereare question and answer: 

Is the gravity cream separator a 
fraud, or would yuu advise its use on 
a sma ' (arm? A. (i. F. (Iowa). 

_ "The so-called gravity separator 
is not to be recommended. Any 
deep setting-can will ifive Justus 
good results. The cold water 
spoils the skun milk for calf and 
Pig feed. The system is no new 
one. just an old one explained in a 
dillerent way, but really as old as 
the dairy business, (let a Tubular 
Separator." 

The Tubular Separator 

llCMII more buttrr lut from milk 
Snw* DBOFt tint and Hork 

Than any other machine or 
process ever invented. 



WHY.' now? 



Ask us; we'll be 
you. Write for Catal 



glad to tell 

>g No. 131 



THE SHARPLES SEPARATOR 
COMPANY, 

West Chostor, Ponna. 

Toronto. Can. San Francisco, Calif. 
Winnipeg. Man. Portland. Ore. 

Chicago, Ills. 




Stickney GasolineEi.4ii.es 

ARE THE BEST 



The engine with an outside igniter and 
a modern open 
tank cooling 
system. Our 
new free cata- 
log and free 
catechism 
tells 57 
reasons 
why we 
* have the 
send for free catalog best engine 
Stationery and Portable 1* to 16 n. p. 

We have thousands of engines In successful 
operation because of years of experience of the 
manufacturers In making engines of the best 
material, and moat siccurale workmanship. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO - LOS ANCILCS - PORTLAND - SCATTLt 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



.luil.N LYNCH, breeder ot tei-lHtered Hhori 

horns; milk atrein, iiu-. ihhh stock, ftrat 
eiiiKH iintry breeding, ItmOOll) cattle Heel 
pedigree. P. <>. Hox 321. l'otaiuiiia, Cnl. 

HULLS AND COWS HHi s'.l.K Mhortliurnod 
Durhams. AtldreHN K. S. ifl\er, \ ntelo|>e. Oil. 



swim 



(JAMKORNM M KsKltl CO.. NUea, 0*1. 
HreederH ol Tlioi oimhhri d ItrkKhlrca. 

OKO. c. ROBOINU. I'reano, cm fornln. Hreeder 
of Thoroughbred Herlishlrc lloara mid Hows. 

P. B M.OBPHV. IVrklna. sue. Co., Cal. Hreeder 
of Shorthorn Cattle unci l'oltin.l-Chliin lions. 

HKItKSIIIKK AN I) I'OI.AN D CtllN.l NOUS 

c. A. HTOWMC, Stockton, c u. 

QR0, V. BOOKMAN, laOdl, San Joaquin Co. 
Oil. ItcglHtered I'oliiud-f lilu.i Hogs, lK>th aextfa 

(i. A. Ml'Hl'HY. Pcrktiu.Oil. Hreeiler of t ham 
ptdn Herd of llerkxhlii m aim Shorthorns. 



WANTED. 

FROM ONE COW TO TWO HUN- 
DRED GOOD FIRST CLASS GRADE 
OR THOROUGHBRED JERSEYS. 

GEO. A. SMITH, Cororan, Cal. 

GLIDE BROTHERS 

Suece kbotn to .1. 11. ( I I.I Pit /< Sons 
Kiiinouw lilacow, Hoberta, Gilo* 
Frasnoii Marino ••. !>••»• i> 

i i 1 1. la- 1 1 rude ses en -elu III lis !• reach ail', o'.e • iglul* 
SpiinlKh Merino. Thorough I >re(' Mhropah'.'e Kami 

HAMS I OK BALI AT ALI TIT.. I s 

I 1 . 0. Boi Ho:, io Ti'lephcu* 

VI flavor a\n> an to, on. inxou, cal. 



January 80, 1909. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



95 



load of 400 pounds per stage; Dalbandin 
to Mashki Chah, 7 marches, 28 cents per 
camel load of 400 pounds per stage; Mash- 
ki Chah to Dewan Chah, 7 marches, 33 
cents per camel load of 400 pounds per 
stage. Camels going or coming unladen 
from Dewan Chah to Nushti, 2 cents for 
every 4 miles, or, for the entire distance, 
requiring 29 days, the total sum of $1.90 
each. 



EASTERN HORSES WILL HAVE 
A CHANCE. 



The War Department has decided to 
send a representative who is an expert on 
horses through some of the Eastern States 
to ascertain if there is any market from 
which may be obtained animals suitable 
for military use. Hitherto the purchase 
of horses has been made by contracts 
awarded mostly to Middle Western horse 
raisers. The old system involved consid- 
erable trouble in the way of inspection 
and details in the acquirement of horses 
on account of the rejection of animals 
which were not considered up to the offi- 
cial requirements. This, in turn, led to 
much controversy between the Govern- 
ment officers and the dealers, and it was 
alleged by the latter that inspections were 
too often conducted by army officers who 
did not fully understand what was want- 
ed. This has now been changed by the 
quartermaster general in the system of 
acquiring young horses in the open mar- 
ket and having them specially trained for 
the military service at the army remount 
depot in Oklahoma. 

These horses have in the last year come 
mostly from (he West and Northwest. It 
is believed that equally good animals can 
be obtained in the Eastern States, pro- 
vided a reasonable price is asked. An in- 
vestigation of the source in those Eastern 
sections where blooded stock is raised 
shows that such animals are held at a 
price which is prohibitive from the stand- 
point of the Government. The purchases 
of horses are now made by three or four 
cavalry officers who are regarded as ex- 
perts in this matter, and who travel in 
the West for suitable animals which may 
be obtained at reasonable cost. Eastern 
horse dealers will be gratified over the 
prospect that the War Department is to 
take special pains in extending its investi- 
gations. 



FINISHING HOGS. 



To the Editor: I have seen a good 
many articles in the Pacific Rural Pkkss 
on feeding hogs on alfalfa hay aud green 
alfalfa and finishing with corn. What I 
want to ask, can we make good pork on 
alfalfa without corn to finish with? Can 
we finish with wheat or middlings or 
without any grain? — Subscriber, Eldorado 
County. 

ANSWKIt BY MR. SYMMES. 

Yes. you can get just as good pork from 
feeding wheat or middlings as from corn. 
Kaffir corn has not the value of corn for 
feeding. The majority of the hogs fed in 
California are not corn finished. Some 
of the finest pork I have ever eaten was 
alfalfa and grass fed. finished with soaked 
barley. Soaking the grain or meal gives 
better results than feeding dry, and takes 
less of it. Many hogs are marketed in 
this State without any feed other than 
alfalfa, while others are fattened on skim 
milk following alfalfa pasture. 



DEVONS FOR JAPAN. 

A consignment of 40 choice Devon cat- 
tle, purchased in England for the Japa- 
nese Government for breeding purposes, 
has arrived in Kobe. The average price 
was $300. All the animals were subjected 
to a very rigorous turbercle test before 
shipment. 



ALFALFA FOR HORSES 



In the alfalfa regions of California the 
use of alfalfa hay for horses does not have 
to be defended as formerly because it is 
now so well known to be desirable, but 
readers may like to read an argument in 
favor of it which is still necessary where 
alfalfa is a new crop. The Kansas Ex- 
periment station puts it up in this 
way: 

There seems to be an almost universal 
opinion among horsemen, and especially 
among those that are raising heavy horses, 
that no other grass or combination of 
grasses equals or even approaches the 
value of alfalfa as a pasture for horses; 
and from an economical point of view it 
certainly has no equal, as it will furnish so 
much more feed an acre than any other 
grass It will not only pasture more horses 
an acre, but it will produce horses of great- 
er weight, larger bones and stronger mus- 
cles. 

A horse that has been reared in an 
alfalfa pasture and fed a light ration of 
alfalfa all winter makes one of the finest 
horses to be found in any market today. 
To produce a horse of the highest type, 
with the cleanest bone, the best-developed 
muscle, the best temperament and the 
greatest action and finish, nitrogenous 
feed must be used, and in no other feed 
can this most essential element of nutri- 
tion be so cheaply and so abundantly sup- 
plied as it can by feeding alfalfa. 

The most successful producers of both 
heavy and light horses are today using 
alfalfa extensively in the development of 
their young horses. Its value for this 
purpose is not recognized by the Kansas 
feeder alone, for after seeing Kansas alfalfa- 
grown horses, Eastern breeders, where al- 
falfa cannot be grown, are sending their 
colts to Kansas alfalfa fields to be develop- 
ed as they could not be at home. 

A majority of horse owners are inclined 
to waste hay in feeding horses — that is. 
they feed more than is necessary for the 
maintenance of the horse and more than 
he can economically take care of. This is 
true of other kinds of hay as well as of al- 
falfa. 

Either heavy or light horses that are 
doing regular, steady work should not, if 
one wishes to feed economically, have 
more than one pound of hay per hundred 
pounds of live weight. That is, a thou- 
sand-pound horse should receive ten 
pounds per day and a fifteen-hundred- 
pound horse lifteen pounds a day. 

A lifteen hundred pound horse that is 
doing steady work should have about 
four pounds of hay with his morning feed, 
the same amount at night. Many horses 
will eat thirty or forty pounds of hay a 
day if they have free access to it. If a 
horse is allowed to eat such quantities, 
half of it is wasted, and if he is eating 
that amount of alfalfa hay, it is worse 
than wasted, for it does the horse an in- 
jury. From two to two and one-half 
pounds of digestible protein is all that an 
ordinary horse can utilize in a day, and 
in one hundred pounds of alfalfa there are 
eleven pounds of digestible protein. This 
fare of alfalfa if too heavy fed is likely to 
cause kidney disorder, and may even be 
responsible for abortion in pregnant 
mares that are fed too liberal a ration of 
it. If it does not cause abortion, weak 
unhealthy foals will be the result. 

Have alfalfa fed judiciously to pregnant 
mares, heavy or light work horses and it 
is beneficial and should be used wherever 
it is obtainable, and it should never be 
used as the exclusive roughage. Some 
objection is made to it on account of caus- 
ing looseness of the bowels and making 
the horses soft and easy to sweat. This is 
due to their having it in too large quanti- 
ties. Alfalfa hay should be fed as part of 
the grain ration rather than a roughage. 
If fed in this manner its use will be found 
very satisfactory. 



LIKE A THIEF AT NIGHT 
THE CREAM SEPARATOR 
THAT CAN'T SKIM CLEAN 



Dairy authorities the world over agree that the centrifugal 
separator is indispensable to the man who owns milk cows. 
And why? Simply because it saves his cream, hence his money. 
The more cream saved, the more money, that's sure. But un- 
fortunately many separators do not save all the cream. And 
worse still, the biggest of claims are made for these machines. 
Such separators are like a thief at night or the pickpocket who 
with an innocent face rubs our elbow and then robs us of our 
wallet. Because of inferior and out-of-date bowl construction, 
these separators, unknown to the users of them, daily lose a big 
percentage of the cream. 

It is easy to be deceived into buying a "pickpocket" sepa- 
rator, but it is just as easy to avoid buying one if we will but 
take the advice of those whom we know are experienced sepa- 
rator judges. 99 1 •_. per cent of all expert creamerymen, butter 
manufacturers, and real separator authorities living today .use 
DE LAVAL separators exclusively, for they have learned by 
experience that the DE LAVAL is the only separator that will 
save all the cream all the time under all conditions. And the 
reason for this fact is plain. It is found in the improved pat- 
ent protected DE LAVAL "Alpha-Disc" separating bowl. It is 
different from any other bowl, and its peculiar construction is 
the secret of DE LAVAL clean skimming. Ask for our illus- 
trated catalog, which explains the DE LAVAL bowl in detail, 
as well as many other interesting features. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Co. 



108 So. Los Angeles St. 
LOS ANGELES 
42 E. Madison Street 
CHICAGO 

74 CORTLANDT STREET 

NEW YORK 



General Offices : 
IOI Drumm Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



107 First Street 
PORTLAND, OREG. 
IOI 6 Western Ave. 
SEATTLE 
Box IOS2 
VANCOUVER, B. C. 



WHAT THE RANCHERS THINK OF THE EMPIRE CATALOGUE 

ECmpire Cream Separator Co., Ltd*) 

I'ort l:in«1. Oregon. 
Gentlemen : 

We received your catalogue; like them fine, but failed to give us your price 
list, which we wish very much to get, so we can see if they will fit our pocket- 
book. Will you please send us price list by return mail. 

(Signed) C. V. Willi*. 

Hallow, Wash* 

It exult: 

We nciiI il. and in ten days received Mm order tor a So. l-B. 

This is the general result after they read our catalogue and examine our 
machine; they are bound to have an Empire. You can have one of these cata- 
logues for the asking. 

EMPIRE CREAM SEPARATOR CO., LTD. 



North Sixth Street 



*orl l