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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1910)"

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U CaTforn.a State Library X . 



Accession No .t..0.f?2.X3. 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/pacruralpres7980unse 




AND CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETI 



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Vol. LXXIX. No. 1. 


SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 1, 1910. 


Thirty-ninth Year. 



WEALTH IN FALLING WATER. 



One of the geographical glories of the Pacific 
States, which was earliest to receive popular 
recognition, was the correlation of mountains, 
valleys and sea coast. Even when water was only 
valued on the basis of its potability and avail- 
ability for irrigation it was seen to be a grand 



there to call into existence vast aggregates of 
production, both mineral and vegetable, to collect 
and support great rural and urban populations. 
In those old days these things were believed to be 
enough to establish the future greatness of any 
country which possessed them under a salubrious 
climate which made human life enjoyable and hu- 
man effort effective. In the development of the 



they were, were inadequate. The beautiful pic- 
ture which we present upon this pajre is sug- 
gestive of this greater valuation of our geographi- 
cal resources. Of course, waterfalls have always 
had due credit for scenic beauty, and it is almost 
trite to speak of it as attractive to mankind and 
promotive of settlement and development. In this 
measurement of economic influence it is now clear 




A CharacterisKc Waterfall of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 



endowment of the Coast that the mountains were 
high ; that they paralleled the Coast and that they 
were the birth place of many streams which flowed 
from their sides across large stretches of fertile 
land to their ocean emptying. Evidently juch a 
conformation of the country assured abundance 
of water under pressure for many unborn cities 
and abundance of water which would be carried 
by gravity to the fertile plains and valleys and 



race in science and industry it has become clear 
that the old measure of value in the association 
of high mountains, falling waters, fertile valleys 
and good harbors, was but partial and limited. 
The generation and transmission of electric energy 
has given new standards for measuring the value 
Of the mountain and the stream and we all un- 
derstand now that even the pioneers' tributes to 
the glories of California, great and enthusiastic as 



that it does not express value adequately. In fact, 
the waterfall rises as far beyond its scenic esti- 
mate as the stream has added to its ancient ri- 
parian value. Because waterfalls are now ex- 
ponents of po^'er most available for electric trans- 
^ntHsion. and everywhere in civilized lands the 
hand of enterprise is upon them I'm- the produc- 
tion of new wealth and of old wealth in new ways 
an il for t he enrichment of human life iirall ways. 



156213 




2 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1. 1910. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. 



PUBLISHERS 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



K. J. WIi'KHOK 
FRANK HONEYWELL 
OKOlii; K ItlLEV 



Editor 
Business Manager 
Advertising Manager 



California Weather Record. 



The following rainfall and temperature record is fur- 
nished the Pacific EtrJBAL Press by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, at San 
Francisco, for the week ending at 5 p. K., Dec. 28, 1909 : 



Rainfall Data. 



Stations. 



Tempera- 
ture Data. 



Past Seasonal Normal Maxi- Mini- 





Week. 


to Date. 


to Dale. 


mum. 


mum 


Eureka 


.22 


20. Bo 


16.12 


68 


34 


Red Bluff 


.26 


8.17 


9 64 


64 


32 


Sacramento 


.1.6 


6.40 


6.81 


58 


34 


San Francisco... 


.to' 


8.50 


7 89 


58 


40 


San Jose 


.19 


6.70 


4.87 


60 


30 


Fresno 


T 


6.87 


3.34 


56 


32 


Independence... 


.02 


4.54 


3.8(1 


34 


4 


San Luis Obispo 


.22 


10.4S 


6.47 


68 


38 


Los Angeles .... 


.08 


6.57 


4.88 


64 


42 


San Diego 


.09 


5.47 


il.96 


66 


42 



The Week. 



We arc in the midst of the holidays and the 
restful spirit seems to have impressed itself 
heavily upon everybody. Il is in part the usual 
reaction from the strenuous pre-Christmas days 
and in part the inaction which proceeds from 
duties "attending the closing of the year in all 
lines of industry. The general testimony is that 
this year's Christmas in California was notable 
in all holiday ways. Holiday trade was brisk and 
holiday jollity unrestrained. And it all proceeded 
beneath gentle skies for though there was but a 
modicum of straight sunshine in most places, 
there was a tolerable temperature, while on the 
Atlantic seaboard there were storms beyond the 
experience of a score of years and great distress 
resulting. After ail. California's greatest Christ- 
mas y.ift is the beauty and balniiness of the day 
itself which all alike can enjoy. 



Those who have convictions upon the undesir- 
ability of the race course as an institution will 
take hope for the new year in the transformation 
of one race course into a place of public instruc- 
tion and agricultural promotion. It is announced 
that the Kuhn Brothers, who are doing great 
things in Sacramento valley development as they 
have done elsewhere, have just purchased from 
the Willows Agricultural Association the old race 
track property east of and adjoining Willows, 
paying $15,000 lor it. The tract will be used as a 
demonstration farm to show the great variety and 
excellent quality and yield of crops on Glenn 
county soil when irrigated. Part of the tract will 
be converted into a. beautiful park, which w ill be 
adjacent to a magnificent hotel that will be built 
to accommodate first-class trade. Kuhn Brothers 
have purchased 2~)0.000 acres of land and a big 
irrigating system in Glenn and Colusa counties 
and Willows is their headquarters. Theirs is one 
of the greatest undertakings the State has seen, 
and their exaltation of agrieultiire^eems to be in- 
spiring the whole surrounding country. * • * 



An instance of this is seen in the growing in- 
terest in the Sacramento valley in the University 
Farm, at Davis. The announcement is made that 



the students of the high school and higher grades 
of the grammar school at Williams, in Colusa 
county, will combine farming with their other 
studies and during recess will plow, sow and cul- 
tivate grain crops on the school grounds. This has 
been determined since they attended the lectures 
a few days ago on board the demonstration train 
sent there under the auspieics of the State Uni- 
versity, when E. B. Babeock. of the State Farm 
at Davis asked the co-operation of the students in 
carrying on experiments with grain crops. Seed 
will be furnished by the University Farm and the 
students will plant and attend to it. It will lie 
ripe for the harvest soon after the school closes in 
June, when the results of the experiment will be 
reported to the University. 



Another instance of a large concern taking up 
agricultural demonstration is the announcement 
by the immigration department of the Santa Fe 
railroad that $25,000 or more will be spent by the 
railroad to demonstrate the final practicability of 
dry farming in the wastes of New Mexico. Hard- 
working homesteaders in all parts of the territory 
will be.supplied with the necessary funds and im- 
plements. Professor J. I). Tinsley. of the New 
.Mexico Agricultural College, has resigned in order 
to take charge of the work. If the plan is success- 
ful the Santa Fe will endeavor to attract home- 
seekers to the possibilities of dry farming in New 
Mexico. This capture of a prominent experiment 
station man by a corporation to conduct its own 
style of demonstrations is indirectly a very definite 
indorsement of the value of such services, and it 
will put our educational institutions to the test 
during the next few years to supply the class of 
trained men for which there is now a demand, 
which is altogether new in the history of the 
world. 



Put while public attention is running so strongly 
this way it is to be expected, perhaps, that the 
public should overdo it and show occassionally 
that if loves agricultural expertness not wisely, 
but too well. The whole State of .Minnesota, for 
instance, seems now to be stirred up over the horti- 
cultural performances of a man who is using very 
common horticultural arts to impress people who 
do not really know how common and easy they 
are. The story is that at a Christmas dinner in 
the Minnesota State prison a movement was 
stalled to secure a pardon for a murderer on the 
basis of his "service to the State of Minnesota and 
general scientific knowledge." This claim seems 
to have been made because this convjet had pro- 
duced an immense lemon, weighing three pounds 
and measuring 18% inches in its major circumfer- 
ence. The guests, excited by the story, besought 
the presence of the convict, the creator of the 
monster lemon, who took the guests to the green- 
house and explained how he had grafted a tr< pi- 
Cal lemon and grapefruit. He also showed many 
other graftings, producing rare fruits and flowers 
Of course Minnesota people generally cannot be 
expected to know much about citrus fruits, but we 
hope someone will tell them before they pardon a 
convict on such a ground that he has done nothing 
in horticulture beyond what many a California 
school boy Would consider too easy a trick to waste 
his time upon. It is very easy to get a big lemon: 
in fact, easier than to get a good small one. The 
man probably got a scion of the Ponderosa. a 
worthless show fruit, and grafted it on a grape- 
fruit seedling; one of the easiest things in the 
world for it to grow upon, and has shown the 
Minnesota people a fruit which is as common as 
it is big, and as worthless as it is common. Horti- 
cultural faking is all too easy nowadays. The 
people simply stand around to be imposed upon. 
They will have more knowledge and judgment 



when the great plans for agricultural education 
get into operation. The people certainly need 
them to escape making fools of themselves. 



There is another sensation of another kind, it 
is true, but just as little worth getting excited 
about. It is the scare about Americans going to 
Canada. According to figures, compiled by offi- 
cials of the Interior Department at Ottawa, dur- 
ing the ten months ending with October, 9919 
Americans, representing all but three id' the States 
and Territories of the United States, made home- 
stead entries in Canada. With the figures for 
November and December still to be received from 
the various registration offices, it is expected the 
entry list for the year will show over 11,000 
Americans as homestead applicants. These facts 
are interesting enough, but nothing to get alarmed 
over. When one remembers that for the last sixty 
or seventy years there has been a steady move- 
ment bf Canadians southward into the United 
States, and that hundreds of thousands, perhaps 
millions, id' good American citizens are either di- 
rectly or indirectly of Canadian origin, it does not 
seem alarming that we arc paying back some of 
our old debt to Canadian enterprise. Canadians 
have held important places in the development id' 
our whole Western country, and even the old 
States near the great lakes are filled with them. 
They are usually a good sort. 



Put. speaking of movement of peoples and re- 
ferring to an interesting discussion in our columns 
iast August, there is something much more ex- 
citable in the information gathered for the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics by County Recorder Charles A. 
Rea of Sacramento that Japanese cumbering 246 
hold leases in that county. Of these 7*2 are for 
property in Sacramento city and 174 for property 
in the county, and over 6000 acres of valuable 
farming land in Sacramento county is held by 
lease by Japanese. Many of the leases are for 
tracts of 300 acres or more. The average price 
paid per acre per year is +10. making a total of 
$60,000 a year paid to white landlords. In addi- 
tion to the leases a large acreage of land is owned 
outright by Japanese. There is really something 
in this which may make for the unsettlement of 
American industry. We are not thinking id' this 
as a race question, but simply of the effect likely 
to he produced upon the quality of fruit products 
about which so much is being said and thought in 
connection with popular movements for improve- 
ment. It is hard enough to convince Americans 
of the necessity of co-operation toward desirable 
ends. It will be harder to align a large foreign 
contingent among producers. 



In connection with higher art in marketing 
fruit, it is interesting to record that in the Eastern 
shipments of "clusterettes." the new grape pack 
sent out this year by the California Fruit Ex- 
chane, utilized $3600 worth of fancy baby ribbon, 
which, if stretched in one piece, would cover a dis- 
tance of twenty-five miles. The experiment proved 
a success, and the growers sending grapes East 
packed with fancy ribbon received much larger 
prices than those whose consignments went in the 
ordinary manner. Clusterettes go in the natural 
form in large bunches as picked from the vine, 
packed in specially constructed crates so the ber- 
ries will not bruise. The ribbon shows them off 
to good advantage when placed on sale before the 
Easterners. One carload alone last week brought 
+2200 in Chicago, which was several hundred dol- 
lars in advance of any other figure paid this year. 
Not only is the idea of decorated clusters interest- 
ing, but the fact that such a sale of fruit was made 
at the end of a season which has had so much of 
discouragement may appeal to some as a rift in 
the cloud. 



January 1, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Queries and Replies 



Beginning Here and There. 

To the Editor : In your issue of October 23, 
you commented upon some views of mine that 
California is the slowest place to get a start if you 
expect to get profitable returns from lands which 
you have to prepare for irrigation. You said one 
could go faster if he knew more and trusted less 
to representations of promoters. I do not agree 
with your conclusions. I am familiar with coun- 
try life from childhood in Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota and Dakota, and still doubt if there 'is 
any place where beginners meet so many discour- 
agements as in dry California with its untold ex- 
pense in preparing the land for irrigation. I saw 
pathetic instances (in my visit to a new irrigated 
district this summer), of men obliged to leave 
their farms for day labor, having put all their 
cash into land checking, trees and buildings, and 
having no income whatever after two years' un- 
tiring and apparently intelligent labor. Except- 
ing in the matter of glowing hopes on the part of 
the latter I saw no difference in the success of old 
timers or newcomers. However, I have great 
faith in the country and in the wonderful future 
for agricultural life, especially the raising of 
staples. — Reader, Chicago. 

You could not have looked very closely in the 
older States you mention if you did not see men 
doing days' work for others while their own plant- 
ings were coming to bearing age. If we are not 
mistaken that is the very way the whole country 
has been built up — driving a home stake and then 
working for others for ready cash to meet living 
expenses and to pay for more improvements. It is 
the way of the world. Jacob worked seven years 
for a wife and liked her so well he worked an- 
other seven years for another wife and by the end 
of that period he accumulated enough other per- 
sonal property to start in for himself. If he had 
stayed much longer he would have owned the 
whole outfit and poor old Laban would have been 
on the highway. We do not sympathize with 
those who start that way, providing they make 
good investments, and do not yield to some se- 
ductive promoter who promises them a life on a 
shady veranda if they will only blow in their 
money his way. You are right in emphasizing 
staples as desirable and staples for a beginner 
have always been first what he needs for his own 
use. It is gambling for a beginner who has not 
much money to invest it all in improvements and 
in crops which do not yield immediate returns. 
With a team and tools, a cabin and a shed, a cow 
and a bunch of fowls, he can save "untold ex- 
pense" in preparing land for irrigation and in 
tree planting, and whatever else he has to wait 
for while giving sufficient land to have vegetables 
ami other things for immediate use. Starting into 
California agriculture as an investment and start- 
ing in for a living are two very different things. 
The common mistake is that people get so frenzied 
on the investment idea that they come to think 
thai the living will come of itself. It will not 
come so fast as it does in the story books, and a 
man is in luck who knows how to earn good wages 
ami can market his labor near his home, when- 
ever he has time which he cannot more profitably 
and pleasurably employ upon his own place. 

Pollination of Black Tartarian. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly advise what 
oilier variety of cherry is best to plant with the 
Black Tartarian for pollination? There are many 
old Tartarian cherry trees around our district that 
have only borne a few cherries in years. There 
are Bing, Royal Ann and KarJy Purple Guignes 
here w ith these, hut they seldom, if ever, bloom 
with the Tartarian at the proper time to pollinate. 
We would like to know such varieties which 
would cause the trees to bear, even though the 
fruil of the pollinator should not be of special 
value.- -Trfbble Bros., Elk Grove. 

Your information about the sterility of the 



Black Tartarian is rather new to me, although we 
have had another complaint of it from your dis- 
trict recently. In the Coast regions, Bing, Black 
Tartarian and Early Purple Guigne are all con- 
sidered pollenizers for the Royal Ann. Inversely 
all these should be pollenizers for the Black Tar- 
tarian, if that variety requires such assistance, 
which we have all along supposed that it did not. 
We are, therefore, not possessed of the informa- 
tion which you desire, and can only suggest that 
you graft in other varieties for the purpose of test- 
ing out the matter to your own satisfaction. We 
publish your communication in the Pacific Rural 
Pit ess in the hope that other observers will be able 
to do better for you than we can. 

Depth of Soil for Trees. 

To the Editor: There is a ravine about 12 feet 
deep running through the center of this ranch 
that shows about two feet of sediment soil, then 
about 10 feet of what I know as adobe, and un- 
derlying the adobe is what is known as hard-pan, 
and I should judge to be of a clay formation. This 
last is very hard, and of what depth I do not 
know. Is the depth of soil here sufficient for an 
orchard and does the hard-pan cut any figure? 
By development, this creek running through the 
center of the ranch can be made to give an or- 
chard a heavy irrigation during the win- 
ter months. — Farmer, San Benito. 

Theoretically we should hesitate about planting 
fruit trees with only two feet of good available 
soil above clay or hard-pan. It would seem to be 
better for shallow rooting small fruits or vege- 
tables, excepting root crops which should have 
deeper soil. With such small fruits or vegetables 
your irrigation development would be desirable 
and profitable. For the tree fruits we should pre- 
fer something like twice the depth of available 
soil and more than that woidd certainly be no 
objection. 

Walnut Planting. 

To the Editor: I am planning to plant walnuts 
on rather heavy soil (edge of valley and foothill) 
just south of Hayward. Would you kindly in- 
form me as to the best commercial varieties, and 
in growing from the nut how deep to plant the 
nut in the ground. I have been told to put the 
nut six inches below the surface, but think that 
too deep, as soil is heavy, rather. — Reader, Oak- 
land. 

The best nuts to plant would be the common 
California black walnut; the seedling to be graft- 
ed into some good variety of English walnut after 
the tree has attained some considerable size, for 
the grafting of a large tree is easier than graft- 
ing a seedling. In a heavy soil we should not 
plant these nuts more than three inches below the 
surface, but should cover the surface with a mulch 
of rotten straw to prevent drying out. On the 
whole, however, we would not plant seeds at all, 
but, unless you are willing to begin with grafted 
trees, would buy seedling California black wal- 
nut trees from the nurserymen, plant them out 
and graft when they were well established. So 
much is saved in time by this process and so much 
better a stand of trees can be obtained that we 
should prefer it to starting with the seed. How- 
ever, planting nuts in place require less initial in- 
vestment. Just which is the best variety of Eng- 
lish walnut to grow is not now clear. There are 
several which promise to be very satisfactory. 

Chemical Stump Killing. 

To the Editor: I wish to kill the roots of trees 
now being cut down by injecting some ehemical 
into the stump. What shall I use J— Subscriber, 
San -Jose. 

We do not know any chemical which will kill a 
stump in the way you suggest. Various things 
have been proposed, but we never knew their suc- 
cess to be demonstrated. If you wish to make a 
trial, bore holes, and fill them with gasoline and 



see what happens. Of solid substances, nothing 
could be more promising than common white ar- 
senic, which is the most energetic tissue killer, but 
we have no idea that it will be able to penetrate 
far into the dormant substance of the tree. Our 
experience is that the best way to kill a stump is 
to hatchet off the bark, and then pull off the suck- 
ers as they appear. No stamp can stand such 
treatment as this. 



The Prune Aphis. 

To the Editor: I would like to gel a little in- 
formation about a kind of green lice that gather 
on prune trees and cause a sticky gum to form on 
the leaves and branches, and also causes the prune 
to split open. I notice that they always come on 
trees in a low place, while trees on a little ridge 
are entirely free from them. If there is anything 
I can do for them, would you kindly let me know 
through the paper? — Grower, Napa. 

This little pest goes through the winter in the 
form of a shiny, black egg, which you can find on 
the twigs with a magnifier. This egg is not in- 
jured by winter sprays which will scale insects 
easily. You must use a spring spray, watching the 
young leaves for the appearance of the lice and 
then not wait a day for them to multiply, but 
spray at once with a tobacco insecticide, a miscible 
oil or anything else that is handy and will not hurt 
the leaves, because an aphis is very easy to kill if 
you can hit it. If, however, you wait until they 
get numerous and the leaves begin to curl and 
drop honey-dew, you have lost the chance to do 
the best work. You may have to spray several 
times to keep ahead of the pest if the season favors 
its multiplication. 

Alfalfa and Soils. 

To the Editor: I have a tract of land with a 
rather marked adobe soil. How does alfalfa suc- 
ceed on adobe and soils slightly modified from it? 
Is it true that alfalfa has brought the splendid 
soils about Woodland up from an adobe base to 
their present condition? Does irrigation work 
well on adobe planted to alfalfa? Is a fall of four 
feet to the mile sufficient for irrigating this land ! 
— Reader, Oakland. 

Alfalfa is doing well upon heavier soils than 
were formerly thought suited to it. If you get the 
irrigation adjusted so that the soil shall not be 
water-logged and so that the water does not stand 
on the surface when the sun is hot, you can gel 
plenty of good alfalfa on a heavy soil. But we 
should prefer to have it somewhat "modified" 
from adobe and would not care if it were a good 
deal more than slightly different. A Italia is a 
good thing for the soils about Woodland, but al- 
falfa did not make those soils: they came straight 
from the Creator by the water route : they are the 
richest stuff from the up-lands moved down by 
( 'ache and Putah creeks. Irrigation on adobe soils 
must be done more frequently and a less amount 
at each application to guard against the dangers 
named above. Four feet fall to the mile is plenty, 
in fact less will do on fine soils which take water 
slowly. 

Tobacco Growing in California. 

To the Editor: Where can I get a full account 
about tobacco growing in California as I would 
like to go into that business? — Reader, Los An- 
geles. 

There is at present practically no commercial 
production of tobacco in this State. There have 
been plots of various sizes grown and very consid- 
erable enterprises projected, but the difficulties 
which are encountered in curing have usually 
rendered these undertakings disappointing. The 
growth and handling of this plant are altogether 
experimental as yet, so far as profit froes. and. on 
the whole, during the last .10 years much more 
money has been lost than gained. The way to 
make money out of tobacco in California hits still 
to be demonstrated. 



i 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1. 1!M() 



Horticulture. 



THE APPLE IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 



By Mr. FrkdbhjoK Maskew, Assistant Superintend- 
ent California State Insectary, Sacramento, at the 
Watsonville Fruit Growers Convention. 

With very few exceptions, the older apple or- 
chards of Los Angeles county, ranging in extent 
from 1 to 10 acres, arc merely an incident to the 
general hnsiness of agriculture, and as such have 
passed through all the vicissitudes common to such 
an arrangement. A careful study of these orch- 
ards shows clearly that the conditions found there 
are by no means due to fundamental causes such 
as soil, moisture, or climate — they are simply the 
logical accompaniments of lack of knowledge of 
suitable varieties and poor methods of manage- 
ment. Especially is this so in the selection of 
varieties. 

The condition of most of the fruit found in the 
earlier planted orchards was due entirely to lack 
of this knowledge of varieties suited to the local 
environment. The soil was suited to the require- 
ments of apple trees. Governed by this fact, the 
planters of these orchards, without any local 
precedent to guide them, selected the varieties 
from the knowledge they possessed of their be- 
havior in other parts of the country, failing to rec- 
ognize the truth of the fact that rarely indeed 
docs a variety maintain for itself the excellence 
that has gained for it a reputation when removed 
from the immediate locality in which it first at- 
tracted attention. The result of this was that 
while the trees made all the growth desirable, the 
si/.e, shape, color, flavor, quality, habit of bearing, 
and time of ripening of the fruit by the most of the 
varieties planted, yet it was so modified as to be 
in some instances almost unrecognizable! 

One of our best pomologists has set forth the 
axiom that specialization in varieties can never 
precede, it must always follow, the extension of 
horticultural centres. Yet it is fitly recognized 
that specialization in varieties is the custom of the 
period, and to it can be traced the reputation and 
financial success of the famous apple-growing sec- 
tions of the world. 

A full realization of the truth of these two fun- 
damentals is what makes it so difficult to furnish 
reliable suggestions in relation to the varieties 
suited to new territories. Apple trees will grow 
and thrive in a great variety of soils, in fact, the 
apple is pre-eminently the fruit of the masses, and 
in consonance with this Nature has endowed the 
apple tree with a greater power of adaptability 
than that of any other fruit tree known to horti- 
culture. Notwithstanding all this, those desirous 
of extending the industry (and they are legion) 
must keep in mind the fact that it is the quality of 
the fruit more than the growth of the trees that 
makes the reputation of the locality and the for- 
tune of the planter. The best we can do on this 
point is to generalize and at the same time empha- 
size the point that those desirous of planting com- 
mercial apple orchards in untried regions should 
take pains to thoroughly familiarize themselves 
with the behavior of the varieties growing in apple 
sections having climatic conditions similar to the 
one in which they propose to plant, both through 
their own observation and extensive consultation 
with successful orchardists. 

Selection. — There, is no Feature of commercial 
apple orcharding thai should be given more serious 
consideration than the selection of the permanent 
varieties. 

One of the most prominent features in these 
orchards that have been under consideration in 
this paper was their tendency to produce large 
crops of fruit. In many of them there were almost 
as many different varieties as there were individ- 
ual trees. tSill the full-bearing habit was uni- 
versal. Out of this infinity of varieties came two 
that were paramount to all others, the White Win- 
ter Pearmain and the Yellow Bellefleur. These, in 
common with the others produced good, full crops 
of fruit, and the fruit possessed good market 
value. Close observers soon commenced to realize 
that these varieties could be grown at a profit, and 
with a view to enhancing these profits commenced 
to plant orchards composed entirely of one or the 
other of these two varieties: especially was this so 
of the White Winter Pearmain. Thus commenced 
what may be considered the second period of 
apple-orcharding in that region, 



The young trees in these orchards grew with 
all the customary vigor of the White Winter Pear- 
main. hut they failed to set a crop of fruit. Season 
after season, when the Pearmain trees in the older 
orchards of mixed varieties were breaking down 
under their load of fruit, the younger orchards 
set in solid blocks of one variety were not produc- 
ing a box to the tree. 

I have in mind a number of these orchards and 
their owners, with both of which I was intimately 
acquainted at that time. Without taking up your 
time in going into details. I will state that these 
conditions brought those who were vitally inter- 
ested in this matter face to face with the question 
of cross-pollination and its bearing upon the pro- 
duction of fruit in commercial apple orchards. 

Fruit Bearing. — The many influences that enter 
into the normal failure of the fruit blossoms to 
set, such as heavy wood growth in the young trees, 
the attack of insects and fungi on the blossoms, 
frost, rain and other unfavorable weather during 
the blossoming season were all given careful con- 
sideration during the investigation that was made 
of this problem by a member of the leading apple 
growers of that section. Many arguments, many 
of them very ingenious, were made pro and con 
as to the value or even the desirability of cross- 
pollination. It was, however, clearly recognized 
that self-sterility is not a canstant character with 
any variety. The same variety may be self-sterile 
in one place and nearly self-fertile in another. The 
adaptation of a variety to soil and climate has 
much to do with its self-fertility. It would be fal- 
lacious to attempt to separate apple trees into two 
definite classes, the self-fertile and the self-sterile. 
All this goes to show that the problem is as much 
I a study of conditions as of varieties, and that we 
can never be perfectly sure that any variety will 
be self-fertile in a new region. Planting for cross- 
pollination purposes as a matter of insurance in 
fruit-production is now becoming a general or- 
chard practice. 

The practical bearing of the problem is this: 
There are certain varieties of apples that, due to 
their profitableness, we wish to grow largely for 
the general market, but we find that they cannot 
be depended upon to produce full crops when 
planted alone. They need the pollen of other vari- 
eties to make them fruitful. Then we must plant 
other varieties near them as pollinizcrs. 

Choosing Pollinizers. Having determined upon 
the variety to be grown for a general crop, the 
most important point in the selection of the pol- 
linizer is that the two shall blossom at the same 
time. The only way in which a pollinizer can be 
of service in promoting fruitfulness in the variety 
planted for the general crop is by supplying it 
with pollen. This means that the pistils of one 
variety must be ready to receive the pollen when 
the stamens of the other are ripe; this is only 
possible when both varieties bloom simultaneously. 

The comparative blooming of varieties is some- 
thing of a local problem. Difference of location, 
altitude, soil and weather govern the time of ap- 
pearance of the blossoms, hut a series of observa- 
tions made by the writer tend to show that while 
the date of blossoming may be hastened or re- 
tarded by local conditions, the comparative time 
is approximately the same for different, varieties 
in localities having similar conditions of soil and 
climate. 

The variety to he used as a pollinizer is. of 
course, governed by the variety to be planted for 
the main crop. This question having been decided, 
the next question is to know how many trees will 
be necessary to pollinate the self-sterile variety. 
This brings us back in so far as my knowledge 
extends, to the apple orchards of Los Angeles 
county. 

Out of the failures, disappointments, and diffi- 
culties of the two periods of apple-growing just 
described came the apple orchards of today. A 
study of those will show that the owners are be- 
ginning to pay more attention to some of the finer 
problems of apple culture, such as the relation of 
varieties to pollination, their susceptibility to dis- 
ease, the individuality of trees, a better class of 
nursery stock, and the question of selecting the 
buds and scions for propagating purposes. In 
these young apple orchards can be seen on every 
hand the principles of selection, planting and 
pruning advocated by Wickson, Powell, and oth- 
ers, applied all unconsciously, perhaps, of their 
origin, by the workers, but in evidence, neverthe- 
less, to the close observer. 

Such an orchard is the one owned by Mr. Cu- 



dahy, at Florence. Here there are 30,000 trees in 
one block. 

To insure fruitfulness in this orchard, one row 
of pollinizers was planted to each 8 rows of the 
varieties considered best adapted to the location 
and market demands. The pollinizers were plant- 
ed in straight rows, to facilitate harvesting. Fall 
Pippin was used principally as a pollinizer for the 
While Winter Pearmain. and in some instances 
Yellow Newtown Pippin for the Yellow Bellefleurs. 
I was in this orchard about fourteen months ago, 
and from my own observation, as also from the 
statements of the superintendent, this arrangement 
had proved satisfactory from the standpoint of the 
product inn of fruit. 

Young Trees.— In the effort made by the apple 
growers of the region we have been considering, to 
take advantage of all the lessons learned from the 
two preceding periods of the industry, great atten- 
tion was paid to the question of the quality of nur- 
sery stock. A bud on a whole root was considered 
the standard of excellence, and it was soon learned 
that a more uniform stand of symmetrical trees 
could be obtained by planting those with a 
straight, whip-like top of one year's growth than 
from those that had been grown the second year 
in nursery rows. The conditions that resulted in 
this decision were found to be as follows: In 
well-grown, one-year-old wood every eye or bud 
is strong and perfect and can be depended upon 
to grow when the young tree is cut back to the 
desired height, thus insuring a sufficient number 
of shoots from which to select those that are to 
form the new and permanent head of the tree. In 
two years on older wood these buds have per- 
formed their functions in the production of either 
shoots or leaves and cannot be depended upon to 
put out uniformly. It was found that trees grown 
the second year in nursery rows had invariably 
been branched too high to meet the accepted stand- 
ard of height in that locality, and when these were 
cut back below the point at which they had been 
branched they would almost invariably put out 
from a bud just above the ground. 

In following up this matter of nursery stock 
further it was found that there were still other 
factors to be considered. 

In almost every apple orchard, even in those in 
which the general growth had been satisfactory 
and fairly uniform, there was found to be a dis- 
tinct individuality in the trees of the same variety 
— regular bearers, erratic bearers, shy bearers; 
the foliage differed, too. I have seen a Yellow 
Bellefleur, one out of fifty, carrying rich, green 
leaves throughout the season, when the foliage of 
the remainder was brown and withered from the 
attack of mildew, and this not only for one season, 
but for several consecutive seasons. 

It was claimed at the time that these conditions 
were the logical results of the indiscriminate cut- 
ting of buds for propagating purposes, especially 
so of cutting buds and scions from nursery stock 
from young trees that had not had an opportunity 
to develop any characteristic whatever, either 
good. had. or indifferent. 

If the laws of heredity hold good in the vege- 
table kingdom, and the history of horticulture will 
justify us in concluding that they do. the charac- 1 
ter of resistance of foliage and habits of bearing 
can be transmitted through the buds. It is well 
at this point to make the distinction between a 
type ami a character. No amount of care in selec- 
tion will transmit a type. A type is the result of 
environment, a character the result of heredity. 

How to Study a Tree.— In the effort to transmit 
desirable characters through propagating wood, it 
is well to remember that the individuality of an 
apple tree canont be determined by the observa- 
tions of a single season. It must show persistent 
good behavior for several seasons, and must be ac- 
curately watched and compared with other similar 
trees before we can obtain a correct estimate of its 
habits. Many causes tend to produce heavy bear- 
ing, high color, or large size, for a season or two, 
but when a tree, under average orchard conditions, 
shows that its habits of bearing and health of foli- 
age are stable, then there can be little question 
about the transmission of its characteristics 
through its buds, and the annual crop of buds from 
such a tree should be worth more money for prop- 
agating purposes than the market value of its 
fruit. 

In the consummation of this ideal of having the 
good habits of the apple trees universal through- 
out the orchard, the initial step must be taken by 
the planter. He must create the demand for pedi- 



J 



January 1, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



greed stock, and must be prepared to pay accord- 
ingly. A propagator of apple trees can cut 1000 
buds in the nursery rows in less time than he can 
10 from an individual tree. In all lines of business, 
time costs money, but the cost of nursery stock, if 
the quality is there, should be the least of factors 
that enter into a long-time investment like an 
apple orchard. 

Conclusions. — And now, for the especial benefit 
of those who propose to extend the apple industry 
into new regions, the lessons drawn from a pro- 
longed study of the apple orchards of Los Angeles 
county, concerning the laying of the foundation of 
a commercial orchard, may be recapitulated as 
follows : 

Study well the local conditions before selecting 
the permanent varieties. 

Insure fruitfulness in large blocks of one variety 
of apple trees by planting pollinizers among them. 
Look into the origin of the propagating wood used 
before buying nursery stock. 

There is nothing in all of what has just been said 
that is new. No one knows that better than I do. 
In apple orcharding, as in every other phase of 
horticulture, the state of knowledge is far, far in 
advance of the state of practice. These truths 
have been set forth time and time again by such 
masters of the science as Waite, Wickson, Powell, 
Fletcher, and others. All the good that I could 
hope to come from this paper lies in the fact that 
the report of this convention will be widely cir- 
culated, and some future planter of a commercial 
apple orchard may perhaps have his memory re- 
freshed upon these points before he plants his or- 
chard, rather than after the loss of many years 
and much money. 



The Vineyard. 



WINE MAKING ON A SMALL SCALE. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Prof. F. T. Bioletti. 

Aeration. — The regulation of the exposure of 
the must and wine to the air is one of the most im- 
portant parts of wine-making. Thorough aeration 
of the must before fermentation is necessary to in- 
vigorate the yeast and to cause it to multiply suf- 
ficiently to ferment the sugar. The exposure of 
the grapes in crusher, carriers, etc., is sufficient for 
this purpose. In some methods of wine-making, 
however, the grapes or must are heated, which has 
the effect of drawing out the oxygen which has 
been absorbed from the air. In such cases special 
aeration is necessary. This is easily accomplished 
by pumping over with full contact with the air. 

Durng the main fermentation, no unnecessary 
contact with air should be allowed. Too much 
aeration at this time results in too violent fermen- 
tation, undue heating, loss of alcohol, and injury to 
the color and flavor. Towards the end of fermen- 
1 at ion a fresh aeration is often needed to eliminate 
the last 1% or 2% of sugar. This is particularly 
necessary when the grapes are very sweet. It is 
usually advisable in California to aerate by pump- 
ing over once or twice during the first week after 
the red wine is placed in the storage vats. 

There should be no break in the fermentation. 
It should continue from the start without interrup- 
tion until all .the sugar is eliminated. It is a very 
serious mistake to leave a small remnant of sugar 
in the wine to be fermented out during the follow- 
ing spring or summer. 

The first 18% or 20% of sugar will ferment out 
in from three to four days, if the method described 
is followed. The remainder of the sugar will dis- 
appear more slowly. This is because the yeast has 
become enfeebled by the work it has done, and the 
alcohol formed interferes with its action. At this 
stage, aeration will re-invigorate it and enable it to 
complete its work. This aeration should be given 
promptly before the wine has had time to cool. 

Fermentation of White Wine. — The principal 
difference between white wirie and red is that it is 
made by fermenting the must after separating 
from the solid parts of the grape, and therefore 
contains little or none of the color, tannin, and 
other extractive matters of the skin. 

The flavors of white wine arc more delicate and, 
therefore, more easily injured than those of red 
wine. Even greater care, therefore, is necessary 



in preventing any molding of the grapes, any un- 
due heating of the must, or contact with anything 
which might communicate a foreign flavor. 

Defecation. — However carefully the grapes are 
handled a certain amount of dust, particles of soil, 
leaves, skins, etc., will get into the must. If these 
solid matters are left in the must during fermenta- 
tion the flavor will be injured. 

Methods of clearing the must of these solid par- 
ticles are discussed in Circular 22. The best and 
most practical is to allow them to settle by their 
own weight. This they will do, under favorable 
conditions in a few hours, if the must is left undis- 
turbed in a cask or vat. It is nearly always neces- 
sady, however, to sulphur the must slightly to pre- 
vent fermentation, which, by producing bubbles 
of gas would keep the solid particles floating in the 
liquid. The sulphurous acid is useful also in pro- 
moting the settling of the minute mold, yeast, and 
bacterial spores present. Much of persistent cloud- 
iness and "off" flavors of white wines is due to 
these organisms ; their elimination, therefore, is 
always of benefit to the wine. 

The sulphuring may be done with potassium- 
meta-bisulphite, as with red wine. It may be ap- 
plied by hanging the weighed amount in a cheese- 
cloth bag just below the surface of the must or by 
dissolving in a little water and pouring into the 
defecating vessel as it is being filled. 

It is desirable to have a special defecating vessel 
large enough to contain all the must obtained in 
one day. If this is a cask or other closed vessel 
the fumes of burning sulphur may be used instead 
of the sulphite. This is much cheaper, but not so 
good nor so convenient. Its defects are that some 
unburned sulphur and various sulphur compounds 
get into the wine and may injure its flavor, the 
burning sulphur may injure the cask, and it is ex- 
tremely difficult, without long practice, to regulate 
the dose. In small casks of about 50 gallons, all 
the sulphur which will burn in the cask should be 
used ; in puncheons of about 175 gallons, about half 
this amount is all that is needed ; while, in still 
larger casks, a smaller proportion only is neces- 
sary. The reason of this is that in small casks 
more of the gas is lost by being forced out before 
the wine can absorb it. In large casks the wine 
falling from a greater height comes into more inti- 
mate contact with the fumes and absorbs a greater 
proportion. 

After sulphuring or sulphiting, the must will 
clear in from 12 to 36 hours. It will often still be 
a little cloudy, but the great bulk of the solid mat- 
ter will have settled. It should then be drawn off 
the sediment into the fermenting casks or vats. 
The amount of sediment eliminated in this way will 
surprise wine-makers who have never tried it. 

The fermentation of the clear must is then 
brought about by the addition of a starter, as al- 
ready described for red wine. Less yeast is neces- 
sary, as the competition of wild yeast has been 
eliminated by the defecation. 

With large quantities of must, the main fermen- 
tation is best carried out in open vats, as there is 
less liability to over-heating. As soon as most of 
the sugar has disappeared, however, and before 
the temperature has fallen more than a few de- 
grees, the wine should be transferred to closed 
casks. The aeration caused by this transfer will 
invigorate the yeast, and care should be exercised 
to transfer the yeast with the wine. This is partic- 
ularly necessary where champagne or similar 
yeasts are used, as they have a tendency to remain 
at the bottom of the fermenting vat, and if we 
were to transfer the wine without the yeast there 
might be difficulty in fermenting the wine to dry- 
ness. For the same reason the practice of skim- 
ming off the foam during the violent fermentation 
is bad. The yeast when first formed comes to the 
top, and if we remove it as fast as it is produced 
it does not have time to attack the sugar, and all 
the yeast food may be exhausted in the must before 
the sugar is fermented. Wines treated in this way 
often remain permanently sweet and cannot be 
re-fermented without the addition of fresh must. 
It is in this way that sweet unfortified wines are 
made in some regions, and the practice has its use 
for this purpose. 

The same recommendations given regarding the 
end of the fermentation of red wine apply to white. 
The fermentation should be all finished at one time 
without intermission. 

Clearing the Wine. — Wine treated as described 
should be perfectly dry in from 6 t.o 20 days in the 
case of red wine and in from 2 to 6 weeks in the 



case of white. At the end of this time the yeast 
has done its work and has settled to the bottom. 
The sooner it is separated from the wine after this, 
the better. This is done by "racking," which 
means drawing the clear wine off the sediment into 
clean casks. 

At racking a very slight sulphuring of the cask 
is usually advisable, though this is not necessary 
if sulphur has been used in the fermentation and if 
the wine is quite clear. 

Filling Up. — Too much exposure to the air en- 
courages the growth of vinegar bacteria and the 
production of acetic acid. During fermentation 
the wine is protected by the carbonic acid gas 
which is continual lv given off, but as soon as fer- 
mentation is over the wine must be protected in 
some other way. This is done by keeping it in 
perfectly full and tightly-bunged casks. 

When the wine is first placed in the storage 
casks it will decrease in volume rapidly by evap- 
oration and cooling. It is therefore necessary to 
"fill up" at first, at least twice a week. The bungs 
at first should be put in loosely. If driven in tight 
the gas, which is still being given off slowly, may 
cause the casks to burst. As soon as gas ceases to 
come off, the bungs should be driven in tight and 
filled up once a week, and later once in two weeks 
is all that is necessary. 

Isinglass is the most perfect fining for white 
wine. It requires little tannin, and only one-quar- 
ter as much is needed as of gelatine. It is some- 
what difficult to prepare, however, settles more 
slowly and leaves a bulkier sediment. 

When the finings have settled and the wine is 
perfectly bright it is ready for bottling. This may 
be done by means of a good bottling siphon of pure 
rubber tubing of about V^-inch in diameter. At one 
end of this siphon is attached a piece of glass tubing 
of the same diameter, sufficiently long to reach 
nearly to the bottom of the cask, and bent at one 
end at right angle. At the other end a piece of 
glass tubing about 2 inches long, slightly con- 
stricted at one end, is convenient in allowing the 
wine to enter the bottle without waste or undue 
aeration. A still better method is to use a small 
wooden bottling faucet, which is placed in the 
lower part of the head of the cask before fining. 



Citrus Fruits. 



CULTURAL NOTES. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Mr. Edgar Wright, of Los Angeles. 

Very little is appearing in the papers of Cali- 
fornia regarding the cold snap of the 4th inst., 
and the colder one on Sunday morning of the Iflth . 
Both periods were quite cold, the latter the worst 
of the two. The frost of the early part of Decem- 
ber was enough to leave its mark on citrus fruit 
trees and eucalyptus trees all the way from Po- 
mona to Highlands, some groves seeming to have 
escaped wholly while others that were in low and 
exposed places seem to be particularly bad. 

I was not inclined to think that the cold of the 
first frost was severe enough to do any great 
amount of damage, though satisfied that it would 
find that some oranges had been frozen. The 
weather of November has been quite warm and 
much new growth started on the citrus fruit trees. 
This new growth was very tender and was easily 
effected by a cold that would otherwise do no 
harm or leave any traces of its visit. This new 
growth is almost wholly on the outside of the 
tree and is all over the outside surface and it can 
be readily seen that the visit of a frost heavy 
enough to kill these new leaves would seemingly 
show bad damage to the orchards on account of 
the dead growth that would be sure to show. As 
a matter of fact the orchards, some of them at 
least, look a great deal like a corn field back home 
after the corn has all been gathered and the stalks 
left to stand, dead and dying. A stand on an ele- 
vation shows miles of this kind of scenery and 
yet in general there has been little or no damage 
from the December 4th drop in the temperature. 
One grower argues that this temporary set hack- 
in the growth will act to the future good on the 
same principle that singeing the hair on the hu- 
man head will stimulate growth. 

That the grower's claims to the end that it was 
the tender growth that was hurt, and that it : is 

{Continued on Page H.) 



6 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1. 1910. 



California Vegetables in Garden and Field 



By E. J. WICKSON, of the I nivoroilj of California. 



Second and Revised Edition; published serially In the PACIFIC 
HI KM, PRESS (beginning vvlth the Issue of November 27, 100!>>. 
and subsequently to appear in book form. 



[COPYRIGHT — ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.] 



The Hot-bed. — The hot-bed consists of ;t box like thai 
described for a cold frame placed above a mass of ferment- 
ing manure which supplies bottom heat. The old regula- 
tion style of hot-bed was made by digging out a pit the 
size of the frame, throwing out the soil to a depth of 
eighteen inches or two feet. Fill in the excavation with a 
foot depth of fresh horse manure mixed witli straw as 
it comes from a stable where the animals are well bedded 
with straw. Tread the manure down firmly; put on the 
frame and cover the manure with eight to ten inches of 
good light and rich sandy loam that will not bake or 
crust over when sprinkled with water. Bank up the 
outside of the frame with the same kind of manure used 
inside, and cover with window sashes of the proper length 
to reach across the bed and rest on the sides. The sashes 
should not be too wide as it is desirable to uncover part 
of the bed at a time. As soon as the manure begins to 
ferment and heat the bed is ready for use. Sow seeds 
in rows from front to back of the bed. and germination 
will be very rapid. On warm days the cover should he 
lifted a little or partially or wholly removed, according 
to the heat of the day and the activity of the bottom heat 
in the bed. Water freely with water from which the chill 
has been removed. 

This old style of hot-bed is contrived to freely employ 
the heat of the fermenting manure and to push plants 
during zero temperatures in the outer air. Of course, 
where winter temperatures but rarely fall to the freezing 
point, and where the winter day heat often runs at shirt 
sleeves and sun-bonnet degrees, such a hot-bed is as ex- 
cessive in the garden as a feather-bed is in the house. For 
these reasons, the horse manure is made less active by 
considerable admixture of chaff or dried leaves or 
other mollients. This mixture is placed on the surface 
of the ground in a place protected from cold winds, and 
is properly mixed and packed down into a compact, flat 
pile, somewhat larger than the frame, which is placed 
upon the top of it and the same material is drawn up 
around the outside of the ends and sides of the frame. 
Inside the frame the soil is placed .just as described for 
the hot-bed with a pit. This raised, instead of depressed, 
hot-bed is easier to make and it has other advantages for 
this climate, ft is not likely to have its pit. flooded and 
the heat choked off by rain water just at the time when 
its action is desired. It is also easier to prevent excessive 
heat because it allows better opportunities for radiation. 
Hut even with this the plants have to be very carefully 
watched and air freely given or they will become leggy 
and weak from too great forcing-heat. These local condi- 
tions have also given rise to other modifications of hot-bed 
arrangements which are excellent for this climate. 



A Horticultural Hot-box. — Mr. Ira VY. Adams, a Cali- 
fornia vegetable grower of great ingenuity and insight, 
has devised a sort of automatic arrangement which 
changes from a hot-bed to ;i cold frame about the time the 
plants are ready to go from forcing to hardening off. He 
gives this description of it : 

"I take a dry-goods box, three or four feet long, two 
feet wide, and two feet or more in depth. This is about as 
small as it should be: a much larger one can be used, if 
necessary. Into this I put fresh horse manure, and straw 
that has been used for bedding, and tramp it down occa- 
sionally as solid as possible, until it is within four inches 
from the top. Over this I scatter a little clean straw. I 
then use small boxes, three inches deep, and fill them 
nearly full with nicely-prepared soil. and. after sowing my 
seed, place each box in the warm bed and cover each one 
with a pane of glass, in order to retain moisture. It is 
necessary to remove the glass occasionally, for the pur 
pose of admitting fresh air. The main bed will soon com- 
mence to heat, as well as the earth in the box. Great care 
must now be taken for a few days, otherwise the contests 
of the boxes might become too warm, which would cause 
the young plants to grow tall and spindling, thereby ren- 
dering them almost worthless. This can be easily obvi- 
ated by lifting the boxes and placing under them an inch 
board, or a few bricks. On a cold night vary the boards 
or bricks as occasion may require. In a few days your 
plants will be up nicely, the heat of the bed will gradually 



grow less, and the plants will naturally favor themselves 
to the change. You will soon have what is termed a 'cold 
frame." and your plants will grow strong and stocky, pro- 
viding care is taken to cover them during severe storms, 
as well as in cold days and nights. When they are yet 
small, and commence to crowd each other too much, trans- 
plant them to an open, sheltered, raised bed. where they 
can be cared for until ready to set out in permanent beds 
or rows." 

A Warm Heap. — Another of Mr. Adams' arrangements 
to give his seed boxes just as little heat as suits the pur- 
pose, consists in simply throwing up a heap of fresh horse 
manure, etc.. under an old shed, and placing the seed- 
boxes on top of the heap. Great care must be taken for 
some days at least, as it becomes necesary to raise the 
boxes sometimes by placing them on a piece of board or 
bricks or to press them down a little into the heap, owing 
altogether to the amount of heat generated. A little too 
much is worse than not quite enough. After the plants 
get a few inches high they can be transplanted into open 

beds somewhat sheltered from the north winds, where 
they can remain until spring weather fairly opens, when 
they can be again removed to the garden. 

Watering. — In growing plants with heat, moisture, 
conditions must be especially regarded. Too great mois- 
ture and "damping off" of seedlings is largely prevented 
in common vegetable seedlings by adequate ventilation 
which has already been emphasized in connection with 
prevention of excessive heat. Too little moisture is almost 
as dangerous as too much. There should be. then, ample 
watering with a fine spray or sprinkle of water from 
which the chill has been removed. Most of the time, water 
standing in the sun for a day will be of satisfactory 
warmth, but if not, a little boiling water from the kitchen 
will temper quite a volume of cold water for use in the 
beds ami frames. 

Covering for Beds and Frames. California growers 
.argely substitute cloth for glass iii covering hot beds or 
cold frames, because it gives all the protection needed, is 
also rather more of a safeguard against over-heating, and 
furnishes shade from too intense sun heat, which is liable 
to come on anv winter day and do harm. This is an es- 
peciallv valuable feature in amateur growing, where one's 
attention is apt to be distracted by other affairs. Besides, 
the cloth is of nominal cost. In the drier parts of the 
state the cloth is used without preparation. Where rains 
are more frequent, water-proofing is desirable. Take 
white cloth of a close texture, stretch it. and nail it on 
frames of anv size you wish, putting in cross-bars to sus- 
tain the cloth if the frame is large. Mix two ounces of 
lime water, four ounces of linseed oil. one ounce of white 
of eggs separately", two ounces of yolk of eggs-, mix the 
lime and oil with' a very gentle heat; beat the eggs sepa- 
rately, and mix with the former. Spread the mixture with 
a paint-brush on the cloth, allowing each coat to drv be- 
fore applying another, until they become waterproof. 

To make waterproof cloth with less labor if consider- 
able quantity is wanted : Soften four and one-half ounces 
of -due in eight and three-quarter pints of water, cold at 
first • then dissolve in, say a wash-boiler full (six gallons) 
of warm water, with two and one-half ounces or hard 
soap: put in the cloth and boil for an hour, wring and 
dry ; then prepare a bath of a pound of alum and a pound 
of 'salt soak the prepared cloth in it for a couple of hours, 
rinse with clear water and dry. One gallon of the glue 
solution will soak about ten yards of cloth. This doth has 
been used in southern California for several years without 
mildewing, and it will hold water by the pailful. 

Handling of Seedlings.— As has been hinted already, 
seedlings grown bv artificial heat or protection should be 
brought along bv such adjustment of heat hoisture and 
fresh air that they are of good healthy color and sturdy 
growth. It is common practice to transplant the seedlings 
when quite small to other boxes of rather rich soil, in 
which they are more widely spaced, and to continue the 
growth with the heat for a time and then move the box to 
a cold frame giving them progressively more air and less 
protection until they acquire a hardiness for the open air. 
In the farm garden these every-day coddling arts ot the 
plantsman are apt to be neglected, and it will answer very 
well to thin out the plants enough in the original seed- 
boxes and to harden them by gradually increasing the 
exposure in the declining heat of the hot-bed, and then 
under slight shelter in the open air, until the time comes 
for their removal to open ground. If, however, there is 
likelv to be some time before planting out. the trans- 
planting from the seed-box to a protected bed in the open 
air will allow the postponement of transplanting to gar- 
den or field until a considerably later date. It is a mis- 
take to hold to long in the hot-bed or frame with the idea 
of gaining time bv having large plants to transplant. 
Good, sturdv plants, well used to fresh air and the lower 
temperatures, will make the best records in the open. 
(To be Continued.) 



Big Rains 



Ml OVER THE STATE 

This season promises to be 
a good one for planting. Place 
your orders now for future de- 
liveries. There will undoubt- 
edly be a shortage in some va- 
rieties. 



Our Nurseries Embrace 
Over 1500 Acres, 

Located in the most fertile 
and favorable spots in all Cali- 
fornia for the production and 
growing of first-class nursery 
stock of every description. 



TRUE TO NAME 




OF ALL SORTS 



BURBANK'S 

NEW CREATIONS 

In Plums and Walnuts. Santa 
Rosa Hum. Rutland Plumcot, 
(iaviota Plum. Formosa Plum, 
Vesuvius Foliage Plum. 

Royal and Paradox Rapid- 
Growing Timber Walnuts. 
Send 25 cents for beautifully 

illustrated booklet, in colors. 

We are sole propagators and 

disseminators. 



California Horticulture 

By GEO. C. ROEDING. 

Profusely illustrated, describ- 
ing 2000 different varieties of 
trees and plants. Valuable sug- 
gestions given re4ative to plant- 
ing, pruning, and care of or- 
chards. Mailed for 25 cents. 



1900-10 Price Catalogue 
mailed free. 



Write us today for quotations 
on your requirements. 

Established, 1884. 

PAID-OP CAPITAL • 200.000.00 

IFANCHER CREEK 

(nurseries 

INC 

GeO.C.ROedlRg Pr.s.SMgr. 

Box 18 Fresno.California.USAI 



gBp . 



January 1, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



7 



POULTRY IN ORCHARDS. 



To the Editor: I would like to give a 
little different answer to R. E. C, San 
Miguel, than you gave in your last issue. 
He asks about poultry in orchards. 1 
should say much depends upon the age 
of the trees. If the orchard is just plant- 
ed, or even if one or two years old, any 
considerable number of chickens will de- 
stroy the trees. They do this by roost- 
ing in them and breaking them down, by 
eating the foliage and buds, and by gird- 
ling them like jack rabbits. They will 
do it with abundance of clover and other 
green stuff at their feet. They seem to 
do it for the pure love of doing some- 
thing, the restless activity of young 
things that must have employment. Birds 
over one year old are not so bad, but all 
occasionally take a hand. I cannot speak 
as to whether they will do much injury 
to ripe fruit, but should be afraid to risk 
it. The above does not refer to birds 
confined in especially small yards, but to 
birds having plenty of room kept in con- 
siderable numbers. 

Gait. C. M. Lovett. 

I We did not suppose that our querist 
had any idea of allowing the fowls to run 
the orchard, but only to run in it. We 
certainly agree with him that roosting in 
young trees and the bark biting must not 
be allowed. Let us have a referendum on 
this subject: What do experienced read- 
ers know about poultry in orchards un- 
der various conditions which have been 
realized in their experience? — Editor]. 



DIVIDEND NOTICK. 



THIO fiKRIWAIV SAVINGS AND I, OA IV 
SOCIETY, 
(The German Bank). 
(Member of the Associated Savings Banks 
of San Francisco). 
~>'M California Street, 
IHlHMlOD Hrnneh, 1:572 Mission Street, near 

Twenty-second. 
Richmond IJlNtriet Branch, 4S1S Clement 
Street, bet. Fifth and Sixth Aves. 

Kor the half year ending December 31, 
1909, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of four (4) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Monday, January 3, 1910. Dividends 
not called for are added to tile deposit ac- 
count and earn dividends from January 1, 
11110. 

GEORGE TOTJRNY, Secretary. 
DIVIDEND NOTICE. 



SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION, 

(Member of the Associated Saving's Banks 
of San Francisca). 

N. \V. corner California and Montgomery 
Streets. 

For the half year ending December 31. 
190!) dividends have been declared at the 
rates per annum of four and one-eighth 
(4>/ 8 ) per cent on term deposits and four 
(4) per cent on ordinary deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after Monday, Janu- 
ary 3 1910. A dividend not drawn will be 
added to the deposit account, becomes a 
part thereof and earns dividend from Janu- 
ary 1 Money deposited on or before the 
10th day of .January will receive dividend 
from January 1, 

R. M. WELCH, Cashier. 
DIVIDEND NOTICE. 



THE SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY, 

(Member of the Associated Savings Banks 
of San Francisco). 
101 Montgomery Street, Corner Sutter. 

For the half year ending December 31, 
1909 a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of four (4) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Mondav, January 3, 1910. Dividends 
not drawn become part of the deposit ac- 
counts and earn dividends at the same rate 
from January 1st. Money deposited on or 
before January 10, will earn interest from 
January 1st. _ • _ '■ ■__ . 

WM. A. BOSTON, Cashier. 



DEEP WELL PUMPS 

AND CYLINDERS 

Water gates for pipe lines. Send for catalog. 

POMONA MANUFACTURING CO., 



Pomona. Cal. 



REDWOOD TANKS 

Kilty tarn s from one thousand to ten thousand 
<al ous that must be sold regardless of profit. 
Fruit Boxes— Egg Cases. 

Write for prices. 

R. F. WILSON 

Stockton. Cal. 



PLANT NOW 

SEEDS p^ 7 "^*^^- 
FRUIT 



BEST 
QUALITY 
GARDEN 

FIELD 

AND 
FLOWER 

SEEDS 



AND 



ORNAMENTAL 
TREES 




If you are inter- 
ested in the best 
SEEDS, 
TREES, 
and 
PLANTS, 
Write for Catalogue, 



TRUMBULL SEED CO. 

61 California St., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Peach Trees 

We have a large stock of 
Muirs, Lovell, Phillips 
and Tuscan clings. If you 
are in need of any of these 
write us for prices. We 
also have a full line of 
nursery stock. 



Salesmen Wanted. 



Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

Albany, Oregon. 



ALFALFA 

We handle the pure Utah strain. 
Samples mailed free, no cata- 
logues issued. 

OAKLAND SEED & PLANT CO. 



AN IMPROVED FREESTONE PEACH 

The best for canning, drying and market. 
FAY ELBERTA PEACH 

Superior to Mulr or Lovell for canning or dry- 
ing, and superior to any for market. A heavy 
and regular bearer, very attractive, firm and of 
exceptionally fine flavor. Write for descriptive 
circular. THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO., 

161 Orchard St., Newcastle, Cal. 

FARMJ300KS. 

The lollowlng list of books are kept In 

stock and are for sale at the Pacific Rural 

Press offlcce: „ , 

Price 

Shepherd's Manual, by Stewart 1.00 

The Hop, by Myrick 1.50 

Farm Grasses of the U. S., by Spillman 1.00 

Animal Breeding, by Shaw 1.50 

New Onion Culture, by Greiner 50 

Home Pork Making, by Fulton 50 

Profitable Dairying, by Peck 75 

The Potato, by Fraser 75 

Asparagus Growing, by Hexamer 50 

Chemistry of the f arm, by Warrington 1.00 

Cereals in America, by Hunt 1.75 

American Grape Growing and Wine 

Making, by Hussmann 1.50 

Broom Corn and Brooms 50 

Soiling Crops, by Shaw 1.50 

Book of Corn, by Myrick 1.50 

New Egg Farm, by Stoddard 1.00 

American Cattle Doctor, by Dodd 1.00 

Greenhouse Management, by Taft.... 1.50 
Greenhouse Construction, by Taft.... 1.50 

Mushrooms, by Falconer 1.00 

Plant Life on the Farm, by Masters.. 1.00 

The price at which each book Is quoted 
includes postage. Send money order or 
bunk draft for the book wanted and ad- 
dresa 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 
667 Howard St., San Francisco. 



The only two really "Immune" well tested walnuts: heavy 
bearers: bloom late: mature early: grafted trees only. 

" Concord " 




Send for catalogue and special circulars on 

New Fruits, Pedigreed Prunes, Eucalyptus, Etc. 
LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO., INC.. 

Morganhill, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



Fresno, California 

Leading Growers in the State of 
Commercial Varieties of: 

FRUIT TREES, all varieties. 

GRAPEVINES, all commercial sorts, 
including raisin, table and wine va- 
rieties. 

Twenty years in the business with a con- 
tinued increase for fair and square dealing is 
our reputation. Address 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



F. H. WILSON, Prop. 
FRESNO. CAL. 

Catalogue and price list free for the asking. 



BUY TREES! 


FRUIT and 

ORNAMENTAL 

nv a 


1 RELIABLE FIRM 



We have the most complete 
Nursery in the 



WORLD 



and the Largest As- 
sortment to choose 
Irom 



Our Frail Trees are all budded or gralted 
from our own tested Orchards. Therelore 
purchasers are certain lo gel the varieties 
Ihey order. 



WRITE US FOR OUR CATALOGUE A. 



CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO. 



600 ACRES ESTABLISHED 1865 

NILES, CALIFORNIA. 



Carbon Bisulphide 

COMPLETELY DESTROYS 

Borers, Root Aprils, Etc. 
On Fruit Trees 

and Ground Squirrels, Gophers, Etc. For sale by 
dealers and the manufacturers 
WHEELER. REYNOLDS & STAUFFER 
OFFICE: 624 California St- San Francisco. 



FRED GROHE'S NURSERY 

SUPPLIES 

CHAMPION STRAIN PETUNIA SEED 
GIANTS OF CALIFORNIA 
RUFFLED GIANTS 
Lodge Flowering Hybrid Delphinium 

Write for Piices. 
014 FIFTH STREET, SANTA ROSA, CAL. 



Oregon Grown 



"non- 
Irrlgated' 



No. 1 



PEACH non 
TREES irrlgated 



GRADE- 

Muirs 
Lovells 
Phillips 
Tuscans 



4=6 ft. 



If you'll plant Oregon grown peach 
trees just once, you'll never want to 
plant any other kind. 



ONE YEAR TOPS BUDDED 

ON 

THREE=YEAR-OLD ROOTS 
"That tells the tale." 



TRY THEM. 

They're no more expensive than 
poorer trees. 



Oregon Nursery Co., 

Orenco, Oregon. 

MORE SALESMEN WANTED. 



GET A □ DEAL 



PLACE YOUR ORDER WITH US 
FOR 

EUCALYPTUS, FIGS, GRAPES 

AND ALL FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL 
NURSERY STOCK. 

We have the LARGEST stock of EUCA- 
LYPTUS grown lu Fresno County— 1,000,030 
TREES and STRICTLY FIRST CLASS. 
Orders booked now for future delivery. 
Twenty years' experience In the nursery 
business, with the increasing trade which we 
are doing, is conclusive evidence of our 
square dealing with customers. 

Catalogue and Prices Upon Application. 

S. W. Marshall Company, Inc. 

Box 652, Fresno, Cal. 



ENCINAL 
NURSERIES 

F. C. WILLSON, Proprietor. 
Sunnyvale, Santa Clara Co.. Cal. 

SPECIALTY WALNUTS— 
"WILLSON'S WONDER" 
"ACME" 

UNO 

"FRANQUETTE" 

Send for booklet with halftone cuts 
and descriptive matter. 



TREES 



We grow a large stock of first 
class Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Walnuts, Grape Vines, 
Eucalyptus, Orange, Lemons, 
Roses, Berry Plants, etc. 

ESTABLISHED 1864. 

Hannay Nursery Co. 

San Jose, Cal. 



s 



Pacific rural press. 



January 1. 1010. 



CULTURAL NOTES. 



(Continued From Page ■'>.) 

this that now looks so badly, are sub- 
stantial, I am satisfied, and the assertion 
was amply proven by Mr. C. A. Puffer, of 
Uedlands .Junction, a short time ago. I 
was visiting Mr. Puffer in company with 
John R. Westfall, the Riverside fruit 
broker, and after lunch Mr. Puffer took 
us through his orchard, which, by the 
way, was one of the least affected groves 
in the country. However, along a road 
which separates his orchard into two 
parts, were rows of very young trees, not 
over two years old, on either side. Every 
one showed the frost effects except a very 
few that for some reason or another had 
been backward, were behind the rest in 
size and had put out no new growth. To 
all outward appearances these little trees 
had never been through a cold snap, they 
looked fresh and healthy, and their growth 
was glossy and with never a sign of 
withered leaves. 

This happened on the 13th of December, 
and at that time I looked for some fruit 
that would show signs of being damaged 
all the way from Riverside to Redlands 
and over to Highlands, but with almost 
no expectation of finding one. If the sun 
had come out hot on Saturday, the 4th 
inst., and if the weather for the next few 
days had been warm, I would have ex- 
pected to find a rash on the effected fruit 
that would have been a sure sign, pro- 
vided, of course, that any fruit had been 
effected, which [ do not claim to be a 
fact, except that I say there will prob- 
ably be some damaged fruit found on the 
low places that were unquestionably hurt 
a little. From two to three weeks after 
the cold spell the fruit hurt is likely to 
drop off. I last year saw fruit fall in 
showers from effected trees when the 
trunk was struck a sharp blow. A wind 
storm would bring almost all of them 
down. At this time it is not difficult to 
detect the touched fruit by cutting it. If 
carried directly to the nostrils a faint 
odor of fermentation can be detected. The 
same test will apply if the orange is sepa- 
rated into sections and one of the sections 
broken in two. An old time fruit buyer 
tells me that another very good test is 
to cut the orange in the middle and hold 
the sections level, he says that if the fruit 
has not been touched the juice will "well" 
over the edges, but if it has been that the 
juice will stand up on the fruit and not 
run over. Of course any dry spots inside 
the orange is the final and positive an- 
swer in the affirmative that damage has 
been done as is also the falling of the fruit 
to the ground without other evidence to 
cause such drop. This past week there 
has been a heavy wind prevailing in some 
parts of the citrus country and thousands 
of boxes of oranges were tnrown to the 
ground. This fruit may or may not have 
been frosted, the wind being heavy enough 
to blow down immune fruit as well as that 
weakened by cold. 

The cold spell of Sunday the 19th was 
even more severe than that of the 4th, 
that is to say, the thermometer went low- 
er. As the trees were already in mourn- 
ing, this last snap did not add anything to 
the appearance of the orchards and really 
may not have had any bad results. The 
oranges are getting hardier all the time, 
those that have resisted one cold spell be- 
ing better able to withstand another one. 

"A frost and not a freeze" is the way it 
may be summed up and even this sounds 
worse than it really is. There has never 
been a freeze in California, at least since 
the orange industry became of importance. 
A few oranges are frosted every year but 
the trees are not touched, as they have 
been in Florida, Texas, and Louisiana, in 
times past. Even the oranges that are 
touched by the frost are not, by any 
means, a total loss, and sometimes when 
shipped at once they bring as much or 
more money than the immune fruit, usu- 




^ Plant Morse's 

Sweet Peas 

Now 



Our New Catalog 
Mailed Free 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 

Seeds - Plants - Trees 

44 Jackson Street San Francisco, California 




PLANTS - SEH)S 

Superb— Everbearing 
Strawberries. 



Giant Himalayas 
Blackberries, 

the greatest of croppers. Other small fruit. 

Reliable Garden and 
Flower Seeds 

at honest prices. 



Don't fail to ask for our catalogue, 
thing for the Farm and Garden. 



Every- 



G. H. Hopkins & Son, 

Burbank, Cal. 



Gold Ridge Nursery 

H. R. JOHNS, Proprietor. 

COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF 

Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 

Trees grown on high sandy land 
without irrigation. 
Write for new catalog and prices. 
SEBASTOPOL. CAL. 



EUCALYPTUS 

We are prepared to supply your wants 
in large or small quantity for fall or 
spring planting, the stock is A No. 1. Se- 
cure your stock early. 

ORANGE AND LEMON TREES. 

Our citrus trees are, without doubt, the 
finest trees on the market. We can supply 
them in both one and two year buds, in 
any quantity desired. 

We are also large growers of Palms, 
Hoses, Fruit Treeii, and other stock. 

ARMSTRONG'S COVINA NURSERIES, 
i ml Cal. 



ROSE MOUND 
NURSERY 

B. C. KINLEY 6 SON, Proprietors 

Growers and Importers of all kinds of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubbery. 

No Irrigation. Write for catalogue. 
SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW, Llncolg Avenue. San Jose. Cat 



SEED Catalog 

NOW HEADY 

We want every Farmer, Gardener, 

POULTRYMAN AND STOCKMAN to have a 

copy of our New Seed Book. It contains 
120 pages of everything needed to 
make a success of farming in the West. 
In this respect Lilly's Seed Book is 
better and more authentic than other 
publications of this nature. It is the 
experience of over twenty-five years of 
honest seed selling in the West. 

LILLY'S BEST Seeds are Best 
for the West and are sold by your 
dealer. Send today for new catalog. 

The Chas. H. Lilly Co. 

Seattle Portland 




KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

RELIABLE GROWERS OF DECIDUOUS 
TREES AND VINES 

WE ARE GROWING THE 

Largest Stock of Peach Trees in the State 

Wholesale Orders Solicited. 

Personal attention given to orders from planters. 
Let us figure on your needs now. 



MAIN OFFICE, 



FRESNO, CAL. 



The Buying of Citrus Trees 

IS A SIMPLE PROBLEM IN ECONOMICS. 

You cannot extract sunbeams from cucumbers nor blood from stones, nor good crops 
of fine oranges and lemons from Inferior trees. A poor tree Is an expensive experiment 
entailing only vexation of spirit and a dwindling pocket book. Then why experiment with 
stock of doubtful quality ? Why not get the best and be sure of the future? For 20 years we 
have been supplying the people who grow good citrus fruits with their trees In every citrus 
growing section of the world, and stand ready to serve you equally well. Why not write us 
and let us become better acquainted ? 

The economics of successful orange and lemon growing Is tersely explained in our book, 
entitled "The Citrus Fruits: Historically, Hortlculturally and Commercially," a copy of 
which is yours for the sum of 25 cents. 

SAN DIM AS CITRUS NURSERIES, 



8. M. TEAGUE. Prop. 



San 1)1 in as, California. 



A. & M. FIRST EARLY TOMATO 

IT IS THE BEST OF ALL. 

Write for our 1910 seed catalogue. It is a valuable manual of the garden, ranch, and 
nursery. One hundred and forty-four pages full of valuable Information. 

Our 1910 Catalog of Poultry Supplies sent on request. 

AGGELER O MUSSER SEED CO. 

113-115 INI. Main St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Bod a and Pure Potash 
Host Tree Wash 
T. W JACKSON 4 CO., Temporary Address, 
42 Market St., Ban Francisco. 



i 



January 1, 1910. 



Pacific rural press. 



!) 



ally having a high color and showing very 
fine keeping quality. Some growers pro- 
fess to like to have their fruit lightly 
touched, as they say it will keep better. 
The results of the frost vary with weather 
conditions. Cool weather following will 
draw out most of the damage. On the 
same principle are frosted feet and hands 
treated in cold countries. The injured 
member is never placed in contact with 
the heat, but is rubbed with snow or ice 
water. In a like manner a car of fruit 
is treated that has been frosted en route 
to destination; either the bunkers are 
filled with ice and the fruit allowed to stay 
in the car for a while or else it is re- 
moved to cold storage rooms and the ice 
treatment applied there. 

I do not wish to go on record as favor- 
ing frosted fruit over other kinds, for 
while it might bring as much money in 
cases, it would be only because the buyer 
was deceived, and it would mean a dis- 
gusted customer every time. I remember 
one case of my own back East, a great 
many years ago, in fact, I think that the 
very first California orange I ever tasted 
was frosted, certainly it was juiceless. It 
was a great big and handsome looking or- 
ange, and it tempted me to spend a five 
cent piece from a very meagre hoard. It 
was cruelly disappointing to find it juice- 
less, I thought that the juice had been ex- 
tracted in some way by dishonest growers 
or shippers, and I made a vow to stick to 
Florida for mine. Certainly such kind of 
fruit cannot help but make enemies and 
it had better not be shipped at all from 
the sentimental viewpoint, but the grower 
certainly will sell it as long as he can get 
anything for it. I was very much sur- 
prised last year to^ind that an organiza- 
tion that was extensively advertising a 
certain brand of oranges in the East as 
the best in the world, none genuine with- 
out the label, were packing frosted stock 
and placing the brand on the box. Of 
course, 1 do not mean that, all their or- 
anges were touched, but some of them 
were, maybe not over 5%, but enough to 
condemn the brand with those who were 
the unlucky buyers. 



Advertising brands, or the fruit from 
some particular district, is bound to come 
more and more popular with the shipper 
as he finds that such methods pay. A de- 
mand for fruit is created and for the par- 
ticular fruit advertised. One of our 
brightest shippers thought out the scheme 
of tagging each orange and the result is 
a brand that sells above the market and 
is in demand all over the country. This 
same man sent out navels for Christmas 
this year with a little tag on each orange 
upon which were the words, "Merry 
Christmas, from Santa Claus Orchards." 
The only trouble with this idea is thai 
the southern California oranges, as a 
rule, are not at their best for Christmas 
shipment, and the consumer would not 
be likely to be very favorably impressed, 
though an orange so labelled would be 
particularly desirable for Christmas use, 
to place in the stocking, hang on the tree 
or to use for table ornament. 



Now is the Time lor Ordering Trees 



We have a large lot of EUCALYPTI'S, 
CYPRESS, PINE TREES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of ORNAMENT- 
AL TREES AND SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
GREEN AND DECIDIOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS, DRACENA, ROSES, ERI- 
CAS, CAMELLIAS, AZALEAS, RHODO- 
DENDRON, FRUIT TREES and BERRY 
BUSHES. 

THE PACIFIC NURSERIES 

3041 Baker Street, San Francisco, 

And Millbrae, Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Rural 
Press. 

EUCALYPTS 

Of hardy varieties are now being planted. Our 
large stock of many varieties is grown without 
protection and able to endure extremes of 
weather. Write for booklet and prices. 

LLOYD R. TAYLOR, Modesto, Cal. 



REX LIME AND SULPHUR 
SOLUTION 

THE FAMOUS INSECTICIDE AND FUNGICIDE. 

It has been found that Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution used in the early 
part of the season is as effective for Blight as the Bordeaux Mixture, and it 
does not have the injurious effect upon the tree as Bluestone. In Oregon and 
Washington the use of Bordeaux is being entirely eliminated and lime and 
sulphur solution used for all purposes. The leaves are falling from the trees, 
and especially the Peach, Almond and Apricot should be immediately sprayed 
for the first spraying. The second spraying should be done on all trees just 
before the buds open in the Spring. 

Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution is a guaranteed article, properly pre- 
pared, free from sediment, and as cheap, if not cheaper, than the farmer can 
make a mixture himself. 

For particulars inquire of your dealer or write to the factory at 

BENICIA, CALIFORNIA. 



MILL 

Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine, 
Orange 

and Lemon, 
Nursery Stock, 
Alfalfa, 

Bone and Blood 
FERTILIZERS. 
Hawaiian 

Works 
Honolulu and San 



TO 



MAN 

Importers oi 

Nitrate of 
Soda 

Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 

Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 




Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



FEED THE SOIL 

AND THE SOIL WILL FEED YOU 



Orange and other fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly 
recommend our fertilizers as producing the grandest results in quantity, 
quality of products and profits. Our fertilizers have the largest sale 
west of the Rockies, because they make sure and good crops. Lack of 
fertility means starved soil. Our fertilizers feed the soil and make it 
produce abundant harvest. Write and let us tell you about it. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

444 PINE STREET. SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 
Branch Of lice: 216 Crosse Building. Los Angeles. Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 



IN VARIETY. 



Of our high standard in quality— by the single box or by carload. 
We invite correspondence. 

Our Booklet, on " When, How, and What to Plant," a revised 
edition— to our patons only. To others on receipt of postage. 
Postals not noticed. 

ADDRESS, 

W. A. X. STRATTON, 

PETALUMA, CAL. 



SEEDS 



Superior quality of garden, 
flower and field seeds. 

VALLEY SEED COMPANY 

311-313 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

ALFALFA SEED A SPECIALTY. 



R U EH L=W HEELER NURSERY 

OFFICE AND SALES YARD : 121 W. SAN FERNANDO ST., SAN JOSE, CAL. BOX 826. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Nurserlef: 80 Acres, Monterey Road, Near Edenvale. 25 Acres, Center Road, 
South of Tully Road. 16 Acres, East San Jose, Alum Rock Ave. 

Send for Free Price List. 



CITRUS-SEED, BED TREES, SOUR SlOtK 

Sweet stock, roueh lemon stock. We have the largest ami finest block of seedlings In the 
State NAVELS, VALENtUAH, EUREKA LEMONS. Phones: Main 948. Home 252ft 

SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, F. H. Dlsbrow, Prop. PASAI'ENA, CAL. 



Pear Blight 

We have positively 
demonstrated that 
WE CAN CURE 
THIS DISEASE. 



Write us for particulars. 



Pear Blight Remedy Go. 

VACAV1LLE, CALIFORNIA. 



Eucalyptus Seeds 

In large or small quantities, 33 species 
to select from. Write for free pam- 
phlet, "Eucalyptus Culture." It tells 
you how to sow the seed, raise the 
plants and plant out in the field. Also 
describes all the leading kinds, gives 
their uses, etc. 

Trial packets 15e each, 4 for 50c. 
Write for prices in quantity. 

THEODORE PAYNE 

345 S. MAIN ST., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




Lime for Spraying 

Purest and best. Largest barrels. 

USED EXCLUSIVELY BY CALIFORNIA REX 
SPRAY COMPANY, AND MANY OTHERS. 

Ask your dealer for It or address, 

PACIFIC LIME & PLASTER CO. 

7th and Townsend St. , San Francisco, Cal. 



FOR SALE 

500 Cal. Blk. Walnuts, 6 to 8 ft @ .15 

200 Selected Pecans, 2 to 4 ft @ .15 

75 S. Ruby Pomegranate 1 year, @ .10 

75 Sweet Fruited Pomegranate, 

1 year @ .10 

700 Gros Colman, 1 year rooted vine..® .05 

500 Almeria, 1 year rooted vine @ .10 

Several thousand Almeria and Gros 
Colman cuttings. Price on application. 

C. B. CUNNINGHAM, 

Mills, Cal. 

Western Seed for 
Western Planters 

Grass, Vegetable and 
Field Seeds. 

WRITE FOR PRICES 

Hickey & Vonsen, Inc* 

132-134 Kentucky St., Petaluma, California. 



EUCALYPTUS 

with ROOTS 



Send 
for 

Circular. 



HENRY SHAW, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



1(1 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



Horticultural Notes. 

E. W. Anufield is going to plant 20 
acres of olives near Woodland. 

Dennis McReynolds, of Sebastopol, has 
exchanged his apple orchard of 167 acres 
for two business blocks of that city. 

The orange crop of Mexico will not be 
as large this year as in previous years, 
but the quality will be unusually good. 

M. D. Dowane, of Woodland, has a 12 
year old pecan tree in his yard which 
yielded 65 pounds of large, well flavored 
nuts. 

W. C. Smith, of Mill Creek, is planting 
nine acres to apples. His six acre tract 
of apples has been so successful that he 
has made this addition. 

The high winds of last week did more 
or less damage to the Orange county 
citrus groves. The general belief is that 
the damage will not exceed 10% of the 
oranges. 

J. M. Pugh, of the Kuttner Colony, near 
Fresno, has some wonderful two-year-old 
grape vines. The vineyard comprises 
only 23 acres, yet he gathered 58 tons of 
Muscat grapes and 1800 pounds of raisins 
from his place. 

A. B. Wollaber, forecaster of the Los 
Angeles Weather Bureau, is to establish 
two stations in the Imperial valley for 
the purpose of ascertaining the climatic 
conditions relative to the possibilities of 
citrus culture. 

The Thermalito Orange Packing House 
of the Butte County Citrus Association is 
closed for the season. From the first 
shipments the growers netted $1.90 to 
$2.00 f. o. b., Oroville, and as the Christ- 
mas demand increased the prices rose on 
shipments to $2.15. 

The Porterville Protective League, who 
have been doing great work in that or- 
ange belt, hopes in the near future to 
have periodical inspections made of the 
orange groves in the Porterville district. 
Details of the work are to be laid out 
when Deputy Inspectors have been se- 
lected. 

The board of directors of the San Joa 
quin Table Grape Growers Association 
are to meet in January to form an Asso- 
ciation of Table Grape Growers'. The 
purpose of this meeting is to perfect an 
organization to carry out the measures 
for fixing the price to be accepted for 
grapes sold and shipped. 

Ross Lewers, the largest apple grower 
in Nevada, lost more than 4000 boxes of 
apples by snow storms lately. When the 
storm came Lewers, with a large crew of 
men, shook down all the apples he could 
before they were frozen, but only man- 
aged to fill about 300 boxes, the rest of 
the crop remained on the trees and were 
frozen. 

The freight rates committee of the re 
cent State Fruit Growers' Convention at 
Watsonville, has sent a formal communi- 
cation to the Freight Traffic Manager of 
the Southern Pacific asking for a flat rate 
of $1 per 100 pounds on all Eastern ship- 
ments, thus placing all deciduous fruit 
growers on a par with the lemon and 
apple growers of the Coast. 

G. H. Hutton has been experimenting 
on the wild walnut trees of Mandeville 
Canyon, near Santa Monica. Mr. Hutton 
grafts the papershell walnuts on to the 
wild walnut. His first experiments were 
made three years ago, and already the 
trees are bearing. The nuts produced by 
the grafted trees are of good size, regu- 
lar in outline and equal to those grown 
on other trees. 

Seventeen cars of oranges and seven 
cars of lemons were shipped from Rivet- 
side last week. This brings the season s 
total shipments to 45 cars of oranges and 
44 cars of lemons. Redlands has shipped 



85 cars so far this season as against 187 
for the same period last season. The 
total shipments from Tulare county 
amount to 1174 cars of oranges as against 
1177 cars last season, while Butte county 
has a total of 244 cars as against 203 last 
season. 

State Entomologist, E. K. Carnes, re- 
cently received 114 pounds of lady bugs 
shipped by Field Agent Whitney from 
Humbug Canyon, Placer county. They 
were collected from moss beds, where 
they hibernate and were carried by mules 
down to the railroad. The bugs are in- 
tended for distribution among melon and 
cabbage growers of the Imperial valley, 
and any other applicants in that valley 
whose vines are attacked by the aphis 
pest. 

This office received a box of navel or- 
anges this week from Herrick R. Schell, 
of Knights Ferry, Stanislaus county, 
which the whole office force participated 
in and pronounced good. The fruit was 
large, well colored, perfectly ripe and had 
that peculiarly delightful flavor which 
we had before found only in foothill or- 
anges. Eating is proof and we are here 
to say that Mr. Schell raises as fine or- 
anges as any grower in the State, and to 
make us believe differently we must have 
at least a box to sample from the dis- 
trict that thinks it can raise better. 



General Agriculture. 

Hartley & Boswell, of Woodland, sold 
over 800 turkeys to the San Francisco 
holiday market at top prices. 

The 114 acre alfalfa ranch near Corona, 
owned by LeGage & McCloud, has been 
sold to McGowan & Bubler, of Pomona, 
for $34,200. 

Over two car loads of dressed turkeys 
were shipped out of Orland to San Fran- 
cisco recently, at prices ranging from 25 
to 30 cents per pound. 

The Pacific Vegetable Co., of Fullerton, 
shipped and packed from this section 
over 18 car loads of tomatoes this sea- 
son, bringing the growers nearly $5000. 

The ranchers and farmers around San 
Jacinto, Riverside county, are rejoicing 
over the large rainfall soaking the ground 
so thoroughly that plowing is easier than 
it has been in years. 

R. H. Bess, manager for the Reid Land 
& Developing Co., of Docer, will plant 
7000 acres to wheat this year. At pres- 
ent they have 200 head of stock at work 
and two traction engines are plowing and 
seeding this ranch. 

Charles Erskine, of Kerman, brought 
in a prize wagon load of pumpkins the 
other day. Tne 18 pumpkins averaged 
over 104 pounds each in weight, the total 
load weighing 1873 pounds. The heaviest 
pumpkin in the lot weighed 140 pounds. 

William Whittaker is having fine suc- 
cess raising tobacco near Exeter. The 
Turkish variety of tobacco, which he 
raises, is used exclusively in the manu- 
facture of Turkish cigarettes. This to- 
bacco has small leaves and is not hurt 
by frost and for this reason is planted 
early in May and harvested in August. 

J. W. Dougherty has sold the aspara- 
gus off of nine acres of up-land near 
Woodbridge. San Joaquin county, and he 
expects to realize $250 per acre. The 
cutting will commence in the second week 
of January, being several weeks earlier 
than the asparagus raised in the low 
lands. 

Over 12 tons of turkeys were shipped 
from Lincoln, Placer county, during the 
week previous to Christmas. This sec- 
tion of the State is rapidly becoming a 
turkey center, and one of the most suc- 
cessful raisers is Fred W. Midgley. He 
had a band of 115 turkeys which netted 
him $459.95. Of this number 45 were 
extra large birds of the bronze breed. 
They brought a big price and proved that 




"The time to remedy mistakes is before you make 
them" says a modern philosopher, and this advice 
applies most pointedly to the fruit grower. The time 
to lay the foundation for a fruit fortune is 



Planting time 



YOU CAN'T STICK any young tree into any ground and expect Nature to 
excuse your carelessness and ignorance. The selecting of the young trees Is 
the first step that requires your care and all your available brains. Begin 

light. 

FIRST. SELECT THE MOST profitable varieties of trees most 
suitable to your soil and climate. Then select the trees that are 
hardiest and healthiest and with the best roots. 

IN THE PLACER NURSERIES we grow our trees only on vir- 
gin soil — decomposed granite — (not river bottom commonly used by 
nurserymen) and they have exceptionally well-meshed root sys- 
tems, with bright, highly colored, well toughened wood fibre — 
hardy plants that will thrive . 

OUR LONG EXPERIENCE as fruit growers, fruit shippers, and 
nurserymen has taught us what varieties are best to ship and best 
to grow — best from a seller's standpoint — and in propagating we 
cut our buds and scions only from the best parent trees that have 
been under our personal observation. 

THESE PARENT TREES have been marked by us when they 
were in fruit. So that we can absolutely guarantee that our trees 
are true to name. There is no probability of the annoyance and 
disappointment of finding, when your orchard begins to bear, that 
you have a dozen varieties of fruit where you expected but one — 
the kind you had decided would pay you best. 

OUR PEACH and PLUM TREES (on Peach root) are propa- 
gated on the natural peach seedlings — I. e., seeds that for genera- 
tions have grown from seedlings. Our trees may not be the cheap- 
est, but they are grown for the future when they will give crops 
that will repay a thousand times any triffling expense. Begin right. 

Send lor our ** Planters Guide" and Catalog; it is tree and contains a mine 
ol valuable knowledge gained from many years experience. 

OUR STOCK comprises the best prolitable commercial varieties ol 
Peach Pears Apples Plums 

Apricots Cherries Quinces Grapes 

Almonds Walnuts Oranges Lemons, etc. 




THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO. 

152 Orchard St., Newcastle, Cal. 



FROST PREVENTION 

SAV1NO FRUIT CROP BY SIMPLE MEANS 

With the possible exception of the loss occasioned by insect pests, there is prob- 
ably no one cause of loss so seriously affecting fruit crops as frost. 

THE BOLTON ORCHARD HEATER AND 
BOLTON AUTOMATIC FROST ALARM AND THERMOMETER 

will positively protect any orchard or vineyard from damage at a very small 
cost. For full information and particulars, address 

THE FROST PREVENTION CO., Fresno, California. 

Established since 1903. 



RHODES DOUBLE CUT 
.PRUNING SHEAR 




'THE only 
pruner 
made that cuts 
from both sides of 
the limb and does not 
bruise the bark. Made in 
all styles and sizes. We 
pay Express charges 
on all orders. 
Write for 
circular and 
prices. 



We Have a Complete Line of the Standard Varieties of 



Eucalyptus Trees 



Send 
for our 
booklet. 



TWO NURSERIES 



VIONOLO EUCALYPTUS NURSERY 
ANAHEIM, CAL. 
EKSTEIN BROS.. PROPS. 



MODESTO EUCALYPTUS NURSERY 
MODESTO, CAL. 
EKSTEIN & EKSTEIN. PROPS. 



PIPE MACHINERY 

Second hand, but In durable and servloable condition 
AT LESS THAN HALF PRICE. 

Pumps and Gasoline Engines for Farm Work. Big Bargains for all. 

STANDARD TOOL AND MACHINE WORKS 

1429 MISSION STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



January 1, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



11 



BERRIES 



Pure Auslral an 
Himalaya Black- 
berries, most profit- 
able and delicious 
berry grown; guar- 
anteed yield ten tons 
per &xre, if trained 
and cultivated ac- 
cording to my direc- 
tions, also Logan- 
berries, Mammoth 
Blackberries, or- 
namental trees, 
shrubbery, and Bur- 
bank's Crimson Winter i select and Crimson 
Winter Giant Rhubarb plants for sale. Send for 
catalogue, it is full of new and rare creations. 

Big 4 Nurseries 

B. S. KENNEDY, Prop. Sebastopol, Cal. 




[The confidence felt by farmers and 
^gardeners in Ferry's Seeds to-day 
, would have been impossible to feel in 
I any seeds two score of years 
] ago. We have made a 
l science of seed 
I growing. 



always do I 
exactly what you I 
expect of them. For sale ' 
everywhere. FERRY'S 1910 SEED 1 
| ANNUAL Free on request 

D. M. FERRY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 




CRIMSON 

WINTER 

RHUBARB 

$1.50 a Dozen 
$6 per 100. $10 
per 1000. Now 
Is best time to 
plant rhubarb. 
Berry plants or 
all kinds. 

J. B. Wagner 



Pasade 



, Cal. 



Rhubarb and 
berry specialist. 



You can have 

MORE FRUIT 

and 

BETTER FRUIT 

securing more money from your orchard, 
with but trifling exertion and small ex- 
pense. The secret is simply learning to 
use the right kind of 

FERTILIZER 

Send for our free book "The Farmer's 
Friend; 1910," now ready for distribution, 
which tells you all about your fertilizer 
problems and how to solve them. 

Pacific Quano and Fertilizer Co., 

Dept. C, 268 Market St., San Francisco. 



BARTLETT PEARS, CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS, APPLES, PEACHES, PRUNES, 
PLUMS, FIGS, GRAPE VINES, BERRIES, 

ORNAMENTAL SHADE TREES, 
FLOWERING SHRUBS and ROSES. 

We have a fine stock of all commercial 
varieties. Strictly first class, TRUE to 
NAME. Give us a chance to quote you 
prices. We can interest you. Send for 
Catalogue. 

CHICO NURSERY CO., 

Chlco, Cal. 





c \HCUL4fl 

v 



Circular \f 
Cultivator Tooth, 

STANDARD AND CLAMP. 



First Premium State Fair 1907-08. 



LIGHT DRAFT AND GREAT SAVER 
OF HORSEFLESH. 

See Catalog lor Testimonials. 
Write us and we will send you one. 

M iNUFACTUKKD BY 

BOWEN & FRENCH, 

656 Washington St., 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



Vrooman Franquette, Mayette 

and other varieties of walnut trees grafted 
on California black walnut root. 
Grafted Pecans. 

Complete stock of fruit trees, plants, 
ornamentals, Eucalyptus, etc. Kerry plants 
of all kinds our specialty. 

Write your wants for special prices. 

TRIBBLE BROS., 

ELK GROVE, CAL. 



THEC "BOSS" 

Tree Protector 

MADE OF YUCCA PALM 



Is cheap, durable, and 
quickly put on the tree. 
It prevents rabbits from 
destroying your trees. A 
sure protection against 
frost, sunburn, grass- 
hoppers or dry winds. 
Can be easily removed; 
will last for years. Send 
for samples. 



PRICES. 

Per 1000. 
10 in. long, 7 wide, $ 9.50 
12 in. long, 7 wide, 
14 in. long, 7 wide, 
16 in. long, 7 wide, 
18 in. long. 7 wide, 
24 in. long, 7 wide, 




30 in. long, 7 wide, 



10.50 
11.50 
13.00 
14.50 
17.00 
20.00 



YUCCA MANUFACTURING CO. 

1380 WILLOW ST., LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



LAND PLASTER 

(Gypsum) 
Nearly every California ranch 
needs Gypsum. It correct* »oil con- 
ditions, helps other fertilizers give 
better results and aid fertility In the 
■oil. Alfalfa, Kraln, vegetable and 
fruit crops are greatly Increased. 

Write for booklet and prices. 



PACIFIC CEMENT PLASTER CO. 

\MBOY. CALIFORNIA. 



it. is more profitable to raise thorough- 
breds than scrub stock. 



Miscellaneous. 

The Western Fruit Jobbers' Associa- 
tion, which is to meet in Denver shortly, 
is to be invited to hold its 1911 conven- 
tion in Sacramento by the Chamber of 
Commerce. 

In order to continue the experiment of 
rice culture in Sacramento valley, the 
Sacramento Valley Developing Associa- 
tion is raising a fund of $10,000 to carry 
on this work. 

The Napa Fruit Dryer Co. has just 
closed its season's work. This company 
shipped over 100 car loads of dried fruits 
for the season, and the total output was 
over 4,000,000 pounds or 2000 tons. 

The California Vineyards Development 
Company has recently riled articles of in- 
corporation in Alameda county with a 
capital stock of $2,000,000. This company 
intends to buy up thousands of acres of 
vineyards in this State with a view to 
promoting California dry wines all over 
the world. The incorporators are: Henry 
Gier, Gebhardt & Kersten, Max Vockel, 
Hugo Lorenz and A. N. Wielander. 

At a meeting of the Raisin Growers' 
Association held at Fresno, it was de- 
cided to extend the life of the pool con- 
tracts to January 3, with the understand- 
ing that no further extensions of the 
time will be made. If the trustees fail 
to sell the pooled raisins by January 3, 
the pool will be immediately dissolved 
without further action. A strong effort 
is now being made whereby the growers 
in the pool will receive three cents a 
pound for their raisins. 

The section of the Penal Code of Cali- 
fornia which prohibits land owners from 
burning grass or trash on their own land 
without first securing a written permit 
from the district fire warden, has been 
declared unconstitutional and oppressive 
by the Supreme Court. The decision was 
handed down in the appeal of E. L. Mc- 
Capes, of Madera county, who was arrest- 
ed for burning the grass around a well 
he was digging. Justice Henshaw said 
that the section of the code as drawn 
would prevent a farmer from burning rub- 
bish in his own back yard. 



ROSES, 

PALMS, 

SHADE AND ORNAMENATL 
TREES 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

The E. Gill Nursery Co. 

WEST BERKELEY, CAL. 



High Grade Grafted Walnut Trees 

FOR SALE. 

Grafted from selected trees only. 

GEO. C. PAYNE, 

Campbell, Cal. 



THE GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

of Loomls, Cal., are CLOSING out their entire 
NuBSERl Stock at greatly reduced prices. 
An exceptional opportunity Is offered to those 
who wish to obtain trees of the famouB Crocker 
Winter Bartlet Pear which Is HUght proof. 
Write for prices. 

C. W. EARLE, Manager. 

FLORIDA SOUR ORANGE SEED. 

The hardiest and most desirable strain 
in existence, best as a stock for all kinds 
of Citrus Fruits. We offer only good, 
fresh seed, grown and gathered witli the 
expert care that has made Glen St. Mary 
Nurseries famous for Quality. Don't take 
chances with seed of doubtful grade and 
uncertain v^ilue — buy of headquarters and 
Be* (he l>ent. Prices and full particulars 
mi a pplir;i I ion to Clerk I", it. 1*. 
GLBN ST. MARY NURSERIES COMPANY, 
(. I. ii St. Mill*}', Flu. 




I^p" Made of Hard, Stiff 
Wire, of Honest Quality 

Fences Cost the Least 
and give the most 
returns of any im- 
provements on the 
farm 

Look around and see the farmer 
who has money in the bank and 
who buys another quarter-section 
every few years. See his farm 
— it is fenced hog-tight. What 
is good for him is good for you. 
Enough feed is wasted on the av- 
erage quarter-section of unfenced 
fields to feed a large drove of 
hogs. 

Any American Fence dealer will 
quote you figures that may aston- 
ish you on fencing your farm with 
heavy, hog-tight fence. You have 
no idea how little money it takes, 
considering what you will actually 
save. 

American Fence is made of hard, 
stiff steel. It is made of a quality 
of wire drawn expressly for woven- 
wire-fence purposes by the largest 
manufacturers of wire in the world. 
Galvanized by the latest improved 
process — the best that the skill and 
experience of years has taught. 
Built on the elastic, hinged-joint 
(patented) principle, which effect- 
ively protects the stay or upright 
wires from breaking under hard 
usage. 

The real test of a fence is the service 
you get out of it. Test, judge and 
compare American Fence under any and 
all conditions and you will find that the 
steel, the structure and the galvanizing 
are equal in durability, strength and 
efficiency to the hardest usage. 

F. Baackes , Vice-Pres. & Gen. Sales Agent 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Chicago New York Denver San Francisco 

NOTE— Dealers Everywhere, See the one in your town 
and have him show you the different designs anil ijive 
prices. Also get from him booklet entitled "HOW TO 
BUILD A CHEAP CONCRETE FENCE POST," furnished 
free for the asking. 



AGENTS WANTED 

LIVE, RESPONSIBLE MEN 0NIY. 

Vapor-Gas Machines 

FOR COOKING AND LIGHTING 

WESTERN GAS & POWER CO. 

1842 7th Street, 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



Rupture Cured 

Without the Knife or Loss ol Time: 



No pay until cured. 

Call or write for testimonials. 

FIDELITY RUPTURE CURE 

1122 Market St.. Opp. 7th. Son Fr.oci.co. 

liooms 7 and 8. Hours 10 to 6. 



12 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



January 1. 1910. 



THE AUSTRALIAN HIMALAYA 
BLACKBERRY. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Pbebs 
By B. S. Kennedy, of Sebastopol. 

For the benefit of so many who want to 
know more about the Australian Hima- 
laya Blackberry, and those who are not 
acquainted with it, and have not sampled 
it, I will endeavor to describe it in the 
columns of your valuable paper. 

Having been informed by a friend of 
mine living in southern California that 
there had been introduced a new berry 
which they claimed to surpass anything 
in cultivation, both for profit and quality. 
I ordered a few of them and after testing 
I was so well pleased with them that I 
ordered 4000. This was very late in the 
spring of 1907, and the shipment was slow 
in coming, and I regretted my investment 
at such a risk. We had no more rain that 
spring and it turned off very dry and I 
was sure I would loose most of them, but 



heavy load of berries will not break them 
loose and fall on the ground. The next 
spring they will send out laterals tor as 
some people call them, arms), about eight 
inches apart all along the main vine. 
These grow to be two to three feet long, 
and all project, outside the mass of vines 
and hang over on each side of the row, 
and these laterals are filled with fine de- 
licious berries. Take notice, though be- 
ing trained high the weight of the ber- 
ries pulls the fruit down within easy 
reach of the pickers, reducing cost of la- 
bor, unlike all other blackberries which 
grow so much of their fruit inside the 
vines, making it difficult to pick the fruit. 

When they are one year old they will 
yield three times as much as any other 
blackberry at this age. and when two 
years old they will yield five to seven tons 
per acre, and ever after that they will 
average ten tons per year, on each acre, 
for many years to come. They must be 
planted at least ten feet apart each way 




The Australian Hi 

to my delight 1 noticed a remarkable 
drouth resisting nature soon after plant- 
ing them and in about two weeks I had 
no regrets whatever of my investment. 
They made a fine growth during the sum- 
mer, some of the runners having reached 
the 25-foot mark. The following fall I 
had an occasion to dig up a few of the 
vines and observed that the roots made a 
downward growth, striking deep into the 
moist soil, hence the wonderful growth, 
and this is one of their redeeming fea- 
tures for the dry countries. 

When they are one year old, they should 
be trained on wires by placing a post at 
each end of the row, seven feet tall, and 
driving down stakes about 30 feet apart 
along the rows and seven feet tall after 
being driven. Now stretch two wires along 
the rows and secure them in place with 
staples, one wire three and one-half feet 
from the ground and the other one on top 
of the stakes; next train the long run- 
ners on these wires by wrapping them in 
and around the wires securely so that the 



malaya Blackberry. 

so as to enable the pickers to get alwut 
among them. The vines often grow to 50 
feet in length, and should be cut back to 
25 feet. They begin ripening about the 
eighth of July and continue until frost. 
They present a sight hard to forget at 
ripening time, with a mass of vines and 
berries about seven feet tall and five feet 
wide. So many long vines filled with lat- 
erals and each lateral filled with berries, 
accounts for its wonderful yield. Is it not 
reasonable? The berry has a clean, shiny, 
black color, has very few seeds, is very 
firm, a fine shipper, and a good keeper, 
has a rich, delicious flavor, and when 
cooked, forms a rich syrup, and in my ex- 
perience of selling, they have been placed 
in fruit canneries, syrup and jam fac- 
tories, private families, and in all places 
where berries are used, and they have 
made good friends everywhere, and each 
year added acquaintance makes me more 
and more enthusiastic over them and I 
can say anyone who plants several acres 
oT thorn will make no mistake. 





/ROOFING 



Going to build ? Settled the Roofing question yet ? 
Or it may be that you have an old roof that needs re- 
placing. If you want a roof that will wear for years 
without paint or repairs, Pioneer Roofing is what you 
are looking for. 

Let us send you samples of Pioneer Roofing 
and oar 32-page Roofing Booklet. 

PIONEER ROLL PAPER COMPANY 

DEPARTMENT 73 LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNIA 

Use Pioneer Asphalt Roof Paint and Coating. 



ROAD GRADERS 

All Sizes 

RUSSELL 

Simplex, 
Reversible, Elevating. 

SCRAPERS: 
Drag Wheel Fresno 

W. T. MARTIN MACHINERY CO., 1277 Howard Street, San Francisco. 




FRANCIS SMITH & CO., Ma "" 'gf ,ure " 

IT 




FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 

Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office, 9 Fremont Street. Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, California. 

■Vater and OH Tanks — all nI/.c-s. Coating all sizes of Pipes with Asphaltum 



THE 



Sun's Path 



is the route of 



Sunset Express 



Daily between San Francisco, New 
Orleans and East, via Los Angeles 
and El Paso. 

The Comlortable Way on a Winter Day. 

One hundred mile ride along the 
ocean shores of the Pacific. Through 
Southern California orange groves 
—rice, cotton and sugar fields of 
Texas and Louisiana. Picturesque 
bayous — the Teche— Land of Evan 
geline. 

OH burning locomotives. 
No soot. No cinders. 

Through drawing room sleepers, 
berths, sections, drawing-rooms, 
dining, parlor and observation car 
service. Steam heated and electric 
lighted throughout. 

Through tourist car service to New 
Orleans, Washington, Cincinnati, 
St. Louis and Chicago. 



SOUTHERN PACIFIC 

Ticket Offices : 
Flood Building, 
Market Street Ferry Depot, 
Third and Townsend Sts., Depot. 
Broadway and Thirteenth Sts., 
Oakland. 



NEW ORLEANS— NEW YORK 
STEAMSHIP LINE 

the line that connects with the 

Sunset 
Route 

at New Orleans, and which you 

may include in your rail ticket at 

no more cost than for an all rail 

route to New York. 

Two sailings weekly between New 

Orleans and New York. 

Elegant accommodations, suites of 

private bedroom, parlor and bath; 

staterooms, library, smoking room, 

baths, promenade decks, excellent 

cuisine. 

Make our handsome new office, 
Broadway and 27th sts., New York, 
your headquarters when East. Our 
attendants will be glad to assist 
you in any way possible. Have 
your mail addressed in care of the 
office and you will receive same im- 
mediately on call. 

RATES — By rail to New Orleans, 
steamer to New York, including meals 
and berth on steamer 

First Cabin, $77.75; Sound 
Trip $144.40. 
Second Cabin, $65.75. 
Second Class Rail and Steerage, $61.45. 



WRITE OR SEE AGENTS 

SOUTHERN PACIFIC 

Ticket Offices : 
Flood Building, 
Market Street Ferry Depot, 
Third and Townsend Sts., Depot. 
Broadway and Thirteenth Sts., 
Oakland. 



January 1, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



13 



Live Stock and Dairy. 

Prepared for Pacific Rural Pbess 
By Paul P. Parker. 



THE OLEOMARGARINE TAX. 



To the Editor: Having become better 
acquainted with the interest that your 
paper has taken in the agricultural in- 
dustries throughout the State, and know- 
ing that you took an active interest in 
the convention which was held by the 
California Creamery Operators' Associa- 
tion, at Porterville, at which time the as- 
sociation passed a resolution (of which I 
enclose a copy), and I desire to state that 
it will be well to bring this matter be- 
fore the dairymen, as well as all others 
interested in the dairy business through- 
out the State of California. I also de- 
sire to express myself, in as few words 
as possible, to those interested, that it is 
of vital importance that some action be 
taken by the allied interest in dairying, 
previous to the next meeting of Congress, 
at which time pressure will be brought 
to bear upon that body to eliminate the 
tax of 10 cents per pound upon colored 
oleomargarine. If this tax is eliminated, 
there would be no question but what the 
price of butter throughout the universe 
would drop in proportion to the amount 
of tax that might be eliminated. 

The dairymen of the State of Califor- 
nia well remember, that a number of 
years ago, at. which time the State Dairy 
Bureau was established, butter sold in 
this market as low as 8 and 10 cents per 
pound — the fanciest creamery article at. 
that time bringing only 12 cents per 
pound. Since the passage of the law 
causing a tax to be placed upon oleo- 
margarine, sufficient to protect the dairy- 
men — they have had the satisfaction of 
seeing comparatively high prices for 
their products, but not any too high when 
considering the cost of feed during the 
past few years. At that time we had no 
laws pertaining to the manufacture of 
filled cheese, consequently the very low 
price of cheese during that period. 

Immediately the State Dairy Bureau 
established a law prohibiting the manu- 
facture of this type of cheese in this 
State, and a number of our central States 
having done likewise, caused us to get 
very satisfactory prices for this com- 
modity. 

It is true that the consumer is to be 
considered in all matters of this kind, 
inasmuch if the cost of food product of 
any nature gets beyond the reach of the 
consumer, at which time pressure might 
be brougnt to bear, inrough the consumer, 
indirectly, in favor of the manufacture 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

Gomhault's 

Caustic Balsam 




Has Imitators But No Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind , 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 
As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, etc., it Is invaluable. 

livery bottle of Caustic Balsam sold is 
Warranted to give satisfaction. Price $1.50 
per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent by ex- 
press, charges paid, with full directions for 
its use. tfTRend for descriptive circulars, 
testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 



of these imitation articles, sufficient to 
cause a great deal of weight upon the 
representatives of the different territories, 
who may not be familiar with the ef- 
fect that it would have upon the dairy 
ing interests. 

The California Creamery Operators' As- 
sociation have undertaken the working 
out of a problem and sincerely hope that 
the dairymen and the creamerymen, as 
well as others throughout the State, will 
co-opefate with said association in do- 
ing this work properly, but sufficient 
funds will have to be secured for the 
purpose of carrying on the work, and 
whereas, the association is strictly an 
educational institution fostering the in- 
terest of the dairymen at all times, and 
as they put in their time on these propo- 
sitions without pay, utilizing what small 
funds they do secure for educational 
work, therefore, it will be well for all 
parties interested to stand by the said 
association and assist it, if in no other 
way, assist their finances. Consequently, 
I would suggest that the readers of this 
article, if they are sufficiently interested 
in the matter at stake, that they forward 
any assistance that they may desire to 
give to the secretary of the association, 
Mr. J. H. Severin, 36 Commercial street, 
San Francisco. The use of all funds se- 
cured shall be used for the purpose of 
preventing the elimination of the 10 
cent tax upon oleomargarine. I would 
state that there is another way in which 
readers of your paper can assist, and that 
is, to bring all the pressure to bear that 
they possibly can in Congress through 
the Congressman of the respective dis- 
tricts of the State of California. 

Enough could be said upon this propo- 
sition to fill several pages of your paper, 
but at some future time I will be desir- 
ous of utilizing your columns for the 
furtherance of this most important sub- 
ject. 

Thanking you for the space this has 
taken, and trusting that you will see 
your way clear to give it publication, I 
remain, 

W. H. Rousskl. 

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE ASSOCIATION. 

Whereas, The manufacture of oleo- 
margarine has increased to an alarming 
extent in the last few years under the ex- 
isting laws, and we understand the 
manufacturers are going to bring great 
pressure to bear on our next Congress for 
more liberal laws for the manufacture 
and sale of their product, therefore, 

Resolved, That the California Creamery 
Operators' Association do all in their 
power to co-operate with the National 
Dairy Union in upholding the present 
laws, and if possible make them more 
binding in the restriction of the sale and 
manufacture of oleomargarine and that 
our executive committee be empowered to 
secure a fund to assist the National 
Dairy Union in carrying out the work. 



THE GRAVITY GATE 



A LOS ANGELES BUTCHER EX- 
PERIMENTS WITH CORN 
TO FATTEN CATTLE. 



Julius Hauser, president of the Hauser 
Packing Co., of Los Angeles, demon- 
strated to the stock raisers of the south- 
ern district that he could fatten cattle 
with a profit at the prevailing prices of 
corn. Last August he took from a ship- 
ment of native California cattle, a steer 
and a spayed heifer. He placed these 
animals in a clean shed and fed them on 
corn and alfalfa for 135 days. When the 
steer arrived at the feeding pen it weigh- 
ed 930 pounds, and the shipper received 
three cents a pound or $27.90. This steer 
was fed 10 pounds of grain a day which 
made 1350 pounds for 135 days, which, at 
$1.65, cost $22.27. He also fed 20 pounds 
of hay a day, making a total of 2700 
pounds, which, at $12 a ton, costs $16.20. 
Thus the total cost of the feed was $38.47. 
The cost of the labor in caring for the ani- 



Besl Automatic 
Gate Made 




Simple In Construction. Strong and Durable, East to Operate. No levers lo push or ropes 
to pull, but Just drive along as II there was no gate In the way. Our all metal gates are llghl 
and durable and have no wind resistance. 

It Saves Time, Trouble and Temper— Makes Light Hearts and Happy Homes. 

GRAVITY GATE CO., Richmond, Cal. 



20th Century Automatic Gate 

ALWAYS IN ORDER 




PERFECT AUTOMATIC GATE 



In general use for motor as well as horse drawn 
vehicles. Opened or closed without assistance or 
stopping. The gate can be p aced at any driveway 
entrance. The machinery is all above ground, 
and so simple it never gets out of order. It will 
last a lifetime, and usually pays for itself, In time 
saved, within a year. It adds to the beauty, value, 
convenience and safety of any home. Address 

A. J. BLOOM 
Petaluma, California 



H. H. H. LINIMENT 



FOR FAMILY USES IT HAS NO 
EQUAL. 

Sore Throat, Rheumatism, Spralun, 
Neuralgia, Cuts, Sores, Swellings, Lame- 
ness, Stiff Joints, Poisonous Bites, 
Cramps, Diarrhoea, etc. 
KEEP A BOTTLE ON HAND FOR EMERGENCIES. 
50c and $1.00 Sizes. Sold Everywhere. 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, Stockton, Cal. 

Manufacturers and Proprietors. 



USED UNIVERSALLY BY STOCKMEN 
For Successfully Treating the Afflic- 
tions of the HORSE and other Domestic 
Animals. 



Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they give 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and out 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

P. 0. Box 257, BERKELEY, CAL 



DR. DANIELS' MEDICINES 

FOR 

Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Sheep, etc. 

27 Horses die from 
Colic where one dies 
from Fire. 

Why not insure 
against Colic ? 

Daniels' colic cure is 
SURE, SAKE and 
Q.UICK ! 

$1.00 per Package— 20 
cents cures a horse. At 
Dealers, etc. 

Agents wanted in each 
town west of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

A. T. ROCHE & CO. 

16B Valencia SI., San Francisco Cal. 




TULARE LAKE STOCK FARM. 

REGISTERED I 

Jacks and Jennets For Sale. 

We breed the Best. Don't write— come and See. 
We can show you. 
JAS. W. McCORD, 

Han ford, Cal. 

Chicken, Fruit 
And Berry Farms 

For Sale. 

From one acre up. Improved or un-lmproved, 
8100 acre up. One-flth or less down, balance long 
time. On the electric line. Rural mall, School, 
near town. See my ad in Sunday'i Examiner. Send 
stamp for list. Write to Si- 1 .istopol. Office: 
Hcuel SU.i... Between ^VrLE^LOECKNER. 



DAIRY STOCK 

Purebred Holsteins, Bulls 
and Heifers for sale at 
reasonable prices. 



The best bred stock 
obtainable on the 
Pacific Slope. 

Now is the time to purchase a sire 
to head your herd. 



Write for Information. 

0AKW00D STOCK FARM CO. 

F. J. SCHLEEF. Mgr. 
900 Jackson St., San Francisco 





HOG 




K0K0M0 


FIELD 


FENCE I 




POULTRY 






The .Standard of all makes. Square ana 
Diamond Mesh FenceBfor all purposes. Maduo 
heavy, non-rust, self-rogulatlng steel wires. 
Absolutely hog tight and stock proof. Write us 
for catalog and prices. 

CALIFORNIA ANCHOR FENCE CO. 

822 Main St., Stockton, Cal. 



14 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1. 1910. 



THE ANNUAL SHORT-HORN SALES 



Of 



MRS. J. H. GLIDE, 

WILL BE HELD 

JANUARY 24th, 1910, 



HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY, 

WILL BE HELD 

JANUARY 25th, 1910, 



IN SALES PAVILION OF FRED H. CHASE & CO., 478 VALENCIA ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

These Offerings Exceed in Number and Equal in Quality the Banner Sale of 1909 



The Greenwood Offering Comprises: 

25 Head Yearling and Two Year Old Bulls. 
15 Head Choice Cows and Heifers. 



Including first prize winners 
at 

Alaska-Pacific-Yukon Exhibition 



The Howard Cattle Company Offering Comprises : 

35 Head Yearling and Two Year Old Bulls. 
20 Head Choice Heifers. 



MRS. *J. H. GLIDE, 

910 H Street, 

SACRAMENTO, CALIF. 



Bull offering includes sons of the thrice Grand Champion of America, 
Lavender Viscount 124755; also bulls strong in the blood of the Champion 
Choice Goods 186802. 
FOR CATALOGUE AND FURTHER PARTICULARS 
APPLY TO 

HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY, 

641 Mission Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



mal was estimated at $10. These amounts, 
added to the cost price of the steer, made 
a total of $76.37. It ran from 937 pounds 
to 1730 pounds, and had increased in 
value from 3 cents a pound to 5 cents 
a pound, so that its present value was 
$sr,.5(), which Left a profit of $9.13. The 
heifer weighed 920 pounds at the begin 
ning of the test and cost $23, or two and 
one-half cents a pound. She was fed five 
pounds of corn a clay, 15 pounds of al 
falfa. Adding all expenses, including $10 
for care, the heifer cost $uD.74, but its 
weight had been increased to 1440 pounds 
and its full value up to four and one-half 
cents so that its selling price was $04. so, 
which left a profit of $4.16. 



"CARNOT No. 66666." ' 

This is the famous Percheron "Carnot 
No. 06666," who was declared by the 
judges al the recent International Live 
Stock Show held in Chicago, to be the 



gang plank onto American soil. He never 
has looked better, prouder or cleaner cut 
in every point than he did last week. 
Wide, level and correct in his middle 
and ends, with an impressive head car- 
ried high, and the cleanest of big, fiat, 
short cannons, and big, strong feet, he 
is a rare one. His trot has the long 
straight stride, and the flash of steel 
that springs from graceful power." \V. 
S. Cosa, of St. Louis, thought so much of 
Carnot that he paid the owners, J. 
Crouch & Sons, of Lafayette. Ind.. and 
Sacramento, Cal., $10,000 for the horse. 



LIVE STOCK NOTES. 



The Gila Valley Angora Goat Company 
recently sold 3000 of their goats owing 
to >the fact that the Forestry Bureau cut 
down on their range allowance. 

An English syndicate is negotiating for 
500,0011 acres in Mexico to raise cattle to 




Carnot No. 66666. 



finest Percheron stallion ever exhibited in 
America. The quality and number of 
Percherons at this show was the best and 
largest ever got together in the world, so 
the stallion, to win the championship, 
had to be a wonder. The importers ran- 
sacked every section of La Perche, the 
home of the Percherons, to get prize win- 
ners, in fact, many blue ribboned horses 
from the Paris and Nogent horse shows 
were contending against Carnot, but he 
out classed them all. The Breeder's Ga- 
zette, speaking of Carnot said: "He 
was the outstanding leader of the lot and 
was readily conceded that position by the 
judges. He scarcely needs description, 
because he has been a center of attraction 
among horsemen of every predilection 
from the moment he passed down the 



supply Sir Thomas Lipton's packing 
plants. 

The California Sheep & Wool Growers' 
Association will meet in Sacramento on 
January 4, at the Chamber of Commerce. 
The tariff on wool and the forest reserve 
grazing permits will be the chief topics 
discussed. 

Last week .1. Q. Hancock shipped three 
car loads of hogs from Laton to San Fran- 
cisco. 

The mouth and lip disease of the Utah 
sheep is becoming very serious and un- 
less active measures are taken the Gov- 
ernment inspectors will probably quar- 
antine all the animals, and thus prevent 
the sheep from going to the market when 
fattened. 

It is estimated that between 30,00(1 and 



40,000 sheep are caught in the snow be- 
tween Nevada and Utah, and unless the 
snow melts in a short time, there will be 
a heavy loss from starvation. 

.1. H. Lucas and T. H. Bohlander, cat- 
tlemen near Oroville, were forced to move 
800 of their beef cattle from the low lands 
of the Sacramento river dining the high 
water last week. 

C. O'Brien, of Hollister, has a cross- 
bred Holstein and Jersey cow which gave 
last month 1304 pounds of milk, averag- 
ing 4.4 percent butterfat. 

The cattlemen around Livermore pre- 
dict that the feed of the ranges this com 
ing season will be the largest in years, 
due to the heavy rain which has fallen 
this last month. 

B. A. Packard, of Douglas, Ariz., re- 
cently sold one stallion and 15 mares of 
his Percheron stock to a farmer near Los 
Angeles. The stallion sold for $2000 and 
the mares averaged $525 each. 

The cattle inspector at Carrizozo, New 
Mexico, has found a large number of the 
cows of that section infected with tuber- 
culosis, and he has had them killed. 

Louis Gerber, of Klamath Falls, ship- 
ped 190 hogs to San Francisco recently. 

County Veterinarian Peterson, of Tu- 
lare county, has discovered nine new 
cases of glanders near Dinuba, and has 
ordered all the animals killed. 

Some of the Mexican cattle imported 
to the United States are being turned 
back by the inspectors because of being 
infected by lever licks. 

Henry Miller, the cattle king, had 
great results from using ground horse 
beans for his cattle, so this year he has 
had over 600 bags of these beans ground 
for his stock on the Gilroy ranch. 

G. A. Lowe, of Woodland, recently sold 
five draft horses, averaging 1900 pounds 
apiece, to the Buffalo Brewing Co. 

The total valuation of the stock im- 
ported from Mexico for November was 
$383,974, and the duties collected on the 
same were $104,907. 

Because of the snow in northern Ari- 
zona about. 1.000,000 sheep are being 
headed south for the district between 
Prescolt and Phoenix. 

W. A. Patterson, a California stock 
raiser, is in Chihuahua, Mexico, buying 
30,000 head of Tarrasca cattle, which he 
intends to bring to California to feed. 

The Kaiser Live Stock Co.. of Elko, 
Nevada, have sold out their Nevada in 
terest and have bought the Wilson ranch 
near Los Vegas, New Mexico. They 
bought about 10,000 sheep from the win- 



H0RSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Shon- 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petaluma, Cal. 

BULLS AND C0W8 FOR SALE— Shorthorneri 
Durhams. Address E.8. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

N. H. LOCKE CO., Lockeford, Cal. Jerseys, 
Service Bulls and young stock for sale. 



SWINE 



C. A. 8TO WE. Stockton. Berkshire and Poland- 
China Hogs, Shropshire Sheep. 

CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO.. Mies, CH. 
Breeders of Thoroughbred Berkshlres. 

UEO. C. ROEDINQ, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Jo., Cal. Breeder 
of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 

liEO. V. BECK MAN, Lodl, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 

(J. A. MURPHY, Perkins, Cal. Breeder of Cham- 
pion Herd of Berkshlres also Shorthorns. 




Locate Lameness 

Relieve and core all the common 
ailments which handicap, blemish 
and decrease value of your horsea, 

Tuttle's Elixir 

doM Itioie thlof*. Hwdone U In huodrodt of 
Mf, for many j«tr». Writ, for th, pnefi mod 
FREE VETERINARY BOOK. If your doftUr 
fltnnot ■uppljjrou, we'll ,blp by oiproaa- boot 
•zp*rim«nt- UH TutUo'i lUmodlM. 
TUTTLE'S ELIXIR CO. 

Boston, Mass. 



Can a horse pull 
more and pull it 
easier with a per- 
fect fitting collar? 

Can a man walk 
faster with per- 
fect-fitting shoes 
than with shoes 
that hurt his feet? 

Same answer 
applies to both 
questions. 

If you can't buy 
our goods from 
your dealer, write 
and we ll see 
why. 



SHARKEY & SON, 

Portland, Oregon. 




The Unvarying Success ol the 
DEFENDER INCUBATOR 
Hatches is not without cause. 




FREE TRIAL 



There are a do»en 
good reasons for the 
health and strength 
of Defender chicks. 
Our catalogue tells 
them. 

No. 3. Egg ca- 
pacity delivered to 
your station for less 
than £34.00. 



Defender Incubator Co., Deparment G. 



LIVERMORF, C4L. 



» HERCULES 



HARNESS 
SADDLES 
HORSE 
COLLARS 



aDBoverly St., Boato 
mm A. Bun, Lot Auj.lo. 



8®" THEY LAST LONGER! 

If your dealer cannot Bupply you. write usdliect 
for a price list. Manufactured solely by W. 
UAVIS <t SONS, Wholesale Saddlery, 2040 to 
2062 Howard St., San Francisco, Cal. 

LASHER'S CHICKEN HATCHERY 

Petaluma, California. 
Capacity. 40.000 Day-Old Chicks. 
All l.eilillim Vilrletten. 

Rhode lalaad Reds, Barred or W hite flsi km 
u Idle HlBOreaa tinil l.t-Kbornx. 

Shipped anywhere on Pacific I'oant. 
Correspondence Solicited. 



January 1, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



15 



ter ranges east of Tonopah to put on this 
ranch. 

The prize car load of steers, which 
won the prize at the Portland Live Stock 
Show, were raised by A. D. Goodale, of 
Gazelle. These cattle brought the highest 
price ever paid for fancy beef, one steer 
alone bringing the owner $325, and one 
car load of 25 sold for $121 apiece. These 
cattle were run on summer pasture and 
during the winter were fed on alfalfa, 
none of them having eaten any grain or 
corn. The bunch netted Mr. Goodale $55 
per head. 

George Rogers, of Hanford, sold two 
draft mares to E. C. Wyal, of Coalinga, 
for $600. These animals were raised on 
salt grass and alfalfa. 

The stockmen around Oroville lost 
many cattle in the summer ranges this 
year. Most of the cattlemen lost from 6 
to 25, and no trace of them could be found 
when the final round-up was made. 

The champion carload of Short-Horns 
and steers of the International Live Stock 
Show dressed 667,„%. 

Top prices were received last week on 
the Portland Live Stock Exchange for a 
car load of Christmas cattle. The price 
paid was the highest ever obtained on 
the Pacific Coast. One steer sold for $25 
per 100 pounds. The best cow sold for 
$10.25 per 100 pounds. The best car load 
of steers brought $9 per 100 pounds, and 
the best car load of heifers brought $7.25 
per 100 pounds. 

B. E. Whilhite, of Hoatville, recently 
received 25 car loads of "feeders" from 
Mesa, Arizona. 

C. T. Brown & Son, of Porterville, re- 
cently sold two registered Holstein bulls 
to Phillip Brown, of Visalia. 

Miller & Lux recently received at their 
stockyards at Emeryville, by vessel, 1000 
head of sheep from points along the Sac- 
ramento river. 

Lambs topped the market in Chicago re- 
cently; $8.30 was the price paid on 276 
lambs averaging 75 pounds. 

John C. Cummins, of Sonora, Mexico, 
is busy unraveling the red tape of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry at Douglas, 
Arizona. Mr. Cummins has 4000 head of 
cattle which he contracted to deliver the 
United States in the middle of December. 
Dr. Young, the Government Inspector at 
Douglas, went on his vacation on Decem- 
ber 14 so Mr. Cummins is trying to get 
the Government to send an inspector to 
inspect his cattle, as any delay will cost 
him many thousand dollars. 



DAIRY NOTES. 



William Channey, of Hollister, has pur- 
chased a portion of the Schultz ranch 
near Woodland, and intends planting al- 
falfa and establishing a dairy. 

W. P. Stevenson, of Modesto, bought a 
car load of Jersey cows at St. Helena re- 
cently and will add them to his dairy 
herd. / 

C. L. Cone, of Brawley, recently bought 
11 dairy cows from Crawford & Davis, of 
El Centre 

J. R. Borges & Co. have rented 219 
acres of land near Lemoore and will start 
a dairy with 125 cows. 

Manager J. H. Dawson, of the Lucerne 
Cream & Butter Co., of Hanford, has 
given out the following report of his 
dairy. The price of butterfat during the 
year ranged from 30 cents to 38 cents, al- 
though in four of the months it fell be- 
low 30 cents. The number of pounds of 
butterfat received was 1,195,848 pounds 
and the total value of the same being 
$377,298. The amount of butter during, 
the months ' ranged from 86,800 .pounds 
in February to 140,850 pounds in July. 
The total value of butter made was $407,- 
266. 

S. M. Call, of Smartsville, is putting 
in machinery to start a creamery for his 
foothill ranch. 

W. H. Gammill is putting in a cream- 



ery near Benson, Ariz., and is going to 
stock his dairy with a car load of regis- 
tered Jersey cows. 

The Mexican Government is going to 
buy a large number of full-blooded Jersey 
and Holstein cattle to start dairies in the 
State of Sonora. They expect to buy 
most of these animals in the Salt River 
valley, Arizona. 

Theodore Theodoropoulos is communi- 
cating with E. J. Thorp, of Woodland, to 
get his ewes to start a cheese factory. 
He would like to get 1500 ewes, if pos- 
sible, to make sheep's milk cheese. In 
Glenn county there are four Greeks milk- 
ing 800 ewes to make sheep's milk cheese 
and they are paying eight cents a month 
for each ewe, besides caring for and feed- 
ing the flock. 



FOOD OR PHYSIC FOR THE 
HORSE. 



Dealing with physic in his "Notes for 
Hunting Men," the late Captain Cortland 
Gordon Mackenzie says: "I am sure the 
less drugs either we or our horses take 
the better. Their use was at one time, 
like bleeding and other relics of barbar- 
ism, much too frequent; and even now 
most grooms have a sneaking liking for 
them. I always discourage them in my 
own stable, and never permit their being 
given without my knowledge. A mild dose 
of aloes is necessary when a horse meets 
with some injury which requires that his 
system should be suddenly cooled, and I 
think it is desirable when an animal is 
quickly changed from a very high to a 
very low diet, and vice versa, but the con- 
stant or periodical giving of balls is, I am 
sure, an abomination, and will ruin any 
horse's constitution." A common plea for 
the use of physic or the necessity for pur- 
gative medicine in the spring of the year, 
is that it greatly contributes to make 
horses shed their coats easily, and "pre- 
vent many humors to which they are sub- 
ject at this period," and although we may 
laugh at the "humors" and regard humoral 
pathology as somewhat obsolete, there is, 
perhaps, some good in a moderate dose of 
physic where horses have been kept en- 
tirely on dry food and green feed is not 
obtainable. But there is nothing tends to 
secure a regular action of the bowels bet- 
ter than attention to the quantity and 
quality of the food, and it too frequently 
happens that from inattention to this seri- 
ous diseases occur. 

Horses are most healthy when their food 
is properly regulated in quantity and 
given in sufficient variety. If the scom- 
ach and bowels are at one time overloaded, 
and at another suffered to remain empty, 
it is obvious that irregular action is likely 
to be induced, while it is equally evident 
that feeding for long periods on dry and 
highly astringent material, especially 
when the natural food of the animal is 
of an exactly opposite character, is likely 
to cause derangement. If during winter 
more roots, especially carrots, were em- 
ployed, there would be less need for 
physic in the spring, and if green feed 
was used in moderation there would be 
little need for physic at all. All roots or 
all grass is not compatible with working 
condition, and it is idle to expect efficient 
labor on either, but there are few cases 
where carrots or swedes cannot be ob- 
tained in moderation, and due advantage 
taken of their succulent, laxative, and al- 
terative properties. Where physic is 
really necessary, or thought to be de- 
sirable, there is certainly no need for the 
large and repeated doses of aloes that 
used to be given. We very well remem- 
ber the time when a "course of physic" 
consisted of three doses at intervals of 
a week of progressive quantities of aloes, 
ranging from seven to ten drachms. Cap- 
tain Mackenzie mentions two cases in 
which physic may be desirable, the first 
being when a horse meets with some 
injury. After an accident, and in cases 
of acute lameness, a dose of physic is 
often most useful, and we have known it 
to have a magical effect in a case of lame- 
ness, and particularly of foot lameness. 
The other is when tnere is to be a drastic 
change in the diet, and there is certainly 
an advantage in a dose of physic to get 
the grass out of an animal before put- 
ting it on a dry diet, and especially if a 
full allowance of barley or oats is to be 
given at once, but even these cases of 
bringing horses off grass can be met by 
gradually introducing the grain and giv- 
ing bran mashes during the transition 
period. In the case of horses especially, 
aloes should never be repeated until from 
lapse of time it is certain that the first 
dose is to remain inoperative. 



1910 
DAIRYING 
PROSPERITY 




The one thing which has contributed most largely to dairying 
prosperity the world over for the past thirty vears has been the DE 
LAVAL CREAM SEPARATOR, and favorable conditions afford 
more than usual opportunity for it to continue doing so during the 
new year of 1910. 

The DE LAVAL was the first cream separator and has always led 
in every step of cream separator development and improvement. DE 
LAVAL Cream Separators are as much superior to other separators 
as such other separators are to setting and skimming systems. Cream- 
erymen have long since come to use DE LAVAL separators ex- 
clusively, and year by year farm and dairy users are coming to ap- 
preciate the equal importance of separator differences in this smaller 
way. 

There was rtever a better time to make the purchase of a DE 
LAVAL Cream Separator. The high price of dairy products helps 
it to save its cost twice as soon as would otherwise be the case. Hence 
it does this now within a few months over any setting system and 
within a year over any other separator in use. 

DE LAVAL Cream Separators still possess many patent protected 
features not to be found in any other separator. They have been re- 
designed and re-built from top to bottom within the past two years 
and are thus far superior even to earlier DP] LAVAL machines. Tin y 
not only do better work in every way than imitating separators and 
are much more easily cleaned and handled but are so much better 
built that they last twice to ten times as long, — while they cost no 
more than the poorest of other separators in proportion to actual 
separating capacity. 

No man having milk to separate, whether he now has no separator 
or an inferior kind of one, can make a wiser or more profitable move 
than to start the new year 1910 with a DE LAVAL machine, and 
every day of delay means just so much loss in quantity and quality 
of product. 

It is the duty of DE LAVAL agents to PROVE this to every pos- 
sible purchaser and they are glad of the opportunity to do it. Cata- 
logue and any desired particulars may be had for the asking. 



DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO. 



166-167 Broadway 
NEW YORK 

42 E. Madison Street 
CHICAGO 



General Offices : 
IOI Drumm Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



1016 Western Ave. 
SEATTLE 



14 & 16 Princess Street 
WINNIPEG 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1, 1910. 



The Poultry Yard. 



PRACTICAL LESSONS IN POUL- 
TRY KEEPING. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Pukss 
By M. Russell James. 

The increased interest in poultry this 
season is such that it might be called an 
awakening. This is especially true in 
agricultural localities. Poultry, as a side 
line in general farming, is the farmer's 
golden opportunity, and he is warming to 
this fact and also to the fact that poultry 
cannot be kept in the haphazzard way 
usually accorded it on farms if it is to 
become, what it easily may, the best pay- 
ing production of the farm. 

We are getting inquiries for poultry 
works and bulletins from such farmers 
who propose to take up poultry as a side 
line this season, and to give it the proper 
attention. Now, while the poultryman 
should keep abreast of all information 
relating to his work, for practical pur- 
poses, his best guide is the experience of 
successful poultry raisers in his own sec- 
tion, who understand local conditions. 
The agricultural stations are doing a 
good work along experimental lines, and 
even when their poultry work is along 
practical lines, it is not just the same as 
the work of the ordinary poultry raiser. 
They are not depending on poultry for a 
livelihood nor working under the restrict- 
ed conditions which attend the average 
poultry raiser and so cannot quite hit the 
line along which he must plod. In this 
series of articles the Pacific Rural Press 
will endeavor to give the methods of 
practical poultry raisers of this section 
who have passed beyond the experimental 
stage of securing the healthy flock and 
the winter egg. 

The rules and requirements for sue 
cessful poultry keeping are simple — so 
simple that their importance is often over 
looked. The first requirement is proper 
housing and the first rule is cleanliness. 

The prevalence of roup among fowls on 
this Coast is ascribed to a number of 
causes, but the prime cause is improper 
housing which results in "sweating" and 
chills through drafts, dampness and ill- 
ventilation or over-crowding. It is true 
that the more unsanitary other condi 
tions are, the more susceptible fowls will 
be to this disease; but should they be 
kept under the best conditions in other 
respects, and allowed to roost in drafty. 
damp, unventilated or over-crowded Quar- 
ters the fowls will contract colds and 
roup. An exposure for many hours to the 
steady drift of our chill southeast or 
southwest winds will also induce these 
diseases. The writer once had over 200 
healthy young hens in a continuous poul- 
try house open to the south. One of our 
fierce sou'westers which go to the mar- 
row of things blew for a day and a night 
and left every fowl with a cold more or 
less severe, which in some cases at once 
assumed a violent form of roup. This 
incident shows the necessity of judgment 
and a consideration of local conditions 
in the application of even the best poultry 
rules. The open-front poultry house has 
been and is the most effective means of 
overcoming the scourge of roup on this 
Coast, but such houses should not face 
the prevailing winds and storms. In 
building his poultry houses the poultry- 
man should study the local requirements 
and be governed thereby. In our section 
the prevailing winter winds and storms 
are from the southeast, sometimes veer- 
ing to west. During the summer the 
trade winds and fogs are from the Pa- 
cific. Occasionally there are north winds 
or "northers," but they are not of long 
duration, and are almost invariably dry- 
winds. The north side of a building will 
remain dry, except for an occasional 
flurry of rain, through the entire winter. 
This is why the open portion of our 



poultry houses should be in the north 
side. A wide door should be in one of 
the other three sides that is most exposed 
to the sun, and on fair days this may be 
left open for sunning the interior. In 
the long or continuous poultry house a 
half-sash window is necessary in the 
south side of each compartment. But 
much glass is not good in poultry quart 
ers. The radiation is too rapid and 
causes extremes of temperature disas 
trous to the health of fowls. In cold 
weather a burlap curtain should be drop 
.ier over the sashes at night. 

Poultry Houses.— These should be 
simple, free from drafts, open to fresh 
air, dry and clean. 

Simplicity is a very important attri- 
bute. It makes for cleanliness as well as 
economy. A complicated arrangement of 
passageways, compartments, perches, 
dropping boards, nests, hoppers, etc., 
makes cleanliness and freedom from ver- 
min a difficult proposition, and greatly 
increases the care-taker's work. Drop- 
ping boards are entirely unnecessary in 
our climate even if required where the 
fowls are confined to the house the most 
of the winter. They are unsanitary, 
bringing the droppings too close to the 
fowls at night, and they are difficult to 
clean and keep free of mites. They do 
not even fulfill their purpose, that is. 
Keep the fowls out of the droppings, for 
chickens will scratch on the boards and 
will often squat between the latter and 
the perches. A removable board some 12 
inches wide set edgeways in front of the 
perches is the better arrangement. This 
will keep the litter on the remainder of 
the floor from mixing with the droppings 
if the fowls are fed in the house. The 
nests are better outside or away from the 
roosting portion; in any case they should 
be simple boxes that may be thrown out. 
sunned and cleaned frequently and with 
little work. In mild climates like ours 
the drinking fountains may always be 
kept outside though the hoppers for feed, 
shells, etc., must be kept under a roof 
during the rainy season. The poultry- 
house should have as little furniture as 
possible, and all of it removable. On 
most of our large poultry- plants the 
roosting quarters have no furniture other 
than the perches. 

Drafts and fresh air often get badly- 
mixed in both the poultry house and the 
poultry- keeper's mind. Fresh air com- 
ing from one direction is all right, but 
when it comes from two or more direc- 
tions at the same time, it produces the 
deadly draft. The walls of many poul- 
try houses are considered tight when they 
are far from it, tiny cracks being passed 
over as harmless. A good way to test 
the house is to close the door and darken 
the windows or open part when the sun 
is shining, then every pin crack may be 
detected. 

For fresh air many of our experienced 
poultrymen have one entire side or end 
of the poultry house open, but the writer 
prefers the open side boarded up to some 
three feet above the floor. This keeps the 
cold air from striking directly- under the 
fowls when on the perches which should 
not be more than IS or 24 inches above 
the floor. 

Dampness is a serious condition to be 
guarded against. The roosting quarters 
must be kept dry, and this requires tight 
walls, a tight roof and a floor well set 
up from the ground. 

In another article will be given plans 
for simple, cheap and convenient poultry 
houses which have stood the test of use. 



Questions and Answers. 

Leadi.no Questions. — R. V. G., of Lake- 
port, Cal., writes: "We have kept hens 
in a small way for years and they lay bet- 
ter than our neighbor's hens. We want 
to work into poultry keeping as a busi- 
ness. We would like you to recommend 
a work of reference when a point comes 



up, and to help me about finding how to 
get the young roosters off quick and the 
hens to lay in winter — a practical book 
for everyday common sense work." 

Our inquirer has hit two of the lead- 
ing questions: "How to get the young 
roosters off quick, and the hens to lay- 
in winter." These two happy results 
come from correct methods of poultry- 
keeping from the ground up. To get the 
cockerels off quick they must be hatched 
from strong-germed eggs, incubated prop- 
erly and kept growing from the first jump 
out of the shell. To get eggs in winter 
the pullets must come from the same 
condi dons. Very few hens will lay in the 
early winter under any conditions. The 
pullets must be depended upon for that 
season and the hens kept properly will 
drop in some time in January. As to the 
book, there are books and books on poul- 
try, and we regret to say that the ma- 
jority are written to exploit somebody's 
poultry food, medicine, lice-killer, hatch- 
er, or other appliance, or secret or sys- 
tem, and are not written to teach the 
poultry raiser simple, economical and 
common sense ways. Beginning with the 
New Year we shall endeavor to give our 
readers points along these lines in a 
series of articles covering the work of 
each month. As a fact, the care of poul- 
try is very simple, the one great secret 
is faithful and systematic attention to de- 
tails. 



Why Don't They Lay? — A perplexed 
farmer consulted the writer, personally, 
about 28 pullets hatched the 1st of April. 
"We only get one or two eggs a day," he 
complained. "The hens look fine and I 
give them grit and charcoal and grain, 
and they ought to lay." "Do they get 
green feed?" "Yes, they have been on a 
small patch of alfalfa." "Do you feed 
any meat?" He scratched his head, "I 
bet that's what the matter; I told wife 
they ought to have meat but she said 
they- had enough." 



To lay a large number of eggs a hen 
must be fed a full, rightly balanced 
ration. Grains alone do not suffice, 
nor hap-hazard feeding. You can 
make your own balanced Egg Produc- 
ing food as good as any, by merely 
mixing 

EGG -MORE 

with good ground grain products. And 
this is the thing to do if you can get 
grain cheaper than to ship it in. EGG- 
MORE is not one of those strong 
tonics, not advisable to be fed regu- 
larly, but it is a FOOD, to balance the 
ration properly, and you can't buy such 
balancing materials better nor cheaper 
than in EGG MORE. Just a little 
daily does it. Send for Biddy Booklet 
with many testimonials. Ask others; 
the number using it is constantly 
growing. 25 lbs., $1.90; 50 lbs., $3.60; 
100 lbs., $7. 

If not sold by your dealer we will 
prepay the freight within 300 miles. 
Order a sack of sufficient size to give 
it a good trial, according to the num- 
ber of fowls you have. Then if not 
satisfied, you get your money back. 

West Coast Mill Co. 

Cor. Griffin & Alhambra, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Do you want a 
Chicken Ranch where 
Chicken Ranches Pay? 

IF SO. WRITE 

C R. W INFIELD, 

32 Washington St.. Argus Block, Petaluma. Cal. 




The ARENBERG BROODER 
HEATER and STOVE 

I'erfectly simple, safe 
and cheap. Burns distil- 
late, furnishes steady, Tree 
tlanie, and easy to man- 
age as brooder heater or 
stove. Write Tor details. 

H. F. ARENBERG, Pelaluma, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



BUFF ORPINGTONS — .Sullivan's Common- 
wealth Strain are the heaviest layers or large 
eggs on the Coast. Winners at State Fair, 
Alaska Yukon show. Seattle, and all big shows 
for the past 10 years. Some fine Cockerels now 
for 85 each. Eggs 83 and $5 per sitting. Send 
for Prize Kerord. W. SULLIVAN. Agnew, 
Santa Clara County, California. 



A FEW PURE BRED HRAHMAK, BLACK 
Mlnorcas and Rhode Island Red Cockerels for 
sale. Apply to Vine Ranch, Vina, Cal. 

BANTAMS— Golden Seabrlghtand Black-Talltd 
Japanese. Free Circular. Knglewood Orchard, 
Campbell, Cal. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 

WHITE LEGHORNS — Ideal Layers. Write for 
Circular to C. B. Carlngton, Box 700 Hay ward, 
California. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



JUST OUT 



GEORGE H. 
Francisco. 



Croley s "Little Red Book 
No. 61." Free. Send postal 
CROLEY, 637 Brannan St., San 
POULTRY SUPPLIES. 



WAYSIDE YARDS 



PETALUMA, CAL. 



High Class and 
Bred for Egg 
Production, or 
Exhibition 

Purposes 

s. c. 
White 
Leghorns. 

We have the 

combination — 
Utility and 
Fancy — We 
showed the finest bird in the show of 800 exhibits 
at Petaluma, 1909, and carried off all Leghorn 
Prizes. 

We want the trade of the high class breeders 
of the Coast. 

Write for Prices. 
CARL GREGORY, Mgr. 



Poultry 
Feeding 




Free 
Book 

on application to 

C0ULS0N POULTRY 
6 STOCK FOOD CO. 

Petaluma, Cal. 



WONDER OIL LAMP CDCC 

■FirM This is a Genuine 1 llhb 
offer to lampuserB, made to introduce the 

Wonder INCANDESCENT 100 CANDLE 

POWER Kerosene Oil Lamp in every lo- 
cality. Many times BRIGHTER, CHEAPER 
and SAFER than Gasoline, Electricity or 
ordinary lamps fori tghtingjiomes, offices, 
stores, halls andchnrches. We ask that yoa 
show it to your neighbors. It yoa accept 
the proposition we will send yon, we will 
give yon a lamp FREE. Send yonr name 
and name of yonr nearest express office* 

UNITED FACTORIES CO. 

Largest Uap House In AncrlMu 
1 079 FACTOR! BLOC, KANSAS CUT, MO. 

PATENTS 



FRANK P. MEDINA, 
Attorney at Law. 

Paten ts— Trade M ar k s— Copy rig h t s. 




812 and 814 Claus Kpreckels Bldg.,San Francisco 

PATENTS 

Obtained in United States and Foreign Countries. 
Reasonable rates. Advice free. 
ARTHUR F* KNIGHT 

PATENT ATTORNEY 

420 Grant Building, 1095 Market Street, 
SANIFRANCISCO, CAL. 



PATENTS 



United Stales and Foreign Procured, Defended and Sold. 
PACIFIC COAST PATENT ACENCY, INC., Stockton, Cal. 



PATENTS 



CARLOS P. GRIFFIN 
Kx-exainlner U.N. Patent Ofllce 
ATTORNEY AT LAW 
Patent and Trade Mark Causes. 
1201-2 Metropolis Bank Building. San Francisco 



January 1, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



i 



The Home Circle. 



In 1910. 



Father's in his airship, 

Gone to spend the day, 
Looking after loans and bonds 

In Europe, o'er the way. 
Mother, who likes comfort, 

And does not care to roam, 
Is shopping via wireless, 

In Paris, at her home. 

Brother, who in deep seas 

Has a coral grove, 
Is going in his submarine 

Among his crops to rove. 
Uncle, in the navy, 

Who's left his ship a span, 
Is shooting through pneumatic tubes 

To join her in Japan. 

Sister, who's a suffragette, 

Has worked reforms so rare 
That even the ward meetings 

They open now with prayer, 
And when, tired by her labors, 

She'd body rest, and soul, 
She goes to spend for pleasure 

A week-end at the pole. 

— From the Detroit Free Press. 



The Putnam County Home Coming. 

"Father, it has been thirteen years since 
Jack left home, hasn't it?" asked Mrs. 
Duncan of her husband one evening in 
December after the dishes had all been 
put away. 

"Yes, mother, thirteen awful years," he 
replied with emotion. 

"I didn't know you cared," she ventured 
to remark. 

"Cared! Why gracious alive, I've not 
had a good night's sleep since. I was 
such a fool as to quarrel with Jack about 
that Bailey girl. Cared? I'm not so stony 
hearted as people think." 

"But you never let Jack know that you 
cared," she accusingly replied. 

"No, that's the worst of it. I was a 
stubborn fool for awhile and wouldn't let 
anyone know I was wrong about Clara 
Bailey. But I found out she was a good 
girl and that all that talk was caused by 
Georgia Burrows because she had her cap 
set for Jack and couldn't make a go of it. 
It was dirty, scandalous gossip, and I was 
fool enough to believe it rather than take 
Jack's word for it or to investigate for 
myself." 

"Why on earth didn't you say so before, 
father?" 

"Now hold on a minute, mother, and I'll 
explain it all. I've got a great deal of my 
grandfather's stubbornness in my blood 
and I hate to acknowledge I'm wrong in 
anything." 

And mother Duncan nodded silent as- 
sent. 

"As I was saying, I found out that Clara 
was a good girl, perfectly innocent of any 
wrongdoing, and that she loved Jack as 
much as he loved her. She had good 
bringing up if she was an orphan. But 
when I came to the point where I'd in- 
vestigate, the years had slipped by and 
Jack had gone out West and lost himself 
somehow. In a year or so he persuaded 
Clara to go West also — so I heard — and 
that she was teaching in Oregon some- 
where. You see, the folks she lived with 
moved away and I lost track of them. 
Now for six years I've been quiely trying 
to find out what has become of Jack and 
Clara — but I can't. 

The old man bowed his head in silent 
grief and humiliation. 

Mother was busy with her knitting — 
now and then stopping to wipe her eyes. 
Somehow she couldn't see well this even- 
ing. 

At last the mother heart and inventive 
instinct of maternal love manifested it- 
self. She was busy trying to solve the 
problem that had baffled her husband. 



"Father, there's going to be a New Eng- 
land homecoming. I've seen it spoken of 
in the papers so much lately. I wish Jack 
knew you had forgiven him. I wish he'd 
come home — I know he would if he knew 
you wanted to see him." 

"I've just told you that I can't locate 
him." 

"Why not put in the papers — the big 
dailies — that Putnam county io going to 
have a homecoming at holiday time? Why 
can't we make Jack see that and know we 
want him?" 

"You write the thing up and I'll pay for 
it," he replied with interest. 

One day the next week an old woman 
timidly entered the building of one of the 
big daily newspapers and asked to see the 
editor. She was admitted, and there in 
the private office poured out her heart 
story. The editor listened with tear- 
dimmed eyes. Yes, he too had felt the 
heartache of losing a son in a similar 
way. 

"I'll do what I can to help you find 
him," said the editor as he showed her 
out of the office. 

After a few moments of heart-struggle 
and pondering he wrote a news article 
that spoke of the homecoming. It brought 
out the story of an old couple up in Put- 
nam county that longed to see the son 
who so long ago lost himself in the world. 
It poured out his own heart and this 
article touched human hearts everywhere. 
It was flashed over the Associated Press 
wires and went into every corner of the 
country. 

Every night a lamp was set in the front 
window of the Duncan farm house to light 
the path to the front gate. 

"Are you expecting company, mother?" 

"Yes, I'm expecting Jack," she replied 
with a cherry smile. 

"Have you heard from him?" queried 
the old man as he leaned forward to read 
her face. 

"No, father; not a word." 

Then why do you look for him?" 

"I just feel it in my heart that my 
prayers will be answered soon." 

Out in Seattle a prosperous business 
man was glancing over the evening paper 
as he rode home on the car, and suddenly 
his face lit. up with unusual interest in 
what he was reading. 

"See here, Clara," he exclaimed as he 
rushed into the house. "Just read this in 
tonight's paper. I'm inclined to believe 
that means you and me. That appeal is 
more than a mere item of Putnam county 
news. Let's go by faith and visit the old 
folks at home." 

It didn't take long to arrange for a vaca- 
tion, and soon the Eastbound train was 
carrying Jack, Clara and the children 
back to Putnam county. 

There was a creaking of wheels in the 
little snow that had fallen. The younger 
Duncan family were deposited at the old 
farm gate. Jack paid the cab fare, and 
as the man drove away the last bridge 
was burned behind them. They could not 
return now if they would. But as they 
rounded a bend in the walk that was 
thickly studded with evergreens, hiding 
the house, they saw a light in the win- 
dow. 

"They are looking for you, Jack," said 
Clara. 

"Let's slip up quietly and surprise them 
— now, children, don't you make a noise." 

They looked in the unshaded window, 
and there at the dining room table sat 
father and mother. Father was just rev- 
erently closing the Bible. Then the two 
old folks knelt in prayer. Father poured 
out his heart to God and asked divine aid 
in finding their boy. 

Out in the snow two hearts melted by 
the warmth of that appeal. They rever- 
ently waited until the prayer was ended. 
Father rose and went to wind the clock. 
Jack and his family quietly opened the 
never-locked door and walked in. 

"We have come to spend the holidays 
with you, father and mother," said Jack 




STUDENTS WINDING A 10 HORSE POWER INDUCTION MOTOR. ETC. 

Polytechnic College of Engineering 

306 12th Street, Oakland, Cal. 
THE LEADING ENGINEERING COLLEGE. 

The only college in the west doing actual engineering work. 
Students have the advantage of actual practice in Shops, Laboratories and 
field work under the supervision of engineers of experience and ability. 

THOROUGH COURSE IN 

CIVIL ENGINEERING. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, 

MINING ENGINEERING. 

ARCHITECTURE. 

STEAM AND GAS ENGINEERING 
And all technical training in the practical sciences. 

NEW TERM BEGINNING NOW. 



as he walked up and took his surprised 
mother in his arms. 

"Thank God" — was all the old man 
could say as he gathered Clara and the 
children to his lonely heart. — Successful 
Farming. 



A Keen Lad. 



"I had always heard that New England- 
ers were 'smart,' " a young physician who 
has "graduated" from a village practice 
remarked the other day, according to Lip- 
pincott's, "but I hardly thought it de- 
veloped at such an early age." 

He smiled reminiscently, then con- 
tinued: 

"Just after I settled in Debbs Corners 
a twelve-year-old boy called on me one 
evening. 

• 'Say, doc, I guess I got measles,' he 
remarked, 'but nobody knows it 'cept the 
folks at home, an' they ain't the kind that 
talks, if there's any good reason to keep 
quiet.' 

"I was puzzled and I suppose I looked it. 

" 'Aw, get wise, doc,' my small visitor 
suggested. 'What will you give me to go 
to school an' spread it among all the kids 
in the village?' " 



Household Hints. 



Rub finger marks on doors with a clean 
piece of flannel dipped in paraffin oil and 
the marks will disappear. Afterward wipe 
them with a cloth wrung out in hot water 
to take away the odor of the oil. This 
plan is better than using soap and water, 
as the oil does not destroy the paint. 
Paraffin oil will also be found excellent 
for cleaning varnished doors. 

A little ammonia in the water used for 
bathing will remove perspiration and the 
disagreeable odor caused by it. 

Wash brass ornaments over with strong 
ammonia, using a brush dipped in am 
monia for the fancy parts. Rinse in hot 
water, dry and polish while still hot with 
a leather. The polishing is done equally 
well when the brass is cold, but not nearly 
so rapidly. 



The Khaki Suit 

for ranch 
wear. 

Miners, Hunt- 
ers and outing 
folks find 
khaki the best 
possible mate- 
rial for cloth- 
ing. 

Why is it not 
also best for 
the Ranch ? 

Clothing cata- 
logues mailed 
post-paid. 

THE WM. H. HOEGEE CO., Inc. 

138-140-142 South Main St., Los Angeles. 




Country Boy Preferred 

"Send us one of your graduates that you can 
recommend. We prefer a boy from the country 
—one who has a bright mind and a strong body, 
and who Is capable of advancement. Good pay 
from the start, and excellent opportunities to 
advance." 

We receive messages like the above dally from 
San Francisco's leading business houses. They 
call on us because they know we have the right 
kind of young men In our school, and because 
they know we are giving the right kind of train- 
ing. If you are Interested In the opportunities 
offered by the new San Francisco write us for 
particulars. 

San Francisco Business College 

733 Fillmore St.. San Francisco. Cal. 

PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to Inventors, sent 
free on request, containing nearly 100 me- 
chanical movements and full Information 
about Patents, Caveats, Trademarks, and 
In tilngements. 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO.,- 
1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San 
Francisco. Established 1860. 



18 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1. 1910. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Dec. 29, 1909. 
(Unless otherwise noted, quotations rep- 
resent prices paid to tho growers). 
WHEAT. 

Most local descriptions are closely 
cleaned up, Sonora being hard to get, while 
Australia has not been offered for some 
time. The local market has been very dull, 
owing to the interruption of the holiday 
season. Prices still tend upward, with ad- 
vanced quotations on several descriptions. 
Local dealers quote as follows: 

California Club $2.00 @2.10 

Sonora 2.10 @2.30 

Northern Club 2.00 @2.05 

Northern Bluestem 2.10 @2.20 

Russian Red 1.90 ®2.00 

BARLEY. 

Trading for the past week has been of 
very small proportions, as most immediate 
demands had been satisfied before the holi- 
days. The decline of last week was only 
temporary, prices having recovered their 
former strength. Chevalier is moving 
again at the prices quoted, while the best 
feed stands on a level with brewing grain. 

Brewing $1.50 

Shipping 1.50 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctL 1.47%® 1.50 

Common Feed 1.40 @1.45 

Chevalier 1.50 @1.70 

OATS. 

Arrivals have again been quite large, 
while the movement at present is confined 
to narrow limits. Red feed are a little 
higher, but the market in general is weak 
here, though conditions are regarded as 
favorable in the North. 

Red. feed $1.75 <§>1.85 

Seed 2.00 @2.10 

Black 2.50 @2.70 

Gray Nominal 

White 1.70 @1.75 

CORN. 

A little Western grain has arrived dur- 
ing the week, but prices on Western lots 
are little more than nominal. Values are 
inclined to firmness. Local white is mov- 
ing to some extent at the quotation, and 
Egyptian is doing a little better. 

California Large White $1.80 @1.90 

Egyptian — White 1.65 @1.67V4 

Brown 1.65 

RYE. 

There is little of any description on the 
market, and no demand of an consequence. 
Prices remain about the same as before. 

Rye, per ctl $1.90 @2.00 

BEANS. 

There has been considerable demand foi 
pink beans and supplies are beginning to 
show signs of an early clean-up. Prices 
accordingly have been moving upward this 
week, sales being made as high as $4. 
Dealers look for a still further advance on 
this variety within the next few weeks 
and expect to get $1.50 later in the season. 
Prices on other descriptions are unchanged 
In value, hut marly everything is firmly 
held. While there is a little inquiry com- 
ing in, the movement is very small and 
the market is likely to be quiet for some 
time. 

Bayos, per ctl $5.10 ©5.25 

Blackeyes 4.00 ®4.10 

Cranberry Beans 4.40 @4.60 

Garvanos 2.50 @3.50 

Horse Beans 1.75 ©2.00 

Small Whites 4.75 ©5.00 

Large Whites 3.50 ©3.60 

Limas 4.10 ©4.20.. 

Pea 4.25 ©4.60 

Pink 3.75 ©4.00 

Red 6.50 ©7.00 

Red Kidneys 5.00 ©5.10 

SEEDS. 

Prices on all descriptions are steady, with 
no quotable change in either direction. 
The movement is very small at the moment 
and no great activity is expected for the 
next few weeks. 

Alfalfa, per lb 17® 17 Vic 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $20.00® 25. UO 

Brown Mustard, per lb 4 c 

Canary 4 @ 4%c 

Flaxseed 4 c 

Hemp 3%@ 4 Vic 

Millet 3 c 

Timothy 6 c 

Yellow Mustard Nominal 

FLOUR. 

No further advance has occurred so far. 
but as the grain market is still going up, 
higher prices are not unlikely. Local de- 
mand has been quiet, but somewhat more 
activity Is expected after the first of the 
year. 

and buyers are now inclined to hold off. 

Pal. Familv Extras $6.40 ©6.90 

Bakers' Extras 6.00 @6.40 

Superfine 5.40 @5.70 

Oregon and Washington.... 5.90 @6.10 
HAY. 

As usual in the holiday season the San 
Francisco hay business has been extremely 
quiet and shipments to this market have 
also fallen off, being smaller than for sev- 
eral weeks. Smaller dealers and consum- 
ers are inclined to carry as light stocks as 
possible at the close of the year, but as 
supplies are now low dealers look for a 
healthy demand during January. The most 
encouraging feature of the market is the 
demand for outside shipment, the North- 
ern movement Including large quantities 
of alfalfa and some grain hay. More in- 
quiry Is coming from the interior and 
mountain districts, and altogether the 
situation is much more favorable than it 
was a few weeks ago. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $17.50@19.50 

Other Grade Wheat 13.00@17.00 

Wheat and Oats 13.00@16.50 

Tame Oat 13.00@17.00 

Barley 10.00@13.50 

Wild Oat 10.00@13.5b 

Alfalfa 9.50@13.00 

Stock Hay 8.00© 9.50 

Straw, per bale 50® 75c 

MILLSTUFFS. 
The demand has been very moderate of 
late, and as offerings of bran, shorts and 
middlings are still ample these articles art 
rather easy in value. Cocoanut cake and 



cracked corn are a little higher, but quota- 
tions stand as before on other descriptions. 

Alfalfa Meal, ton $22.00@24.00 

Bran, ton 27.00® 29.00 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal at 

Mills 26.50@27.50 

Cracked Corn 39.00 

Middlings 34.00@35.00 

Mixed Feeds 28.00@33.00 

Oil Cake, per ton 39.50®41.00 

Rolled Barley 32.0O@33.00 

Shorts 31.50@33.00 

VEGETABLES. 
Onions are less active than for some 
time, but prices are still firmly held. Gar- 
lis is also firm. General lines of vegetables 
from the south have been very scarce, and 
most descriptions have advanced quite 
sharply. Green pease and string beans are 
bringing extreme prices and egg plant is 
also quite firm. Other lines are now be- 
coming a little more plentiful. Most toma- 
toes are injured by frost, and choice lots 
are held above quotations, while green 
peppers are a little easier. Celery and 
rhubarb are coming in freely, and while 
the movement has been good for most of 
the time prices are easy. The first box ot 
asparagus has arrived, but no large quan- 
tity is expected for a month or two. 
Onions — New Yellow, per ctl . . $1.00® 1.10 

Garlic, per lb 6® 7c 

Green Peas, per lb 10® 15c 

String Beans, per lb 10@17V&c 

Turnips, per sack 60c 

Summer Squash, large box.... 1.25® 1.75 

Tomatoes, per box 75c@ 1.50 

Green Peppers, per lb 5© 7c 

Egg Plant, per lb 10®12V4c 

Rhubarb, per lb 4© 5c 

Celery, per doz 25® 30o 

POULTRY. 

Local stock is not arriving to any great 
extent and business is almost entirely con- 
fined to Eastern offerings, which are com- 
paratively large. The demand, however, is 
very satisfactory, and practically every- 
thing moves off well at about the former 
range of values. The Christmas turkey 
business was hardly up to expectations, 
either in arrivals or sales, the high prices 
interfering with the demand. Prices on 
all but the choicest offerings dropped off a 
little at the close and are still below last 
quotations, though there Is still some de- 
mand, with very little coming in. Consid- 
erable business is expected before the end 
of the week. 

Broilers $ 4.00@ 5.00 

Small Broilers 3.00® 4.00 

Fryers 5.50® 6.00 

Hens, extra 8.00® 9.00 

Hens, per doz 6.50© 7.50 

Small Hens 5.00@ 6.00 

Old Roosters 4.00® 5.00 

Young Roosters 6.50® 7.50 

Young Roosters, full grown .. . 8.00® 9.00 

Pigeons 1.50 

Squabs 3.00© 3.50 

Ducks 4.00© 9.00 

Geese, per pair 2.50® 3.00 

Dressed Turkeys, lb 23® 27c 

BUTTER. 

Butter has been a little higher, but buy- 
ing for the last few days has been on a 
very small scale, and with some accumu- 
lation extras are a cent lower. Storage 
extras, however, are well sustained at a 
slight advance. The following prices are 
quoted by the San Francisco Dairy Ex- 
change: 

California (extras), per lb.... 35 c 

Firsts 31 c 

Seconds 29 <. 

California Storage (extras)... 30 Vfec 

Eastern Storage Ladles 25 v£c 

EGGS. 

Since the end of the large holiday move- 
ment business has been very quiet. Ar- 
rivals also have been somewhat larger than 
for the preceding week, resulting In con- 
siderable surplus of fresh stock. Prices 
have been dropping, extras being 13 V4 
cents below the last quotation. Firsts also 
are 5 cents lower, but storage stock is held 
at former figures. 

California (extras), per doz... 42V£c 

Firsts 40 c 

California Storage (extras)... 32 c 

CHEESE. 

Cheesi (s very quiet at the moment, and 
while rec iipts have been light the supply 
is ample lor immediate needs. While Ore- 
gon flats t«re a little higher local flats are 
lower. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb. 17 %c 

Firsts 16V6C 

New Young Americas, fancy.. 19 c 

Oregon Flats 18V4c 

Oregon Young Americas 18 Vic 

N. Y., Fancy 19 He 

Storage, Fancy Flats 17Vfec 

Young Americas 18V4c 

POTATOES. 

The market is rather dull this week, but 
supplies are by no means excessive and 
prices are fully maintained. The best rlvei 
stock is held for an advance, Oregon stock 
also being higher, while sweet potatoes are 
fairly firm, with most of the cheap stock 
cleaned off the market. 

Potatoes — River Whites "!5c@$1.10 

Salinas Burbanks $ l.<5@ 1.40 

Oregon Burbanks 1.15® 1.25 

Early Rose 1.50 

Sweet Potatoes, ctl 1.50® l.ow 

FRESH FRUITS. 
While there has been a large holiday 
movement of fancy apples, supplies are 
still sufficient for the demand. In fact, 
there is very little inquiry for anything at 
present, but prices are steadily held on 
apples and pears, which are now about the 
only article in which much I nterest is 
taken. A good many cranberries were held 
over and are being sold off at reduced 
prices. The few remaining grapes are held 
for higher prices. 

Cranberries, per bbl $ 7.00® 10.00 

Grapes, per crate 50c® 1.25 

Apples — v 

Fancy, per box 1.25® 1.7o 

Choice 75c@ 1.00 

Common 40® 6ac 

Christmas Apples 1.75® 2.25 

P <? EL V 3 

Winter Nelis 1.75® 2.00 

Other varieties 75c@ 1.25 

Persimmons 75c@ 1.25 



We have all kinds for all uses, 
us for prices on 



CATALOGS 



MACHINERY 



Write 



CATALOGS 



The CALDWELL BROS. CO. 



SEATTLE 



TACOMA 



SPOKANE 



CITRUS FRUITS. 
A few valencias are still moving, but do 
not cut tny figure in the market. No great 
reduction was made in supplies of navels 
by the holiday trading, and while the best 
lots are still firmly held ordinary stock is 
cheaper. Tangerines are quoted as before 
and fancy lemons are a little stronger. 
Business at the moment is quiet. 
Oranges — _ . 

Tangerines 1.25© 1.50 

Navels 1-65® 2.50 

Choice Lemons 2.50® 3.00 

Fancy Lemons 4.00® 4.50 

Standard 100 @ H9. 

Limes 4.00© 4.o0 

Grape Fruit 2.50® 3.00 

DRIED FRUITS. 
Business here is now of extremely small 
proportions, most of the trade having pro- 
vided for all winter requirements and no 
movement of any consequence is expected 
for the next months or two. The close of 
the holiday season enables packers to make 
a closer estimate of conditions, resulting in 
a little easier feeling on some lines. Apples 
have weakened a little and show a decline 
of % cent, while a similar condition is 
noted in pears, quotations for which are 
unusually high. Fancy peaches are be- 
coming quite scarce and firm, but without 
any advance in prices. Apricots have long 
been cleaned out of growers' hands and 
are firmlv held, but not in much demand 
at present values. Prunes remain firm at 
the former quotation. The amount carried 
over in the East is very small, and this 
market is cleaned up of the more desirable 
sizes, though considerable small stock is 
still left. Notwithstanding the large holi- 
day movement of raisins local packers de- 
scribe the market as weak, with very poor 
outlook, and qviote lower prices. The quo- 
tations, however, are little more than 
nominal, as there is no movement from 
grower to packer at present. 

Evaporated Apples, per lb 7 V4 @ 8 c 

Figs, black 2 c 

Figs, white 4 c 

Apricots 9 '^®, 10 , c 

Peaches 5 @ 5V4c 

Prunes, 4-size basis 2%c 

Pears 5V4® 7 c 

Raisins — ■ 
Loose Muscatels, in sweatbox 2 @ 2Vfec 

Thompson Seedless 2 c 

Seedless Sultanas l%c 

London Layers. 3 crown 85 @95 c 

NUTS. 

Almonds are quoted a little higher In 
the local market, but it is considered that 
both almonds and walnuts have about 
reached top value. Quotations are those 
current in the local market, as there os no 
movement from the growers. Supplies in 
the trade are light and rapidly moving off. 
though the buying movement has quieted 
down a little this week. 
Almonds — 

Nonpareils 14%® if C 

IX L 13V4<Eil4 c 

Ne Plus Ultra 13 ®13%c 

Drakes 10V4@lt c 

Languedoc 9V4@10%c 

Chestnuts, California 9 @11 c 

Walnuts — Softshell, No. 1 14 c 

Softshell, No. 2 9 c 

HONEY. 

Honey continues very quiet, with even 
less business than before on most descrip- 
tions. Prices are steadily held on all 
grades, choice lots being fairly firm. 

Comb 8 ® l l,, c 

Exeracted, Water White 7 ® 7V&c 

Extracted, Amber 5 Vi @ 6 c 

Old Extracted 4 @ 4 Vic 

HOPS. 

Hops are very quiet locally, with no 
movement of an consequence throughout 
the State. Prices are firm at the former 
range. 

Hops, new crop 18 @24 c 

WOOL. 

Local dealers estimate that most of the 
fall clip has already been shipped out, 
though there is still some left In the coun- 
try, mostly of defective quality and held 
higher than buyers are willing to pay. 
Prices offered by local buyers are nomi- 
nally as last quoted. 

MEAT. 

Business continues rather quiet locally, 
hogs receiving little attention at the mo- 
ment Dressed veal and lambs are a little 
lower, but other dressed meats are firm at 
former prices. Live calves and sheep also 
show a slight reduction, but all other live 
stock is very strong. 

Beef: Steers, per lb 7 @ 7V4c 

Cows 6 @ 6%c 

Heifers 6 @ 6 Vic- 
Veal i V4 @ 9 c 

Mutton: Wethers 8%® 10 c 

Ewes ° c 

Lambs 11 @ |2c 

Hogs, dressed 9%«i'12V4' 

Livestock — 

Steers: No. 1 4 >/« @ 4 He 

jvjo » 4 © 4 Vic 

Cows' and Heifers: No. 1 3%@ 3%c 

No 2 :! 9 3 / * c 

Bulls and Stags 2 @ 2'/ 4 c 

Calves: Light |*« 

Medium , _ ? , . c 

Heavy 4 9 4 ^ c 

Sheep: Wethers 5 @ 5Vic 



Ewes 4 'i ffl lUe 

Lambs 6 ® 6 Vic- 

Hogs: Grain fed. 100 to 150 lbs. 7%@ 8 c 

150 to 250 lbs 8 @ 8 1 \ c 

Common Hogs, lb 5 @ 6 c 

Boars, 50 per cent; stags, 30 to 40 per 
cent, and sows, 10 to 20 per cent off from 
above quotations. 



Special Citrus Market Report. 



Los Angeles, Cal., Dec. 28. — Present ship- 
ments from southern California of oranges 
and lemons are very light. Demand Is 
also very light, and this is a natural con- 
dition at this time of the year and ex- 
pected by the shippers. However, any day 
may bring its influx of orders, for we know 
that the markets were not overstocked 
with California navels, and that the trade 
will begin to want them just as soon as 
they are convinced that they contain sugar 
enough to make them palatable. A Florida 
fruit man writing to your correspondent 
says: "The balance of the Florida crop and 
practically all of the California crop will 
have to move into the markets at the same 
time. This gives California absolute con- 
trol on oranges in many of the markets 
and divides with Florida nearly all the 
principal markets of the country. This 
does not seem to spell high prices for 
either California or Florida. Florida will 
market, after January 1, at least one-hall 
of her estimated crop, approximating 
10.000 carloads. This would mean an aver- 
age daily movement of 100 cars for I GO 
days. In order to market the California 
navel crop there will have to be an average 
daily movement of between 150 and 200 
cars, and from both points this means an 
average daily output of between 250 and 
300 cars of oranges for January, Februar> 
and March which the markets will have to 
absorb at some kinds of prices If this 
daily movement is in any way interfered 
with it will increase the shipments on 
other days or will prolong the shipping 
season." 

Lemons have been good propertv for the 
past three months and prices have been 
strong right up to Christmas time. How- 
ever, there are now signs of a falling off 
in values, owing to the lighter demand and 
increased supply available. 

The citrus fruit shipments to date have 
been 848 cars of oranges and 537 cars of 
lemons from the south, as against 1100 
cars of oranges and 600 cars of lemons to 
same time last season. 

Orange prices run from $1.50 to $1.80 
cash California, according to locality, and 
lemons are being quoted all the way from 
$.1 t<> $4 per box, according to locality and 
grade. 



You Will Start 
The New Year Right 

By buying one of our 10, 20or 40 acre tracts, 
already planted and growing ALFALFA, 
and under IRRIGATION of the Central 
Canal, being a portion of the famous Glenn 
Raneho, In Glenn Co., close to shipping points 
both by rail and water. We harvest and 
market the crops, and the proceeds of all 
crops raised are credited on the buyer's con- 
tract of purchase, the crops thereby prac- 
tically paying for the land In three years 
time, as It averages six ciops yearly, which 
will net from *40 the first year to?100 the third 
year per acre, and as an Investment Is hard 
to duplicate, as It will bring from 15 to 36 per 
cent on the money Invested. 

Write, or call, and let us explain the 
proposition. Free ILLUSTRATED booklet 
on application. 

ALFALFA FARMS COMPANY 

430 Monadnock Bids-. San Franciico. 



SUBSCRIPTION AGENTS WANTED. 



The PACIFIC RURAL PRESS want* a 
young man or woman in every county In 
the State to Mollclt for Muhxrrlhllonn. Good 
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Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Doalori In 1400 FOURTH ST.. S AIM FRANCISCO 

DADPD Blake, Moffitt A Towne, Los Angeles 
r ftrtn Blake MoFMI 4 Co., Portland, Oregon 



January 1, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



19 



BURBANKS 



Genuine 



Giant Crimson Winter" Rhubarb 




SEBASTOPOL 
NURSERY 

is the Headquarters for 
plants of this product. 



HORTICULTURAL NOVELTIES 

NEW CREATIONS IN TREES, FBUITS 
AND FLOWERS 

BURBANK'S EXPERIMENT FARMS 
LUTHEK BURBANK 

OFFICE AND RESIDENCE 20* SANTA ROSA AVE 



October first, 
19 



SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA 

This is to certify that Mr. William 
Mather of Sevastopol, California has purchased 
and is growing a large stock of the true Bur- 
hank's "Giant crimson Winter" Rhubarb. 



03 




My "Giant Crimson 
Winter" Rhubarb Plants 
are Genuine. 



My prices are 15 cents by the thousand, or 20 cents by the hundred. 
Book your orders now, ready for delivery the first day of February, 1910. 

WM. MATHER, Proprietor, 

Office: P. O. Building, SEBASTOPOL, CAL. 

CALL AND SEE MY RHUBARB FIELDS, THAT ARE NOW BEING HARVESTED. 



OFFICE PHONE : MAIN 94 



RESIDENCE: RURAL 62 





This is 
Second Hand 
Pipe 

We can supply you with 
any size and quantity of 
Standard Pipe or Casing— all new 
reads and couplings — all stock guaranteed 
Write for Prices and Particulars. 



CALIFORNIA FRUITS 

AND 

HOW TO GROW THEM 

By E. J. WICKSON. A.M. 



Price $3 per copy, postpaid. 

A COMPLETE COMPENDIUM ON FRUIT 
GROWING. 



"I have had occasion to consult Prof. 
Wlckson's 'California Fruits' on many 
subjects and have found what I wanted In 
every case. The book might well be styled 
an Encyclopedia of California Horticul- 
ture." — L. Lathwesen, San Jose. 



REVISED EDITION, 500 PAGES. 

HANDSOMEIjV ILLUSTRATED. 



Send In Your Order Today to 

ACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publisher, 

667 HOWARD STREET, 
San Francloca, Cal. 



20 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 1, 1910. 




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The Fresno Scraper 




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AND CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN 



Vol. LXXIX. No. 2. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 8, 19 10. 



Fortieth Year. 



Hog Raising on the Pacific Coast. 

Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Mr. Paul Parker. 

At the present time "Pork is King" as a money- 
maker, bringing some 8 cents a pound, and from 
all indications lie will continue his reign sonic 
time. Since pork is King, alfalfa must be Queen, 
because this wonderful plant has done more for 
the hog business on the Pacific 
coast than any other ration, as it 
has made it possible to have green 
food for the porkers at seasons of 
the year when every other fodder 
was dried up. 

Raising hogs on the Pacific con si 
differs greatly from the methods 
pursued in the Eastern States. 
The climate is not only different, 
but we must use other feeds. Corn, 
the peer of all hog foods, we can- 
not use on account of its high 
price, except possibly those who 
can plant a few acres and raise 
their own supply. To go out on 
the market and buy corn for hogs 
at its present price would be busi- 
ness suicide. Hog raisers, then, of 
necessity have had to find a sub- 
stitute which would give them 
quick and economical gains. Prob- 
ably the most popular substitute 
for corn on the Pacific coast has 
been barley, but with its increasing 
price many hog raisers are using 
Egyptian corn, beans that are un- 
dersized and shriveled, wheat, 
oats, horse beans, grapes and rais- 
ins, or some other feed that has 
finishing properties in it. 

For getting the hogs in condi- 
tion prior to finishing, alfalfa is 
the best possible diet. Most of 
the successful hog raisers put their 
young pigs, immediately after 
weaning, on alfalfa pasture and 
give them all the skimmed milk 
they can drink. They are kept on 
this combination until about seven 
or eight months old, then they are 
turned out into stubble fields and allowed to pick 
up the waste grain and seeds until the land is 
ready to be plowed. Those in good condition are 
sold and a few poor rustlers are fattened in pens. 
Skimmed milk and alfalfa are considered by all to 
be the best food for growing hogs, as they build 
up the bone and tissues as no other diet will do, 
putting them in condition so that when I hey gel 
on grain or raisins they wilV finish in excellent 
shape. Where there is no alfalfa, pastures of the 
native grasses, potatoes, fruits, vegetables, sor- 
ghum and acorns are the most common feeds. 

The principal breeds of swine on the coast are 
the Berkshire, Poland-China and Duroe-Jersey. 
The other breeds, such as Tamworth, Yorkshires, 



Chester White. Cheshire and Victoria, are not 
found very frequently. The Berkshires and Po- 
land-Chinas do very well here and are the most 
popular with the hog raisers, although of late 
there has been a large influx of the lied Durocs. 
There is very little difference between the Berk- 
shires and the Poland-Chinas, both being black 
and about the same shape. The only points in 
which they differ is that the Poland-China's snout 
is not dished and his ears are large and droop 




Australian Sow of the Bacon Type. 




An Australian Sow and Her Litter. 

over. The Berkshires are considered better rust- 
lers and grazers. On the other hand, there is not 
so much waste in butchering Poland-Chinas. The 
Duroc-Jerseys are not so large as either of the 
above two breeds, but other than a difference in 
color, the general appearance is about the same. 
These red hogs are actice and hardy, so that they 
graze very well, covering large sections of ground. 
They are also very prolific. M. M. Fike of Lai on. 
Cal., has two Duroc sows which have littered 50 
pigs in the last six months. 

In order to make the most economical gains in 
hog raising, it is necessary to have pasture for the 
pigs. When fed in pens they do not do as well 
as when they arc allowed to range over fields. A 



common practice among the hog men is to build 
"hog tight" fences around their property, so that 
when the crops are harvested the hogs can be 
turned out in them to pick up the grains which 
the harvesters left behind, as swine are the best 
gleaners of waste grains, seeds and insects. Hogs 
rustling for their food eat more and thrive bet- 
ter than when they are fed in close quarters, and 
they lay on more flesh and bone. The constant 
exercising and ranging over the fields in all kinds 
of weather makes them hardy, so 
that they are not so susceptible to 
disease as those confined in pens, 
and also makes them able to stand 
sudden changes in the climate. 

The number of hogs alfalfa will 
carry per acre without injuring 
the roots or future growth of the 
crop depends upon the kind of 
soil, fertility of the land and the 
size of the hogs pastured. Good, 
well irrigated land will carry 20 
to 25 hogs, while upland of only 
fair average fertility will support 
from 8 to 12. There are fields 
which have supported 25 hogs 
year after year and are still in 
good condition, while there are 
other fields that will only furnish 
pasture for about 5 head per year. 

When a field is to be used ex- 
clusively for pasture it is best to 
divide it into several lots and 
move the hogs from one lot to the 
other, as occasion requires. .Many 
fields of alfalfa are ruined by too 
close pasturing, the stock eating 
the crowns of the plants so that 
they are injured and they cannot 
send out young shoots. After the 
crown of the plant is injured in 
this way it takes a long time for it 
to get back its old strength and 
vigor. 

Another feature of pasturing is 
not to put the hogs on the alfalfa 
until it has become well rooted. 
Young alfalfa is too tender a plant, 
to stand severe treatment except 
under very favorable circum- 
stances. There are a few farmers 
who have pastured alfalfa in the same year it was 
sown and have it survive, but in every case the 
land was rich heavy loam soil in river bottoms 
with the water not far below the surface and the 
season was very favorable. 

Ordinary alfalfa should not be pastured until 
the second year, and, better still, not until the 
third year if it is desired to keep the field as per- 
manent pasture. 

.Many hog raisers turn their hogs out on 
alfalfa immediately after if lias been irrigated 
or after a heavy rain, so that the ground is 
packed hard, which not only interferes with the 
growth of the plants, but also makes the field very 
uneven. 



22 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 8. 1010. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 



TWO DOLLARS PER 


YEAR IN ADVANCE 


Entered at S. F. Postoffice a 


s second-class mail matter. 


PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. 


PUBLISHERS 


Advertising rates made known on application. 


E. J. WICKSON 


Editor 


FRANK HONEYWELL 


Business Manager 


GEORGE RILEY 


Advertising Manager 





California Weather Record. 



The following rainfall and temperature record is fur- 
nished the Pacific Rural Press by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, at San 
Francisco, for the week ending at 5 p. M., Jan. 4, 1910: 



Stations. 


Rainfall Data. 


Tempera- 
ture Data. 


Past 

Week. 


Seasonal 
to Date. 


Normal 
to Date. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Mini- 
mum. 


Eureka 


.1.26 


21.91 


17.76 


62 


28 


Red Bluff 


.28 


8.45 


10.56 


62 


30 


Sacramento . 


1.S2 


7.22 


7.48 


54 


32 


San Francisco... 


1.57 


10.07 


8.80 


58 


36 


San Jose 


2.11 


8.11 


5.43 


58 


26 


Fresno 


3.38 


9.87 


3.81 


58 


30 


Independence... 


1.00 


5.42 


3.77 


36 


12 


San Luis Obispo 


4.59 


15.07 


6.48 


72 


38 


Los Angeles 


^.70 


9.57 


5.56 


74 


36 


San Diego 


2.34 


7.81 


3.37 


70 


38 



The Week. 

We cannot help point inn' again with increased 
pride at our achievement in weather prophecy. 
Weeks ago when false prophets were advising 
people to drink light because there would DOl be 
the usual quantity of water this year we saw 
clearly gleams of frost and snow and buckets of 
water sloshing about upon the veil of the future. 
We based our prediction upon this highly original 
formula: ( v s )" — F — . This, reduced to sim- 
plest forms, means that the activity of the ele- 
ments as manifested by volume and speed at 
the time then present, which was the autumn, 
when increased indefinitely (or constantly in 
operation) at the early part of the rainy season 
invariably will amount to something fierce in the 
time then future — which is now. We did not in- 
tend to publish this formula until it had been 
passed upon by the University of Copenhagen, 
but the recent experience of a great discoverer 
has convinced us that the public is a safer court 
of appeal. And now having planted this standard 
for the guidance of future races of Californians 
we shall, henceforth, hold our peace. We scorn 
to use the position which we occupy as editor of 
an influential journal to boost our own prophetic 
powers. Humanity may take it or leave it as it 
sees fit. We confess, however, that we shall be 
disappointed if. when we take another peep at the 
earth through the scintillations of the tail of Hal- 
ley's comet at its next excursion into the solar 
system, we do not see the above formula deeply 
graven on our tombstone. 

During the last week most locations have been 
putting up the weather samples they have had as 
the Avorst ever, and we believe there are many 
places where the glint of the frost, the depth of 
the snow fall or Hurry ami the weight and wash 
of the rainfall have pressed close upon the records 
of a few decades, if not exceeded them. No doubt 
considerable losses have been visited upon many 
people and enterprises, but the aggregate cer- 
tainly makes for production beyond customary 
figures, and many fingers which tingle in the pass- 
ing days will be warmed in the glow of gold later 
in the year. The first year of the new decade bids 
fair to set a new pace in California production and 
development. 



Commenting upon the new decade it is just as 
well to strike right at the heart of it which will 
be. of course, for this half of the world, the Pana- 
ma-Pacific Exposition of 1915 in San Francisco. 
It is calculated that the isthmian canal will be 
open at that date and a grand celebration of an 
event, which means that the Pacific advances into 
the center of the world, is fitting and will arouse 
all peoples because it will have wider significance 
than any world's fair has had hitherto. The plan 
is for San Francisco and the United States to ante 
five millions each, against an equal amount from 
the rest of the orb, and play the game for the ad- 
miration of the universe. It is a great proposi- 
tion which commends itself at the speaking. It 
will be splendid to have something for Califor- 
nians to work for connectedly and systematically 
for live years and after the consummation there 
will be five years more to gather the aftermath 
before one of the Oriental nations across the Pa- 
cific plays for the world's eye with another inter- 
national exposition about 1020. to celebrate the 
real debut of the Orient into occidental national 
society. California, then, as the seat of the world's 
celebration of the Panama triumph, and. by virtue 
of her demonstration of progressive Pacific spirit, 
to be selected as chaperon for the great coming 
out of eastern Asia — gee: the conception thrills 
us deeper than the thought of being a prophet.. 
Hut really will it not be great for California, and 
can anyone refuse to work for it ? It will help us 
in population and in multiplied local markets as 
well as giving additional emphasis to all our dis- 
tinctive products. It will hasten all overland rail- 
ways to connect through to the front door of the 
Pacific Ocean. It will banish the last thought of 
our bein<r provincial, for how can one be provin- 
cial at a world's center? Therefore, say we : take 
strong hold of this Pacific-Panama idea and pull 
it strong. Five years of such effort will be a lib- 
eral education for every man. woman and child 
in the State. It will teach geography, commerce, 
State craft — patriotism. Therefore bend thought, 
sharpen pencils. gear-tip typewriters, point 
brushes, let loose tongues in talk and song! The 
Panama cut leads to the Pacific : the Pacific to 
California: California to the future of the greater 
hemisphere! Oh. my: if we were not a prophet 
we should be a poet or— something. 



Speaking of the glory of California we shall lift 
a piece from a circular which the Advertising 
Manager of the Pacific RntAL Press is using in 
his work with those who have things worth mak- 
ing known to the public. To move them his way 
he has incidentally to state how great California 
is agriculturally, and it is an interesting fact that 
advertising, like all other honorable branches of 
promotive work, is now proceeding more clearly 
than ever upon a basis of demonstrated truth. 
Our advertising manager draws glory for Cali- 
fornia from the greatest journalistic advertising 
which was ever done in the agricultural line by 
Mr. Herbert Myrick, who has a bunch of able 
Eastern journals in his hand and whose interests 
he is endeavoring to advauce. by paying thousands 
of dollars for double pages in the most popular 
non-agricultural weekly in the United States. Mr. 
Myrick. then, in an attractive advertisement of 
his own publications, gives the number of farms 
and their production by States for the year 1909. 
In the list of States, California has approximately 
125,060 farms, and their total yield for the past 
year is given as $329,000,000. According to the 
State Board of Trade the value of farm products 
lor 1908 in California was $307,946,189. The in- 
crease shown by Mr. Myrick is rational and nor- 
mal with the showing of gains in other States. 
Mr. Myrick 's figures show California to be the 
leader in production, that 125,000 farms averaged 



a profit of $2632. The next highest State in per 
capita production is Iowa, which Mr. Myrick 
places at $2500 per farm. Oregon with 7.~>.0i»0 
farms, shows a total revenue therefrom of $114.- 
000.000. This is identically the same as Montana, 
with 30.000 farms. The State of Washington has 
66.000 farms and produced $104,000,000. 

Commenting upon these interesting facts out- 
advertising manager bursts forth in this paeon of 
praise: "Grand old California leads the Union 
because of the diversity of her products, fostered 
materially by favorable climatic conditions, and 
the intelligence and industry of its farmers, who 
"do things" at the right time and understand the 
detail of the things they set out to do." This be- 
ing the case, the logical conclusion is that those 
who desire to help such farmers to still greater 
deeds should advertise their helpfulness in the 
proper columns of the Pacific Rural Press which 
is to California what California is to the nation. 
The argument is irresistible. 

To kick or not to kick, that is the question. 
"Whether 'tis nobler in the mind," as Mr. Shakes- 
peare said, "to suffer the stings and arrows of 
outrageous fortune, or to take up arms against a 
sea of troubles, and. by opposing, end them." This 
is the question which one of our Sonoma county 
readers has in mind as he writes us this note: 
"Wine grape growers hereabouts had a pretty 
hard deal from the big wineries last vintage, 
and I wish to set them thinking and acting 
in the matter of crushing their own grapes, when 
necessary to secure a fair deal and decent treat- 
ment from the wineries. If the grower gets an- 
other year or two like the present he will either 
have to go out of the business or finish his life in 
industrial servitude to the wine trust. Some of 
us will go out of it. unless we can get a fair price 
for our grapes or for the wine. I would be pleas- 
ed to write you a short sketch of what the aver- 
age wine grape grower hereabouts went through 
last vintage, if it would help in any way to lighten 
his burden. I believe in 'kicking' when there is 
reason in it. and when it will help to improve 
matters." 



So do we, providing one can kick intelligently 
and to some purpose. We conceive that it will 
serve no useful purpose to harrow the sensibilities 
of the public with the disappointments and losses 
of grape growers last season ; both wine and table 
srrape growers suffered — the former more griev- 
ously on the whole. That may be accepted as a 
fact and it is up to the growers to find out why. 
Did the wineries squeeze the growers or were the 
wineries also under the screw? There is no use 
kicking if that is the case. Kicking is an art and 
a science : the mule is a master of the art but he 
has no science; he is apt to land a kick in the 
wrong place — which may not hurt thf* place and 
may break the mule's leg. What the grape grow- 
ers need is a better understanding of the real en- 
vironment of their business. We cannot give 
them this, for we do not know it. The only way 
they can get it is by organization to find out just 
exactly what and where the trouble is. and then 
go to work together to remedy it. This may in- 
volve the most active warfare and competition 
with the capitalistic branch of production: if so, 
let it come, hot and fast, for it may be the cure. 
But if this is not the trouble, there is no earthly 
use entering upon an ugly campaign which may 
arrest industry and injure everybody. Therefore 
we say, as our correspondent does, "Kick when 
there is reason to and when it will help to improve 
matters. " 



If there is any sort of a trust aspect to the situa- 
tion, the method of self help by growers' market- 



January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



•_> 



ing is naturally suggested. Mr. Ashley's article 
on another page of this issue is very pertinent to 
such a situation. Another way is that which will 
be up soon at Lodi, where there will be a large 
gathering of fruit growers and buyers at a meet- 
ing early next month, when it is proposed to set 
a price on all free-on-board shipments of grapes. 
It is stated that whatever money was made by the 
growers last season was from free-on-board ship- 
ments, and it is the intention to sign an agree- 
ment at the January meeting that will strictly 
forbid buyers from cutting prices with growers 
of grapes. If it is possible to arrange business on 
this basis the viticulturists count on making fair 
returns on their investments. It is stated that the 
local convention will not conflict in any sense with 
the State League, but will act in harmony with 
it. The progress in the organization of the League 
which we have several times commended is given 
on another page of this issue. 



The issue against Dr. Wiley's position with ref- 
erence to the use of sulphur in fruit drying seems 
to be progressing favorably to the California fruit 
interests. Accounts are current that since Octo- 
ber last Prof. A. E. Taylor, of the University of 
California, who is a member of the Referee Board 
has been conducting a series of tests on live sub- 
jects. Fourteen students of the University of Cali- 
fornia have eaten sulphured fruits regularly for 
the purpose of enabling Professor Taylor to de- 
termine whether foods prepared by the sulphur 
dioxide process are injurious to mankind. It is 
said that the students, without exception, have 
gained flesh, and that no deleterious effect has 
been detected as a result of the experiments. Some 
of the reports are more in detail, stating, for in- 
stance, how much each of the students has gained 
in weight by his diet of sulphured fruits, and that 
it is plain that no interference with normal func- 
tions has been determined. All such statements 
are, of course, on our side of the controversy and 
we believe they are, in a general way true, but it 
will not do to build arguments or inferences upon 
them, because it is impossible for the ultimate 
facts to come out in this way. In the first place 
the experiments are not complete but will be con- 
tinued and therefore ultimate results are not yet 
reached. In the second place Dr. Taylor will re- 
port his results to the board of which he is a mem- 
ber and the full board will make report to the 
President of the United States, to whose executive 
seope the inquiry belongs and the public must 
take it afterward. For these reasons we deplore 
the free printing which is being done on this sub- 
jecl because it is informal and unauthorized, and 
though growers may get some assurance from the 
general drift of the reports, which are all one 
way, they should not look upon the demonstration 
in their favor as a deed accomplished because it 
it not. 



Queries and Replies 



Bones on the Farm. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly state in your 
columns what is the value of bone meal as a fer- 
tilizer? T can get all bones from a neighboring 
slaughter house for the hauling. Would it pay 
me to grind these and use as a fertilizer for alfalfa 
and grain? About how much should be applied 
per acre ? Has bone meal a place in a grain ration 
for swine? — H. B. W., Lake county. 

Bones contain plant food both mineral as the 
phosphate of lime, and organic as the nitrogeneous 
compounds, which are associated with the mineral. 
We doubt it there is anything you can do in the 
way of grinding or treating with acid which you 
can do as cheaply as you can buy commercial fer- 



tilizers unless you invest in the powerful machin- 
ery, tanks and chemicals which they employ, nor 
can you fit them for stock feeding without doing 
other things to kill all the germs in them — except 
for fowls which can take bones in fragments and 
run their own bone mill. The best and easiest 
thing one can do with bones on a farm is to soften 
them by fermenting with fresh manure or bury- 
ing them near the roots of fruit trees or vines 
which will reduce them by their own processes. 

Apples in Tuolumne County. 

To the Editor: Will you give your idea about 
the suitability of Tuolumne county for apple grow- 
ing and whether it is practicable to grow other 
crops among young trees while they are coming 
to bearing age? — Reader, Jamestown. 

There is no question, whatever, but that you 
have in Tuolumne county some of the finest land 
in the State for the production of mountain ap- 
ples. There can be no doubt that when sufficient 
quantities are produced, the fruit is better pro- 
tected from its enemies and when the grading, 
packing and marketing are all systematically 
done, as in the large apple districts of the Coast, 
the apple production in your country will be a 
very important and profitable industry. 

Where the land is deep and well-drained, so 
that water used to irrigate vegetables and small 
fruits does not stand in the soil to decay the roots 
of the trees, it may be found profitable to grow 
other crops while the trees are young, and in this 
way a settler can provide himself with an income 
while his apple trees are growing. Of course, this 
business has to be undertaken intelligently by 
those who understand what is required. To plant 
apples, as is commonly done in the foothills, moun- 
tains and valleys, and allow the fruit to be de- 
stroyed by the apple worm, or to plant so many 
varieties that there is not enough of any one kind 
to make a car load, does not result in the estab- 
lishment of an important or profitable industry. 
At the present time the growers in the foothills 
and mountain regions do not seem to appreciate 
the importance of perfect care of the trees, of the 
selection of satisfactory commercial varieties, or 
of organizing for the satisfactory shipment and 
sale of the fruit. 

Your railroad gives Tuolumne county a decided 
advantage in an undertaking of this kind, because 
transportation is already provided, and, therefore, 
Tuolumne county can proceed rapidly in this line, 
while some other counties have to wait for such 
railway facilities. 



Wet Treatment for Tree Holes. 

To the Editor : AVe are much troubled in spots 
with the fungus known as root rot, and have tried 
and are still trying to find a remedy for same. An 
Austrian told me that in Dalmatia where he 
worked and also in France, that whenever a tree 
died (he did not know from what cause), they 
mixed sulphur with pure wine, placed it in the 
hole and then planted a new tree, after removing 
the dead one. The man could not tell me what 
proportion of wine or sulphur were used, and I 
fear to use it unless I had some knowledge regard- 
ing the chemical effect of such a compound. 
Could you assist me in telling about what propor- 
tion of sulphur to use to wine and how much of 
the mixture would be wise to put in the hole, and 
should the young tree be planted there at once or 
should the sulphur remedy remain there for some 
time before re-planting? — Amateur, San Jose. 

We have no knowledge of the mixture of wine 
and sulphur, which your laborer has prescribed, 
and would be very careful to mix the ingredients 
before handing them out to him or the sulphur 
would go in the holes and the wine into him. We 
should disregard the advice entirely, and in re- 
moving dead trees dig out and scatter on the sur- 
face as much earth as we could afford, re-fill the 
hole with new soil and re-plant the 'tree therein. 



The excavation not only disposes of the germ- 
laden soil, but gives an opportunity to remove 
rotten roots which are a constant source of danger. 
You should be sure that your soil is well enough 
drained to carry fruit trees. They probably need 
less water, rather than more wine. 

Saccharine Sorghums. 

To the Editor: I desire to obtain information 
regarding the production of sweet sorghum in 
the United States and will appreciate any infor- 
mation that you can give me. relative to the pro- 
duction of this crop in your State. I should like 
very much to get in touch with some of the grow- 
ers who are producing sweet sorghums for syrup 
making purposes. If Californians are conducting 
any experiments in this line I should be pleased 
to know what varieties you are growing, and 
which one seems to be best adapted to local con- 
ditions?— C. C. Townsend, U. S. Dept. Agr., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

If any of our readers can help Mr. Townsend 
in this matter we trust they will write to him at 
the address given. So far as we know, exceed- 
ingly little saccharine sorghum is grown in this 
State, and a very small part of it is used in syrup 
making. There may be some small production in 
that line but it is insignificant. Fifteen or twenty 
years ago quite an effort was made to produce 
sorghum syrup, but no success was made of sell- 
ing it in the large cities. A few people tried ped- 
dling it out in the mining camps and lumber camps 
but satisfied themselves that the cane syrup av- 
ailable from our sugar refineries and handled in 
our grocery trade, left no opportunity for sor- 
ghum production. There is some amber cine 
grown for forage purposes, and California experi- 
ments have been, from this point of view, both 
with saccharine and non-saccharine varieties. 



Fertilizers for Kale. 

To the Editor: Will you please advise me if 
nitrate of soda would be good to put on land 
where I want to grow kale. If so, how much, and 
when is the time to apply it? Is there anything 
any better? I can irrigate the kale and have a 
flock of 1700 hens and must have kale and want 
to get the best results. — Poultryman, Petaluma. 

You can undoubtedly stimulate the growth of 
your kale by the use of a light dressing of nitrate 
of soda, say not more than 200 pounds to the acre, 
evenly scattered and worked in with the spring 
cultivation. At the same time, we do not see what 
you wish to buy nitrate of soda for when you have 
plenty of poultry manure, a light dressing of 
which will do everything for you that nitrate of 
soda will do, and a good deal more. One of the 
great advantages of the poultry business is its 
contribution to soil fertility, and if one does not 
realize this, he is overlooking a very important 
bearing of the industry. 

Better Use New Trees. 

To the Editor: In having an olive orchard 
leveled and prepared for irrigation I find that 
some of the trees have been buried loo deep for 
successful growth. Will you kindly inform me 
whether it would be practicable to raise these trees 
about 12 inches or whether it would be best to 
substitute a new tree? The trees arc about five 
years old. — Reader, Corning. 

Sometimes good results are attained, but as a 
rule we should prefer to plant new trees. 



Red Spider Eggs. 

To the Editor: Is there any kind of spray 
which can be applied to peach trees during the 
winter which will prevent the appearance of red 
spider later in the season, or must they be dealt 
with after they appear?— 1\ B. N., Fresno. 

We know of no spray to kill the eggs. The sum- 
mer treatment is easy and effective if begun in 
proper season so that the insect does not get a 
great start. 



24 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 8. 1910. 



Horticulture. 



THE BERRY INDUSTRY. 



By Mr. W. I. Nk\v< o.mi:. of SebastopoU Sonoma county, 
at the Fruit Growers* Convention at Watsonville. 

In taking up the question of the berry industry 
this paper will be confined to Lawton blackberries. 
Antwerp and Cuthberl raspberries, Lobanberries 
and Mammoth blackberries, with incidental men- 
tion of a few other varieties that are grown in the 
foothill region of western Sonoma, adjacent to Se- 
vastopol, and locally known as the Gold Ridge 
( 'ountry. 

While the growing of strawberries is carried on 
to some extent, one of your large "patches" in the 
Pajaro valley contains more than our entire acre- 
age. We leave this variety to the Watsonville dis- 
trict whose reputation for growing this berry is 
world wide 

Berries have been grown in the Sebaxtopol dis- 
trict since 1872. At that time the late W. J. Hunt 
planted the first blackberries. It was soon proven 
that the sandy loam soil, together with the moist, 
cool summers, tempered by the Coast breeze, and 
an abundance of winter rains, made it a favorable 
place for berry raising. The first planting was of 
the Lawton variety, and its adaptibility has been 
proven by the test of time, for today it leads in 
production by double all other varieties combined. 

The planting of Lawtons was soon followed by 
the Antwerp raspberry, which was usually called 
the Cuthbert, but differs considerably, both in 
fruit and growth; not. being so rank a grower and 
fruiting in a shorter period; making it better suit- 
ed for canning purposes; to which the berry busi- 
ness developed into as San Francisco was the only 
Fresh market available. The profits from planting 
these two varieties stimulated planting to such an 
extent that in a few years there was such an over- 
production that if the canneries had not taken hold 
of them the berries would not have been worth 
raising. 

During these years of development berries 
showed the same fault that all other California 
fruits have shown, viz.: production taking place 
faster than consumption. The finding of new mar- 
kets for this class of fruit at a distance being con- 
sidered impracticable on account of its perishable 
nature. The first attempt, when the production 
became too large for the San Francisco market, 
was in evaporation. Good success resulted in this 
effort and a good trade was built up. Then the 
cannery came into the field and the tide ran the 
other way. No berries were dried, consequently 
that trade was lost. 

The cannery requirements for berries were 
easily met. Fruit too ripe for shipment was in 
just the condition for them. This led to loose 
methods of picking and handling and quanl ity only 
was considered until the grower was handling his 
berries about the same as he would a hay crop, and 
was only sorry he could not use a derrick fork. 

All this led to one result: the canneries saying 
they had more berries than they could handle at 
the price; consequently a gradual lowering of 
prices until during the past two years the returns, 
based on the valuation of the land and labor, 
would not pay the cost of production. This may 
look like a dark situation for the berry growers 
but fortunately our eggs are not all in one basket. 

Cultivation. -Cultivation of our berries consists 
of thorough plowing, hoeing and cultivating; no 
irrigating being done. Different habits and growth 
of the varieties, however, require different train- 
ing. The Lawtons are upright growers and are 
usually planted eight feet apart, each way. The 
plants are obtained by digging the shoots that are 
thrown out late in the season near the "hill." The 
second season of growth the vines are staked with 
two redwood stakes. 2x2 and six feet in length. 
They are driven one on each side of the vine close 
in. but spreading at the top to allow for lateral 
growth and ease in picking. 

The raspberries are grown without stakes and 
are planted more closely. A good way to plant is 
3x8 feet, allowing the plants to make a solid row 
one way. 

The Antwerp raspberry is a heavier bearer than 
the Cuthbert and slightly more acid. The light, 
drier and more sweet Cuthbert has better carrying 
qualities for shipping fresh, but has not proven 
entirely successful in our locality, from bearing 
too much second crop in the fall, especially when 



we have early rains. Evidently the season is too 
long. At Puyallyup, "Washington. Toll Ions of this 
variety are raised annually, but their spring is a 
month later than here in California and the fall a 
month earlier, and they are not troubled in this 
way. 

The Lawton blackberry and the raspberry were 
the only bush berries grown until the advent of the 
Loganberry. This berry met with favor from 
many, its term of fruiting filling in a gap before 
the later Lawtons. Its adaptability to a great va- 
riety of soils and climate has given it a wide plant- 
ing and its vigorous growth and prolific bearing 
has made it a favorite garden berry. 

The success met in crossing the California dew- 
berry with the red raspberry, the Logan, led to 
much experimenting, with the result in the past 
few years of several new varieties. The value of 
some of these remains to be seen. Probably the 
next best of these crosses is the Mammoth black- 
berry, which is in full fruiting at the time the Lo- 
gans are on the wane, and the Lawtons are begin- 
ning to ripen. Thus in our section we have suc- 
cession of Logan, Mammoth and "late black." as 
we are beginning to call the Lawton since the 
Mammoth has come into the market. 

Another new variety is the Himalaya, a strong 
grower and bearing good fruit, and may prove a 
good berry in some less favored climate and soil 
but so far does not seem to supplant any of the 
older varieties. I suspect that one reason for this 
is the quite thorny nature of the vine, but it cer- 
tainly is a hardy grower and will eventually find 
its place. 

The Logan. Mommoth and Himalaya are run- 
ning vines and have to be trellised. This is done 
in the winter; two wires being used one above the 
other at two and three feet from the ground. The 
plants from these varieties are got from "tip- 
pings"; which means putting a ihovelfull of soil 
on the tip of the new growth, in the winter, caus- 
ing it to take root. By spring they are ready to 
plant. Thorough preparation of the ground and 
good care afterwards will give the results obtained 
in all other fruit planting. 

Harvesting and Marketing. — The firsl fruit 
growers' convention which I had the privilege of 
attending was in San Francisco seven years ago. 
In one of the discussions there the Hon. John 
Markley made this remark, "We have been telling 
the people in these conventions for the past 20 
years how to grow fruit, but from now on we 
must show them how to harvest and market it." 

And these, friends, are the two most important 
factors in any kind of fruit growing: proper har- 
. vesting and then getting the price that will justify 
the cost of labor of production. 

Fruit raising of all kinds has had its ups and 
downs here in California, where production has 
been easy compared to reaching our distant mar- 
kets, and our berries have been no exception to the 
rule. In these years of development, of under- 
production, over-production, over-consumption, 
and under-consumption, the berry business has 
had as many stages of prosperity as the much 
quoted prune. 

We have heard in our district over by the Coast 
a great deal these past few years of raisin grow- 
ers' associations, fruit unions, farmers' unions, 
fruit exchanges, and so forth. This, together with 
the canneries continually telling us that we were 
producing more than they could sell only at a low 
price, until we became infected with the microbe, 
or. perhaps, "parasite" of co-operation. Or al 
least a part id' us. for I believe there has never 
been any community yet where the disease has 
reached but what a part of the inhabitants were 
immune from all forms of contagion. 

Those of us who took "it" in the worst form, 
talked co-operation in season and out. This finally 
resulted last February in the formation of the Se- 
bastopol Berry Growers' Incorporated, tinder the 
laws of the State, with a charter which allows us 
to do anything we might care to do in the fruit 
and farm supply line. This happily took place just 
in time to prevent half of us having our wives 
leave us in disgust. 1 wish to say that it is actu- 
ally appalling, the amount of time and talk it 
takes to gel this virus to work. 

We incorporated with 30 out of 125 growers; se- 
cured a manager in the person of a party who had 
done considerable berry shipping business; thus 
securing all the available experience in this line. 

Our main effort the past season was to get as 
many of our berries into fresh consumption as 
possible and thus relieve the canneries. By the 



time the crop was ready we had increased our 
membership to 80. We took up the matter of car 
load shipments with Wells, Fargo & Co.. who gave 
us all the assistance in their power with the re- 
sult of our sending a representative to the large 
Rocky Mountain and northern cities, including 
Ogden, Salt Lake City. Denver. Butte. Montana. 
Spokane, Seattle and Portland, and of our dis- 
patching one or more cars to each of these cities. 
In some of them we did well and in some we did 
not, but all the time we were learning, and after 
the season was over and the smoke of battle clear- 
ed away we found that Wells. Fargo & Co. had 
gotten about $8000 for transporting our berries, 
and after all our expenses were paid we had as 
much or a little more than the man on the out- 
side and our experience as an asset for future 
business. 

Some of Hie things we found we needed, and 
succeeded in getting part this year, ami a promise 
of next, were : lower rates, smaller minimum loads, 
and better railroad times and connections. 

While we are in the habit, as fruit growers, of 
laying most of our troubles to the railroad and ex- 
press companies, there is one thing we must not 
lose sight of. and it is this, unless our fruit is prop- 
erly picked, packed and loaded, all the railroad 
rates and services in the world cannot make it 
arrive in good condition at. the other end. This 
rests with your individual growers and corpora- 
tion inspection. 

While some growers think they will lose their 
individuality by joining an association, they really 
have a wonderful opportunity to preserve it in this 
way. 

There is no doubt but that co-operation is a 
remedy for many of our ills. This is an age of 
combination. But they must be carried on strict 
business principles and we have much to learn. 
We may. perhaps, have to wander in the wilder- 
ness until we grow a new lot of men that are will- 
ing to give and take and pull together for their 
own sakes as well as the community, for the pros- 
perity of a community is in a direct ratio to the 
prosperity of the individual. In the meantime we 
will have to depend, largely, on a Moses for lead- 
ership. But it. does look as though the children 
of Israel had a pretty good time even in the wil- 
derness. They certainly did not have to make any 
bricks for the Egyptians. 



Citrus Fruits. 



CULTURAL NOTES. 

Written for the Pacific Rcbal Press 
By Mr. Edgar Wright, of Los Angeles. 

It had been on my mind for some little time to 
call at the United States Weather Bureau Office in 
Los Angeles as I wanted to learn, not only for my- 
self but for fruit growers in general, what, if any. 
benefit such an institution was to the farmers in 
the surrounding country. The fact that, we have 
had frosts for two years in succession seemed to 
make such an inquiry seasonable and to the poinl 
for if this bureau could not tell the growers when 
to expect frost it seemed to me that it had its limi- 
tations as to value in so far as its relations to our 
principal industry was concerned. 

I found everything in this office beyond expec- 
tations as to its efficiency, and the hospitality and 
kindness of Forecaster A. B. Wollaber was in re- 
freshing contrast to the usual toplofty demeanor 
id' many persons who kold Government and other 
official positions. Mr. Wollaber is a gentleman, 
and one of tin' most important messages that he 
wishes to convey to the fruit growers or any other 
citizen of this country is that he wishes them all 
to call on him. that any use that they can make of 
the office along the lines for which it is in existence 
will give him pleasure. He wants to co-operate 
with the growers and to get acquainted with them. 
He wants them to call him up on the telephone for 
any information they may. desire, and he wants 
them to send in their names so that daily reports 
may be Bent to them, and he also says that any 
grower will be placed on the telephone alarm list 
to the end that they may be immediately notified 
by telephone in case a dangerous frost is expected, 
all at no cost to the grower. This certainly was 
all new to me and it may be that it is also to the 
growers in general. Mr. Wollaber tells me that 
every exchange association manager is on the list 
and that this manager in turn notifies each grower 



January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



by telephone. If outside growers do uot get this 
service it is because they have not wanted it or 
have not knoAvn how to go after it. Another point 
along this same line that will be of interest is the 
fact that all the telephone exchanges in the citrus 
belt are notified in case of danger, and if a grower 
thinks that the weather is such that it would be 
well to "look a little out," he can find out what 
the Weather Bureau thinks of the outlook by call- 
ing up his local telephone exchange. Besides all 
this, a printed frost warning is sent to each name 
on the mailing list, and also to the postmasters to 
be posted in the offices throughout the country. I 
have one before me that was issued on December 
6th, which reads as follows: "The pressure and 
temperature conditions on the Pacific slope this 
morning indicate continued low temperature over 
the citrus belt Tuesday morning. It is probable 
that the minimum temperature in most sections 
will range between 26 and 30 degrees, according 
to location. ' ' 



I remember that the morning of the 4th of De- 
cember was the one when the frost came severe 
enough to "burn" the trees all over the country, 
and I asked Mr. Wollaber if he had prepared the 
grower. He stated that he had not sent out special 
frost warnings, but upon looking up the daily re- 
port issued on the 3rd instant, which forecasted 
the weather for the next 36 hours, we found this 
sentence: "From present conditions we may ex- 
pect continued fair and cool weather in Los An- 
geles and vicinity the next 36 hours, with frost 
Saturday morning." Upon looking up the report 
of the 4th inst., printed and in the mail before 9 
a. m., and containing the temperatures from all 
over the country taken at exactly the same me- 
ridian time, we find that the thermometer went to 
28 at Eedlands and 26 at Riverside, at 5 o 'clock in 
the morning. 



Mr. Wollaber has been away much lately estab- 
lishing an office or sub-station in the Imperial val- 
ley. He tells me that the thermometer went to 23 
there one morning and so it now looks as though 
citrus fruits would be a risky proposition down 
there. He says that the chief of the Weather 
Bureau, Prof. Willis L. Moore, is in touch with all 
parts of the country in his capacity, but that he 
seems to have a particular interest for this section 
and that he had been very liberal in complying 
with the suggestions for improved service at all 
times, improved means of gathering as well as dis- 
seminating information for the good of the citrus 
fruit grower. 

Of course no one claims that even the expert 
forecast is absolutely infallible, but they are as 
correct as any knowledge gained by experience 
and research can make them. The winds are fickle 
and sometimes persist in changing after a predic- 
tion is made and so bring about contrary condi- 
tions. Mr. Wollaber says that (this is really his) 
"the vagaries of meteorological observations and 
forecasting are many and growers should learn to 
study local conditions intelligently." 

vVnother point of interest and that is that Mr. 
Wollaber recommends a thermometer in the or- 
chard, preferably a. thermograph (registering 
thermometer), and that they should be brought 
to him for test as to their correctness, that he will 
make a thorough test as compared with the Gov- 
ernment standard thermometer and will not only 
be pleased to do this, but that he is anxious in this 
as in other matters to have the growers and all 
citizens avail themselves of all the resources of his 
office. 



Of course this office is fitted out with the best 
instruments in the world that money can buy. They 
all seemed very scientific and I looked as wise as 
possible when Mr. Wollaber told me of their dif- 
ferent uses. I was interested in their little but 
complete print shop and was told that every man 
in the office from the boss down could go in and 
do any part of the work from sticking type to 
running the press and that the getting out of the 
reports on time was considered one of the very 
essential things in the routine of the office; that if 
it ever happened that they were gotten out after 
the mails closed in the posto'ffice that they were 
carried to the trains and mailed there. Those of 
you who are receiving the daily weather map have 
perhaps wondered how the "isobars" and "iso- 
therms," the former being lines that are drawn 
tli rough points that have the same atmospheric 
pressure and the latter dotted lines drawn through 
points that have the same temperature, are x>laced 



upon the map. At one time when the demand for 
daily service was small they were drawn on with 
a pantograph. Now they are etched on a chalked 
plate and then metal is run over this plate, giving 
the negative and making a plate that is mounted 
on wood and placed in the press to be printed over 
the map. Also the direction of the wind at each 
station in the United States is indicated by arrows 
flying with the wind. The state of the weather — 
clear, partly cloudy, cloudy, rain or snow — is in- 
dicated by symbols. All this is drawn on the 
chalked plate and reproduced. 

The centers of the areas of low barometric pres- 
sure, or general storms, are indicated on the map by 
the word "low," and the centers of areas of high 
barometric pressure by the word "high," these 
words being set in type through holes mortised in 
the plate above spoken of. The general movement 
of "lows" and "highs" in the United States is 
from west to east, and in their progression they are 
similar to a series of atmospheric waves, the crests 
of which are designated "high" and the trough 
"low." This continued movement from west to 
east makes the work of prognosticating the 
weather on the Pacific slope a more difficult labor 
than in the East. No one knows what is going on 
out in the ocean, yet that is where our weather is 
made. The eastern stations know what is coming 
to them from the west for the telegraph spark is 
faster than the winds that bear the storms and 
changes. 

While this article deals particularly with the lo- 
cal Los Angeles office and more particularly to 
give the citrus fruit growers information they 
lacked regarding the facilities open to them in the 
matter of fighting frosts, I have no doubt but that 
the same service will be rendered by any weather 
bureau office in the country and that the same 
courteous treatment will be given there that was 
given me here. I do not know where the offices 
are located that would bo nearest the Tulare and 
Butte county citrus belts, but presume that San 
Francisco would cover them. 

I remember that a number of years ago I saw an 
advertisement of an alarm thermometer, one that 
would ring a bell in the house when the mercury 
went so low, and this would seem to be the really 
practical instrument to have. Of course all of the 
warning of frosts will do not a mite of good to 
the grower unless he has the means at hand to 
offset the cold, and to date, that has only been 
done by firing. Some time ago I wrote regarding 
the fighting of frost in this paper, and so I will not 
try to repeat any of that matter here. I had 
thought that after the lessons taught last year that 
more growers would be prepared this year, but 
find that but very few of them really were pre- 
pared. A few cannot do the good that the many 
together can. Nine times out of ten if there is a 
wind blowing a man who is firing is doing more 
good to his neighbor's orchard than he is to his 
own, and his little and lone effort does not raise 
the temperature enough. With the whole neigh- 
borhood firing at the same time there is a decided 
change in the atmospheric temperature and much 
good results. In Colorado they go into frost fight- 
ing on a business scale and they have been suc- 
cessful in saving the crop a number of times. The 
means is at hand for the citrus fruit growers to 
save their fruit from being frosted but it may be 
that the efforts of outsiders are being wasted and 
that the growers do not want to be saved. I once 
heard a grower say that he preferred to get touch- 
ed a little bit by the frost as the fruit carried bet- 
ter. All this frosted stock is shipped and where 
it is not detected sells for as much money as the 
immune fruit, so, perhaps, the grower is indif- 
ferent and we are all butting in where we are not 
wanted. 

There has been considerable talk among growers 
and packers lately regarding the home auction 
idea. The advocates of a home auction want to 
sell all citrus fruits in California rather than in 
the Fast. They advance many sound arguments 
why our fruit should be sold in that manner, and a 
favorite way for them to meet an objection along 
certain lines is to reverse conditions and show 
what happens under present marketing methods. 
For instance one objector might say that if all 
fruit was sold here at auction that a combination 
of buyers could set the price each day. The ad- 
vocate points to the facts that 50% of the fruit 
sold at this time is through the different Eastern 
auctions and that no such collusion has even been 
lii nt ed at, and he says further, that if at any time 



we thought such a thing was possible or actuallv 
happening we could pull down our fruit from the 
sale, that is, we could refuse to sell until condi- 
tions were right. Our fruit would be right in our 
own dooryard, there would be no $300 to $400 
freight and ice charges resting against it, it would 
not be running up expense every day for demur- 
rage charges, and moreover, we would know just 
what condition the fruit was in when it was finally 
sold and not have to take somebody else's word 
for it. Even a hired agent who is right on the 
spot in the East is anxious to stand in good with 
his customers and also to make sales and he is 
likely to side with the customer a little bit. and 
rather depreciate the condition of the fruit so 
that he may make a good sale and please a cus- 
tomer. The auction advocate will also tell you 
that about 4000 cars of oranges and lemons that 
went East the past season did not pay expenses, 
and he will tell you that under the home auction 
plan the fruit would never have been shipped, at 
least for the growers' account, and, therefore, the 
loss would not have been on the grower except that 
he would have lost the fruit if it had not been pos- 
sible to sell it here. This is where the railroad 
companies would sit up and take notice, the freight 
and iceing on a car amounts in round numbers to 
$400, and four hundred times four thousand is not 
hard to figure. I will give more on this subject 
later as the situation develops. There is an actual 
movement on foot and considerable fruit has been 
pledged. 



Arboriculture. 



STREET AND AVENUE TREES. 



To the Editor: I noticed a few editions back a 
request from ladies in Visalia or nearby to advise 
them of the most desirable ornamental tree for 
street purposes. This is a question which I have 
pondered over myself and have not entirely satis- 
fied myself as to which particular tree will answer 
all purposes best. However, from my observations 
I have several to recommend, and one I consider 
to be in the lead. 

There are five beautiful eucalyptus trees for 
street or avenue purposes. They do not grow so 
large and do not shed their bark as the Eucalyptus 
Globulos. They are the Eucalyptus Polyanthema, 
the Eucalyptus Robusta, the Eucalyptus Corvno- 
ealix (sugar gum), the Eucalyptus Sideroxylon 
and the Eucalyptus Rudis. The Eucalyptus Fici- 
folia is too sensitive to frost to be recommended, 
and some of the older eucalyptus planters have 
favored the Robusta. More recently, however, the 
Eucalyptus Polyanthema has come to the front as 
the most hardy, the most handsome and the most 
beautiful of the gums. Unlike the blue gum, it 
does not shed its bark, and so it leads even as the 
cleanest of trees, as it also sheds but few leaves. 

Some localities consider the Grevellia Robusta 
as a very desirable street or avenue tree. The one 
objection, however, is that in heavy wind storms, 
when fully grown, it is apt to break some of its 
largest limbs. Besides it drops and renews its 
leaves throughout the season, accruing consider- 
able rubbish beneath it. 

In Santa Barbara and some of the streets of Los 
Angeles the camphor is extensively grown, but it 
must be remembered that in this place there is 
very little frost and it will not stand the usual 
severe frost of the San Joaquin unless protected 
for the first two or three years, which is usually 
very difficult to do. 

The smaller growing acacia, the pyenantha and 
the beautiful Baileyana (blue acacia) are worthy 
of some consideration, but as they spread out so 
much and do not grow straight up and sturdy as 
the Eucalyptus Polyanthema they are not as de- 
sirable. 

The Sterculia is a very beautiful Australian im- 
portation and will grow well in localities where 
they get plenty of water during the summer. 
Otherwise it is too slow a grower to be considered 
with the acacias or the eucalypt. One advantage 
the eucalypts have over the others is that if grown 
for years they can be topped from eight to t welve 
feet from the ground and will grow out fresh and 
handsome again. This cannot be done with other 
trees. They also do not have so much spread, but 
grow tall, which is an advantage for a street tree, 
and, as remarkable, if overgrown in height they 
can be cut back and will come out as luxuriant as 
ever. L. E. Blochman, 



26 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 8, 1910. I 



California Vegetables in Garden and Field 



By E. 



WICKSON, <>r <ii<- University of California. 



Second nml Revised Edition: pnipiKii. il aerially in the PACIFIC 
RURAL PRESS (beainnlng with the Issue of November 27. 1008), 
and subsequently to appear in l»i>ok form* 



ICOPYHIGHT — ALL UICHTS KKSKKVKI 1. 1 



Tin- points to observe for planting out seedlings in the 
open air are almost exactly the same as those already 
given in this chapter for the arrangement of proper mois- 
ture conditions for seed germination. Depth of planting 
depends upon the same conditions: firming of the soil 
about the rootlets is for the same reasons: a loose surface 
above and frequent cultivation afterward are essential 
because of considerations already described. The ju- 
dicious use of water at transplanting is a very important 
point in late work or in planting out when the season is 
rather dry, but the use of water must always be accompa- 
nied by stirring of the surface or other means of prevent- 
ing evaporation, or else the plants will dwindle, and on 
investigation the dead stem will be found to resemble a 
match stuck in an unburned brick, if the soil is at all 
heavy in its nature. 

Planting Seedlings.- -Sec. Hums to !><• planted in the 
held for horse cultivation are distanced by the use of a 
marker, as described in the chapter on laying off. In 
small beds for hand. work, the plants can he accurately 
distanced both ways by using a "planting board." It is 
made of width equal to the desired distance between the 
rows, and of a length equal to the width of the bed. and is 
carefully cut, by the use of a carpenter's square, so that 
the ends are exactly at right angles to the sides. By 
stretching a line along the length of the bed, and making 
one end of the board true with that line, the sides of the 
board will mark two parallel lines across the bed, and 
notches cut at desired distances in the sides of the board 
will show where the plants are to be set. If the board is 
carefully used the bed may be quickly set with plants, 
which will stand in straight lines both ways. Standing 
on the board while planting prevents impacting the 
ground surface and disfiguring it with foot-prints. 

Plants Ready Grown in Hills for Transplanting. — All 
seedlings which it is desirable to grow in groups or hills 
are very neatly and safely handled by Mr. Adams by the 
use of inverted sods in connection with his hot-box already 
described. About the first of April, in Napa valley (it 
may be done earlier in many parts of the State), he takes 
sods of native growth six inches square an.d four inches 
deep, or he grows in seed-boxes alfalfa sods, which will 
form sufficiently in six weeks from sowing the seed. He 
makes a temporary floor of old boards and places it on 
top of the packed manure of his hot-box. The inverted 
sods are then packed closely on this floor with the grass 
gathered in nicely under each sod. Exactly in the middle 
of each inverted sod thrust a small stick, and after scari- 
fying each sod thoroughly an inch or two in depth with 
an old caseknife, carefully put over the whole bed two 
inches of ricli compost, made of fine creek sand and de- 
cayed sods a year or two old. mixed with fine sweepings 
from the cow yard gathered in summer and protected 
from winter rains. Tamp this prepared soil pretty firmly 
with the back of a hoe, and plant the seeds an inch or so 
in depth around each stick which serves to indicate the 
middle of each sod. Plant six to eight seeds in a hill, leav- 
ing finally three of the strongest plants. A box three by 
two feet will hold twenty-four sods. 

By this method Mr. Adams quickly gets a full family 
outfit ready to transplant in hills from orfe hot-box. He 
finds two hills of cucumbers, six of muskmelons. six of 
watermelon's... and ten hills of pole beans, or eight hills of 
beans and two hills of summer squashes will furnish a fam- 
ily of five all or mo-re than they can possibly consume, and 
some to sell or give away besides, if the plants are well 
taken care of. The box for early plants should be placed 
on the south side of a shed or barn in order to protect it 
from strong north winds, heavy cold rains, as well as dan- 
ger of frost, and water as needed with lukewarm water. 
Transplant the sods when safe by running a wide shingle 
or spade on the floor under each sod. In planting out. the 
sods must be well bedded in moist soil which is closely 
firmed around them, and the surface kept loose. 

Cuttings' and Layers. .Many heibaceous stems of gar- 
den vegetables root readily from cuttings. Higher heat 
and greater moisture are as a rule requisite for such cut- 
tings than for hardwood cuttings of fruiting and flower- 
ing plants, but some, like the potato, sweet potato, globe 
artichoke, etc.. root quickly in open ground taken from 
sprouts taken from parent stock, and others, like the to- 
mato, grow from cuttings of aerial stems. In the open 
ground the soil must be warm and moist and the air moist 
also. These conditions usnaly occur in California at the 



beginning or especially towards the end of the rainy sea- 
son, or they can be produced in a hot-bed at any time. 
The cuttings should not wilt, and shade is of advantage 
when practicable, for cuttings made from aerial stems, as 
they are more prone to collapse than sprouts from the 
tuber or root crown. 

Layering is often a handy way to multiply many vege- 
tables with branching stems. Cover the stems with moist 
earth and they usually root readily. In some cases a short 
slit with a knife lengthwise of buried stem aids in rooting. 

A Consideration of Cans. — It would not do to ignore 
the can method of vegetable growing and deny this refuse 
tinware its place in amateur gardening, for really some 
very creditable things are done in cans. If one prepares 
the right, kind of soil, with such texture that it will form 
neither a leach nor a brick, and then strives for correct 
temperature and moisture conditions and makes drainage 
holes enough, a plant will grow in a tin can as well as 
in some more distinguished receptacle. Many housewives 
grow very creditable tender plants for planting out by 
using old tin cans and a sunny window shelf. Some de- 
voted city gardeners make surprising successes on the old- 
can foundation. In San Jose a few years ago there was 
a back yard 12 by 25 feet, surrounded by high white- 
washed fences and sheds, which cast a blinding glare in 
the eye of the visitor. Gardening enthusiasm and tin cans 
transformed the scene. Tomato vines ran above the eaves 
of the shed, being trained to the wall like grapevines. Be- 
tween the tomato plants were squash vines, from which 
the laterals and leaves were cut as they grew toward the 
loot', so that they were little more than a bare stem below 
the eaves, but had a most luxuriant growth al the eaves 
and on the roof of the shed and back porch and along the 
top of fences. Large squashes ripened on the roof and 
shelves at the eaves and in fence tops. String beans, pep- 
pers, and mint grew belew the running vines. Tomato 
plants over six feet in height were severely pruned near 
the ground to a bare stalk, giving free circulaiton to cats, 
breezes, and a little direct but more reflected sunshine. 
Cans of all sizes were used : old, rusty five-galon cans, 
with the bottoms punched full of holes ; small cans, one 
set over another and filled half full of fresh bones, and 
over these several inches of fresh wood ashes. Water 
poured into the cans, leached through the ashes, combin- 
ing a complete fertilizer and system of sub-irrigation. The 
cans were often artfully concealed from sight, but they 
Were there as the foundation of an enterprise. By their 
use and the employment of vertical space for the plant 
extension, this little mite of a city back yard was made into 
a pretty greenery without interfering with its function as 
a clothes-drying yard on Mondays. When one sees such 
things he is led to wonder whether there is anything which 
Will and Work and Water can not accomplish. 

ARTICHOKES. 

The Globe or Bur Artichoke. -Cynara Scolymus. 

French, artichant : German, artischoke : Dutch, artis.jok ; 
Danish, artiskok: Italian, articiocca. carciofo: Spanish, 
alcachofa : Portuguese, aleachofra. 

Edible part, portions of young flower buds. 

The Jerusalem Artichoke. — Helianthus tuberosus. 

French, topinambour; German, erdapfel; Flemish, aard- 
peer: Danish. jordskokken : Italian, girasole del Canada: 
Spanish, aamara; Portuguese, topinambor. 

Edible part, the tuber. 

San Francisco has the reputation of being the city of 
the I'nited States best supplied with the delicious young 
flower buds of the globe artichoke. Although this is true, 
it is also a lad that the plant is not used to even a small 
fraction of its possibility in California. It is perfectly 
hardy in our valley climates, in fact, it makes its chief 
growth in the winter and yields its crop from March on- 
ward, thus completely reversing its Eastern and north 
European record, where it starts growth in the spring 
from roots which have been covered out of reach of freez- 
ing all Avinter. For this reason it is not necessary to lift 
plants and carry them under cover nor to pluck bud- 
stems and advance them to edibility away from the freez- 
ing as may be necessary in wintry climates. In fact, in 
places of little frost the plant forgets to become dormant, 
or takes a very short rest, and the vegetable is to be found 
in the San Francisco and Los Angeles markets nearly all 
the year. The plant is, therefore, of especial value in Cali- 
fornia for use in late winter and early spring when garden 
supplies are scantiest. Tt is a garden ornament also with 
its height of four feet or more, its large, pinnatifid leaves, 
light green above and whitish below, and its flowers in the 
style a colossal thistle head. 

Soil. — The globe artichoke will thrive on any well-pre- 
pared garden soil and does not refuse a pretty heavy 
adobe if well cultivated to retain moisture. It delights in 
manure and is benefited by it both in the tenderness of its 
buds and the multiplication of bearing stems. 

(To be Continued.) 



PLANT NOW 

seeds r — 



BEST 
QUALITY 
GARDEN 

FIELD 

AND 
FLOWER 

SEEDS 




FRUIT 

AND 

ORNAMENTAL 
TREES 

ALL KINDS 
AND 

BEST QUALITY 



If you are inter- 
ested in the best 
SEEDS, 
TREES, 
and 
PLANTS, 
Write for Catalogue, 

TRUMBULL SEED CO. 

61 California St., 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



PLANTS - SEEDS 

Superb— Everbearing 
Strawberries. 



Giant Himalayas 
Blackberries, 

the greatest of croppers. Other small fruit. 

Reliable Garden and 
Flower Seeds 

at honest prices. 

Don't fail to ask for our catalogue. Every- 
thing for the Farm and Garden. 



G. H. Hopkins & Son, 

B urban k, Cal. 

ONION SEED 

Australian Brown 

Grown by E. F. Ede, of Kingsburg, who has 
had 25 years experience in growing onion 
seed. We stake our reputation on the fer- 
tility of our seed, which are true to name as 
we grow but one kind. 

Price $1.25 per lb. 

ADDRESS 

B. N. COOKE, 

SELMA, CAL. 

Western Seed for 
Western Planters 

Grass, Vegetable and 
Field Seeds. 

WRITE FOR PRICES 

Hickey & Vonsen, Inc. 

132-134 Kentucky St., Petaluma, California. 

FLORID ASOUR ORANGE SEED. 

The hardiest and most desirable strain 
in existence, best as a stock for all kinds 
of Citrus Fruits. We offer only good, 
fresh seed, grown and gathered with the 
expert care that has made Glen St. Mary 
Nurseries famous for quality. Don't take 
chances with seed of doubtful grade and 
uncertain value — buy of headquarters and 1 
Ket the best. Prices and full particulars 1 
on application to Clerk P. R. P. 
GI,EIV ST. MAR V NURSERIES COMPANY, 
Glen St. Mary, Fla. 



January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



27 



Viticulture. 



COOPERATION FOR THE BENE- 
FIT OF THE PRODUCER. 



IJy Mr. Gkok<;e W. Ashley of Stockton at 
the Fruit Growers' Convention at 
Watsonville. 
Organizations, associations and corpora 
tions, without number have been formed 
and are still being formed for the benefit 
of someone. The greater number of these 
go to pieces on the rock of adversity. 

In those that are successful the smaller 
stockholders or members are usually 
frozen out and the profits go to the few. 
With few exceptions those that are suc- 
cessful are conducted on a commercial 
basis and the profits are divided up ac- 
cording to the number of shares of stock 
held by their fortunate owner and not 
according to the products handled for 
tue party tnat grew tnem. 

In a list of the few exceptions to the 
above rule and getting down to those of 
closer interest to the fruit growers are 
such bodies as the California Fruit Grow- 
ers' Exchange, of Los Angeles, the Hood 
River Apple Growers' Association of Ore- 
gon, the Yakima Fruit Growers' Union of 
Washington, the Georgia Fruit Exchange 
of Georgia, tne Southern Texas Truck 
Growers' Association, and several others. 

These have for their chief object, not 
how large a per cent they can pay on their 
stock, if they have any, but how much 
per box they can return their members 
for their fruit; how cheap they can buy 
their supplies for their members; how 
well they can watch legislation, both 
State and National; how they can open 
new markets, and first, last and all the 
lime, how good a box of fruit they can 
put up. The time has gone by when the 
fruit grower can work under the old Ro- 
man maxim of Caveat Emptor — "Let the 
buyer beware." The one for the future 
will be, "The seller must make good." 

The chief road to prosperity for every 
successful fruit organization will be good 
goods. Make the brand good in every 
market. Fire out the careless and unre- 
liable grower or else have your contracts 
so iron-clad he must come through with 
good goods. So much for fruit organiza- 
tions in general. 

Now for our own experience In the San 
Joaquin County Table Grape Growers' 
Association. There were several causes 
for the starting of our association. One 
of these, and I may say the chief one was, 
the fight by the importers to reduce the 
tariff on the Almeria grapes. You all 
know the result of this fight by which the 
tariff on foreign grapes was raised 25%. 
This was accomplished by our Congress- 
man, more as the result of the action of 
a committee appointed by the State Hor- 
ticultural Convention of two years ago 
than to the action of anyone else. We 
may, however, all have helped a little. 

This question, however, called together 
the grape growers of our district many 
times and resulted in the formation of an 
association. This association held quite 
a number of meetings and discussed 
whether it would only work along the 
lines of legislation, cheaper supplies and 
a better pack, or whether in addition it 
would conduct a general shipping busi- 
ness. Finally the more radical element 
won and it was decided to undertake all 
things connected with the picking, pack- 
ing and marketing of grapes. When this 
decision was reached it was thought best 
to change from an association to-' a cor- 
poration. This was done but we still re- 
tained our association name. 

In order to carry out our aims we knew 
we should have to have money. How to 
obtain this was the question. In order 
to allow the smaller grower to come in 
and feel protected our shares had been 
placed at $25 per share, payable in five 




Plant Morse's 

Sweet Peas 



Our New Catalog 
Mailed Free 



Now 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 

Seeds - Plants - Trees 



44 Jackson Street 



San Francisco, California 




Now is the lime for Ordering Trees 

We have a large lot of EUCAL.YPTFS, 
CYPRESS, PINE TREES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of ORNAMENT- 
AL TREES AND SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
GREEN AND DECIDIOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS, DRACENA, ROSES, ERI- 
CAS, CAMELLIAS, AZALEAS, RHODO- 
DENDRON, FRUIT TREES and BERRY 
BUSHES. 

;THE PACIFIC NURSERIES 

3041 Baker Street, San Francisco, 

And Millbrae, Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Rural 
Press. 



EUCALYPTUS 

We are prepared to supply your wants 
in large or small quantity for fall or 
spring planting, the stock is A No. 1. Se- 
cure your stock early. 

ORANGE AND LEMON TREES. 

Our citrus trees are, without doubt, the 
finest trees on the market. We can supply 
them in both one and two year buds, in 
any quantity desired. 

We are also large growers of Palms, 
Rosen, Fruit Trees, and other stock. 

ARMSTRONG'S COVINA NURSERIES, 
Covlna, Cal. 



ROSE MOUND 
NURSERY 

B. C. KINLEY 6 SON, Proprietors 

Growers and Importers of all kinds of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubbery. 

No Irrigation. Write for catalogue. 
SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA. 



BARTLETT PEARS, CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS, APPLES, PEACHES, PRUNES, 
PLUMS, FIGS, GRAPE VINES, BERRIES, 

ORNAMENTAL SHADE TREES, 
FLOWERING SHRUBS and ROSES. 

We have a fine stock of all commercial 
varieties. Strictly first class, TRUE to 
NAME. Give us a chance to quote you 
prices. We can interest you. Send for 
Catalogue. 

CHICO NURSERY CO., 

Chlco, Cal. 



AN IMPROVED FREESTONE PEACH 

The best for canning, drying and market. 
FAY ELBERTA PEACH 

Superior to Muir or Lovell for canning or dry- 
ing, and superior to any for market. A heavy 
and regular bearer, very attractive, firm and of 
exceptionally fine flavor. Write for descriptive 
circular. THK .SILVA-HEKGTHoLDT CO., 

161 Orchard St., Newcastle, Cal. 



FRED GROHE'S NURSERY 

SUPPLIES 

CHAMPION STRAIN PETUNIA SEED 
GIANTS OF CALIFORNIA 
RUFFLED GIANTS 
Lodge Flowering Hybrid Delphinium 
Write for Prices. 
614 FIFTH STREET, SANTA ROSA, CAL. 



Catalog 



SEED 

NOW HEADY 

We want every Farmer, Gardener, 
Poultryman and Stockman to have a 
copy of our New Seed Book. It contains 
120 pages of everything needed to 
make a success of farming in the West. 
In this respect Lilly's Seed Book is 
better and more authentic than other 
publications of this nature. It is the 
experience of over twenty-five years of 
honest seed selling in the West. 

LILLY'S, BEST Seeds are Best 
for the West and are sold by your 
dealer. ' Send today for new catalog. 



The Chas. H. Lilly Co. 

Seattle Portland 




KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

RELIABLE GROWERS OF DECIDUOUS 
TREES AND VINES 

WE ARE GROWING THE 

Largest Stock of Peach Trees in the State 

Wholesale Orders Solicited. 

Personal attention given to orders from planters. 
Let us figure on your needs now. 



MAIN OFFICE, 



FRESNO, CAL. 



The Buying of Citrus Trees 

IS A SIMPLE PROBLEM IN ECONOMICS. 

You cannot extract sunbeams from cucumbers rior blood from stones, nor good crops 
of fine oranges and lemons from inferior trees A poor tree is an expensive experiment 
entailing only vexation of spirit and a dwindling pocket book. Then why experiment with 
stock of doubtful quality ? Why not get the best and be sure of the future? For 20 years we 
have been supplying the people who grow good citrus fruits with their trees in every citrus 
growing section of the world, and stand ready to serve you equally well. Why not write us 
and let us become belter acquainted ? 

The economics of successful orange and lemon growing is tersely explained in our book, 
entitled "The Citrus Fruits: Historically, I lorticulturally and Commercially," a copy of 
which is yours for thesum of 25 cents. 

SAN DIMAS CITRUS NURSERIES, 



R. ML TEAGUIi. Prop. 



Sun Ulmas, C ut Hum in. 



A. & M. FIRST EARLY TOMATO 

IX IS THE BEST OE ALL. 

Write for our 11)10 seed catalogue. It is a valuable manual of the garden, ranch, and 
nursery. One hundred and forty-four pages full of valuable Information. 

Our 1910 Catalog ol Poultry Supplies sent on request. 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO. 



113-115 IM. IVIain St 



Los Angeles, Cal. 



GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic .Soda and l*ure 1'otash 
Best Tree Wash. , 
T. W JACK HON A i '»>.. Temporary Address 
42 Market St., Kan Prime IMO. 



JS 



Pacific rural press. 



January 8. 1910. 



annual installments. The number of 
shares had been limited to one for each 
person. Therefore to get money we knew 
we would have to borrow it. Some of our 
members were unable to carry themselves. 
We decided to adopt a marketing agency 
and get our funds from them. On the 
question of a marketing agency our board 
of directors and also our members were 
pretty well divided up, and possibly here 
we made our first mistake of adopting two 
firms doing business in the same terri- 
tory, as our agents. But we did this. 
With our selling agents adopted we were 
enabled to get money for our members to 
buy their supplies of shook, sulphur, 
nails, etc., at a reasonable figure. 

The majority of our growers had paid 
12'.. cents for shook and baskets two 
years ago and 10VL> cents one year ago. 
They wanted it cheaper and by getting 
together and buying one-half million in a 
bunch we got a much lower figure. In 
tnis one item we saved our members be- 
tween five and ten thousand dollars. 

In labels on the number ordered we 
saved from $7f>0 over their price in small 
lots. 

In sulphur we bought so cheap that 
more than one store asked us to buy for 
them. Nails we got at bed rock prices. 

We secured money for those that need- 
ed it at a very reasonable rate of inter- 
est. We built two good sized packing 
houses and one smaller one. We did not 
require all of our members to pack in 
these as we regarded them in a way as 
experimental. Instead of running them- 
selves at first we let the contract to a 
firm at a fixed price under a heavy bond 
to run them and load our cars. This may 
or may not have been a mistake. We ran 
them ourselves the last part of the sea- 
son and the majority of our members will 
insist on this way next year, though 
whether it will be by the crate or by the 
time taken to pack a crate I am unable 
to state. The greatest objection to a fixed 
price per crate for packing is that the 
grower with good grapes and the careful 
picker has to pay for more than their 
share. 

Our work this season has shown con- 
clusively that only by the closest Inspec- 
tion can you secure a reliable pack of 
grapes and this inspection is much more 
easily secured at a central packing house 
than otherwise. For, while the majority 
of members are honest, conscientious, and 
fair, in the minority are some who do not 
possess these qualifications, and a few 
who are actually dishonest. These few 
will kill your brand. You cannot carry 
out your motto of "Make the brand good 
in every market," with these few patting 
in undesired, improperly picked, culled, 
or packed fruit, handled carelessly. 

To have an inspector present at every 
growers' packing house is impracticable. 
We had at our busiest time four outside 
inspectors and two house inspectors, and 
they got so they could turn a crate up- 
side down and take the baskets out in a 
scientific manner. In addition to these we 
had our own man in the East to report 
on the packs and condition on arrival, etc. 

As some remuneration for what we have 
done in this line we have received several 
encouraging letters. One says: "For a 
number of seasons past the Lodi pack of 
grapes has been gradually deteriorating. 
In nearly all markets there was a preju- 
dice against the shipments from Lodi and 
a preference shown to some of the other 
points on account of the more careful 
grading and packing. We know it has 
been the object of your association to im- 
prove the pack and we are pleased to note 
that considerable has been accomplished 
along these lines, and a good deal of the 
prejudice has been eradicated. We feel 
confident if this work is continued it will 
only be a question of a little time until 
Lodi will stand at the head of the list." 

All of this inspection had the effect of 
shutting otit many cars of inferior grapes. 



"The time to remedy mistakes is before you make 
them" says a modern philosopher, and this advice 
applies most pointedly to the fruit grower. The time 
to lay the foundation for a fruit fortune is 





Planting time 



YOU CAN'T STICK any young tree Into any ground and expect Nature to 
excuse your carelessness and ignorance. The selecting of the young trees is 
the first step that requires your care and all your available brains. Begin 
light. 

FIRST. SELECT THE MOST profitable varieties of trees most 
suitable to your soil and climate. Then select the trees that are 
hardiest and healthiest and with the best roots. 

IN THE PLACER NURSERIES we grow our trees only on vir- 
gin soil — decomposed granite — (not river bottom commonly used by 
nurserymen) and they have exceptionally well-meshed root sys- 
tems, with bright, highly colored, well toughened wood fibre — 
hardy plants that will thrive . 

OUR LONG EXPERIENCE as fruit growers, fruit shippers, and 
nurserymen has taught us what varieties are best to ship and best 
to grow — best from a seller's standpoint — and in propagating we 
cut our buds and scions only from the best parent trees that have 
been under our personal observation. 

THESE PARENT TREES have been marked by us when they 
were in fruit. So that we can absolutely guarantee that our trees 
arc- true to name. There is no probability of the annoyance and 
disappointment ot finding, when your orchard begins to bear, that 
you have a dozen varieties of fruit where you expected but one — 
the kind you had decided would pay you best. 

OUR PEACH and PLUM TREES (on Peach root) are propa- 
gated on the natural peach seedlings — I. e., seeds that for genera- 
tions have grown from seedlings. Our trees may not be the cheap- 
est, but they are grown for the future when they will give crops 
that will repay a thousand times any triffling expense. Begin right. 

Send lor our "Planters Guide" and Catalog; It Is free and contains a mine 
ol valuable knowledge gained Iront many years experience. 

OUR STOCK comprises tbe best profitable commercial varieties ol 
Peach Pears Apples Plums 

Apricots Cherries Quinces Grapes 

Almonds Walnuts Oranges Lemons, etc. 




THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO. 

152 Orchard St., Newcastle, Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 



IN VARIETY. 



Of our high standard in quality— by the single box or by carload. 
We invite correspondence. 

Our Booklet, on " When, How, and What to Plant," a revised 
edition — to our patons only. To others on receipt of postage. 
Postals not noticed. 



w. 



ADDRESS. 

X. STRATTON, 

PETALUMA, CAL. 



SEEDS 



Superior quality of garden, 
flower and field seeds. 

VALLEY SEED COMPANY 

311-313 «J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

ALFALFA SEED A SPECIALTY. 



RUEH L=WH EELER NURSERY 

OFFICE AND SALES YARD : 121 W. SAW FERNANDO ST., SAN JOSE, CAL. BOX 826. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Nurseries: 80 Acres, Monterey Road, Near Edenvale. 25 Acres, Center Road, 
South of Tulty Road. 16 Acres, East San Jose. Alum Rock Ave. 

Send for Free Price List. 



We Have a Complete Line of the Standard Varieties of 



Eucalyptus' Trees 



Send 
for our 
booklet. 



TWO NLRSKRIES 



VIONOLO EUCALYPTUS NURSERY 
ANAHEIM. CAL. 
EKSTEIN BROS.. PROPS. 



MODESTO EUCALYPTUS NURSERY 
MODESTO, CAL. 
EKSTEIN & EKSTEIN. PROPS. 



CITRUS-SEED, BED TREES, SOUR STOCK 

Sweet stock, rough lemon stork. We have the largest and finest block of seedlings In the 
State. NAVELS, V A I, K MI As. Kl'KKKA LKMoNS. Phones: .Main 949, Home 2020. 



SOUTHLAND NURSERIES. 



F. H. Dlsbrow, Prop. 



PASADENA. CAL. 



The only two reallr "Immune" well teited walnuts: ht«vy 
bearers: bloom late: mature early: grafted trees only. 

" Concord" 




'San Jose Mayette' 




Send for catalogue and special circulars on 

New Froitl, Fed greed Prunei, Eucalyptus. Etc. 
LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO . INC.. 

Morganh!!!. Sjnt.i (' an Co., ( al. 



BERRIES 



Pure Austral'an 
y- Himalaya Black- 
berries, most profit- 
able and delicious 
berry grown; guar- 
anteed yield ten tons 
per acre, if trained 
and cultivated ac- 
cording to my direc- 
tions, also Logan- 
berries, Mammoth 
Blackberries, or- 
namental trees, 
shrubbery, and Bur- 
bank's Crimson Winter select and Crimson 
Winter Giant Rhubarb plants for sale. Send for 
catalogue, it is full of new and rare creations. 

Big 4 Nurseries 

B. S. KENNEDY, Prop. Sebastopol, Cal. 




Gold Ridge Nursery 

H. R. JOHNS, Proprietor. 

COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF 

Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 

Trees grown on high sandy land 
without irrigation. 
Write for new catalog and prices. 
SEBASTOPOL, CAL. 



TREES 



We grow a large stock of first 
class Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Walnuts, Grape Vines, 
Eucalyptus, Orange, Lemons, 
Roses, Berry Plants, etc. 

ESTABLISHED 1864. 

Hannay Nursery Co. 

San Jose, Cal. 
Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN I -t ALL OVER THE STATE 

Kor sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A. SNOW, Llncoli Avenue. San Jose. Cal 



January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



as 



Not ;is many as we should have shut out, 
hut. quite a considerable number, at least 
50, possibly 100, In comparison to this, 
we of the Lodi district had the same old 
game to contend with of the commercial 
companies accepting any and everything 
offered in the shape of a crate of grapes. 
And here we take occasion to say that our 
association might never have been in the 
shipping business had these same com- 
mercial companies ever shown at Lodi 
any disposition to inspect or hold down 
the poor F. O. B. pack. Their system in 
the past has been at a premium for a 
poor pack. We are pleased to note they 
are going to try and remedy this next 
season. 

Returning to our marketing agencies. 
With one of these, Denney & Co., we made 
a contract by which they were to receive 
as their commission not a flat rate per 
cent, but so many per cent above the auc- 
tion charge in the East. Our reason for 
this was that the auction charge varies a 
great deal in different cities and we 
thought possibly we would get better dis- 
tribution if our agent received the same 
per cent, no matter to which city he sent 
our ears to, instead of getting 5% net in 
some large city and 2% in some small 
one. We believe that this system would 
greatly aid distribution if adopted by 
others. 

Under the present systems our organi- 
zation fins that growers' fruit is some- 
times used (and I may say quite often), 
to fight other people's battles with, the 
grower receiving no advantage thereby. 

It' the different firms wish to fight, why 
not use their own fruit. Our instructions 
to our principal agent, Denney & Co., was 
that if anyone wished to fight, to let 
them fight, but to keep our fruit out of 
it; to boost prices; to only drop them 
when other people had already dropped, 
otherwise go to auction. 

In connection with this, however, Lodi 
district and our organization in particu- 
lar, wishes to give notice to the various 
other districts and the various commercial 
companies that another season we are 
not going to sit around the first part of 
the season while prices are good and let 
some other F. O. B. district drop its prices 
10 cents per crate for a whole week, as 
was done by one district, three times this 
season, while Lodi held an umbrella over 
it. Whenever it is necessary to drop the 
price it must be for the whole Tokay belt. 

As an association there is a situation 
that we realize we have got to meet. It 
is the marketing of 10,000 cars of table 
grapes from California. This to be done 
in the same markets and at the same 
time that, they are marketing 10,000 cars 
of Michigan, New York, and Ohio grapes, 
Washington and Idaho prunes, and East- 
ern and Colorado fruit — all under present 
conditions to be used up in a short time. 

This can best be done by organization: 
whether it be the getting together of the 
various commercial companies or whether 
the growers are forced into a growers' or 
ganization. 

We have got to get our grapes on the 
market for less money and we have got 
to get some way of extending the mar- 
keting season. I do not mean for less 
money than has been received by the 
grower this year, but at less cost, with 
better distribution and with fewer re- 
jections. 

At less cost I said, but our freight and 
refrigeration charges to some points are 
exorbitant. The railroad tells us that one 
reason we have to pay so much freight is 
because they have to bring the cars back 
empty. Now, if this is a fact,. why did 
our association have to refuse to load cars 
that were so strong with carbolic acid, 
salt fish, and smoked meat, we were 
afraid to put grapes in them? Why did 
we load numerous cars that had been 
previously loaded with cement, merchan- 
dise and provisions? 

(Continued on Page 



REX LIME AND SULPHUR 
SOLUTION 

THE FAMOUS INSECTICIDE AND FUNGICIDE. 

It has been found that Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution used in the early 
part of the season is as effective for Blight as the Bordeaux Mixture, and it 
does not have the injurious effect upon the tree as Bluestone. In Oregon and 
Washington the use of Bordeaux is being entirely eliminated and lime and 
sulphur solution used for all purposes. The leaves are falling from the trees, 
and especially the Peach, Almond and Apricot should be immediately sprayed 
for the first spraying. The second spraying should be done on all trees just 
before the buds open in the Spring. 

Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution is a guaranteed article, properly pre- 
pared, free from sediment, and as cheap, if not cheaper, than the farmer can 
make a mixture himself. 

For particulars inquire of your dealer or write to the factory at 

BENICIA, CALIFORNIA. 



MILL 

Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine, 
Orange 

and Lemon, 
Nursery Stock, 
Alfalfa, 

Bone and Blood 
FERTILIZERS. 
Hawaiian 

Works 
Honolulu and San 



TO 



fVI A Nf 

Importers oi 

Nitrate of 
Soda 

Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 

Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 




Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



FEED THE SOIL 

AND THE SOIL WILL FEED YOU 



Orange and other fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly 
recommend our fertilizers as producing the grandest results in quantity, 
quality of products and profits. Our fertilizers have the largest sale 
west of the Rockies, because they make sure and good crops. Lack of 
fertility means starved soil. Our fertilizers feed the soil and make it 
produce abundant harvest. Write and let us tell you about it. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

444 PINE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
Branch Oilice: 216 Grosse Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



You can have 

MORE FRUIT 

and 

BETTER FRUIT 

securing more money from your orchard, 
with but trifling exertion and small ex- 
pense. The secret is simply learning to 
use the right kind of 

FERTILIZER 

Bend for our free book "The Farmer's 
Friend; 1910," now ready for distribution, 
which tells you all about your fertilizer 
problems and how to solve them. 

Pacific Guano and Fertilizer Co., 

Dept. C.i 268 Market St., San Francisco. 



THE GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

of Loomls, Cal., are CLOSING out their entire 
Nursery Stock at greatly reduced prices. 
An exceptional opportunity Is offered to those 
who wish to obtain trees of the famous (''ocker 
Winter Bartlet Pear which is iilight proof. 
Write for prices. 

C. W. EARLE, Manager. 




ONE HUNDRED TONS 

Have you had trouble in securing green feed from the following causes: lack of space or 
limited water supply which will not permit the Irrigation ol a large amount of ground ? 
If so you will be interested in the following : 

We have a limited amount of seed of a wonderful plant which will yield from one to two 
hundred tons to the acre per annum of an excellent green feed equal to lettuce. 

From an experimental plot thirty by thirty feet we cut. from June to October, inclusive, 
6fi61 pounds or 87 pounds daily . Being a biannual and very hardy the winter yield, while not 
as heavy, will be found satisfactory. Seed and expert instruction how to plant and grow for $1. 
WESTERN SEED CO., Box 609, San Rafael, Cal. 



CRIMSON 
^ WINTER 
K\ RHUBARB 

$1.50 a Dozen 
$6 per 100. {40 
per 1000. Now 
is best time to 
plant rhubarb. 
Berry plants of 
all kinds. 

J. B. Wagner 

Pasadena. Cal. 

Rhubarb and 
berry specialist. 



Carbon Bisulphide 

COMPLETELY DESTROYS 

Borers, Root Aptils, Etc. 
On Fruit Trees 

and Ground Squirrels, Gophers, Etc. For sale by 
dealers and the manufacturers 
WHEELER, REYNOLDS & STAUFFER 
OFFICE: 624 California St, San Francisco. 



PUEAD I AIM 180 acreB 8200, get "tie 
UnCHr LHllLf under homestead law In 
14 moi. Oood. mo acres $1600, pay nients. Ideal 
for grapes, walnuts, apples, crops, grazing. 
Fine soli, timber, rainfall. Bo-, 321, HAN LUIH 
OBIH-'O. CAL. 



Pear Blight 

We have positively 
demonstrated that 
WE CAN CURE 
THIS DISEASE. 



Write us for particulars. 



Pear Blight Remedy Co. 

VACAVILLE, CALIFORNIA. 



Eucalyptus Seeds 

In large or small quantities, 33 species 
to select from. Write for free pam- 
phlet, "Eucalyptus Culture." It tells 
you how to sow the seed, raise the 
plants and plant out In the field. Also 
describes all the leading kinds, gives 
their uses, etc. 

Trial packets 15c each, 4 for 50c. 
Write for prices in quantity. 

THEODORE PAYNE 

345 S. MAIN ST., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




Lime for Spraying 

Purest and best. Largest barrels. 

USED EXCLUSIVELY BY CALIFORNIA REX 
SPRAY COMPANY, AND MANY OTHERS. 

Ask your dealer for it or address, 

PACIFIC LIME & PLASTER CO. 

7th and Townsend St. , San Francisco, Cal. 



LAND PLASTER 

(Gypsum) 
Nearly every California ranch 
needa GypHnm. It correct* soil con- 
ditions, helps other fertilizers give 
better results and aid fertility In the 
soli. Alfalfa, grain, vegetable and 
fruit crops are greatly Increased. 



Write for booklet and prices. 



PACIFIC CEMENT PLASTER CO. 

4MBOY. CALIFORNIA. 



SEEDS TREES 
Flowering Bulbs 

of 

" Highest Quality" 

for the particular planter. The right 
kinds for this Coast; 17 years experi- 
ence here enables us to do it. 

Catalog on request. 

^^B»W^I«»n> .ECOMD »T. PORTLAND. OKI . 



Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST- SAN FRANCISCO 

PAPER make, Moffitt A Towne, Lob Angeles 
rnrtA Ri ak „ McFall A Co.. Portland. Oregon 



3G 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 8, 11)10. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



Horticultural Notes. 

T. White of Calexico has prepared his 
ground for a 10-acre fruit ranch. 

Anaheim has a new Citrus Growers' As- 
sociation affiliated with the California 
Fruit Exchange. 

W. L. Hale of Fullerton has a walnut 
orchard of 18 acres from which he mar- 
keted 20 tons. 

Miller & Wagers of Sebastopol recently 
bought the Henry Meyer ranch of 144 
acres and will plant it to Gravenstein 
apples. 

Messrs. Worthington & Thornley of 
Visalia have 10 acres of grapes only 18 
months old from which they have gath- 
ered over 1500 pounds of raisins. 

The Chamber of Commerce at Hanford 
has a large lemon on exhibition which was 
grown by Frank Rae. It weighs 34 ounces 
and measures 1 7 Vi inches in circumfer- 
ence. 

Practically all of the oranges between 
Rocklin and Newcastle have been har- 
vested. The crop was an average one in 
quantity and brought better prices than 
last year. 

Thomas E. Evans, who is handling the 
orange crop in the vicinity of Colusa, has 
sold seven carloads of oranges from that 
district. The Cooke orchard produced two 
and a half carloads and the Harrington 
orchard produced four and a half. 

The Stokes Valley Orange Co. has in- 
corporated with $10U,000 capital. The di- 
rectors are D. S. Suodgrass, S. H. Gill. H. 
G. Drew, W. Unger and W. Toomey. They 
intend planting an orange grove near 
Selnia. 

Lemons worth $2,700,000 were imported 
for 11 months of 1909, which was $300,000 
less than for the first 11 months of 1908. 
Olive oil imported for the first 11 months 
of 1909 amounted to $4,600,000, as com- 
pared with $3,700,000 for the same period 
of 1908. 

Five hundred and eighty cars of or- 
anges have been packed and sent out of 
Forterville this season. Last year's ship- 
ments to date amounted to 243 cars, an 
increase for this year of 135 cars. This 
large increase is due partly to a better 
crop and partly to the new orchards. 

County Horticultural Commissioner 
Bishop of Orange county, has returned 
from a trip at Santa Paula, where he has 
been investigating the methods used there 
in handling mealy bug. This bug has 
been found in one or two spots around 
Fullerton. 

The recent experiments at the Uni- 
versity of California by Prof. Taylor to 
find out the injury of sulphured fruit to 
the human body have shown that no evil 
effects are caused by the sulphured fruits. 
The students upon whom the experiments 
were made waxed fat eating fruit pre- 
pared in this way. 

Keeping peaches in cold storage was 
such a success in Portland this season 
that the fruit shippers and commission 
men intend next year to put grapes, 
peaches, plums and cherries in cold stor- 
age. It is hoped by this method to pre- 
vent the glut of fruit which happens in 
the summer and fall when the fruits all 
ripen together. 

A merger of the Fruit Growers' Unions 
of Ashland. Medford and Grant's Pass, 
Oregon, into one large organization is 
under foot. If the organization is suc- 
cessful they will practically control the 
marketing of the fruit output of the en- 
tire Rogue River valley. It ts the inten- 
tion of the organization to employ a com- 
petent man in the East to attend to the 
marketing of the Rogue river fruits. 

The Butte County Citrus Association 
sold a large portion of this year's orange 



crop in Montreal, Toronto and Winnipeg. 
The transportation charges on a car 
shipped to Montreal was no greater than 
one shipped to Des Moines, Iowa, not half 
the distance. Another thing the growers 
learned is that they have no fear from 
sales of Florida oranges, as they demand 
the Washington navel oranges. 

It is estimated that 1,000,000 fruit trees 
will be set out in the Medford fruit dis- 
trict in Oregon this spring. Of this mil 
lion trees about 65'/P are pears, with Bart 
let in the lead, 13'a are apples, with New- 
towns and Spitzenbnrg leading, and o'/, 
are peaches. Fifteen thousand acres of 
new orchards will be planted this season 
in this district, bringing the orchard area 
of the Rogue River valley to a total of 
65,000 acres. 

The Santa Clara county orchardists 
who produce the Royal Ann cherry are 
pleased over the decision of the United 
States Board of Appraisers, who refused 
to lower the duty on cherries imported 
in Maraschino. This will increase the 
sales of their cherries, which are put up 
in this preparation on the Pacific coast. 

The citrus growers around Highland 
are uncertain about Eastern shipments. 
This is due to the fact that at present 
some of the fruit in the low-lying dis- 
trict of the citrus belt were touched by 
frost and it has deteriorated a percentage 
of the oranges. 

The fruit growers' committee of ten 
appointed by Horticultural Commissioner 
Jeffrey, upon authority of the State Fruit 
Growers' Convention at Watsonville for 
the purpose of detailing a plan for the 
betterment of the fruit growing industry, 
met in Sacramento on December 30. It 
was decided to have a general mass meet 
ing of the fruit growers of California to 
meet on .January 28 in Sacramento. Until 
a permanent organization has been 
effected, the following members of the 
committee of ten have taken charge of 
affairs until this meeting: President H. E. 
Hecke of Woodland, Vice-President C. H. 
Rodgers of Watsonville, Secretary George 
D. Kellogg of Newcastle. 



General Agriculture. 

It is rumored that the Pacific Sugar 
Company's factories at Visalia and Cor- 
coran will not run next year. 

Over 6000 acres of farming land is held 
under lease by the Japanese in Sacra- 
mento county. Many of the leases are for 
tracts of 300 acres or more. 

The Alameua Sugar Co. has started the 
big English traction engine at work on 
the Nelson tract in Volo county, and it 
also has a number of 10-mule teams at 
work. 

J. E. Freeman, formerly of Petaluma, 
recently bought land near Orland, Glenn 
county, and will start a poultry ranch. 
He has already received a consignment of 
1200 White Leghorn chicks. 

The planters in Coachella valley. River 
side county, hope to have 1000 acres of 
cotton this year. If they can get this 
amount of cotton planted a cotton gin 
mill will be assured. 

C. H. Wores has leased to the Imperial 
Valley Cotton Co. a tract of 1000 acres of 
land located near Brawley. The land is 
to be prepared this winter for seeding to 
cotton early in the spring. 

N. Takatsuji, president of the Kane- 
gafuchi Spinning Co. of Osaki. Japan, has 
representatives in the Imperial valley who 
are securing tracts for large acreages of 
cotton to be planted next season. 

The orange crop from Butte county is 
practically closed. The following are the 
shipments to date at the various points: 
Thermalito. 103 carloads: Hearst, 91; Pal- 
ermo, S2; Oroville 64. 

The Corcoran nursery has a contract for 
putting in 140 acres of land in eucalyptus 
near Delano. This land has been analyzed 



TO DESTROY APHIS AND THRIPS 

WITHOUT INJURY TO FOLIAGE 



SPRAY WITH 



" BLACK LEAF" SS 



LISTEN TO THESE: 

BOGIE KIVEK (OREGON I FRt'lT GROWERS' INION: "Black Leaf does not 
burn nor Injure foliage or fruit and will eradicate Aphis Immediately. 



1 lilai-b Leaf ' Is the 



DELTA COUNTY (COLORADO) FRUIT GROWERS' A8SO.: 
best remedy we have ever found for plant lice on fruit trees. 

PROF. GILLETTE, of the COLORADO Exp. Station: We have found "Mack Leaf 
very satisfactory Indeed. 

HOOD RIVER (OREGON I APPLE GROWERS' UNION: We are satisfied "Black 
Leaf" Is going to take the place of all other Aphis sprays In this section. 

MR. A. N. JUDD, Watsonville, Calif.: For all plant lice, and green or black Aphis, 
" Iilack Lear' Is the most gratifying of all washes. 



PRICE: In 5 gal. jacket cans, 85c. per gal.; In 1 gal. cans, SI.; 
I. o. b., Louisville, Ky. Tbe usual western price Is 90c. to 95c. per 
gal. In 5 gal. cans, owing to Increased freight. 

USUAL DILUTION: For green and wooly Aphis and Black 
Peach Apbls, 1 gal. "Black Leal" to 65 or 75 gals, water. For 
Thrlps, 1 to 50 or 60. 

TO SAVE YOU FREIGHT: 
you. 



Write us lor name ol Agent nearest 



THE KENTUCKY TOBACCO PRODUCT CO. 



INCORPORATED. 

LOUISVILLE, KY. 




HOLD THEIR CUTTING EDGE 



These scythes are hand hammered from the best Swedish steel, and the cutting edge lies 
imbedded and protected between two layers of softer steel. They are light and durable, and fit any 
American snath May be returned, if found defective. 

For sale by hardware dealers. Send for descriptive circular No. 10. 
CALIFORNIA SUPPLY COMPANY. 268 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



WHY 



is the Vrooman Pure Bred 
FR A NQ 1' ETTE W A LN I IT 
being planted in California 
and Oregon more extensively than 
any other one variety ? 
Simply because, after a careful 
investigation, people find it the most 
reliable and best paying variety on 
the market. 

The tree Is perfectly hardy, blooms late, 
bears heavily and yearly. 

The nut Is unusually well filled and uni- 
form In size. 

The meat Is rich and oily. 

The shell Is medium thin and sealed 
tight, permitting of ample handling with- 
out cracking open. 

Last but not least— 
The Voonnan Pure Bred Franquette retails 
at from 10c. to 15c. per pound above other 
varieties. Are there reasons not sufficient 
for Its popularity. 

We have both Orafted and Second Genera- 
tion Seedlings and costs no more than many 
others, and furthermore, 

REMEMBER 

We alone propagate the Vrooman Fran- 
quette. Don't be deceived by ImltatorB. 
Free literature sent on request. 

Address, 

Oregon Nursery Co., 

Orenco, Oregon. 



High Grade Grafted Walnut Trees 

FOR SALE. 

Grafted from selected trees only. 

GEO. C. PAYNE, 

Campbell, Cal. 



ROSES, 

PALMS, 

SHADE AND ORN AMEN ATI 
TREES 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

The E. Gill Nursery Co. 

WEST BERKELEY, CAL. 



FERRY'S" 



SEEDS 



To grow the All- I 
est flowers and | 
most luscious 
vegetables, plant the best 
seeds. Ferry's Seeds are best 
becaus they never fall In yield 
or quality. The best Rarden- 
ers and farmers everywhere 
know Ferry's seeds to be the 
highest standard of quality 
yet attained. For sale 
everywhere. 
I FERRY'S 1910 Seed Annual 
Free on request 
D. M. FERRY « CO., 

DETROIT, MICH. 



FOR SALE 

500 Cal. Blk. Walnuts, 6 to 8 ft @ .16 

200 Selected Pecans, 2 to 4 ft @ .16 

75 8. Ruby Pomegranate 1 year, @ .10 

75 Sweet Fruited Pomegranate, 

1 year @ .10 

700 Gros Colman, 1 year rooted vine..® .05 

500 Almeria, 1 year rooted vine @ .10 

Several thousand Almeria and Gros 
Colman cuttings. Price on application. 

C. B. CUNNINGHAM, 

Mills, Cal. 



January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



33 



by experts, who pronounce it suitable for 
eucalyptus by the addition of half a ton 
of gypsum to the acre. 

Plowing for sugar beets is in full swing 
around Woodland. The season is opening 
earlier by nearly two months than ever 
before, and experienced planters say that 
the prospects for a big crop are greatly 
improved thereby. 

The statistician of Tehama county re- 
ports an acreage of 32,180 acres of hay 
for 1909. The output in peaches and 
pears was more than double that of pre- 
vious years, while the increase in potatoes 
was over one-half million pounds. 

The Alameda Sugar Co. ran for 110 days 
this season, crushing over 67,000 tons of 
beets and making over 15,000,000 pounds 
of sugar. This company intends to plant 
several thousand acres of sugar beets in 
Yolo county for the coming season. 

M. Jongeneel, superintendent of the 
California Fruit Growers' Association 
ranch at Oakley, Contra Costa county, is 
experimenting with Durum wheat. He 
has planted four varieties and hopes to 
find which variety does better in his lo- 
cality. 

The broom corn crop of the United 
States was a failure this year, and conse- 
quently it has made a jump from $100 a 
ton to $200. The cause of the small yield 
this year was due to the disastrous drouth 
of July, August and September which 
swept over the broom-corn sections. 

Garette & Thomas of Woodland re- 
ported that there are in the warehouses 
of Solano, Yolo, Colusa, Glenn, Tehama, 
Butte, Sutter and Yuba counties 7000 tons 
of barley and 13 tons of wheat. This does 
not include the grain in actual possession 
of the farmers, but only in the ware- 
houses. 

The Sacramento Valley Sugar Co. is 
seeding about 100 acres of sugar beets a 
day. Mr. Nichols, the new agriculturist, 
is planting the seed as early as possible 
this season. This is different from the 
methods pursued formerly, when the 
farmers waited until spring to seed for 
beets. It is claimed that the seeds will 
not rot from being in the ground through 
the cold winter and the early planting 
will give the plants much better roots by 
the time the dry weather comes. 

C. A. Beck planted this last spring in 
the Imperial valley 10 pounds of dwarf 
milo maize seed and had excellent results 
from this grain. From an acre and a half 
he obtained three tons of grain. Instead 
of planting 10 pounds to the acre, as he 
was advised, Mr. Beck found that a pound 
to the acre was enough. The dwarf maize 
makes a thin growth about 4 feet in height 
and is much easier gathered by hand than 
the taller corns. The joints are verv 
short and therefore there is more fodder 
in them than in any other variety. 

The Central Counties Beekeepers' Asso- 
ciation was perfected recently in the elec- 
tion of Vernon Townsend of Soledad presi- 
dent; Henry Hennekey of Monterey, sec- 
retary; J. Whitan of King City, Mrs. E. 
Denning of Pacific Grove and Ed Smith of 
Hollister, vice-presidents. On the board 
of directors are Bee Inspector K. M. Hen- 
neken, J. Whitan, Mrs. Denning and E. 
Kerlin. The counties of Contra Costa, 
Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa 
Cruz and the northern portions of San 
Luis Opisbo and Monterey are represented. 



Miscellaneous. 

The heavy frost near Auld, Riverside 
county, has killed a large number of the 
sugar gum trees which were planted there 
last year. 

Over 47,490 ground squirrels have been 
shipped to San Francisco in the last eight 
months by government inspectors, who 
are examining these pests for bubonic 
plague. 

The Forest Service has planned to es- 



tablish a coniferous nursery in the Shasta 
National Forest, the capacity of which is 
designed to be 500,000 transplants a year. 
The stock produced here is to be used in 
experimental planting of the timber for- 
ests in the North. 



nil V TPffQl RUIf and 

UUI I l\LLU ORNAMENTAL 

■ 1 OF A 

RELIABLE FIRM 



We have the most complete 
Nursery in the 



WORLD 



and the Largest As- 
sortment to choose 
from 



Our Fruit Trees are all budded or graded 
from our own tested Orchards. Therefore 
purchasers are certain to get the varieties 
Ihey order. 



WRITE US FOR OUR CATALOGUE A. 



CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO. 



600 ACRES ESTABLISHED 1865 

NILES, CALIFORNIA. 



ENCINAL 
NURSERIES 

F. C. WILLSON, Proprietor. 
Sunnyvale, Santa Clara Co.. Cal. 

SPECIALTY WALNUTS— 
"WILLSON'S WONDER" 
"ACME" 

AND 

"FRANQUETTE" 

Send for booklet with halftone cuts 
and descriptive matter. 



EUCALYPTUS 



5000 Sugar. 
20000 Blue. 
25000 Rostrata. 

$6.5Q pep. M. 

EITHER SANTA FE OR S. P. 

GOLDEN STATE GREENHOUSES, 

ORANGE, CAL. 



EUCALYPTUS 

with ROOTS 



Send 
for 

Circular. 



HENRY SHAW, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



FARMJ300KS. 

The follow Iiik H»t of books are kept In 
ntoek and are for sale at the Paelflc Rural 

Press offlccei „ 

Price. 

The Book of Alfalfa, by Coburn 2.00 

Swine Husbandry, by Coburn 1.50 

Trees of California, by Jepson 2.50 

Shepherd's Manual, by Stewart 1.00 

The Hop, by Myrick 150 

New Onion Culture, by Greiner 50 

Home Pork Making, by Fulton 50 

Broom Corn and Brooms 50 

Soiling Crops, by Shaw 1.50 

Book of Corn, by Myrick 1.50 

New Egg Farm, by Stoddard 1.00 

American Cattle Doctor, by Dodd 1.00 

Greenhouse Management, by Taft. . . . 1.50 
Greenhouse Construction, by Taft.... 1.50 

Mushrooms, by Falconer 1.00 

Plant Life on the Farm, by Masters.. 1.00 
The price at which each book Is quoted 
Includes postage. Send money order or 
hank draft for the book wanted and ad- 

<lFe "" PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 

667 Howard St., Saa Francisco. 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



Fresno, Calilornia 

Leading Growers in the State of 
Commercial Varieties of: 

FRUIT TREES, all varieties. 

GRAPEVINES, all commercial sorts, 
including raisin, table and wine va- 
rieties. 

Twenty years In the business with a con- 
tinued increase for fair and square dealing is 
our reputation. Address 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



F. H. WILSON, Prop. 
FRESNO, CAL. 

Catalogue and price list free for the asking. 



Peach Trees 

We have a large stock of 
Muirs, Lovell, Phillips 
and Tuscan clings. If you 
are in need of any of these 
write us for prices. We 
also have a full line of 
nursery stock. 



Salesmen Wanted. 



Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

Albany, Oregon. 



the: "boss" 
Tree Protector 

MADE OF YUCCA PALM 



Is cheap, durable, and 
quickly put on the tree. 
It prevents rabbits from 
destroying your trees. A 
sure protection against 
frost, sunburn, grass- 
hoppers or dry winds. 
Can be easily removed; 
will last for years. Send 
for samples. 



PRICES. 

Per 1000. 
10 in. long, 7 wide, $ 9.50 
12 in. long, 7 wide, 10.50 
14 in. long, 7 wide, 11.50 
16 in. long, 7 wide, 13.00 
18 in. long. 7 wide, 14.50 
24 in. long, 7 wide, 17.00 
30 in. long, 7 wide, 20.00 



YUCCA MANUFACTURING CO. 

1380 WILLOW ST.. LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




GET A D DEAL 



PLACE YOUR ORDER WITH I S 
FOR 

EUCALYPTUS, FIGS, GRAPES 

AND ALL FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL 
NURSERY STOCK. 

We have the LARGEST stock of EUCA- 
LYPTUS grown in Fresno County— 1,000,000 
TREES and STRICTLY FIRST CLASS. 
Orders booked now for future delivery. 
Twenty years' experience In the nursery 
business, with the Increasing trade which we 
are doing, is conclusive evidence of our 
square dealing with customers. 

Catalogue and Prices Upon Application. 

S. W. Marshall Company, Inc. 

Box 652, Fresno, Cal. 



ETJCALYPTS 

Of hardy \ arletles are now being planted. Our 
large stock of many varieties Is grown without 
protection and able to endure extremes of 
weather. Write for booklet and prices. 

LLO v D R TAYLOR, Modesto, Cal. 




The best 
Fig to 
plant for 

Commercial Purposes 

This fig originated with 
us and is the genuine 
Smyrna Fig of commerce. 
There is a strong steady 
increasing market for these 
figs. 



KI1ME 



OF 



AND 

GRAPE VINES 



TRUE TO NAME 




Best Varieties. 



Calimyrna Figs, 

BURBANK'S 

NEW CREATIONS 

Apples, Pears, 
Peaches, 
Apricots, Cherries, 
Plums, Prunes, 

Etc. 



California Horticulture : The Fruit 
Grower's Guide. Valuable to Plant- 
ers. Mailed post paid upon receipt 
of 25c. in stamps. 



1910 Annual Price Catalogue 
mailed free. 

paid-op capital m aoo.ooe.oo 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES! 



G 

gBg . 



INC 



Geo C Roedlng pro. & Mgr. 
Box 18 Fresno.California.USA* 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 8, 1W0 



CO OPERATION FOR THE BENE 
FIT OF THE PRODUCER. 



(Con tin m il From Page 29.) 

At less cost 1 said! Why should we pay 
the same freight charges to Salt Lake and 
Denver as to Chicago. It is less than 
half way! Why the same freight charge 
to Salt Lake and Denver as the orange 
growers pay to Xew York City? Why the 
same refrigeration charge to Salt Lake as 
to Denver? 

Better Distribitiox.— This has two 
sides, one of getting the fruit into more 
cities; the other the act of not getting 
loo many cars into the same city. With- 
out better organizations this can only be 
remedied to a small extent by the ex- 
change of billings and diversions. 

The rejection of cars by buyers because 
the market has gone against them should 
be reache'd in some manner, and can only 
be reached by organization of some form. 
For, if one firm has a car sold at 65 cents 
per crate, and about the time it arrives 
another firm comes along and offers one 
lor 45 cents, the commission firm that 
bought at G5 cents is very apt to ask for 
a reduction on account of some fly speck 
he has found. 

With this 10,000 cars of grapes to mar- 
ket our association realizes that we have 
got to give up the idea of fancy prices, 
especially from young vines and from 
some localities, and be willing to put our 
grapes out in the West and Mississippi 
river country at a price based on a reas- 
onable rate of interest, on a reasonable in- 
vestment with a reasonable freight rate. 
Under those conditions'we would open up 
new markets, send the Eastern grapes 
back where they belong, and by only put- 
ting our choicest grapes in the far East 
we would make some money for all. But 
we cannot pay $S4fi.f>0 freight and refrig- 
eration for a 1000 mile haul and do it. 

Glutted Markets. — One thing our asso 
elation learned is that in many of the auc- 
tion markets the receivers, when the mar- 
kets are bad, bid in the grapes for the 
companies they are acting for. There is 
no question but what this has a tendency 
to steady the market. But this same re- 
celver by taking the chance will, in nine 
cases out of ten, make five times as much 
as the grower does who has spent a year 
raising it. If a large organization had its 
own agents to cut up these cars it could 
add quite a sum to the growers' profit. 
The danger now of putting car loads into 
small cities is that half a dozen others 
may do the same thing, and the market 
get demoralized, the fruit old, and every- 
body disgusted. The distributors' organ- 
ization of Sacramento has done much to- 
wards distributing the fruit properly, but 
it does not go far enough. 

It should control the F. O. B. price of 
its different companies in all the districts 

it buys in, also it should have some form 
of inspection and stand for only good 
goods. 

As long as the distributors do or do not 
do these things and as long as the ma- 
jority of the independent companies are 
price-cutters, it looks as though the grow- 
ers themselves, through a State organiza- 
tion, would have to take these various 
matters up. The orange growers of the 
south had to do it, the Georgia peach 
growers had to do it, the Oregon and 
Washington apple growers had to do it, 
and why should not the grape and fruit 
growers of northern California do it? 
Why should they pay large sums as divi- 
dends on stock held by fortunate individu- 
als? Why should they have exhorbitant 
prices for shook? Why should they have 
llVfir trail selling through half a dozen 
agents in a town cutting each other's 
throats? Why should there not be some 
form of inspection by which the poor fruit 
is kept at home? Why should there not 
be some organization of grape and fruit 
people to work with various other organi 
zations in other lines to have some effect 



on legislation and rates? Why should 
there not be some organi/.al ion to put into 
effect in a commercial way tne storage of 
Emperor grapes for later sale and keep 
them out of the way of the Tokay? Why 
cannot we have some co-operation for the 
benefit of the table grape producer? 

We, of the San Joaquin Table Grape 
Growers' Association have tried some of 
these in a small way and have been rea- 
sonably successful. Why cannot other dis- 
tricts do the same and then all get to- 
gether under some central organization, 
no matter what its name is? 

I said we had been reasonably success- 
ful. We shipped some 300 cars and would 
have shipped 500 or 600 had it not been 
for the poor prices and early rains. We 
sold grapes in 37 different cities in car 
load lots and besides shipped to numer- 
ous towns in small lots. We shipped 
grapes to the Hawaiian Islands and to 
Florida, and are ready to compare prices 
with any one. 

We do not claim we have not made mis- 
takes; we have made them. Some we 
have rectified. Some we will not make 
again, others we may make in a different 
form. Still we are hopeful and buyers are 
beginning to ask for our pack and over 
250 of our members have signified their 
intention of going on next season. 

One thing we are ready to do, and that 
is. to co-operate with anyone that we be- 
lieve can help in anyway to increase the 
amount, received and lower the amount of 
cost to the grape and fruit grower. 



1 1 10 



1)1 \ IDBND NOTICE. 

GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN 
SOCIETY, 
(The German Bank). 
(Member of the Associated Savings Banks 
of San Francisco). 
528 California street. 
Hlaalna Itrinnh. -.",tl' Mlaatoa street, near 

T\v rut > -Necoml. 
Richmond Dlatrlel Branch, 4.32 Clement 

street, bet. Fifth mid Sixth Avex. 



For 
IStOH. 



the half year ending December 31, 
dividend lias been dec lared at the 



rate of four (4) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Monday. January lwll). Dividends 
not called for are added to tbe deposit ae- 
eount and earn dividends from January 1, 
1S1U. 

(iEOUGE TOl'ltNV. Secretary. 



DIVIHKM) Mini I 



SAN I'HANCISCO SAVIN tiS UNION, 

(Member of the Associated Savings Banks 



or 

YV. rorner 



San Francisca). 
California anil 

Streets. 



Montgomery 



For tbe half year ending December 31. 
1909. dividends have been declared at tbe 
rates per annum of four and one-eighth 
(4Vfe) per cent on term deposits and four 
(4) per cent on ordinary deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after Monday, Janu- 
ary IS, 1910. A dividend not drawn will be 
added to the deposit account, becomes a 
part thereof and earns dividend from Janu- 
ary 1. Money deposited on or before the 
10th day of January will receive dividend 
from January 1. 

K. M. WELCH, Cashier. 



I)l\ MM.NI) NOTICE. 



THE SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY, 

(Member of the Associated Savings Banks 
of San Francisco). 
101 Montgomery Street. Corner Sutter. 

For the half year ending December 31 
1909, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of four (4) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Monday, January 3, 1910. Dividends 
not drawn become part of the deposit ac 
count* and earn dividends at the same rate 
from January 1st. Money deposited on or 
before January 10, will earn interest from 
January 1st. 

WM. A. BOSTON, Cashier. 



SACRAMENTO 
BURNER «■> OIL CO. 



H. L NELSON, President 

DEALERS 



I.N 




Oil Burners, 
Fuel Oil, 
Distillate Oil and 
Lubricating Oils. 

OFFICE: 
1520 J Street, 

SACRAMENTO. 



$8,760,000,000!! 

That's the Value of Farm Prod- 
ucts for 1909— Isn't 
It Great ? 

Think of producing on the farms of the 
United States twice as much new wealth in 
one year as is represented by all the fold 
money in the world outside of this country! 

No wonder our esteemed friend. Secretary 
James Wilson, of the Department of Agri- 
culture, is jubilant. 

It is a showing that every citizen Is proud 
of, whether he had a hand in the production 
or not. 

The most gratifying story told by these 
figures is that they represent a gain over the 
previous year of $869,000,000. 

We are going ahead — going ahead rapidly. 
That is the best message we gather from 
this report of our results for 1909. 

But, instead of being content with these 
figures, let us take them only as an indica- 
tion of what our real possibilities are, and 
let us use them merely as a mile post in our 
climb to belter things. 

Let each of us. for instance, look back over 
our operations of 1909 to determine whether 
or not we did our share toward making this 
showing possible. 

We all know that there are about 6.000,000 
farms in this country. Did 6,000,000 advance 
improve, produce more wealth — or did one 
million, two million, or three million do all 
of this pushingand improving of methods to 
make a gain of *8<S9,000,000 possible? 

We ought to stop and think of what has 
made the gains of former years possible. 
We must stop to realize that this gain of 
$869,000,000 for 1909 is not due to so much 
more land under cultivation, but has been 
brought about primarily by better methods 
of cultivating the same land that has been 
cultivated before; by better methods of 
preparing the soil, sowing the grain and 
harvesting the crops. 

Without the wonderful strides made in 
the development of farm machines, an 
$«.760.000.000-crop would be entirely out of 
the question. 

And yet there is room for progress — the 
rules of 1909 farming are not the rules for 
1910. New machines mean new advances 
and new wealth. Do you keep abreast — are 
you posted about these things? 

About traction plowing — how to plow 
more acres, in less time, with less expense, 
for better, bigger returns: 

How a good disk harrow will enable you 
to make better seed beds; 

Why it's to your advantage to spread ma- 
nure the right way — as soon as you get it — 
instead of spreading it alter half its value 
is gone. 

About the money-saving and money-mak- 
ing advantages of having a good, reliable, 
dependable gasoline engine on your place; 
how it will help to keep the boys at home 
how it will save you a hired man's wages — 
and how it will more than pay for itself in 
twelve months : 

What the right kind of a cream harvester 
means to you in increased milk and butter 
profits — and skim-milk calves: 

Why a good feed-grinder means fatter 
stock; 

How greatly to increase the value of the 
1910 hay crop by using the right mower, 
tedder, baler, etc. : 

How to know all about harvesting ma- 
chines; 

How to get the most possible profit out 
of the stalks as well as out of the ears by 
harvesting your corn in the right way — at 
the right time : 

How to know the ear marks of a good 
wagon. 

If any of these will help you please secure 
a copy of our book — "Glimpses of 
Thriftland." That tells the whole story 
briefly and in verses that you'll like. Then 
we have some books that are still more 
business-likt — the 1 H C Almanac and Ency. 
clopaedia, and Farm Science. Say which 
you are most interested in. All are free for 
the asking. 

There is an International dealer near you. 
He will be glad to see you to hand you one 
of our new 1910 calendars, posters, cat- 
alogues or pamphlets on harvesting and 
haying machines and tools, and tillage im- 
plements, or any of the machines mentioned 
above. 

KWERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OF AMERICA 

(Incorporated) 
CHICAGO. U. S. A 




SUBSCRIPTION AGENTS WANTED. 



The PACIFIC RURAL PRESS wants a 
young man or woman In every county In 
tbe State to Mollclt for ■ubHerlbtionn. Good 
commlNNiouN allowed. Write uh at onee 
■ind we will forward neceaaary pnperx, 
blanktt and lUHtructlona. You ean make 
k I money wltb a little effort. 



ET THERE BE LIGHT 

Stewart Gas Lamp 



THE 



SOLVKS THE I'KOHI.KM ">K ECONOMY. 




You save money and your 
eyesight by using the 
Stewart Gas Lamp. 

We furnish your home with a 
lamp that Is absolutely sate, a 
steady burner, no flicker, a soft 
but steady tlame that does not 
tax the vision, or inflame the 
eye. 

It is a surprising fact that we 
do this so cheaply, at so little 
cost to you, and give you a 
faultless, perfect effect, that 
electricity is not needed— is too 
expensive. 



THE STEWART 
GAS LAMP 

is built or metal and 
Is constructed on the 
most slm pie plan. It 
works In detail In 
the line of economy. 



Every farmhouse can allord it because It 
saves oil, ornaments any home and like the 
loyal hired man, works overtime, when the 
days are short, aud light Is needed. Let us 
send you our convincing treatise on cheap 
superior light. 



OAKLAND MANUFACTURING CO. 

852 Market St.. Oakland. Cal. 




J^VERY good business man real- 
izes that in price is only inci- 
dental—quality is essential. Repre- 
sentations are made by quality. 
Price will always, sooner or later, 
and usually sooner, prove its own 
undoing. Any sale built on price 
must in the end prove unsatisfac- 
tory. 



EVERY LENGTH OF 
ALEXANDER PIPE 

that is sold on a guarantee is in- 
spected and tested before it leaves 
our plant. 



No order too large or too small 
for us to estimate on or deliver. 



ALEXANDER PIPE CO. 

1081 Howard Street. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Concrete Machinery 



Cement Block 
Machinery 

all sizes. 

Power 

Compress 

l'or Block 
MachlneB. 

Cement Pipe 
Tools. 

Concrete 

Mixers. 

Concrete 
Water- 
proofing'. 



TOOLS FOR IRRIGATION PIPE. 




Write for Circular. 



T. A. McMURTRIE, Stockton, Cal. 



Rupture Cured 

Without the Knile or Loss ol Time: 



No pay until cured. 

Call or write for testimonials. 

FIDELITY RUPTURE CURE 

1122 Market St.. Opp. 7th, S«n FrincUc.. 

Rooms 7 and 8. Hours 10 to 6 



January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Live Stock and Dairy. 

Prepared for Pacific Rural Press 
By Paul P. Parker. 



THE BUTTER MARKET FOR 1909. 

Ninteen hundred and nine has been a 
wonderful year for the dairymen on the 
Pacific Coast, some 14,548,400 pounds of 
butter was brought into San Francisco dur- 
ing that year, at an average price of 30.77 
cents per pound, or a total of $4,475,742.68. 
In 1908 about 13,433,620 pounds were 
brought into San Francisco or 1,114,780 
pounds less than 1909. The average 
price paid for butter during 1908 was 27.25 
cents, or a total of $3,360,661.43. 

The butter prospects for 1910 look even 
brighter than the previous year, the in- 
creased acreage of alfalfa and the im- 
provement in the dairy herds bid fair to 
improve both the quality and quantity of 
the butter. 

The average quarterly prices and re- 
ceipts in San Francisco are as follows: 
1908. 

Price in Receipts in 
Cents. Pounds. 

January to March 30.08 2,476,500 

April to June 22.68 4,732,420 

July to September 24.8 3,724,100 

October to December. . .31.46 2,500,600 
1909. 

January to March 34.45 3,318,000 

April to June 24.96 5,557,900 

July to September 29.38 3,157,800 

October to December. . .34.28 2,514,700 



SHORT-HORN SALE. 



The second annual Short-Horn sale of 
the Howard Cattle Company and Mrs. J. 



red in color and a grandson of "Choice 
Goods," one of the greatest champions 
which ever carried the blue ribbon in 
either America or England. 

Three other excellent bulls are: "Invin- 
cible Lad," "The Count," and "Corona- 
tion Count," sired by "Lavender Viscount," 
twice champion of America. These ani- 
mals carry the blood which makes im- 
provement in any herd. 

"Violet Queen" and "English Lady," are 
two cows of pleasing balance and smooth- 
ness and should be much sought after. 

George Bellows, the Eastern Short-Horn 
auctioneer, will conduct the sale. 



CROSS-BREEDING OF SHEEP. 



At the New South Wales Sheep Breed- 
ers' Association Show, held in July, 1909, 
another practical demonstration of the re- 
sults of cross-breeding of sheep for lamb 
and mutton suitable for export was given. 
This exhibit was more comprehensive than 
those of previous years. Thirty-two pens 
were shown, and comprised first, second, 
and third crosses, as well as a pen of 
merino ewes of a type recommended as 
foundation stock. 

Of the 31 pens representing the cross- 
breds, a sheep from each was slaughtered, 
and the carcases exhibited in front of the 
pens. What could be expected from a 
mutton point of view was thus apparent, 
and those interested could, by inspecting 
the live sheep, from opinions respecting 
the value of the crosses from a wool-pro- 
ducing standpoint. 

The season was a bad one, and provided 
an opportunity for testing the crosses for 
hardiness. 

After shearing, the sheep were inspect- 
ed and selected for condition, and as far 
as could be judged those having the larg- 




H. Glide, will be held on January 24 and 
25 in the sales pavilion of T. H. Chase & 
Co., 478 Valencia street, San Francisco. 

This will be the greatest short-horn 
sale ever held on the Pacific Coast, out- 
classing the big sale of last year. Sixty 
yearling and two-year-old bulls, and 35 
choice cows and heifers will be offered. 
The buyer who desires quality and blood 
lines will get what he is looking for at 
this sale. Unusual interest should be dis- 
played in the sale of the six sons of 
"Straight Archer," whose picture is shown 
here. These bulls are bred in the purple 
and the kind to use in building up a herd. 

Among the cows and heifers, one of the 
most promising lots are nine of the Duch- 
ess strain, daughters of the noble sire 
"Oxford Grand Duke 10th." One of the 
greatest of the international winners. 
These animals are breedy specimens and 
of a line which should develop something 
distinctively attractive. 

"Double Goods" is a good bull, being 



est proportion of Southdown blood were in 
the best condition. Those having Shrop- 
shire blood were next, whereas those with 
Lincoln and English Leicester blood did 
not retain their condition so well. 

Generally speaking, the second crosses 
were the best, the first crosses next, and 
the comebacks were the worst. Those con- 
taining the greatest amount of English 
blood were the fattest, especially that of 
the Southdown, and those with the largest 
proportion of Merino blood were the poor- 
est. 

It would appear from such that the abil- 
ity to put on and retain condition is pro- 
portionate with the amount of covering, 
those with the least wool carried most 
condition, and those with the most wool 
carried least condition. 

As wool is of such importance in Aus- 
tralia, and carcases the desideratum in 
England, it taxes the ingenuity of the 
breeder to combine the two in a practical 
manner. From the past experience at this 



Mr. BEE-MAN: 



WE HANDLE 





AS WELL AS 

HARDWARE 

AT SATISFACTORY PRICES. 

Dovetailed Hives Sections 

AND EVERYTHING NEEDED BY BEE-KEEPERS. 
We also have in stock a good supply of 

Comb Foundation and Bee-Smokers. 

CATALOG FOR THE ASHING. 

Phoenix Tool & Valve Company 

245-247 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



DAIRY STOCK 

Purebred Holsteins, Bulls 
and Heifers for sale at 
reasonable prices. 



The best bred stock 
obtainable on the 
Pacific Slope. 

Now is the time to purchase a sire 
to head your herd. 



Write for Information. 

0AKW00D STOCK FARM CO. 

P. J. SCHLEEP, Mgr. 
909 Jackson St., San Francisco 





HOG 




K0K0M0 


FIELD 


FENCE | 




POULTRY 




piohiehJ Ilock 




I I ]r 


till raj ! THAT iUtllj 







The Standard of all makes. Square and 
Diamond Mesh Fences for all purposes. Made oi 
heavy, non-rust, self-rogulating steel wires. 
Absolutely hog tight and stock proof. Write us 
for catalog and prices. 

CALIFORNIA ANCHOR FENCE CO. 

822 Main St., Stockton, Cal. 



25 Cents per Rod. 













1 


















1 




























i 






























f 






































































* 
































* 

* 









































2fi Inches high; 7 cables; 12 Inches between 
stays. Spacing horizontally as shown In cut. 

It Is w'orth a little of your time and atten- 
tion to save from llfl to S30 per mile on hog 
fence. 

Order a sample roll or come and see our 
stock. 

WRIT ■ FOB CATAI.OOUK. 

CAMPBELL BROS. 

606 I MAIN, STOCKTON, CAL. 



LIVE OAK STOCK FARM 

Six Miles N. W. from Petaluma, on 
the Petaluma and Sebastopol Road. 

FRANK A. MEHCAM, Prop. 

Importer and Breeder of 

Red Polled Cattle 

Color Deep Red. Both Sexes for Sale. 

Address all communications PETALUMA, SO- 
NOMA CO.. CAL. 




FRANK A. MECHAM 

Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep 

They were all imported from England 
or bred direct from imported stock. 




We have also bred American Merinos— Hornless 
Sheep— for 30 years. They are a large sheep with- 
out wrinkles. Hams will produce 20 to 26 pounds 
of long, white wool yearly. Sheep of both sexes 
for sale. 




FRANK A. MECHAM, Importer and Breeder 

Shipping Points: PETALUMA and SANTA 
ROSA. SONOMA CO. CAL. 

FOR SALE 

FOUR THOROUGHBRED AYSHIRE 
BULLS, Aged 12 to 20 Months. 

If you don't want tuberculosis, breed the 
AyrshlreB. 



• J . W. & .1 . 

Phone Ked 123. 



D. McCORD 

Hanlord, Cal. 



January 8, 1910; 



THE ANNUAL SHORT-HORN SALES 



MRS. J. H. GLIDE, 

WILL BE HELD 

JANUARY 24th, 1910, 



OF 



HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY, 

WILL BE HELD 

JANUARY 25th, 1910, 

IN SALES PAVILION OF FRED H. CHASE & CO., 478 VALENCIA ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

These Offerings Exceed in Number and Equal in Quality the Banner Sale of 1 909 



The Greenwood Offering Comprises: 

25 Head Yearling and Two Year Old Bulls. 
15 Head Choice Cows and Heifers. 



Including first prize winners 
at 

Alaska-Pacific-Yukon Exhibition 



MRS. *3. H. GLIDE, 

910 H Street, 

SACRAMENTO, CALIF. 



The Howard Cattle Company Offering Comprises : 

35 Head Yearling and Two Year Old Bulls. 
20 Head Choice Heifers. 



Bull offering includes sons of the thrice Grand Champion of America, 
Lavender Viscount 124755; also bulls strong in the blood of the Champion 
Choice Goods 186802. 
FOR CATALOGUE AND FURTHER PARTICULARS 
APPLY TO 

HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY, 

641 Mission Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



farm, the cross which appears to meet the 
requirements best as a dual-purpose sheep 
and one that can be bred without serious 
disadvantages is a Shropshire English Lei- 
cester-Merino. 

It is interesting to note the differences 
between the carcases of the first crosses, 
those bred from Merino ewes; the second 
crosses, those bred from cross bred ewes; 
and of the third crosses, those bred from 
comeback ewes. 

The average dressed weights from six 
sheep of the first-cross weaners is 
pounds, from eight of the second-cross 
weaners is 55 pounds, from three of the 
third cross weaners is 47 pounds. 

The second crosses, oi those from the 
cross bred ewes, have the advantage in 
weight over the first crosses of 1 4 1 
pounds, and of eight pounds over those 
bred from comebacks. Also, the carcases 
of the first crosses were all classed as or- 
dinary second and third class quality, 
whereas those from cross-bred ewes were 
classed from good to prime quality ; so also 
were those from comebacks. 

The advantage from using cross-bred or 
comeback ewes as breeders over the Me- 
rino ewes is very apparent. 

The question of breeding cross-bred 
mothers and comebacks is an important 
one. Large-framed, plain-bodied ewes, 
such as those exhibited, are the best type 
for the foundation Merino stock. The 
English breed which is favored under 
conditions at this farm to mate with Me- 
rino ewes is the English Leicester. 

These cross-breds, when mated again 
with Merino rams to produce comebacks, 
are very satisfactory, as such produce 
wool of excellent quality and quantity. 

There is not the slightest doubt that 
the improvement of Australian wool in 
the future will be on the lines of quality 
rather than of quantity upon an individu- 
al, and such cannot, be neglected when 
breeding ewes suitable for the production 
of prime lambs for export.— Agricultural 
Gazette of New South Wales. 



REQUISITES OF HORSE BREED- 
ING. 



A man to be a Successful breeder of 
horses must be perfectly familiar with 



Horse Owners! Use 1 

OOMBAULT'S 

Caustic 




Balsam 



A Sift, SpM<7, ud Fotltfr* Con 
The safest. Best BLISTER ever nted. Takei 
the place of all llnamenta for mild or severe action. 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes from Homes 
and Cattle, SUPERSEDES ALL t'ACTEKI 
OK FIRING. Jmpoisible to produce scar or bltmith 
Every bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price •1.50 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent 
5y express, charges paid, with full directions for 
'ts use. Send for descriptive circular*. 
THE LAWRENCE-WILLIAMS CO., Cleveland. O. 



the horse markets. He must know the 
horses desired by the big d raying firms, 
brewing companies, express companies, 
ice companies, grocers, laundries, ambu- 
lances, coal dealers, and meat companies. 
After this he must decide what class is 
best suited for his tastes and the condi 
tions he has to offer, as some men can 
raise good delivery horses and make a 
failure on draft horses. Another import- 
ant requisite is that the breeder should 
be a good judge of horses. He must un- 
derstand the proper conformation, action 
and character of the horses he is trying 
to produce, and the greater his knowl- 
edge of the internal structure of bones, 
muscles, ligaments, etc., the better. He- 
must have a clear and well defined type 
of horses he is going to raise, and then 
set out with the determination of pro- 
ducing the same, not being despondent if 
half his horses turn out to be undesir- 
able and not belonging to any distinct 
class. 

Farmers should profit by past mistakes 
and aim to produce horses for a definite 
purpose. Cater to the market. Don't 
raise a horse that is too slow for an ex- 
press horse and too light for a draft 
horse. Raise one or the other type and 
stick to it. It is these "half and half" 
horses which break farmers and discour 
age others from entering into the horse 
breeding business. Horse breeding when 
judiciously carried out is a profitable 
business on the Pacific Coast. The dangei 
of the business at the present time is that 
the horses are scarce and prices are high 
so that when many farmers see horses of 
no particular breeding and class bring 
fair prices they think these horses are 
profitable animals to raise. They fail to 
realize that there is always a re-action 
on high markets by the increased num- 
ber being raised to meet the demand and 
consequently no price for poor undesir- 
able animals. 

Poor horses should not be bred because 
there is always enough of these unde- 
sirables creeping into a band even when 
distinct types are being raised. Horses 
bred with a definite object in view are 
never seriously affected by an over-pro- 
duction. There has always been, and 
there always will be a good demand for 
any recognized market type of horses. 
One of the greatest evils in the horse 
breeding business is patronizing scrub 
stallions whose services can be had for 
a song. Often a difference of $20 to $30 
in a sire will bring $100 more in a colt, 
and as long as farmers will use these 
poor sires there win always be plenty of 
these undesirable sires in service, but just 
as soon as farmers commence using sires 
of the high qualify, then we will see the 
disappearence of scrub colts and sires. 

Draft horses are the most profitable 
class of animals to raise on the Pacific 
Coast, because of the demand for heavv 



H. H. H. LINIMENT 



USED UNIVERSALLY HY STOCKMEN 
Fur Succraarully Treating the Afflic- 
tion of the HORSE and other Duinrstlr 
A iiIiiihIm. 



FOR FAMILY USES IT MAS NO 
EQUAL. 

Sore Thront, Rheunattam, Sprain*. 
N •■urn li; In. ( uls, Sores. Swelling". I.uiue- 
neMM, Stiff JnlnlM, ToUououh lillex. 
Cnunpa, Diarrhoea, etc. 
KEEP A BOTTLE ON HAND FOR BMBRGBNCIBB. 
Mi.- and $1.00 Slxea. Sold Everywhere. 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, Stockton, Cal. 

Manufacturers and Proprietors. 



horses. The average draft horse is bring 
ing from $200 to $300, but unfortunately, 
men who raise these animals do not get 
this money. Two instances have come to 
my attention recently, one at Woodland, 
and the other at Salinas, where the horse 
buyer bought a" horse for $175 and sold 
it two weeks later for $300 in the San 
Francisco market. In the other case the 
buyer paid $f,00 for a span of drafters 
and sold them three weeks later for $S00. 
When the farmers realize that the dray- 
men, brewery and express companies are 
always on the look out for horses, then 
this loss of large sums of money to horse 
raisers will cease. It will pay every 
farmer who raises horses for the San 
Francisco. Portland, Los Angeles or Sac 
ramento markets to go to the various 
towns and size up the situation. See 
what are the requirements required by 
the various classes. Get the names of the 
men who are using horses. This can be 
done by standing on a street corner and 
writing the names from the wagons and 
all the teams that go by, so that when 
you have a horse to sell you can go to the 
man yourself and save the middleman's 
profit. 

A draft colt can be reared with less 
risk and liability to accident than the 
light horses. This is partially due to the 
fact that the draft bred colt is a quieter 
animal than those of the lighter class, 
and is thereby less liable to injure itself 
in spirited exercise or playfulness. One 
thing in favor of the draft horse is that 



WHEN 
DOCTORS 
DISAGREE 




— orat any other tli 
ime Kendall's Spavin 
Cure to cure ttiat 
Spavin, Oirh, RlnjrlM.np. Rpllnt," 
liony <lrowth or any other lameness. It*8 the 
-Hft way. Keep a bottle of 

KENDALL'S 
SPAVIN CURE 

on hand so you can use It promptly. 

'"l'lease send me one of your books, *Treat1se 
on the Horse.' I have been nslnpr Kendall's 
Spavin Cure for years and find It a sure cure for 
Spavin, Klngbone. Sitllntand Lameness. 

W. M. filngir, Terham, Minn." 

Good for man and beast. Your druggist will 
supply you. Pr.cc $1.00 per bottle: 6 for $5.00. 
Also , i i. him for that valuable book, ''Treatise 
on the Horse,"or write direct fora copy. Address 
DR. B . j. KENDALL CO.. Enoiburg Falls, Vt 




StickneyGasolineEn£ines 

ARE THE BEST 



Why? Because of the outside ig- 
niter, modern open cooling system, 
straight-line valve motion and ball- 
bearing govern- 
or. Thousands 
in successful op- 
eration because 

of ouryears of ex- 
perience in build- 
in? the best. 
Send for our 
Free Catalog 
and our Cat- 
echism tell- 
ing fifty-seven 
reasons why 
Stfckncy Enpl. cs Are the Best. 
Seven sizes: IK to 16 U. P. Stationary aud portable. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Co 

SAN FRANCISCO - LOS ANGELES - PORTLAND - SEATTLE 



Cutler's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they give 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and out 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

P. 0. Box 257, BERKELEY, CAL. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short- 
horns; mUk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petal uma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE-Shorthorned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



N. H. LOCKE CO., Lcxkeford, Cal. Jerseys, 
Service Bulls and young stock for sale. 



SWINE 



0. A. ST< »W'K. Stockton. Berkshire and Poland- 
China Hogs, Shropshire Sheep. 

CALIFORNIA NUK8KRY CO., NUea, Cal. 
Breeders of Thoroughbred Berkshlres. 

UKO. O. ROKDINU, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 



P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Jo., Cal. Breeder 
of shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 

UEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodl, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexen. 

O. A. MURPHY, Perkins, Cal. Breeder of Cham- 
pion Herd of Berkshlres also Shorthorns. 



.January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



small scars and blemishes which detract 
so seriously from the lighter horses are 
not considered so objectionable in the 
draft horse. He also can be made to 
earn his keep while being broken, in 
hauling around the farm. 



STOCK NOTES. 



All the sheep belonging to the Liver- 
more ranchers have been taken from the 
river bottoms of San .loaquin county to 
the winter ranges in Corral Hollow with 
the exception of the animals belonging to 
J. C. Kelley and J. J. Callaghan. 

The Pauba Ranch Co., near San Jacinto, 
recently purchased 3000 head of steers 
from the Hart brand outfit near Wilcox, 
Arizona. The cattle are mostly Hereford 
grade stock and every animal is branded 
and dehorned before being put on the 
range. 

John Hayes, of Lemoore, purchased 700 
head of cattle last week in Kern county, 



LAFAYETTE STOCK FARM 

LARGEST IMPORTERS OF 
Pert-heron, Belgian, Shire, German Coaeh 
and Hackney Stallions and Mares. 




Carnot 66666 — First Prize Winner in 
Paris, 1909. First Prize Aged Class at 
Iowa State Fair, 1909. Champion Pereh- 
eron Stallion Indiana State Fair, 1909. 
champion Percheron Stallion Wisconsin 
State Fair, 1909. Champion Percheron 
Stallion Illinois State Fair, 1909. Grand 
Champion Percheron Stallion New York 
Horse Show, 1909. 

At the recent New York Horse Show our 
horses made almost a elean sweep, repent- 
ing the ureal ivinnings made at the West- 
ern State Fairs. 

200 HEAD AT LOWEST PRICES. 
BEST GUARANTEE. 

J. F. CAMPRELL, Mgr.. Pacific Const 
Stables, permanently located at rear ISO!) 
,1 St.. Sacramento, Cal. 



DR. 



MEDICINES 



DANIELS' 

FOR 

Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Sheep, etc. 



27 Horses die from 
Colic where one dies 
from Fire. 

Why not insure 
against Colic ? 

Daniels' colic cure is 
SURE, SAFE and 
QUICK ! 

$1.00 per Package— 20 
cents cures a horse. At 
Dealers, etc. 

Agents wanted in each 
town west of the Rock,, 
Mountains. 




A. T. ROCHE & CO. 

1ES Valencia SI., San Francisco, Cal. 



Cycle Hatcher Company 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Incubators, Brooders and Fireless Brooder 

Our machines are the 
result of 25 years ex- 
perience in hatching 
and brooding and are 
the most practical 
made. 

Cycle Hatcher, 
50-cgg size, 85.50 
Cycle Brooder, 
50-egg Bize, 88.00 
The Philo System— 
an article, "A Little 
Poultry and a Liv- 
ing," by E.W. Philo 
— mailed on request. 
Main Office : EJmira, New York. SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

We«tem Office : 9 Madison St., Oakland, Cal. 




" HERCULES 



HARNESS 
SADDLES 
HORSE 
COLLARS 

THEY LAST LONGER! 

If your dealer cannot supply you, write us direct 
for a price list. Manufactured solely by W. 
DAVIS cl SONS, Wholesale Saddlery, 2040 to 
2052 Howard St,, San Francisco, Cal. 



and will take them to Avenal ranch in 
the Coast Range. 

Charles Bliss and A. L. Bliss recently 
bought several hundred acres in Imperial 
valley to raise hogs and cattle. 

Dr. I. F. Baldwin is in Nevada buying 
goats preparatory to starting into the An- 
gora goat business at Banning. 

A. B. McDonald and N. M. Gomas, of 
New Mexico, have several car loads of 
sheep in Imperial valley fattening prepera- 
tory to sending them to the Los Angeles 
market. 

Robert Palmer and John McDonald, of 
Caliente, Kern county, sold three car loads 
of cattle to Reynolds & Cray, of Los An- 
geles, recently, which were record break- 
ers. Eighteen head of those shipped 
weighed 31,198 pounds. One, in particu- 
lar, weighed 2186 pounds. 

The Keystone Ranch & Cattle Co. was 
recently formed in Modoc county. The 
directors are G. P. Robinson, Fannie L. 
Robinson and A. N. Buchanan. 

A fight is going to be made, according 
to H. H. Jastro, president of the National 
Live Stock Association, for a duty on 
hides, when the association meets in Den- 
ver on January 11th. 

Recent storms in Texas caught the cat- 
tlemen unprepared so that it is estimated 
that 25,000 head will be lost, aggregating 
over $800,000. 

Frank C. Kirby recently bought 15 
thoroughbred Herefords for the David 
Jacks Corporation of Monterey. The cat- 
tle were obtained in the San Joaquin val- 
ley. 

Thirty-two car loads of cattle were ship- 
ped out of Winnemucca, Nevada, by R. M. 
Hardin to San Francisco. 

Joe Monihan recently shipped three car 
loads of steers to the Cudahy Co., of Los 
Angeles, which averaged 1088 pounds. 

Horse thieves and cattle rustlers are so 
plentiful in Santa Barbara county that 
the County Live Stock Association has of- 
fered a reward of $100 for the arrest and 
conviction of any person stealing stock 
in that county. The neighboring county, 
Ventura, has also offered a similar re- 
ward for cattle rustlers. 

The Malibu Rancho, near Santa Monica, 
is going to be stocked with 3000 sheep. 
Later on in the season cattle will be added 
to this ranch. 

Lyman Turner has taken orders for a 
car load of Red Poll cattle to be shipped 
into Delano from South Dokota. 

Henry and Phillip Klipstein, of Bakers- 
field, recently received 450 calves and 1000 
cows from Texas. The run to Bakersfield 
was made in a special train in five days 
and only two calves and a cow were lost 
en route. 

Over 40,000 sheep were recently caught 
in Utah by a snowstorm and the owners 
are rushing out many car loads of corn 
in order to keep them going until a change 
in the weather makes it possible for the 
sheep to feed on the grass. 



DAIRY NOTES. 



Merced county has three creameries and 
six skimming stations. The product of 
the skimming stations for the last year 
was valued at $1,991,000 and 270,000 
pounds of butter was manufactured valued 
at $81,000. 

Andrew Block, of Yuba City, has bought 
700 acres of land near Grass Valley where 
he will engage in dairy and live stock 
business. 

The Morton Dairy Company, of Los An- 
geles, was recently incorporated with a 
capital stock of $20,000. The directors 
are, Richard Morton, R. B. Morton, and 
N. Bell. 

Mr. Bagley, of Tulare, recently sold 40 
head of dairy cows for $2000. 

George Wingfleld has bought an inter- 
est in the Lander County Live Stock Com- 
pany, of Nevada, and a large dairy near 
Fallon. 

(Continued on Page $9.) 



From COAST/bCOAST 
and BJVf/o GULF 




United States Separators 

and Their Products 



in All Important Awards in 1909 



IN keeping with its usual success and accomplishments, the year 1909 has 
been another record-breaker for the United States Cream Separator. 
The few awards we mention are far from all. These are a few of the more 
important ones. 




THE GRAND PRIZE (Highest Award) 
on Separators at the ALASKA-YUKON- 
PACIFIC EXPOSITION, Seattle, award- 
ed the U. S. This was positively the 
highest award received by any sep- 
arator. 

GOLD MEDAL (Highest Award) on 
Separators at the Intermoinitiiln Four 
State Fair, Ogrien, Utah, awarded the 

u. s. 

Butter made from U. S. Cream by Jas. 
H. Toomer, Morgan, Utah, also won 
First Prlz.e and Gold Medal at this Fair. 

GOLD MEDAL (Highest Award) on 
Separators at the Sacramento, Cul., State 

Fair, was awarded the U. S. Separotor. 

FIRST PRIZE (Highest Award) on 
Separators at the Texas State Fair, Dal- 
las, awarded the U. S. Separator. 

FIRST PRIZE (Highest Award) on 
Separators at the State Fair, Birming- 
ham, Alabama, awarded the U. S. 

FIRST PRIZE also STANDARD SIL- 
VER CLP (valued at $10(1.0(1) was won 
by Mrs. Alex. Simpson, of At wood, <>n- 
tario, at tlic Winnipeg Industrial Ex- 
position. Mrs. Simpson has used a U. S. 
.Separator for years and has always been 
a prize winner on butter. 

fihst prizes (Highest Awards) at 
the gn at \eiv England Fnir. Worcester, 
Mass., were awarded to Harry C. Shep- 
ard, of Sturbridgc. Mass, on Dairy Hat- 
ter and f'loverilale Creamery. Turn- 
bridge, Vt., on Creamery Butter. Both 
IT. S. users. 



THE GOLD MEDAL (Highest A want) 
at the National Dairy Shon recently 
held at Milwaukee, wis., was awarded 
to J. Gilbert Hickcox, of Whitefish Bay, 
Wis., on Market Cream obtained by the 

FIRST PRIZE (Highest Award I at 
the Illinois State Fair, Springfield, on 

Dairy Print Butter, was won hv Robert 
Moren, Morrison. 111., a user of "the U. S. 

FIRST PRIZE (Highest Award) at 
the Vermont State Fair. White River 
Junctlon> was awarded L, R. Dana. Pom- 
fret, Vt., on Dairy Butter. Mr. Dana 
also uses a U. S. Separator. 

fihst PRIZE (Highest Award) at 
the Maine state Fair on Dairy Tub But- 
ter was won by Mrs. L. S. Brimmer, of 
Tilden, Me., user of a V. S. Separator. 

FIRST PRIZE (Highest Award) South 
Dakota Slate Fair, on Dairy Butter 
won by Mrs. M. F. Andrews, of Huron, 
a U. S. user. 

first PRIZE (Highest Award) on 

Home Dairy Butter. Western Pair. Lon- 
don, Ontario, awarded Mrs. Alex. Simp- 
son, Atwood, Ont., a U. S. user. 

FOUR FIRST PHIZES. Viking Agrl- 
eultural Fair. Viking Alberta, Canada, 
Oct. 5, 1009. Dairy Butter, Mrs. S. Sten- 
berg swept all four First Prizes. An- 
other t.reat Victory for the United 
States. ^ 

FIRST PRIZE, Georgia Stale Fair. 

Macon, Ga„ October 27th to November 
6, 1909. First Premium on both Sep- 
arator and Exhibit, awarded to United 
States Separator. 



Don't let the hypnotic statements of unscrupulous advertisers, claiming the 
earth, with no records to back their olaims, influence you In the least. 

If you keep two or more cows and handle their milk by any other mealis than 
with the U. S. Separator, ' we can show you the way to a greater profit. Ask for 
Catalogue No. 118 and we will attend to the rest. 

Remember, you can try a 1'. S. Separator before yon pay one cent. This does 
not mean the bogus free trial some advertisers offer, who require the cash de- 
posited In the bank before they ship the goods. Agents In every dairy community 
Will give absolutely a free test, and ill case you buy. favorable terms. Could any- 
thing be more fair? 



VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO. 

INCORPORATED 1873 . 

BELLOWS FALLS, VT., U. S. A. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 8. 1910. 



POULTRY. 



BI'FF ORPINOTUNS — Sullivan's Common- 
wealth Strain are the heaviest layers of large 
ecus on the Coast. Winners at State Fair, 
Alaska Yukon show. Seattle, and all big shows 
for the past 10 years. Some tine Cockerels now 
for K each. Eggs 83 and $5 per sitting. Send 
for Prize Record. W. SULLIVAN. Agnew, 
Santa Clara County, California. 

A FEW PURE BRED BRAHMAS, BLACK 
Mlnorcas and Rhode Island Red Cockerels for 
sale. Apply to Vine Ranch, Vina, Cal. 

BA XTAMS— Golden Seabrlghtand Black-Tailed 
.Japanese. Free Circular. Englewood Orchard, 
Campbell, Cal. 

BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 

WHITE LEGHORNS— Ideal Layers. Write for 
Circular to 0. B. Carington, Box 705 Hay ward, 
California. 



The Poultry Yard. 



PRACTICAL LESSONS IN POUL- 
TRY KEEPING. 



The building of our new Mill, and 
our greatly increased output have 
enabled us to make 

EGG-MORE 



at less cost, and so we are offering 
it in the larger quantities at the 
following 

REDUCED PRICES 

25 lbs. $1.65; 50 lbs., $3.00; 
100 lbs., $5.50. 

If not kept by your dealer we 
will prepay the freight within 300 
miles. Write for new circular de- 
monstrating how Egg-More makes 
the cheapest egg-producing food as 
well as the best, with many Testi- 
monials. 

West Coast Mill Co. 

Cor. Griffin & Alhambra, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



CROLEVS 

Hard Eastern Oyster 

SHELL 



Is an absolute necessity for Poultry- 
men who are looking for Profit. 

MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY 

GEO. H. CROLEY, 

631-637 Brannan St., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Poultry 
Feeding 




Free 
Book 

on application to 

COULSON POULTRY 
6 STOCK FOOD CO. 

Petaluma, Cal. 



WHITE WYANDOTTES 

THE KIND THVT LAY AND WIN. 

nan .lose l»09 wou 1st cook, 1st, 2nd cockerels, 

•2nd pullet, 3rd hen. 5 entries. 
Day old chicks and egi?8 throughout the season. 

J. L. DINWIDDIE, 

PETALUMA. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By M. Russell James. 

Poultry Houses. — After many years of 
experience with all kinds of poultry 
houses in California, the writer has found 
the following plan for such buildings to 
be the most economical and convenient for 
the poultry keeper and the most comfort- 
able and satisfactory for the poultry. The 
dimensions given make a house suitable 
for some 50 fowls of the larger breeds and 
for some 60 of the smaller, in our climate. 
In a section where the fowls are snow- 
bound, the greater part of the winter a 
house of this size would be suitable for 
only half that number of fowls. In that 
case only part of the house could be used 
for roosting purposes, and the other half 
with the open side for nests, feed and 
shell hoppers and drinking fountain. 
There should be a half sash window on 
the south side of this half, and midway a 
canvas curtain to be let down in front 
of the perches on very cold nights. In 
mild climates like ours the perches may 
occupy nearly the whole of the floor space, 
and if occasional harsh winds switch 
around to the open side of the house, a 
burlap curtain tacked to the eaves may be 
let down and hooked to the lower part of 
the opening. Such houses need no fram- 
ing other than plates and sills and, if the 
roof is to be shingled, rafters, some six 
feet apart. A shingled roof will usually 
prove more satisfactory and cheaper in 
the end, as shakes and boards warp in the 
weather. For siding rough boards, 1x12 
inch, with 4 inch battens, make a suffici- 
ently warm house in our climate. In more 
severe climates, sheathing paper should 
be put under the shingles or board roofing, 
and on the inside of the walls, at least 
around the roosting perches. If any lux- 
ury in the way of extra expenses may be 
indulged in, it should be tongue-and- 
grooved flooring, as this will more than 
pay for itself in keeping cold winds from 
blowing in under the fowls and in making 
easy the cleaning. Right here we would 
emphasize the fact that tight board floors 
are necessary for poultry houses in this 
section. In localities where the ground 
freezes hard, and is covered with snow in 
the winter, the well banked house with a 
dirt floor may be all right and will cer- 
tainly be warmer; but in our open winters 
the tight board floor well raised from the 
ground is the only one that will protect 
the fowls from dampness and varmints. 

General Plan for Poultry House. — 
Single pitch (shed) roof, 2x4 inch sills 
resting on 4x4 inch posts two feet above 
the ground; siding extending down to the 
ground on two sides, or in severe climates, 
on three sides; north end, or the end away 
from prevailing winds, sided up three feet 
from the floor, with the remaining space 
open and protected by either one or two 
inch mesh wire. The former will be 
some protection from the sparrows if the 
feeding is done in the house. A wide door 
midway in one of the sunny sides of the 
house, and the trap door in the open end; 
tight board floor. 

Dimensions of House for from 30 to 60 
Fowls. — Length. 14 feet; width, 7 feet; 
height above floor, 7 feet front and 5 feet 
rear. 

This gives a house perfectly tight, when 
the middle door is closed, on all sides but 
the one left open for fresh air and venti- 
lation, and with a scratching shed two 
feet high beneath. The low scratching 
shed is the delight of fowls. Our domestic 
chickens still hark back to their jungle 
days when they hid and rested and hunted 
among the tall grasses and under the 
thick, low shrubbery. In building a poul- 
try house a high, well drained spot should 



be selected, and if none of this nature is 
at hand, the ground beneath the house 
should be raised sufficiently to keep the 
water from running under, and before lay- 
ing the floor it should be spaded and 
raked so that the fowls may have a mel- 
low place where they may roll and dust 
in rainy weather. By setting up a six 
inch board along the open sides of this 
low scratching shed, a bundle of alfalfa, 
straw or hay may be thrown under oc- 
casionally thus furnishing fine litter for 
the fowl to work among for their whole 
grain. This scratching shed is really ideal 
when properly cared for. It is liked best 
by the fowls, it is easily kept clean, and 
free from varmints, and the extra cost to 
the house is only the addition of two feet 
on the siding of tne two or three sides, 
and the extra length of the foundation 
posts. It is an excellent plan to have the 
roof extend one or two feet over the open 
end of the house, and braced from each 
side by a strip of scantling. This protects 
the open portion of the house and also an 
outside nest section. By making a shelf 
outside level with the floor, a single or 
double tier of nests may be kept outside 
anu protected from rain by the overhang- 
ing roof. 

It is not necessary that the poultry 
keeper follow this form in building the 
house. So long as he has the house well 
set up from tne ground with a tight board 
floor, and all walls tight but the open side, 
he may build his poultry house any size 
or shape that will best fit his number of 
fowls and the lumber on hand. These 
rather long, narrow houses, however, are 
gaining in popularity, and poultrymen in 
the East find them excellent, particularly 
in the roosting section, being so far from 
the open end. 

The continuous poultry house made up 
of a number of compartments opening into 
separate yards should be built on this 
same general plan, but the width of the 
house, being the length of each compart- 
ment, must be wider, some 10 feet wide, 
but never more than 12 feet wide. In 
the latter case the underneath part should 
be some 30 inches high so that ready 
access may be had to all parts of the 
same. In such houses the partitions 
between each compartment must be solid 
part way up from the floor, and the other 
portion may be wire netting which allows 
of more air and light to the whole house. 
But when this netting is made to extend 
down below the perches there is a strong 
draft upon the fowls when at roost in 
such long houses. This one point has 
caused the undoing of many poultry 
plants with 100 foot or longer houses. In 
the continuous house, a hallway is not 
necessary, in fact, it is but a waste of 
space. Doors in the partitions along the 
front side is the better plan, and the 
fowls are more readily got at and at the 
same time become accustomed to the 
keeper going among them, which is quite 
essential. 

The fad for the very long, continuous 
house has passed. It has been proved 
that shorter houses gave better results. 
It has also been noted that the extremely 
long and elaborate poultry houses were 
on the plants which failed. 



Poultry Notes. 

The Midwest Poultry Show, held in 
Chicago the second week of December, 
had exhibits from 32 States covering the 
territory from California to Massachu- 
setts and from Michigan to Georgia. An 
increase in both the interest and extent 
of poultry raising was manifest, also the 
fact that this industry is gaining to the 
greater extent among women. One of the 
features of the show was the number of 
large pens for which space was paid by 
the exhibitor simply for advertising pur- 
poses. One cock had a pen 5x3 feet and 
three feet high, another pen held a cock 
and seven hens, and still another a cock 
and nine hens. In such roomy quarters 



the fine fowls could move about with 
grace and show off to advantage which 
it is impossible for fowls to do in the 
regulation exhibition coops. No extrava 
gant claims were made by the breeders in 
the way of egg records. A breeder of 
Brahmas claimed 200 eggs a year for a 
single hen and 150 for the flock. A Leg 
horn breeder gave 235 eggs for a single 
hen and 175 for the flock; while a Hou- 
dan man exhibited a pen of four hens, on 
which he got a blue ribbon, which he 
claimed had averaged 254 eggs each in 
a twelve-month. 

Practical Results from a Poultry As 
sociation. — Through the efforts of the 
Grand Valley. Colorado. Poultry Associa- 
tion every member can secure grain at 10 
per cent above wholesale price. This 
alone has reduced the feed bill of Grand 
Valley more than $6000 a year, so that 
poultry now can be raised with a profit. 
This will induce a large number of ranch- 
men to keep larger flocks of hens. The 
association is undertaking other things 
equally important to the members, and 
soon Grand Valley will be known as a 
poultry center as well as a fruit section. 
— Western Poultry World. 



A Texas paper says, "Perhaps no in- 
dustry in south Texas, including its 
coastal plains stretching across the State 
from the Sabine to the Rio Grande, has 
ueveloped into such magnificent propor- 
tions in such a short period of time as 
that of the poultry industry. It has not 
been longer than 15 or 20 years since our 
large cities were dependent upon importa- 
tions from other States for their supplies 
of eggs and poultry. Those were the 
years when cotton and crop liens shaped 
tne agricultural policy." 



Taking the practical side of the poul- 
try business the biggest profit comes to 
those who raise their chickens in the 
country — in the villages, suburban towns 
and on the farms. Nearly all these peo- 
ple raise chickens to sell to tne city folks, 
and they make money by doing it. Good 
prices for poultry products have come to 
stay. In every part of the entire country 
poultry raising for eggs and market can 
be carried on successfully. It is not 
much work to raise a profitable bunch of 
chickens if you have good incubators and 
brooders. The work and disappointment 
comes in attempting to raise large num- 
bers in the old way with hens or with 
cheap, unreliable machines. It is true 
some care and patience are needed. There 
is only one way in which you can get 
money without having to do something for 
it. and that is, to have it left to you by 
rich relatives. People who are in the 
poultry business find the work of hatch- 
ing the chicks and raising them, and in 
gathering the eggs, sending them to mar- 
ket, etc., very pleasant. Lots of people 
who, on account of their health, cannot 
do hard work, find that the outdoor life 
that poultry raising affords improves their 
health, furnishes a great amount of pleas- 
ure, and yields a nice profit besides.— P. 
W. Wickstrum. 



The New Year. — This is the time that 
the farmer or whoever keeps poultry 
should make out an inventory of his 
poultry stock and equipment, and open an 
account with his fowls. It is a simple 
matter to head the two open pages of a 
day book each month with "Poultry Ac 
count." and on the left hand page under 
proper date charge the fowls with every- 
thing paid out for them, and on the right 
hand page credit them each day with 
every egg laid or fowl sold or eaten as 
per value of the same at ruling market 
quotations at the time, or price actually 
received for eggs or fowls sold. Each 
month these running accounts should l>e 
balanced, then the poultry keeper will 
know where he is getting to, and be ac- 



January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



37 



cordingly encouraged to keep on, or to 
change his tack. At the end of the year 
(he monthly credit balances, together with 
value of stock and equipment on hand, 
less the value of the same at the begin- 
ning of the year, will tell the story of his 
profit or loss in the year's poultry work. 
Then he can give credit where credit is 
due. If the general farmer would open 
such an account with each branch of his 
work instead of lumping his profits and 
losses he would know where to put in his 
best licks for a prosperous year at each 
recurring New Year. 



The Source of Supply. — The clerk of 
Hoffman House in New York City was at- 
tracted to the apartment of two ladies 
who had just registered from Greensburg, 
New Jersey, by some peculiar sounds. He 
nearly had a collapse when he discovered 
four hens and a rooster getting busy in 
one corner of said apartment. When he 
recovered himself enough to demand an 
explanation one of the ladies, Mrs. Walk- 
er, said: "We understood that it is im- 
possible to get fresh eggs in New York. 
My sister must have fresh eggs every day, 
so we brought along the source of supply." 
The deck called up the board of health, 
and after a discussion of laws and regu- 
lations, the fowls were started back to 
Greensburg, and Mrs. Walker said to her 
sister, "We'll cut our stay in this town 
short, and you'll have to get along with- 
out eggs in the meantime." 

To Drive Away Rats. — A writer in the 
Scientific American says be has cleared 
his premises of rats as well as vermin by 
making whitewash yellow with copperas 
and covering the stones and rafters in the 
cellar with it. In every crevice in which 
a rat might go, around the bins, poultry 
quarters, and in the corners, he scattered 
the copperas. The result was a complete 
disappearance of rats and mice. Every 
spring the cellar and premises are given 
a coat of this yellow whitewash as a puri- 
fier as well as a rate exterminator. 



And now the Red Man is going into poul- 
try. The Government has arranged for 
the establishment of an up-to-date poultry 
plant at the Lapwal Indian Reservation 
in Idaho. Pure bred fowls will be bred 
exclusively, and the work will be done 
by Indian children who will be given in- 
structions in poultry culture by competent 
teachers. 



A Wisconsin fancier has a Brown Leg- 
horn hen that had traveled more than 10,- 
000 miles to and from shows at tne be- 
ginning of this show season. Since then 
she has been to Seattle and took a blue 
ribbon home with her from the A.-Y.-P. 
Exposition. 



"Why do you always go out on the nal- 
oony when I begin to sing, John. Can't 
you bear to listen to me?" 

"It isn't that, but I don't want the neigh- 
bors to think I'm a wife-beater." 



"Sensible" Brooder Heater 

A Simple and Substantial Device. Never 
Out of Order. 




You can rely on its per- 
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heat, and cheapness of 
seivice. Always in order. 
The modern self-adapted 
"Sensible" Brooder Heater 
is the cheapest and best. 
Write for details. 



ANDREWS & WHITE 

24 Kentucky St., Petaluma, CM. 



CLARENCE MURRAY 

Civil and Hydraulic Engineer 

Complete Irrigation Plants, Water Supply, 
Power Development, Design of Plants and 
rttructures, .Supervision of Construction, Re- 
ports, Precise Surveys, Subdivisions, Etc. 
Agent for Lultwller Pumping Engine. 

1036 J St., Fresno, Cal. 



The Home Circle. 



The Remorseful Cakes. 

A little boy named Thomas ate 
Hot buckwheat cakes for tea — 

A very rash proceeding, as 
We presently shall see. 

He went to bed at 8 o'clock, 

As all good children do, 
And scarce had closed his little eyes 

When he most restless grew. 

He wrapped one leg around his waist, 

And t'other round his ear, 
While mamma wondered what on earth 

Could ail her little dear. 

But sound he slept, and as he slept 

He dreamt an awful dream 
Of being spanked with hickory slabs 

Without the power to scream. 

He dreamt a great big lion came 
And ripped and raved and roared — 

While on his breast two furious bulls 
In mortal combat gored. 

He dreamt he heard the flop of wins* 

Within the chimney flue — 
And down there crawled, to gnaw his ears, 

An awful bugaboo! 

When Thomas rose next morn his face 

Was pallid as a sheet; 
"I never more," he firmly said, 

"Will cakes for supper eat!" 

— Eugene Field. 



"Go Up Ahead." 

Thirty years ago in a poor schoolhouse 
in a back district a boy at the foot of the 
class unexpectedly spelled a word that 
had passed down the entire class. "Go 
up ahead," said the master, "and see that 
you stay there. You can if you work 
hard." The boy hung his head. But the 
next day he did not miss a word in spell- 
ing. The brighter scholars knew every 
word in the lesson, hoping there might be 
a chance to get ahead. But there was not 
a single one. Dave stayed at the head. 
He had been an indifferent speller before, 
but now he knew every word. "Dave, how 
do you get your lesson so well now?" said 
the master. "I learn every word in the 
lesson, and get my mother to hear me at 
night, then I go over them in the morning 
before I come to school. And I go over 
them at my seat before the class is called 
up." "Good boy, Dave!" said the master. 
"That's the way to have success; always 
work that way and you'll do." Dave is 
today the manager of a big lumber com- 
pany, and he attributes his start to the 
words: "Go up ahead, and see that you 
stay there. You can if you work hard." 
Success may come sometimes unexpected- 
ly, but work alone can hold it. — Genesee 
Courier. 



Edible Flowers. 

Most of us are apt to regard the arti- 
choke as a vegetable, whereas as a matter 
of fact it appears upon our table as the 
unopened flower of a plant. If they are 
left on the plant they eventually turn into 
handsome purple blossoms. This state- 
ment has reference to that species of 
thistle known as "globe artichoke." 

Dr. Johnson called the cauliflower "the 
finest flower in the garden." This state- 
ment was accurate, for when the snowy 
"vegetables" of that name are served to 
us we see nothing more than the unex- 
panded flowers of a variety of cabbage. 

Among other flowers that are eaten may 
be mentioned cloves and capers. The first 
named are the immature blossoms of a 
plant of the myrtle order, growing in the 
Moluccas. This takes the form of a beau- 
tiful evergreen, sometimes thirty to forty 
feet in height, with lovely crimson flowers. 
The buds are first light colored, then 
green, and finally red. At tljis stage they 



are gathered and dried. The diminutive 
round knob in the center of the clove is 
the unexpanded crimson blossom. 

Capers, those familiar trimmings for 
mutton and other meats and dishes, are 
the unopened flowers of a bramble-like 
shrub that grows on the shores of the 
Mediterranean sea. The trailing plant 
shows handsome pinkish-white flowers 
with long tassels of stamens. The young- 
est and tenderest of the buds form the 
finest capers known as nonpareil. As 
they flower they become superfine, ca- 
pucin and capot capers. 

The chrysanthemum is now made the 
basis of a dainty salad, served with a 
sauce made of cream. 

Another flower, the lily, contributes in 
a more solid form to the menu in certain 
parts of China. There the dried flowers 
of a particular species of lily are highly 
esteemed as a relish with meats, especially 
pork. At Chinkiang, on the Yangstse, 
these lily flowers account for nearly one- 
fourteenth of the value of the exports. — 
Harper's Weekly. 



Late Styles in Wall Paper. 



It will soon be spring house cleaning 
time, and when the day arrives for the 
selection of the wall paper, then the whole 
family will be convened in solemn con- 
clave to pass upon the samples shown. 

After weighty, weary consideration a 
decision is reached in some mysterious 
manner. And when the selected scrap is 
multiplied by four irrevocable walls, each 
and every member of the family dis- 
claims having had any voice in the mat- 
ter. "I told you that paper would never, 
never do. But the rest of you seemed to 
fancy it, so, of course — " So for two or 
three or four years, perhaps, interminable 
scrolls wind deliriously over the walls or 
lurid poppies clamber up to the molding. 

This season, however, it will be hard to 
go wrong if one but follows the prevailing 
styles. Gone are the scarlet blooms on a 
brown ground — gone the glaring stripes of 
later popularity. Everything is in the low 
tones, a sort of putty color just now being 
prime favorite. Modest conventional de- 
signs, in two-tone or half-tone gradations, 
are almost exclusively used for living 
room and library walls. In the less ex- 
pensive papers the oatmeal effects are 
especially pleasing. These are superseding 
the burlap for the dado of the dining 
room also, burlap being now used more 
for offices and public buildings. 

For the dining room a new paper has 
appeared which is meant to be a sup- 
stitute for wood paneling at about one- 
fifth the cost. It is used for either wains- 
cot or dado, and may be stained to match 
any color of oak. It has the advantage 
over wood that it does not crack or warp. 
It is 30 inches wide with two panels in 
the width, and sells for io cents a yard. 
When this is combined with Japanese gold 
cloth for the frieze a beautiful result is 
obtained. This Japanese gold cloth might 
be called a cloth of gold burlap. It. may 
be hand tinted, giving a tapestry effect, or 
may be stenciled. This sells for $8 a roll. 

Gray has been distinctly favored for the 
bedroom walls. One stunning pattern 
with a light gray ground shows the long 
stiff stalks and the leaves of the chrysan- 
themum in deeper gray." At the frieze 
each stalk blossoms out into a huge pink 
chrysanthemum. For those who wish a 
quieter paper, there is the gray chambre 
with colonial garlands united by tiny 
medallions on pink roses. The English 
chintz design is very florid, but effective 
with plain hangings and scanty wall dec- 
oration. 

The half-timbered houses seem to de- 
mand the painted or stained walls rather 
than papered ones. An attractive scheme 
of decoration was carried out in one of 
these recently put up. The living room 
was stained brown with a stencil design 
at the cornice of deeper brown and ecru. 



The library was a somewhat deeper brown, 
while the dining room was done in a gray 
insh green with gray-blue and white sten- 
cil border. 



Household Notes. 



In these days of high prices for beef, 
pork and mutton, we would suggest that 
beans, nuts, or macaroni and cheese, are 
each very nourishing and can be served 
in the place of meat. 

The best salad dressing we have served 
is easily made, is very appetizing to well 
people and good for invalids. To make, 
take yolks of two eggs, a pinch of salt, 
a teaspoon of sugar, a dash of pepper, 
stir lightly together. To this add a cup 
of salad oil, a few drops at a time, stir- 
ring with an egg beater. Alter putting 
in about a third of the oil the dressing 
should be thinned with lemon juice, then 
add more oil, then lemon juice till the 
whole cup is used and the juice of one 
lemon. This used on lettuce leaves makes 
a fine filling for sandwiches and is relish- 
ed when spread on bread in the place 
of butter. 



A Morning Prayer. 



The day returns and brings us the petty 
round of irritating concerns and duties. 
Help us to play the man, help us to per- 
form them with laughter and kind faces, 
let cheerfulness abound with industry. 
Give us to go blithely on our business all 
this day, bring us to our resting beds 
weary and content and undishonored, and 
grant us in the end the gift of sleep. 
Amen. — Robert Louis Stevenson. 



MILLS COLLEGE 

The Oldest and Only Woman's College ou 
tlie l'ncinc Coast Exclusively tor 
Young Women, 

Located among the beautiful hills near 
Oakland, California, close to San Francisco 
and the great Universities of the West. 

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Entrance and graduation requirements 
equivalent to those of Stanford and L T ni- 
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for teaching regular lines of academic 
work, and offers special advantages for 
music, art and home economics. Well 
equipped lahoratories for science. Special 
attention to health of students. Modern 
gymnasium thoroughly equipped. Outdoor 
life and sports in the ideal California cli- 
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Alumnae in every city on the Pacific Coast. 

For Catalogue and Brochure of Vlewn, 
Address President's Secretary, HIHb Col- 
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YOUNG MEN 
WANTED 



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large number of young men and women 
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are physically fit and whose records are 
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Our Wireless Department offers you an 
opportunity of quick advancement. Write 
for circulars. 

WIRELESS INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA, 
Central Trust Dldg., San Francisco. 



PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to Inventors, sent 
free on request, containing nearly 100 me- 
chanical movements and full Information 
about Patents, Caveats, Trademarks, and 
Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., 
1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San 
Francisco. Established 1860. 



United Slates and Foreign Procured, Defended and Sold. 
PACIFIC COAST PATENT AGENCY, INC., Stockton, Ce.1. 



PATENTS 



CARLOS P. GRIFFIN 

Ex-examlner U.S. Patent oillce 
ATTORNEY AT LAW 
Patent and Trade Mark Cause's. 
1201-2 Metropolis Bank Building, San Francisco 



38 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 8, 1910. 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, January 5, 1910. 
(Unless otherwise noted, quotations rep- 
resent prices paid to the growers). 

WHEAT. 

The market lias remained extremely 
quiet, with no great increase buying since 
the holidays, though local interests are 
Inn ing to some extent in the north. Prices 
arc *till verv strong, with higher quota- 
tions on sonie northern grades, the local 

, ange remaining al I as before. \\ lute 

Australian is not to be had here, and is no 
longer quoted, while club and Sonora are 
too high for any large movement. Local 
dealers quote as follows. 

California Club $2.05 @2.10 

Sonora 2.10 @2.30 

White Australian Nominal 

Northern Club 2.05 ©2.10 

Northern Bluestem 2.10 w>2.20 

Russian lied 190 @2.00 

BARLEY. 

While the buying movement is still very 
moderate, arrivals are somewhat larger 

and sum.- fair sales of I" 1 are effected at 

top prices. Values are very strong, though 
the present prices tend to check the ex- 
port movement. 

Brewing $1-50 @J.52% 

Shipping l.aO 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctl. 1.47%©1. 50 

Common Feed 1.40 @ 1.45 

Chevalier L70 

OATS. 

Considerable stock is still arriving from 
the north, consisting mainly of white oats. 
The damand is very small, and the market 
accordingly tends to weakness, though no 
decided change is noted. Red oats for 
seed are in some demand, and choice lots 
are higher. 

Red. feed n nn fl-Jj 

Seed 2.00 ©2.25 

mack 3.B0 (» 2.70 

firav Nominal 

White '.' 1-72 V4@ 1.80 

CORN. 

There is very little of any description 
offered here at present, and Western 
grades are entirely nominal, with no ar- 
rivals for some time. There is a strong 
upward tendency, however, and local lots 
are held for top prices. Egyptian now 
finds a fair demand, and is firm in price. 
California Large White .... *':!!) 
Egyptian — White 1.6a ©1.70 

Brown 1.62%@1.65 

RYE. 

The best rve has been cleaned up. and 
present offerings consist mostly of East- 
ern lines, which find little demand. Prices, 
however, are firmly held at the last quo- 
tation, though recent transactions have 
been of small importance. 

Rye, per ctl $1.90 ©2.00 

BEANS. 

Prices show no further change, pink 
beans standing very firm at $t. Limas are 
inclined to easiness, according to local 
dealers, but everything else is firm. The 
outlook is encouraging, as the shipments 
last month were unusually heavy for De- 
cember, greatly exceeding the arrivals, and 
leaving unusually small stocks on hand 
for this time of year. The estimated sup- 
ply here is 172.:!00 bags, compared with 
^51,000 bags a year ago. Dealers accord- 
ingly look for no decline of prices from 
the present high figures. 

Bayos, per ctl $5.10 @5.25 

Black. ^cs 1.00 r,, 4.10 

Cranberry Beans 4.40 ©4.60 

Garvanos 2.50 ©3.50 

Horse Beans 1.75 ©2.00 

Small Whites 4.75 ©5.00 

Large Whites 3.50 ©3.60 

Llmas 4.10 ©4.20.. 

Pea 4.25 ©4.50 

Pink 4.00 

Red 6.50 ©7.00 

Red Kidneys 3.00 ©5.10 

SEEDS. 

There is a little more Inquiry than last 

■v\ k. and a fair movement is expected for 

the next few weeks, though sales are not 
large at the moment. Prices are steadily 
held, with no quotable change. 

Alfalfa, per lb 17@17tic 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $20.00® 25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb 4 c 

Canary 4 @ 4 \i.c 

Flaxseed 4 C 

Hemp 3%@ 4>/ 4 c 

Millet 3 c 

Timothy 6 c 

Yellow Mustard Nominal 

FLOUR. 

Northern export prices have been ad- 
vanced, and somewhat higher figures are 
expected here before long, though so far 
no change is reported. Local demand is 
about average, with some increase over 
last week. A larger movement to the 
Philippines is anticipated, but the high 
prices tend to curtail export buying, 
and buyers are now inclined to hold off. 

Cal. Family Extras $6.40 (Ti 6.90 

Bakers' Extras 6.00 ©6.40 

Superfine 5.40 @5.70 

Oregon and Washington ... . 5.90 ©6.10 
HAY. 

Arrivals are still small, and the receipts 
are readilv absorbed at about the former 
prices though the local demand has not 
vet increased materially. The choice 
grades are rather scarce. The cold Weath- 
er is causing a general demand for hay 
in the mountain districts, and some ship- 
ments are moving in that direction, while 
the movement north still continues. A de- 
mand for alfalfa is expected from the 
north all season. There is some encour- 
agement on account of a Government or- 
der for the Philippines, which is believed 
to be the beginning of a larger business 

Choice Wheat, per ton $17.50@19.50 

Other Grade Wheat 13.00© 17.00 

KW " 8 :::::::::::::: ifcttSftSS 

Barev 10.00© 13.50 

WildOat" ^-JoIlioS 

»lf.,lf» 9.50ff|) 1.1.00 

Stock Hay 8.00© 9.50 

Straw, per bale 50© 75c 



M 1 LLSTU FFS. 

While the local output of the leading 
lines is light, arrivals from the north are 
quite liberal, and bran, shorts and mid- 
dlings continue weak, with a decline in 
the latter. Cracked corn is very firm, 
owing to the scarcity of the raw grain, 
and rolled barley is also strongly held. 

Alfalfa Meal, ton $22.00@24.00 

Bran, ton 27.00@29.00 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal •J«.5»f/ L' i .5n 

('racked Corn 39.00fi 40.00 

Middlings 34.00©35.00 

Mixed Feeds 28.00@33.00 

Oil Cake, per ton 39.50@41.00 

Rolled Barley 32.00@33.00 

Shorts 29.00@30.00 

VEGETABLES. 

The demand for onions remains quiet, 
but with all supplies in strong hands the 
market is firm. Turnips are easier. Most 
other lines quoted are now arriving from 
the south, and arrivals are very small, ow- 
ing to damage by the frost. Very little 
fancy stock is coming in, offerings of 
green peas are unattractive, and bring 
verv poor prices, while string beans, sum- 
mer squash and egg plant are higher than 
before. Tomatoes show a wider range, 
damaged lots being offered at a reduction. 
Rhubarb is comparatively cheap. Mush- 
rooms are offered freely, with a wide 
range in prices. Some early asparagus is 
expected in a week or two, but there is 
none offering at present. 
Onions — New Yellow, per ctl.. $1.00® 1.10 

Garlic, per lb 7c 

Green Peas, per lb 5@ 7c 

String Beans, per lb 12V4@17>Ac 

Turnips, per sack 60c 

Summer Squash, large box. . . . 2.50 

Tomatoes, per crate 75c@ 1.50 

Green Peppers, per lb 4@ 7c 

Egg Plant, per lb 12 >ic 

Rhubarb, per lb 3@ 4c 

Celery, per doz 25 @ 30c 

Mushrooms, box 25c@ 1.00 

POULTRY. 

Eastern arrivals are moderate, and 
scarcely any local stock is coming In at 
the moment. All desirable offerings ac- 
cordingly meet with ready sale, and the 
market is in rather better condition than 
last week, though prices are not quotably 
higher. Arrivals of turkeys are very 
small, but there Is some demand, and prices 
offered are considered satisfactory for this 
time of year. 

Broilers $ 4.00@ 5.00 

Small Broilers 3.00@ 4.00 

Fryers 5.50© 6.00 

Hens, extra 8.00® 9.00 

Hens, per doz 6.50© 7.50 

Small Hens 5.00© 6.00 

Old Roosters 4.00© 5.00 

Young Roosters 6.50© 7.50 

Young Roosters, full grown. . . 8.00® 9.00 

Pigeons 1.50 

Squabs 3.00@ 3.50 

Ducks 4.00© 9.00 

Geese, per pair 2.50® 3.00 

Dressed Turkevs. lb 24© 28c 

Live Turkeys, lb 20® 23c 

BUTTER. 

Arrivals are hardly as large as last 
week, but trading has been very moderate, 
and there is some surplus of extras on 
hand. That grade is accordingly lower, 
though some advance is noted both in 
firsts and storage stock. The following 
prices are quoted by the San Francisco 
Dairy Exchange. 

California (extras), per lb.... 35 c 

Firsts 32 c 

Seconds 29 i 

California Storage (extras)... 31 Vic 

Eastern Storage Ladles 25V4c 

EGGS. 

Arrivals show a further increase, and 
with the active holiday demand over the 
market has again declined quite sharply, 
firsts being 10 cents and extras IS cents 
below the price of two weeks ago. De'- 
mand is a little better at the moment, 
however, and present prices are lirmlv 
held. 

California (extras), per do/.... 38 c 

Firsts 35 c 

California Storage (extras)... 32 c 

CHEESE. 

Arrivals show some increase, and while 
there was a momentary advance in local 
descriptions, all quotations now stand the 
same as last week. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb. 18 c 

Firsts 17 c 

New Young Americas, fancy.. 19 c 

Oregon Flats lSVfcc 

Oregon Y'oung Americas I8V2C 

N. Y„ Fancy 19 %c 

Storage, Fancy Flats 17%c 

Young Americas 18 %c 

POTATOES. 
The local demand has been very small 
for the last few weeks, and there is little 
movement for shipment. Interior markets 
have been inclined to weakness, but offer- 
ings have been moderate here, and Oregon 
and river stoc k are held firmly up to quo- 
tations. Sweet potatoes show a wider 
range, with inferior stock again on the 
market. 

Potatoes — River Whites 75c© $1.10 

Salinas Burbanks $ 1.25® 1.40 

Oregon Burbanks 1.15 @ 1.25 

Early Rose 1.50 

Sweet Potatoes, ctl 1.35® 1.60 

FRESH FRUITS. 
While some grapes are still offered, 
there are no longer enough to be worth 
quoting, and persimmons are also cleaned 
up. A good many cranberries are still on 
the market, with' prices weak at the re- 
duced quotations. Otherwise there is no 
feature to the market. Apples and pears 
are both almost entirely neglected this 
week, and prices are held steadily as be- 
fore. 

Cranberries, per bbl $ 7.00© 9.00 

Apples — 

Fancy, per box 1.25® 1.75 

Choice 75c@ 1.00 

Common 40® 65c 

Christmas Apples 1.75® 2.25 

Pears — 

Winter Nells 1.75® 2.00 

Other varieties 75c@ 1.25 

CITRUS FRUITS. 
The weather has been unfavorable fo' 
heavy buying, and little interest is shown 
by the regular trade. Lemons and grape- 
fruit are very quiet, and there Is no busi- 



ness of any consequence in oranges. Ac- 
cumulations in the hands of dealers are 
heavy, but so far all stock has been held 
up to prices established at shipoing points, 
no change being noted since last week. 
Oranges — 

Tangerines 1.25® 1.50 

Navels, fancy 2.25© 2.50 

Choice '. 1.65© 2.00 

Choice Lemons 2.50® 3.00 

Fancy Lemons 4.00© 4.50 

Standard 1.00© 1.50 

Limes 4.00@ 4.50 

Grape Fruit 2.50® 3.00 

DRIED FRUITS. 
No further changes In price are noted, 
and prices are well established on all 
lines of fruits. At the opening of the new 
year nearly all lines of fruits are practic- 
ally cleaned out of growers' hands, and 
packers' supplies are by no means large, 
while the supply held by the trade in the 
East, according to all reports, is lighter 
than usual for this season. There are still 
some prunes left on the Coast, but mostly 
of the smaller sizes, and with indications 
of a further demand from the East within 
the next few months all stock is firmly 
held. The raisin situation is still uncer- 
tain. Eastern buyers are holding off pend- 
ing the establish ment of definite prices on 
the stock still held on the Coast, while 
local packers describe the market as weak, 
and are apparently unwilling to buy any- 
thing at more than two cents. 
Evaporated Apples, per lb.... 7 ® 8 c 

Figs, black 2 c 

Figs, white 4 c 

Apricots 9V4 01O c 

Peaches 5 @ 5 He 

Prunes, 4 -size basis 2*4c 

Pears 5Vi@ 7 c 

Raisins — 

I. oost- Muscatels, in sweatbox 2 <it 2«je 

Thompson Seedless 2 c 

Seedless Sultanas l%c 

London Layers, 3 crown.... 85 @95 c 
NUTS. 

There is little likelihood of any change 
in this market for some time, as the situa- 
tion on California walnuts and almonds 
is extremely firm, while prices have for 
some time been about as high as they 
could go, on account of the competition of 
imported stock. Some shellers are al- 
ready importing large lots of nuts. With 
nothing obtainable from growers, supplies 
held by dealers and packers are becoming 
very small. 
Almonds — 

Nonpareils 14 , / <2@15 c 

IXL 13%@14 c 

Ne Plus Ultra 13 ©13V£c 

Drakes 10%® 11 c 

Languedoc 9V£©10«Ae 

Chestnuts. California 9 ©11 c 

Walnuts — Softshell, No. 1 II c 

Softshell. No. 2 9 c 

HONEY. 

Business is extremely dull on all grades, 
with scarcely any demand for old and 
dark lots, which constitute the bulk of 
the offerings. The latter" are weak in 
value, while fancy stock is firmly held at 
former quotations. 

Comb .- 8 @15 c 

Exeracted, Water White 7 © 7>,fcc 

Extracted, Amber 5V4® 6 c 

Old Extracted 4 @ 4%c 

HOPS. 

There is not much left of the California 
crop, and all offerings are firmly held, 
prices ranging about as before. Trading 
has been quiet for some time. 

Hops, new crop 18 @24 c 

WOOL. 

Very little wool remains on hand in this 
market, and holdings in the country are 
comparatively light. The market is dull, 
and will probably remain so until the 
spring clip comes into the market, prices 
being nominally as before. Prices in the 
East incline to weakness. 

MEAT. 

Veal, mutton and lamb, as well as live 
sheep and calves, are becoming scarce, 
and higher prices are accordingly quoted. 
Hogs and pork are also very firm, but 
there is little buying at the present high 
prices. 

Beef: Steers, per lb 7 © 7%c 

Cows 6 © 6V4c 

Heifers 6 © 6%c 

Veal 8 ©9 c 

Mutton: Wethers 9 ©10 c 

Ewes 8 @ 9 c 

Lambs 12 c 

Hogs, dressed 9V4©12V4< 

Livestock — 

Steers: No. 1 4 V4 © 4»4c 

No. 2 4 © 4 %c 

Cows and Heifers: No. 1 3V4® 3%c 

No. 2 3 @ 3V4c 

Bulls and Stags 2 © 2V 4 c 

Calves: Light 6%C 

Medium 5 c 

Heavy 4 @ 4%c 

Sheep: Wethers 5 V4 © 534 c 

Ewes 4 "A® 4%c 

Lambs 6V4® 7 c 

Hogs: Grain fed, 100 to 150 lbs. 1%@ 8 c 
150 to 250 lbs 8 ® 8 He 

Common Hogs, lb 5 @ 6 c 

Boars, 50 per cent; stags, 30 to 40 per 

cent, and sows. 10 to 20 per cent off from 

above quotations. 



Special Citrus Market Report. 

Los Angeles. Cal., Jan. 4, 1910. — Exceed- 
ingly cold mornings and a cloudburst now 
and then are together keeping the farmers 
and orchardists from suffering with ennui, 
and while the orange grower in general 
has not been hurt, many of the individual 
growers have suffered to some extent from 
the washing of the soil from their groves 
and the uprooting of trees. The shipments 
ut manges have been seriously interfered 
with, as the railroads are all crippled to 
some extent, not having been able to get 
even passenger trains through, and as the 
country roads are in bad shape and many 
bridges out. the growers could hardly get 
much fruit to the houses, even if it could 
he transported all right. The storm of 
Saturday morning, the 1st inst., was the 
heaviest for years, and not only are all 
the steam roads In the south badly crip- 
pled, but most of the suburban electric 
roads are entirely or partly out of com- 
mission. 

The markets over east are not so very 



strong. Too much Florida fruit at hand 
even if the California stock is scarce. 
Northern navels sold In New York City 
on Monday of this week at prices ranging 
from $1.50 to $2 a box, and this would only 
net the grower from 15 to 65 cents a box. 
Orange county stock also sold very low 
and less than $2 a box In nearly every 
case. Asking prices in California are 
from $2 f. o. b. to $1.75 for the Redlands- 
Highland stoc k to $1.50 and $1.70 for fruit 
from other sections, with suspected stock 
being offered at $1.25 a box. 

Lemons are easier and the price has gone 
off somewhat. Sales were made this week 
at $2.35 a box. cash, for extra choice stock 
and up to $2.75 for fancy, though some 
dealers still claim to be getting upwards 
of $4 usual terms. 

The citrus fruit shipments from southern 
California have been 1256 cars of oranges 
and 595 cars of lemons. To same time last 
year, 1899 cars of oranges and 602 cars of 
lemons. 



PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. 



The annual catalogue of the C. C. Morse 
Co., of San Francisco, has been received 
ani. it is well worth having to study. 
The book contains 128 pages, besides a 
beautiful cover in colors. The Morse 
Company is growing steadily and the new 
varieties of seeds in vegetables and flow- 
ers brought out it are well worth hav- 
ing as all are tested before being offered 
for sale, oend for a catalogue. 



The Western Gas & Power Co.. of Oak- 
land, is advertising for agents to sell their 
machines. This company is builuing a 
successful lighting machine, and is de- 
sirous of introducing it in every Cali- 
fornia town. A live young man in every 
community can establish a good business 
for himself in arranging with this com- 
pany. 



Trustee Dinwiddle, of Petaluma. who is 
also quite a chicken fancier, and breeds 
splendid White Wyandottes, is carrying 
an advertisement in the Pacific Rural 

Pkkss. 



W. L. Sales, of Petaluma, a breeder of 
superior Rhode Island Red fowls, has con- 
tracted for advertising in the poultry de- 
partment of uie Pacific Rural Pkess. 



The Petaluma Box Factory, at Peta- 
luma, Cal., has orders for nearly 100,000 
boxes, and the completion of this work 
will consume several hundred thousand 
feet of timber. 



The Standard Gas Engine Co.. of this 
city, has orders that are crowding their 
Oakland plant wilti work. The return of 
James E. Hawkins, the secretary, from an 
extended Kastern trip, is in a measure re- 
sponsible for this. 



The Phoenix Tool & Valve Co., since 
placing an advertisement in the Pacific 
Rural Press, Is building up a good trade 
in bee supplies. Their address is San 
Francisco. Note the advertisement in 
this paper. 



The George H. Croley Co., of San Fran 
cisco, having been awarded the gold medal 
at the State Fair for best display of poul- 
try supplies, is reaping an increased busi- 



You Will Start 
The New Year Right 

By buying one of our 10, 20or 40 acre tracts, 
already planted and growing ALFALFA, 
and under IRRIGATION of the Central 
Canal, being a portion of the famous Glenn 
Rancho, In Glenn Co., close to shipping points 
both by rail and water. We harvest and 
market the crops, and the proceeds of all 
crops raised are credited on the buyer's con- 
tract of purchase, the crops thereby prac- 
tlca ly paying for the land In three years 
time, as It averages six ciops yearly, which 
will net from $40 the first year to $100 the third 
year per acre, and as an Investment Is hard 
to duplicate, as It will brtDg from 16 to 36 per 
cent on the money Invested. 

Write, or call, and let us explain the 
proposition. Free 1LLUSTKATB.D boo' let 
011 application. 

ALFALFA FARMS COMPANY 

430 Monad nock Bids., San Fraociico. 



January 8, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



31 



ness from their advertising. Mr. Croley, 
in introducing prepared crushed shell to 
assist egg production, has made a strong 
hit all over the Coast. 



The Dixon Iron Works is a new feature. 
It has been started in tnat live little 
town by Mr. d'Arteney, formerly of Sac- 
ramento, who will build road making ma- 
chinery. The new works are already in 
operation. 



The International Harvester Co. of 
America, Chicago, 111., is making a bold 
stride for publicity, and incidentally for 
an increase in trade. The company has 
recently issue- an almanac, ihat is not 
only an exceptionally meritorious propo- 
sition in its line, but contains data that 
will certainly interest the horticulturist, 
the horseman, the stockman, and the 
grower in general, which will be sent fr- 
for the asking. This almanac is every- 
thing that the word implies, and carries 
witn it important knowledge that a suc- 
cessful farmer would esteem and desire to 
know. If our readers desire a copy, they 
should address the International Harves- 
ter Co., Chicago, 111. You will certainly 
enjoy a copy, and will keep it a life time. 



DAIRY NOTES. 



(Continued From Pcuje 35.) 

Emerson Brown, of Rhode Island, has 
purchased the Forsythe property near 
Santa Rosa, where he will run a dairy. 

The Blewett Ranch, near Livingston, 
has been sold for $20,000 to a Idaho com- 
pany. This company will start planting 
alfalfa in February, and will buy a dairy 
herd preparatory to starting a dairy. 

W. D. Passey, an Australian, is securing 
patent rights on a process, which it is 
claimed milk can be kept absolutely fresh 
for an indefinite period. The taste is very 
little different from ordinary milk, and 
the chemieal analysis is not changed in 
any respect. 

C. H. Passadori is building a cheese 
factory on the Merced river. 

M. G. Salmina, of San Luis Obispo 
county, is taking steps preparatory to 
forming a Cow Testing Association in that 
county. 

The bill for the repeal of the present 
oleo law has been introduced in Congress. 
Everyone interested in the dairy business 
should see that the Representative from 
his district should work hard against the 
oleo interest. 



A Never-Failino- Supply. 

The fond husband was seeing his wife 
off with the children for their vacation in 
the country. As she got on the train he 
said: "But, my dear, won't you take some 
fiction to read?" 

"Oh, no!" she responded sweetly, "I 
shall depend upon your letters from 
home! " 



A New Occupation. 

"My lazy son has at last decided upon 
a profession that he thinks he'll like." 

"Good. What has he chosen?" 

"He wants to be a lineman for a wire- 
less telegraph company." 



SAW YOUR WOOD 




SAWS DOWN 




Willi n FOLDING SAI«li\G MACIIIXE. 9 CORDS bj OXK HAS In 
10 hours. Send ior Free cat.-.loz No. K26 showing low price 
and testimonials f.oin thousands. I-'irst order secures atrency 
r "1r!lm? SiiwInoM ich Co 1SS P. H»erl«nn St.. Chi"— "' 



FRUIT BOXES 
DAIRY BOXES 

For Butter and Cheese. 

Egg Cases, Any box to order. Prices that save 
money. Write us for figures. 

Petaluma Box Factory 
601 Sixth St. Petaluma, Cal. 




V 



Handy Knives 

A real pocket-knife — an all- 
round knife — must be ready for 
all sorts of work. No ther tool 
is put to so many different uses. 
Yet how seldom do you get one 
that fills the requirements. 



mm KUttR 

Pocket Knives 

are made to do all-round work. And 



This illustration shows 
the actual size of holes 
that may be cut with 
the leather punch blade. 




there are Keen Kutter Pocket Knives for 
all sorts of work. For example: the large 
knife here illustrated has a leather punch- 
blade, invaluable to farmers and horsemen. 
The edge is curled over so that when the 
knife is turned it cuts a clean hole. All 
Keen Kutter Pocket Knives 
are guaranteed. If not 
satisfactory your money will 
be returned. If not at your 
dealer's, write us. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY 

( Incorporated ) 
SI. Louis and New York, U. S. A. 




The Emporium Annual White Sales 

Commence Jan. 3rd, and continue throughout the month. 

Some of the greatest values in the Emporium's history 
is LINENS, DOMESTICS, WHITE GOODS, EMBROID- 
ERIES, LACES, WAISTS, WOMEN'S and CHILDREN'S 
DRESSES, UNDERMUSLINS, SCARFS, CENTERS and 
FANCY LINENS. 

The assortments are the largest the Emporium has yet 
offered. The best money's worth always and every purchase 
protected by that fair and liberal Money-Back Policy which 
guarantees satisfaction or money refunded. 




Market St., between 4th and 5th, 



San Francisco. 



ROAD GRADERS 

All Sizes 

RUSSELL 

Simplex, 
Reversible, Elevating. 




SCRAPERS: 
Drag Wheel Fresno 

W. T. MARTIN MACHINERY CO., 1277 Howard Street, San Francisco. 



CALIFORNIA FRUITS 



Price $3 per copy, postpaid. 



COMPLETE COMPENDIUM ON FRUIT 
GROWING. 



AMD 



HOW TO GROW THEM 



By E. J. WICKSON, A.M. 



"I have had occasion to consult Prof. 
Wlckson's 'California Fruits' on many 
subjects and have found what I wanted in 
every case. The book might well be styled 
an Encyclopedia of California Horticul- 
ture." — Li. Lathwesen, San Jose. 



REVISED EDITION, 500 PAGES. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED. 



Send In Your Order Today to 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publisher, 

667 HOWARD STREET, 
, San Francisco, Cal. 



PATENTS 

FRANK P. MEDINA, 
Attorney at Law. 

Patents— Trade Marks— Copy rights. 

812 and 814 Claus Spreckels Bldg.,8an Francisco. 



J. C. PARSONS, 

CIVIL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR 
Irrigation and Drainage Specialties 

SANTA ROSA. CAL. 



SECOND HAND 

PIPE 

AND CASING 

All sizes of pipe, also fittings and 
valves. All our pipe and casing has 
newly cut threads and new couplings 
attached, ready for immediate use; hot 
asphaltum dipped and guaranteed good 
as new. Prompt delivery on carloads 
or less. Small orders receive same close 
attention as large ones. We have two 
big up-to-date plants and experienced 
workmen. We buy for cash and sell 
for cash. We conduct a large business 
at small profit. Our customers get good 
pipe at a very low price. Our quality, 
methods and prices are such that "once 
a customer always a customer." 



d for Our Pric 



List. 



WEISSBAUM 

PIPE WORKS 

133 Eleventh St., San Francisco. 

3rd Ave and Tenth St., East Oakland, Cal. 



CAN WE INTEREST YOU IN 

Equalizing Harvester 
Hitches, 

Equalizing Plow 
Hitches, 

AND 

Automatic Derricks? 

If not This Season, for Next ? 

A Postal will Bring Full Partic- 
ulars. 

SCHKR MFG. CO., Inc. 

DAVIS, CAL. 



The Fresno Scraper 




Send for Raisin Machinery Catalogue. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO CALIFORNIA. 



AGENTS WANTED 

LIVE, RESPONSIBLE MEN 0NIY. 

Vapor-Gas Machines 

FOR COCKING AND LIGHTING 



WESTERN GAS & POWER CO. 

1842 7th Street, 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



OUR COUNTRY'S BEST 

Its Presidents 
AMERICAN PUMPS. 

Send us your Name and Address with full 
det&lla of your present or contemplated 

PUMPING PLANT 

and we will send you, free of charse, one each 
month, our complete set of 12 

PRESIDENT BLOTTERS 

FOR 1910. 

California Hydraulic Engineering & Supply Co. 

Distributer. "AMERICAN PUMPS" 
523 MARKET ST.. SAN FRANCISCO. 

AGENTS WANTED. 



4(1 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 8, 1910. 




A GAS ENGINE OF KNOWN QUALITY 
BUILT IN CALIFORNIA RUNS EVERYWHERE 

THE "STANDARD" 

Stationary, Pumping, Hoisting and Marine. 

Endorsed by the U. S. Government Continually. Written Guarantee. 

Send for our special literature containing much valuable In- 
formation which will be of Interest to you If you contemplate 

using power for any purpose. It's Free. 

STANDARD GAS ENGINE CO., 

OFFICE AND PLANT 
23rd AVENUE. OAKLAND 



SAN FRANCISCO SALESROOM 

436 MARKET STREET 



z z 

3 o 
z z 



DIXON IRON WORKS. 




THE IMPERIAL 
LAND GRADER 

The only grader and scraper com- 
bined that moves earth and levels the 
ground perfectly and with ease. 



ALL KINDS OF MACHINERY 
REPAIRS ON SHORT NOTICE. 



DIXON, CAL. 



o 
pi n 
r z 




This is 
Second Hand 
Pipe 

We can supply you with 
any size and quantity of 
standard Pipe or Casing— all new 
threads and couplings — all stock guaranteed 
first class. Write for Prices and Particulars. 



PIPE MACHINERY 

Second hand, but in durable and servicable condition 
AT LESS THAN HALF PRICE. 

Pumps and Gasoline Engines for Farm Work. Big Bargains for all. 

STANDARD TOOL AND MACHINE WORKS 

1429 MISSION STREET. SAN FRANCISCO. 



DO NOT CONSIGN BROKEN CASTINGS TO THE 
JUNK PILE. 

This is important advice to the farmer. Your broken machinery can be repaired as good 
as new. We lira/.e or Weld llroken Cast Iron, Brass and iiron/.e Castings, Cylinders, 
Exhausts, tias Engine Parts, or Pumps. Our process is sure and saves you 50 to 73 per cent 
of what new castings cost. Save the broken parts and bring to us. 

SAN FRANCISCO BRAZING WORKS, 121 Beale St., San Francisco. 



WOOD 
PIPE 

Made from California Rtcw od 
or Selected Washington Douglas 
Yellow Fir. 



National Wood Pipe Co. 



Machine Banded Stave Pipe. 



Continuous Stave Pipe. 



SAN FKANCISCO OKFICE-318 Market St. 

Mis AN<; KI.ES i iKKICK-404 Equitable Bank Bldg. 

P( HiTLAND OFF1CE-210 Wells Fargo Building. 

Prices, specifications, hydraulic data and general Information 
furnished upon request. 



REDWOOD TANKS deep well pumps 

AND CYLINDERS 

Water gates Tor pipe lines. Send for catalog. 

POMONA MANUFACTURING CO., 



Fifty tanks from one thousand to ten thousand 
gallons that must be sold regardless of profit. 
Fruit Boxes— Egg Cases. 

Write for prices. 

Ft. K. WILSON 

Stockton. Cal. 



Pomona. Cal. 




Elf ctrlc-Centritugal Pump. 



Byron Jackson 
Iron Works 

INC. 

351 - 355 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




Ideal Water Cooled Gasoline Engines. 

Sizes lh to 9 h. p. — all vertical type— Speed 350 to 500 — 
base of engine is heavy and cast hollow, carrying fuel — 
Speed adjusted while engine is running; Simple in con- 
struction; Distillate or gasoline work equally as well. 

We oiler you this engine, assuring you of satisfaction. 

LANSING WHEELBARROW COMPANY 

787 Folsom St., San Francisco, Cal. 



THE 



Sun's Path 



is the route of 



Sunset Express 



Daily between San Francisco, New 
Orleans and East, via Los Angeles 
and El Paso. 

The Comlortable Way on a Winter Day. 

One hundred mile ride along the 
ocean shores of the Pacific. Through 
Southern California orange groves 
— rice, cotton and sugar fields of 
Texas and Louisiana. Picturesque 
bayous— the Teche — Land of Evan- 
geline. 

Oil burning locomotives. 
No soot. No cinders. 

Through drawing-room sleepers, 
berths, sections, drawing-rooms, 
dining, parlor and observation car 
service. Steam heated and electric 
lighted throughout. 

Through tourist car service to New 
Orleans, Washington, Cincinnati, 
St. Louis and Chicago. 



SOUTHERN PACIFIC 

Ticket Offices : 
Flood Building, 
Market Street Ferry Depot, 
Third and Townsend Sts., Depot. 
Broadway and Thirteenth Sts., 
Oakland. 



NEW ORLEANS— NEW YORK 
STEAMSHIP LINE 

the line that connects with the 

Sunset 
Route 

at New Orleans, and which you 

may include in your rail ticket at 

no more cost than for an all rail 

route to New York. 

Two sailings weekly between New 

Orleans and New York. 

Elegant accommodations, suites of 

private bedroom, parlor and bath; 

staterooms, library, smoking room, 

baths, promenade decks, excellent 

cuisine. 

Make our handsome new office, 
Broadway and 27th sts., New York, 
your headquarters when East. Our 
attendants will be glad to assist 
you In any way possible. Have 
your mail addressed in care of the 
office and you will receive same im- 
mediately on call. 

RATES — By rail to New Orleans, 
steamer to New York, including meals 
and berth on steamer 

First Cabin, $77.75; Round 
Trip $144.40. 
Second Cabin, $65.75. 
Second Class Rail and Steerage, $61.45. 



WRITE OR SEE AGENTS 

SOUTHERN PACIFIC 

Ticket Offices : 
Flood Building, 
Market Street Ferry Depot, 
Third and Townsend Sts., Depot. 
Broadway and Thirteenth Sts., 
Oakland. 



THIS TRACTOR WILL PLOW YOUR ORCHARD FOR 28c. PER ACRE. 




In actual tests this tractor has plowed over 
an acre per hour at the above cost for fuel, 
pulling four furrows 7 inches deep. 

It is built especially for orchard plowing 
and cultivation and will work your land 
much cheaper than horses. 

For further information send for catalog R. 

JOHNSON TRACTOR CO., 

SUNNYVALE, CAL. 





Vol. LXXIX. No. 3. 


SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1910. 


Fortieth Year. 



STARTING OF THE BUDS OF VINES. 



effect of various 
etc. on the vigor 

c in ;i vineyard 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Prof. F. T. Bioletti. 

A publication has recently appeared, entitled 
"The Influence of Cultural Operations on Vege- 
tation and Production of the Vine," which con- 
tains some matter of great interest to all grape- 
growers. It is written by Prof. L. Ravas of Mont- 
pellier. France, and contains the results of well 
planned researches into the 
methods of plowing, pruning 
and fruitfulness of the vine. 

The experiments were mi 
planted for the purpose 
five years ago, and while 
not in all particulars com- 
pletely conclusive, they 
offer some suggestions of 
real value and answer 
some of the practical 
questions that often puz- 
zle the »rower of grapes. 

As Prof. Ravas points 
put, the crop of a vine- 
yard is governed by two 
groups of influences, 
those which depend on 
weather and climate and 
those which depend on 
the cultural operations 
practiced by the grower. 
The first he cannot mod- 
ify, but the second he 
can vary at will. To be 
successful he must choose 
h i s methods to corre- 
spond with the weather 
and climate, for the 
two groups of influences 
mutually modify each 
other's effects. The 
weather conditions vary, of coursi 
same locality in different year.-., 
weather characteristics are usual in 
and it is useful to know what cultural methods 
are most adapted to the most usual weather con- 
ditions. The time of the leafing out of the vines 
in spring is of great importance as influencing 
their more or less susceptibility to frost injury. 
Some of the experiments suggest methods by which 
this time may be modified to some extent. 

The commencement of vegetative activity is 
manifested by the vine in the spring, first by 
"bleeding," or the exudation of drops of sap from 
the pruning wounds, and later by the swelling and 
opening of the buds. The exact time of the open- 
ing of the buds varies with the climate, variety 
and a large number of other conditions. In the 
experiment vineyard at Montpellier in 1!H)S the 
mean date of the opening of the buds of the va- 
riety Aramon was .March 2."). In the various parts 
of the vineyard, treated in different ways, the 
date of opening was in some cases earlier, in others 
later, than this. 

Before considering the causes of these variations 
Prof. Ravas first discusses their extent. The meas- 



urement of these variations offer some difficulties, 
owing to the fact that all the buds on the same- 
vine do not open at the same time. By determin- 
ing the ratio of the number of open buds to that 
of unopened, at equal intervals of time, however, 
he was able to determine the "rate of speed of 
budding" and the average time of budding in 
each case. 

Influence of the Color of the Soil. — The color id' 
the surface of the soil was artificially changed in 
various plots. The colors used were white, red 
and black. The starting of the first buds was 
practically the same in all cases and identical with 
that of the control plots. The starting of the later 



time of starting of the buds, six rows were pruned 
at different times. 

Row 1. Immediately after gathering the grapes. 

How 2. Immediately after the fall of the 
leaves. 

Row 3. 
mailt). 

Row 4. 

Row 5. 

Row 6. 



In December (vines completely dor- 




even in the 
hut certain 
each local it v. 



In a California Vineyard at Gathering Time. 

buds and their rate of growth was also the same, 
with the exception of the black soil, where the 
budding was considerably retarded. 

Influence of the Spacing of the Vines. — In va- 
rious parts of the vineyard, the vines were planted 
at different distances, ranging from a little over 
six feet each way to about thirty inches. The re- 
sults show that the more widely spaced vines 
started later than those planted more closely. 

Ravaz concludes from these observations that, 
with healthy vines, the more vigorous they arc, the 
later the buds develop. In support of this con- 
clusion, he notes that the vines in the black soil 
grew more vigorously and lost their leaves later 
than those in the other plots. lie points out that 
the excessive vigor, during the second year, of 
vines grafted in the field is accompanied by late 
starting, and that the weakness of vines replanted 
among old vines is accompanied by early starting. 
Unhealthy vines whose reserve of food supplies has 
been exhausted by disease or overbearing may, 
however, start their buds later than normal 
vines. 

Influence of the time of Pruning. — To determine 
the effect of the time of pruning the vine on the 



When the vines commenced to bleed. 
When the buds commenced to start. 
When the shoots at the ends of the 
canes had grown about two inches and the buds at 
the base were still dormant. 

The buds in rows 2 and 3, pruned when the 
vines were most dormant, started first. Those in 
row 4 were retarded 
about a week, those in 
row 5, two weeks, while 
those in row (i were aboul 
three weeks behind the 
normal in starting. Those 
of row 1 were also con- 
siderably retarded. 

These results point to 
certain conclusions of 
some practical v a 1 u e. 
There seems to be three 
groups of influences that 
affect the time of start- 
ing. 

Vigorous Vines Tend 
to Start Late. — Good cul- 
tivation, fertilizing, irri- 
gation, short pruning, 
anything, in fact, which 
produces strong vegeta- 
tive growth in the vines 
tends to delay, 1 he spring 
starting of the buds. 

Weak Vines Tend to 
Start Early. — Vines 
dwarfed by the vicinity 
of trees or larger vines, 
lack of cultivation, or water, or other causes which 
lessen their vegetative vigor, start their buds 
early. This, however, is conditional in their lay- 
ing up a sufficient store of reserve food material. 
The starting of the buds in the spring requires a 
proper supply of starch in the tissues. A vine 
may be small and weak and yet its tissues may be 
well supplied with starch, In this ease it will start 
early. If, however, besides being weak it has been 
defoliated by fungus or insect pests or by frost 
during, or soon after, the vintage, its Leaves will 
have failed to obtain from the air that food ma- 
terial needed to supply its canes, stems, and roots 
with starch upon which the starting of the buds 
depends. In this case it will start late or not at 
all. The same result follows immoderately heavy 
bearing. The large crop of grapes absorbs the 
whole of the nutriment elaborated by the leaves, 
a part of which should have been laid up in tin' 
buds of the vine for future use. This explains the 
retarding effect of pruning the vines immediately 
after the vintage. While the grapes are growing' 
and ripening all the food material goes into the 
crop. It is only after the crop is mature or galh- 
(Condnui (I on /'ay 47.) 



42 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 15, l!)lu. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 

TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. - - - PUBLISHERS 
Advertising rates made known on aoplication. 

i£. J. WICKSON Editor 

FHANK HONEYWELL .... Business Manager 
GBOROE HI LEY Advertising Manager 



California Weather Record. 



The following rainfall and temperature record is fur- 
nished the PACIFIC Rural Press by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, at San 
Francisco, for the week ending at 5 p. sr., Jan. 11, 1910 : 



Stations. 


Rainfall Data. 


Tempera- 
ture Data. 












Past 


Seasonal 


Normal 


Maxi- 


Mini- 




Week. 


to Date. 


to Date. 


mum. 


mum. 


Eureka 


.50 


22.51 


19.10 


52 


30 


Red Bluff 


.29 


8.74 


11.81 


44 


28 


Sacramento 


.28 


7.50 


8.08 


51' 


30 


San Francisco... 


.16 


10.2:; 


9 50 


62 


37 


San Jose 


.08 


8.19 


6.05 


66 


28 


Fresno 


.01 


9.88 


4.13 


54 


.28 


Independence... 


.00 


5.42 


4.09 


44 


10 


San Luis Obispo 


T 


13.55 


7 53 


58 


32 


Los Angeles . , 


.01 


10.20 


0.00 


64 


38 


San Diego 


.04 


7.81 


3.79 


58 


36 



The Week. 



The natural effect of mingling expert Govern- 
incut service with polities is sharply shown in re- 
cent oeeurrenees by which the (iovernmenl of the 
I'nited States loses the services of the most em- 
niinent forest expert in the world. .Mi 1 , (iifford l*i n- 
ehot. We apprehended that things were going this 
way last summer when it first appeared that the 
politicians would try to make conservation of 
natural resources a political issue when it is really 
a national issue which all patriotic men. irrespec- 
tive of political opinions or interests, would vig- 
orously and disinterestedly support. That it seems 
to us is the proper ground upon which to promote 
conservation and just as soon as any set of men 
begin to claim exclusive honesty and patriotism 
in such a matter there is danger of delay, but not 
of ultimate attainment of the ends clearly seen 
to be desirable. Because we believe that conser- 
vation policies will prevail even though claims of 
political proprietorship are laid upon them, and it 
may take time to remove sncli an incubus. We 
believe that .Mr. Pinehot made a serious mistake 
in not working for conservation as the foundation 
underlying statesmanship rather than allow it to 
become. a political issue in his hands. lie has. in 
his forest administration, shown himself to be a 
man of great force, of forbearance, of patient pro- 
motion and of winning ways with opponents, and 
he awakened the country to forest interest and ef- 
fort so effectively that his name will always be 
spoken with respect and honor in such connec- 
tions. Why he could not have sustained the same 
course with conservation generally, we cannot un- 
derstand, but the fact seems to be that the very 
name conservation became to him synonymous 
with individualism, and the endowment of par- 
ticular politics. Such being the case he naturally 
came into conflict with the present administration 
and discord could only be avoided by his retire- 
ment. The whole affair is unfortunate, because 
Mr. Pinchot's withdrawal is a distinct loss to the 
service, and because it is 'never a good thing for 
expert government service to allow itself to be 
embroiled in political contentions. We cannot 
help believing that if Mr. Pinehot had lived more 
in the forest or more in the West where the spirit 



of enterprise could have impressed itself more 
deeply upon him. he would have been a more con- 
sistent promoter of conservation. The atmosphere 
of contention at Washington, where national is- 
sues are always measured first for political rather 
than popular values, has not been favorable for 
the breadth of view which a great national un- 
dertaking requires. 

Quite different is the sulphur question and yet 
there is a suggestion in it that public interest suf- 
fers when the expert allows himself to be drawn 
too far away from broad views and popular stan- 
dards of measurement. The admirable review of 
the sulphur question which Mr. Arthur R. Briggs 
gave at the Watsonville convention and which 
appears upon another page of this issue, shows 
clearly how Dr. Wiley has departed from the sci- 
entific method and spirit, to which, as an expert, 
he should have paid loyal devotion, and has 
striven for the enforcement of his particular will 
by methods which would have hardly been con- 
sidered fair even in politics, where all things arc 
proverbially fair. The refusal to he patient when 
his acts are under review by the highest scientific 
authority in his own line, the effort to depose this 
authority by sharp practice at conventions or to 
render its conclusions possibly ineffective by cans- 
ing them to be contended for separately in all of 
the States — all these acts savor of political sub- 
terfuge, and have no relation to scientific attitude 
and behavior. Mr. Pinehot seems to have subju- 
gated his service largely to political purposes: Dr. 
Wiley has clouded his by recourse to political 
methods. Both have disregarded manifestations 
of the public desires in a willful way. and both 
have mistaken public service for public control. 
There may he something of an uplift in the view 
thai the people who are making most trouble iii 
the public service, however, at the present time 
are not the scalawags. We have advanced so far 
in our civilization that our evils come from pride 
and selfw ill in our brightest public servants. With 
this newer difficulty the popular will will be just 
as competent to deal as it has with vexing prob- 
lems of a different type. 



Speaking of food in the form of preserved fruits 
one cannot help mentioning that in a lamentable 
affair with canned fruit last week near Los All- 
udes the commercial canning industry is not con- 
cerned, though it may temporarily suffer for it. 
The ease is. however, appalling. It appears that a 
party of relatives were having a holiday feast in 
the course of which they partook of canned 
peaches, nine deaths resulting. The can of peaches 
was put up several months ago by the hostess who 
was one of the victims herself, and was partaken 
of by ail of those who died or suffered from the 
effects of the poison. The report is that the can 
was apparently tightly sealed, but that when open- 
ed the juice appeared to have fermented, and the 
peaches stung the tongue when eaten. Physicians 
say that all of the deaths are due to ptomaine 
poisoning, but at the risk of defying the profession 
we must say that it seems to us more likely that 
to be some other poisonous substance from the can 
or the soldering. However that may be it is clear 
that the fruit was improperly canned and was the 
result of culinary and not of cannery operation. 
The importance of this fact will appear when the 
rea iter recalls that in our issue of December 4 
there was a statement in the essay by Mr. ('. II. 
Bentley in which these words appear: "The out- 
put of canned fruit and vegetables in California 
at the present time is. approximately, 120.000.000 
cans per year, and it is a curious and interesting 
fact that, when one considers the billions of cans, 
literally, which have been sold all over the world ' 



in the life of the canning industry, there never yet 
has been an authentic case of anyone injured or 
distressed, much less being poisoned, by the use 
of California canned fruits or vegetables." This 
statement, of course, remains true for it applies to 
foods duly processed and packed in commercial 
establishments where better appliances and pro- 
cesses are employed than in much of the domestic 
canning. The lesson i s that the greatest possible 
care should be exercised in this line of food pre- 
servation. 



A pertinent communication by Mr. Edward 
Berwick concerning postal banks may be found 
"ii another page. In support of the proposition, 
there conies from Washington the very interest- 
ing statement that through the lack of respect 
among newcomers to this country for our ordinary 
savings banks millions of dollars annually flow 
by postal money order from the United States to 
foreign countries. Auditor Chance of the Post- 
office Department points to this condition as an 
indication of what might be accomplished through 
the establishment of postal savings banks. The 
total of $640,640,817, representing the surplus 

earnings id - foreign laborers employed in the 
United States, has been sent abroad since 1890. 
and $76,622,629 was sent abroad by foreign work- 
men in 1909. Postal officials declare that in trans- 
ferring their money to foreign countries, foreign- 
ers prefer money orders to checks and drafts on 
banks. It really doe-, seem that the government 
should provide for handling the small money of 
the millions who do not understand and are there- 
fore in fear of our banks, and not being able to 
read the danger signs which keener business 

people can discern over the bad banks, condemn 
them all alike. Of course this is only one aspect 
of a very important matter. 



It is interesting to remember that an English 
steam plowing outfit which was brought to Cali- 
fornia about a third of a century ago was but 
little used and then thrown upon the scrap heap. 

It was in advam f the time. After about I'll 

years, however, others were brought into Ventura 
county to do deep work for beets, and did so well 
that other beet districts are importing similar out- 
fits. The Alameda Sugar Company, which brings 
many of its beets by rail from the interior valley, 
has received another steam plow of Knglish manu- 
facture, and will soon have two of these plows in 
operation ill Yolo county. These plows cost 
$30,000. and the company must pay 40 per cent 
of this amount in duty. The plows are used to 
prepare the ground for growing sugar beets. The 
company has 5500 acres of land under lease in 
.Yolo county ami is trying to lease more. This 
is a very large increase over the an a of land con- 
tributory to that sugar factory last year in that 
county. 

We call the attention of sportsmen and game 
wardens, who are fearful that the shooting-farmer 
will kill their sport, to the fact that a greater 
danger impends than the farmer and his rusty 
gun. The men who are invading the atmosphere 
with their aerial navigation are a greater menace. 
The report comes from Paris that the proprietor 
of a large estate in the south of France says that 
he has noticed the greatest alarm among the birds, 
especially among wild ducks, on the appearance 
of a steerable balloon over their heads. It is feared 
by ornithologists and sportsmen that the advent 
of flying machines will cause a decrease in the 
number of game birds. Other testimony in the 
same line is Comte Clary, president of the St. 
Ilurbet Club, who claims the danger id' extinction 
id' the winded species is increased by the use of 
aeroplanes. He s-ivs that during a recent aviation 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



contest he observed the behavior of frightened 
birds as the aeroplanes rose. In some cases they 
seemed to be paralyzed with fear, while in others 
(hey scudded away with loud cries. By the end 
of the week- few birds were to be seen on the 
field. This is very interesting, but birds and 
broken necks will not keep the race from flying 
if it can. We apprehend, however, that the birds 
will soon become as neglectful of these machines 
as the horse is of automobiles. In fact, they will 
soon be perching and riding upon them. Spar- 
rows and swallows rest in locomotive round houses 
and the former alight fearlessly upon the cabs 
of the terrific monsters. We see no great reason 
to regard the present behavior of birds as any- 
thing but temporary. 

The death of Mr. W. C. Floyd last week in 
Berkeley suggests reminiscences concerning the 
establishment of photo-engraving on this coast, in 
which this journal was the motive power. One of 
the things which attracted the attention of the 
late Mr. A. T. Dewey, the founder of the Pacific 
Bubal Press, when he attended the Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876 was the promise 
of engraving by light instead of graver, and he 
took steps to introduce the method on this coast 
to save a vast amount of wood cutting which was 
then being done by several parties in San Fran- 
cisco. For this purpose he employed a young man 
who had worked in the office of the New York 
Graphic, if we remember correctly, and he brought 
from the East materials and as much as could be 
then learned of successful process-engraving — 
which was mighty little, for even the Graphic died 
soon of its load of ignorance. This young man 
came to California with Mr. Dewey under the 
name of Duckett, and he secured the right later to 
change his name to Floyd because the boys in the 
office took to calling him "Bucket," which he re- 
garded as a reflection upon his standing and con- 
tents. Mr. Floyd was a very faithful and intelli- 
gent worker, but too little was known of photo- 
engraving then to enable him to produce anything 
satisfactory at first. The first photo-engraving 
actually given to the public in San Francisco was 
a view of the resort of Dr. Weber, at Weber lake, 
which was published in the Pacific Rural Press 
in the spring of 1877, the accompanying text being 
prepared by the late Prof. J. G. Lemmon. The 
effect was startling. In a few days a letter was 
received from Prof. Lemmon saying that Dr. 
Weber when he first saw the picture burst into 
tears, declaring that his business for the season 
would be ruined because no one would resort to 
such a place. The picture surely was a fright. 
But Mr. Floyd persevered and succeeded later in 
doing very good work on his own account, while 
Mr. Dewey put at the engraving work a young 
man from Massachusetts, who has in later years 
beeome well known in business circles after weary- 
ing of art as then embodied in plaster of paris and 
type metal. Considering the present develop- 
ment of photo-engraving on this coast it is inter- 
esting to note these facts of its very beginning. 



Queries and Replies 



Litmus and Alkali. 

To the Editor: Is there any simple soil test for 
alkali thai can he made without a chemical an- 
alysis? I am buying land for the purpose of 
planting eucalyptus and want to be able to ascer- 
tain if the proportion of alkali in the soil would 
be detrimental to the growth of the trees? — 
Planter, San Diego. , 

You can ascertain the presence of alkali by us- 
ing red litmus paper, which will be turned blue 
by the alkali in the soil, if the soil is moist enough. 
This does not determine the amount of alkali, but 



the quickness of the turning to the blue color and 
the depth of the color are both attained when the 
alkali is very strong. When there is less alkali, 
the re-action is slower and weaker. This test, 
however, gives you only a rough idea whether the 
soil is suitable for growing plants. You can tell 
that better by the appearance of the plants which 
you find. Any San Diego druggist can furnish 
the litmus paper, and give you a demonstration of 
how it acts on contact with alkali. 

Walnuts in Ventura County. 

To the Editor : I wish to plant walnuts on land 
west of Ventura. There is no irrigation there, for 
the two wells get pretty low in summer. There 
are large walnut trees on the place but not the 
right kind they tell me. Can you tell me what 
kind would be right in that place, and with the 
water as it is? How long it would take the trees 
to mature? — Owner, Chicago. 

In the walnut districts of southern California, 
the Santa Barbara Soft-Shell is the most popular 
variety. You say there are large walnut trees al- 
ready growing on the land. This indicates that 
the moisture conditions must be acceptable. You 
can era ft over your large trees to the Santa Bar- 
bara Soft-Shell, and you can plant younger trees 
of the same kind, as far as you think it desirable. 
By planting seedlings already grafted with scions 
of bearing trees, you can get a crop in three or 
four years. By planting ungrafted seedlings, two 
or three years more will be required for them to 
come into bearing. 

Sugar Factory Lime for Fertilizing. 

To the Editor : Is the lime from a sugar factory 
a good fertilizer for either oranges or walnuts, if 
so, about what amount to the acre would you 
recommend? — Farmer, Orange. 

If your land needs lime or if it is heavy and 
needs to be more friable, or if you have reason to 
think that it may be soured by exclusion of air or 
by excessive use of fermenting manures, the re- 
fuse lime you speak of will do as a corrective just 
as other lime does, though, perhaps, not so ac- 
tively. Beyond that there is nothing of great 
value in it. You can use two or three applications 
of 500 pounds to the acre without overdoing it — 
if your land needs it at all. 

Pruning Apples. 

To the Editor: Young apple trees set in the 
orchard in March, 1908, were cut back to 14 to 
18 inches and cared for a's to low branching, 
proper spacing, etc., but the desired branches 
were allowed to make full growth to the present 
time. They have made great growth and if al- 
lowed to continue will make too tall trees. How 
far would you advise to cut back, if they should 
be shortened any? — Subscriber, Sacramento 
county. 

We understanad that your trees have made two 
summers' growth since pruning. We should cut 
back now to a good lateral wherever you can find 
one running at the right direction at about three 
to four feet from the last cut, and shorten the 
lateral more or less according to the best judg- 
ment we could form on sight of the tree. In this 
way you can take out the branches which are run- 
ning too high and make the framework for a lower 
growth. Do not remove the small twigs and spins 
unless you have too many such shoots. 

Bordeaux and Almonds. 

To the Editor: What is the correct pronuncia- 
tion of "bordeaux"? I low did the name origin- 
ate as applied to the bordeaux mixture, and how 
long has the spray been in use? What is your ad- 
vice as to the winter spraying of almonds with 
bordeaux, and, if sprayed, at what time should 
the work be done? — Subscriber, Suisun. 

Call it "bordo. " The name comes from the fact 
that the copper-lime mixture was first used in the 
Bordeaux district of France to protect vines from 



fungoid diseases. This was about thirty years ago. 
It must be counted one of the greatest discoveries 
in horticulture. You can use it on almonds just 
as you do on peaches, either in the dormant or 
active season, with strength according to* the con- 
dition of the tree. 

For the Peach Root Borer. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly tell me through 
your paper if there is any wash that has proved 
effective in preventing the work of the so-called 
peach root borer? I dig them out carefully every 
winter, but each year there seems to be more than 
the last. The process of digging them out results 
in so much damage to the tree that it is sometimes 
a question if it would not be better to let them 
stay and continue their work. If you can tell me 
any preventative it will be worth many pounds 
of cure and will be greatly appreciated. — II. B. L., 
Cupertino. 

This is an old and very important question, and 
we are not aware that it has been satisfactorily 
answered even yet. The two latest candidates for 
favor are the "tree tanglefoot" and asphaltum 
"Grade D," which was described by a San -lose 
reader in our issue of November 18 last as yield- 
ing good results in the experiments of Mr. Earl 
Morris, county entomologist. We are looking con- 
fidently to the Santa Clara valley people to demon- 
strate this matter and are always glad to know of 
any promising treatment. 

Dynamite for Stumps. 

To the Editor: To kill stumps bore lV4-inch 
hole as near ground as possible; try and get into 
the tap root. You may have to dig a little below 
the surface. Bore to the center of the stum]) and 
put in a stick of giant powder and ram dirt in 
until the hole is filled and then set off. It will 
shatter the bark on roots quite a ways down and 
you will never be bothered with suckers after- 
ward. We use one stick of powder to a tree one 
foot in diameter; the bigger the stump the more 
powder you will have to use. — S., West Point. 

We are very thankful for this specific state- 
ment of method, for it will be widely useful. We 
are sure, however, that our querist did not have 
in mind anything so persuasive as dynamite, but 
rather a milder aperient. He wanted a way to 
medicate a stump so that it would gradually waste 
away and not try to live any longer. Another 
reader sends such a one which we will print, with 
comments, in a later issue. 

What Is the Right Share? 

To the Editor: "A" has about (wo acres of 
good sediment soil which "B" would like to 
plant to strawberries and other small fruits. "A" 
is to furnish land, plants, pumping plant for irri- 
gation, horse and tools, etc.; everything except 
labor. "B" is to do and provide all labor, includ- 
ing picking and marketing the fruit. What pin 
portion should "A" and "B" have of the re- 
turns? The agreement to last three years. Not 
much of anything in the way of returns would be 
realized in less than a year's time. — W. B. IT.. 
Santa Clara. 

We cannot answer. Will some readers growing 
small fruits give us their idea of the relations of 
these parties. It will be very interesting. 

Waterproofing Hotbed Cloth. 

To the Editor: Will yon kindly refer us to 
where we can obtain information on proper heal 
ment of heavy muslin for hotbet sash. T desire 
to treat a Large quantity this week and would 
like a quick source of information. Previous 
seasons I have applied linseed oil. but under our 
hot sun it burns and destroys cloth in a few- 
weeks. — A. N. C, Imperial county. 

We are up to date on this proposition all right. 
The formula you desire was given- in the propa- 
gation chapter of our book on "California Vege- 
tables," which was printed on page 6 of the 
Pacific Rural Press of January 1. The prepar- 
ation there given excludes oil and is particularly 
suited to your purposes. 



44 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 15, 1910. 



Horticulture. 



A MASTERLY REVIEW OF THE SULPHUR 
QUESTION IN FRUIT DRYING. 

By Mr. Artiuh R. B&I0G6, President California Develop- 
ment Board, at the California Fruit Growers' 
Convention at Watsonville. 

You are doubtless all aware that the federal 
pure food law was passed in June, 1907. You are 
also aware what consternation was felt in Cali- 
fornia among the fruit growers when the first de- 
cision, known as the food inspection decision No. 
76. was issued by the federal department. That 
order was issued by a commission constituted by 
the law itself, which commission was composed of 
three cabinet officers, namely, the Secretary of 
Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce and Labor 
and the Secretary of the Treasury. Two of these 
officers knew nothing of the fruit business, knew 
nothing of the effect the order issued would have 
upon that business, and therefore are responsi- 
bility fell upon Secretary Wilson, the chief of the 
Agricultural Department. When that order was 
issued which prevented the sale and distribution of 
fruit products that carried a larger percentage of 
sulphur dioxide — the residue after sulphur is used 
in curing fruit — than 350 milligrams per kilogram, 
or thirty-five-thousandths of one per cent, it was 
immediately discovered that so small a portion of 
sulphur dioxide was less than that found in any 
of the cured fruit as it went to the market. About 
that time, at the instance of fruit growers and 
fruit distributers, a convention was called at the 
California State Board of Trade in San Francisco 
to consider the question and to devise a method of 
relief, if such relief was obtainable. That conven- 
tion went carefully into a discussion of the merits 
of the case and resolved, after a day's discussion, 
that the proper way to handle the matter was to 
select or appoint an executive committee to take 
the matter in charge, and who should have power 
to do what they deemed to be the proper thing 
under the circumstances. I was made the chair- 
man of that executive committee, not with the ex- 
pectation of becoming an important factor in the 
work, bul in order thai there mighl be a central 
point from which this executive committee could 
work. My expectations were not quite fulfilled. 
I was immediately appointed a committee of one 
to proceed to Washington, take up the matter with 
the Agricultural Department there and see what 
could be done toward a modification of this ruling 
of the Department. No. 76. I was accompanied by 
Mr. Brailsford, who was appointed by the Cham- 
ber of Commerce or Board of Trade of Kings 
county, they bearing his expense. We proceeded 
to Washington, waited upon the Secretary of 
Agriculture, who at first was not very much in- 
clined to heed the suggestions we made. But I 
want to say to his credit that at the third inter- 
view had with him and with the solicitor of the 
Department of Agriculture, we procured from the 
Department a modification of order 70. exactly in 
the nature and terms which we asked for. We 
were able to convince Secretary Wilson that this 
great fruit interest of California, which the people 
of this State had for years — a quarter of a cen- 
tury — labored to build up, was menaced to such 
an extent that in many respects it would be par- 
alyzed if Order 76 prevailed. Later — only a very 
short time later — through and by a letter which I 
prepared and forwarded to Senator Perkins, the 
dean of the delegation from this State in Wash- 
ington, an application was made to the Secretary 
of Agriculture, a copy of which was sent to Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, in which letter the whole matter 
was presented in a way that seemed to carry con- 
viction to both those officers. President Roosevelt, 
with his usual earnestness and prompt action, de- 
termined that something more than was being 
done in the Agricultural Department or than could 
be done through the Bureau of Chemistry of that 
Department was necessary, and he immediately 
created a commission known as the Referee Board. 
That board is composed of five as expert scien- 
tific chemists as there are in the United States, and 
after this board was created the whole matter of 
the use of sulphur and of benzoate of soda was 
referred to them, and on the action of the board 
would rest the determination of our industry here. 
The appointment of this board excited somewhat 
the opposition — I might say the enmity — of Dr. 
Wiley, the chief of the Bureau of Chemistry of the 
Department of Agriculture. He declared in his 



contention that the use of benzoate of soda in the 
curing of such products as peas, cherries, tomato 
catsup and others, was absolutely wrong: that the 
products manufactured by the use of it were 
poisonous and that it lay in his power to prohibit, 
it. He likewise declared that the use of sulphur 
in the curing of fruits in this State was not neces- 
sary; thai fruit so cured was not wholesome and 
its use should be prohibited, and was prohibited 
by the ruling or decision. No. 76. No argument, 
no appeal, seemed to reach Dr. Wiley. He had 
taken his position, and openly and persistently 
declared that it was the fight of his life and he 
would maintain that position. I therefore aban- 
doned further effort with Dr. Wiley and immedi- 
ately placed myself in position to confer with the 
Referee Board, and learn from them the policy 
which was to be pursued. I returned to California 
confidenl that the fruit interest of the State was 
not to suffer, at least, for a period of twelve 
months. I took occasion to issue a bulletin im- 
mediately on my return to assure fruit producers, 
fruit dryers and distributers of their freedom from 
action on the part of the federal government, so 
far as the crop of 1908 was concerned. I have the 
pleasure of knowing that Secretary Wilson, who 
gave this assurance, kept his word fully and thai 
no interference was had on the part of the govern- 
ment in the distribution or curing of these foods. 

When the matter which I have referred to was 
passed first to the Referee Board il was decided 
by them that the use of bezoate of soda — being 
thought to be of the greatest danger — would be 
first considered by them. The five laboratories 
represented by these scientific and eminent men 
were therefore put to use at once, separately, so 
that each might make his own examination and 
determination without reference to the others. 
For six months these examinations were carried 
forward by the members of this Referee Board. 

You will understand that some anxiety has been 
felt on the part of all of us, and particularly by 
those who have been closely identified with this 
movement since the beginning. 

"When the Referee Board visited California in 
the early part of the curing season of 1909 it was 
not known that the finding had been made with 

reference to the use of benzoate of soda. Iillt it Was 
supposed when the report was made it would be 
published as a whole and the recommendation of 
the board would be made on the full finding. But 
when the board was here it was disclosed that the 
examination and determination had been made 
with reference to benzoate of soda, and that report 
was adverse to the position taken and held by Dr. 
Wiley. Dr. Wiley, knowing this, took every 
method known to him to circumvent and to dis- 
credit the Referee Board so that its report would 
not have the effect it was thought it would have. 
At the National Food and Dairy Congress, held in 
Marquette, Mich., late in 1908. a bill was prepared 
and introduced to the congress there and forced 
through, which it was sought to have passed by 
the legislature of every State in the Union, and 
that bill was of such nature and character and 
kind as to practically prohibit the use of these 
chemicals in the curing of our goods. It was 
necessary, therefore, to circumvent Dr. Wiley 
somewhat in this regard, and the matter was taken 
up, after procuring a copy of the bill which he 
proposed and had sent to many of the legislatures 
of the States, and the request was made of them 
to withhold action until the Referee Board, to 
which this matter had been assigned, made its re- 
report and recommendation. The legislatures of 
the different States paid us the compliment of de- 
clining to do anything with Dr. Wiley's bill which 
he said was so necessary, and it did not pass in a 
single State in the Union. 

The next annual meeting of the National Food 
and Dairy Congress was called at Denver, in Sep- 
tember last. The Referee Board was invited to be 
present — not to make its report to that body, be- 
cause it had no right to do it, as its report was to 
be made to the federal government and to the 
authority that had created the board — but the pur- 
pose was, as discovered. later, to assail not only the 
integrity of the members of that board, but their 
efficiency, and thereby to discredit whatever they 
did and to create an impression that Dr. Wiley 
was right. 1 confess that I wanted to be anil 
sought to be a member of that congress. I carried 
from California an appointment from Covernor 
Cillett. the governor of this State, an appointment 
from the State Dairy Bureau of the State and an 
appointment from the California State Board of 



Trade, three appointments from three central au- 
thorities, with the thought that if there was any 
effort on the part of that congress to disqualify 
me my credentials would be of such character as 
would make it impossible. I found that I was 
somewhat mistaken. It was not a question of 
courtesy to our Governor nor to these other bodies, 
it was not a question of right, it was a question of 
a determination on the part of one man to domi- 
nate the congress and to carry the point which he 
intended to make. With me went Professor Jaffa, 
of the University of California, but he, having been 
appointed by the authorities under the govern- 
ment, was seated and had his vote in the congress. 
Mr. H. P. Dimond, who accompanied me, carried 
only the appointment from the Covernor. Mr. 
Dimond and myself fought for one day and a half, 
in season and out of season, before our credentials 
w ere admitted and we were given our proper place 
on the floor. The purpose of all this is — and I am 
telling it to show that the conclusion I have 
reached will, before 1 finish, perhaps seem .justi- 
fied — that in that congress, each State having 
three votes, the vote on all critical points, without 
the vote of California, stood 44 to 44 — 88 votes 
being the full number of votes in the congress. If 
the delegates from California could be disqualified 
Dr. Wiley could carry his point. But after we 
were seated as delegates, the vote on all critical 
questions stood 47 to 44. I tell this to show how 
nearly we came to losing the point we were trying 
to make, namely, to support the action of the 
Referee Board, in whom we had confidence. I said 
on the floor of that congress that it mattered not 
what the finding of the Referee Board was, the 
people of the State of California and the fruit 
growers of California had expressed their confi- 
dence in the ability of those gentlemen, in their 
efficiency and in their honesty, and whatever the 
finding might be we would abide by it and adjust 
the business of fruit curing, fruit raising and fruit 
distribution in California to that finding. That 
was not what Dr. Wiley wanted; he wanted us to 
stand with him to discredit the board. And I 
want to say right now that, while I have been in 
conventions for forty years, or nearly, I have 
never seen so gross an assault made on gentlemen 
representing a board of standing, as these gentle- 
men stood, as was made against them in that con- 
gress. Secretary Wilson, with some of his staff, 
including the solicitor of the Department, were 
present during this conference, and Secretary Wil- 
son said to me. when I had become successful in 
getting my credentials acknowledged, that he had 
never seen such gross methods resorted to as he 
had seen in that congress. This is, of course, a 
matter of history. 

I now come to the point of the present status of 
the sulphur question. It is in the hands of this 

Referee Board, bul I feel the greatest i Bdence 

that the finding of that board and its recommenda- 
tion to the Department will be in favor of sus- 
taining the contention that the use of sulphur in 
the curing of fruits is harmless. Tn the case of 
benzoate of soda, it was decided by the board that 
not only the quantity which has been in common 
use was harmless, but that it was a harmless 
product in much greater quantity. In other words, 
it was declared that there was no danger in the 
use of benzoate of soda in curing fruit and meat 
products as now employed, and they recommended 
that it be continued. Instead of fixing a unit of 
thirty-five one-thousandths of one per cent of sul- 
phur dioxide, as was fixed under decision 76, 1 am 
assured by the members of the Referee Board, in- 
dividually, that there is no apparent injurious 
effect from sulphur dioxide on the human system 
and that a larger quantity than thirty-five one- 
thousandths of one per cent will probably be per- 
missible. I am not saying this for publication. I 
say it on my own responsibility, to assure the fruit 
growers of California that they are in pretty safe 
hands and need give themselves no immediate 
alarm. 

I want to say further that I am given to under- 
stand by the Referee Board that whatever their 
finding may be. it will not be made until about the 
middle of the year 1910. and' if it is adver.se to our 
interests that no hasty action will be taken; that 
it will not be made operative during the curing 
and marketing and distribution of the fruit pro- 
ducts of this State grown and cured in 1910. 
Therefore you have a year before you anyway, and 
if the finding is not altogether to our satisfaction 
I feel justified in saying that a unit of sulphur 
dioxide will be fixed that will enable us to go on 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



4 



as we have done heretofore without danger of in- 
teferenee on the part of the federal government. 

I presume, Mr. Chairman and Ladies and Gentle- 
men, I would act the part of discretion if I stopped 
here, hut I am so impressed with the determina- 
tion of Dr. Wiley to carry his point, even to the 
destruction of our interest in California, that I do 
not hesitate to place myself on record as to what 
I think should be done with that officer. He is 
appointed by the President of the United States. 
He holds his position in the Agricultural Depart- 
ment under this appointment and is answerable 
really to no one except the National Pood Inspec- 
tion Commission and to the President of the United 
States. While Honorable James Wilson, the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, is our friend and is ready 
to do, 1 believe, anything within reason to protect 
us, he is powerless to control Dr. Wiley, the chief 
of the Bureau of Chemistry, or to remove him in 
case of his not doing as he desires. Therefore I 
say in our own interest, I deem it to be a proper 
and right thing to create, so far as we can con- 
sistently, a sentiment against Dr. Wiley, under 
the impression that any man as vindictive as he 
is, as determined to work against us whether right 
or wrong, should not occupy a federal position as 
important as this. The difficulty of his removal 
is this : No man is all good and no man all bad. 
No one is willing to declare that Dr. Wiley is not 
a chemist, but that he is a pathological chemist I 
deny. He was educated a physician, but has never 
practiced medicine a day in his life, so far as I 
am able to learn; therefore he cannot speak as a 
pathological chemist, though he can speak un- 
questionably as a chemist per se. It goes, there- 
fore, without saying that Dr. Wiley is useful in 
some branches of the work which has been as- 
signed to him. and, unless we can show that there 
is real necessity, a public demand from the fruit 
growers of this State and from other States like- 
wise interested, for the removal of Dr. Wiley, I 
fear he will remain in his present position and go 
on fighting without limit, to our detriment. He 
has it in mind now, and that mind has been made 
known to me, to again introduce a bill into the 
different legislatures of the respective States. I 
have seen a' draft of that bill; I know its condi- 
tions. I know it was introduced at the congress 
in Denver in September, but having 47 votes 
against and 44 in favor, they did not dare make 
the motion that it be approved by the congress, 
and it fell dead. But that effort is going to be re- 
vived just as sure as the sun rises and sets, and 
the work that has been done will be futile unless 
we continue like efforts to those of the last two 
years, to circumvent any action of his in reference 
to the introduction of these bills. It makes no 
difference what the federal law may be. We are 
all in favor of a pure food law. Every intelligent 
man and woman in California, is in favor of a pure 
food law. But if the different States pass laws of 
their own, as they have a right to do, and make 
them so binding that we cannot introduce our 
goods and dispose of them in those States, the 
federal law will not help us; the State statute will 
control, so far as the State's distribution is con- 
cerned. You may think that I am somewhat per- 
sistent. I deny that I am vindictive, but I am so 
interested in California, I am so interested in the 
people of California, I am so interested in the in- 
dustries of California, that it makes no difference 
who the man is, high or low. when I find he is 
wprking against these interests I am against him, 
and persistently so, and therefore I say, whether 
Dr. Wiley likes me or not, that I am not his friend ; 
I never expect to be. I believe that it would lie 
a wise thing for conventions like this to place 
themselves on record by resolutions supporting 
the Referee Board and declaring it to be their in- 
tention to stand by the finding of that board, what- 
ever it may be. 



Citrus Fruits. 



CULTURAL NOTES. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Mr. Edgar Wright, of Los Angeles. 

Frost damage maybe an unpopular topic among 
the growers of California, but the subject is a live 
•one today, for we are probably facing the worst 
(Condition in that respect that we have had for the 
past twelve years. The cold periods have been so 
.frequent and so severe that it is doubtful if even 



those who were prepared to meet ordinary con- 
ditions with smudges and firepots have been suc- 
cessful in wholly saving their groves. While the 
damage does not extend to every district or to 
every grove in the affected districts, yet it is more 
general than common and very severe. Some sec- 
tions that are almost wholly immune under or- 
dinary circumstances have been hard hit this 
season, while others that sometimes in the past 
have been badly scorched have not been touched, 
unless the cold mornings of the past week has in- 
flicted damage that is not yet apparent. This late 
cold found the ground in a very moist condition 
on account of the rains of the prior week, and 
those who are supposed to know, state that the 
wet grounds tend to keep the the temperature 
higher than it otherwise would be. In fact, I 
know that some growers make a practice of run- 
ning water into their groves when frost threatens. 

Just what the extent of the loss from frost will 
be is not possible to estimate. Some packers are 
on record as stating that 25 per cent of the crop 
will never be shipped, but this does not mean that 
this is the extent of the damage, for lots of frosted 
fruit will be and is now being packed and shipped 
for the market. 



Not only has the weather been cold in Cali- 
fornia, but the country to the east is experiencing 
the worst weather in years. Not only is fruit 
frozen in the orchards here, but in the cars in 
transit. This causes a. loss to some one. If the 
fruit has not been sold it comes on the grower or 
the shipper; if it has it falls upon the buyer, but 
in either case they have possible redress by ap- 
pealing to the transportation company on whose 
line the damage occurred. Fruit frozen in this 
manner can sometimes be helped greatly if han- 
dled properly, and the frost can be drawn out 
gently so that none of the cells become broken, 
and in this case the orange is nearly as good as 
ever. 

An old time shipper tells me that upon arrival 
of the car and as soon as it has been determined 
that the fruit has been frozen en route, it should 
either be unloaded and placed in cold storage or 
ice should be placed in the car bunkers so that 
the process of thawing out should be done very 
gradually. Cold contracts the orange and heat 
expands it and any sudden expansion of the juice 
cells will break them, and in a short time this free 
juice will have left the affected part and it be- 
comes dry. 

I should think that it would be possible to have 
a small amount of fruit frozen on the trees in the 
same manner, but the fruit that could be saved 
in this way would be only a very small drop in 
the bucket this year, and so is hardly practical 
except on a very small scale. It is claimed that 
sometimes nature helps the grower by continuous 
cool weather following a frost, thus thawing it 
out gradually. This .may be. the case this year in 
some instances, for the weather has certainly been 
very cool, with no hot days at all. Fruit left on 
the trees and exposed to the warm weather drys 
out to such an extent that the interior is just a 
mush, so light that they are commonly spoken of 
as "balloons," and it is claimed that the juice 
runs back into the tree. 

I received the following letter this week from a 
Los Angeles friend, Dr. R. R. Snowden. which ex- 
plains itself. Dr. Snowden has kindly given me 
information in the past, but now he is looking for 
some. He says: "As I have been telling you a 
number of things that I am supposed to know, 
perhaps you in turn can tell me some things that 
f do not know. 

"A man once immortalized himself by simply 
saying: 'The man who makes two blades of grass 
grow where one grew before is a benefactor. to 
the whole race.' Of course the doubling of the 
hay crop is no mean item, especially at present 
prices, but what I want to do is to try and make 
two oranges grow where one grew before, for the 
reason that it will benefit at least the railroad 
companies if no one else. 

"It is, to the grower, a melancholy fact that 
fruit trees will occasionally take a vacation in 
the shape of an 'off' year, and it is customary for 
all the, trees in an orchard to take their rest at 
the same time, though at times it will be noticed 
that one tree will become a shy bearer while its 
neighbor is apparently trying to make up for both. 
Now what is supposed to be the cause for this 
marked difference? 

"I have in mind two citrus orchards owned by 



the same person, both well cultivated and well 
fertilized. One has responded wonderfully well 
in production of both tree wood and fruit and the 
soil is now 'low' in all the plant food requisites. 
The other responds less satisfactory, and yet the 
soil on analysis is found to be 'high' in the re- 
quisites of plant nutrition. Can you tell me the 
reason ? 

"While you are giving the reason I am going 
to do a little guessing on my own account. In 
order that I may do this intelligently will you 
kindly ask the ranchers who have found like cases 
in their orchards to send me samples of soil from 
each, with full particulars? The samples should 
be taken commencing at the surface and to the 
depth of a foot and a subsoil sample should be 
taken in each case to the depth of three or four 
feet. I would also like to know in each case just 
what cover crops have been used and to what ex- 
tent. There will of course be no charge for my 
work. " 

Of course the doctor did not expect me to an- 
swer his questions, so he is preparing to find out 
for himself. It is all for the good of the cause, to 
the advantage of all. for no doubt he would be 
willing to publish his conclusions that all may 
benefit. 



A man who knows something about soils is out 
with the suggestion that there is a field in Cali- 
fornia for a "soil engineer," a great deal larger 
field than even the mining engineer has. This 
man tells me that one of the officials of the Santa 
Fe, a wealthy man who owns a 20-acre orange 
ranch at Redlands, was recently very greatly in- 
terested in a seedless grapefruit shown him by a 
Japanese gentleman. Its excellence was such that 
he determined to try the variety on his ranch, and 
to that end he sent for cuttings, but he wanted 
more than this, so he had the Japanese friend also 
send for a sample of the soil from the orchard in 
which the fruit was grown, and it is stated that 
such a generous portion was sent that it cost our 
orchardist over $100 in freight on arrival. This 
is the story, anyway, though it makes one inclined 
to discredit the latter part of it when the map of 
Japan is looked at, for it would seem that it could 
not spare much soil. I understand that this sam- 
ple and various ones from the Redlands ranch are 
now being examined by experts with the view of 
artificially making the one as near on a parity 
with the other as it is possible for scientific fer- 
tilization to make it. 

In one of the recent issues of the Pacific Rural 
Press I quoted a man who said that by analyzing 
the soil in different portions of an orchard he 
could tell how that orchard should be treated, how 
much and what kind of fertilizer to apply, about 
how often to irrigate, etc. One of the headliners 
in the California world of fruit ridiculed the 
idea and flatly stated that this could never be 
done. "My friend who knows" stated to me that 
while a chemical analysis of the soil would no1 be 
infallible, it should greatly aid the rancher along 
the lines mentioned, but that further than that the 
rancher ought to know the physical conditions, the 
size of the grain of the soil and the capillary index. 
He said that he would not only examine the top 
soil, but the subsoil as well, and he would also 
want to go down to the water level in at least 
one place. 

He said that if he found a gravel bed above 
the water table it would, in his mind, detract from 
the value of the land, as he considers this one of 
the features to be avoided. lie said that no water 
would come up through the gravel by capillary 
attraction, and if this bed is very near the surface 
the irrigation water is likely to drain away, car- 
rying with it valuable plant foods. 

I met another cover crop crank the other day, 
and he said that an orchard that was deficient in 
humus was like a man who lacked humor, both 
were likely to sour. He says that humus facili- 
tates the capillary attraction or movement of soil 
water. He also says that any organic matter that 
decays in the soil makes humus, and under this 
head would come cover crop, barnyard manure 
and the cuttings the primers leave, which should 
be chopped fairly fine and plowed under. Lime 
will also loosen clay soils by flocculation, which 
means that the soil is made more pervious to wat el- 
and so helping the movement of the soil water. 
Lime is an alkali, but is quickly neutralized by the 
carbonic acid of the soil itself. Nitrate of soda is 
another ingredient that will render the 'soil more 
friable, and so acts as a humus. 



4<I 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 15. 1910. 



California Vegetables in Garden and Field 

By E. J. WICKSON, of the University of California. 



Second and Revised Edition; published serially In the PACIFIC 
Itl It VI. PRESS (beginning ivllh the Issue of .November 27, 1809), 
and subsequently to appear in book form. 



[COPYRIGHT— ALL, RIGHTS RESERVED.] 



Propagation. — The plant grows readily from seed which 
may be planted either in boxes or the open ground from 
September to January, if irrigation is available : if not, 
sow as soon as the ground is deeply moistened by rain. 
Tin' seedlings may be transplanted to permanent place 
whenever the ground is suitable the same season. 

But there is much variation in plants from seed and 
parts taken from old plants of good type are to be pre- 
ferred. The plant grows readily from dividing the stool 
or from suckers detached from the root crown. The latter 
furnish an excellent means of multiplication and should 
be secured by first uncovering the stool as soon as there 
is a good growth of new shoots with well-developed leaves. 
Remove the shoots carefully with a knife or sharp gouge 
so as to take a small part of the parent root at the base of 
the shoot. Many plants can thus be taken from a single 
root-crown and a few of the best shoots left for growth. 
Shorten the leaves somewhat to reduce evaporation until 
new roots are Formed. These sprouts can be planted at 
once in permanent place if the ground is warm and moist 
and will bear late in the same year. It is possible then by 
starting new plants at intervals to have a long producing 
period in each year. The old stools will continue bearing 
for many years. 

Distance. — So free is the growth in this State, it is bet- 
ter to give a good distance : three feet apart in rows which 
are four or five feet apart is not too much room for con- 
venience. As the plant is high and rather dense the rows 
should be placed in the background of the small garden 
and its use as an ornamental hedge or screen is suggested, 
providing the ground is kept rich and well cultivated. 

Gathering. — The flower buds should be removed as soon 
as they are well formed and before the scales open. In 
this condition they are more tender and a larger portion 
of the scale is edible. As the bud stands at the apex of 
the shoot, the shoot should be cut to the ground. If this is 
done the plant is induced to send up more shoots. As soon 
as flowers ;irc allowed to open, the growth of shoots from 
below is checked or stopped. Hence prompt cutting as 
soon as in condition insures a larger bearing season, but 
as other vegetables come into condition, the plants should 
be allowed to make free top growth for the reinforcement 
of the roots for the next season. 

Variety. — The variety chiefly grows in California is the 
Large Green Paris, a vigorous grower yielding buds of 
large size with scales very fleshy at the base and set in a 
broad receptacle also fleshy. This variety grown for suc- 
cession seems to leave little opportunity for the use of 
other varieties. 

THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

This plant which will be readily recognized as a tuber- 
ous-rooted sunflower, is exceedingly prolific in California. 
It is not largely used for human food, though it is usually 
to be found in the San Francisco market. It somewhat 
resembles a potato in flavor, and yet has its own distinc- 
tive character, and is cooked in several ways. It may be 
baked, or pared and cooked like salsify, or boiled for use 
in soups and salads. 

Soil, Culture and Yield. — The Jerusalem artichoke is 
not very particular about soil. It reaches better form in 
rather a light soil, as does a potato, and it yields enor- 
mously on a rich loam, but it will probably yield a greater 
weight on a poor, dry soil than any other crop known. S. 
J. Murdock, of Orange county, gives this account of the 
plant : 

"The preparation of the ground and the subsequent cul- 
tivation is the same as for potatoes ; the rows should not be 
less than four feet apart, and three feet between plants. 
Plant small tubers or the larger ones cut to two eyes, and 
about four inches deep. Keep the ground stirred to pre- 
vent weeds, till the plants shade the patch, and then they 
will take care of themselves. They should yield from 
seven to fifteen tons per acre, or even more, with a good 
stand, good soil, and care. On a dry year a neighbor of 
mine planted one acre to artichokes, but got but little over 
half a stand on account of parts of his land being too dry. 
Yet with his partial stand he raised ten tons of tubers." 

But Mr. Murdock and his neighbors operate on a peat 
soil of great looseness and richness, which favors the 
maximum size and multiplication of the tubers. His re- 
sults are, therefore, not attainable everywhere, but still 
the growth and productiveness of the plant are marvelous 
in this climate. 



Gathering. — In the garden the artichoke bed can lie re- 
garded as a permanent investment. Digging can begin in 
the autumn at one end of the bed and proceed regularly 
through it as the tubers are wanted until growth starts in 
the spring. Selecting the large tubers for use and leaving 
the small ones in the soil will harvest and replant the crop 
at one operation. It is necessary to dig at intervals for 
the tubers are prone to decay and cannot be stored as 
potatoes are. 

Before the rains are over, the bed should have a top 
dressing of manure and then it is ready for another sea- 
son, with no farther care except pulling weeds which start 
early. 

The Jerusalem artichoke has been commended for years 
as a food for hogs — the animals to do their own harvesting. 
Some growers are very enthusiastic over it. but why it has 
not been more widely employed has never been fully ex- 
plained. Some growers commend them highly as cow- 
feed, and when boiled, fowls eat them readily — but the 
cost of digging for such purposes is a serious drawback. 

Varieties. — Two varieties have been widely distributed 
in California: the White French and the Red Brazilian. 
The white kind is preferred for table use and the red is 
chosen for field growth for stock, as it is believed to be 
rather more vigorous and prolific. The red variety is. 
however, frequently found in our vegetable markets and is 
acceptable for table use. 

ASPARAGUS. 

Asparagus. — . I spa rmj us < ) /fir in a I is. 

French, asperge ; German, spargel; Flemish and Dutch, 
aspersie; Danish, asparges; Italian, sparagio; Spanish, 
esparrago ; Portuguese, espargo. 

Asparagus is a leading winter vegetable in California 
and is produced as a field crop for local sale, for canning, 
and for Eastern shipment. It is not grown, however, as a 
garden crop for home use as widely as it should be. This 
is probably to be accounted for in part by the fact that in 
nearly all towns it can be cheaply bought during the late 
winter and spring: in part, also, to an exaggerated notion 
of the difficulty of making and caring for an asparagus 
bed. On the drier lands of the interior, even with irriga- 
tion, it is apt to be stringy and tough, but on interior, 
moist lowlands, it is grand and is largely grown on such 
lands both for canning and shipment fresh. In almost all 
parts of the State it is not difficult for the attentive gard- 
ener to secure crop and quality which will amply repay 
his effort. Regions open to Coast influences either directly 
or through gaps in the Coast Range, or regions where at- 
mospheric humidity is increased somewhat by evaporation 
from moist soil or wide water surface, as is the case in 
interior river bottoms, have superior conditions for the 
growth of the plant which is maritime in its origin and 
nature. On the peat lands of Orange county asparagus 
established itself as an escape from cultivation and it is 
stated that this demonstration of its choice of situation 
suggested the larger plantings for distant shipment which 
have been made. 

Soil. — The low peat lands of Orange county just men- 
tioned are composed of vegetable debris intermixed with 
sand, and are very loose and penetrable in their mixture. 
They are also underlaid by impervious strata at consid- 
erable depth, which holds water within reach of the plant 
roots. Similar soil and moisture conditions are found in 
the reclaimed lands of the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
deltas where the greatest production and the largest as- 
paragus canneries are to be found. In both these regions, 
though 500 miles distant from each other, the conditions 
of soil, moisture, and heat are comparable and so are the 
growers' results. But it is not essential that just these 
conditions prevail. In the Santa Clara valley, in the Sac- 
ramento valley, and elsewhere deep, alluvial soils without 
any great amount of vegetable debris have for many years 
furnished large quantities to the markets. Any deep, 
rich sandy loam, moist enough to give a winter and spring 
crop and a summer growth of foilage to reinforce the 
roots, will grow good crops of asparagus for years with 
proper cultivation, generous manuring, and occasional 
salting. Soils which are too wet or too dry or too heavy 
to allow free growth, yield inferior shoots, tough, stringy, 
or bitter as the case may be. Of course a heavy soil may 
be improved for a garden bed of asparagus by free use of 
sand and manure well worked through it, but commercial 
plantings should only be made on naturally fit soils. 

Growing the Plants. — Asparagus grows readily from 
seed and in this State well-grown yearling roots are used 
for planting out in preference to older ones. The house 
gardener can. therefore, save a year's time by buying roots 
from the seedsmen, but for the large plantation the 
grower will usually grow his own plants. This can be 
done in the open air; adequate moisture and a light, fine 
soil will insure success the first year if the seed is grown 
early enough to get the benefit of a full season's growth. 
(To be Continued.) 



PLANT NOW 

SEEDS r 

FRUIT 




AND 



ORNAMENTAL 
TREES 

ALL KINDS 
AND 

BEST QUALITY 



If you are inter- 
ested in the best 
SEEDS, 
TREES, 
and 
PLANTS, 
Write for Catalogue, 



TRUMBULL SEED CO. 

61 California St., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



PLANTS - SEEDS 

Superb— Everbearing 
Strawberries. 



Giant Himalayas 
Blackberries, 

the greatest of croppers. Other small fruit. 

Reliable Garden and 
Flower Seeds 

at honest prices. 

Don't fail to ask for our catalogue. Every- 
thing for the Farm and Garden. 



G. H. Hopkins & Son, 

Burbank, Cal. 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



Fresno, California 

Leading (growers In the .state of 
Commercial Varieties of: 

FRUIT TREES, all varieties. 

GRAPEVINES, all commercial sorts, 
including raisin, table and wine va- 
rieties. 

Twenty years In the business with a con- 
tinued increase for fair and square dealing Is 
our reputation. Address 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



F. H. WILSON. Prop. 
FRESNO, CAL. 

Catalogue and price list free for the asking. 



Western Seed for 
Western Planters 

Grass, Vegetable and 
Field Seeds. 

WRITE FOR PRICES 

Hickey & Vonsen, Inc. 

132-134 Kentucky St., Petaluma, California. 

FLORIDA SOUR ORANGE SEED. 

The hardiest and most desirable strain 
in existence, best as a stock for all kinds 
of Citrus Fruits. We offer only good, 
fresh seed, grown and gathered with the 
expert care that has made Glen St. Mary 
Nurseries famous for quality. Don't take 
chances with seed of doubtful grade and 
uncertain value — buy of headquarters and 
Ket the lient. Prices and full particulars 
on application to Clerk P. It. P. 
GLEN ST. MARY M HSKRIKS COMPANY, 
Glen St. Mary, Fla. 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



STARTING OF THE BUDS 
OF VINES. 



(Continued From Page 41.) 

ered that the stream of food materials 
from the leaves, is diverted to the per- 
ment tissues of the vine. The action of 
the leaves during the days or weeks fol- 
lowing the gathering of the crop is, there- 
fore, of great importance to the future 
welfare of the vine. 

Very late pruning affects the starting 
of the buds in another way. It does not 
properly change the natural tendency of 
the buds to start at a certain time. It 
simply diverts the first energies of the 
vine from the buds which we wish to save. 
If the vines are not pruned until late in 
the spring, the time of starting is unaf- 
fected. The actual buds which start, 
however, are completely changed. The 
awakening energies of the vine are ex- 
pended first on the parts farthest re- 
moved from the root. The consequence is 
that the buds at the ends of the canes 
start while the lower buds remain dor- 
mant. If, after the end buds have grown 
an inch or more, we prune the vines, the 
lower buds do not start immediately, ow- 
ing to the necessity of certain prelimin- 
ary processes within the bud and also 
probably to the fact that the first buds 
which started have used up some of the 
needful' reserve food materials. In this 
way, the actual starting of the fruit buds 
may be delayed in some cases one, two or 
even three weeks. In the hotter regions 
the possibilities of delay by this means 
seems to be much greater than in cooler 
regions. 

The only cases where it is desirable to 
delay the starting of the buds is where 
there is danger of injury from spring 
frosts. In other cases, in California, 
vines may be primed at any time after the 
leaves have fallen and before the sap 
starts. 

Where frost protection is needed the 
late starting of the buds should be en- 
couraged by good cultivation, proper irri- 
gation, appropriate pruning and all 
means which tend to promote the vigor 
of the vines. When this is insufficient, 
late or double pruning may be adopted. 
Pruning directly after gathering the crop, 
turning bands of sheep into the vineyard 
to browse off the leaves and similar 
means, while effective in delaying the 
buds, are weakening to the vine and may 
finally do more harm than the frost. 



EUCALYPTUS 

5000 Sugar. 
20000 Blue. 
2SOOO Roslrata. 

$6.5Q pep. M. 

EITHER SANTA FE OR S. P. 

GOLDEN STATE GREENHOUSES, 

ORANGE, CAL. 



To Exterminate 
GROUND SQUIRRELS, GOPHERS, also 
BORERS, ROOT APHIS, etc. on Fruit Trees. 

Carbon Bisulphide 

Is the only effective remedy. 
For sale by dealers and manufacturers. 
WHEELER, REYNOLDS & STAUFFER 
OFFICE: 624 Calilornia St., San Francisco. 

FOR SALE 

42 ACRES FRUIT TREES 

In full bearing, 1% miles west of Winters, 
in the early fruit belt. Apply to 

AUGUST BRIUCK, Winters, Cal. 



RANCH FOREMAN WANTED— Must have 
executive ability to plan and get work out of 
his men. A thorough knowledge required of 
fruit growing, pruning, buddina and growing of 
nursery stock. State experience and references. 
Excellent and permanent position for the right 
man. Addiess Horticultural Department, 206 
Grant Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



WHY 



is the Vrooman Pure Bred 
FRANQUETTE WALNUT 
being planted in California 
and Oregon more extensively than 
any other one variety ? 
Simply because, after a careful 
investigation, people find it the most 
reliable and best paying variety on 
the market. 

The tree is perfectly hardy, blooms late, 
bears heavily and yearly. 

The nut is unusually well filled and uni- 
form in size. 

The meat is rich and oily. 

The shell is medium thin and sealed 
tight, permitting of ample handling with- 
out cracking open. 

Last but not least— 
The Voorman Pure Bred Franquette retails 
at from 10c. to 15c. per pound above other 
varieties. Are there reasons not sufficient 
for its popularity. 

We have both Grafted and Second Genera- 
tion Seedlings and costs no more than many 
others, and furthermore, 

REMEMBER 

We alone propagate the Vrooman Fran- 
quette. Don't be deceived by Imitators. 
Free literature sent on request. 

Address, 

Oregon Nursery Co., 

Orenco, Oregon. 



ROSES, 

PALMS, 

SHADE AND ORNAMENATL 
TREES 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

The E. Gill Nursery Co. 

WEST BERKELEY, CAL. 



Eucalyptus Seeds 

In large or small quantities, 33 species 
to select from. Write for free pam- 
phlet, "Eucalyptus Culture." It tells 
you how to sow the seed, raise the 
plants and plant out in the field. Also 
describes all the leading kinds, gives 
their uses, etc. 

Trial packets 15c each, 4 for 50c. 
Write for prices in quantity. 

THEODORE PAYNE 

345 S. MAIN ST., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




Fifty 
years of 
udy and 
experience 
make them re- 
able. For sale 
everywhere. Ferry's 
1910 Seed Annual 
on request 
D. M. FERRY & CO.. 
Detroit. Mich. 



FOR SALE 

500 Cal. Blk. Walnuts, 6 to 8 ft @ .15 

200 Selected Pecans. 2 to 4 ft @ .15 

75 S. Ruby Pomegranate 1 year, @ .10 

75 Sweet Fruited Pomegranate, 

1 year @ -10 

700 Gros (Jolman, 1 year rooted vine..® .05 

500 Almeria, 1 year rooted vine @ .10 

Several thousand Almeria and Gros 
Colman cuttings. Price on application. 

C. B. CUNNINGHAM, 

Mills, Cal. 



Peach Trees 

We have a large stock of 
Muirs, Lovell, Phillips 
and Tuscan clings. If you 
are in need of any of these 
write us for prices. We 
also have a full line of 
nursery stock. 



Salesmen Wanted. 



Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

Albany, Oregon. 



GET A □ DEAL 



PLACE YOUR ORDER WITH US 
FOR 

EUCALYPTUS, FIGS, GRAPES 

AND ALL FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL 
NURSERY STOCK. 

We have the LARGEST stock of EUCA- 
LYPTUS grown In Fresno County— 1,000,000 
TREES and STRICTLY FIRST CLASS. 
Orders booked now for future delivery. 
Twenty years' experience in the nursery 
business, with the increasing trade which we 
are doing, is conclusive evidence of our 
square dealing with customers. 

Catalogue and Prices Upon Application. 

S. W. Marshall Company, Inc. 

Box 652. Fresno, Cal. 



QIIV TDPfQLF RU,T and 
RELIABLE FIRM 



We have the most complete 
Nursery in the 



— — and the Largest As- 

WORLD sortment to choose 
irom 



Our Fruit Trees are all budded or grafted 
from our own tested Orchards. Therefore 
purchasers are certain to get the varieties 
Ihey order. 



WRITE US FOR OUR CATALOGUE A. 



CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO. 



600 ACRES 



ESTABLISHED 1865 



MILES, CALIFORNIA. 



ENCINAL 
NURSERIES 

F. C. WILLSON, Proprietor. 
Sunnyvale, Santa Clara Co.. Cal. 

SPECIALTY WALNUTS— 
"WILLSON'S WONDER" 
"ACME" 

AND 

"FRANQUETTE" 

Send for booklet with halftone cuts 
and descriptive matSer. 



EUCALYPTS 

Of hardy \ arletles are now being planted. Our 
large stock of many varieties Is grown without 
protection and able to endure extremes of 
weather. ^Wrlte for booklet and prices. 

LLOYD R TAYLOR, Modesto, Cal. 




The best 
Fig to 
plant for 

Commercial Purposes 

This fig originated with 
us and is the genuine 
Smyrna Fig of commerce. 
There is a strong steady 
increasing market for these 
figs. 



FINE 



OF 



AND 

GRAPE VINES 



TRUE TO NAME 




Best Varieties. 



Calimyrna Figs, 

BURBANK'S 

NEW CREATIONS 

Apples, Pears, 
Peaches, 
Apricots, Cherries, 
Plums, Prunes, 

Etc. 



California Horticulture : The Fruit 
Grower's Guide. Valuable to Plant- 
ers. Mailed post paid upon receipt 
of 25c. in stamps. 



1910 Annual Price Catalogue 
mailed free. 

PAID-OP CAPITAL « 200.000.00 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

■ INC. 

Geo.C Roedlng Pr«a.ftMgr. 
jyBox 18 Fresno.California.USAW 



48 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 15, 1910. 



MAINTAINING SOIL FERTILITY. 

The following suggestive statements are 
sent us by Mr. J. B. Neff, of Anaheim, 
conductor of University Farmers' Insti- 
tutes for Southern California: 

Nature has spent ages in filling the soil 
with decaying organic matter, by means 
of plant roots, burrowing insects and ani- 
mals which have left their bodies to de- 
cay after having mixed the soil and left 
it in condition for other plant roots to 
get air and material for forming their 
top growth. This ceaseless round al- 
ways left a little more fertility in the 
soils than was taken out until soils be- 
came very fertile, but when man begins 
to cultivate the fields that have been so 
long in accumulating fertility he takes 
away much more than he returns, in most 
cases, and tne fields soon show decreased 
production. When cultivation is first be- 
gun most soils can be farmed for many 
years before much attention is given to 
restoring fertility, and such farming is 
usually very profitable as long as the fer- 
tility lasts, depending, of course, on the 
original fertility and the climate, the hot, 
dry climates burning the humus out of 
the soil faster than in the cooler and 
damper climates. 

There are about 14 elements necessary 
to the growth of plants, but there are usu- 
ally only three of these that are not 
found in abundance. These three are ni- 
trogen, phosphorus and potash, which are 
commonly known as fertilizing elements 
of commercial fertilizers. Humus is not 
so generally taken into account but is 
absolutely essential to the growth of 
plants, as the chemical action necessary 
to make the commercial fertilizer ele- 
ments available is furnished by the or- 
ganic acids of the humus. This is also 
the case where the natural elements of the 
soil are depended on for fertility and 
humus must be present at all times if 
good growth is to be expected. 

Taking the average of the analyses of 
200 fertile soils it was found that when 
there was five tons of nitrogen, four tons 
of phosphoric acid and five tons of potash 
in an acre foot of soil, the last two be- 
ing available, that there was sufficient for 
the good growth of plants. 

The average California soil contains 
only about 1250 pounds of nitrogen, 2500 
pounds of phosphoric acid and the large 
amount of 12% tons of potash in the first 
acre foot. Hence we see that the needed 
elements are nitrogen and phosphoric 
acid. 

A crop of wheat yielding 1600 pounds 
to the acre will take from the soil each 
year, when the straw as well as the grain 
is removed, 42 pounds of nitrogen, 20 
pounds of phosphoric acid and 44 pounds 
of potash. An ordinary crop of oranges 
weighing ten tons to the acre will re- 
move 37 pounds of nitrogen, 11 pounds of 
phosphoric acid and 42 pounds of potash. 
A crop of five tons of grapes will remove 
17 pounds of nitrogen, 15 pounds of phos- 
phoric acid and 50 pounds of potash. 

If nothing is done to renew the sup- 
ply of nitrogen and phosphoric acid the 
amount soon becomes alarmingly small, 
and particularly so when we remember 
that but little of the available phosphoric 
acid will become available when the hu- 
mus is destroyed, either by being burned 
out in cultivation or used by the plants. 
Plants will not thrive if any one of the 
needed elements is deficient, hence we 
must supply the deficient element, in ad- 
dition to a supply of humus, before we 
can have the proper growth. Where phos- 
phoric acid is deficient it will be neces- 
sary to buy it in some form from an out- 
side source but humus and at least a par- 
tial supply of nitrogen can be had by 
growing and plowing under green legu- 
minous crops, or frequent applications of 
barnyard manure. 




"The time to remedy mistakes is before you make 
them" says a modern philosopher, and this advice 
applies most pointedly to the fruit grower. The time 
to lay the foundation for a fruit fortune is 



Planting time 



YOU CAN'T STICK any young tree Into any ground and expect Nature to 
excuse your carelessness and ignorance. The selecting of the young trees Is 
the first step that requires your care and all your available brains. Begin 

light. 

FIRST. SELECT THE MOST profitable varieties of trees most 
suitable to your soil and climate. Then select the trees that are 
hardiest and healthiest and with the best roots. 

IN THE PLACER NURSERIES we grow our trees only on vir- 
gin soil — decomposed granite — (not river bottom commonly used by 
nurserymen) and they have exceptionally well-meshed root sys- 
tems, with bright, highly colored, well toughened wood fibre — 
hardy plants that will thrive , 

OUR LONG EXPERIENCE as fruit growers, fruit shippers, and 
nurserymen has taught us what varieties are best to ship and best 
to grow — best from a seller's standpoint — and in propagating we 
cut our buds and scions only from the best parent trees that have 
been under our personal observation. 

THESE PARENT TREES have been marked by us when they 
Were in fruit. So that we can absolutely guarantee that our trees 
are true to name. There is no probability of the annoyance and 
disappointment of finding, when your orchard begins to bear, that 
you have a dozen varieties of fruit where you expected but one — 
the kind you had decided would pay you best. 

OUR PEACH and PLUM TREES (on Peach root) are propa- 
gated on the natural peach seedlings — i. e., seeds that for genera- 
tions have grown from seedlings. Our trees may not be the cheap- 
est, but they are grown for the future when they will give crops 
that will repay a thousand times any triffling expense. Begin right. 

Send lor our "Planters Guide" and Catalog; It Is tree and contains a mine 
ot valuable knowledge gained from many years experience. 

OUR STOCK comprises the best profitable commercial varieties ol 
Peach Pears Apples Plums 

Apricots Cherries Quinces Grapes 



Almonds 



Walnuts 



Oranges 



Lemons, etc. 




THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO. 

152 Orchard St., Newcastle, Cal. 



REX LIME AND SULPHUR 
SOLUTION 

THE FAMOUS INSECTICIDE AND FUNGICIDE. 

It has been found that Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution used in the early 
part of the season is as effective for Blight as the Bordeaux Mixture, and it 
does not have the injurious effect upon the tree as Bluestone. In Oregon and 
Washington the use of Bordeaux is being entirely eliminated and lime and 
sulphur solution used for all purposes. The leaves are falling from the trees, 
and especially the Peach, Almond and Apricot should be immediately sprayed 
for the first spraying. The second spraying should be done on all trees just 
before the buds open in the Spring. 

Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution is a guaranteed article, properly pre- 
pared, free from sediment, and as cheap, if not cheaper, than the farmer can 
make a mixture himself. 

For particulars inquire of your dealer or write to the factory at 

BENICIA, CALIFORNIA. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Of our high standard in quality — by the single box or by carload. 
We invite correspondence. 

Our Booklet, on " When, How, and What to Plant," a revised 
edition— to our patons only. To others on receipt of postage. 
Postals not noticed. 

ADDRESS, 

W. A. X. STRATTON, 

PETALUMA, CAL. 



SEEDS 

VALLEY SEED 



IN VARIETY. 



Superior quality of garden, 
flower and field seeds. 



311-313 «J Street, 

ALFALFA 



SEED A. 



Sacramento, Cal. 
SPECIALTY. 



The only two really 11 immune " well tested walnut*: bea»y 
bearers: bloom late: mature early: (raited trees only. 



"Concord* 




Send for catalogue and special circulars on 

New Fruits, Pedigreed Prunes, Eucalyptus, Etc. 
LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO.. INC .. 

MorganHin. Santa C'l:ira Co., ( al. 



BERRIES 



Pure Auslral'an 
Himalaya Black- 
berries, most profit- 
able and delicious 
berry grown; guar- 
anteed yield ten tons 
per acre, if trained 
and cultivated ac- 
cording to my direc- 
tions, also Logan- 
berries, Mammoth 
Blackberries, or- 
namental trees, 
shrubbery, and Bur- 
bank's Crimson Winter select and Crimson 
Winter Giant Rhubarb plants for sale. Send for 
catalogue, it is full of new and rare creations. 

Big 4 Nurseries 

B. S. KENNEDY, Prop. Sebastopol, Cal. 





Lime for Spraying 

Purest and best. Largest barrels. 

USED EXCLUSIVELY BY CALIFORNIA REX 
SPRAY COMPANY, AND MANY OTHERS. 

Ask your dealer Tor It or address, 

PACIFIC LIME & PLASTER CO. 

7th and Townsend St., San Francisco, Cal. 



TREES 



We grow a large stock of first 
class Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Walnuts, Grape Vines, 
Eucalyptus, Orange, Lemons, 
Roses, Berry Plants, etc. 

ESTABLISHED 1864. 

Hannay Nursery Co. 

San Jose, Cal. 
Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 

For sale by all the la i - • grocers, or 
D. A- SNOW, Lincoln Avenue. San Jose, Cal. 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



41) 



Patrons of Husbandry. 



POSTAL NEEDS. 



To the Editor: Although I think farm- 
ers are a unit in their demand for the 
convenience of a parcels post and the se- 
curity of postal savings banks, they are 
not all familiar with the stand taken by 
the National Grange, which, at their ses- 
sion in Washington, D. C, in November, 
1908, adopted the resolutions hereto ap- 
pended : 

Resolved, That it is the sense of the 
National Grange in annual session as- 
sembled, that a list of all United States 
Senators and Congressmen opposed to 
parcels post and postal savings banks 
be kept before the members of the Grange 
by having the list frequently read to the 
subordinate granges by the secretaries 
thereof, and 

Resolved, That it shall be the duty of 
the National Secretary to compile such a 
list, furnish printed copies to all Stste 
secretaries for all subordinate granges, 
and to furnish revised copies whenever 
changes make revision necessary to main- 
tain the list accurate to date, and 

Resolved, That all grange publications 
and other papers favorable to these 
measures be furnished copies of the list 
and requested to publish same. 

[Resolutions similar to these were 
passed by the California Fruit Growers' 
Convention at Watsonville last Decem- 
ber— E. B. I. 

The motive of these resolutions is 
splendid, viz.: to let the people know 
who are representing them in Congress 
and who are representing the interests 
adverse to the people. 

The only trouble is the resolutions 
seem likely to remain entirely inoperative 
for the reason that "Uncle Joe" Cannon, 
and his various committees, will take 
good care that there will be no "show 
down"; they will not permit any such 
bills to emerge from the committee rooms. 
The house postal committee is composed 
of members notoriously favoring the ex- 
press companies in opposing an up-to-date 
parcels post. The Committee on Rules is 
controlled by the "machine," and the ma- 
chine bought, paid for, and engineered by 
the various trusts. 

Why, in this State of California it is a 
misdemeanor, punishable by the courts, 
for a citizen to ask his Congressman to 
support a measure not contained in the 
party platform! 

By all means let us keep track of our 
representatives all we can, but there's one 
thing yet more essential, and that is to see 
that parcels post and postal savings 
banks find a place on all platforms, and 
that only such men are elected to Congress 
as will represent the people, "first, last, 
and all the time." 

EnwAun Berwick, 
President Postal Progress League of Cali- 
fornia. 

Pacific Grove. 



ALMOND EXPERIMENT. 



To the Editor: The University Experi- 
ment Station would like to communicate 
with almond growers who are willing to 
keep records on the flowering period of 
different varieties of almonds. Co-opera- 
tion is solicited in the effort now being 
made to determine why so many orchards, 
though favorably located, fail to produce. 

Record blanks and full instructions will 
be furnished by the department. The 
amount of time required- will be but a few 
minutes each day during the blossoming 
season. 

Anyone interested is requested to send 
name and address to B. S. Brown, Univer- 
sity Farm, Davis, Cal. 




Plant Morse's 

Sweet Peas 



Our New Catalog 
Mailed Free 



Now 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 

Seeds - Plants - Trees 



44 Jackson Street 



San Francisco, California 




Now is the lime for Ordering Trees 

We have a large lot of EUCALYPTI'S, 
CYPRESS, PINE TREES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of ORNAMENT- 
AL TREES AND SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
GREEN AND DECIDIOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS, DRACENA, ROSES, ERI- 
CAS, CAMELLIAS, AZALEAS, RHODO- 
DENDRON, FRUIT TREES and BEItRY 
BUSHES. 

-THE PACIFIC NURSERIES 

3041 Baker Street, San Francisco, 

And Millbrae, Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Rural 
Press. 



EUCALYPTUS 

We are prepared to supply your wants 
in large or small quantity for fall or 
spring planting, the stock is A No. 1. Se- 
cure your stock early. 

ORANGE AND LEMON TREES. 

Our citrus trees are, without doubt, the 
finest trees on the market. We can supply 
them in both one and two year buds, in 
any quantity desired. 

We are also large growers of Palms, 
Host's, Fruit Trees, and other stock. 

ARMSTRONG'S COVINA NURSERIES, 
Covina, Cal. 



ROSE MOUND 
NURSERY 

B. C. KINLEY 6 SON, Proprietors 

Growers and Importers of all kinds of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubbery. 

No Irrigation. Write for catalogue. 
SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA. 



BARTLETT PEARS, CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS, APPLES, PEACHES, PRUNES, 
PLUMS, FIGS, GRAPE VINES, BERRIES, 

ORNAMENTAL SHADE TREES, 

FLOWERING SHRUBS and ROSES. 

We have a fine stock of all commercial 
varieties. Strictly first class, TRUE to 
NAME. Give us a chance to quote you 
prices. We can interest you. Send for 
Catalogue. 

CHICO NURSERY CO., 

Chico, Cal. 



AN IMPROVED FREESTONE PEACH 

The best for canning, drying and market. 
FAY ELBERTA PEACH 

Superior to Muir or Lovell for canning or dry- 
ing, and superior to any for market. A heavy 
and regular bearer, very attractive, firm and of 
exceptionally fine flavor. Write for descriptive 
circular. THE NIL VA-UEIK i'1'1 1 OLUT CO., 

161 Orchard St., Newcastle, Cal. 



FRED GROHE'S NURSERY 

SUPPLIES 

CHAMPION STRAIN PETUNIA SEED 
GIANTS OF CALIFORNIA 
RUFFLED GIANTS 
Lodge Flowering Hybrid Delphinium 
Write for Prices. 
614 FIFTH STREET, SANTA ROSA, CAL. 



Catalog 



SEED 

NOW READY 

We want every Farmer, Gardener, 
Poultryman and Stockman to have a 
copy of our New Seed Book. It contains 
120 pages of everything needed to 
make a success of farming in the West. 
In this respect Lilly's Seed Book is 
better and more authentic than other 
publications of this nature. It is the 
experience of over twenty-five years of 
honest seed selling in the West. 

LILLY'S BEST Seeds are Best 
for the West and are sold by your 
dealer. Send today for new catalog. 



The Chas. H. Lilly Co. 

Seattle Portland 




KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

RELIABLE GROWERS OF DECIDUOUS 
TREES AND VINES 

WE ARE GROWING THE 

Largest Stock of Peach Trees in the State 

Wholesale Orders Solicited. 

Personal attention given to orders from planters. 
Let us figure on your needs now. 



MAIN OFFICE, 



FRESNO, CAL. 



The Buying of Citrus Trees 

IS A SIMPLE PROBLEM IN ECONOMICS. 

You cannot extract sunbeams from cucumbers nor blood from stones, nor good crops 
of tine oranges and lemons from Inferior trees A poor tree Is an expensive experiment 
entailing only vexation of Bpirit and a dwindling pocket book. Then why experiment with 
stock of doubtful quality ? W hy not get the best and be sure of the future? For 20 years we 
have been supplying the people who grow good citrus fruits with their trees in every citrus 
growing section of the world, and stand ready to serve you equally well. Why not write us 
and let us become better acquainted ? 

The economics of successful orange and lemon growing Is tersely explained In our book, 
entitled "The Citrus Fruits: Historically, Ilorticulturally and Commercially," a ropy of 
which is yours for the sum of 26 cents. 

SAN 1)1 MAS CITRUS NURSERIES, 



R. M. TEAGUE. Prop. 



San Riinas, California. 



A. & M. FIRST EARLY TOMATO 

IT IS THE BEST OE ALL. 

Write for our 1910 seed catalogue. It Is a valuable manual of the garden, ranch, and 
nursery. One hundred and forty-four pages full of valuable information. 

Our 1910 Catalog ol Poultry Supplies sent on request. 

AGGELER 6 MUSSER SEED CO. 



113-115 IM. rVIaln St. 



Los Angeles, Cal. 



CITRUS-SEED, BED TREES, SOUR STOCK 

Sweet stock, rough lemon stock. We have the largest and llncst block of seedlings in the 
.State. NAVELS, VALENCIAH, EUREKA LEMONS. Phones: Main H4H, Home'2620. 



SOUTHLAND NUk SERIES. 



p. H. Dlsbrow. Prop. 



PASADENA. CAL. 



50 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 15. 1910. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



Horticultural Notes. 

William Loftus, of Petaluma, has Lo- 
ganberry vines which are now bearing. 

The Sonoma county fruit growers will 
hold a meeting in Santa Rosa on Janu- 
ary 22. 

It is estimated that the total shipment 
of oranges from Sanger are only 90 car- 
loads as against 150 cars last year. 

A Citrus Exposition Association is be- 
ing formed at Oroville to hold a fair and 
boost the possibilities of orange growing 
in northern California. 

The fruit growers of Cedarville, Modoc 
county, have incorporated a Fruit Evap- 
orating Company and all the local fruit 
will be handled there. 

Many new orchards are being set out 
around Beaumont. K. R. Smoot, Ansel 
Royce and William White have all set 
out orchards within the last month. 

The orange growers of California deny 
that the recent frost injured the fruit. A 
very small percentage of the fruit was 
injured, and that was mostly done by the 
wind. 

Two thousand tons of prunes were ship 
ped from the Chico district during this 
last season. Over six carloads a day were 
shipped east of the Mississippi river and 
to European countries. 

C. F. Bidwell, of Woodland, kept some 
Muscat and Tokay grapes fresh until last 
week. His experiments show that it is 
practicable with ordinary care to have 
1'rcsli sjrupes during the entire winter. 

The Horticultural Commissioners of 
Fresno county examined 175,000 deciduous 
trees during the month of December and 
2(H) certificates were issued for the ship- 
ment of nursery stock from Fresno to 
foreign points. 

The grand jury of Los Angeles county 
is investigating the alleged abuse of power 
by the Horticultural Commissioner and 
his assistants. The fruit growers claim 
that the method of spraying trees, which 
they use is too costly. 

A contract has just been entered into 
between the Sebastopol Berry Growers' 
Association and a San Francisco firm 
whereby the 1910 crop of Loganberries 
will be sold for $50 a ton for the solid 
pack and $60 for the basket pack. 

A. G. Schultz, the Horticultural Com- 
missioner of Tulare county, has appointed 
P. I). Fowler. Deputy Commissioner and 
J. E. Frame, and F. L. Kennedy, Tree In- 
spectors. F. L. Kennedy is the manager 
of the Porterville Association packing 
house, and has wide experience with 
pests. 

A meeting of the fruit growers' of So- 
noma county was held in Santa Rosa on 
January 4. The county was divided into 
districts so that a systematic campaign 
could be made upon all the orchard pests. 
J. B. Dickson, of Petaluma, was appoint- 
ed assistant inspector for the southern 
district. 



General Agriculture. 

W. S. Harkey, of Gridley, intends plant- 
ing 800 acres in wheat this season. 

It is estimated that the farmers in the 
United States lost $795,100,000 through 
insects last year. 

The farmers of Western Placer county 
state that they never saw the season so 
favorable for crops and fruit. 

W. H. Howe, of Tulare, is thrashing his 
alfalfa seed. He expects to finish this 
work by the middle of January. 

Reports from the sugar factory at Ham- 
ilton City state that over 1000 acres of 
beets have been planted already in the 
Sacramento valley. 

J. E. Dnnlop of Dos Angeles is trying 



to interest the farmers of San Jacinto to 
raise sugar beets, and to build a sugar 
factory. 

Ching Lee and W. J. J. Cunningham 
are looking over the country around Sui- 
sun interesting the farmers in planting 
flax. 

The State Board of Health has ruled 
that all eggs which have been given the 
ice treatment or refrigerated must be sold 
labeled as such. 

E. D. Haag, of Kerman, had a very 
successful year with his bees. From less 
than 100 colonies he marketed over $000 
worth of honey. 

About 600 acres of celery are reported 
to have been destroyed in the late storms 
by flooding near Santa Ana. This loss 
will amount to about $100,000. 

There is a great scarcity of chickens in 
Fresno. Poultrymen are paying $7.60 a 
dozen for hens from farmers to be sold in 
the restaurants about the city. 

Two hundred and fifty tons of hay have 
been shipped to the Philippines for trial 
purposes. The hay will be used by Uncle 
Sam in feeding his horses over there. 

The first big shipment of tomatoes, con- 
sisting of 250 cars, will commence this 
week from points in Mexico to the United 
States. The value of this shipment is 
about $108,000. 

W." W. Fisk will grow the Crimson 
Rhubarb on his ranch near Davis. He will 
put in about 10 acres at the first plant 
ing, and if it comes up to all expecta- 
tions, he will plant his entire tract to the 
pie plant. 

There was a wide difference in the 
prices received by the farmers around 
Sanger for dressed turkeys during the 
holiday season. Some of them received 
as low as 16 cents, and above, while others 
got as high as 27 cents. 

An immense acreage is being planted to 
wheat in the Sacramento valley. The 
price of wheat is high, and the conditions 
are favorable for planting. Much of the 
land planted this year has been used as 
pasture land for the last four or five years. 

A bug resembling a common lady bug 
has made its appearance on the Kirkwood 
ranch near Jackson. Parts of this county 
were affected with the same bug last year. 
The land so visited was denuded of all 
vegetation and the soil produced nothing 
for the season. 

President G. W. Moore, of the Orange 
County Celery Growers' Association, re- 
ports that about 20 cars of celery a day 
are leaving this county. From 20 to 25 
cents a dozen for the best quality celery 
is being received. So far this season, 
over 100 cars have been shipped. 

The first carload of tobacco ever ship- 
ped from California was sent out of Exe- 
ter last week. The tobacco was grown 
by Armenians and was of the Turkish 
variety. The carload consisted of 10,000 
pounds and sells from 50 cents to $1 per 
pound. 

According to the final report of the 
United States Agricultural Department 
the yield of potatoes in bushels on this 
Coast this year is as follows: Colorado, 
10,400,000; Utah, 2,700,000; Nevada, 540,- 
000; Idaho, 5,000,000; Washington, 6,970,- 
000; Oregon, 8,360,000; California, 7,800,- 
000; Montana, 4,500,000; total, 45,270,000. 
This is a record crop. 

Fred W. Hanson, of Fresno, saved his 
ranch by draining his land with tiles. 
He has been unable to grow crops upon 
his land on account of the high water 
level. But hearing of some Government 
experiments with tile draining, he tried 
it on his land with the result that all the 
water was drained off, and he has been 
able to grow large crops on the land this 
season. 

The Walton Rhubarb Co. of Sebastopol, 
Sonoma county, with $100,000 capital 
| stock, has been formed to raise rhubarb 



Pear Blight 

We have positively 
demonstrated that 
WE CAN CURE 
THIS DISEASE. 



Write us for particulars. 



Pear Blight Remedy Co. 

VACAVILLE. CALIFORNIA. 



Gold Ridge Nursery 

H. R. JOHNS, Proprietor. 

COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF 

Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 

Trees grown on high sandy land 
without irrigation. 

Write for new catalog and prices. 
SEBASTOPOL. CAL. 




CRIMSON 

WINTER 

RHUBARB 

S1.60 a Dozen 
£6 per 100. (40 
per 1000. Now 
Is best time to 
plant rhubarb. 
Berry plants of 
all kinds. 

J. B. Wagner 

Pasadena, Cat. 

Rhubarb and 
berry specialist. 



LAND PLASTER 

(Gypsum) 
Nearly every California ranch 
needs GypMuni. It correct* noil con- 
dition*, helps other fertilizers give 
better results and aid fertility In the 
soli. Alfalfa, grain, vegetable and 
fruit crops are greatly Increased. 



Write for booklet and price*. 



PACIFIC CEMENT PLASTER CO. 

\MBOV, CALIFORNIA. 



WALNUT TREES 

grown from carefully selec ted seed, 
will produce 95''i No. 1 nuts of which 
'26% will grade fancy. Nuts grown 
from seed are more hardy, less liable 
to damage from frost, blight or sun- 
burn. Postal for prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



THE GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

of Loomls, Cal., are O&OBING hut their entire 
N r its k it y Stock at greatly reduced prices. 
An exceptional opportunity Is offered to those 
who wish to obtain trees of the famous Crocker 
Winter Hartlet Pear which Is might proof. 
Write for prices. 

C. YV. EARLF, Manager. 



W A N I'KD - Second-hand nursery row fruit 
treedlgger. Give measurements. AMKltH'AN 
NILE i n . El Centro, Cal. 




Circular \^ 
Cultivator Tooth, 

STANDARD AND CLAMP. 



First Premium State Fair 1907-08. 



LIGHT DRAFT AND GREAT SAVER 
OF HORSEFLESH. 

See Catalog lor Testimonials. 
Write us and we will send you one. 

MANl' FACTl'KED BY 

BOWEN & FRENCH, 

656 Washington St., 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



THE "BOSS" 

Tree -Protector 

MADE OF YUCCA PALM 



Is cheap, durable, and 
quickly put on the tree. 
It prevents rabbits from 
destroying your trees. A 
sure protection against 
frost, sunburn, grass- 
hoppers or dry winds. 
Can be easily removed; 
will last for years. Send 
for samples. 



PRICES. 

Per 1000. 

10 in. long, 7 wide, t 9.50 
12 In. Ions, 7 wide, 10.50 

11 in. long, 7 wide, 11.50 
16 in. lung, 7 wide, 13.00 
IS in. long. 7 wide, 14.50 
24 in. long, 7 wide, 17.00 
30 in. long. 7 wide, 20.00 



YUCCA MANUFACTURING CO. 

1380 WILLOW SI.. LOS ANGELES. CAL. 




TRY II ON ONE ACRE 



You do not have to make ci pensive experi- 
ments with our Fertilizer. Just try It on a small 
patch and watch the results. Compare the pro- 
duct of this acre with the rest of your land. 
Thousands of farmers are greatly Increasing 
their Incomes by adding to the soil of their 
farms the elements which It lacks. Very often 
a little fertilizer of the right kind will make a 
success of otherwise unprofitable farms. 

You can llnd out about the right kind of fer- 
tilizers from our little free book " The Farmer's 
Friend, 1010" now ready for distribution. 

Pacific Guano and Fertilizer Co., 

DEPT. C, 
26S Market Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



EUCALYPTUS 

with ROOTS 



Mend 
for 

Circular. 



HENRY SHAW, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



51 



for the San Francisco market. The com- 
pany has purchased from William Mather 
30,000 Burbank's Giant Crimson Winter 
Rhubarb which it will plant out this 
spring. In the work of planting, the com- 
pany will have the valued assistance of 
Mr. Mather, who is an expert in raising 
the plants. 

The annual meeting of the Santa Clara 
Poultry & Pet Stock Association was held 
last week. The officers for 1910 were 
elected as follows: President, H. F. 
Mann; vice-president, F. E. Baldwin; sec- 
retary, Charles R. Harker; treasurer, E. 
Van Every. This organization changed 
its name to the Santa Clara Poultry As- 
sociation and the pet stock part of the 
work will be handled under the name of 
the San Jose Kennel Club. 

The Boy's Corn Growing Contest in- 
augurated in connection with the Wash- 
ington Farming Demonstration Train has 
been decided. The seed corn for this con- 
test was supplied by the experiment sta- 
tion, and was of two kinds, one a yellow 
dent, and the other a white dent. This 
seed was distributed to the boys under 18 
years of age at each stop of' the demon- 
stration train. Every boy was allowed to 
choose his own variety and was given 
enough seed to plant a quarter of an acre. 
The prizes given in this contest were $100 
given by the O. R. & N. railroad company, 
and $40 by the county in which the corn 
was raised. The second best yield was 
$30, and $20 and $10, respectively, for 
third and fourth prizes. 



Miscellaneous. 

The Oxnard factory sliced 275,000 tons 
of beets this season and filled over S00.0O0 
bags of sugar. 

The recent pool which held the raisins 
for 3 cents has been dissolved, as that 
price could not be obtained. 

The United Fruit Company was re- 
cently incorporated at Newcastle. The 
directors are: M. J. Brown, J. L. Nagle 
and A. F. Wortmann. 

The Santa Fe railroad has planted 1700 
acres of eucalyptus on its ranches in San 
Diego county. They do not expect to 
cut the trees for 20 years yet. 

The city of Porterville is going to plant 
eucalyptus and alfalfa on its sewer farm. 
They think that they can get large re- 
turns from the lands in this way. 

The Union Lumber Company is making 
use of its stumpage ground in Mendocino 
county. They have planted thousands of 
eucalyptus trees over their lands. 

The Government Entomologists are 
working hard to eradicate a large cater- 
pillar, which is destroying the pastures 
in the West, and a weevil which is de- 
stroying the alfalfa crops in Utah. 

The California Alfalfa Mfeal Milling 
Company will build an alfalfa milling 
plant in Merced. It is the object of this 
company to build other mills at Visalia, 
Tulare and Hanford. 

The school children of Santa Clara 
county have planted 100 pounds of nas- 
turtium seeds and 2000 pounds of sweet 
pea seeds throughout that city in order 
to have plenty of flowers for the rose 
carnival which will be held there in the 
spring. 

A company has been organized in Los 
Angeles to raise cotton wood trees for 
timber. They believe that the cotton- 
wood may rival the eucalyptus for desert 
planting. Those interested in the pro- 
ject are: F. P. Payne, J. L. Beebe, G. 
M. Beach, J. A. Gordon and H. L. Ross. 

Secretary Ballinger has ruled that no 
funds available under the reclamation act 
can be used for securing lands for experi- 
mental purposes or for the erection of 
buildings. This is too late to affect the 
Klamath project, as they have already 
taken a 25 year lease of some land and 
have erected all the necessary buildings. 



Sacramento was selected by the Western 
Fruit Jobbers' Association as the con- 
vention city for 1911. St. Louis was Sac- 
ramento's only competitor and lost by a 
vote of 56 to 25. The meeting this year 
was held at Denver. This association 
comprises 50 cities and extends from the 
Pacific Coast to the Mississippi river, 
from Winnepeg, oanada, to New Orleans. 
Charles B. Bills, of Sacramento, was el- 
ected a director of the association. 

The special demonstration train now 
touring the State, sent out by the South- 
ern Pacific railway under the direction of 
the State University, will be at the fol- 
lowing towns on the dates given: Mal- 
aga, Madera and Fresno on January 17; 
Fresno, Clovis, Sanger and Reedley, Janu- 
ary 18; Reedley, Dinuba and Exeter, 
January 19; Exeter, Lindsay, Porterville 
and Bakersfield, January 20; Bakersfleld, 
Delano, Pixley and Tulare, January 21. 



THE LIME-SULPHUR WASH. 



To the Editor: In the December 11th 
edition of your paper you speak of a lime 
and sulphur mixture for killing peach 
twig-borers. Is it the same as the lime, 
salt and sulphur mixture that is spoken 
of in Wickson's book on "California 
Fruits," third edition? If not, what is 
the proportion of each? — A. E. B., Mor- 
ganhill. 

It is practically the same. The salt in 
the older formula was finally demonstrated 
to be of little or any value and has been 
generally dropped. It has always been 
known that the compound of lime and 
sulphur was really the killing agency, 
but it was thought for many years that 
the salt, by drawing moisture, would 
keep this compound working at the scale 
longer. This idea has now been practi- 
cally abandoned. The following is the 
formula as given by Mr. W. H. Volck, 
County Entomologist for Santa Cruz and 
Monterey counties: 

To make 200 gallons of spray of proper 
strength for the an Jose scale, and other 
winter uses: 

Sulphur 66 pounds. 

Lime 33 pounds. 

Water (to prepare) ... 50 gallons. 

Place the water in a boiling vet that 
will carry the quantity without danger 
of boiling over. Then, when fairly hot, 
add the lime, stirring to insure the for- 
mation of a smooth milk of lime. The 
sulphur should now be added, and the 
mixture boiled moderately, but constant 
ly, for 45 minutes to an hour. If the 
water boils away very much more hot 
water should be added from time to 
time. During the boiling stir every few 
minutes by raking over the bottom of the 
vat with a hoe. 

A very good practice in handling sul- 
phur is to pass it through a sieve to 
break up the lumps, and then moisten it 
with a small amount of water by kneed- 
ing. Sulphur so treated mixes with the 
milk of lime better. 

When this formula has been boiled suf- 
ficiently it will be a very dark colored 
rather thin liquid with only a small 
amount of sulphur left undissolved. The 
solution is now ready for straining 
through burlap or cheesecloth. The un- 
dissolved sulphur can be returned to the 
vat to be worked up with the next batch. 

The strained solution should be diluted 
with water to make 200 gallons, and if 
extra lime is desired, well strained milk 
of lime may be added along with the 
water. This extra lime should not be 
added until the spray is ready for use, as 
it will cause the sulphur-lime compound 
to crystallize out of solution. 

Salt can also be added to the prepared 
solution if desired, but all recent investi- 
gations have discredited this practice. The 
San Jose scale is as well killed when no 
salt is used, but some contend that the 
peach leaf-curl is better handled with 
salt. 



rvii 



TO 



Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine, 
Orange 

and Lemon, 
Nursery Stock, 
Alfalfa, 

Bone and Blood 
FERTILIZERS. 
Hawaiian 

Works 
Honolulu and San 



MAN 

Importers ol 

Nitrate ol 
Soda 

Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 

Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 




Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



FEED THE SOIL 

AND THE SOIL WILL FEED YOU 



Orange and other fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly 
recommend our fertilizers as producing the grandest results in quantity, 
quality of products and profits. Our fertilizers have the largest sale 
west of the Rockies, because they make sure and good crops. Lack of 
fertility means starved soil. Our fertilizers feed the soil and make it 
produce abundant harvest. Write and let us tell you about it. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

444 PINE STREET. SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 
Branch Oiltce: 216 Grosse Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



FROST PREVENTION 

SAVING FRUIT CROP BY SIMPLE MEANS 

With the possible exception of the loss occasioned by insect pests, there is prob- 
ably no one cause of loss so seriously affecting fruit crops as frost. 



BOLTON 



THE BOLTON ORCHARD HEATER AND 
AUTOMATIC FROST ALARM AND THERMOMETER 



will positively protect any orchard or vineyard from damage at a very small 
cost. For full information and particulars, address 

THE FROST PREVENTION CO., Fresno, California. 

Established since 1903. 



| RHODES DOUBLE CUT 

.PRUNING SHEAR 




THE only 
pruner 
made that cuts 
from both sides of 
the limb and does not 
bruise the bark. Made in 
all styles and sizes. We 
pay Express charges 
on all orders. 
Write for 
circular and 
prices. 



R U EH L=W HEELER NURSERY 

OFFICE AND SALES YARD : 121 W. SAN FERNANDO ST., SAN JOSE, CAL. BOX 826. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Nurseries: 80 Acres, Monterey Road, Near Edenvale. 25 Acres, Center Road, 
South of l ully Road. 16 Acres, East San Jose, Alum Rock Ave. 

Send for Free Price List. 



a pe n t d al l Tv a e po s u t l o t c^ FOOD BLENDER 

Blends your food to a mash as wet or dry as you want it in two minutes. 
Operates with the cheapest reliable and simple power on earth. 

Operated easily with a 8-H.P. 
Corliss engine. 

Works without watching. 

Saves time and trouble. 

Mixes meal for 8000 fowls 
or 20 cows in ju^t two 
minutes time. 

The Petaluma Poultry and Stock Blender is sold separate or attached to 
engine, to suit purchaser. Works easy — always in order. 




THE CORLISS OAS ENGINE 

Hullt In several Blzes, Is the only com- 
petitor of ftastern-made engines. 



Write us for details ol either Food Blender or Engine. 

CORLISS GAS ENGINE COMPANY, PETALUMA, CAL. 



52 



Pacific rural press. 



January 15, 1910. 



Live Stock and Dairy. 

Prepared for Pacific Rural Press 
By Paul P. Parker. 



FEEDING CALVES. 



The question of finding a substitute for 
whole milk is very important to dairy- 
men, especially with butterfat selling at 
the price it has been of late. The value 
of the substitute depends upon the pur- 
pose for which the calves are intended. 
If the calves are for veal, it is necessary 
to obtain the greatest weight and finish 
in the shortest possible time. If it is the 
intention to raise calves to maturity, it is 
necessary to give them food which will 
give them a satisfactory growth with the 
least possible expense and trouble. 

Dairymen are finding that it is not only 
cheaper but better results are obtained 
from calves which they raise to maturity. 
For a long time the dairymen would sell 
their calves for others to raise on the 
ground that it was too much trouble and 
too expensive to bring up the calves. They 
would buy mature milking cows which 
they did not know anything about and 
which, nine times out of ten hardly paid 
expenses. By feeding the calves grain 
and skimmed milk they are able to de- 
velop them to their full capacity and it 
also enables the dairymen to build up the 
herds from the calves of their best cows, 
thereby obviating any chances of getting 
poor cows palmed off on them by un- 
scrupulous neighbors. 

Nothing can take the place of whole 
milk when the veal is desired, but unless 
the butchers are willing to pay the price 
for whole milk fed cattle, it does not pay 
when the butterfat can be sold for 35 
cents a pound. A calf fed on whole milk 
is ready for the market in six or eight 
weeks, surpassing in weight and appear- 
ance any calf fed on skimmed milk and 
some substitute to take the place of but- 
terfat. When whole milk is fed the best 
results can be obtained by letting the 
calf feed itself while the cow is being 
milked. The calf can be broken in to do 
this while the milker is working on the 
other side. Calves given whole milk in a 
pan do not do as well as when they are 
forced to work for it. Some dairymen 
have tried letting the calf go at the cow 
first and then milking afterwards. Or a 
reverse of this, milking first and leaving 
enough milk for the calf; in either case, 
however, the cow does not let her milk 
down so readily to the one who goes last. 
When it is not profitable to feed whole 
milk, the best substitute for the butterfat 
has been found to be some grain, such as 
corn, barley, or rolled oats, and, of course, 
all the hay or alfalfa the calf can eat. 
In some recent experiments at the Vir- 
ginia Experiment Station excellent re- 
sults were obtained by feeding barley and 
skimmed milk, the skimmed milk being 
first fed and the grain given afterwards. 
They found that' the calves did not do as 
well when these two mixtures were put 
together. It is important that the milk 
and grain be fed separately, as it is much 
better masticated and the digestive juices 
have a much better chance to do the work. 
It is probable that some of the failures 
in feeding calves skimmed milk are due 
in mixing grains that do not go into so- 
lution with skimmed milk. 

The calves were fed for the first week 
on whole milk, then the skimmed milk 
was gradually substituted. They would 
gradually begin to eat the grain and hay 
at from 10 to 12 days old. Bran was 
used to great advantage in teaching the 
calves to eat the grain, as they seemed to 
prefer it to everything else. Care must 
be taken when the skimmed milk is fresh. 
It is best to have a small hand separator 
In the barn so that the milk can be taken 
from the cow and put in the separator 
and fed to the calves while warm. 



The following rules were observed in 
feeding the calves: Ten pounds of milk 
for the first 100 pounds of live weight, 
five pounds of milk for the second 100 
pounds of live weight, and 2'i pounds of 
milk for the third 100 pounds of live 
weight. Until the calf was three months 
old one pound of grain to 10 pounds of 
milk was fed. From three to six months 
one pound of grain to five pounds of milk 
was fed. 

John Michels has been carrying on 
some experiments with rolled oats as a 
substitute for milk in calf feeding with 
special reference to the needs of the dairy- 
men who have little or no skimmed milk, 
and they have proven very satisfactory, 
giving larger gains than those calves fed 
skimmed milk. 

The rolled oats were prepared by add- 
ing boiled water to them at the rate of 
one gallon of water to 12 ounces of rolled 
oats, and the mixture was then allowed to 
stand until cool enough to feed. The 
daily allowance per calf during 13 weeks 
was as follows: 

First week, 10 pounds of whole milk; 
second week, eight pounds of whole milk, 
four ounces rolled oats; third w r eek, six 
pounds whole milk, eight ounces rolled 
oatsh; fourth week, four pounds whole 
milk, 12 ounces rolled oats; fifth week, 
two pounds whole milk, 12 ounces rolled 
oats, 0.2 pound grain mixture (which 
consists of equal parts of corn meal, lin- 
seed meal and wheat bran); sixth week, 
two pounds whole milk, 12 ounces rolled 
oats, 0.4 pound -grain mixture; seventh 
week, two pounds whole milk. 12 ounces 
rolled oats, 0.6 pound grain mixture; 
eighth week, two pounds whole milk, 12 
ounces rolled oats, 0.8 pound grain mix- 
ture; ninth week, two pounds whole milk, 
12 ounces rolled oats, one pound grain 
mixture; tenth week, 12 ounces rolled 
oats, one pound grain mixture; eleventh 
week, same as last week; twelfth week, 
12 ounces rolled oats, 1.2 pounds grain 
mixture; thirteenth week, 12 ounces roll- 
ed oats, 1.2 pounds grain mixture. 

The milk was always added to the oat 
preparation just previous to feeding. 

In addition to the above feeds the 
calves received all the hay and pasturage 
they would take. 

On the basis that one pound of rolled 
oats is equal to one gallon of whole milk 
and that whole milk is worth eight cents 
per quart to milkmen, the cost of the 
milk for a 13 weeks' old calf receiving no 
rolled oats is $26.96. When rolled oats 
(which costs 4.4 cents per pound deliv- 
ered in barrel lots), are substituted for 
milk as shown above, the cost of the calf 
feed for the same period is only $12.46, or 
a saving of $14.50 in favor of rolled oats. 

One precaution to observe in feeding 
rolled oats to calves is not to use it in too 
large a quantity, owing to the laxative 
character of this feed, in fact, no calf 
should get more than 12 ounces per day. 



EXTERMINATE THE COYOTE. 



The coyotes are becoming so numerous 
over the Pacific Coast that they are do- 
ing thousands of dollars worth of damage 
to the farmers and ranchers. No matter 
how watchful a stock raiser is, these 
midnight marauders always manage to 
carry off some of his choice lambs, hogs, 
or poultry. Many ranchers in the moun- 
tainous districts cannot raise sheep or 
chickens because of the depredations of 
these pests, those that do, are forced to 
expend such sums building suitable shelt- 
ers and corrals that it removes much of 
the profits. 

One can not travel on a country road 
now without seeing several coyotes, in 
fact, they are becoming so bold that they 
come into the farmyards during the day. 
Last week while the Jacks Corporation 
were moving some of their sheep near 
Monterey, a band of seven or eight coyotes 
followed the sheep along the whole jour- 



ney, showing no fear of the dogs or the 
herders. 

Something should be done to get rid of 
the coyotes, and to prevent a further in- 
crease in their number. A bounty of $20 
is paid on the California lion or puma, 
and there is no reason why a coyote 
should not bring $5. A coyote will eat 
several times the amount of this bounty 
in a very short time. Five dollars is not 
too large a sum because it will offer an 
inducement to every man and boy to 
catch these pests, and will save millions 
of dollars to the farmer. 

Besides poisoning and shooting, another 
method has been advanced by a Han ford 
rancher. His method is to catch a coyote 
and put it in a pen with a mangy dog so 
that when the coyote is turned loose he 
will give the mange to the other coyotes. 
When in this condition coyotes become 
very poor and lifeless, and are easily shot 
or run down by dogs. 

The farmers should urge their Assem- 
blymen and Senators to have such a 
bounty placed on the coyote and thus 
save thousands of hogs, sheep, and poul- 
try over the State. 



HOG CHOLERA. 



M. Dorset, chief of the biochemic di- 
vision of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 
has written a treatise on hog cholera 
which ought to be in the hands of every 
hog raiser on the Pacific Coast as several 
epidemics of this disease have been re- 
ported lately. He says: 

All that is necessary to prevent hog 
cholera is to keep the germ of the dis- 
ease away from the herd. It has been 
shown that in the vast majority of cases 
this germ is transported mechanically, in 
the bodies of sick hogs and on the feet 
of men or animals, including birds. It 
thus follows that the chances of an out- 
break of hog cholerd will be greatly les- 
sened, if not completely avoided, if a herd 
is protected from these carriers of the 
infection. The enforcement of a com- 
plete quarantine is, however, not practic- 
able under average farm conditions, and 
the best that can be hoped for is the les- 
sening of the opportunity for infection by 
placing the herd on a part of the farm 
that will be the least accessible to men or 
animals from other farms. Hog lots 
should never be located near public roads 
if this can be avoided. All newly pur- 
chased stock should be kept separate from 
the main herd for at least 30 days. 

In addition to protecting the herd by 
methods of quarantine, careful attention 
should be given to the general health of 
the herd. The hogs should be provided 
with clean, dry sleeping places, and the 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

Gombault's 

Caustic Balsam 




Has Imitators But No Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all akin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 
As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, etc., it Is invaluable. 

>>ery bottle of Caustio Balsam sold Is 
Warranted to Klve satisfaction. Price 81 SO 
per bottle. Sold by drugeistt. or Bent by ex- 
press, charges paid, wltn full directions for 
Its use. f?TSend for descriptive circulars, 
testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 

JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Reglatered Short- 
horns, milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Beat 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petaluma, Cal. 

BULLS AND C(*W8 FOR SALK-«horthorned 
Durhams. Address E.8. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

N. H. LOCKE CO., Lockeford, Cal. Jerseys, 
.Service Bulls and young stock for sale. 



SWINE 



0. A. STiiWE. Htockton. Berkshire and Poland- 
China Hogs, Shropshire .Sheep. 

CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., NUea, Cal. 
Breeders of Thoroughbred BerKshlres. 

GEO. C. ROEDINU, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Berkshire Boars and Sows. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Jo., Cal. Breeder 
of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 



OEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodl, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 

U. A. MURPHY, Perkins, Cal. Breeder of Cham- 
pion Herd of Berkshlres also Shorthorns. 



LAFAYETTE STOCK FARM 

LARGEST IMPORTERS OF 
Pereherost, Belarlstii, shirr. iiinnun Coacb 
uuil llncknej Stallions untl Mure*. 




Carnot 66666 — First Prize Winner In 
Paris, 1909. First Prize Aged Class at 
Iowa State Fair. 1909. Champion Perch- 
eron Stallion Indiana State Fair. 1909. 
Champion Percheron Stallion Wisconsin 
State Fair, 1909. Champion Percheron 
Stallion Illinois State Fair, 1909. Grand 
Champion Percheron Stallion New York 
Horse Show, 1909. 

At the recent Mew York Horse Show our 
horses made almost n clean sweep, repeat- 
ing the Krent wlnnlngM niiule ut the West- 
ern State Fairs. 

200 HEAD AT LOWEST PRICES. 
BEST GUARANTEE. 

J. F. CAMPBELL, .Mgr.. Pacific Coast 
Stables, permanently located at rear 1300 
J St., Sacramento, Cal. 



DR. 



MEDICINES 



DANIELS' 

FOR 

Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Sheep, etc. 

27 Horses die from 
Colic where one dies 
from Fire. 

Why not Insure 
against Colic 7 

Daniels' colic cure Is 
SURE, SAFE and 
QUICK ! 

$1.00 per Package— 20 
centB cures a horse. At 
Dealers, etc. 

Agents wanted In each 
town west of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

A. T. ROCHE & CO. 

IBB Valencia SI.. San Francisco, Cal. 




Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent o< 
California stockmen because they give 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and our 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

P. 0. Box 257, BERKELEY, CAL. 

TULARE LAKE STOCK FARM. 

REGISTERED 

Jacks and Jennets For Sale. 

We breed the Best. Don't write — come and Wee. 
We can show you. 

JAS. W. McCORD, 

Hanlord, Cal. 

Blake. Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH S I., SAN FRANCISCO 
D1DCD Blake, Moffitt A Towne, Los Angeles 
r/irxn Blake McFall A Co., Portland, Oregrja 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



53 



THE ANNUAL SHORT-HORN SALES 



OF 



MRS. J. H. GLIDE, 

WILL BE HELD 

JANUARY 24th, 1910, 

IN SALES PAVILION OF FRED H. CHASE & CO., 478 VALENCIA ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

These Offerings Exceed in Number and Equal in Quality the Banner Sale of 1 909 



HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY, 

WILL BE HELD 

JANUARY 25th, 1910, 



The Greenwood Offering Comprises: 

25 Head Yearling and Two Year Old Bulls. 
15 Head Choice Cows and Heifers. 



Including first prize winners 
at 

Alaska-Pacific-Yukon Exhibition 



The Howard Cattle Company Offering Comprises : 

35 Head Yearling and Two Year Old Bulls. 
20 Head Choice Heifers. 



IVIRS. «J. H. GLIDE, 

910 H Street, 

SACRAMENTO, CALIF. 



Bull offering includes sons of the thrice Grand Champion of America, 
Lavender Viscount 124755; also bulls strong in the blood of the Champion 
Choice Goods 186802. 
FOR CATALOGUE AND FURTHER PARTICULARS 
APPLY TO 

HOWARD CATTLE COMPANY, 

641 Mission Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 



lots and feeding troughs should be kept 
clean. It is well occasionally to scatter 
slaked lime about the lots and to wash 
and disinfect the troughs. Probably the 
best disinfectant for this purpose is the 
compound solution of cresol (U. S. P.), 
which can be prepared at any drug store. 
One part of this should be mixed with 30 
parts of water and the troughs scrubbed 
with it. The disinfectant is then washed 
out of the troughs with water. 

After an outbreak of hog cholera the 
yards and pens should be thoroughly 
cleaned, all dead hogs should be burned 
or buried deep with quicklime, the litter 
should be collected and burned, and lime 
scattered freely over the ground. The 
sheds and hog houses should be washed 
thoroughly with the solution of cresol as 
above described before new stock is 
brought on the place. Feeding troughs 
that have been used by sick pigs should 
be burned if made of wood, but if this is 
not practicable they should be scrubbed 
clean and thoroughly soaked with cresol 
solution, the latter being washed out be- 
fore the troughs are used again. 

It is possible to start an outbreak of hog 
cholera in a herd by bringing hogs on the 
farm that have had the disease and have 
apparently recovered. We have no def- 
inite information concerning the length 
of time that such hogs may be able to com- 
municate the disease to others, but for 
safety's sake two or three months should 
be allowed to elapse after complete recov- 
ery before placing such an animal with 
susceptible pigs, and then only after wash- 
ing or dipping in a disinfectant solution 
(compound solution of cresol, 1 to 100). 

Prevention by Inoculation. — Careful 
and peristent attention to general preven- 
tive measures, such as quarantine, disin- 
fection, proper feeding, etc., on the part of 
farmers generally would no doubt result 
in a material reduction in the yearly 
losses from hog cholera, and the import- 
ance of observing these precautions can- 
not be overestimated. However, as it is 
regarded as impracticable to enforce a 
general and completely effective quaran- 
tine, the Bureau of Animal Industry has 
endeavored for a number of years to find 
a medicine or serum which could be used 
for preventing hog cholera or for curing 
hogs sick of that disease. It is a well- 
know fact that hogs which have recov- 
ered from hog cholera are thereafter im- 
mune against that disease. The experi- 
ments of the Bureau of Animal Industry 
resulted in the discovery that when such 
immunes are injected with blood from a 
sick hog the immune is not made sick, but 
as a result of this injection its blood ac- 
quires the power to protect other hogs 
from hog cholera. 

The method of producing this serum is 
briefly as follows: 

A vigorous immune hog — that is, one 
which has recovered from an attack of 



hog cholera or one which has been ex- 
posed to the disease without contracting 
it, is treated with a large quantity of 
blood from a hog sick of hog cholera. Af- 
ter a week or two blood is drawn from 
the immune by cutting off the end of the 
tail. After standing, the blood clot is re- 
moved and the serum or fluid portion of 
the blood is mixed with a weak solution 
of carbolic acid and filled into sterilized 
bottles. We have in this fluid portion of 
the immune's blood the serum which will 
protect hogs from hog cholera. This se- 
rum is used in either one or two ways, 
namely (1) the serum inoculation, and 
(2) the simultaneous inoculation. These 
two methods of treatment are carried out 
as follows: 

Serum Inoculation. — The hogs which 
are to be protected are injected on the in- 
side of the hind leg with a suitable dose 
of the serum alone. This injection will 
serve to protect hogs from hog cholera 
for several weeks and in some cases, for a 
longer time. But if the hog is not ex- 
posed to hog cholera within a few weeks 
after this treatment, the immunity which 
is conferred by the serum will gradually 
lessen by degree and the hog may again 
become susceptible. If, however, the hog 
is exposed to hog cholera within a short 
time after the injection of the serum, the 
immunity becomes, so far as experiments 
have shown, of permanent and lifelong 
duration. 

From what has been said it will be seen 
that the injection of the serum alone is 
especially to be recommended in cases 
where there is immediate danger of ex- 
posure, especially when valuable hogs are 
carried to fairs and in herds where the 
disease has already broken out but has 
not progressed very far. In herds of this 
character all of the well animals may be 
treated, and even in the case of slightly 
sick animals much good may be accom- 
plished by the serum injection. 

Simultaneous Inoculation. — In this 
form of vaccination the same serum is 
used as is employed when the serum alone 
is used, but in addition to the serum there 
is injected on the opposite side of the 
body, in the same manner as the serum, a 
very small amount of blood taken from 
a hog sick of hog cholera. The simul- 
taneous injection of serum and virulent 
blood confers upon the injected pig a per- 
manent and lasting immunity, and is, 
therefore, to be recommended in cases of 
well herds which may not be exposed for 
some months after the treatment. 



BEET PULP FOR CATTLE. 

Feeding beet pulp to cattle requires 
much experience to be successful as there 
are many chances for loss. One of the 
most successful pulp feeders in the San 
Joaquin is J. E. West, of Visalia. His 
feeding pens are arranged along an avenue 



H. H. H. LINIMENT 



USED UNIVERSALLY BY STOCKMEN 
For Successfully Treating the Afflic- 
tions of the HORSE and other Domestic 
Animals. 



FOR FAMILY USES IT HAS NO 
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Sore Throat, Rheumatism, Sprulns, 
Neuralgia, Cuts, Sores, Swellings, Lame- 
ness, Stiff Joints, Poisonous Bites, 
Cramps, Diarrhoea, etc. 
KEEP A BOTTLE ON HAND FOR EMERGENCIES. 
50c and 91.00 Sizes. Sold Everywhere. 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, Stockton, Cal. 

Manufacturers and Proprietors. 



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Simple In Construction. Strong and Durable. Easy to Operate, No levers to push or ropes 
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It Saves Time, Trouble and Temper — Makes Light Hearts and Happy Homes. 
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20th Century Automatic Gate 




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vehicles. Opened or closed without assistance or 
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and so simple It never gets out of order. It will 
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saved, within a year. It adds to the beauty, value, 
convenience and safety of any home. AddresB 

A. J. BLOOM 
Petaluma, California 




Tanks 



Tanks 



WINE TANK. 



WINDELER'S PLANING MILL 

AND COOPERAGE 

GEO. WINDELER, Prop. 

Water Tanks, Wine Tanks, made from carefully 
selected stock by careful and experienced work- 
men. "Tanks that are well made last a long 
time." It will pay you to get my prices before 
buying. 

GEO. WINDELER, 
144-154 Berry St. San Francisco, Cal. 




WATER TANK. 



« HERCULES 



HARNESS 
SADDLES 
HORSE 
COLLARS 

Bfegr THEY LAST LONGER! "^8 

If your dealer cannot supply you, write us direct 
for a price list. Manufactured solely by W. 
DAVIS £ SONS, Wholesale Saddlery, 2040 to 
2002 Howard St., San FranCl(0Oj Cal. 



Chicken, Fruit 
And Berry Farms 

For Sale. 

From one acre up. Improved or un-lmproved, 
$100 acre up. One-flth or less down, balance long 
time. On the electric line. Rural mall, School, 
near town. See my ad in Sunday', Examiner. Send 
stamp for list, write to Sel>astop61. Office: 
Heuel Station, Between Petaluma and Sebaatopol. 

CHARLES GLOECKNER. 



54 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 15, 1910. 



so that, the wagon loads of pulp can go 
down between the two rows of troughs 
and can oe easily thrown out. Mr. West 
keeps his pens very dry so that the cat- 
tle can lie down and ruminate after eat- 
ing their fill of pulp. As this feed has a 
very large water content they pass large 
amounts of water, so if the pens are not 
built to avoid this, mud will form even 
in dry weather. 

When the cattle are first brought to 
tneir feeding pens he puts them in a large 
enclosure and keeps them there until they 
get used to the pulp, some cattle eat pulp 
immediately, while others take from three 
to eight days, and there is often some 
who never will eat it to any extent. After 
the cattle commence eating tne pulp they 
are placed in smaller pens so that they 
cannot play or run around. After the 
cattle get into the smaller pens he nevei 
places strange cattle in with them, as 
they are liable to injure each other, and 
loose more weight in one day than they 
have put on in a week. He never lets any- 
one go through the corrals except in a 
buggy or on horseback so as not to dis- 
turb the cattle, as they are all wild range 
stock. 

Mr. West feeds about 125 pounds of pulp 
a day, mixed with ten pounus of chopped 
hay. The best cattle or the "tops" are 
taken out of the common pens the last 15 
days before going to the market, and put 
in special pens wnere they are given one 
or two pounds of baney a day and all the 
good hay they can eat, so tnat by the time 
they are ready for snipment tney are in 
prime condition. 



RESUME OF CHICAGO STOCK 
MARKET FOR THE YEAR. 



Valuation of all live stock received at 
Cnicago for the year was $330,614,200, 
which was by far the greatest since the 
yards were established. This total in- 
cluded hogs to the value of $7,000,000 re- 
ceived outside of tne yards by packers 
direct. 

Receipts of hogs were the smallest since 
1893, the total being 6,619,018, and cattle 
receipts were the smallest since 1900. 

In spite of the big decrease in hog re- 
ceipts for the year the higher price they 
brought at market made the year's valua- 
tion about $17,000,000 more than last 
year. 

Beef cattle, lambs, and calves broke all 
previous records for top prices during the 
year, and hogs were the highest with one 
exception, in 1882. 

Taking in all kinds of live stock, the 
producer never before received such high 
prices. 

Most of the year demand was excep- 
tionally strong for everything that was 
good in quality. It was a year when the 
public appreciation of finished stock was 
strongly emphasized. 

The highest price paid for beef cattle 
was $9.50, which happened to be the high- 
est on record, beating the previous high 
mark in 1882 by 20 cents. 

In no other year did the price of corn 
play such an important part in feeding 
operations. The fact that so many peo- 
ple preferred to sell their corn rather than 
feed it was responsible for the shortage 
in both cattle and hogs. 

Sheep was the only class of live stock 
that made a gain for the year. High 
prices for several years have stimulated 
greater production. 

There were 10,498,000 cattle, calves, 
hogs and sheep slaughtered at Chicago 
stock yards during the year 1909. 

Stockmen are facing better prospects 
than usual in the coming year. Practi- 
cally everything is much higher than it 
was a year ago and with an acknowledged 
shortage in cattle and hogs . producers 
hope to continue the era of high prices for 
some time to come. 

There were no records broken in re- 
ceipts during the year, as a deficit de- 



veloped in every department except sheep. 

The valuation of live stock was higher 
in every department during the year, 
showing that prices were uniformly good. 



SHORT-HORN SALE. 

On January 24, Mrs. J. H. Glide will 
offer 25 head of yearling and two-year 
old bulls and 15 choice cows and heifers, 
including some first prize winners at the 
Alaska-Yukon Fair. The Howard Cattle 
Company will also sell the next day, Janu- 
ary 25, 35 head of yearling and two-year- 
old bulls and 20 head of cows and heifers. 
The auction will take place at the sales 
pavilion of Fred H. Chase & Co., 487 
Valencia street, San Francisco, and the 
sales will be conducted by Geo. P. Bel- 
lows, the Missouri Short-Horn expert. 

Several prize winners of the live stock 
show held at the Seattle fair will be of- 
fered from the Greenwood herd. The 
lucky person who gets one of these is sure 
of having an animal of true Short-Horn 
character, and one which will make an 
immediate improvement in any herd. 

The sale last year was the most success- 
ful and attractive ever held on the Coast 
and was attended by stockmen from all 
over the Pacific Coast who carried home 
the choice offerings. The average price ob- 
tained at the last sale was $159 per head; 
23 females sold for $3400, or an average 
of $147; 39 bulls sold for $6375, or an 
average of $163. 



MEETING OF THE CALIFORNIA 
LIVE STOCK BREEDER'S 
ASSOCIATION. 

The California Live Stock Breeders' 
Association will hold its regular meeting 
on January 24 and 25, at the Palace Ho- 
tel, San Francisco. The object of the or- 
ganization is the furtherance of the live 
stock interest in California, and many 
subjects of vital interest to the stockmen 
of the State will be discussed. A banquet 
will be held on the evening of the 24th 
at the Palace Hotel, where Prof. E. W. 
Majors, Prof. Hawke, Carrol Cook, S. B. 
Wright, of Santa Rosa, Geo. P. Bellows, 
of Missouri, State Veterinarian Keane, 
Prof. Phillips and Captain Langdon, U. S. 
A., will speak. The election of officers and 
other matters will be taken up on January 
25th. 



LIVE STOCK NOTES. 



The cattle feed is going to be short on 
the desert ranges before spring on ac- 
count of the heavy snow fall, which lies 
on the slopes of the mountains and ex- 
pands out into the desert. The snow this 
winter has spread out on the desert as 
far east as Ludlow, San Bernardino 
county. 

The drouth in New Mexico has caused 
Turney & Isaacs to sell most of their 
cattle. Already they have shipped 500 
cows and 300 calves to California. 

James T. Donlon of Ventura recently 
bought 1000 head of cattle from the Rock 
Springs Land & Cattle Co., of Nevada. 

Secretary Stewart of the Utah Wool 
Growers' Association reports that the 
sheep caught in the snow in that State 
are doing very well, as the corn which 
was rushed to them reached the sheep 
in time to save a large percentage. 

An epidemic of "hog cholera is reported 
at Salinas. 

W. F. Huesel, of Hanford, recently re- 
ceived from Oklahoma two pedigreed Po- 
land China hogs. 

Fourteen carloads of hogs, the largest 
bunch that ever left Hanford, were ship- 
ped out by Hammond & Ryan last week. 

Stockmen around Kerman are jubilant 
over the abundant pasturage. The grass 
has come up so well that cattle are be- 
ing brought from other districts. 

Veterinary Inspector Longley reports 
that nearly all of the western half of 
in Mexico, containing over 650,000 acres. 




/ROOFING 



Going to build ? Settled the Roofing question yet ? 
Or it may be that you have an old roof that needs re- 
placing. If you want a roof that will wear for years 
without paint or repairs, Pioneer Roofing is what you 
are looking for. 

Let us send you samples of Pioneer Roofing 
and our 32-page Roofing Booklet. 

PIONEER ROLL PAPER COMPANY 

DEPARTMENT 73 LOS ANGELES. CALIFORNIA 

Use Pioneer Asphalt Roof Paint and Coating. 




OR 



In constant use for 15 years. I Reduces friction to the minimum. 
Makes a hard load pull easily. | Use it on your Harvesters. 

All Dealers are selling Hub 
THE BRININSTOOL CO., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Fresno county is free from the Texas 
fever tick. There are only seven ranches 
In the county which are quarantined. 

The Santa Barbara County Live Stock 
Association held its annual meeting in 
Lompoc last week and elected James 
Sloan, president; C. A. Edwards, vice- 
president; J. R. Fithan, treasurer; Dr. H. 
O. Sanders, secretary. 

Sir Thomas Wiseman, of London, 
bought the Chihuahua ranch of General 
Terrazas. This is one of the finest ranches 
and cost about $1,000,000. Over 25,000 





HOG 




K0K0M0 


FIELD 


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POULTRY 




noma h lock 


S5'e»= 






The Standard of all makes. Square and 
Diamond Mesh Fences for all purposes. Made oi 
heavy, non-rust, self-r^ulatlng steel wires. 
Absolutely hog tight and stock proof. Write us 
for catalog and prices. 

CALIFORNIA ANCHOR FENCE CO. 

822 Main St., Stockton, Cal. 



Can a horse pull 
more and pull it 
easier with a per- 
fect fitting collar? 

Can a man walk 
faster with per- 
fect-f.rtint? shoes 
than with shoes 
that hurt his feet? 

Same answer 
applies to both 
questions. 

If you can't buy 
our goods from 
your dealer, write 
and we'll see 
why. 

P. SHARKEY & SON, 

Portland, Oregon. 




DAIRY STOCK 

Purebred Holsteins, Bulls 
and Heifers for sale at 
reasonable prices. 



The best bred stock 
obtainable on the 
Pacific Slope. 

Now is the time to purchase a sire 
to head your herd. 



Write for Information. 

0AKW00D STOCK FARM CO. 

F. J. SCHLEEF. Mgr. 
909 Jackson St., San Francisco 

The Fresno Scraper 




Send for Halsln Machinery Catalogue. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FBESNO CALIFORNIA. 

REDWOOD TANKS 

Fifty tank s from one thousand to ten thousand 
gal'ons that must be sold regardless of profit. 
Fruit Boxes— Egg Cases. 

Write for prices. 

R. F\ WILSON 

Stockton. Cal. 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



55 



head of cattle and 2000 head of horses 
and mules are included In the deal. 

Thomas H. Williams, of San Francisco, 
and some other California capitalists have 
obtained a concession to build a large 
packing house at Guadalajara and H. H. 
Hinkle will superintend the new con- 
cern. 

Twelve carloads of hogs, valued at 
about $12,000, were shipped out of Braw- 
ley last week. Virgil Patterson marked 
five cars, Woods & McKeehan, four cars, 
and W. L. Manahan, three cars. 

The northern side of the San Bernar- 
dino range is covered with snow, so that 
the cattle can not get at the feed. At 
Grapevine, where many cattle usually 
feed during the winter season, the ground 
is so deeply covered with snow that the 
cattle have to browse on the bushes. 

The cattlemen of Arizona predict that 
there will be a scarcity of live stock in 
that section of the country due to the 
fact that when the calving season com- 
menced last spring the cows were in poor 
condition on the ranges, and as a result, 
a large percentage of the calves died, re- 
sulting in the great scarcity of yearlings 
at this time. 

A very important decision has been 
handed down by Judge W. H. Pope of the 
District Court of New Mexico. He de- 
cided that infected cattle under quaran- 
tine could not run on the public ranges 
where there are clean cattle. 

The Denver Live Stock Show, which 
was held from January 8 to 15, was the 
most successful ever held. Some 10,000 
Western cattle were exhibited, but the 
chief feature of the show was the exhi- 
bition of feeder cattle in carload lots. 

Range and weather conditions around 
Buffalo, Wyoming, are so bad that sheep- 
men are offering their flocks at $1 a head. 
These sheep could not have been pur- 
chased six weeks ago for less than $6 a 
head. 

The snows of last week have filled the 
water holes and streams north of Sonora 
so that the cattlemen in that section 
have no fear of a dry year. 

Buyer Sweeney, of Los Angeles, bought 
14 carloads of cattle at Tempe, Arizona, 
last week. 

There is a marked lull in the export- 
ing of Mexican cattle. From now until 
spring there will be very few cattle ship- 
ped out. It is estimated that over 100,000 
cattle were shipped out of Chihuahua, 
Mexico, this year. 

The 10,000 acre Vallejo ranch near Po- 
mona is being stocked with hogs. Some 
M000 porkers have already been put on 
alfalfa prior to conditioning them for the 
market. 

The recent storm in Arizona killed over 
600 sheep for H. J. Gray, of Prescott. A 
peculiarity of the storm was, the fat 
sheep were killed, while the poor sheep 
weathered the storms. 

New Mexico, according to the bulletin 
of the National Wool Manufactures' Asso- 
ciation, is fourth in the production of 
sheep, Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho, 
leading by small margins. Montana has 
5,000,000 sheep of the shearing age, and 
New Mexico has 3,200,000. 

Over 700 head of sheep and a large 
number of cattle were frozen to death 
in the late snowstorms at Folsom, New 
Mexico. 

W. C. Camel and W. L. Walton, of Reno, 
Nevada, have purchased the Jersey farm 
near Dixon. The farm contains 550 acres 
and the price paid was $60 an acre. 

Two carloads of draft horses weighing 
from 1400 to 1800 pounds apiece were 
shipped out of Wheatland recently by Mr. 
Lowe. 

Peter Nau, of Meridian, recently sold a 
span of colts for $450. , 

Twenty thousand head of sheep be- 
longing to the Kaiser Live Stock Co., of 
Elk county, Nevada, will be driven across 
the State to Los Angeles markets. 

John Russell shipped a carload of 81 




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AMERICAN STEEL PIPE © TANK COMPANY, 



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Los Angeles, Cal. 




Savings from a Well-Fenced Farm Will Pay for Other Improvements 



" 'The most profitable crop walks to 
market or is carried in the cream can ' 
The raising of swine can be made one 
of the most profitable industries. It 
promises quicker and greater returns 
for labor and capital expended. Chan- 
ging swine from one pasture to another is 
desirable, as they will do vastly better on 
fresh pasture and keep much healthier." 

W. W. P. McCONNELL. 



Ellwood Fence is built on simple, cor- 
rect principles. The cross (or mesh) 
wires are firmly wound around heavy 
cable horizontal or line wires, forming a 
truss brace that effectually prevents 
side-slipping. It really is a WIRE 
BOARD, with meshes only 4 inches 
across throughout the first 18 inches of 
all styles of hog fences. 

Ellwood Fences combine great strength 
with closeness of mesh. They hold the 
grown hog and the suckling pig. All 



styles furnished with barbed wire woven 
at bottom if desired. With barbed-bot- 
tom Ellwood Hog Fence you save the 
cost of an extra strand of barbed wire 
stretched under the fence, as is required 
with plain bottom fence 

F. BAACKES, Vice-President and General Sales Agent 

AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE CO. 
Chicago New York Denver San Francisco 

NOTE. — Dealers Everywhere. See the one In your 
town and have him show you the dllferent designs and 
give prices. Also get from him hooklet entitled "How 
to Build a Cheap Concrete Fence Post," furnished free 
for the asking. 



hogs from Hanford to San Francisco 
which weighed 20,000 pounds, or an av- 
erage of 246 pounds to the hog. The 
price was 7^ cents a pound which 
amounted to $1503. 

Hogs recently brought the unusual 
price of $8.60 in the Kansas City market, 
the highest price since 1882. The same 
day the price at Pittsburg was $8.90, the 
highest price ever recorded. 

The California Wool Growers' Associa- 
tion which met in Sacramento on January 
4, elected the following officers for the 
ensuing year: J. A. Kimble, of Hanford, 
president; J. Ramsey, of Red Bluff, vice- 
president; State Sheep Inspector J. N. 
Blair, secretary, and L. L. McCoy, of Red 
Bluff, treasurer. The next meeting of the 
association will be held at Red Bluff. A 
delegate was sent to the National Wool 
Growers' Association which is to be held 
at Ogden on January 8. 



DAIRY NOTES. 



The new creamery at Brawley is now 
open. It is one of the largest creameries 
in the southern end of the State. The 
churn alone handles 900 pounds of but- 
ter at a run. 

Homer P. Saxe recently shipped eight 
Holstein cows and one bull to Guaymas, 
Mexico. 

The Yuba City creamery opened the 
first part of this month. Already their 
wagons are out gathering cream from 
the various ranches. 

Butter has soared to a record figure in 
New York. The best grade butter is 
quoted at from 42 to 45 cents retail. 

A cow testing association is being or- 
ganized at Gustine, Merced county. 



PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to Inventors, sent 
free on request, containing nearly 100 me- 
chanical movements and full Information 
about Patents, Caveats, Trademarks, and 
Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., 
1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San 
Francisco. Established 1860. 



Foodstuffs Low This Season 

If you do not agree with us possi- 
bly you have not been quoted on 

Cocoa Cake or IVIeal 
Linseed Oil Cake IVIeal 

You know they are the best feeds on the market. 

Do you know how cheap they are this year ? 

PACIFIC OIL & LEAD WORKS, Manufacturers, 

155 Townsend St., San Francisco. 



Br- 
if, i s 



ROAD GRADERS 

All Sizes 

RUSSELL 

Simplex, 
Reversible, Elevating. 

SCRAPERS: 
Drag Wheel Fresno 

W. T. MARTIN MACHINERY CO., 1277 Howard Street, San Francisco. 




FRANCIS SMITH & CO., Ma "" 'gf , " rc " 




ErfllwOHTOSasEE 



Mm 



FOR TOWN WATER WORKS 

Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc. All Sizes. 
Office, 9 Fremont Street. Works at 8th and Townsend, San Francisco, California. 

Water and Otl Tanks — all sizes. Coating all sizes of Pipes with AHphaltum 



PATENTS 

FRANK P. MEDINA, 
Attorney at Law. 

Patents— Trade Marks— Copyrights. 



812 and 814 (Jlaus Spreckels nidg., San Francisco. 

CUE AD I Mill 160 y2m ' ? et 

OnCHl LfUlU under homestead law In 
14 mo8. Good. 160 acres $1600, pay ments. Ideal 
for grapes, walnuts, apples, crops, grazing. 
Fine soil, timber, rainfall. Box, 821, SAN LUIS 
OBISPO. CAL. 



Rupture Cured 

Without the Knile or Loss ol Time: 

No pay until cured. 

Call or write for testimonials. 

FIDELITY RUPTURE CURE 

1122 Market St.. 0pp. 7th, San Fr.ocuco.. 

Rooms 7 and 8. Hours 10 to &. 



r.ti 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 15, 1910. 



The building of our new Mill, and 
our greatly increased output have 
enabled us to make 

EGG-MORE 



at less cost, and so we are offering 
it in the larger quantities at the 
following 

REDUCED PRICES 

25 lbs. $1.65; 50 lbs., $3.00; 
100 lbs., $5.50. 

If not kept by your dealer we 
will prepay the freight within 300 
miles. Write for new circular de- 
monstrating how Egg-More makes 
the cheapest egg-producing food as 
well as the best, with many Testi- 
monials. 

West Coast Mill Co. 

Cor. Griffin S fllhambra, LOS ANGELES, Ml. 



Cycle Hatcher Company 

M AN I" FACTO R ERS OF 

Incubators, Brooders and Fireless Brooder 

Our machines arc the 
result of 25 years ex- 
perience in hatching 
and brooding and are 
the most practical 
made. 

Cycle Hatcher, 
50-cgg size, £5.50 
Cycle Brooder, 
oO-egg size, $8.00 
The Philo System— 
an article, "A Little 
Poultry and a Liv- 
ing." by E.W. Philo 
— mailed on request. 
Main Office : Elmira, New York. SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Western Office : 9 Madison St., Oakland, Cal. 




The Unvarying Success of the 

DEFENDER INCUBATOR 



Hatches Is not 
without cause. 

There .are a do/en 
good reasons for the 
health and strength 
of Defender chicks. 
Our catalogue tells 
them. 

No. 3, 540— Egg ca- 
pacity delivered to 
your station for less 
than S34.&0. 



Defender Incubator Co., Deparment G. 

LIVERMORE, C*L. 




CROLEVS 

Hard Eastern Oyster 

SHELL 



Is an absolute necessity for Poultry- 
men who are looking for Profit. 

MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY 

GEO. H. CROLEY, 

631-637 Brannan St., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



LASHER'S CHICKEN HATCHERY 

Petaluma, California. 
Capacity, 40,000 Day-Old Chicks. 
All Leading Vnrlc»len. 
Rhode i si urn! k<mIh, Barred or white Rocka, 
White MImorcaa anil Legliorus. 
Shipped anywhere on Pacific Coast. 
Correspondence Solicited. 



The Poultry Yard. 



PRACTICAL LESSONS IN POUL- 
TRY KEEPING. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By M. Russell James. 

Movable Poultry Houses. — Where a 
team is kept and land is not limited as in 
the case of farmers, fruit growers, and 
stockmen, the movable colony house is an 
easy and profitable way to secure "fresh 
fields and pastures new" for the fowls. 
The use of poultry houses on wheels is 
general among the farmers in England, 
and the manufacture of such houses is an 
important branch of the "timber mei- 
chant's" trade. We note the advertise- 
ment of a firm in Bedford where such 
houses mounted on four strong iron 
wheels with wrought iron axles and rings 
for traces may be bought complete to the 
padlock and key for an astonishingly mod- 
erate price. For instance, such a house 
9x6 feet and 6 feet high, roof, matched 
boards covered with patent asphaltic felt, 
tight floor, sides and ends of planed and 
tongued and grooved lumber on strong 
framing, fitted with outside movable nest 
boxes on both sides, movable perches, etc., 
and painted with jet varnish; in short, a 
house that will answer for from 20 to 40 
fowls, water-tight, draft-proof, and prop- 
erly ventilated and of superior finish for 
some $25. Though there are no such bar- 
gains in poultry houses to be had on this 
side, the farmer can put together a mov- 
able poultry house on somewhat the above 
plan and rougher finish with the sills for 
runners, and at little cost. Such houses 
some 4x8 feet set around in the pasture 
or orchard for the young stock just from 
the brooder runs, and for breeding pens 
of some 12 or 20 birds each, give ideal re- 
sults. It follows that movable houses 
must be built much lower than stationary 
ones and also that the floor will be the 
width of the sill above the ground. 

Chick Houses and Coops. — In the lo- 
calities where the summer time stands 
for hot days and warm nights, the V- 
shaped coop made of lath and located un- 
der the shade of a tree or wall is largely 
in evidence for biddy and her brood, and 
answers the purpose. But in our Coast 
summer with its chill trade winds and 
fogs such coops should not be used. Our 
coops require to be tight on top and bot- 
tom, and on three sides with the front 
protected by inch-mesh wire. A large 
dry goods box makes a cheap and good 
coop. Turn it on its side with the top for 
the open front; batten all cracks and 
knot holes, and if there is any danger of 
rats, tack a piece of wire fencing over the 
bottom outside: cover the front with inch- 
mesh wire made to turn partly back for 
a door, and to button down when not 
needed. 

Brooder Houses. — Where chicks are 
reared by artificial means the brooder 
house is an essential. Some are inclined 
to pin their faith to outdoor brooders. 
The outdoor brooder in itself is all right 
and better than the indoor brooder be- 
cause more roomy — but put it under cover. 
The farmer who turns out but two or 
three hundred fowls each season may use 
some out building as a brooder house by- 
battening the cracks, making a tight floor 
and putting half-sash windows on the 
south side. Where many chicks are rear- 
ed it pays to have a good brooder house. 
The general plan for such buildings is 
much the same everywhere. A house 
some 12 feet wide and as long as need be, 
facing the south or a little east of south, 
with a three foot alleyway along the 
back side, the remaining width o' - 
nine feet divided by wire netting in com- 
partments some six feet wide, each com- 
partment containing a brooder at the 
back and a brooder run extending to the 



front where it opens into the outside run 
or pen. A sash window must be in the 
front of each compartment, and, when it 
can be afforded, also a door which adds 
to the convenience of the caretaker in 
passing into the outside runs; however, 
the gates between the runs answer and 
save considerable expense. But there 
must be a door from the alleyway into 
each compartment, also between each 
compartment. A raised floor of strong 
lumber is an important part of a brooder 
house. Rats will come many miles to lo- 
cate under a brooder house, for there is 
nothing quite so much to his ratship*s 
taste as brooder chicks, either on the half- 
shell or as broilers and fryers. 

Naturally, the space under the brooder 
house floor must be boarded off from the 
runs so that chicks cannot go under. It 
is a good plan to have the siding for this 
purpose made to form an inclined plat- 
form for the chicks to go up on in pass- 
ing in and out of the brooder house. To 
teach chicks to ascend steps or a slanting 
board which does not extend entirely 
across the front of the brooder house com- 
partment is a harrowing job, as all will 
agree who have tried it. 

Poultry House Perches. — Suitable 
perches upon which the fowls may roost 
in comfort have a direct bearing upon 
successful egg production. Biddy can get 
no good rest on a perch which is too nar- 
row to support her body or which sags 
under her, nor on one which is filthy and 
infested with red mites and scaly leg 
mites. After such night struggles she will 
be a nervous wreck the following day and 
in no condition to lay the expected egg. 
If the perches are too high she is liable 
to rupture and bumblefoot which still fur- 
ther impair her usefulness. Many poul- 
trymen consider any old stick or limb of 
a tree good enough for a perch. It costs 
little and it pays well to get scantling for 
this purpose an inch thick and three in- 
ches wide. These should be planed and 
the edges rounded which makes the perch 
comfortable for the fowls and give the 
mite no chance to catch on, as do rough 
boards and old sticks full of cracks and 
holes. These smooth, broad perches 
should not be placed more than two feet 
above the floor, and they should all be on 
a level. The plan of putting each one a 
little higher than the other results in the 
top perch being crowded to suffocation 
while the bottom one is vacant. Because 
fowls like to roost high is no reason they 
should be allowed high perches. The lad- 
der to reach these high perches is all 
right in the going-up but when she gets 
ready to descend from her high perch the 
hen is not looking for a ladder but plumps 
down anywhere regardless of consequences 
or bumblefoot. The perch should always 
be strong and well supported so that when 
full of heavy fowl it will not sag or give 
under them. If the reach is long, about 
every five feet there should be a support 
under the perch for heavy fowl. The 
simplest and best rest for the perches is 
a strip of the same scantling used for 
perches nailed edgewise along the wall at 
the desired height through inch blocks at 
the point of contact with the wall. This 
leaves an open space between the scantling 
and the wall and furnishes a rest two in- 
ches wide for the perch. As it is often 
desirable to slip the perches nearer to- 
gether or farther apart, a single nail driv- 
en part way into the rest at each side of 
the end of the perch is all that is neces- 
sary to keep it from slipping. 



Questions and Answers. 

A Case oe Roup. — G. E. S., of Elkgrove, 
California, writes: "Would you kindly let 
me know through the poultry columns of 
the Pacific Rural Press what you think 
of the following described disease? I 
have been in the poultry business for the 
last 12 years and have had all the ups 
and downs and diseases that usually fall 



to the poultryman's lot. But a new one 
has come under my observation the last 
few days. This disease effects the eye 
and the lids close and on being opened 
a hard, yellowish matter can be squeezed 
out, and usually the eyeball comes out 
with it. If left alone the hen will die 
in two or three days. But the cure is as 
simple as the disease is deadly. I inject 
coal oil with a sewing machine oil can 
into the sore and after two or three appli- 
cations the hen is cured minus an eye. 
Now, a curious thing. I noticed one of 
a litter of pigs some six weeks old was 
lame; the next day the foot was greatly 
swollen. The third day I opened the 
swelling and it was filled with the same 
kind of matter as the hen's eye. I ap- 
plied the same treatment and the pig is 
nearly well. This disease, or whatever 
it is, does not seem contagious but ap- 



WAYSIDE YARDS 

PETALUMA, CAL. 

High Class and 
Bred for Egg 
Production, or 
Exhibition 

Purposes 



V 



s. c. 



White 
Leghorns. 

We have the 
combination — 
Utility and 
Fancy — We 
showed the finest bird in the show of 800 exhibits 
at Petaluma, 1909, and carried off all Leghorn 
Prizes. 

We want the trade of the high class breeders 
of the Coast. 

Write for Prices. 
CARL GREGORY, Mgr. 



Poultry 
Feeding 




Free 
Book 

on application to 

C0ULS0N POULTRY 
G STOCK FOOD CO. 

Petaluma, Cal. 




Rhode Island Reds 

Hardy birds, good layers, 
splendid table fowl. Eggs 
SI per sitting, S6 per 100. 
Baby chicks from all breeds. 

Egg City Poultry Yards 

W. L. SALKS, 
PETALUMA, CAL. 



The AREN8ERG BROODER 
HEATER and STOVE 

Perfectly simple, safe 
and cheap. Burns dlstli- 
late. furnishes steady , free 
flame, and easy to man- 
age as brooder heater or 
stove. Write for details. 

H. F. ARENBERG, Petaluma, Cal. 



Do you want a 
Chicken Ranch where 
Chicken Ranches Pay? 

IF SO. WRITE 

C. R. WINFIELD, 

32 Washington St., Argus Block, Petaluma, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



BUFF ORPINGTONS — Sullivan's Common- 
wealth Strain are the heaviest layers of large 
eggs on the Coast. Winners at State Fair, 
Alaska Yukon show, Seattle, and all big Bhows 
for the past 10 years. Some fine Cockerels now 
for So each. Eggs S3 and 85 per sitting. Send 
for Prize Record. W. SULLIVAN. Agnew, 
Santa Clara County, California. 

A FEW PURE BRED BRAHMAS, BLACK 
Mlnorcas and Rhode Island Red Cockerels for 
sale. Apply to Vine Ranch, Vina, Cal. 

BANTAMS— Golden Seabrlghtand Black-Tailed 
Japanese. Free Circular. Englewood Orchard, 
Campbell, Cal. 

B RUN ZK Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
( al. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 

WHITE LUGHOKNS— Ideal Layers. Write for 
Circular to C. B. Carlngton, box 706 Hay ward, 
California. 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



57 



pears to come from nowhere, as my fowls 
are in the best of health and well taken 
care of; the pigs are on alfalfa pasture, 
and warmly bedded at night in a shed." 

We are glad to assure our inquirer that 
his hens have not developed any new 
disease. It is the same old roup in a dif- 
ferent form from what has heretofore 
come under his observation. Some years 
since the Bacteriological Department of 
the Ontario Agricultural College made an 
exhaustive study of roup in its various 
forms from which we take the description 
of one form which tallies with the case 
noted by our inquirer: 

"Sometimes a yellowish, cheese-like 
mass forms in the eyes and in the ducts 
between the eye and nostrils, and some- 
times in small tumors under the skin of 
the face. The secretion from the eyes, 
like that from the nostrils, is at first a 
clear liquid, then changing to a putrid dis- 
charge. If this secretion is retained in 
the eye socket it undergoes a change, be- 
coming a yellowish, solid, cheesy mass, 
which either forces the eye out of its 
socket or the inflammation entirely de- 
stroys it." 

The remedy for all such inflammations 
is an antiseptic of which there are a num- 
ber used in medicine. For ordinary use 
in such cases, coal oil is at once the 
cheapest, most convenient and at the same 
time the best and safest remedy. An ap- 
plication of the coal oil to clean out the 
nostrils at the beginning of the cold might 
have prevented the inflammation and 
saved the hen's eye. Though the health 
of his general flock is good, we would ad- 
vise our inquirer to look for drafts and 
dampness in the roosting quarters. Also 
to rinse out and empty the drinking ves- 
sels each night, and early in the morn- 
ing wipe wiin a clean cloth, dampened in 
coal oil, then fill with pure water. The 
puddles in the poultry yards which can- 
not be drained, sprinkle with lime dust. 
As to the pig, it probably got its foot 
hurt and then took cold in it, causing an 
inflammation the same as the cold in the 
lien's eye. 



The Home Circle. 



Indian Runner Ducks. — Some of our 
subscribers would like to know of reliable 
breeders of these ducks who have breed- 
ing stock and hatching eggs for sale. Such 
breeders would find it profitable to let 
themselves be known through the poultry 
columns of the Pacific Rural Press. 



Corrkuted. — C. H. Vaughan, breeder of 
White Minorcas, writes: "In your article 
on the Petaluma Poultry Show you state 
that Mr. Scrutton won the White Minorca 
Club prize for best birds, whereas it 
should be as follows: James Greig, one 
club ribbon for first cock; H. C. Scrutton 
one club ribbon for first cockerel; C. II. 
Vaughan two club ribbons for first hen 
and first pullet." 



Poultry Notes. 



A poultry show was recently brought 
off in Bellingham, Wash., by three boys, 
whose ages range from 10 to 14 years. 
The exhibit consisted of 25 chickens, 15 
pigeons, 4 Belgian hares and 2 ducks, all 
blooded stock. The admission was five 
cents and the show was liberally patron- 
ized. Who knows but these boys may 
some day become world-famous as poultry 
breeders and showmen? 



The Poultry and Pet Stock Show at 
Madison Square Gardens, New York, this 
•season has 6500 entries, which is 500 more 
than the one last year, considered a rec- 
ord-breaker at that time. Of these en- 
tries 200 are from Canada. Last season 
the fowls from over the line were quaran- 
tined out owing to the prevalence of the 
foot and mouth disease which effects pet 
stock and fowls, it seems, as well as 
larger animals. 



The New Year. 



As the dead year is clasped by a dead 
December, 

So let your dead sins with your dead 
days lie; 

A new life is yours, and a new hope! 
Remember 
We build our own ladders to climb to 
the sky. 

Stand out in the sunlight of promise, for- 
getting 

Whatever your past held of sorrow or 
wrong; 

We waste half our strength in a useless 
regretting, 
We sit by the tombs in the dark too 
long. 

Have you missed in your aim? Well, the 
mark is still shining; 
Did you faint in the race? Well, take 
breath for the next; 
Did the clouds drive you back? But see 
yonder their lining; 
Were you tempted and fell? Let it serve 
for a text. 

As each year hurries by, let it join that 
procession 
Of skeleton shapes that march down to 
the past, 

While you take your place in the line of 
progression, 
With your eyes on the heaven, your face 
to the blast. 

I tell you the future can hold no terrors 
For any sad soul while the stars re- 
volve, 

If he will but stand firm on the grave of 
his errors, 
And, instead of regretting, resolve, re- 
solve! 

It is never too late to begin rebuilding, 
Though all into ruins your life seems 
hurled; 

For look! how the light of the new year is 
gilding 

The worn, wan face of the bruised old 
world! — Anon. 



Friends as Factors in Success. 



When as a young girl I first went away 
to school a wise old friend said to me: 
"The most important thing in your future 
is the friends you will make." 

Girllike, I dismissed the remark lightly, 
but the years have since taught me that 
friends are the most valuable treasure a 
woman can accumulate as she goes 
through life, and that upon the kind of 
friends and the number of friends she 
makes will depend much of her happi- 
ness and success. 

It is a grave mistake to imagine we can 
map out our course independently of the 
people we come in contact with. We can- 
not. Willingly or not, we are constantly 
allying these people either for us or 
against us, and the time comes when their 
influence will weigh on our side or in 
opposition to us. 

I am thinking of a woman who lived 
to the age of 30 without realizing the 
value of friends. She was cold and un- 
social. When strangers were presented to 
her she took no pains to conceal her in- 
difference to them. She observed none of 
the affectionate little ceremonies with 
which friends are bound to each other — 
birthday wishes, parting gifts, the send- 
ing of a book or flower or a letter. Shut 
up within herself she traveled her nar- 
row, solitary road, making no new friends, 
losing her old friends by neglect, and all 
the while unconscious of what she was 
missing. 

Awakening Comes at Last. — But there 
came a time when she saw that other 
women were happy and successful, and 
she was not; that others who had started 
even with her in the race were getting on, 
and she was lagging behind. It was an 



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awakening moment! She perceived the 
value of friends. She saw that when Miss 
Blank went to a strange city a friend of 
Miss Blank's asked some city friend to 
call and see her. And these people did 
call and introduce her to a nice circle of 
friends. 

She saw that another .friend of Miss 
Blank commended her t'o an exclusive 
boarding place where personal references 
were required, and that still another 
friend interested some influential business 
people in her. And the consequence was 
that Miss Blank was soon settled com- 
fortably in the great city, with pleasant 
acquaintances, a desirable home, and a 
good position — all because Miss Blank 
made friends, and these friends had 
formed links in a chain that furthered her 
interests. 

Fkiknds Factors in SUCCESS, — She her- 
self, the cold, unsocial one, was left alone 
in the strange city to seek indifferent 
lodgings', pass solitary evenings, and 




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offer to lamp users, madetolntroducetho 
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Power Kerosene Oil Lamp In every lo- 
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and SAFER than Gasoline, Electricity or 
ordinary lamps forllchtln^ honi on, offices, 
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the proposition we will send you, we will 
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and who 1b capable of advancement. Good pay 
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advance." 

We receive messages like the above dally from 
San Francisco's leading business boiiBes. They 
call on us because they know we have the right 
kind of young men In our school, and because 
they know we are giving the right kind of train- 
ing. If you are Interested In the opportunities 
ottered by the new San l<'ranclBco write us for 
particulars. 

San Francisco Business College 

733 Fillmore St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



58 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 15, 1010. 



spend weary days hunting for work. And 
all because she had never thought it 
worth while to cultivate friends! 

Mercenary as it may seem to regard 
friends as stepping stones to success, 
there is no gainsaying that they are the 
strongest factors in our prosperity. Their 
belief in us, is always a testimonial in 
our favor; and the girl who goes through 
life without ever a friend to speak for hex 
is not erroneously rated as deficient in 
those qualities which would entitle her to 
the favor of the great god. success. 

.Many a woman has the keenest desire 
to make friends, but does not know how. 
Seekers for light on this point are usu- 
ally told: "Forget yourself and think of 
others," and "Talk of what interests other 
people." 

These rules are neither infallible nor 
exhaustive, but they are good as far as 
they go. Certainly it is necessary to for- 
get one's self in so far as to get into a 
responsive attitude if one wishes to make 
friends. 

Here is where the responsive girl 
scores away ahead of the merely clever 
girl. "She noticed that I was feeling 
blue and miserable and she let me tell 
her my worries and comforted me," is 
the way one girl explained the beginnings 
of her friendship with another. 

You must come out of your miserable 
little citadel of self if you wish to make 
friends — stop thinking of yourself and 
give sympathetic understandings to an- 
other. Not only seem interested, but be 
interested. Listen with thoughts on the 
speaker, try to understand, and answer 
heartedly. 

Points One Mtst Remember.— If you 
wish to make friends you must be cheer- 
ful. The lugubrious, complaining woman 
scares people away from her as effectu- 
ally as if she had the plague. 

If you wish to, make friends you must 
be good natured. The venomous tongue 
that delights to speak caustically of 
others is not a desirable acquisition in a 
repertoire of friends and people shun it. 

If you wish to make friends you must 
avoid being a bore. Don't talk of your 
family to strangers, nor of your troubles 
to acquaintances, nor of your ailments 
to any one, nor overmuch on any subject 
under the sun. It is only an exception- 
ally brilliant conversationalist that peo- 
ple will listen to with interest for any 
length of time. 

If you wish to make friends your 
heart must be kina and your tongue 
gentle and your motives disinterested, 
and you must cultivate the blessed fac- 
ulty of cheerful responsiveness. 

These are the qualities that attract peo- 
ple and if you will present a sunny re- 
sponsiveness to the world you need not 
fear but that friends will flock to you. 

Having made friends it rests with you 
to hold them, fast by worth and sincerity, 
and to believe in them with a loyalty that 
cannot be shaken by the tongues of petty 
suspicions and gossip. 



Household Hints. 



How TO Wash a Sweater. — Prepare 
some warm lather, put in the sweater, 
and knead it well up and down in the 
water, but do not rub it in any way. If 
the garment is very soiled two waters 
will probably be necessary to remove all 
the dirt. Rinse in tepid, slightly am- 
moniated water. If you have a wringer 
pass the sweater through it several times, 
but on no account wring it, or the wool 
will stretch. Hang up to dry in a cur- 
rent of wind, or, better yet, place the 
garment in a pillow case and pin to the 
line. When perfectly dry, pull into shape 
by hand. 



Bonnie, on being told she would have 
to eat condensed milk on her oatmeal for 
breakfast, exclaimed, "I wish that con- 
densed cow would die." 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Jan. 12, 1910. 
(Unless otherwise noted, quotations rep- 
resent prices paid to the growers.) 

WHEAT. 

Large shipments are again coming in 
from the North, but local buyers are 
taking no great interest, and most descrip- 
tions are unchanged in value. Red Russian 
being quoted a little higher. There is 
more Sonora wheat offering, and tl o range 
of prices is smaller, but all supplies are 
strongly held. Owing to the suspension of 
the Mexican tariff a larger movement is 
expected in that direction. 

California Club $2.05 ©2.10 

Sonora 2.15 @2.20 

White Australian Nominal 

Northern Club 2.05 ©2.10 

Northern Bluestem 2.10 (812.20 

Russian Red 1.95 @2.00 

BARLEY. 

Values are still strong for the better 
grades, but with some pressure to sell 
feed has been weaker. Prices, however, 
have been restored to about the former 
level, and while buying is on a rather 
limited scale the market is in a good posi- 
tion. 

Brewing $1.50 01.62^ 

Shipping 1.50 

Good to Choice Feed, per ctl. 1.47 M ©1. 50 

Common Feed 1.40 ©1.45 

Chevalier 1.70 

OATS. 

Prices are about as before, but with 
liberal offerings and little interest on the 
part of buyers trading is dull. Both black 
and white varieties are weak, with a de- 
cline expected, but so far quotations are 
maintained. 

Red. feed $1.75 

Seed 2.00 ©2.25 

Black 2.50 {S2.70 

Gray Nominal 

White 1.72 KG 1-80 

CORN. 

Local stock is higher, and while the 
market is unsettled on Eastern grades 
they are quoted at the figures given. 
Egyptian is firm. There is some demand 
for all descriptions, but with very little 
coming in the market is dull. 

California Large White $1.95 

Eastern Yellow 1.90 ©1.96 

Eastern White 1.95 

Egyptian — White 1.65 (u 1.70 

Brown 1.65 

RYE. 

Ordinary offerings find little demand and 
as there is little stock available of de- 
sirable quality the market is very quiet. 
Prices are unchanged, the top quotation 
being largely nominal. 

Rye. per ctl $1.90 @2.00 

BEANS. 

The market is beginning to pick up a 
little after the holiday dullness, but in- 
quiries are of small proportions for most 
descriptions, and shipments are moderate. 
The inquiry for pinks, however, has in 
creased materially, this description being 
wanted for shipment to various quarters. 
With all supplies on hand the price is 
again going up, advancing about 25 cents 
this week. Bayos and horse beans also 
show considerable advance. Otherwise 
prices are as formerly quoted, though the 
entire market is in a very firm position. 

Bayos, per ctl $5.25 @5.35 

Blackeyes 4.00 04.10 

Cranberry Beans 4.40 ©4.60 

Garvanos 2.50 @3.50 

Horse Beans 2.00 ©2.25 

Small Whites 4.75 ®5.00 

Large Whites 3.50 @3.60 

Limas 4.10 ©4.20. . 

Pea 4.25 @4.50 

Pink 4.15 ©4.25 

Red 6.50 @7.00 

Red Kidneys 5.00 @5.10 

SEEDS. 

A fair movement is now going on In 
several descriptions, but there is no great 
activity, and prices are steadily held at 
the former level. 

Alfalfa, per lb 17@17%c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $20.00© 25. uu 

Brown Mustard, per lb 4 c 

Canary 4 @ 4 %c 

Flaxseed 4 c 

Hemp 3%@ 4'/»c 

Millet 3 c 

Timothy 6 c 

Yellow Mustard Nominal 

FLOUR. 

Northern grades are higher in this mar- 
ket, and local stock also shows a slight 
advance, all values being firmly held. 
With the year only started, prices art 
about up to the highest point of last sea- 
son, and further advances are not unlike- 
ly. Many local buyers now have some 
stock on hand, and are holding off. 

Cal. Family Extras $6.40 @7.00 

Bakers' Extras 6.20 06.60 

Superfine 5.40 #5.70 

Oregon and Washington.... 6.10 @6.30 
HAY. 

Arrivals show very little increase, 
though dealers report numerous inquiries 
from parties in the country who wish to 
sell. The continued cold weather is keep- 
ing the demand up to a comparatively 
large figure, both locally and in the in- 
terior of the State, while the shipping 
movement is steadily insreasing. There 
is continued inquiry from the north, witn 
several shipments to the Hawaiian Islands 
and the Orient. Alfalfa is offered more 
freely, but the value is well sustained, 
while the better grades of grain hay are 
quite firm. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $17.50@19.50 

Other Grade Wheat 13.00® 17.00 

Wheat and Oats 13.00@16.50 

Tame Oat 13.00@17.00 

Barley 10.00@13.50 

Wild Oat 10.00@13.5b 

Alfalfa 9.50®13.00 

Stock Hay 8.00® 9.50 

Straw, per bale 50® 75c 

MILLSTUFFS. 
An interesting feature is an ai rival of 
bran from Chile. The market for this 
staple is weak, with large offerings, but 



no further change in price, though mid- 
dlings are lower. Rolled barley has de- 
clined in sympathy with the weakness in 
the raw grain, and alfalfa men; is also 
easier, corn feeds remaining quite firm. 

Alfalfa Meal, ton $22.00 (ft 23.00 

Bran, ton 27.000)29. 00 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal 26.50@27.50 

Cracked Corn 39.00040. 00 

Middlings 33.000 35.00 

Mixed Feeds 28.00033.00 

Oil Cake, per ton 39.50041.00 

Boiled Barlev 31.000 32.00 

Shorts 29.00@30.00 

VEGETABLES. 
Supplies of local onions hive been 
greatly reduced, and while some are still 
offered at former prices. Oregon stock is 
being sold at a material advance. While 
local garden truck is quite plentiful, sup- 
plies of vegetables from the south are 
still limited, and prices generally rule 
high. String beans are about out of the 
market, and peas are bringing extreme 
prices. No prices can be quoted on gen- 
eral offerings of tomatoes, which show 
frost damage. Some Cuban stock Is of- 
fered at about $5.50 per crate, but there 
are few sales at that price. Green pep- 
pers are firm, but fairly plentiful, and egg 
plant is higher. Celery has also advanced, 
while rhubarb has been arriving quite 
freely. 

Onions — Cal. Yellow, per ctl..$ 1.00® 1.10 

Oregon Yellow 1.40 

Garlic, per lb 5® 7c 

Green Peas, per lb 100 15<; 

Turnips, per sack 75c 

Summer Squash, large box.... 2.50 

Tomatoes, per crate Nominal 

Green Peppers, per lb 5® 7c 

Egg Plan, per lb 15c 

Rhubarb, per box 1.750 2.00 

Celery, per doz 30® 40c 

Mushrooms, per box 50c@ 1.25 

POULTRY. 
Eastern stock is again coming in quite 
freely, and for the last few days receipts 
of local stock have been larger. The de- 
mand is good, but prices remain about the 
same. Good young stock sell* off quite 
readily. Squabs are very firm. There is 
more movement in turkeys, and with 
larger demands prices are fairly high. 
Chickens are expected to bring a little 
better prices next week. 

Broilers 

Small Broilers 



$ 4.000 


5.00 


3.000) 


4.00 


5.50® 


6.00 


8.00® 


9.00 


6.50® 


7.50 


5.00® 


6.00 


4.0001 


5.00 


6.50® 


7.50 


8.00® 


9.00 




1.50 


3.00® 


3.50 


4.00® 


9.00 


2.50® 


3.00 


21® 


28c 


23® 


26c 



Hens, per doz. 
Small Hens . . . 



Young Roosters, full grown.. 

Pigeons 



Dressed Turkeys, lb 

Live Turkeys, lb 

BUTTER. 

The market has been in good condition 
most of the week, with all arrivals moving 
off readily under a brisk demand, but a 
little accumulation of the extra grade has 
caused 1 cent to be dropped from the quo- 
tation. Firsts, however, are slightly high- 
er, with storage and Eastern stock in 
about the same condition as before. The 
following prices are quoted by the San 
Francisco Dairy Exchange. 
California (extras), per lb.... 34 c 

Firsts 33 c 

Seconds 29 i 

California Storage (extras)... 31 %c 

Eastern Storage Ladles 25>£c 

EGGS. 

Arrivals are still large, and seconds and 
thirds are again in the market. With 
some accumulation of stock and heavy 
selling on the exchange, extras have gone 
down 5 cents more, and firsts 3 cents. 
Storage stock is firm, and fresh grades 
fairly steady at present figures. 
California (extras), per doz. 

Firsts 

Seconds 

Thirds 

California Storage (extras). 

CHEESE. 

Demand has been on about the same 
scale as before, and as the arrivals show- 
very little increase prices are firmly held 
on most grades, local first Hats being a 
little lower. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb 

Firsts 

New Young Americas, fancy.. 

Oregon Flats 

Oregon Young Americas 

N. Y., Fancy 

Storage. Fancy Flats 

Young Americas 

POTATOES. 
There is a little more call for the better 
offerings, which are of small proportions, 
but ordinary stock is neglected and weak. 
The best lots are bringing a little higher 
prices. Sweet potatoes show a wider 
range, choice stock being higher, while 
there is some cheap stock coming In all 
the time. 

Potatoes — River Whites 75c® $1.05 

Salinas Burbanks $ 1.25® 1.50 

Oregon Burbanks 1.100 1.35 

Early Rose 1.50 

Sweet Potatoes, ctl 1.25® 1.65 

FRESH FRUITS. 
There Is very little left in the market, 
apples and pears being the only offerings, 
aside from a few cranberries, which are 
being sold out at a further reduction. 
Pears are becoming very scarce, and 
prices have been sharply advanced, though 
there is no strong demand. Apples have 
been moving a little better, and while the 
market is still well supplied, the best de- 
scription! are higher. 

Cranberries, per bbl $ 7.00® 8.50 

Apples — 

Fancy, per box 1.25® 1.75 

Choice 75c® 1.00 

Common 40® 65c 

Christmas Apples 1.75® 2.25 

Winter Nelis 2.00® 2.25 

Other varieties 1.00® 1.25 

CITRUS FRUITS. 
With unfavorable weather buying is 

still limited to immediate requirements. 

and sales are small, while stocks of or- 



33 c 

32 c 

30 c 

28 c 

32 c 



18 c 
16'/4c 

19 c 
18»Ac 
l$V 2 c 
19 i,4c 
17M-C 
18%c 



anges are accumulating. Prices have not 
weakened, however, being held up to a 
par with the values prevailing at the ship- 
ping points. Lemons are very quiet, with 
lower prices for fancy stock, everything 
else remaining as last quoted. 
Oranges — 

Tangerines 1.25® 1.50 

Navels, fancy 2.25 2.5a 

Choice 1.650/ 2.00 

Choice Lemons 2.50® 3.00 

Fancy emons 3.500) 4.00 

Standard 1.00® 1.50 

Limes 4.00® 4.50 

Grape Fruit 2.50® 3.00 

DRIED FRUITS. 
Everything under this head remains 
quiet, and while the market in general re- 
mains firm the only changes in price are 
downward, evaporated apples and prunes 
both heing quoted lower. The larger sizes 
of prunes are pretty closely cleaned up, 
and as there Is not much demand for the 
smaller sizes, of which the stock now on 
hand is largely composed, holders are be- 
coming anxious to sell as soon as possible. 
Eastern jobbing stocks of all dried fruits 
are said to be closely cleaned up, and 
while dealers have held off from the mar- 
ket since the holidays a fair buying move- 
ment is looked for before the end of the 
month. The raisin situation is by no 
means satisfactory to holders, though 
there has been an extremely large move- 
ment in the East during the last few 
months. The failure of the Fresno pool to 
secure 3 cents has caused some discourage- 
ment, and though some sales have been 
reported at 2 ',4 cents few packers are of- 
fering that much at present. 
Evaporated Apples, per lb.... 6 % @ 8 c 

Figs, black ~ 2 c 

Figs, white 4 c 

Apricots 9»4®10 c 

Peaches 3 ® 5V£c 

Prunes, 4-size basis 2«4@ 2V4<" 

Pears 5%© 7 c 

Raisins — 

Loose Muscatels, in sweatbox 2 ® 2V4c 

Thompson Seedless 2 c 

Seedless Sultanas l%c 

London Layers. 3 crown.... 85 @95 c 
NUTS. 

There is nothing new in the local situa- 
tion, either in prices or conditions. Buy- 
ing is rather quiet at present, and all de- 
scriptions are scarce, especially almonds. 
Quotations are on local market transac- 
tions. 

Almonds — 

Nonpareils 14 14® 15 c 

IXL 13>4@14 c 

Ne Plus Ultra 13 @13%c 

Drakes 10%®11 c 

Languedoc 9V4©10V4c 

Chestnuts. California 9 @ll c 

Walnuts — Softsbell, No. 1 14 c 

Softshell. No. 2 9 c 

HONEY. 

Supplies are not large, but local holders 
report a very dull market on all descrip- 
tions. Water white honey is bringing full 
prices, but it is difficult to sell ordinary 
offerings at any price. 

Comb 8 ©15 c 

Exeracted, Water White 7 © 7 %c 

Extracted, Amber 5*4© 6 c 

Old Extracted 4 ® 4%c 

HOPS. 

There is more inquiry than for some 
time past, and as there is no very large 
quantity offered buyers are willing to pay 
higher prices. 

Hops, new crop 19 @25 c 

WOOL. 

Some descriptions are wanted in the 
Eastern markets, but there is little de- 
mand for the fall California clips, some 
of which is still held in the State. The 
outlook for spring clips, however, is fairly 
good, and it is generally believed that 
prices will he about on a level with those 
of last year. It will be some time, how- 
ever, before any figures on spring clip can 
be announced, and present quotations on 
the fall wool are little more than normal. 
MEAT. 

A considerable advance is noted in all 
descriptions of dressed meats, amounting 
to about % cent on beef and mutton, and 
1 cent on veal and lamb, which are be- 
coming very scarce. Live stock shows 
little change, hut is very firm, hogs be- 
ing a little higher. Hogs are extremely 
firm in -Eastern markets, with a marked 
advance over values of a year ago. 

Beef: Steers, per lb 7V4® 8 c 

Cows 6M.0 7 c 

Heifers 6 '.4© 7 c 

Veal 8 @10 c 

Mutton: wethers !» @ 1014c 

Ewes 8 @ 9 He 

Lambs 13 c 

Hogs, dressed 9 V* (i i 1 1 1 •_• I 

Livestock — 

Steers: No. 1 4V4© 4»»c 



You Will Start 
The New Year Right 

By buying one or our 10, 20or 40 acre tracts, 
already planted and growing ALFALFA, 
and under IRRIGATION of the Central 
Canal, being a portion of the famous Glenn 
Kancho, in Glenu Co., close to shipping points 
both by rail and water. We harvest and 
market the crops, and the proceeds of all 
crops raised are credited on the buyer's con- 
tract of purchase, the crops thereby prac- 
tlca ly paying for the land In three years 
time, as It averages six crops yearly, which 
will net from 840 the first year toSlOt. the third 
year per acre, and as an Investment Is hard 
to duplicate, as It will bring from 16 to S6 per 
cent on the money invested. 

Write, or call, and let us explain the 
proposition. Free ILI.USTK ATKD booklet 
on application. 

ALFALFA FARMS COMPANY 

430 Montdnock Blag. . San Francuc*. 



January 15, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 



59 



BURBANKS 
GENUINE 



Crimson Winter 




HORTICULTURAL NOVELTIES 

NEW CREATIONS IN TREES. FRUITS 
AND FLOWERS 

BURBANK'S EXPERIMENT FARMS 

LUTHER BURBANK 

OFFICE ANC HESIDenCE 2 0* SANTA BOSA AVE 



October first, 
19 9 



SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA 

This is to certify that Mr. William 
Ma-ttior of Sevastopol, California has purchased 
and is growing; a large stock of the true Bur'- 
banlf *8 "Giant Cr im s on Wi h t er 8 Rl iub ax h * 

7 




IVM. MATHER, 

Sebastopol, Sonoma Co., Cat. 

I wish to thank the columns of the Pacific 
Rural Press for their most valued work, as 
they have disposed of my entire stock of 
Sixty Thousand plants, that I offered for this 
season, with the exception of the smaller 
mailing orders, that may come to me form the 
results of this paper. I will only fill mailing 
orders at 25 cents per plant, and pay postage 
on same hereafter. 

Book your orders for next season, and observe 
my ad. that will appear at the proper time. 
My plants are true to name and in reach of all. 

Thanking the public for past favors, 
Very respectfully, 

WM. MATHER, 
Sebastopol, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



No. 2 4 @ 4%c 

Cows and Heifers: No. 1 3%@ 3%c 

No. 2 3 @ 3%c 

Bulls and Stags 2 @ 2 Vic 

Calves: Light 5 Vic 

Medium , 5 c 

Heavy 4 @ 4y 2 c 

Sheep: "Wethers 5J4@ 53ic 

Ewes 4 V, fb 4 s 4 c 

Lambs 6 % @ 7 c 

Hogs: Grain fed, 100 to 150 lbs. S c 

150 to 250 lbs 8 Vic 

Common Hogs, lb 5 @ 6 c 

Boars, 50 per cent; stags, 30 to 40 per 

cent, and sows, 10 to 20 per cent off from 
above quotations. 



Special Citrus Market Report. 

Los Angeles, Cal., Jan. 11. — The status 
of the orange industry at this time is 
rather uncertain. It is not yet known just 
what the amount of the damage will be 
nor what percentage of the fruit touched 
by the frost will be shipped. The ex- 
change managers have made a statement 
to the railroad companies that at least 
25'v of the oranges will never be shipped 
and the ratio may run higher. It seems 
certain at this time that a much larger 
percentage of the fruit lias been frosted, 
so it must be that much of the frosted 
stock will be shipped and consumed in the 
East. Not a very good advertisement for 
California oranges, and only that Florida 
is in about the same fix, this situation 
might tend to alienate the affections of 
the consuming public from our navels. A 
letter from a Florida packer and shipper 
received this day states that it is very 
difficult to tell just what the damage has 
been in that State, but that it was vari- 
ously estimated at from 5 to 50%. and the 
correct figures probably lay between the 
two. 

Hardly any part of Riverside or San 
Bernardino counties escaped frost damage 
to some extent, and the result is the most 
serious in the history of the California 
orange industry. Orange, Los Angeles, 
and Ventura counties escaped from the 
December frost but may have been hurt 
some by the cold weather of the present 
month. San Diego appears to have es- 
caped wholly. Santa Barbara lemons are 
hurt to some extent. A friend writes from 
Tulare county that no fruit was hurt and 
that not over 1% of the foliage of the 
trees was touched. 

Orange prices vary with the different 
districts and there is also much difference 
in the quality of stock offered. Orange 
and Los Angeles county fruit can be had at 
from $1.45 to 1.55; Ventura county, $1.60; 
from the Riverside district at $1.65 to 
$1.70, and from Redlands- 1 1 igliland. $1.75 
to $1.85 spot cash, with f. o. b., usual terms, 
prices from 10 to 15 cents higher. Suspect- 
ed fruit can be bought as low as $1 a box, 
cash. 

Lemon prices are also idle. All the way 
from $2.3 5 to $3.50 is the price asked at 
this end. The auctions have been paying 
good money for lemons for the past two 
to three months, but it now looks as 
though there was to be an easier feeling. 

Navel prices ruled rather low on the 
average in yesterdays auctions, but the 
fact that some fancy fruit sold at over $:s 
a box would tend to show that the buyers 
were willing to pay fancy prices for fancy 
fruit. Much of the fruit offered went at 
below $2 a box, and the inference is that 
it was either frost bitten or that the sixes 
were poor. 

The citrus fruit shipments to this date 
have been 1759 cars of oranges and 682 
cars of lemons. 



He — "Will you share my lot?" 
She — "Yes, when you have a house on 
it that is paid for." — Judge. 



PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. 



BIG RESULTS. 

The Pacific Rural Press has again 
demonstrated its selling power tor adver- 
tisers in the case of Wm. Mather, of Se- 
bastopol. In another column Mr. Mather 
advertises the fact that he has but a few 
rhubarb plants left of the 60,000 he had 
for sale, that his former advertising in 
our columns was the means of his selling 
out his stock in marvelously quick time. 
Mr. Mather believes in strong, bold an- 
nouncements and our columns were the 
only advertising he had. To prove the 
good eating qualities of Burbank's Giant 
Crimson Winter Rhubarb, Mr. Mather 
furnished the lodge of Eagles of Petalu- 
ma, at their banquet held last Monday 
night, with a pie that was 3 1 -. feet long 
and 2 feet wide. The pie weighed 40 
pounds, and contained over $10 worth of 
palatable rhubarb, and was made under 
the supervision of Mr. Mather by a Se- 
bastopol chef. 

Readers and subscribers to the Pacific 
Riral Press are close watchers of the 
advertising columns, and are ready al- 
ways to patronize the advertiser when 
something is shown that appeals to them. 
It is the wish of the publisher that when 
writing an advertiser the subscriber will 
invariably mention the name of the paper. 
Our advertisers are all high-class and 
reputable dealers. 



The Corliss Gas Engine Co., of Petalu- 
ma, Cal., have recently placed on the 
market a poultry and stock food blender, 
which will thoroughly mix sufficient food 
for 3000 hens or 20 cows in the short 
space of two minutes. The device is 
propelled by a ?, hp. Corliss gas engine, 
or will be sold separately to be attached 
to any power. The machine does its work 
so thoroughly and so expeditiously that 
it is a great labor-saver or stroke of 
economy to any chicken or stock farm. 
A descriptive advertisement is shown in 
the Pacific Rural Press. 



As a rule the refuse old rags or worn 
carpets on the farm go to the junk man 
for a mere trifle, or are thrown away. 
Handsome rugs are made from this re- 
fuse by the Berkeley Rug Co., of Berkeley, 
Cal. The Pacific Rubal Press was shown 
some specimens of rugs made from re- 
fuse rags by Mr. Al Ginn, the manager of 
this institution, and we are prepared to 
state that the farmers' wife who will try 
this saving of old rags and send them to 
the Berkeley Rug Co. will be surprised 
with the results attained. 



John Mason & Son, manufacturers of 
Mason's patent farm gate, at their factory 
at Richmond, Cal., are filling several or- 
ders for the improved gate. The name of 
John Mason, as an inventor of automati- 
cally-operated farm gates, is known all 
over the Coast. Mr. Mason, in conse- 



quence, is constantly engaged in install- 
ing his useful device on the larger ranches 
of the country. The factory at Richmond 
is a proportionate structure, and is equip- 
ped to turn out a number of gates daily. 
Note the advertisement in the Pacific 
Rural Press. 



The Cycle Incubator, manufactured at 
Elmira, N. Y., is represented in the ad- 
vertising columns of the Pacific Rural 
Press. Mr. J. S. Gross, of New York, is 
out here introducing and incidentally 
promoting the Philo System of egg pro- 
duction. If you note this advertisement, 
it may be to your interest. 



The country round about Willows, Cal., 
is noted for alfalfa production and many 
large plants of this character predomin- 
ate in that valley. The Alfalfa Farms Co., 
430 Monadnock Building, San Francisco, 
have a tract in the above region of 1227 
acres sown to alfalfa, with excellent pros- 
pects of a great yield. The company also 
controls 360 acres of unimproved land 
that can be utilized for similar purposes 
in the same district. The culture of al- 
falfa is really interesting as well as prof- 
itable to small farmers on the Pacific 
slope. The Alfalfa Farms Company can 
acquaint our readers with facts in their 
experience if corresponded with. 



The Goulding Sales Company is the 
title of a new organization established in 
business at 530 Monadnock Block, the 
past week. A. M. Goulding is manager 
and it is the intent of the company to em- 
ploy a large following of active young 
men in California as salesmen the coming 
year. The Goulding Company has taken 
the Coast agencies of the National Herb 
Co., of Washington, D. C. ; the Thomas S- 
piee'e kitchen set, self-threading sewing 
machine needles, Thompson's positive 
tension shears, and the skirt supporter, 
advertised in the Pa< ii-ic Rural Press to- 
day. This company is amply capitalized 
to conduct business on an extensive scale 
and with the above named specialties can, 
no doubt, interest, nearly everybody on 
the Coast. A. M. Goulding, the manager, 
points out the fact that all (heir special- 



ties are articles needed in the household. 
The new company embraces members of 
the National Herb Company that has been 
doing business in the Monadnock block 
nearly a year now. 



The Khaki Suit 

for ranch 
wear. 

Miners, Hunt- 
ers and outing 
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January 15, 1!>1<». 




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Vol. LXXIX. No. 4. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 22, 1910. 



Fortieth Year. 



SOME OBSERVED CHANGES IN FRUIT 
TYPES. 




Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Frank Femmons, Home Orchard, Ahwahnee, 
Madera Count) , Cal. 

In presenting the following observations that 
have covered many years of association with trees 
and plants, I wish to disclaim any scientific attain- 
ment, or that they are entirely new to our scien- 
tific horticulturists. They all may be but simple 
things, as most 
of the operations 
of nature are 
found to be when 
once we under- 
stand them ; and 
also, valuable in 
our work in or- 
chard or garden. 

I feel sure 
there are many 
operations in na- 
ture that con- 
tribute to pro- 
ducing changes 
in plant life ; giv- 
iug the plants 
their individual 
form and char- 
acter and to their 
fruits their pe- 
culiar color, tex- 
ture and flavors, 
often to the ex- 
tent of produc- 
ing new verieties 
that are not as 
yet fully under- 
stood. We have 
learned some- 
thing about cross- 
ing and hybridizing, but with even our Burbank, 
the process is far from certain in its results. There 
must be other natural influences that we know 
little or nothing about that are constantly modify- 
ing the results of our best efforts. Home of these, 
as that of heredity, we know something of, but as 
yet have little power to modify. The influence of 
environment are more under our control. But do 
we yet know all the elements and accidental com- 
binations that may have their influences in what 
we call environment or local conditions,, to modify 
plants or their fruits? In a rough way we may 
know and can modify and control some of them; 
but I think we have evidence in our every day 
practical experience and observations that we 
have not mastered all. 

Where did the old Raftibo, the W. \V. Pearmain, 
the Delicious, or any of our apples get their pe- 
culiar flavors and characteristics? It is easy to 
ask such and a thousand other questions that will 
start some theory in the mind, but I am not, able 
to answer them. The facts of observation here 
referred to are illustrations, I think, of a class that 
yives an evidence of some operations in nature 
that are not entirely understood. Similar fads 



may not be new or unheard of to our scientific 
people, but I have not seen them referred to nor 
explained in our common horticultural literature. 

For five or six years past I have been watching 
a change that has affected some Black Ben apples 
at Home Orchard. I wish to make the statement 
of the observed facts as full and accurate as I can. 

In different parts of the orchard are many top- 
grafted trees of it, and on many different varieties 
as stock. As it happened, several trees re-grafted 
were near some of the old Ben Davis, of which 



that I think is in the same line. I had planted two 
patches of potatoes. They just cornered with 
each other. One was planted some days before 
the other. As seed potatoes were scarce that year 
they were both cut to single eyes. One was a red 
potato we used to know as Garnet, the other was 
similar in size and form, but white. They both 
made fine growth and yield. When they were ripe 
and dug, the hills at the CbntingUOUS corners were 
about equally filled with both the white and red. 
and the mixture extended for a number of hills 

into each patch. 
Beyond that they 
were all tnyieal 
of the variety 
planted. 

Another 
rienee in 
growing : 
years ago 
East for 
quantity 




A Characteristic View of a Young Deciduous Orchard in California 



Black Ben is a seedling. The Black Ben has a 
solid red color, while the Ben Davis, as every one 
knows, is prominently striped. 

The first year the new trees immediately near 
by, or in the next row to the Ben Davis bore fruit, 
I noticed that many of the apples were very no- 
ticeably striped. The evident fact was a puzzle 
to me, and besides some of the fruit had its typical 
color. The next year the change was more pro- 
nounced, and I wrote something of it to a horti- 
cultural friend in the East. He thought the only 
explanation of it was that "the scions used had 
been mixed." That didn't satisfy me. and 1 have 
been watching it ever since. 

While the first change was confined to the trees 
near the Ben Davis (24 feet apart) it has extended 
out year by year, until the past year it was plainly 
noticeable five rows distant. Beyond that and in 
other parts of the orchard where Black Bens are 
fruiting near other varieties, such as the Lawver. 
York Imperial, and others, the color is entirely 
unchanged. Except in color. I can see no other 
change; size, form, quality and the peculiar shape 
and modeling about the eye-basin are all typical 
Black Ben. Some years ago I had an observation 



expe- 
potato 
Some 
I sent 
a small 
of what 

was called White 

Elephant. It was 
planted in the 
garden alongside 
of some Early 
Rose. When the}' 
were dug but feAv 
of them were of 
their typical 
white color, and 
w e r e evidently 
mixed with the 
Rose. Some of 
them were uni- 
f r m 1 y of the 
Rose color; some 
were mottled in 
splotches and 

bands of red and 

white, while a 
part of them retained their original type. They 
were all planted the next year, but the variety 
had lost all its character. 

Benjamin Breckman of Illinois claims thai this 
mixing of the tubers when different varieties are 
planted near each other is the true cause of pota- 
toes "running out" and becoming worthless, 
which coincides with my own experience and ob- 
servation'. 

But how do the tubers mix.' Does the influence 
in the case of the Black Ben apples and in that 
of the potatoes come throttgh tin- pollen 1 The 
Early Rose so seldom forms a bloom that in the 
example of the White Elephant it would favor a 
doubt of that conclusion. We can understand, or 
at least know the fact that the pollen of otic va- 
riety greatly influences the true seed germ of an- 
other, lias it some power also that we do not fully 
understand; or 's the change produced by a subtle 
diffusion of some hereditary relationship that, un- 
der certain conditions, reach back to some influ- 
ence or association of former generations, or a 
common origin ? 

Two or three years ago among some yellow 

— — • . i — ' ' 1 j 

(Continued on pnfte fi.V) 



62 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



.January 22. 1910. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 



upon farm buildings', which are far apart and un- 
likely to burn beyond the point of ignition. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 



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PUBLISHERS 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



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FRANK HONEYWELL 
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Editor 
Business Manager 
Advertising Manager 



California Weather Record. 

The following rainfall and temperature record is fur- 
nished the Pacific Ri ral Press by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, at San 
Francisco, for the week ending at 5 p. m., Jan. IK, 1910 : 



Rainfall Data. 



Tempera- 
ture Data. 



Stations. 


Past 


Seasonal 


Normal 


Maxi- 


Mini- 




Week. 


to Date. 


to Date. 


mum. 


mum. 


Eureka 


2.44 


24.95 


21.22 


54 


34 


Red Bluff 


1 04 


9.78 


12.26 


60 


32 


Sacramento 


.46 


7.96 


9.01 


64 


32 


San Francisco... 


1.76 


11.99 


10 52 


54 


40 


San Jose 


1.42 


9.61 


6. OH 


60 


28 


Fresno 


.26 


10.14 


4.64 


60 


32 


Independence... 


T 


5.42 


4.47 


66 


20 


San Luis Obispo 


1.76 


16.81 


8 64 


62 


34 


Los Angeles 


.11 


10.34 


6.67 


66 


42 


San Diego 


.34 


X.lo 


4.40 


62 


42 



The Week. 



Concerning the getting together of grape grow- | 
ers to see just what is the matter with the selling- | 
end of their industry, which we have urged with 
ajl the force there is in us. there seems to be some- 
thing doing, if we may judge from the results of 
the Lodi meeting, of which an outline is given on 
another page of this issue. Aside from the trans- 
actions given, Mr. George Waahley of Stockton 
writes us personally that the meeting was great in 
spirit and purpose, and one can count upon great- 
ness of this kind as having a prevailing quality. 

In fact, that it was decided to call another meet- 
ing in Sacremento on .January 28, which is coinci- 
dent with the general assembly of fruit growers 
looking to tlie formation of a league, indicates that 
participation in the wider co-operation may secure 
ends in view and certainly this chance should he 
looked into. We have a general belief in organiza- 
tions engaged in special and distinctive industries 
to properly handle special subjects which pertain 
to each of them, but the greal end can only be 
reached by co-operation of all of them and of all 
who are not bo organized in the promotion of in- 
terests which affect them all. And so it seems to 
us the enterprise is going well. Everyone who can 
should be in Sacramento on January 2S. and it 
should require the largest assembly hall in the 
capital city to hold all who will he in attendance. 



Counting, then, the Lodi meeting as on the way. 
even if it does not quite know where it is going, 
it occurs to us to note that San .Joaquin county is 
making a good record in agricultural cooperation. 
Take, for instance, the last year's experience of 
the Farmers' Mutual Protective Fire Insurance 
Company of San Joaquin, which was organized 
about a year ago under the legislative enactment 
of 1897 as a co-operative concern and over -400 
farmers have taken out policies on their property. 
This concern met its very first loss last month, and 
a check was promptly drawn to cover a loss of 
$625 on a barn burned on Roberts Island. Natur- 
ally, although the premiums have been very low, 
there is quite a surplus on hand to meet any losses, 
anil those interested say that the working of the 
new mutual insurance company is far better than 
anything of the kind attempted by the farmers. 
It comes very near being insurance at the actual 
cost thereof, and this can be had when the risk is 



And speaking about insurance and the cost of 
securing it on the old lines, we wonder how the 
new line of life insurance is getting along. It pro- 
posed to reduce doctors' bills to about thirty cents, 
because the new company would establish a health 
bureau, and policy holders would be invited to 
keep the health bureau of the company fully in- 
formed at all times as to their physical condition. 
They would be asked to describe all of their symp- 
toms, and then at stated periods, the ailing would 
have to attend clinics conducted by the company's 
physicians in various parts of the country. They 
would be personally and thoroughly examined and 
fully advised as to what treatment to pursue. In 
other words, the company would make it hard for 
its clients to die and collect their policies, and 
about the only way an insured person could shuffle 
off the mortal coil would be to twist it around his 
neck. A man could not be sick to get away from 
trouble, nor could he waste his money paying a 
doctor to keep him comfortably indisposed. The 
company' would lash him to his job and keep him 
working, and. as previously stated, they would not 
let him die even if the treatment killed him. This 
is the kind of insurance which .Mr. K. Rittenhouse. 
former State Insurance Superintendent of Colo- 
rado, recently invented and went to New York to 
take charge of one of the companies organized on 
his plan. We are wondering how it works so far. 
There is a great field for it. for Colonel Roosevelt's 
conservation commission estimated that more than 
one-third of the deaths in this country are prema- 
ture. My reducing the death rate they can reduce 
the premiums the insured must pay, and the in- 
sured would live forever at small cost. Harking 
back to the analogv. if the San Joaquin company 
had collected customary premiums they would 
have accumulated money enough to build a court 
house and paid out the cost of a small barn. When 
the life insurance company gets the mental health 
of our farmers built up to the proper point they 
will not do their business that wav any more. 



Jiut. after all. it really does seem that the death 
of a man is not largely subjective, but some objec- 
tive thing which gets into him. The$ible says it 
is not that which entereth into a man that derileth 
him, which may be true from a moral point of 
view, but it does not look that way physically 
nowadays. If you can protect a man against en- 
trance of evil, you have the insurance idea raised 
to perfection. Consider the fly: the sluggard may 
profitably go to the ant, but he had better keep 
away from the fly. Read about the new tenement 
district of New York city where sanitary condi- 
tions are regarded perfect. In one of them there 
were one hundred cases of typhoid fever once, and 
the accepted solution was that flies brought the in- 
fection from an open lot nearby. Medical Di- 
rector II. 0. Beyer, (*. S. X.. who has chased the 
house fly all over the globe, found him guilty of 
spreading tuberculosis, leprosy, typhoid fever, 
cholera, carbuncles and a long list of diseases not 
even mentionable. Mr. Jackson, also of New 
York, recently said, "we spend $10,000,000 every 
year for screens, and yet flies, counting the cost of 
human life by disease, cause $20,000,000 damage 
annually." Figuring by millions ought to appeal 
to insurance promoters, and so we allude to them 
to help the new immortality concerns to which 
we have alluded, but. for ourselves, we doubt if 
ever any one rose to the sublimity of prophesy in 
foresight of the ultimate relation of this insect to 
human life as did Mr. Josh Hillings of the last 
generation of men. when he cried aloud: "Darn 
a Hi." 



millions and what becomes of them. For example, 
Leslie's Weekly, intending to be gracious to agri- 
culture, says: "At current prices wheat will 
bring to the farmer for the year $725,000.01 10. 
with +<)of>.( NIO.OI 10 for hay. $400.0(10.000 for oats. 
$212,000,000 for potatoes and $1<X 1.000.000 for 
tobacco. The money which goes into the farmers' 
pockets for their labors for the twelve months 
amounts to a fourteenth of the value of all the 
country's property, real and personal." What we 
object to is the statement that the money goes 
into farmers' pockets, because the careless reader, 
or the careful reader of the literary agriculture 
of the day. gets a very wrong idea. The farmer 
does not get all this money. As a matter of fact, 
he never gets what is his proper share of it — and 
that is largely his own fault, too. 



Sometimes the farmer has a chance of getting a 
little more than he used to. and that is encourag- 
ing. Take, for instance, the part of the grain crop 
which goes for the sacks which the farmer has to 
buy and largely give away. He has always pro- 
tested against this cost and that gambling in sacks 
which pinches hini whenever it can. He has 
claimed bulk shipments but has always been told 
that the ships cannot carry grain in bulk for fear 
of shifting cargo, etc.. which may be so for all we 
know about it. And yet bulk shipments are said 
to be coming in the upper part of the Coast at 
least. The so-called "Jim Hill roads," the Great 
Northern and the Northern Pacific railroads, have 
begun the erection of a number of elevators in 
the wheat country of eastern Washington. The 
railroad officials say that the handling of the 
wheat is much easier in bulk, but that owing to 
what they term a prejudice, it is impossible to get 
the exporters to handle the grain, unless it is 
sacked. It is believed that by erecting a chain 
of elevators in the wheat growing district the 
shippers will realize the advantage of shipping in 
bulk and the exporters and Coast millers will be 
forced to accept shipments in that form. And so 
this shifting of cargo is a fairy story after all. and 
has prevailed through what the railroad men call 
a "•prejudice" on the part of the exporters. It is 
a very polite term. We could name it better. 
And if Mr. .lames .J. Hill can get this money into 
the farmers' pockets without pulling out more in 
some other way, the sooner he slides down the 
northeast mountains into California the better. 



Of course the cost of sacks is only a little piece 
of the money which the fanner does not get- 
only a little corner of it which does not stick out 
of his pocket. We cannot tell how much he does 
not get nor how much he ought to get. although 
we are perfectly sure he does not get enough. 
This whole matter should be passed through the 
process id' the new science of economics so that we 
can find out exactly where all this money now goes 
to and where certain parts of it ought to go. It is 
fortunate that the research men in economics are 
showing keener appetite for such inquiries than 
ever before and there is much to be expected from 
them. This is. perhaps, the most important thing 
to do for agriculture now that the physical sci- 
ences are being so fully and freely provided for. 
and we believe there are research funds which can 
be turned this way and there will follow much 
instruction from it. 



There may sometimes be misapprehension about 



That it really is never too old to learn is being 
practically demonstrated. One of the new stu- 
dents at the college of agriculture at Berkeley is 
Mr. .Joshua 1). Baker, of Selnia. who has the honor 
of beiii" the oldest freshman to ever register in 
the University id' California. Mr. Raker is in his 
sixty-ninth year. He will do research work in the 
zyniological laboratory. He has been engaged in 
the bee business and believes that he can. by better 



January 22, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



63 



understanding of the principles and processes of 
fermentation, make it possible to use honey pro- 
ducts in various forms of pickling and the like. 
He is going right after it anyhow. 



And thinking of pickles reminds us that one of 
the most impressive things said by the reporters 
about the recent banquet of the canners in this 
city was that "no canned foods were used at the 
banquet." The sensational reader has made much 
of the statement, but there is really nothing in it ; 
or, perhaps, the very little there is in it has ample 
precedent. Producers generally shy away from 
their own products when it comes to entertaining. 
We dined and supped through the great cheese- 
making districts of New York 40 years ago and 
never saw a piece of cheese on the table. Very 
many butter makers eat no butter. Dine with a 
California peach grower in the height of the peach 
season and you are as likely to find canned pine- 
apples on the table as not. It is a very old method, 
the full philosophy of which we do not under- 
stand. Perhaps the hostess shies away from the 
homemade or grown product because she fears 
her guests would think her tight not to buy some- 
thing for them; or, perhaps, she honestly feels that 
way herself. As for the man, he does not care to 
have shop for his dinner or else he gets so tired 
of one relation to a thing that he does not care 
to assume another. However that may be it seems 
ridiculous to impale canners upon the fork of 
criticism because they do not care to eat out of 
a can. Whose business is it anyway what a can- 
ner eats if he pays for it — unless he should join a 
health-insurance company which might insist upon 
his eating processed foods because they had no 
live germs in them or they would not last long 
enough to be eaten. 

Queries and Replies 



A California Forage Question. 

To the Editor: Inclosed find clipping from an 
Eastern journal on the improvement of pastures. 
We have a great deal of pasture land in southern 
California on which the native grasses yield less 
feed each year. A great part of this land can be 
cleared of brush and stone, ready for the plow, 
but what can we sow to take the place of the 
native pasture ? The ground in many places is 
not level enough for alfalfa and in some places 
water is not available. Can we break up the land 
and sow pasture grasses as the farmers are ex- 
horted to do at the East? The annual rainfall is 
from 12 to 15 inches on this land ; soil adobe or 
rocky red clay and sand. — Newcomer, San Diego. 

The paragraph which you send is manifestly 
true, but it relates entirely to Eastern conditions. 
The perennial grasses which they rely upon for 
pasturage and which will maintain themselves 
from year to year, if given half a chance, will not 
live at all on the dry lands of California, nor has 
investigation of the last twenty-five or thirty years 
found anything better for these California up- 
lands than the plants which are native to them. 
Such lands should be better treated, first by not 
being overstocked ; second, by taking off cattle at 
the time the native plant needs to make seed, be- 
cause, as they are not perennial, they are depend- 
ent upon each year's seed, and worthless plants 
which stock will not eat have free course to per- 
petuate themselves. In this way our upland pas- 
tures are going to the bad. 

Of course, if one has land capable of irrigation 
he can grow forage plants, even the grasses which 
grow in moist climates, like the rye grasses, the 
brome grasses and the oat grasses, etc., which will 
do well if given a little moisture, but it will be a 
loss of money to break up the dryer lands with 
the idea of establishing perennial grasses upon 
them without irrigation. California pastures are 
naturally good. In early days they were wonder- 



ful, but they are restricted to growth during the 
rainy season, or for a little time after that, and 
are therefore suited for winter and spring pas- 
turage, while the summer feeding of stock, aside 
from dry feed, should be provided from other 
lands where water can be used. As far as we can 
now see, the improvement of these pastures con- 
sists in a more intelligent policy for their produc- 
tion and preservation. 

Olive Budding. 

To the Editor: I have about 20 seedling olive 
trees, set out in 1904, which I wish to change over 
to the Ascolano variety. Which is the best way to 
do it, by budding or grafting, and what is the 
proper time? Will it be necessary to have two 
varieties for cross-pollination to get full crops? 
Would the Manzanillo go well with the Ascolano 
for that purpose? — J. F., Mentone. 

We should try twig-budding, because this brings 
the sap of the stock to bear upon a young lateral 
or tip bud, which is much easier to start than dor- 
mant buds used either as buds or grafts. A short 
twig about an inch and a half in length is taken 
with some of the bark of the small branch from 
which it starts, and both twig and bark at its base 
are put in a bark slit like an ordinary shield bud 
and tied closely with a waxed band, although if 
the sap is moving freely it would probably do with 
a string or raffia tie. We should put in such buds 
as growth is starting in the spring. The Ascolano 
is proving a good bearer in many places. We are 
not aware that its cross-pollination points are 
made out yet. Who can give observations upon 
that? 

Cultivating Alfalfa. 

To the Editor : Will you please answer the fol- 
lowing questions through your paper, viz. : When 
is the best time to cultivate alfalfa, and how often 
during the season is it advantageous to do so? 
What do you consider the best implement to use 
in cultivating alfalfa? — B., Modesto. 

Cultivated alfalfa is a term applied to alfalfa 
sown in rows and allowed to grow in narrow 
bands with cultivated land between, and the irri- 
gation is then done in a furrow in the narrow cul- 
tivated strip. This will give thriftier growth and 
perhaps more hay to the acre than flooded, broad- 
casted alfalfa, but it will cost so much more that 
the acre-profit would probably be less. This is an 
intensive culture of alfalfa which is still to be 
tested out in California, if any one should be in- 
clined to do it. Some one-cow suburbanite would 
be in condition to try the scheme first. Probably 
you refer to disking, and for that an ordinary disk 
is used with the disks set pretty straight to reduce 
the side cutting, and this is done at different times 
of the year by different growers. By doing it 
when the ground gets dry in the early spring much 
of the foul stuff is cut out before the alfalfa starts 
strongly. But disking seems to be good whenever 
in the year the soil is dry enough to take it well. 

Blackeye Beans Are Cow Peas. 

To the Editor : I sent to a seedsman for some 
blackeye cow peas and am sending you a sample 
of what I got. They look like blackeye beans. 
What are they? Are blackeye cow peas and 
blackeye beans the same thing? Does frost kill 
cow peas? — Reader, Oakley. 

Yes, they are in the cow pea group, but there 
are other cow peas which would not be recognized 
as having any relation to them. All cow peas are, 
however, beans, and they have not much use for 
frost. They are not hardy like the true pea group. 

Suburban Wastes. 

To the Editor: We keep a" cow and poultry and 
have a dry-earth toilet. We have been burying 
the manure in the little garden spot or along by 
the fences or spreading it out on the alfalfa before 
it is rotted, but do not get good results. How 
shall we apply it to get the best results? We un- 
derstand there is a law against leaving it in piles 
to let it rot. How can we rid the alfalfa of weeds' 



As we are obliged to hire help, and do not succeed 
in getting the hay cared for until we have mostly 
stalks without leaves, I have put the cow on it to 
pasture it off.— L. S., Red Bluff. 

We do not know of any law against composting 
fertilizers in piles, unless "it be inside of towns 
where the breeding of flies is feared. If so, you 
can compost it in a tight bin made of planks, and 
using enough water to prevent too rapid fermenta- 
tion and loss of valuable ingredients. During the 
dry season you can probably use enough dry earth 
or road dust to render the material inoffensive, 
and you can also distribute it then without un- 
desirable results. 

If you cut your alfalfa sooner you will get rid 
of many plants which are propagated by the seeds 
which they produce, and you will also get better 
hay, more leaves and fewer stalks. You had bet- 
ter cut it about the time it begins to bloom, not 
waiting for the full bloom to appear. 

An Apple Spot. 

To the Editor: I produce on my place in the 
Santa Clara valley several varieties of late fall 
and winter apples which when ripe appear sound 
and perfect in every respect. After storing in a 
well ventilated fruit room in a few weeks they 
commence to show small black specks on the skin, 
and many of them become almost entirely covered 
with such spots in the course of a month or so. 
These black specks do not affect the flesh of the 
apple, but of course ruin the appearance of it. 
This applies to at least a dozen different varieties. 
Can you inform me of the cause of this defect and 
the proper remedy to apply which will prevent it? 
Any information on the subject will be much ap- 
preciated. — Amateur, San Francisco. 

We do not know which of several forms of ex- 
terior spot this may be, and a specimen of just 
what you have in mind will be necessary to de- 
termine it. 

Bermuda Grass. 

To the Editor: Will you please give informa- 
tion regarding Bermuda grass. I have five acres 
of hill land I would like to sow for pasture for 
cows. Where can I get the roots? — Farmer, Napa. 

Look about in your neighborhood, and if you 
can find any one who has the grass on his place 
he will probably give you all the roots you will 
dig out, and he can do it without robbing himself. 
If you fail to find it, write to the seedsmen adver- 
tising in our columns that you want roots rather 
than seed, and they will probably be able to get 
them for you. You have plenty of time. The 
roots can be best handled after the ground gets 
warm in February or March. 

Growing Filberts. 

To the Editor: Please give information about 
growing filberts. — S. A. S., Orloff, Butte county. 

Filberts have been largely a disappointment 
in California and no product of any amount has 
ever been made. Good nuts have been produced 
in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and the Coast 
Range. Theoretically, the places where the wild 
hazel grows would best suit the filbert, and so far 
this seems to be justified by the little that has 
actually been done, but there is very little to say 
about it beyond that. It requires much more ex- 
perience to lift the nut out of the experimental 
state. 

Applying Thomas Phosphate. 

To the Editor: When is the best time to apply 
Thomas phosphate slag on orchard land? — E. E. 
M., Sebastopol. 

As Thomas phosphate is slowly soluble, it can be 
applied at any time during the rainy season with- 
out danger of loss, and for the same fact, it should 
be applied early during the rainy season in order 
to be available to trees during the following sum- 
mer's growth. It ought perhaps to be added that 
other forms of phosphate have largely displaced 
slag during the last few years in the United States, 
other forms being more available. 



64 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 22, 1910. 



Horticulture. 



WALNUT STOCKS. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Mr. Claud D. Tribble, of Elk Grove. 

During our eight years of continuous work in 
grafting the walnut we have found much inter- 
esting study and many interesting experiments. 
During this period we have used many different 
stocks for grafting the Persian or English varie- 
ties. 

The California black walnut is more used than 
any other and is probably the best stock yet tried, 
unless it be the Royal black, which is a hybrid of 
the Eastern black and the California black, and 
will be described herein. The California black is 
a very rapid grower under suitable conditions, and 
cultivation and fertilizing bring great and good 
results. It stands more neglect than any walnut. 
It is easily transplanted and should one object to 
the long, straight tap root, it can be planted on 
anything laid in the seed trench that will keep 
the root from going straight downward and the 
results will be a fine set of lateral roots and is 
much better than using the long spade to cut the 
tap root while in the nursery, as the latter method 
retards the growth of the tree. In grafting we 
prefer to graft the two-year stock as a greater 
percentage of the grafts grow, and it makes a 
larger root system to transplant to support the 
graft. The old California black walnut trees are 
readily top grafted to the English varieties and 
are enormously productive if grafted to heavy 
producing varieties. One tree near San Jose pro- 
duced over 700 pounds of nuts in 1908, which sold 
at 13VL> cents a pound. The largest tree of this 
variety the writer lias seen is at Bellota, San Joa- 
quin county, and is over five feet in diameter 
eight feet above the ground and has an enormous 
spread. 

The Eastern black seems to require better con- 
ditions than the above variety, but under proper 
conditions it is even more rapid growing than the 
California black. It takes grafts very readily, 
but does not bud as easily as the others here de- 
scribed. 

The English or Persion walnut is not to be rec- 
ommended as a stock as it is subject to blight and 
sunburn. There are many orchards of this vari- 
ety in the southern part of the State that are being 
top grafted to better bearing and blight resisting 
varieties. The root of this variety will not stand 
any wet soil. This is easiest of any variety we 
have t ri<-d to bud or Lira I't . 

The Royal hybrid has an ideal root system 'and 
is the most rapid growing of the walnut kind. It 
takes a graft well and is fairly easy to bud. We 
often find this variety in planting a nursery of 
California black seedlings, nature having made 
the cross. This tree is readily distinguished from 
its parents in leaf, buds and bark, as well as by 
its rapid growth. 

The so-called Paradox is a hybrid of the black 
walnut of either variety, with the varieties of the 
English. It is a very rapid grower and makes the 
nearest ideal shaped tree of any we have seen. 

In a sixteen-year-old seedling orchard near here 
there are a few of these hybrids, and they are 
several times larger than any of the English, but 
bore but few nuts. These have since been top 
grafted to Mayette and are fine, large trees. 

This hybrid grafts easily in most instances. 
Sometimes they do not seem to have affinity for 
certain varieties. This stock is being tried out at 
the Whittier Pathological Station. 

The Circasian walnut, a timber walnut intro- 
duced by Mr. Payne, of Campbell, is an interest- 
ing stock. The seeds are very small and do not 
resemble the walnut in looks. This has been but 
little tried, but is quite a success as far as it has 
been tried. It has a good root system, takes a 
scion readily, and is a very rapid grower. We do 
not know what success it will be in budding, as it 
has not been tried. The wood is extremely hard 
and is very valuable in furniture' and inlaid work. 

The Department of Agriculture is introducing 
many new walnut varieties that will, no doubt, 
be of more or less value as stocks and hybrids. 

In grafting the California black 60% is con- 
sidered a very good stand in top grafting, and 
70% in the nursery. In budding 60 to 75% is an 
extra good stand. The large nurseries count on 
35 to 40% in their work. 



The Eastern black is not quite so easy budded 
and in top and nursery grafting the percentage is 
about the same as above. We find the English 
very easy to bud and graft. From 70 to 90% be- 
ing a good stand. The hybrids mentioned are 
quite easily grafted being about the same as their 
respective parents. 



MINOR SEMI-TROPICAL FRUITS. 

To the Editor: Will you inform me through 
the columns of your paper whether the papilla or 
tree canteloupe has been successfully grown in 
California? Is the fruit solid enough to ship? 
Can the feijoa be called a success in this State? 
Can the fruit be shipped? Can the sapota be 
called a success? Can the fruit be shipped? — C. J. 
Moore, Palo Alto. 

To the Editor: If by papilla Mr. Moore means 
that which is ordinarily called papaiya, then I can 
only say that it is not a success in the open air in 
California. There are two trees a1 Hollywood 
which have succeeded in bearing fruit for several 
years, but so far as I can learn, it does not near 
equal in size and quality that raised in the tropics. 
In the greenhouses at Eastlake Park. Los Angeles, 
the papaiya has fruited pretty well, but these two 
instances are the only ones I know of where there 
has been an approximate success, though the at- 
tempt to grow them has frequently been made else- 
where. From the imported fruit which sometimes 
is seen in the Los Angeles markets, as well as 
from the home grown, I cannot regard it as a good 
shipper. 

The feijoa is a success. There appears no rea- 
son to doubt, its hardiness, and it is certainly a 
prolific bearer. Its shipping qualities are first- 
class. The only thing against it is its rather un- 
attractive appearance, which is atoned for by the 
exceedingly sweet odor which exhales from the 
ripe fruit. There is certainly considerable dif- 
ference in the size of the different types of this 
fruit and I am told that there is also some differ- 
ence in quality, though so far as my experience 
goes they all taste substantially alike. 

As to the sapota. This tree grows well and is 
hardy enough. While there is a wide variation in 
their styles of growth, some of them make very 
beautiful trees and all of them when allowed to 
grow unpruned produce a dense shade. I have 
tasted the fruit from eight trees grown in Cali- 
fornia. Of these two were quite good, but the 
others varied from bad to detestible. The time 
of maturing is from July to October, and so many 
other better fruits are ripening at that time that 
I do not think the sapota will ever be grown for 
profit. The shipping qualities are poor. 

C. P. Taj*. 

Orange, Cal. 



BORDEAUX AND OTHERS. 

To the Editor: We are waiting for the weather 
to clear to start spraying. Now come our negh- 
bors and declare that the bluestone wash as usu- 
ally made (10 pounds bluestone. 12 pounds lime, 
to 50 gallons water) has killed the young buds 
and wood. Can this be so? They are recommend- 
ing a lime and sulphur solution as the only good 
thing to rid the tree of blight, scale, curl leaf and 
all known peach tree troubles. Will crude road 
oil kill borers if the pari worked on is cut and 
cleaned off and well smeared with the oil? 

Oleandbh. 

We have not heard of such Bordeaux injuries, 
but there is no use of incurring them if they do 
exist, because it is not at. all necessary to use such 
a strong dose. Half as much bluestone and lime 
to that amount of water will do all the good that 
the stronger mixture can and perhaps less harm. 
At the same time a good lime-sulphur wash will 
meet all the troubles you name and some others, 
but not quite "all known peach troubles." Your 
spraying for peach blight should have been done 
two months ago ; you will chiefly hit curl and scale 
now. and it is a little too early for the peach 
moth. Crude oil has been used to discourage the 
moth of the peach root borer from laying eggs. 
We have no idea that it will reach the stem borer 
after it has entered the wood. But if you prevent 
sunburn of the bark you will not have them in 
the wood at all. and this is better than trving to 
kill them after they get in. 



SOME OBSERVED CHANGES IN FRUIT 
TYPES. 

[Continued From Page 61.) 

speckled beans at gathering time, I was surprised 
to find some white ones. There had certainly been 
none of that color in the ones planted and no other 
growing on the place. In shelling out sonic scat- 
tered pods by hand. I found two. one with a single 
white bean near the middle, and in the other, two 
white beans with a yellow one between, the others 
in the pods were all the same as planted: all the 
individual white ones seemed perfect to their type. 
We are apt in our ignorance of the true cause to 
call such things, "bud variation." '"freaks" and 
"sports," as though nature had momentarily for- 
gotten herself and allowed some new creation to 
creep into her household by chance. 

There is another class of fruit variations — the 
influence of the stock upon the scion, that is rec- 
ognized in a general way, but I think the influence 
is often greater than supposed. It may be for the 
better in some characteristic, or, as is more usu- 
ally the fact, for the worst. In all my top graft- 
ing (and I have done a good deal of it), I have 
always been careful to cut scions from the tree 
that produced the finest fruit of its variety, 
growth and all other characters considered. With 
some varieties but little change is noticeable, but 
in others the influence of the stock is often con- 
siderable, and I feel like taking the "Delicious" 
as an example. In the orchard are about 100 top- 
grafted trees of that variety bearing, and the 
scions were all from a single tree. Of the trees 
propogated from it, a few are certainly higher 
colored, better in form and more juicy — finer 
apples in every way. Others are a dingy, pale 
color; some more elongated; some are inferior in 
quality. In fact, scarcely two trees bear fruits 
that are identical in. all their characteristics. In 
most of the trees, however, the change is very 
slight. From my observation and experience I 
think the "Delicious" very susceptible to this in- 
fluence; that is, particular in its associations as 
an apple of its high character has a right to be, 
for it certainly is the "queen of its kind." 

I will give another example in the same line: 
A neighbor who planted one of the oldest or- 
chards in this mountain section, found his old 
Grindstone (American Pippin) of little value, and 
about 20 years ago (the trees were about 30 years 
old), top grafted them from a fine strain of Ben 
Davis. When they came into bearing the fruit 
was neither Ben Davis or Grindstone. It seemed 
to partake of the characteristics of both, but so 
blended that no one not knowing the facts coidd 
tell what it was. It had the flatfish, round form 
of the Grindstone with the brighter stripes of the 
Ben Davis, only medium in size and worthless in 
quality. That was the most evident and best ex- 
ample of the influence of stock upon scion I have 
ever seen. 

We explained such changes as the congeniality 
of stock to scion. But what is it. and how is it 
produced ! What modifies the plant's organize 
tion that makes one of the same species congenial 
and the other not ? 

There is another class of fruit changes that we 
are likely to hear more of in a scientific way in 
the near future. The modifications of many va- 
rieties of fruits by our Pacific Coast influences 
have attracted attention for many years. We all 
recognize the fact, but I think it has not, as yet, 
so fixed our thought and investigations as its im- 
portance deserves. Many varieties of apples 
when grown here are scarcely recognized when 
compared with the same as grown in their old 
habitat of the Eastern States. Our soil and cli- 
matic conditions seem to develop some of the va- 
rieties into almost new and greater forms. Many 
of our local seedlings seem to have something in- 
herent in their character that is distinctly West- 
ern. Besides our favorable, natural conditions, I 
think the converging and commingling of all the 
different types that have been heretofore com- 
paratively isolated is producing varieties that in 
development will give us new and higher types of 
all our fruits. 

I know that such observed facts in nature, and 
that we meet only once in a while, leads off into 
a line of speculation I am not scientific enough to 
explain, or give them any particular application. 
All the natural laws and their operations we know 



January 22, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



contribute to the development and comfort of life. 
We have no reasons to think that the more ob- 
scure ones, when better known, and under our 
control, will prove any the less useful. With all 
the accumulated knowledge that has come to us 
out of the wisdom of the ages, we have no reason 
to think we have fathomed its depths. Nor do 
we know how much the still unknown secrets of 
nature when mastered will contribute, if rightly 
used, to the power and welfare of the human race. 

I am sure there are no lines of research into the 
still unknown facts of science that promise so 
great a reward as in that of horticulture — the 
propagation, care and development of plants and 
their fruits. No other production of nature con- 
tributes so much and directly to the physical life 
and welfare of mankind, and I can conceive of no 
limit to their future development and usefulness, 
nor any ultimate knowledge of all the resources 
of nature that may contribute to that develop- 
ment. 



Citrus Fruits. 



CULTURAL NOTES. 

Written for the Pacific Rural Pbess 
By Mr. Edgar Wright, of Los Angeles. 

The Porto Rican orange is somewhat of a com-' 
petitor to those grown in California and Florida, 
at least on the east coast of the United States, and 
some people have gone so far as to predict that the 
Americans who have gone into that country to 
grow oranges would so succeed in improving the 
orange there that it would cut quite a figure in 
the situation and make serious inroads on the de- 
mand for home grown oranges. It was admitted 
that the appearance of the orange was rather poor, 
the skin being rough and scaly, and that up to this 
time the keeping quality has been so poor that 
dealers would only handle them at very low prices. 
However, it was argued that with American intel- 
ligence directing the growing and packing of the 
fruit, the fact that lands were so cheap in that 
country, that a fair quality of labor could be had 
at one-quarter the cost of California labor, and 
finally that there was no duty and only 25 cents a 
box freight to pay on the fruit to New York city, 
would, taken together, prove to be factors that it 
would be hard for the California orange men to 
overcome. 

These arguments were all put up to me fully 
four years ago, and I remember that they made but 
slight impression upon me at the time and that I 
then and there endeavored to refute the argument 
of the gentleman who was such a strenuous cham- 
pion of the Porto Rico fruit, a New York fruit im- 
porter whom I met in Los Angeles. Possibly the 
day may yet come, but I will still have to be 
shown, and it certainly has not yet arrived. The 
Porto Rico orange comes in at a good time of the 
year, as early as any produced, and that fact is 
favorable to its reception. It is usually sweet on 
arrival, and that cannot always be said of the 
California or Florida article in the early season. 
So far the packing has been largely against the 
fruit with the dealers, nearly all of it coming in 
barrels poorly sized and poorly packed. It is true 
that some Americans have tried to improve the 
packing, but, so far as I know, these Americans 
gained all their knowledge of the business either 
from books or from Florida packers, where condi- 
tions in that line have in the recent past been 
hardly better than in Porto Rico itself. 

I have made some inquiry into the matter of 
orange growing and marketing as conducted in 
Porto Rico. I learn that up to the time of the 
American occupation all the fruit was of the seed- 
ling variety and from wild native stock. The 
Americans who went into the country to grow or- 
anges since the Spanish-American war are using 
wholly budded stock in their new plantings, using 
for budding stock the rough lemon, sour orange 
and lime stock, the sour orange being the best 
adapted to soil conditions and the one most exten- 
sively used, seemingly being immune from that 
serious disease known as foot rot. Much bud wood 
has been bought from both California and Florida 
by the planters, mostly from Florida, and in many 
cases the best of the native seedling stock has been 
selected. It is yet too early to know anything sure 



regarding the result to be expected from the im- 
ported buds. 

In Porto Rico, as in California, cover crops are 
planted to be later turned under the soil, the 
favorite varieties being velvet beans and cow peas, 
which are planted in the early summer at the be- 
ginning of the rainy season. Often one crop will 
be cut for hay and another crop allowed to grow 
up for mulch. 

A recent government report on the marketing of 
Porto Rico oranges will be of interest. This re- 
port says: "A casual glance at the market quota- 
tions will show that Porto Rico oranges sell for 
much less than the Florida product, and it would 
be interesting to know why. 

"The commission man is apt to blame the 
packer, and the packer will blame the shipping 
facilities as well as the grower, and the grower 
will blame them all. It should not be forgotten, 
however, that a great deal of blame rests with the 
grower himself. Most of the fruit shipped at the 
present time comes from seedling trees growing 
semi-wild within a few miles of military roads or 
seaports. While some of the fruit is of extra good 
quality, a large percentage is inferior in flavor. 
The color is generally fairly good, but the peel is 
rough. In picking, the stem is often pulled off 
and the fruit dropped to the ground. It is then 
transported several miles in sacks or baskets on 
horseback or in bulk in ox carts, over a more or 
less rough road to the packing house. The pack- 
ers do not always use the utmost care, and, of 
course, proper grading would be a difficult pro- 
cess under the circumstances. But more careful 
culling would certainly be advisable. 

"In shipping it takes at the present time from 
six to twelve days from the time of entering the 
steamer to the time of unloading, according to the 
port from which and to which it is shipped. The 
ships have no cold-storage facilities, and the fruit 
is stored with other classes of goods. These state- 
ments will show that the fault is not with the 
quality of the fruit, and if the picking, packing 
and shipping is properly done, better prices may 
be expected. It will, however, require the best 
efforts of the commission man to overcome the 
present bad reputation." 

California packers would hardly be satisfied 
with the orange sizer described in this report, 
which consists of a triangular box, open at one 
corner, which is set inclined with the open corner 
downward. An inclined plane is then made con- 
sisting of two smooth pieces of wood about 2 
inches in diameter and about 4 feet long, resting 
on two pair of legs 15 and 27 inches high. The 
pieces are nailed at one end onto the longer pair 
of legs, with a distance of one inch between, and 
at the other end onto the shorter legs at a distance 
of 6 inches between. This runway is placed un- 
der the triangular box so that oranges dropping 
from the opening will roll down its incline until 
they fall through. The distance between the 
pieces of the runway are measured, and every va- 
riation of one-eighth of an inch is marked. The 
smaller fruit drops through the opening at ap- 
proximately 2 ] /o inches and the very largest at 4 
to 4V2 inches. Cloth lined troughs are placed un- 
derneath the sizer at intervals to catch the drop- 
ping fruit and convey it to the boxes. This prin- 
ciple is the same in a crude way that is now being 
usd on the best California machines. Sizers have 
been the cause of more lawsuits than any other 
piece of machinery in the packing house in this 
State, and perhaps if the patent laws of this coun- 
try extend to Porto Rico the packers out there 
may find themselves enjoined from using the above 
described sizer. The Porto Rico orange box, when 
a box is used, is the Florida box, measuring 12 1 / 4x 
12 1 /2x27 inches. The government man who was 
sent out to look into and report on the orange con- 
ditions of the island says in his report that the 
oranges should be packed so that the top layer 
projects about three-eighth of an inch above the 
top of the sides, so that when the cover is nailed 
on the pack will be solid. This would be called a 
slack pack in California, where the fruit is placed 
in so that it is sometimes an inch or two above the 
top of the sides, making what is known here as a 
full pack. 

The California, orange home auction project has 
been indefinitely postponed, and the frost is re- 
sponsible. It would certainly have been the height 
of folly to even attempt to start a home auction 
under the conditions existing here at the present 
time. Certainly over 50% of the fruit in the State 
has been frosted to a greater or less degree, and 



at least 25% of this frosted stock will be shipped 
East to be sold at some price or other. At the 
present time what are know as "frosted pools" 
are being made by growers who are combined to- 
gether, and every grower is obliged to guarantee 
his share of the packing and freight charges, to 
be paid out of their pockets in case the fruit does 
not bring money enough to do so. It is a deplor- 
able condition of affairs and the worst in the his- 
tory of the California industry. To make it still 
more binding the Florida growers are in the same 
fix, over 50% of their crop also being bad. A 
Florida paper states that the new Fruit Exchangi 
will hold their growers under the contract with 
them, and will neither ship the fruit for them, nor 
will they be allowed to sell it to outside parties 
nor consign it to commission men. It looks like 
it was going to be a hard year for the new Ex- 
change. 

A London, England, paper of recent date gives 
an account of the invasion of the California navel 
orange to that city. As I have been trying to 
push the idea of more shipment to England and 
Europe, I claim the privilege of quoting from this 
account. 

"Considerable interest has been aroused by the 
persistent and strenuous efforts of California to 
make England a regular market for the disposal 
of their famous fruits, and their methods of doing 
business are very commendable. 

"At the present time California oranges are 
realizing as much in New York as they are in 
London, yet this is not to be allowed to interfi l e 
with the continued supplies for England, even 
should a large initial loss be the result. Every 
care has been taken in selecting and packing this 
fruit, and it is gaining an enviable reputation. 
The appearance and aroma of the California navels 
leave nothing to be desired. Of a beautiful shade 
and a bouquet that is delicious, these oranges will 
probably find a place in every well arranged des- 
sert dish." 



VINEGAR AND THE PURE FOOD LAW. 



To the Editor: I have apple cider vinegar and 
grape vinegar two years old and very strong. I 
have been selling to merchants in near-by towns 
and have some surplus yet, but now I am told that 
merchants are not allowed to buy it unless it has 
the pure-food law stamps on the barrel. Where 
can I get such stamps if they are required. — 0. C. 
Langfield, Morganhill, R. F.'D. No. 31. 

In answer to the above, it may be said that the 
pure food law of California does not require any 
stamps to be placed on any food containers. The 
law requires that vinegar shall, when exposed or 
offered for sale, meet the requirements of the 
standards for the respective vinegars sold. The 
standards for vinegar may be had upon applica- 
tion to Prof. M. E. Jaffa, director of the State 
Food and Drug Laboratory, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley, Cal. 

There is issued by the II. S. Department of Agri- 
culture a serial number in connection with the 
filing of a general guaranty with the department. 
This serial number is used on labels with the 
words, "Guaranteed by (here insert name of 
guarantor) under the Food and Drugs Act, June 
30, 1909." This guaranty and serial number arc 
not required by law, but are oftentimes consid- 
ered quite desirable for a manufacturer to have. 
No guaranty will be filed by the State Board of 
Health or its secretary, and no serial number will 
be given by this board or its secretary. All gen- 
eral guaranties must be filed with the Secretary 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Full particulars concerning the form of guar- 
anty, etc., can also be had upon application to 
the State Laboratory at Berkeley. 

IN SEASON AND OUT OF SEASON. 



To the Editor: There was an article some 
time ago about a man who was pestered with deer 
and he could not shoot them because it was out of 
season. Well, he must be a poor marksman if he 
can't shoot deer out of season as well as in season 
if they eat his crops. They ought to eat his crops, 
for the law is for those only who shoot when they 
hear a noise in the brush, and most of the time 
shoot a man; and when the season is over they 
holler, "I never hunt in season, as you are liable 
to be shot, but out of season you are safe." But 
of course you must use judgment. 

Hilltop Farmer, 

Santa Clara county. 



66 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 22, 1910. 



California Vegetables in Garden and Field 

By E. J. WICKSOX, of the University of California. 



Srrnnd and Revised i:<lltU>n; published nerially In «he PACIFIC 
HI It VI, PRKSS (beginning with the Issue of November 27, 1009), 
and subsequently to appear In book form. 



[COPYRIGHT— ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.] 



A light, coarse soil which may he excellent for the after 
growth of the roots, is not so good for starting the seed- 
lings because of danger of surface drying. A mixture of 
fine sediment will improve a coarse soil for this purpose. 
A very good way to get quick germination and large root 
growth is to start the seed bed in February or March, as 
the soil becomes warm : get good, fresh seed ; take boxes, 
say apple boxes, or any boxes of about that size ; get good, 
clean sand, and mix sand and seed together, about 15 parts 
of sand to one part of seed; fill the boxes with sand and 
seed mixed as described : set away in a warm place and 
pour on water, quite warm, two or three times during the 
first two days. 

In the meantime, prepare and richly pulverize a piece of 
ground for a seed bed. Make rows about four feet apart 
by raking all lumps and clods away, forming a kind of 
ditch or depression about two or three inches below the 
level of the land. Make these ditches about one foot wide, 
and watch the seed closely, for if the seed is good in about 
seven days nearly all the seeds will begin to sprout. Then 
take the boxes of sand and seed to the prepared ground 
and sprinkle it about a foot in width in the rows or ditches 
quite freely, using judgment all the time not to get too 
much or too little. Cover up with finely pulverized earth 
about one and one-half inches deep, and if the ground is 
moist, your plants will be up and growing in a few days, at 
least before the weeds will make their appearance. Let 
the plants stand there ; but take good care of them. They 
are very quickly injured by drying out. The bed should be 
kept clean and moist. 

This method gives seedlings scattered through a space 
one foot wide and though the cultivator may be used be- 
tween these foot-strips, there must be hand-pulling of 
weeds within the strips. For this reason some growers 
prefer to start the plants in thin rows by sowing the seed 
in a drill and afterwards spacing the plants in the row to 
prevent crowding on the roots. In this practice the rows 
are placed one to two feet apart according as hand or 
horse cultivator is to be practiced. Whichever method is 
followed it is important to start the seeds in a slight de- 
pression so that subsequent cultivation may level the 
ground and bring a deeper covering over the young root 
crowns to guard them from excessive heat. The seed can, 
however, in a light soil, be placed at a depth of two inches 
and the moisture can be retained near the surface by care- 
ful raking to prevent crusting over. A rake with thin 
teeth can be used even after the seedlings have appeared, 
to keep the soil loose about them. 

Planting Out the Garden Bed. — Garden beds or rows can 
be made by the old system of trenching, if it is desired, 
although recent practice rather discards it. Trench about 
18 or 20 inches deep, then fill up with well-rotted manure, 
dig thf nexl trench and throw the dirt over on the top of 
the trench filled with manure, and so on until all is 
trenched. Then begin and stir the last trench up with the 
dirt, measure off the distance the asparagus plants are to 
stand, say two feet if for hand hoeing, and then stick a 
stake, set the plants, and then take the dirt off the next 
trench to cover the plants, and so on until over the ground, 
when all the plants will be set. 

If the garden is small, the soil rich, and moisture ample, 
some other use can be made of the bed the first year. The 
stakes will show the location of the asparagus roots. Be- 
tween these stakes set a eabbage plant and then in the 
middle of the row set out lettuce plants, and sow radishes, 
carrots, and early turnips. The carrots and radishes will 
be disposed of before the cabbages are ready, and some 
other quick growing vegetable can be put in, after irri- 
gation. The second year give the whole ground to the 
asparagus, and in the fall clean off the bed, cover with a 
coat of coarse manure to keep the ground from packing 
with the heavy rains, and fork it all in early in the fol- 
lowing spring, being careful not to injure the root crowns. 
A small cutting can be made the second season, but it 
will help future crops to cut very little. 

Field Planting of Asparagus.— Roots can be moved from 
the seed-bed to the field at any time from November to 
April, according to condition of soil and activity of roots. 
As with other plantings, however, early practice is better 
when all is favorable. As to methods of planting in the 
field, the experience of two prominent large-scale growers 
is given. First, the method of Mr. William Boots, one of 
the old line asparagus growers on the alluvial lands of the 
Santa Clara valley: 

"Next March (for I think March the best month to plant 
in. all else being equal) choose a good piece of land, the 



very best is none too good, and plow just as deep as you 
can. I plow with four good horses on a single plow, and 
plow one foot deep, getting the land in as good condition 
as possible. Take a good team and draw furrows where 
the rows are wanted, going twice in the same place, just 
as deep as we can get the plow to run, throwing the furrow 
each way, making the distance six feet between rows. 
Then carefully take up the plants, carefully saparate them, 
for if they have been very closely grown they will cling 
together; spread out the roots as you plant them, clearing 
away all clods or anything that may hinder the growth. 
Plant not closer than three feet between plants in the 
rows. For field planting for the market, by all means do 
not plant closer than seven feet between the rows, and 
three feet apart in the rows; for if there is a plant that 
delights in plenty of room and air it certainly is asparagus. 
Cover the plants about two inches deep, and during the 
summer cultivation the pulverized earth will drop into the 
ditches, and by the time the season's cultivation is over 
the ditches or furrows will be nearly full, which finishes 
the first year in the field." 

Another method is that approved by S. ,T. Murdock. on 
the peat lands of Orange county : 

"The rows should be four feet apart and the plants 
eighteen inches from each other in the rows, and even 
more room would be better if the land is norl too valuable. 
After the ground is well plowed and finely harrowed, mark 
out. the rows the desired distance apart with a plow by 
going twice in each row, throwing a furrow each way from 
the center of the row, and from eight to twelve inches 
deep; then go one or more rounds in this with a cultivator, 
closed up, so as to loosen up the soil well in the bottom of 
the row. If you have any fine fertilizer put it in the row 
where you want to set your plants: mix well with the soil 
and set your plants over it. Place the plants in the bottom 
of the prepared furrow, spread out the roots and cover 
crown and all about, two or three inches the Lighter the 
soil the deeper the plants should be placed — so as to secure 
the proper moisture till they begin to strike root. After 
the planting has been done, take a light steel garden rake, 
or, if the rows are even enough, we would prefer the wheel 
hoe with the rakes on, and stir the soil the whole length 
of the rows. Then, when the shoots begin to grow and 
show themselves three or four inches high, the soil should 
be gradually hoed or cultivated to the plants till the sur- 
face is level. The ground should be kept moist, and in 
most localities irrigation will be found necessary to secure 
the best results. Do not neglect thorough cultivation, but 
after the roots begin to fill the ground do not work too 
deep, as there is danger of injuring them." 

Giving the plant plenty of room favors its productive 
longevity, while closer planting may secure larger acre- 
yield at first. In the large commercial plantations on re- 
claimed lands of the Sacramento and San Joaquin river 
bottoms the plants are usually given much greater dis- 
tances — say nine or ten feet between the rows and the 
plants two feet apart in the row. .Much greater depth of 
covering is secured by ridging the light, peaty soil, so that 
the shoots have to pierce about a foot of covering on their 
way to the light. This secures the great length of large 
white shoots which are characteristic of California canned 
asparagus. The ridges are made by the use of plows, disks 
and crowders which cut deeply between the rows and 
shift the soil over the root crowns, and the cutting is done 
by plunging a long gouge into the side of the ridge as the 
protrusion of a tip indicates the location of a good shoot. 
These ridges are split with a plow or disk when the cut- 
ting season is over, and the land leveled for the summer 
growth. This is simply an enlargement of old practices, 
as described below, as the light soil, largely made of partly 
decomposed vegetation, favors cheap shifting of great 
bulks of it to serve different needs of the plants. 

Later Treatment of the Asparagus Field. — There are 
several points to gain in subsequent cultivation of the 
asparagus field. One is early starting of the plants, and 
for that purpose some growers plow first away from the 
rows to open the ground better to the winter sunshine ; 
another is to induce the growth of long, tender, white 
shoots, and to retain moisture for prolonging the cutting 
season, and to aid summer growth of foliage, and for these 
ends the early spring plowing is to cover the rows with a 
deep layer of loose soil. Mr. Boots' method is as follows: 

"Now do not attempt to cut any asparagus until your 
plants have grown two years, but cultivate thoroughly. 
The second season's growth you will find quite strong, 
and along in the fall, after the frost has killed the tops, 
take a mowing machine or scythe and cut the tops close to 
the ground, pile up and burn on the ground, as your plants 
are too deep in the ground to be affected by the fire. Some 
time in November or December, and not later than the 
first of January, take two horses and plow, and go along 
the rows close to the stubs that you cut off, throwing the 
furrows from the rows, then follow along with sharp hoes 
and cut the stubs way low down ; also break down the 
little ridge that will be left between the furrows. 
(To be Continued.) 



PLANT NOW 



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FLORIDA SOUR ORANGE SEED. 

The hardiest and most desirable strain 
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of Citrus Fruits. We offer only good, 
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get the bent. Prices and full particulars 
on application to Clerk P. R. P. 
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January 22, 1910. 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



67 



AN OLD SUBSCRIBER FREES HIS 
MIND. 



To the Editor: Will you let me have a 
little say through the columns of the Pa- 
cific Rural Press? I have been a con- 
stant subscriber since the paper first 
started, some 40 years ago, so you see I 
am old enough to vote. 

I have just read a clipping from Chas. 
A. Chambers, in Fresno Herald, and would 
just like to shake hands on the strength 
of what he has to say. As this comments 
on the "Great Horticultural Wizard," Lu- 
ther Burbank, I fully agree with him. 
Several years ago I ordered four trees of 
the Sugar prune from a nursery. Only 
one tree ever put out a bud, and that is a 
seedling peach. Then to make sure I 
would get the right article I ordered di- 
rect from Mr. Burbank himself. They 
were on peach root and four parted at the 
union, and the others are no good. I or- 
dered at the same time from Mr. Burbank 
six Climax plums, only one has ever 
borne fruit, and they are not worth or- 
chard room. From one of the plum trees 
a sprout started from the peach root, and 
last year bore fruit for the first time, and 
the fruit is one of the finest yellow free- 
stone peaches I ever saw. I have most of 
the recent productions such as Wager, 
Muir, Phillips Cling, Canada White, etc., 
and the new one is away ahead of any one 
of Burbank's crack productions I have so 
far seen, and I have seen a good many. 
• Boils. — Now, as to the remedy for boils. 
I have just noticed what Mr. W. J. B. rec- 
ommends, and I will say I tried the fat 
pork for years. I also used soap and 
sugar, and bread and milk poultices, but 
of all the remedies I have ever tried for a 
boil or a carbuncle (and I have had many 
and bad ones, too), Bucklen's Arnica 
Salve is far and away ahead of all the 
poultice remedies I know. Just spread the 
salve on a piece of cotton cloth, and bind 
<on the same as a poultice. 

Potatoes. — I noticed a communication 
In a recent issue of the Pacific Rural 
Press (but cannot find the copy now). 
Someone had such a big potato, and such 
a big yield of potatoes, I should like to 
show up with him. Two years ago I had 
a Centennial potato that tipped the scales 
at nine pounds, and many that went from 
five to seven and a half. I had plenty of 
Burbank's that exceeded 12 inches in 
length and big in proportion. One hill 
weighed 27 Vj pounds, another hill 22 
pounds, and none smaller than one pound. 
This year we had no rain from February 
until after digging time, and my spuds 
went 10 tons to the acre, but none so 
large as two years ago. A Happy New 
Year. 

G. R. Wales, 
Milford, Lassen county, Cal. 

[We are glad to hear from such an old 
subscriber and give him free talking with 
pleasure. Mr. Chamber's story only 
brought in Mr. Burbank's name to point 
his joke on another fellow. As for Mr. 
Burbank's fruits, our old friend is ahead 
on the deal for he has secured the best 
peach of its kind he ever saw, and that 
is certainly worth all the plums he lost, 
and which may not be suited to his ele- 
vated country. Mr. Burbank's creations 
are evidently good all the way through, 
and if the top does not work all you have 
to do is to try the bottom. If we ever 
have a boil we shall try that salve, but 
we agree with Josh Billings that, "the 
best place to have a boil is on another 
feller." A man who can get ten tons of 
spuds to the acre in a dry year has surely 
no cause to complain of his land nor of the 
man who made the potato. — Editor]. 



RANCH FOREMAN W ANTK L) — Must have 
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his men. A thorough knowledge required of 
fruit growing, pruning, budding and growing of 
nursery stock. Htate experience and references. 
Excellent and permanent position for the right, 
man Address llortlc-ultural Department, 205 
< i rant Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 



WHY 



is the Vrooman Pure Bred 
FRANQUETTE WALNUT 
being planted in California 
and Oregon more extensively than 
any other one variety ? 
Simply because, after a careful 
investigation, people find it the most 
reliable and best paying variety on 
the market. 

The tree Is perfectly hardy, blooms late, 
bears heavily and yearly. 

The nut Is unusually well filled and uni- 
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The meat is rich and oily. 

The shell is medium thin and sealed 
tight, permitting of ample handling with- 
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Last but not least— 
The Voorman Pure Bred Franquette retails 
at from 10c. to 15c. per pound above other 
varieties. Are there reasons not sufficient 
for its popularity. 

We have both Grafted and Second Genera- 
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REMEMBER 

We alone propagate the Vrooman Fran- 
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Free literature sent on request. 

Address, 

Oregon Nursery Co., 

Orenco, Oregon. 



ROSES, 

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SHADE AND ORNAMENATL 
TREES 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

The E. Gill Nursery Co. 

WEST BERKELEY, CAL. 



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Trial packets 15c each, 4 for 50c. 
Write for prices in quantity. 

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345 S. MAIN ST., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



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P. 0. Box 18, Fresno, Cal. 





PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 22, 1910. 



Fruit Marketing. 

THE GRAPE GROWERS GET 
TOGETHER. 



The table grape growers of the State 
met in Lodi on January 16. Judge C. N. 
Norton, of the Superior Court, presiding, 
and W. C. Brown, of Lodi, acting as secre- 
tary. The morning session was held in 
the Odd Fellows' Hall, but owing to the 
great number of delegates arriving in the 
afternoon the Lodi opera house was se- 
cured for the remainder of the sessions. 
The convention was held under the au- 
spices of the San Joaquin County Table 
Grape Growers' Association. 

Many prominent grape growers of the 
State were in attendance and Fresno, Napa 
and the grape sections of California were 
well represented. 

The following resolutions, which were 
unanimously adopted, after being 
thoroughly discussed by various delegates 
present, formed the business features of 
ihe convention: 

Whereas, The table grape growers of 
California, owing to the conditions which 
have developed in recent years, find that 
the industry is seriously threatened and 
that unless immediate and intelligent ac- 
tion is promptly taken millions of dollars 
of investments in lands and in improve- 
ments will be greatly depreciated, thou- 
sands of people who are dependent upon 
this industry will find themselves on the 
verge of ruin and the State as a whole will 
receive a serious black eye; and 

Whereas, An investigation into the ex 
ceedingly deplorable condition in the 
table grape industry has made it clear 
that the present situation has been 
brought about by the following causes: 

(a.) Excessive freight charges. 

(b) Unintelligent distribution, due to 
competing distributing organizations. 

(c) To shipment of inferior and poor- 
ly packed grapes. 

(d) To shipments out of all propor- 
tion in volume to the demand of existing 
markets. 

Therefore, be is Resolved, That we, the 
table grape growers of California, assem- 
bled in mass meeting at Lodi, urge upon 
the transcontinental railways to grant the 
concessions in freight rates asked for by 
the transportation committee appointed 
by the fruit growers' convention assem- 
bled at Watsonville on December 8, 1909. 

We ask this not only because it is of 
great importance to the State and to 
those directly interested, but also be- 
cause it furnishes the railway companies 
with a vast tonnage. While the ship- 
ments of table grapes have increased six 
fold practically: while in eight years the 
increase in tonnage has been nearly 500//< 
from about 1000 to about 6000 carloads, 
the decrease in the rates has been about 
3 f /r, manifestly grossly out of proportion. 

Resolved, That the table grape grow- 
ers demand that the shipping organiza- 
tions get together and arrange a collec- 
tive system of distribution, in order that 
the fruit may not be forced into compe- 
tition with itself in the Eastern market 
to the loss of the grower, experience hav- 
ing shown that satisfactory results can be 
attained only where the distribution is 
made from this end through one channel. 

Resolved, That any shipping organiza- 
tion which shall decline to comply with 
this resolution has not the best interest 
of the growers at heart. 

Resolved. That the table grape growers 
of California be called upon through their 
local organization to enter into an agree- 
ment with the shipping organizations to 
receive no fruit for Eastern shipment un- 
less such fruit has been passed upon fa- 
vorably by such inspectors as may be 
chosen by the growers themselves. 

Resolved, That in view of the fact that 
production in table grape is increasing 




"The time to remedy mistakes is before you make 
them" says a modern philosopher, and this advice 
applies most pointedly to the fruit grower. The time 
to lay the foundation for a fruit fortune is 



Planting time 



YOU CAN'T STICK any young tree Into any ground and expect Nature to 
excuse your carelessness and ignorance. The selecting of the young trees is 
the first step that requires your care and all your available brains. Begin 

FIRST. SELECT THE MOST profitable varieties of trees most 
suitable to your soil and climate. Then select the trees that are 
hardiest and healthiest and with the best roots. 

IN THE PLACEK NURSERIES we grow our trees only on vir- 
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nurserymen) and they have exceptionally well-meshed root sys- 
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hardy plants that will thrive . 

OUR LONG EXPERIENCE as fruit growers, fruit shippers, and 
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to grow — best from a seller's standpoint- — and in propagating we 
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been under our personal observation. 

THESE PARENT TREES have been marked by us when they 
were in fruit. So that we can absolutely guarantee that our trees 
are true to name. There is no probability of the annoyance and 
disappointment of finding, when your orchard begins to bear, that 
you have a dozen varieties of fruit where you expected but one — 
the kind you had decided would pay you best. 

OUR PEACH and PLUM TREES (on Peach root) are propa- 
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Send lor our "Planters Guide" and Catalog; it Is tree and contains a mine 
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OUR STOCK comprises the best profitable commercial varieties ol 
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THE FAMOUS INSECTICIDE AND FUNGICIDE. 

It has been found that Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution used in the early 
part of the season is as effective for Blight as the Bordeaux Mixture, and it 
does not have the injurious effect upon the tree as Bluestone. In Oregon and 
Washington the use of Bordeaux is being entirely eliminated and lime and 
sulphur solution used for all purposes. The leaves are falling from the trees, 
and especially the Peach, Almond and Apricot should be immediately sprayed 
for the first spraying. The second spraying should be done on all trees just 
before the buds open in the Spring. 

Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution is a guaranteed article, properly pre- 
pared, free from sediment, and as cheap, if not cheaper, than the farmer can 
make a mixture himself. 

For particulars inquire of your dealer or write to the factory at 

BENICIA, CALIFORNIA. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Of our high standard in quality— by the single box or by carload. 
We invite correspondence. 

Our Booklet, on "When, How, and What to Plant," a revised 
edition — to our patons only. To others on receipt of postage. 
Postals not noticed. 

ADDRESS. 

W. A. X. STRATTON, 

PETALUMA. CAL. 



SEEDS 

VALLEY SEED COMPANY 

311-313 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

ALFALFA SEED A SPECIALTY. 



IN VARIETY. 



Superior quality of garden, 
flower and field seeds. 



The only two really "Immune " well tested walnutt: heavy 
bearers: bloom late: mature early: grafted trees only. 




Bend for catalogue and special circulars on 

New Fruits, Pedigreed Primes, Eucalyptus. Etc. 
LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO.. INC.. 

Morganhlll, Santa Clara Co., ( al. 



Pear Blight 

We have positively 
demonstrated that 
WE CAN CURE 
THIS DISEASE. 



Write us for particulars. 



Pear Blight Remedy Co. 

VACAVILLE, CALIFORNIA. 




Lime lor Spraying 

Purest and best. Largest barrels. 

USED EXCLUSIVELY BY CALIFORNIA REX 
SPRAY COMPANY, AND MANY OTHERS. 

Ask your dealer for It or address, 

PACIFIC LIME & PLASTER CO. 

7th and Townsend St., San Francisco, Cal. 



TREES 



We grow a large stock of first 
class Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Walnuts, Grape Vines, 
Eucalyptus, Orange, Lemons, 
Roses, Berry Plants, etc. 

ESTABLISHED 1864. 

Hannay Nursery Co. 

San Jose, Cal. 
Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 
For sale by all the large grocers, or 
D. A- SNOW. Lincoln Avcnne. San Jose, Cal. 



January 22, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



6«J 



out of all proportion to the development 
of the market, as shown by the fact that 
within three years the Eastern table 
grape shipments have grown from about 
2000 carloads to about 6000 carloads, and 
in order to develop the markets in the 
shortest time, that a plan- be formulated 
whereby a tariff be established at the 

rate of per crate which is to go into 

an advertising fund for the purpose of 
better encouraging the Eastern consum- 
ers to eat California table grapes, such 
fund to be expended by a committee to 
be selected by the growers and shippers 
of California, and that the growers and 
their local organizations be called upon 
to agree among themselves to thin out 
the crop at the proper growing period, 
with the view of increasing the size and 
improving the color and quality of the 
grapes in order that they may bring more 
profitable returns to the grower, a consid- 
erable portion of last season's shipments 
having been unsuitable for Eastern ship- 
ment, thus injuring the good name of the 
California table grapes in Eastern mar- 
kets, thus also injuring the entire in- 
dustry. 

Resolved, That the shipping organiza- 
tions be called upon, among other things, 
to determine a minimum f. o. b. selling 
price, below which no fruit shall be sold. 

Wilson H. Thompson, 

A. S. Laseix, 

H. Weinstock, 

J. P. Dabgitz, and 

A. L. Cowkll. 
Unable to Agree. — There was consider- 
able discussion as to the advisability of 
the following resolution being adopted, 
and after much commenting, it was finally 
decided to leave the resolution with the 
committee on organization for action: 

Resolved, That it is the consensus of 
opinion of this mass meeting that the 
shipper shall have the right to send to 
the Eastern markets not to exceed one- 
third of each growers' shipment to be 
sold or to be applied on f. o. b. orders. 

The Committeemen. — The committees 
appointed were: Resolutions Committee 
— W. H. Thompson, of Lodi; Colonel H. 
Weinstock, of Sacramento; A. S. Lasell, 
of Lodi; J. P. Dargitz, of Acampo; 
C. B. Dewees, of Sacramento, and A. L. 
Cowell, of Stockton. 

Organization Committee — Judge C. W. 
Norton, of Stockton; W. C. Brown, of 
Lodi; H. H. Bennett, of Fresno, W. C. 
Walker, of Sacramento; H. M. Ellis, of 
Sacramento; Colonel Weinstock, of Sac- 
ramento; F. B. Mills of Woodbridge; J. 
F. Peters, of Stockton; R. G. Williams, 
of Lodi, and C. M. Hartley, of Vacaville. 

A special committee was appointed to 
get the shipping companies together on 
matters pertaining to distribution and the 
fixing of a minimum f. o. b. price, con- 
sisting of Colonel Harris Weinstock, of 
Sacramento; J. J. McKindlay, of Acam- 
po; H. H. Bennett, of Fresno; J. P. Dar- 
gitz, of Acampo, and H. M. Smith, of 
Lodi. 

State Horticultural Commissioner Jef- 
frey was among those present and par- 
ticipated in the aiscussions. G. H. Hecke, 
of Woodland, chairman of the committee 
of ten fruit growers appointed to draft 
resolutions of a plan for a league of 
fruit growers, was also present. 

Arrangements will be made for a mass 
meeting to be held January 28 at Sacra- 
mento. 



WALNUT TREES 

grown from carefully selected seed, 
will produce 95% No. 1 nuts of which 
i 26% will grade fancy. Nuts grown 
I from seed are more hardy, less liable 
to damage from frost, blight or sun- 
burn. Postal for prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 




Plant Morse's 

Sweet Peas 



Our New Catalog 
Mailed Free 



Now 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 

Seeds - Plants - Trees 



44 Jackson Street 



San Francisco, California 




Now is the lime for Ordering Trees 

We have a large lot of EUCALYPTI'S, 
CYPRESS, PINE TREES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of ORNAMENT- 
AL TREES AND SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
(illEEN AND DECIDIOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PAI.MS, DBACENA, ROSES, ERI- 
CAS, CAMELLIAS, AZALEAS, RHODO- 
DENDRON, FRUIT TREES and BERRY 
BUSHES. 

THE PACIFIC NURSERIES 

3041 Baker Street, San Francisco, 

And Millbrae, Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Rural 
Press. 



EUCALYPTUS 

We are prepared to supply your wants 
in large or small quantity for fall or 
spring planting, the stock is A No. 1. Se- 
cure your stock early. 

ORANGE AND LEMON TREES. 

Our citrus trees are, without doubt, the 
finest trees on the market. We can supply 
them in both one and two year buds, in 
any quantity desired. 

We are also large growers of Palms, 
Hoses, Fruit Trees, and other stock. 

ARMSTRONG'S COVINA NURSERIES, 
Covina, Cal. 



ROSE MOUND 
NURSERY 

B. C. KINLEY 6 SON, Proprietors 

Growers and Importers of all kinds of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubbery. 

No Irrigation. Write for catalogue. 
SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA. 



BARTLETT PEARS, CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS, APPLES, PEACHES, PRUNES, 
PLUMS, FIGS, GRAPE VINES, BERRIES, 

ORNAMENTAL SHADE TREES, 
FLOWERING SHRUBS and ROSES. 

We have a fine stock of all commercial 
varieties. Strictly first class, TRUE to 
NAME. Give us a chance to quote you 
prices. We can interest you. Send for 
Catalogue. 

CHICO NURSERY CO., 

Chlco, Cal. 



AN IMPROVED FREESTONE PEACH 

The best for canning, drying and market. 
FAY ELBERTA PEACH 

Superior to Muir or Lovell for canning or dry- 
ing, and superior to any for market. A heavy 
and regular bearer, very attractive, firm and of 
exceptionally fine flavor. Write for descriptive 
circular. THE SlLVA-liERGTlloLDT CO.. 

161 Orchard St., Newcastle, Cal. 



FRED GROHE'S NURSERY 

SUPPLIES 

CHAMPION STRAIN PETUNIA SEED 
GIANTS OF CALIFORNIA 
RUFFLED GIANTS 
Lodge Flowering Hybrid Delphinium 
Write for Prices. 
614 FIFTH STREET, SANTA ROSA, CAL. 



rVIILL 

Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine, 
Orange 

and Lemon, 
Nursery Stock, 
Alfalfa, 

Bone and Blood 
FERTILIZERS. 



TO 




rvi a ivj 

Importers of 

Nitrate of 
Soda 

Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 



Hawaiian Fertilizer Company, Ltd 

Works 

Honolulu and San Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



FEED THE SOIL 

AND THE SOIL WILL FEED YOU 



Orange and other fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly 
recommend our fertilizers as producing the grandest results in quantity, 
quality of products and profits. Our fertilizers have the largest sale 
west of the Rockies, because they make sure and good crops. Lack of 
fertility means starved soil. Our fertilizers feed the soil and make it 
produce abundant harvest. Write and let us tell you about it. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

444 PINE STREET. SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 
Branch Ollice: 216 Grosse Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 



KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

RELIABLE GROWERS OF DECIDUOUS 
TREES AND VINES 

WE ARE GROWING THE 

Largest Stock of Peach Trees in the State 

Wholesale Orders Solicited. 

Personal attention given to orders from planters. 
Let us figure on your needs now. 



MAIN OFFICE, 



FRESNO, CAL. 



The Buying of Citrus Trees 

IS A SIMPLE PROBLEM IN ECONOMICS. 

You cannot extract sunbeams from cucumbers nor blood from stones, nor good crops 
of fine oranges and lemons from Inferior trees A poor tree Is an expensive experiment 
entailing only vexation of spirit and a dwindling pocket book. Then why experiment with 
stock or doubtful quality ? W hy not get the best and be sure of the future? For 20 years we 
have been supplying the people who grow good citrus fruits with their trees In every citrus 
growing section of the world, and stand ready to serve you equally well. Why not write us 
and let us become better acquainted ? 

The economics of successful orange and lemon growing is tersely explained in our book, 
entitled "The Citrus Fruits: Historically, Hortlculturally and Commercially," a copy of 
which is yours for the sum of 26 cents. 

SAN DIMAS CITRUS NURSERIES, 



R. M. TEAGUE. Prop. 



San Dlmas, California. 



CITRUS-SEED, BED TREES, SOUR STOCK 

Sweet stock, rough lemon stock. We have the largest and II nest block of seedlings In the 
State. NAVKL8, VALENCIAS, EUKEKA LEMONS. Phones: Main 949, Home 2520. 

SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, F. H. Dlsbrow, Prop. PASADENA, CAL. 



70 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 22, 1910. 



A. & M. FIRST EARLY TOMATO 

IT IS THE BEST OF ALL. 

Write for our 1910 seed catalogue. It 1b a valuable manual of the garden, ranch, and 
nursery. One hundred and forty-four pages full of valuable Information. 

Our 1910 Catalog ol Poultry Supplies sent on request. 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO. 

113-115 N. Main St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

RU EH L=W HEELER NURSERY 

OFFICE AHD SALES YARD : 121 W. S AH FERNANDO ST., SAN JOSE, CAL. BOX 826. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Nurseries: 80 Acres, Monterey Road, Near Edenvale. 25 Acres, Center Road, 
South of fully Road. 16 Acres, East San Jose, Alum Rock Ave. 

Send for Free Price List. 



life 












•GO 


Ml A j£ 



BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO. SanJose Cal. U.S.A. 



BUG-GO cleans 'em up. Spray Now. 
BUG-GO gives your trees a chance to bear. 
BUG-GO kills the scale, the moss, the fungus growth. 
BUG-GO was used extensively in the Manta Clara Valley last year and 
did wonders. 

BUG-GO is no secret dope, but a thick, creamy oil emulsion which 
dilutes with 14 parts of cold water, making 760 gallons. 
Costs $11.75 delivered with 4o pounds Caustic Soda. 

Write lor Free Sample. 

EVERYTHING FOR SPRAYING. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., ! "S^ st - 



ONE HUNDRED TONS 

Have you had trouble In securing green feed from the following causes: lack of space or 
limited water supply which will not permit the irrigation ol a large amount of ground ? 
If so you will be Interested In the following : 

We have a limited amount of seed of a wonderful plant which will yield from one to two 
hundred tons to the acre per annum of an excellent green feed equal to lettuce. 

From an experimental plot thirty by thirty feet we cut. from June to October, Inclusive, 
6fi81 pounds or 37 pounds daily. Being a biannual and very hardy the winter yield, while not 
as heavy, will be found satisfactory. Heed and expert instruction how to plant and grow for 11. 
WESTERN SEED CO., Box 609, San Ralael, Cal. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



Horticultural Notes. 

A large acreage of pears is being set 
out this year in Kings county. 

Samuel Crane is putting in cranberry 
plants in his bog near Reno, Nevada, 

A large number of French prunes, 
peaches and walnuts are being set out 
around Gilroy. 

The Ashland Fruit & Produce Associa- 
tion is going to spend $200 for advertising 
purposes during the year 1910. 

Thomas Jacob of Visalia has an olive 
grove of six acres which netted him $6 a 
tree. The fruit brought $100 a ton on the 
trees. 

It is estimated by the Fresno Repub- 
lican that the damage to the orange 
groves by the late cold snap will amount 
to $1,000,000. 

An officer in the Tulare Citrus Fruit 
Growers' Exchange said that last year the 
orange thrips cost the orange growers of 
that section $96,000. 

The Placer county fruit growers met at 
Newcastle on July 19 and formulated 
plans for standardizing the fresh fruit 
pack of Placer county. 

The yearly report of the Ashland Fruit 
and Produce Association shows that the 
average amount of business for the last 
year was nearly $50,000. 

Never before in the history of the fruit 
industry in the Pajaro valley has there 
been so much leasing of orchard property 
for a term of years as has been going on 
within the last few months. 

The olive crop around Redlands is 50% 
greater this year than last. . Over 300 tons 
of olives will be treated at the Kubias 
factory, and it is estimated that about 
one-half of this yield will run first grade. 

B. K. Short, a rancher near Spokane, 
has an apple tree which produces coreless 
as well as seedless apples. The largest 
fruit is three inches in diameter, the col- 
oring being a yellowish green streaked 
with red. 

State Horticultural Commissioner Jef- 
frey says that the bug found at Redding, 
Shasta county, is not the mealy bug, 
but the cottony cushion scale. He has 
sent there a colony of bugs which will 
soon eat up this scale. 

Bogus Oregon apples are being put on 
the market in London, England. A car- 
load of Newtowns bearing the Bear Creek 
label of the Rogue River valley was sold 
in London the other day which did not 
come from Oregon at all. 

J. H. Randolph of Placerville is en- 
deavoring to get the growers of Eldorado 
county together for the purpose of holding 
a meeting to take up the standardizing 
of the fruit pack and matters of interest 
to the fruit growers. 

Two thousand eight hundred and eighty- 
three carloads of apples were sent out of 
Watsonville this last season and 300 other 
cars were sent from Pajaro, Vegas and 
Aromas, so that the total for the Pajaro 
valley last season is 3183 cars. 

The work of picking the olives at Santa 
Clara college commenced last Wednesday. 
The olives are very large, but the crop is 
not as large as last year. The trees were 
planted in 1805 by the Jesuit fathers and 
bear large crops every other year. 

The following Deputy Horticultural 
Commissioners have been appointed for 
Tulare county: C. D. Fowler, for Tulare; 
C. S. Riley, for Visalia; M. R. Hersey, Toi 
Lindsay; C. O. Williams and W. A. Bates, 
for Dinuba; A. F. Mitchell, for Marange. 

The fruit growers of Cohassett Ridge, 
north of Chico, have organized to secure 
better methods of growing, packing and 
marketing the fruit. The following offi- 
cials have been elected: James Mann, 



president; U. J. Russell, vice-president; 
Walter Hart, treasurer, and Charles A. 
Preising, secretary. 

M. E. Gillett, manager of the Florida 
Citrus Fruit Exchange, is severely criti- 
cising the growers and shippers for the 
methods employed by them in marketing 
their crops. He claims that they are 
shipping undersized and unripe fruit that 
will give their fruit a bad reputation in 
the Eastern market. 

The Rocky Ford Melon Growers' Asso- 
ciation of Colorado handled 358 cars of 
cantaloupes last year. This association 
has formulated a very strong policy with 
reference to the quality of the cantaloupes 
shipped under the association's brand and 
resolutions were recently passed that any 
member failing to conform to the asso- 
tion's standard of quality, grade and 
pack would be expelled from the associa- 
tion. 

The Horticultural Association of So 
noma county recently met in Santa Rosa 
and inspectors were appointed for the 
various districts. F. Maddock for Forest- 
ville, M. Newcombe for Santa Rosa, Mr. 
Gallaway for Healdsburg, Mr. Searby for 
Graton, J. Lowrey for Sebastopol, Mr. 
Merritt for Pleasant Hill, J. W. Turner 
for Stony Point, Two Rock and Bloom- 
field, and Captain J. B. Dickson for Peta 
I tima. 



General Agriculture. 

Wild geese are spoiling the grain fields 
for the farmers at Angiola near Hanford. 

M. W. Wheeler of King City is having 
wonderful results plowing with a gasoline 
traction engine. 

The Warren Valley Irrigating Company 
is preparing to irrigate 97,000 acres of 
land near Lakeville, Oregon. 

The poultry raisers of Petaluma sent 
out 7,159,481 dozen eggs in 1909 and 120,- 
018 fowls, the total value of which is 
estimated at $2,500,000. 

George Gibson and John Magill of Ther- 
malito, Butte county, have started in a 
poultry ranch on a large scale, having 
some 3000 chickens to begin with. 

Mr. J. B. Newman of Globe, Ariz., re- 
cently purchased nearly 3000 acres of land 
on the Santa Fe railroad near Tulare, and 
he is preparing the ground to put in 
alfalfa. 

There will be a large hay crop planted 
in the vicinity of Pomona, as most of the 
farmers have announced their intention 
of putting out more hay this year than 
usual. 

The estimated acreage of cotton in the 
vicinity of Calexico for the next season is 
about 2320 acres. If enough acreage is 
obtained a cotton gin will be installed to 
handle this year's crop. 

The owners of the White House ranch 
near Tulare are taking up some 800 acres 
of their fruit trees in order to sow the 
ground to alfalfa, as they think it is a 
much more profitable crop. 

There will be much more barley planted 
around Kerman this year than last. The 
acreage of Egyption corn, however, will 
not be increased, on account of its de- 
pleting the soil, and it does not make as 
good feed for horses as barley. 

Goats were used by the water company 
of El Centro to eat the weeds and brush 
along their water ditches, but they were 
not a success, as the goats did not eat 
along the ditches, but strayed out into 
the fields. 

The celery crop which has grown on 
the delta lands west of Stockton is esti- 
mated to be worth $400,000. Twenty-five 
hundred acres have been planted this 
season. The celery industry has had a 
wonderful growth in the last two years 
in this section. 

Up to date 306 bales of cotton have been 
ginned in the Imperial valley, and the 



GET A □ DEAL 



PLACE YOUR ORDER WITH US 
FOR 

EUCALYPTUS, FIGS, GRAPES 

AND ALL FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL 
NURSERY STOCK. 

We have the LARGEST stock of EUCA- 
LYPTUS grown In Fresno County— 1,000,000 
TREES and STRICTLY FIRST CLASS. 
Orders booked now for future delivery. 
Twenty years' experience In the nursery 
business, with the Increasing trade which we 
are doing, is conclusive evidence of our 
square dealing with customers. 

Catalogue and Prices Upon Application. 

S. W. Marshall Company, Inc. 

Box 652, Fresno, Cal. 



EUCALYPTUS 

with ROOTS El, 

HENRY SHAW, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



THE GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

of Loomls, Cal., are closing out their entire 
N I'Rseky Stock at greatly reduced prices. 
An exceptional opportunity la ottered to those 
who wish to obtain trees of the famous Crocker 
Winter Bartlet Pear which Is might proof. 
Write for prices. 

C. VV. EARLE, Manager. 



Peach Trees 

We have a large stock of 
Muirs, Lovell, Phillips 
and Tuscan clings. If you 
are in need of any of these 
write us for prices. We 
also have a full line of 
nursery stock. 



Salesmen Wanted. 



Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

Albany, Oregon. 



Gold Ridge Nursery 

H. R. JOHNS, Proprietor. 

COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF 

Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees. Shrubs. Etc. 

Trees grown on high sandy land 
without irrigation. 
Write for new catalog and prices. 
SEBASTOPOL. CAL. 



January 22, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



71 



total for the season is estimated at about 
400 bales. Seed for more than 1200 acres 
was distributed, but not more than 500 
acres were actually cultivated to the point 
of producing a crop. 

Representatives from Auburn, New- 
castle, Loomis, and Penryn met last week 
and launched a campaign against the 
malarial mosquito in the irrigated dis- 
tricts of Placer county. They hope to 
raise a large sum to fight these pests and 
make farming in this irrigated district 
much healthier. 

The offer of the Spreckles sugar fac- 
tory at Spreckles, Monterey county, to pay 
the freight on beets shipped by railroad 
to the factory has caused many farmers 
to engage in the* beet industry. Over 
12,000 acres have been signed up and it 
is expected that when the season is over 
that double this number will raise beets. 

E. M. Price of Altaville, Calaveras 
county announces that he did not graft 
walnuts on oak trees as was reported, but 
chestnuts instead. His experiments have 
been mostly on the white and black oaks. 
Young trees from 10 to 12 years old were 
grafted to tne oak limbs. So far they 
have not borne any fruit, and the success 
of the experiment is not known. 

At a recent meeting of the cotton grow- 
ers of the Imperial valley many details of 
the industry were discussed and advice 
given to planters. J. R. Loftus advised 
that only acclimated seed be used in the 
Imperial valley. He stated that there was 
enough acclimated seed to plant 20,000 
acres, and he warned all the prospective 
growers to stick to short staple cotton for 
at least another season. 



Miscellaneous. 

The California State Bureau of Labor 
Statistics shows that there are 50,000 
Japanese in the State. 

Another eucalyptus syndicate has been 
launched for Yolo county. It is expected 
that a large acreage of these trees will be 
set out near Woodland. 

L. F. Giffen of Giffen & Hobbs has sold 
his raisin holdings, consisting of some 
7000 tons, to the Pacific Coast Seeded 
Raisin Company, or the "High Five." 
The price is thought to be 2 14 cents a 
pound. 

At a recent meeting of the California 
Fruit Exchange, W. L. Nagel of New- 
castle was elected president; Freeman B. 
Mills of Woodbridge, vice-president; T. W. 
Madley of Sacramento, secretary, and W. 
C. Walker, general manager. 

It is rumored that the California Wine 
Association and the independent wine 
men of the State will get together and 
stop cutting the price of wine, as they 
have done in the last few years, and thus 
be able to give more for grapes. 

The Southern Pacific Company is ques- 
tioning the power of Earl Mills, the newly 
appointed County Horticultural Commis- 
sioner of Butte county, to make them re- 
port to him the arrival at their depots in 
Butte county of vegetables and fruit in 
order that he might inspect them for 
pests. 




CRIMSON 

WINTER 

RHUBARB 

$1.50 a Dozen, 
$6 per 100. 840 
per 1000. Now 
is best time to 
plant rhubarb. 
Berry plants of 
all kinds. 

J. B. Wagner 

Pasadena. Cal. 

Rhubarb and 
berry specialist. 



WAN TEL) — Second-hand nursery row fruit 
tree digger. Give measurements. AMERICAN 
NILE CO., El Centro, Cal. 



COMMENTS ON CORRESPOND- 
ENCE. 



To the Editor: With reference to chick- 
ens in the orchard it is the best thing 
any one can do to keep them there ex- 
cept when spraying, do not leave them 
in there to eat the spray blossoms which 
fall off or dead worms. To fight the 
worms I built a fire to smoke the trees 
last spring and the chickens ate worms 
as though there was wheat spread around. 
But never allow chickens to roost in any 
kind of a tree as anyone who expects to 
make money from anything must bear in 
mind a place for everything and every- 
thing in its place. The chicken house is 
the place for chickens to roost in and not 
the trees. 

As to that man from Chicago who ex- 
pects to come to California and invest in 
real estate or some hard pan or plow sole 
wheat land and expects to reap a harvest 
over night. He ought never to come out to 
California, as he ought to know, if he is 
a rancher or any other business man, that 
you first have to put something in before 
you can take it out. 

To Tribble Brothers, of Elk Grove, I 
will say that the grafts or scions of their 
Black Tartarian cherries were all from 
one tree, and if that is the case no fruit 
trees will bear much fruit. Great mis- 
takes are made in the nursery, sometimes 
giving a man ten trees that have been 
grafted with scions all from one tree. To 
remedy this you graft in a Black Tartar- 
ian from some other place on two or 
three branches of one tree and in three 
years all your trees will bear heavily. 
When I came here I had the same thing, 
now the trees are bearing as heavy as the 
other kinds of cherries. [This claim does 
not commend itself to us. The trees prob- 
ably came into bearing because they had 
overcome their tendency to grow too fast. 
— Editor.] 

To kill a stump you bore a large hole 
with an auger as deep as you can and fill 
with saltpeter and close up. In the spring 
pour in the hole some kerosene oil and 
light it and the stump will burn up, 
especially the roots. 

I hope you can read this as it is pretty 
cold up here now. We had six inches of 
snow and a heavy frost tonight. 

O. C. Langfield. 

Santa Cruz Mountains. 



GETTING RID OF STUMPS. 



To the Editor: In your January 1 is- 
sue "Subscriber," of San Jose, wants to 
know how to kill the roots of trees by 
putting chemicals into the stump. Tell 
him to bore a hole in the center of the 
stump, say 1% inches in diameter, and 
6 to 8 inches deep. Fill the hole half full 
with saltpeter and then fill with water and 
plug it up. Do this now or any time this 
spring and then when everything is dry 
this fall pull out the plug and fill with 
kerosene, set on fire and report results. 

He does not say what kind of trees he 
wants to get rid of. If they are old or 
undesirable apple or other fruit trees, do 
not cut them down but just dig around in 
a circle two to three feet from the body 
of the tree and cut off all roots near the 
surface both on the outer rim of the 
circle also close to the body of the tree. 
Then fasten a chain, 20 to 30 feet long, as 
high up on the tree as it will stand a 
good pull. Take a good team of horses 
and hitch to the chain, your tree will 
come right out. If a few roots still hold, 
you can easily cut them off and the team 
will then pull the tree out. Then you can 
fill up the hole and the land is clear for 
the plow. I have just taken out 30 large 
trees, some nearly two feet in diameter: 
apple, pear, plum and cherry. 

Several years ago I tried cutting them 
down and leaving the stumps to rot out. 
That is a nuisance as the stumps are in 
the way for a long time and it is harder 



to get the stumps out than the whole 
tree as above described. — G. R. W. 
Milford, Lassen county. 



A NEW FLORA OF CALIFORNIA. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Prkss 
By Dr. H. M. Hai.l, of the University of 
California. 

Eighteen years ago, the second and con- 
cluding volume of the Botany of Califor- 
nia, by Gray, Brewer & Watson, was is- 
sued from the press. Since that time 
much has been added to our knowledge of 
California plants, many new species have 
been discovered, and many errors in classi- 
fication have been rectified, so that the 
need of a new flora, including these 
changes and additions, has become an al- 
most imperative need. Professor Willis 
Linn Jepson, of our State University, has 
now undertaken to supply this need and 
two parts of his Flora of California 
are now before us. 

These first two parts, comprising 64 
pages, deal chiefly with the trees. The 
keys lead us to detailed descriptions of 
the genera and species, and in each case 
a paragraph on range and distribution is 
added. The text is supplemented by nu- 
merous figures and occasional half-tones of 
exceptional excellence. 

It is hoped that future parts will follow 
in rapid succession, since this work is of 
immediate practical value to agricultur- 
ists, foresters, teachers, and nature-lovers 
generally, as well as to botanists. The 
parts so far issued may be had of the pub- 
lishers, Cunningham, Curtiss & Welch, 
San Francisco. The publisher's price of 
Part I is 90 cents, of Part II, 80 cents. 
This flora is not to be confused with Jep- 
son's "Tress of California," noticed in the 
Pacific Rural Press last week, page 434. 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



Fresno, California 

Leading Growers in the State of 
Commercial Varieties of: 

FRUIT TREES, all varieties. 

GRAPEVINES, all commercial sorts, 
including raisin, table and wine va- 
rieties. 

Twenty years In the business with a con- 
tinued increase for fair and square dealing is 
our reputation. Address 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



F. H. WILSON. Prop. 
FRESNO. CAL. 

Catalogue and price list free for the asking. 



mTVTpfPQlFRUIT and 

Din I II L L U [ OBN AMENTAl 

RELIABLE FIRM 



We have the most complete 
Nursery in the 



WORLD 



and the Largest As- 
sortment to choose 
from — ' 



Our Fruit Trees are all budded or gralled 
Irom our own tested Orchards. Therelore 
purchasers are certain to get the varieties 
ihey order. 



WRITE US FOR OUR CATALOGUE A. 



CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO. 



600 ACRES ESTABLISHED 1865 

NILES, CALIFORNIA. 



FOR SALE 

42 acres Krult Trees In full bearing IJj miles west 
of Winters, In the early fruit belt Also Apri- 
cots, Peac.taes, Plums and Almonds In deep soil. 
AUQUST BKINCK, WlMtn, Cal. 



Encinal Nurseries 

F. C. WILLS0N, Proprietor. 
Sunnyvale, Santa Clara County, Cal. 

SPECIALTY WALNUTS 




"WILLSON'S WONDER" Natural Size. 

"ACME" 

AND GENUINE 

" FRANQUETTE " 

All these are blight resisting. 

Send for booklet with halftone cuts 
and descriptive matter. 



THE "BOSS" 

Tree Protector 



MADE OF YUCCA PALM 

Is cheap, durable, and 
quickly put on the tree. 
It prevents rabbits from 
destroying your trees. A 
sure protection against 
frost, sunburn, grass- 
hoppers or dry winds. 
Can be easily removed; 
will last for years. Send 
for samples. 




n. long, 
n. long, 
n. long, 
n. long 



PRICES. 

Per 1000. 
7 wide, $ 9.50 
7 wide, 10.50 
7 wide, 
7 wide. 



n. long. 7 wide, 
n. long, 7 wide, 
n. long, 7 wide, 



11.50 
13.00 
14.50 
17.00 
20.00 



YUCCA MANUFACTURING CO. 

1380 WILLOW ST., LOS ANGELES. CAL. 



TRY IT ON ONE ACRE 



You do not have to make expensive experi- 
ments with our Fertilizer. Just try it on a small 
patch and watch the results. Compare the pro- 
duct of this acre with the rest of your land. 
Thousands of farmers are greatly Increasing 
their incomes by adding to the soli of their 
farms the elements which it lacks. Very often 
a little fertilizer of the right kind will make a 
success of otherwise unprofitable farms. 

You can find out about the right kind of fer- 
tilizers from our little free book " The Farmer's 
Friend, 1910" now ready for distribution. 

Pacific Guano and Fertilizer Co., 

DEPT. C, 
268 Market Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



To Exterminate 
GROUND SQUIRRELS. GOPHERS, also 
BORERS. ROOT APHIS, etc. on Fruit Trees. 

Carbon Bisulphide 

Is the only effective remedy. 
For sale by dealeis and manufacturers. 
WHEELER. REYNOLDS & STAUFFER 
OFFICE: 624 California St, San Francisco. 

EUCALYPTS 

Of hardy \ arletleB are now being planted. Our 
large stock of many varieties is grown ulthout 
protection and able to endure extremes of 
weather. Write for booklet and prices. 

LLOYD R. TAYLOR, Modesto, Cal. 




PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 22, 1910. 



Prepared for Pacific Rural Pbkss 
By Paul P. Pabkeb. 



THE SHEEP INDUSTRY ON THE 
PACIFIC COAST. 



Those familiar with the sheep business 
on the Pacific Coast have witnessed a 
gradual change in the type of sheep raised 
during the last 20 years. This change 
came about by necessity. When the sheep 
were run on the plains the year round 
the straight Merinos or heavy wooled 
sheep could be kept, but as the agricul- 
tural interests gradually drove the sheep 
off the level plains into the mountains, a 
new type of sheep had to be developed to 
contend with the sagebrush and other 
shrubs which damaged the long wooled 
Merinos. The aim of the sheepmen was 
to get more of a mutton type of sheep 
with an open wool so that it could graze 
in the brushy country without injuring 
its fleece. With this end in view they 
used a ram of the mutton type such as 
Shropshire to cross with the Merino ewe, 
and the result has been a large sheep 
with good wool and excellent mutton. 

Some, of the sheepmen at the present 
time, still striving after a larger type of 
mutton sheep, have taken the fat-tailed 
Persian sheep and crossed them with 
Shropshire ewes so that they get a lamb 
which will weigh from 8 to 10 pounds 
more than the average lamb. Experi- 
ments in this line carried on by Will 
Jacks, of Monterey, have proven that the 
best cross is quarter Persian and three 
quarters Shropshire. 

Along with this change of type in the 
sheep, there has been a large decrease in 
the number raised. The wool clip has 
fallen off so badly that California is not 
producing as much wool as it did in 1869. 
The crop of last year is estimated about 
15,000,000 pounds which, compared with 
some of the yields of other years, is some 
30,000,000 pounds short. 

Eugene Herrington, one of the best in- 
formed men in sheep matters on the Pa- 
cific Coast, estimates that San Francisco 
is killing 40% less sheep than it did ten 
years ago. and this decrease seems to be 
general all over the Pacific Coast. It is 
attributed to several causes, chief of 
which is the curtailment of the grazing 
lands in the National Forest Reserves and 
the breaking up of the large ranges into 
farming tracts and orchards. Along with 
the decrease in numbers there has a de- 
crease in the demand for mutton, due ac- 
cording to an old time butcher, to gas and 
oil stoves. People no longer call for boil 
and stew pieces as they formerly did be- 
cause these modern stoves do not keep 
heat like wood fires, instead they demand 
chops or cuts which can be fried quickly. 
With meat going up the way it has, these 
people will go without meat for a day or 
two in order to buy a few chops to fry. 

Many farmers also look down upon 
sheep and will not tolerate one on the 
place. Fortunately this attitude is chang- 
ing, because the farmers are seeing the 
profits in the sheep business and are tak- 
ing more kindly to the industry. This is 
especially noticeable among the farmers 
from the East and Middle West who have 
located in the irrigating districts and have 
from 10 to 100 sheep around the place to 
eat up the weeds and loose hay which 
otherwise would go to waste. In fact the 
trend of the sheep industry seems to be 
tending towards the small bands and the 
elimination of the large flocks. 

At the present time, however, there are 
not enough sheep raised in California to 
supply the local demand. Buyers are 
forced to go to Nevada, Oregon. Wash- 
ington, Idaho, and Arizona for their sheep 
to supply the San Francisco market. In 
a recent trip to Butchertown the writer 
saw a large band of sheep which had been 



shipped all the way from Dillon. Montana. 
Sheep coming this distance lose in weight 
and quality, so that the consumer does 
not get a good piece of mutton. 

Every farmer on the Pacific Coast 
should "get in on the good thing," and 
raise a few sheep about his farm, because 
nothing can give returns like they do in 
proportion to the outlay and cost of keep- 
ing. The sheepmen who have large flocks 
always expect to double their money each 
year and the man who raises only a few 
can do better than that, as he does not 
have the loss at lambing time. He can 
also keep better watch over them and 
yet does not have to pay for herding and 
pasturage. 

A small band of sheep -will take care 
of themselves, cleaning up the weeds and 
grasses in the nooks and corners of the 
fields and orchards where other stock can 
not go, and the wool will pay for the 
extra hay they use during the winter 
months. Coupled with this is the manure 
which is one of the best fertilizers on the 
farm. Hundreds of farms in Michigan 
were saved by feeding Western lambs 
upon them for the Chicago markets. The 
lands had been run down by continuous 
planting of wheat so that after the sheep 
had been fed on them a few winters they 
gave larger crops than ever before. 

Sheep today present one of the best 
opportunities for making money which 
can be found. Many men are giving up 
cattle raising to go into the business, be- 
cause there is a greater shortage of sheep 
than any otner live stock. Prices have 
doubled within the last 10 years and Mr. 
Herrington predicts that in the next six 
years sheep will sell from $li to $12 apiece 
and tnat lambs will bring from $5 to $10. 

Last year many record prices were re- 
ceived for sheep on the Pacific Coast. 
Stanley Coffin, of Yakima county, Wash- 
ington, marketed a band of 71 -pound 
grade Lincoln lambs at Chicago in July 
at $8.90. Robert Hamilton, of Kittitas 
county, Washington, contributed 69 pound 
Shropshires at $8.65, and Malcolm Mc 
Lelan, of Kittitas county, sent a ship- 
ment of 73-pound grade Shropshires at 
$.s.25. Prior to this year, the record price 
for lambs was $8.40. 



MERINO SHEEP. 



A theory was prevalent in Spain early 
in the last century that the superiority 
of the wool of Merino sheep was due to 
their annual migration, and that if they 
remained stationary for a few genera- 
tions it would become as coarse as that 
of the Andalusian sheep, says the Lon- 
don Live Stock World. Mr. Jacobs, M. 
P., F.R.S., who visited Spain in 1809 and 
1810, found that at that time the Merino 
flocks invariably passed the summer in 
the northern mountains, returning to the 
warmer climate and richer pastures of 
the south of Spain for the winters. In 
April they began the journey northward, 
and as the time approached they became 
restless, and if not closely watched, they 
would begin the journey alone, instances 
having frequently occurred of flocks pro- 
ceeding several leagues northward early 
in the morning before the attendant shep- 
herds were awake. Shearing began the 
middle of May, the shearing of eight ewes 



Horse Owners! Use 

OOHBAULl'S 

Caustic 




Balsam 



A Safe, Speedy, and Positive Cur* 
The safest. Heat BMsTER ever used. Takes 
the place of all ltnaments for mtld or severe action. 
Kemovee all Bunches or Blemishes from Horaeg 
»nd Cattle, SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
UKFIKINO. Impossible to product scar or blemish 
Rvery bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price SI. so per bottle, 8old by druggists, or sent 
by express, charges paid, with fall directions for 
'ts use. Send for descriptive circulars. 
fHE L A W'KEKCK- WILLIAMS CO.. Cleveland. O. 



Salvador Stock Farm 

NAPA, CAL. 

SHIRE, PERCHERON AND HACKNEY STALLIONS 

I have just received an impoitation of high class draft 
stallions. 

They are not culls from Eastern barns, but carefully se- 
lected stock direct from Europe. 

They are big, heavy boned, blocky horses, with fine style 
and finish, two to five years old, and all good colors. 

Don't fail to see these stallions. Not only are the horses 
right, but the prices are right. 

I sell sta lions quickly at a small margin of profit. In fact I will 
guarantee to sell you a better horse for less money than anyone In 
the business. For proof of this, come to Napa, critically examine the 
stallions we oiler for sale, compare our prices with others, and I will 
abide by your decision. Every horse sold with an honest guarantee. 
Liberal terms to responsible parties. For particulars address 




E. LOVELL, 

R. D. 1, Napa. 



SALVADOR STOCK FARM, 

HENRY WHEATLEY, Proprietor. 



H. H. H. LINIMENT 



USED UNIVERSALLY BY STOCKMEN 
For Successfully Treating the Afflic- 
tions of the HORSE and other Domestic 
Animals. 



FOR FAMILY USES IT HAS NO 
EQUAL. 

Sore Throat, Rheumatism, Sprains, 
Neuralgia, Cuts, Sores, Swellings, Lame- 
ness, Stiff Joints, Poisonous Bites, 
Cramps, Diarrhoea, etc. 
KEEP A BOTTLE ON HAND FOR EMERGENCIES. 
50c and $1.00 Sizes. Sold Everywhere. 

H. H. MOORE fit SONS, Stockton, Cal. 

Manulacturers and Proprietors. 





Mr. BEE-MAN : 

WE HANDLE 

BEE WARE 

AS WELL AS 

HARDWARE 

AT SATISFACTORY PRICES. 

Dovetailed Hives Sections 

AND EVERYTHING NEEDED BY BEE-KEEPERS. 
We also have in stock a good supply of 

Comb Foundation and Bee-Smokers. 

CATALOG FOR THE ASKING. 

Phoenix Tool & Valve Company 

245-247 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



LAFAYETTE STOCK FARM 

LARGEST IMPORTERS OF 

Pereheron, Bi-IkIiiii, Shire, German Coach 
and Hackney Stallions and Mares. 




DR. DANIELS' MEDICINES 

FOR 

Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Sheep, etc. 

27 Horses die from 
Colic where one dies 
from Fire. 

Why not insure 
against Colic ? 

Daniels' colic cure is 
SURE, SAKE and 
QUICK ! 

81.00 per Package— 20 
cents cures a horse. At 
Dealers, etc. 

Agents wanted In each 
town west of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

A. T. ROCHE ft CO. 

116 Valencia it, Sin Francisco Cal. 




Carnot 666G6 — First Prize Winner in 
Paris, 1909. First Prize Aged Class at 
Iowa State Fair. 1909. Champion Perch- 
cron Stallion Indiana State Fair, 1909. 
Champion Pereheron Stallion Wisconsin 
State Fair. 1909. Champion Pereheron 
Stallion Illinois State Fair. 1909. Grand 
Champion Pereheron Stallion New York 
Hors.- Show, 1909. 

At the recent New York Horse Show our 
horses made almost a clean sweep, repeat- 
ing; the cri'iil wlMnlngfl made nt the West- 
ern State KnlrH. 

200 HEAD AT LOWEST PRICES. 
BEST GtTARANTBB. 

J. F. CAMPBELL, Mgr.. Paclflc Conut 
Stablea, permanently located at renr 1300 

.1 St.. Sacramento, Cal. 



Blake. Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST, SAN FRANCISCO 
PAPER Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angeles 
rnrtn Blake MoFali a Co., Portland, Oregon 



Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by M per cent ol 
California stockmen because they give 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and out 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY 

P. 0. Box 257, BERKELEY, CAL. 



FOR SALE 

FOUR THOROUGHBRED AYSHIRE 
BULLS, Aged 12 to 20 Months. 

If you don't want tuberculosis, breed thr 
Ayrshlres. 

J. W. & .J . D. McCORD 

Phone Red 123. Hartford, Cal. 



January 22, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



73 



or five rams being considered a good 
day's work. As soon as the flocks arrived 
at their summer quarters they would eat 
— the quantity allowed for the five sum- 
mer months being about two and a half 
pounds for each sheep — the rock salt. It 
was laid on flat stones, and the sheep 
licked it as they passed from fold to pas- 
ture. At the end of July the rams were 
placed with the ewes in the proportion of 
6 to 100. Rams were considered the more 
profitable, as, although their wool was not 
so fine, the fleece was heavier, and they 
were longer lived. 



NEW CHEESE FORMS. 



Consul Charles N. Daniels, of Sheffield, 
has prepared the following interesting 
account of a new method of marketing 
cheese in England: 

One of the favorite varieties of Eng- 
lish cheese is known as Wensleydale, so 
called after one of the dales in Yorkshire, 
where it is made. This cheese when it is 
ripe has a rich full flavor, not quite as 
sharp and biting as Stilton or Cheddar, 
and a bit darker in color, but fuller flav- 
ored, rather a lighter yellow than most 
Cheshire cheese, and usually made up to 
weignt 5 to 12 pounds. 

Last year there appeared upon the mar- 
ket a small cheese identical in appear- 
ance with the Wensleydale, weighing 1 to 
1% pounds, about 3V_> inches in diameter 
and 4Vj inches long. Each cheese was 
wrapped with thin cheesecloth or butter 
muslin, apparently put on when the cheese 
was green, as it was embedded in the 
cheese and partook of the peculiar pitted 
and whiteish flour-like surface of the or- 
iginal Wensleydale, and last year they 
were sold as such. This method of pre- 
senting cheese to the consumer was an 
experiment, but appears to have been a 
success, for this year these small cheeses 
are to be seen in far greater number, and 
the grocers and butter and cheese factors 
report an increasing sale for them. 

While the cost of preparing cheese for 
the market in this form may be a trifle 
more, it is sold at the same price per 
pound as that cut from the larger ones, 
namely. Is. (24 cents) per pound. They 
are not Wensleydales however, and are 
now sold under the name of "Wenslet." 
The advantage claimed for this form of 
cheese is that it is less liable to contam- 
ination from atmospheric or surrounding 
effects than is the larger cheese with its 
exposed cut surface, and is less liable to 
dry up while being consumed at home. 
_The demand for these small cheeses 
having forced them on the market green, 
a debatable question is whether in this 
form the cheese will ripen as fully as it 
would if made in the larger mold. At 
any rate, the cheese-loving public seem to 
have decided they want it in this form, 
ripe or not, and so convinced are some 
cheese makers this is the way the people 
want their cheese that the makers of 
Cheddar have put upon the market a small 
cheese 4 to 5% inches in diameter, about 
two inches high, weighing about two 
pounds, and are not wrapped in cloth. 



DEVON CATTLE AT LIVER- 
MORE. 



Thomas D. Carneal, of Livermore, is 
one of the few stockmen on the Pacific 
Coast who is raising Devon cattle exclu- 
sively. He has been very successful with 
this breed and prefers them to all other 
cattle for the conditions which he has to 
offer. 

The Devon cattle are small and for that 
reason are not very popular with the 
stockmen. The meat "is of a superior 
quality, however, and in England ranks 
with the Galloway and West Highland 
beef in the markets. Because of their 
size Devons make what is known as "pony 
beef," the cuts being small, but prime and 



mature. For this reason these cattle are 
much prized by the butchers whose trade 
calls for small, first-class cuts. When 
a small cut is taken off a large animal it 
spoils the rest of the cut. Butchers also 
like the Devons because there is not much 
waste in slaughtering, and the bones are 
very small. 

Devons are docile and will stay out in 
the hills for months, and yet never show 
any fear of man when they are driven 
to the corrals. Being active and muscu- 
lar they do better in a hilly or broken 
ground than any other breed. As they 
graze well they get fat when the larger 
and heavier breeds remain in poor condi- 
tion. They put their flesh on evenly and 
are not given to patchiness. When fed in 
stalls they make good gains in proportion 
to the food consumed, but they cannot 
stand forcing for so long a period as some 
of the other breeds. Prepotency is a 
characteristic of Devon cattle and they 
breed to a very old age. 

The Devon has very rich milk but not 
in very large quantities so that there is 
never any danger of the cow dying of 
garget if the calf does not get all the 
milk. 

On account of their prepotency and for 
fear of degenerating -his herd, Mr. Car- 
neal keeps his bulls in separate pens and 
in that way no young cows ever get with 
calf and the bulls do not wear themselves 
out. 

Mr. Carneal dehorns all his cattle when 
they are about 15 months old. In cutting 
the horn he goes very deep so that there 
is never any danger of a stunted horn 
coming out. He has found by experience 
that the cattle never fight when their 
horns are taken off at this age like they 
do when the horns are killed with caustic 
potash when the calves are a few days 
old. 

Mr. Carneal has a very good system of 
farming and pasturing his land. He puts 
part of his ranch in pasture one year and 
the next season he farms it so that his 
lands never get depleted and always bear 
record crops. 

Another feature of the place is the 12 
straw barns which he has scattered over 
his fields. Instead of hauling his straw 
into the barns, the threshing machine is 
set up next to the barn and the straw is 
fed by the header directly up into the 
barn. He estimates that he saves $37 per 
day by this method, as the straw never 
has to be handled a second time after 
threshing. 



HOG NOTES 



Charcoal is beneficial to hogs. 
Warmth and dryness saves bushels of 
grain. 

Nothing grows into money faster than 
pigs. 

A sow should never be market fat when 
bred. 

Very often the feeding amounts to more 
than the pedigree. 

Wheat middlings and shorts are a much 
better feed for the pigs than bran. 

That like produces like is seen in the 
defects of the sow being transmitted to 
her pigs. 

Careful selections of breeding stock and 
good care are two things that make hogs 
profitable. 

No matter the age, do not sell the 
brood sow as long as she produces good 
strong litters. 

When the pig's bowels are right, and 
they have a keen appetite, you can feel 
quite sure that everything is running 
along smoothly. 

In order to get the most out of a pig its 
immediate ancestors, to say the least, 
must be vigorous and thrifty. 

While the sow at all times should be 
fed all she can eat, no more food should 
be given at any one time than she will 
readily eat up clean. 

After the pigs have been put Into the 



DAIRY STOCK 

Purebred Holsteins, Bulls 
and Heifers for sale at 
reasonable prices. 



The best bred stock 
obtainable on the 
Pacific Slope. 

Now is the time to purchase a sire 
to head your herd. 



Write for Information. 

0AKW00D STOCK FARM CO. 

F. J. SCHLEEF, Mgr. 
909 Jackson St., . San Francisco 



K0K0M0 



HOG 
FIELD 
POULTRY 



FENCE 




The Standard of all makes. Square and 
Diamond Mesh Fences for all purposes. Made or 
heavy, non-rust, self-rogulating steel wires. 
\bsolutely hog tight and stock proof. Write us 
for catalog and prices. 

CALIFORNIA ANCHOR FENCE CO. 

822 Main St., Stockton, Cal. 



25 Cents per Rod. 




emmm 



26 inches high; 7 cables; 12 inches between 
stays. Spacing horizontally as shown in cut. 

Itis worth a little of your time and atten- 
tion to save from $15 to 830 per mile on hog 
fence. 

Order a sample roll or come and see our 
stock. 

WRITE FOR CATALOGUE. 

CAMPBELL BROS. 

606 E MAIN, STOCKTON, CAL. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



Stickney Gasoline Engines 

ARE THE BEST 



Why? Because of the outside ig- 
niter, modern open cooling' system, 
straight-line valve motion and ball- 
bearing govern- 
or. Thousands 
in successful op- 
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of our yearsof ex- 
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Send for our 
Free Catalog 
and our Cat- 
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ing fifty-seven 
reasons why 

StSckncy Engine* Are the Beet. 

Seven sizes : IK to 16 H. P. Stationary aud portable. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO - LOS ANGELES - PORTLAND - SEATTLE 




FRUIT BOXES 
DAIRY BOXES 

For Butter and Cheese. 

Egg Cases, Any box to order. Prices that save 
money. Write us for figures. 

Petaluma Box Factory 
601 Sixth St. Petaluma. Cal. 



GEO. C. ROEDING, Fresno, Cal. Breeder Hol- 
stein-Frlesian Cattle. Young heifers and bulls 
for sale. 



JOH^ LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short- 
horris; milk strain. High class stock. First- 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321. Petaluma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE-Shorthorne t 
Durhams. AddresB E.8. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



N. H. LOCKE CO., Lockeford, Cal. JerBeys, 
Service Bulls and young stock for sale. 



SWINE 



C. A. STO WE. Stockton. Berkshire and Poland- 
China Hogs, Shropshire Sheep. 



CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., NUes, Cal. 
Breeders of Thoroughbred Berkshires. 



P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Jo., Cal. Breeder 
of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



G. A. MURPHY, Perkins, Cal. Breeder of Cham- 
pion Herd of Berkshires also Shorthorns. 




Jj^VERY good business man real- 
izes that in price is only inci- 
dental — quality is essential. Repre- 
sentations are made by quality. 
Price will always, sooner or later, 
and usually sooner, prove its own 
undoing. Any sale built on price 
must in the end prove unsatisfac- 
tory. 



EVERY LENGTH OF 
ALEXANDER PIPE 

that is sold on a guarantee is in- 
spected and tested before it leaves 
our plant. 



No order too large or too small 
for us to estimate on or deliver. 



ALEXANDER PIPE CO. 

1081 Howard Street. 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Concrete Machinery 



Cement Block 
Machinery 

all sizes. 

Power 

Compress 

For Block 
Machines. 

Cement Pipe 
Tools. 

Concrete 

Mixers. 

Concrete 
Water- 
proofing'. 



TOOLS FOR IRRIGATION PIPK. 




Write for Circular. 

T. A. McMURTRlE, Stockton, Cal. 



The Fresno Scraper 




Send for Raisin Machinery Catalogue. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO CALIFORNIA. 



74 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 22, 1910. 



fattening pens In tne fall, they should lie 
fed all that they will eat with a relish; 
for, as a rule, the shorter the fattening 
period, the better the profits. 



DAIRY NOTES. 



' Landseers Pacific Pearl," a Jersey cow 
owned by A. F. Domes, of McCoy, Oregon, 
gave 783 pounds of milk under test last 
year. During this test, which took 344 
days, she ate 800 pounds of bran. 175 
pounds of rolled barley, 135 pounds of oat 
meal, and 600 pounds of kale. She was 
seven months on pasture and was given 
all the hay she could eat. 

A. E. Chartrand, manager of the Fresno 
Creamery, will soon be ready to make but- 
ter in the new creamery built in Fresno, 
and equipped with Simplex separators. 
The capacity of this creamery is 2700 
pounds of butter a day. 

Escondido valley, San Diego county, in 
1909 produced over $102,000 worth of but- 
ter. San Pasqual Creamery made 124,429 
pounds of butter valued at $40,000. The 
other creameries in this valley are the 
Bear Valley and W. B. Hague Creamery. 

Frank Hewit, of Ceres, has a Jersey 
cow which has a record for last year of 
576 pounds of milk. The butterfat yield 
from this cow brought $189. 

The production of butter in California 
has grown in 10 years from 23,691,061 
pounds to 48,468,585 pounds. 

A. L. Lundy, of the Western Creamery 
Co., recently purchased the J. B. Tisdale 
ranch, on the Sacramento river, and will 
plant some of it in alfalfa for dairy pur- 
poses. 

The Yuba City Creamery, which opened 
up last week, made 400 pounds of butter 
the first day. 

The Mesa Dairymen's Association of 
Arizona recently elected the following 
officers: F. C. Weekes, president; W. A. 
McDonald, vice-president; J. C. McCuI- 
lough, secretary. 

S. R. Ecclestone has recently opened a 
dairy at Brawley. He has 34 cows in his 
herd. 

The State Dairy Bureau has been mak 
ing tests of milk over the State where the 
milk is for local consumption, and the 
tests show that in a majority of cases the 
milk is watered. 

Tognazzini & Rosconi will soon have 
the Guadalupe Creamery opened for busi- 
ness. The creamery has just been in- 
stalled with a new Simplex churn and 
creamery outfit. 

The Point Arena Creamery, which 
burned about three months ago, has been 
rebuilt, and has been installed with new 
creamery machinery by Baker & Hamil- 
ton. 

The Fallon Creamery has outfitted its 
new creamery with Simplex churns. W. 
W. Freeman is manager and owner of this 
creamery. 

The California Cream & Butter Co., of 
Los Angeles, have opened up their cream- 
ery at Riverdale, Fresno county. 

The White Packing Co., of Fresno, have 
installed Remington refrigerators in their 
butter storage plant. 



CREAMERYMEN TO FIGHT OLE- 
OMARGARINE BILL. 



The executive committee of the Cali- 
fornia Creamery Operators' Association 
met on January 13 at the office of W. H. 
Roussel, San Francisco, to discuss ways 
and means of combating the oleomarga- 
rine bill now before Congress. If this 
bill passes it will be a hard blow to the 
butter interests of the Pacific Coast, as 
it will remove the tax of 10 cents per 
pound on all oleomargarine which is col- 
ored in imitation of butter, and make it 
possible to sell this oleomargarine in the 
open market in direct competition with 
butter. The creamery interests of the 
State are not trying to prevent the manu- 
facture of oleomargarine as its manufac 



turers are trying to make out, but all the 
creamerymen want is that it be sold un- 
der its true name and not colored up to 
represent butter and sold as such. 

The executive committee who have 
charge of this fight are: C. C. Ridnay, of 
Porterville, president of the California 
Creamery Operators' Association; Fred 
Daniels, of Alameda, J. H. Severin and 
W. H. Roussel, of San Francisco. 



LIVE STOCK NOTES. 



Louis Gerlach, of Stockton, owner of 
the large stock ranch at Deep Hole, Ne- 
vada, is selling off all his cattle, some 
26,000. After all his cattle are disposed 
of, Mr. Gerlach is going into the sheep 
business. 

Henry Wheatly left for England last 
week to buy Shire horses for the Salva- 
dor Stock Farm, at Napa. 

The Howard Cattle Company recently 
sold to the Jacks Corporation of Monterey 
four Berkshire sows and one boar, and 
a bunch of Shropshire ewes. 

Robert Orr, of Hollister, recently 
bought three Shire horses from the Sal- 
vador Stock Farm of Napa. 

The board of supervisors of Siskiyou 
county paid during the month of Decem- 
ber $837 in bounties on coyote scalps. 

The Northern California Power Com- 
pany recently sent out Leslie W. Symmes, 
as agricultural expert, to examine its 18,- 
000 acres in Shasta and Tehama counties, 
to see what land is suitable for agricul- 
ture and stock purposes. 

Louis Tecrazas, who owns the largest 
stock ranch in Chihuahua, Mexico, is bor- 
ing 100 wells on his ranch. This last year 
he lost over $500,000 worth of cattle 
through lack of water. 

The forty-sixth annual convention of 
the National Wool Growers' Association 
was recently held in Ogden. The principal 
subjects discussed were the actions of the 
Forestry Bureau restricting the grazing 
in the National Reserves, the tariff on 
wool, and the conservation of national 
resources. In connection with the con- 
vention, a fine exhibition of grade and 
thoroughbred sheep was held, together 
with an exhibit, of sneep dogs. 

Dr. A. D. Melvin, chief of the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry, in a 
recent report says that only half the meat 
eaten in the United States is inspected. 
Many of the animals rejected by the in- 
spectors are taken to small towns and 
killed for local trade. 

The semi-annual meeting of the Cali- 
fornia Live Stock Sanitary Association 
was held last week in Pasadena. 

C. Darnell, of Brawley, recently receiv- 
ed several registered Duroc boars from 
Kansas. Mr. Darnell now has a herd of 
about 40 of these hogs. 

Richard Moore was recently put in 
charge of the Alex Brown ranch near 
Williams to take the place of O. F. Bick- 
ford who resigned. 

The sheepmen of Nevada are making 
preparations to prevent the passage by 
Congress of the Burkett-Curtis bill, which 
will give to the Secretary of the Interior 
the power to withdraw more lands from 
public use than heretofore. If this bill 
passes, large number of sheepmen in East- 
ern Nevada will be deprived of pasturage. 

Owing to the shortage of rain the Stein 
Mountain Company, Oregon, are selling 
off most of their live stock. 

The National Live Stock Association, 
which met last week in Denver, re-elected 
H. A. Jastro, of Bakersfield, president. 
This body, by unanimous vote, approved 
the Pinchot policy of keeping the National 
forests. The next meeting of the associa- 
tion will be held at Fort Worth, Texas. 

Four registered Short-Horn bulls raised 
on the Finnel ranch near Red Bluff, were 
shipped last week to F. Durst and Mr. 
Haus, of Shasta county. 

P. R. Peterson & Co., of Williams, re- 
cently sold 90 head of hogs which aver- 



aged 192 pounds and brought 7% cents 
per pound. 

Very few lambs are being lost over on 
the west side from the late cold spell. All 
the sheepmen are jubilant over the pros- 
pects of the coming year. 

The Walter Vail Estate has recently 
bought all the ranch interest of C. W. 
Gates, of the corporation of Vail & Gates. 
The price paid is about *600,000, and in- 
cludes 10,000 acres in Pima county, the 
Pennsylvania ranch, in Santa Cruz coun- 
ty, Arizona. The California ranches in- 
cluded in the deal are the Pauba and 
Santa Rosa ranches, in Riverside, and 
the Warner ranch in San Diego county. 
The big ranch on Santa Rosa Island is 
not involved in the transaction, as Mr. 
Gates had no interest in that piece of 
property. 

State Veterinarian Keane reports that 
sheep scabies is almost wiped out in Cali- 
fornia. He looks for it to be completely 
wiped out by the end of the year. 

r l ne grass in southern Mexico is re- 
ported never to have been in better con- 
dition than it is at present. 

J. Danielson. Laton, recently sold 26 
young hogs for $350, or an average of 
$3.5(1 for the lot. 



THE HOGS FOR COLORADO. 



The hogs for Colorado will do in great 
measure for California and a very inter- 
esting account of them is given by Prof. 
H. M. Cottrell, of the Colorado Experiment 
Station. 

A good hog, well bred from a prolific 
strain of any of the popular breeds of hogs 
will make money for the Colorado farmer 
when handled right. Four breeds have 
been found particularly adapted to Colora- 
do conditions: Berkshire, Duroc-Jersey, 
Poland-China and Tamworth. Whatever 
breed the feeder selects he should stay 
with it and not change or cross with an- 
other breed. White hogs are generally not 
profitable in Colorado. The intense sun- 
shine blisters and cracks their tender 
skins so that they become runts. Often 
this blistering is so severe that running 
sores are formed. A few Colorado farmers 
have made good profits from white hogs 
by keeping them in pastures having heavy 
shade. The Berkshire is hardy and ac- 
tive, adapting itself to any condition suit- 
able for raising hogs and may be developed 
either into a bacon or lard hog, accord- 
ing to the feed given. It is more ener- 
getic than some of the other breeds and 
on this account requires a better fence. 
Its activity makes it a good hog for pas- 
turing and for following cattle in the 
feed lot and this gives it a well developed 
muscular system that furnishes a good 
proportion of lean in the meat. The Berk- 
shire is a good feeder, matures early and 
may be fattened at almost any desirable 
age. The sows are careful mothers and 
good sucklers. Originally the Berkshire 
was very prolific, and many strains are 
productive today. Some families have 
been bred to concentrate the blood lines 
of prize-winning animals until they have 
become shy breeders and in selecting ani- 
mals for breeding, especial attention 
should be given to securing those with 
prolific ancestors on both sides. The 
Berkshire is strong in transmitting char- 
acteristics to the offspring. The Berk- 
shire is an attractive hog, black with 
white on face, feet and tip of tail. Its 
head, nose and legs are short, and for this 
reason the breed is a prime favorite with 
packers because of the small per cent of 
waste from these cheap parts. The fat 
and lean are well distributed in the meat. 



■ HERCULES 



HARNESS 
SADDLES 
HORSE 
COLLARS 

fifear THEY LAST LONGER! 

If your dealer cannot supply you, write usdlrect 
for a price l'st. Manufactured solely by \V. 
DAVIS & SONS. Wholesale Saddlery, 2040 to 
2052 Howard St., 8an Kranclsco, C'al. 



BEWARE WHERE YOU BUY YOUR 

BEEWARE 

Conkling Grocery Co., of San 
Jose keeps a full line of Bee- 
hives and supplies. Also 
Poultry Supplies, Feed and 
Seed. Ask for our prices. 



EQUALIZING HITCHES 

FOR 

Plow and Harrow teams either 
TWO or FOUR ABREAST. It 
would surprise you how much 
easier your team would handle 
your PLOW and HARROW 
equipped with an EQUALIZING 
HITCH. 

WE MM) THEM OIT (IN TRIAL. 

Write today for full paiticulars to 

SCHMEISER MANUFACTURING CO. 

DAVIS, CAL. 



LAND PLASTER 

(Gypsum) 
Nearly every California raorh 
need* Gypsum. It corrects soil con- 
ditions, help* other fertilisers give 
better results and aid fertility In the 
■oil. Alfalfa, grain, vegetable aad 
fruit crop* are Kreatly Increased. 



Write for booklet and prices. 



PACIFIC CEMENT PLASTER CO. 

VWBOY. CALIFORNIA. 



PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to Inventors, sent 
free on request, containing nearly 100 me- 
chanical movements and full information 
about Patents, Caveats, Trademarks, and 
Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG A CO., 
1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San 
Francisco. Established 1860. 



PATENTS 



United Slates and Foreign Procured, Defended and Sold. 
PACIFIC COAST PATENT AGENCY, INC., Stockton, Ctl. 



PATENTS 



CARLOS P. GRIFFIN 

Kx-examlner U. S. Patent Office 
ATTORNEY AT LAW 
Patent and Trade Mark Causes. 
1201-2 Metropolis Bank Building. San rranclsco- 



QUICK 
RETURNS 



on 5-10-20 acre tracts, from 
Merced Colony Lands. Stock, 
Alfalfa, Klgs, Peaches, etc. 
Money making little Berry. 
Apple and Poultry farms at tebastopol, 
Sonoma County. Prices right. 
Send for circulars. 

JOHN F. BYXBEE. 
Palo Alto. Santa Clara County, California. 



REDWOOD TANKS 

Fifty tan i 8 from one thousand to ten thousand 
gallons that must be sold regardless of profit. 
Fruit Boxes— Egg Cases. 

Write for prices. 

R. F\ WILSON 

Stockton, c mi. 



January 22, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



making a high quality of pork. The Du 
roc-Jersey is a typical lard hog of good 
length with a smooth, thick-meated hody, 
built close to the ground. It is solid red 
in color. It is an active, hardy hog, a 
good feeder and is especially a good graz- 
er. When well fed, it matures early and 
if kept until full grown can be made very 
heavy. The Duroc-Jersey is a prolific 
breeu. Records taken from hundreds of 
sows show an average of nine pigs to the 
litter. Mature sows can be handled in 
Colorado to have two litters a year and 
the prolific character of the breed to- 
gether with its good feeding qualities 
nave made the Duroc-Jersey very popu- 
lar. The carcass often shows more bone 
than either the Berkshire or the Poland- 
China and the meat is often not so fine 
grained. Duroc-Jerseys for breeding 
should have constitution and quality. 
Coarseness of bone and hair, particularly 
of the hair along the back should be 
avoided. Hogs of this breed are inclined 
to have weak pastern, and breeding ani- 
mals should be selected that are strong 
in this respect. The Poland-China is an 
almost perfect meat making machine. It 
is not excelled by any breed of any kind 
of live stock for converting feed into 
flesh. It has a voracious appetite, a good 
digestion and is lazy — not using much 
of its energy in travel or excitement. It 
will stand heavy feeding and consider- 
able neglect. When properly handled, it 
is ready for the market at any time after 
six months of age, whenever the price is 
right. It is a typical lard hog, with a 
thick, short, massive body, fine quality of 
bone, hair and skin, small, fine head and 
short legs. It is thick fleshed with heavy 
shoulders and hams, and broad, thick 
loins. The meat is fine grained, but with 
too large a proportion of fat in the ma- 
tured animal. The chief fault with many 
strains of the Poland-China is that 
through over-feeding of corn they have 
become poor breeders, having only one to 
four pigs in a litter. Such pigs are usu- 
ally choice feeders, but the number in a 
litter is too small to make it profitable to 
keel) the sow. Where sows are selected 
from prolific strains and fed muscle and 
bone-making foods, they are as prolific 
as any breed. Three Poland-China sows 
on the Colorado agricultural college farm 
had 31 live mgs at one farrowing. Rec- 
ords compiled by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture of several thousand Poland- 
China sows showed an average of iy 2 
pigs to the litter. The Tamworth is a 
strictly bacon hog with a smooth, long, 
deep, thin body, and looks to most people 
like a razor back. It has been bred to 
produce as large a proportion of its 
weight as possible in an even thickness 
of choice bacon. Most Colorado stockmen 
however do not like them. 



I 



A few minor points need to be thought 
of. One is that no man ever should per- 
mit his hands to excite the cows by yell- 
ing, striking or otherwise misusing them. 
He will not do so himself if he has an 
eye to his own best good. This may seem 
selfish. It is not so. The humane man 
will want to be kind to his cows and will 
insist that his men be so too. Then, 
water well, exercise daily, watch every 
symptom of sickness and be kind, fair 
and cheery. The man who does this will 
not lack of success. 



And as to feeding, get as close to the 
summer ration as you can. The cow 
that is being milked needs ensilage or 
corn in some form, some hay, and a grain 
ration that will enable her to give a good 
mess of milk and at the same time main- 
tain her body in good condition. 



Pigs of small litters are liable to show 
up to good advantage when young, but 
you cannot afford to encourage a tendency 
to small litters by making selection of 
breeding stock from small litters. The 



percent of pigs saved is usually small 
enough without breeding in that direc- 
tion. Our experience is that matured 
sows as a rule raise the largest pigs at a 
given age, and that it does not cost as 
much to keep one over a year as it will 
to raise one from a pig to a yearling. 



We know a farmer who tried out three 
different plans of fattening his hogs this 
year. Now he knows which will pay him 
best and hereafter will be in shape to 
make the most money from his feed- 
ing. That's business. 



Fix things so that the horse which is 
inclined to gnaw will have something to 
make him tired if he tries to get his teeth 
into it. Tin is pretty good to tack over 
every edge of board that is exposed. 



Some of the most effective of all farm- 
ing is done in the dead of winter — when 
there is time to study and plan without 
having the rush of work pushing one. 



Every horse that is inclined to back 
out of the stall should have a chain or 
rope across behind it. A slight reminder 
of this kind is worth a great deal. 



See that the young stock gets enough 
feed. To stunt them now means they 
never will reach the full development of 
which they are capable. 



There is just as much use for business 
sense and tact in conducting a farm as 
there is a store — and it is the business 
farmer who gets ahead. 



It is sure a waste of time raising scrubs 
when the same amount of time and labor 
would turn out a pure bred animal. Don't 
you do it. 



Regularity is an important factor in 
feeding horses. They should be fed three 
times a day, and at the same hour, if 
possible. 



Sheep that have rounded the six-year 
notch ought to be made, to walk the plank. 
You can't trust them to do well another 
year. 



Racks for feeding will save hay. At 
$20 a ton that is worth thinking of. 



DECIDUOUS FRUIT GROWERS' 
MEETING. 



To the Editor: The State Fruit Grow- 
ers' Convention at its late meeting in 
Watsonville authorized the appointment 
of a committee of ten fruit growers to 
meet and formulate a plan for the or- 
ganization of a league, or some form of 
association for the purpose of handling 
all business matters of common interest 
to all engaged in growing or shipping de- 
ciduous fruit. This committee of ten 
were duly appointed by State Commis- 
sioner Jeffrey, and met at Sacramento on 
the 30th day of December, the result 
being the formation of a plan which will 
be presented for the consideration of a 
mass-meeting of fruit growers to be held 
at Sacramento. 

In pursuance of the authority given the 
undersigned by the committee of ten, we 
hereby announce that a mass-meeting of 
deciduous fruit, grape and nut growers, 
and shippers of fresh and canned and 
dried fruits will be held at Sacramento 
on Friday, January 28, 1910, at 10 a. m., 
for the purpose of discussing the plan 
presented in the committee's report and 
to form an organization for the promo- 
tion and protection of the general inter- 
ests of the members of the mass-meeting. 

For four years the citrus fruit growers 
and shippers have maintained a league 
with duties and powers similar to those 
to be assumed by the league proposed in 



THE EMPIRE LINE 



Another year has gone, and the beginning of 1910 shows 
the Empire to be in the lead as usual. 

The sale of Empire Cream Separators for 190!» was greater 
than ever, which fact is convincing proof of its merit and 
universal use. 

We wish to thank all users of Empire machines for their 
very liberal patronage, and beg to assure you as well as any 
others that we will continue to do the very best we can to 
please you and look after our machines and your needs. 

It has been the policy of the Empire Cream Separator Co. 
to make the best machine possible; one that would do close 
work, be easy to turn and clean, as well as simple and 
durable, and thousands of users can testify how well they 
have succeeded in this. 

Our new catalogue will soon be ready for mailing, and we 
have a few calendars left that we will be glad to mail to 
anyone filling in the coupon below. 

We wish all milkers of cows a Ha ppy and Prosperous New Year. 



Empire Cream Separator 

No. Cows /-» ¥ i j 

Co., Ltd. 

Name of Separator 

95 North Sixth Street, 
Address PORTLAND, OREGON. 




GREENBANK 



Powdered Caustic Soda and Pure Potash, Best Tree Wash. 
T. W. JACKSON & CO., 42 Market St., San Francisco. 



this call. This organization of the orange 
and lemon growers has been of immense 
value to all the interests represented and 
now embraces over 80 per cent of the 
citrus fruit growers of the State, its mem- 
bership extending from Oroville to San 
Diego. It is composed of 126 members 
owning and shipping last season over 
30,000 carloads of oranges and lemons, 
and is the official representative of the 
citrus fruit producers in all matters of 
importance to their general business 
affairs. It has already saved in freight 
alone over $2,500,000 since it was organ- 
ized, managed the tariff contest before the 
last congress and has become the means 
of final appeal in all the great questions 
affecting the prosperity of its members. 
All this has been accomplished at an ex- 
pense not exceeding 30 cents a car per 
year, and your committee of ten believes 
similar results will follow the formation 
of the league proposed in this call. 

We therefore appeal to all fruit inter- 
ests embraced in the proposed organiza- 
tion to make Sacramento their destina- 
tion on the 28th of this month, attend the 
mass-meeting and join in the formation 
of the business league so badly needed. 
Especially do we invite the individual 
growers to attend, for it will depend upon 
their presence whether an effective and 
general organization is formed. Sacra- 
mento is centrally located, cheap and con- 
venient accommodations are at hand, the 
committee of ten will offer every courtesy 
to attendants and every grower will be 
given full opportunity to discuss the prop- 
ositions presented in the report. The 
committee is assured in advance that this 
conference will be largely attended and 
productive of far-reaching results. 

Special rates will be given all delegates 
by the Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe 
of one and one-third fares from all points 
in California. Delegates must take a re- 
ceipt from the agent when purchasing 
their tickets. These will be signed by the 
secretary of the convention and when pre- 
sented to the agent at Sacramento will 
entitle the holder to a one-third fare on 
the return trip. 

H. D. Stephens, 
George H. Cutteb, 

Committee. 



SUBSCIUPTION AGENTS WANTED. 



The PACIFIC RURAL PHESS lvnotn n 
young man or woman In every county In 
tin- State to ■ollclt for suhscrlhtlons. Good 
commissions allowed. Write uh at once 
nnil we will forward necessary papers, 
blanks and Instructions. You can make 
good money with a little effort. 



Mardi Gras 
Excursion 



Personally conducted to the great 
festival city, New Orleans; leaves 
San Francisco 



JANUARY 29th, 

ROUND 
TRIP 



1910 



$67.50 



Tickets enod for thirty days' trip, 
via the famous ocean to gulf line. 

SUNSET ROUTE 

One hundred mile ride alone the 
ocean shores of the Pacific. Through 
Southern California orange groves, 
the rice, eotton aad sugar fields of 
Texas and Louisiana. Picturesque 
bayous, the Teche, Land of Evange- 
line. 

Oil. BURNING LOCOMOTIVES. 
NO SOOT. NO CINDER S. 

Through drawing-room sleepers, 
berths, sections, drawing-rooms, 
dining, parlor and observation enr 
service. Steam heated and electric 
lighted throughout. 

Ten days' stopover at New Orleans 
on all flrst-class tickets reading to 
points East. 

Through tourist ear service to New 
Orleans, Washington, Cincinnati, St. 
Louis and Chicago. 

Write for our beautifully illus- 
trated booklet, "Winter in New Or- 
leans." Tells in detail of the attrac- 
tions of the Crescent City and the 
wonders of the Mardl Gras. 

SOUTHERN PACIFIC 

Ticket Offices : 
Flood Building, 
Market Street Ferry Depot, 
Third and Townsend Sts., Depot. 
Broadway and Thirteenth Sts., 
Oakland. 



SACRAMENTO 
BURNER ™ OIL CO. 

H. L NELSON, President 

DEALERS IN 

Oil Burners, 
Fuel Oil, 
Distillate Oil and 
Lubricating Oils. 

OFFICE: 

1520 J Street, 

SACRAMENTO. 

One of the largest eucalyptus groves in 
the world will be planted by the Southern 
Pacific Company, near Carruthers, Fresno 
county. About three sections of land will 
be planted, GOO trees to the acre. 




76 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 22, 1910. 



The building of our new Mill, and 
our greatly increased output have 
enabled us to make 

EGG-MORE 



at less cost, and so we are offering 
it in the larger quantities at the 
following 

REDUCED PRICES 

25 lbs. $1.65; 50 lbs., $3.00; 
100 lbs., $5.50. 

If not kept by your dealer we 
will prepay the freight within 300 
miles. Write for new circular de- 
monstrating how Egg-More makes 
the cheapest egg-producing food as 
well as the best, with many Testi- 
monials. 

West Coast Mill Co. 

Cor. Griffin S Alhambra, LOS ANGELES, CAE. 



Cycle Hatcher Company 

M AN IFACTUREKH OF 

Incubators, Brooders and Fireless Brooder 

Our machinrs arc ihc 
result of 25 years ex- 
perience in hatching 
and brooding and are 
the moat practical 
made. 

Cycle Hatcher, 
50-cgg size, >o.50 
Cycle lirooder, 
50-egg size, >8^U 
The Philo System 
an article, "A Little 
Poultry and a Liv- 
ing," by E.W. Philo 
— mailed on request. 
Main Office : Elmira, New York. SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Western Office : 9 Madison St.. Oakland, Cal. 




"Sensible" Brooder Heater 

A Simple and Substantial Device. Never 
Out of Order. 




You can rely on its per- 
fect working, regulation 
heat, and cheapness of 
service. Always in order. 
The modern self-adapted 
"Sensible" Brooder Heater 
is the cheapest and best. 
Write for details. 



ANDREWS & WHITE 

24 Kentucky St. , Petaluma, Cal. 




WHITE WYAND0TTES 

THE KIND THAT LAY AND WIN. 

San .lose 15)09 won 1st cock, 1st, 2nd 
cockerels, 2nd pullet, 3rd hen. 
5 entries. 
Day old chicks and eggs through- 
out the season. 

J. L. DINW1DDIE, 

PETALU VIA. 



CR0LEVS 

Hard Eastern Oyster 

SHELL 



Is an absolute necessity for Poultry- 
men who are looking for Profit. 



MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY 

GEO. H. CROLEY, 

631-637 Brannan St., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



The Poultry Yard. 

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN POUL- 
TRY KEEPING. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By M. Russeix James. 

The Whitewashing or Painting of 
Pori.TKY HOUSES. — In the ordinary poul- 
try building these finishing touches are 
usually put off to that more convenient 
season which never presents itself, or un- 
til vermin have necessitated a hasty coat 
of whitewash. An application of good 
whitewash or crude petroleum paint at 
the start would be of great benefit in pre- 
serving the wood and wire of the struc- 
ture and also in heading off the mites. 
Whitewash has long been accepted as the 
proper finish alike for poultry quarters 
and poultry vermin, and its attractive and 
cleanly appearance is a further recom- 
mendation. Furthermore it is cheaply 
made and easily applied, and sweetening 
and wholesome in its effects. Its weak 
points are that it comes off even more 
easily than it is put on, and the rough 
surface left, makes a fine harbor for ver- 
min. A really good article of whitewash 
that will protect the building from the 
weather and last is as expensive and re- 
quires as much work in the preparation 
as a good paint. Again, the glare of the 
white surface in the sunlight is consid- 
ered bad for biddy's eyes and nerves. 
This, however, may be overcome by add- 
ing a pigment to the wash. The follow- 
ing is the recipe for the color wash form- 
erly used by the United States Govern- 
ment, and is considered the very best: 
One barrel of lime, 25 pounds of mutton 
tallow, 40 pounds of salt, 2 pounds of glue. 
5 gallons of linseed oil. For color 25 
pounds of each of Venetian red and In- 
dian red, which must be mixed with 
water to a smooth paste and added to the 
wasn only after all the cooking is done, 
else the heat will destroy the color of the 
pigment. For ordinary use a good wash 
may be made by slacking the lime with 
boiling water, adding plenty of salt and 
thinning with hot skimmed milk. This 
"sticks" and is a dazzling white. If de- 
sired a pigment may be added as above. 
A pure white wash for tne inside of 
houses made like this and put on hot is 
excellent for destroying filth germs and 
drying out and brightening such inter- 
iors. The writer does not advise the addi- 
tion of carbolic acid to whitewash as so 
generally recommended. It spoils the ap- 
pearance and it makes the wash dry and 
crumbly. 

Cbude Petboleum Paint. — This is said 
to be the cheapest and best paint known 
for barns, poultry houses, roofs and out- 
buildings generally. It is being used in- 
stead of whitewash by the Government 
painters. Crude petroleum has no equal 
as a wood preservative and insecticide, 
and is the base of most of the patent 
preparations for these purposes. The 
crude petroleum is thinned with cheap oil 
to the consistency of linseed oil or till it 
flows easily from the brush; to each gal- 
lon of this is added 3 pounds of red me- 
tallic. Prince's brown metallic costs a 
very little more but is said to give a 
much brighter color. This paint dries 
very slowly and where two coats are ap- 
plied, it requires weeks before the sec- 
ond coat can be put on. 

The thinned petroleum without the me- 
tallic is excellent to apply with a soft 
brush to farm tools to prevent their rust- 
ing. Where a bit chips off the enamelled 
ware drinking vessels in the poultry yards 
and a hole would soon result, an applica- 
tion of the same over the spot on the out- 
side prevents and preserves the vessel. 

Poultry Houses Needed. — One cause of 
poor results with farm poultry is a lack 
of necessary houses. The ordinary farm- 
er builds a lean-to against the barn, and 



here fowls of all ages and conditions must 
fight it out among themselves. Hens are 
allowed to sit where they lay in the gen- 
eral poultry quarters and to "scrap" with 
the other hens for the eggs, and in these 
mix-ups the eggs are chilled and broken. 
Where hens are largely used for hatching 
a house away from the general poultry 
quarters should be provided for this pur- 
pose. It should be clean and comfortable 
and rat proof. Connected with it should 
be a small yard kept clean and mellow 
where the sitters can dust and sun them- 
selves in fair weather. Here in stormy 
weather the mother and baby chicks may 
be kept a few days after hatching in small 
coops. Every poultry keeper, whether his 
flocks are few or many, should have a 
comfortable house and a protected yard 
for a hospital and detention quarters. 
How often a disease becomes epidemic 
and hundreds of dollars are lost by keep- 
ing sick fowls with the general flock, or 
by buying outside stock and turning it 
loose with the home fowls for lack of a 
place to quarantine it till sure that it 
brings no contagion. A house and yard 
for broody hens make a great saving in 
the wear and tear on the hens and also 
on the caretaker's temper. The cluckers 
are much more quickly broken of their 
broodiness when confined in a yard than 
when shut up in a coop, and come through 
in much better condition. Young stock 
should be separated from the old stock 
and cockerels from the pullets. All such 
divisions of the poultry necessitate extra 
houses and work but it pays, and it is 
the only way in which the poultry keeper 
can realize the full worth of his fowls. 

General Plan of the Laroest Peta- 
luma Poultry Plant. — While we are on 
the subject of poultry quarters, a brief 
outline of the Dangers plant may be of 
interest. The location of this poultry 
farm is ideal and one which, as Mrs. 
Dangers aptly put it, "the Lord made ex- 
pressly for poultry." It is a sunny valley 
sloping gently from low protecting hills 
on the north. The soil is red sand, and 
the heavier the rain the cleaner it be- 
comes. The fowls are kept on the colony 
plan but in separate yards of an acre or 
so each in extent. Some 250 fowls are 
kept in each yard. The colony houses are 
plain buildings some 10x12 feet wide, the 
open end protected by a scratching shed. 
The laying quarters are in a separate 
shed. Running water is brought to each 
yard, and the base-boards of the wire 
fencing on the outside lines are extended 
to form an encircling feedbox, the ex- 
tension of which is outside the yards and 
covered by a hinged board forming a 
tight slanting lid. The caretaker drives 
along the outside of the yards with his 
load of provender, raises the lid, shovels 
in the feed, then shuts it down and the 
box is perfectly tight except for an open- 
ing some four inches wide between the 
bottom of the wire and the inside edge of 
the feedbox through which the fowls put 
their heads into the box and eat. This 
arrangement gives the fowls plenty of 
feeding room and at the same time pro- 
tects the feed from rain, dirt and waste. 

The brooder house and incubator build- 



ings are on the higher ground back of the 
family residence, and well protected on 
the north, with an unobstructed southern 
exposure for the brooder house which is 
310 feet long and divided into 30 sections. 
This makes the building unusually bright 
and roomy and gives large inside runs. A 
window and door and trap door are in 
each of these sections which open into 
outside runs. The incubator room is a 
long, narrow building set down some two 
feet into the ground with the dirt floor 
and walls heavily cemented, and with 
double board walls above and small, 
square windows which swing on pivots. 
This gives perfect ventilation without 
drafts or allowing the wind to blow upon 
the machines and egg trays in cooling. 
The room is equipped with sixteen 504- 
egg Petaluma incubators with some more 
to be added. Both incubators and brood- 
ers are" operated by gas. All of the poul- 
try buildings are painted a dark red with 
white trimmings, and the posts and base- 
boards of the fencing are white. This 
gives a neat and uniform appearance to 
this plant upon which no expense for its 
betterment has been spared, but which at 



The Unvarying Success ol the 

DEFENDER INCUBATOR 

Hatches is not 
without cause. 

There are a do»en 
good reasons for the 
health and strength 
of Defender chicks. 
Our catalogue tells 
them. 

No. 3. 5tl— Egg ca- 
pacity delivered to 
your station for less 
than $34.60. 

Defender Incubator Co., Deparment G. 

LIVERMORF. CAL. 




Poultr\y 
Feeding 




Free 
Book 

on application to 

C0ULS0N POULTRY 
6 STOCK FOOD CO. 

Petaluma, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



BUFF ORPINGTONS — Sullivan's Common- 
wealth Strain are the heaviest layers of large 
eggs on the t oast. Winner* at State Fair, 
Alaska Yukon show. Seattle, and all big ghowi 
for the past 10 years. Some tine Cockerels now 
for IB each. Eggs |8 and 85 per sitting. Send 
for Prize Record. W. SULLIVAN, Agnew, 
Santa Clara County, California. 

WHITE and BI FF ORPINGTONS, ENGLISH 
RKI) CAPS. Prize Winners at Oakland and 
Petaluma. Cook Strain of Whites, large vig- 
orous birdsand heavy layers. Write for prices. 
Some choice Cockerels and Eggs now ready. 
Mrs. 8. Swaysgood, Route 1, Healdsburg, Cal. 



A FEW PURE BRED BRA II HAS, BLACK 
Mlnorcas and Rhode Island Red Cockerels for 
sale. Apply to Vine Ranch, Vina, Cal. 

BA NTAMS— Golden Seabrlght and Black-Tailed 
Japanese. Free Circular. Englewood Orchard, 
Campbell, Cal. 

BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



VESTAL & CHURCH 

DEALERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

POULTRY FOOD AND POULTRY TONIC 

m-iZl KELLAR ST., PETALUMA, CAL. 
NOW OPEN FOR BUSINESS-NEW SPECIALTIES FOR POULTRY MEN. 




January 22, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



77 



the same time is very simple in every de- 
tail. 



Questions and Answers. 

Indian Runner Ducks. — C. M. L., of 
Gait, Cal., writes: "Can your poultry edi- 
tor give me any information about In- 
dian Runner ducks, who has them for 
sale in this State, characteristics, laying 
qualities, etc.? Or some reliable work set- 
ting forth their good and bad qualities as 
compared with other ducks?" 

As a market duck this breed does not 
compare with the Wnite Pekin, but it 
leads all ducks as an egg-producer. The 
Eastern duck market is quite another 
proposition from what the duck market 
is on this Coast, consequently the pro- 
duction of eggs is the better paying end 
of the business with us. This breed of 
ducks is rather a new acquisition to this 
country and not very well known, but it 
is popular wherever introduced. By se- 
curing pure bred stock and keeping them 
under proper conditions for breeding pur- 
poses — and letting the fact be known 
through reliable agricultural journals — a 
profitable business in the sale of hatch- 
ing eggs and breeding stock can be built 
up in this State. Sometime since at Santa 
Cruz we interviewed a former breeder of 
the Indian Runners. Both for market 
eggs and breeding purposes he had made 
them pay exceedingly well, until lack of 
room and the protests of a seaside re- 
sort forced him to move or go out of the 
business. His location enabled him to 
get cheap, fresh meat and green bones 
from the slaughter house. For market 
eggs he fed his ducks a mash twice a 
day 12% of which was ground fresh meat 
and bones, and they shelled out the big 
white eggs, the flock averaging over 200 
eggs a year and the most of these laid 
when the market was highest. 

The general habits, faults and require- 
ments of these ducks are the same as 
other ducks but with the following ad- 
vantages over other breeds: They are 
practically a dry land bird. In India 
their native place, as wildings, they 
made their nests in the sands and left 
their eggs to be hatched in this natural 
incubator by the sun, like the turtles. 
Naturally, there was great loss and the 
incubator needed refilling often. Their 
non-sitting and prolific laying habits are 
supposed to be due to these two causes. 
Being only half the size of market ducks 
they require that much less feed and 
room, and where egg-production is the 
object, are just that much more profit- 
able, they also have less "quack" than 
other ducks. The comparative value and 
cost of the Indian Runner with other 
breeds and with chickens is given by an 
Oregon breeder, Elisha Adams, answer- 
ing that question in the Northwestern 
Poultry Journal, as follows: 

"Yes, when yarded in small yards and 
buying all the food it will cost about one- 
half a cent per day for each duck, 15 
cents per month. Chickens are kept 
cheaper providing you have houses ready 
made, enclosed by good fencing, but tak- 
ing it year after year it is a question 
whether it costs more to keep ducks than 
chickens, for where one can raise the 
bulky portion, that is the roots, ducks 
can be kept very cheaply. I have been 
speaking of the Indian Runner ducks. 
Other ducks are more expensive and less 
profitable as egg-producers. You ask what 
I would expect them to lay from Febru- 
ary to November per month£ Well, now, 
the first five months, 20 to 25 eggs per 
month, next four months, 10 per month; 
they molt in this period. The next three 
months, December, January and Febru- 
ary, 15 to 20 per duck per month, so tak- 
ing it right along they are profitable 
poultry and easy to manage. I will give 
some reasons why Indian Runner ducks 
are better than chickens: They are more 
hardy, and although I have raised many 
ducks I have scarcely ever seen a sick 



one. No lice to fight, no roosting houses 
to build, no nests to prepare, no high 
fences to build, a 2y> foot fence being 
sufficient. In the sheds in which they 
roost one can scatter old straw and leaves 
as litter, and that is about all the trouble 
they call for. It is good to set a board up 
edgeways along about 12 to 14 tnches from 
a wall for them to get behind for laying. 
When they see this they are happy and 
never fail to repay you with eggs. They 
go on laying for six or seven years and 
their eggs are fine for table use." 



The Home Circle. 



The Friend We Like. 



The friend you like is the friend who 
comes 

To you in a smiling way — 
With a "howdy do" that is ringing true, 

But never a word to say 
Of the ills he feels, or the aches he 
knows, 

Or the gloom he is passing through; 
Who gives you a smile, and a joke the 
while, 

And is cheerful, at least, with you. 

The friend you like is the friend who 
comes 

When you are in deep despair, 
And grips your hand in a manner bland, 

With a happy-go-lucky air. 
Who hasn't a word of advice to give, 

What you ougnt or ought not to do, 
But he slaps your back with a sounding 
whack, 

And is cheerful, at least, with you. 

For it isn*t of woes that we want to hear. 

Nor woes that we*d talk about; 
The road is rough and there's gloom 
enough 

Without having it pointed out. 
And all of us troubles have, I ween, 

And some of us not a few; 
But its words of cheer that we like to 
hear — 

What sort of a friend are you? 

— Selected. 



Secrets of Happy Home Life. 

"Into whatsoever house ye enter, first 
say, Peace be to this house." — Christ 
Jesus. 

"A truce to the jarring notes of life 
The cries of pain and passion; 

Over this hill in the eager strife, 
Love hovers, Eden fashion." 

Home is among the holiest of words. 
A true home is one of the most sacred 
places. It is a sanctuary into which 
men flee ... at close of day . . to 
gather new strength for the battle and 
toils of tomorrow. It is a place where 
love learns its lessons, where life is 
schooled into discipline and strength, 
where character is molded. . . 

We are all concerned in the making 
of some one home — our own home. The 
happiness of the home does not depend 
on the house or on what it contains; 
the people who live in the house make 
the happiness. . . . 

Love must prevail in all the family 
life. Let parents keep the confidence and 
affection of their children. . . There 
are homes which could be warmed into 
love's richest glow in a little time, if all 
the household hearts were to grow affec- 
tionate. 

It is possible to grow into all the 
beauty of peace wherever we may be 
placed. A lily finds its home in a black 
bog, but blooms into perfect lovliness. 
Suppose that your home life is dis- 
couraging, yet you may live sweetly in 
the midst of It, and who knows that 
your sweet life may become the power 
of God to change the home life into 
heavenliness? Perhaps God has put you 
as a leaven there, to leaven the whole 
lump— The Rev. J. R. Miller. 



POLYTECHNIC BUSINESS COLLEGE 

306 12th STREET, OAKLAND, CAL. 




The Great 
Business College 
of the West. 



Every Graduate for Ten 
Years in a Position. 



Best Equipped 
Business College in the 
United States. 



Write for Free Catalogue. 



Young men and women wanted to prepare for 
Stenographic and Business Positions. Recom- 
mended by Court Reporters, Business and Professional 
Men, and Educators throughout the West. 



Training the Left Hand. 

In Japan children are trained to use 
their hands and fingers more carefully 
than anywhere else in the world. Jap 
school children can do and make things 
with their hands that are impossible to 
western world children, with the imper- 
fect manual training they receive. 
Nearly all Jap boys and girls can draw 
and write with both hands at once. 

It is all a matter of training and prac- 
tise. We could do just the same if we 
had been taught how to. In some schools 
teachers are already training pupils to 
use both hands and thus get doublt ser- 
vice out of them. The person who can 
use both hands is called ambidextrous. 
This is from two Latin words, "ambo," 
both, and "dexter," right. The person 
who is ambidextrous can use both hands 
as if they were right hands, which is 
the way it ought to be with us all. 

Try to write and draw with the left 
hand, then with both hands at once. In 
the schools where the left hand is trained 
a pupil is sent to the blackboard for his 
first lessons. He merely makes lines at 
first, straight and curved ones. With his 
right hand he draws perhaps curved lines 
parallel to one another. At the same 
time with the left he draws parallel 
straight lines. After awhile he makes 
loops and what children learning to write 
call "pothooks." At length such success 
is achieved that the pupil can with his 
left hand write his name and any word 
he wishes. 

The process is much the same with 
drawing. — American Boy. 



Two Good Begonias. 

Flower lovers will be interested in the 
following, written by Ida A. Cope, of 
Santa Clara county: 

Again I wish to call the attention of 
begonia lovers to the merits of Begonia 
semperflorens gigantea rosea. Catalogued 
as a vigorout upright grower, it carries 
large, clear, cardinal-red flowers, on stiff 
stems, in clusters as large as a man's 
hand. The leaves adhere closely to the 
main stein, and it blooms from October 
till May. I know of no begonia that 
makes such a glorious display when in 
bloom. I saw three shades of it the 
other day — red, pink and white. Anions 
dozens of other begonias it took the lead. 

Another begonia well worth your care 
and attention is B. gracilis, of spreading 
habit, and bright pink flowers. Planted 
around a palm, out in the garden early 
last spring, it has become a mass of 
foliage and flowers, requiring no care ex- 
cept waternig when dry. No other plant 



MILLS COLLEGE 

The Oldest and Only Woman's College on 
the Pacific Coast Exclusively for 
Young Women. 

Located among the beautiful hills near 
Oakland, California, close to San Francisco 
and the great Universities of the West. 

Full collegiate course leading to degree. 
Entrance and graduation requirements 
equivalent to those of Stanford and Uni- 
versity of California. Training fits students 
for teaching regular lines of academic 
work, and offers special advantages for 
music, art and home economics. Well 
equipped laboratories for science. Special 
attention to health of students. Modern 
gymnasium thoroughly equipped. Outdoor 
life and sports in the ideal California cli- 
mate. 

Alumnae in every city on the Pacific Coast. 

For Catalogue and Brochure of Views, 
Address President's Secretary s Mills Col- 
lege P. O., Cal. 

YOUNG MEN 
WANTED 



We wish to confer immediately with a 
large number of young men and women 
who have a common school education, who 
are physically fit and whose records are 
good; only those desiring to enter the tele- 
graph service need apply. We teach teleg- 
raphy in all its branches — Railroad, Com- 
mercial and Wireless. 

Our Wireless Department offers you an 
opportunity of quick advancement. Write 
for circulars. 

WIRELESS INSTITUTE OF CALIFORNIA. 
Central Trust Bldg., San Francisco. 



WONDER OIL LAMP CRCC 

HTUIH This is a Genuine 1 1 1 kiLi 
offer to lamp users, mtidoto introduce the 
Wonder INCANDESCENT 1 00 CANDLE 
POWER Kerosene Oil Lamp la every lo- 
cality. Many times BRIGHTER, CHEAPER 
and SAFER than Gasoline, Electricity or 
ordinary lamps fori ightinghomes, offices, 
stores, halls andchnrcnes.Weaskthat yon 
show It to your neighbors. If you accept 
the proposition we will send you, we will 
give you a lamp FREE. Send your name 
and name of your nearest express office. 

UNITED FACTORIES CO. 

Largest lump llouie In America. 

1 079 FACTORY BLOC, KANSAS CITY. MO. 




FOR SALE 

A Two Years Scholarship For Qirls 

in the Snell Academy at Berkeley. 
High Class Instruction Guaranteed. 

ADDRESS 

E. H. WUHRMANN, - San Jose, Cal. 



J. C. PARSONS, 

CIVIL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR 
Irrigation and Drainage Specialties 

SANTA ROSA, CAL. 

CLARENCE MURRAY 

Civil and Hydraulic Engineer 

Complete Irrigation Plants, Water Supply, 
Power Development, Design or Plants and 
.Structures, .Supervision of Construction, He- 
ports. Precise Surveys, Subdivisions, Klc. 
Agent for l.ultwller Pumping Knglne. 

1036 J St.. Freano. Cal. 



POST CARDS ONE CENT EACH 

Any amount above 10 sent postpaid; 1000 differ- 
ent views, (live us a trial order for 25 cards 
assorted, you will be pleased. 

PACIFIC SUBSCRIPTION AGENCY, Sunnyvale, CiliFonrii. 



80 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 22, 1910. 




A GAS ENGINE OF KNOWN QUALITY 
BUILT IN CALIFORNIA RUNS EVERYWHERE 

THE "STANDARD" 

Stationary, Pumping, Hoisting and Marine. 

Endorsed by the U. S. Government Continually. Written Gu&ruitee. 

Send for our special literature containing much valuable In- 
formation which will be of Interest to you If you contemplate 
using power for any purpose. Jl's Free. 

STANDARD GAS ENGINE CO., 

MAIN OFFICE AND SALESROOM 
10 CALIFORNIA ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



ROGERS CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 




BUILT FOR SPEED AND 
EFFICIENCY. 

Modern Methods Utilized 

GAS ENGINES, LAND GRADERS, 
BEAN THRESHING MACHINERY 

Write for Details and Prices 

ROGERS & D'ARTNEY MANF'G CO., 

18th and R St., Sacramento, Cal. 



z z 

3 3 

z z 

u u 

u z 

z o 

3 H 

o o 

<0 < 

< « 



DIXON IRON WORKS. 




THE IMPERIAL 
LAND GRADER 

The only grader and scraper com- 
bined that moves earth and levels the 
ground perfectly and with ease. 



ALL KINDS OF MACHINERY 
REPAIRS ON SHORT NOTICE. 



DIXON. CAL. 



o 
r z 



ROAD GRADERS 

All Sizes 

RUSSELL 

Simplex, 
Reversible, Elevating. 

SCRAPERS: 
Drag Wheel Fresno 

W. T. MARTIN MACHINERY CO., 1277 Howard Street, San Francisco. 





Ideal Water Cooled Gasoline Engines. 

Sizes li to 9 h. p.— all vertical type— Speed 350 to 500— 
base of engine is heavy and cast hollow, carrying fuel — 
Speed adjusted while engine is running; Simple in con- 
struction; Distillate or gasoline work equally as well. 

We oiler you this engine, assuring you of satisfaction. 

LANSING WHEELBARROW COMPANY 

787 Folsom St., San Francisco, Cal. 



GAS ENGINES 



REBUILT AND PRACTICALLY 
AS GOOD AS NEW. 



AT PRICES THAT WILL SAVE YOU MONEY. 

All our rebuilt Gas Engines are placed In good shape, and will do the woik. 
Cut the Price In Two— by buying (iasollne Engines, Pumps and Pipe of 

STANDARD TOOL AMD MACHINE WORKS, 

1429 Mission St., San Francisco. 




Electric-Centrifugal Pump. 



Byron Jackson 
Iron Works 

INC. 

351 - 355 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




This is 
Second Hand 
Pipe 



v ■ 1 '"fii St— t ■ .±J$ W€ can supply you with 
any size and quantity of 
Standard Pipe or Casing— all new 

threads and couplings — all stock guaranteed 
first class. Write for Prices and Particulars. 



DO NOT CONSIGN BROKEN CASTINGS TO THE 
JUNK PILE. 

This Is Important advice to the farmer. Your broken machinery can be repaired as good 
as new. We Braze or Weld Broken Cast Iron, Brass and Bronze Castings, Cylinders, 
Exhausts, (ias Engine Parts, or Pumps, our process Is sure and saves you 50 to 75 per cent 
of what new castings cost. Save the broken parts and bring to us. 

SAN FRANCISCO BRAZING WORKS, 121 Beale St., San Francisco. 



WOOD 
PIPE 

Made from California Redwood 
or Selected Washington Douglas 
Yellow Fir. 



National Wood Pipe Co. 



Machine Banded Stave Pipe. 



Continuous Stave Pipe. 



SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE-318 Market St. 

LOS AN(iEI.ES OFFICE— MM Equitable Bank Bldg. 

PORTLAND OKF1CE-210 Wells Fargo Building. 

Prices, specifications, hydraulic data and general Information 
furnished upon request. 



ET THERE BE LIGHT 

™e Stewart Gas Lamp 

SOI.VF.S THE IMtOBI.KM OF F.COSoMY. 



You save money and your 
eyesight by using the 
Stewart Gas Lamp. 

We furnish your home with a 
lamp that is absolutely safe, a 
steady burner, no dicker, a soft 
but sieady flame that does not 
tax the vision, or Inflame the 
eye. 

It Is a surprising fact that we 
do this so cheaply, at so little 
cost to you, and give you a 
faultless, perfect effect, that 
electricity Is not needed— Is too 
expensive. 



THE STEWART 
GAS LAMP 

is built of metal and 
Is constructed on the 
mostslmple plan. It 
works In detail In 
the line of economy. 



Every farmhouse can afford it because It 
saves oil, ornaments any home and like the 
loyal hired man, works overtime, when the 
days are Bhort, and light is needed. Let us 
Bend you our convincing treatise on cheap 
superior light. 




OAKLAND MANUFACTURING CO. 

852 Market St., Oakland. Cal. 



The Khaki Suit 

for ranch 
wear. 

Miners, Hunt- 
ers and outing 
folks find 
khaki the best 
possible mate- 
rial for cloth- 
ing. 

Why is it not 
also best for 
the Ranch ? 

Clothing cata- 
logues mailed 
post-paid. 

THE WM. H. H0EGEE CO., Inc. 

138-140-142 South Main St.. Los Angeles. 




PUCAD I Mill IHU aire8 iiu0 > £ et tltle 

Unr.Hr Lftllll under homestead law in 
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Vol. LXXIX. No. 5. 


SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 29, 19 J 0. 


Fortieth Year. 



The California Live Stock Breeders' 
Association Meeting. 

The annual meeting and banquet of the Cali- 
fornia Live Stock Breeders' Association was held 
at the Palace Hotel, San Francisco, on January 
24 and 25. Seventy-five of the leading stock 
raisers of California were at the banquet, and sev- 
eral prominent breeders from the Eastern States. 
Among the prominent cattlemen 
present were J. L. Matthews. J. 
E. Breen, A. J. Molera, L. W. 
Symmes, W. M. Caruthers, John 
Lynch, E. E. Easton. F. H. Dan- 
iels, P. J. Thompson, R. N. Foster, 
J. H. Glide, H. P. Eakle. T. W. 
Gibson, E. W. Howard and R J. 
Orr. The speeches were full of en- 
thusiasm for live stock breeding, 
and the keynote of the evening- 
was to get together, so that they 
could have more legislation passed 
in their favor. All the speeches 
were very good, short and to the 
point. The address of welcome 
was made by P. H. McCarthy, 
mayor of San Francisco. In his 
remarks he advised the stockmen 
to get closer together — something 
which he knows the value of. In- 
stead of working as individuals 
they should work as one body, so 
that if they desire any bills passed 
or changed by the legislature they 
shall be strong enough to accom- 
plish it. The bankers, lawyers, 
doctors, all have such organiza- 
tions to help their cause, and why 
not the farmers. He also said that 
there should be a live stock exhi- 
bition held in California each year, 
where all the breeders of live 
stock could display their animals. 
It would be an incentive to the 
farmer and it would educate the 
people in the large cities as to 
just what was being done by the 
fa rmers. 

S. B. Wright of Santa Rosa, in response to 
Mayor McCarthy, pledged the support of the as- 
sociation for the Panama Exposition to be held in 
San Francisco in 1915. Mr. Wright further stated 
that California ought to hold three district fairs 
each year, one at Sacramento, one at Los Angeles, 
and one around the San Francisco bay, and that 
there also should be five district fairs where the 
farmers could display there produce, and get pub- 
lie recognition for their work. These fairs can 
only be obtained by getting help from the legisla- 
ture and the governor, who in the past have not 
dealt very leniently in granting favors to the 
farmers. So that it behooves every one to see that 
his assemblyman and senator does some work in 
the interests of the farmer at the netft meeting of 
the legislature. 



Judge Peter J. Shields of Sacramento spoke 
very entertainingly on "Back to the Farm." He 
stated that if this organization ever expects to get 
relief from some of the present evils with which 
the live stock industry is oppressed, it has to be 
more closely organized and cemented. The way 
matters stand at present, the farmers have no 
means of getting any recognition in the legisla- 
ture, and to obtain this it must be worked through 
some central body, such as this association. In 
order to make this association's power felt more 




Typical California Haying Scenes. 




A Live Stcc'< Banquet — But Not at the Palace. 

strongly it should have more members. Judge 
Shields then told of the benefits that are being de- 
rived from the farm school at Davis. It shows 
the farmers how to get the most from their lands 
and animals and also educates the youth how to 
work scientifically, and takes away the drudge of 
farm life. 

George P. Bellows of Missouri gave some of his 
experiences as an auctioneer. He said that he 
had sold live stock over Canada and the United 
States, and that he had found'the chief character- 
istics of live stock breeders were patience, honesty 
and industry, for without these requirements no 
one could build up and improve a herd. 

Judge Carroll Cook then told of the pleasures of 
breeding cattle for pleasure, as a relaxation from 
the strain and turmoil of city life. 



Charles Keane, State Veterinarian, spoke of the 
control and the eradication of infectious diseases 
of live stock in California. He said that this can 
only lie accomplished by the co-operation of the 
breeders of the State with the authorities in 
charge of such work. As soon as infectious dis- 
eases begin to spread rapidly, it is absolutely 
necessary that the first outbreak of any malady 
be stamped out immediately. He told how the 
legislature of California in 1899 created the office 
of State Veterinarian to eradicate the Texas tick, 
a disease which damages the stock- 
interest of the United States over 
.+25.000,000 annually. In the last 
four years over 40,000 square miles 
of territory was cleared of the 
Texas tick in this State, this being 
as much territory as was cleaned 
up by the rest of the United States 
combined. He next told of the 
work of eradicating the sheep 
scabies. In the spring of 1908, 
when he first commenced work, 80 
percent of the sheep had this dis- 
ease, while to day only about 2 per 
cent are affected, and he pre- 
dicted that by next spring sheep 
scabies would be exterminated in 
California. Pie stated that last 
year his office killed over $75,000 
worth of mules and horses in- 
fected with glanders. The cause 
of the spread of glanders is due 
mainly to water troughs, and the 
work of controlling this dread dis- 
ease will be handicapped until the 
public water troughs are prohib- 
ited by law, or at least kept in a 
sanitary condition. 

R M. Hardin, a prominent 
Short-Horn breeder of Wisconsin, 
spoke of the benefits to be derived 
from live stock shows and agri- 
cultural colleges. He stated that 
these shows create a desire in the 
people to possess good cattle. 
Agricultural schools do much to 
help the Slate through Ihe influ- 
ence and advice the students are 
able to give when they settle in a 
community and practice scientific farming. 

Prof. F, I). Hawk spoke of raising the breeders' 
standards. He said that there, were many poor 
horses and cattle in California, due to the fact 
that the people do not use enough discretion when 
they buy blooded slock. They paid enough for 
them, but they let the owners sell them defective 
animals, and even when they do buy pedigreed 
stoCH they let them run down so that they soon 
degenerate into scrubs. 

Prof; Phillips said thai Ihe present lime was a 
Critical one with Ihe horse raisers of the Coast, due 
to the high price of horses. Many farmers arc. 
selling their brood mares to be worn out on the 
city streets, and are keeping their poorer animals 
to breed, thus in a few years they will have a lot 



(Continued on Pdgi !)}■) 



I 



V' 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 29. 1910. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 

Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. 



PUBLISHERS 



Advertising rates made known on application. 



E. J. WICKSON 
FRANK HONEYWELL 
GBORGE RILEY 



Editor 
Business Manager 
Advertising Manager 



California Weather Record. 

The following rainfall and temperature record is fur- 
nished the Pacific Ri ral Press by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, at San 
Francisco, for the week ending at 5 p. M., Jan. 25, 1910 : 



the development in these lines which is ordained 
by the character of the State and its masterful 
situation. 



Rainfall Data. 



Tempera- 
ture Data. 



Stations. 


Past 


Seasonal 


Normal 


Maxi- 


Mini- 




Week. 


to Date. 


to Date. 


m u m . 


mum. 


Eureka 


2.02 


27.15 


23.06 






Red Bluff" 


.99 


10.77 


13.31 


52 


36 


Sacramento 


.50 


8.46 


10.01 


54 


26 


San Francisco... 


.79 


13.06 


11.72 


60 


40 


San Jose 


.86 


10.47 


7.31 


60 


32 


Fresno 


.02 


10.16 


4.88 


64 


32 


Independence... 


T 


6.42 


4.83 


60 


20 


San Luis Obispo 


1.00 


16.IU 


9.61 


72 


40 


Los Angeles . . . 


.01 


10.86 


7.32 


80 


40 


8an Diego 


.00 


8.17 


4.79 


74 


40 



The Week. 



That the California live stock industry has 
activity and outlook is clearly reflected by this 
issue of our journal. The promising condition of 
the financing of the business is demonstrated by 
the twin Short-Horn sales by two of our leading 
breeders in this city during the current week. 
Neither storms nor airship counter attractions 
were able to keep buyers away, nor to distract 
them from their purpose to listen to the eloquent 
Colonel Bellows and lighten their pockets thereby. 
A stockman likes to be hit pretty hard in the 
pocket when he goes to a sale, for his courage 
swells as his purse shrinks, and be is sure of the 
future of his business, for he knows that public 
opinion is with him. Nothing makes him feel 
weaker than to buy a good thing for a weak price, 
for then he has to doubt the stability of every- 
thing he believes in. We are srlad that the values 
at this winter's sales warrant everybody in en- 
joying a good outlook. Very wisely, the occasion 
of the sales was used to draw the whole stock in- 
terest together in both business and social ways, 
as our appreciative writers show in the accounts 
which they give on other pages of this issue. 



We rejoice in this manifestation of interest and 
courage among those interested in our breeding in- 
dustries, because their work is so essential to the 
symmetrical building up of California. No mat- 
ter how great our fruit and cereal industries be- 
come, the necessary complement of them will al- 
ways be the live stock industries. This is neces- 
sary to the employment of large areas of land 
suited to the growth of forage plants by irrigation 
and other large areas which should be better used 
for grazing than they have ever been hitherto. 
California by her greatly varied resources in soils, 
forage plants and climatic conditions is excep- 
tionally suited to the whole range of live stock 
production. We have places particularly suited to 
everything that is desirable for human uses, from 
a draft horse to a goal, or from a Short-Horn to a 
honey bee, and we shall never reach our full great- 
ness in population and wealth until each place is 
supplied with men and women who believe in and 
are willing to work with all these agencies for 
human support and service. Being deeply con- 
vinced of this fact, this journal is eager to work 
and to make expenditure to assist CaHfornians to 



There is a great sensation now on as to whether 
people are paying too much for their meat, and, if 
so. is anyone getting an undue share in the pro- 
ceeds. The agitation will benefit and not harm 
the producing branch of the live stock industry. 
It is a good thing for the government to find out 
whether there is iniquity in the slaughtering and 
distributing end of the business. There has long 
been current among producers a conviction that 
they were not getting their due share of what the 
consumer has to pay, and the same conviction has 
oppressed our fruit growers and producers of fruit 
products of all kinds. The government agencies 
are helping the fruit men to untangle some of their 
difficulties, and an exposition of the great com- 
mercial side of the live stock industry may enable 
everybody to see more clearly and act more effec- 
tively for fair play and the attainment of their 
rights, for which there are already efforts among 
all groups of producers of animal products at the 
present time. All such organizations can work 
better when they know what they have to go upon 
and against. The boycott upon meats which is 
reaching such wide dimensions may serve a good 
purpose in showing that a consuming public really 
always can have mastery of a situation, and that, 
too. may help live stock growers by bringing them 
nearer to consumers. We have no idea, however, 
that a meat boycott will permanently lessen con- 
sumption. All these people will come back to 
roasts, steaks and chops with appetites they have 
never known before, while taking these blessings 
without much thought of their desirability. Peo- 
ple with thousands of years of heredity are not 
going to lose their teeth by a sixty-day rest-, nor 
are their stomachs going to forget their supreme 
mastery of and yearning for fiesh by a period of 
mill products, pastes and dried fruits. Our notion 
of it is that they will be keener than ever for the 
food which has given Europeans their superiority 
over Asiatic peoples. We look upon the present 
outburst of public temper as likely to benefit the 
meat-growing industries in several ways — the 
madder the people got the more they will thirst 
for blood — of several kinds also. 



Whatever may be the conclusions of the agita- 
tion and investigations now in progress, there will 
still remain the fact, we believe, that meat enough 
has not recently been grown in this country and 
that may have given grasping concerns their 
chance for extortions, which should lie made by 
law impossible, and will be. We believe that the 
statement credited to Secretary Wilson is true, 
viz: ''Undoubtedly if the farms were raising more 
meat the price would be reduced. There are not 
enough people on the farms raising food, and too 
many people are going to the towns to be fed. 
Three-quarters of a million people are coming to 
the 1'nited States annually from abroad. They do 
not go to the farms, where they might help raise 
food for the nation. Farmers cannot get help. 
The foreigners go to the cities and they have to be 
fed. The cities produce nothing to eat. although 
they do produce something to drink.'' 

This of course strikes at a basic trouble. Stock- 
men have not been able to get good help at fair 
prices and have been discouraged from many un- 
dertakings. If it can be shown, as the result of 
movements now in progress, thai the stockman 
can have a freer hand in the operation of his busi- 
ness in several ways, the production will naturally 
advance, and there is a good outlook for it. It 
seems to us that it is just the time for wise invest- 
ment in lands and stock which will ere long 
largely increase the meat supply in this country. 



and it is probably this general confidence in the 
outlook which has given recent meetings of stock- 
men a better and more confident spirit. 



We are very glad that Mr. Gifford Pinchot has 
accepted the presidency of the National Conserva- 
tion Association to which he was elected on Mon- 
day of this week. lie declares his purpose in these 
strong words: "I follow Dr. Eliot by his own de- 
sire. It is fortunate that he will remain in the 
work as honorary president. I appreciate keenly 
both the honor and the chance to help in the move- 
ment. The National Conservation Association is 
not in politics. It believes that conservation is a 
great moral issue, broader than any party or sec- 
tion and more vital than any political question or 
measure now before us. The rights and property 
of the American people are at stake. This asso- 
ciation will be on the firing line in the conserva- 
tion fight. Its immediate task will be to do what 
it can toward getting good conservation laws in 
Congress. Hereafter I expect to devote what 
energy I have to the association, as I did to the 
forest service in the past. I believe the National 
Conservation Association offers the best way to 
help the cause of conservation." 

That is just right : conservation is above polities, 
and Mr. Pinchot is relieved from the temptation 
to place it below. He can now rally all who will 
work for conservation and he will find that it is 
no one man's doctrine and that the country will 
rally to his leadership in its attainment. 



Our citrus correspondent has had so much to say 
about frost and oranges that we do not approach 
the chilly subject with much warmth, but simply 
for the purpose of enforcing general fairness. 
Some of the papers of the upper part of the State 
are inadvertently unfair to the south. The Oak- 
land Tribune, for instance, after mentioning losses 
at the south, says: "In the citrus belt in the 
southern end of the San Joaquin valley the citrus 
growers have not suffered in the slightest degree. 
The temperature at no time through the winter 
has been low enough to affect the orange groves. 
Nor has a single report of damage come from any 
quarter in the northern citrus* belt of the Sacra- 
mento valley or the citrus belt in the northern bay 
regions, embracing a dozen or more orange grow- 
ing counties. The experience of this winter em- 
phasizes the fact that the section of California 
north of the Tehachapi range is less susceptible to 
frost than the section south of it," etc. Now this 
is true in a way, and still liable to convey a wrong 
impression, viz : that the thermometer reaches a 
lower degree in the orange districts of southern 
California than in those of the central part of the 
State. We have not the low records of the last 
two months, but believe they agree with those for 
the last decade, which were as follows: Red Bluff, 
18 degrees: Oroville. 22; Palermo. 20: Riverside, 
24: Redlands, 25; Colton. 24; Claremont, 20. and 
San Bernardino, 18 degrees. The first four places 
are north of Tehachapi: the last five are south of 
that line, and the temperatures are practically the 
same. Of course the temperature has been at a 
point to injure oranges in all these citrus places. 
If. however, the Tribune writer had said the region 
north is less sesceptible to "frost injuries" he 
would have been correct. The trouble is not in 
the thermometer at the south, but in the trees. 
The trees in the more northern districts ripen their 
fruit earlier, and it is packed and marketed before 
the low holiday temperatures arrive, consequently 
there is no commercial injury to fruit. The trees, 
having ripened their crop, are dormant and have 
a very different condition and appearance from 
the trees at the south which are still active, de- 
veloping fruit and shooting new leaves, more or 
less. It is not that the temperature at the north is 



January 29, 1!)10. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



83 



higher; the fact simply is that practically equal 
j temperatures do not find anything to injure in 

one place and they may find a good deal in an- 
I other. 

Speaking of citrus affairs reminds us that the 
Cloverdale display, which is a, citrus fair quite 

1 apart from commercialism, because the district 
has plenty of oranges for exhibition but few for 
sale, is to be given under exceptionally good 

I auspices this year. A new pavilion has been pro- 
vided and a better than ever scheme of delights 
and instructions has been provided. The occasion 
is usually delightful and should be enjoyed by 
all those who enjoy the sight of good oranges most 
tastefully and picturesquely displayed. We are 
glad to know that other points are preparing for 
annual events of this kind. We ought to have a 
chain of such winter displays beginning with the 
greatest, the citrus fair of the Porterville district, 
in the late autumn. There are a dozen or more 
communities which could derive much benefit from 
such affairs. We are glad to hear that the Oro- 
ville Chamber of Commerce is preparing to raise 
a fund for the purpose of constructing a building 
in which to hold an annual citrus exposition. The 
project has received the enthusiastic indorsement 
of the orange growers, and it is not thought that 
much difficulty will be experienced in raising- 
funds. 



Queries and Replies 



About Laying Tile. 

To the Editor : As the soil of my ranch is heavy 
would it not be best to lay drainage tile in coarse 
sand.' How deep down below the surface would 
you advise placing the tile! The tract is planted 
to apple trees that are now 12 to 14 years old. 
The alkali only shows in spots. There is one area 
of about an acre and a half in extent, in which 
all the trees have been killed by the alkali, which 
consists almost entirely of carbonate of sodium. 1 
would like to know not only how deep you would 
advise placing the tile, but how far apart the lines 
of tile should be? I learn that cement tile can be 
made by using gravel in place of sand, which 
would be porous to water. Would not this ma- 
terial resist the action of alkali, whereas the or- 
dinary drainage tile would not? — Header. Eos An- 
geles. 

Experience has shown that it is not necessary 
to go to the expense of laying tile in sand. Usu- 
ally in the heaviest clay about 40 feet is desirable 
between drains, and this is about as near as they 
are ever laid. Water will flow to drains about 
twice as far in a light sandy soil. It is not neces- 
sary to have a porous tile, and we should doubt 
the longevity of tile made from gravel rather than 
sand. There is more danger of disintegration. 
The water will enter freely enough through the 
joints of tile, even when butted as closely together 
as possible, provided no cement is used in joining. 
We are not sure about the relative resistance of 
cement pipe and ordinary clay tile, but we do 
know that if you get alkali enough it will destroy 
any kind of earthen or metal pipe, provided you 
do not keep it moving and diluted by an abun- 
dance of fresh water. 



Corky Elm Twigs. 

To the Editor: I enclose bits of the Limbs of 
fruit trees, about two or three years old. There 
is about half a do/en of these trees on a place I 
recently bought here. 1 cannot tell whether they 
arc peach or plum. About three-quarters of the 
limbs arc affected with this kind of growth or dis- 
ease. I should be very glad to learn what it is. 
Also the cause and cure, if any.- -Beginner, Stock- 
ton. 

What you send as specimens of fruit tree twigs 
are not from fruit trees, but apparently from an 
elm tree of some kind, and the corky formation 



is not a disease, but is natural to the bark growth 
of this tree. We hope you did not buy these for 
fruit trees. If they were represented to you to be 
fruit trees, you are certainly entitled to proceed 
for damages. 

Get Humus Any Way You Can. 

To the Editor: My tract consists of 60 acres 
planted to valencias and navels; one, two, three 
and four years old. Many of my trees are suffer- 
ing from chlorosis. I am undecided as to the 
cause: whether from irrigation, cultivation, or 
soil-deficiency. I am on mesa land north and east 
of Bakersfield. I am satisfied there is a lack of 
humus ; the first year I seeded fenugreek ; the 
second year, hairy vetch, and this year, melilo- 
tus clover, inoculating the seed with nitrogen 
culture bacteria. In every instance I failed in 
securing a cover-crop worth mentioning. I har- 
rowed and furrowed my ground and seeded after 
the first rains. I believe the fault lies in the cold 
weather, not to lack of moisture. I find it strange 
that alfilerilla, "lamb's quarter," and "mal- 
lows" volunteer, and grow rank. Potatoes are 
a failure, whilst melons and tomatoes do wonder- 
fully well. I use stable manure conservatively, 
my soil being sandy. Would you advise the use of 
commercial fertilizer mixed, or "simples," when 
and how? — Grower, Bakersfield. 

You are probably right that your chief need is 
humus, and we should persist in the effort to get 
humus. If you cannot get a good growth of le- 
gumes, put on stable manure and get a good 
growth of weeds, especially of burr clover, which 
usually comes with it and will grow at a lower 
temperature than the legumes you mention. Or 
sow burr clover seed or rye, and plow all under 
with the filaree and mallows and other weeds. 
All other plants make humus in the soil propor- 
tionate to their weight, and legumes exceed them 
in the added content of nitrogen which is de- 
scribed. But plow under what you can grow 
most of at the time of the year when it can be 
best done to secure quick decay, and when you 
can best spare the water which the green stuff re- 
quires to grow with. You can use "simples" all 
right when you learn how by experience; a com- 
plete fertilizer is best to rely upon at the outset. 
If your land will grow a rank crop of any vege- 
tation the probability is that it does not need 
much fertilization yet. 

Grape Pomace as a Fertilizer. 

To the Editor: In your issue of December 4. 
lit!)!), an article appeared under the heading: 
"Grape Pomace as a Fertilizer for Rhubarb," 
which was very interesting to me. It was cer- 
tainly a surprise to me to learn that grape pomace 
was considered so much more valuable as a fer- 
tilizer than stable manure. Does your own judg- 
ment and knowledge along the line of fertilizers 
coincide with that recorded in the article referred 
to? Do you think that grape pomace is the equal 
or superior of stable manure as a fertilizer for 
other crops than rhubarb? If it is even equal to 
manure I would certainly like to learn of the fact. 
— Farmer, Napa. 

The rather wonderful results Which Mr. Wagner 
reported from his rhubarb experiments, though 
doubtless correctly observed by him, must be taken 
only to indicate the desirability of further experi- 
mentation with careful notes of its effects upon 
other crops. It does not seem to be reasonable to 
expect such results from it on the basis of analysis 
of its contents and possibly a part of the advan- 
tage shown by Mr. Wagner must be explained in 
some other way than direct supply of plant food. 
We hope Mr. Wagner's results will lead to wider 
experiments by all those who have the material 
easily available. 

California Grain Lands. 

To the Editor: I am a student at the Kansas 
State Agricultural College, and am interested in 
dry land farming problems. I understand that 
the farmers in the San Joaquin valley have been, 
and are now practising the system of summer fal- 



lowing and continuous cropping with wheat or 
barley without returning any plant food or humus 
to the soil, and that these soils are getting defi- 
cient in humus especially. Under the conditions 
that exist in the San Joaquin valley, what practi- 
cal method would you recommend to the farmers 
there, so that they can restore the humus content 
of the soil and also some plaid food ? — N. W., .Man- 
hattan, Kansas. 

You have been correctly informed as to the ef- 
fect of continuous grain growing on California 
lands. It is common observation, however, thai 
bare fallowing produces more certain crops he- 
cause of the conservation of moisture of two 
years' rainfall for one crop, and also prolongs the 
fertility of the soil by reducing the annual draft 
upon it. Concerning the restoration of humus, 
which is exceedingly important, we have not 
found any rotation system thoroughly available 
upon the drier lands without irrigation. The in- 
troduction of dairy farming, alfalfa growing on 
irrigated land, and the use of drier lands for a two 
term rotation of grain and pasturage is a restora- 
tive process which many farmers are now resort- 
ing to as they find it feasible. 



Growing and Feeding Sunflowers. 

To the Editor: Can you send me any informa- 
tion as to growing and the use of the sunflower 
seed upon the farm? I find it will grow and yield 
on land too dry for other farm crops, but I do not 
know how best to use it. I am afraid the hulls of 
the seeds are not safe for stock to eat.— Farmer, 
Glendora. 

Sunflower seeds are counted good for poultry, 
but they are very rich and fattening and should 
not be used in too large quantities for fowls used 
in egg production. Care should also be had not to 
feed them to excess to other stock. We never 
heard of any difficulty arising from the hulls of 
the seeds. In fact, sunflower cake is used for feed- 
ing stock in different parts of the country, and this 
consists of the hulls and the kernels after the oil 
has been extracted. A number of experiments in 
feeding sunflower seed cake to hogs show that it 
had about the same value as barley. 

Wood Buds and Bloom Buds. 

To the Editor: Kindly advise me on what va- 
rieties of orchard trees the fruit buds can be dis- 
tinguished from the leaf buds? How can they he 
distinguished? — W. E., Ripon. 

In nearly all orchard trees the fruit buds can be 
distinguished from the wood buds by an experi- 
enced observer. The fruit buds are usually 
rounder and larger, wood buds being slimmer 
and more pointed. It is also possible in the case 
of the peach and some other trees to detect the 
bloom buds by their relative position in groups, 
the bloom buds being central and the wood buds 
lateral, or, in the case of the cherry, the bloom buds 
will be arranged in a group and the wood buds at 
the apex above. With a microscope you can tell 
easily, for on cutting the bud crosswise with a 
sharp knife you can see the embryo of the bloom 
clearly outlined, while the wood bud will simply 
have a clear folding of rudimentary leaves. This 
is a matter which cannot be fully described, but 
needs to be learned by observation. 

For Potato Scab. 

To the Editor: Will you give me From your 
storehouse of information the proper proportions 
for a formaldehyde dip for my potato, such to 
escape scab? — A Beginner, Orosi. 

One pint of commercial formalin as it is usually 
sold in the stores can be diluted with 30 gallons 
of water and the potatoes soaked in this for two 
hours before cutting. This ought to treat about 
50 bushels of potatoes. Full accounts of how to 
use formaldehyde vapor on a Large scale in a 
house especially made for it were given in the 
Pacific Ruhai- Press of February 20, L909. 



84 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 29, 1910. 



Horticulture, 



MUST THE APPLE GO TO THE MOUNTAIN? 

By 10. J. Wk kso.n. of the University of California, at the 
California Fruit Growers' Convention at Watsonville. 

Must, or will. Ihf apple go to the mountain .' I 
ask the question without expectation or intention 
of answering it. It is a very old question. Ever 
since the apple did so ill in the Garden of Eden 
down in the rich valley and escaped the penalty of 
its offence upon the summil of Mt. Ararat, man- 
kind has been discussing the question; "At what 

elevation may the apple be expected to do its 
hest :'" At this late day we could, perhaps, ignore 
the question were it not the fact thai never before 

in the history of the human race has it assumed 
such greal commercial Importance as it presents 
today in t his newest of all civilized lands, the 
Pacific Coast of the United States. With us it is 
not merely a question of a few trees or a few hun- 
dred trees as an annex to general farming; it con- 
cerns itself with the development of important 
parts of States or even of whole States, of thou- 
sands of people and of millions of dollars. Thus 
a very old question now assumes such new phases 
that it may require years of study and experience 
to answer it from these new points of view. 

Are elevated regions entitled to the distinction 
which they are now claiming as alone suited to the 
production of winter apples of the highest finish 
and beauty and most perfect keeping qualities, 
and will the fruit continue to command the lofty 
prices which it is now receiving after traversing 
a quarter to a third of the World's circumference 
to reach the world's great markets? This is a 
question involving pomology, commerce and lin- 
ance. and in the sciences and arts of these three 
great branches of human activity favorable dem- 
onstrations must come to justify claims which are 
now being made in some parts of the Coast that a 
thousand dollars per acre can be supported as a 
reasonable valuation for good apple land and five 
thousand per acre is not unreasonable to claim as 
the value of a thrifty young bearing orchard. Will 
all these favorable demonstrations be attained.' 
It would manifestly require the most piercing 
analytic insight ami the most dear and accurate 
prophetic foresight to submit an answer which 
could be accepted as conclusive. Nevertheless it 
is a question which every commercial apple grower 
should ponder and upon which he should watch 
for every ray of light which can be drawn from 
observation and experience. I have no thought of 
penetrating the depths of the problem but rather 
to indicate a few features of the environment of 
the question by way of which, perhaps; the ulti- 
mate determination may be approached. 

It must he conceded that the mountain apple is 
superior to the valley apple in beauty and finish, 
in texture anil in keeping quality when it has been 
well grown under conditions which enable the 
favoring features of the elevation to do their best 
work. Taking the apple to the mountain does not 
imply that the elevation will do the rest. Every 
principle of good culture and every resource of 
protection must be as assiduously applied — pos- 
sibly even more so — to attain the best commercial 
results. Bui this superiority of the mountain 
apple is not a recent discovery, nor are the condi- 
tions which impart it at all restricted to the parts 
of the Coast which are now making greatest claims 
to them as a distinctive natural endowment. The 
grand beauty and keeping quality of California 
mountain apples were demonstrated very soon 
after the American occupation and before any 
commercial greatness in our fruit products was 
thought of. The fact was thrown in the world's 
eye at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia 
in 187(>. A systematic demonstration was made at 
the New Orleans Exposition of 1885 where apples 
grown at elevations from 2000 to 4000 feet in dif- 
ferent parts of California were shown in .lune of 
the following year in competition with the fruit 
grown in the mountains of Arkansas and .Missouri, 
and the few specimens remained in a good show 
condition while the fruit upon the competing 
plates was replaced several times. This test was 
accidental in a way. because the California ex- 
hibitor had no reserve stock to replace with, and 
was forced to let his first specimens stand up 
against all comers and their behavior \v;is a reve- 
lation to all beholders. California made the rec- 
ord then for the superior quality of winter apples 



grown at elevations in a semi-arid climate anil the 
question which has recently arisen as to whether 
California can grow as good apples as the northern 
States of the Coast which have similar climatic 
characters, should he reversed. Can they grow 
as good apples of that class as we? 

On the commercial side they have passed us and 
they have advantages which tiiust not be minim- 
ized. They are entitled to credit for the grand 
achievements they have attained, even if the cal- 
culations they are making upon the basis of such 
achievements should prove exaggerated. They 
have decided advantages in transportation; they 
are almost out of sight of us in the important mat- 
ter of growers' organizations for standardization 
and handling of fruit as applied to the apple ; they 
are concentrating upon a single fruit and upon a 
very lew best varieties — as we are doing with the 
orange, hut we cannot compare with their concen- 
trated and systematic work in connect ion with any 
other fruit which we grow. We must do this with 
all commercial fruits if our production is to be 
increased, lint giving them this credit and thank- 
ing them also for the confidence and buoyancy 
which their distinguished success will contribute 
to the spirit and development of all the fruit in- 
terests of the Coast, we must claim that they have 
demonstrated nothing distinctive in natural adap- 
tations beyond what California elevations pos- 
sess. The high valleys of Lake. .Mendocino, and 
Humboldt, comprise half a dozen districts like 
Hood River. The Shasta region has all the varia- 
tions in altitude and exposure which has eastern 
Washington from Wenatchee to Walla Walla, and 
from North Yakima to Spokane, and Mt. Shasta 
is higher and can shake biting breezes from his 
shoulders which will bring just as bright a red to 
the cheek of the apple and just as deep a blue to 
the nose of the grower as any of the northern 
snow-clads can produce. There are also high val- 
leys in the central region and in the mountains of 
southern California where the "warm days and 
cool nights." which our northern friends are 
claiming monopoly of. are the regular thing dur- 
ing the growing season and where the winter is 
marked by heavy rains and snow Hurries which are 
just as cold and wet as theirs. But I fear that run- 
ning alony this line 1 am almost conceding that 
the apple must go to the mountain in California, as 
they claim elsewhere. 1 am ready to do that 
though I do insist if that be the ultimate decision 
California will still be in the apple business with 
two long mountain ranges and several short ones. 

It is worthy of note that the present fame of 
Oregon and Washington in apple growing is no 
part of the traditionary fame of the Oregon apple 
which has been handed down from '49 and the 
spring of 7>0. The Oregon apple which the Cali- 
fornia pioneers worshipped and were disposed to 
give the horticultural birthright of California for 
a mess of the sauce of it. was not a mountain apple 
at all. It was grown in the tower levels of the 
Willamette Valley, and. perhaps, OH the tow lands 
of the Puyallup and in other Coast regions adja- 
cent, and its fame came, not from comparison with 
either California coast nor California mountain 

apples, but with apples grown in the low foothills 

and near the river of the ureal valley where the 
first mines were, and where nothing but an early 
apple for immediate use is worth growing even to 
this day. When the coast apples of Oregon and 
California are compared there may be no particu- 
lar difference in the fruit, perhaps, but California 
has the coast apple business developed to a volume 
of prime, clean fruit, and breadth of trade which 
have made the State famous both at the East and 
abroad. Anil this California coast valley fruit 
will always be in demand for distinctive trade and 
particular markets, perhaps, providing large 
groups of Californians work together for the de- 
velopment of culture, protection and marketing, 
as the people of the Pajaro valley have done dur- 
ing the last decade. It is likely that they will 
meet new difficulties as they have met and van- 
quished thi' old ones. The new problem will prob- 
ably include those of a different nature and they 

may be largely pomological and commercial. I 
suggest a few simply to indicate my meaning. 

first : The I'ajaro Valley Bellefleu* is a dem- 
onstration thai an apple which is notable every- 
where for being very exacting in requirements for 
success, does find, in the Watsonville district condi- 
tions which bring the fruit to a degree of perfec- 
tion which is rarely, if ever, attained elsewhere. 
It is altogether probable that there are other va- 
rieties which will exhibit similar content and dis- 



play other characters and commercial suitability 
and attractiveness. The value of the Bellefleur 
was. I presume, demonstrated through the chance 
planting of it by the pioneer orchardists of the 
valley. There should be provided in the valley I 
a means for testing out all old varieties which 
have not been tried and all promising varieties 
under competent pomological observation and com- 
pa rison. 

Second: There are other varieties which at- 
tain acceptable characters and local desirability 
in the main, but disclose some defects which limit 
their value. This may be due to some require- 
ment for full development which the local condi- 
tions do not include or to some peculiar behavior 
of the type which has been thus far prevalent. 
In either case the effort to retain the variety but 
to find a more suitable type should be system- 
atically made. This. too. is a matter for close 
pomological study and comparison and it is anal- 
ogous to the effort which is being made in south- 
ern California for the discovery or development 
of superior types of the navel orange. 

Third : There should be close study made of 
the relative effects of all cultural operations and 
all treatments for prevalent pests and diseases 
upon the thrift of the tree or upon the duration 
of its effective growing period or to discover un- 
foreseen influences which any cultural or protec- 
tive policy may exert upon the character of the 
fruit. Some very startling claims in this line have 
been recently made in distant places. Whether 
they are true or not they furnish a suggestion that 
all cultural operations might be looked into lest, 
they might have some relations to obscure de- 
fects of various kinds. 

It is not necessary to multiply Suggestions of 
this kind. They are not new. They have been 
freely discussed by Watsonville growers, both 
individually and in the Orchardists' Association, 
and are. I believe, generally approved. I mention 
them for two purposes: first, to add what em- 
phasis I can to the importance of the work; sec- 
ond, to assure you that such work commands the 
keenest interest among the pomologists of the uni- 
versity, and they are eager to co-operate with the 
growers and with the competent men whom the 
counties of Santa Cruz and Monterey have al- 
ready in joint service for the promotion of the 
apple industry. It is. however, really a State ser- 
vice and should he provided for by the legislature 
as such. To attain results this work should be 
amply provided for through a period of many 
years. Probably your two counties and your lib- 
eral individuals and associations have done more 
for the protection of the apple than all the rest 
of the State combined, and all the State has bene- 
fitted by your work. It is time the State took up 
apple work as a special effort in its own behalf 
and this convention should express itself clearly 
in I his line. 

As to my first question, then. "Must the apple 
go to the Mountain.'" although I disclaim the 
ability to finally answer it. I expect a negative 
reply for those reasons: 

First : Though sonic apples may have to go to 
considerable elevations for the best development, 
other apples both for pomological and commercial 
development must be grown under the destinctive 
advantages of the coast valleys. All apple litera- 
ture and all common experience show that dif- 
ferent varieties of apples require different condi- 
tions for their best development, and the trade 
requires that such special adaptation be discov- 
ered and regulate the activities of planters. There 
is every reason, therefore, to think that there may 
he apples of every season of ripening which suit 
our valleys better than higher elevations any- 
where. 

Second : The present disposition of apple plant- 
ers is to grow long keeping winter varieties, to se- 
cure the manifest advantages of such fruit for 
long distance marketing. This special attention 
to one phase of apple growing should convey the 
suggestion that more should be done to develop 
markets for summer, fall and early winter va- 
rieties for all of which California has distinctively 
adapted districts and can market such fruit every- 
where west of the Rocky Mountains and south 
of the Arctic Circle! while locally grown apples 
over this vast area are still in the bullet or base 
hall phases of growth. This is a field of produc- 
tion which must be distributed through the inter- 
ior valley and foothills and the coast valleys, ac- 
cording to the special growing conditions which 
are found in each of these situations. Every ad- 



January 29, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



85 



vance in the settlement and development of the 
wintry districts of the Pacific Slope opens wider 
the avenues for the employment of the unique ad- 
vantages of early growth which a relatively small 
area of the slope possesses. 

Third: Not only the nearer markets which are 
thus expanding but the more distant countries 
around the Pacific border, and especially, per- 
haps, those southern regions which will come into 
neighborly relations with us through the Panama 
canal, and along all the currents of transportation 
which it will set in motion there will be new de- 
mands for apples during all the months before 
the latest keepers mature. This is a field in 
which there will be practically no competition 
with California valleys, and no matter what is 
done with winter apples here or elsewhere, this 
opportunity will remain open to us. 



Viticulture. 



WINE MAKING ON A SMALL SCALE. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Prof. F. T. Bioletti. 



(Concluded From Page 5, Pacific Rural Press 
of January 1.) 

Aging. — When (he wine has been separated 
from the yeast and gross loss by the first racking 
the " vinification " is finished, but the wine is not 
ready for consumption. It must still go through 
certain physical and chemical changes which will 
make it permanently "bright," and develop the 
bouquets and flavors which characterize a finished 
wine. These changes take place under the in- 
fluence of an extremely slow oxidation. If the 
young wine is bottled or kept in air-tight contain- 
ers, such as concrete vats or porcelain lined metal 
casks, it will not "age," and remains indefinitely 
;i young and unfinished wine. 

The only method of properly aging wine yet 
discovered is storage in wooden casks, preferably 
of oak. While such casks are sufficiently air- 
tight to prevent undue evaporation and vinegar 
formation, the air penetrates slowly and in min- 
ute quantities through the pores of the wood. If 
the casks are very small the wine may age too 
rapidly with increase of volatile acid and develop- 
ment of a "sherry" taste. If the casks are too 
large, the aging may be unduly prolonged. 

The temperature of the storage cellar has also 
great influence on the rapidity of aging. The 
best results are obtained by aging in compara- 
tively small storage casks in a cool cellar. If the 
cellar is warm, the storage casks should be larger. 

Clarification. — If the wine has been made as de- 
scribed it will be "sound" and the main business 
of the cellarman will be to get it into the condi- 
tion in which it will be permanently limpid 
(bright). "Unsound," or "sick" wines, due to 
defective material or methods, require special 
treatment which is not discussed here. 

A young wine a few days after the first racking 
may be "clear," but if a glass of it is held up be- 
fore a bright light, minute floating particles may 
nearly always be seen. It is not "candle-bright." 
Even if bright it will not, remain so permanently. 

A wine is not ready for consumption until it 
has been freed from every particle of solid matter 
and is in such condition that no further solid mat- 
ter will form in it. When it reaches this state it 
is "bottle-ripe." 

Cause of Cloudiness. — Lack of limpidity in the 
wine is due to minute floating particles of solid 
matter which originate in three sources. There is 
first the solid matters which come directly from 
the grape, dust, pulp, etc. These, with the excep- 
tion of the smallest particles are eliminated in the 
defecation. Second, the yeasts, molds and bac- 
teria which are generated in the must and wine. 
In a clean fermentation the true wine yeast set- 
tles quickly as soon as the sugar has all disap- 
peared and carries down most or all of the finer 
particles. In a defective fermentation, however, 
there may be large quantities of the other organ- 
isms which remain floating in the wine and are 
very difficult to eliminate. Thirdly, there are mat- 
ters which are dissolved in the original must and 
young wine but which through physical and chemi- 
cal changes gradually become solid and form float- 
ing particles. These also settle but as they are 
formed slowly and continuously for some time, it 



is not safe to bottle a wine too young, however 
bright it may be. 

Racking. — The clarification of wine consists, 
then, in getting rid of the solid matters: (1) of 
the first category by separating the liquid from 
the gross sediment as soon as possible; (2) of the 
second category by getting rid of the yeast as soon 
as it has done its work, by discouraging the growth 
of all other organisms, and by causing those which 
do grow to settle; and (3) of the third catagory 
by aiding their precipitation. The most import- 
ant operation with this end in view is "racking." 
This means the separation of the clear liquid in 
the upper part of the cask from the lees, sediment 
or cloudy wine in the lower part. It is accom- 
plished either by means of a siphon which is usu- 
ally a piece of rubber hose inserted through the 
upper bung-hole as deep as the clear wine goes or 
by a faucet near the bottom of the cask just above 
the level of the sediment. 

The young wine shoidd be racked at least twice 
during the first four months, and by this means 
all the gross sediment and yeast will be removed. 
After this, for some time, there will be a continu- 
ous deposit of cream of tartar, coloring matters 
and albuminoids. To remove these the wine must 
be racked at intervals — usually twice a year — un- 
til the wine is bottled or consumed. 

The racking should take place with as little ex- 
posure to the air as possible, and a very light 
sulphuring should be given the clean cask to 
which the clear wine is transferred. By properly 
timing the rackings they can be made much more 
effective. The first racking should take place as 
soon as the yeast has done its work and has set- 
tled. If the yeast is left in the wine all winter, it 
undergoes changes which communicate undesir- 
able flavors to the wine. The wine should be kept 
as cold as possible during the winter to promote 
the precipitation of the cream of tartar, and the 
second racking should take place before the warm 
weather of spring commences. The timing of the 
subsequent rackings is equally important. They 
should occur about twice a year, but the time of 
year is not so important as the state of the 
weather. Wines which are clear one week may be 
cloudy the next, and vice versa. With sound 
wines the principal cause of this is the atmos- 
pheric pressure and the effect it has on the car- 
bonic acid gas in the wine. All wine, especially 
when young, contains a certain amount of this 
gas. Under heavy pressure the wine will hold 
more of the gas than under lower pressure. When 
the barometer is high, therefore, and the atmos- 
pheric pressure is above the normal, the gas will 
remain in the wine. When, on the contrary, the 
atmospheric pressure is falling, the gas is no 
longer held by the wine and is given off in minute 
bubbles. These bubbles rise from the bottom, 
bringing up the fine sediment and render the wine 
cloudy. Calm, steady weather, particularly with 
a high barometer, should be chosen for racking. 

To the same cause is due the difficulty of clear- 
ing wines perfectly in large casks. The pressure 
at the bottom of a large cask is much greater than 
at the top owing to the weight of the wine. When 
the wine is drawn off, therefore, and this weight 
is removed gradually, the gas which has been re- 
tained by the pressure is given off and the sedi- 
ment stirred up. 

This disturbance is not. sufficient to interfere 
with the separation of the yeast and gross sedi- 
ment of young wines. bu1 makes it impossible to 
get wine perfectly bright in very large casks. 
Wines cannot be successfully bottled, as a rule, 
from casks larger than a puncheon, and the best 
results on the brightness of the wine are obtained 
by bottling from 50 gallon barrels. Where larger 
casks alone are used filtration is necessary. 

Fining. — By careful and repeated racking, wine 
may sometimes be made perfectly "bottle ripe" 
and "candle bright" in time. Some supplemen- 
tary aid, however, is usually needed and in all 
cases is useful to hasten and facilitate the process. 
For this purpose we may resort to fining, filtering 
and pasteurizing. The last is used principally for 
defective wines, and the second, for common wines 
which are to he handled quickly and on a large 
scale. For the best wine, fining is the preferred 
method of prepa ration for bottling. 

To fine a wine we make use of a gelatinous or 
albuminous substance (finings), which B.fter mix- 
ing with the liquid is precipitated or rendered 
solid by the tannin, acid and alcohol, which the 
wine contains. The finings t li .is forms a kind of 
net throughout the wine which on settling car- 



ries down all, even the most minute particles, of 
floating or suspended matter, leaving the wine 
perfectly limpid or "candle bright." 

Many substances are used for this purpose, hut 
the best and most commonly used are the whites 
of fresh eggs, gelatine and isinglass or fish glue, 

Gelatine is the cheapest and most easily handled 
of these materials, and is commonly used for both 
red and white wine. It should be clean and odor- 
less. 

The amount to use is from Wfa to 1 1 '■> oz. for 
100 gallons. It is soaked in warm water for a few 
hours, then caused to dissolve by gentle heating 
and finally thoroughly mixed with a few gallons 
of the wine to be treated. When used for lining 
white wine tannin is also needed. Pure alcohol- 
extracted tannin should he used in quantities 
equal to the amount of gelatine. It is best to add 
the tannin to the wine a day or two before the 
gelatine. A small amount of potassium meta-bi- 
sulphite ( l /n to Y-i nz - per 100 gallons), added with 
the tannin is useful to insure the settling of the 
finings. When the dissolved gelatine is added, it 
must be thoroughly stirred into the wine. 

The cask is then filled up to the top and allowed 
to rest until the finings have settled. This will 
usually be in about 10 days. The wine may be 
bottled directly off the finings. If the wine is 
young it is best as soon as brighl to rack it. from 
the finings into a clean cask, allow it to rest, for a 
few weeks or months and fine again lightly before 
bottling. 

If gelatine is used for red wine, no tannin need 
be added unless the wine is lacking in that in- 
gredient. 

Eggs are the best fining for red wine. They 
must be perfectly fresh and from four to eight 
are needed for 100 gallons. Only the white is used 
and it is applied in exactly the same way as gela- 
tine, but without the addition of tannin. 



Citrus Fruits. 



CULTURAL NOTES. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press 
By Mr. Edgar Wright, of Los Angeles. 

I was on the train one day this week, going 
from Los Angeles to Riverside, when 1 met a 
grower with whom I was acquainted and, of 
course, we talked "shop." The course of the con- 
versation turned toward the diseases of the orange 
and I was very much interested regarding what 
he had to say concerning the "brown spot " of the 
orange. Whether right or wrong, a man with an 
idea is worth listening to, at least once, and as I 
had had this same subject up with the professors 
at the Whittier Plant Disease Laboratory of the 
University of California, and I knew that they 
were working on the matter, I was doubly inter- 
ested and thought possibly I might be the means 
of saving them a lot of worry and work by letting 
them know this grower's ideas. 

This man, by the way, is. or was. more than a 
grower, for he has been district manager for a 
large packing concern and had general supervis- 
ion in times past of the handling of many thou- 
sands of cars of oranges and lemons. lie told me 
that he had met and conquered the brown spot 
in oranges at least 12 years ago. and that it was 
merely a question of time of picking and care in 
handling. lie stated that he never would allow 
an orange to be picked by the men under him un- 
til the fruit Oil the tree was perfectly dry, that 
even after a heavy fog he has held men in the 
orchards until 10 a. m. before allowing them to 
handle the fruit, and paid them for the time they 
waited, lie claims that a damp orange is more 
susceptible and that when one is touched in that 
state it develops spots later. He claimed to have 
proved this time and again, and I was so pleased 
to find that the matter was such a simple affair 
after all. for though I have no objection to those 
professor fellows working, 1 thought what a great 
tiling for the industry it would be if all the money 
lost through depreciation in Belling value of fruit 
could be saved. 

With all this information stowed away I called 
upon the laboratory people at Whittier this week, 
and met with the same kindly and hospitable 
treatment as ever, and was told of some- of the 
work that had been done and was now being done 
to discover and eradicate the brown spot, and 

(Continued on Page 88.) 



Sti 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



.January 12!). 1!U0. 



California Vegetables in Garden and Field 

By E. J. w ii KSOH, of the Ualveraity i>f California. 



Second Bad Revised Edition) pabllaaed serially In the PACIFIC 
RURAL PRESS (beginning with the laaae <>r November 87, 1808), 
and subsequently to ni>p« - "i" in hook form. 



[COPYRIGHT — ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.] 



"The sun and air will warm and start the roots to grow- 
ing, sometimes as early as the first of January, and the first 
plowing ought to be done before the sprouts begin to make 
their appearance. 

"Along in the early spring after the heavy rains are 
over, and the plants have begun to push up nice healthy 
sprouts, take two horses and plow, and reverse the opera- 
tion by throwing the earth back onto the rows, leaving 
the dead furrow in the center between the rows, covering 
the plants up deeply, leaving the plants under the ridge. 
Then take a fine, sharp-toothed harrow, and drag along 
the rows the same way the plow went, which will cut up 
and drag out all clods and lumps, and leave the earth in 
fine condition for the sprouts to come np through, for 
should the ground not be in good order, your 'grass' will 
be crippled and crooked. It will also be tough, fibrous, 
and bitter. 

"Continue thorough cultivation with plenty of manure, 
no matter what kind or how rough. At the same time 
finely rotted manure is profitable. There is one thing to 
be borne in mind in the producing of asparagus: you can't 
fertilize too much. The better cultivated and the more 
fertilizers the greater will be the quantity and the better 
will be the quality produced. We plow thoroughly about 
three times a year, and harrow as often, and in the cut- 
ting season keep the weeds out with hoes." 

The method of alternately opening and covering the 
rows is somewhat conditioned upon the local soil and rain- 
fall. The looser the soil and the lighter the winter rain, 
the less tlie need of such operation, because ill such situa- 
tions the heat readily penetrates and the roots answer 
quickly without uncovering, which may too greatly facili- 
tate evaporation and thus be dangerous in dry localities, 
even in the rainy season. Where these conditions prevail, 
thorough cleaning, plowing, and manuring will fit the field 
for the winter. Mr. Murdock gives this advice: 

"In ilif fall or early winter, when the tops have turned 
brown, the ground should be cleaned and all rubbish 
burned, for if delayed the seed will drop and get scattered, 
which will come up and may prove eventually to be the 
worst weed the grower will have to contend with, for if 
allowed to grow after once started it will soon fill the 
whole ground with a mass of roots, and very soon spoil 
the patch. As soon as the ground is cleaned the whole 
field should be well cultivated, and coarse manure spread 
OTer the entire surface, so that the rains can dissolve and 
carry down the soluble plant food to the roots. As the 
period of rest here in our mild and warm winters is very 
short, with this strong and persisting plant no delay 
should be indulged in in furnishing the necessarv plant 
food." 

Quite free use of common salt is desirable for asparagus, 
providing the land is not naturally saline, as is the case in 
some regions where it is largely grown. Cheap, refuse 
salt answers well, and in garden practice the use of any 
old brine from the pickle or pork barrel. 

The surface application of all manures at the begin- 
ning of the rainy season seems best to suit California con- 
ditions. 

Harvesting. — Ctro we rs agree in advising very little, if 
any. cutting the second year in the Held. The third season 
should be very productive if the plants have been gener- 
ously treated, and thence onward independently, if the 
strength of the soil can be kept up. Mr. Murdock 's sug- 
gestion on policies in cutting are as follows: 

"Cut all the shoots clean at each cutting during the 
season, whether they are large enough to use or not, for 
if parts of stalks are allowed to grow they will prevent 
other buds from throwing up stalks, and make the season 's 
cutting short. Keep the ground well cleaned during the 
harvesting period, and if yon have been liberal with your 
fertilizers and have kept yonr ground moist, yonr crop 
will last as long as a profitable demand is likely to exist. 
Yet, beware of prolonging the harveting period too late, 
so as to weaken the next year's crop, as the nature of the 
crop requires that, to reproduce annually its crop of 
shoots, something must bp left to grow so as to foster the 
formation of new shoots and a new set of buds. If your 
season commences early you should lay by the knife later 
on to correspond ; then let all the tops grow and do not 
cull out the large shoots afterward. The time that should 
elapse between cuttings varies in different soils, some 
being warmer and consequently quicker than others; then 
again, much depends on the weather: some years we will 
have warm days in February, which will necessitate cut- 
ting twice each week, and it may be followed by cold days 



in March, when the cuttings will be meaner once a week: 
and again in the warm days of May it may require three 
cuttings ])er week to prevent the heads from bursting, 
which spoils it for market." 

There is variation in the demand for color in the pro- 
duct. The local demand calls for a certain amount of 
green; the canning demand is for white. To produce 
good, tender, white asparagus it is necessary to cover 
deeply and blanch the shoots by continued growth through 
a thicker layer of loose earth, as has been described. 

Comparatively little asparagus is bunched in California, 
the bulk of it being marketed in large boxes as loose stalks 
which are both wholesaled and retailed by the pound. 
For distance shipments the boxes are marked so that the 
stems stand on their ends just as they grow, for they are 
apt tn bend nut of shape if Lying on the sides. For near 
marketing in the height of the season the asparagus is 
usually delivered in open boxes holding forty pounds or 
more. Where bunching is desirable, it can be neatly done 
by putting the stalks point downward in a teacup, tying 
the bunch, and then squaring off the butts with a sharp 
knife. 

The asparagus season in California extends from Janu- 
ary until June; although later cutting is sometimes prac- 
ticed, it is not. as stated, for the good of the plants. 

The Asparagus Rust. — The disease made a vigorous at- 
tack upon California asparagus fields about five years ago. 
A careful study of the disease and experimentation con- 
ducted by Prof. R. B. Smith demonstrated that the trouble 
can be controlled by proper use of sulphur for the pro- 
tection of the top growth after the cutting season. Full 
information can be had from the University Experiment 
Station at Berkeley. 

VARIETIES CHIEFLY GROWN IX CALIFORNIA. 

Conover's Colossal: an old standard variety: large ten- 
der stalks of good flavor. Largely grown for the can- 
neries, which use it almost to the exclusion of other sorts. 

Palmetto: widely grown in California: claimed to be 
earlier than Conover's, also more productive and uniform 
in size : quality fine : especially favored for fresh shipments 
from southern California. 

Barr's Mammoth: a famous Philadelphia variety; very 
large shoots of uniform thickness; light color and few 
scales; crisp, early and fine. Very highly approved in 
Orange county. 

Columbian Mammoth: largely used by market growers, 
large, white, handsome, holding color well: very produc- 
tive. 

BEANS. 

The Broad Bean. -Vicia faba. 

French, feve; German, garten-bohnenj Flemish, platte- 
boon : Dutch, tuin boonen ; Danish, valske bonner: Italian. 

Cava; Spanish, haba : Portuguese, fava. 
The Kidney Bean. — Phaseolus vulgaris* 
French, haricot; German, bohne; Flemish and Dutch. 

boon; Danish, ha veboiineii ; Italian. faginolO; Spanish, 

fri.jole ; Portuguese, feijao. 

The Scarlet Runner Bean. Phaseolus muUiflorux. 

French, haricots d'Espagoe; German, Arabische 
Dutch, Tursche boon; Italian, Eagiuolo di Spogna. 

The Lima Bean. Phaseolus hum/us. 

French, haricots de Lima; German, breitshottig 
bohne: Italian, fagiuolo di Lima; Spanish, judia d 

The Black-eyed Bean. Vigm sinensis. 

A cow pea. 

The Soy Bean. Glycine hispida. 

Of the vast numbers of bean varieties known to horti- 
culture. California grows but very few. Market gardeners 

of different nationalities, ministering to their compatriots 
among our citizens, have brought to California many va- 
rieties which they esteemed in their old homes and grow 
them here in limited quantities, but the general markets 
and the gardens and fields of Americans can show but few 
sorts. This is due in part to the indisposition of the people 
to try culinary experiments and in part to the fact that 
some varieties have shown peculiar climatic adaptations 
and are therefore better from a grower's point of view. 
But though few varieties are grown, some of them are 
grown on a very large scale — to such an extent, in fact, 
that five counties/)!) our southern coast win for California 
the distinction <d' being the greatest Lima bean producing 
country of the world. The California bean product in 
1909 was aboul two and one-half million sacks, of which 
about one-half were Linias. 

The capacity of California for production of beans is 
apparently limited only by the extent to which the pro- 
duce can be profitably sold. Whenever there is a falling 
off in local production of the common varieties east of the 
Rocky Mountains. California shipments are freely made, 
and when, many years ago, there was a train-load sold for 
Boston, California embraced not only the profit thereof, 
but the proud satisfaction that she was really doing some- 
thing worth while for the maintenance of the intellectual 
standard of the country. 

iTo be Continued.) 



illlie 



Lima 
Lima. 




The Best 



Yet 



FREE— A Copy of the 
1910 Revised and En- 
larged Edition of 

Germain's Seed 

and 
Plant Catalog 

A mine of valuable 
information that no 
Fanner, Gardener, or 
Poultry Raiser should 
be without. 

It is the result of 
much time and labor on 
the part of the Germain 
Seed & Plant Co. and 
is offered to the public 
knowing the needs of 
garden and farm life. 
It solves the problems 
which worry the gar- 
dener, farmer and poul- 
tryman and helps you 
to get the best results. 




PLANTS - SEH)S 

Superb— Everbearing 
Strawberries. 



Giant Himalayas 
Blackberries, 

the greatest of croppsrs. Other small fr 

Reliable Garden and 
Flower Seeds 

at honest prices. 

Don't fail to ask for our catalogue. Ever 
thing for the Farm and Garden. 



G. H. Hopkins & Son, 

Burbank, Cal. 

Western Seed foi 
Western Planters 

Grass, Vegetable and 
Field Seeds. 

WRITE FOR PRICES 

Hickey & Vonsen, Inc. 

J32-134 Kentucky St., Petaluma, California. 



January 29, 1910. 



87 




'"1~M!I' Eastern markets during 
I th« winter arc unlimited. <J No 
crop has ever been introduced 
on the Const lliut hgl promis- 
ed so well and made good 
so readily and regular. 



GROWN BY 



J. B. WAGNER 

THE RHUBARB SPECIALIST 
Pasadena, Cal. 

<|f Easier to grow and less care and labor 
than corn or pumpkins. Plant an acre and 
reap an annual harvest of $1000 to $1500, 
or plant several acres and become wealthy 
in a few years. 

(][ Better than a gold or any other mine 
on earth. 



MAIL THIS COUPON NOW 



Anyone having good land can get credit on plants. For full 
information and circulars send this to 

J. B. WAGNER, PASADENA, CAL. 

NAME 



ADDRESS. 



Peach Trees 

We have a large stock of 
Muirs, Lovell, Phillips 
and Tuscan clings. If you 
are in need of any of these 
write us for prices. We 
also have a full line of 
nursery stock. 



Salesmen Wanted. 



Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

Albany, Oregon. 



GET A □ DEAL 



PLACE YOUR ORDER W ITH US 
FOR 

EUCALYPTUS, FIGS, GRAPES 

AND ALL FRUIT AND ORNAMENT i L 
NURSERY STOCK. 

We have the LARGEST stock or EUCA- 
LYPTUS grown In Kresno County— 1,000,0 
TREES and STRICTLY FIRST CLASS. 
Orders booked now for future delivery. 
Twenty years' experience In the nursery 
business, with the increasing trade which we 
are dolug, is conclusive evidence of our 
square dealing with customers. 

Catalogue and Prices Upon Application. 

S. W. Marshall Company, Inc. 

Box 652, Fresno. Cal. 



PLANT NOW 

SEEDS 



BEST 
QUALITY 




FRUIT 

AND 

ORNAMENTAL 
TREES 

ALL KINDS 

AND 

BEST QUALITY 



If you are inter- 
ested in the best 
SEEDS, 
TREES, 
and 
PLANTS, 
Write for Catalogue, 

TRUMBULL SEED CO. 

61 California St., 
SAM FRANCISCO. 





FOR SALE 

500 Cal. Klk. Walnuts, 6 to 8 ft @ .16 

200 Selected Pecans. 2 to 4 ft @ .16 

75 S. Kuby Pomegranate 1 year, @ .10 

75 Sweet Fruited Pomegranate, 

1 year @ .10 

700 Gros (Jolman, 1 year rooted vine..® .05 

500 Almeria, 1 year rooted vine @ .10 

Several thousand Almeria and Gros 
(Jolman cuttings. Price on application. 

C. B. CUNNINGHAM, 

Mills, Cal. 



THE "BOSS" 

Tree Protector 



MADE OF YUCCA PALM 

Is cheap, durable, and 
quickly put on the tree. 
It prevents rabbits from 
destroying your trees. A 
sure protection against 
frost, sunburn, grass- 
hoppers or dry winds. 
Can be easily removed; 
will last for years. Send 
for samples. 



PRICES. 

Per 1000. 
n. long, 7 wide, $ 9.50 
n. long, 7 wide, 10.50 
n. long, 7 wide, 
n. long, 7 wide, 
n. long, 7 wide, 
long, 7 wide, 




n. long, 7 wide, 



11.50 
13.00 
14.50 
17.00 
20.00 



YUCCA MANUFACTURING CO. 

1380 WILLOW ST.. LOS ANGELES. CAL. 




Tanks 



Tanks 



WINE TANK. 



WINDELER'S PLANING MILL 

AND COOPERAGE 
GEO. WINDELER, Prop. 

Water Tanks, Wine Tanks, made from carefully 
selected stock by careful and experienced work- 
men. "Tanks that are well made last a long 
time." It will pay you to get my prices before 
buying. 

GEO. WINDELER, 
144-1 54 Berry St. San Francisco. Cal. 




WATER TANK. 



PnVTPfPQlFBUIT and 

OUT JJ\LLO[ORHAMEMTAL 

RELIABLE FIRM 



We have the most complete 
Nursery in the 



„,„„. _ and the Largest As- 
VVtJKLiD sortment to choose 
from 



Our Fruit Trees are all budded or grafted 
from our own tested Orchards. Therefore 
purchasers are certain to get the varieties 
ihey order. 



WRITE US FOR OUR CATALOGUE A. 



CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO. 



600 ACRES ESTABLISHED 1865 

NILES, CALIFORNIA. 



To Exterminate 
GROUND SQUIRRELS, GOPHERS, also 
BORERS. ROOT APHIS, etc. on Fruit Trees. 

Carbon Bisulphide 

Is the only effective remedy. 
For sale by dealers and manufacturers. 
WHEELER. REYNOLDS & STAUFFER 
OFFICE: 624 California St- San Francisco. 



FOR SALE 

I 42 acres Kru.it Trees In full hearing \ % miles west 
of Winters, in the early fruit belt Also Apr - 
cuts, reaches, Plums and Almonds In deep SO 1 
AUGUST BRINCK, Winters, Cal. 




Circular \f 
Cultivator Tooth, 

STANDARD AND CLAMP. 



First Premium State Fair 1907-08. 



LIGHT DRAFT AND GREAT SAVER 
OF HORSEFLESH. 

See Catalog lor Testimonials. 
Write us and we will send you one. 

M ANl l'Al TI KKI) BY 

BOWEN St FRENCH, 

656 Washington SI., 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



WALNUT TREES 

grown from carefully selected seed, 
will produce 90$ No. 1 nuts of which 
25% will grade fancy. Nuts grown 
from seed are more hardy, less liable 
to damage from frost, blight or sun- 
burn. 1'ostal for prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, Cal. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 29. 1910. 



CULTURAL NOTES. 



(Continued From Page 85.) 

about 57 other varieties of diseases and 
skin blemishes common to the orange. 
When I unbosomed myself upon my great 
discovery I was quickly told that there 
could not possibly be anything in it as 
they themselves had picked fruit un- 
der every conceivable condition. Dr. 
Coit, of the laboratory, says that he 
thinks the man who makes the statement 
has mistaken some other blemish for 
brown spot, and he says that it is surpris- 
ing how many growers mistake some- 
thing else for this trouble. He says that 
he has many a time asked growers if 
they were troubled with certain diseases, 
and they often say yes, when they have 
something totally different. I know my- 
self that there is a misconception regard- 
ing "thrips" in southern California. Many 
growers and packers call this disease 
"leaf mark," either that or I do not know 
myself what it is. 1 know what they call 
tb rips in Tulare county is the same as is 
widely known in the south as leaf mark, 
though the trouble is not nearly as gen- 
eral down here as in Tulare county, 
where Paul R. Jones, of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, is rendering great aid to 
the growers in fighting this pest. How- 
ever, more about thrips some other time. 



Dr. Coit states that of course rough 
handling and bruising will cause spots, 
but he does not, think that the brown 
spot is caused that way. He states that 
he has purposely bruised fruit upon pick- 
ing it and that the spot has developed all 
over the orange except in the place 
bruised. This brown spot is peculiar in 
that it never appears on fruit as it hangs 
upon the tree, but develops about six days 
after being picked. This makes it a very 
hard proposition for the packer to handle, 
lor he cannot throw out the effected fruit 
unless he holds it in his house for six 
days or more, and that would be an utter 
impossibility in rush times. This spot 
does not go below the outside skin tissue, 
and, therefore, does not hurt the fruit a 
particle except in appearance, but the 
appearance is so bad that it hurts the 
sale, and consequently reduces the sell- 
ing value, having the appearance of rot- 
ting the fruit, a very ugly sight when 
prevalent in a degree. I had always un- 
derstood that the brown spot only ap- 
peared on oranges that were picked early 
and that later there was no trouble from 
this source. I had a vague idea that De- 
cember, and possibly the forepart of 
January, might be called early, and that 
from that time on it would be all right. 
Dr. Coit assures me the trouble does not 
end at that time, and that it is prevalent 
to some extent as late as April ; that 
when the oranges are immature, picked 
green, the spot develops green. He says 
that he thinks that for some reason the 
spot is becoming lighter in color, that 
formerly it was known as the black spot, 
but has become a pronounced brown. 
There are ever so many theories as to 
causes, but all have been run down and 
proven wrong so the laboratory folks will 
have to keep working a while longer. 

Indeed, they have much to do beside 
follow up any one particular trouble, and 
have many irons in the fire at one time. 
One great work that they are about to 
start is to inspect the culls in at least 15 
packing houses, not only once, but all 
through the season, and to chart the 
blemishes so that they may arrive at 
some conclusion as to what is causing the 
greatest loss to the growers and try and 
find means to eradicate it. It costs just 
as much to raise a cull orange as a good 
one, and an enormous saving might be 
accomplished. 



We were having a discussion as to why 
the oranges ripened earlier in Tulare and 
Butte counties than in the south. It had 



"The time to remedy mistakes is before you make 
them" says a modern philosopher, and this advice 
applies most pointedly to the fruit grower. The time 
to lay the foundation for a fruit fortune is 





Planting time 



YOU CAN'T STICK any young tree into any ground and expect Nature to 
excuse your carelessness and ignorance. The selecting of the young trees is 
the first step that requires your care and all your available brains. Begin 
light. 

FIRST. SELECT THE MOST profitable varieties of trees most 
suitable to your soil and climate. Then select the trees that are 
hardiest and healthiest and with the best roots. 

IN THE PLACER NURSERIES we grow our trees only on vir- 
gin soil — decomposed granite — (not river bottom commonly used by 
nurserymen) and they have exceptionally well-meshed root sys- 
tems, with bright, highly colored, well toughened wood fibre — 
hardy plants that will thrive . 

OUR LONG EXPERIENCE as fruit growers, fruit shippers, and 
nurserymen has taught us what varieties are best to ship and best 
to grow — best from a seller's standpoint — and In propagating we 
cut our buds and scions only from the best parent trees that have 
been under our personal observation. 

THESE PARENT TREES have been marked by us when they 
were in fruit. So that we can absolutely guarantee that our trees 
are true to name. There is no probability of the annoyance and 
disappointment of finding, when your orchard begins to bear, that 
you have a dozen varieties of fruit where you expected but one — 
the kind you had decided would pay you best. 

OUR PEACH and PLUM TREES (on Peach root) are propa- 
gated on the natural peach seedlings — 1. e., seeds that for genera- 
tions have grown from seedlings. Our trees may not be the cheap- 
est, but they are grown for the future when they will give crops 
that will repay a thousand times any trillling expense. Begin right. 

Send lor our " Planters Guide" and Catalog; it Is free and contains a mine 
of valuable knowledge gained Irom many years experience. 

OUR STOCK comprises the best proiltable commercial varieties ol 
Peach Pears Apples Plums 

Apricots Cherries Quinces Grapes 

Walnuts Oranges Lemons, etc. 



Almonds 




THE SILVA-BERGTHOLDT CO. 

1S2 Orchard St., Newcastle, Cal. 



REX LIME AND SULPHUR 
SOLUTION 

THE FAMOUS INSECTICIDE AND FUNGICIDE. 

It has been found that Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution used in the early 
part of the season is as effective for Blight as the Bordeaux Mixture, and it 
does not have the injurious effect upon the tree as Bluestone. In Oregon and 
Washington the use of Bordeaux is being entirely eliminated and lime and 
sulphur solution used for all purposes. The leaves are falling from the trees, 
and especially the Peach, Almond and Apricot should be immediately sprayed 
for the first spraying. The second spraying should be done on all trees just 
before the buds open in the Spring. 

Rex Lime and Sulphur Solution is a guaranteed article, properly pre- 
pared, free from sediment, and as cheap, if not cheaper, than the farmer can 
make a mixture himself. 

For particulars inquire of your dealer or write to the factory at 

BENICIA, CALIFORNIA. 



EUCALYPTUS 



Of our high standard in quality— by the single box or by carload. 
We invite correspondence. 

Our Booklet, on " When, How, and What to Plant," a revised 
edition — to our patons only. To others on receipt of postage. 
Postals not noticed. 

ADDRESS, 

W. A. X. STRATTON, 

PETALUMA. CAL. 



SEEDS 

VALLEY SEED COMPANY 



Superior quality of garden, 
flower and field seeds. 



311-313 «J Street, 

ALFALFA SF.ED 



IN VARIETY. 



Sacramento, Cal. 
SPECIALTY. 



The only two really "Immune" well tested walnuts: heavy 
bearers: bloom late: mature early: grafted trees only. 

"Concord" 




Send for catalogue and special circulars on 

New Fraits, Pedigreed Prunes, Eucalyptus, Etc. 
LEONARD COATES NURSERY CO.. INC.. 

Morganhlll, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



Pear Blight 

We have positively 
demonstrated that 
WE CAN CURE 
THIS DISEASE. 



Write us for particulars. 



Pear Blight Remedy Co. 

VACAVILLE, CALIFORNIA. 




Lime for Spraying 

Purest and best. Largest barrels. 

USED EXCLUSIVELY BY CALIFORNIA REX 
SPRAY COMPANY, AND MANY OTHERS. 

Ask your dealer for It or address, 

PACIFIC LIME & PLASTER CO. 

7th and Townsend St., San Francisco, Cal. 



TREES 



We grow a large stock of first 
class Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Walnuts, Grape Vines, 
Eucalyptus, Orange, Lemons, 
Roses, Berry Plants, etc. 



ESTABLISHED 1864. 



Hannay Nursery Co, 

San Jose, Cal. 



Ask for SNOW'S GRAFTING WAX 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW, Llncola Avenue, Sao Josr. Cal. 



January 29, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



89 



always been my understanding that in 
the north the hotter summers, the days 
hot and the night warm, advanced the 
orange faster than in the south, and that 
the heat had the effect of growing them 
quicker and put the sugar into them 
sooner. Also, that the colder weather of 
the early fall brought out the coloring 
matter in the skin earlier than in the 
warmer winter of the southern California. 
I know that the tropical orange of Flori- 
da, Cuba, Jamaica and Porto Rico does 
not. have the bright color of the Califor- 
nia grown orange, while the climate of 
the Azores and southern Europe pro- 
duces a fruit on par with the California 
orange. I have heard that in very hot 
countries, like the Philippines, that or- 
anges never do get any color other than 
green, though sweet and seemingly ma- 
ture on the inside. We left the answer 
to the scientist, the man of tubes and re- 
torts, and this is his answer: 

"You ask me why oranges ripen earlier 
at Porterville than in southern California, 
and I am also asked why oranges on the 
north side of the tree ripen in advance 
of those on the south side; while still an- 
other inquirer- asked why do apples and 
the autumn leaves turn red. All these 
questions are akin, and may be answered 
— if at all — in the same breath. 

"All green parts of plants contain chlo- 
rophyl (green-of-leaf ), the chief function 
of which is to break up the carbonic di- 
oxide of the air and "fix" the carbon of 
the same as a component of the plant tis- 
sues. This process goes on only in the 
light, and the stronger the light the 
more energetic the action. Growth then, 
in the higher plants, is essentially a pro- 
cess of reduction ( deoxidation) . 

"So long as fruit is "green" and grow- 
ing, it is subject to the same law of 
growth as the leaf. Indeed, according to 
Physiological Botany, every part of both 
flower and fruit is a metamorphosed leaf. 
That is, appropriately changed to serve 
a particular end. But as seen as fruit 
has reached maturity the process is re- 
versed, and oxidation supersedes reduc- 
tion. All fruits, therefore, absorb oxygen 
in ripening. 

"The coloring of chlorophyl — as is the 
normal coloring of all organic nature — is 
due to iron, which in its lower state of 
oxidation is generally green or blue, 
while in its higher, generally red. This 
is why the growing leaves and fruit are 
green, while the blood of animals, the 
ruddy apple and the autumn leaf are red. 
The same iron that was green under the 
influence of reduction becomes red under 
that of oxidation. The dense foliage of 
the orange tree diminishes the intensity 
of light on the north side, and thus en- 
courages the substitution of the oxidative 
for the reductive process. I can well re- 
member when a boy, burying the green 
plums in order to hurry up their ripen- 
ing. 

"We have at last reached Porterville. 
By reference to your map you will ob- 
serve this city to be depressed between 
the Green Horn Mountains on the east 
and the Mt. Diablo range on the west; 
the one cutting off the duration of day- 
light in the morning, the other in the 
evening. Thus 1 am led to suspect that 
the same clay is somewhat shorter at 
Porterville than at Eos Angeles. The 
autumn, therefore, comes earlier there 
than bore, provided my suspicion is well 
founded. 

"But, you say, the apple is most highly 
colored where the sunlight strikes it. So 
it is. The direct sunlight causes the 
greatest production of chlorophyl, where, 
of course, is the most organic iron; and 
when this iron is oxidized, it, of course, 
gives the richer coloring. 

"However, regardless of the modus 
operandi, one thing we know, and that is, 
the sunbeam kisses the apple, and this 
makes the apple blush. 

"It should be made clear that southern 




Plant Morse's 

Sweet Peas 



Our New Catalog 
Mailed Free 



Now 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 

Seeds - Plants - Trees 



Jackson Street 



San Francisco, California 




California can partly, at least, cancel 
Porterville's advantage by intelligent use 
of fertilizers with the view to hastening 
maturity of the fruit; and this, too, with 
distinct advantage to herself in the mat- 
ter of increased production at the same 
time." 



Now is Hie Time lor Ordering Trees 

We have a large lot of EUCALYPTrS, 
CYI'RESS, PINK TREES, transplanted in 
flats; also a large variety of ORNAMENT- 
AL TREES AND SHRUBBERY, EVER- 
GREEN AND DECIDIOUS, most suitable 
for planting along streets and sidewalks 
and for beautifying parks and gardens. 

Also PALMS, DRACENA, ROSES, ERI- 
CAS, CAMELLIAS, AZALEAS, RHODO- 
DENDRON, FRUIT TREES and BERRY 
BUSHES. 

THE PACIFIC NURSERIES 

3041 Baker Street, San Francisco, 

And Millbrae, Cal. 
Send for Catalog. Mention Pacific Rural 
Press. 



EUCALYPTUS 

We are prepared to supply your wants 
in large or small quantity for fall or 
spring planting, the stock is A No. 1. Se- 
cure your stock early. 

ORANGE AND LEMON TREES. 

Our citrus trees are, without doubt, the 
finest trees on the market. We can supply 
them in both one and two year buds, in 
any quantity desired. 

We are also large growers of Palms, 
Roses, Fruit Trees, and other stock. 

ARMSTRONG'S COVINA NURSERIES, 
Covina, Cal. 



ROSE MOUND 
NURSERY 

B. C. KINLEY 6 SON, Proprietors 

Growers and Importers of all kinds of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubbery. 

No Irrigation. Write for catalogue. 
SANTA ROSA, CALIFORNIA. 



BARTLETT PEARS, CHERRIES, 
ALMONDS, APPLES, PEACHES, PRUNES, 
PLUMS, FIGS, GRAPE VINES, BERRIES, 

ORNAMENTAL SHADE TREES, 
FLOWERING SHRUBS and ROSES. 

We have a fine stock of all commercial 
varieties. Strictly first class, TRUE to 
NAME. Give us a chance to quote you 
prices. We can interest you. Bend for 
Catalogue. 

CHICO NURSERY CO., 

Cblco, Cal. 

AN IMPROVED FREESTONE PEACH 

The best for canning, drying and market. 
FAY ELBERTA PEACH 

Superior to Mulr or Lovell for canning or dry- 
ing, and superior to any for market. A heavy 
and regular bearer, very attractive, Hrm and of 
exceptionally fine flavor. Write for descriptive 
circular. THE SI I A' A-HKKOTHOLUT CO., 

161 Orchard Ht., Newcastle, Cal. 



rVIILL 

Manufacturers 
of 

Fruit and Vine, 
Orange 

and Lemon, 
Nursery Slock, 
Alfalfa, 

Bone and Blood 
FERTILIZERS. 
Hawaiian 

Works 
Honolulu and San 



TO 



IVI A INJ 

Importers of 

Nitrate oi 
Soda 

Sulphate Ammonia 
Sulphate Potash 
Muriate Potash 
Super Phosphates 
Thomas Phosphates 
Tankage 
Guano 
Bone Meal 

Fertilizer Company, Ltd. 




Francisco 



224 California Street 
San Francisco 



FEED THE SOIL 

AND THE SOIL WILL FEED YOU 



Orange and other fruit growers and farmers all over the Coast highly 
recommend our fertilizers as producing the grandest results in quantity, 
quality of products and profits. Our fertilizers have the largest sale 
west of the Rockies, because they make sure and good crops. Lack of 
fertility means starved soil. Our fertilizers feed the soil and make it 
produce abundant harvest. Write and let us tell you about it. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS 

444 PINE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 
Branch Office: 216 Grosse Building, Los Angeles. Cal. 



KIRKMAN NURSERIES 

RELIABLE GROWERS OF DECIDUOUS 
TREES AND VINES 

WE ARE GROWING THE 

Largest Stock of Peach Trees in the State 

Wholesale Orders Solicited. 

Personal attention given to orders from planters. 
Let us figure on your needs now. 



MAIN OFFICE, 



FRESNO, CAL. 



The Buying of Citrus Trees 

IS A SIMPLE PROBLEM IN ECONOMICS. 

You cannot extract sunbeams from cucumbers nor blood from stones, nor good crops 
of line oranges and lemons from Inferior trees A poor tree Is an expensive experiment 
entailing only vexation of spirit and a dwindling pocket book. Then why experiment with 
stock of doubtful quality ? W hy not get the best and be sure of the future? For 20 years we 
have been supplying the people who grow good citrus fruits with their trees In every citrus 
growing section of the world, and stand ready to serve you equally well. Why not write im 
and let us become better acquainted? 

The economics of successful orange and lemon growing Is tersely explained in our book, 
entitled "The Citrus Fruits: Historically, Ilortlculturally and Commercially, " a copy of 
which is yours for the sum of 25cents. 

SAN DIM AS CITRUS NURSERIES, 



R. M. TEAGUE. Prop. 



San Dlmas. California. 



CITRUS SEED-BED TREES, SOUR STOCK 

Sweet Btock, rough lemon stock. We have the largest and linest block of seedlings In the 



State. NAVKI.H, VAIiKN.CIAM, EUREKA LEMONS. 
SOUTHLAND NURSERIES, F. H. Dlsbrow, Prop. 



Phones: Main 949, Home 2620, 

PASADENA, CAL. 



90 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 29. 1910. 



AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. 



Horticultural Notes. 

Peter J. Yolo, who farms near Dixon, 
is growing lemons on his place and is 
having much success. 

J. C. Henderson of Palmero, Butte 
county, has an orange grove of eight acres 
which netted him $210 per acre. 

The California Newtown Pippins are 
bringing from $1.60 to $2.65 a box, ac- 
cording to size, wholesale in London. 

C. F. Summy of Meridan, Sutter county, 
recently received enough walnut trees of 
the Franquette variety to plant ten acres. 

The Board of Supervisors of Kings 
county have appointed B. V. Sharp and 
A. C. Eccles as horticultural commission- 
ers. 

The fruit growers in the vicinity of 
Yuba City are doing more spraying this 
year than ever before in the history of 
the fruit industry of this locality. 

Some of the oranges which have been 
shipped out lately from southern Cali- 
fornia have been damaged in transit, 
which, coupled with the frost of the last 
month, has made the orange business 
rather dull. 

Oranges from the old time grain fields 
of the Oakdale grove, on the land north 
of the Stanislaus river, are bringing the 
producers very profitable prices in Stock- 
ton. W. A. Bain will realize some $5000 
from his orange crop in this section. 

Florida has been hit hard by the recent 
cold snap. Firing was resorted to in 
many places to save the fruit. The 
Weather Bureau's report of the approach 
ing cold wave gave warning to the orange 
growers in time so that many could fire 
their groves and protect the fruit. 

W. L. Peters of Petal uma has some 
specimens of Delaware Red apples from 
the Peters & Evans Yucapie ranch, which 
have been in cold storage since October, 
1908. The apples are sound and firm and 
are in almost as good condition as when 
put on the ice. 

The Sonoma county orchardists met on 
January 22 and held a most successful 
meeting of this body. Horticultural Com- 
missioner Jeffrey and Secretary O. E. 
Bremner of the State Horticultural Com- 
mission were present and conducted the 
meting. Among those who delivered ad- 
dresses were Mrs. Laura Barlow, Senator 
E. D. Bills of Sacramento, Commissioner 
W. I. Newcomb of Sebastopol, C. E. 
Hotle, E. E. Morford, C. W. Woodworth, 
J. E. Metzger and E. C. Merritt. 

Horticultural Commissioner A. G. 
Schulz of Tulare county has received in- 
formation that Governor Gillett is ready 
to sign the order making a State quar- 
antine of Tulare county, as recommended 
by State Commissioner Jeffrey. There 
will be three or four quarantine stations 
when this order is signed, where the in- 
spection and fumigation of all citrus 
fruits and stock will take place. Rail- 
roads will be forbidden to carry stock 
past these quarantine stations. Any 
stock fotind infested will be sent back to 
the consigner, and all found healthy will 
be fumigated as a precautionary measure. 

The fruit men of Placer county re- 
cently organized the Placer County Fruit 
Growers' and Shippers' Association. This 
organization elected the following board 
of five supervisory inspectors for the fol- 
lowing year: George D. Kellogg, Charles 
Karlson, J. H. Tudsbury, H. E. Butler and 
G. Geraldson. These men are to serve 
without pay and will supervise the in- 
spection of all fruit and will employ all 
paid inspectors to pass on the quality of 
fruit. This committee of Ave is em- 
powered to arrange for boards of three 
arbitrators for each of the various ship- 
ping points in the county to whom shall 



THE 

Dattier De Beyrouth 
GRAPE 

TO Ol II I- ITRONSl 

We are prepared to supply Number One 
Hooted Vines of a New Variety of Grape, 
which we liave thoroughly tested and 
which has proven a money maker in every 
sense of the term. This new Grape was 
imported from France and is known as 
the DATTIKR DE BFOYROl'TH. It has 
been bearing with us for two seasons and 
fulfills every expectation as a shipping or 
table grape.' It Is about two weeks earlier 
in ripening than the Malaga, and its large 
size makes it very attractive and a ready 
seller. Bunches large, berries loose, never 
compact, this point being in its favor, ren- 
dering the packing of same easily per- 
formed. A more minute description of 
this grade is about as follows: 

Berries very large, oval in form, one 
inch and over long by three-quarters of 
an inch across in diameter; skin thin but 
tough, greenish at tirst, but as the grape 
ripens it turns to a beautiful amber, cov- 
ered with white bloom; very meaty, juicy 
and sweet, possessing little or no acidity. 
Its keeping qualities are of the best, and 
even when allowed to remain on the vines 
until over-ripe shows no inclination to 
drop. We cannot do this grape justice by- 
describing it; it must be seen and eaten 
before it can be fully appreciated. 

To give you an idea of its productive- 
ness, we will add that we have 15 acres of 
the Dattier de Beyrouth which were sold 
when marketed alongside of the Thompson 
Seedless, the latter bringing 110 cents a 
crate while the former brought $2.00 to 
$2.25 per crate. The Dattier de Beyrouth 
requires a heavy or sub-irrigated soil to 
reach perfection. In light soil no phe- 
nomenal showing can be made. 

As a money maker we predict for this 
grape a great future. We have several 
thousand of these vines in Number One 
Hooted stock, which we are selling to in- 
troduce same at the following prices: 
*7..->0 per 100; $50.00 per 1000, 

Let us have your orders before our stock 
is exhausted. A full line of all leading va- 
rieties nursery stock. 

Send for < alalogue. 



THE FRESNO NURSERY 



r. ll. wii.son. Prop., 
Hox 015, Fresno, ( at. 



Encinal Nurseries 

F. C. WILLSON, Proprietor. 
Sunnyvale, Santa Clara County, Cal. 

SPECIALTY WALNUTS 



"WILLSON'S WONDER" Natural Size. 

"ACME " 

AND GENUINE 

" FRANQUETTE " 

All these are blight resisting. 

Send for booklet with halftone cuts 
and descriptive matter. 



Gold Ridge Nursery 

H. R. JOHNS, Proprietor. 

COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF 

Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Etc. 

Trees grown on high sandy land 
without irrigation. 
Write for new catalog and prices. 

SEBASTOPOL. CAL. 



WHY 



Is the Vrooman Pure Bred 
FRANQUETTE WAI.M IT 
lieinc; planted in California 
and Oregon more extensively than 
any other one variety'.' 
Simply because, alter a careful 
investigation, people find it the most 
reliable and best paying variety on 
the market. 

The tree Is perfectly hanly, blooms late, 
bears heavily and yearly. 

The nut Is unusually well fllleil anil uni- 
form In size. 

The meat Is rich and oily. 

The shell Is medium thin and sealed 
tight, permitting of ample handling with- 
out cracking open. 

Last but not least— 
The Voortnan Pure Bred Franquette retails 
at from 10c. to 15c. per pound above other 
varieties. Are there reasons not sufficient 
for its popularity. 

We have both drafted and Second Genera- 
tion Seedlings and costs no more than many 
others, and furthermore, 

REMEMBER 

We alone propagate the Vrooman Fran- 
nuette. Don't be deceived by Imitators. 
Free literature sent on request. 

Address, 

Oregon Nursery Co., 

Orenco, Oregon. 



ROSES, 

PALMS, 

SHADE AND ORNAMENATL 
TREES 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

The E. Gill Nursery Co. 

WEST BERKELEY, CAL, 



Eucalyptus Seeds 

In large or small quantities, 33 species 
to select from. Write for free pam- 
phlet. "Eucalyptus Culture." It tells 
you how to sow the seed, raise the 
plants and plant out in the field. Also 
describes all the leading kinds, gives 
their uses, etc. 

Trial packets 15c each. 4 for 50c. 
Write for prices In quantity. 

THEODORE PAYNE 

345 S. MAIN ST., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 




[The confidence felt by farmers and 
\ gardeners in Ferry's Seeds to-day 
i would have been impossible to feel in 
1 any seeds two score of years 
\ ago. We have made a 
l science of seed 
I growing. 



always do \ 
exactly what you 
expect of them. For sale ' 
everywhere. FERRY'S 1910 SEED 
| ANNEAL Free on request 

D. M. FERRY A CO., Detroit, Mich . 



THE GOLDEN RULE NURSERY 

of I.oomls, Cal., are ci.osini; out their entire 
Ni HsKKY STOCK at greatly reduced prices. 
An exceptional opportunity Is ottered to those 
who wish to obtain trees of the famous ('rocker 
Winter Bartlet 1'ear which Is might proof. 
Write for prices. 

C. W. EARLE, Manager. 

ETJCALYPTS 

Of hardy \ arletles are now being planted. Our 
large stock of many varieties is grown without 
protection and able to endure extremes of 
weather. Write for booklet and prices. 

LLOYD R. TAYLOR, Modesto, Cal. 



Figs 

Apricots 

Nectarines 

Peaches 

Pears 

Plums 

Prunes 

Nuts 



Orange 

Lemon 

Pomelo 



Extra Fine 
Assortment 



ORNAMENT YOUR 
GARDEN AND GROUNDS 

We offer the finest collection of 
Deciduous and Evergreen Shade 
Trees, Shrubs, Palms, to be had 
in the West. 



Roses 



Field grown, strong and Sturdy 
Plants, including all Leading, 
Standard and New Varieties. 



Grapes 



Headquarters for Shipping. 
Raisin and Wine Varieties. 

" Dattier De Beyrouth " 

This new grape promises to be one 
of the great shipping grapes of the 
future, and growers in California, 
Arizona and Southern Texas should 
give a few of these vines a trial. 
The berries are very large, of a 
beautiful amber color. In addition 
to its shipping qualities, it makes a 
most excellent raisin. 



"CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURE." 

This book has been especially 
prepared with a view of not only 
describing all our lines of stock, 
but giving practical instructions 
regarding planting, pruning and 
care of same. Profusely illustrated. 

Senl postpaid on receipt of 25c. 

ANNUAL PRICE CATALOGUE 
MAILED FREE ON APPLI- 
CATION. 



Established 1884 

PAID-UP CAPITAL « 200,00000 

FANCHER CREEK 
NURSERIES 

INC 

Geo.c Roedlng pr« 3 &Mgr. 
Box 18 Fresno.CaIif6rnia.U5A4 



i c 

g|o 



January 29, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



91 



be referred all disputes arising from the 
inspection of fruit. The cost of inspec- 
tion and labels is to be derived by a tax 
not to exceed one-half cent per box on 
fruit sent into the organization. 



General Agriculture. 

Wylys Hall has seeded 2000 acres to 
barley and wheat at his ranch near 
Visalia. 

Fresno county is to receive a consign- 
ment of 1000 Chinese pheasants and sev- 
eral wild turkeys from the State Breed- 
ing Farm near Fruitvale. 

Harry Quin of Delano says that the 
prospects for a good crop this year are 
excellent and the acreage put to grain is 
much larger than ever before. 

Experiments are being carried on by 
several of the farmers of El Toro, Orange 
county, in planting cotton. Although only 
small quantities have been planted it has 
been very successful. 

The Department of Agriculture has de- 
cided to exterminate the English sparrow 
or the "pirate of the air." It suggests 
killing them by spreading wheat soaked 
in strychnine over the ground. 

The farmers around Pleasant Grove 
have decided to take up sugar beet grow- 
ing. They will send their beets to the 
sugar mill at Hamilton. Many of the 
contracts have been made on the test of 



TRY IT ON ONE ACRE 



You do not have to make expensive experi- 
ments with our Fertilizer. Just try it on a small 
patch and watch the results. Compare the pro- 
duct of this acre with the rest of your land. 
Thousands of farmers are greatly increasing 
their Incomes by adding to the soil of their 
farms the elements which it lacks. Very often 
a little fertilizer of the right kind will make a 
success of otherwise unprofitable farms. 

You can find out about the right kind of fer- 
tilizers from our little free book " The Farmer's 
Friend, 1910" now ready for distribution. 

Pacific Guano and Fertilizer Co., 

DEPT. C, 
268 Market Street, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



LAND PLASTER 

(Gypsum) 
Nearly every California ranch 
needs Gypsum. It correct* soil con- 
ditions, helps other fertilizers give 
better results and aid fertility In the 
■oil. Alfalfa, (train, vegetable and 
fruit crops are greatly Increased. 



Write for booklet and prices. 



PACIFIC CEMENT PLASTER CO. 

<MBOY, CALIFORNIA. 



EUCALYPTUS 

with ROOTS 



Send 
for 

Circular. 



HENRY SHAW, Santa Cruz, Cat. 



FRED GROHE'S NURSERY 

SUPPLIES 

CHAMPION STRAIN PETUNIA SEED 
GIANTS OF CALIFORNIA 
RUFFLED GIANTS 
Lodge Flowering Hybrid Delphinium 
Write for Prices. 
61« FIFTH STREET, SANTA ROSA, CAL. 



SOIL EXPERT 

Scientific examinations made of soils 
and irrigation waters. Reliable informa- 
tion furnished regarding the suitability of 
soils for citrus and other fruits. Thirteen 
years' experience with the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture as soil and alkali 
expe it. 

CLARENCE W. DORSEY, 
WMttler, California. 



sugar in the beets, although a few have 
contracted for $5 a ton f. o. b. 

The raisin season has been very suc- 
cessful for the Alameda Sugar Company. 
The average yield per acre in Washing- 
ton township, Alameda county, has been 
15.5 tons, while the average in the Pleas- 
anton section was 11.9 tons. 

The Scranton, Pa., poultry show was 
thrown into consternation at the recent 
theft of an egg laid by the $12,000 prize 
winning Orpington hen, Lady Washing- 
ton. The owner of the hen has offered a 
large reward for its recovery. 

The study of agriculture in the public 
schools of California is becoming quite 
common. The Visalia and Monterey 
schools are the latest to take it up, and 
many other schools over the State are 
planning to put it in their course of 
studies. 

H. A. and A. C. House of North Yakima, 
Wash., are in Yolo county making a 
thorough study of the alfalfa industry. 
They intend to cover the entire alfalfa 
districts of this State in order to get 
various methods of planting and care of 
alfalfa. 

Three tomato growers of Orange county 
report the following returns from the 
srops: Mrs. Dalhman, $150 per acre for 
the first year, and $133 per acre for the 
second year. Mr. Bell, of West Anaheim, 
$187 per acre, Mr. Potter, of Brookhurst. 
$60 per acre. 

Celery is moving fast from the ship- 
ping points in Orange county. Winters- 
burg, alone, sending out 11 cars a day. 
The effect of the damage done by the re- 
cent flood is considerably less than was 
first reported. Celery prices are gradu- 
ally going up, having jumped from 25 
cents per dozen to 27 V. cents in the last 
week. 

M. A. Carleton, a cerealist in charge 
of the grain investments of the Bureau 
of Plant Introduction, reports that Chul 
wheat is one of the best varieties which 
can be planted in California. This wheat 
was introduced from Russia by the De- 
partment of Agriculture in 1902 and was 
planted at Chico in 1904, and results have 
been most satisfactory. 

The Vegetable Growers' Association of 
Whittier recently held a meeting and 
awarded this year's crop of cabbages to 
the California Vegetable Union. The 
acreage around Whittier this year is only 
about one-half what it was in previous 
seasons. Although nothing definite is 
known in regard to the price, an average 
price is expected on account of the small 
amount of land planted. The recent rains 
and the cold weather have done very little 
damage other than delaying the growth 
of cabbages. 



Miscellaneous. 

The market for 1910 raisins has been 
opened at 3 cents. Packers have been 
offering this figure for the new crop of 
muscatels. 

The Canners' League of California, com- 
prising 95 per cent of the canning in- 
dustry of the State, recently met in San 
Francisco and voiced its protest against 
the rise in the rate of canned goods which 
went into effect last January. 

The first cargo, consisting of 5000 
bunches of bananas, ever landed at Port 
Los Angeles came in last week from 
Mexico. This first cargo is to mark the 
opening of a struggle to destroy the 
monopoly of the so-called banana trust. 

The Eighteenth Annual Citrus Fair, 
which is to be held at Cloverdale com- 
mencing February 18, is expected to be 
one of the most successful ever held. A 
large sum of money has been collected to 
be awarded as premiums for the orange 
and olive growing contest. 

A movement is on foot to get the de- 
ciduous fruit shipping concerns of Cali- 



fornia under one roof. Harris Weinstook 
is the moving spirit back of the project. 
The primary end of the amalgamation is 
to promote the stability of what is known 
as the f. o. b. market. This is the system 
of selling by private sales as opposed to 
the auction system, which is now used 
in selling in Eastern markets. 

The independent wine makers of the 
State have finally perfected an organiza- 
tion to be known as the California Inde- 
pendent Wineries, embracing practically 



all the independent sweet wine makers 
in the State. Articles of incorporation 
will soon be filed. The directors are as 
follows: Secondo Guasti of Los Angeles, 
L. R. Rogers of Fresno, Andrew Mattel of 
Fresno, W. C. Brown of Lodi, T. W. John- 
ston of Elk Grove, J. M. Lewis of Victor, 
M. F. Tarpey of Fresno and Herman 
Blatz of Los Angeles. The officers are 
Secondo Guasti, president ; L. R. Rogers, 
vice-president; W. C. Brown, secretary, 
and Andrew Mattei, treasurer. 





You can positively insure a larger crop, elenn fruit and 
healthy trees at a savin? of fully one-third the labor 
ordinarily required and with a much less outlay of time 
and money by using a Bean Magic Spray l ump. 
The reason is because it sprays thoroughly with high, 
even pressure, but the operator is working against only 
one-half the pressure indicated on the gauge. It's on 
account of the spring which makes the Magic Spray 
Pump the easiest running, most perfect spray pump 
ever made. No other pump can compete with it in 
the essential points of quality and durability, and we 
challenge comparison with all other makes regard- 
less of price or construction. 

Bean Magic 
Spray Pumps 

are the result of careful study and experience in 
pump manufacture. We have no other line. Weare 
specialists in pump-making, and the name BEAN 
on a spray pump or appliance is a guarantee that it 
is the best that money and brains can produce. 

The most successful raisers of fancy fruit agree 
that spraying is the only and most effective method 
of securing the best results. The increase in profit 
from securing fancy fruit will alone soon pay for the 
outfit. Whether you have a large or small orchard 
you can no: afford to be without a Bean Magic Spray 
Pump. Write for our special offer, also free illus- 
trated catalog. 

BEAN SPRAY PUMP CO., 

SAN JOSE, CAL. and CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



FROST PREVENTION 

SAVING FRUIT CROP BY SIMPLE MEANS 

With the possible exception of the loss occasioned by insect pests, there is prob- 
ably no one cause of loss so seriously affecting fruit crops as frost. 



BOLTON 



THE BOLTON ORCHARD HEATER AND 
AUTOMATIC FROST ALARM AND THERMOMETER 



will positively protect any orchard or vineyard from damage at a very small 
cost. For full information and particulars, address 

THE FROST PREVENTION CO., Fresno, California. 

Established since 1903. 



A. & M. FIRST EARLY TOMATO 

IX IS THE BEST OF ALL. 

Write for our 1910 seed catalogue. It is a valuable manual of the garden, ranch, and 
nursery. One hundred and forty-four pages full of valuable Information. 

Our 1910 Catalog ol Poultry Supplies sent on request. 

AGGELER & MUSSER SEED CO. 

113-115 N. Main St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



RUEHL=WHEELER NURSERY 

OFFICE AND SALES YARD : 121 W. SAN FERNANDO ST., SAN JOSE, CAL. BOX 826. 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Nurseries: 80 Acres, Monterey Road, Near Edenvale. 25 Acres, Center Road, 
South of Tully Road. 16 Acres, East San Jose, Alum Rock Ave. 

Bend for Free Price List. 



GRAFTED RESISTANT VINES 

True to name. Good unions. Strong growth. 
Scions taken from heavy bearing vines. 

READY FOR DELIVERY FOR EARLY PLANTING. 

PRICE $60 per 1000, F.O.B., R1PON, CAL. 

Petit Syrah, Carignane, Alicante Bouschet, 
Verdel, Isabella Regia, Muscat, Thompson 
Seedless, all on Rupestris St. George and 
other good roots. 

ADDRESS 

JOHN SWETT& SON, Martinez, Cal. 



92 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 29. 1910. 



Live Stock and Dairy. 

Prepared for Pacific Rural Pkkss 
By Paul P. Pabkeb. 



CARELESS HUNTERS. 



Next to the coyote, hunters do more 
damage to the stockmen than any other 
pests on the Pacific coast. What stock 
they do not shoot they scare so badly 
that it takes weeks of quiet feeding to re- 
store the lost weight. When the hunting 
gets bad they seem to blame the stockmen 
for it, so they take it out of his gates and 
fences, shooting them full of holes and so 
weakening the fences that a bullock will 
break them down by simply rubbing 
against them. Also the signs against 
bunting, which the rancher sets up. seems 
to antagonize the hunter, and they are 
always shot full of holes. 

A very prominent stockman of Mon- 
terey county, who loses thousands of dol- 
lare each year through the carelessness 
of hunters, says that he would like to 
poison every quail and deer on his ranch 
so that he could run a stock ranch and 
not a hunting ground. The shooting, of 
the hunters get his cattle so wild that he 
cannot round them up; in fact, they dis- 
appear in the brush like a deer at the 
sight of a man. 

Many stockmen will have signs printed 
which warn the hunters to keep off their 
property, yet they are utterly disregarded. 
When these trespassers are arrested they 
always demand a jury trial, and a gang 
of "bums" get in the jury box and de- 
clare the defendant not guilty, although 
he will be caught in the act and several 
reliable witnesses will be brought to prove 
the fact. These jurymen usually base 
their verdict on the ground that the wild 
game belongs to the public, and they seem 
to take offense at any one enclosing their 
land and trying to keep people from going 
on it in quesi of game. They think that 
it serves the rancher right for any dam- 
age which is done him for owning land 
where wild game will go. Since the law 
seems to be inefficient toward keeping off 
trespassers, the only feasible method is 
to follow the method pursued by a stock- 
man in the southern part of the State. 
He had five different trespassers arrested, 
but they were all acquitted by the jury. 
After that he took the matter in his own 
hands and decided that either the stock 
or the hunters would have to get off the 
ranch. He appealed to the sheriff, and it 
so happened that the sheriff was on his 
way to San Quentin, and he promised the 
stockman to bring a "good bad man" to 
do the work. He came down with the 
meanest man he could get at the prison. 
When the convict was sent out on the 
ranch, it was noised about that he was a 
criminal, which coupled with the fact that 
he scared some trespassers off with a gun, 
has had sufficient weight to keep the 
hunters off his land, so that he has not 
been troubled by trespassers. 

This last season has been especially 
bad for the stockmen, who have been 
losing cattle by hundreds. Every cattle 
section sends out reports of valuable ani- 
mals being shot on the ranches by hunt- 
ers. Since it is almost impossible to get 
a convction for trespassing, the most 
feasible scheme seems to be to get some 
man who has a bad reputation as a 
fighter and a gun man and put him on 
the job. 



THE BACK OF THE PIG. 

From the pigs commonly seen on farms, 
and from the sort of animal farmers con- 
tinually buy, one is convinced that few 
men as yet realize how essential a good 
hack is or just what it looks like. A 
good back in a pig is desirable not alone 
because it gives it strength and vigor, but 
because it shows good muscling, and good 
muscling over the ribs and loin where the 



highest priced cuts are found is greatly to 
be desired. Experience has also shown 
that the good backed pig yields the most 
desirable type of carcass all around. 

As viewed from the side the back of a 
pig should be equally high at shoulders 
and hams, with a slight arch midway be 
tween the two. Its general appearance, 
in other words, should be level, with just 
a little rise in the middle. The neck or 
that part in front of the front legs should 
not be overlong in comparison with that 
part of the ham back of the hind legs. 
The slope from the top of the ham to the 
tail should not be steep, as this gives an 
unshapely ham. In all cases the slope 
should not be a pronounced but a gradual 
one. This little arch in the center of the 
back can be produced by one thing only, 
namely, good muscling — and it is not 
present where the muscling is poor. 

In many hogs seen on farms the arch 
comes just ahead of the ham with a slope 
toward the shoulders. In this case an 
overdeveloped shoulder, a weak, narrow, 
rough rib, a narrow loin are frequent. 

What is desired is a uniformly good de- 
velopment — a symmetrical whole— which 
is the case where the arch is in the center 
with a gradual slope to either end. As 
viewed from the front or rear the back 
of the pig should show uniform width. It 
should not be narrow at the shoulders 
and wide at the ham, nor vice versa — but 
should present an even development and 
be wide. 

It is from this type of animal that the 
best yielding carcasses come. They suit 
the butchers, because they contain so 
large a percentage of valuable cuts and 
are so little wasted by way of trimming. 
They are also the best type for the farmer 
to grow because of their strength and 
vigor. — Farm, Stock and Home. 



SHIRES ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Although the Shire is one of the most 
prominent draft horses in Kngland it is 
just commencing to be appreciated on the 
Pacific Coast. In fact, this breed has not 
been very popular in America, with the 
possible exception of some of the North 
Central States. The early importations 
of these horses to America in 1S3G were 
not very good specimens of the Shire, so 
that they created a prejudice against 
these animals which has finally been 
thrown aside. Although many of the 
early importations had weight and 
strength, the people did not take fundly 
to rough legs, lack of action, quality and 
the coarse hair on the legs. Horses which 
were excellent according to the Knglish 
view point were looked upon by our own 
buyers with suspicion. Two other factors 
have worked against the popularizing of 
the Shire. One was the coarse ungainly 
hulks which were palmed off by some 
unscrupulous buyers, and the other was 
the indifference of the owners of good 
Shires to sell them. 

Fortunately there has been a decided 
change in the marketing and also in the 
breeding of the Shire. The Shire raisers, 
realizing that they had a good market in 
America, commenced breeding a type of 
horse which would appeal to the Ameri- 
can market and fulfill the requirements. 
An improvement in quality and action 
was made, two points of the Shire which 
had been so distasteful to many. The 
breeders In Lincolnshire and Cambridge- 
shire, the home of the Shire, have reared 
a horse which maintains its size and 
weight and yet has good action. 

The Shire has many of the characteris- 
tics of the Clydesdale, except being 
heavier set. Although there are a few 
other colors, bay, black and brown are 
the most common, with white markings 
on the face and feet. The legs are 
strong with a flat bone which is "feath- 
ered" with a fine hair on the rear of the 
cannons. 

The points of excellence of the Shire 



Holds Worlds Record 



CLEANEST SKIMMING 

More prominent, practical dairymen and breeders use and endorse 
| U. S. Separators than all other makes. 

These many long-headed, business dairymen use U. S. Separators, not 
because some blazing advertisement has hypnotized them into buying, tecause 
] it's "cheap." Sound reasoning of its many superior advantages only 
:rsuaded them. The best will always have the best. 

THE 




u.s 



1910 INTERLOCKING STYLE 
o> CREAM 
SEPARATOR 

is emphatically the Best 
and the only Separator to Buy. 

Because, 

ist. It skims the cleanest. 

2nd. It's built the strongest. 

3rd. It's the easiest cleaned. 

4th. It's the most convenient. 

5th. It requires the least power. 
The U. S. defeated all other separators at the 
Alaska -Yukon -Pacific Exposition, Seattle, on 
these five essential points and 



Won Grand Prize 1909 



Beautiful Illustrated Catalogue No U8 five you all Information. 

VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO., Bellows Falls.YL 





QUICKEN PROFITS 

BY FEEDING 

THE RIGHT COMBINATION 

AT THE RIGHT TIME 

THE GRANGE 
ALFALFA 
MEAL 

ANALYSIS: 

For a Growing and Protein 12* 

Solid Ration for Cat- f/'V ^ T "'; 25 

_ Carbohydrates 69* 

tie, Hogs or Poultry. Fibre 11* 

QUICKLY CREATES FLESH AND MUSCLE. 
AND CREATES LIFE 

i THE GRANGE COMPANY 

Manufacturers of Pure Alfalfa Meal 

GRAIN AND HAY DEALERS AND WAREHOUSEMEN 

IF YOU WRITE US WE'LL TELL YOU HOW TO CUT J|/irkriP:«Tn C A I 
DOWN YOUR FEED BILL AND OBTAIN RESULTS. i'lULJEO 1 U, tAL. 



20th Century Automatic Gate 




PERFECT AUTOMATIC GATE 



ALWAYS IN ORDER 

In general use for motor as well as horse drawn 
vehicles. Opened or closed without assistance or 
stopping. The gate can be placed at any driveway 
entrance. The machinery Is all above ground, 
and so simple it never gets out of order. It will 
last a lifetime, and usually pays for Itself, In time 
saved, within a year. It adds to the beauty, value, 
convenience and safety of any home. Address 

A. J. BLOOM 
Petaluma, California 



H. H. H. LINIMENT 



USED UNIVERSALLY BY STOCKMEN 
For Success fully Treating the Afflic- 
tions of the HORSE and other Domestic 
Animal** 



FOR FAMILY USES IT HAS NO 
EQUAL. 

Sore Throat, Rheumatism, Sprains, 
Neuralgia, Cuts, Sores, Swelling*. Lame- 
ness, Stiff Joints, Poisonous Bites, 
Cramps, Diarrhoea, etc. 
KEEP A BOTTLE ON HAND FOR EMERGENCIES. 
50c and $1.00 Sices. Sold Everywhere. 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, Stockton, Cal. 

Manufacturers and Proprietors. 



TULARE LAKE STOCK FARM. 

REGISTERED 

Jacks and Jennets For Sale. 

We breed the Best. Don't write— come and See. 
We can show you. 
.IAS. W. McCORD, 

Hartford, Cal. 



■ HERCULES 



HARNESS 
SADDLES 
HORSE 
COLLARS 



BfaT THEY LAST LONGER! 

If your dealer cannot supply you, write us direct 
for a price list. Manufactured solely by W. 
11AVIS A SONS, Wholesale Haddlery, 2010 to 
'2102 Howard Ht.. San Francisco. Cal. 



January 29, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



98 



Salvador Stock Farm 

NAPA, CAL. 

SHIRE, PERCHERON AND HACKNEY STALLIONS 

I have just received an impoilation of high class draft 
stallions. 

They are not culls from Eastern barns, but carefully se- 
lected stock direct from Europe. 

They are big, heavy boned, blocky horses, with line style 
and finish, two to five years old, and all good colors. 

Don't fail to see these stallions. Not only are the horses 
right, but the prices are right. 

1 sell sta lions quickly at a small margin of profit. In fact I will 
guarantee to sell you a better horse for less money than anyone in 
the business. For proof of this, come to Napa, critically examine the 
stallions we oiler for sale, compare our prices with others, and I will 
abide by your decision. Kvery horse sold with an honest guarantee. 
Liberal terms to responsible parties. For particulars address 




E. LOVELL, 

R. D. 1, Napa. 



SALVADOR STOCK FARM, 

HENRY WHEATLEY, Proprietor. 



BEE KEEPERS' SUPPLIES 

MADARY'S PLANING MILL 

OFFICE AND FACTORY: FRESNO, CALIFORNIA 

Branch Distributing Points: 

MADARY SUPPLY HOUSE, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
MADARY SUPPLY HOUSE, ELK GROVE, CAL. 

All Hives and Frames are Manufactured of California Selected .Sugar Pine. 
We are Coast Agents for the A. I. Hoot Co. 

We carry the largest and most complete stock of Apiarian Supplies In the World. 
Correspondence Solicited. 



are exceptional weight, heavy bones, good 
muscular development, with width and 
breadth of form. Care should be exer- 
cised in not getting a horse with too much 
weight, as they are slow and sluggish, 
especially for farm work. 

The most desirable type of Shire is one 
which is low, broad and massive, and not 
too much slope to the collar, which de- 
tracts from the freedom and length of the 
stride. The body should be large in girth 
and the chest deep. The back should be 
short and broad and strongly coupled. 

The enormous weight and strength of 
the Shire makes it especially valuable for 
hauling in large cities, where the pave- 
ments are usually slippery, so that lighter 
horses will pull themselves off their feet, 
where a horse with plenty of weight by 
simply leaning against the collar can 
move the load. Another advantage of 
these heavy Shires is that their weight 
helps them when they are drawing loads 
in crowded streets where the traffic moves 
slowly and there are many stops in every 
block. Horses of lighter weight and with 
a faster gait can possible move a load 
much quicker than a heavier horse, but 
where the horses must make a dozen stops 
on smooth pavements they soon wear 
themselves out. 



LIVE STOCK NOTES. 



Siskiyou cattle are in great demand at 
present. Three bunches of cattle totaling 
22 carloads were recently bought in Scott 
valley by J. C. Mitchell. 

The Frank L. Smith Meat Co. of Port- 
land recently bought many thousand dol- 
lars worth of cattle in Scott valley. They 
paid from 8 to 9 cents a pound and did 
not cull out the cattle, but bought the 
entire herds. 

On account of the damage being done 
to the stock raisers around Fort Bidwell 
by coyotes the farmers are making con- 
centrated efforts toward destroying these 
pests. Several hundred have been killed 
in the last month. 

Professors Major and Phillips of the 
University Farm at Davis recently bought 
at Newman five imported Shropshire 
ewes, four Shire horses and three steers 
of the range type. These steers will be 
experimented upon and different feeds 
tried on them for the benefit of the 
students. 

In Portland recently a single hog was 
sold for $61.20. The big fellow weighed 
020 pounds and brought 9 cents a pound. 
Packers of the northern city predict a 
$10 market before the season ends. 

J. T. Murphy's "Seventy-nine Ranch," 
in Yellowstone county, Montana, has been 
sold and is being divided up into small 
tracts. At one time this was one of the 
largest ranches in the United States, 
having on it some 20,000 cattle, 50,000 
sheep and 5000 head of horses and mules. 

C. N. Hawkins and W. I. Hawkins of 
Hollister recently purchased a section of 
the San Felipe Rancho in San Benito 
county from H. S. Fletcher. 

At a recent meeting of the Utah Wool 
Growers' Association a vigorous protest 
was registered against the tax of 20 cents 
per head on all sheep taken into Nevada 
to graze. The Utah sheepmen think this 
is unjust, as the Nevada sheep can go 
over into Utah without any tax being 
levied. 

W. B. McCreery recently purchased the 
Las Aguilas Rancho near Hollister from 
Donnelly Bros. 

The British ports will soon be thrown 
open to the importation of live cattle 
from Argentina. The present embargo 
against these cattle is to be removed on 
April 1. This will cheapen meat in Eng- 
land and check the operations of the 
American beef trusts- 

J. R. Garnett has 4000 lambs on his 
range west of Willows. E. F. Briggs of 
Gridley recently sold 88 hogs for $1544. 

A coyote which had feasted on about 50 



lambs at the Mecham farm at Stony Point 
was recently killed. Mr. Meacham paid 
the hunter a bonus for killing the var- 
mint. 

M. F. Barren and Allen Wilkerson were 
recently arrested at Susanville for steal- 
ing cattle from George Green of Long 
valley. 

J. A. Armstrong is feeding 780 head of 
cattle on beet pulp at his ranch near 
Salinas. 

The recent cold spell has done consid- 
erable damage to the sheep of Nevada. 
C. S. Wheeler and Harry Dunn, extensive 
sheepmen of Nevada, stated that the rains 
wet the fleece of the sheep and then the 
cold weather came and froze the sheep so 
that they could not move and many of 
them died for that reason. 

Linear Bros, of Sierra Blanca, Texas, 
recently sold 5000 steers to A. W. Wilson 
for $130,000. 

B. E. Parks of Imperial valley has al- 
ready marketed this fall $12,000 worth of 
hogs and still has enough hogs left to 
bring this amount up to $17,000. 

A. Hushbeck of the Farieslebrae ranch 
shipped nine carloads of cattle to Gridley 
last week. 

Dr. Issa Tanimura of Japan addressed 
the Wool Growers' Association at Ogden 
recently to endeavor to persuade the sheep 
growers of the United States to ship 
some of their wool and mutton to Japan, 
as the Japanese are learning to eat meat, 
especially mutton, and they are using 
wool extensively in the manufacture of 
clothes. 

Henry Lynch, a prominent stock raiser, 
reports that a tenant of his ranch near 
Bradley, Monterey county, lost 800 lambs 
out of 1200 during the recent cold spell. 



DAIRY NOTES. 



In a recent examination of the milk 
supply for Fresno, the Japanese dairy 
made the lowest mark for bacterial con- 
tents ever recorded since the making of 
milk analysis in Fresno. 

The Calcota Ranch Co. has recently 
been formed at Kerman for the purpose 
of establishing a dairy. The stockholders 
are L. H. Storgaard, E. E. Kaufman, D. 
W. Hill, Katherin Osborne and E. E. 
Carnine. 

The average price for butterfat paid to 
farmers of Fresno during 1909 was: For 
January, 38 cents; Ferbuary, 37; March, 
37; April 36, May, 35; June, 35; July, 36; 
August, 36; September, 36%; October, 37; 
November, 37, and December, 37 cents. 

T. T. Emel recently purchased the Jor- 
dan dairy near Redlands for $14,000. 

C. F. Dee & J. C. Webb of Kansas have 
leased the Palos Verdi Rancho near San 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

' GombauH's 



Caustic Balsam 




Has Imitators But No Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameneBfl from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 

As a Human Remedy 'or Rheumatism, 
Sprains, Sore Throat, etc., it Is invaluable. 

Kvery bottle of Caustic Balsam sold Is 
Warranted to Rive satisfaction. Price $1.50 
per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent by ex- 
press, charges paid, with full directions for 
its use. tSTSend for descriptive circulars, 
testimonials, etc. Address 

The Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0. 



LAFAYETTE STOCK FARM 

LARGEST IMPORTERS OF 

Percheron, Belgian. Shire, German Coacli 
and Hackney Stallions and Mares. 




Carnot 6666G— First Prize Winner in 
Paris, 1909. First Prize Aged Class at 
Iowa State Fair, 1909. Champion Perch- 
eron Stallion Indiana State Fair, 1909. 
Champion Percheron Stallion Wisconsin 
State Fair, 1909. Champion Percheron 
Stallion Illinois State Fair, 1909. Grand 
Champion Percheron Stallion New York 
Horse Show, 1909. 

At the recent New York Horse Show our 
horses made almost a clean sweep, repeat- 
ing the great winning's made at the West- 
ern State Fairs. 

200 HEAD AT LOWEST PIIICES. 
BEST GUARANTEE. 

J. F. CAMPBELL, Mgr., Pacific Coast 
Stables, permanently located at rear 1300 
J St., Sacramento. Cal. 



DAIRY STOCK 



Purebred Holsteins, Bulls 
and Heifers for sale at 
reasonable prices. 



The best bred stock 
obtainable on the 
Pacific Slope. 

Now is the time to purchase a sire 
to head your herd. 



Write for lnform»tlon. 

0AKW00D STOCK FARM CO. 

F. J. SCHLEEF, Mgr. 
909 Jackson St., San Francisco 



PATENTS 



CARLOS P. GRIFFIN 

Ex-examiner II. H. Patent Otlice 
ATTORNEY AT LAW 
Patent and Trade Mark Causes. 
1201-2 Metropolis Bank Building, San Francisco 



BEWARE WHERE YOU BUY YOUR 

BEEWARE 

Conkling Grocery Co., of San 
Jose keeps a full line of Bee- 
hives and supplies. Also 
Poultry Supplies, Feed and 
Seed. Ask for our prices. 



DR. DANIELS' MEDICINES 

FOR 

Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Sheep, etc. 

27 Horses die from 






tjoiic wnere one dies 
from Fire. 

W hy not Insure 
against Colic ? 

Daniels' colic cure is 
SURE, SAFE and 
UUICK ! 

$1.00 per Package— 20 
cents cures a horse. At 
Dealers, etc. 

Agents wanted in each 
town west of the Kooky 
Mountains. 

A. T. ROCHE & CO. 

166 Valencia St, San Francisco, Cal. 







Cutter's Anthrax and 
Blackleg Vaccines 

are given the preference by 80 per cent ol 
California stockmen because they give 
better results than others do. 

Write for Prices, Testimonials and our 
New Booklet on Anthrax and Blackleg 

THE CUTTER LABORAfORY 

P. 0. Box 257, BERKELEY, CAL 





HOG 




| K0K0M0 


FIELD 


FENCE 




POULTRY 






The Standard of all makes. Square and 
Diamond Mesh Fences Tor all purposes. Made oi 
heavy, non-rust, self-rogulatlng steel wires. 
Absolutely hog tight and stock proof. Write us 
for catalog and prices. 

CALIFORNIA ANCHOR FENCE CO. 

822 Main St., Stockton, Cal. 



94 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January '20. 1910. 



Pedro. These men intend opening a dairy 
and have shipped from Kansas 250 head 
of Holstein and Jersey cows. 

The Uvas stock farm, which has been 
running its sanitary dairy near San Jose, 
has been foreclosed by the Thomas Rea 
Company. 

Mr. Hartley, whose new creamery will 
be opened in a few weeks at Kscondido, 
has three automobile delivery wagons for 
bringing cream to the creamery. 

A dairy colony is being established near 
Carlsbad, New Mexico. Seven hundred 
acres of irrigated land have been pur- 
chased and it will be divided into 40 acre 
tracts which will be run by dairymen from 
Wisconsin. 

The price of milk has been increased 
at Fresno. Hints and quarts have been 
raised 25 cents per month and the whole- 
sale price has been increased from 18% 
to 20 cents per gallon. 

The Castroville creamery made a good 
showing for the year just closed. From 
January 1 to December 31, 1909, it made 
151,791 pounds of butter and distributed 
among its patrons the sum of $53,430.43. 
The average price paid for butterfat was 
35 1-5 cents a pound. 

The recent sale of the dairy herd of 
A. W. Morris at Woodland was a success 
in every way. Cows and heifers brought 
from $52 to $85 apiece. Eighteen cows 
sold for $70 each. Among the outside 
purchases were F. W. Cheney of Valley 
Ford, Walter Dundurs of Lulls', Parker 
Whitney of Rocklin, Dodge Burnt of 
Colusa, C. A. Stockweather of Kerman 
and W. H. Taplin of St. Helena. 



A vaquero had his horse tied up to a 
post in Butchertown recently and a small 
boy asked him for a ride. He gave his 
consent and the boy mounted. He had 
hardly settled in the saddle before the 
horse sent him flying in the air. The boy 
was brushing himself off when the 
vaquero asked him what was the matter. 

"Why, didn't you see the horse buck?" 
the boy replied. 

"Buck!" said the vaquero, "why, that 
horse only coughed." 



A wholesale butcher was recently com- 
plaining to his buyer about a carload of 
cattle which had just come in. 

He said: "I didn't want you to buy 
yearlings. I'm overstocked with them 
now." 

The buyer replied: "Why, they were 
calves when they left Nevada, but you 
know the snow has been delaying the 
trains like the devil in the Sierras lately." 



For Lame Horses 

For curb, splints, spavin, wind puffs, sprains or swell- 
ings of any kind, use Tuttle's Elixir. Kcb'iIU are 
quick and permanent. Tens of thousand? of farmers, 
the owners of great city stables, the race bone men, 
all swear by 

Tuttle's Elixir 

Best for colic, distemper and founder. Also makes 
the most effective leg and body wash. 

Only 50 cents a bottle at all dtal- 
^ ers * keep Tuttle's Worm Powders, 

J^^^BX Condition I'owdersand Hoof Olnt- 
■■a»3aW^ ment on band also. If not at your 
dealers, we'll ship by express. 

Valuable Veterinary Book Free. 
Write for a copy today. Full of 
Important pointers to every horse 
owner. A ICO-page Illustrated 
guide free, but It Is worth dollars. 

Tuttle's Elixir Co. 
^ vl~„ -Z t *J. 33 Beverly St., Boston, Mass. 

^^S^mS^^ Willis A. Shaw. Los Angeles, C«l. Apt. 





Can a horse pull 
more and pull it 
easier with a per- 
feet fitting collar? 

Can a man walk 
faster with per- 
fect-ftting shoes 
than with shoes 
that hurt his feet? 

Same answer 
applies to both 
questions. 

If you can't buy 
our goods from 
your dealer, write 
and we'll see 
why. 



SHARKEY & SON, 

Portland, Oregon 



THE CALIFORNIA LIVE STOCK 
BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION 
MEETING. 



[Continued From Page 81.) 



of skates and scrubs on their hands. He 
said California needs a stallion law 
which will compel all stallion owners to 
publish in large type a pedigree of the 
animal, its defects, and whether it is a 
thoroughbred or grade horse. Many 
stallions in California were bought by 
people who did not know a good animal 
when they saw it, and as a result they 
bought animals (hat have defective feet 
or other parts of the body. The aim of 
the horseman today should be to rear a 
horse with wearing qualities in order to 
compete with the motors and other me- 
chanical appliances which are being put 
on the market. 

Leo Robinson spoke of the necessity of 
the stockmen preventing the railroads 
raising their rates on hauling cattle. As 
it is now these rates are almost prohibi 
tive and cut down many of the profits of 
the cattlemen. 

H. M. Brown, a Short-Horn breeder of 
Minneapolis, was the last speaker of the 
evening. Mr. Brown has raised Short 
Horns for 35 years in the East, but is so 
infatuated with California as a live stock 
State that he intends moving out here. 
He said that California will soon be the 
largest live stock State in the I'nion, and 
he predicts that the price of beef would 
soon go higher than it is at the present 
time, and he advised all those in the busi- 
ness to stick to it, as the future for stock 
raising in California was great. 

TUESDAY EVENING SKSSION. 

The business meeting of the association 
was held on the evening of the 25th, at 
the Palace Hotel, with the President, S. B. 
Wright, presiding. The first business 
taken up was the report of the banquet 
committee, a deficit of about $41 was 
shown, due to the fact that several 
answered the invitations and then failed 
to show, places at the tables having been 
reserved for them. 

A resolution was passed which gave the 
stamp of approval to the coming Panama 
Exposition, which is to be held in San 
Francisco in 1915. Another resolution 
was adopted which is of vital importance 
to the horse raisers on the Pacific Coast. 
At the present time horses are bought 
here on the Coast and sent to the re- 
mount stations in Middle West where they 
are trained for the artillery or cavalry 
service, after which they are sent back 
to the Coast or to the Philippines. So 
there was a resolution passed asking 
Congress to place a Remount Station in 
Central California. This station in Cali- 
fornia would not only save thousands ot 
dollars for the Government, but would 
also be in incentive for the horsemen 
to raise remounts for the army. 

The action of the railroads raising their 
rates on cattle cars was severely con- 
demned and the railroad commission was 
criticized for it dereliction of duty. One 
of the cases cited was the station, Gazelle, 
Siskiyou county, where a raise of ?,0 per 
cent has been made and over $15,000 ex- 
tra was taken out of this town because of 
the increased rate. R. E. Easton. of Santa 
Barbara, J. A. Dickinson, of Fresno, and 
Leo Robinson, of San Francisco, were ap- 
pointed a committee to investigate the 
matter and see what can be done to have 
the rates lowered. 

The farm school at Davis was discussed 
and in order that the members of the as- 
sociation might see just what is being 
done at the place, a special meeting will 
be held at Davis in November, a time 
when the short courses are going on. This 
meeting is to be held in order to appoint 
committees and draft hills to be intro- 
duced so that more money can be obtained 
from the legislature at its next session. At 
present the school has not enough money 





IRRIGATION by pumping is making hundreds of farmers prosperous. 
It is the modern way. It makes you master of the water situation. You 
can use water when and where and as long as you like. You do not 
have to wait on the neighbors, or agree with them as to when the water 
shall be turned into your lateral. 
In many cases, pumping is the only means of irrigating— you cannot get water 
upon your land any other way. 

The simple, strong, efficient I H C gasoline engines are 

Turning Waste Lands Into 
High-Priced Farms 

There are hundreds of places where land can be had for a few dollars an acre. 
The moment you put this land under irrigation it jumps in value to one, two or 
three hundred dollars an acre. 

There is no mystery and no impossibility about it. It is simply applying water 
to the land by means of an economical power that old-time irrigators did not have 
the advantage of. You can always find water in lakes, sloughs, springs, streams 
— in the underflow, in seepage, etc. Your I H C engine will pump it just where 
you want it. 

The engines require but little attention. They pump water in large quantities 
and they do it economically. They are not adapted to pumping wateronly. You 
will have a score or more uses for them on your farm — operating your grinder, 
fanning mill, cream separator, churn, pump, thresher; your bean huller, cider 
press, alfalfa cutter, and any other machines requiring power. 

The I H C line includes an engine for every section and every problem — all 
sizes for all farm uses; vertical, horizontal — both stationary and portable; engines 
on skids; sawing, pumping and spraying outfits. Also I H C gasoline tractors 
— first-prize-gold-medal winners — the best all'-round farm tractors. 

Look into this matter of pump irrigation. It may mean the reclamation of your 
land and a fortune for you. An International agent in your town will supply 
catalogues and particulars, or address any of the following houses for further 
information: 

WESTERN BRANCH HOUSES: Denver. Colo.; Helena, Mont.; Portland, Ore.; Spokane. Wa»h.; 
Salt Lake City, Utah; San FrancUco, CaL 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OF AMERICA, CHICAGO, U. S. A. 

I Incorporated ) 




IHC LINE 

1001 FOR THE I H. C. TR1DE HIM II 'S > SEal 01 IICIUEUCE HO I MIRUIfi OF OUIIITT 



THE GRAVITY GATE 

Is Mason's Latest Improved and All Metal 

Best Automatic 

Gate Made 




Simple In Construction. Strong and Durable. Easy to 
Operate. No levers to push or ropes to pull, but Just drive 
along as If there was no gate In the way. Our all metal 
gates are light and durable and have no wind resistance. 

It Saves Time, Trouble and Temper — Makes Light Hearts and Happy Homes. 
GRAVITY GATE CO., Richmond, Oal. 



to be run as it should, there still being 
many buildings uncompleted and equip- 
ment to be bought. 

The following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year: Henry Glide, of Sac- 
ramento, president; Henry Kakle, Jr., of 
Woodland, vice-president; 10. A. Howard, 
of San Francisco, treasurer, and W. M. 
Carruthers, of Newman, secretary. The 
executive committee is composed of the 
following men: H. H. Wright, of Santa 
Rosa; Judge P. J. Sbields, of Sacramento; 
Romie Jacks, of Monterey; T. B. Gibson, 
of Woodland; Leo Robinson, of San Fran- 
cisco; F. J. Sinclair, of San Francisco: 
Prof. Major, of Davis, and T. H. Ramsey, 
of Red Bluff. 



The milk yield is falling off in the 
dairies of the Imperial valley because of 
the high price of alfalfa. 



SHORT-HORN SALE. 



The sale of the Glide herd, held at 
Chase's Pavilion, San Francisco, was suc- 
cessful in every way. Breeders from Cali- 
fornia, Nevada and Oregon were in at- 
tendance and good prices were obtained. 
The average price paid for the lt> cows 
and heifers was $156, while the 30 bulls 
brought $147. 

Most of the animals pot on the block 
were excellent specimens of Short-Horns 
and show what singleness and steadfast- 
ness of purpose will do in breeding. Some 
of the animals were a trifle too fat, but it 
did not interfere with their sale. The top 
price was $400, paid for Louella's King, it 
red bull calved January 2S, 1909. He was 
a breedy specimen, being a prize winner 
at the last State Fair. One of the best 
buys of the day was made by Pete Fndart 



January 29, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



95 



of Tres Pinos, who bought three 10- 
months-old bulls for $57.50 apiece. 

The lowest price paid for a cow was $65, 
by James Brown of Monterey county, for 
Viscountess 16007, a five-year-old. 

George Berry of Napa made a good buy 
in Clover Leaf with a heifer calf at her 
side. The price was $85 for the calf and 
$150 for the cow. 

Greenwood Blossom, a red cow calved 
January 30, 1908, brought the highest 
price of the cows. John Mackay of Sacra- 
mento paid $275 for her. The other buy- 
ers at this sale were A. J. Molera of San 
Francisco, T. H. Ramsey of Red Bluft, 
Charles Hawkins of Hollister, Union 
Sugar Company, John P. Garat, E. Ce- 
brain of San Francisco, Reynolds and 
Judge of Danville, R. Giacomini of Guad- 
alupe, S. H. Cowell of Santa Cruz, William 
Cambell of Bscalon and C. N. Elenwood oi 
Oakdale. 

The sale of the Howard herd of Short- 
Horns took place on January 25, and 52 
beauties were sent over the block. The 
prices realized for the heifers were not 
as large as they deserved. The big stock- 
men and ranchers who were buying did 
not take kindly to the females, although 
they were all prime young stock. They 
wanted bulls, as they will make their in- 
fluence felt quicker in a herd which is 
being built up, and at the present time 
are much more difficult to obtain. 

The smallest price paid for a cow or 
heifer was $60, which T. H. Ramse> 
bought for the Cone ranch at Red Bluff. 
This was the red cow Aster Duchess, 
calved August 11, 1908. The highest price 
paid for a cow was $185, which A. J. 
Molera paid for Violet Queen, a beautiful 
red Short-Horn specimen. Romie Jacks 
bought a wonderful cow in English Lady, 
the price being $150. 

The demand for bulls was excellent, ana 
$125 was the smallest price paid for a sire. 
The bull which brought this price was 
Beauty's Lad, red in color and calved 
August 10, 1908, and was bought by Mr. 
Ramsey. Lovely Archer 5th topped the 
market of the bulls. This animal is a 
low, broad roan, calved April 28, 1908. J. 
Echeverry of Tres Pinos bought him for 
$320. James Brown paid $225 for the red 



Time 
Has Told 

You don't need to 
experiment on a rem - 
edy for Spavin. Ring- 
bone, Curb, Splint, 
Capped Hock, Swollen 
Joints, or any lame- 
ness of horse or man. 

Kendall's Spavin Cure 

has been the unfailing remedy for 40 years. 

Silver Creek, N. Y., Apr. 8, 1909. 
Dr. B. J. Kendall Co Enosburg Falls, Vt 

I have used Kendall's Spavin Cure for the last 16 
years, and It never baa failed to do all that la claimed 
for It. Would not he without It. C. A. Dahlman. 

• 1 ■ bottle, 6 lor $5. At all drug stores. Ask for 
free book, "Treatise on the Horse,'' or write to — 
DR. B. J. KENDALL CO., ENOSBURC FALLS, VT. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



GEO. O. ROEUING, Fresno, Cal. Breeder Hol- 
stein-Frieslan Cattle. Young heifers and bulls 
for sale. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of Registered Short- 
horns; milk strain. High class stock. First 
class dairy breeding. Smooth cattle. Best 
pedigree. P. O. Box 321, Petaluma, Cal. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Shorthorne 
Durhams. Address K. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal . 



N. H. LOCKE CO., Lockeford, Cal. Jerseys, 
Service Bulls and young stock for sale. 



SWINE 



C. A. STO WE. Stockton. Berkshire and Poland- 
China Hogs, Shropshire Sheep. 

CALIFORNIA NURSERY CO., NUes, Cal. 
Breeders of Thoroughbred Berkshlres. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Jo., Cal. Breeder 
of Shorthorn Cattle and Poland-China Hogs. 



bull Waterloo 308198 and making one of 
the best buys of the sale. 

The 22 cows brought $2085, or an aver- 
age of $94 apiece. The 30 bulls brought 
$5210, or an average of $174. At the Glide 
sale the average was $156 for cows and 
$147 for bulls, and a total of $6910.50. 
The Howard cattle brought a total of 
$7295. Compared with the sales of last 
year, it will be seen that the general 
average of this year's sales were a little 
lower. Last year 23 females averaged 
$147 and 39 bulls averaged $163. The 62 
head sold for a general average of $151. 

This year the Glide herd of 46 averaged 
$152 and the 52 Howard cattle averaged 
$140. 

The largest purchaser of the sales was 
T. H. Ramsey, who bought the cattle foi 
the Cone ranch at Red Bluff, buying 15 of 
the Howard herd alone. Among the new 
buyers from the previous day were H. J. 
Brown, A. J. Caire, Jr., Romie Jacks, J. 
Etcheverry, Henry Glide and Cecil Riley. 



ADULTERATION OF ALFALFA 
SEED. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodl, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 

G. A. MURPHY, Perkins, Cal. Breeder of Cham- 
pion Herd of Berkshlres also Shorthorns. 



Alfalfa seed is adulterated with trefoil 
essentially tne same as in the case of 
red clover seed. The presence of the 
trefoil seed is even more obscured by the 
color of the alfalfa than by the color of 
red clover seed, and its detection is cor- 
respondingly less probable. Tests of al- 
falfa seed made at the Seed Laboratory 
show that excessive quantities of trefoil, 
mostly over 35'/; and sometimes over 50%, 
are employed in adulterated lots. A de- 
cline in the quantity of alfalfa seed now 
adulterated with trefoil is observable. 

The seed of two kinds of bur clover has 
been employed to some extent in adul- 
terating alfalfa seed. The mixing ap- 
pears to have been done in Europe, where 
the bur clover seed is a by-product of 
carding machines operating on Chilean 
wool. Alfalfa seed thus adulterated has 
been imported and widely distributed 
among retail dealers in this country. The 
quantity of bur clover seed employed is 
usually less than that used in the case of 
trefoil. In most instances observed it 
has been less than %'/,, but in some it has 
been over 10'/r, reaching nearly 17% in 
one instance and nearly 21% in another. 
It is a noticeable fact that alfalfa seed 
adulterated with bur clover is usually 
adulterated also with trefoil. 

The use of old alfalfa seed is practiced 
to some extent in adulterating new al- 
falfa seed but its presence should be 
readily observed owing to the contrast be- 
tween the colors of old and new seed. 

The light, shriveled alfalfa screenings 
imported for the purpose of adulteration 
are totally worthless, since the seed germs 
are imperfectly developed. 1 he shriveled 
appearance and dull, dark-brown color of 
this seed clearly distinguish it from fresh, 
well-filled seed. When used it forms but 
a part of a sample of the adulterated seed, 
and for this reason may pass unnoticed 
in casual observation. 

Much of the cheaper imported alfalfa 
seed which may be used in adulteration 
carries many kinds of pernicious weed 
seeds which should not be introduced to 
localities where alfalfa is still an experi- 
mental crop. 

It is to be observed that in some in- 
stances the general appearance of the 
small bulk sample is evidently influenced 
by the presence of the adulterant, as in 
the use of trefoil in red clover, shriveled 
screenings in alfalfa seed, or weedy 
screenings in any of the farm seeds. The 
detection of specific kinds of adulterant 
seeds, however, usually requires the use 
of a magnifier or lens. 

The most convenient magnifier for this 
purpose is, doubtless, the tripod magni- 
fier. It costs from 50 to 75 cents and 
is usually obtainable from opticians or 
manufacturers of optical goods. 

Seed to be examined for adulterants 




FENCE 



Made of Hard, Stiff Wire, of Honest Quality 

Woven- Wire Fences must be 
heavy, as they have to turn animals by 
the sheer strength of the wire. Why? 

A fence with barbs is protected from excessive pressure 
because the animal fears the barbs. Remove the barbs and the 
greatest strength of the animal is thrown upon the fence. 
Hence its wires must be larger and stronger. Therefore, to 
have a longlife woven-wire fence you must have a heavy fence. 

Among the valuable features that distinguish American Fence is the 
Hinged-Joint (patented). We back this feature with all our experience 
as the largest makers of fence in the world. 

Under side stress and strain the resilient Hinged Joint yields to pressure 
and quickly returns to its old form without bending or breaking the stay 
Wires, the strain being taken up by the heavy horizontal bars. 

The real test of a fence is the service you get out of it. Test, judge and 
compare American Fence under any and all conditions, and you will 
find that the steel, the structure and galvanizing are equal in durability, 
Strength and efficiency to the hardest usage. 

F. BAACKES, Vice-Pres. & Gen. Sales Agent 

AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE CO. 

Chicago New York Denver San Francisco 

MOTE. — Dealers everywhere. Seethe one In your town and have him show yon the different designs 
and give prices. Also get from him booklet entitled "HOW TO BUILD A CHEAP CONCRETE 
FENCE POST,'* furnished free (or the asking. 




OR 



In constant use for 15 years. Reduces friction to the minimum. 

Makes a hard load pull easily. | Use it on your Harvesters. 

All Dealers are selling Hub 
THE BRININSTOOL CO., Los Angeles, Cal. 



should be spread thinly on white paper so 
that individual seeds may be examined 
critically. The foregoing descriptions 
should suffice to enable one to recognize 
the common crop seeds and their adulter- 
ants. 

The relative proportion, or the percent- 
age, of adulteration can be practically de- 
termined by counting out 500 or 1000 
seeds of the mixed crop seed and of the 
adulterant freed from other impurities. 
The crop seed and the adulterant are then 
separated and their relative number de- 
termined by count. 

. Seed suspected of having lost its vital- 
ity, due to age or unfavorable conditions 
of harvesting, should be tested for i(s 
ability to germinate. 

The percentage of seed that will grow 
can easily be determined by means of a 
simple tester. Two dinner plates and 
a piece of canton flannel or some other 
similar cloth about twice the size of the 
plates are needed for this test. Blotting 



paper as well as cloth is suitable rof this 
purpose. 

The seeds which have been picked out 
should be thoroughly mixed and 100 or 
200 seeds counted, just as they come, mak- 
ing no selection. 

The cloth should be well moistened, one 
thickness being laid on one of the plates 
and the counted seeds placed on it, the 
other part of the cloth being spread over 
tne seed, covered with the second plate, 
and kept at a temperature of about 70°F\ 
On the second and each succeeding day 
the sprouted seeds should be taken out 
and counted. 

Samples of seed suspected of being 
adulterated can be sent to the Seed Lab- 
oratory, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, I). C, for examination for 
adulterants. The presence or absence of 
adulterants will be reported upon at once. 
The determination of the quantity of the 
adulterant is likely to delay the report. — 
U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin. 



!)<; 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 29, 1910. 



The building of our new Mill, and 
our greatly increased output have 
enabled us to make 

EGG-MORE 



at less cost, and so we are offering 
it in the larger quantities at the 
following 

REDUCED PRICES 

25 lbs. $1.65; 50 lbs., $3.00; 
100 lbs., $5.50. 

If not kept by your dealer we 
will prepay the freight within 300 
miles. Write for new circular de- 
monstrating how Egg-More makes 
the cheapest egg-producing food as 
well as the best, with many Testi- 
monials. 

West Coast Mill Co. 

Cor. Griffin & Alhambra, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Cycle Hatcher Company 

M AN 1' FACTCRERS OK 

Incubators, Brooders and Fireless Brooder 

Our machines are the 
result of 25 years ex- 
perience in hatching 
and brooding and are 
the most practical 
made. 

Cycle Hatcher, 
50-cgg size, 
Cycle lirooder, 
oO-egg size, $8.00 

The Philo System 
an article, "A Little 
Poultry and a Liv- 
ins." by E.W. Philo 
— mailed on request. 
Main Office : Elmira 
Western Office 




New York. SENO FOR CATALOGUE 

9 Madison St., Oakland. Cal. 



The Unvarying Success of Ihe 

DEFENDER INCUBATOR 

Hatches is not 
without cause. 

There are a cloven 
good reasons for the 
health and strength 
of Defender Chios s. 
Our catalogue tells 
them. 

No. 3, 511— Egg ca- 
pacity delivered to 
rryr TN11 your station for less 

ml IkIAL "> ••<" 

Defender Incubator Co., Deparment G. 

LIVERMORF, CM.. 




LASHER'S CHICKEN HATCHERY 

Petaluma, California. 
Capacity. 40,000 Day-Old Chicks. 
\ il Leading \ artel lea, 
Rhode Island Reds, Barred or W hile Rocks, 
While Minorca* and Leghorns. 
Shipped anywhere on Pacific Coast. 
Correspondence Solicited. 



The Poultry Yard. 

PRACTICAL LESSONS IN POUL- 
TRY KEEPING. 

Written for the Pacific Ruual Pbess 
By M. Russkx James. 

Yards ami Yarding. — Pleasure and 
profit in poultry keeping depend largely 
upon proper yarding. Fowls which are 
allowed to overrun the dooryard, barn, 
toolhouse. and an opportunity to break 
into the "truck patch" by times, are 
enough to disgust any one with poultry 
keeping. The case is even worse where 
they are allowed trespass upon the neigh- 
bors' premises. An old lawyer gives it as 
his legal experience that more neighbor- 
hood quarrels and lawsuits arise from the 
trespassing of stock than from any other 
one cause. Every person owes it first to 
his neighbor and next to himself (or per- 
haps his wife) to keep his stock within 
proper bounds by good fencing. In fact, 
a man's character may be gauged pretty 
nearly by his fences. 

Yarding ami FrRe Range. — For best re- 
sults growing and breeding stock should 
have comparatively free range, while for 
market stock and market eggs yarding 
will prove the more profitable. The yards 
should be very limited for the market 
fowl, which requires fat and tender flesh: 
if allowed to leg it over hill and field he 
will be tough and sinewy, fine for a 
breeder, but for market purposes fit only 
for boarding house soup. The layers of 
me market egg need sufficient exercise to 
keep them in good health and appetite, 
but overmuch exertion will reduce the 
output. 

Poultry Fencing. — Woven wire is the 
best material for this purpose, and though 
our coast climate is considered particu- 
larly hard upon it, there are so many 
points in its favor that no other material 
can equal it for poultry fencing. It is 
cheap, light, easily put up, and readily 
adapts itself to temporary fences often so 
necessary in poultry keeping. It may be 
protected from the weather at points 
where it begins to be eaten by rust with 
an application of crude petroleum paint. 
It pays to buy a heavily galvanized grade 
of wire upon which the weather has little 
effect, if the wire is tightly stretched and 
securely fastened by staples. For tem- 
porary fencing, useful in changing the 
brooder yards and in affording an oppor- 
tunity to cultivate and purify the soil of 
small yards, a lighter weight fencing may 
be made by fastening to sharpened stakes, 
which makes its removal and placing easy. 

Height of Poultry Fences. — This de- 
pends more upon the habits of the fowls 
and the size of the yards than it does 
upon the breed of fowls. Chicks that have 
been taught to climb fences through hav 
ing low and poorly put up brooder yard 
fences will go over almost any height of 
fence when frightened or anxious to get 



PETALUMA POULTRY 
AND LIVE STOCK 



FOOD BLENDER 



Blends your food to a mash as wet or dry as you want it in two minutes. 
Operates with the cheapest reliable and simple power on earth. 

Operated easily with a :!-H.P. 
Corliss engine. 

Works without watching. 

Saves time and trouble. 

Mixes meal for 3000 fowls 
or 20 cows in just two 
minutes time. 

The Petaluma Poultry and Stock Blender is sold separate or attached to 
engine, to suit purchaser. Works easy — always in order. 




THE CORLISS OAS ENGINE 

nuilt In se* eral sizes, is the only com- 
petitor of Eastern-made engines. 



Write us for details of either Food Blender or Engine. 

CORLISS GAS ENGINE COMPANY, PETALUMA, CAL. 



outside their inclosure. Also to keep them 
insufficiently supplied with green stuff 
and feed will make energetic chicks and 
fowls exert themselves to get outside 
where they see better pasture. A four- 
foot wire fence will hold even Leghorns 
if they have never been taught bad habits 
as indicated above. Again, small and very 
narrow yards require higher fences than 
large wide yards. The manner of build- 
ing the fence is another important point 
in relation to height. There should be no 
top rail to wire fences, and every post 
should come well above the wire and be 
sharpened to a point. The gates which 
have a top frame should be guarded by 
sharpened lath or wire. Seeing no place 
on the top of the fence where they may 
alight, fowls that have not learned to go 
over the wire in their chickhood will not 
fly over even a low wire fence. If the 
fence is put up carelessly so that there 
are sags in it, chicks will learn to climb 
it with their toes like a cat. I have known 
of a few cases where Brown Leghorn 
chicks have become so expert in this trick 
that no wire fence could confine them. 
With their wings and their toes they 
would run up the wire like a fly. Even 
the bottom board may be omitted if the 
ground is leveled and the wire well staked 
down with wooden pegs. But a perma- 
nent fence should have a good baseboard. 
When a chick or biddy has once learned 
to slip under the wire, the pegs wont 
stop it. 

Double Yards. — Where fowls must be 
continually confined in small yards, it Is 
an excellent plan to have the house set in 
the middle of the inclosure with a trap- 
door opening into each half, thus forming 
two yards. These can be alternately 
spaded or plowed and planted with bai- 
ley, and the fowls turned in when the 
grain is a few inches high, by closing one 
trapdoor and opening the other. By this 
means the ground is purified and kept 
sweet, the droppings are utilized and con- 
siderable green feed is secured for the 
fowls. 



Poultry Notes. 

The Magi OS The Inkpot. — The really 
amazing thing about the recent coup in 
poultry where a net profit of $3600 was 
realized in one year from 30 hens is the 
magic of printer's ink. 

One thousand and twenty-four eggs at 
$2 per dozen, $2048; 418 chicks at $5 per 
chick, $2090, less $538 expenses equal 
$3600. Thus run the account sales, the 
parties to which transaction are a mil- 
lionaire poultry raiser in Missouri and 
S4 other persons scattered over the length 
and breadth of these I'nited States and 
some few in Canada. What kind of rare 
and wonderful fowl is it that can create 
a demand for its output at such figures? 
Just chickens plus printer's ink in the 
hands of a keen man of dollars. 

As to the chickens themselves, accord- 
ing to their own published record, they 
have done no wonderful stunt. An aver- 
age of 141 eggs per hen for the year — 
and more than half of those sold at $2 
per, infertile — we consider mighty poor 
work from a utility standpoint for se- 
lected stock kept under ideal conditions 
and in pens of but ten hens and a cock in 
each . 

The year's expenses for the bunch are 
given at $538 — "mostly for advertising." 
But this does not begin to represent the 
amount paid for the latter item. There 
are thousands of dollars in advertising 
each year for a number of years behind 
those 30 hens. Do the people buying this 
stock that lays the golden eggs imagine 
that it will lay golden eggs for them? 
Alack, they themselves are "the goose that 
laid the golden egg." 



Apropos of the above subject it is time 
our poultry raisers were cognizant of the 
fact that it is not necessary to send be- 



yond the Rockies for breeding stock and 
hatching eggs. There was a time when 
we were dependent upon Eastern breeders 
for pure-bred stock of good blood lines, 
but now our poultry breeders have 
reached the point where they produce 
stock not only equal to the best, but stock 
better adapted to local conditions and 
without the risk of deterioration in tran- 
sit. We know of a recent case where a 
poultry raiser at Fruitvale paid $30 to a 
"system" breeder in New York for 30 
eggs, with a few more dollars thrown in 
(or out) for expressage. The thirty eggs 
produced just one lone chick, and the 
next day this costly birdling died. The 
poultry raiser notified the Eastern breeder 
of results, and he refused to make good 
in whole or part, blandly informing his 
customer that she might expect such luck 
when she sent so far for eggs. 

We have poultry breeders on this coast 
whose fowls have carried off the honors 
in competing with Eastern birds and have 
made a record in the poultry yard as well 
as in the showroom, poultry breeders who 
have devoted themselves for years to the 
work and who make their livlihood by 
raising poultry and not by exploiting fads 
and systems, whose yards and methods 
are always open to inspection — who make 
good! It is to the interest of the com- 
munity to patronize home industries and 
also to the individual — especially, as in 
this case, when he can do better by so 
doing. 



A duck that had faithfully stuck to 
business during the summer and laid sev- 
eral dozen large faun-colored eggs, com- 
plained that she was not appreciated. 



POULTRY. 



Bl'FF ORPINGTONS - Sullivan's Common- 
wealth Strain are the heaviest layers of large 
eggs on the Coast. Winners at State Fair, 
Alaska Yukon show, Seattle, and all big shows 
for the past 10 years. Some fine Cockerels now 
for 85 each. Eggs 83 and 85 per sitting. 8end 
for Prize Record. W. SULLIVAN. Agnew, 
Santa Clara County, California. 



J. HTANSFIKLD— Breeder of all varieties of 
Wyandottes Winner of all display prizes 
whereever shown. E0 prizes and 4 silver cups 
this season. Dealer In new and second hind 
incubators and all varieties cf thoroughbred 
fowls and eggs. Baby chicks of all varieties 
In large or small lots. 3201 E. 14th St , Fruitvale. 



WHITE and Bl'FF ORPI N'GTONS, ENGLISH 
RED CAPS. Prize Winners at Oakland and 
Petaluma. Cook Strain of Whites, large vig- 
orous birds and heavy layers. Write for prices. 
Some choice Cockerels and Eggs now ready. 
Mrs. 8. Swaysgood, Route l, Healdshurg, Cal. 



A FEW PURE BKF.D Bit A HM AS, BLACK 
Mlnorcas and Rhode Island Red Cockerels for 
sale. Apply to Vine Ranch, Vlna.cal. 



BANTAMS- Golden Seabrightand Black-Tailed 
Japanese. Free Circular. Englewood Orchard, 
Campbell, Cal. 



INDI AN aUNNBB UIH KS—Kigs for hatching, 
5c ea. F. I.. Huntf 111 Lincoln Ave., Napa, Cal 

BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs. Ed Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



WAYSIDE YARDS 



PETALUMA, CAL. 



High Class and 
Bred for Egg 
Production, or 
Exhibition 

Purposes 

s. c. 
White 
Leghorns. 

We have the 
combination — 
Utility and 
Fancy — We 
showed the finest bird in the show of 800 exhibits 
at Petaluma, 1909, and carried off all Leghorn 
Piizes. 

We want the trade of the high class breeders 
of the Coast. 

Write for Prices. 
CARL GREGORY, Mgr. 




The ARENBERG BROODER 
HEATER and STOVE 

Perfectly simple, safe 
and cheap. Burns distil- 
late, furnishes steady, free 
flame, and easy to man- 
age as brooder heater or 
stove. Write for details. 

H. F. ARENBERG, Petaluma, Cal. 



January 29, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



97 



"See that hen over there," said the duck, 
"she has not laid so many eggs as I have, 
nor such big ones, but she has books 
written about her and verses composed 
in her honor, while nobody says a word 
about me." 

"The trouble with you," said a wise old 
cock that happened to overhear her plaint, 
"is that you do not tell the public what 
you have done. You lay an egg and wad- 
dle off without saying a word, while that 
sister of mine over there never lays one 
without letting everybody in the neighbor- 
hood know it. If you want to cut any ice 
in this community you must advertise." — 
Capper Bulletin. 



Poultry 
Feeding 




Free 
Book 

on application to 

C0ULS0N POULTRY 
6 STOCK FOOD CO. 

Petaluma, Cal. 




Rhode Island Reds 

Hardy birds, good layers, 
splendid table fowl. Egns 
SI per sitting, £6 per 100. 
Kaby chicks from all brteds. 



.. Egg City Poultry Yards 



W. L. SALES, 
PETALUMA, CAL. 



SINGLE COMB BROWN LEGHORNS 

MY SPECIALTY 

Eggs for hatching, $1.50, $2, $3 and $i> 
per sitting of 15 — $5, $7.50 and $10 per 10(1. 

WALTER CURRY, 
H. F. 1). No. 21, San Jose, Cal. 

Phone State 57. 



CR0LEVS 

Hard Eastern Oyster 

SHELL 



Is an absolute necessity for Poultry- 
men who are looking for Profit. 

MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY 

GEO. H. CROLEY, 

631-637 Brannan St., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Do you want a 
Chicken Ranch where 
Chicken Ranches Pay? 

IF SO. WRITE 

C. R. WINFIELD, 

32 Washington St., Argus Block, Petaluma. Cal. 



Chicken, Fruit 
And Berry Farms 

For Sale. 

From one acre up. Improved or un-lmproved, 
$100 acre up. One-nth or Uss down, balance long 
time. On the electric line. Rural mall, School, 
near town. See my ad in Sunday's Examiner. Send 
stamp for list. Write to Sebastopol. Office: 
Heuel Station, Between Petaluma and Sebastopol. 

GLOECKNER & DORWARD 

PATENTS 

Write for our Guide to Inventors, sent 
free on request, containing nearly 100 me- 
chanical movements and full information 
about Patents, Caveats, Trademarks, and 
Infringements. 

DEWEY, STRONG «ft CO., 
1105-6 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San 
Francisco. Established I860. 

Blake, Moffitt 6 Towne 

Dealers In 1400 FOURTH ST, SAN FRANCISCO 

PAPER Blake, Moffitt & Towne, Los Angeles 
r Jtrcn Blake McFall A Co., Portland, Oregon 



The Home Circle. 



New Terrors. 



Grandma seems uncommon nervous 

As she looks the family o'er; 
Now and then says: "Saints preserve us! 

'Twan't like this in days of yore. 
Now and then some one by rocking 

Boats left mournful tales to tell, 
Or a man whose fate was shocking 

Swam out wisely, but too well. 

"But today I'm apprehensive 

Of disasters worse, I ween, 
We are taking trips extensive 

On the wings of gasoline. 
And they'll merely call me silly 

When my voice is heard afar: 
'Do not rock the airship, Willie!' 

'John, stop racing with that star!'" 
— Washington Star. 



Did He Write? 



"It was the biggest escape of my life," 
said the young man with the gray neck- 
tie as he sank into a chair at the club 
with a relieved sigh. "I've just been see- 
ing her off on the train. She came here 
two months ago to visit her aunt and the 
only reason this minute that I'm not an 
engaged man and done for, is that provi- 
dence watches over the unwary. 

"Well, Dora was pretty, terribly pretty 
and attractive. I was so interested in 
those facts that I didn't even take warn- 
ing when on my second call she con- 
fided to me that she never intended to 
marry. 

"I expostulated with Dora. No girl 
had a right to say that, I told her grave- 
ly. She had no right to snatch from 
some despairing man his only hope of 
happiness and thus make his life a howl- 
ing desert. 

"Just to look at Dora produced a dis- 
tinct effect on one. She looked thought- 
ful as she regarded me with her soft, 
brown eyes. Maybe I was right, she 
said, with a gentle little sigh, but she 
could not help feeling as she did. 

"I devoted the whole evening to try- 
ing to convince her how wrong she was. 
I could not bear to go away thinking I 
had left, her still cherishing such repre- 
hensible notions. I had plenty of oppor- 
tunity to argue the matter with her after- 
ward, for I was invited to dine so many 
times and of course that meant dinner 
calls and theatres to square myself. 

"Presently Dora's aunt took a hand. 
She said it was a pity Dora was so par- 
ticular, because she missed so many good 
times through that fault. She absolute- 
ly would not waste time talking to a man 
or accepting his invitations to theatres 
or parties unless he really interested her 
and she liked him. 

"I had been seeing Dora about four 
times a week, so naturally I felt grati- 
fied. I observed tremulously that I hoped 
I had not been boring her. Dora's aunt 
shook her head solemnly. 'Mr. Gilter,' 
she said, 'I assure you I know no one 
with whom Dora feels more at home and 
happier than with you. I don't know 
when I've seen her so interested.' 

"Any man would have been flattered 
to find that Dora liked him. I was so 
pleased about it that it was a shock the 
next time I called to find her engrossed 
in the conversation of Billings, who is 
an awful frost. I was very much sur- 
prised. Dora seemed to bant; on his 
words. She paid scarcely any attention 
to me. When I left she smiled sweetly. 

"It was next morning in the middle 
of my second cup of coffee that the great 
idea dawned on me that maybe she had 
been trying to make me jealous of Bill- 
ings. From that I progressed to wonder- 
ing why she should want to produce that 
unpleasant emotion in me. Then a gen- 
eral illumination overspread my intellect. 



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"I stayed away. Then Dora telephoned 
me to come over. She had on her pret- 
tiest gown and she was going to cook 
lobster in the chafing-dish the way I 
liked it best. Oh, I was wide-awake 
enough now. That lobster Newberg to me 
was nothing but a large, deadly pointed 
fishhook and I was assigned the part of 
the fish. 

"Dora's aunt helped out. She took to 
mentioning the heaps of letters Dora got 
from her home town and hinted that 
Dora had come away to escape three ador- 
ers, each of whom had vowed to wed 
her. She asked Billings to dinner when- 
ever she asked me and politely insinuated 
to me in private that I had five miles to 
go and about two seconds to make it in 
if I was going to win in the race. 

"I was scared to death by this time. 
You see, Dora really was very pretty and 
I was afraid that in some moment of ab- 
erration I might swallow the hook. I 
was in danger up to the very minute the 
train pulled out today. 

"I didn't even let myself take a square 
look at Dora in her fascinating traveling 
suit till the wheels started to revolve. I 
was afraid I'd ask if I might write to 
her. I was bound I wouldn't do that. I'm 
perfectly safe if I can stop where I am!" 

A horrified look suddenly spread over 
the face of the young man in gray. 

"Great Scott!" he breathed, pulling a 
pair of gloves out of his pocket. "Here 
are Dora's gloves! I remember she asked 
me to take care of them while she at- 
tended to the baggageman! I'll — why, 
I'll have to write to her now when I send 
'em! And she'll reply and ask me some- 
thing and I'll have to write again. Say, 
do you suppose she could have done that 
on purpose?'' 

"You're lost, all right!" sympathized 
his friend. — Exchange. 



When putting into the oven a roast that 
you have reason to suspect is a little 
tough, put a small dish of vinegar in also. 
It will make the meat more tender, im- 
prove the flavor and keep it from burn 
ing. • A tablespoonful of vinegar added to 
a Pve-pound roast wili make the meat 
more tender and palatable. 



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PACIFIC SUBSCRIPTION AGENCY, Sunnyvale, Cali'oinir. 



Sweet Peas. 



'I'o raise fine sweet peas it is well to 
make a trench or furrow early in the 
season and sow the peas in a double row 
in this furrow. If possible, the furrow 
should run north and south. The ridge 
on either side protects the young plants 
from the cold spring winds. Avoid deep 
planting of the peas. When the plants 
begin to grow, hill them up, thus keeping 
the soil cool and moist about the roots, 
and enabling them to withstand drought. 
Furnish support as soon as the vines 
Start. To keep up a constant/ display of 
bloom, cut the flowers freely, and do not 
allow seed-pods to form. II this is no 
glected the plants will soon exhaust them- 
selves blooming and seeding, and will die 
when exhausted. 



.lust in proportion as we increase the 
number of things in which we are In- 
terested and take pleasure does life be- 
came richer and mean more to ourselves 
and to every one with whom we come in 
contact. 



IIS 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 29, 1910; 



THE MARKETS. 



San Francisco, Jan. 26, 1!H0. 
(Unless otherwise noted, quotations rep- 
resent prices paid to the growers). 

WHEAT. 

While growers in the north appear to 
be well sold out. the tendency of tile mar- 
ket has still been downward, and the feel- 
ing is still verv weak. There is very little 
trading locally and everything offered here 
is quoted ahout 5 c ents lower. A renewed 
upward movement is. however, expected 
before long. Local dealers quote as fol- 
low s : 

California Club $ 1 .97 Vt (S> 2.02 Vfc 

Bonora 2.07 % fa 2.1 r, 

White Australian Nominal 

Northern Club 1 .!I7 (?( 2.02 

Northern Bluestem 2.05 (?/2.1;> 

Russian lied 1.92 V2 

BARLEY. 

Continued weakness has been the only- 
feature of this market, trading being com- 
paratively light on all descriptions. Spot 
grain is considerably lower, with a corre- 
sponding decline in futures and feed is 
offered freely at the appearing quotations, 
with some moving at the inside figure. 

Brewing $1.40 (fi 1.42 M: 

Shipping 1.40 

Good to Choice Feed, per ell. 1 ..'!7 % fa 1.40 

Common Feed 1.35 @> 1.36*4 

Chevalier 1.60 ©1.66 

OATS. 

Large supplies are offered here, with 
more expec ted from Canada, and there are 
few buyers. The market is accordingly 
verv weak and prices have be'en dropping! 
steadily, all varieties being considerably 
lower than last week. 

Bed, feed $1.50 @1.6S 

Seed 1-90 

Black 1-90 6 2.25 

Gray Nominal 

White 1.65 ©1.78 

CORN. 

The situation in this grain is uninter- 
esting at present, as there is little demand 
and arrivals have been very small for some 
time. Western grades are firm, but Kgyp- 
tian is coming out in large quantities, and 
with little demand is weak as to values. 

California Large White $1.95 

Eastern Yellow 1.90 ©1.95 

Eastern White 1.95 

Egyptian— White 1.60 «i 1.65 

Brown 1.60 

RYE. 

There has been little business on this 
grain of late, and supplies of all grades 
are closely cleaned up. Prices are nominal, 
though some is still offered at about $1.90. 

Rye, per ell Nominal 

BEANS. 

Prices show no material change this 
week, though there is a little advance in 
bayos. blackeyes and red kidneys, and red 
beans are a little easier. The market is 
very linn, with an upward tendency in 
blackeyes especially. Arrivals have been 
moderate, and there has been a very fair 
demand for some varieties. The price of 
limas is being fully maintained, but local 
dealers have little expectation of an ad- 
vance', which would be likely to curtail 
the demand. Supplies, however, are not 
excessive, and no decline is likely, though 
the present high values on all lines tend 
to limit the movement. White beans are 
quiet locally. 

BayOS, per ctl $5.35 fft5.40 

Blackeyes 4.10 ©4.26 

Cranberry Beans 4.40 @4.60 

Garvanos 2.50 (5)3.50 

Horse Beans 2.00 ©2.25 

Small Whites 4.80 ©4.90 

Large Whites 3.50 ©3.60 

Limas 4.10 ©4.20. . 

Pea 4.50 if/ 4.75 

Pink 4.25 ©4.35 

Red 6.50 ft; 6.75 

Red Kidneys 5.25 c?i 5.60 

SEEDS. 

The movement in most lines is fairly 
active, but offerings of alfalfa are quite 
large and the price has weakened a little. 
Otherwise values ate steadily held as be- 
fore. 

Alfalfa 16 % (w 17 *4c 

Broomcorn Seed, per ton $20. Uu© 25.00 

Brown Mustard, per lb " 4 c 

Canary 4 © 4%c 

Flaxseed 4 c 

Hf.mP 3%@ 4>/ 4 c 

Millet 3 c 

Timothy 6 c 

Yellow Mustard Nominal 

FLOUR. 

Prices are still firmly held, with no ex- 
pectation of an easiness, though the up- 
ward tendency is less marked. Trading is 
moderate, being confined to the current de- 
mands of the local market. 

Cal. Family Extras $6.40 @7.00 

Bakers' Extras 6.20 ©6.60 

Superfine 5.40 5.70 

Oregon and Washington.... 6.10 ©6.30 

HAY. 

For three weeks the arrivals have been 
exceptionally large, and for this reason 
the market has weakened materially, with 
some reduction In values on most descrip- 
tions. No improvement is to be expected 
as long as arrivals continue on the pres- 
ent scale. There is strong pressure to sell 
in most quarters, with very little interest 
on the part of buyers, who are getting sup- 
plies at about their own figures. This con- 
dition is attributed by some dealers rather 
to the heavy arrivals than to underlying 
conditions, and it is believed that with less 
pressure on the part of sellers better prices 
might be realized. 

Choice Wheat, per ton $17.00*, 18.64) 

Other Grade Wheat 13.00O16.60 

Wheat and Oats 13.00(g) 16.50 

Tarn.- Oat 18.00© 16.60 

Barlev 10.00S>13. 50 

Wild Oat 10.00©13.00 



Alfalfa 9.50ITO13.00 

Stock Hay 8.00 @ 9.50 

Straw, per bale 50© 75c 

MILLSTUFFS. 

There is an easy feeling in most lines, 
as demands are not heavy and offerings 
are large. Bran shows a further dec line 
and rolled barley has been falling steadily. 
Middlings are fairly steady, as the supply 
is not excessive. 

Alfalfa Meal, ton $20.00021.00 

Bran, ton 26.00tjr27.00 

Cocoanut Cake or Meal 25.00©26.0l> 

Cracked Corn 39. 00040.00 

Middlings 33.00©35.00 

Mixed Feeds 28.00@33.00 

Oil Cake, per ton Nominal 

Rolled Barley 29.00©30.00 

Shorts 29.00@30.00 

VEGETABLES. 

Oregon onions are now coming in quite 
freely, hut supplies are not plentiful and 
prices are higher for all offerings. A 
little asparagus is coming in. 1 > ti t it is not 
yet a feature, and brings abnormal prices. 
Rhubarb is steady, with fair offerings and 
a good demand. Celery and mushrooms 
are plentiful and weak, but most lines of 
vegetables are still scare, with small lots 
arriving from various points in the South 
and East and bringing high prices. Toma- 
toes are coming mostly from Mexico and 
Cuba, the latter bringing top prices, while 
considerable Florida egg plant is offered. 
Trading is quiet, however, and most ar- 
ticles are- lower than last week. 
Onions — Cal. Yellow, per ctl..$ 1.10© 1.25 

Oregon Yellow 1.50 

Garlic, per lb 5c 

Green Peas, per lb 10© 15c 

Turnips, per sack 50@ 65c 

Summer Squash, large box.... 3.00 

Tomatoes, per crate 3.60© 4.00 

Green Peppers, per lb 12 HO 15c 

Kgg Plant, per lb 1 n r„ 1 

RJiubarh. per lb fiO 8c 

Celery, per doz 30@ 40c 

Mush rooms, per box 25c@ 1.00 

POULTRY. 

Choice dressed turkeys are moving to 
some extent, bringing 24 to 28 cents, but 
there is no demand for live stock. East- 
ern poultry is again coming in freely, the 
week opening with three cars, but with 
light offerings of local stoc k choice lots 
find ready sale. Price s are satisfactory on 
nearly everything, though small hens are 
easy. 

Broilers $ 4.00® 5.00 

Small Broilers 3.00@ 4.00 

Frvers 6.00(g) 7.00 

Hens, extra 8.00© 10.00 

Hens, per doz 6.50@ 7.50 

Small Hens 5.000 5.50 

Old Roosters 5.00© 5.50 

Young Roosters 7.50© 8.50 

Young Roosters, full grown.. 9.00© 10.00 

Pigeons 1.25 

Squabs 3.00@ 3.50 

Ducks 6.00© 10.00 

Geese, per pair 2.00© 2.50 

BUTTER. 

Arrivals have been a little larger than 
last week, but the local business has been 
fully up to the average, and the surplus 
was easily disposed of for shipment south, 
where there is a strong demand. Low 
grade fresh stock is lower, but extras are 
quite firm at an advance. The following 
prices are quoted by the San Francisco 
Dairy Exchange: 

California (extras), per lb.... 38 c 

Firsts 33 c 

Seconds 29 c 

California Storage (extras)... :! 1 *A <■ 

Eastern Storage Ladles 25 Vic 

EGGS. 

The moderate prices prevailing for the 
last two weeks nave brought a material 
increase, in demand and heavy buying lias 
kept the market closely cleaned up. With 
arrivals diminishing on account of bad 
weather there is some thing of an upward 
te ndency at present, though most grades 
stand a little below the last quotation. 

California (extras), per doz... :',> <• 

Firsts 30 b 

Seconds 29 C 

Thirds 28 c 

CHEESE. 

Cheese is again rather scarce and sales 
of fresh local stock are made on a higher 

basis, all other descriptions being firm at 
the former level. 

Fancy California Flats, per lb. 19 c 

Firsts 17 c 

New Young Americas, fancy.. 20 c 

Oregon Flats 19 c 

Oregon Young Americas 20 t 

N. Y., Fancy 19*4c 

Storage, Fancy Flats 17V4c 

Young Americas 18 Vic 

POTATOES. 

The movement is of about average pro- 
portions, but with no great amount of local 
stock offering prices are firm, with some 
advance on both Oregon and choice river 
potatoes. Sweet potatoes are steady as 
formerly quoted. 

Potatoes — River Whites 75c@$1.10 

Salinas Burbanks $ 1.25® 1.40 

Oregon Burbanks 1.15© 1.30 

Early Rose 1.50 

Sweet Potatoes, ctl 1.60© 1.75 

FRESH FRUITS. 

Pears arc hardly quotable, as the market 
is closely c leaned up. Some cranberries 
are still coming in and find a fair demand 
at the- present prices. A few Spanish 
grapes have arrived, be ing sold off at high 
figures. Storage apples are still offered 
freely, and at present find little demand 
locally, as the. weather is unfavorable to 
trading. The re- is some- shipping business, 
however. Prices show little change. 

Cranberries, per bbl $ 7.00© 8.50 

Apples — 

Fancy, per box 1.00© 1.75 

Choice 75c© 1. 00 

Common 40® 65c 

CITRUS FRUITS. 

Supplies of oranges are large, with some 
increase in arrivals, while the demand has 
shown very little improvement. There is 
a fair demand, however, whenever the 



weather Is favorable, and prices are kept 
at parity with those at shipping points. 
Grape fruit is lower, with large offerings 
of cheap seedling stock, and a reduction 
has also been made on the lower grades 
of lemons, of which there is a surplus. 
Oranges — 

Tangerines 1.25© 1.50 

Navels, fancy 2.25© 2.50 

Choice 1.65© 2.00 

Choice Lemons 2.000 2.50 

Fancy Lemons 3.50O 4.00 

Standard 1.00 ft 1.25 

Limes 4.00© 4.50 

Grape Fruit 2.25@ 2.75 

DRIED FRUITS. 

The local market is dull in nearly all 
lines of fruit, the only exception being 
prunes, in which there is considerable 
movement, There has been quite a large- 
business on small sizes for shipment to 
Europe, and offerings of such stock arc- 
likely to be well ( leaned up. though prices 
are- low. Large sizes arc scarce and 
medium lots find a very moderate demand 
at the moment. Growers are offering 
nothing of any consequence in other lines, 
and stocks carried by the trade are not 
excessive, though there is little demand at 
the moment. Since the abandonment of 
the pool there has been a large movement 
of raisins, and growers' holdings are ex- 
pected to clean up before long, as packers 
are trying to get all offerings at the cur- 
rent figures. As the situation becomes 
more settled there is also a fair movement 
East, where stocks have been very light. 
Prices show some little improvement, 
nothing being obtainable in the way of 
muscatels under 2 '4 cents, while 2 V4 cents 
is still top price. Thompsons and Sultanas 
are also a little higher. 

Evaporated Apples, per lb.... 6V4© 8 c 

Figs, black 2 c 

Figs, white 4 c 

Apricots 9V4 01O c 

Peaches 5 (HI 5*£c 

Prunes. 4 -size basis 2*4© 2 'Ac 

Pears 5 V2 © 7 "c 

Raisins — 

Loose- Musc atels, in sweatbo.x 2 'i '</ J lie- 

Thompson Seedless 2*»c 

Seedless Sultanas 1%C 

London Layers, 3 crown.... 85 ©95 c 

NUTS. 

Prices show no change, as they are al- 
ready about as high as the market will 
bear, and the extreme scarcity of supplies 
makes any weakening unlikely. The pres- 
ent demand is modi-rate and stoc ks appear 
to be adequate for present needs, but a 
close cleanup is expected before the next 
crop is available. 
Almonds — 

Nonpareils 14*4 ©15' c 

IXL 13%@14 c 

Ne Plus Ultra 13 @13%c 

Drakes 10%©11 c 

Languedoc 9%©)10%c 

Chestnuts. California 9 ©11 c 

Walnuts — Softshell, No. 1 14 c 

Softshell. No. 2 9 c 

HONEY. 

There is no feature in til is market, as 
the demand remains very light, and there 
is some pressure to sell in all but the 
Choicest grades. Prices show little 
strength, but are held about as before. 

Comb 8 @15 c 

Exeracted, Water White 7 ® 7*>&c 

Extracted. Amber 5 Uj © 6 c 

Old Extracted 4 ® 4 Vic 

HOPS. 

The market shows increasing strength, 
but there is no active movement, as the 
few holders here are apparently not 
anxious to sell. There is considerable in- 
quiry from outside buyers. Local prices 
remain as before. 

Hops, new crop 19 ©25 c 

WOOL. 

The market is featureless at present and 
nothing of interest is expected until the 
spring clip begins to move. Values on fall 
clip are nominally as before 

MEAT. 

Dressed meats are extremely firm, with 
some dealers quoting higher prices. 

Wethers are also higher and practically 

all offerings of dressed hogs bring top 

prices. Live stock is scarce, with some 
advance in both cattle and hogs. 

Beef: Steers, per lb 8 ft 8V4c 

Cows 7 Co 7 Vic 

Heifers 7 @ 7Vic 

Veal SViftll c 

Mutton: Wethers 11 c 

Ewes 9 Vic 

Lambs 13 c 

Hogs, dressed 12Vic 

Livestock — 

Steers: No. 1 4\©< 5>4c 

No. 2 4 V4 ©» 4 % c 

Cows and Heife rs: No. 1 4 ft 4 Vic- 
No. 2 3Vi@ 3%c 

Bulls and Stags 2 % © 2 Vic 

Calves: Light 5Vi© 5%c 

Medium 5 @ 5 Vic 

Heavy 4 © 4 Vic 

Sheep: Wethers 5*4© 5%c 

Ewes 4Vi@ 4-^c 

Lambs 6Vi@ 7 c 

Hogs: Grain fed, 100 to 150 lbs. 8 Vic 

150 to 250 lbs 8»ic 

Common Hogs, lb 5 @ 6 c 

Boars. 50 per cent; stags, 30 to 40 per 

cent, and sows. 10 to 20 per cent off from 

above quotations. 



Special Citrus Market Report. 



Los Angeles, Cal., Jan. 25. — Good judges 
say that the orange market is in a sur- 
prisingly good condition under the Cir- 
cumstances. There Is a good feeling in 
the East and a strong demand for good 
fruit, higher prices being paid for un- 
ftosted stock than were obtained a year 
ago at this time. The hulk of the fruit 
going out is frosted and the auction re- 
turns show that it brings but little more 
than the < ost of picking, packing -end 
freight. Nearly all points in the Slate that 
ship oranges and that are now shipping 



are sending out their quota of frosted 
stock. The Exchange is reported to be 
making "frosted pools" into Which nothing 
but the frosted fruit goes, the grower 
being compelled to guarantee freight and 
packing charges. That is. if the fruit it- 
self does not bring e nough to pay the bill 
the growers in the pool will have to dig 
pro rata. 

This is unquestionably the worst frost 
that California has had in many years, 
and while the trees are not hurt there are 
many citrus men who are willing to con- 
cede that the crop lias 1 11 affected at 

least 50 per cent, and the statement is 
being made that 25 per cent of the total 
crop will never be shipped at all, as It will 
not be tit to ship. 

Prices right now range from $1.40 to 
$1.80 cash California for orchard run grade 
of fruit that can he- guaranteed free from 
frost. The foothill section of Los Angeles 
county. Orange county and San Diego 
fruit is quoted at from $1.10 to $1.50. while 
Redlands- Highland stock is up to $1.S0, 
with l.ralt: C renin and l iv rside in be- 
tween, all the way from $1.50 to $1.70. 

Lemons are somewhat easier and tin- 
tendency is downward, the supply getting 
heavier every day. Many are predicting a 
shortage for next summer on account of 
so much of the fruit being frosted, and 
they say that high prices may be looked 
for. Good fair lemons can be bought at 
from $2 to $2.25 cash California, while f. 
o. b., usual terms, quotations run all the 
way to $3.50 a box for fancy stock. 

The shipments from southern California 
to this date have been 2185 cars of oranges 
and 882 cars of lemons, as against 3164 
cars of oranges and 935 cars of lemons to 
same time last season. 



PUBLISHER'S DEPARTMENT. 

MAIL ORDER BUSINESS GOOD. 

A letter from Chas. A. Chambers, man- 
ager of the Fresno Nursery, states that 
the "mail order business is the largest in 
the history of the firm. Local business 
does not open up much before February. 
Heavy demand for apricots, almonds, 
plums, and medium demand for peaches 
and grapes." 

We were sorry to learn that Mr. 
Chambers had the misfortune to break a 
wrist by falling into an "uncovered" hole 
recently. While he may he handicapped 
in his work, yet we know the Fresno 
Nursery will fill orders expeditiously. 



"Trees of California," the new book by 
Willis F. .lepson, is worth a great deal to 
the student of California forestry. For 
sale at this office. 



The Fresno Nursery is advertising the 
Dattier de Beyrouth grape in this paper, 
and to those intending to plant grapes 
the announcement will prove interesting. 



A new advertisement in this issue of 
the Pacific Rural Pkkss by the Grange 
Co., of Modesto, will prove valuable to 
stock and poultry readers. This company 
has recently completed the erection of a 
large alfalfa meal mill and are now ready 
for orders from those who need their pro- 
duct. The Grange Company is one of the 
oldest and most substantial in the San 
Joaquin, and our readers may be sure of 
good treatment in trading with them. Al- 
falfa meal is a good food for stock — get 
in line for increased profits by its use. 



The Madary Planing Mill, of Fresno, is 
advertising bee keepers' supplies in this 



You Will Start 
The New Year Right 

By buying one of our 10, 20or 40 acre tracts, 
already planted and growing ALFALFA, 
and under IRRIGATION of the Central 
Canal, being a portion of the famous Glenn 
Rancho, in Glenn Co., close to shipping points 
both by rail and water. We harvest and 
market the crops, and the proceeds of all 
crops raised are credited on the buyer's con- 
tract of purchase, the crops thereby prac- 
tlca ly paying for the land in three years 
time, as It averages six cops yearly, which 
will net from $40 the first year to*IOi the third 
year per acre, and as an Investment Is hard 
to duplicate, as It will bring fiom 16 to 35 per 
cent on the money Invested. 

Write, or call, and let us explain the 
proposition. Free ILLUSTRATED booklet 
on application. 



ALFALFA FARMS COMPANY 

430 MoDidoock Bldf -. Sab FraB<iic«. 



January 29, 1910. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



90 



issue. This is a very reliable firm and 
understands the needs of bee men. 



THE HUMAN SIDE OF TWINE 

When we drive home from the implement 
dealer with our little load of Sisal twine for 
the coming harvest, we do not often realize 
that we are giving that twine its final lift on 
the journey of many thousands miles which 
it has taken months to make. Seldom do 
we appreciate when we give it its final 
resting place in the binder box that the 
first hands which touched it were those of 
a Maya boy or girl in far off tropical 
Yucatan whose ancestors were a great 
Civilized people, with temples and literature, 
centuries before Columbus came ashore in 
his red velvet suit. 

Or, if it is Manila twine, the first step ki 
its long pilgrimage was under the guidance 
of a bare-footed, brown-skinned little 
Filippino savage, who perhaps never heard 
of a binder, and whose views of agricultural 
implements are a pointed stone or a 
crooked stick. 

Vet, if it were not for the indoetry of 
these two widely separated nations, the 
farmers of this rich state would still be 
obliged to bind their grain with old- 
fashioned wire, which never worked or with 
untrustworthy cotton strand. In fact, the 
problem of twine was the problem of suc- 
cessful binding for years after the self- 
binder was an established fact. 

It took many years and thousands of 
dollars to eliminate this primary drawback 
to the early grain growers of the country. 
One manfacturer alone spent $15,000 trying 
to make twine out of grass, $35,000 using 
paper as a substitute, and $43,000 on straw — 
all in the end to be discarded as unsatis- 
factory. Then, after searching the world 
with a close tooth rake, as it were, it was 
found that two fibres could be made to do 
the work — Manila and Sisal. The Manila — 
long, soft and even — had generally been 
used in multiple strands for making cable 
and cordage ; while the Sisal — strong, pliable 
and smooth — was found to lenditseif perfect- 
ly for the manufacture of a single-strand 
cord, such as the self-binder necessitated. 

Then commenced a merry struggle be- 
tween the distant races for the honor of 
supplying the twine which was to make 
His Majesty, the American farmer, the 
greatest food producer in the world. At 
first, owing to the established position of 
the Manila hemp trade caused by the 
cordage industry, the little brown brother 
in the Philippines forged ahead, but he 
made no progress in his methods of pro- 
duction, using the knife and block and 
other simple methods followed by his 
primitive forefathers in extracting the fibre. 
It was soon seen that Sisal would either be 
the ultimate material to supply this demand 
or the demand would not be fiHed. At this 
point of the race a number of clever, 
aggressive Yucatecans, educated in the 
sciences in this country and abroad, sprang 
into the game. They saw the future com- 
mercial possibilities of the neglected Sisal 
plant. At their own expense they built 
railroads into the arid, dry territories 
where henequen grew. They invented 
new machines, capable of cleaning 100,000 
leaves a day, and soon began to compete 
on an equal basis with the Manila fibre. 

The Spanish-American war temporarily 
advanced the price of Manila fibre to such 
an extent that good grades of Manila fibre 
commanded a price which was practicaHy 
prohibitive for binder twine. Therefore, 
manufacturers of binder twine concentrated 
their energy and genius in the production 
of a perfect binder twine from Sisal. This 
required some adjustment of machinery 
and some change in methods, but manu- 
facturers of twine succeeded so that the 
twine made from Sisal has for some years 
been as perfect and satisfactory as any 
binder twine ever made from any material. 
This has resulted in the increased use of 
Sisal, until during the past season not leri 
than 85 per cent, and possibly 90 percent, 
of the material which went into the manu- 
facture of binder twine in the United States 
was Sisal fibre. 

First-class binder twine can be made 
from high-grade Manila fibre, but it is very 
difficult to make even a reasonably good 
article of binder twine from low-grade 
Manila. Before the American occupation 
of the Philippine Islands, the Spanish 
officials at times exerted their arbitrary 
power for the purpose of maintaining the 
quality of the fibre which was produced by 
the natives. It was not an uncommon thing 
for the governor of a district to seize a 
quantity of inferior fibre and publicly burn 
it in the middle of the plaza. This was an 
object lesson to the natives to produce 
better grades of fibre. However, since the 
Americans have taken possession of the 
Philippine Islands, no authority has been 
exercised and no influence exerted by the 
officials in connection with the quality of 
fibre. The result is a very much greater 
proportion of low-grade fibres than has ever 
been produced in previous years Un- 
questionably, large quantities of this low- 
grade fibre will be used in the manufacture 
of binder twine for the harvest of 1910, and 
it is unnecessary to state that those who 
attempt to use twine made from this low- 
grade Manila fibre will have troubles of 
their own. 

There may never be a famine in twine, 
but it is rather to the farmer's interest 
always to keep a weather eye on the 
future, and in this particular instance to 
secure his twine supply, whether it be Sisal 
or Manila, at as early a date as possible. 




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ACETYLENE GAS RESIDIUM AS 
A FERTILIZER. 



To the Editor: I want to ask you 
through your valuable paper of what fer- 
tilizer value there is in the waste of an 
acetylene gas plant? If there is any 
value in the same, on what kind of land 
would it be of the most benefit, adobe, 
or alkaline-adobe, which is used for al- 
falfa? Would it be advisable to put it on 
sandy soil used for apple orchards? How 
much per acre should be used for each 
kind of land to obtain the best results? 
As there are many acetylene plants in 
our home town, it would make a very 
cheap fertilizer. — Luther Batten, Dos 
Palos. 

RESPONSE BY PROF. JOHN S. BURI), OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

The inquiry is frequently made as to 
whether or not the sludge or residuum 
resulting in the generation of acetylene 
gas is of value as a fertilizer. This may 
be answered in brief by saying that such 
materail is of value wherever slaked lime 
is useful, because the two substances are 
practically identical. 

Acetylene gas is produced by the action 
of water on the substance known as cal- 
cium carbide. The purer the carbide the 
purer and more efficient is the gas pro- 
duced. The crude carbide commonly 
used contains some impurities tending to 
reduce its efficiency as a light producer, 
and most of these impurities remain in 
the sludge. These, of course, tend to re- 
duce the yield of actual calcium hy- 
droxide or slaked lime. While we have 
no exact figures as to the percentage of 
carbide in the crude carbide used in local 
plants, it is probably in the neighborhood 
of 75 f /r pure. With a carbide of this 
strength and using an amount of water 
just sufficient to convert all of the car- 
bide into acetylene and calcium hy- 
droxide, the residuum would contain, 
when fresh, about 78% actual calcium hy- 
droxide. This is sufficient, however, to 
justify its use where slaked lime is de- 
sired. 

Generator sludge, like slaked lime from 
other sources, takes up carbonic acid from 
the air on standing, and becomes partially 
converted into carbonate of lime. Owing 
to the smallness of most acetylene plants 
and the consequent necessity of waiting 
for an accumulation of the material, this 
partial reversion to carbonate may fre- 
quently occur, but is probably not great 
unless exposed in the open air for some 
weeks. 

From the agricultural standpoint the 
value of lime may be due to any one or 
more of four general causes; the lack of 
available lime in the soil, its capacity to 
neutralize acidity, its power of making 
other so-called plant foods available for 
the use of plants, and to improve the 
physical condition of soils. It would lead 
too far to discuss all the conditions which 
justify the liming of soils, but it should 
be said that the practice should be some- 



what limited; because of the tendency of 
the excessive use of lime to liberate more 
of the plant foods than the 'season's crop 
can utilize, resulting in the ultimate loss 
of soil fertility. On this account the in- 
discriminate use of lime is not advisable. 
Lime should have its widest application 
in the breaking up of the plastic or pud- 
dled condition of heavy soils: and on very 
light, sandy soils, for a few years to in- 
sure the growth of leguminous crops, 
such as alfalfa, peas, beans, vetches, etc., 
to be plowed under as a green manure. 

The amount of slaked lime to be used 
on any soil should seldom be more than 
100 pounds per acre where the material 
is comparatively pure. Where acetylene 
generator residuum is available 120 
pounds per acre should answer the same 
purpose. 

John S. Burd. 
Fertiliser Control, University of Cali- 
fornia. 

[We should be inclined to use several 
times as much lime per acre on heavy 
clay or adobe which it is desired to make 
more friable. — Editor]. 





AND 



HOW TO GROW THEM 



By E. J. WICKSON, A.M. 



REVISED EDITION, 500 PAGES. 

HANDSOMELY ILLUSTRATED 



Price $3 per copy, postpaid. 



A COMPLETE COMPENDIUM ON FRUIT 
GROWING. 



"I have had occasion to consult Prof. 
Wickson's 'California Fruits' on many 
subjects and have found what I wanted in 
every case. The book might well be styled 
an Encyclopedia of California Horticul- 
ture." — L. Lathwesen, San Jose. 



Send In Your Order Today to 

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607 HOWARD STREET, 
San Franelaco, Cal. 

REDWOOD TANKS 

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Send for circulars. 

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Palo Alto. Santa Clara County. California. 



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FARM BOOKS. 



The following list of books are kept in 
stock anil are for sale at the Pacific Rural 
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Price. 

The Book of Alfalfa, by Coburn 2.00 

Swine Husbandry, by Coburn 1.50 

Trees of California, by .JVpson 2.50 

Shepherd's Manual, by Stewart 1.00 

The Hop, by Myrick 1.50 

New Onion Culture, by Greiner 50 

Home Pork Making, by Fulton 50 

Broom Corn and Brooms 50 

Soiling Crops, by Shaw 1.50 

Book of Corn, by Myrick 1.60 

New Egg Farm, by Stoddard 1.00 

American Cattle Doctor, by Dodd 1.00 

Greenhouse Management, by Taft.... 1.50 
Greenhouse Construction, by Taft.... 1.50 

Mushrooms, by Falconer 1.00 

Plant Life on the Farm, by Masters.. 1.00 

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includes postage. Send money order or 
bank draft for the book wanted and ad- 
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100 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 29, 1910. 




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138-140-142 South Main St.. Los Angeles. 







Vol. LXXIX. No. 6. 


SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1 910. 


Fortieth Year. 



A Fruit League Assured. 

By a representative assembly at Sacramento 
on January 28 the movement for a league of de- 
ciduous fruit interests, foreshadowed by local 
meetings in different districts and brought into 
definite view by the convention at Watsonville, 
was practically accomplished. The discussion 
showed clearly that the general sense of all those 
who have suffered most is that difficulties may be 
swept away when "the shipping organizations, 
co-operative and otherwise, get together and ar- 
range a collective system of distribution in order 
that the fruit may not be forced into competition 
with itself in the Eastern markets to the loss of 
the grower, experience having shown that satis- 
factory results can be obtained when 
the distribution is made from this end 
through one channel." 

The meeting gave several hours to 
the discussion of matters involved in 
the foregoing proposition, chiefly to 
hearing and opposing the contention 
of Mr. Et. H. Stephens of Sacramento, 
who held, with his usual vigor and 
ability, to the idea that the direction 
of the shipments from this end so that 
they would not conflict with each 
other was not the greatest thing to 
be attained for the cure of the present 
trouble. 

The leading speaker supporting 
the crucial importance of regulated 
distribution was Col. Harris Wein- 
stock of Sacramento, who has been 
prominent in fruit circles for many 
years. "Unless we have concerted 
action for distributing deciduous 
fruit, not only in the auction, but in 
the f. o. b. plan as well," said Col. 
Weinstock, "the question will con- 
tinue to be extremely unsatisfactory. 
The commodity we have to sell is highly perish- 
able, and this must be remembered. 1 know of 
only one thing from which the value can mell 
more quickly, and that is ice cream. A car of 
fruit today may have a fancy value; tomorrow the 
value may have fallen to a small fraction of what 
it was. The commodity is one that needs quick 
and the most intelligent action if it is to be profit- 
able to the grower. 

"I have in mind a situation that occurred last 
season. A shipper had sent a carload of fruil to 
Canada and had realized good prices for the pro- 
duct. He was informed that two more carloads 
could be handled to advantage, and the next day 
he sent them on. lint other shippers had also 
heard that a chance for good prices for two car- 
loads of fruit existed in Canada, and when the 
consignment of the shipper who had made the 
first sale reached its destination, five other car- 
loads were on the "round. Seven carloads were 
there to supply a demand that would have been 
satisfied by two cars, and the result was injury 
to every pound of the fruit. 

"Cost of transportation is an important thing, 



but if we could persuade the railroad companies 
to give us free transportation, and yet not remedy 
the system which permits rushing ten carloads of 
fruit to a market that requires only three, the 
problem will not be solved. Unless we get to- 
gether to prevent this, the present conditions will 
become permanent conditions. I nless we get con- 
certed action — and this does not mean a monopoly 
— it will be impossible to handle the business 
profitably. Whether we sell our fruit f. o. b. or 
at auction sale to the highest bidder, it will be 
necessary to get together and distribute the fruit 
wisely, if we are to succeed. 

"I have no plan to offer you. I deal with fl gen- 
eral principle. 1 believe that plans can be evolved 
by joint effort of experts representing the ship- 
] ers. packers, growers and others interested, pro- 




A Representative California Orchard View. 

vided they act in good faith. You say. 'we are 
experts!' That may be true, but my idea is to 
evolve a plan by means of experts of growers, 
shippers and sellers. If we can get together I be- 
lieve a plan can be devised whereby all can be 
benefited, none injured." 

This seemed to be the prevailing sentiment of 

the [fleeting, for the approval of the general prin- 
ciple cited by Col. Weinstock as embodied in the 
report of the committee appointed at Watsonville 
was practically unanimous, only one negative vole 
being recorded. The declaration upon which all 
the discussion proceeded was the report of the 
committee appointed al the Watsonville conven- 
1 ion. 

It was urged firsl that difficulties in the de- 
ciduous fruit industries of California were due to 
the following causes: (1) Excessive freight 
charges and unsatisfactory railway service. (2) 
Unintelligent distribution, due to competing dis- 
tributing organizations. (3) To shipments of in- 
ferior and poorly packed fruits. (4) To ship- 
ments out of all proportion in volume to the de- 
mand of the present imperfectly developed mar- 



kets. Proceeding upon this foundation the fol- 
lowing declarations were made: 

Resolved. That we, representing the fruit in- 
dustry of California, assembled in mass-meeting 
in Sacramento this January 28, 1910, urge upon 
the transcontinental railways to grant the con- 
cessions in freight rates asked for by the trans- 
portation committee appointed by the Fruit grow- 
ers' convention, assembled at Watsonville on De- 
cember 8, 1909, as well as to insure the industry 
better future service. 

We ask for a reduction in rates, not only be- 
cause such reduction is of great importance to the 
welfare of the State, and to those directly inter- 
ested, but also because of the vastly increased 
tonnage thai it furnishes to the railway com- 
panies, it is entitled to reduced rates. While the 
shipments of fresh fruits in the last 
few years have increased from (>()()() 
carloads to 15,000 carloads, the de- 
decrease in the rates has been about 
3 per cent, which manifestly is out 
of all proportion to the increased 
tonnage. 

Resolved. That the deciduous fruit 
growers demand that the shipping or- 
ganizations, co-operative and others, 
get together and arrange a collective 
system of distribution in order that 
the fruit may not be forced into com- 
petition with itself in the Eastern 
markets to the loss of the grower, ex- 
perience having shown that satisfac- 
tory results can be obtained only 
when the distribution is made from 
this end through one channel. 

Resolved, Thai any shipping or- 
ganization which shall decline to 
comply with this resolution has not 
the best interest of the growers at 
heart. 

Resolved, Thai (he deciduous fruit 
growers of California be called upon 
through their local organizations to enter into an 
agreement with the shipping organizations to re* 
ceive no fruit for Eastern shipments unless such 
fruit has been passed upon favorably by in- 
spectors chosen by the local organizations of 
growers, where there are such inspectors. 

Resolved. That the growers and their local or- 
ganizations be called upon to agree among them- 
selves to thin out the crop at the proper growing 
period, with a view of increasing the size, im- 
proving the color and quality of the fruits in 
order that (hey may bring more profitable returns 
to the grower, a considerable proportion of last 
season's shipments having been unsuitable for 
Eastern shipment, thus injuring the good name of 
California fruits in Eastern markets, thus also 
injuring t he cut ire indusl ry. 

Resolved. That the thanks of those engaged in 
the deciduous fruit industry are due to the frail 

growers' committee on freight rates, composed of 

R. i). Stephens of Sacramento, chairman: .M. B. 
Angier of Lodi and C. ,M. Hartley of Vacaville. ap- 
pointed by the State fruit growers convention, 
(Continued on Page ire.) 



102 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February .">. 1910. 



Pacific Rural Press 

667 HOWARD ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 



Los Angeles Office, 123 So. Los Angeles St. 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE 



Entered at S. F. Postoffice as second-class mail matter. 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS CO. - - - PUBLISHERS 

Advertising rates made known on application. 

E. J. WICKSON Editor 

FRANK HONEYWELL .... Business Manager 
GEORGE RILEY Advertising Manager 



California Weather Record. 



The following rainfall and temperature record is fur- 
nished the Pacific Rural Press by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, at San 
Francisco, for the week ending at 5 p. M., Feb. 1, 1910 : 



Stations. 


Rainfall Data. 


Tempera- 
ture Data. 












Past 


Seasonal 


Normal 


Maxi- 


Mini 




Week. 


to Date. 


to Date. 


mum. 


mum 


Eureka 


.71 


27.86 


24.81 


52 


38 


Red Bluff 


.18 


10.95 


14.13 


60 


82 


Sacramento 


.04 


8.50 


10.93 


60 


40 


San Francisco... 


.33 


13.39 


12.77 


60 


40 


San Jose 


.01 


10.48 


7.94 


60 


28 


Fresno 


.06 


10.22 


5.20 


70 


32 


Independence... 


.00 


5.42 


5.12 


58 


20 


San Luis Obispo 


.00 


16.31 


10 68 


74 


36 


Los Angeles 


.06 


10.42 


8.18 


76 


42 


San Diego 


.02 


8.19 


5.25 


68 


40 



The Week. 



We believe that the popular gathering of those 
connected with our deciduous frail industries 
which took place in Sacramento on -January 28, 
planted the seed from which will spring in due 
time a vigorous growth of co-operative effort 
which will (dear the progress of those industries 
of all the evils which now beset its path and pro- 
vide for the expansion on a scale commensurate 
with their opportunities. It is because we do be- 
lieve that the time has now come for final and 
complete success in this very old and much buf- 
feted undertaking that we give our leading space 
this week to what seems to us to involve the true 
germinal principles in accordance with which this 
success will be attained. By wisely embodying 
these principles in effective organization, and in- 
spired by the courage and spirit which their con- 
templation should engender. California will dem- 
onstrate, in the eyes not only of the pomologieal 
but of the commercial world also, that leadership 
in fruit growing and handling which have been 
endangered by the indulgence of a few in narrow- 
ness and timidity. What a sorry spectacle they 
have made of California for the contemplation of 
newer States of the ('oast in which fruit growing 
is now advancing with such courage ami confi- 
dence! What comfort they have given to these 
less-suited regions in the idea that California is 
playing out in fruit growing and who can tell 
what forces of development they are diverting to 
less promising regions.' 

in the upbuilding of our great fruit industries 
we have difficulties and obstructing interests, it is 
true. 'Die opening declaration of the committee 
which submitted the charter warranting the or- 
ganization which is now in progress, and which 
we publish upon the first pane of this issue, con- 
tains several counts of obstructions to be re- 
moved, so there is no obscuration of those vexing 
problems anil there is no disposition to avoid them. 
Rather is it very clear that they are to be over- 
come by the only power which is competent to 
deal with them and that is the unification and 
solidification of the industry. It is in the failure 
to get together widely and effectively that has 
permitted such difficulties to remain so long. The 
fruit growers can truly and contritely say: "Tt 



is not in our stars but in ourselves that we are 
underlings." This feeling has been widely preva- 
lent for some time, but it has been very difficult 
to pay the essential debt to the universal principle 
of co-operative organization which is the sacrifice 
of individual willfulness to the organic will of the 
co-operation. We believe the time has now come 
for this sacrifice. 



It has been a long time on the way. It is nearly 
25 years ago that the first strong impulse toward 
organization for fruit marketing began to mani- 
fest itself. Close control at this end and the wid- 
est possible distribution at the other were then 
seen, with prophetic vision, to be essential to suc- 
cess, but both were impossible of attainment be- 
cause of vested interests. We say both were im- 
possible because it is hard to realize that anyone 
could have ever thought that he could limit dis- 
tribution to his personal advantage. Bui SO cer- 
tain persons thought and actually did in that re- 
mote day, because, for a time. Chicago was the 
distributing point and a single firm the distribu- 
tors of what it was vainly sought to make the 
avenue or agency for the widest distribution. This 
was possible because the growers who sought to 
act together were divided when they first tried 
to unite. This capture of the growers' movement 
did not come all at once: it was the result, the 
work of wolves with a scattered flock: the prepa- 
ration for it was in the scattering and that was 
largely due to the efforts of one of the best, the 
most sincere and most energetic of the fruit grow- 
ers of California. Mr. H. I). Stephens, of Sacra- 
mento. We were personally present at that meet- 
ing and still retain a vivid picture of it. The 
movement for a California Fruit Union was pro- 
moted by Mr. II. I'. Livermore and wide interest 
was aroused. Al the meeting for organization the 
main debate was upon the question of control of 
shipments. Mr. R. 1). Stephens was the champion 
of the negative and behind him was the group of 
Sacramento fruit shippers of that day who. of 
course, did not desire any control of shipments at 
this end of the line; nor did they want any asso- 
ciation of growers whatever — but that considera- 
tion was incidental. Mr. Stephens was earnest 
and sincere in his contention that shipments 
should not be supervised or controlled and he was 
warranted in that view at that time, because he 
had succeeded at great cost and effort in learning 
how to pack grapes and where to sell them, and 
no one could offer him, in return for a sacrifice of 
control of his own business, anything but a lot of 
general views of co-operation which seemed to him 
intangible and chimerical. In contending for his 
own position, as based upon his own experience, 
he served as attorney for those who desired no 
association or control whatever and who could not 
think and speak as effectively as he. At the time 
it seemed as though he had pooled issues with 
them, but we now believe he used their support 
only to secure what he thought was for the good 
of the fruit interest and to protect those who 
knew how to handle it from the ill effects of un- 
skilled expansion. Whatever may have been his 
motives, and we are only sure that they were 
honest and honorable, the result was the frosting 
of the growth of co-operation and the consequent 
decay which made the California Fruit Union a 
cover for iniquities which brought some to afflu- 
ence and others to poverty. 



We are not contending that Mr. Stephens' at- 
titude in that early day accomplished this nor that 
an opposite attitude on his part would have pre- 
vented it. Hut we do believe that from the point 
of view of the greatest good to the greatest num- 
ber he has been a consistent apostle of error all 
these years. The old Fruit Union would have been 



wrecked anyway. The principles, which those 
who first worked for it announced, were not suf- 
ficiently entrenched in the public mind at that 
time to command the support essential to their 
successful application. If they had not fallen at 
first by Mr. Stephens' open onset, they would have 
fallen later by undermining by less honorable in- 
fluences. The time was not ripe for them. At 
present, however, it seems inexcus