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Full text of "Page's Weekly"

N2 3. UoL. 5. 



ONE 5I11LLINQ NET. September, 1904. 



EnGinCEBIMG • ELECTRICITY 

SHiPBuiLDino ^ nininG 

IROn g STEEL iriDUSTBIES 




EDITORIAL G 



PUBLISHING OFFICES. CLUN HOU5E, SUKRE/ 5TREET, 5TR3ND, LONDON, W.C 



France, Paris : aj, Rue de la Banque. 
Germany, Berlin : 13, Unter den Linden. 
Russia. St. Petersburg: 14, N'evsky Prospect. 
Austria, Vienna : Karntaerstrasse, nr. 50. 



India. Calcutta : Thacker, Spink & Co. 

Bombay : Thacker & Co.. Ltd. 
South Africa. Cape Town : Gordon & Golch. 
Japan, Yokohama : Kellv & Walsh. Ltd. 



Canada : Montreal News Company. 

Ukjted States. Kew York : International Kevn C 

,, Chicago : Subscription Xews Co, 

Austr.^lia, Melbourne : Gordon & Gotch. 




The ONLY 

JOINTING 
MATERIAL 




Contractors to the Admiralty. 



You can THEN afford to "FORGET" all the others. 

RICHARD KLINGER & CO., 

ENGINEERS, 
66, FENCHURCH STREET, LONDON, E.G. 



EHRHARDT & SEHMER gmbh 

Maschinenfabrik Schleifmithle, Post Saarbrucken, GERMANY. 




Large Gas Engines 



ON THE Double Acting 4 Cycle System, 

For Central Stations, 

Blast Furnaces, and Steelworks, 

Rolling Mills, Pumping 

and other Industrial uses. 

100 TO 8,000 I.H.P. 



J. Maximum Power combinat u-ilh Mini- 
mum Wei}<hl and Dimensions. 

2. Hich Mcrlutiiical Efficiency, viz., 9° %■ 



ADVANTAGES OF THIS TYPE. 

;. Perfect control by means oj very sxm/'/t' 
Pffiulator, 

4. Easy access to wrkinf< parts for clean- 
it: fi, etc. 



Very small gas consumption, ** 15% 
—20'., less than the two plate 
system Gas Engines." 

Al'sotnte sa/elv- 



ROLLING MILL MACHINERY, BLOWING ENGINES, PUMPING MACHINERY. 

"EXPRESS-PUMP 'SCHLEIFMUHLE.'" 

WINDING ENGINES. STEAM FURNACE HOISTS. STEAM ENGII^S. 




Mining Machinery 




li HARDY PATENT PICK CO., LTD., I 

SHEFFIELD, England. ''''T'-1^%''' j 



I 



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Telegraphic Address : 
'Hardypick. Sheffield." 



High=Class Tools for Miners, Contractors, 
Quarrymen & Agriculturalists. 





Makers of the "Universal" and 

HAND & POWER BORING MACHINES FOR ROCK & COAL. 

Picks, Shcvels, Spades, Forks, Hoes, Axes, Hammers, Wedges, Crowbars, 

and all Mining, Quarry, Contractors, and Agricultural Tools. 



SPECIAL TOUGH 



DRILL STEEL, SHEAR. CAST. <5 BLISTER STEEL. SAWS. FILES 6 RASPS. 
IMPORTERS OF HICKORY HANDLES. 



<» 



For contents of the Magazine for the month, see pages 2 and 4. Index to Advertisers, pages 41, 43, 44. and 46. 



The whole of the contents of this publication are copyright, and full rights are reserved. 

CONTENTS. 

No. III. SEPTEMBER. 1904. Vol. V. 



ON BOARD THE FRENCH BATTLESHIP 
" REDOUBTABLE." 

Firing one of the Breech-loaders. 



Frontispiece 



SPECIAL ARTICLES. 

PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES OF TO- J. C. R. Adams . . 195 

With Six Illustrations. 
Mr. Adams continues the review of leading types of 
portable engines, which he commenced in the 
August number. The first article of the series 
appeared in the July issue of Page's Magazine, 
and dealt with the conditions to be observed in 
designing a successful portable steam engine. 

THE ARCHED CONCRETE DAM AT Alex. B. Moncrief. . . 201 

BAROSSA M.Am.Soc.C.E., 

With Five Illustrations. M.Inst.C.E. 

The Barossa Water Works, constructed for the 
supply of Gawler, Snuth Australia, and district, 
offer several points of interest to the civil engineer, 
the chief feature being the arched concrete dam 
of unusual dimensions, designed by the Engineer- 
In-Chief to the South Aus-tralian Government, 
which is here described with the aid of illustrations 
specially taken for Page's Magazine. 

OUR MONTHLY BIOGRAPHIES 205 

Illustrated. 
Sir Edward Hamer Carbutt, Bart., J.P., D.L. 
Capta n Alfred Thayer Mahan, D.C.L., LL.D. 

THE PROTECTION OF BATTLESHIPS Commander Murray F. 207 

BELOW THE WATER LINE Sueter. R.N. 

Points from a naval essay contributed to the 
Royal United Service Institution. 
Illustrated. 

ALASKA'S MINERAL WEALTH 212 

With Map. 

THE SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS 213 

Visit to the Works of Messrs. Yarrow and Co., at 
Poplar. 

LONG DISTANCE TRANSMISSION FROM E. Kilburn Scott, . . 214 

HIGH HEAD WATER POWERS A.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E. 

In this article the author deals practically with the 
utilisation of high head water powers. These 
notes should be specially useful to Colonial 
readers, and also to engineers in South America, 
South Africa, and the Far East, where the 
tangential wheel is often the most suitable prime 
mover that can be employed. 

SIR OLIVER LODGE ON THE NATURE 218 

OF ELECTRICITY 

A CONTINUOUS WEIGHING MACHINE 219 

BRITISH STANDARDS FOR ELEC 220 

TRICAL MACHINERY 

THE IRRIGATION PROBLEMS OF THE A Summary of the Schemes 225 

NILE recommended by Sir Wn». 

Willi Portrait, Three Maps, and Six Illustrations. Garstin, G.C.M.G. 



THE CHAMPION COAL-CUTTER 240 

A discussion by Members of the Mining Institute 

of Scotland. 
Illustrated. 

ALTERATIONS ON THE LONDON 243 

TILBURY, AND SOUTHEND RAIL. 
WAY 

Wiih Three Illuitrations. 

(Continued on l'iif<e 4.) 

The Editor' does not holdibiniMlf responilble for opinions expressed by individual contributors, nor does he aecessarily 

identify himself with their views. 




?IS 



5 i«ll 



(^MWmf Weighing Machines 





W&TAVERYto 



The LaSoest 



WEI(iHBRlD(iE5 




Makers of 



IN THE WoftLD 




Entrance to Avery's Main WorKs, Soho Foundry, Birmingham. 

THE LARGEST MANUFACTORY FOR 
WEIGHBRIDGES AND WEIGHING APPARATUS 

IN THE WORLD. 



A 2 



CONTENTS. 

(Continued from Page 2.) 

THE TRAINING OF NAVAL CADETS Points from "The Story of 246 

Illustrated. the' Britannia, by Com- 

mander E. P. Statham, 
R.N. 

A MODERN OPTICAL LABORATORY 248 

Illustrated 

THE CHIEF ENGINEER OF THE 250 

PANAMA CANAL 

A 50.TON ELECTRIC CRANE FOR THE . . . • 251 

LONDON AND SOUTH-WESTERN 
RAILWAY 

Illustrated. 

THE HON. CHARLES A. PARSONS 253 

A Lecture and a Presentation. 

"P.M." MONTHLY ILLUSTRATED 254 

NOTES 

PROGRESS OF THE ENGINEERING WORLD. 

OUR MONTHLY SUMMARY . . The Editor . . . 257 

ELECTRICAL AFFAIRS E. Kilburn Scott, M.I.E.E. 262 

NAVAL NOTES N. I. D 263 

MINING NOTES .... A. L. .... 265 

Items of Interest to the Mining Engineer atiHome 
and Abroad. 

THE CIVIL ENGINEER AT WORK. . C. H. .... 266 
POWER STATION NOTES . . . E.'K. S 268 

SHIPBUILDING NOTES .... "Shipbuilder" . . 269 

A Running Commentary on Shipbuilding Progress. 

AUTOMOBILE NOTES . . . . J. W. . . . .271 

OUR TECHNICAL COLLEGES . . A Technical Student . 272 

A Monthly Survey of Technical Matters. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING NOTES. Charles Rous-Marten . 273 

AMERICAN RESUME .... Our New YorR Corre. 275 

spondent 

SOUTH AFRICAN RESUME 276 

GERMAN RESUME 277 

IRON AND STEEL NOTES . . . E. H. B 278 

A Monthly Keview of Markets and Methods. 

OPENINGS FOR TRADE ABROAD , 280 

NOTABLE BRITISH PAPERS .281 

Abstracts of I'apcrs read before the various Insiilu- 
tions and Technical Societies. 

BOOKS OF THE MONTH 286 

OUR DIARY 287 

NEW CATALOGUES AND TRADE PUBLICATIONS . .288 




Miscellaneous 




HOLROYD TAPS 



Established 
1847. 



ENGINEERS' HAND TAPS. 

Whitworth Standard Thread. 




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The Holroyd Taps and Dies 
are the best attainable, the most 
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and their work bears the closest 
inspection as to accuracy, 
quality, and results. 

Extract from Report of a 
severe test of these Taps on 
Armour Plate:— 

"The 'Hokoyd' Tap was 
then tried, and it went through 
the Armour Plate at an average 
pressure of One Hundred and 
Twenty pounds, and it was not 
necessary to back the Tap at 
any time, and the thread made 
by it was perfect." 



Bottoming. 



Write for CattUogae No. I OS. 



The Fairbanks Co., 78-80, City Road, London, E.C, 



GLASGOW OFFICE : 9, HOWARD STREET. 



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A SPECIALTY. 

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DON'T MISS THIS, 




Patentees and Sole Makers : 

DAVID BRIDGE & CO., 

Castleton Iron Works, 

ROCHDALE. LANGS. 



London Office: 

35. Queen Victoria Street, 

E.C. 



An Illustrated Technical Monthly, dealing with the Engineering* 
Electrical, Shipbuilding, Iron & Steel, Mining, & Allied Industries. 



DAVIDGE PAGE, Editor, 

Clun House. Surrey Street, Strand. London. W.C. 



Telephone No. : 3349 GERRARD. 

Telegraphic and Cable Address : 

"SINEWY, LONDON." 



ANNOUNCEMENTS. 
Subscription Rates per Year. 

Great Britain— In advance, 12s. for twelve months, 
post free. Sample copies. Is. 4d.. post free. 

Foreign and Colonial Subscriptions. 16s. for twelve 
months, post free. Sample Copies, Is. 6d., post free. 

Remittances should be made payable to Page's Magazine, and 
may be forwarded by Cheque, Money Order, Draft, Post Office Order, 
or Registered Letter. Cheques should be crossed " LONDON & 
COUNTY BANK, Covent Garden Branch." P.O.'s and P.O.O.'s to 
be made payable at East Strand Post Office, London, W.C. When a 
change of address is notified, both the new and old addresses should 
be given. All orders must be accompanied by remittance, and no 
subscription will be continued after expiration, unless by special 
arrangement. Subscribers are requested to give information of any 
irregularity in receiving the Magazine. 

Advertising Rates. 

All inquiries regarding Advertisements should be directed to "THE 
ADVERTISEMENT MANAGER, Clun House, Surrey Street, Strand, 
London, W.C." 

Ne^v Copy for Advertisements, 

alterations, &c , should reach us not later than the morning o 

the 4th of the month preceding that in which such changes and 
alleraiions are required to be made, otherwise, while we will do all in 
our power to make any changes "or alterations, we cannot guarantee 
to do so. 



A GENTS REQUIRED in large towns for 
•*^*- sale of Machine Tools. Members of Institution 
of Mechanical Engineers preferred. — Bertrams, Ltd., 
Sciennes, Edinburgh. 

"THOMPSON" DISH ENDED 
LANCASHIRE BOILERS 

can be supplied ex-stock. Advantages : Overcomes 

grooving on end plate and cracking of flue flanges ; 

freedom for expansion ; no stay plates or leaky stay 

rivets ; firebox easily cleaned. 

JOHN THOMPSON, WOLVERHAMPTON 



Editorial. — All communications intended for publica- 
tion should be written on one side of the paper only, 
and addressed to " The Editor." 

Any contributions offered, as likely to interest either home 
or foreign readers, dealing with the industries covered 
by the Magazine, should be accompanied by stamped 
and addressed envelope for the return of the MSS. if 
rejected. When payment is desired this fact should 
he stated, and the full name and address of the writer 
should appear on the MSS. 

The copyright of any article appearing is vested in the 
proprietors of Page's Magazine in the absence of any 
written agreement to the contrary. 

Correspondence is invited from any person upon 
subjects of interest to the engineering community. In 
all cases this must be accompanied by full name and 
address of the writer, not necessarily for publication, 
but as a proof of good faith. No notice whatever can 
be taken of anonymous communications. 

Second Edition, Revised. Price 7s. 6d. 

DEPRECIATION OF FACTORIES, Mines, 
and Industrial Undertakings, and their Valuation. With Tables 
and Examples. 

By EWING MATHESON, M.Inst.C.E. 

The Principles which should guide the Writing off for wear and 
tear. Obsolete plant ; Terminable or wasting properties ; Effect on 
Income-tax ; Value defined as for Compulsory purchase ; Going concern, 
or dismantled ; Rateable value, rental value. 

"A successful attempt to systematise existing information and to make it 
possible to arrive at uniformity and accuracy in makings up balance sheets for 
valuations. The yoik is unique of its kind."— 7 he Ett^ijieer. 

E. 6 F. N. SPON. 125. Strand. London. 

Mr. G. H. HUGHES, M.I.Heeh.E., 

Consulting and Organising Engineer for Water 
Works and Industrial Undertakings, 

97, QUEEN VICTORIA ST., LONDON, E.G. 

Telephone No.: 5754 Rank. Write for particulars. 



MOULDERS' LETTERS AND FIGURES. 



Marks, Name Stamps. Branding Irons. Sets of Letter 

and Figure Punches. Brass Labels and Time Checks. 

Embossing Presses, Dies and Seals, Brass Name Plates, 

Stencil Plates, India>Rubber Stamps. 



EDWARD PRYOR & SON, 68, West Street, SHEFFIELD. 



JOSEPH BOOTH BROS.. LTD., 
RODLEY, LEEDS. 



LIFTING MACHINERY. 




THOS. W. WARD, 
ALBION WORKS, 

SHEFFIELD. 



MACHINE TOOLS. 



See Page 
19. 



THE SHANNON. LTD.. 
Ropemaker St.. London. E.C. 



OFFICE APPLIANCES. 



See Page 
92. 



A glance 



Have you seen our Advertisement on page ©a 60. 

at it may save you £500 per annum 

ED. BENNIS & CO., Ltd., BOLTON. 




"f " — >fc: 



fl»MEf 



Pumps 




Telegrams: 
MATMORN, LEEDS." 




PLUNGER 
PUUPS. 



BUCKET 
LIFTS. 



SURFACE ENGINE WITH SHAFT PUMPS. 




^nM. 





PUMPING 
MACHINERY 



Specialities— 

DIFFERENTIAL PUMPING ENGINES. 
ROTATIVE PUMPING ENGINES. 



Horizontal and Vertical. 
Compound and Triple. 



HYDRHULie PUMPS. 
UNDERGROUND PUMPS. 
ELEGTRie PUMPS. 
WATER WORKS PLANT. 



HATHORN,DAVEY&GO., 

LIMITED, 

LEEDS, 

ENGLAND. 



BUYERS' DIRECTORY. 



Note. — The display advertisements of the firms mentioned under each heading can be found readily by reference to the 

Alphabetical Index to Advertisers on pages 41, 43, 44, & 46. 
In order to assure fair treatment to advertisers, each firm is indexed under its leading speciality only. 

Advertisers who prefer, however, to be entered under two or more different sections can do so by an annual payment of 5s. 
for each additional section. 



Artesian Well Machinery. 

John Z. Thorn, Patricroft, Manchester. 

Belting. 

Fleming, Birkby & Goodall, Ltd., West Grove, Halifax. 
Rossendale Belting Co., Ltd.. 10, West Mosley Street, Manchester. 

Boilers. 

Clayton, Son & Co., Ltd., Leeds City Boiler Works, Leeds. 
John Thompson, Wolverhampton. 

Boilers (Water-tube). 

Babcock & Wilcox, Ltd., Oriel House, Farringdon Street, London, 

£.C. 
Cochran & Co. (Annan), Ltd., Annan, Scotland. 

Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, etc. 

Herbert W. Periam, Ltd., Floodgate Street Works, Birmingham. 
T, D. Robinson & Co., Ltd., Derby. 

Books. 

E. & K. N. Spon, 125, Strand, London, W.C. 

Brass Engine and Boiler Fittings. 

Hunt & Mitton, Crown Brass Works, Oozells Street North, Bir- 
minj;ham. 
Cables. 

St. Helen's Cable Co., Ltd., Warrington, Lancashire. 

Case-Hardening Compounds. 

Hy. Miller & Co.. Millgarth Works, Leeds. 

Chucks. 

Fairbanks Co., 78-80, City Road, London , E.C. 

Clutches (Friction). 

David Bridge & Co., Castleton Ironworks, Rochdale, Lancashire. 
H. J. H. King & Co., Nailsworth, Gloucestershire. 

Condensing Plant. 

Mirrlees- Watson & Co., Ltd., Glasgow. 

Consulting Engineers. 

G. H. Hughes, A.M.LM.E., 97, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 

Continental Railway Arrangements, 

South Eastern & Chatham Railway Co. 

Conveying and Elevating Machinery. 

Adolf Bleichert & Co., Leipzig-Gohlis, Germany. 
Brown Hoisting Machinery Co.. 39, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
BuUivant & Co., Ltd., 72, Mark Lane, London, E.C. 
Fraser & Chalmers, Ltd., 3, London Wall Buildings, London, E.C. 
Graham, Morton & Co., Ltd., Leeds. 

Temperley Transporter Co., 72, Bishopsgate Street Within, London, 
E.C. 

Cranes, Travellers, "Winches, etc. 

Joseph Booth & Bros. Ltd, Rodley, Leeds. 
Thomas Broadbent & Sons, Ltd., Huddersfield. 
Niles-Bement Pond Co., 23-25, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Cranks. 

Clarke's Crank & Forge Co., Ltd., Lincoln, England. 

Cutters (Milling). 

E. G. Wrigley & Co., Ltd., Foundry Lane Works, Soho, Birmingham. 

Destructors. 

Harsfall Destructor Co., Ltd., Armley, Leeds. 

Dredges and Excavators. 

Lobiiitz & Co., Ltd., Renfrew. 

Rose, Downs & Thompson, Ltd., Old Foundry, HulL 

Economisers. 

E. Green & Son, Ltd., Manchester. 

Ejectors (Pneumatic). 

Hughes & Lancaster, 47, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Electrical Apparatus. 

AUgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschaft, Berlin, Germany. 

British Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Norfolk 

Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
Crompton & Co., Ltd., Arc Works, Chelmsford. 
Greenwood & Batley, Ltd.. Albion Works, Leeds. 
The India Rubber, Gutta Pereha, and Telegraph Works Co., Ltd., 

Silvertown, London, E. 
Mai her & Piatt, Ltd.. Salford Iron Works, Manchester. 
Matthews & Yates, Ltd., Swinton, Manchester. 
Nalder Bros. & Thompson, 34. Queen Street, London, E.C. 
Newton Brothers, Full Street, Derby. 
Phcenix Dynamo Manufacturing Co., Bradford, Yorkt. 
Simplex Steel Conduit Co., Ltd., 20, Bucklersbury, London, E.C. 
Sturtevant Engineenng Co., Ltd., 147, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 
E. Tomlinson & Co., 40, Page Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
Turner, Atherton & Co., Ltd., Denton, Manchester. 
B. Weaver & Co., 22, Rosoman Street, Clerkenwell. London, E.C. 

Engines (Electric Lighting). 
]. & H. McLaren, Midland Engine Work*, Leeds. 



Engines (Locomotive). 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Hunslet Engine Co., Ltd., Leeds, England. 
Hudswell. Clarke & Co., Ltd., Leeds, England. 

Engines (Stationary). 

AUis-Chalmers Co., 533, Salisbury House, Finsbury Circus, London, 

E.C. 
Fraser & Chalmers, Ltd., 3, London Wall Buildings, London, E.C. 
Momentum Engine, 19, 19a, Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Circus, 

London, E.C. 

Engines (Traction). 

Jno. Fowler & Co. (Leeds), Ltd,, Steam Plough Works, Leeds. 
Engravers. 
Jno. Swain & Son, Ltd., 58, Farringdon Street, London, E.C. 

Fans, Blow^ers. 

Davidson & Co., Ltd., "Sirocco" Engineering Works, Belfast, 

Ireland, 
James Keith & Blackman Co., Ltd,, 27, Farringdon Avenue, London, 

E.C. 
Matthews & Yates, Ltd., Swinton, Manchester. 

Fire Bricks. 

J. H. Sankey & Son, Ltd., Essex Wharf, Canning Town, London, E. 
E. J. & J. Pearson, Ltd., Stourbridge. 

Firewood Machinery, 

M. Glover & Co., Patentees and Saw Mill Engineers, Leeds. 

Fountain Pens. 

Mabie, Todd & Bard, 93, Cheapside, London, E.C. 

Forging (Drop) Plants. 

Brett's Patent Lifter Co., Ltd., Coventry. 

Forgings (Drop). 

J. H. Williams & Co., Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 

Furnaces. 

Deighton's Patent Flue & Tube Company, Vulcan Works, Pepper 

Road, Leeds. 
Leeds Forge Co., Ltd., Leeds. 
W. F. Mason, Ltd., Engineers, Manchester. 
Poetter & Co., 116, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Gas Producers. 

W. F. Mason, Ltd., Engineers, Manchester. 

Gears. 

WiUiam Asquith, Ltd., Highroad Well Works, Halifax. 
Buffoline Noiseless Gear Co., Levenshulme. Manchester. 
E. Arnold Pochin, Croff Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Gold Dredging Plant. 

Fraser & Chalmers, Ltd., 3, London Wall Buildings, London, E.C. 

Gauge Glasses. 

I. B. Treasure & Co., Vauxhall Road, Liverpool. 

Hammers (Steam). 

Davis & Primrose, Leith Ironworks, Edinburgh. 
Niles-Bement Pond Co., 23-25, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
Hoisting Machinery. 
See Conveyinc Machinery. 

Horizontal Boring Machines. 

William Asquith, Ltd., Highroad Well Works, Halifax. 
Niles-Bement Pond Co., 23-25, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Indicators. 

Dobbie Mclnnes, Ltd., 41 & 42, Clyde Place, Glasgow. 

Injectors. 

W. H. Willcox &Co., Ltd., 23, 34, & 36. Southwark Street, London. 

Iron and Steel. 

Askham Bros. & Wilson, Ltd., Sheffield. 

Brown, Bayley's Steel Works, Ltd., Sheffield. 

Consett Iron Co., Ltd., Consett. Durham, and Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Farnley Iron Co., Ltd., Leeds England. 

Fried. Krupp, Grusonwerk, Magdeburg-Buckau, Germany. 

Hadfield's Steel Foundry Co., Ltd., Sheffield. 

J. Frederick Melling, 14, Park Row, Leeds, England. 

Parker Foundry Co,, Derby. 

Walter Scott, Ltd., Leeds Steel Works, Leeds, England. 

Gilbert Thompson & Co , 116, Victoria Street, London S W 

Woodhouse & Rixson, Sheffield. " ' 

Jointing Materials. 

Richard Klinger \ Co., 66, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C. 

Laundry Machinery. 

W. Summerscales & Sons, Ltd., Engineers, Phcenix Foundrv 
Keighley, England. ■" 

Lifts. 

Waygood & Co., Ltd., Falmouth Road, London, S.E. 
Lubricaoits, 

Blumann & Stern, Ltd., Plough Bridge, Deptford, London S E 

The Reliance Lubricating Oil Co., 19 & ao, W.iter Lane Great Towrr 

Street, London, E.C. 
Matthew Wells & Co., Hardman Street Oil Works, Manchester 
Lubricators. 
Thomas A. Ashton, Ltd., Norfolk Street, Sheffield. 




.OMHEIElf 



— *rp- 



Miscellaneous 




THE MOMENTUM ENGINE. 



THE DISCOVERY OF 
MECHANICALLY MADE POWER. 



(Patented ix United States and Germany.) 
T 




Views iaside Power House, AUxakdrm Palace, Loadoa, N. 

CHE discovery ; that, a free racing Flywheel possesses two natures, under one — it will receive rotary motion for the application of twenty ponnds — 
notwithstanding it weighs a ton. and the second nature of the Flywheel is, that when it H connected to a working load it will ttirow out the 
rotary value of the centres of the weights in motion, by the square of the velocity, the centre of Gyration. 
This discovery means several great Flywheels, each separately driven by any motive power, each Flywheel taking its regular turn to revolve a 
working shaft, to which it is connected, and from which it is disconnected for a greater length of time. Radium, and also these Engines, prove that 
the Theory of Energy is false. This Engine can be seen running the electric light at the Alexandra Palace. It is explained free. 
The Engine has taken a first-class Diploma of Merit at the .\lexandra Palace for Electric Lighting. 

Offices: 19, 19a, IMPERIAL. BUILDINOS. LUDOATE CIRCUS, LONDON, EC. 



GRIFFIN'S STANDARD ENGINEERING BOOKS. 



THIRD EDIT/ON, REVISED, ENLARQED, AND RESET. 

Just Out. Large Svo. Handsome Cloth. With over 60 Plates and Additional Illustrations. 34s. 

HYDRAULIC POWER AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY. 

By HENRY ROBINSON, M.Inst.C.E., F.Q.S., 

Fellow of, and Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering in King's College, etc., etc. 
ABRIDGED CONTEXTS.— Discharge through Orifices.— Flow of Water through Pipes.— Accumulators.— Presses and Lifts— Hoists— Rams.— 
Hydraulic Engines.— Pumping Engines.— Capstans. — Traversers.— Jacks. — Weighing Machines. — Riveters and Shop Tools.— Punching, Shearing, and 

Flanging Machines.— Cranes. — Coal Discharging Machines.— Drills and Cutters Pile Drivers.— Excavators, etc. — Hydraulic Machinery applied to 

Bridge, Dock Gates, Wheels, and Turbines. — Shields. — Various Systems and Power Installations. — Meters, etc. — INDEX. 



Third Edition. Thoroughly Revised. Royal 8vo. With Numerous 
Illustration^ and 13 Litho. Plate?. Handsome cloth. Price 308. 

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION: 

A Practical Treatise on the Construction of Bridges in Iron 

and Steel. 
;By T. CLAXTON FIDLER. M.Inst.C.E., Professor of Engineering. 
Univeisity College. Dundee. 
"The new edition of Mr. Fidler's work will again occupy the same 
conspicuous position among professional text-books and treatises as has 
been accorded to his predece=-sors. The instruction imparted is sound, 
simple, and full. The volume will be found valuable and useful alike to 
those who may wish to study onlv the theoretical principles enunciated, 
and ... to others whose object and business is . . . practical." 
— The Engineer. 

Just Out. Crown Svo, Cloth. 38. 6cl. net. 



LECTURES ON IRONFOUNDING. 



Third Edition. Revised, with an Additional Chapter on Foundations 
Numerous Diagrams, E.xamples, and Tables. Large Svo, Cloih. 168. 

THE DESIGN OF STRUCTURES: 

A Practical Treatise on the Buildiner of Bridges, Roofs, and 
Structural Work generally. 

By S. ANGLIX, C.E., Master of Engineering, Royal University of 

Ireland, late Whitworth Scholar, etc. 

"Students of eneineering will find this text-book invaluable." — Architect 

•'The author has certainly succeeded in producing a thoroughly 

practical text-l)ook." — Builder. 
" We can unhesitatingly recommend this work not only to the student, 

as the best text-ljook on the subject but also to the prof'Ssional engineer 

as an exceedingly valuable t)ook of reference." — Mechanical World. 

Strongly l>oai.d in super-royal Svo, Cloth Boards. 7s. 6<l. net. 



BONUS TABLES: 



of 



By THOMAS TURNER, M.Sc.. A.R.S.M.. F.I.C.. Professor 
Metallurgy in the University cf Birminsham. 
With a l-olding Plate and 52 Illustrations. 
"The concise form and clear style of these lectures, published in b>ook 
form at a low price, cannot' fail to render them of value to a wide f-ircle 
of practical men." — The .Viiiiiig Journal. 



For Calculating Wages on the Bonus or Premium Systems, for Engineer- 
ing, Technical, and Allied Trades. 
By HENRY A. GOLDING, A.M.InstM.E. 
'■ These Tables are ingeniously devised . . . They cannot fail to 
prove practically serviceable to those for whom they have been 
designed.'' — Scotsman. 



London : CHARLES GRIFFIN & CO., Ltd., EXETER STREET, STRAND. ^V.C. 



Machine Tools. 

George Addy & Co., Waverley Works, Sheffield. 

William Asquith, Ltd., Highroad Well Works, Halifax. England. 

Hy. Berry & Co., Ltd., Leeds. 

Bertram's. Ltd., St. Katherine's Works, Sciennes, Edinburgh. 

Breuer, Schumacher & Co., Ltd., Kalk, near Cologn"e-on-Rhine 

(Germany). 
Britannia Engineering Co., Ltd., Colchester,' England. 
C. W. Burton Griffiths and Co., i, 2, & 3, Ludgate Square, Ludgate 

Hill, London, E.C. 
Chas. Churchill & Co., Ltd , 9-15, Leonard Street, London, E.C. 
Cunliffe & Croom, Ltd.. Broughton Ironworks, Manchester. 
Tones & Lamson Machine Co., 97. Queen Vicioria Street, London, E.C. 
John Lang & Sons, Johnstone, near Glasgow. 
Luke & Spencer, Ltd., Broadheath, Manchester. 
Jos. C. Nicholson Tool Co., City Rd. Tool Wks., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Niles-Bement Pond Co., 23-25, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
Noble & Lund, Ltd.. Felling-on-Tyne. 

Northern Engineering Co., 1900, Ltd., King Cross, near Halifax. 
J. Parkinson & Son, Canal Ironworks Shipley, Yorkshire. 
Pratt & Whitney Co., 23-25, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 
C. Redman & Sons, Halifax. 
Rice & Co. (Leeds), Ltd., Leeds, England. 
Wm. Ryder, Ltd., Bolton, Lanes. 
G. F. Smith, Ltd.. South Parade, Halifax. 
John Stirk & Sons, Halifax. 
Taylor and Challen, Ltd., Derwent Foundrj', Constitution Hill, 

Birmingham. 
H. W. Ward & Co., Lionel Street, Birmingham. 
T. W. Ward, Albion Works, Sheffield. 

West Hydraulic Engineering Co., 23, College Hill. London, E.C. 
Whitman & Barnes Manufacturing Co., 149, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 
Charles Winn & Co., St. Thomas Works, Birmingham. 
Metals. 

Magnolia Anti-Friction Metal Co., Ltd., of Great Britain, 49, Queen 

Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Phosphor Bronze Co., Ltd,. Soiithwark, London, S.E. 

Metals (Perforated). 

W. Barns & Son, Chalton Street, Euston Road, London, N.W. 

Microscopes. 

W. Watson & Sons, 313, High Holborn. London, W.C. 

Mining Machinery. 

Chester, Edward, & Co., Ltd. 

Fraser & Chalmers, Ltd., 3, London Wall Buildings, London, E.C. 
Hardv Patent Pick Co., Ltd., Sheffield. 
Humbolt Engineering Co.. Kalk, Nr. Cologne, Germany. 
Ernest Scott & Mountain, Ltd., Electrical and General Engineers, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. England. 

Office Appliances. 

Library Supp'y Co., Bridge House, i8t, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 
Lyle Co., Ltd.. Harrison Street, Gray's Inn Road, London, W.C. 
Partridge & Cooper, Ltd., 191-192 Fleet Street, London, E.C. 
Rockwell- Wabash Co.. Ltd.. 69, Milton Street, London, E.C. 
Shannon, Ltd., Ropemaker Street, London, E.C. 
The Trading and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Temple Bar House, Fleet 

Street, London, E.C. 

Packing. 

Frictionless Engine Packing Co., Ltd., Hendham Vale Works, 

Harpurhey, Manchester. 
Lancaster & Tonge, Ltd., Pendleton, Manchester. 
The Quaker City Rubber Co., loi, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 
United Kingdom Self-Adjusting Anti-Friction Metallic Packing 

Syndicate, 14. Cook Street, Liverpool. 
United States Metallic Packing Co., Ltd., Bradford, 
J. Bennett von der Heyde,6, Brown Street, Manchester. 

Paint (MetaUic). 

Metallic Paint Co., Ltd., Cardiff. 

Paper. 

Lepard & Smiths, Ltd., 29, King Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

Photo Copying Frames. 

J. Halden & Co., 8, Albert Square, Manchester. 
B. J. Hall & Co., 39, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Photographers. 

tlliott & Fry, 55, Baker Street, London, W. 

Photographic Apparatus. 

Marion & Co., Ltd., 22, 23, Soho Square, London, W. 
W. Watson & Sons, 313, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

Pistons. 
Lancaster & Tonge, Ltd., Pendleton, Manchestei. 

Porcelain. 

Gustav Richter, Charlottenburg, near Berlin, Germany. 

Presses (Hydraulic). 
Niles-Hemcnt Pond Co., 33-25, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Printing. 
Soufhwood, Smith & Co., Ltd.. Plough Court, Fetter Lane. London, 
E.C. 

Publishers. 

Crosby Loclcwood & Son, 7, Stalloners" Hall Court, London, E C. 
Gresham Publishing Co., 34, Southampton Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
Charles Griffin & Co., Lid.. Exeter Street, Strand, Ix)ndon, W.C. 
New Zealand Mines Record, Wellington, New Zealand. 



Buyers' Directory — (Continued). 

Publishers (continued). 
South African Mines, Commerce, andlndustries, Johannesburg. 

Pulleys. 

John Jardine, Deering Street, Nottingham. 
H. J. H. King & Co., Nailsworth, Glos. 

Pumps and Pumping Machinery. 

Blake & Knowles Steam Pump Works, Ltd., 179, Queen Victoria 

Street, London, E.C. 
Drum Engineering Co., 27, Charles Street. Bradford. 
Fraser & Chalmers, Ltd., 3, London Wall buildings, London, E.C. 
J. P.Hall & Sons, Ltd., Engineers, Peterborough. 
Hathorn, Davey & Co., Ltd., Leeds, England. 
Positive Rotary Pumps, Ltd., 23, Northumberland Avenue, London, 

W.C. 
Tangyes, Ltd., Cornwall Works, Birmingham. 

Radial Drilling Machines. 

William Asquitn, Ltd., tiigtiroad Well Works, Halifax. 
Niles-Bement Pond Co., 23-25, Vicioria Street, Lonaon, S.W. 

Rails. 

Wm. Firth, Ltd., Leeds. 
Railway Wagons. 

W. U. Kenshaw & Co., Ltd., Phoenix Works, Stoke-on-Trent. 
Riveted Work. 

F. A. Keep, Juxon & Co., Forward Works, Barn Street, Birmingham. 

Roof Glazing. 

Mellowes & Co., Sheffield. 

Roofs. 

D. Anderson & Son, Ltd., Lagan Felt Works Belfast. 
Alex. Findlay & Co.. Ltd., Motherwell, N.B. 
Head, Wrightson & Co., Ltd.. Thornaby-on-Tees. 

Scientific Instruments. 

Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd., Cambridge. 

Stampings. 

Thos. Smith's Stamping Works, Ltd., Coventry. 
Thomas Smith & Son of Saltley, Ltd., Birmingham. 

Stamps (Rubber). 

Rubber Stamp Co., I & 2, Holborn Buildings, Broad Street Corner, 
Birmingham. 

Stamps (Metal). 

Edward i'ryor & Son, 68, West Street, Sheffield. 

Steam Traps. 

British Steam Specialties,! Ltd., Fleet Street, Leicester. 
Lancaster & Tonge, Ltd., Pendleton, Manchester. 

Steel Tools. 

Saml. Buckley, St. Paul's Square, Birmingham. 

Pratt & Whitney Co., 23-25, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Stenotypers. 

Stenotyper (1902), Ltd., 25, Southampton Row, London, W.C. 

Stokers. 

Ed. Bennis & Co., Ltd., Bolton, Lanes. 

Meldrum Brothers, Ltd., Atlantic Works, Manchester. 

Stone Breakers- 

S. Pegg & Son, Alexander Street, Leicester. 

Superheaters. 

A. Bolton & Co., 40, Deansgate, Manchester. 

Time Recorders. 

Howard Bros., 10, St. George's Crescent, Liverpool, and looc, 

Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
International Time Recording Co., 171, Queen Victoria Street, 

London, E.C. 

Tubes. 

Thomas Piggott & Co., Ltd., Spring Hill, Birmingham. 

Tubes, Ltd., Birmingham. 

Weldless Steel Tube Co., Ltd.. Icknield Port Road, Birmingham. 

Turbines. 

G. GUkes & Co., Ltd., Kendal. 
W. Gunther & Sons, Central Works Oldham. 
S. Howes, 64, Mark Lane, London, E.C. 

Typewriters. 

KUioti-Fisher Co., 85, Gracechurch Street, London, E.C. 
Empire Typewriter Co., 77, Queen Vicioria Street, London. E.C. 
Oliver Typewriter Co., Ltd., 75, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Yost Typewriter Co., 50, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C. 

Valves. 

AUey & MacLellan, Ltd., Glasgow. 

Scotch and Irish Oxygen Co., Ltd., R*sehiU VVortcs, Glasgow. 
Ventilating Appliances. 

Matthews & Yates, Ltd., Swinton, Manchester. 

Wagons— Steam. 

Thornycroi t Steam Wagon Co., Ltd., Homefield Chiswick, London, W. 
Water Softeners. 

Lassen & Hjort, 52, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C. 
Weighing Apparatus. 

W. T. Avery & Co., Soho Foundry. Birmingham, England. 

Samuel Denison & Son, Hunslet Moor, near Leeds. 

Wells Light. 

A. C. Wells & Co , looA Midland Road, St. Pancras, London, N.W. 

♦♦ Woodite." 

" Woodite '■ Company, Mitcham, Surrey, 
ID 




Typewriters, &c. 





ICOI^NG CLOTH 8ATI 

■ PATENTED 




Sizes 

Suitable for 
All 
Reqliremexts. 



The "Eureka" 

SANITARY 

Copying-Cloth Bath. 

For use in taking copies of Letters, 
Invoices, etc., in ordinarj- Letter Books, 
and for all kinds of Press Copy- 
ing. Is now acknowledged to 
be superior to every 
other device, and 
has been adopted 
in the leading 
offices throughout 
the world. 

Gives perfectly 

clear and legible 

copies while leaving the 

inals free from blurs or stains. 



A suitable outfit will be sent for trial willingly, and taken back 
free of any charge if not approved. 



THK YOST TYPEWRITER CO.. LTD .7. 
ji).IiOLBi)RM_YL^IiCT. LONDON. tij 



OUR "CROWN" SPECIALITIES, 
Duplicator, Pen-Carbon Paper, 

Typewriter Carbon Paper, Letter File, 

and '■ EURKK.\ " Stamp .and Envelope Moistexer are. like the 
' Eureka " Copying Bath, the best of their kind on the market. 
Prices and Particulars on Application. 

Rayward Brothers, 

81. QUEEN VICTORIA ST., LONDON. E.C. 



Another Anglo-French Agreement. 



I 



545 

EMPIRES 

purchased 

by His riajesty's 

Government 

between 

January 1, 1903 

dune 1, 1904. 



<«) 

J and 

$ VKITIINO VISIBLE. 




Price £13 2s. 6d. 

Contractors to His Majesty's Oovernment. 



The Minister of 
Public Works in 
France 
has just awarded 
exclusive contract 
for the supply of 

EMPIRES 
for next 3 years. 

FULLY OLARANTEED. 






;g T^ Empire Typewriter Company, UBh ^ 

-fccaD ©ffice ; 77, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, E.C. 



■t^ BIRMINGHAM-43, Temple Street. 

^ BRISTOL— 9, John Street. 

«f^ HANLEY-Post Office Buildings. 

^ LIVERPOOL -7. South John Street. 



Branches or Agencies : — 

MANCHESTER-49, Corporation Street. 
LEEDS— 17, East Parade. 
BRADFORD— 35, Charles Street. 
GLASGOW— 87, West George Street. 



NOTTINGHAM-48, Parliament Street. ^ 

LEICESTER— 34, Charles Street. ^ 

DUBLIN-9. Trinity Street. (^ 

And throughout the World. <^ 



iP$^$$$$$$$9«iV^^9^9^#iF$$$$$##$##$;#$$$$^$$$$$$$$$$$$$il 



II 




Machine Tools 




The Kalk Machine Works 

BREUER. SCHUMACHER 




& Co., Ltd., 

KALK, near Cologne-on- 
Rhiive 
(GERMANY). 

Departinent I, 
MACHINE TOOLS. 

Department II, 

AUXILIARY MACHINERY 
FOR STEEL WORKS, &c 

Departme?tt III. 

ROLLING MILL PLANTS. 
Department IV, 

HYDRAULIC MACHINERY. 



12 




ST 



.(§MIKlE)f 



Machine Tools 




42-lacb Poad Forge Plmaer. 



42-lacb Poad Lathe. 



Poad "Rigid" Turret Lathe. 




•/.vv| 




tloriioatal Boring and DrilUag Mactlae. 





Sl-lmcb Boriag MiU. 





Horizontal Cotter Drill and Keyseater. 



NILES = BEMENT=POND CO., 

mlBicT^E^v york. 136-138, Liberty Street, NEW YORK, U.S.A. 

NILIACUS. LONDON. London Office and Showroorns— 23=25, VictoHa Street, S.W. 




13 







Machine Tools 




CHARLES CHURCHILL & GO, L'° 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

I'Xolburn" Keyway Cutter 



The No. 2 MACHINE (illus- 
trated herewith) cuts Keyways 
2 in. wide up to 18 in. long, 
through a solid hub, and 
24 in. long in Chambered 
or double hubs. 



c^ 



Our Ne}v 
Engineering 
Catalogue, 
450 pages, 
sent post free 
on application. 




LONDON : 9 to 15, Leonard St., E.C. BIRMINGHAM : 2 to 10, Albert St- 

MANCHESTER : 2, Charlotte St., Mosley St. GLASGOW: 52, Bothwell St- 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE : Albion Buildings, St. James' St. 



14 




Machine Tools 




JOHN HARDISJy, 

^-^ IM.I.C.E., M.I.M.E , 

10. INDEPENDENT BUILDINGS. 

FARGATE, SHEFFIELD, 

MACHINERY VALUER. 

Telegrams: " Hardened. SHEFFitLD." Telephones/^- 




HARTNESS 

AUTOMATIC OPENING DIE 

The most satisfactory means yet devised 
for the production of screw threads. 

JONES & LAMSON MACHINE CO., 

JUBILEE BUILDINGS, 
97. Queen Victoria Street. LONDON. 



B RITAHHIA L ATHES 

MODERN MACHINE TOOLS 

Have stood the test of 40 years. 





Contractors to the 
ADMIRALTY. 
WAR OFFICE, 
INDIA OFFICE. 



No. 12 PILLAR DRILL 

(as made tor Indian States Railways). 



THE BRITANNIA ENGINEERING CO., Ltd., 

Head Office and Works : 

COLCHESTER, ENGLAND. 



LANG FOR LATHES. 




-# - ; ■<i: ;,'" > m^}'^^y 



Patent Variable Speed Drive— Patent Bed— Patent Screw -Cutting and Feed Motions- Patent Loosehead. 
ASK FOR YELLOW BOOKLET, OR VISIT OUR WORKS. 

JOHN LANG & SONS, Johnstone, near Glasgow. 




Machine Tools 




DON'T FORGET 

Lathes, Planers, and Shapers 



ARE OUR SPECIALITIES. 




High-Gradc Machines Only 
in Stock for 
Immediate Delivery. 



C. Redman & Sons, 



National Telephone : 308. 
Telegrams : " Redmans, Engineers. Halifax." 



HALIFAX. 



Telegrams: "MlLLINa, SHEFFIELD." for tDC CatCSI and mOSt Up-tO-DatC 
National Telephone No. : 985. 




HEAVY = - 
MACHINE 
TOOLS = = 



PLATE BENDING MACHINE, 



Also Special Lifting Jack for Electric 
WRITE . . . Tramcars. 

GEORGE ADDY 6 Co.. 

WAVERLEY WORKS, SHEFFIELD. 




If 



For Gears, Bevels, Worm Wheels, Spirals, 
or anything in the gear line, write to 

"BUFFOLINE" NOISELESS GEAR Co., 

LEVENSHULME, nr. Manchester, 

WHO ARE THE ENGLISH 




1 GEAR SPECIALISTS. 



i 



D'4674 ^ 



16 




TT- 



Machine Tools 




Luke & Spencer, ua.. 

BROADHEATH, 

MANCHESTER. 



Telegraphic Address : 

''Emery, Altrincham." 

National Talephoae : 

" AJtrinchaBi 40." 




Manufacturers of 

GRINDING. 
and 



POLISHING 
MACHINES. 
EMERY. . . 
WHEELS. . 
Etc 



Send for our 
Enlarged 
Catalogue, 
free on 
Application. 



Telephone No. : 1469. 

Telegrams :" TuDOK, BiRMKiCHAU. 



Modern . . . 
Machine Tools. 



CAPSTAN AND TDRHET LATHES. 
DRILLING MACHINES. 
MILLING MACHINES. 
BORING MACHINES. 



H.W.WARD & Co. 

ONLY ADDRESS- 

86, Lionel Street 

BIRMINGHAM. 

Contpactors to British and Foreign CoTernmenta 
and Principal Engineering Firms. 



CUNLIFFE & GROOM, 



LIMITED, 



Broughton Lane, 
MANCHESTER. 



ESTABLISHED 1864. 

Telegraas: "LATHE. MANCHESTER." 




PATENT PLAflING MACHIf<E. 

i 




DISC GRINDER. 



Cunliffe & Groom, Ltd., MANGHESTER. 



17 



flMmBMMEmf Machine Tools 



"" 




Do NOT use HIGH-SPEED STEEL 

ON FLAT PIECES THAT CAN BE GROUND ON A 

BURTON DISC GRINDER. 



Press 
Combined 
in 
Machine. 




Ask for 
Disc 

Grinder 
Treatise. 



The most up.to=date Machine on the Market for both ROUGHING and FINISHING 
flat surfaces in Steel. Cast Iron, Bronze, 6c. 

C. W. BURTON BRIFFITHS & CO., 

I, 2, & 3, Ludgate Square, London, E.G., 

And at 59. Finnieston Street. GLASGOW. 



i8 




SEND FOR CATALOGUES 



HIGH-CLASS NEW MACHINE TOOLS 

IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE DELIVERY. 




STEAM HAMMERS 

FOR SMITHS' SHOPS AND FORGES. 




Patent Bevelling Machines for Ships' Frames. 



DAVIS <S PRIMROSE, 



Xcitb 5ron\vorh5, EDINBURGH. 

B 2 




t1\ K • 



Machine Tools 



"" 




BERTRAMS LIMITED 




London Office: 

21, Gt. St. HELEN'S, E.C. 



ST. KATHERINE'S WORKS, 
SCIENNES, EDINBURGH. 



Punching, Shearing, and 
Angle-Cutting Machine. 



Manufacturers of all kinds of 

MACHINE TOOLS 

FOR ENGINEERS, SHIP BUILDERS, 

BOILER MAKERS, &.c. &c. 




FORGING 
MACHINES. 

SAWING MACHINES. 
COKE BREAKERS. 



WILLIAM RYDER, Ltd 



BOLTON. 



"THE BOLTON BLACKSMITH." 



Automatic 
fl r Notching 
Press 






Drawing Press. 




JriMMLMM Machine Tools 




BRETT'S PATENT 
LIFTER CO Ltd., 

Coventry, England. 

a 

Patentees and Maaufactann o/ . .' 

BRETTS 
PATENT 
LIFTERS, 

ETC. 

Pioneers of the Modem 
System of Drop Forging. 

20-CM/t. Battery for Jabalpur. 

Manufacturers of Drop Forging Plant as supplied to H.M. Dockyards, Telegraphic Address: 
Arsenals, Small Arms Factories, India Government, Chief Railways, "LIFTER. COVENTRY." 

etc., etc. Telephone So. : 384. 




t 



tAfAAA-Ai 




t A AA AAAA A AAA AAA A A A A A A A A A A A ♦.A 

: WE MAKE 

HIGH-SPEED 
LATHES 

A Speciality. 



"ACCURATE." 
"DURABLE." 
POWERFUL." 

8iln., 10 in , and 12 in. 
Centres. 

REASONABLE IN PRICE. 
UNEQUALLED IN POWER. 

Sent) us ^our 
Jnquivies. 



I 



NOBLE 6 LUND, Limited, 

FELLING-ON-TYNE. 




mMMj 



Machine Tools 




RICE cS CO. (Leeds), Ltd., 



L.- 




LEED3, 

ENGLAND. 



HYDRAULIC 



Riveters, 


Lifts, 


Presses, 


Pamps, 


Cranes, 


Accamulators 


Panclies, 


Intensifiers, 


Sliears, 


Valves, 


Hoists, 


&c., &c. 



I'OKTAHLK RIVHTIXG I'l.AM . 



ABC Code, 4th Edition, used. 

Telegraphic Address; "Press, Leeds." 

Telephone No. : 2362. 



Northern Engineering 
Co. (1900)p Ltd. 

KING CROSS, near 

HALIFAX. 



PLANING 
MACHINE, 
from 2 feet 
up to 8 feet 
square. 




23 




mimf 



Machine Tools 



I'l ■ <-.ji" 




JOHN STIRK 6 SONS, 

MACHINE TOOL MAKERS, 
(Established 1866.) HALIFAX. 




Locomotive Frame-plate Slotting Machine (85 tons). 



^o 3 UNIVERSAL 



fjo. of Teeth 88 

Outside dia. Sg 
Pitch approx. i n 

Width of Face 2re „ 

Feed per min, 4^ ,, 

Time for 1 pair of 
Gears, 2a hrs. 




^'V C^T IRON SPI^ 



J. PARKINSON & SON, 

SHIPLEY. YorRs. 
England. 



including setting 
machine, changing 
blanks, and sharpening 
cutters, 75 hrs. 




f Hydraulic Machine Tools 




The West Hydraulic Engineering Co., 

Head Offices : 23, COLLEGE HILL, LOHDOH, E.G. 



Manufacturers of Special High Grade Hydraulic 

Plant for Arsenals, Explosive and Ordnance 

Factories^ Railways & Engineering Shops. 




• mil mmmm 

ENGINEERING C9 

y. 23 COLLEGE HILL 
LONDON. E.G. 




Contractors to the 
Governments of 

Great Britain, 

India, 

Germany, 

France, 

Russia, 

Italy, 

Spain, 

Belgium, 

Sw^itzerland, 

Japan, 

Chili. 

Crown Agents for the 
Colonies, 

£tc., £tc. 







Type M Spring Testing Machine, arranged for testing laminated and 

volute springs. To work from hydraulic pressure mains or from 

special test pump. 



24 




BmMMi 



?M> 



Machine Tools, Sic. 




Stone Breakers 



(Improved BlaRe Type.) 




Rollers, 
Screens, 
Gravel Washers, 
Concrete Mixers. 



Section o] Machine. 



SAMUEL PEGG 6 SON, 

Alexander Street. LEICESTER, ENGLAND. 



National Telephone 104. 




ENGINEERING 
WORKS. 



Write for. our "GRKEs" 
Pocket Catalogues. 




"W" 



Mining Machinery 




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26 




Wells' Specialities 




a 
o 












8 




8 








8 













WELLS w= FILTERS 



SUPPLIED 




PRINCIPAL COVERHHENTS FOR 



WELLS PATEST WASTE OIL" FILTER. 



WAVY. DOCKYARDS. Ac. AWD TO THE LEADIHC 

ELECTRIC LIGHT IHSTALLATIOIIS. EMCmEERIIIG 

EHCIHE MAKERS, PRINTERS. Ac. Ac. 

OVER 10,000 SOLD. 

MONEY SAVERS to any 
USERS OF MACHINERY, 

Pay first cost in a short time, as Dirtied Oil, 
which has hitherto been thrown away, can 
be filtered and used again and again. 

Write for List of Testimonials and Samples 
of Work <ioae by the Filter. 



No. I. — For users having only a small 
quantity of oil to treat (no syphon) 
17 in. by 9 in 35/- 

No. 2. — Two top chambers hold about 

3 gallons oil, 22 in. by 10 in. 50/- 

Xo. 3. — Two lop chambers hold about 

6 gallon." oil. 27 in. by 12 in. ... 70/- 

Xo. 4. — ^Two top chambers hold about 

12 gallons oil, 36 in. by 16 in. ... 1 10/- 

Xo. 5.— Two top chambers hold about 

24 gallons oil, 43 in. by 23 in. ... 189/- 

Xo. 6. — Very powerful Filter for treating 
large quantities of oil. 54 in. by 
30 in '.336- 

Capable of dealing with 250 Galls. Oil per week. 
LARGER SIZES MADE TO ORDER. 



OIL CISTERNS AND CABINETS. 



In connection with our well-known * Waste 
Oil " Filter, we are supplying Tinned Steel 
Cisterns as illustrated, handsomely japanned 
in vermilion, with black bands, and fitted with 
best brass fittings, and having a capacity gauge 
inside. 



Pf^ICEIS. 




Special Quotations for 
Larger Sizes. 



A. C. WELLS 
Midland Road, 



lOOa. 

Worhs : Cheetham. Manchester 




The CABINET is made of tinned 
steel with galvanised iron bottom, 
enamelled bright red. it is at- 
tractive in appearance, and is un- 
aiiected by weather or the oil. 

The PUMP isaforce pump, made 
of polished brass, simple in its con- 
struction. It is screwed into 
Its place, and can be easilv taken 
out for fiUmg the Cabinet from a 
Barrel. 



CAPACITY 



e Co., 

St. Pancras, 

LONDON, N.W. 



OPEN. 



i»sccos^sss^s^*5^cs^^ss^-.<sscsssss^s^^sscccsss^ss^t.^scsS 













































8 


























O 





Packings, Springs, &c. 






DANIEL'S 



Write 



THE QUAKER CITY RUBBER CO., 

CORONATION HOUSE, LLOYD S AVENUE. 



P. P. P. 

Self-setting packing 
is the 

STANDARD 

by which all other 
packings are 
measured. 



^K.Ai n TRIST A. CO LnNDON F C We do not advertise to Ret repeat orders: we do not 

'^ "-^.J-J^Joo ' l^ONDON. JL.^. have to. but for firms who do not Know our goods 

(LbU IOI, Leadenhall St., E.C.) we have a liberal offer. ' 



MANAGERS. 




Miscellaneous 




THE ROSSENDALE BELTING CO., L 



10. West Mosley Street, MANCHESTER.. 
LONDON Showrooms: 117, Queen Victoria Street. 



Telegraphic Address: 
''HAIR, MANCHESTER." 



PATENTEES AND 




Telepboae No. : 
2656 MANCHESTER. 



SOLE MAKERS 



OF THE 



M.A.Y. BELT, 

The STRONGEST and BEST DRIVING BELT. 

Unrivalled for . . . 

DURABILITY, EFFICIENCY. STRENGTH. 

Every Belt Guaranteed. Catalogue on applicatioa. 



® 



KARMAL PACKING 

Always Lubricating. 

Never gets Hard. 

Will Stand any Pressure. 

ROKO BELTING 

(TWO PA1KN1>) 

Unfrayable Edges. 
Un'wearable Pile Surface. 
Does not Stretch or CracK. 




27 HIGHEST AWARDS. 



- DLE Proprietors asd Maxufactcrers : 

THE FRIGTIONLESS ENGINE 
PACKING Co., Ltd., 

Hendham Vale Works, 

MANCHESTER. 




jEncim^ 



A PURE 

Metallic Packing 



HIGHEST SUPERHEATED 

STEAM and 

HIGH-PRESSURE ENGINES, 

Marine 9 Stationary. 

Lasts for years and 

used in the same tvay 

as ordinary Soft. 

Write for . . 

Illustrated Booklet. 

BENNETT YON DERHEYDE 

8, Browq St., MANCHESTER. 




Friction Couplings 
and Pulleys 

( Kina s P.itent). 
Made in Eight Sizes, from 

5 to 1.000 HP. for 
Gas Engine and 

Dynamo Drives, 
Hoisting and Wire 

Dra^ving. £tc. 
Prices and Particulars on 
Application to 

H.J.H.KING«Ga 

Engineers, 

Nails^vorth, Glos. 

London Agency : 
P. S. Borr, 85. Once- 
ckarehSt., E.G. 

.Agents for Dundee : 
Geo. C. Douglas S 
Co.. 41, Reform St. 

-Acentsfor Indi.i • 
D. Fardoooji ff Bros, 
Apollo St., Bombay. 




Aerial Ropeways 




ADOLF BLEICHERT&C 



LEIPZIG=GOHLIS, 
' Germany, 




/IDanufacturers 
or , . . 



For the rapid and economic 
handling of COAL, IRON ORE and 
BULK MATERIAL at Docks and Factories. 
4t 41 4> 4t ELECTRIC OR STEAM DRIVEN. 




Hoisting and Conveying Plant, erected for the Xorddeutsche Kohlen & Coakswerke A.G. Hamburg. 
Tliese Three Cranes unload 1,500 Tons of Cargo in Ten Hours. 

SHIPBUILDING and YARD CRANES. 

Cable Hoist Conveyors. Blast Furnace Hoists. 

THREE-MOTOR ELECTRIC TRAVELLING CRANES. 
4k 4^ 4^ Improved Band Friction Hoisting Machinery. 



PKints also designed in connection with BLEICHEKT'S WIRE-ROPE TRAMWAYS, 

as per advertisement of the preceding and following number. 

AN EXPERIENCE OF 30 YEARS. ESTIMATES CHEERFULLY FURNISHED. 



34 



Telegrams: "DIALITE. 
Telephones : 202, 228. 



Tfes St. Helens Cable Co 



LIMITED. 



WARRINGTON. 



Our Speciality, DIALITE, 

A really waterproof cable. 

Light and flexible. 

No danger of corrosion 
or decentralisation. 

We are also Manufacturers of 

Vulcanized Rubber, paper insulated, lead 

covered, and dry core Cables. 
Flexibles, cotton and silk covered Con- 
ductors, and all kinds of mechanical Rubber 
Goods, Tapes, &c. 



London Office: 32, VICTORIA STREET, 

Westminster. 



Telegrams: " FILATTERIO." 
Telephone : 4270 GERRARD. 




Pumps, &c. 




♦♦♦ 




♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



Turbine ^^ 



Pumps 



♦♦♦ 



FOR HIGH LIFTS, ^4 

and any Capacity. ▼ ▼▼ 

Unprecedented efficiency up AAA 

to 80 per cent. ^^^ 



W MATHER 6 PLATT, Ltd., 



♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



SALFORD IRON WORKS, 



MANCHESTER. 




S. HOWES Co. 

Manufacturers o% 

" LITTLE GIANT" TURBINES 

Pelton Wheels, Water Motors and 
Water Wheels. 
Centrifugal and Steam Pumps. 
'* Eureka *' Exhausters, Blowers, Fans, and 

Heaters. 
Portable and Stationary Forges. 
Hand and Power Drills. 

Grain Scales and Weighing Machines. 
Grinding Mills, Disintegrators and 
Crushers. 






160 Page Turbine Catalogue sent free upoa application. l!| 

I 

Head Offices aad Show-rooms : — 'il 

64, MARK LANE, LONDON, England. 1 

Government Contractors. A 



36 




TANGV 

STEAM PUMPS 




FOR ALL DUTIES. 

SRECIAL." DURL-EX 
RLY-\A/HEEL. 6cc., 



Centrifugal Pumps, Treble - Ram Pumps, etc. 

Electrically Driven Pumps 



14 X 8 X 12 in. *• Special" Pump. 



A SPECIALTY. 



TANGYES 



CORNWALL WORKS, 



Birmingham. 



BRANCHES AT LIMITED 

London. Newcastle, Manchester, Glasgow, Cardiff, Rotterdam, Bilbao, Johannesburg. 

37 




IHiMiSf 



Pumps 




PUMPS 




FOR GAS LlliUOR. 
FOR CHEMICAL WOI^KS. 
FOR SYHUPS (Hot or Cold). 
FOR MiOLASSES. 
FOR VISCID LIQUIDS. 
FOR WORT (in Breweries). 
FOR YEAST. 
FOR MILK. 

FOR /^MMONIA SOLUTIONS. 
FOR RHINE CIHCULATION. 
Ifl FREEZING MACHINES, 
&c., &c., &c. 



Positive Rotary Pumps 



SIMPLE. 



COMPACT. 

Adjustable for Wear. 



Handles Syrup, Gas Liquor, 
and Viscid Liquids perfectly. 

Suitable for all purposes where 

an efficient and reliable pump 

is required. 



For further Particulars apply— 



POSITIVE ROTARY PUMPS, Ltd., 

23, NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, 

London, W.C. 






38 




^Mim ^ 



Business Systems 




Our Expansion Vertical 
Files are particularly . 
well adapted for Filing 
Letters, Catalogues, and 
Invoices. 



SEND FOR OUR 




VERTICAL FILE 




CATALOGUE No. 100, 
Which is Fully Descriptive. 



ROCKWELL 



WABASH . 
Co.. Ltd., . . 
69, Milton St., 
London, E.C.; 
50, Deansgate 
Arcade, . 
Manchester ; 



164, 



Buchanan St., 
Glasgow. . . 



39 




j( n 1 

MmMM 




NALDER BROS. & THOMPSON, 

Managing Director: F. H. NALDER. LTD. 

Ammeters, Voltmeters, . 
Recorders, Circuit Breakers, 



S^v^itchboards. 



Telegrams : 




'OCCLUDE, 
LONDON." 



Moving Coil Instruments, from £3 8s. 

34, QUEEN STREET, LONDON, E.G. 

Agents : 

Berry, Skinner & Co., 65, King Street, Manchester ; Wm. McGeoch and 
Co., Ltd., Morrison's Court, 108, Argyle Street, Glasgow ; Vandam, Marsh 
AND Co., Ltd., II, Upper Priory, Birmingham ; Robert Bowran & Co., 
3, St. Nicholas Buildings, Newcastle-on-Tyne : Ernest Koberts,6, Holborn 
Place, London, W.C. ; Lucien Espir, iibis, Rue de Maubeuge, Paris; 
Oswald Haes, 56, Margaret Street, Sydney, N.S.W. ; Balmer Lawrie 
AND Co., Calcutta ; Studioe Elettrotecnico iNnusTRiALE, Lugane and 
Milan (for Switzerland and Italy). 



Miscellaneous 




JUST PUBLISHED. 

MODERN 
ELECTRIC PRACTICE 

Editor: MAGNUS MACLEAN, M.A., D.Sc, 

Professor of Electrical Engineering; 

Assisted by Thirty-four Experts, all of whom are 

actively connected with the Electrical Profession. 

Covering the Whole Range of Electrical Work. 

mODERN ELECTRIC PRACTICE is a new and thoroughly up-to-date 
work which will be found to meet a want long felt by all those who 
are interested in engineering in any of its branches. It is a practical work 
written by practical men for practical men. The contributors are all 
experts professionally engaged in electrical work as practical or consulting 
engineers, as manufacturers, or as Professors in the universities and 
technical colleges, and are all recognised authorities on the particular 
subjects with which they deal. No fewer than 34 fpecialists have thus 
contributed to produce a work which, under the skilled editorship of 
Professor Magnus Maclean, D.Sc, may fairly claim to be a complete 
repository of Electrical Engineering. The work will be complete in six 
super-royal 8vo volumes bound in cloth. Price 9s. net each volume. The 
first two volumes are row ready, with which is given a cardboard model of 
an Electric Motor, showing the build and workings of a motor. 

PROSPECTUS FREE. 

THE GRESHAM PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

34, Southampton Street, Strand, London, W.C. 



LOBNITZ' GOLD DREDGERS ARE 

AT WORK IN BRITISH NORTH 

AND SOUTH AMERICA, AFRICA, 

ASIA, &c. 






Islanu' 



facture Dredge 



GOLD 



AU parts 



n,ade to gauge. 



..u.e. Qu-.cUdeUve.yoi 




ot standard sV^es. 



^^BNgi^-SSaiiS. 



Renfrew 



ScoTuMjSi 



Telegraphic Address: 
LOBMTZ, RENFREW. Ai Code used. 



SIMPLEX 

STEEL 

CONDUIT 

Co., Ltd., 



SIMPLEX 

FOR INTERIOR 



TRADE MARK 




CONDUITS 

ELECTRIC WIRING. 



SIMPLEX 

Send for New 

Abridged List 
with I.E.E. Rules. 



of 



80, DIGBETH, BIRMINGHAM, 

20, BUCKLERSBURY, LONDON, E.G. 




The SIMPLEX 
STEEL CONDUIT 
SYSTEM is the 

most complete sys- 
tem made, ll con- 
sists of 10 grades 
of conduits, and 
nearly 1,000 stan- 
dardized fittings. 



Awarded Qold 
Modal, Interna- 
tional FIro Exhibi- 
tion, London, 1903. 



And at MANCHESTER. General Manager's Office:- 

LIVERPOOL, & GLASGOW. Wectinghouse Bld3.. Strand, W.C. 



INDEX-TO'ADVERTISERS 



Addy, George, & Co 

Allen, Edgar & Co., Ltd 

Alley & MacLellan, Ltd 

Allgemeine Elektricitats-Gesellschaft 
Allis-Chalmers Co. 
Anderson, D., & Son, Ltd. 
Askham Bros. & Wilson, Ltd. ... 
Avery, W. & T., Ltd 

Babcock and Wilcox, Ltd. 
Baldwin Locomotive Works 
Barns, W.. & Son 
Bennis, Ed.. & Co., Ltd.... 

Berry-, Hy., & Co., Ltd 

Bertrams, Ltd 

Blake and Knowles' Steam Pump Works, Ltd 

Bleichert, Adolf, & Co 

Blumann & Stern, Ltd 

Bolton, A., & Co 

Booth, Joseph & Brothers. Ltd 

Brett's Patent Lifter Co., Ltd 

Bridge, David, & Co 

Britannia Engineering Co.. Ltd. 

British Steam Specialties, Ltd 

Broadbent, Thos., & Sons, Ltd. 

Brown Hoisting Machinery Co. 

Breuer, Schumacher & Co 

Buckley, Samuel 



PAGF 

... i6 

... 71 

••• 55 

... 85 

51 

64 

71 

3 

57 

Inside Back Cover 
Outside Back Cover 

60 

41 

6 and 20 

•• 37 

■ •• 34 
.. 46 

■ • 57 
.. tg 
... 21 

5 
.. 15 
.. 100 
.. 86 
.. 64 
12 
.. 73 



Buffoline Noiseless Gear Co 

Burton, C. W., Griffiths & Co. ... 

Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd. 

Churchill, Charles, & Co., Ltd 

Clarke's Crank & Forge Co., Ltd. 

Claj-ton, Son & Co., Ltd 

Cochran & Co. (Annan) ... 

Consett Iron Co., Ltd 

Crompton & Co., Ltd 

Crosbv Lock wood & Son 

Cunliffe & Croom, Ltd 

Davidson & Co., Ltd 

Davis & Primrose 

Delange, Mce. & Cie 

Denison. S. & Son 

Dobbie-Mclnnes, Ltd 

Dram Engineering Co 

Elliott-Fisher Co. ... 

Empire Typewriter Co 

Fairbanks Co 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co 

Farnley Iron Co., Ltd 



PAGE 

.. 16 

,. 18 

. 92 

• 14 

. 70 

. 57 

. 56 

. 75 

. 67 

. 44 

. »7 



88 
19 
55 
68 

52 
100 



97 
II 



5 
86 

72 



HENRY BERRY 6 CO., Ltd., 
Croydon Works, LEEDS. 

Specialities :-HYDRAULIC MACHINERY & ELECTRIC CRANES. 




60 Tons Three-Motor Electric Crane. 



PRICES, PARTICULARS, A.\D LISTS ON APPLICATION. 

41 




U ff — g>^ IB" 



Ventilation, &c. 



jit I I I '■ - "I 



Illy W" III 




MATTHEWS & YATES, Ltd., Swinton, Manchester. 




FANS F^OR NWATER COOLIIMG TONA/ERS, dec. 




For 



Oft Pncufwic BcTo^. 



RA131MG 

itWAGE, 
5LUDG&, 

Water &( 




^j(jjedforlRidrain£§eof CASTBOURME. 
Bo/nBAY, RAMG00h,50UTnAMPToM, / 
G\P&ToW[i and many otITer Towr^. . 

Compressed All? Hm^ 

for raising water from W6LLS, BoREt1oL53&c. 

G'^ACtllNEI^Y 

^roRALL3ERVICES. 



IMSH 



47>ViCTomA Street , 

Estrmates c Particulori on applicdTion. LQMDOM, 5.W. 



42 



Index to Advertisers 



— (Contd.) 



Findlay, Alex. & Co., Ltd. 

Firth, William, Ltd 

Fleming, Birkby & Goodall, Ltd 

Fowler, John, & Co. (Leeds), Ltd 

Fraser & Chalmers, Ltd 

Frictionless Engine Packing Co., Ltd. 

Gilkes, G., & Co., Ltd 

Glover, M., & Co. 

Graham, Morton & Co., Ltd. ... 

Green, E., & Son, Ltd. ... ... inside Back 

Greenwood & Batley, Ltd 

Gresham Publishing Co. 

Griffin, Charles & Co., Ltd. 

Hadfield's Steel Foundry Co., Ltd. ... 

Halden, J,, & Co 

Hall, B.J 

Hardistv, John 

Hardy Patent Pick Co., Ltd 

Hathorn, Davey & Co.,Ltd 

Head, Wrightson & Co., Ltd 

Horsfall Destructor Co. ... 
Howard Bros. 
Howes, S. ... 

Hudswell, Clarke & Co., Ltd 

Hughes & Lancaster 

Hughes, G. H 

Humbolt Engineering Works Co 

Hunslet Engine Co 



PAGE 

• 65 

5 

. 100 

■ 50 



25 
19 
66 
Cover 

87 
40 

9 



94 

89 

15 

J 

7 
74 
62 

99 
36 
48 
42 
6 
26 



India Rubber, Gutta Percha, and Telegraph Works 

Co., Ltd. Outside Back Cover 



International Time Recording Co. 
Jones & Lamson Machine Co. ... 

Keep, Juxon & Co. 

Keith, J., & Blackman Co., Ltd. 

King, H.J. H., & Co 

Klinger, Richard & Co 

Krupp, Fried 

Lancaster & Tonge, Ltd. 

Lang, John, & Sons 

Lassen & Hjort ... 

Leeds Forge Co., Ltd 

Lepard & Smiths, Ltd 

Library Supply Co. 

Lobnitz & Co., Ltd 

Luke and Spencer, Ltd. ... 

LyleCo., Ltd 

Mabie, Todd & Bard 

McLaren, J. & H 

Magnolia Anti-Friction Metal Co., Ltd. 

Marion & Co., Ltd. ... 

Mason, W. F., Ltd 

Mather & Piatt, Ltd 

Matthews & Yates, Ltd 

Meldrum Bros., Ltd 

Melling, J. F 

Metallic Paint Co., Ltd 

Miller, Hy.. & Co. 

Mirrlees-Watson Co., Ltd. 

Momentum Engine Co 



PAGE 

.. 98 



53 

43 

33 

Inside Front Cover 

... 54 

28 

15 

5* 

90 

96 

40 

17 

95 



47 
77 
59 
36 
42 
63 

89 

46 

58 

9 



BLACKMAN ^^ FANS 

For Ventilating and Drying. 



JAMES KEITH & BLACKMAN CO., L 

27, FARRINGDON ST., LONDON, E.G., AND BRANCHES. 



TD. 




THE THORNYCROFT STEAM WAGON 



Makers of all kinds of Steam Vehicles for 

Commercial Purposes, Lorries, Vans, Drays, 

Municipal Tipping Dust Vans 6 Water Wagons. 

Loads from 1 ton to 7 tons. 



ALL HIGHEST AWARDS SINXE 1898. 

TWO MORE GOLD MEDALS AT LIVERPOOL 

TRIALS, 1901. 

AWARDED FIR.ST PRIZE (£SOO) IX WAR OFFICE 

COMPETITION OF MOTOR LORRIES. 

London Office : 

HOMEFIELD, CHISWICK. W. 
Works : 

BASINGSTOKE, HANTS. 




$ THE RELIANCE LUBRICATING OIL COMPANY, ^ 

^ 19 & 20, Water Lane, Great Tower Street, LONDON, E.C. (^ 

^f. HIGH-CLASS NON-CORROSIVE LUBRICATING OILS Also 99, Great Clyde Street, Glasgow; 44, Baldwin (^ 
2i AND SOLIDIFIED LUBRICANTS. Street, Bristol ; and 1. Sandhill, Newcastle-on-Tyne. TJ 

•W Teiegranu: " S'JBASTRAL, LONDON. T^ 

(^ Castor. Lari L';;ve. Neatsfoot, ar.i Linseed t)i;s. Tailow. ic. Telephone No. : .A.VENVE =£-51. A B C Cxie Used. (^ 



43 



Index to Advertisers 



(Contd.) 



Nalder Bros., & Thompson 

Newton Bros. 

New Zealand Mines Record 

Nicholson Tool Co. 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co. 

Noble & Lund, Ltd. 

Northern Engineering Co., 1900, Ltd. 



Parker Foundry Co. 
Parkinson, J., & Son 
Partridge & Cooper, Ltd. 
Pearson, E. J. & J. 
Pegg, S., & Son ... 
Pcriam, H. W., Ltd. 
Phoenix Dynamo Mfg. Co. 
Phosphor Bronze Co., Ltd. 
Piggott, Thos., & Co., Ltd. 

Poetter & Co 

Positive Rotary Pumps, Ltd. 
Power-Gas Corporation, Ltd. 
Pratt & Whitney Co. 
Pryor, Edward, & Son ... 

Quaker City Rubber Co.... 



PAGE 

. 40 

.• 90 

• 25 

• 13 

,. 21 

.. 22 



^3 

90 

25 

72 
80 

45 
79 
61 

3« 



Outside Back Cover 



Kay ward Bros 

Redman, C. & Sons 

Reliance Lubricating Oil Co. .. 

Renshaw, W. R., & Co., Ltd. .. 

Rice & Co. (Leeds), Ltd 

Richter, Gustav 

Riter-Conley Mfg. Co 

Robinson, T. D. & Co., Ltd. .. 
Rockwell- Wabash Co., Ltd. .. 
Rose, Downs & Thompson, Ltd. 
Rossendale Belting Co., Ltd. .. 

Rubber Stamp Co. 

Ryder, William, Ltd 



St. Helen's Cable Co., Ltd. 

Sankey, J. H., & Son 

Scotch & Irish O.xygen Co., Ltd. 

Scott, Walter, Ltd 

Shannon, Ltd 

Simplex Steel Conduit Co., Ltd. 

Smith, G. F., Ltd 

Smith's Stamping Works, Ltd. ... 
Smith, Thomas & Sons, of Saltley, Ltd 




The 



PAGB 
II 
16 

43 
53 
22 
80 

74 
39 
54 
33 
»9 
20 



35 
77 
44 
76 
92 
40 
25 
52 
71 



Scotch & Irish Oxygen Co., Ltd., 

ROSEHILL WORKS, GLASGOW. 

Valves for Gas Bottles, Refrigerating Plant, etc., 
in Bronze, Steei, and Aluminium. 

Reducing Valves. Keys, and all Fittings for Compressed Gases. 




CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON'S NEW BOOKS 

Just Published. 234 pp. With numerous Illustrations and Diagrams. Demy 8vo. Cloth, ios.6d.net. 

THE I>XJRIFICATION OF SEISTAOE. 

Being a brief account of the Sciextific Principles ok Sewage Purification and their Practical Application. 
By SIDNEY BARWI8E, M.D. (Lond.), B.Sc, M.R.C.8., D.P.H. (Camb.), 

Fellow of the Sanitary Institute, Medical Officer of Health to the Derbyshire County Council. 
Second Edition. Revised and Enlarged. With an Appendix on the Analysis of Sewage and Sewage Effluents. 

Just Published. 276 pp. Demy 8vo. Cloth. los. 6d. net. 

I>I01SrEER I R RIO ATI ON. 

A Manual ok Inkorjiation kok Farmers in the Colonies. 
By E. O. MAWSON, M.lnst.C.E,, 

E.xecutivc Engineer, Public Works Department, Bombay. 

With Additional Chapters on LIGHT RAILWAYS, by E. R. CALTHKOP, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E. 

Illustrated by numerous Plates and Diagrams. 

Just Published. Fourth Ediiion. Medium 8vo. Cloth. 21s.net. 

]VIOI>ERl^ IVEACRINE SHOP TOOLS. 

Their Construction, Operation, and Manipulation ; including hoth Hand and Machine Tools. 

A Book of Practical Instruction in all classes of Machine Shop Pr.actice. 

By WILLIAM H. VAN DERVOORT, M.E. 

Illustrated by 673 Engravings ol the Litest Tools and Methods. 



Now Ready. Skcond Edition. Reviied and Enlarged. Containing C44 pp. and 2,cxx3 Illustrations. Royal 8vo. Cloth. 21s. net. 

SPECIFICATIONS IKT I>ETAIL. 

By FRANK W. MACEY, Architect, Author of "Conditions of Contract." 

LONDON: CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON, 7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, EC. 

44 



fC r- 




Packings, &c. 



JMA- wJ^ 




THE . . . 



PACKING 

OF PACKINGS. 



THE FIRST 

SUCCESSFUL AUTOMATIC 
METALLIC PACKING . . . 
AND STILL THE BEST. 



OVER 150,000 IN SERVICE. 



USED BY BRITISH, UNITED 
STATES, DUTCH, JAPANESE 
SPANISH, &c NAVIES. • 



Tfe£ Phosphor Bronze Co., 



SOUTHWARK, london, s.e. 



LTD.. 



Sole Makers of the Original 
"Cog'wheel " and "Vulcan" Brands of 

"PHOSPHOR BRONZE" ALLOYS 

which bjre fcr many r'ars beta recognised as 

THE BEST & MOST DURABLE METALS 



Slide Valves, Bearings, Bushes, Eccentric 
Straps, and other parts of Machinery 
Exposed to Friction and Wear. 

AIsc fcr Pump Rods. Pumps. Pisica Fiags, Piiucas, Wcrw Wbeeh. 
MOTOR GEARING. Etc. 



Castings in Pliosphor Bronze, Gun Metal. Biass, and other Alloys. 
Machined if required. 




45 



Index to Advertisers 



(Contd.) 



South Eastern & Chatham Ry 





Southwood, Smith & Co., Ltd 


... 91 


Spon, E. & F. N. 


... 6 


Stamm, VV. 


... 54 


Stirk, John, & Sons 


... 23 


Sturtevant Engineering Co., Ltd 


... 49 


Summerscales, W., & Sons, Ltd 


... 79 


Swain, John & Son, Ltd 


. ... 96 


Tangyes Ltd 


- 37 


Taylor & Challen, Ltd 


... 20 


Temperley Transporter Co 


... — 


Thom, John Z 


... 68 


Thompson & Co., Gilbert 


... 77 


Thompson, John 


... 6 


Thornycroft Steam Wagon Co., Ltd 


- 43 


Trading and Manufacturing Co., Ltd 


... 93 


Treasure, J. B., & Co 


..• 55 


Tubes, Ltd. 


. ... 78 


Turner, Atherton & Co 


... 87 



PAGE 
United Kingdom Self - Adjusting Anti - Friction 

Metallic Packing Syndicate, Ltd 46 

United States Metallic Packing Co., Ltd 45 



Von der Hcyde, J. Bennett 

Ward, H. W., & Co. 

Ward, T. W. 

Waygood & Co., Ltd. 

Weaver, B., & Co. 

Wells, A. C, & Co. 

Weils & Co., M. ... 

West Hydraulic Engineering Co. 

Whitman & Barnes Manufacturing Co. 

Williams, J. H., & Co. ... 

Winn, Charles, & Co. ... 

Woodhouse & Rixon 

"Woodite"Co 

Wrigley, E. G., & Co., Ltd. 

Yorkshire Patent Steam Wagon Co. 
Yost Typewriter Co 



33 

17 

1 00 

27 

24 
77 
70 
55 
76 
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Telegrams i " BLUMANN, LONDON.' 



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For full particulars 
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HUDSWELL, CLARKE & Co., 

RAILWAY FOUNDRY, LEEDS. LTD.. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES, 

Of all sizes and any gauge of Railway, of greatly improved Construction, for Main or Branch Railways, Contractors. 
Ironworks, Collieries. Prices, Photographs, and full Specifications on application. 




SOLE MAKERS OF THE " RODGERS " PULLEYS (Registered) 
Wrought Iron throughout, Rim, Arms, and Boss. 

ALSO "ETCHELLS"' NON-DRIP BEARINGS, SHAFTING, AND ACCESSORIES. 

THE . . 

Yorkshire Patent 
Steam Wagon COm 

(Branch of Deighton's Patent Flue and Tube Company, Ltd.). 

Pepper Road, Hunslet, Leeds. 

MAKERS OF 

STEAM MOTOR WAGONS 

To suit any trade purpose, and to carry 3, 4, 5, and 6 tons. 

Full particulars on application. 




This illustration is of a Steam Wanon to carry 6 Tons 
and haul 4 Tons on a Trailer. 




MILLING CUTTERS, 

High 5peed 

or ^ <^ 
Ordinary 5teel. 

E. G. WRIGLEY & CO., Ltd., 

Foundry Lane Works, 
SOHO, BIRMINGHAM. 

4« 







a o 
,,, c 



PAGE'S MAGAZINE 



Axi Illustrated Technical Monthly, dealing with the Engineering, Electrical, Shipbuilding, Iron and Steel, 

Mining and Allied Industries. 



Vol. V. 



LONDON, SEPTEMBER, 1904. 



No. ^. 



PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES OF TO-DAY. 



J. C. R. ADAMS. 

Mr. Adams continues the review of leading types of portable engines, which he commenced 
in the August number. The first article of the series appeared in the July issue of -Page's 
Magazise. and dealt with the conditions to be observed in designing a successful portable steam 
engine. — Ed. 



in. 



MESSRS. ROBEY AND CO., LTD. 



THE portable engine made by Messrs. Robey 
and Co., Ltd., of Lincoln, may fairly claim 
on its merits to stand in the very front rank. 
All the qualifications enumerated in our pre- 
liminary sketch are embodied in its design. 
The cylinder is bolted to a planed steel bracket, 
riveted to the firebox casing, as are also the 
crankshaft brackets, not a single bolt being 
employed to attach any of the working parts 
to the boiler, the intermediate support for 
carrying the piston-rod guide-bars being formed 
by a casting spanning the two stay-rods. Thus 
no part of the engine is affected by the 
varying length of the boiler as it is heated 
and cooled. 

The steam bend through which the main 
supply is taken to the cylinder not only con- 
tains the starting valve, but being extended 
upwards, forms a seating for the Ramsbottom 
safety-valve — a particiilarly neat and compact 
arrangement. Even the pressure-gauge is 
attached to this casting, so that the number 
of steam- joints in connection with the boiler 
shell is reduced to the absolute minimum. 
Thus the feed-pump is attached to the steel 
crankshaft bracket, the feed-water inlet itself 
being the onlj^ fixing actually connected to 
the boiler. 

We have already alluded to Messrs. Robey 's 
method of staging the firebox crown (see 
fig. 3), which relieves the firebox from the 
crushing stresses tending to distort the front 
and back plates, and allows of free access for 
cleaning purposes to every part of the crown 



plate — a very important matter in cases where 
incrustation is present. 

This is a good engine, strikingly simple and 
direct in the application of aU its parts, and 
well calculated to stand not only the rough 
usage generally accorded this class of engine, 
but also to give effect to the high boiler pressures 
now employed. 

We may note in passing that Messrs. Robey 
and Co. manufacture these single-cylinder 
portable engines up to 15 nominal or 45 effective 
horse-power, a larger size than is usual in this 
class of engine. 

Messrs. Robey also send us a photograph, 
which we have pleasure in reproducing, of 
what they state to be the largest portable 
engine ever constructed. This gigantic machine 
is capable of developing no less than 200 
effective horse-power. 

We hope to have more to say about this 
under the head of Compound Portable Engines, 
but in the meantime we publish it as a 
curiosity. It must be nearly as large as a 
railway locomotive. 

MESSRS. RUSTON, PROCTOR AND CO., LTD. 

Messrs. Ruston, Proctor and Co., Ltd., O' 
Lincoln, send us a photograph of their latest 
type of single-cylinder portable engine (fig. 18), 
into which a ver\' remarkable development is 
introduced. The idea, itself is not a new one, 
but it is safe to say that its revival in the 
form adopted by Messrs. Ruston is only rendered 
possible by the use of modern machine tools of 
exceptional size and power. 



(195) 



Portable Steam Engines of To=Day. 



197 




FIG. 16. MESSRS. ROBEY AND CO.'S SIXGLE-CYLIXDtR PORTABLE ENGINE — 
6 TO 15 NOMINAL HORSE-POWER. 



To the top of the firebox casing is riveted 
a large square cast-steel seating of size equal 
to the flat bottom of the cylinder. The included 
portion of the firebox top is perforated by a 
number of holes (42 in the example before us). 
Upon this seating the cylinder is bolted by a 
strong and wide flange, passing all round the 
latter, the combination forming to all intents 
and purposes a square steam-dome having the 
cyUnder formed within it ; the boiler steam, by 
the holes already mentioned, being in free 
communication with the steam-jacket right 
round the liner which forms the cylinder barrel. 
Dry steam and an absolute immunity from 
priming are the advantages claimed, and with 
good reason, for this new departure. 

Of the strength and solidity of this arrange- 
ment there can be no two opinions ; that the 
huge steam- joint under the cylinder will give 
no trouble is practically guaranteed by the fact 
that the entire boiler, after the seating and 
brackets are riveted upon it, is put into a 
planing machine, and the fiat surfaces for the 
reception of the cylinder and plummer-blocks 
machined to a true and level plane. Still, we 
must be pardoned for sapng that on the whole 
we should prefer to put our money on Messrs. 



Ruston's previous type, where the Tcylinder, 
completely isolated from the boiler (save for 
the external steam-inlet forming the starting- 
valve), made a dry joint, secured by only eight 
bolts on the top of a pair of steel brackets 
double-riveted to the boiler. However, we 
believe Messrs. Ruston are quite willing to 
supply their previous type (which made an 
admirable horizontal stationary engine when 
detached from the boiler) to those who 
prefer it. 

Our notice of this great firm's engine would 
not be complete if we omitted to mention their 
famous " steam-heated expanding stay" (fig. 19 
— a tubular tie-rod connecting cylinder and 
one bracket in free communication vvath the 
boiler at both ends, with the intention of 
keeping pace with the varying length of the 
latter. The small pipes connecting the interior 
of the tubular stay with the boiler are visible 
in the illustration of Messrs. Ruston's portable 
engine. 

It would seem to be a defect in this arrange- 
ment that, until steam is actually formed, no 
more expansion of the stay takes place than 
would occur in the ordinary course if the stay 
were soUd, and heated merely by conduction. 




FIG. l8. MESSRS. RLSTON AXD PKOCTOR'S PORTABLE STEAM ENGINE WITH ONE CYLINDER. 



'^»^^ 



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k rr r 




n^ ^ II < * 



FIG. 19. STEAM-HEATED EXPANDING STAY. 

(Messrs. Kuston and Proctor.) 



(19K) 




(199) 



Page's Magazine. 



The temperature of saturated steam of loo lb. 
pressure above the atmosphere is 328 deg. F., 
and assuming that during the process of steam 
raising the stay has heated by conduction 
to 100 deg. — a hberal estimate, while the boiler 
has reached a temperature of 212 deg. — we 
have at the boihng point a difference of 112 
deg., the stay being operative only during the 
remaining 116 deg. This may or may not be 
a practical objection ; at any rate, theoretically 
it only meets the difficulty half-way. 

It should be noted that the stay is only 
apphed to one of the crankshaft bearings — 
that next the crank — and that of course no 
provision for shding the plummer- blocks is 
necessary. One more little criticism before we 
conclude our notice of one of the best portable 
engines ever manufactured. 

The slowly rotating Watt governor, with its 
heavy balls, always strikes us as a peculiarly 
dignified and appropriate adjunct to the 
ponderous movements of a great beam-engine. 
On the contrary, when seen mounted on the 
end of a cast-iron cantilever bracket attached 
to the cylinder of a small portable engine, 
exposed to all the jolts and jars incidental to 
the rough travelHng it is pretty sure to en- 
counter, we are inclined to pity its hard lot. 
It has indeed seen better days. 

Messrs. Ruston, Proctor, and Co. are, how- 
ever, prepared to supply the quick-speed type 
of governor when required. (See fig. 18.) 



MESSRS. DAVEY, PAXMAN AND CO., LTD. 

Messrs. Davey, Paxman and Co., Ltd., of 
Colchester, have favoured us with advance 
copies of drawings of their newly revised 
series of single-cylinder portable engines. 

From these drawings more complete and 
detailed views of the different parts are possible 
than from perspective views. 

From the plan (fig. 21), it will be seen that 
the engine is quite up to the standard of require- 
ments for a fully detachable engine. The 
crankshaft plummer-blocks upon both sides of 
the engines are cottered to steel rods connecting 
them with lugs cast upon the cyhnder, the 
expansion of the boiler being provided for by 
a sliding arrangement permitting the plummer- 
blocks to shde upon the steel brackets riveted 
to the boiler. The outer ends of the guide bars 
are carried by a cast-iron bridge-plate spanning 
the two tie-rods, so that there is no intermediate 
attachment to the boiler. 

The steam-inlet to the cylinder is through an 
independent bend, having an external and 
visible joint with the boiler ; and the feed- 
pump is bolted to a steel flanged seating riveted 
to the side of the boiler barrel, and has a par- 
ticularly neat and serviceable double valve- box 
and feed-water heating apparatus. 

Altogether, Messrs. Davey, Paxman and Co. 
have gone straight to the point in their new 
type, and have produced a pattern for which 
we have nothing but praise. 




^ 



-Q- 



^ 



FIG. 21. I'l-AN OF MESSRS. DAVEY, I'AXMAN A\D CO S, LTD., I'ORTAHLK STEAM ENGIXE. 



¥^%T'*x^^ ' ^ -, 


jag^g^ 




■ 


^ — ^ 


*^ 


THE ARCHED 


1 




J^ji^ , 


CONCRETE DAM 
AT BAROSSA. 










1 




1 



DESIGNED BY 

ALEX. B. MOXCRIEF, M.Am.Soc.C.E., M.Ixst.C.E., 

Engineer-in-Chief, South Australian Government, Adelaide, Australia. 

The Barosaa Water Works, constructed for the supply of Gawler, South Australia, and district, 
offer several points of interest to the civil engineer, the chief feature being the arched concrete 
dam of unusual dimensions, designed by the Engineer-in-Chief to the South Australian 
Government, which is here described with the aid of illustrations specially taken for Page's 
Magazine. — Ed. 




HE highest arched con- 
crete dam in Australia, 
which has recently 
been completed by 
the South Australian 
Government at Bar- 
ossa, near Gawler, is 
94 ft. above the ground 
line, and is only 4 ft. 
6 in. wide at the top. 
The greatest thickness 
of concrete above the 
line of foundation is 
34 ft. at the ground line. The dam is an arch with 
a radius of 200 ft. and the total length of the arc of 
the circle formed by the top of the dam is 472 ft. 

The Barossa Water Works were constructed for the 
supply of the town of Gawler, South Australia, and 
the surrounding farming district, the water to be 
deUvered in cast-iron pipes under pressure for domestic 
purposes and stock, with a small surplus for garden 
irrigation, the supply being estimated at 1,000 million 
gallons per annum. The total expenditure approved 
by Parliament in November, 1898, for the original 
scheme was ;^225.ooo. The work was commenced in 
March, 1899, and was completed in February-, 1903, 
at a cost of ;^i69,947 — the saving on the original esti- 



mate being due to the substitution of an arched con- 
crete dam for a structure of gravity type, as originally 
proposed. 

The original scheme included a concrete weir across 
the Para River, from which, when the dirty floods 
have passed, water is taken through a tunnel into a 
storage basin having a capacity of 1,000 milhon gallons. 
The tunnel is 7.400 ft. long, about 7 ft. 6 in. in diameter, 
and lined with concrete for about half its length. 
The storage basin is protected against impure drainage 
by an intercepting channel i^ miles in length, and 
is provided with outlet works, there being a main 
22 in. and 18 in. in diameter, and about 7 miles long 
to the town of Gawler, the said main being constructed 
of steel on the locking-bar principle. 

The chief interest of the works Ues in two particulars, 
viz., that the supply from the intermittently flowing 
river is under complete control by means of cast-iron 
doors at the entrance to the tunnel, and that an arched 
concrete dam is employed of the unusual dimensions 
given above. 

The dam is situated in a narrow valley with a 
steep rock cliff about 100 ft. in height on one side 
and a genth* sloping spur of the range on the other. 
The accompanying cross-sections and plan of the 
dam show the general dimensions and quantities. 

The foundations throughout were carried down to 




IWO VIKWm ok IHK liAK'OSSA DAM, 

Showing the work in process of construction and completed. 
(ao3) 



The Arched Concrete Dam at Barossa. 



203 



solid rock, and the excavation was carefully stepped the whole of the ingredients should be as uniform 
for the reception of the thrust of the arch into the as possible, and, to insure this result, they were all 
hill on both sides. The utmost care was taken that dealt with by weight, the appliances used for this 

purpose being automatic. 
Numerous tests were made 
before determining the pro- 
portions of the various aggre- 
gates and cement to be used 
in the concrete in order that 
a watertight dam might be 
insured. A number of 2-ft. 
cube concrete blocks were 
manufactured with varj-ing 
proportions of ingredients, 
placed under hydrostatic pres- 
sure of 200 ft., and proved 
imper\'ious before the pro- 
portions of the material to be 
used in the concrete was finally 
determined. The sand and 
stone were carefully washed and 
the cement was aerated for 
fourteen days before using. The 
quantity of cement necessary 
to produce half a cubic yard 
of concrete was then mixed 
with the required proportions 
of sand in two operations and 
tipped in layers between the 
various charges of aggregate 
to assist in thorough incorpora- 
tion. The combined aggregates, 
sand and cement, were then 
passed through a Messent con- 
crete mixer and immediately 
placed in the work. Rubble 
displacers or " plums " of 
gneiss rock were placed in the 
concrete, the rule observed 
being that no large stone 
should be nearer to any other 
than 6 in. 

When the general level of the 
concrete had risen nearly to 
the natural surface of the 
gravel, moulding timbers were 
introduced, which were hung 
on bolts built into the wall at 
even,- 4 ft. vertical. Previous 
to insertion, these bolts were 
covered with paper from the 
cement casks and tied around 
with cotton, which formed an 
effective method of facilitating 
their removal from the wall, 
leaving the paper behind. The 
paper was then scraped out, 
the holes hosed, and filled 
with mortar. As the wall 
grew in height, the moulding 
timbers were raised to the 




•ttrdi t Half '"' *'' 



ft* sa Kft 

CKOS6 SKCTIOX AT CENTRE OF THE BAROSSA DAM. 



204 



Page's Magazine. 



bolts above, and those on the vertical side were 
carefully fixed in the correct position at intervals 
of ID ft. by sighting with the theodolite. When 
within 1 5 ft. of the top of the wall, the use of 
the large " plums " was discontinued on account 
of the narrow width, and string courses of iron 
tramrails were built in horizontally, about 40 tons 
being so used. The work of concreting was com- 
menced in August, 1900, and completed in September, 
1902, or at the rate of about 30 cubic yards of concrete 
and 5 cubic yards of displacers per diem, which was 
considered sufficient for uniformity in the setting of 
the mass. 

Upon completion, the cubic contents of the work 
were carefully measured and agreed with the figures 
arrived at by weighing in. The cost of the rubble 
concrete was 38s. 9d. per cubic yard. 

Instructions were given that the water should be 
allowed to rise in the basin of the reservoir as the 
work proceeded, and this was done as far as possible, 
but the final filling of the reservoir did not take place 
until September, 1903. The atmospheric temperature 
during construction of the dam ranged between 30° 
and 168° F. In frosty weather the concrete was 
covered with straw mattresses, and a number of small 



smoking fires in tar drums were burnt at intervals 
on staging along the top of the wall with beneficial 
effects. 

Since completion, and from observations made 
during six days upon which equal extremes of tem- 
peratures amounting to 50° prevailed, the top of the 
wall at the crown was found to tilt up-stream to the 
extent of | in., thus showing an expansion of about 
1+ in. in the total length. 

So far, the principles upon which this dam was con- 
structed have given satisfactory results, and the writer 
would not hesitate to recommend the adoption of the 
same principles in carrying out much larger works where 
the situation was suitable and w-here proper materials 
were obtainable. The construction, says Mr. Moncrief , 
especially of the upper or thinner part of the dam 
during the winter season, and the insertion of steel bars 
therein, I look upon as advisable, and am decidedly of 
the opinion that a properly constructed concrete work, 
all the materials of which are practically of the same 
specific gravity, is better than a composite structure 
consisting partly of masonry and partly of concrete. 

For the above details, cross-section and plan we are 
indebted to the " Engineering News." 




Ill {^ je ^Scntr lalvt 

rL.AX OK THE lUKUSS.V DAM. 



OUR nONTHLY BIOGRAPHIES. 




o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



Phclc by Elliott &■ Fiy.] 



SIR EDWARD HAMER CARBUTT, BART., J.P., D.L. 

SIR EDWARD HAMER CARBUTT, J.P., and Deputy Lieutenant for the county of 
Surrey, was born July 22nd, 1838. At the age of twenty-three he joined the firm 
of Messrs. Thwaites and Carbutt, Bradford, makers of steam hammers, rolling mills, and 
machinery for iron and steel works. While exhibiting machinery at the Paris Exhibition 
he inspected the Roots Blower shown in the American Department, and was convinced 
that it was a considerable improvement in pressure blast machinery. He arranged 
to take up its manufacture, and made many thousands of these blowers. After making 
machinery for most of the large iron and steel works, and for English and foreign 
Governments, he retired from the firm in 1877 in order to devote himself to public work. 



Oo 00000000 00 o o o 0000000 



-oM 



(205) 



2o6 



Page's Magazine. 



He was elected member of the Leeds Town Council, 
and in 1878 was made chief magistrate of the town. 
In 1880 he entered Parliament as member for the 
borough of ]\Ionmouth. While in Parliament he 
was mainly concerned in looking after engineering 
interests ; he urged the extension of the Indian 
Railways, and through his action the Government 
appointed a' committee under the chairmanship of 
Lord George Hamilton. The evidence reported by 
Sir Edward Carbutt showed strongly the necessity 
for large extensions, and the committee decided in 
favour thereof. He laboured for years, with gratifying 
results, to obtain better remuneration, pension rules, 
and distribution of honours for the engineers of the 
Public Works Department, India. 

One of the chief subjects taken up by Sir Edward 
Carbutt was the question of guns. He urged upon 
the Government the 
necessity for acquir- 
ing a greater supply, 
of improved design 
and manufacture. He 
advised that the large 
manufacturers should 
be encouraged to put 
down expensive plant 
to make guns and 
armament, in return 
for which theGovern- 
' ent should promise 
to give orders which 
would justify this 
large expenditure of 
capital. By this 

means the Govern- 
ment would obtain 
large arsenals all over 
the country, and thus 
distribute the work 
in different localities. 
He advocated the re- 
organisation of the 
workshops of the War 
Department, and in 
response to his motion 
on this subject the 
Government appoint- 
ed an important com- 
mittee presided over 
by Lord Morley. After 
taking valuable evi- 
dence and visiting 
many large iron and 

steel works, the committee reported in favour of 
extensive alterations, and also in favour of encouraging 
private firms. 

When the Government determined to start a National 
Physical Laboratory, he was elected as their repre- 
sentative by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 
and confirmed by the Royal Society member of the 
general Council. Upon the conclusion of his appointment 
for three years, the Royal Society informed the 
Mechanical Engineers that if they would re-elect 
him the Royal Society would be glad to re-nominate him. 

When the committee now sitting under the 
presidency of Sir W. B. White was appointed to 
formulate a scheme of education for engineers, he 
was selected to represent the Iron and Steel Institute, 
there being two representatives of tlie Institution of 
Civil Engineers and one representative of each other 
scientific society. 

Sir E. H. Carbutt was asked to serve on the recently 




c 



C.AI'TAIX AKKKKU THAVEK MAHAX, D.C.L., LL.D 



constituted Departmental Committee of the Royal 
College of Science and School of Mines, to represent 
the iron and steel industries. 

He has always maintained a keen interest in ex- 
hibitions, having taken part in most of the Inter- 
national Exhibitions since 1862. When the Paris 
Exhibition of 1889 was being organised, the Govern- 
ment did not deem it necessary to render it either 
financial or diplomatic assistance. Sir Edward seeing 
the difficulty, arranged a meeting of the different 
officials, when it was decided to form a committee 
and appeal for support. The English exhibit was a 
complete success, and fortunately no call was made 
upon the guarantors. Sir Edward Hamer Carbutt 
was a member of the Royal Commission appointed 
for the last French exhibition. He is a past-President 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers ; Member 

of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers ; and 
a Member of the 
Council of the Iron 
and Steel Institute. 
He was created a 
Baronet in 1892, and 
1896 he was made 
High Sheriff. 

CAPTAIN 
A.T.MAHAN 

APTAiN Alfred 
Thayer Mahan, 
the famous American 
naval expert, was 
Ijorn September 27th, 
1840, at West Point, 
New York, being a 
son of D. H. Mahan, 
professor of military 
engineering in the 
United States Mili- 
tary Academy. He 
was educated at the 
United States Naval 
Academy, and in 
1856 entered the 
American Navy. In 
1S61 he was a com- 
missioned officer and 
four years later 
was promoted to 
1 1 e ut e n a n t - c o m- 
mander. In 1872 he rose to the rank of commander, 
andin 1885 was appointed captain. He served throughout 
the Civil War, and subsequently in the Asiatic, South 
Atlantic, Pacific, and European squadrons. He was 
elected President of the Naval War College in 1886, 
while in 1893 he was given command of U.S.S. Chicago, 
a ship belonging to the European Squadron. In 1899 
he was sent by the United States of America as their 
delegate to the Peace Conference at the Hague. 

Captain Mahan is best known as a naval historian. 
His valuable book entitled " The Influence of Sea 
Power upon Modern History," has won recognition 
from many leading naval reformers. His other works 
include " Influence of Sea Power upon French Revolu- 
tion and Eminre," " Life of Nelson ; the Embodiment of 
the Sea Power of Great Britain," " A Short History of 
tlie South African War," " Types of Naval Officers," etc. 
Captain Mahan was made D.C.L. of Oxford and 
LL.D. of Cambridge in 1894. 




I 



THE 

PROTECTION 

OF 

BATTLESHIPS 

BELOW THE 

WATERLINE. 




POINTS FROM A NAVAI. ESSAY COXTRIBlTtD TO THE Rl)YAL UNITED SERVICE INSTITLTIOX 
HY COMMANDER MURRAY F, SUETER, R.N. 



PROTECTION AGAINST SUBMARINES. 

IX the course of a valuable essay contributed to the 
Royal United Service Institution, and recom- 
mended to be printed by the referees. Commander 
Murray F. Sueter calls attention to the submerged 
microphone, invented by Admiral Makarofif, of the 
Russian Navy, and supposed to indicate the where- 
abouts of torpedo craft or submarines. This, he says, 
is no new idea. Microphones have been used for 
many years in informing the defence of the approach 
of attacking boats. Unfortunately, it gives no idea 
of direction, distance or depth — three rather useful 
factors. We may say, without much fear of contra- 
diction, that the defending ship would suffer severe 
nerve tension if the approach of an invisible enemy 
was known, and that the knowledge hardly contributes 
to defensive measures. 

The hydroscope, by which submerged vessels are 
to be located by sight, needs scarcely any comment. 
It is extremely difficult in a submarine running sub- 
merged to see more than a few yards even in clear 
water, and it is unlikelj- that the instrument will ever 
be developed sufficiently to be of much value, so as 
to enable a surface vessel to observe a submarine 
under water. For the same reason, the proposal to 
sight submarines from balloons has proved indifferent 
when experiments have been carried out. 

DEFECTS IN EXISTING SUBMARINES- 

The chief defects of present submarines as offensive 
weapons are : — 

1. Low speed. 

2. Comparatively small radius of action. 

3. Limited range of vision. 

4. Enervating effect on crews. 

We may assume that these defects are not likely 
to be remedied entirely, but improvements may be 
expected. The destroyer is the development of the 



first torpedo-boat, and similarly fast submarines will 
probably emerge from the embryo type. 

Admiral Aube advised that submarines should be 
carried on board ship, and dropped at the psychological 
moment. Experience has. however, sho^Ti that this 
was not ver>- successful in the case of torpedo-boats. 
The Hecla was the first depot-ship in our Navj'. Built 
originally for the merchant marine, she carried ten 
second-class boats in crutches on her superstructure, 
and was able to hoist them out in a moderate sea-way. 
.\fter her came the Vulcan, which was built in 1889. 
and is a well armed cruiser with a speed of about 
18 knots. She carries six second-class boats 60 ft. 
long, with a speed of 16 knots, and has powerful 
hydraulic cranes and derricks. In 1895 the French 
built the Foudre, which is also a well-cirmed cruiser 
of 1 8' 5 knots. She carried at tirst ten aluminium 
second-class boats, having a speed of 16 knots, but 
the aluminium hulls of these boats were not a success, 
and this metal was afterwards replaced by steel. She 
resembled the " Vulcan " in carr^•ing powerful cranes. 
Since these types have not been repeated in recent 
years it may be argued that they have never been 
considered a ver>- great success. The increased 
weight of the submarine over the torpedo-boat makes 
it doubtful if submarines will ever be carried affoat — 
certainlj' not until electric storage batteries can be 
dispensed with and the design made very much lighter 
than at present. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH SPAR TORPEDOES. 

These reflections show that there is at present 
truth in the English view of the submarine as the weapon 

The subject of the entire essay, as printed in the 
Journal of the Institution, was " In the existing State 
of Development of War-Ships and of Torpedo and Sub- 
marine Vessels, in what manner can the Strategical 
Objects formerly pursued by means of Blockading an 
Enemv in his own Ports be best Attained ? " 




JOS) 



The Protection of Battleships below the Waterline. 



209 



of feeble Powers. The line, however, between offence 
and defence is hard to draw, and it is possible that 
ships may be compelled to come u-ithin the sphere oi 
influence of defending submarines. Hence we may ask, 
What means of protection can be suggested against 
such a danger? Various proposals have been put 
forward. It has been said that a submarine can be 
easily destroyed by a battleship with quick-firing guns. 
In this case it is assumed that a submarine must always 
come to the surface to take bearings, and must be 
exposed to gun fire, if only for a few minutes. But 
this is unnecessary in the modem type of submarines- 
The approved antidote to the submarine is a spar 
with a gun-cotton charge at the end. This is attached 
to the quarter of a destroyer, which chases the enemy, 
as soon as the latter is visible. The spar is swung out, 
and when over the submarine it is detonated. Experi- 
ments with the spar torpedo are reported as being quite 
successful — when the submarine is seen I The .Americans 
placed live animals in a submerged tank, and exploded 
charges at various distances. The animals were quite 
unhurt. An experiment, it is reported, was made 
recently at Cherbourg with a sUghtly different object- 
It has been said that a submarine could not fire a 
torpedo at a short range, because the risk of suffering 
in the explosion would be too great. Several sheep 

ere placed in the Naiade, which was under water. 
and torpedoes were exploded at different distances. 
Since the sheep were not hurt, officers took their places, 
but the explosions had no effect beyond increasing 
the pressure on the hull. 

An admiral recently said : " We want howitzers 
firing shell at an elevated trajectorj-, which will explode 
at a given depth beneath the water." It is as yet im- 
possible, however, to destroy a submarine by an 
explosion produced under water from gunfire. Up to 
the present we do not possess a single gun which can 
send a projectileany distance under water. When apro- 
jectile strikes the water its nose is thrown up on impact. 
The base of the projectile dips in lower, but scarcely 
more than a foot or two before ricochet occurs. A 
luckj' shot might carry away the periscope and prevent 
observations, but can do no damage to the boat's 
power of manoeuvring under water. It is often thought 
that the excess of speed possessed by a battleship or 
other surface vessel would ensure evasion. This may 
be so on the assumption that the presence of the enemy 
was apparent ; but what if a fleet came within the 
meshes of a careful submarine boat plan ? We have 
only to imagine the phght of a single ship within a 
triangle formed by three submarines with periscopes 
at most visible. Speed will not be of much avail, and 
a short time would place the ship out of action for all 
practical war purposes. 
DESTRUCTION OF SUBMARINES-A WAITING GAME. 

Good as the torpedo destroyer is, it is doubtful if 
this type is adapted for the new task of destroying 
submarines, because : i. It has a large turning circle. 
2. It offers a large target both to the surface and 
sub-surface vessels. 3. It is easily put out of action 
by gunfire, and the crew are unprotected. The 



destruction of submarines must be a waiting game, and 
they will be caught only when the\' come to the surface 
through any of the following causes : — 

1. Entanglements by nets or hawsers, or injury 
from a gun-cotton charge. 

2. Exhaustion of electric batteries. 

3. Defects to internal mechanism. 

4. Defects to external gear of diving rudders, and 
the like. 

5. Bad fumes, producing the collapse, or partial 
collapse, of the crew. 

6. If the periscope is shot away, a porpoise- like 
rise and dive may be necessary for obtaining a bearing. 

The submarine destroyer should therefore possess a 
high speed to enable her to avoid cruisers. It is 
thought that she should be designed to offer a small 
target, as it may be necessary to work in the vicinitv 
of an enemy's fortified port in seeking hostile sub- 
marines. A small target is also necessarv to enable 
a destroyer to escape easy detection by submarines. 
The design of the modem submarine presents a line 
of thought as to the best form which a submarine 
destroyer should take. Admiral Henderson recently 
said in a lecture that the present shape of ships is 
Ukel\' to be stereotyped. But it cannot be doubted 
that, when the results of sub-surface navigation cire 
better knou-n, the present theories of construction mav 
undergo a change. The following is a suggestion 
in the present case : The submarine destroyer should 
be a large surface boat capable of altering her trim 
by taking in Wi-ater ballast, so as to lessen the target 
exposed to the enemy. The upper work should have 
a turtle-back shape, and armoured, which will cause 
projectiles to glance off. Navigation should be from 
a conning tower having an all-round \-ision, and 
funnels* should be abaft the conning tower. The 
conning tower would, of course, have to be armoured. 
The upper portions of the funnels would be made 
telescopic, for use when travelling at high rates of speed. 
.\ mast would also have to be carried for wireless 
telegraphy aerial \*'ire to be hoisted to. The construc- 
tion of submarine boats would be copied in many 
waj'S, and the water tanks for lowering trim would 
also act as water or compressed air protection agziinst 
a torpedo launched at her from a submarine. Her 
armament would consist of two i2-jx)unders and four 
i8-in. torpedo tubes. 

PROTECTION AGAINST THE EXPLOSION OF A 
TORPEDO. 

Such are the methods which may be suggested as 
best suited for fighting against submarine boats. But 
it is not to be expected that ships will be able to avoid 
torpedoes any more than they can avoid being struck 
by projectiles. In short, we want ships constructed 
with some protection against torpedo attack. Means 
must be taken to minimise the damage which may 
be caused by explosion of a torpedo some ten or twelve 
feet below the waterUne. The writer bfigs to leave 
armour, guns, accuracy of gunfire, and similar questions 

* Oil motors would dispense with funnels. 



14 



Page's Magazine. 



to abler hands, but he cannot help remarking that it 
would seem they receive so much attention from hosts 
of naval writers and would-be experts, that there is 
a real and serious danger in neglecting to consider how 
to minimise the effect of weapons of much more deadly 
potency than any gun ever constructed. 

The modern battleship expends quite 30 per cent. 
of her displacement in armour to protect her from gun- 
fire, but the minimum fraction is devoted to defence 
against torpedoes. A torpedo under present conditions 
would destroy a very large percentage of ships struck 
by it, and it would appear that naval architects are 
not following the teaching of modern science. Perhaps 
the lessons learnt from the Belleisle may have influence. 
The Majestic pounded the Belleisle at short range 
for twelve minutes or so. If a crew had been on 
board, even during such a severe handhng, the actual 
waterline hits might with some difficulty have been 
plugged, and little damage have been done to afiect 
the stability. The reason of her settling down on 
the shoal oflE Chichester is said to have been due to 
water coming in from a few water-hne hits plus the 
water pumped into her through all her fire-pumps to 
guard against fire. There was no outlet for this latter. 
If we compare this with the damage done by the 
explosion of a torpedo, the advantage is plainly with 
the torpedo. The Belleisle coUapsed under one explo- 
sion of the latter ; it would appear that the effect 
outran all anticipations. The difficulty of salvage 
was certainly unexpected. Although the immediate 
object of the test was not realised, important data 
must have been given as to the destructive effect of 
a torpedo, as, from Press reports, we learn one-sixth 
of the ship was destroyed, a section of which had been 
specially strengthened from the bow to the citadel 
and across to the boiler-room, but the whole portion 
was so wrecked that divers could not enter. 

RANGE OF TORPEDOES. 

The extreme accuracy of the modern Whitehead 
torpedo, fitted with gyroscope, or Obry apparatus^ 
renders a change in construction necessary, and this 
is shown by the recognition of its increased range. 
Most critics quote 2,000 yards as the minimum distance 
for battle squadron actions. The British Navy now 
has a 3,000-yard torpedo ; it is natural to expect that 
this will be still further increased, and recently there 
was a report that the Austrian Government is experi- 
menting with a new invention which brings the range 
of the torpedo up to 3,800 yards. It should be remem- 
bered that all nations have adopted the gyroscope 
for their locomotive torpedoes, and have turned a 
somewhat erratic weapon into a reliable engine of 
war, whose influence is more and more attracting notice 
as the chief and most deadly weapon of modern warfare. 
This increase of range and of accuracy cannot be too 
strongly emphasised. Search-lights carried by most 
ships are of little use outside a 2,000-yards range, and 
even at this distance the ray can generally be passed 
through in safety. It is extremely unlikely that a 
destroyer would be picked up outside tliis limit and 



even if she discharged her torpedo as soon as observed, 
the torpedo would have a fair chance of hitting, parti- 
cularly if there were several ships in company. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR RENDERING A SHIP TORPEDO- 
PROOF. 

The problem is to design a torpedo-proof ship. We 
have seen the Dominion developed from the Warrior, 
the Libertad from the Huascar, but naval architects 
have not yet produced a torpedo-protected ship. The 
only attempt is the crude torpedo bulkhead, as coft- 
structed in the Russian battleship Tsarevitch, and in 
some French battleships. Designers in foreign navies 
have had the idea of armouring the ship below the 
water-line as a protection, but this plan has been 
abandoned, and it is known that rigid armour plates, 
with many butting joints and armour bolts, are no 
defence against the shattering effect of a torpedo. 
The ductiUty of lead has received attention, and lead 
envelopes in the compartments have been suggested ; 
they might be useful if we did not have a better 
proposal. 

FUTILITY OF CORNPITH CELLULOSE. 

It was thought that American cornpith cellulose, 
if placed behind a plate, would swell on contact with 
the water, and thus fill up the hole and stop the inrush 
of water. It is hardly surprising to learn that the cellu- 
lose was sent into the air before it had time to get wet. 
The idea that coal in a bunker would stop the effect of 
an explosion is equally unsound, because loose coal 
would suffer the same fate as the cellulose. A hanging 
net defence is useful for a ship at anchor, and if not very 
effective against modern net cutters, gives the crew 
a feeUng of security which might be useful in increasing 
the efficiency of night gun-fire, and in lessening the 
strain of long watches. Nets are of little use for ships 
under way, unless they are prepared to steam at very 
slow speeds. 

WATER OR COMPRESSED AIR PROTECTION. 

It has long been recognised that a cushion of water 
or compressed air are the best agents for minimising 
the explosive effect. It may be said that there are 
no really reUable methods. Future designs should 
allow for ships having water or compressed air protec- 
tion. By a greater system of cellular division, and by 
increased rapid flooding arrangements, with corre- 
sponding pumping facilities, it is thought that injuries 
from torpedo or ram might be minimised so as not to 
be so disastrous as in the cases to which we shall refer. 
All compartments should be flooded, and subjected to 
a severer water pressure test before launching than 
that now customary. Each compartment should be 
tested like a "tank to resist a water pressure varying 
from 40 lb. to 50 lb. on square inch, without undue 
weeping of rivets. If the design allowed for spaces 
over the vital parts being filled with water or com- 
pressed air when in the vicinity of a coast where 
danger from submarines or torpedo-boats may be 
expected, the ship would then suffer the minimum 
damage by a successful torpedo attack. Ordinarily 



The Protection of Battleships below the Waterline. 



the compartments would be left empty. The ship 
would then have a higher freeboard and a higher gun 
platform for fighting in the open sea. A saving of 
weight might be obtained by doing away with ammu- 
nition passages, water-tight doors and fittings, sub- 
stituting a tank system of cellular compartments, any 
one of which could be flooded easily and rapidly, or 
tilled with compressed air by air compressors. 

The interior of a ship having such a tank sj-stem 
should be built in the form of an internal ship, quite 
ten to fifteen feet from the outer skin, so that the 
inner skin could not more than slightly be pierced by 
an explosion. The amount of the water cushion or 
compressed air protection round the sides of a ship 
would, of course, have to be calculated so as to allow 
of a maximum space outside the engines and magazine. 
The diagram of the tank design for battleships will 
show that a considerable water or compressed air 
protection could be carried. Private enterprise cannot 
undertake explosive experiments. 

It seems that compressed air would minimise the 
effect of a torpedo explosion below the water-line 
more than anything else, as a large volume of air would 
escape when a fracture occurred and partly counteract 
the explosive effect. It might be difficult to make 
the tanks air-tight, and would slightly increase the cost 
of construction for extra caulking, etc. The air com- 
pressors could always be kept going in dangerous 
waters, and a sufficient pressure maintained in the 
tanks to be of great service ; this would offer no great 
difficulties, as the ballast tanks of a Holland submarine 
frequently retain air pressure for a considerable time 
to counteract leaks from a faulty Kingston valve or 
leaky rivet. 

It is also difficult to foretell the value of a cushion of 
water without exhaustive trials. In this case, if water 
is present and helping the outer shell, should this 
plating be shattered, only the particular compartment 
or the adjoining one damaged, there would be no 
change in water-line, and if a serious leak did occur 



other tanks could be pumped out, thus lightening the 
ship. 

The re-arranging of bulkheads and sub-division 
should make a ship almost unsinkable against a torpedo 
attack, because whatever damage is done the inrush 
of water is so much located. 

Whatever material might be introduced in the spaces, 
the most important feature is the sub-division into a 
tank system with a water or air service, pumping 
facilities, etc., well developed, arid under perfect 
control. 

Battleships and cruisers should be modified and split 
up into cellular compartments. The centre of gravity 
of each cellular space can be calculated from the 
designs, and if several compartments on one side 
of the ship were injured and filled with water, their 
opposite compensating compartments would be brought 
into use, and there would still be an ample margin 
of buoyancy. If large emergency Kingston doors 
were fitted so that abundant volumes of water could 
at once be let into special compartments to compensate, 
an even keel would be maintained. Experience teaches 
that it takes some considerable time to bring a sub- 
marine from surface running condition to awash 
condition ready for diving, even when all Kingston s 
are thrown open to the sea simultaneously. However 
large an injury were made, an even keel could be kept 
if the compensating compartments were at once flooded. 
It is thought that no communication should be allowed 
from one compartment to another, except through 
manholes (not doors), which can be closed with great 
rapidity from below and on deck. If doors cannot' 
be eliminated there should be as few as possible, and 
nearly all communication should be from the upper deck 
for every door and hole in a watertight bulkhead is 
a grave weakness. Fire mains, electric wires, and 
steam pipes are indiscriminately run through bulkheads 
and are often not quite watertight. All barbettes and 
similar parts of the ship should be made more water- 
tight than at present. 




THE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

ATR. ALFRED A. BROOKS has written 
for the Lake Superior meeting of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers an 
instructive account of the operations of the 
United States Geological Survey in Alaska. 
It is shown that prior to 1866, when Russia 
ceded her North American possessions to the 
United States for the sum of 7,200,000 dols., 
little was done to investigate the mineral 
wealth of Alaska. It was the policy of the 
Russian American Company to discourage 
the development of any mining interests 



owing to a belief that mining would be inimical 
to the fur-trading interest. For twenty years 
after Alaska passed under the control of the 
United States, systematic surveys were limited 
to its coast line. 

But while the Government's interest in 
this virgin field lay dormant it soon attracted 
the ever-active American prospector, who 
found gold on the Stikine even before the 
purchase of Alaska, Following this came 
the discovery of auriferous quartz near Sitka 
in 1879, and of gold in the Juneau placers in 
1880. It was the development of the latter 
which led to the finding of the gold-bearing 



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MAP OF ALASKA, SHOWING THK DISTKIIiUlIOX OK MIXKHAL PRODUCTS. 



('") 



Alaska's Mineral Wealth. 



213 



lodes that have made Juneau the foremost 
mining-camp of Alaska. The restless pioneers, 
soon finding means to overcome the opposition 
of the natives to white men penetrating the 
interior, made their way across the Chilkoot 
Pass, and while descending the Lewes river 
came upon more gold. In 1886 the gold- 
placers of the Fortymile region were discov^ered, 
and the discovery of other districts followed 
rapidly during the succeeding decade. 

These Yukon pioneer miners were dependent 
entirely upon their own resources, formulated 
and executed their own laws, and were prac- 
tically ignored by the territorial and federal 
Governments. It is largely to their perseverance 
and pluck that the country now owes its millions 
of revenues from the Alaskan placer-fields. 
Not until 1895 did Congress awake to the im- 
portance of examining into Alaska's mineral 
wealth. 

The author describes the systematic in- 
v^estigations which have since been made, and 
presents the accompaji5ang map which shows 



in detail the progress of the topographic and 
geologic surveys of Alaska during the period 
1898 to 1904, and also gives the distribution 
of the country's mineral products as far as 
they are at present known. 

The developments of the last five years 
have shown that Alaska, as a field for mining, 
stands in the first rank among the possessions 
of the United States. Its annual gold output 
is now about 8,000,000 dols. It produces silver, 
copper and coal in commercial quantities, 
and its recently discovered tin and petroleum 
promise to become important products. Con- 
current with the gradual development of this 
wealth, the mining public has ceased to regard 
the territory simply as an arctic province 
where a few placer-miners struggle with adverse 
conditions to secure a grub-stake or a modest 
fortune. Of late years there has been a large 
influx of capital to investigate its mineral 
resources, but in its area of nearly 600,000 
square miles there still remain large unex- 
ploited and little known fields. 



THE SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS. 
VISIT TO THE WORKS OF MESSRS. YARROW AND CO., AT POPLAR. 



A HIGHLY interesting visit was recently made by 
the President — Mr. D. B. Butler — and members 
of the Society of Engineers, to the Shipbuilding and 
Engineering works of Messrs. Yarrow and Co., at 
Poplar, where they witnessed the building and engine- 
ing of light -draught, high-speed craft of all kinds, 
notablv torpedo-boats, destroyers, and light-draught 
gunboats. 

Amongst the smaller craft a verj' successful type 
of boat is being built. She is 75 ft. long by 9 ft. 3 in. 
beam, and wath steam up has a draught of 1 1 in. 
with a speed of 10 miles an hour. The propeller is 
carried in a tunnel, and there is a special arrangement 
by which the efficiency of the propelling niachinery 
is maintained at various loaded draughts, instead 
of at one designed draught only, as hitherto. There 
are at the present time about twelve vessels being built 
on this principle ; four of these are protected gun- 
boats for the Brazilian Government, 120 ft. long 
by 20 ft. beam, carrying two 6-pounders, 5 Maxims, 
and one howitzer, whilst three others are protected 
armed launches. The firm have recently built n 
protected gunboats of shallow draught, and have 
lately deUvered two, one for the Japanese Govern- 
ment just before the outbreak of the war, and one for 
the British Government. These are 160 ft. long by 
24 ft. 6 in. beam ; they carry mountings for two 
6-pounders and six Maxims, and have a draught of 
water of 2 ft. 2 in. and a speed of 15 miles an 
hour. 

Messrs. Yarrow have also in hand a turbine-driven 
torpedo-boat 152 ft. long by 15 ft. 3 in. beam. This 
vessel is launched, and has undergone some very 
successful experimental trials in which the merits of 



its special arrangement were clearly proved. This 
arrangement consists in employing both turbine and 
reciprocating machinery' for propulsion, a set of triple- 
expansion engines of power sufficient for cruising 
purposes being fitted, while a turbine engine on each 
side provides for full-speed f)ower. The advantages of 
both systems are thus obtained as required, viz., 
economy of fuel when cruising, and machinery suitable 
for high speed at full power. This vessel develops 
over 2,000 i.h.p. and attains a speed of 25 knots. It 
is designed to carry three i8-in. torpedo tubes and 
two quick-firing guns. 

A large number of destroyers have been built at 
these works for the Japanese Government, and nine 
of these have been in very active ser\-ice during the 
recent attacks on Port Arthur. Messrs. Yarrow 
have had highly satisfactory reports from the Japanese 
Government as to their efficiency and behaviour at 
sea. It is stated that not one of these vessels has 
required to go into dock for repairs since the com- 
mencement of the war. They are 220 ft. long by 
20 ft. 6 in. beam, and carry two torpedo tubes on 
deck, one 12-pounder quick-firing gun and five 
6-pounders. They are built of high tensile steel, 
which enables the firm to construct vessels so light 
as to be able to maintain 31 knots, carrying a load 
of 35 tons, with comparative ease, although com- 
pletely fitted in all respects for naval service. Their 
full speed is also obtained with a very low consumption 
of fuel, viz., 1-9 lb. per i.h.p. and under i^ in. of air 
pressure. Within the last four years 30 torpedo-boats 
of the 152 ft. type were also delivered. These were 
built for the Japanese, Austrian, Dutch and Chilian 
Governments. 




Long Distance Transmission 

FROM 

High Head Water Powers, 




E. KILBURN SCOTT, A.M.Inst.C.E., M.I.E.E. 

In the following article the author deals practically with the utilisation of high head water 
powers. These notes should be specially useful to Colonial readers, and also to engineers in 
South America, South Africa, and the Far East, where the tangential wheel is often the most 
suitable prime mover that can be employed. — Ed. 



STRICTLY speaking, in an electrical transmission 
from water power there are two separate trans- 
missions, the first being the hydraulic transmission from 
the service reservoir to the power-house, and the second 
the electrical transmission by overhead wires (or 
possibly underground cables) from the power-house to 
the consumer. It is mainly with these aspects of the 
transmission of power problem that the author deals. 
High head water powers are mostly met with abroad, 
but in the Snowdon Power Plant the fall from Lake 
Llydaw is 1,150 feet. Information of this, and also of the 
Burma Ruby Mines, the Raub and the Rezende Mines 
transmissions are given in the paper. 

THE TANGENTIAL WATER WHEEL. 

The simplest of all the prime movers which are in 
use to-day is undoubtedly the Pelton wheel, or, cis it 
should more properly be called, the tangential water 
wheel. 

As compared with the turbine, the first cost of the 
tangential wheel is very much less, and for high heads 
running into many hundreds of feet, it can be used 
where a turbine is impossible. At the same time 
its cost of maintenance is but a fraction of that of the 
turbine, for a complete set of new buckets costs very 
little and can be mounted very quickly by an unskilled 
man. 

A disadvantage of the turbine is that the variation 
in design is limited by reason of its excessive cost for 
large diameters, the tangential wheel, on the other 
hand, permits of very wide and free scope. 

VALUE OF HIGH FALLS. 

As a rule, travellers are only impressed by falls of 
moderate height over which the water comes tumbling 
in masses ; they do not appreciate the fact that a 
mountain streamlet dropping 1,000 ft. or so in a 
short horizontal distance may be capable of developing 
much more power at a fraction of the expense. A low 
fall is generally in the valley where the land has con- 
siderable value, and where, if the water is interfered 
with, there may be legal difficulties with landowners 
and occupiers. 

With low heads a variation of a few feet in the height 
of the storage reservoir or in the tail race makes 
quite an appreciable difference in the power, whereas 
on a high fall a few feet is immaterial. Again, owing to 
the smaller amount of water reciuired for a given power 
quite a moderate storage allows of the actual power 
of the stream being multiplied several times wlierever 



the maximum power is required for only a part of the 
twenty-four hours. 

A glacial stream or mountain torrent is better for 
the purpose of power work than water of a lower 
altitude, because when the water passes into pipes at 
a point above the tree line there is so much less risk of 
trouble from organic matter. 

TANGENTIAL WHEEL GOVERNORS. 

There are three methods of sensitive governing under 
high heads. The first is by means of stand pipes, into 
which the flow of water is diverted when shut off from 
the wheel, relief valves being also provided. The second, 
which is used largely in the States, is to deflect the jet 
or stream away from the buckets, sudden changes of 
speed in the centrifugal governor bringing a nozzle 
deflecting mechanism into action. The third is a 
method introduced by Mr. E. F. Cassel, in which the 
wheel is divided along the centre line of the buckets 
into two sections, and the centrifugal force developed 
in the rotation of the wheel body itself is arranged 
to cause the two sections to separate slightly. A 
portion of the water jet is thus allowed to pass between 
the buckets, instead of impinging directly against 
them, and being part of the wheel itself, the governing 
action is instantaneous. 

CONSTRUCTION OF STEEL PIPES, 

Riveted pipes have the objection that the rivets 
and joints cause eddies and so loss of head, especially 
at the high velocities employed for Pelton wheel work. 
They are also more liable to corrosion, because the 
preservative coating may become worn or knocked 
off the rivet heads, etc. 

The alternative methods of constructing a steel 
pipe are either by lap-welding or by the Ferguson 
locking-bar system. The lap-weld is well-known, and 
if carried out by a good firm, makes an excellent job ; 
but it is somewhat expensive. 

In the Ferguson locking-bar pipe each pipe consists 
of two plates, the edges of which are up-set in a special 
machine. The plates are then bent into semi-circles, 
and the steel locking-bars are scjueezed down cold by 
hydraulic pressure. The P'erguson pipe has tlie same 
advantages as a welded pipe, that is to say, there is a 
minimum of friction owing to the absence of rivets 
and joints, and at the same time it has the advantage 
over welded pipes that all the material is made up cold 
so there is no fear of defects due to burns and in- 
complete welds. As there are no exposed plate edges. 



(•:>4) 



Transmission from High Head Water Powers. 



no caulking is necessary, owing to the special system 
of manufacture. 

The highest heads in use are: 2,530 ft. at an 
installation near Seattle, Washington, 2,250 ft. at 
the Paunco Mines, Mexico, and 2,100 ft. at Pikes Peak 
Hydro. Electric Company at Colorado Springs. The 
difficulties which have been surmounted in carrying 
out these installations may be gathered from the fact 
that the pressure at the bottom of the pipe line due 
to a 2,250 ft. static head of water is no less than 900 lb. 
per square inch. 

EXPANSION OF STEEL PIPE LINES. 

A method of taking care of the expansion is by 
socket or Kimberley joints sealed with lead, each pipe 
length then takes up its own expansion, and the joints 
can be caulked or re-made easily. These joints also 
enable the pipe to follow sUght inequalities of the 
ground. 

To ensure efficiency with lead joints, it is best to 
lay the pipes straight from point to point, and 
where sharp bends must be made, the points where the 
angles occur should consist of strong junction boxes 
secured on rigid foundations. Between these boxes 
the pipes act as columns in compression, and such 
columns being in unstable equilibrium the pipe must 
be held in line by being clamped down to foundation 
blocks at frequent intervals. In this way the end 
pressures are received entirely by the junction boxes, 
and the transverse pressures by the pipe clamps. 

OVERHEAD ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION LINES. 

The experience in the States regarding route of high 
tension pole lines is that " Private Rights of Way " 
are preferable to running the wire alongside the highway. 
The wires can then be laid in a bee line from point to 
point, whereas if they follow the highway there may be 
frequent turns requiring poles closer together and 
extra guys and insulators, etc. There is always the 
question, also, of the authorities giving trouble as to 
limitation of voltage, and the widening and paving of 
roads, etc. 

The Niagara to Buffalo line runs for nearly 25 miles 
on a private right of way 30 ft. wide. The 80 miles 
transmission from Rochester to Pelham, N.H. (13,200 
volts) ; the 65 miles from Canon Ferry to Butte 
(50,000 volts) ; and the Colgate to Oakland, 142 miles 
transmission (40,000 volts), are mostly run on private 
rights of way, varying from 50 ft. to several hundred 
feet wide. 

CONTINUITY OF ELECTRIC SUPPLY. 

A point in connection with overhead transmission 
lines is the question of continuity of supply. One reply 
to objections on this score is the fact that abroad there 
are hundreds of towns suppUed from overhead trans- 
mission Unes, and the author has yet to learn that 
citizens in such towns abroad are less particular as to 
what they consider their rights than citizens in similar 
communities in this country. The fact of the matter 
is, it would not pay any power company to give a 
discontinuous supply, as if so, they would soon find 
themselves in financial difficulties. If, therefore, we 
find that the shares of the large power companies in 
North Italy and other parts of the Continent are at 
a substantial premium, and that many power com- 
panies in the States are also doing so well, it is only 
fair to assume that these companies are carrying out 
their obligations properly. 

In case a fault does occur on an overhead line, it is 
much easier to find, and very much easier to repair 
than if it were underground. Some of the transmission 



lines abroad have several hundred miles of wire, and 
yet by means of mounted men the whole system can be 
inspected in an hour or so, and the bare telephone wires 
enable them to communicate with power house or sub- 
stations at once. If such cables were underground it 
might take days to locate the fault and repair it, and 
many more men would be required, as there would be 
trenching to do, whilst the joint itself would take 
much longer to make. 

LIMITATION OF VOLTAGE. 

The limitation of voltage on an overhead trans- 
mission line is governed by the insulation strength 
of the insulator and the losses through the air between 
the conductors. 

Regarding the insulator, it is really only a matter 
of having a good dielectric material to resist puncture, 
and suitable dimensions to a well-thought-out design. 
When insulators were not so well made as they are 
now, they constituted the limiting factor, but the 
manufacture has been so perfected that in an ordinary 
dry and pure atmosphere, such as in the States, insu- 
lators will easily carry 60,000 volts without appreciable 
leakage. 

HIGH TENSION INSULATORS. 

The requisites of an insulator for high voltage work 
are : — 

(i) That its dielectric strength shall be sufficient to 
prevent the current passing directly through the 
material. 

(2) That its dimensions and surface area shall be 
sufficient to prevent the passage of current over the 
outside of the insulator to its supp>ort. 

(3) That the resistance of both the material and its 
surface shall be sufficiently high to prevent undue loss 
of energy-. 

(4) That it shall be mechanically strong enough to 
withstand severe stresses in time of bad weathe^. 

(5) That it shall not be subject to deterioration 
whilst in service, particularly from heat and cold. 

(6) That it shall not be so obtrusive as to form a 
target for the catapult or shot gun. . 

It was first thought that insulators with cups con- 
taining oil would be necessary for reducing the surface 
leakage, and insulators of this kind were used in the 
Frankfort-Lauffen lOO-mile transmission at 30,000 
volts. It has since been found, however, that the 
ordinary' glaze surface is ample insulation. The prin- 
cipal duty of an insulator is to prevent the current 
passing over the outside surface and jumping to the 
pin or cross-arm, a matter which oil cannot prevent. 

Although glass insulators have been much used in 
the States, they do not appear to have any advantage 
over vitrified porcelain in the matter of mechaxiical 
strength or resistance to piercing. On account of its 
transparency, glass has, however, the advantage over 
porcelain in that it does not need an electrical test to 
pick out a good insulator, whereas porcelain must be 
carefully tested. Glass insulators are also lighter and 
less likeh- to be shot at than porcelain, for when the 
latter are white they offer a very tempting mark. 

A form of insulator which is much used — the com- 
posite- -consists of porcelain and glass, the porcelain 
underneath on the insulator pin, and the glass having 
a wide petticoat cemented to the top of the porcelain. 

The best porcelain insulators have a poUshed fracture 
when they are broken, and they should be absolutely 
non-absorbent. The test for this is to place the pieces 
in a dry stove, weigh them, then immerse in water and 
weigh again. The weight should be the same in both 
cases. The test for puncture is made by setting the insu- 
ator in salt water and slowly increasing the potential 



2l6 



Page's Magazine. 



until it is double the working pressure. In case of a 
composite insulator each portion must be dealt with 
separately, and the potential should be kept on for one 
minute. It is interesting to note that insulators will 
withstand a much higher potential applied instan- 
taneously than they will if applied continuously. 

The wet weather test is made by causing a jet of water 
from a sprinkler nozzle, under pressure of 50 lb., to play 
on to the insulator at an angle of about 30 deg. from 
the horizontal. Under these conditions the insulator 
should not arc over from the wire to the pin at a less 
potential than that which will exist in service between 
any two conductors. 

It may be mentioned that when working at high 
pressures and with ordinary insulators, the part around 
and near the live wire does not retain deposits of 
moisture or frost, but remains dry, the particles being 
repelled. 

In any case when working, the small amount of power 
necessary to keep the surfaces dry is insignificant. 
Of course, in starting up a " cold " line there is danger 
of breakdown if current is put on suddenly at full value ; 
it should always be raised gradually. 

POLES. 

Wooden poles are used almost exclusively for over- 
head transmission lines. The kind of wood depends 
on the country or district, but fir, spruce, and pine 
are commonly employed, whilst in the States harder 
woods, such as chestnut, cedar, and sawn redwood are 
also used. A good creosoted fir pole will last thirty 
years. 

White ants and other insects are a great nuisance in 
tropical countries, and jodelite is said to be a preventa- 
tive against them. Asphaltumisalsoused. It was mainly 
on account' of the white ants that on the Cauvery Falls 
line a composite pole was used consisting of 17 ft. 
of 7-in. Australian jarrah in a steel socket 13 ft. long. 
The steel is buried 6 ft. in the ground, so that the pole 
projects 24 ft., the minimum height of wires above 
ground being about 20 ft. A layer of concrete 
inside the steel tube prevents the ants climbing up ; 
they never climb outside anything. 

A curious accident occurred on the San Bernardino 
and Pomona line, 30 miles at 15,000 volts, two of the 
wooden poles being set alight by a defect in the in- 
sulators. The poles burned to the ground, leaving the 
line hanging clear without anyone at the generating 
station or sub-station being aware of the fact. 
• Where the soil is soft or the poles have to resist 
heavy strains, the stability may be much increased 
by making the hole 2 ft. larger in diameter than 
the butt, and partly filling in with concrete. In good 
ground the hole is made as small in diameter as 
possible. 

CROSS ARMS. 

Wooden cross-arms are the weakest part of the over- 
head equipment, as they are so liable to be " wind 
shaken " or " weather cracked," and so allow moisture 
and dirt to settle in the cracks, and form a path of low 
resistance. To prevent it the cross-arms should be 
specially treated to fill all cracks and fissures, and well 
crowned to allow water and snow to fall off easily. 

In this country cross-arms arc usually made of oak, 
in the States they are of yellow pine, treated with 
asphaltum or linseed oil. 

On the Cauvery Falls line three (No. O. B. and S. 
gauge) copper wires form an equilateral triangle, 
one insulator being carried on the top of the poles 
and the two lower ones by a cross-arm of jarrari 
wood. 



PINS FOR INSULATORS. 

It is common practice in the States to mount extra 
high tension insulators on wooden pins made of eucalyp- 
tus, oak, or locust wood, treated with linseed oil, hot 
asphaltum, or paraffin. The idea is that wooden pins 
raise the installation of the pole system as a whole, 
but this is open to doubt. 

Iron pins are better than wood, because, in the first 
place, to secure sufficient strength in the shank, a 
wooden pin must be of such a large diameter that 
the size of the cross-arm is considerably increased. 
Again, where there is a tendency for the line wire to 
raise or pull the pin out of the cross-arm, as for example, 
when crossing depressions in the ground, the usual 
nail driven through the cross-arm into the shank of 
the pin is not strong enough. With an iron pin on the 
other hand, a thoroughly firm job can be made. 

CROSSING WIDE ESTUARIES OR RIVERS. 

It sometimes happens that a wide estuary or river 
has to be crossed by a transmission line, and in such a 
case three methods are available : — 

(a) The overhead line may be continued as a single 
span between high towers on each bank, or it may cross 
in several spans, piers being built for the purpose in 
the water. 

(b) The overhead line may connect to a submarine 
cable, the insulation of which will be exposed to the 
full voltage of the transmission. 

(c) A submarine cable may be laid down for a 
moderate voltage, and connected at each bank with 
step-down and step-up transformers. ' 

The first method has been adopted for the transmis- 
sion line between Colgate and Oakland, where it crosses 
the Carquinez Straits by a span of 4,427 ft., the 
voltage being 40,000. In order to allow ships with 
the tallest masts to pass under, it was necessary for 
the lowest part of the conductor to be at least 200 ft. 
above water level. Two steel towers have been built 
4,427 ft. apart, and between these four galvanised 
steel wire cables are suspended, each having 19 strands, 
and measuring i in. diameter. The breaking strain 
of each cable is 44 tons, and the electrical conductivity 
is equal to No. 2 gauge copper wire. The cables pass 
over steel rollers on the towers, each cable being 
secured by a series of strain insulators, the total pull of 
about 12 tons being taken by an anchor. 

When crossing a stream or river the wires are spread 
out horizontally instead of forming the usual equilateral 
triangle. On the Cauvery Falls line there is a span 
of 525 ft., and the wires are spaced 10 ft. apart. They 
are carried on special pole structures of framed wood 
supported on a triple masonry foundation, and guyed 
back to the ground by steel cables. For crossing this 
span the hard drawn copper wire is replaced by silicon 
bronze, and it may also be mentioned that this material 
is used when crossing over railways. It is much used 
on Indian Government telegraph lines. 

The second method has been adopted on a trans- 
mission line between Portsmouth and Dover, N.M., 
where an arm of the sea is crossed by a three-phase 
submarine cable 4,810 ft. long, working at 13,500 
volts. 

LIMITATIONS TO SIZE OF WIRE. 

The size of the wire is limited between 0*4 of an 
inch diameter as the largest size, and about o'l of an 
inch diameter as the smallest. This is due to the 
fact that it is extremely difficult to stretch a wire 
larger than o'4 inch, and on the other hand it is not 
mechanically practicable to use wires much smaller 
than o" I inch because of their having to withstand 



Transmission from High Head Water Powers. 



wind pressure, snow and sleet. For small powers it 
frequently happens that a larger wire has to be used 
than is really necessary-, and this is specially the case 
for the branch wires at the end of a transmission 
line. 

ALUMINIUM CONDUCTORS. 

One advantage of an aluminium line is that for 
equal conductivity it is only about half the weight of 
copper, and the span between the poles ma}-, therefore, 
be greater. On the Colgate and Oakland line, 142 
miles transmission, the spacing of the poles is 132 ft. 
On the original Niagara to Buffalo line with copper 
wires the spacing of the poles is 75 ft., whilst wth 
the aluminium line which has been added later, the 
spacing is 1 1 2 ft. In one transmission the span is 
1 50 ft. 

As it is difficult to solder aluminium, a mechanical 
joint is generally employed, and when such a joint is 
made it is necessary- that all the parts should be of 
aluminium, otherwise electrolytic action may take place. 
The best known joint is the Mclntj-re, consisting of a 
double aluminium tube 9 in. long and i-i6th of an 
inch thick, large enough to snugly enclose two wires. 
The whole is given several complete twists by clamping 
tools, and the joint is completed by turning back the 
projected ends of the wires. 

OVERHEAD HIQH TENSION WIRES IN THIS 
COUNTRY. 

There is a growing feeling that if we are to do any- 
thing in long distance transmission of power in this 
country we shall have to employ overhead wires. As 
a matter of fact the Board of Trade is apparently ver\' 
reasonable on this question, and several Power BilLs 
have been passed, containing the following or a similar 
clause : — 

" The consent of a rural district council as the local 
authority to the placing of electric Unes above ground 
shall not be unreasonably withheld, and 
if any question arises whether that consent is un- 
reasonably withheld or not, thai question shall be decided 
by the Board of Trade." 

The cable manufacturing companies naturally do 
not care for bare wires ; ver\- few of them draw their 
own copper wire, and there is not much profit in 
merchanting bare copper. Their poUcy hitherto has 
been to become financially interested in the Power 
Companies, so as to sell their underground cables. This 
should be prevented in future, as the great expense of 
such cables is already a very heav^- drag on more than 
one company. 

To show the extent to which overhead lines are used 
abroad, the United States Government Report for 1902. 
states that of the 125.000 miles of electric main and 



feeder cables in use, only 8,124 miles, or barelv 6+ per 
cent., are underground. Xo less than y^ per cent, of the 
3,700 towns with an electric supply have less than 
5,000 population, and the bulk of these towns receive 
their supply through overhead wires. 

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS. 

Regarding hghtning arresters, these have been 
developed to a really remarkable degree of perfection. 
The Siemens-Halske flare arrester is too well known 
to need description. There must be thousands in 
use all over the world ; it is at once one of the simplest 
as well as the most perfect pieces of electrical apparatus 
known. 

There is also the ingenious water-jet arrester, which is 
used at the Vizzola Power Station in North Italy. In 
this apparatus the minute spaces between the globules 
of water inihe jet effectively prevent the station voltage 
going to earth, but will readily pass a hghtning 
discharge. The apparatus has the advantage that it 
is always ready, and there is nothing to bum up. 

EFFICIENCIES. 

The efficiencies of any given electric transmission 
from water power to the motor spindle, at the further 
end of a transmission line, may be roughly estimated 
as follows : — 

Full Load Efficiency. 

Pipe line . . . . . . . . 96 per. cent. 

Nozzle of tangential wheel . . • • 97 

Tangential wheel . . . . . . 82 

Three-phase alternator generating 

high-tension current .. • • 94 

Transmission line . . . . . . 90 

Step-down transformer .. ..98 

Three-phase motor .. .. -.92 

Overall efficiency, 58 per cent. 

That is to say, of the potential energy of the water, 
58 per cent, is turned into useful work on the electric 
motor spindles. It would have to be a poor installation 
indeed to fall below 50 per cent. 

Of the potential energy of coal only about 7 per cent, 
reaches the electric motor spindles, and whereas in the 
burning of coal future generations Eire deprived of its 
use, in the case of water the power is inexhaustible. 
The man who harnesses a water power does much 
more for humanity than one who exhausts a coadpit, 
and further, he does the work in a cleanly way. and 
not by befouling the atmosphere. 

Notes from^aipaper contributed to the Liverpool 
Engineering Society. 





SIR OLIVER LODGE ON THE NATURE 
OF ELECTRICITY. 



SIR OLIVER LODGE has embodied the latest ex- 
position of his views on the nature of electricity 
in an article contributed to the August number of 
" Harper's Magazine." 

Electricity, he remarks, is not a form of energy any 
more than water is a form of energy. Water may 
be a vehicle of energy when at a high level or in 
motion ; so may electricity. Electricity cannot be 
manufactured as heat can ; it can only be moved 
from place to place, like water ; and its energy must 
be in the form of motion or of strain. Electricity 
under strain constitutes " charge "; electricity in 
locomotion constitutes a current and magnetism ; 
electricity in vibration constitutes light. What 
electricity itself is we do not know, but it may perhaps, 
be a form or aspect of matter. So have taught for 
thirty years the disciples of Clerk-Maxwell. Now 
we can go one step farther and say matter is com- 
posed of electricity, and of nothing else — a thesis 
which I wish to explain and partially justify. 

First we must ask what is positive electricity, and the 
answer is still we do not know. For myself, I do 
not even guess — beyond supposing it to be a mode 
of manifestation, or a differentiated portion, of the 
continuous and all-pervading ether. It seems to 
exist in lumps the size of the atoms of matter ; and 
no portion of it less in bulk than an atom has ever 
been isolated, nor appears likely to be isolated. 

But concerning negative electricity we know a great 
deal more. This exists in excessively minute particles, 
sometimes called electrons and sometimes called 
corpuscles ; these are thrown off the negatively 
charged terminal in a vacuum tube, and they fly 
with tremendous speed till they strike something. 
When they strike they can propel as well as heat the 
target, and they can likewise make it emit a phos- 
phorescent glow, especially if it be made of glass or 
precious stones. If the target is a very massive 
metal like platinum, the sudden stoppage of the flying 
electrons which encounter it causes the production 
of the ethereal pulses, known as X-rays. Electrons 
are not very easy to stop, however, and a fair pro- 
portion of them can penetrate not only wood and 
paper, but sheets of such metals as aluminium, and 
other moderately thin obstacles. That is because 
they are extremely small — much smaller than the 
atoms of matter. 

Each electron has a definite charge of electricity, 
viz., the same charge as is conveyed by each single 
atom when a current is passed through a chemically 
conducting liquid. Every electron has also a definite 
and uniform mass, which is about 1/800 of that of an 
atom of hydrogen — hitherto the lightest known form 
of matter. 



From every kind of material the same and no other 
kind of electron can be obtained, and we have reason 
for asserting that no other kind exists. 

Electric currents are always due to the locomotion 
of these little electric charges ; they permeate and 
make their way through metals, being handed on from 
one atom to the next, as a fire bucket is passed from 
hand to hand. This is metallic conduction. Liquid 
conduction is different ; the electrons travel with the 
atoms in liquids, and hence travel slowly, being jostled 
by the crown, and being laden with the heavy atom 
which they convey or propel, as a pony (or a flea — 
in mass a pony, but in bulk a flea) might drag a heavy 
wagon through crowded streets, until at the terminal 
station it is unharnessed and allowed to trot into 
its stable, which is what happens when the boundary 
between liquid and metallic conductors is reached. 
Electrons become still more emancipated, however, in 
rarefied gases, which act as a cleared racecourse, or 
like a free range for flight ; and then it is possible 
to find them flying at prodigious speed, even as high 
as 100,000 miles a second, and sometimes faster still, 
but never quite so fast as light. 

Whenever an electron is suddenly started or stopped 
or made to turn a corner it disturbs the ether through 
which it has been quietly moving and excites a ripple 
in it. These ethereal ripples constitute radiation, 
and the best-known variety of them we call " light." 
With this we have been familiar for a long time, 
because of our happening to possess eyes — instruments 
for the ready appreciation of ethereal ripples. We 
used not to know the reason, however, for the pro- 
duction of light. We know now that it is due to the 
sudden change of motion, either in speed or direction, 
of an electron, and probably to no other cause. 

The charge in an electron is very small, but is 
extremely concentrated — that is to say, it exists only 
as a very minute nucleus ; and in order to explain 
the manifestation of the observed mass of i/8oo 
part of a hydrogen atom by so trifling a quantity 
of electricity it is necessary to suppose that it is 
concentrated into a space one-hundred-thousandth 
of the diameter of a material atom. This is the size 
which is at present accepted for an electron. It is 
quite the smallest thing known. 

Matter, then, appears to be composed of positive and 
negative electricity, and nothing else. All its newly 
discovered, as well as all its long-known properties, can 
thus be explained — even the long-standing puzzle 
of " cohesion " shows signs of giving way. The only 
outstanding still-intractable physical property is 
" gravitation," and no satisfactory theory of the 
nature of gravitation has been so far forthcoming. 
I doubt, however, if it is far away. It would seem 
to be a slight but quite uniform secondary or residual 
effect due to the immersion of a negative electron in a 
positive atmosphere. 



(2l8) 



A CONTINUOUS WEIGHING HACHINE. 



THE Blake-Denison Continuous Weigher, which 
we illustrate by the courtesy of Messrs. Samuel 
Denison and Son, of Leeds, disposes of many of the 
difficulties encountered in the use of hopper machines. 
This appUance weighs coal and other material upon a 
conveyor during transit, and will take pieces of any size. 
The principle upon which the machine is constructed 
is that of weighing a given length of the conveyor 
at intervals of time corresponding to the travel of 
such length, and automatically recording the weight. 
Its chief features are : — 

1. A steelyard balanced to suit the unloaded 
conveyor, and arranged to rise accurately in pro- 
portion to the load. 

2. A gripping device to hold the steelyard fast 
at suitable intervals. 

3. A measuring gauge or quadrant to ascertain the 
weight indicated by the steelyard when so held. 

4. A recording mechanism to exhibit the result. 

The resistance of the steelyard to the load is pro- 
vided by a hollow plunger suspended in a bath of 
mercury' in such a way that it forms a dash pot or 
drag against undue oscillation, and ensures the steel- 
yard being always in a position exactly indicative of 
the load. There are no weights. 

The gripping and measuring actions are produced 
by two cams upon a shaft operated directly by toothed 
gears from a drum which is revolved by the convej-or 
itself. 

In the machmes already made, the cjxle recurs 
every five seconds, and is as follows : — The steelyard 
is free for about three seconds, durinsr which time 



it assumes a position proportional to the load upon 
that portion of the conveyor which is supported 
by the weighing machine. It is then gripped by the 
action of the first cam A. which forces the gripping 
lever E against the steelyard F. The rotation of 
the second cam G then allows the lever I to fall to the 
right. The lever I is attached to the ,pin on the 
measuring quadrant. This measuring quadrant 
therefore, also falls to the right until it touches the 
gripped steelyard. As the quadrant so moves to the 
right it takes with it a number of steel pawls, which 
slip over the cogs of the registering wheel — the 
registering wheel being held firmly in position by 
a set of retaining pawls Then, as the cam G continues 
to rotate, the lever I is pushed back to the left to its 
normal position, carr>'ing the quadrant with it. As the 
quadrant goes over to the left to its normal position, 
the pawls engage in the cogs of the registering 
wheel, and so it will be seeti that at each weighing 
operation the registering wheel is moved round the 
number of cogs or teeth that is exactly proportionate 
to the height of the steelyard. Then as the cams 
continue to rotate, the gripping lever E rises, the 
sleelyard is set free, it again assumes a position exactly 
indicative of the load, and (assuming the length of 
suspended conveyor is 6 ft.) the steelyard is again 
gripped at that exact moment of time when the 
conveyor has travelled 6 ft. from the time when the 
steelyard was last gripped. The recording mechanism 
is again set in motion, and every successive 6 ft. 
length of the conveyor is weighed and the net total 
result shown on the indicator. 



i QTir-a 




END ELEV.\TIOX OF THE BLAKE-DEXIbOX WEIGHIXG MACHIXE. 



(219) 




British Standards 

. . FOR . . 

Electrical Machinery* 




OINCE the appearance of our last issue the 
^ Engineering Standards Committee has 
issued its interim report with i-eference to 
British Standards for Electrical Machinery, 
In view of its importance, we reproduce the 
report in extenso : — 

CHAIRMAN'S STATEMENT< 

In publishing the interim report of the sub-com- 
mittee on generators, motors and transformers 
it will be as well to draw attention to some of the 
important points which have arisen in carrying out 
the work entrusted to the sub-committee by the 
electrical plant committee. 

The sub-committee on generators, motors and trans- 
formers was appointed at a meeting of the electrical 
plant committee on December i8th, 1902, and con- 
firmed by the main committee on February 13th, 1903. 

This interim report was approved by the main 
committee at their meeting on July 26th, 1904. 

At the earlier meetings it was decided that no 
attempt should be made to prescribe standard dimen- 
sions or shapes which might hamper future develop- 
ment in design, but to confine the recommendations 
of the sub-committee to such points as would ensure 
uniformity in nomenclature, outputs and test conditions. 

The recommendations which the committee have 
arrived at with reference to standard pressures, 
frequencies, outputs and speeds were prepared after 
the views of both users and manufacturers had been 
very carefully considered. 

Before standard test conditions can be laid down, 
the safe limit of temperature at which electrical 
machinery can be allowed to work for lengthened 
periods of time has, of course, to be determined. 
A sub-committee, under the chairmanship of Dr. 
Glazebrook was, therefore, formed to experimentally 
investigate this matter at the National Physical 
Laboratory, supplemented by tests at the works 
of those manufacturers who were willing to assist. 

The points to be investigated were the following : — 

1. The maximum temperature to which the in- 
sulating materials at present used in the manufacture 
of electrical apparatus could be exposed for lengthened 
periods of time without electrical or mechanical 
deterioration. 

2; The permissible rise in temperature deduced 
from these experiments. 



3. The relation between the mean temperature of 
any coil obtained by measurement of rise in resistance 
and the maximum temperature at the hottest portion 
of the same coil. 

In addition to these experiments, some of the 
coils which were tested singly at the National 
Physical Laboratory were subjected to a second 
series of tests when mounted on the machines for 
which they were intended, at the maker's works. 

The reports of this experimental work are likely 
to be of very great interest and value to the electrical 
industry at large, and the committee hope to publish 
them in full, at an early date. 

It will be of interest to designers to note that the 
experimental Work has made sufficient progress to 
indicate, with considerable certainty, that the tempera- 
ture limits ultimately to be recommended by this 
sub-committee are likely to be more liberal than 
those laid down by either the American or German 
Electrical Standardisation committees. The experi- 
ments have also demonstrated that the temperature 
of the hottest part of the coils, taken by thermo 
junction, is no more than 25 deg. C. in excess of 
the mean temperature of the coil, taken by rise in 
resistance. 

The question of settling the standard electrical 
pressures did not meet with as much difficulty as 
was anticipated. Care was taken to select those 
standard pressures which, with the allowable varia- 
tion of 10 per cent, on either side, would enable 
nearly all the pressures at present existing to be served 
by the proposed standard machines. These standard 
pressures have now been fixed, and it is hoped that 
in all future work they will be universally adopted 
by Engineers who are advising Power Companies, 
Corporations, Supply Companies, and others engaged 
in the distribution of electrical energy, so that in 
these cases the permissible variations will gradually 
cease to be necessary. 

The standard frequencies proved to be a debatable 
matter, and after several circular letters had been 
addressed to, and replies received from, both users 
and makers, it was deemed advisable to convene 
a conference, so that the matter might be thoroughly 
discussed. This conference was held early in January, 
and the advisability of adopting two or three standard 
frequencies was fully considered, especially from 
the point of view of the future developments in 
power schemes. Strong evidence was brought forward 



(2 20) 



British Standards for Electrical Machinery. 



in favour of standardising one frequency only, and 
the sub-committee, after due consideration, decided 
to recommend 50 periods per second as the standard 
frequency, placing 25 periods per second in a secondary- 
category. 

The question of recommending standard lists of 
motor speeds, which appeared so desirable from the 
users' point of view, was found to be an extremely 
difficult one. The sub-committee felt that they 
could not materially assist manufacturers in reducing 
the number of patterns kept in stock, if a greater 
number of speeds were retained than those recom- 
mended in the standard Usts. Happily, one list of 
speeds, namely that from Prime movers, was practically 
fixed for the Committee by the conditions of the 
frequency and the number of the poles in the altern- 
ators, so that the committee decided to put forward 
this one list of speeds for the whole of the direct 
coupled machinery of both classes. 

The sub-committee on generators, motors and 
transformers are indebted to the transformer sub- 
committee for the recommendations with reference 
to alternating current generators. 

They have still under consideration the very im- 
portant subjects of the standardisation of trans- 
formers, test conditions, and permissible variations 
from the adopted standards, and the complete report 
cannot be published until such time as these investiga- 
tions are concluded. 

The committee, however, feel that the interests 
of the electrical profession will best be served by the 
early publication of a portion of the information 
which will ultimately be embodied in the Report 
when complete. 

R. E. B. Crompton, 
Chairman of Sub-Committee on Generators, 
Motors and Transformers. 



The following is a list of the members of the sub- 
committees, by whom the standards for generators, 
motors and transformers are being drawn up : — 

Sub-Committee on Generators, Motors and 
Transformers. — Colonel R. E. B. Crompton, C.B. 
(Chairman) ; Commander H. W. Richmond, R.N., 
Messrs. C. H. Wordingham and L. J. Steele * (repre- 
senting the Admiralty) ; Colonel H. C. L. Holden, 
R.A., and Captain A. H. Dumaresq, R.E. (repre- 
senting the War Office) ; Mr. LlewelljTi Preece 
(representing the Crown Agents for the Colonies) ; 
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook (representing the National 
Physical Laboratory) ; Messrs. B. H. Antill and 
\V. B. Esson (nominated by the Electrical Engineering 
Plant Manufacturers' Association) ; Captain H. R. 
Sankey (retired), Messrs. A. C. Eborall, S. Z. de 
Ferranti, Robert Hammond, W. H. Patchell, and 
Charles P. Sparks. 

Sub-Committee on Transformers. — Mr. Charles 
P. Sparks (Chairman) ; Colonel R. E. B. Crompton, 
C.B. (ex-officio) ; Messrs. A. F. Berry, A. C. Eborall, 
W. B. Esson, W. M. McConahey and H. S. Meyer ; 



:Mr. LesUe S. Robertson, M.Inst.C.E. (Secretary) ; 
Mr. C. le Maistre, A.M.Inst.C.E. (Electrical Assistant 

Secretary-). 

PRESSURES AND FREQUENCIES. 

The following are the resolutions with reference 
to British Standard Pressures and Frequencies : — 

1. Resolved that the standard low pressures for 
direct and alternating current work, measured at the 
terminals of the consumer, be : — 

no, 220, 440, 500, volts. 

Though not included in the above standard pressures, 
380 volts shall be considered as the recognised 
pressure to be maintained between the principal con- 
ductors in a three-phase system with neutral wire, 
the pressure then being 220 volts between the 
three conductors and the neutral. 

2. Resolved that the standard high pressures for 
alternating current work, measured at the terminals 
of the generator, be : — 

2,200, 3,300. 6,600, 11,000, volts. 

3. Resolved that the standard primary pressures 
for alternating current transformer work, measured at 
the primary terminals of the transformer, be : — 

2,000, 3,000, 6,000, 10,000, volts. 

4. Resolved that the standard secondary pressures 
for alternating current transformer work, measured 
at the secondary terminals of the transformer, be : — 

115, 230, 460, 525, volts at no load. 

5. Resolved that the standard direct current pres- 
sure for tramway work, measured at the terminals of 
the motor, be : — 

500 volts, 

6. Resolved that the standard frequency for alter- 
nating current work be : — 

50 periods per second. 

But where the circumstances of the case demand 
a lower frequency, a standard of 25 periods per second 
shall be adopted. 

N.B. — The above standard pressures are subject 
to a permissible variation of 10 per cent, on either 
side, as explained in the introduction. 

RATING OF GENERATORS AND MOTORS. 

{Except for traction tnotors.) 
I. Two ratings shall be recognised by the British 
Engineering Standards Committee — 

(A) Continuous working. 

(B) Intermittent working. 

(A) The output of generators and motors for 
continuous working shall be defined as the output 
at which they can work continuously for six hours 
and conform to the prescribed tests. 

(B) The output of motors for intermittent working 
shall be defined as the output at which they can work 
for one hour and conform to the prescribed tests. 

X.B. — The duration of test for machines above 
250 kilowatts is still under consideration. 



Page's Magazine. 



2. Every generator and motor shall 
carry, in a conspicuous position, a name 
plate giving the output and other par- 
ticulars enumerated below. 

In the absence of any statement to the 
contrary, the output given shall always 
be understood to mean the output iqr 
continuous working under Rating (A). 

Name plates for machines under Class 
(B) shall bear the word " Intermittent." 

3. The output and full load speed 
marked on the name plate shall be those 
taken when the machine [is at its normal 
working temperature, as determined at 
the close of the test run referred to above. 

4. All fgenerators shall have their 
outputs stated in kilowatts (k.w.). 

All motors shall have their outputs 
stated in b.h.p. 

5. The following information shall be 
given on the name plates : — 

/Direct Current. K.W. Volts. Amps. R.p.m. 



, K.W. 



S Alternating 



O 



1^ 



Current. Full Load. 
(^Excitation, f 



Volts. Amps. Power 
Factor 
1 Volts, -i 



KW. 


Rkvolutions pee Minute. 


Slow. 


Medium. 


High, 


100 
150 
200 
250 
300 
400 
500 
760 
1000 


* 
* 
* 
# 

94 
94 
83 

83 
83 


250 
250 
250 
250 

214 
214 
214 

188 
188 


500 
428 
375 
375 
375 
375 
300 
250 
250 



Amps. ) 

I D.C. (Continuous B.H.P. 

working) 
D.C. (Intermittent B.H.P. 

working) (Intermittent) 



h Frequency. R.p.m. 



IA.C. (Continuous B.H.P. 

working) 
A.C. (Intermittent B.H.P. 



Volts. 



Volts. 



Volts. 



R.p.m. 
R.p.m. 

R.p.m. 



Frequency. Power Factor. 

Volts. R.p.m. 

Power Factor. 



working) (Intermittent) Frequency 

The above applies to combined machines, such as 
motor generators, boosters, rotary converters, which 
shall have name plates giving information applying 
both to input and output. 

DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS. 

6. The List Nos. represent the kilowatts which the 
machine can work at when continuously as a generator 

List Nos. and speeds of direct current generators 
(up to 100 kilowatts) : — 



List No. 


standard 

Motor 
Carcase. 


R. p. m. 


List No. 


Standard 

Motor 
Carcase. 


R. p. m. 


6 
8 

12 
16 
24 


10 

IS 
20 
30 


1075 

1000 

900 

850 
800 


32 
40 
60 
80 
100 


40 

60 
75 
100 


750 
675 
625 
575 
500 



N.B. — The " Slow " speeds in the above table are 
tentative. 

British Standard Generators of 100 kilowatts and 
above, whether for direct or alternating current work, 
shall conform to the above list of sizes and speeds 
recommended for generators to be directly coupled 
to steam or gas engines. 

ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS. 

7. British Standard alternators of any type, in 
addition to the requirements laid down in previous 
clauses, in so far as the latter apply, shall conform to 
the following regulations : — 

(a) They shall give an E.M.F. curve which, under 
all working conditions, shall be as nearly as possible 
a sine wave. 

(fe) For exciting the field magnets the standard 
pressures shall be : — 

65, no or 220 volts, 
term " Alternator " shall not include 
an " Exciter." The latter, when necessary, 
shall be separately specified and subject 
to the regulations for standard direct 
current generators. 

(d) The regulation of an alternator 
shall be defined as the difference between 
the rated full load pressure and the no 
load pressure with the same speed and 
excitation. This difference expressed as 
a percentage of the rated full load 
pressure shall be termed the percentage 
'' pressure rise " of the alternator. 

(c) They shall not have a greater per- 
centage pressure rise than six per cent. 
(^>%) on a non-inductive load and twenty 
per cent (20%) on an inductive load. 



(c) The 



British Standards for Electrical Machinery. 



the latter being here considered as one having a 
power factor of o'8. 

This pressure rise may be tested on a non-inductive 
or inductive load according to the requirements of the 
specification. 

The figures in (B) and (D) shall not apply to com- 
pounded alternators. 

MOTORS. 

8. All motors for the purposes of tests shall be 
rated under the following classes : — 
(i) Open. 

(2) Protected. 

(3) Ventilated. 

(4) Totally closed, 
(i) and (4) require no definition. 

(2) A protected motor is defined as a motor, in 
which the armature, field coils and other live parts 
are protected mechanically from accidental or careless 
contact, so as not to materially interfere with ventila- 
tion. 

(3) A ventilated motor is defined as a motor in 
which, while ventilation is provided for, access to 



the armature, field coils and other live parts is only 
to be obtained ^)y opening a door in, or removing 
a portion of, the enclosing case. 

N.B. — An alternating current motor. Class (3), in 
which the slip rings are outside the protection, shall 
be considered as coming under CI ss (2). 

LISTS OF MOTORS. 

9. The list Nos. represent the b.h.p. which the 
machine can work at when running continuously 
as a motor, at the standard pressure of 220 volts 
up to and including two (2) b.h.p., and above that 
size, at the standard pressure of 440 volts. 

10. The following are the list Nos. of British Standard 
Sizes of motors : — 

List Xos. (direct current). 

\, +, I, 2, 3, 5, 7^, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, 100. 
List Nos. (single phase) 50 .^^ 

I- 2, 3, 5, 7i. 7iA, 10, IDA, 15, 20, 25. 

List Nos. (two- and three-phase) 50 ,^ 

I, 2, 3, 5, j\, ■ji.K, 10, IDA, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 
5OA, 75, 100. 

11. List Nos. and speeds of motors (up to b.h.p.). 



Direct Current Motors. 



List No. 


R.p.m. 
at Full Load. 


List No. 


R.p.m. 
at Full Load. 


List No. 


R.p.m. 
at Full Load. 


i 


1600 


5 


1000 


30 


750 


4 


1400 


^ 


1000 


40 


700 


1 


1400 


10 


900 


50 


650 


2 


1100 


15 


850 


75 


600 


3 


1100 


20 


800 


100 


550 



Alternwtixg Current Induction Motors. 
Single phase, 50 .^ 



List No. 


R.p.m. 
at No Load. 


List No. 


R.p.m, 
at No Load. 


List No. 


R.p.m. 
at No Load. 


1 


1500 


n 


1500 


15 


1000 


2 


1500 


71A 


1000 


i 20 


1000 


3 


1500 


10 


1500 


25 


750 


5 


1500 


IOa 


1000 







224 



Page's Magazine. 

Alternating Current Induction Motors. — Two and Three Phase, 50 ,^- 



List No. 


R.p.m. 
at No Load. 


List No. 


R.p.m. 
at No Load. 


List No. 


R.p.m. 
at No Load. 


1 


1500 


10 


1500 


40 


750 


2 


1500 


10a 


1000 


50 


750 


3 


1500 


15 


1000 


50a 


600 


5 


1500 


20 


1000 


75 


600 


n 


1500 


25 


750 


100 


500 


7iA 


1000 


30 


750 







The figures referring to a.c. motors give the no load about seven-a-half per cent. (7i%) in^the smallest 
or synchronous speeds, allowance should, therefore, motors to two-and-a-half per cent. (2j%) in the 
be made for a reduction in speed at full load of, from largest motors. 




I'LAN OK THK XKW DOCK .VT SWANSEA. 

Details of this important development, wliich was inaugurated by His Majesty the King last month, will 

be found in our notes on Civil Engineering. 



S'tSi 






A Summary of the Schemes recommended by Sir "William Garstin, G.C.M.G., 
for the control of the river throughout its entire length. 



/^NE of the most important documents 
^^ hitherto issued concerning Egypt and 
the Soudan is the report which has been 
drawn up by Sir William Garstin, G.C.M.G., 
Under-Secretary of State for Pubhc Works in 
Egypt, upon the Basin of the Upper Nile. 
After the most careful investigation, he dis- 
cusses the works which he considers necessary 
in order to conserve the waters of the Nile and 
to control the entire river. Incidentally, he 
advises the formation of a properly organised 
Irrigation Service of the Soudan. It is laid 
down very clearly that the flow of the Nile must 
remain always and absolutely in the hands of 
one authority. The proposed Irrigation Service 
should be entirely controlled by the Ministry 
of Public Works in Egypt, and should, in fact, 
form a branch of that department. 

Sir William Garstin is nothing if not thorough . 
Consequently, he first takes us to the region of 
the great lakes, and in the course of a general 
description we learn all that has been ascer- 
tained within recent years as to the source of 
the Nile. In the first part of his report, he 
gives detailed descriptions of the Victoria 
Nyanza, the country between the Victoria and 
the Albert Edward Lakes, comprising the 
districts of Buddu and Ankoli, Lake Albert 
Edward, the country between the Albert 
Edward and Albert Lakes in the districts of 
Toru and Ungoro, the Semliki River, the 
Victoria Nile, the Lake Albert Nyanza, the Uppe r 
Nile, or Bahr-el-Gebel, the White Nile, or 
Bahr-el-Abyad, Lake No, the Bahr-el-Ghazal, 
and the Blue Nile. 



THE POPULATION OF THE SOUDAN. 

In the Report upon the Upper Nile, published 
in 1901, the following remarks werje made : — 

" The Soudan is scarcely ready yet for the 
introduction of irrigation works upon a large 
scale. Were an increased supply of water to 
be granted at this moment, the country is not 
in a position to make effective use of the boon. 
Its chief want, for many years to come, must be 
population." 





^ 


"^vN 


%7 


r 




^^^> 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l^^^^r ^ 


P* 


1^^ 


r i 



SIR WILLI \M GARSTIX, G.C.M.G., 

Under-Secretary of State for Public Works in Egypt 
(225) 1 5 



226 



Page's Magazine. 




These words are almost as 
applicable to the situation 
to-day as they were three 
years ago. It may well be 
that the actual total of the 
population is considerably 
larger than was at first 
supposed, but, even at the 
most favourable estimate, it 
must be very small as com- 
pared to the immense areas 
to be dealt witii. It must, 
moreover, be extremely scat- 
tered. Further, with certain 
exceptions, the bulk of the 
population can hardly be 
classed as an agricultural 
one. It is difficult, then, 
to see how, unless labour is 
imported into the Soudan, 
full advantage can be taken, 
in any short period of time, 
of improved facilities for 
irrigation upon an extended 
scale. 

At the same time. Sir 
William Garstin does not 
wish it to be supposed that 
his remarks are intended to 
advocate a policy of doing 
nothing towards improving 
irrigation in that country. 
The contrary is the case. If 
nothing is done no progress 
is possible, and, until a com- 
mencement has been made, 
no real amelioration in the 
state of agriculture can be 
looked for. 

SCHEMES FOR THE FURTHER 

UTILISATION OF THE NILE 

SUPPLY, 

The problems investigated 
in the second portion of the 
report have two main objects, 
namely, that of increasing 
the water supply of Egypt 
in the summer, and that 
of securing similar advan- 
tages to the Soudan during 
the same period. Both of 




CHAR.\CrERISTIC NILE SCENERY. 
(I) Papyrus on the Bahr-el-Gebel. (2) The White Nile at Taufikia. 



(227 



228 



Page's Magazine. 



these ends are of equal importance, although the 

former is perhaps the more likely to bring in an 

early return for the expenditure to be incurred. 

The schemes in connection with the White 




Kllom "» ■ , ■» y 'f T 

MiiM * ' a S 100 

map showinc proposkd \k\v chawkl for 
uahk-kl-(;khkl. 



Nile are considered first. They are two in 
number ; firstly, the regulation of the great 
lakes which feed it, and, secondly, the pre- 
vention of the waste of water caused by the vast 
swamps through which it passes in the upper 
portion of its course. 

REGULATING THE GREAT LAKES. 

Sir William Willcocks, in a recent work, has suggested 
lowering the crest of the Ripon Falls and, instead of 
attempting to raise the lake surface, drawing upon the im- 
mense amount of water annually stored in Lake Victoria' 
This suggestion is a sound one, and, should regulation 
of the Victoria Lake outfall ever be undertaken, the 
necessary works should be carried out upon these lines. 
No object would be attained by raising the water-level 
of Lake Victoria, even were it possible to do so. This, 
taking into account the area of the water surface and 
the annual loss by evaporation, is extremely doubtful. 
On the other hand, there is an immense volume of 
water annually available upon which to draw. This 
volume, even after deducting the loss due to evaporation, 
is far more than sufficient to meet the wants both of 
Egypt and the Soudan. 

Should, however, such a work ever be undertaken, 
it would almost certainly be necessary to embank the 
80 kilometres of its course through Lake Choga. If 
this were not done, the only result of an increased 
discharge at the outlet of the river would be an increase 
of the area of this lake, and a corresponding increase in 
the loss caused by evaporation. 

Beyond the difficulties due to the remoteness of the 
locality, the scarcity of trained labour, and the cost of 
transport and supplies, it may be stated with confidence 
that there would be no special difficulties involved in 
the construction of a regulating work at the outlet of 
the Victoria Nile. Such a work would in all probability 
be far easier to construct than was either the dam at 
Assouan or the barrage at Assout. 

Turning to the Albert Lake, the best site for a regu- 
lator would undoubtedly be at the 15 th kilometre 
downstream of the outlet, at the point where the high 
land borders the river channel upon either side. Any 
other point between Magungo and Dufile would necessi- 
tate the construction of very heavy embankments for 
a considerable length. Here, again, no very special 
difficulties of construction would appear likely to 
arise. 

The objection to any proposals for augmenting the 
discharge from the equatorial lakes is that under present 
conditions the increased volume would never reach the 
White Nile, but would be entirely wasted in the marshes 
through which the Bahr-el-Gebel passes. It will be 
understood that barely 50 per cent, of the water which 
now leaves the Albert Lake in summer ever arrives 
at the W^hite Nile, while in the flood the proportion of 
loss is very much greater. In other words, the greater 
the amount of water in the Bahr-el-Gebel, the larger 
is the proportion of loss ; while the discharge entering 
the White Nile is constant throughout the year. Until, 



The Irrigation Problems of the Nile. 



229 



then, some means have been found whereby the water 
passing Lado during the dry season of the year can be 
brought down to Khartoum in undiminished volume, 
it is needless to consider the question of any regulation 
of the Albert and the Victoria Lakes. These projects 
may, therefore, be postponed to a possible future, 
when the existing supply in the Bahr-el-Gebel shall 
have been made full use of, and when this shall have 
been found to be insufficient for the requirements of 
Egypt and the Soudan. 

Sir William Garstin also says it would seem 
possible without any very heavy expenditure, 
to so train the Upper Nile that during the dry 
season its waters should be delivered at the head 
of the Bahr-el-Zaraf, without any serious 
reduction of the volume passing Lado, while 
during the flood they would fill the reservoir, 
up stream of Ghaba Sham be, to the same extent 
as they do under present conditions. 

SUMMARY OF SIR WM. GARSTIN'S PROPOSALS. 

He summarises his various proposals as 
follows : — 

(a) To prevent waste in summer by closing 
of all spills and barring all branch channels, 
the latter by earthen dams or small masonry 
regulators, between Gondokoro and Ghaba 
Shambe. Also to try the experiment of planting 
ambatch as a means of closing these channels. 
The summer water would then be confined to 
one single stream, while the floods would rise over 
the valley and form a great basin, as at present. 

(6) To study the possibility of excavating a 
completely new channel for the summer water 
of the Upper Nile, on an alignment running 
nearly due north and south from Bor to the 
Sobat junction with the White Nile. If the 
levels permit of it, this project should be carried 
out in preference to any other. The channel 
should be designed to eventually carry 1,000 
metres cube per second, A regulator and lock 
would be built at the head, and another regu- 
lator across the Nile downstream of the new 
outlet. 

With regard to proposal (b) we quote the 
following from the report in extenso : — 

The next point to be considered is how best to pass 
on the summer water through the great marshes north 
of Bor, and deliver it into the channel of the ^^^lite Nile 
without any serious diminution of the discharge. 

The most natural way to effect this would appear to 
be to select one of the two main branches, namely, the 
Bahr-el-Gebel or the Bahr-el-Zaraf, and to improve its 
section so as to render it capable of carrying a discharge 



of from 600 to 700 metres cube per second. This, as 
has been said, appears to be the most natural method 
to adopt, and would most probably be the cheapest. 
There is, however, another plan, which, if it should 
prove, upon examination, to be feasible, would undoubt- 
edly improve the river to an extent far beyond any 
result that could be attained by merely remodelling 
one or other of the existing channels. 

DETAILS OF PROPOSED NEW CHANNEL. 

In order to understand this scheme it vnH be necessary 
to refer to the accompanying small-scale map of the 
river. 

It will be seen that a line drawn through Bor, on the 
Upper Bahr-el-Gebel, and running due north and south, 
would cut the White Nile at or near the point where 
the Sobat joins this river. The distance between these 
two points in a straight line is approximately 340 
kilometres. Were it possible to excavate an entirely 
new channel for the river, following this line, and to 
bring down its waters by this means from the Upper Nile 
at Bor, direct to the \\Tiite Nile, at the Sobat junction, 
the advantages that would be secured are so great and 
so obvious as to outweigh almost every objection that 
could be made to the proposal, short of the fact that 
further knowledge might prove that its execution was 
a sheer impossibiUty — owing to the levels or to the 
conformation of the intervening country. 

These advantages may be briefly recounted : — 

The entire swamp region would be avoided altogether 
— the floods in the river might cover these marshes 
unchecked, as at present, and the channels might be 
allowed to be blocked by " sudd " without exercising the 
slightest effect upon the discharge in the new channel — 
the distance to be travelled by the water would be largely 
reduced, and navigation would be immensely faciUtated 
by following a direct and straight line — the training 
works upon the Upper Nile would stop short at Bor, 
and a distance of some 200 kilometres of such work 
would be thus economised. As the high land touches 
the Nile on the east at Bor, the new channel would take 
off in excavation and much banking would be avoided. 

Lastly, the discharge of the new branch would be 
under complete control, as a regulating head, with a 
lock, would be built at the point where it left the main 
river. Another and larger regulator would be built 
across the Nile at Bor, connected with the western 
high land by an embankment. With these two works 
the control of the discharge at all seasons would be 
complete. 

Were a channel to be constructed of this capacity 
it would then be most advisable to carry out the 
proposed schemes for the control of the equatorial lakes 
by constructing regulators at the Ripon Falls, and 
do\\Tistream of the outlet of the Bahr-el-Gebel from 
the Albert Lake. In fact, the one project would be a 
complement of the other. 

This proposal, may, perhaps, seem to be so drastic 
a remedy for the present loss of water as to be un- 
acceptable to some. In reaUty, it is net so drastic as 
at first sight it may appear to be. The real reason which. 



23© 



Page's Magazine. 



given that other conditions are favourable, would render 
its execution possible, is the power of escape supplied by 
the Gebel marshes. There is no question of turning the 
entire Nile flood down an artificial channel. What is 
proposed amounts to nothing more than the construction 
of an entirely new channel (not much larger than one 
of the great canals of Egypt), which would afford a 
means of delivering the summer water by the shortest and 
most direct route to the point where it was required, 
and, by avoiding the great swamps, reducing the 
difficulties of maintenance and the loss of water which 
is caused by their presence. At the same time these 
swamps would act as an effective regulating force to 
the flood-water, and would supplement the supply in 
the winter in the same proportion as they do at present. 
The following is a comparison of the length of the 
proposed new channel with those of the Bahr-el-Gebel 
and Bahr-el-Zaraf, including the White Nile upstream 
of the Sobat junction : 

Kilometres. 
I. — New channel from Bor to the Sobat, 

as scaled from the map . . . . 340 

II. — From Bor to the Sobat junction via 
the Bahr-el-Gebel, Lake No, and 
the White Nile (approximately). . 710 
• III. — From Bor to the Sobat via the Bahr- 
el-Zaraf and the White Nile 
(approximately) . . . . . . 650 

The question will naturally arise whether, with such a 
reduction in the distance traversed by the water, the 
increase in slope in the new channel would not be so 
great as to render navigation impossible. This cannot 
be solved until the difference of level between the two 
points has been ascertained. 

ALTERNATIVE PROPOSALS FOR CONSERVING THE 
WATERS OF THE WHITE NILE. 

(c) If proposal (b) should turn out to be im- 
practicable, then, but then only, measures 
should be taken to improve the Bahr-el-Gebel 
through that portion of it which traverses the 
great marshes, i.e., from Ghaba Shambe to Lake 
No, by cutting off the worst of the existing 
bends, and by closing the connections between 
the river channel and the great lagoons. It is 
indispensable, under such circumstances, that 
this river shall be kept free from all blocking 
by " sudd," not only because it would have 
always to remain the navigation channel between 
the White Nile and Gondokoro, but also because 
it would be imperative to prevent any tendency 
of the flood-water to burst out in the direction 
of the Bahr-el-Zaraf. 

The Bahr-el-Gebel would thus, as it does as 
present, convey about half of the summer 
discharge at Lado to the White Nile, and even 



when the river was at its maximum this dis- 
charge would remain constant. 

{d) Again, if (&) is found to be not feasible, 
then the best project will be to widen, deepen, 
and embark the Bahr-el-Zaraf throughout its 
length by means of powerful dredging plant, 
thus rendering it capable of carrying the balance 
of the summer water passing Gondokoro and 
discharging it into the White Nile at the present 
junction of the two rivers. By this means, the 
waste which at present occurs at Lake No would 
be avoided, and the water would be brought 
down from the south to the north with com- 
parative little loss. Another great advantage 
of this scheme would be that, supposing that 
the Bahr-el-Gebel did get temporarily blocked 
by " sudd " during summer, an alternative 
channel would exist capable of carrying a con- 
siderable, probably the greater, portion of the 
summer supply. A regulating head would be 
built for this river at the point where it leaves 
the Upper Nile, which during flood would be 
closed entirely. At this period of the year, the 
Bahr-el-Zaraf would remain dry, except for the 
drainage water which would enter it, controlled 
by inlets in the banks from the right and from 
the left. If it were found unadvisable, owing 
to the difficulties caused by the marshes, to 
construct this head at the point where Bahr-el- 
Zaraf takes off from the Upper Nile, it might 
be possible to utilise the channel named by Mr. 
Grogan the Gertrude Nile, and continue the 
remodelled Zaraf up to the high land at Bor, 
where a head could without difficulty be con- 
structed. 

{e) Once the channel for the summer water 
had been satisfactorily completed, the schemes 
for regulating on the outlets of the Victoria and 
Albert Lakes should be put in hand in order 
that a constant discharge of 1,000 metres cube 
per second should be poured into the White 
Kile during the season of lowest supply. 

REQUIRED-A FLEET OF POWERFUL HYDRAULIC 
DREDGERS. 

Before leaving the subject of the White Nile a few 
words are necessary as to the method in which the main 
works should be carried out. These works apply to the 
pro]iosed new channel from Bor, equally to the work 
on the Bahr-el-Zaraf, should the former scheme be 
rejected. There is no question that the only practical 
way would be by the assistance of a fleet of powerful 
hydraulic dredgers or excavators, specially designed 




ox THE BAHR-EL-GEBEL. 
(I) At Kiro. (2) Mongalla. 



(a3i) 



232 



Page's Magazine. 



to meet the various necessities of the case. Several 
different types would almost to a certainty be required 
before the work was completed. It would consequently 
be advisable to commence with a small number, say 
with two or three, adding to these and altering the type 
according to the knowledge gained by the experience 
of the earlier. work. To carry out such an undertaking 
by hand labour would be practically impossible, and 
would almost to a certainty result in failure. The 
conditions under which the works would have in this 
region to be carried out constitute the chief difficulty. 
The local tribes can never be counted upon to provide 
labour ; all supplies would have to be brought from 
Khartoum, which is more than 950 kilometres from the 
nearest point of the work ; fuel for the dredgers and 
steamers is a difficulty of yearly increasing magnitude ; 
malaria is at all seasons prevalent in these marshes ; the 
temperature even in winter is high, and the dampness of 
the atmosphere must be felt to be appreciated. For 
some months annually, i.e., from June to September, 
the rainfall is so heavy that continuous work would be 
well-nigh impossible. Lastly, the mosquitoes of this 
region are probably more numerous and more ferocious 
than in any other part of the world. These difficulties 
constitute a formidable list, and it must be admitted 
that the task is a heavy one. Still it is not impossible. 




THE OUTLET 
OF LAKE TSANA 



It is merely a question of money and time, and possibly 
of certain loss of life — the toll levied upon the workers 
by the climate. 

The advantages that would accrue to Egypt, and to 
the Soudan north of Khartoum, could an increased 
discharge of from 600 to 700 metres cube per second be 
added to the volume of the river at the period when 
water is most required, are so great and so obvious as to 
warrant an attempt to secure them even more difficult 
and more costly than that proposed in these pages. 

In any such project the unknown point must, of 
course, always be as to how much of this extra water 
would actually reach Assouan, supposing that the wastage 
through the "Sudd "region could be successfully arrested. 
The White Nile swamps would doubtless absorb a certain 
quantity, and evaporation between the Bahr-el-Zaraf 
and the first cataract would still further reduce the 
volume. Allowing that this loss was as much as one- 
third, which is a high estimate — even so, the balance 
would form a most important addition to the summer 
supply of Egypt, and one well worth spending a large 
sum of money to secure. 

THE UTILISATION OF THE BLUE NILE. 

It is now necessary to consider the second 
of the great questions connected with the 
control of the Nile, viz., the possible utilisation 
of the Blue Nile as a means of increasing the 
water supply in summer. Any works under- 
taken upon this river should be designed and 
carried out in the interests of the Soudan rather 
than of Egypt — the latter country deriving 
its increased discharge from the waters of the 
White Nile. 

The best and the most complete project in 
connection with the Blue Nile is beyond all 
question that of constructing a regulator at the 
outlet of the river at Lake Tsana, whereby this 
lake may be converted into a storage reservoir 
of large size. Were it not for the fact that it 
lies outside of the Soudan Frontier, and that its 
construction might cause political difficulties, 
it would be unnecessary to look beyond this 
scheme for a means of satisfactorily increasing 
the volume of the Blue Nile discharge in summer. 
A reservoir that would store, at a comparatively 
small cost, 3,000 millions of cubic metres of 
water would amply suffice for the wants of the 
Ghezireh and of the eastern Soudan. Un- 
fortunately, the questions involved by its 
position are so many and so difficult of adjust- 
ment, that the abandonment of this project 
for an indefinite future appears to be a matter 
of certainty. This being so, it is necessary to 
search for a project, or projects, involving the 



The Irrigation Problems of the Nile. 



233 



construction of works within the territories of 
the Soudan, The following list gives the 
different projects requiring study in this direction 
in the order of their importance: — 

1. The selection of a site for an open barrage 
in the vicinity of Wad Medani. Such a study 
would involve that of the projects for the main 
canals east and west of the river. 

2. The possibility of making a storage 
reservoir of limited capacity within Soudan 
territory by means of a dam constructed at or 
south of the Rosaires Rapids. This reservoir 
would be filled during the months of October 
and November, and would be made use of for 
augmenting the river supply during the months 
of December, January, and February. 

3. The project for improving the irrigation 
of the river Gash by means of a basin for con- 
trolling the floods with its subsidiary canals, 

4. The study of the project for constructing a 
dam and storage reservoir in the Atbara River, 
near Kashim-el-Girba. 

5. An examination of the Rivers Binder and 
Rahad with a view to ascertaining whether the 
construction of storage reser\'oirs at any points 
of their course is practicablly possible, 

6. An examination of the upper valley of the 
Atbara with the same end in view. 

As regards the river valley to the north of Khartoum, 
and between that place and Berber, the conditions are 
entirely different from those of the Blue Nile, and more 
nearly resemble those of Upper Egypt and of the 
Dongola Province. The rainfall is irregular, being 
limited, even south of Shendy, to heavy but local 
storms. The strip of good land on either side of the 
river bounded by the desert is not very \vide. In this 
region the best plan to follow for improving these lands 
is undoubtedly the erection of large pumping stations 
capable of irrigating a large area of country. In 
addition certain selected tracks might advantageously 
be turned into basins, but the expenditure would be 
heavy in proportion to the result to be obtained. The 
general conditions prevailing in Egypt, between 
Assouan and Assout would thus be reproduced, and the 
fact that this area throughout its entire length is 
traversed by a line of railway would greatly facilitate 
its agricultural development. 

THE PROPOSED IRRIGATION SERVICE. 

With regard to the proposed Irrigation 
Service for the Soudan, Sir William Garstin 
outlines its constitution as follows : An In- 
spector-General of Irrigation should be appointed 



having his headquarters at Khartoum. He 
would super\'ise and control the service as a 
whole. His chief assistants should consist of 
two inspectors, one for the White and the other 
for the Blue Nile. It would be advisable to 
appoint a third and junior officer, who would 
act as a reserve man, and who could be usefully 
employed upon special works and studies. 
There should also be appointed a large stafE of 
native engineers and levellers, together with the 
requisite office establishment. Two steamers 
would be required for inspection work, one for 
the White Nile and another, of very shallow 
draught, specially designed for work on the 
Blue Nile. 

If the decision of the Egyptian Government 
is favourable to the proposal, and there can be 
little doubt that such a decision would be a 
wise one, then as little time as possible should be 
lost, and the new service should be started by 
the commencement of the next winter, so as to 
enable full advantage to be taken of the cool 
season of the year. 

It is not to be expected that projects of any 
magnitude will be immediately presented for 
consideration, neither is this to be desired. The 
fullest study must be given and the closest 
observations made of the different schemes in 
all their details. This will take time, but it 
will not be time lost, and it will be far more 
economical in the end if a delay due to study 
occurs before a project is presented than if jjthis 
occurs after, and after the works have been started. 

Should it be decided to form an Irrigation 
Service in the Soudan, it is absolutely necessary 
that it should be entirely controlled by the 
Ministry of PubUc Works in Egypt, and that 
it should in fact form a branch of thatj depart- 
ment. 

RELATIVE URGENCY OF THE SCHEMES. 

Among the many schemes outlined in this 
important note, four are recommended as being 
the most suitable for early examination : — 
Blue Nile. — Controlling the River Gash. 
Barrage upon the Blue Nile, 
i^ White Nile. — Proposed new channel between 
Bor and the Sobat junction. 
(Alternatively) — The remodelling of 
the Bahr-el-Zaraf so as to enable 
it to carry the required discharge. 



234 



Page's Magazine. 



Once it has been secured by one or other of 
these methods that the summer discharge of the 
Bahr-el-Gebel shall reach the White Nile in 
undiminished volume, then the work of regula- 
ting the Victoria and Albert Lakes at their 
outlets should be proceeded with. 

The more important of the projects demanding 
immediate attention in the Soudan have been 
indicated in the above brief summary. It will 
be understood that their execution will entail 
the expenditure of large sums of money. If to 
this is added the cost of the large irrigation 
works required simultaneously in Egypt this 
expenditure will reach a very large figure indeed- 

A GREAT QUESTION. 

It is for those who control the finances of 
-Egypt to decide whether such expenditure is 
desirable, or whether, even with every prospect 
of a large increase to the annual revenue as a 
result of these undertakings, it is not advisable 
to proceed slowly, and to apply a portion of the 
surplus available to the many other necessary 
reforms alluded to by Lord Cromer in his 
yearly report upon Egyptian Administration. 
The present high selling and rental value of 
land in Egypt has engendered a hunger for its 
acquisition in all classes of the community, and 
this hunger seems likely to extend to the Soudan. 
Whether these prices will be maintained, or 
whether a largely-increased production will not 
one day cause a serious fall in the value of all 
agricultural products, is a question regarding 
which various opinions are held. Whatever 
the future may hold, this much is certain, that 
at present land is being urgently sought for 
everywhere, and that schemes for increasing 
the cultivated area are being urged upon the 
Egyptian Government. Fortunately, in the 
Soudan, equally as in Egypt, there can be no 
doubt of the eventual return to be obtained 
from any well-considered and sound irrigation 
project. Given a sufficient population, the 
combination of the sun, the soil, and the water 
renders its success a certainty. 



Should all, or even a portion of these schemes 
ever become accomplished facts, it is difficult 
to estimate the extent of the benefits that will 
have been secured to a not inconsiderable portion 
of the continent of Africa. The limits of cultiva- 
tion in Egypt are far from having been as yet 
reached. With a Nile under control throughout 
its entire length, and with the power of adding 
to its volume by drawing upon the almost in- 
exhaustible resources of the natural reservoirs 
which supply it, the agricultural wealth of that 
country should increase to an extent beyond 
the dreams of the most sanguine reformer. The 
Soudan, it is true, represents an unknown 
quantity, and its future is one about which it 
would be at present rash to prophesy. That 
progress in that country must be slow is, un- 
fortunately, certain, but there appears to be 
no reason why it should not be sure. What 
has once been may again be, and there are good 
grounds for anticipating an eventual return to 
prosperity — a prosperity, perhaps, even greater 
than that which excited the astonishment of 
Nero's envoys nearly nineteen centuries ago. 

Those to whom the privilege shall be granted 
of assisting towards this consummation will have 
a chance given to them such as seldom falls to 
the lot of man. To rescue the Upper Nile from 
the marshes in which it has lost more than half 
its volume ; to control and regulate the great 
Equatorial lakes, making them add to the 
flow of the river at will ; to cause the waters 
of the Blue Nile to rise and irrigate the fertile 
tracts through which they pass ; to secure to 
Egypt a constant and sufficient supply for the 
entire area between the cataracts and the 
Mediterranean ; to free that country from the 
ever-present danger of a disastrous floods 
these are tasks worthy of comparison with any 
previously recorded in the world's history, 
and which, if successfully accomplished, will 
leave behind them a monument that will prob- 
ably endure long after all evidence of those 
erected by an earlier civilisation shall have 
passed away. 



A GENERAL PROGRAMME FOR EGYPT 
AND THE SOUDAN, 





In an appendix to the report dealt with in 
the foregoing pages, Sir WilHam Garstin draws 
up a general programme of the main irrigation 
projects in Egypt as well as in the Soudan. 
In doing so, he emphasises the fact that with 
the single exception of the provision of escape 
power for the Nile during an exceptional flood, 
the large works outlined are not matters 
of extreme urgency, Egypt being already 
practically assured against agricultural disaster- 
In the Soudan, matters are different, for until 
irrigation works are commenced there, no 
hope of any real improvement in the country's 
annual heavy deficit can be entertained. 

THE PROPOSALS OF SIR WILLIAM WILLCOCK8. 

No examination of the different measures 
possible for improving the water-supply of 
Egypt can be complete without taking into 
consideration those schemes proposed for this 
purpose b}- Sir William Willcocks. These are 
of such importance that Sir William Garstin 
gives them precedence over all others. 

They are three in number : — 

(i.) The raising of the Assouan dam, thereby 
increasing the storage capacity of the Nile 
reservoir. 

(ii. ) The utilisation of the depression known as 
the Wady Rayan, for a secondary reservoir, 
to augment the summer supply of northern 
Egypt. 

(iii.) The remodelling of the Rosetta branch 
of the Nile, so as to render it capable of serving 
as a flood escape for the river. 

As regards numbers (i.) and (ii.), neither of 



these proposals, as it stands, can be said to be 
absolutely novel. A dam. at Assouan, raised to a 
height greater than that now suggested, was 
proposed by Sir W. Willcocks himself, in his 
original report upon the storage of Nile water. 
Again, the idea of making use of the Wady 
Rayan as a reservoir is due to Mr. Cope White- 
house, who. for years, urged this project upon 
the Government. The combination of the two 
schemes, making the one the complement of the 
other, as now proposed, is, however, an entirely 
novel idea. 

THE RAISING OF THE DAM AT ASSOUAN. 

With regard to the proposed raising of the 
Assouan dam by six metres, doubling the storage 
capacity of the reservoir. Sir William Garstin 
no longer opposes the immediate execution of 
this work, provided that it is executed in con- 
junction with two other schemes, viz., (i) the 
improvement of the Upper Nile, so that an 
increased summer supply may be brought down, 
and (2) the provision of sufficient escape power 
for the river when in flood. He further says 
that he considers the project one which will 
undoubtedly render service to Egyjit, and while 
the scheme is one from which the earliest returns 
can be anticipated, the cost of construction 
cannot be considered prohibitive. 

THE SUBMERGED TEMPLES AT PHILVE. 

Sir \\'illiam Garstin discusses the grounds of 
his having opposed the raising of the dam, the 
last of which was the question of the Philse 
monuments. He concludes from the available 
evidence, with some confidence, that the 



(235) 




(336) 



The Irrigation Problems of the Nile. 



237 



stability of -these temples has not up to the 
present suffered from their submersion. 

i There is, however, another question to be considered, 
namely, the effect of the water upon the surface of the 
stonework. Throughout the structures, above the 
water-Une, there is a band of apparently saturated 
stone, from o'6o to 080 metres in height. The saturation 
is due to capillary attraction, and in this band salts 
deleterious to the masonr\- have made their appearance. 
This is more particularly noticeable round and on those 
portions where cement was made use of in repairing the 
stonework. As regards the remedy for this evil the 
general opinion appears to be that the only one possible 
is to wash the stonework thoroughly and carefully as 
soon a-, the water has subsided, thus getting rid of the 
salts. These are reported as coming away easily. 
Whether this will effectually preserve the stone from 
decay it is impossible to say. Monsieur Maspero 
considers that it will not be possible to decide this point 
in a less period of time than from four to five years. 

The submersion of the temples to a further height of 
six metres will undoubtedly destroy much of their 
picturesqueness, and much of the beauty of the present 
landscape will be spoiled. No one can pretend that 
this will h^ otherwise, and, unfortunately, this effect 
will be produced during the time when Philse is visited 
by many tourists. That this should be so must always 
be a matter for deep regret, but even such a consideration 
should not be allowed to weigh against the benefits 
that would result to the Fellahin of Egj-pt from so large 
an increase in the storage capacity of the Assouan 

reservoir. 

THE WADY RAYAN. 

As to this project. Sir William Garstin quotes 
Sir William Willcocks on his scheme, as follows : 

When the As.souan dam will have been raised, we 
shall be standing on the threshold of what it will be 
able to do. The projected Wady Rayan reservoir, or 
the modern I^ke Mceris, will be well able to supply the 
two remaining milliards of cubic metres of water when 
working in conjunction with the Assouan reser\'oir. 
The great weakness of this projected lake has lain in the 
fact that by itself it can give a plentiful discharge in 
April and May, less in June, and very little in July, and 
it was for this reason that in my report of 1894 to the 
Egj-ptian Government I had reluctantly to recommend 
that it be not carried out. But when the Assouan 
reservoir is capable of supplying two milliards of cubic 
metres of water it will be possible to utilise the Mceris 
lake to its utmost capacity. The Assouan reservoir, 
being high above the level of the Nile, can give its 
supply at th; beginning or end of the summer ; it can 
give it slowly or with a rush ; while the projected Lake 
Mceris, being directly in communication with the Nile, 
and only sUghtly above low Nile level, its discharge 
would depend entirely on the difference of level between 
it and the Nile, and consequently as the summer 
advanced, it would gradually fall and would not be able 
to give at the end of the summer a quarter of the 
discharge it would give at the beginning. 



But let us imagine that the reser\'oir and the lake 
are both completed and full of water, and that it is'the 
I St of April. Lake Mceris will be opened on to the Nile 
a. id give all the water needed in that month, whil; the 
Assouan reser\'oir will be maintained at its full level. 
In May, Lake ^Ia?ris will give nearly the whole supply 
and the resers-oir will give a little. In June, the lake 
will give little and the reserv^oir much ; while in July 
the lake will give practically nothing and the reservoir 
the whole supph'. Working together in this harmonious 
manner, the reservoir and the lake, which are the true 
complements of each other, will easily provide the 
whole of the water needed for Egypt. 

Sir William Garstin, on this, has " no hesita- 
tion in saying that the scheme as thus presented 
is a most attractive one, and one that, if feasible, 
appears to solve the problem of the best method 
of increasing the water supply of Egypt." 

Further consideration has convinced him, 
however, that the question is not quite so simple 
as at first sight it may seem to be. The amount 
of water available in the river during winter 
would be lessened by Sir William Garstin's 
proposal to withdraw 200 metres cube per 
second for the irrigation of eastern Soudan, 
and Mr. A. L. Webb, C.M.G., Inspector-General 
of Irrigation in Upper Egypt, has shown that : — 

As. regards Sir William Willcock's smaller project,* 
if the deduction be made for the Soudan the Rayan 
reservoir could not be filled by means of the Bahr 
Yusuf during the winter months in a year of minimum 
supply. He also shows that even in a mean year this 
would be very difficult, and would seriously affect 
navigation in the Nile during the period of filling. 
Moreover, he points out that in order to supply the 
Yusuf Canal it would be necessary- to put a head of 
4'5 metres upon the Assout barrage. This would entail 
the construction of a subsidiar^• weir downstream of 
the work, similar to those recently constructed at the 
Delta barrage. It would further necessitate con- 
siderable remodelling in both the Bahr Yussuf and the 
upper reach of the Ibrahimieh Canal in order to permit 
of the necessary supply being passed down in a bad 
year. In order, then, to render the smaller project 
feasible, it would be necessan.- either to increase the 
supply passing Assouan during the winter or to abandon 
altc^ether the idea of benefiting the Blue Nile provinces. 

As regards the second, or larger, project, t ^Ir. Webb 
proves that the scheme is a possible one, as the reser\'oir 

* This project is for a reservoir to hold two milliards of 
cubic metres of water, with a single canal for filling and 
discharging. It is to be supplied during the wmter 
months from the Yusufi Canal. The estimated cost of 
this project is ;/;E. 2,000,000. 

t This is for a reservoir capable of storing three 
milliards of cubic metres of water, with separate inlet 
and outlet canals, to be filled direct from the Nile. This 
project is estimated to cost ;^E.6,6oo,ooo. 



238 



Page's Magazine. 



conld be filled yearly by the flood water. Even in 
very low floods like those of 1899 and 1902 this would 
have teen possible, provided that the inlet canal were 
made of sufficiently large section. 

This last is the important point, and unless the feeder 
canal be made of sufficient dimensions it would be 
impossible to fill the reservoir to the required height 
in flood in years of low level. It is here that the main 
difference of opinion lies between Sir William Willcocks, 
on the one hand, and Messrs. Webb and Verschoyle on 
the other. 

There remains one other point for consideration 
which is perhaps the most important of all, viz., the 
uncertainty which must prevail as to whether, when 
the reservoir is full, the high water-level maintained 
in the lake will not gradually cause infiltration through 
the ridge which separates the Wady Rayan from the 
Fayoum and cause serious damage to the cultivated 
land of the latter province. 

Taking everything into consideration, says Sir 
Willi?m Garstin, all points to the conclusion that a 
thoroug 1 geological examination of the locality, with 
perhaps a line of shafts sunk through the strata, will 
be necessary in addition to a detailed study of the 
dimensions to be given to the inlet and outlet canals. 
Until fuller information is available, it is advisable 
to reserve judgment upon this scheme. Meanwhile I 
consider that, under any circumstances, the project for 
improving the Bahr-el-Gebel should be given preference 
over that of the Wady Rayan, as I maintain that if the 
Assouan dam is to be raised measures must be taken to 
increase the water supply passing Assouan. If this is 
admitted, it will, to my mind, be wiser and more ad- 
vantageous in the end to undertake the work upon a 
scale sufficiently large to secure, not only for Egypt, 
but for the entire Nile valley north of Khartoum, the 
benefits which such an increased water supply would 
give. 

Even allowing that the cost of the improvement of the 
Upper Nile will be greater than that of the Rayan scheme, 
I should still recommend the former in preference to the 
latter. First, because it will render service to a 
much greater area than will the Wady Rayan. Secondly, 
because it is necessary in every case, if the Assouan dam 
is to be raised, to take measures to increase the river 
supply to a certain extent. Thirdly and lastly, because 
there is no risk or uncertainty attendant upon it when 
completed. 

The Wady Rayan scheme may then, I think, be given 
a place secondary to this other. When at some future 
time the question of reclaiming the lakes in the northern 
delta shall, as it surely will, become a pressing one- 
then the Rayan project will probably prove to be the 
best means of securing the increased supply. 

THE R08ETTA BRANCH OF THE NILE. 

Sir William Willcocks, in his recent paper, 
urges that both branches of the river should be 
put into such order that the danger from a flood 
passing down would be largely diminished. 



He further proposes that the section of the 
Rosetta branch shall be brought to a uniform 
width, by means of spurs, and the banks thrown 
back, where necessary, so that this channel 
shall be able to carry a much larger discharge, 
without danger to the country, than is at present 
possible. He would then, in flood, regulate 
upon the Damietta barrage, treating this branch 
as he says, like a large canal, and turning the 
surplus water down the improved Rosetta 
branch. 

As regards the Rosetta branch, says Sir 
William Garstin, if it is to act as a flood escape, 
and I agree with Sir William Willcocks in ad- 
vising that it should be made to do so, then, as 
he says, it must be put in thorough order and 
remodelled throughout its length. 

COST, 

While recommending the raising of the dam 
at Assouan, the improvement of the Rosetta 
branch, and that of the Bahr-el-Gebel, Sir 
William Garstin makes it quite clear that these 
works by no means comprise the whole of the 
programme. 

An increased water supply sufficient for the entire 
wants of Egypt will entail the construction of an ex- 
tensive system of supplementary works, in the hape of 
canalsanddrains, in order that the benefits to be derived 
from the extra water may be fully secured. Such 
works will necessitate a very heavy expenditure. This 
need not be immediate, but may be distributed over a 
series of years. It must, however, sooner or later be 
faced, as until these works are completed the full 
results to be anticipated cannot be realised. It is as 
well, therefore, that the Egyptian Government should 
understand that by taking the first step, i.e., by raising 
the Assouan dam, it is committing itself to a programme 
which will eventually entail the expenditure of a con- 
siderable capital. 

An approximate idea of cost is arrived at as 
follows : — 

The total expenditure in the Soudan would amount 
to the following, according to which estimates for the 
Bahr-el-Gebel were made use of : — 



Bahr-el-Gebel 
Reservoir at Rosaires, say 
Barrage in Blue Nile 
Ghezireh canal system 
Gash project 
Regulation of lakes 

Totals 



Estimate No. i. 


Estimate No. 2 


5,500,000 . 


3,400,000 


2,000,000 


2,000,000 


1 ,000,000 


1 ,000,000 


2,000,000 


2,000,000 


500,000 . 


500,000 


2,000,000 


. 2,000,000 


13,000,000 . 


. 10,900,000 



The Irrigation Problems of the Nile. 



239 



If to the above be added the expenditure estimated 
for Eg^'pt, \Tz. : 

Raising the Assouan dam . . . . . . 500,000 

Remodelling the Rosetta and Damietta 

branches . . . . . . . . 900,000 

Conversion of Upper Egj'pt basins . . . . 5,000,000 

Two barrages between Assout and Kena • • 2,000,000 



Total 


. . 8,400,000 


The totals thus become : — 




Estimate Xo. i. 


Estimate No. 2. 
£E. 


Soudan .. .. 13,000,000 . 


10,900,000 


Egypt ■ - - • 8.400,000 . 


8.400,000 



Total . . 21,400,000 . . 19,300,000 

Both of these are very large figures indeed. There 
could, of course, be no question of carrying out such a 
programme in any very short space of time. In fact, 
even if the money were available, it is scarcely possible 
that these w^orks could be executed under a period of 
10 to 1 5 years under the most favourable circumstances. 

The time is not readj- for many of them either, says 
Sir William Garstin. If I were asked to point out those 
which I consider the most urgent, and which could 
probably be carried out in a comparatively short period, 
I should select the following : — 

£^- 

1 . The raising of the Asouan dam . . 500,000 

2. The remodelling of the Rosetta and 

Damietta branches . . . . . . 900,000 

3. The remodelling of the Bahr-el-Gebel . . 5,500,000 

4. A portion of the Lxnver Eg>-pt canal 

system . . . . . . . . 500,000 

5. A portion of the Upper Egypt canal 

system . . . . . . . . 2,500,000 

6. One weir in the Nile between Assout and 

Kena . . . . . . . . 1,000,000 

7. A weir in the Blue Nile . . . . . . i ,000,000 

8. A portion of the Ghezireh canal system . . 500,000 

9. The Gash project . . . . . . . . 500,000 



Total .. .. .. 12,900,000 

If in No. 3 the smaller project was to be selected. 

this estimate would be reduced by /E.2, 100,000, and 

would amount to ;^. 10,800,000. 

The remaining works in the list, amounting to a 

figure of /E. 8, 500,000, could be carried out after the 

completion of the first portion of the programme. 

LORD CROMER ON THE SCHEMES. 

The following notes are from Lord Cromer's 
despatch to the Marquess of Lansdowne, covering 
Sir William Garstin 's report : — 

It must be borne in mind that in each of the cases 
mentioned by Sir William Garstin, the financial, and in 
most cases the engineering, features of the particular 
proposals require further study. 

I have no hesitation in saying that Sir William 
Garstin's programme may safely be adopted in the 
following sense — that the aim of the Egyptian Govern- 



ment should be to work gradually up to the execution 
of the schemes which he proposes. The main question 
to be decided is, what portions of the general plan 
require relatively early treatment, and what portions, 
on the other hand, can be left for future consideration. 

Broadly speaking, the whole plan is based on the 
principle of utilising the waters of the White Nile for the 
benefit of Eg\-pt, and of the Blue Nile for the Soudan. 

Your lordship wiU observe that Sir WiUiam Garstin 
proposes to employ an additional staff in order to study 
the various projects to which he alludes. This is the 
only point which requires an early decision. The cost 
will be ;^E. 24,000 for the first year. The money will be 
granted. .\ more difi&cult question is to find the right 
men for the work. This matter will be left in Sir 
William Garstin's hands. 

Sir William Garstin estimates that when the whc^e 
of his Eg\'ptian project is carried out, 750,000 acres of 
land will be converted from basin into perennial 
irrigation ; 100,000 acres will be made capable of being 
irrigated by pumps ; 800,000 additional acres will be 
brought under cultivation, and that at very moderate 
rates the increased revenue to be derived from taxation 
will be £'E. 1 ,205.000 a year. 

Your k>rdship will obser\-e that Sir W'illiam Garstin 
estimates that, w^hen the whole of his scheme is com- 
pleted 1,000,000 acres in the Soudan will be brought 
under cultivation, and that the direct return in the 
shape of land tax, at £T. 50 an acre, would be ;^. 500,000 
a year. The whole, or at all events the greater peirt. 
of this money would, of course, be utilised to diminish 
the Egj-ptian contribution now paid annually to the 
Soudan Government. In fact, the only hope of 
rendering the Soudan ultimately self-supporting lies in 
judicious expenditure on railways and irrigation. 

All that it is proposed to do for the moment is to spend 
;^.24,ooo a year on the employment of a competent 
staff to examine more closelj- into some of the projects 
to which Sir William Garstin has directed attention. 

Subject to any changes which the result of further 
inquiry- may necessitate, an attempt will be made in the 
relatively near futm-e to carr\- out an Eg3,-ptian railway 
and irrigation pr<^;ramme, involving a capital exi>endi- 
ture of ;^. 5, 400.000. This prc^amme will involve 
raising the .\ssouan dam and remodelling the Rosetta 
and Damietta branches of the Nile. 

In the Soudan, subject to the same conditions as in 
the case of Eg>-pt. an attempt will be made to undertake 
the Gash project, and in due time — that is to say, 
when the Suakim-Berber Railway is completed — to 
still further impro\-e the railway- communication. 

This general programme is quite sufficiently ambitious 
for the present. It will by itself take some time to 
execute. As events de\'elop. and as further information 
— both technical and financial — is obtained, it will be 
capable of modification and possiblj- of extension. 

I cannot close this despatch without recording my 
opinion that all interested in Eg^-ptian affairs owe a 
deep debt of gratitude to Sir William Garstin for the 
care and the conspicuous talent with which he hcis 
treated^this very important question. 



THE CHAHPION COALCUTTER. 

DISCUSSION BY THE MEMBERS OF THE MINING INSTITUTE OF SCOTLAND. 



THE members of the IMining Institute of Scotland 
recently had an opportunity of examining the 
Champion coal-cutter in operation at the Wishaw Coal 
Company's Dalzell Colliery, Motherwell. 

This machine is of the percussive type, and consists 
of five essential parts, viz. : (i) Supporting Column, 
with clamp. Weight according to length. (A 5 ft. 
column weighs 200 lb.) (2) Segment, no lb. (3) Drill, 
largest size, 239 lb. (4) Extension Rods (five), 20, 40, 
60, 80, and 100 in. long respectively, for cutting to a 
depth of 7 ft. Average total weight, 80 lb. (5) Cutting 
Bit. 

In the course of the ensuing discussion, Mr. R. W. 
Dron said that the Wishaw Coal Company, Ltd., 
had used the Champion coal-cutting machine for the 
past three or four months. One machine was intro- 
duced experimentally, and they were so satisfied 
with the results that they were erecting plant with 
the intention of installing more. The practical results 
of the machine were satisfactory, although they 
did not come up to the estimates given by Dr. Simon 
in his paper.* They found, so far as they had gone, 
that a machine could deal with two places per day. 
These places were 1 1 ft. wide, and the coal was under- 
cut to a maximum depth of 5 ft., giving Tan under- 
cutting, altogether, of 1 10 square feet ; and in addition 
the machine also put in two shot-holes. The work of 

* " Trans. Inst. M.E., 1903," vol. xxvi., page 322. 



a shift of two men, who were controlling the machine, 
was represented by an undercut in two places, 
charging the shot-holes, firing them, and leaving the 
coal on the pavement. The coal was cut in a seam 
4 ft. 9 in. to 5 ft. thick, and the amount produced 
was about 13 tons. He calculated that the cost of 
a ton of coal put on the pavement was is. 4id., the 
actual cutting cost was is. id. per ton, 2d. per ton 
was allowed for powder, while the upkeep of the 
machine and fuel were reckoned at i^d. per ton. 
The machine was employed in hard coal, nevertheless, 
he was satisfied that the work was being done, as 
compared with ordinary pick-labour, at a reduction 
in cost of from 20 to 25 per cent. As to the time 
occupied, he (Mr. Dron) found that at Dalzell Colliery, 
with two men on the machine, it took 3 hours and 
20 minutes to cut a place 1 1 ft. wide and 5 ft. deep, 
and to bore two holes. 

Dr. Simon had expressed the opinion that a man 
and a boy could efficiently control the machine, but 
it had been his (Mr. Dron's) experience that this type 
of boy was not to be found in Scotland. It was 
necessary to explain, however, that of the 3 hours 
20 minutes referred to, the actual time spent in 
cutting was i hour 50 minutes ; and the balance 
of the time was spent in lifting the machine into 
position ; and included stoppages, slight breakdowns, 
and so on. He (Mr. Dron) had given a fair average 
of what the machine could do, and what they had 




CHAMl'KJX COAL CUTTEK SKT KOK HOLING OK UNUEKCUTTING. KKADY TO START. 

(MO) 



The Champion Coal=Cutter. 



241 




ILLUSTR.\TIOX SHOWING SHtAK AND LNDERCLT FINISHED. 



been able to get out of the men in a shift of eight hours 
from bank to bank ; and he hoped to get better 
results out of these machines when they commenced 
working in more regular places. In the meantime, 
the machines were being appUed to " deficient places," 
where the coal was more costly and more difl&cult 
to work than in ordinary places. The machines had 
proved ver\- useful in cutting through hitches and 
stonework of that kind, while they had proved 
advantageous in driving stone-mines. In the softer 
rock the machine was not verj- beneficially employed, 
but in hard rock it was certainly profitable to use the 
machine. 

The coal-cutter had also been employed in a seam, 
2 ft. 4 in. thick, for the purpose of driving a dook, 
30 ft. wide. They found that two men took 8 hours 
to make that undercut, \\-ithout being able to bore 
the holes. The principal difficulty was that the 
place was very wet, and the hoUng-dirt became 
clogged in the undercut. Even in this case, the 
machine was cheaper than pick labour. 

A good feature of the Champion machine, to his mind, 
was that the expenditure on repairs was very small. 
Then again, a workman of ordinary intelligence could 
learn to operate the machine successfully in the course 
of a week. The trials at Dalzell CoUierj' had all been 
made in hard coal, which could not be worked by 
manual labour at a profitable rate per ton.: A Morgan- 
Gardner electric heading-machine, weighing about 
30 cwt., had been introduced for the purpose of 
cutting through this hard coal, but they found that 
the cost was about 6d. per ton more than with hand- 



labour, chiefly because the machine was unwieldy ; 
and from 2 to 2j^ hours were required to shift the 
machine from one place to another. People who 
were satisfied with a moderate result would-be quite 
pleased with the Champion machine, as it enabled 
them to work fairly hard coal at miners' ordinary 
rates. 

Dr. A. Simon said that the Champion machine 
had been tried at the Cannock and Rugeley CoUieries, 
in ordinary- strata, with good results. The rock was 
of moderate texture — not very hard. Some of the 
men had tendered to drive a place through a fault 
at the rate of £'2 per unit ; but one of the men, who 
appyeared to know how the machine should be handled, 
tendered for the work at ;^i per unit. He got the 
contract and did excellent work, making more than 
his ordinary wages. Generally speaking, the machine had 
not, so far, proved successful in its operations in ^oil, 
shale. At Aldridge CoUierj-, near Walsall, the^Champion 
machine had cut, in consecutive shifts of 8 hours 
360, 340, and 350 square feet in a fire-clay found on the 
top of the coal. In other cases, where the fire-clay 
was located underneath the coal, the rate of speed 
was in excess of cutting in the coal ; but, on the other 
hand, it sometimes happened that the reverse was 
the case. Generally speaking, reasonable and good 
results could be got from the use of the machine in 
fire-clay, if no clogging occurred. To overcome 
any eventual clogging a special device had been 
adopted by which a jet of water was made to play 
intermittently from the centre of the cutting-bit. 
Mr. Henry King (Lanemark) said that the Champion 



16 



242 



Page's Magazine. 



machine had been in use at his coUiery for about two 
months. It was first tried in the 8-ft. seam, com- 
prising a bottom coal about 3 ft. thick, then about 
2 ft. of dirt, and finally the top coal. The machine 
was set for holing in the dirt immediately on the top 
of the bottom coal ; when going uphill and driving 
ahead, it was found that the men were kept busily 
employed in redding up the dirt. After a week's 
trial, the machine was removed to another seam, 
consisting of 4J ft. to 4^ ft. of ordinary house-coal, with 
9 in. of cannel coal. The holing in that seam (and 
the seam was still being worked) was on the top of 
the house-coal, lying immediately underneath the 
cannel-coal. The place was being worked by stoop- 
and-room, and the men were holing two places in 
each eight hours' shift. Each place was about 9 ft. 
wide, and the men were holing to a depth of 6 ft. to 8 ft. 
Two men could easily move the machine about, when 
it was in a level-course working ; but in steep workings 
assistance was required. There was more difficulty, 
to his mind, in shearing than holing with the Champion 
machine, because so much more dust was produced. 
There was another difficulty in connection with 
shearing, namely, that when the drill missed the 
coal or stone and struck into empty space, it flew 
out and stuck. Attempts had been made to square 
the corners of the cuts, but they were never squared 
in the true sense of squaring. 

Mr. Thomas Thomson (Hamilton) said that when 
he saw the Champion machine working some time 
ago, it certainly cut to an equal depth all round. The 
manager, Mr. McBride, said that if the machine could 
be allowed to run without squaring the corners, it 
would do one-half more work. He (Mr. Thomson) 
was of opinion that there was no advantage in squaring 
the corners, because the coal could be blasted off in a 
semicircle as well as if the face were kept straight ; 
but, in the case of a coal with good backs, etc., the 
results might be different. He was also of opinion 
that when the coal was holed, the machine did not 
require to be removed, and could bore holes straight 
forward and into the sides as required, which he 
thought would do as well as shifting the machine 
from side to side. 

Mr. R. W. Dron said that the Wishaw Coal Company 
started to drive a mine by using the machine for 
channelling ; they found that this system was not 
economical, being no cheaper than hand-labour, so 
they took it out again. When, however, they came 
into the hard rock the machine was put back into 
the mine ; and when they had passed through the 
hard rock, the machine was once more withdrawn. 

Mr. W. Smith (Dalmellington) said that in the 
Wishaw Coal Company's pit that day the Champion 
machine ran for 30 minutes. The holing was 2 ft. 3 in. 
under in the centre; at i^ft. from the centre, 
it was I ft. 6 in. ; and it was only 9 in. deep at the 
corners. The length of the work was 8| ft. 



Mr. James Barrowman said that there had been no 
attempt to cut out the corners in the course of the 
tests made that day. 

The President (Mr. R. T. IMoore) remarked that a 
miner in his ordinary working of a place did not square 
the corners every time. 

Mr. Henry King said that very little attempt was 
made to square the corners at his colliery. 

Dr. A. Simon said that the squarings of the corners 
had been a difficulty with several users of the 
Champion machine. Mr. Smith had mentioned that, 
in connection with the operations at Motherwell 
that day, the holing was 2 ft. 3 in. deep in the middle, 
and only 9 in. at the sides. The members were aware, 
however, that the longer the rod with which the 
cutting was made, the flatter would be the arc. Any- 
how he could assure the members that there was no 
difficulty in squaring out the corners, if only the 
operators would take the trouble to think a little 
of what they were doing. Mr. H. King stated that 
one drawback to the machine was the tendency which 
it showed for sticking or stopping in front when 
missing the solid coal-face in striking. He, however, 
could provide Mr. King with a machine which did 
not stick in front, but it would not cut the same 
amount of square feet per day as the other ; a novice 
preferred a machine which did not stop, though the 
skilled operator gave his preference to the machine 
which did most work and he could handle the machine 
so that it did not stop. Mr. King had also remarked 
that the Champion machine did not work so fast 
at shearing as at holing. That day, on their visit 
to the colliery at Motherwell, the members had seen 
the reverse : the holing took 35 minutes, and the 
shearing to a slightly greater depth, 3 ft. 6 in. in a 
5|-ft. seam, only occupied some 18 or 19 minutes. 

Mr. R. W. Dron said that, in order to avoid a false 
impression getting abroad, it would be as well to add 
that the shearing had been made in a very soft coal 
and the holing in a hard coal. 

Dr. A. Simon, continuing, said that the holing 
was made in what was described as hard coal, close 
to the burnt coal ; whereas the shearing had been 
performed through all the layers of the seam. In 
other mines, where soft layers alternated with hard, 
he found that the shearing required more skill and 
time than the holing. Many of the so-called draw- 
backs pointed out in the course of the discussion, 
were attributable to the fact that the men in charge 
of the machine had not yet acquired a sufficient 
acquaintance with it ; and usually most of the above- 
mentioned drawbacks vanished as soon as a rate for 
piece-work could be arranged. 

At the close of the discussion a vote of thanks 
was awarded to t\ie Wishaw Coal Company, Ltd., 
and to Dr. Simon. For the accompanying illustra- 
tions we are indebted to the Champion Channelling 
Machines, Ltd. 



. _x. 1 


id 




imT It 


1 




^ 



NEW BRIDGE CARRYING THE LONDON, TILBURY AND SOUTHEND RAILWAY OVER THE MAIN- 
LINE, SIDINGS, AND SHOPS OF THE NORTH LONDON RAILWAY COMPANY AT BOW. 

Showing trestles for temporary timber staging. 



Alterations on the London^ Tilbury and Southend Railway* 

HOW SUSPENSION OF TRAFFIC IS AVOIDED. 



THE London, Tilbury and Southend Railway is 
providing for its largely increased traffic by 
doubling its rail capacity from Bromley to Barking ; 
thus between these points in future there will be four 
pairs of rails. At the same time the opportunity has 
been taken of carrying out structural alterations and 
renewing some of the bridges, which have borne the 
brunt of the traffic since the opening of the railway 
in 1854. 

The New Bridge at Bow. 

Among the latter was a bowstring L : Jge carrying- 
the London, Tilbury and Southend Rii'.way over 
the main line sidings and shops of the North London 
Railway Company at Bow. The new bridge, of i6o-ft. 
span, destined to replace this, has been built on a heavy 
timber staging alongside, and its transfer to the 
proper abutments during the small hours of a Sunday 
morning, was a feat of which the engineers and 
contractors may feel justifiably proud. In June, 1902, 
a short line was opened between Whitechapel and Bow, 
connecting up the Metropolitan District Railway with 
the London, Tilbury and Southend line. This branch, 
which has been largely responsible for the augmented 
traffic, joins the main line near the London side of the 
new bridge, the necessary interference with the points 
at this junction adding considerably to the difficulty 
of getting the permanent way in order when the bridge 
was brought into place. 



Placing the Bridge in Position. 

The contour of the bridge and its leading character- 
istics and dimensions will be seen from the accom 
panying dra\ving and photos. It was erected complete 
with railway track, on the temporar^- staging, by Satur- 
day, the 9th July, the whole mass weighing 420 tons. 

The old bridge had, in the meantime, been gradually 
dismantled until only the flooring, supported by heavy- 
timbering, remained. The actual work to be done, 
therefore, was the removal of the permanent way and 
the immense mass of wood which had served to 
carry the line pending the completion of the new 
bridge and the hauling of the latter into position. 

A large force of workmen foregathered at the spot 
on the Saturday evening, giving the place the appear- 
ance of a hive of industry, and at 12.40 a.m. on Sunday, 
immediately after the passage of the last train, the 
removal of the timbering commenced, the process 
being rendered more difficult owing to the fact that 
no dumping ground was available anywhere near the 
scene of operations. On the completion of this clear- 
ance, which was effected by 4 a.m., the new bridge was 
gradually carried over upon trollies running on the 
abutments to its final position — a distance of 30 ft. 
This operation, carried out by means of hand winches 
and tackle, was finished at 6.10 a.m., and two hours 
later the bridge had been lowered by means of powerful 
hydraulic jacks into its final position. 

The permanent way at each end was put in order 



(M^) 



16 A 




(J44) 



Alterations on the L., T. and S. R. 



245 



by 10.30 a.m. on Sunday, and at 11.20 a.m. the first 
passenger train crossed the new bridge. The ac- 
companying photo shows the bridge in position as 
viewed from the North London Railway, (A similar 
bridge to carrj- the additional rails for the widening is 
now being built practically in situ, on the spot vacated.) 
The contractors for the bridge, Messrs. Head, 
Wrightson, and Co., of Stockton-on-Tees, were repre- 
sented by Mr. Septimus Young, their London manager, 
and by Mr. W. Clark, works manager. The bridge was 
designed by Mr. James R. Robertson, M.Inst. C.E., the 
railway company's chief engineer. It has been carried 
out under the supervision of Mr. Sydney H. Ellis, 
A. M.Inst. C.E., resident engineer, who courteously 
showed our representative over the works. 

Further Alterations in Progress. 

The three-quarters of a mile of main line under the 
supervision of Mr. Ellis, presents alterations in progress 
at almost every turn, more than half a dozen bridges 
being under reconstruction. A new platform 
is being erected at Bromley Station, at one end of 



which preparations are in an advanced stage, to carry 
the additional rails over Devons Road, while at the 
other end of the platform the bridge carrying St. 
Leonard Street over the line is being widened in order 
to meet the requirements of the L.C.C. 

A short distance down the line the largest of the 
bridges now under construction is in course of erection, 
and will carry the additional pair of rails over the River 
Lea and Bow Creek. It will consist of two spans 
each of 200 ft., and will be carried on six cast iron 
piers, resting on the London clay and filled with 
concrete and brickwork. The contractors for this 
work are Messrs. T. Docwra and Sons, of Balls 
Pond Road, N. At the time of our visit one of these 
piers was being tested with a load of 760 tons of steel 
rails. The piers under this treatment have been found 
to sink evenly about f in., which was approximately 
the margin allowed by Mr. Ellis. The lattice girder 
bridge, which carries the existing rails at this spot, 
is only fifteen years old, and does not need renewal- 
The accompanying photographs were taken specially 
for Page's Mag/vzine by Messrs. Booker and Sullivan. 




LOXDOX, TILBl'RY .VXD SOUTHEXD RAILWAY. 

Cross section of the new bridge placed in position 
at Bow in the early hours of Sunday, 
the loth of July. 





COMMANDER STATHAM'S appreciative story of 
the Britannia comes at an opportune moment, 
for the old vessel's days — as a training ship at all 
events — are now practically numbered. Before long 
the familiar twin hulls, with the connecting bridge 
and the flotilla of steam and sailing boats clustered 
about them, will have disappeared, and the naval 
cadets will be installed in the imposing college now 
under construction at Dartmouth. Students of naval 
engineering will read with interest the account of the 
many vicissitudes through which the complex problem 
of training the young naval officer had to pass before 
the present system was evolved. The author takes 
us back to the eighteenth century, when the system 
in vogue was in a very nebulous condition. As 
a rule the aspirant to the Service entered as a 
" Captain's Servant," or " King's Letter Boy " ; 
there was no qualifying examination to be undergone, 
and the education and equipment of the youngsters 
depended to a great extent upon their individual 
observant faculties. There was no age limit and 
many absurd incongruities were prevalent. 

In 1733 the Royal Naval Academy was opened 
in Portsmouth. In 1807, the whole curriculum 
was re-organised and the institution was termed 
the Royal Naval College. This establishment 
was closed in 1837, and for about twenty years there 
was again a total absence of any organised method. 
At the end of this period. Captain Harris was authorised 
to open up a new epoch in the historj' of naval education. 
The fourth Britannia, the one in which Captain Harris 
began his celebrated work, was at Sebastopol. In 
1862 she was brought lo Portland, and was eventually 
stationed at Dartmouth. Seven years later she was 
superseded by the fifth and present vessel. This year 
saw the introduction of a competitive entry examina- 
tion. The subsequent history of the Britannia is a 

* " The Story of the Britannia," the Training Ship 
for Naval Cadets, with some account of previous 
methods of naval education and of the new scheme of 
1903. By Commander E. P. Statham, R.N. Cassell 
and Co., Ltd. 12s. 6d. 



recital of continual changes and tentative methods 
formed as attempts to constitute a thoroughly prac- 
ticable system of naval training. 

Commander Statham claims that whatever may 
be the views held by various officers and experts 
as to the advisability of using a stationary ship in 
preference to a college, there can be no doubt as to the 
high state of perfection which has been attained in 
the Britannia, whether from a sanitary, a disciplinary, 
or an educational point of view. The present 
instructional staff consists of the chief naval instructor, 
eight naval instructors, two French masters, two 
drawing masters, an English master, and one natural 
science master. The course of studies and seaman- 
ship at present pursued is detailed in the appendix, 
and it will be observed that instructions as to working 
sails and masts, manceuvring a ship under sail, etc., 
are now dispensed with. All fitting of rigging is also 
abolished, and only such bends, hitches, knots, and 
splices are retained as may be occasionally useful. 
It is interesting to note that of 1,770 cadets who were 
examined during the last ten years, only 27 failed, 
and the last five examinations up to August, 1903, 
have been free from failures. 

The new regulations are of a revolutionary character. 
The principal points are as follows : The average age 
of entry is between 12 and 13 ; all candidates are 
admitted by the nomination of the Admiralty ; all 
are liable, at the expiration of their training, to be 
placed on the strength as sub-lieutenants, engineer 
sub-lieutenants, or subalterns of marines ; but the 
wishes of each officer will be consulted as far as is 
compatible with the needs of the Service. In giving 
nominations, preference will be given, other things 
being equal, to those applicants whose parents or 
guardians declare for them that they are prepared 
to enter any of the three branches. 

Proceeding to describe the arrangements which 
are to supplant the old course. Commander Statham 
writes : Instruction will comprise an extension of 
the present Britannia course, and a thorough elemen- 
tary instruction in physics, marine engineering, etc., 



(246 



The Training of Naval Cadets. 



247 




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No industry has felt the keenness of foreign 
competition, or is making more energetic 
efforts to meet this, than the British optical trade, 
in which, at the present moment, we have a splendid 
illustration of an industry waking up from a period 
of lethargy and endeavouring to recover lost ground. 

Up to the middle of last century, the users of 
optical and scientific instruments all the world over 
came to the English optician for their requirements. 
Jesse Ramsden and others of the industry had 
achieved a world-wide reputation for the accuracy 
of their work, and examples of their dividing and 
screw cutting are in existence that could scarcely 
be beaten to-day. 

The invention of the achromatic lens and the 
technical manipulation of optical glass was brought 
to perfection as the result of the work of the English 
optician. The available glasses, however, were then few, 
and it was soon seen by both opticians and scientists 
that any further advancements could only be made 
by the introduction of new substances into optical 
glass making. Many efforts were made in this 
country by private individuals to achieve this end, 
notably by the Rev. Mr. Harcourt, but a series of experi- 
ments necessary for the commercial production on 
any scale were of such a costly character as to place 
them outside the scope of private enterprise. Rewards 
were offered by several institutions, both at home 
and abroad (mostly abroad), for the production of 
these glasses, but it was left to the enterprising 
German scientists to bring about the desired results. 
A considerable sum of money was placed in the 
hands of Professors Abbe and Schott by the Prussian 
Diet and Board of Education, which resulted in a 
series of glasses possessing the necessary greater 
difference in the ratio of dispersion and refraction 
being placed upon the market, and the foundation 
of the celebrated Jena Glass Works was the direct 
result, ri ;■■ 

The German optician was not slow to avail himself 
of the work of his scientists, and the industry in Ger- 
many has since made rapid strides, whilst many 
attempts made by the English optician to retain 
and get back some of this optical^business have re- 
sulted in failure. 



One of the branches of the industry in which the 
foreigners obtained almost a monopoly was that of 
field-glass making, and within the last few years 
several new and improved types of glasses have been 
introduc6cl by German makers, notably the type 
known as prism binoculars. These glasses, when 
carefully produced, possess many advantages over 
the old forms of binoculars, and just as long as there 
was no competition in the English market they were 
sold at high prices by the German makers. 

It was principally through the enterprise of Mr. 
James Aitchison, the well-known optician of 428, 
Strand, and numerous branches, that this state of 
affairs has been remedied and that it is now possible 
to buy English-made field-glasses of equal and better 
quality than the German, at lower prices. After a 
careful investigation of the economic condition of the 
optical industry both on the Continent and at home, 
Mr. Aitchison was impressed with the value of 
scientific method as a commercial factor, and the 
first step towards the accomplishment of his purpose 
was the equipment of an optical laboratory for 
utilitarian optical research, illustrations of which 
appear on the opposite page. Here, needless to say, 
nothing is left to chance, and no optical work of an 
experimental character is attempted in the work- 
shop before careful design and mathematical calcula- 
tion in the laboratory has proved its practicability. 

The difference in the value of Continental and 
English labour and the absence of any available 
body of well-trained men in the English optical trade 
was a factor which had to be considered in the settle- 
ment of the methods of production. Nothing but 
the most perfect workmanship was admissible, and 
at the same time economic production in considerable 
quantity was absolutely necessary in order to suc- 
cessfully meet competition. The Continental makers 
had already such a hold upon the English market 
that it was clear an advantage both in quality and 
in price would have to be given to purchasers in order 
to keep up sales with the rate of production. 

Messrs. Aitchison and Co. began their opera- 
tions by settling upon the smallest unit of output 
that could be turned out to fulfil these conditions. 
It was found that an output necessitating the division 



(248) 




INTERIOR VIEWS OF MESSRS. AITCHISOX AXD COMPANY'S OPTICAL LABORATORY. 



(249) 



250 



Page's Magazine. 



of work among twenty hands was the smallest 
quantity that could be made economically, and it was 
only by the continuous production of their unit of 
output in their unit of time that economic production 
became at all possible. 

Accurate standards of operation have also been great 
factors promoting the desired end. Messrs. Aitchison 
and Co.'s method of standardising lens curvatures 
and proving truth of the surfaces is very inter- 
esting, and the utilisation of the phenomena known 
as the Newton Rings, or the colours of interference 
fringes, enables them to make a wave length of light 
their unit of measurement and deal with a thousandth 
part of a millimetre as easily as the engineer will deal 
with an inch. An absolutely true test-plane having 
been carefully made from transparent material in 
the first place, the surfaces to be checked are placed 
in contact with this. If the surface is equally true 
with the test-plane, the air film between the two 
surfaces will be so immeasurably thin that the light 
passing through is split into the chromatic colours 
of the spectrum, according to the thickness and wave 
length. It is possible by this method to work surfaces 
nine inches in diameter that do not vary a fraction of 
a wave length in any part. The same method is used 
for standardising curves ; a standard curve of exact 
radius is worked as a test plate, and the lens surfaces 
have to be so exact that they only show one colour 
ring over the whole of the surface when in contact 
with the test plate. 

Messrs. Aitchison and Co., in their determination 
that their methods should be original and in no 
sense a copy of Continental methods, instituted 
a careful series of experiments with all the different 
abrasive and polishing processes for optical work, 
the only aim being economical production, and the 
only arbitrator, the cost book. The result was a 



demonstration that the law of the survival of the fittest 
applies to workshop processes much the same as in 
other affairs. It was established that some of the 
older and simpler methods, depending in a great 
measure upon the intelligence of the workman, are 
the most economical where perfect work is required. 

It was found impossible to devise a purely mechanical 
process for the production of perfect optical surfaces 
without the supervision of a more or less intelligent 
workman, and many of the machines that have 
been devised for this purpose were found less 
economical and of little value unmixed with the 
brains controlling them. The necessity of in- 
troducing a more intelligent type of workman into 
the optical workshop was so appareint that, as an en- 
couragement to this end, Mr. Aitchison founded a 
scholarship at the Northampton Institute, which by 
the way is the centre of technical optical instruction 
in London. This scholarship is open for public 
competition and is tenable for two years. 

Another economic factor of extreme importance is 
shown by the careful arrangement of the lighting 
of the machine shops. These are situated in the 
basement of the building, and are consequently depen- 
dent upon artificial light. It was found that the 
introduction of inverted arc lamps as a source of 
lighting was accompanied by a distinct improve- 
ment in the output, which more than made up for 
the extra cost and maintenance. 

The value of international competition is well 
demonstrated by the success of Mr. Aitchison's efforts 
The German makers have been compelled to drop 
their prices, and therefore, through the unaided 
efforts of a single firm, many thousand pounds 
annually have been prevented from going from this 
country into the pockets of the State-aided German 
manufacturers. 



THE CHIEF ENGINEER OF THE PANAMA CANAL. 



Mr. John Findley Wallace, who has been appointed 
by President Roosevelt, chief engineer of the Panama 
Canal, will receive a salary of $25,000 a year. Mr. 
Wallace obtained his education for the engineering 
profession at Monmouth College, Illinois. Starting 
as rodman in the service of the Carthage and Quincy 
Railroad, he successively filled the posts of assistant- 
engineer in the United States Engineering Corps at 
Rock Island, Illinois ; engineer-in-chief of the Peoria 
and Farmington Railway and of the Iowa Central 
Railway. The latter undertaking may be said to 
have made his reputation as a bridge builder. 

In 1886 he undertook a series of surveys for the 
Union Pacific Railway, subsequently acting as resident 
engineer to the Santa Fe Railway. For the past three 
years he has been general manager of the Illinois 
Central Railroad. He has been president of the 
American Societj' of Civil Engineers and of other 
important societies. 

At Panama he is likely to add fresh laurels to his 
career, though the position is anything but a sinecure, 



and Mr. Wallace is probably as much alive to this 
fact as anyone in America. He has summarised 
the task which lies before him as follows : — 

" The construction of the Panama Canal involves 
problems covering the entire field of civil engineering. 
There are two big harbours to construct at Colon 
and Panama ; extensive surveys to be made to 
determine which of the five plans proposed is the 
most economical and commercially advantageous ; 
and extensive borings to determine the cost of locks 
and dams. Great works must be constructed with 
a view to controlling the Chagres river, which rises 
from twenty to sixty feet sometimes in the course 
of twenty-four hours, and which follows the route 
of the canal for twenty miles. Immense reservoirs 
must be constructed in th3 mountains to provide 
water supply for the upper reaches of the canal, to 
furnish power for lighting it with electricity throughout 
its length, and supply water to the large cities. There 
are many other problems of almost Vqual magnitude." 



.*i 



X< 



i^ 



■<■'////. 



^ 



A 50-Ton Electric Crane 

FOR THE 

L. & S. W. Ry. 



'^- 



^ 



:^^ 



1 



THIS crane was de- 
signed and con- 
structed by Messrs. 
Stothert and Pitt, Ltd., 
of Bath, to the order of 
the London and South- 
Western Railway Com- 
pany, for use at their 
new graving dock at 
Southampton. The elec- 
trical equipment was 
supplied by the Allge- 
meine Elektricitiits- 
Gesellschaft, of Berlin. 
The crane was built 
under the supervision of 
Mr. D. Drummond, the 
railway company's en- 
gineer, and the electrical 
gear was inspected by 
Mr. J. G. W. Aldridge, 
of 9, Victoria Street, 
S.W. The crane is elec- 
trically driven through- 
out by separate motors 
for each motion. 
The maximum radius of the crane for 50-ton loads 
is 87 ft., at which radius the jib lies at an angle of 
22 degrees from the horizontal ; the proof load at this 
radius is 70 tons. The derricking gear enables the gear 
to be raised — with the maximum load suspended — 
to a minimum radius of 47 ft., at which radius the jib 
stands at an angle of 1 5 degrees from the vertical. 

The principal dimensions of the crane are as follow : 
gauge, rail centres, 25 ft. 6 in. ; clear height under 
truck cross girders, 1 5 ft. ; diameter of roller path, 25 ft. 
6 in. centres ; wheel base, 30 ft. ; length of jib, 85 ft. ; 
height of the jib head at maximum radius, 60 ft. ; 
height of the jib head at the maximum radius, 103 ft. ; 
radius to centre of tail ballast, 32 ft. ; height from rails 
to circular rack, 23 ft. ; height from rails to top of king 
post, 56 ft. 

The crane runs on twenty central flanged steel-tyred 
wheels arranged for a twin rail track. Each axle 
bearing has four volute steel springs on either side of 
the running wheels, making 106 springs in all. The 
travelling gear at the running wheels is of special 
construction on account of the play of the springs. 

The jib is of the double boom, lattice braced tj-pe 
composed of four main angles to each boom, and cross- 
braced at ends and middle. The derricking ropes cire 
12 part, 5 J in. circumference, reeved double, two parts 



leading from the barrel, which is grooved right and left 
hand. 

The lifting ropes are 4+ in. circumference, reeved 
double, two parts off the barrel, which is also grooved 
right and left hand. These ropes have a factor of safety 
of eight times when dealing with the maximum load. 

The back part of the house encloses the lifting and 
derricking crabs, the centre part contains the slewing 
and travelling motors and gearing, and the front part 
contains the controllers and resistances. On the upper 
part of the front of the house is built an elevated 
cabin for the driver, to which are brought 
all the operating levers. This arrangement 

gives a very extensive outlook for the driver in 
all directions, the cabin having windows on all four 
sides. 

The current b taken from the company's ground 
boxes by a length of cable to the junction box fixed to 
the inside of the crane truck, from whence it is carried 
by cables up through the centre pin, on the top of which 
is a double ring collector. The distribution is made 
from the switchboard in the driver's cabin to each 
controller and motor separately. 

The motor equipment is as follows : two 50 b.h.p. 
lifting motors arranged with series parallel control ; 
one 80 b.h.p. derricking motor ; one 50 b.h.p. travelling 
motor, and one 25 b.h.p. sle^ving motor. All the 
motors are of the enclosed tj'pe, series wound for 480 
volts continuous current. 

The first and second gear reductions are all machine- 
cut spur gear, except the first reduction of the derrick 
motion, for which a worm and worm wheel running in 
an oil bath are used. 

There are magnetic brakes to the lifting and derricking 
gears, arranged in series with the motors, and connected 
up to the first notches of the controllers. In addition 
to these are provided a mechanical foot brake for 
lowering out loads, and a slewing brake. The derrick 
gecir is provided with a special mechanical frictional 
resistance which comes into action when lowering out 
the jib. It is fitted on the end of the worm spindle, 
and is of the ratchet and pawl t>-pe, so arranged as to be 
automatically thrown out of gear when raising the 
jib. and vice versa. 

The whole of the first reduction gecirs £ire enclosed 
and run in oil. The undercarriage of the crane is 
constructed upon the lines of the maker's well-known 
Titan practice, and is strongly braced in all directions. 

The net weight of the crane is about 250 tons ; 
ballast in concrete blocks 70 tons ; making the weight 
of the crane in running order with load on about 375 
tons. 



(251) 




(aSJ) 




THE HON. 



CHARLES A. PARSONS. 



A LECTURE AND A PRESENTATION. 




AT the recent meeting of the British Association 
the Hon. Charles A. Parsons, President of the 
Engineering Section, devoted his address to the subject 
of invention, and pointed out the need of a re\-ision 
of the patent laws. What a waste of time, expense, 
and disapf)ointment would be avoided if in England 
the patentee were helped to find out easily what had been 
done previously, on the Unes adopted by the United 
States and German Patent Oflices, which ad\'ised the 
patentee after the receipt of his provisional specification 
of the chief anticipaton,- patents, dead or ahve I Ought 
we in England to rest content to see our patentees await- 
ing the report of the United States and German Patent 
Offices on their foreign equivalent specifications before 
filing their English patent claims ? Ought not our 
Patent Ofiice to give more facihties and assistance to 
the patentee ? It might be said that the United 
States and German Patent Offices reports ought to 
suffice to warn the English patentee. His own ex- 
perience had been that such protection was not entirely 
satisfactor\-. 

There were many problems of the highest importance 
in physics, engineering, chemistr\-, geology-, and the 
arts, of which the investigation might probably prove 
of great benefit to the human race, but would involve 
considerable, sometimes ver^• great, monetary- cost. 
In many cases no patents would give adequate pro- 
tection ; in some there was no subject-matter of 
novelty and importance involved. In others the 
probable duration of the investigation was so long 
that any initial patents would have expired before a 
commercial result could be reached. In any of these 
circumstances there would be no inducement to busi- 
ness men or financiers to undertake the risk. As an 
illustration of his meaning he took two investigations, 
one being the problem of aerial navigation, and the 
other the exploration of the lower depths of the earth. 
Incidentally the following estimate was given for the 
sinking of a twelve mile shaft, with air locks at each 
second or third mile, and a special cooUng process in 
advance of the sinkers, similar to the Belgian freezing 
svstem of M. Poesche ; — 





Cost. 


Time in 


Temperature 


Depth. 


£ 


Y«ars. 


of Rock. 


2 miles ... 


500,000 


10 


I22*'F. 


4 miles ._ 


... 1,100.000 


.. 25 . 


.. 152° 


6 miles ... 


... 1,800,000 


... 40 


182" 


^ miles ... 


... 2,700,000 


55 


212*' 


ID miles ... 


... 3,700,000 


... 70 - 


.. 242- 


12 miles .. 


... 5,000.000 


... 85 


.. 272" 



Discussing the changes in the laws which would 
place great pioneer research works on a sound financial 
basis, Mr. Parsons said that a Government grant, except 
for ver\- special purposes, seemed out of the question, 
seeing that the benefits to be derived were generally 
not confined to any one country-. An extension to the 
life of patents, now from fourteen to sixteen years in 
different countries, would be undoubtedly a step in the 
right direction. It would be of great benefit generally 
if some scale of duration of patents could be fixed 



internationally, the scale being fixed according to the 
subject-matter, the difficulty of the attack, and the past 
history of the subject, but more especially in view of 
the utihty of the invention. One of the chief objections 
raised by the Privy Council against the extension of 
patents in this countr\- had rightly been that undue 
prolongation was xmfair to the British public, seeing 
that abroad no prolongations were granted. Therefore, 
if the duration of patents for importimt matters was to 
be extended at home, it must also be extended abroad. 
One possible solution of this difficult question would 
be to place such matters under the jurisdiction of 
a central international committee, which would have 
the apportionment of the Ufe and privileges of patents 
and of the extension or curtailment of their duration, 
according to their handUng by the owners. A patent, 
to be fair to the patentee, ought in many cases to be 
analogous to an Act of Parliament or a pro\Tsional 
order. Would it not place matters in a fairer position, 
especially in the case of expensive and lengthy re- 
searches, to grant to those who pledged themselves to 
spend a suitable and minimum sum within a stated 
period on the research, a reasonable and fair monopoly, 
so that such person or sj-ndicate might, in the event of 
success, be in the position to reap a reasonable return 
for their expenditure and risk ? Some such measure 
would unquestionably give an immense stimulus to 
research and invention, by enabUng capital to be raised 
and works started on commercial lines in fields of 
great promise at present almost untouched. 

Mr. Balfour, in moving a vote of thanks to the 
lecturer, said he was glad that among the unfortunates 
in the world of invention they need not count the 
president of the section. The value of his great 
invention was recognised throughout civilised nations. 
Mr. Parsons had not laboured in vain, for he 
had seen the success and result of his labours. In 
Germany the value of his inventions had been so fullv 
recognised that the German Society of Civil Engineers 
had awarded him their gold medal, which Dr. Schroter 
had been deputed to present. 

Dr. Schroter, in seconding the vote of thanks, said 
no one was more entitled to speak on inventions than 
the president of the section, whose work had done so 
much for the advancement of engineering. He was 
proud to think that the German SocietyofCi\-il Engineers 
— which was the largest engineering societj', numbering 
19,000 members — was the first pubUcly to acknowledge 
the great merit of the steam turbine. At their last 
meeting at Frankfurt they had decided to award the 
gold medal to Mr. Parsons, accompanied by the diploma 
of the Society. Dr. Schroter then presented the medal 
and diploma to Mr. Parsons. 

Mr. Parsons, in returning thanks, said he had not 
intended to speak of the steam turbine, but he would 
point out that it was an instance of the manner in 
which many minds worked on a single subject. After 
he had taken the matter up he found that at least 100 
patents had been taken out for steam turbines, many 
of them of a similar nature. 

The vote of thanks was carried unanimously. 



• 253) 



Properties of British Standard Sections. 

Those who have been inquiring for No. 6. of 
the Engineering Standards Committee PubUcations 
will be glad to hear that this is now available 
and can be obtained from Mr. Leslie S. Robertson, 
M.Inst.C.E., secretary, from the publishers, Messrs. 
Crosby, Lockwood and Son, or through the book- 
sellers. It includes preface, definitions and formula?, 
and lists of the three committees engaged respectively 
upon sections used in shipbuilding, bridges and building 
construction, and railway rolling stock underframes. 
The British standard sections contained in this volume 
are as follows : List i, equal angles ; 2, unequal angles ; 
3, bulb angles; 4, bulb tees; 5, bulb plates; 6, Z 
bars ; 7, channels ; 8, beams ; 9, T bars. It will 
be readily understood that the preparation of this 
work has entailed a vast amount of labour, and we 
are pleased to receive it in the form of a volume that 
is made to wear and can be easily consulted. The 
mathematical preface contains useful informatio n on 
moments of inertia, ellipse of inertia, moments of 
resistance, etc. The volume is issued at ss. net. 



of the present year, the tonnage of vessels entering 
the dock, as compared with the figures for the corres- 
ponding period of 1903, had risen from 437,108 to 
565,097 tons. This is the best first half-year and 
the largest tonnage the Company has ever accom- 
modated from January to July in the history of the 
dock. 



Electric Light in Country Houses. 

The annexed illustration shows an example of a 
small lighting plant such as is often inquired for by 
those who live in the country or at a prohibitive 
distance from the nearest power station. The small 
dynamo is driven by one of Messrs. Fairbanks, 
Morse and Co.'s gasoline engines fitted with extra 
heavy fly-wheels. These outfits include engines of 
from two to six h.p., and are capable of lighting from 
20 to 60 sixteen-candle power lamps. The apparatus 
is also useful for charging storage batteries for auto- 
mobiles, or electric launches. During the day the 
engine is available for driving a pump for water supply, 
etc. 



Millwall Dock Company. 

At the half-yearly meeting of the Millwall Dock 
company, it was shown that during the first half 




A S.M.-VLr, l.ICHTINf. I'l.WT l(iK (.ol \lk^ IKU'SKS. 



Civil and Mechanical Engineers* Society. 

On the 1 2th ult the members of the above society paid 
an instructive visit to the Hydraulic Works of Messrs. 
James Simpson and Co., Ltd., at loi, 
Grosvenor Road, S.W. By the courtesy 
of the firm we reproduce on the 
opposi e page photos of two of the 
latest engines manufactured at these 
works. The lower photo shows a 
horizontal triple - expansion surface- 
condensing, high - duty Worthington 
pumping engine for Kimberley Water- 
works, to pump 1,042 gallons per 
minute, or 1,500,000 gallons per 24 
hours, against a total head, includ- 
ing friction, of 632 ft. The other 
view shows a triple expansion 
inverted vertical engine for Kolar 
Water Works, driving direct triplex 
double-acting pumps, to pump 695 
gallons ;per minute, or i.coo.ooo 
gallons per 24 hours, against a total 
head of 500 ft. 






(2.S4) 




VISIT OF THE CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS TO THE WORKS OF MESSRS JAMES SIMPSON AND 
CO., LTD. TWO OF THE FIRM's LATEST PRODUCTIONS. 

(For descriptions, see opposite page.) 
(255) 







i^tmsSf 



A l-COUPLED TENDER GOODS LOCOMOTIVE, 



BY 



The Humboldt Engineering Works Company, Kalk, near Cologne. 

This is one of the standard goods locomotives supplied to the Prussian State Railways. The 
Prussian State gives out orders for a few hundred locomotives of various descriptions yearly, 
which orders are divided amongst the principal German firms. 



Diameter of Cylinder 

Stroke of Piston 

Diameter of Driving Wheels 

Diameter of Trailing Wheels 

Length of Wheel Base 

Steam Pressure 

Fire Heating Surface of Tubes 

Fire Heating Surface of Fire Box. 



... 17I in. 


Total Fire Heating Surface 


... 1,198 sq. ft 


... 241111. 


Total Water Heating Surface 


... 1,444 sq. ft 


... 4«. 5^in. 


Grate Surface... 


... 21^ sq. ft. 


... 3 ft. 3fin. 


Contents of Water Tanli ' 


... 247 cu. ft. 


... 19ft. Sin. 


Space for Coals 


... 2 tons 


... iSolb. sq.in. 


Weight, Empty 


... 47 tons. 


... 1,113 sq. ft. 


Running Weight, Full 


... 60 tons. 


... 85 sq.ft. 







BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL. 

Messrs. John Brown and Co., of Clydebank, N.B., 
have placed an order with the Power-Gas Corporation 
Ltd., for a complete Mond Gas Plant of 4,000 h.p. 
for generating electricity for general use in their 
shops. 

The Admiralty have recently placed orders with 
Messrs. Edward G. Herbert, Ltd., for a number 
of eccentric sawing machines, and the firm have 
at the present time machines in hand for the Royal 
dockyards at Chatham, Devonport, Sheerness, Ports- 
mouth, Pembroke, Haulbowline, Gibraltar and Malta. 

The Windsor Royal Gaslight Company have placed 
a repeat order with Messrs. Aslmiore, Benson, Pease 
and Co., Ltd., of Stockton-on-Tces, for retort bench 
ironwork. The Brackley Gas Company have placed an 
order with the Company for two piirilicrs. 



Messrs. Holden and Brooks, Ltd., of Manchester, 
have received a repeat order from their South African 
representatives, Messrs. Hannam, Hill and Co., for 
two large oil separators for the Witwatersrand Gold 
Mining Company, Johannesburg. One of these is to be 
capable of dealing with 7,200 lb. of exhaust steam 
per hour, and the other will deal with 24,000 lb. For 
discharging the oil, etc., separated from the exhaust 
steam, each of the separators will be fitted with 
Brooke's Patent Automatic Discharger or Vacuum Trap. 

In connection with the article written by Mr. E. O. 
Mawson, Executive Engineer, Public Works Depart- 
ment, Bombay, which appeared in our issue for 
August, it should be noted that these automatic 
sluice gates have been patented in the LInited Kingdom, 
India, and the Colonies, and in nearly all countries 
where irrigation is practised on a large scale. The 
patents are controlled by Mr. E. R. Calthrop, 
M.Inst.C.E., 3, Crosby Square, London, E.C. 



(2Sb) 



^PAGE'S MAGAZINE 



g^iP.^M5^^^^ 



An Illustrated Technical Monthly, dealing with the 

Engineering, Electrical, Shipbuilding, Iron and Steel 

Mining and Allied Industries* 

DAVIDGE PAGE, Editor, 

Clun House. Surrey Street, Strand. London, W.C. 

Telephone No : 3349 GERHARD. 

Telegraphic and Cable Address: "SIXEW'V, LONDON." 

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but as a prooj of good faith. Xo notice whatever can 
be taken of anonymous communications. 

The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the 
opinions expressed by individual contributors, nor 
does he necessarily identify himself with their xnews. 



OUR MONTHLY 
SUMMARY. 



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LONDON, August 20th, 1904. 

Final Report of the Boiler Committee. 

The tenth and tinal report of the Boiler Committee 
appointed by the Admiralty in September, 1900, 
states that the report of May, 1902, was intended 
to be final as regards the Belleville boiler, and the 
committee have since seen no reason to modify the 
opinion then expressed, that it is " undesirable to 
tit any more of this t\-pe in His Majesty's Navy." 

In the report of May, 1902, it was stated that 
experience had contirmed the committee in the 
opinion that the advantages of water-tube boilers for 
naval purposes were so great, chiefly from a military 
point of view, that, provided a satisfactory type 
of water-tube boiler were adopted, it would be more 
suitable for use in the Xavy than the cylindrical 
type of boiler. 

With reference to their already expressed view 
that the four types of boiler, Babcock and Wilcox, 
Niclausse, Dxirr, and the Yarrow large tube, were 
sufficiently promising to justify their use in the Navy 
in combination with cylindrical boilers, the committee 
are now satisfied that* two of these four types, viz., 
the Babcock and Wilcox, similar t9 that tried in the 
Hermes, and the Yarrow large tube, similar to that 
tried in the Medea, are satisfactory, and are suitable 
for use in battleships and cruisers ^vithout cylindrical 
boilers. Each type has its particular advantages, 
and only long experience on general service can show 
which is on the whole the better boiler. For the 
present the committee unanimously recommend both 
types as suitable for naval requirements. 

Although the committee have no know^ledge of any 
tvpe of water-tube b<3iler which is likely to prove more 
suitable for His Majestv's ships than the two recom- 
mended, there are other ts-pes which may be considered 
worthy of trial later on. If any type of boiler is 
considered in future to be of sufficient merit to justify 
its trial in the Navy, it is recommended that it be 
fitted in a new vessel not smaller than a second-class 
cruiser. 

The report has entailed a vast amount of investiga- 
tion, the principal comparative results obtained dealing 
with the thermal efficiency, wetness of steam, loss of 
water, examination and cleaning of interiors of tubes, 
external cleaning of tubes, bending of tubes, corrosion 
of tubes and wear of casings and uptakes, liabihty 
to damage from being forced, skilled firing required, 
superheated steam, feeding of the boilers, salt water, 
and relative weights. 

Sir Compton Domvile, president of the committee, 
in his covering letter to the Admiralty, has felt com- 
pelled to say that his experience v\ith the Belleville 
boilers on the Mediterranean station has been very 
favourable to them as a steam generator, and it is 
clear to him that the earlier boilers of this description 
were badly constructed and badly used. He adds : 
" We have had no serious boiler defects in any of the 
ships out here, and the fact that two ships are about 
to be recommissioned with only the ordinary annual 
repairs being undertaken shows that their life is not 
so short as I originally supposed. However, the 
second commission of these ships will be a very good 
test of the staying capabilities of their boilers." 



(257) 



17 



258 



Page's Magazine. 



special mention is made in the report of the services 
of Captain Browning, R.N., who acted as joint 
secretary until his a])pointment to the Ariadne in 
1902, Engineer-Lieut. W. H. Wood, Mr. C. J. Wilson, 
F.C.S. (who has, during the four years of their work, 
given his valuable personal attention to the analysis 
of funnel gases and of coal samples without any 
remuneration), Messrs. Thomas Wilson, Sons, and 
Co. (who arranged for the committee to examine the 
boilers of the steamship Martello), and Mr. W. S. Hide, 
the superintending engineer of that company. 

The Management of the Belleville Boiler. 

Oddly enough, the next document that comes to 
hand is a paper on " The Management of Belleville 
Boilers at Sea," read by Engineer-Lieut. E. F. Baker, 
R.N., before the North-East Coast Institution of 
Engineers and Shipbuilders. This, in the words of 
the author, goes to prove that even the much-maligned 
Belleville boiler may by suitable treatment be not 
only tamed, but made as tractable, economical, and 
orderly as any of its more distant relatives. It 
records the experience gained with these boilers in 
H.M.S. Good Hope, which has forty-three Belleville 
boilers fitted with economisers. It is shown that when 
the ship was first commissioned the maintenance 
of steam and the details as to cleaning fires were 
in a large measure left to the chief and leading stokers, 
who received their orders from the officer of the 
watch as to the pressure to be kept, the thickness 
of the fires, and •the number of fires to be cleaned 
each watch. As the ship is not fitted with reducing 
valves (like some of the earlier Belleville ships), this 
arrangement proved most unsatisfactory. Most of 
the men, having just come out of ships fitted with 
cylindrical boilers, treated the Belleville boilers as 
they were accustomed to treat the former. 

The author proceeds to show the necessity for 
more system and regularity in the treatment of the 
Belleville boiler, which is only possible with a thorough 
control of the firing and cleaning. 

The British Science Guild. 

Still another Guild has arrived, and one which, I trust, 
will accomplish useful work. The suggestion which 
Sir Norman Lockyer made in his address last year, 
as President of the British Association, has developed 
into an association with the following objects : — 

1. To bring together as members of the guild all those 
throughout the Empire interested in science and 
scientific method in order, by joint action, to convince 
the people, by means of publications and meetings, 
of the necessity of applying the methods of science 
to all branches of human endeavour, and thus to 
further the progress and increase the welfare of the 
Empire. 

2. To bring before the Government the scientific 
aspects of all matters affecting the national welfare. 

3. To promote and extend the application of 
scientific principles to industrial and general purposes. 

4. To promote scientific education by encouraging 
the support of Universities and other institutions where 
the bounds of science are extended or where new 
applications of science are devised. 

These objects are to be attained by (a) Publications. 
(b) Meetings, (c) Conferences and lectures, {d) Depu- 
tations. 

All British subjects, both men and women, are 
eligible for membership of the guild. It is expected, 
however, that its members will be recruited principally 
from the following : The House of Lords, the House 



of Commons, Colonial Legislatures, count^^ districts- 
borough, and parish councils, municipalities, educa- 
tional committees, scientific and literary societiesland 
organisations, commercial and industrial chambers 
and organisations, the learned professions, Universities, 
colleges, educational bodies and graduates of all 
British Universities, representatives of labour. I give 
these in the order in which they are officially stated. 

At a meeting of the promoters some time ago, it w^s 
decided that the steps preliminary to the formation 
of the guild should be taken by an organising com- 
mittee, of which the following were appointed members, 
with power to add to their number : Lord Avebury, 
F.R.S., Professor W. E. Ayrton, F.R.S., Sir George 
Sydenham Clarke, F.R.S., Captain E. W. Creak, R.N., 
C.B., F.R.S., Mr. Clive Cuthbertson, Dr. William 
Garnett, Mr. Sidney Lee, Sir Norman Lockyer, F.R.S.. 
Lady Lockyer, Mr. N. INIaccoU, Professor Raphael 
Meldola, F.R.S., Professor J.' Perry, F.R.S., Sir Gilbert 
Parker, M.P., Sir William Ramsay, F.R.S., Dr. W. N. 
Shaw, F.R.S., Professor S. P. Thompson, F.R.S., Dr 
Augustus Waller, F.R.S., Sir Henry Trueman Wood. 

The organising committee has elected Sir Norman 
Lockyer president. Lord .\vebury honorary treasurer, 
Lady Lockyer honorary assistant-treasurer, and Mr. C. 
Cuthbertson honorary secretary. The committee is 
at present engaged in communicating w'ith prospective 
supporters, and will hold a meeting to establish a 
general committee when this preliminary is complete. 

The Upper Nile Basin. 

The report on the Basin of the Upper Nile, by 
Sir William Garstin, G.C.M.G., while it embodies 
the results of five consecutive years' observations 
on the Bahr-el-Gebel, has been wTitten m inly with 
the object of describing Sir William's recent visit to 
the Equatorial lakes. The chapter upon river dis- 
charges has fuller information than has ever before been 
published, and the observations which have been 
made have resulted in a considerable modification 
of the schemes proposed in 1901, for the improvement 
of the Upper Nile. The report contains so much 
of interest and value that it might fittingly take a 
less ephemeral form than that of a Blue-book. As 
ft is dealt with elsewhere in this issue, I need not 
call attention to its essential features, in detail. 
It may be mentioned, howev^er, that many pages are 
devoted to descriptive matter, in which Sir William 
Garstin gives some vivid pictures of little known, 
regions of the Nile. He is of opinion that in the 
fulness of time, the Albert and Albert Edward Lakes 
will disappear, but that long after this the Victoria 
Lake will remain the great reservoir for and the 
true source of the waters of the White Nile. 

At the Source of the Nile. 

The outlet at Ripon Falls is not likely to offer much 
difficulty to the engineers when it is decided to con- 
struct a regulating work at this importarit spot, 
the rock being a hard and compact diorite. At 
Ripon Falls the river glides down to the barrier in 
a glassy expanse until it thunders over the fall in 
three separate channels, parted by rocky ridges, 
and breaks, below the leap, into a white and foaming 
expanse of raging and seething water. The wholf 
scene is of singular beauty and wild to an extreme 
degree. 

In the event of the river being barred across at 
Ripon Falls it could be turned through one of the 
openings, while the masonry in the others was in 
progress. When this portion of the work was com- 
pleted the river could be passed through the sluices,. 



Our Monthly Summary. 



259 



and the remaining opening similarly closed. To 
lower the reef would be rather more difficult, as it 
would not be so easy ta manage the diversion of the 
stream, and a considerable amount of blasting would 
be necessary in the channel below to ensure a clear 
outfall for the water. Still, even to this proceeding 
there would be no insuperable difficulties. 

The vast swamps in the region north of Bor, where 
an enormous quantity of water is lost by evaporation 
and the superabundant vegetation of the sudd, are 
not the lejist inconsiderable difficulties to be niet 
with in obtaining the control of the Nile. How Sir 
William Garstin proposes to cut out the most trouble- 
some district by means of an entirely new channel 
w^ill be seen on reference to page 226. To show 
what is being done to counteract the sudd I must 
again quote from the report. 

How the Nile is Blocked by Sudd. 

The Bahr-el-Gebel traverses the marshes between 
Shambe and Lake No for some 400 kilometres of 
its course. South of Shambe the river has never 
been known to be blocked. On either side of the 
channel in these immense swamps extend large shallow 
lagoons, some of them covering several square kilo- 
metres of area. These lagoons are surrounded on 
every side by luxuriant growth of aquatic plants, 
consisting chiefly of the pap\Tus and the reeds known 
to the Arabs as the Um-soof and the Bus. All these 
plants grow in water, but not in any great depth. 
The Um-soof Sind' Bus again will not stand such a 
depth of water as \N-ill the papyrus. This last attains 
a height of from 5 to 6 metres, with fibrous roots 
which strike deep into the ground. The Um-soof 
rarely exceeds i '5 metres in height, and its roots do 
not e.xtend so deeply as do those of the pap\Tus. 
They are, however, very tough and difficult to break 
or cut through. These roots jire bedded in the soil 
below the water, but the strong gales which blow in 
these regions loosen their hold to a large extent. 
The continuous gales which prevail set hundreds of 
acres of these floating masses of plants moving in 
one direction. Eventually, they reach a p>oint on 
the river where they are forced into a channel. Once 
there, the current speedily carries them down stream. 
Ere long their course is arrested by a projection 
on the edge of the channel or by a sharp bend. It 
may happen that an area of reed several acres in 
extent bursts into the river in a large sheet, and 
in such a case it must necessarily be arrested at the 
first point where the section is contracted. The result 
is that the channel is quickly blocked, though perhaps 
not at first to any great depth. Masses of weed, 
however, follow one another in succession, brought 
down by the stream. The section of the channel 
being reduced by the first obstruction the velocity 
of the water rapidly increases, and these masses, 
following the easiest course, pass under the obstacle 
thus created. E^ch fresh mass arriving is sucked 
underneath those originally arrested, until at last 
the whole becomes wedged into one solid block com- 
posed partly of earth and partly of stalks and roots 
of papjTus and reed broken up by the extreme com- 
pression into an inextricable tangle. So great is the 
pressure applied by the w-ater that the surface of 
the block is often forced several metres above the 
water-level, and is seamed by alternate ridges and 
furrows. 

Nitpo-glyeerlne as a Remedy. 

Major Peake has fulb- described his " sudd ' 
Cutting operations in a report to the Intelligence 
Department of the Eg>-ptian War Office. His partv 



worked with five gun-boats and a gang of 800 Dervish 
prisoners guarded by 100 Soudanese. With them 
were five English and several Eg^'ptian officers ; 
also some English non-commissioned officers. The 
total cube removed was some 11,850 cubic metres, 
but this does not include the large amount of stuff 
that came away by itself. How great this must 
have been may be judged by the fact that in one 
instance when a block burst the floating weed took 
thirty-six hours to pass a given point. Lieutenant 
Drury endeavoured to break up the mass of Block 
No. 19 by means of explosives. The nitro-glycerine, 
however, was of Uttle use, merely making deep 
holes, and having no further effect. The " sudd " 
although compact, is very elastic, and has not suffi- 
cient resistance to permit of the full force of the charge 
being felt. There is little doubt, says Sir William 
Garstin, that the most effectual way of remo^'ing the 
*■ sudd " is that practised by Major Peake, viz., cutting 
the surface into rectangular blocks, hauling these out 
by steamers, and then letting them float down stream. 
There now remains only one block in the whole length 
of the river, viz.. No. 15. 

Since 1901 there have been no traces whatever of 
the blocks remo\*ed by Major Peake. The work 
was well and thoroughly done, and if continual super- 
vision be given, more especially during the storm\- 
season of the year. Sir WlUiam sees no reason 
why the Bahr-el-Gebel should not be kept i per- 
manently open. 

Below the Fola Rapids. 

Confining mN'self still to the descriptive section 
of this remarkable report, I must find space for one 
more paragraph, in which Sir William Garstin deals 
with the Fola Rapids : — 

" These rapids constitute the most formidable 
obstacle to the flow of the Nile in the whole of its 
course between the Albert Nyanza and Khartoum. 
It is doubtful whether in the cataracts between 
Shabluka and Assouan any such demonstration of the 
force and power of water is to be seen. Below the 
falls the stream rushes down an extremely narrow- 
gorge with a very- heavy slope, enclosed between 
vertical walls of rock. This can best be compjired 
to a gigantic mill-race or water-slide 100 metres in 
length. The water tears through this channel in a 
glassy, green sheet with an incredible velocity. The 
width of this " gut " is nowhere more than 16 metres 
across, and in places it is less ! What the depth 
of the water may be it is impossible to say. At the 
foot of this race the river leaps into a deep cauldron 
or pot, which it fills with an apparently boiling mass 
of white water, lashed into foam, and affording a 
remarkable example of the rage with which \vater 
attacks any serious obstacle to its course. The length 
of this cauldron is only 50 metres, but its width is 
not more than 1 2 metres across I Immediately 
below this the channel widens out to some 30 metres, 
and eventually more, while the river thunders down, 
in a series of rapids, for a considerable distance. On 
either side of the channel are vertical walls of rock 
from 7 to 10 metres above the water. These rocks 
are polished live black marble, and stand up in 
vertical ribs, indicating how severe must have been 
the discolation of the strata at the time when they 
were originally forced to the surface. In many 
places they are hidden by masses of vegetation, and 
creepers hang down in graceful festoons, forming 
a curtain resembling green velvet. The island and river 
banks are covered with a thick growth of mimosa 
trees. The inky blackness of the rocks and the 



17 .4 



Page's Magazine. 



variegated greens of the foliage, contrast vividly 
with the seething mass of white water, above which the 
spray is tossed high in the air in a misty cloud. Above 
all a deep blue sky and a brilliantly clear atmosphere 
add to the effect of an exceptionally lovely scene. 
In the distance, but a long way down stream, the 
pointed peaks of the Kuku Mountains form an effective 
background to this enchanting picture." 

The Earl of Selborne on Naval Expenditure. 

Earl Selborne, referring recently to criticisms in 
the House of Lords on the Naval Estimates, said 
the great expenditure on naval works was due to 
the fact that the question had been neglected for 
nearly two generations in this country, and it had 
been necessary during the past ten years to overtake 
arrears. The lessons which he thought were to be 
learnt from the war in the East were the importance 
of the personnel, the necessity of having a margin 
of strength, and the fact that, without the battleship, 
no Power could either hold or win the comnrand of 
the sea. Nothing, he believed, was further from 
the truth than to say that the mine and the torpedo 
had relegated the battleship from the place which it 
had hitherto held. 

Electro Motors In Factories. 

The following rules, appUcable to electro motors in 
factories, have been issued by the associated lire 
offices : 

1. Motors, when not in an engine-room or in a 
separate compartment expressly set apart for their 
use and built of or lined with incombustible material, 
must be completely enclosed in an efficient metal 
case forming part of the designed construction thereof. 
Ventilation by direct communication with the outer air 
or by openings in the vertical portion of the metal case 
protected bj?^ two thicknesses of approved wire gauze 
is allowed. Induction motors may have unprotected 
ventilation openings in their metal cases, the super- 
ficial area of each opening not exceeding \ in. and 
the openings being at least ^ in. apart. Slip rings 
and brushes, or any other sliding contacts, must be 
completely enclosed in metal cases. Inspection holes 
fitted with plate glass are allowed. 

2. No unprotected woodwork or combustible material 
must be within i8 in. of any motor, and wood flooring 
beneath any motor must be protected by a sheet of 
metal. 

3. The motor-pulley — or other mechanical device 
for transmitting power from the motor — must be 
external to the metal case enclosing the motor. Only 
the shaft and the connecting conductors may be 
carried through into the metal case or through the 
wall of the compartment. No belts, ropes, or other 
corresponding gear may be so carried. Note. — Holes 
in the case to admit connecting conductors must 
have proper bushings, and exposed terminals must 
have proper protecting caps fitted, to prevent short- 
circuiting. Each connecting conductor must be 
provided with a proper switch and proper cut-out. 

4. Dynamos must be treated as motors. 

' 5. Resistances and starting transformers must be 
similarly situated and must be enclosed as required for 
motors. 

6. All metal cases, tubes, etc., must be efficiently 
connected to earth. 

7. Motors must not be supplied with current tKun 
dynamos or conductors having an earth return. 



The Royal Ag-rieultural Society and its future 
Shows. 

The Royal Agricultural Society has performed such 
excellent services for the country that wide- 
spread regret will be felt at the failure (financially 
speaking) of the recent show at Park Royal. In 
spite of the saving of about ;^5,ooo in expenses, the 
loss amounted to about ^8,500, the total attendance 
being less than 53,000. When the Society acquired 
the excellent show grounds at Park Royal, no one 
could reasonably have expected diminished gates ; 
in fact, the permanent show ground has features which 
in some respects are eminently desirable. One would 
be sorry, even now, to arrive at the conclusion that the 
ground is unsuitable, and it would certainly be rash 
to do so in view of the fact that on six of the shows 
held in the country by the Society, there was 
a loss of £21,476, as compared with a gain of ;^ 15,984 
on eight other shows in the provinces — a net loss of 
;^5,492. On the other hand, it is pointed out that all 
past experience has been against the metropolis as a 
venue for the Show. 

It is obviously time for the Society to seriously 
reconsider the question of the show ground, and 
should it be decided to continue at Park Royal, 
we would suggest some more attractive method of 
interesting the attendance of the general public, as 
distinct from agriculturists. The introduction of 
sports, fireworks, balloon ascents, etc., might in- 
volve a departure from tradition, but as auxiliaries 
to the more serious business of the Show, they 
might help to swell the coffers of the Society. 
After all, the average Londoner is apt to view agri- 
cultural live stock with languid interest, which is 
not to be wondered at, while in Queen Victoria Street 
he can see all sorts and conditions of machinery. 

Meeting of the Council. 

At the last monthly meeting of the Council, the 
president (Lord Middleton) explained that the show 
of T904 would only be ^^ 1,000 less costly to the Society 
than that of 1903, when there was a deficit of ;^9,68o, 
and it had only been possible to finance the loss caused 
by the Show of 1903 by pledging to the bankers the 
Society's holding of ^13,100 in the Harewood House 
debenture stock, while the heavy loss on the Show of 
1904 imposed upon the Council the necessity of 
applying to the bank for still further advances of large 
amounts to meet obligations in the matter of prizes, 
administration expenses, etc. It was estimated 
that ;^io,ooo would be required before the recess, 
and ;^5,ooo during the coming autumn and winter. 
Six of the trustees had guaranteed to the bank sums 
equal in the aggregate to the total required ; but it 
would obviously be necessary for the Society, unless 
other means could be found of putting it into funds, 
to realise eventually one or more of their assets to repay 
the bank or the guarantors. On the recommendation 
of the trustees, it has been decided to draw up a 
statement showing the work of each department 
of the Society and its cost, and to arrange conferences 
with the implement and live stock exhibitors, and 
the various breed societies, with the view of ascer- 
taining the measure of financial support they wnll 
give to the Show. A circular will be subsequently 
issued to the members, pointing out the necessity 
of increased financial support, a^id seeking their 
\iews on various points. This will be followed 
l)y a special general meeting of the Society \n 
November. 



Our Monthly Summary. 



261 



The Eleetpification of the Metpopolitan Railway. 

At the half-yearly general meeting of the Metro- 
politan Railway Company, Sir C. ^McLaren, M.P- 
(presiding), remarked that one of the most interesting 
points for their consideration was the progress which 
was being made in the electrification of the railway. 
With the very best intentions, contractors, manufac- 
turers, and others had not been able to supply the 
company with materials and machinery so quickly as 
they had been given to understand would be the case. 
This often occurred with engineering work of a known 
and tried description, but thej- and the District 
Compan}'^ were carrying out a change from steam 
traction to electric traction on a larger portion of 
railway and with a heavier train service than he thought 
had ever been tindertaken in any other part of the world. 
They had built and completed their generating station. 
The cables and the conductor rails had been laid, and 
the general equipment of the permanent way had been 
completed from Baker Street to Uxbridge. Similar 
work was now being prosecuted each night upon the 
Inner Circle section, and it would soon be completed. 
It was intended to adopt corridor cars for the electrical 
working, and they had had built in England a first con- 
signment of seventy cars, all of which had been delivered 
at the Company's works at Neasden. A certain 
number of these were what were called " motor-cars." 
They had tried some of them in running, with satisfac- 
tory- results, and they had placed orders for further cars 
at Birmingham and Manchester. With one or two of the 
principal officers, he intended to pay a visit to Aiuerica 
before the end of the year to look very carefully into 
the methods of the working of some of the electric 
railways there, with a view to getting some hints which 
would be of service to the company when they com- 
menced to work by electric power themselves. 

The Metropolitan District Bailway. 

At the eightieth half-yearly meeting of the Metropolitan 
District Railway Company, Mr. Perks, M.P., had 
some interesting things to say about the electrification 
of the line. He mentioned that 1,000 people were 
being employed every night upon it. At the Mansion 
House, the sub-station was ready for roofing in and 
the machinery would be placed there next month. 
At Charing Cross there had been a good deal of heavy 
work, but the sub-stations there were to be finished 
in about six weeks. They would have to instal 
electricity alongside the steam trains during the 
period of conversion ; but the board hoped, and 
fully expected, that by January ist next, a consider- 
able portion of the railway would be worked by electric 
motive-power, and that very early in the coming 
year the shareholders would see the District line 
completely transformed. It was anticipated that the 
effect of this conversion would be to increase the 
traffic enormously. 

280 Foreign Cars to eappy Londoneps. 

Mr. Perks was asked if it were correct that a sub- 
stantial part of the order for the cars had been placed 
abroad. " In answer to that question, he had to say 
that 280 out of their 420 cars were being built on the 
Continent, the reason being that the tenders of the 
English builders were at least 30 to 40 per cent, above 
the prices quoted by Continental firms on exactly 



the same specification and for identically the same 
article? The Underground Electric Railways Company, 
by whom the orders were placed, used their utmost 
endeavours, but in vain, to persuade the English 
car builders to reduce their prices, and, consequently, 
an order for 40 trains was given to the Continental 
builders. No sooner had this been done than the 
English car builders reduced their figures to the 
same level as that of their Continental competitors, 
and the remaining trains, 20 in number, or 140 cars, 
were taken by them at practically the same price 
as the foreign car builders had quoted. He did not 
know whether the shareholders would have wished 
the Underground Company to have spent in the pur- 
chase of the cars ;^ 120,000 more, partly for what was 
called patriotism. At any rate, they had not con- 
sidered it to be their duty to do so, though the Under- 
ground Company would have been delighted to give 
a small sum in excess of that charged by the Continental 
car builders if, by doing so, the work could have been 
kept in this country." 

Zone Fares. 

An important matter, more grateful than the above 
to English ears, was that relating to uniform fares. 
The chairman mentioned that by the company's 
Bill of this session, which had now received the Royal 
Assent, they had taken power to charge zone or 
uniform rates over certain sections of the railway. 
The rate from Hammersmith to Aldgate East, or 
between any station upon that section, would be 2d. 
Anyone travelling past Hammersmith — from Hammer- 
smith to Hounslow or from Hammersmith to Ealing — 
would pay an extra 2d. They would have a rate from 
Ealing to the City of 3d., and from Putney to the City 
of 3d. These were important reductions, but by the 
new .\ct they had got rid of the embarrassing obliga- 
tions imposed upon them by their old Act of carrying 
passengers short distances at the low rates of id. 
and xid., which would have prevented their instituting 
a uniform rate over the whole line or sections of the 
line. He was personally in favour of a uniform rate 
of 2d. to any station on the railway, but it was thought 
better, as a first step, to have a system of zone rates 
for specified distances. 

Mr. Perks and the L.C.C. 

In carrying out his schemes, Mr. Perks has dis- 
covered the existence of a body known as the L.C.C, 
and he is strongly of opinion that " gentlemen who 
are embarking from ;^io,ooo,ooo to ;^i 5,000,000 
in the construction of railways for carrying the people 
of London," should have met with "sympathetic 
support " from the governing municipal body, rather 
than the " constant opposition " which he .alleges 
against every department of the Council, except the 
engineering department. One does not know 
whether to be more impressed with the philanthropy 
of the gentlemen behind the ;^io,ooo,ooo, or the 
wickedness of the London County Council. But 
as the " zone fares " are not to be handed over to the 
hospitals, and as the London County Council is 
responsible to the people of London for the safe- 
guarding of public interests, doubtless many will look 
upon their action from an entirely different point of 
view. 



ELECTRICAL AFFAIRS. 



BY 



E. KILBURN SCOTT, M.I.E.E., A.M.Inst.C.E. 



Aluminium for Transmission Lines. 

The use of aluminium for electric transmission lines 
has developed in a most remarkable manner, and has 
got such a hold on the market that it is probable that, 
even if copper fell to its old price, aluminium would still 
be used. As will be seen by the following table, when 
copper is taken at lojd. and aluminium at isd. a lb., 
aluminium shows a 28 per cent, saving over copper, 
and even when bought in small quantities at :8d. a lb., 
aluminium is still 14 per cent, cheaper. It should be 
remembered that there are also various contingent 
savings, such as reduced number of poles and insulators, 
etc., for, as will be seen, the weight of one mile of wire 
for equal conductivity is less than half that of copper. 







equal 

r tor 
ity. 
for 
itv. 
ength 
ivity. 


P,^ 


£ 


V V . 

§4^ 
















s 
c 




§.SI 


a 



0^= 







l-3'X)SI5rU 


>2 


0. 


•E ? 






.;ci-e"i>"i-B 


a 


cx^ 




> 


tivt 

CO 

ati\ 
ual 
lati 

ive 
"qn 


r^n 


•=°« 




■3 






^-0^ 


m^ 


Copper . . . . 


100 


100 100 

1 


100 


100 


I in. dia , 
163-2. 


loid. 


£(>-9Z 


Aluminium .. 


61 


164 128 


4«-5 


75 


128 in 
dia., 79-5. 


i5d. 


£^■9-1 

(28 per cent, 
saving). 



Comparison of American and British Electrical 
Development. 

The last Report of the United States Government 
Department of Commerce and Labour is exceedingly 
interesting, as showing the extent to which electrica] 
development can go when free from restrictive influ- 
ences. Up to the year 1902, no less than 1,960 towns, 
each with less than 2,500 inhabitants, had an elec- 
tricity supply, and 75 per cent, of the electric supply 
areas in the States are in towns of less than 5,000 
inhabitants. In this country, it is doubtful whether 
one could point to a dozen towns of less than 5,000 
inhabitants which have an electric supply. 

With us the number of gas plants and the money 
invested in them is larger than in electric light works. 
In the States, on the other hand, it is just the reverse, 
only 877 gas plants are in operation, and the value 
of these is eight million pounds sterling less than the 
total of the electric light plants. 

A most significant item in the Report is, that of the 
125,000 miles of main and feeder cables in the States, 
only 8,124 miles, or 6| per cent., are underground. In 
this country, it is doubtful whether there is so much 
as 6^ per cent, above ground. 

Of the total horse-power in central stations, 78 per 
cent, are steam and gas engines, and 22 per cent, water 
wheels, etc. The main steam engines total 1,379,940 
h.p., the gas engines 12,180 h.p., and auxiliary steam 
engines 14,450 h.p. The water wheels total up to 
438,470 h.p., and eight per cent, of the wheels have a 
capacity of over 1,000 h.p., and this eiglit per cent, 
represents 47 percent, of the total water wheel horse- 
power. It will thus be seen what a large part water 
power plays in the States, and it must be remembered 
that such power goes on for ever, whereas in burning 
coal we are gradually but surely exhausting our 
resources. 



Payment to Electrical Employees. 

The wages paid in the States to electrical station 
assistants are, it need hardly be said, higher than in 
this country. Thus, of the total engineers employed, 
over 50 per cent, earn more than 6s. 3d. a day. The 
great majority of the dynamo and switchboard atten- 
dants earn from 4s. 2d. to iis. 3d. a day, and more 
than half the foremen earn from 6s. 3d. to los. a 
day. 

The following gives the percentage that each item of 
expense bears to the total in average, private and in 
municipal stations for 1902 : — 





Private 


Municipal 




Stations. 




Stations. 


Salaries and wages 


29.9 per cent. 


35-8 


per cent. 


Supplies, materials, and 








fuel 


32'6 


46"2 


,, 


Rent, taxes, insurance. 








and miscellaneous . . 


i8-2 


8-4 


,, 


Interest on capital 


i9'3 


9-6 


.. 



Over 56 per cent, of all wage earners in private 
stations receive 8s. 4d., or over, per day, compared 
with 41 per cent, in municipal stations. Also, 15 per 
cent, of private station employees earn los. 6d. to 
I2S. 6d. per day. In this country, far too many of the 
electrical stations are sweating shops of the worst type. 
They are constantly fed with young men from technical 
institutions, and as the supply is greater than the 
demand, many of these unfortunate young men do not 
hold out for a decent salary, or they are kept at pointer 
dodging on a switchboard. 

.Hammer Type Wharf Cranes. 

A type of wharf crane which is likely to come into 
considerable use for the loading and unloading of ships 
is that known as the " Hammer Crane." It consists of 
a horizontal jib, having arms of unequal length, the 
longer carrying a travelling crab, and the shorter a 
counter-weight. The jib is supported at a considerable 
height from the ground on a revolving post, built up in 
a trilateral pyramid steel framing, the whole somewhat 
resembling the shape of a hammer, hence the name. 
The Germania shipyard of Messrs. Krupp, near Kiel, 
has one of these cranes of a carrying capacity of 150 
tons, and at Messrs. Beardmore's Shipbuilding Yard on 
the Clyde there is also another of this type. It has 
the great advantage over the old sheer legs or jib cranes 
in that the radial movement of the load, as well as the 
lifting, is effected in a very quick and easy manner, and 
with a minimum of gearing. The trilateral framing 
may span several lines of railway, and thus admit of 
rolling stock passing lander it. 

The interesting point with regard to these cranes, 
from the electrical engineer's point of view, is the fact 
that they are particularly fitted for equipment by 
electrical power; in fact, it is difficult to see how such 
a crane could be worked by steam or hydraulic power. 
The usual plan is to fit the crab with two motors, one for 
hfting and the other for travelling, in much the same 
way as the crab of an overhead travelling crane in a 
power station, whilst another motor, placed at about 
the centre of the double armed jib, is used for rotating 
same. Current for these various motors is picked up 
from trolley wires by means of sliding contacts in 
the same way as for an overhead crane. 



(^(n^ 



NAVAL NOTES. 



MONTHLY NOTES ON NAVAL PROGRESS IN CONSTRUCTION AND ARMAMENT. 

By N. I. D. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

THE return just issued sp3cifying the various 

amounts required for naval works is given 
jjelow : — 

Total Esti- Expected 

Estimated mated Date of 

Works. Cost, Expendi- Com- 

1903.1 ture, pletion. 

.../ t^i._.osure and Detence of 1904-5. 

Harbours. £, £ 

Gibraltar 1,239,000 5.M77 1904-5 

Gibraltar, Commer,'^' ^f^'-" ... 669.000 146.212 1904-5 

Portland ... 650,000 52,814 1904-5 

Dover ... 5.500.000 3,'?5,i74 1007-S 

Jlilta Breakwiter i.ooo.coo 150,17- ' " ■? 

(b; AJapUnj; Naval Pons to 
present ne.ds ot Fleet. 

Deepenin,? harbours and approaches 1.300,000 io6,26._, — 

Keyham Docicvard c'cten^ion ... 4.175,000 450,121 1906-7 

Gibraltar Doclo.'ari extension ... 2 8o';.ooo 260,200 1905-6 

Honj»-Kon.g Dockyard extension ... 1,245,500 307.242 1905-6 

Malta Dockyard extension 1.250,000 33i,75o 1907-8 

Bermuda Dockj-ard extension ... 700,000 79.88.** 1907-8 

Simon's Bay Dockyard e.^ctension. etc. 2,503,000 100,078 1907-8 

Coaling tacilities and fuel storage ... 1,230,000 363,193 1906-7 

(c) Xaval Barracks, etc. 

Chatham Xaval Barracks 515,000 39.473 1905-6 

Portsmouth .\aval Barracks 791.400 113,726 1905-6 

Magazine 1.335.000 332,595 1906-7 

Electric light and power in Xaval 

Establishments 1,500,00a 454.030 1908-9 

(d) S iperintendence and Miscel- 
laneous charges 1.420,303 130,584 — 

Official particulars of the new battleships of the 
Lord Kelson class, have been made public and have 
excited world-wide interest. The displacement is to 
be 16,500 tons, which is 150 tons more than the King 
Edwards, and the cost is not very' much more. But 
the improvement is very great. Space and weight 
have been saved in machinery, the horse power being 
reduced from i8,ooo in the Kin§ Edwards to 16,500 
in the Lord Nelsons, these latter vessels having a sp2ed 
of 18 knots. The armour protection of the new 
vessels, moreover has been improved. In the King 
Edward class the plating amidships is only 9 in. in 
thickness. In the Lord'Xelsons it will be 12 in. with 
8-in. plates "above. If these details are correct, the 
new arrangement should make the vessels impervious 
to any artillery' smaller than 92 in. The belt will be 
a complete one, thinned fore and aft. But it is in 
the armament that the greatest development is 
noticeable. Her principal armament is to consist of four 
i2-in. guns of forty-tive calibres with a secondary 
battery of ten 9*2 in. guns of fifty calibres. The 12-in. 
guns are five calibres longer than any other gun of 
their weight at present mounted in battleships and 
throw a shell of 850 lb., which is heavier than the 
shell thrown by any other similar guns, except the 
Kansas of the L'nited States Navy. 

Tenders for the first two vessels of the class, the 
Lord Kelson and the Agamemnon have been called for. 
and are to be sent in by September 20th. 

Rumour is already busy with regard to the destination 
of the King Edward I'll, and Commonwealth, when 
they are put into commission. The policy of the 
Admiralty latterly has been to send all our best ships 
to the Mediterranean, and it is most likely that this 
precedent will be followed in the case of these new 
vessels. 

Messrs. Cammel, Laird, and Co., have launched the 
Pathfinder, scout, this being the second of these 
vessels to take the water. The ceremony took place 
on'July i6th. The discussion on the merits or other- 
wise of these boats was dealt with in the last issue 
of the Magazine. 



The destroyers Kibble and Wellend have been com- 
pleted and passed into service, and torpedo-boat 
No. 115 has also been delivered from the contractors, 
Messrs. J. S. White and Co. 

FRANCE. 

The Naval Elstimates for the current year, to which 
passing reference has already been made, total 
;£i 2,722,75 2, showing an increase over the sum voted 
for the previous financial year of /209,6o7. The 
sums to be devoted to new construction in the public 
and private yards are ;^ .2. 5 87,73 5 and ;^ 1,949,600, 
respectively. The first-named sum is inclusive of 
wages and miscellaneous expanses, the sum actually 
devoted to material being ;^i, 576,000. 

The personnel of the Fleet is to number 15 vice- 
admirals, 30 rear-admirals, 125 captains, 215 com- 
manders, 754 lieutenants, 420 sub-lieutenants, 170 
midshipmen, and 67 cadets. 

The composition and distribution of the French 
fleet during the year is to be as follows : — 

The Mediterranean squadron, nine battleships (six 
in active commission, three in reserve), three armoured 
cruisers, with attendant small craft. 

The Northern squadron, three battleships, three 
coast defence ships, si.x armoured cruisers (three in 
active commission, three in reserve), with attendant 
small craft. ■ • ; 

In the Far East, three armoured cruisers, three 
protected cruisers and a flotilla of six destroyers. 

Defiling with the vote for new construction, M. 
Pelletan, in his explanatory statement, says there is an 
increase of / 1 00,000, and even this is hardly sufficient. 
The battleships of the 1901 programme are still un- 
completed and absorb ;^ 1,640,000 of the total asked 
for, for new construction. The armoured cruisers 
of the Gambetta class take another ;^i, 000,000. These 
sums are nearly similar to those asked for in the 
previous Estimates, the increase being solely on 
account of torpedo-craft on which M. Pelletan places 
great reliance. 

It is announced that the battleship Democratic is 
to be fitted with Belleville boilers. 

The armoured cruiser, Jules Ferry, is being hastened 
for\v-ard as rapidly as possible, and it is hoped to get 
her ready for hei trials in about a year's time, 1,400 
men are employed on her at Cherbourg. 

Another submarine of the Naiade class has been 

launched at Rochefort, and has received the name of 

Meditse. 

GERMANY. 

The formation of the new naval station at Sonderburg 
on Alsen Island in the Baltic was a natural sequence 
to the growth of the German Fleet and its continual 
presence in the somewhat confined waters at Kiel. 
The new station is to be used mainly as a gunnery 
school dep >t, and it is hoped that many of the in- 
conveniences which have hitherto cramped the work 
of these establishments at Wilhelmshaven and Kiel 
will now be overcome. 

The new battleship Schwaben, while running a trial 
trip off the coast of the island of Fehmern, near Liibeck, 
early in July, struck a rock and sustained damage 
which will, it is expected, take some weeks to make 
good. The rock was an uncharted one, and is 
probablv one of the so-called erratic blocks which 
have in recent years caused similar damage to several 
vessels of the German navv. 



264 



Page's Magazine. 



Progress with the battleships of the Braunschweig 
class has been well maintained during the last two 
months, and it is now considered most probable that 
the two first vessels of the class, the Braunschweig 
and the Elsass will be under the pennant by the 
end of this year. The Hessen and Preussen launched 
in August and October of last year, respectively, are 
being pushed forward with all convenient dispatch, 
whUe the Lothringen, which took the water in May 
last, is in an advanced stage. Of the new class, slightly 
improved Braunschweigs, " N " was laid down on 
March 31st, 1903, and " P" has been laid down at the 
Royal dockyard, Wilhelmshaven. 

ITALY. 

The battleship Vittorio Emanuele. sister to the 
Regina Elena, the launch of which was noted in the 
July issue of the Magazine, is expected to be launched 
at the end of August. 

The programme of construction for the year 1904-5 
provides for the completion and commissioning of 
.the battleships Regina Margherita and Benedetto 
Brill, the armoured ' cruiser Francesco Ferrucio, and 
three submarines, while work is to be continued on 
the Vittorio Emanuele, Regina Elena, Napoli, and 
Roma. Of these, two are already in the water, and 
the other two are to be off the stocks very shortly. 
Two torpedo-boat destroyers, the Teffiro, launched 
on May 14th, and the Espero, are both to be com- 
pleted by Pattison, of Naples. 

At Castellamare, it is hoped, during the current 
year to commence work on a new battleship. No. 5, 
of the Vittorio Emanuele class, and an armoured 
cruiser whose design is not yet made public. In addi- 
tion two sub-marines, C. and D, and fourteen torpedo- 
boats are to be commenced. The torpedo-boats will be 
built, four by Odero of Sestri Ponente, four by 
Pattison, of Naples, and six in the pubhc yards. 

The Regina Margherita, on her natural draught 
trials, developed 17,600 h.p., giving a speed of 18 "5 
knots. A preliminary full-speed trial gave a speed 
of i9'3 knots, which was subsequently bettered when 
an average of 20,000 h.p. (maximum 23,000) was 
maintained, to give an average speed of 20*2 knots. 
Her Niclausse boilers worked without any trouble. 

The armoured cruiser Francesco Ferrucio at her 
stationary machinery trials gave considerable satis- 
faction. She is shortly to undergo deep sea trials. 

RUSSIA. 

The ineptitude and want of decision which has marked 
the command of the Russian Fleet in the Far East from 
the very beginning of the war has ended, as was only to 
be expected it would, in the complete defeat of both 
sections of the Fleet in an attempt to effect a junction. 

Early on the morning of August loth, Admiral Togo's 
scouts reported to him that the Russian squadron in 
Port Arthur was beginning another sortie, driven 
confessedly from its sanctuary by the lire of the 
Japanese guns mounted on Wolf Hill and commanding 
an extensive sweep of the dockyards. Togo was thus 
enabled to lie once more in wait for his adversary, and 
although the Russians made a gallant and determined 
effort to break through, they were only successful in 
isolated instances and that at great cost. The main 
body of the squadron was driven liack to Port .4rthur, 
probably much more severely damaged than when it 
came out, and with little prospect of effecting any 
repairs. According to Admiral Togo's reports, which 
are even more laconic than before, the battleship 
Cesarcvitch, the cruisers Novik and Askold, and some 
of the torpedo flotilla vvcrt' the only \'('ssrls tliat 



escaped. The Cesarevitch reached the German port 
of Tsingtau, steaming at four knots only, and in such 
a crippled condition that it would take months to 
make her seaworthy. Her Admiral, Vithoft, was 
literally blown to pieces and the second-in-command 
severely wounded. The Novik also went to Tsingtau, 
but only remained the twenty-four hours permitted 
by international law. The Askold reached Shanghai 
with over two hundred shell holes in her, eighty of 
which are stated to be below the water-line. 

The Vladivostok squadron left its port in the north 
early in the same week, evidently with a view to joining 
forces with Vithoft, and awaiting the arrival of the 
Baltic Fleet. But Kamimura, who in his chase after 
the Vladivostok ships has been dogged by persistent 
ill-luck, at least succeeded in bringing the raiders to 
book, and on August 14th, at live in the morning, 
engaged the armoured cruisers Rossia, Gromoboi, and 
Rurik, with his small squadron of protected cruisers. 
The fight lasted five hours, and resulted in the 
complete defeat of the Russians, the Rurik being 
sunk with about two hundred and fifty of her 
crew, and the Gromoboi and Rossia driven back 
to the north. These, all but simultaneous defeats 
of the remnants of the Russian fleets in the Far 
East give the command of the sea indisputably 
into the hands of the Japanese. The reports to hand 
at the time of >vriting are too vague to allow of any 
but the broadest conclusions being deduced from 
these engagements, but it must now be plain, even 
to the St. Petersburg Government, that the despatch 
of the Baltic Fleet cannot in any way alter the state 
of affairs in the Far East so far as maritime supremacy- 
is concerned. 

This Baltic " Armada " as it has been called, 
consists of some si.xty vessels all told, including eight 
battleships, nine armoured cruisers, several second-class 
cruisers, torpedo-boats and destroyers and colliers. 

It is announced that in the new programme of 
naval construction, which has been brought forward 
to make good the losses occasioned by the war, the 
battleships are to be of the Borodino type, slightly 
modified. The speed is to be 19 knots instead of 18, 
and there is to be some rearrangement of armament. 
The vessels of the Imperator Pavel I. type, which are 
already in hand, are of course to be continued. 

UNITED STATES. 

The new American battleship is to be called the 
New Hampshire. She is of the Kansas class and will 
be built by contract. The armoured cruisers are to be 
called North Carolina and Montana, and will be of 
the Tennessee class, with slight improvements. There 
will, however, be no departure from the general type 
in either case. Three 3,500 ton scouts, which are also- 
to be put in hand will be known respectively as 
Birmingham, Chester and Salem. 

The race in the construction of the Connecticut 
and Louisiana is in a very interesting stage, and the 
launch of these two vessels should take place within 
a very few days of each other. The Louisiana, at the 
time of writing, is expected to be ready for launching, 
by August 27th, but other reports state that it wiU 
be the middle of September before she is able to get off 
the stocks. The date ofiicially announced for the 
launch of the Connecticut is September 29th. 

The official trials of the battleship Ohio are now 
complete. She did not attain her contract speed ot 
18 knots, the entries at the Navy Department showinj^ 
only 17*817 knots. 

The armoured cruiser, South Dakota, of the Californi'i 
rlass, was launched on July 14th, at San Francisco. 



MINING NOTES. 

By a. L. 



Indian Mining Prospects. 

A paper read before the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers by Sarat C. Rudra, of Calcutta, 
brings out the extraordinary mineral wealth of 
our Eastern Empire. Of the many ores available, 
gold, lead, copper, iron, antimony, and graphite, have 
a great future before them. The prospect of diamond 
mining is also recommended with«confidence. The 
%vriter expresses his confidence that if enterprising 
capitalists be discreet in securing the services of 
engineers and mineralogists of abihty and character, 
success is bound to follow the mining of any of the 
above-named minerals. Chota-Nagpur and Burma 
should have the greatest claims to investigation, 
owing to the fact that they have been only partially 
opened and surveyed. 

Watep-powep for Mining Purposes in India. 

This wTiter emphasises the inexhaustible sources 
of water-power which exist in India, though he adds 
that the numerous waterfalls have not yet been much 
utilised directly or indirectly to drive mills for various 
industrial concerns. The well-governed principality 
of Mysore now, however, possesses a powerful plant 
for generating electricity. The Cauven,- Falls have 
been utilised to drive large dynamos, similar to those 
used at Niagara Falls, N.Y. The electric power so 
generated at the head-waters of the Cauvery is being 
conducted about ninety miles to the Kolar gold-fields, 
where it is used for mining purposes.* The Cauvery 
Falls are not inferior in their capacity, to Niagara Falls, 
hence, if further mining-camps be added in Mysore, 
there will hardly be any difficulty concerning the 
• supply of power. This new power system has indeed 
been a boon to the Kolar mining-concerns, because 
the rainfall in that part of the country is inadequate , 
and consequently the water reservoirs ase incapable 
of furnishing all the water needed for boiler and other 
purposes throughout the year. Besides, every bit of 
coal or firewood has to be brought from a long distance, 
which makes steam-raising a matter of great expense. 
The new electric power supply has been found to be 
of moderate cost. 

Miners' International Congress. 

The International Miners' Congress, held at Paris 
and limited to coal miners, was attended by about 
IOC delegates of various nationalities, 50 of the members 
being English. 

The first subject discussed was the question of 
fixing the working day in mines at eight hours. Two 
proposals in this sense were submitted, the one by 
the Miners' Federation, and the other by the National 
Federation of French Miners. After a discussion of 
considerable length, in which Messrs. Edwards and 
Stanley (England) took part, the French proposal 
was adopted. This proposal demanded the fixing 
by law of the working day in mines af eight hours, 
including ascents and descents, with extension to 
surface workers. The British proposal was much 
less definite, inasmuch as. while demanding a reduction 
in the hours of work, it did not fix a limit. The second 
part of the resolution moved by the Miners' Federation, 
proposing that action be taken to secure from the 
Governments represented at the congress the passing 
of such a law as was required, was adopted. 

* See Page's Magazine for February, 1903. — Ed. 



Two proposals were submitted on the subject c' 
minimum wages. The French National Miners' 
Federation urged that a wage minimum should be 
fixed by law. The British Miners' Federation, on 
the other hand, submitted that the same results 
could be obtained by the action of trades unions, 
and deprecated any legal action in the matter. After 
a long debate, the congress adopted a resolution to 
the effect that the associations of every nationality 
represented in the congress should do their utmost 
to obtain for miners, by legislation or otherwise, a 
minimum wage such as would enable them to live 
comfortably. The subject of ankylostomiasis and 
other matters were also discussed. 

The North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers. 

The report of the Council of the above Institution 
presented at the annual general meeting showed 
that 100 members of all classes have been added 
to the register during the past year, and after allowing 
for losses by deaths, resignations, etc., there is a 
net increase of thirty-eight members, the total now 
being 1,350. The library now contains 9,948 volumes 
and 201 unbound pamphlets. 

G. C. Greenwell bronze medals have been awarded 
to Mr. Blakemore for lus paper upon " The Fernie 
Explosion," to Dr. J. S. Haldane for his paper upon 
" Miner's Anaemia, or Ankylostomiasis," and to 
Mr. -F. W. Hard wick for his paper upon "Under- 
ground Fires." Mr. Clarence R. Claghom's prize 
of £io for the best essay upon the " Action, Influence, 
and Control of the Roof in Longwall Workings " hcis 
been awarded to Mr. H. W. G. Halbaum, for his 
paper dealing with that subject. 

Prizes of books have been awarded to the writers 
of the following papers communicated to the members 
during the year 1902- 1903 : " Working a Thick 
Coal Seam in Bengal. India," by Mr. Thomas Adamson, 
M.I.M.E. " The Use of Carboniferous Plants as 
Zonal Indices," by Mr. E. A. Newell Arber. " Des- 
cription of the Lead Ore Washing Plant at the Green- 
side Mines, Patterdale," by Mr. Wm. H. Borlase, 
M.I.M.E. •' The Gvpsum of the Eden Valley," by 
Mr. D. Bums, M.I.M.E. " Sinking by the Freezing 
Method at Washington, County Durham," by Mr. 
Mark Ford, M.I.M.E. " Air Compression by Water 
Power ; The Installation at the Belmont Gold Mine," 
bv Mr. D. G. Kerr, M.I.M.E. " The Occurrence of 
Gold in Great Britain and Ireland," by Mr. J. Malcolm 
Maclaren, M.I.M.E. " Some of the Considerations 
Affecting the Choice of Pumping Macliinery," by 
Messrs. A. H. Meysey-Thompson, M.I.M.E., and 
H. Lupton. " The 'Geology of the English Lake 
District," by Mr. J. Postlethwaite. " The Utilisation 
of Exhaust Steam by the Combined Application of 
Steam Accumulators and Condensing Turbines," by 
Professor A. Rateau, M.I.M.E. " Hematite Deposits 
and Hematite Mining in West Cumberland," by 
Mr. W. E. Walker, M.I.M.E. 

It was mentioned that members had been invited 
to participate in the International Engineering 
Congress to be held in October, 1904, at St. Louis 
and also in an International Congress to be held in. 
Liege in September, 1905. 

Regret was expressed at the death of Mr. William. 
Cochrane, a past president of the Institute. 



(265) 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AT WORK. 

By C. H. 



The Birmingham Water Scheme. 

I hear that since the inauguration of the Birmingham 
water scheme, people in the Midland capital have made 
it a staple subject of conversation, and many have been 
the congratulations on the excellence of the engineering 
work carried out T}, miles away in the Elan and Claerwen 
Valleys. These works, which have been in progress 
ior some years, will ultimately provide a supply of 
75,000,000 gallons of water daily, in addition to 
27,000,000 gallons for compensation. 

The portion of the scheme completed includes four 
great dams holding back the waters of the Elan, and the 
base of the dam at Dolymynach on the Claerwen, and the 
aqueduct to convey the water from the storage reser- 
voirs near Rhayader to the service reservoir at Frankley 
together with that reservoir, filters, distributing mains, 
etc. Ultimately three additional reservoirs in the 
Claerwen Valley will be constructed, and six sets of 
pipes, 42 in. in diameter, two of which are at present 
laid, will be used for the conveyance of the water to 
Birmingham. The aqueduct consists of nearly half 
cut and cover and tunnel, and half of pipe syphon. 

In order to provide for a fall of 1 70 f t. between Rhayader 
and Birmingham, the outlet from the lowest, or Caban 
Coch, reservoir, is constructed at an altitude of 70 ft. 
above the bottom, and a submerged dam has been 
constructed to insure that the water shall always be 
at a sufficient level to fill the aqueduct, its crest being 
40 ft. below the top water level of the reservoir. The 
compensation water is delivered to the stream at 
bottom water level of the reservoir, and is drawn off 
from below the submerged dam without affecting the 
supply to the aqueduct. The water at present im- 
pounded in the Claerwen Valley is carried into the 
Caban Coch reservoir above the submerged dam by a 
tunnel. Of the three completed reservoirs in the Elan 
Valley, the Caban Coch reservoir has a top water level 
above ordnance datum of 822 ft., a top water area of 
500 acres, and will contain 7,800,000,000 gallons. The 
Caban Coch dam is 122 ft. high and 600 ft. long. The 
Pen-y-Gareg reservoir has a top water level above 
■ordnance datum of 945 ft., a top water area of 124 acres, 
and will hold 1,300,000,000 gallons. The Pen-y-Gareg 
dam is 123 ft. high and 500 ft. long. The Craig-Goch 
reservoir has a top water level of 1,040 ft. above 
ordnance datum, a top water area of 217 acres, and will 
contain 2,000,000,000 gallons. The Craig-Goch dam 
is 135 ft. high and 520 ft. long. When complete the 
Dolymynach reservoir in the Claerwen Valley will 
have a top water level above Ordnance datum of 900 ft., 
and a top water area of 148 acres, while its capacity 
will be 1,600,000,000 gallons. The Dolymynach dam 
will be 1 00 ft. high and 915 ft. long. 

Important Doek Development at Swansea. 

The new dock at Swansea ol which His Majesty 
the King cut the first sod last month, will be 
constructed on the foreshore to the east of the 
existing entrance channel, and the whole of the works 
with the exception of the passage connecting the dock 
with the Prince of Wales' Dock, will be below high 
water mark of ordinary Spring tides, on a site which 
is of little value for anytliing outside dock purposes 



and has in consequence been acquired at a com- 
paratively small price. 

The collective area of the existing docks amounts 
to 60 acres ; so that apart from any other considera- 
tions the new undertaking will more than double the 
present accommodation of this port. 

Vessels will enter the dock through a lock situated 
near the end of the existing East Pier, 875 ft. long 
between the inner and outer gate sills, and 90 ft. 
wide at coping level. 

There will be a dejith of water on the outer sills 
of 40 ft. at H.W.O.S.T., 12 ft. at L.W.O.S.T., 
32 ft. 3 in. at H.W.O.N.T., and 19 ft. 9 in. L.W.O.N.T. 
It will thus be noted .that ships of the largest size 
now or likely to be built, will be able to enter at any 
tide in the year, and that the ordinary sized tramp 
steamer which the port now accommodates will be 
able to enter and leave at practically any state of 
the tide throughout the year. 

The depth of 12 ft. over the outer sill at L.W.O.S.T., 
is greater than that of any other port in the Bristol 
Channel under similar conditions of tide, with the 
exception of Barry, where the depth at L.W.O.S.T. 
is 13 ft. 9 in. 

In order to exclude the tidal waters from the site 
of the works a rubble embankment about i|- miles 
long will be tipped, faced with heavy blocks of stone, 
forming a water-tight enclosure of ;about 400 acres 
within which the dock works proper will be con- 
structed. The area thus reclaimed provides for a 
dock with a water area of 107 acres, of which it is 
only proposed now to construct 66 acres, leaving the 
remainder for future extension when the necessity 
arises. 

To protect the entrance, the present West Pier will 
be extended 800 ft. and a new East Pier be built 
with an approach jetty extending from it to the 
lock alongside of which ships will " bring up " before 
entering the lock. The approach jetty will be of 
timber work sufficiently open to allow of wave action 
expending itself before reaching the outer gates of 
the lock, in a basin constructed for the purpose. 

The lock will have vertical side walls and a fiat 
invert throughout its entire length, so that the depth 
of water over the sills will be maintained, practically, 
for the full width of the lock. The angle at which 
the lock is placed relative to the quay walls of the 
dock will be such that the largest vessel the dock 
can take in after it has passed through the lock, will 
be able to swing without interfering with any ship 
berthed alongside the adjacent quays. The dock 
walls will be vertical with ample quay space behind ' 
them for warehouses and railway sidings. The 
central position of the dock will be used for general 
trade. The eastern end will be reserved for a coaling 
arm. The Great Western Railway Company have 
taken 1,000 ft. of frontage on the north side of the 
coaling arm, and will put up coaling appliances of the 
most modern type, involving the use of movable coal 
hoists all worked on the high level so as to liave the 
whole of the quay space below free for the mam line 
traffic round the dock. The other railway companies 
are also negotiating for frontages on the southern 
side of the coaling arm. 



(266 



The Civil Engineer at WorR. 



267 



The length of quays for general trade ^\'ill be 
7,350 ft., for coaling purposes, 3,200 ft., or an in- 
clusive total of 10,550 ft. 

The joint engineers for the dock are ^Ir. P. W. 
Meik, M.Inst. C.E., 16, Victoria Street, Westminster, 
and ilr. A. O. Schenk, M.Inst.C.E., the Harbour 
Trustees' Engineer, to whom we are indebted for 
the above details the plan appearing on page 224. 
The resident engineer is Mr. R. S. Oldham, 
A.M.Inst.C.E., the contractors being ^lessrs. Topham. 
Jones and Railton, of 2, Great George-street, West- 
minster, who are now carrx-ing out the Government 
dock work at Gibraltar at a cost of about four 
miUions, and are also constructing the new dock at 
Cardiff for the Cardiff Docks and Railway Company. 

Light Railway Constpuetion. 

Apropos of the article which appeared in last 
month's issue on " The Leek and ilanifold Light 
Railway," I note with interest that:Mr. E. R. Calthrop, 
M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E., has contributed some instructive 
chapters on hght railways to a work which has been 
written by Mr. E. O. iIa\vson, M.Inst.C.E., on " Pioneer 
Irrigation." By a coincidence, Mr. Mawson was a 
contributor to Page's Mag.\zixe last month, his article 
being concerned \\-ith a new form of automatic weir 
crest. 

The fundamental idea of light railway construction 
and working (says ilr. Calthrop) is the elimination of 
ever\- kind of expenditure which is non-essential to its 
erticiency as a means of transport, and the reduction 
of all permanent way, works, plant, and appliances to 
their simplest and most inexpensive forms. The total 
cost of a railway on the 2 ft. 6 in. gauge, \\-ith 35 lb. 
rails, and equipped with rolling stock, will varv ver>' 
considerably. Two thousand pounds per mile inay be 
accepted as the minimum cost, completed under the 
most favourable conditions with a modest equipment of 
rolling stock. Three thousand pounds per mile will 
cover an average amount of bridging, cutting, and em- 
Ijanking in undulating country-, and include rolling stock 
sufficient to carry the considerable traffic which wUl 
exist to warrant the expenditure of this amount of 
capital. Any excess over £3,000 can only be caused by 
a necessity for works of unusual magnitude or costliness, 
or^by the circumstances demanding an unusually heavy- 
equipment of rolling stock. 

The above approximate estimates relate to a 2 ft. 6 in. 
light railway- of heavy traffic capacity, but by diminish- 
ing the traffic capacity and reducing axle loads from 
5 tons to 3 tons, and weight of rails from 35 lb. to 25 lb., 
the cost per mile maj-, under the most favourable con- 
' litions, be reduced to between /i ,200 and /i, 500. With 
the 3 ton axle load, the reduction of the^'gauge to 2 ft., 
vvould, under the same favourable conditions, make the 
ost between ;^i,ooo and / 1,300 per mile. Below these 
::gures it is still possible to construct a railway, but 
jnly of the private plantation type. 

Mr. Calthrop gives the following table, showing the 
rain loads which can be^hauled iin^every day working 



by engines of the Barsi t\-pe, allowing for a considerable 
margin of power : — 



■ Train loads exclusive 
of engine. 

Conditions. 

Most unfavourable possible, namely, com- 
bination of sieeptst gradient with sharpest ; 2it. 6in.at' 2 ft. o in. at 
curve. ! 8 miles per ^ miles per 

j hour. hour. 



Tons. Tons. 

On gradient of i in 100, combined 

with curve of 600 ft. radius ^00 , 160 

On gradient of i in 75, combined 

with curve of 250 ft. radius ... 225 120 

On gradient of i in 50, combined 
with curve of 250 It. raidius ... 150 t 80 

I 

As further evidence of the exceedingly hea\-y loads 
which can be transported by a light railway with 
efficiently designed rolling stock of hea^•^- traffic capacity, 
a train on the Barsi Light Railway is illustrated, weigh- 
ing 380 tons, exclusive of the engine. 

It may be asked (says Mr. Calthrop in another 
informing paragraph), how has it been possible* to put 
such powerful locomotives on rails weighing no more 
than 35 lb. per yard ? The answer is, by designing the 
locomotive in a particular way, so that its weight is 
distributed over a large number of axles in such a 
manner that, when fully loaded up in working order, 
there is no greater load than live tons on any one axle. 

On most of the 3 ft. gauge light railways in Ireland — 
apart from the initial error of making them six inches 
too wide — an e.xtraordinaiy- and most expensive mistake 
has been made through lack of expert knowledge on 
this subject. The maxima axle loads on the carriage 
and wagon stock do not exceed 4 tons, so that, as 
far as they were concerned, a rail of 30 lb. per yard would 
have been more than ample to carrj- these loads. But 
the locomotives were built, although the traffic is light, 
with the absurd axle loads of 8 and 9 tons, and con- 
sequently the weight of the rails throughout the whole 
length of these light railways was put up to no less than 
50 lb. per yard, costing in toto many thousands of 
pounds more than was at all necessary. Properly 
designed engines, with 4 ton axle loads, would have 
done all the work required. 

yii. Mawson is responsible for the greater part of the 
work, and has produced a freely illustrated volume, 
whichshould be invaluable to settlers in arid unexploited 
country. Pioneer farmers are instructed in plain terms 
how to conser\e a precarious rainfall and apply the 
water for the purposes of agriculture. At the same 
time, easy methods of tapping the underground supply 
by wells are described. 

•Pioneer Irrigation" : a manual of information for farmers in the 
Colonies. Bv E. O. Mawson, M.Inst.C.E.. Executive Engineer. Public 
Works Denartraent Bombay, with additional chapters on Light Rail- 
wavs by E. R. Calthrop, M.InstC.E., M.I.M.E. Crosby, Lock\vood 
and Sen. los. 6d. net. 





I POWER STATION NOTES. 




By E. K. S. 



Recuperative Power of Peat. 

A good deal has been heard recently about the 
utilisation of peat on a large scale, and it may be 
interesting to point out that peat differs from coal in 
that after removal a fresh lot grows up again. The 
rate varies in different parts of the world, but the 
following are some well authenticated cases : — 

Lake of Constance — ^A layer of 3 ft. to 4 ft. thick in 
24 years. 

Near Hanover — A layer of 4 ft. to 9 ft. thick in 30 
years. 

Valley of Somme — A layer 3 ft. thick in 30 to 40 
years. 

Of course, a great deal depends on the peat forming 
value of the mosses, and on various geological and 
geographical features of the country. Some mosses 
may only give a foot thickness of peat in 30 years, but 
taking peat bogs the world over 10 ft. in 100 years 
seems to be a fair average. 

Taking these figures and assuming absolutely safe 
data for working out the horse-power, we arrive at 
rather interesting figures. 

Assuming that one cubic foot of cut peat will give 
10 lb. of solid fuel, and that 5 lb. of peat fuel are 
equivalent to one brake horse-power hour, then it 
can be shown that 640 acres or one square mile of 
peat bog 10 ft. thick, will give : — 

640 x43560 x10 x101b. , , 

-^ ^^^"^ — = 550,000,000 b.h.p. hours. 

5 lb. jj • f 

If we assume that the square mile of peat bog 
grows at the rate of 10 ft. in 100 years, then we may 
say that such a peat bog is good for — 

550,000,000 , , , 

5 = 630 b.h.p. 

365x24x100 

for all time. As a matter of fact the working day 
may very well be taken at 10 hours, so that 1,500 b.h.p 
may be calculated as the output of a square mile of 
peat bog, so worked that it is never permanently 
diminished. 

Peat Coke. 

Ziegler has shown that it is possible to treat peat 
in ovens so as to give 35 per cent, of coke, 4 per cent, 
of tar, 40 per cent, of tar water, and 21 per cent, 
of gases. As the coke is almost free from sulphur 
and phosphorus, it can be used instead of charcoal 
for the finer kinds of iron. The tar gives the usual oils, 
creosote and paraffin, and ammonium sulphate.calcium, 
acetate and methylic alcohol can be made from the 
tar water. 

The gas is partly or wholly used for heating the ovens, 
so that the heating which formerly required an amount 
of peat fuel equal to about two-thirds of the peat to 
be coked is now carried out entirely with the waste 
gases. Of course, some of the gas can be used for 
heating steam boilers, or it may be used for driving 
gas engines in the same way as blast-furnace gas. 



Large Jets for Pelton Wheels. 

To those who are not accustomed to the engineering 
details of high head water powers, the size of the 
jets of water for working the tangential wheels is some- 
what surprising. Thus two of the Pelton wheels at 
the Sabla Power House of the Californian Gas and 
Electric Corporation, each built to give 3,700 h.p. 
at 240 revolutions, under a head of 1,531 ft., are driven 
by a solid jet of water 4-Hn. diameter. A 7,500 h.p. 
wheel in the sarne station is driven by a jet of water 
6 in. in diameter. When it is considered that the 
quick regulation of such tangential wheels under 
sudden load fluctuations is effected by deflection of 
the nozzle so as to turn the stream partially away from 
the wheel buckets, it will be seen that a good deal of 
engineering skill is required to design suitable apparatus 
and governing gear. 



Cooling- Towers. 

Cooling towers have come to be used very exten- 
sively of recent years, and although they were first 
introduced on the continent, some of the largest in 
the world have been erected in this country. Amongst 
them may be mentioned six towers to deal with 
25,000 h.p. for the Metropolitan Railway Company, two 
to deal with 12,000 h.p. for the Metropolitan Electric 
Supply Company, and three towers for the Ebbw Vale 
Steel Company, two dealing with 12,000 h.p., and the 
third with 6,oOo h.p. There is no doubt that the cooUng 
tower is a very great improvement on the old millgoit 
or cooling pond, as by splitting up the water into 
small drops the heat is carried off so much more effec- 
tually. The idea appears to have had its origin in 
Germany in a primitive cooling plant consisting of 
piles of brushwood held together by frames. When 
new the brushwood gave fair results, but after a 
time the bark peeled off the twigs choking the air 
spaces, and the twigs became rotten and broke off. 
The modern type of cooler consists of a number of 
shelves of rough sawn spruce, and the water to be 
cooled drops down from shelf to shelf, whilst the 
cooling air rises from the bottom by either natural 
or forced draught. 

In order to split up the water as much as possible , 
seriations are cut into the shelves of some of the coolers 
so as to always ensure that the water shall drip from one 
shelf to the next in the form of drops. The framework 
supporting the shelves is usually built of wood, because 
in hot weather it acts as an insulation from the sun's 
rays. 

Regarding the size, it is found that the best results 
are obtained when the water is pumped into the cooler 
at about 100° F., and taken away at about 70° F., 
this is the ratio employed by the Metropolitan 
Electric Supply Company, the vacuum given being 
26 in. The largest difference which it is advisable 
to employ in a cooler is from 120° F. down to 
about 8o°'F. 



(2';S) 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 



Third Quarter's Shipbuilding. 

When these hnes are in print we shall be nearing the 
end of the third quarter of the shipbuilding j^ear, and 
while we write there is ever\' prospect of the fourth 
quarter being a dull and depressing one. In June, 
July, and August there is usually not much done in the 
way of the placing of specifications for new ships, for 
in these months both builders and owners are more or 
less occupied with their summer arrangements. In 
August the beginning of a resumption is sometimes 
apparent, but if there is no run of orders between August 
and the end of October, then there is usually not much 
business done until after the New Year. There is 
certainly not much prospect of any resumption this 
month, but as the unexpected so often happens the 
tide may have turned before what we ymte has been 
read. The July launches would have been small but 
for the Caronia, and the August launches have been 
restricted by the effects of the July holida\-s. The 
present quarter started with 993,088 tons of merchant 
craft, and 361,335 tons of warship tonnage under 
construction in the United Kingdom. This was a gross 
total bf 1,354,423 tons, as compared with 1,365,779 
tons at the corresponding date of last year. But vdih 
the launches and the scarcity of orders during the 
quarter, the end of September will show further restric- 
tion of the tonnage on hand. The worst of it is that 
the work on hand is so very unevenly distributed that 
some yards are practically idle. 

Unremunerative Shipowning. 

This pause in the pace of shipbuilding is not bad for 
shipowning generally, which is, perhaps, at present one 
of the most unremunerative employments in the country. 
But it is only a pause, and there are numbers of owners 
waiting only for some gleam of encouragment to send 
in their orders for new ships. That encouragement 
might be found in many ways, not understanded of the 
people, but it certainly cannot be found in the present 
condition of the freight market*. True, rates 
have been paid on steamers outward to Japan and 
Asiatic Russia, both from this country and from 
America, but considering the risks, the high insurance 
rates, and the absence of homeward freighting, the 
apparent profit is probably delusive. There have been 
some good few sales of steamers to Japan, and a few 
also to Russia, but on the whole the dislocation of 
trafiic by the war in the Far East has not been for the 
advantage of British maritime interests. On the other 
hand, peace will probably bring a good demand for 
boats for charter and also for purchase. American 
builders have no ocean tonnage on the stocks, and 
German builders seem to have only a small amount of 
work on hand. Apart from Great Britain, the additions 
that are being made to the world's tonnage are small, 
but in Great Britain there are more hands than there 
is employment for just now. 

The "Caronia. 

The great event in the shipbuilding world since our 
last has been the launch of the Caronia for the Cunard 
Company, by John Brown and Co., Ltd., Clyde- 
bank. The Caronia is the largest ship which has, so 
far, been built on the Cb'de. The previous largest was 
the Saxonia, launched for the Cunard Company in 
December, 1899, also by John Brown and Co., 
•Clydebank, while before that were the Campania and 



Lucania, built by the Fairfield Company. The following 
figures give the size of the Caronia : — 

Extreme length 678 ft. 

Moulded breadth 72 ft. 

Depth to shelter deck . 52 ft. 

' Draft loaded 32 ft- 

Gross tonnage 21 .000 tons 

Indicated horse-power 21 ,000 

Displacement 29,800 tons 

Deadweight carrying capacity. . 12,000 tons 

Launching weight 13.500 tons 

Water ballast 3.450 tons 

Boiler pressure 200 lb. 

Passenger accommodation 2,6.50 

Officers and crew 450^ 

The keel plate of the Caronia was laid in September 
of last year, and in Uttle over ten months the vessel has 
been ready for launching. Thirteen thousand five hun- 
dred tons of steel have been worked into the structure, 
making a heavier weight than that of any ship previously 
sent off launching ways in that time. In the building 
of the vessel, rivets weighing 600 tons have been used, 
and the weight of the stern frame is 65 tons. The 
steel work is already finished, and the large 
amount of carpenters' and joiners' work connected with 
the passengers' quarters and the machinery departments 
is in a very advanced condition. 

Comparisons. 

The Caronia is 5S ft. longer than the Campania 
or Lucania, and jS ft. longer than the Saxonia. The 
Saxonia, though shorter than the Campania, measured 
larger by 1,331 tons gross. The Caronia is larger still 
by 6,720 tons. In the matter of speed the new vessel 
will be behind the Campania and Lucania by about 
four knots. Of the four latest White Star boats, each 
when launched was the largest afloat, and at present 
the Baltic holds the record in the matter of gross 
tonnage. She is longer than the Caronia by 47 ft. 9 in., 
larger by 2,763 tons gross, and 10,200 tons dis- 
placement. The Caronia is, for her size, more of a 
liner and less of a cargo steamer than the latest \\Tiite 
Star vessels, and is expected to resemble the Saxonia 
in this as in some other respects. The committee of 
experts appointed by the Admiralty to test the economy 
of various types of boilers, pronounced the Saxonia to 
be an exceedingly economical vessel, the machinery' 
requiring only 1 34 lb. of steam per horse-power per hour, 
as compared with 16 lb. in some naval ships, while the 
boilers produced i2'33 lb. of steam per pound of coal, 
as compcired with g\ lb. to 1 1 lb. in the naval ships 
experimented ^vith. Each horse-power was obtained 
for I 29 lb. of fuel per hour. In the matter of comfort 
and freedom from vibration the Saxonia and her sister 
ship Ivernia — the latter built at Wallsend-on-Tyne — 
have all along been notable. 

Transatlantic Traffic. 

Every day steamers leave the ports of the United 
Kingdom or of the United States carrying the people 
and produce of the two nations. They follow one 
another with the regularity of railway trains. Now- 
adavs these liners^ by means of wireless telegraphy, 
maintain communication throughout the whole of their 
voyages with the land on both sides. The Cunard 
Company were foremost in the traffic from the ver\' 
first, and are doing their best to maintain it in the future. 



(269) 



270 



Page's Magazine. 



The policy adopted by this company is the construction 
not merely of the fastest ships afloat, but also of steamers 
of moderate speed which will be the embodiment of 
comfort for the travelling public. The Caronia is a hne 
example of the latter type. Her tonnage is little less 
than that of the White Star Baltic, while her other 
dimensions will conduce to a pleasant life at sea. The 
Caronia is to be followed in a short time by the Car- 
mania, a sister ship, but while the Caronia is to be driven 
by the ordinary reciprocating twin-screw engines, the 
Carmania will be fatted with turbines. 

A British India Turbine. 

The turbine has also been adopted by the British 
India Steam Navigation Company, who have had the 
steel turbine steamer Lhasa, built for them by William 
Denny and Brothers, and classed by the British 
Corporation and also at Lloyd's. She is the first of 
four turbine steamers for the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Company's Indian trade. The principal dimen- 
sions are : length, 275 ft., breadth, 44 ft., depth, 
25 ft. 6 in. She is of the poop bridge and forecastle 
type, having accommodation for first-class passengers 
in the bridge, for second-class in the poop, and for 
crew in the forecastle. The first-class passengers are 
berthed in large airy cabins, fitted with all the latest 
conveniences. The dining saloon, which is capable of 
accommodating all the passengers at once, is in a 
Romanesque design, finished in cream enajnel, the 
spandrels between the arches being filled in with diaper, 
having a mosaic effect. The upholstery is in navy blue 
morocco. The second-class passengers are accom- 
modated in three and four-berthed rooms, which are as 
large and airy as is necessary in a vessel trading within 
the tropics. The main deck is arranged for the carrying 
oi native passengers, for whose comfort and convenience 
every arrangement has been made. The ship has fine 
lines to maintain a high rate of speed, so there is only 
a limited amount of cargo capacity. The turbines are 
supplied by the Parsons' Marine Steam Turbine Com- 
pany, while the boilers and other propelling machinery 
are supplied by Denny and Co., Dumbarton. 

William Beardmore and Co., Ltd. 

One of the most perfectly- equipped and efficient 
shipyards in the country is being rapidly completed at 
Dalmuir, on the Cl3^de, by William Beardmore and 
Co., Ltd, of Glasgow, who have made a fresh 
issue of capital in the form of ;^500,ooo four and 
a half per cent, first mortgage debentures to meet the 
cost of the extensions. The incorporation of William 
Beardmore and Co., Ltd., was formed in January, 
1902, to acquire the businesses of the private firm of 
William Beardmore and Co., Parkhead Forge, 
Napier Shipbuilding Yard, and Lancefield Engine 
Works, Glasgow, which was established over sixty years 
ago as forge-masters by the predecessors of the present 
company. The whole of the ordinary share capital 
was allotted, fully paid, as the consideration for the 
purchase of the business of William Beardmore 
and Co. In November, 1901, Vickers, Sons and 
Maxim, Ltd., acquired half of the ordinary share 
capital of this company, whose heritable properties, 
fixed and loose plant, exclusive of goodwill, were then 
valued at ;£830,ooo. The company's books show that 
since the auditor reported upwards of £470,000 has been 
expended in extension and equipment of the properties. 
The ordinary share ca])ital of the comjiany is now held 
as to 748,997 shares by Mr. William Beardmore, as to 
1,000 shares by Mr. Joseph Beardmore, and as to 
749.997 shares by Vickers, Sons and Maxim, Ltd. 
Of the preference share caiiital ;^500,ooo has been 



subscribed at par by Mr. William Beardmore and 
Vickers, Sons and Maxim, Ltd., in equal proportions, 
and has been paid up in full. The business of 
WiUiam Beardmore and Co., Ltd., now consists 
of the manufacture of armour plates, forgings, and 
steel shafting of the heaviest class now in use, railway 
wheels, tyres, axles, gun forgings, steel castings, and 
other steel material. This company also build war 
vessels of every type, completely equipped with 
armour and engines, and also mail steamers and cargo 
boats. The accountants certify that the profits of 
William Beardmore and Co. have been as follows : — 
Year ending Dec. 31st, 1899 .. ;/;i26,6o9 15 9 

1900 . . 203,969 I 4 

1901 .. 263,697 19 3 

1902 . . 114,991 7 o 
,, ,, 1903 . . 192,100 6 3 

The annual average of the profits above shown is 
;£i8o,273 13s. iid. 

The Magnitude of British Warship Building. 

At the Cambridge University Extension summer 
meeting held at Exeter, Sir William White 
lectured on the " Modern Development of Construc- 
tion of the Royal Navy." Incidentally he remarked 
that the Naval Defence Act had been followed by 
other large programmes of construction, but no 
special Acts of Parliament had been passed, nor 
had there been any corresponding publication of the 
details of the successive programmes laid down by 
the Admiralty. That change of policy had distinct 
advantages, because when only that portion of the 
programme which was to be provided for in the 
Navy Estimates for a particular year was disclosed, 
possible rivals were left in ignorance of our complete 
intentions, and the unrivalled resources of this country 
made it possible for us to keep the lead in finished 
ships, even if we started later than our rivals. 

In 1894 Lord Spencer, then First Lord of the 
Admiralty, introduced a large programme of con- 
struction, and his successor, Lord Goschen, took 
similar steps during his long period of office as First 
Lord. Throughout the period from 1885 to 1902 the 
lecturer, as Director of Naval Construction, was. 
responsible for the designs and construction of all 
the ships added to the Royal Navy, excluding 
destroyers. His responsibility for designs and con- 
struction included 43 battleships, 26 armoured 
cruisers, 21 first-class protected cruisers, 48 second- 
class, 33 third-class, and 74 unarmoured or un- 
protected vessels. The total represented 245 vessels,, 
with an aggregate value of about 80 millions sterling, 
exclusive of armaments, ammunition, and reserves, 
for which the naval architect was not responsible. 
Including these three items, the first cost to the nation 
of the 245 ships ready for service must be at least 
100 millions sterling. The magnitude of British 
warship building from 1885 to 1902 might be illustrated 
in another way. Parliamentary returns gave the 
expenditure on new construction in detail for each 
financial year from 1869 and 1870. Onwards from 
this record it could be seen that from 1870 to 1885 
the average annual expenditure on new ships was 
under one-and-three-quarter millions sterling. From 
April, 1885, to April, 1902, 17 years, the total ex- 
penditure on new ships was about 88^ millions 
sterling, and the annual average was nearly five-and- 
a-quarter millions. For the last seven years during 
which Sir William held office the total expenditure j 
on new ships exceeded 50 millions. The annual J 
average was ;^7,20o,ooo, and the maximum in 1900 % 
and 1 90 1 nearly nine millions. 



AUTOnOBILE N0TE5. 



By J. W. 



Small Car Trials. 

While these lines are in the press the Automobile 
Club's Small Car Trials will be decided. The cars will 
start from Hereford on the morning of Monday, August 
jgth, and go over route i, viz., to Worcester and back 
via Bromyard, and will go over the same route in the 
evening. On Tuesday route 2 will be taken, through 
Leominster to Ludlow and back, and so on throughout 
the week, the last run being to Kington, and on 
through Walton and Titley on the Saturday. There 
will be three hill climbs, one on Monday on the way to 
Worcester, viz., Frome's Hill, one on the Tuesday on the 
way to Ludlow, viz., Dinmore Hill, and one on the 
Wednesday on the return from Leominster, viz., the 
north side of Dinmore Hill. Each of these routes is 
approximately 50 miles, and the cars will have to do 
each journey without a stop, the award being given to 
the car in each class which makes the mostnon-stopruns. 

The International Cup Contest. 

Since our last issue went to press the races for the 
International Cup have also been decided at Ryde, 
and I am sorry not to be able to record a win for 
England, seeing that the English reserve boat Napier 
Minor made such a smart performance (20 knots) and 
actually outdistanced Trefle-ii-Quatre in the tinal. 
An accident, resulting in a bad leakage in the bows of 
Napier II. prevented that boat from representing 
England in the final, and the reserve boat was con- 
sequently called upon. Great applause greeted the 
supposed victory of Edge, but since the race the 
Automobile Club of France have lodged an objection to 
the running of Napier Minor in the final, she having 
been beaten by Napier II. and as the objection has 
been upheld the honour goes to Trefie-ii-Quatre. 

The Calais-Dover Motor- Boat Race. 

In this event Treftc-li-Qnatre ran under English 
colours (being now the property of Mr. G. B. Thurbon) 
and represented England in conjunction with Napier 
Minor, entered by S. F. Edge. Ltd. Germany was 
represented by Mercedes /!'.,* and Belgium by Marcotte. 
A variety of motor-boats in addition to the racers 
participated, and were divided up into four cruiser 
classes, a class for fishing boats, and two for racers. 
Mercedes IV. took the lead at an early stage, and 
maintained it until she reached Dover with an ad- 
vantage of 5 minutes 18 seconds over Napier Minor. 
Time, i hour 7^ seconds. 

The crossing of the Channel by a small boat in an 
liour marks a decided advance in the construction 
of the internal combustion engine. Mercedes IV. is 
39 ft.?4in. long, her motor being an 80 h.p. Daimler ; 
Trefle-.i-Ouartre is 29 ft. 10 in. in length, and is driven 
by a Richard Brasier 80 h.p. motor. 

Thus Mercedes IV. won first prize for time in the 
racer section. Mart he w-on the " heavy-oil fuel " 
prize. The alcohol fuel cup was not awarded, as there 
was only one entry. 

Napier Minor won the prize given by the International 
Club of Monaco for the first boat home that raced at 
Monaco laist spring. Out of 21 boats tliat started 

* Mercedes I V. has a German engine and a Frencli 
hull. 



20 finished, and the Hotchkiss, which did not come 
across, was put out of the race just after the start by 
faulty ignition and a burnt-out plug. 

Motor-Boat Reliability Trials. 

The Motor-Boat Reliability Trials proved so successful 
that the judges had no hesitation in recommending that 
further trials be held next year. With regard to future 
trials they suggest that the following points receive 
the consideration of the Committee with a view to 
marks being awarded if possible : (i) Exhaust cooling 
and silencing ; (2) Seaworthiness; {3) Ease of control 
and handling ; (4) Wash (for river boats) ; (5) Arrange- 
ment and design ; (6) Discontinuance of the use of 
aluminium for boats for sea work. 

At the recent trials the boats were required to run 
for ten hours on each of two consecutive days, under 
the observation of the Automobile Club officials, and 
were only allowed ten minutes on the second day in 
which to prepare for the day's run. They were divided 
into six classes, according to length, and the following 
awards were made : Class i. — Xot represented ; Class 
2. — Messrs. The Seal Motor Company's 2th.p. 18 ft- 
launch, gold medal ; Class 3. — -Messrs. Vosper and Co.'s 
12 h.p. 22 ft. launch, gold medal ; Messrs. The Mitcham 
Motor Company's 6 h.p. 22 ft. launch, silver medal ; 
Class 4. — Messrs. The Maudslay Motor Company's 
20 h.p. 25 ft. launch, gold medal ; Messrs. Woodnutt 
and Co.'s 12 h.p. 30 ft. launch, silver medal ; Class 5. — 
Mr. S. F. Edge's 55 h.p. 35 ft. launch, gold medal ; 
Class 6. — Messrs. John I. Thorn ycroft and Co.'s 20 h.p. 
30 ft. launch, silver medal. Mr. Campbell Muir s 
Prize for the best boat using ordinarj^ paraffin as fuel 
was won by Competitor No. 5, entered by the Seal 
Motor Company. 

The judges considered the average speed shown by 
the boats over such a long period ver\- satisfactory ; 
one boat of only 35 ft. in length maintained an average 
speed over the whole 20 hours of nearly 14 knots, a per- 
formance that could probably not be equalled by any 
steam launch of her size under similar conditions. 
They remark that, with regard the comparative safety 
of boats fitted with internal combustion engines, it 
would appear that a large number of makers of the 
petrol engme do not seem to have sufficiently considered 
the details necessary for the perfectly safe use of this 
fuel. The judges e.xpressed their satisfaction with 
the admirable fashion in which Mr. Basil Joy, the 
secretary-, had organised the trials. 

The Automobile in Business. 

Mr. J. A. Kingman, in a recent issue of the 
" American Review of Reviews," remarks that the 
steam vehicle for business purposes has been most 
used in England, where it is employed for very 
heavy hauling work. In France as well, con- 
siderable attention has been given to steam 
trucks, though not nearly to such an extent as in 
England, where at least half a dozen manufacturers 
are busily engaged in the production of vehicles of 
this sort. Several hundred heavy steam trucks, or 
lorries, are now operating in and about the City of 
London. In the United States comparatively few 
delivery cars of this power have been built, although 
some of those constructed for experimental purposes 
have done very good work. 



(27 ) 



OUR TECHNICAL COLLEGES. 



A PRESENTATION PORTRAIT. 

A fund has been raised by members of the Governing 
Body .and Teaching Staff of the Manchester University, 
and a few other scientific friends, to obtain a portrait 
of Professor Osborne Reynolds, LL.D., F.R.S., to be 
presented to the University, as a memorial of his 
long and distinguished services to the Owens College, 
and of his eminent position as a scientific investigator. 
TheiHon. John Collier has kindly undertaken the 
commission to paint the portrait. 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NOTTINGHAM. 

The list of successful candidates for the London 
degree of B.Sc. in engineering recently issued contains 
the names of six students, no fewer than five of whom 
are from the engineering department of University 
College, Nottingham. Four have obtained the degree 
with honours, while Mr. G. A. Tomlinson has secured 
first-class honours at nineteen years of age. The equip- 
ment of the engineering laboratories at University 
College, which is already large, is being added to for the 
coming session. 

From this college there were no failures, and all 
the successes were obtained one year after passing 
intermediate. Many will join with me in con- 
gratulating the lecturer (Mr. Morley) upon such a 
striking result, which speaks volumes for the instruction 
given at the College. 

LIVERPOOL UNIVERSITY. 

I have received from the Dean of the Faculty of 
Engineering of the University of Liverpool, a copy 
of the interesting prospectus issued under the new 
regulations. From the introduction I note that no 
attempt is made to turn out " engineers " but rather 
to afford the best scientific training for those intending 
to enter this or any allied profession. 

This University training — which extends over at 
least three years — must be regarded as either pre- 
liminary to or supplementary of a pupilage under some 
engineer or course of apprenticeship with some 
engineering firm. A number of engineers and firms 
in communication with the University are willing 
to receive students after graduation as pupils or 
apprentices, and to take into consideration the time 
spent in the University. 

Students who do not proceed to University degrees 
may take a course of not less than two years leading 
to a Certificate in Engineering. Consequently, those 
who find it impossible to spend the three years 
necessary to qualify for the degree will be able to 
obtain this certificate in two years. The first exami- 
nation is the same as that of the Intermediate 
Examination for the degree, and the second examination 
includes at least two subjects from the final examination 
for the ordinary degree of B.Eng. 

The faculty has quite a formidable list of Professors, 
each a specialist in his own line, and for the Session, 
1 904- 1 905, a very complete programme has been 
plaimed, commencing on the 3rd October. 

ROYAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND ROYAL SCHOOL 
OF MINES EXAMINATION. 

The associateships, scholarsliips, medals, and prizes 
awarded July, 1904 — are as follows : — 

ASSOCIATESHIPS. 

Royal College of Science. 
Mechanics. — ist Class : Henry James Jones, Sydney 
Frank Paul, Alec James Simpson, Alfred William 
Steed. 



Physics. — 1st Class : James Hancock Brinkworth, 
Herbert Moss. 2nd Class : John Beardsmore Homer, 
Ethel Gertrude Willis. 

Botany. — ist Class : Alfred Eastwood, Malcolm 
Wilson. 

Chemistry. — ist Class : John Bright Hoblyn, 
Herbert Brooke Humphries, Alfred Francis Joseph. 
Hilda Mary Judd, Ernest Robert Marie, Alfred Shep- 
herd, Sydney Herbert Smith, Joseph Arthur Stokes. 
2nd Class : James Edward Cunningham, Mabel 
Hattersley, Charles Headland, Percy Edwin Spielmann. 

Geology. — ist Class : Hubert Cecil Jones, Claude 
George Sara. 2nd Class : Tobias Clegg. 

Royal School of Mines. 

Metallurgy. — ist Class : John Frederick Graham, 
Thomas Bevil Greenfield, Everett Unwin Pringle 
Laurie, Donald Myer Levy, Cosby Thomas Nesbitt, 
Edgar Pam, Leslie Alfred Swinney. 2nd Class : 
Charles Crawford Bradshaw, Guy Lovel Caulfeild, 
Richard Leggett Rowe, Francis Gordon Sherwood. 

Alining. — ist Class : Alexander Anderson, Richard 
Charles Bristowe, Gilmour Ewing Brown, William 
Sinclair Curteis, *Jeffrey Glencairn Cunningham, 
Louis William Julius David, Christian Hanckel. 2nd 
Class : Garth Baxter Adeney, lUipparambil Corah 
Chacko, Claude William Courtney, Edward Henry 
Hubert Garbett, Charles William Hall, William 
Hutton -Williams, Joseph Kelly, Frank Kinloch, 
Everett Unwin Pringle Laurie, William Pirrie Otto 
Macqueen, Harry Douglas Maidment, Cyril Langley 
Major, Arthur Robert Mynott, Geoffrej^ Hamilton 
Norman, Hubert Francis Gardner Roose, Richard 
Leggett Rowe, Peter Scholer, Walter John Stewart, 
William Edward Turvey, Henry Theaker Austin 
Twigg. 

*Disqualified by date of his examination for the 
" De La Beche " Medal and Prize. 

SCHOLARSHIPS GIVEN BY THE INSTITUTION O 
MINING AND METALLURGY. 

Metallurgy.— "Leslie Alfred Edward Swinney. 

ROYAL SCHOLARSHIPS. 

First Year. — Frederick George Turner, Edwin 
Samuel Crump, Leslie George Milner, William Godden. 

Second Year. — Donald Francis Blyther, William 
Feast. 

MARSHALL SCHOLARSHIP. 

Louis Edward Robinson. 

MEDALS AND PRIZES, 

" Edward Forbes " IMedal and Prize of Books for 
Biology, Alfred Eastwood. " Murchison " Medal and 
Prize of Books for Geology, Arthur Wade. " Tyndal " 
Prize of Books for Physics, Part I., John Herbert 
Hugon. " De La Beche" Medal for Mining, Gilmour 
Ewing Brown. " Bessemer " IMedal and Prize of 
Books for JMetallurgy, Cosby Thomas Nesbitt. 
" Frank Hutton " Prize of Books for Chemistry, 
Hilda Mary Judd. " Edward Matthey " Prize, 
Frederick Alldis Eastaugh. " Warrington Smyth " 
Medal and Prize, Henry Briggs. "Huxley" Medal, 
not awarded. 

Books given by the Board of Education. — Mechanics, 
Herbert George Tisdall. Practical Chemistry, Joseph 
Arthur Stokes. Mining, Gilmour Ewing Brown. 
Mathematics, Alfred William Steed. Physics, Herbert 
Moss. 



(272) 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING NOTES. 



BY 



CHARLES ROUS-MARTEX. 



Locomotives and Working Expenses. 

To the impartial student of railway economics 
there is a world of instructive meaning in some of the 
facts and figures presented by the chairman of the 
London and Xorth-Westem Railway at the recent 
half-yearly meeting of that company. After men- 
tioning that the working expenses showed a decrease 
of £45,972, of which /io,3i8 had been saved in 
locomotive power, Lord Stalbridge said : " We have 
now a larger number of very efficient and powerful 
engines and have been able to get rid to a great extent 
of assistant engines for trains. We shall go on 
building these larger and more powerful engines, 
and I do not suppose we shall ever build again the 
small class of locomotive." Now, in these gratifying 
statements we have but the small kernel of a very 
large and far-reaching truth. It has long been the 
wonder of many independent critics of railway methods 
that the true reason of the long lo\\-ness of London 
and Xorth-Western dividends has apparently failed 
to make itself perceived either by what I may call 
the "Ministry" or the "Opposition" of the great 
London and Xorth-Western kingdom. It is not 
unreasonable to assume this imperception, because 
had the " Ministry " recognised the weak place one 
may presume it would have been mended before ; 
had the '' Opposition " detected it that would 
certainly have been made the definite basis of attack, 
instead of reliance being placed on a more or less 
vague tissue of generadisation. The whole subject 
is one of such vast interest and importance, affecting 
as it does all other railways in the kingdom as w«Il as 
the North- Western, that I may perhaps be pardoned 
if I devote some extended attention to it in my Notes 
of this month. 

The True Inwardness. 

A railway's existence-reason is the rapid and 
punctual conveyance of traffic, live and dead. For 
some years prior to the advent of Mr. G. \\Tiale's 
new passenger engines it was a matter of reproach 
to the London and North-Western that punctuality 
was only maintained or approximated by the em- 
ployment of tw^o engines on every train more than 
•'17 coaches" in length, or, let us say, of a weight 
exceeding 300 to 320 tons. As the large majority 
of the London and North- Western main-line trains 
did exceed that weight, it followed as a natural 
sequence that the large majority of those trains were 
worked wnth two engines apiece. But it was also 
no uncommon experience to find trains of sixteen, 
fifteen, fourteen or sometimes thirteen "coaches" 
similarly piloted in order to keep the fast booked 
timing, e.g., in the case of the 9.20 a.m. Birmingham 
express from Euston. Taking " 17 coaches," there- 
fore, as the standard maximum load for one engine, 
and as the maximum load for two was fixed as " 20+," 
recently increased to " 2s," it obviously followed 
that an utterly inadequate load was allotted to the 
second engine, viz., only 3^ to 8 "coaches" even in 
the case of the heaviest passenger trains, while when 
14-coach trains were piloted the load would be at 
the utmost only 7 coaches per locomotive. In these 
remarks I am making full allowance for those cases 
in which the second engine is merely a "homing" 
pilot. Clearly, then, ver\- serious waste of locomotive 
power was pointed to in this method. Let me say 
at once that I am not now entering into any issue 



that has existed between the Locomotive and Traffic 
Departments. I am merely renewing the general 
question in the light of its economic bearing. 

Lord Stalbridge says : " We have now a large 
number of very efficient and powerful engines, and 
have been able to get rid to a great extent of assistant 
engines for trains." Yes ; Mr. ^\'hale'5 new engines, 
although by no means so large or so powerful as many 
that have been running on other British railways 
during the past few years, have alread\- effected quite a 
metamorphosis in the working of the Une, keeping time 
with relative ease, hauling trains \\-ith which 
pre\-iously one engine always lost time and ^vith which 
even two seemed to have all their work to maintain 
punctuality. The passenger engines which directly 
preceded the " Precursors," nameh*. Mr. Webb's 
four-cylinder compounds of the "Alfred" class, 
showed themselves able to haul very heavy loads, 
but not at the best modem speeds. A certain fault 
of sluggishness seemed often to afiect them, and 
consequently they, like their immediate predecessors, 
were in bad repute with the Traffic Department for 
losing time with the fastest expresses. It is under- 
stood that by means of a modified system of steam 
distribution this drawback has been largely eliminated. 
But the great fault of the class is self-e\'idently 
deficient boiler-power. Mere heating-surface area 
is of course no complete criterion of power, but it is 
not difficult to perceive that 1,557 sq.ft. of total 
heating surface, an appreciable proportion of which 
is theoretically given by a water-bottom to the fire- 
box, must needs be utterly inadequate for work such 
as is demanded of the engines, which, with new and 
much larger boilers and with the modified valve- 
gear, ought to be able to perform the best work 
demanded, even on the London and North-Western, 
as is now readily accomplished by Mr. WTiale's non- 
compounds. This is the true " inwardness " of 
much that Lord Stalbridge said in general terms. 

Some Side-Lights. 

But it is not the whole case. Lord Stalbridge 
also said : " I do not suppose we shall ever buUd 
again the small clziss of locomotives." No ; I should 
think not. The wonder always has been why so 
many of that small class should ever have been built. 
For what are called the " rebuilds " among the 
London and North-Westem passenger-engines were 
practically new machines when they came out as 
" rebuilt." Their name-plates and number-plates 
doubtless were the same as before, and also perhaps 
the wheel- centres, but for the rest they were practically 
new engines built in the nineties on the obsoletely 
small scale of fifteen to twenty years back, viz., mth 
1,083 sq. ft. of heating surface, cylinders 17 by 24, 
and a total weight of only a little over 30 tons in 
working order. There are no fewer than 256 of these 
engines on the London and North-Western, 166 with 
coupled wheels variously described as 6 ft. 6 in. and 
6 ft. 9 in., and 90 with coupled wheels given some- 
times as 6 ft. sometimes as 6 ft. 3 in. Add to them 
60 of the Ramsbottom 7 ft. 6 in. single- wheelers, 
also rebuilt by Mr. Webb, and we have a total of 
316 small express engines whose name-plate dates 
range from 1S59 to 1882, and whose dimensions are 
those of the early seventies. Then come 100 three- 
cyUnder compounds, of which the fixst thirty, built 
more than twenty years ago, never have proved 



<273) 



18 



274 



Page's Magazine. 



efl&cient express locomotives, making 346 main-line 
engines of a distinctly small and old-fashioned tA^pe. 
Last of all, under the former regime came the eighty 
four-cylinder compounds. On the strange conversion 
of the forty 5 ft. 6 in. coupled express engines into 
as many tanks — a virtual new building — and the 
equally peculiar conversion — only a few years ago — 
of no fewer than ninety little branch engines into as 
many small main-line expresses, I need not now 
dilate. But the indisputable fact does remain that 
up to a very recent date the London and North- 
Western was trying to work the heaviest and almost 
the fastest traffic in Britain with engines of 25 to 
50 per cent, less power than those used for approxi- 
mately similar work on other leading British lines. 
Out of the total of 436 passenger tender-engines 
running prior to the new era, only 100 could be said 
to be of a type less than twenty years old, even if 
the " Greater Britains " and " John Hicks " be in- 
cluded. And hence the constant duplication and 
piloting, which as was once said puffed the share- 
holders' dividends up the chimneys of assisting engines. 

A "Mope Excellent Way." 

But Mr. Whale is " changing all that," and I venture 
to predict that if his reforms receive anything like 
fair play, the gratifying diminution in working 
expenses will steadily continue, and the locomotive 
expenses will go down and down, now that the methods 
are being brought up-to-date and framed on modern 
lines. There is another all-important particular, 
however, in which the London and North-Western 
and Mr. WTiale's predecessor deserve great credit 
for leading the way of reform. For many years past 
other countries, and even our British Colonies, have 
worked their heavy goods traffic with engines having 
eight wheels coupled. I really don't recollect how 
many years, but I do know that I was present by 
special invitation at experiments made with some of 
the 8-coupled locomotives in the British Colony of 
New Zealand just 25 years — a quarter of a century — 
ago. The type then had long been used in the United 
States and in Europe. Thus while in this country 
the maximum train for one goods engine was 40 to 50 
loaded wagons, in France 60 to 70 were constantly 
taken, and in America much more. I do not ignore 
differences in circumstances, including sidings, etc., 
because these are not relevant, for since Mr. Webb 
introduced on the London and North-Western his 
eight-coupled class, that type has been largely 
multiplied, with the result that each virtually hauls 
50 per cent, more load, and so occupies the road 
to a proportionately less extent. More recently the 
Great Western, Great Northern, North-Eastern, 
Great Central, Lancashire and Yorkshire, and 
Caledonian railways have followed suit with similar 
results, and also with the effect of greatly reducing 
the cost of haulage per ton-mile. Thus, with this 
after reform, in*^which the London and North-Western 



set the good example, and with the other in which'it 
has at last followed — with already substantial benefit — 
the good example set by other lines, the London and 
North-Western has clearly found " a more excellent 
way," which without doubt will yield a steady increase 
in dividends, through the decrease effected in working 
expenses. 

Consequences of Former Ways. 

I need not expatiate on the sufficiently-obvious 
drawbacks of a needless multiplication of locomotive 
stock such as is necessitated by excessive piloting or 
duplication of trains. It will be recognised that 
in these cases " twice one " engine is not " two " 
engines in point of efficiency ; that four men instead 
of two are required for the driving and firing of each 
piloted train ; that a proportionate increase in the 
number of cleaners and other hands and in cost of 
engines, etc., in shed accommodation, and so on, 
becomes inevitable. There is this further drawback, 
that duplication of lines has often been rendered 
necessary by the impossibility of getting through 
the traffic on existing lines owing to deficient power 
per engine which has compelled an undue number of 
trains to be run. But, indeed, the drawbacks of 
deficient locomotive power are almost innumerable, 
and I think that the London and North-Western 
shareholders and its directors and officers too, may 
look for happier and more prosperous times now 
that this fact has at last been realised. The same 
better hope applies to all the railways that have gone 
and done likewise. 

New Locomotives. 

This heading must be taken literally. If it were 
understood as meaning new locomotive types my 
remarks would have to be on the same lines as the 
celebrated monologue on " Snakes in Ireland," for 
none of the latter have appeared since last I treated 
the subject. On the other hand, many new loco- 
motives of types already existing are being brought 
out on the various British lines. On the Great 
Western, Mr. Churchward is multiplying his 
" Counties," " County of Middlesex," having been 
followed by " County of Berks," and " County of 
Wilts." On the London and South-Western, Mr. 
Drummond has brought out three of his enlarged 
standard type, Nos. 415, 416, 417, out of twenty which 
are now being built. For the Great Eastern, Mr. 
Holden is constructing more of his improved " Claud 
Hamiltons," with Belpaire fireboxes, and Mr. Ivatt 
is providing the Great Northern with twenty more 
of his enlarged " Atlantic " design, similar to No. 251, 
to which I have made previous reference. On the 
London and North-Western, Mr. Whale is adding to 
the number of his " Precursors," and Mr. Worsdell 
is multiplying his " Atlantics " on the North-Eastern, 
while Mr. Robinson has brought out on the Great 
Central another batch of his " loi ; " class. 




AMERICAN RESUME 



By Our New York Correspondent. 



The s.s. " Baltic in New York Harbour. 

On the return maiden trip of the steamship Baltic, 
it was demonstrated that the new White Star liner 
is considerably in advance of the facilities available 
in New York harbour. At high water vessels drawing 
33 ft. may enter or leave the harbour, but the Baltic 
when fully loaded requires 36 ft. 6ir. On this occasion 
she left New Y'ork \«th 6,000 tons weight les.s than 
her maximum capacity. 

U.S. Coal Production in 1903. 

The United States, according to returns made to 
the Geological Sur%-ey, has again exceeded all pre\'ious 
records in the production of coal. According to the 
" Iron Trades Review" the forthcoming report on the 
country's coal production, which Mr. E. W. Parker, 
statistician, will soon make, ■will show that the total 
output of the coal mines of this country in 1903 
amounted to 359.421,311 short tons. This is an 
increase of 57,830,872 short tons, or 19 per cent, 
over the production of 1902. which amounted to 
301,590,439 tons. The production of 1903 was nearly 
double that of 1893, and more than three times the 
output of 1883. The increase of production in 1903 
over 1902 wcis equal to the total production of all 
kinds of coal in 1878, only twenty-five vears ago. 
Large and significant as A\-as the increase in the amount 
of coal produced, the increase in the value of the 
product was still more noticeable. The value of the 
coal product at the mines in 1903 amounted to 
8506,190,733, which, compared with the value of 
the output in 1902 ($367,032,069). shows an increase 
of $139,158,664, or nearly ^B, per cent. The per- 
centage of increase in value was almost exactly double 
that of the increase in production. 

It is difficult to think in miUions, but our con- 
temporary affords a graphic idea of this enormous 
output by stating that if the entire production 
were loaded on freight cars with a capacity of 30 
tons each, the trains containing it would encircle the 
globe at the equator about three and a third times. 

The Machinery likely to be Employed on the 
Panama Canal. 

Mr. Malcolm McDowell, in the " Technical World," 
gives a brief description of some of the machinerv 
and methods that will be employed in cutting the 
Panama Canal. 

Engineers who are acquainted with the Isthmian 
situation predict that several of the de\-ices found so 
effective in constructing the Chicago Drainage Canal 
will be employed on the Panama work, especially the 
Lidger\^-ood cableways, and the dumping apparatus 
de\-ised by Mr. Locker, a Drainage Canal contractor, 
and the movable incline of the type constructed by 
Mr. Heidenreich, another Drainage Canal contractor. 
The cableway is a suspension bridge formed of a 
steel cable 2^ in. in diameter stretched between two 
towers, one on each side of the cut. In the construction 
of the Drainage Canal, the towers were reared on 
great trucks, whose heavy wheels ran on tracks laid 
parallel to the channel. These towers were 700 ft. 
apart ; one was 93 ft. high ; the other, 71 ft. high. 



NEW YORX, August 10th, 1904. 

the whole apparatus moWng forward with the advance 
of the work. On a platform under the taller tower 
were the engines, boiler, dynamio, and other machinery. 
On a steel cable bridge travelled the cable carriage 
that carried the pullej- wheels and the sheaves of the 
tackle which raised the loaded " skip" — an immense 
steel box — from the bottom of the channel. The 
engineer in the power-house on the platform con- 
trolled the movements of this " skip," and he received 
signals given by a boy with an electric push-button, 
which enabled him to adjust the direction and speed 
of the •' skip " so nicely that he could Uft it, run it 
to the " spoil bank," dump it, and return it with 
amazing accuracy and celerity. Ever\- " skip " 
carried 90 cubic feet of material, and travelled along 
the cableway at the rate of 1,000 ft. a minute. 

American Iron and Steel. 

The official report for the year ended June, 1904, 
shows a steady increase in exports of iron and steel 
and a decline of imports. Exports of which the 
tonnage is reported have grown from 302,492 gross 
tons in 1903 to 675,529 tons in the year under review. 
As will be seen from the following table, the most 
marked increase is in steel rails, billets, ingots and 
blooms. 



Pig iron 

Scrap . . 

Bar iron 

Wire rods 

Steel bars (not wire rods) . . 

Iron rails 

Steel rails 

Billets, ingots and blooms . . 

Hoop, band and scroll iron . . 

Iron sheets and plates 

Steel sheets and plates 

Tin plates, teme plates and taggers 

tin 

Structural material 

Wire 

Cut nails 

Wire nails 

Other nails, including tacks 

Total - - 



1903. 


1904. 


18.198 


34.635 


6,043 


16.845 


18,117 


22,669 


31.834 


15.780 


12,990 


21,446 


81 


1. 513 


22,896 


160,894 


2.127 


176,961 


1.669 


2.835 


2,379 


5.931 


14.144- 


19,150 


683 


3.623 


32.952 


35.892 


100,121 


113.782 


7.168 


9.588 


28.109 


32.431 


2,481 


2.554 



302,492 675.529 



Thomas Morrison, of Pittsburg. 

Mr. T. Morrison, who succeeds Mr. Charles M. 
Schwab on the Board of Directors of the United 
States Steel Corporation, spent his earUest years in 
Scotland. He came to the States in 1886 and was 
employed as a machinist at the Homestead Steel 
Works. Promotion rapidly followed, and when 
Andrew Carnegie acquired the Duquesne Steel Works 
in 1 89 1, Mr. Morrison was appointed superintendent. 
From 1895 to 1903 he acted as general superintendent 
of the Edgar Thomson works, and he was also a 
director of the Carnegie Steel Company. Bom in 
1 861. Mr. Morrison has already retired from active 
participation in business. 



(275) 



l8.\ 



SOUTH AFRICAN RESUME. 



The Chemical Metallurgical and Mining Society 
of South Africa. 

The new president of this society, in the course of 
his inaugural address, remarked that among the 
possibihties of future progress two things stand out. 
Of our total working expenditure on gold mining 
companies, three-fifths or more is roughly consumed 
in actual mining costs alone ; metallurgical costs in 
all amount to little more than one-quarter of the 
whole. Our mining members have here opportunities 
for economies which are denied to their less fortunate 
fellow- workers on the surface. The other object to be 
sought lies in the fact that whilst with years our 
metallurgical methods have improved in the directions 
of continually-increased percentage recovery and 
continually-reduced working costs, yet this has been 
attended by equally continuous increasing of initial 
capital expenditure. At present our capital expendi- 
ture on existing or future deep level mines amounts 
to very large sums indeed, and though this is even 
now most amply repaid, yet to achieve our present 
or better results and yet lock up less capital is an 
object fully as desirable as any we have striven for 
and achieved in the past. 

Forthcoming Improvements at Bloemfontein. 

A Bloemfontein engineer writes : The population 
of Bloemfontein, the capital of the Orange River Colony, 
according to the census taken on April 17th, 1904, was 
25,873, of whom 1 1,429 were whites and 14,444 coloured. 
The official valuation of property in Bloemfontein 
is declared as follows : 1900, ;^6 5 4,960 ; 1901, ;^8o9,753 ; 
1902, ;£ 1, 045, 345 ; 1903. ;^i>53i. 370; 1904, ;£i, 841, 165. 

The additional waterworks and main drainage works 
for Bloemfontein, estimated to cost ;^223,ooo, are 
making good progress and will probably be completed 
during this year. 

Tenders will shortly be invited for improvements 
of the Bloem- Spruit, consisting of a new water 
channel 75 ft. wide at the bottom, about 100 ft. wide 
at bank level, and about 4,000 ft. in length : average 
depth about 1 3 ft. Five iron or steel bridges will be 
required to span the new channel. 

Johannesburg Destructor. 

An order to duplicate the destructor plant erected 
for the municipality of Johannesburg, and known as the 
Burghersdorp destructor, has been placed with Messrs. 
Meldrum Bros. The existing plant is a four-grate 
Meldrum Simplex Regenerating Destructor of the 
top-fed type. The combustion chamber is arranged 
centrally, and is amply large enough to take entire 
carcases if required. The Babcock and Wilco.x boiler 
has 1 ,966 square feet of heating surface. 

The Labour Question. 

A Times correspondent cables that any fears which 
may still be entertained that the employment of 
Chinese will prejudice white labour in the mines must 
be removed by the statement just made at the meeting 
of the Chamber of Mines. Last month the vice- 
president gave an assurance that, if it were found 
that the narrowness of the reefs in certain mines 
favoured rock-drilling by hand, and therefore it became 
desirable to supersede white skilled labour by Chinese 
hand labour, the mining companies guaranteed all 



the white men engaged in this work similar employ- 
ment in other mines. Supplementing these remarks, 
Mr. Schumacher has stated that similarly in the 
case of white unskilled labourers, if Chinese were 
introduced in a mine where white men were working, 
the latter would not be turned adrift, but would be' 
offered employment elsewhere. 

The figures dealing with white unskilled labour, 
however, tend to show that the work does not attract 
many. About 1,000 are employed by the Eckstein 
group and the Rand Mines. Eight companies in- 
cluded in the latter have averaged 466 white un- 
skilled workmen during the first six months of the 
present year ; but to maintain that average 2,430 
passed through the books. The average number 
of shifts worked by each man before leaving was 17, 
while only 71 of the men who started work in January 
remained till the end of June. Their average wage 
was 9s. 6d. 

Rock Drill Trials. 

One of the most important papers read recently 
before the Mechanical Engineers' Association of the 
Witwatersrand deals with the results of a number of 
tests which were made by Messrs. J. B. Carper, E. 
Goffe, and W. C. Docharty, at the City and Suburban 
Mine. 

A block of granite 4 ft. 9 in. square and 2 ft. thick 
was set in a bed of concrete, and in this the trial 
holes were drilled. Two air receivers were used, having 
a total capacity of 7 56 '6 cubic feet, and the pressure 
in these was brought up to the desired amount, gene- 
rally 80 lb. One of the trial drills was then worked 
from these receivers until the pressure was reduced 
to 70 lb. The time of working and depth of hole 
were then noted. The same drill was then worked 
again until the pressure was down to 60 lb., the working 
time and depth of hole again recorded, and so on in 
definite stages until the lowest test pressure (usually 
35 lb.) was reached. In this way a number of sys- 
tematic and fairly comparable tests could be made 
in a comparatively short time. Some examples of 
the results obtained are given in the following table, 
and these show the performance of two drills of medium 
size. 











Equivalent 




Air pressure. 


Size of 


Depth. 


free air 


Drill. 


lb. per 


bit. 


Inches 


used per 




sq. in. 


Inches. 


per min. 


cubic inch 
drilled. 


2j in. Slugger 


. . 80 — 70 


2-2\ 


2-19 


9-88 




70 — 60 




3-81 


1872 




60 — 50 




i-8i 


7-83 




50—40 




0-95 


14-03 




80 — 70 


3— 3tV 


I -08 


875 




70 — 60 




0-64 


15-26 




60 — 50 




0-69 


11-56 




50—40 




0-56 


10-93 




40—35 




0-51 


9-II 


2j in. Climax 


.„ 80 — 70 


iii-2 


3-37 


17-89 




70 — 60 




2-26 


24-02 




60 — 50 




2-03 


17-66 




50—40 




I "37 


22-80 




40—35 




0-88 


30-50 




80 — 70 


3 


1-42 


1 2 -02 




70 — 60 




I-I7 


1413 




40—30 




0-59 


21-95 



(l-lb) 



GERMAN RESUME. 



Wanted — Iron Pyrites. 

Ir. F. H- Mason, the United States Consul-General 
at Berlin, reports that in consequence of the diminishing 
supply of sulphur containing minerals from Spain and 
Portugal, from which source the important German 
manufacturers of sulphuric acid have hitherto been 
mainly suppUed, there is now an active demand in this 
country- for iron p\Tites and other cheap sulphide 
minerals which are adapted to treatment by the standard 
methods of making sulphuric acid. 

Gepmanys Best Markets. 

The returns presented by the Imperial stcuisucai 
Bureau show that Germany's most important markets 
are found in Great Britain and the Colonies. The 
total value of the goods imported from Great Britain 
and exported hither from Germany in 1903 was 
£gi.os6,OQO against £78,810,000 in 1902, an increase of 
£12,246,000. The second place was taken by the 
United States with £70,630.000 ; the third by Austria- 
Hungary with ;^64,270,ooo ; and the fourth by Russia 
with £62,730,000. It is noticeable that last year 
Great Britain, from being the fourth largest exporter 
of goods to Germany, became the second, following the 
United States, but beating Austria and Russia, -\mong 
Germany's exports to this country last year were the 
following : rough rails, ingot§. etc., £1,430,000; rough 
iron goods, £945 ,000 ; machinerj- and machine parts 
(including electrical machines, £'290,000 and steam 
engines £-75,000), £940,000 ; fine iron goods. £765,000; 
angle iron. ^690,000; raw zinc, £595,003; clocks, 
£415.000. 

State Railway Exhibit at St. Louis. 

One of the most notable outdoor features at the 
World's Fair is the exhibition of track and interlocking 
and block signal apparatus now in use in Germanv, 
illustrating the standards of the Prussian State Rail- 
ways. More than 1.500 ft. of track has been put down, 
showing the different t\-pes of construction, and the 
whole of the materials have been shipped from Germany. 
There are three sections of double track road, two of 
these being laid with chemically treated wooden ties and 
the other with steel ties, while all are ballasted with 
broken stone. The rails weigh 88 lb. per yard, and 
are spliced with deep section Z-bars. There is a station- 
house, two switch towers, and one intermediate blocks 
signal post. One of the switch towers is fitted with 
mechanical, and one with electrical signal apparatus. 
The block system makes it impossible for a train to run 
into an open switch, or for one train to run down 
another between stations. The double-track system 
prevents collisions. By means of electrical apparatus 
all switches, except the one opening the desired track, 
are locked, making an error on the part of a switchman 
impossible. As the last wheel of the train passes, the 
switches are all released by rail contact, making way 
for the next train.. The exhibit represents ser\-ice 
conditions in almost every detail, and has attracted 
much attention. 



The Hibernia Mines. 

The most important event which has taken place in 
the German mining industry- for a long time is the 
recent offer on the part of the Prussian State to purchase 
the Hibernia Coal Mining Company's undertaking. 
This company, says a Times correspondent, is one of 
the most considerable undertakings of its kind in 
the Rhenish-Westphalian district, and the State has 
accordingly offered 8 per cent, in Three per Cent. 
Consols." The share capital of the company is53, 500,000 
marks (;i2,675,ooo), and, if the present price of Prussian 
Consols be taken into consideration, the State offer is 
ccordingly equivalent to nearly 245 per cent, on each 
-hare. A semi-oiificial statement declares the object of 
the purchase of the Hibernia mines by the State to be, 
not onlv the natural desire to assure its own independent 
supply of coal, but also in order that the State may 
be able to exercise a moderating influence upon the 
determination of the price of coal in the Rhenish- 
Westphalian mining districts. In this region the 
attitude of the Rhenish-Westphalian Coal Syndicate 
constitutes the decisive factor in the regulation of the 
production and the price of coal. If the State succeeds 
in acquiring the Hibernia Mining Compan>-'s property, 
it will become a member of the syndicate, with a seat 
and a vote in its councils. The State will thus have 
the opportunity of combating the monopolist tendencies 
of this body. The Government is one of the largest 
coal consumers in all Germany. In the estimates 
for the current financial year, for example, the estimated 
consumption of coal and other firing materials by the 
State is placed at 7,090,000 tons, of a total value of 
77,780,000 marks (£3,839,000). It is therefore manifest 
that the State is very considerably interested in the price 
of coal and in the general conditions of the coal mming 
industr}'. Now the Rhenish-Westphalian coalfields 
are set down in the estimates as contributing to the 
requirements of the Government to the extent of 
3,920,000 tons, of a total value of 43,520.000 marks 
(£2, 176.000). In vieiv of the fact that in the year 1903 
the Hibernia Company alone produced 4,500,000 tons 
of coal, it is e\-ident that the transfer of the company^s 
mines to the State would enable the latter to raise from 
its own property the Rhenish-Westphalian contribution 
to the Government coal supply. It is extremely 
probable that the most strenuous opposition will be 
offered to the Government, since, despite the express 
official denial, it is confidently anticipated that 
the other large coal mining companies in the Rhenish- 
Westphalian district are destined gradually to share 
the fate of the Hibernia. The fear, moreover, finds 
expression that, when once the State has secured the 
control over the coal mining industry it will assail the 
independence of the iron trade as welL State inter- 
ference and State control where they have once estab- 
lished themselves, invariably extend, for it is safe to say 
that, but for the fact that the State in Prussia 
controlled the railway's, no attempt would have been 
made to interfere with the coal mining industry. There 
is, too. the further consideration that the example of 
Prussia appears to have inspired other German States 
which possess a large railway system to take steps in 
the direction of purchasing coal mines. 




The Tariff Commission. 

While the August number of Page's Magazine 
was in the press, the interim report of the Tariff 
Commission, covering the iron and steel trades, came 
to hand, and the contents, I presume, will surprise 
no one. The relative decline of the British iron 
and steel industry is attributed to the fact that "the 
manufaicturers of the United States and Germany, 
having secured control of their home markets by 
means of high tariffs and an organised system for 
the regulation of their export trade, are in a position 
to dump their surplus products upon the British 
and other markets, irrespective of cost." 

It is proposed to check the practice of " dumping " 
by a system of tariffs arranged as follows : {a). A 
general tariff, consisting of a low scale of duties for 
foreign countries which admit British wares on fair 
terms, (b). A preferential tariff, lower than the general 
tariff, for those of our colonies which give adequate 
preference to British manufactures, and framed 
■with a view to securing freer trade within the British 
Empire, (c). A maximum tariff, consisting of compara- 
tively higher duties, but subject to reduction by 
negotiation to the level of the general tariff. 

The committee had under consideration 480 replies 
from British firms and examined eighteen witnesses. 
The names of the latter, with the exception of Mr. 
J. S. Jeans and Mr. Alexander Armour, are not, how- 
ever, disclosed in connection with the evidence. 

The Limitations of Micposeopie Analysis. 

The discussion on the paper dealing with " The 
Variations in Structures and Tests of Steel," by Messrs. 
A. Campion and H. H. Watts, has been printed in 
the Journal of the West of Scotland Iron and Steel 
Institute, and makes instructive reading. The im- 
portant point chiefly emphasised is that a complete 
knowledge of any steel can only be obtained by 
coronation of the results of several methods of 
examination. 

Mr. W. Cuthill remarked that the micrograph 
tells nothing of the composition of steel, whether 
high or low in impurities, but this we learn from 
the chemist. It tells as little of the mechanical 
properties of steel, whether high or low in 
strength and ductility, but the testing machine 
provides the information. It has, therefore, a distinct 
province of its own, and that is to reveal the work 
and heat treatment steel has undergone, which neither 
the chemist nor testing machine can indicate with any 
reliability. In this respect it should very usefully 
fill a gap in the investigation of many puzzling and 
difficult problems in the behaviour of finished steel. 
For instance, has it been burned ? or has it been 
finished in the rolling at too high a temperature ? 

Mr. A. Campion subsequently said he thought that 
in some cases it was possible to gain an idea as to the 
amount of certain impurities which were present by 



microscopic analysis ; for instance, steel containing 
much arsenic or phosphorus. Steel Containing a 
high percentage of manganese also showed a structure, 
quite distinct, from that of steel containing a small 
amount of manganese. Regarding the question as 
to the possibility of distinguishing between steel 
which had been overheated, and that which had 
been burnt, he thought a steel that had actually been 
burnt was one of^the easiest things to detect under 
the '/ microscope . 

Mr. F. W. Harbord wrote that microscopic analysis, 
like many other things, has suffered from the some- 
what extravagant claims made by some of its early 
exponents, and the authors have done a very useful 
piece of work in defining the limitations of microscopic 
analyses, by showing that although the details of the 
structure may vary in various parts of a bar, the 
general structure remains the same. Provided that 
the heat treatment has been the same, the educated 
eye has no difficulty in discriminating between the 
general as distinct from the detail structure, and 
although the size of the grain may vary from the 
outside to the centre, or other parts of a large bar, the 
micro-constituents are clearly defined. In certain 
cases of marked segregation, when the metal is high 
in sulphur or manganese, the former may be clearly 
seen as buff coloured round or elongated spots, the 
latter by the alteration in the structure of the material. 
The real value, however, of microscopic work is that 
we are able to determine the marked influence of heat 
treatment, and although similar steels heated or 
cooled under identical conditions will often vary 
considerably in their detailed structure, the general 
type of structure of annealed or rapidly cooled, or 
quenched steels is so characteristic, that it can be 
at once identified by the practised observer. He is 
" glad to see that the importance of using the microscope 
as an adjunct to other methods of testing, and not 
as an independent method of investigation, has been 
emphasised by the authors, as it cannot be too strongly 
insisted upon, that it does not replace, but only 
supplements other methods of examination." 

Rapid Cutting Steel Tools. 

The Report on " Experiments with Rapid Cutting 
Steel Tools," made at the Manchester Municipal School 
of Technology, under the auspices of a joint committee 
of members of the Manchester Association of Engineers, 
and prepared by Dr. J. T. Nicolson, has been produced 
in book form, together with complete account of the 
discussion by the Manchester Association of Engineers. 
It makes a very interesting volume of 366 pages. 
There are 25 tables and 16 plates. I am informed 
that, although, of course, it is simply a private pub- 
lication, the Council of the Manchester Association of 
Engineers in this instance have decided to place the 
work on sale, and copies can be had from the Secretary 
at 2s. 6d. each. 



(278) 



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THE HOME METAL MARKET. 

Chart showing daily fluctuations between July 22nd and August 22nd. 



(27v) 




Australian Commonwealth. 

There is every probability of a coming demand 
for |;hot water and steam radiators, and warm air 
furnaces. Last winter the two principal theatres in 
Melbourne were heated for the first time, one on the 
radiator principle, and the other by electricity, the 
latter not proving verj- successful. These are the 
only instances in which an attempt has been made 
to heat places of amusement in Victoria. The large 
number of halls, churches, etc., throughout the State 
are absolutely without heating appliances. To 
successfully introduce these appliances would require 
the services of an expert in the business, fully qualified 
to sell the goods and attend to their installation. 

Tenders will be received at the office of the Deputy 
Postmaster-General, Hobart, until noon on Septem- 
ber 30th, T904, for the supply and delivery at the 
General Post Office, Hobart, of one multiple metallic 
branching switchboard. Tenderers must state the 
name of the country in which the switchboard will 
be manufactured. 

There is a constant large sale of cheap hand 
pumps, and a vigorous attempt should be made 
by British manufacturers to secure at least a portion 
of this business, the bulk of Australian requirements 
being indented from United States makers. 

France— Senegal. 

The Commission appointed last year by the 
Governor-Cieneral of French West Africa to study 
the question of a railway from Thits to Kayes, have 
finished their report, which is about to be submitted 
to the French Colonial Minister. 

This railway, if constructed, will extend to the sea 
the existing line from the Niger to Kayes. supple- 
menting the Senegal river, on which navigation is 
impossible during eight months of the year. The 
Commission anticipate no great technical difficulties 
in the construction of the railway along the route 
they recommend. The length of the line will be 670 
kilometres (about 416 miles) ; the cost of the con- 
struction is estimated at ;^i, 680,000, and of the 
requisite roUing stock at ;^28o,ooo. 

Belgium. 

Tenders are invited for the construction of a second 
railway line between the stations of Bomal and 
Marlote. The estimated cost of the first portion of the 
work is about ;^3 1,997, and of the second portion, 
about ;^i,i23. A deposit of ;^i,6oo is required to 
qualify any tender. Specifications may be obtained 
on payment of iod.,from "La Bourse," Brussels, 
where tenders will be received up to September 3rd. 



Spain. 

H.M. Consul at Cadiz again calls attention to'the 
probable opening for a coast railway starting from 
San Fernando and passing through Chiclana, Medina, 
Conil, Vejer and Tarifa. This railway, it is stated, 
would be of immense advantage to the whole district, 
enabling villagers to dispose of their surplus, and 
also reducing the cost of living in Cadiz and other 
towns by supplying them with fruits, vegetables, etc. 
The total distance is about 70 miles, and presents 
no serious engineering difficulties. 

Italy. 

Sanction has been obtained from the various 
authorities concerned to the project for an electric 
car service between Spezia and Portovenere, tapping 
all the intermediate suburbs and villages. When this 
project is carried out, it ought to prove a very paying 
concern, and an immense boon both to visitors and 
to suburban residents. 

Argentina. 

Tenders are in demand for presentation on Septem- 
ber 13th next, at 3 p.m., for the construction of 
a net of electric tramways between the Plaza de 
Mayo, Buenos Ayres, and the suburbs of Ortusar, 
Devoto, and General Urquiza. 

Brazil. 

The British Vice-Consul at Santa Catharina reports 
that concessions have been granted for the construction 
of three railways in the State of Rio Grande do Sol. 
one from Estreito on the mainland in front of Florian- 
opolis to Blumenau, Sao Francisco and Joinville ; 
a second from Estreito to Lages upon the highlands ; 
and a third from Estreito to the boundary of Rio 
Grande do Sul. 

A Consular report from Porto Alegre states that 
there now seems to be a probability that the extension 
of the Porto Alegre and New Hamburg line to Caxias, 
the centre of large colonies of Italians, will be carried 
out, the Government having signed a contract with 
a local firm of engineers and contractors for the 
construction of the earthworks of the permanent 
way for a distance of about 42^ kilometres from New 
Hamburg. The contract price is ;^3 5,000, and it is 
very likely that as soon as the way is ready for traific 
it will be worked imder arrangement with the Porto 
Alegre and New Hamburg Company. The inaugural 
ceremony took place at Novo Hamburgo on May 
3rd last, and, in the opinion of the Consul, there is a 
possible opportunity here for British makers to compete 
for the supplying of the rails when the time arrives. 



(2S0) 




A Monthly Review of leading Papers read before the various Engiceering and 
Technical Institutions of Great Britain. 



A MODERN STEAM POWER PLANT. 
AXT'E conclude in this issue the description 
' ^ of a modern Factory Steam Plant., 
at the mills of the Bessbrook Spinning Company, 
being an abstract of Mr. Edward G. Killer's 
paper read before the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers. 

ECONOMISERS. 

These are of the ordinary •■ Green " type. The 
water rises through all the vertical pipes : these 
are arranged in three groups of 64, 96. and 64 = total 
224 pipes. 

AUXILIARY FEED-PUMP. 

For boiler-feeding and manufacturing purposes 
when the main engine is at rest, a Weir feed-pump 
has been erected ; the pump is of the well-known 
t}-pe, single cylinder, double-acting vertical, and 



has a capacity- of 4,000 gallons j>er hoar, at a speed 
of 12 double-strokes to the minute. The steam 
cylinder is 9 in. diameter and the water cylinder 
7 in. diameter, and both strokes are 21 in. This 
feed-pump was used for feeding during the tests. 

DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE. 

The engine is of the horizontal compound expansion 
jet-condensing type, with two overhung cranks set at 
right angles, the high-pressure crank leading. The 
general arrangement of the engine is shown herewith. 

The cyUnders are unjacketed. The high-pressure 
cylinder is supplied with superheated steam, and a 
re-heater is fitted to heat the low-pressure cylinder 
steam supply. The steam used for re-heating purposes 
is taken by a separate 3-in. branch from the main 
steam-pipe, and arrangements are made to pass the 
hot water condensation to the feed supply of the 
boilers. Two Edward's air-pumps, each 26 in. 




Eleralion, 



Horizontal 

Cotnpound Expansion 

yel-condensing 

EnPtne. 



Half.Plan. 



This engine was erected for the Bessbrook Spinning Companv, and is described by Mr. Hiller. 
in his paper, " A Modern Steam Power Plant." 



{2S1) 



282 



Page's Magazine. 




HIGH PRESSURE CYLINDER— BESSBROOK PLANT 



diameter by i8 in. stroke, are worked off the tail-rod 
of the high-pressure piston. The fly-wheel, 20 ft. 
diameter, is grooved for thirty-six ij-in. ropes, and 
the power is transmitted direct from the engine to 
the various floors of the mill. 

GENERAL SIZES. 

The principal dimensions of the engine are given 
below : — 

Economical load, 1,200 h.p. 

Cylinder sizes — high-pressure, 25 and ^ in. diameter, 
low-pressure, 52 and ^^^ in. diameter. 

Stroke of engine, 5 ft. 

Revolutions per minute, 65. 

Crank-shaft of forged Siemens-Martin Mild Steel — 
Two necks, 15 in. diameter by 31 in. long. Diameter 
of body of shaft, 1 6^ in. Diameter of body of fly-wheel, 
■ 19 in. 

Crank-pins, 9 in. diameter by 10^ in. long. 
. Crank of forged scrap iron, 10 in. thick. 

Piston-rods and tail-rods of mild steel — high- 
pressure, 6 in. diameter; low-pressure, 7 in. diameter. 

Fly-wheel, 20 ft. diameter, 36-if in. ropes. 

Weight of rim of wheel, 33^tons. 

Steam stop-valve, 9 in. diameter. 

Injection valve, 7 in. diameter. 

Re-heater of mild steel — Diameter of outer shell, 
3 ft. 1 1 in. Number of tubes, loi. Internal diameter 
of tubes, 2| in. Heating surface exposed to heating 
steam, 600 square feet. 

CYLINDERS. 

The cylinders are unjacketed. They are covered 
on the barrels and covers with magnesia non-con- 
ducting composition not less than 2i in. thick, and 
the whole covered with planished steel secured by 
screws. The inner surfaces of the cylinder are machined 
smooth and polished. The steam and exliaust valve 
chambers are cast with the cylinders, and are placed 
beneath the cylinder at each end, as shown in figure. 
The valves are of the Corliss type, arranged so that 
the cut-off in the high-pressure cylinder is controlled 
by the governor. The cut-off in the low-pressure 
cylinder is adjustable by hand. Floating metallic 
packing is used for the })iston-rod glands. 

The piston-rods in both cylinders are prolonged to 
back slides, which are so arranged as not to interfere 
in any way with the removal of the back covers of the 
cylinders. The pistons are Macbeth's patent with 
white-metal anti-friction shoes, and Ramsbottom 



spring rings which extend three-fourths 
of the circumference only. 

FLYWHEEL. 

The double flywheel is built in two 
sections with eight arms and eight 
segments each. Along the front of 
the flywheel is arranged a bar, which 
is connected by levers to a bell, so 
that, should any rope begin to fray 
or over-ride, it will come in contact 
with this bar, and so ring the bell 
to alarm the attendant. 

GOVERNORS. 

The governing of the engine is 
effected by an ordinary high-speed 
centrifugal loaded governor, assisted 
by a supplementary governor, The 
load on the main governor partly 
consists of a weight secured to the end 
of a screwed lever. The sensitive supplementary 
governor at the slightest change from the middle 
position can, by means of gearing, slowly screw this 
lever and its balance ball outwards or inwards if the 
engine varies from the desired mean speed, and this 
action takes place quite independently of any quicker 
movement of the main governors. In this way, while 
the prompt action of the main governor is not affected, 
nor the length of the governor rods altered, as in some 
arrangements, it is possible to secure an almost dead 
mean speed irrespective of permanent load changes, 
vacuum variations, or boiler pressure fluctuations. 
Without this device, the main governors would have 
to run in a different plane, and consequently at a 
different engine speed for each change in the cut-off 
point. Special devices are provided to prevent the 
supplementary governor being injured by over-screwing. 
A suitable knock-off gear is also provided. 

REHEATER. 

The reheater between the cylinders is of the tubular 
type, with boiler steam outside the tubes and low- 
pressure steam inside the tubes. It consists of an 
outer shell, 3 ft. 11 in. internal diameter, and 8 ft. 
long, and two tube plates with loi tubes 2^ in. internal 
diameter. On the underside of the reheater shell is 
fitted a drain bottle, from which the water of condensa- 
tion is carried to the suction side of the boiler-feed 
pump. The shell, the tube plates, and the tubes are 
made from Siemens-Martin mild steel. This reheater 
is covered with heat-nonconducting composition. 

TESTS. 

The author describes an elaborate series of 
tests from which the following figures are 
taken : — 

Heat Account akd Deduction's. 



Heat equivalent of 
indicated horse- 
power . per min. 

Heat leaviii}' engine 
in relieater jacket 
drain . per min. 

Heat leaving engine-^ 

in exliaust steam 

and 

Balance of Heat 
Account per min. 

Gross heat supply 
entering engine 
permit] 



Heat Account (from 32*^?) in B.Th.U, 
No. of Test. 
First. Second. 

B.Th.U. p.c. B.Th.U. p.c. 



41641 

2056 

I«4I53 



18.28 41347 i8'; 



Third. 
B.Th.U. p.c. 



41370 17'73 



0-9 
80-82 



183336 8078 192850 8227 



227850 100 226950 



234420 



Notable British Papers. 



Deductions (reckoned from exhaust temperature). 

No. of Test. 
First. Second. Third. 
Heat supplied per minute per i.hi.p. B.Th.U. 216-85 217-15 22295 

Thermal efficiency percent. 19-56 19-53 i9'o2 

Heats theoretically required per 
minute by stanaard engine ^Ran- 

kine Cycle) B.Th.U. 151-8 152-7 IS3-2 

Efficiency ratio 07CO 0-703 0667 

Pounds of sle^m used per i.h p. per 

hour II 10 II 24 11-59 

MakimI allowance for ihe heat ax-ail- 
able for supply to boiler in the hot 
drainage water from the reheater 
the pound? of steam used per i.h. p. 

per hour = 11-02 11 146 11 59 

XoTE.— In all the above calculations the speciHc heat of the super- 
heated steam has been taken at 06. 

rcO.XOMY OF COMI'LETE PLAXT. 

Xo. of Test. 
First Test. Second Test. 
Total heat value of fuel in boilers per 

minute 3i£995 305779 

Heat equivalent per minute of i.h p. 

developed 41641 41347 

Percentage of heat utilised in i.h. p. ... 13-18 13-5,7 

Coal fired per i.h. p. per hour 1-48 1-44 

CAPITAL COSTS OF PLANT AND ANNUAL RUNNING 
CHARGES. 

The contract for all the engineering work was let 
in one sum to the general contractors, but the sub- 
division of the cost of each section is about as follows ; — 

Engine complete 25 in. and ;2 in. by 5 ft. 



The results of the working of the Bessbrook engine 
and other engines of similar design show that high 
economy is obtainable with a compound engine free 
from the complications and difificulties resulting from 
the use of three cyhnders with steam jackets. 



cylinders 
Three boilers 8 ft. by 30 ft. . . 
Steam and feed pipes, pumps and valves 
Economiser, 224 pipes with details . . 
Three superheaters with cast steel boxes 
Sundries and travelling crane 



•£'5.875 

. 1,840 

865 

- 396 

• 352 

• 332 

£9,660 



In addition to the above the mill gearing alterations 
cost about ;^2, 740. This formed a large proportion of 
the total cost, but the subsequent running of the 
whole of the shafting under the smooth steady rope 
drive has been found of the greatest advantage in the 
mill, and to be well worth the additional expenditure 
which was necessary to secure this result. 

The cost of the substantial granite engine house the 
firm preferred to erect, with the new rope race walls 
and the boiler house alterations, was about /j.ooo. 
The total gross cost of the new scheme, therefore, 
including a bonus paid to the engine builders, may 
be taken as about ;^i8,ooo. 

-\ careful examination by the firm of their subsequent 
annual running charges and other items affected by 
the alterations has shown a decrease per annum of 
about £3,000. 

This large reduction sufficiently shows that the new 
plant was well justified, but it may be interesting to 
note that this gain is not solely due to coal saving, but 
to other important items, as follows : — 

Coal reduction in the high-pressure and low- 
pressure batteries of boiler due to the 
change, 2,000 tons @ i6s. . . . .;^i,6oo 

Reduced labour in boiler house . . . . 75 

Reduced labour in repairing old gearing . . 150 

Reduced oil and stores, one engine instead of 

three 155 

Reduced charges for wheels and breakages, 

etc. .. .. .. .... 250 

Estimated value of steadier turning- in shed 

and factory . . . . . . . . 670 

Value of floor space, due to vacant engine 

houses to be used for looms, etc. . . . . 100 



Gross gain per annum 



..;^3,ooo 



THE CARE OF ROAD LOCOMOTIVES. 

Bv T. C. AvELixG. A.M.Inst. C.E. 

WEAR AND TEAR. 

TO keep 3'our boiler in good condition, cleanliness 
is the first law. If a rivet leaks or any leakage 
takes place, attention should be given to it immediately, 
and this should be carried out by a competent loco- 
motive boiler maker. Boilers should be cleaned out 
at least once a fortnight ; all covers should be removed, 
and firebars drawn, the tubes and firebox swept with a 
hard broom, and any accumulated ashes should be 
removed, as there is a strong possibility of local 
corrosion being set up from the contact of these ashes 
with t: e plate. The riveted heads of the screw stays 
the heads of the crown stay bolts, and all sea^ns 
and joints should be examined. The safety plug 
should be drawn and cleaned, and all scale removed 
from the end of the plug which is in contact \\\X.h. the 
water. The supporting brackets for firebars should 
be watched, and the seam between foundation ring 
and firebox sides carefully inspected for leakage. 
Externallj-, inspection should be made round the 
mudholes, blow-off tap, water-gauge fittings, joints, 
and any joints in connection with the boiler, also 
the liners in between horn plates and crown plates 
and riveted stay heads. If a joint is leaking it should 
immediately be re-made. The smoke-box tube plate 
should be carefully txamined for wasting, which may 
be set up through priming or even by leakage of rain 
down the funnel. Tube ends should be examined, 
as these will deteriorate from the same cause. The 
joint between the cylinder and boiler should be watched, 
and in examining tube plates all o.xidation, etc., should 
be cleared away between tubes an i bottom flange. In 
fitting the safety plug, tallow should be apphed to the 
thread of same internally. A force pump for country 
use should be used for washing out the boiler, or in 
towns 1 y the town supply if head is sufficient. The 
hose should enter at the manhole, and the boiler be well 
swilled out, allowing the refuse to run out of mudholes. 
If the scale is thick, a slight tapping of the stay heads, 
internally and externally, and plates will cause this 
deposit to leave the surface of the firebox. A scaling 
slice should be entered through the manhole and the 
scale on the crown of firebox removed, short rakes of 
flat iron or copper should be introduced through the 
mudhole door, and the mud and loose scale removed. 
Too much attention cannot be given to internal cleanli- 
ness, as the accumulation of scale is a frequent cause 
of bulging and burning of the plates, in addition to 
concealing any wasting of the plates which may have 
been set up through defective feed water. 

FEED WATER. 

The purest water should always be used. Grease, 
oil, or bran, which is often recommended for leaking 
tubes, should not be allowed to tn'er the feed tank or 
boiler. A verv moderate use of common soda in many 
cases will counteract the action of acids in the feed 
water. 



28 1 



Page's Magazine 



RE-MAKINQ JOINTS. 

The jointing surface of the plates should be care- 
fully Fcraped and all red lead removed. Grummets 
of yarn should be made to fit the covers land the 
joint sho.dd be covered with a mixture of red and 
white lead in proportion of i to 2. When raising 
sttam, as the boiler warms, these joints should be 
carefully gone over with a spanner to take up any 
slackness ca sed by the softening of the joint due 
to heat. 

BLOW-OFF TAP, 

The blow-off tap shoul i be used daily, as this is 
the hrst and best preventi\e of scale. The tap should 
be opened when the engine is at rest with, say, a 
pressure of 50 lb. per gauge, the boiler not making 
any steam. By these means the sediment is allowed 
to settle to the lowest part of the boiler, and is swept 
out by the rush of escaping steam and water. In 
using, the blow-off tap should be turned in the same 
direction to prevent ridges forming on barrel and 
plug. 

GAUGE FITTINGS. 

The screwed plug opposite the 'supply|hole should 
be withdrawn every cleaning time, and the deposit 
removed with a piece of wire or small drill, otherwise 
these become chokel and show a false water-level. 
Taps should be kept in working condition, and gauges 
blown through at least three times a dav. _^ 

SAFETY VALVES. 

These should be frequently removed and cleaned, 
and screws and pins kept in free working condition, 
care being taken to test them every day. 

LEAKY TUBES. 

If a tube should burst or leak, never drive a taper 
plug in the ends as a permanent repair. A new 
tube should be fitted immediately. Depreciation 
of boilers takes place ( i ) from external corrosion ; 
(2) from internal corrosion ; (3) from overheating 
of plates and corrosion in firebox. 

EXTERNAL CORROSION. 

One of the greatest evils occurs in the shell barrel. 
As this cannot be detected owing to the lagging 
concealing the plates, leakages from joints and from 
rain settle in the lagging, keeping it in a moist con- 
dition, thus transmitting the moisture to the plate, 
forming a red oxide scale. Now, this process occurring 
daily gradually eats the plate away. On the shell 
barrel the joints of the feed-pump chest and cylinder 
supply give the greatest trouble, and after a period 
of from five to ten years, when the lagging is removed 
at these parts, the plates are often found wasted 
from leakage, the water oozing out and eat>ng the plate 
away. These parts will require patches, or in some 
cases a new shell. To prevent this the lagging should 
be removed at least every two years. A leaky pump 
gland will have as detrimental an effect as a leaky joint, 
and round the blow-off tap corrosion is often set up 
through leakage, and in some cases the tap has had to 
be removed and replaced on some other part of the box 
owing to the carelessness of watching this joint. The 
same remarks apply to the injector inlet tap. 

INTERNAL CORROSION. 

jThis is often caused by defective feed water. Bad 
feed water has a general wasting effect on all the plates, 
and evidence of it sometimes appears in large blotches 



on the plates, and again in the form of pitting of the 
plates. When internal corrosion appears from the 
above cause change of water is beneficial. Local 
corrosion may appear at the shell water-line at the 
bottom of shell, or the firebox alone may be atfected, 
owing to the great affinity the destructive agent may 
have for the hottest surface. 

GROOVING. 

This comes under the heading of corrosion, though 
at its commencement it is a mechanical defect. It is 
generally found at the underlap of the shell longitudinal 
seams, in the old types of boilers on the firebox and fire- 
box casing plates, and at the edge of the foundation ring. 
The cause of grooving is the contraction and expansion 
of the plates,"the metal thereby becoming fatigued, and 
each time more susceptible to the action of a destructive 
agent. 

OVERHEATING PLATES AND CORROSION OF 
FIREBOX. 

The corrosion of firebox is found at firebar level 
round the heads of the riveted screw stays, the underlap 
of the vertical seams, and between the tubes at the 
firebox tube plate. The first-mentioned is generally 
caused by the use of coke, which gives off a large 
proportion of an acidulated gas. The combustion of 
both coal and coke liberates HgO in small proportions, 
setting up local corrosion of the plates at bar level. 
Corrosion on round stays is due to leakage, and the 
grooving of tube plate springs from the same cause. 

OVERHEATING OF PLATES. 

The effect of deposit exposed to the heated gases of 
the fire is in proportion to its thickness and non- 
conducting properties. This deposit prevents the 
heat being taken up readily by the water, and it is 
thereby liable to cause such overheating of the plates. 

GREASE HAS THE SAME EFFECT AS DEPOSIT. 

Munroe, on boilers, page 29, states that the Board 
of Trade have found the majority of explosions of 
this type of boiler to be caused by longitudinal grooving 
in the shell — the tendency of the shell plate being to 
take a truly cylindrical shape. But if, in the first 
instance, the shell has not been truly cylindrical 
this process continues, and grooving is set up. I 
again draw your attention to the present method of 
manufacture of the shell, the longitudinal seams 
being butt-jointed and above water-level, thus doing 
away with one of the most likely causes of explosion. 

LAYING ASIDE ENGINE. 

Remove mud- and man-hole covers, and keep 
the engine in a dry situation. Wash out and examine 
plates and mountings before refilling for work. In 
frosty weather special precaution should be taken 
as regards the water in the boiler during the night. 
Shut the water gauge taps, empty the glass tubes, 
and drain the steam-gauge connection. Examine 
the feed pipes and injector connection before starting. 
It is well when working next day to keep fire in all 
night if frost is likely ; but before leaving, carefully 
note that all steam and water connections are not 
leaking, to prevent lowering of the water-level and 
consequent overheating of plates. 

THE CYLINDER. 

The piston should be withdrawn every three months 
and the rings and cylinder examined, the casing. 



Notable British Papers. 



-^5 



cover removed, and the slide valve examined, note 
being made that the lead is equal on either end ; also, 
when reversing, lever is in forward or backward 
notch. See that the starting valve has sufi&cient 
opening for steam inlet. Whilst the engine is in 
motion, notice should be taken of escaping exhaust 
steam. An accumulation of oil and soot in the exhaust 
pipe will close up its oritice, and set up a back pressure 
in the cylinder, with a consequential increase of con- 
sumption of fuel and depreciation of motion. Test the 
steam-tightness of steam slide valve by putting the 
valve in mid position and admitting steam. There 
should be no leakage from exhaust pipe if the valve 
is tight. To test tightness of a piston admit steam 
at one end and open draincock at opposite, and a 
continuous blow through \\-ill denote leakage. 

LUBRICATION. 

A moderate amount of good oil will give satisfacton,- 
results, the condensation of steam on the walls of 
the cylinder forming a natural lubrication. Oil-cups 
should be fitted with wire and worsted siphons, the 
wire hanging in the tube below bottom level of the 
cup. The worsted should be renewed at least every 
three weeks, as it loses its capillary attraction when 
dirtv. 

CONNECTING ROD. 

If a knock develops, adjust the brasses. The neck 
crank shaft bearing should be examined every three 
months for fracture, and the bearings should be 
adjusted if a knock is evident. There is a consider- 
able amount of wear in eccentric straps, and these 
should be properly adjusted. 

THE FLYWHEEL. 

Watch the boss of the flywheel and see that the 
key, if it should become slack, is carefully tightened. 
If loose, the key should be withdrawn and careftilly 
refitted, and not driven home with a sledge-hammer. 
If this latter is done, it is possible to fracture the fly- 
wheel. 

PUMP. 

The suction and delivery valves should be with- 
drawn and examined, and re-ground in if required. 
A lift of ^ in. to the suction valve and ^ in. to the 
deUvery being allowed, the screw opposite supply pipe 
withdrawn, and the supply pipe cleaned and drilled 
clear of deposit. 

DRIVING WHEELS. 

Considerable wear takes place on the face of these 
wheels, and this is sometimes increased owing to rolling 
in the fast speed. In going round comers the driving 
pin should always be withdrawn from the inside 
wheel. In the boss of the wheel the cap on axle may 
want washering up. 

MOTION AND REVERSING GEAR. 

Particular wear will take place in the pin and in 
the tongue of the reversing lever and rack ; this should 
be attended to so soon as the vibration on the motion 
is susceptible. 

STEERAGE. 

SHght wear may take place in the steerage spindle, 
which should be washered up and the steerage chains 
tightened. 



TENDER. 

The tender and mudguards should be withdrawn 
at least every twelve months, the axleboxes and bolts 
examined, the water- tank and coal-bunker scraped 
and washed out as often as the boiler is. 

AXLE. 

Notice should be taken as to whether the driving 
bosses are tight on the kej-s on axle, and the wear 
on wooden blocks on brake band should not be allowed 
to go too far. 

From a paper read before the Midland Municipal 
Officers' Association at Birmingham. 



MERSEY DOCKS 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

The Mersey Docks and Harbour Board has adopted 
a recommendation by the committee of works to 
spend £222,000 upon an extension of the Brunsmck 
Dock and the provision of single-storey sheds. In 
the annual report of the engineer (Mr. -\nthony G. 
Lyster), on the general state and progress of the 
Dock Works at Liverpool and Birkenhead, it is men- 
tioned that the dock gates for the entrances to the 
new Brocklebank graving dock, which is being con- 
structed under the Act of 1903, are wider than any 
in Liverpool or in any other port. They are 135 ft. 
wide, and are being constructed of steel. Particulars 
are given of the work of deepening several of the 
docks, and under the heading of dredging in the river 
it is stated that the sand pump dredger Coronation, 
which began operations in the river in September, 
1903, has pumped and conveyed to sea 2,995,500 tons 
of sand. From the bar and shoals in the Queen's 
and Crosby Channels there have been removed during 
the vear ended July ist, 7,923,300 tons, the totzil 
quantitv of sand removed since the beginning of dredg- 
ing in 1S90 having been 30,930,640 tons from the bar, 
and from the shoals in the Queen's and Crosby Channels 
48,052,230 tons. The condition of the bar had been 
fairly maintained during the year, the ruling depth 
in the dredged cut being about 27 ft. at low water 
spring tides. The ruling depth of the Crosby Channel 
might also be taken at 27 ft., though along the eastern 
portion between C 6 and C 8 black buoys it was some- 
what less. 



COMING EVENTS. 

September. 

3rd- — Midland Counties Institution of Engineers : 
-Annual General Meeting at 3.15, in the University 
College, Nottingham. 

14th — 16th. — Institution of Mining Engineers: 
Annual General Meeting in Birmingham. 

19th— 23Pd.— North of England Institute of Mining 
and Mechanical Engineers : Excursion Meetings in the 
neighbourhood of Xewcastle-upon-Tyne. 



BOOKS OF THE MONTH. 



"THE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY OF 
GERMANY." 

Compiled and edited by G. Lehmann-Felskowski. 
With coloured prints, art supplements, and numerous 
illustrations throughout the text. Crosby. Lock- 
wood and Son. los. 6d. net. 
This neat pictorial album, with instructive letter- 
press on German ship-building and the industries 
depending upon it, has been compiled by Mr. G. 
Lehmann-Felskowski from two works by a well-known 
German writer. The development of German ship- 
building is first traced, after which we are taken 
upon a personally conducted tour round the German 
shipyards — a most entertaining and instructive 
excursion. The author then turns to the German 
Iron Industry in relation to ship-building, and we 
are shortly making a tour of the Krupp Works. Ships' 
equipment and armament, mechanical hoisting 
apparatus for shipyard and harbour work and 
Germany's Submarine Cables are then dealt with, 
and one closes the work with an involuntary tribute 
not only to the shipbuilding enterprise of Germany, 
but also to the author for his artistic conceptions 
and the excellent pictorial treatment which obtains 
throughout. 

"MODERN MACHINE SHOP TOOLS." 

By William H. Van Dervoort, M.E. Fourth edition. 
Crosby Lockwood and Son. 21s. net. 
This work, which the author tells us, is the out- 
growth of a series of articles designed for students 
at the University of Illinois, takes a comprehensive 
view of the ever-increasing output of machine tools, 
and is illustrated by no less than 673 engravings, 
illustrating tools and methods, all of which are care- 
fully described. It includes chapters in filing, fitting 
and scraping surfaces ; drills, reamers, taps and 
dies ; planers, shapers and their tools ; milling; 
machines and cutters ; gear cutters and gear cutting 
drilling machines and drill work ; grinding machines ; 
hardening and tempering, gearing, belting and trans- 
mission machinery ; useful data and tables. The 
young mechanical engineer will find in this book an 
invaluable companion, and he can scarcely fail to 
profit by the ' excellent advice which he will find in 
the opening pages. 

"BRITISH ENGINEERING STANDARDS CODED 
LISTS." 

Issued by authority of the Engineering Standards 

Committee. Volume I. " Rolled Sections for 

Constructional Iron and Steel Tram Rails." 

Compiled by Robert Atkinson. Published by 

Robert Atkinson (London), Ltd. 21s. net. 

The raison d'etre of this unique reference work is 

succinctly explained by the preface : It has been 

recognised by the Engineering Standards Committee, 

that the objects of Standardisation will be furthered 

to an appreciable extent by the publication of the 

Committee's findings in a commercial form. With 

this view, the British Engineering Standards Coded 

Lists have been prepared under the authority of 

the Committee, to place within the reach of merchants, 

rollers, constructional engineers and others, a useful 

Telegraphic Code containing the technical details of 



British Standards as formulated by the Committee, 
and a series of Code Phrases and Tables enabling 
buyers and sellers to communicate by cable at the 
minimum of expense. 

In the present volume much other useful matter 
will be found, including lists of British rollers and 
merchants, with particulars of the sections they 
roll or stock, which should be of considerable assist- 
ance to users of the book. The Code words throughout 
are taken from Whitelaw's well-known vocabulary. 
It only remains to add that the work is well printed 
on stout paper and that everything possible has been 
apparently done to arrange these lists on sound 
common-sense lines. The whole compilation forms a 
heavy volume of 475 pages, exclusive of advertise- 
ments. It is rendered conspicuous in the reference 
library by a vermilion cloth binding with gilt lettering. 



"DYNAMO, MOTOR AND SWITCHBOARD CIRCUITS 
FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS." 

A practical book dealing with the subject of Direct, 
Alternating and Polyphase Currents. By William 
R. Bowker, C.E., M.E., E.E. Crosby Lockwood 
and Son. 6s. net. 
Although not intended as a theoretical text-book 
Dr. Bowker's work devotes considerable attention 
to introductory terms and explanations which will 
be valuable to those who approach the subject for 
the first time. An excellent feature of the work 
is its numerous diagrams which should be of consider- 
able use to the artizan for whom the work is largely 
intended. The arrangement is by numbered para- 
graphs, the author dealing with his subject in the 
following order : Continuous Current Dynamos, Direct 
Current Motors, Electric Traction, Combined Lighting 
and Power Schemes, Alternating and Polyphase 
Currents. Students who are taking the City and 
Guilds of London examinations in electrical engineering, 
will find in Dr. Bowker's carefully prepared pages much 
that is helpful and suggestive. 



"THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF OIL 
ENGINES." 

With full directions for Erecting, Testing, Installing, 
Running and Repairing, Including descriptions 
of American and English Kerosene Oil Engines. 
By A. H. Goldingham, M.E. Fully illustrated. 
Second edition. Revised and Enlarged. E. and 
F. N. Spon, Ltd. 6s. 6d. net. 
In producing a second edition of this well printed 
and illustrated little work, the author has taken 
the opportunity of adding four chapters dealing with 
oil engine troubles, fuels, and miscellaneous informa- 
tion. In the first mentioned chapter he gives some 
practical hints upon such points as failure of igniter, 
defective oil supply, knocking, piston, blowing, leakage 
of water, etc. A useful section is that in which the 
various engines are described and illustrated by means 
of photographic reproductions and diagrams. In 
an important chapter on designing oil engines, the 
author remarks that simplicity of construction is the 
essential feature of this form of engine. To be suc- 
cessful mechanically and commercially it should be 
so constructed that it can be worked, cleaned and 
adjusted by unskilled attendants. 



(2W>) 




iimuumuj."!ff 



OUR DIARY. 




July. 

21st.— His Majesty the King inaugurates at Rhayader 
the new water supply for Birmingham. 

23pd.— Death of Sir John Simon. 

25th. — Lord BIythswood delivers his presidential 
address at the opening of the Sanitary Institute's Annual 
Congress. 

27th. — Lord Ebrington inaugurates a new water 
supply for Ilfracombe. 

28th. — Mr. Alfred Hewlett presides over an adjourned 
meeting of the Coal Conciliation Board. — The Society of 
Engineers visit the shipbuilding and engineering works 
of Messrs. Yarrow & Co., Ltd., at Poplar. 

29th.— A special conference of the Miners' Federation 
of Great Britain meets at the Westminster Palace Hotel 
to consider the position of wages in Scotland.— Issue of 
a Parliamentary paper explanatory of the Wireless Tele- 
graphy Bill.— Publication of the final report of the Uganda 
Railway Committee. 

30th.— The International Cup Contest at Ryde. — 
Mr. Douglas Owen leaves for South Africa, in order 
to attend the Johannesburg Conference on shipping 
freights.— The imports into the Transvaal for the 
first five months of 1904 amount to ;^5,799,27i, and 
the Customs receipts during the same period to 
£"712,709, as against ;^9,76i,566 and £:0i,647 respec- 
tively in the corresponding period of last year. — The 
revenue of Cape Colony for the financial year ended 
June 30th last amounts to £9,910,000, and the e.xpenditure 
to £10,849,000, leaving a deficit of £939,000— the 
revenue was reduced by £400,000 owing to'the reduction 
of Customs duties. "" 

Augrust. 

1st.— It is announced that ne.xt year's Earl's Court 
Exhibition will be devoted to the Naval, Shipping and 
Fishing industries. 

2nd.— The combined Home and Channel Fleets and 
the cruiser squadron leave Mount's Bav for fleet 
evolutions.— It is reported from New York that the 
outlook for another great strike in the anthracite coal 
region is now very grave— The executive board of the 
United Mine Workers (No. i district) practically resolve 
on a strike which will affect about 80,000 workers. 

3rd.— Sir W. White lectures at Exeter on " Modern 
Development of Construction of the Royal Navy."— The 
Coal Conciliation Board, meeting at the Westminster 
Palace Hotel, decides, by the casting vote of the chairman. 
Lord James of Hereford, that a reduction of 5 per cent, 
in rniners" wages shall come into operation on the first 
making-up day in the present month. — Inauguration of 
wireless telegraphic communication between Bari and 
Antivari. — Issue of Parliamentary paper on Navy boilers. 

6th. — At Cowes Regatta the American schooner 
lu^omar wins the Royal Yacht Squadron Cup. — The 
Conciliation Board in the Durham coal trade meets to 
consider the miners' wages for the ensuing three months. 

7th.— -An express train falls through a bridge in 
Colorado — 125 lives are reported to have been lost. 



8th. — Disastrous fire at the Toulon Arsenal. — Com- 
mencement of the torpedo manceuvres. — Mcrudis. 
IV., wins the International Motor-boat race from 
Calais to Dover. — Opening of the International Miners' 
Congress. 

9th. — The Miners' International Congress assembled 
in Paris resolves unanimously that " if the hours 
of labour in and about the mine are to be shortened 
permanently, it must be done by Act of -Parliament." 
— Issue of report by Sir W. Garstin on schemes 
under consideration for the improvement of the 
Upper Nile. — The re-appointment of Lord Curzon as 
Viceroy of India is announced. 

10th. — The Engineering Standards Committee publish 
an interim report on British standards for electrical 
machinery. — Organisation in Montreal of the Grand 
Trunk Pacific Railway Company. 

11th. — The Mersey Docks and Harbour Board decide 
to spend £222,000 on an extension of the Brunswick 
Dock. — Publication of the annual Blue-book containing 
the return of net public income and expenditure for the 
financial year 1903-4. 

12th.— Widespread forest fires are devastating the 
Kootenay country, British Columbia, and causing much 
damage to the mines. — Opening of a new graving dock 
at Hebburn-on-Tyne. — The Transvaal exports during 
the first half of the current year amount to £8,406,247, 
as compared with ;^5,7o8,5i5 for the corresponding; 
period of 1903. The chief items composing the above 
total are gold, £7,710,534 ; diamonds, £'341,160 ; wool, 
£35,o33- 

13th. — Summer meeting of the Junior Institution of 
Engineers opens at Diisseldorf. — The German battleship 
Kaiser Friedrich III. grounded to-day in the Great 
Belt, 30 plates being stove in. — During the torpedo man- 
oeuvres two destroyers collide, resulting in the loss of the 
Dtcoy, 

14th. — Opening of a new railwaj' line from St. Peters- 
burg to Vitebsk — this line places the capital in through 
communication with Kieff. 

15th. — Termination of the torpedo manoeuvres. — Issue 
of the principal chemist's report on the work of the 
Government Laboratory for the year 1903-4. 

17th. — The British Association opens 
congress at Cambridge. 

19th. — A meeting of the Engineering 
the British Association is devoted to 
sion of problems connected with internal-combustion 
engines.— The Engineering Standards Committee issue 
the British standard specification for tubular tramway 
poles. 

20th. — The Federal Council of Switzerland decides to 
denounce the commercial treaty between Spain and 
Switzerland — the treaty will remain in force one year 
longer. — The Roumanian Government steamer Buccanesti, 
while leaving Penarth Dock, crashes into the caisson pro^ 
tecting the dock gates, the dock gates being damaged 
to the extent of £5.000. 



its annual 



Section of 
the discus- 



(287) 



NEW CATALOGUES AND TRADE PUBLICATIONS. 



J. Hopkinson and Co., Ltd., of Huddersfield, forward a 
Avell arranged and excellently printed catalogue of 
safety valves. The numerous half-tone illustra- 
tions are of the highest possible grade. 

J. Bennett Von der Heyde, of 6, Brown Street, Man- 
chester, sends a very neat little pamphlet, which 
gives in a few words the chief points with regard to 
engine packing, to be kept in view by steam 
users. 

Mr. "W. Clark Fisher, Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineer, of Gordon Works, Gordon Road, West 
Ealing, forwards us illustrated circulars upon the 
" Compensating " Potentiometer, and the Improved 
D'Arsonval Galvanometers. 

Tangyes, Ltd., Cornwall Works, Birmingham. — List 
No. 63 gives particulars of a new " Suction " Gas 
Producer for which remarkable economies are 
claimed, e.g., 10 b.h.p. for one penny per hour, or 
100 b.h.p. for under lod. per hour. 

'E. Green and Son, Ltd., 2, Exchange Street, Manchester, 
forward details and illustrations of Green's Patent 
Air Heater, by means of which hot air from a waste 
source can be utilised for drying, heating and venti- 
lating mills, factories, and public institutions, etc. 

The Electric and Ordnance Accessories Company, Ltd , 

Stellite Works, Birmingham. — From this firm we 
have received a catalogue regarding Stellite S. D. 
{short distance) telephones for use in connection 
with existing electric bell systems and for inter- 
communication. 

Mather and Piatt, Ltd., of Manchester, have just 
brought out the second edition of their descrip- 
tive pamphlet dealing with " Mather- Reynolds 
Patent High-Lift Turbine Pump." From this firm 
we have also received the seventh edition of their 
pamphlet on Steel-clad Motors. 

Horsfall Destructor Company, Ltd., Leeds, are issuing 
an instructive report of the West Hartlepool Horsfall 
Destructor, by Mr. J. W. Brown, M.Inst.C.E., F.G.S. 
This should be obtained by all members of Town 
Councils and others who are called upon to consider 
the important question of refuse disposal. 

•Charles Churchill and Co., Ltd., 9-15, Leonard Street, 
E.C. — A useful catalogue of American tools 
reaches us from this firm, comprising lathes and 
turret machines, drills, planers, shapers, milling 
and grinding machines, mechanics' fine tools, etc. 
The catalogue will be found a valuable acquisition 
by users of machine tools, and an early application 
should be made for it as the edition is limited. A 
smaller edition of the catalogue is also issued. 

T^alder Bros, and Thompson, Ltd., 34, Queen 
Street, E.C. — This firm's price list is issued in 
five sections, the one before us (second edition, 
section IL) dealing with dead-beat moving coil 
ammeters and volt-meters. This has been revised 
and extended throughout, and has several new 
features. It includes some interesting views of the 
firm's machine shops at Dalston Works, Typical 

^ N.C.S. Moving Coil Instrument Scales, etc. 



C. "W. Burton, Griffiths and Co., i, 2, and 3, Ludgate 
Square, Ludgate Hill, E.C. — This small pamphlet 
comprises a list of American Machine Tools, for 
which the firm act as agents, their machine 
tool w-arehouses at London and Glasgow, covering 
about 16,000 sq. ft. A list of the firm's own 
specialities includes patent triple action chucking 
lathe, special heavy high-speed gap lathe. Burton 
disc grinder, oil grooving machine, and self-sustain- 
ing pulley blocks and crabs. 

"William Asquith, Ltd., of Highroad Well Works, 
Halifax, send us the following circulars, all of which 
are attractively printed and illustrated : List 
No. R I. "Improved 3 ft. 6 in. Radial Drilhng, 
Boring and Tapping Machine " ; List No. R 2, 
" Strong and Powerful Improved Radial, Drilling, 
Boring, Tapping and Studding Machines " ; List 
No. VI. " Improved Vertical Drilling, Boring, Tap- 
ping and Studding Machine" ; List No. GR j, 
"High-Speed Radials for Bridge, Constructional 
Rail, Plate and Girder Drilling." 

The United States Metallic Packing Company, Ltd. — An 

exceedingly novel calendar in the form of an aluminium 
disc, about the size of a five-shilling piece, has been 
issued by this company. On the one side we get a 
diagram and inscription setting forth the merits of the 
packing, while attached to the other side is a thin 
rotating disc bearing the names of the months and a 
separate division for dates. By adjusting the disc so 
that the month divisions are brought into line with the 
respective years marked on the edge of the calendar, 
the date division is brought into correct position in 
relation to the days of the week for each particular 
month from the beginning of 1904 until the end of 
1925. 

"W. T. Glover and Co., Ltd., of Trafford Park, Man- 
chester, forward a well-printed detailed catalogue of 
electrical wires and cables. Several new features have 
been introduced, notably the classification of various 
types of '' Diatrine " paper lead covered cables for 
lighting and power mains, suitable for either low or 
high voltages. It is mentioned that all the paper lead 
covered cables manufactured by the firm are now sub- 
jected to their patent hydraulic test. Among new types 
of cables to which attention is drawn are " Diatrine 
Paper Leadless" cables, for underground mains and 
mining work ; " Bitumen Insulated " cables, specially 
suitable for solid systems ; " Leather Sheathed " cables, 
specially suitable for rough usage ; " Fire-resisting " 
cables, for switchboard connections for train, theatre, 
and ship fighting, etc. 

Gent and Co., Ltd., Faraday Works, Leicester, forward 
an illustrated catalogue, printed in two colours, 
dealing with their patent watchman's clocks or 
electric tell-tales, for checking the movements of 
night watchmen in factories, etc. They specially 
call attention to their dry-ink-marking watchman's 
tell-tale clock, and an illustration is shown of a 
watchman recording his round by means of a 
portable magneto generator. By this method the 
use of a battery of cells is dispensed with. Details 
are also given of a watchman's relief alarm. This 
provides for a special attachment by means of 
which a loud bell is rung at some suitable place 
if the specified time elapses without a record being 
made on the tell-tale clock. We have also received 
a circular describing the firm's water-level alarm 
apparatus. 



(288) 




"TTT 



Miscellaneous 



I'"' IIU 




% 



■Multiple Switch! 

Starter 




FOR 






Large 
Horse Powers 

LEAFLET P.M. 10.G. 

Sturievant Engineering Co., Ltd. 

147, Queen Victoria Street London, E.G. 



Ice Making and Refrigerating Machinery. 



CARBONIC 

ANHYDRIDE (CO,). 

AMMONIA 

COMPRESSION 
and 
LOW PRESSURE 

ETHER SYSTEMS. 




Over 2,600 Machines 
Built and Sold. 

Results Guaranteed. 



Prompt Deliveries. 



AWARDED SILVER 
MEDAL, R.A. SHOW, 
1904. 



H. J. WEST 6 CO.. Ltd., 



114—118, SOUTHWARK BRIDGE ROAD, 
LONDON, S.E 



CABLES: "SAXOSUS." 
TELEGRAMS: " COPPERWORM." 
PHONE : 879 HOP. 

Contractors to H.M. Ooverameat, War Department, and India Office. 



49 




S^mS 




Engines 



I iHi. ..— JU,. 




John Fowler & Co. 



(L££DS) LIMITED. 



Electrical and General 
Engineers. 



Steam Plough WorRs : 

LEEDS. 




Fowler's Road Locomotive. Designed for all Kinds of Steam 
Haulage, and is also available for temporary belt driving. 
Three sizes of this Engine are standardized, and employed 
approximately for 20, 30, and 40 ton loads. A special heavy 
Engine is also made equal to a load of 50 tons, and called 
the " Lion " type. The Engine was thus named by the 
War Office Authorities, who employed a number of them 
In the South African Campaign, 



50 




mimf 



Engines 




ALLIS-CHALMERS Co. 



Genera/ Offices: — 

CHICAGO, U.S.A. 




SOLE BUILDERS OF- 

Reynolds^ Engines for Povifer Plants^ 
Rolling Mills^ Blovring Engines, etc. 



General European Headquarters : — 

SALISBURY HOUSE, FINSBURY CIRCUS. LONDON, E.C. 

[ WRI TE FOR CA TA L OGUBS. 



51 



IpA@li^™@M 



itfi Hr 



f 



Locomotives, &c. 



-Ci>- 




The 



it 



MclNNES-DOBBIE 

(Latest form of our " Mclnnes") 

PATENT Indicators 




- ■ for - - 

HIGH 6 LOW 
SPEEDS. 

Tn two types:— 
External Spring 

and - • • 

Enclosed Spring 

Each made in several 
Forms and Sizes. 



NO. e 

INSTRUMENT. 



EXTEKNAL 

Pressure Sphiuq Tv?e. 



SPECIAL INDICATORS 
& Explosion Recorders 
for Gas 6 Motor Engines, 
etc. 



.r„: DOBBIE MclNNES, LD. 

(T. S. Mclnnes & Co., Ltd., & Alex. Dobbie & Son, Ltd., Amgd.), 
INDICATOR MAKERS TO THE ADMIRALTY. 

45, Bothwell Street, GLASGOW, 

& at Greenock, South Shields, 6 London. 



THE HUNSLET ENGINE CO.. 

LEEDS. 



LTD., 




MANUFACTURERS OF 



TANK ENGINES 
Of all Descriptions. 

Designs and Specifications Supplied 
or WorRed to. 



Telegrams : " Engine, Leeds." 



Telephone: 528. 




Drop 
Forgings. 



You should use them instead 
of castings if you want 
Strength, Lightness, and Finish. 
Inquiries solicited. 



SMITH'S STAMPING 
WORKS, Ltd., Coventry. 

The Engineering and Shipbuilding Stampers. ^M 




Rmi^M 



"?^ 



Rolling Stock, &c. 




I W. R. Rcnshaw & Co., i 



G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 



Manufacturers of 



Limited, 



RAILWAY WAGONS, 

WHEELS & AXLES, 

AND IRONWORK, 

ALL STEEL HIGH- 
CAPACITY WAGONS, 



IRON & STEEL 

STRUCTURAL WORK, 

TANKS, ROOFS, 

RIVETED GIRDERS AND 
PIPES. 



London Office: Phoenix Works, 

s^»E.T%*c!''-™ STOKE-ON-TRENT. 



G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 
G 



F. A. KEEP, JUXON & Co 



Rri'^ETTED Work 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



TANKS 



FOR 




TRANSPORT 
SERVICE. 



MISCELLANEOUS 
IRON-PLATE and 
CONSTRUCTIONAL 
IRONWORK. 



r orward iVorks. 

BARN STREET. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

National Telephone : 3779. 

Telegrams: "Stractares, Birmingham." 




Rolling Stock, &c. 




THE LEEDS FORGE Co Ld 










'» 



»<* 



v:n 






PATENT SELF-DISCHARGING WAGOn- 20 TONS CAPACITY. 
Height from rails, 10ft. Width Overall, 8ft. Length over Buffers, 20ft. lOin. 



Agents: Messrs. TAITE and CARLTON, 63, Queen Victoria Street, LONDON. E.G. 



OIL inii^LS ^ 

FEEOmGrCAKE MII.LS 



^i 



'Kingston" Patent Orab-Dredger. 






? 



FRIED. KRUPP 

Aktiengesellschaft 

GRUSONWERK 

Magdebupg-Buekau. 



\ 



Complete Plant 

FOR 

Linoleum Factories 
India Rubber Factories. 

Machinery for the Manufacture of 

Lead Cables. 




54 




Miscellaneous 




WINN'S PATENT 

Reliable Gauge Glass Protectors 



M 



SPECIALLY SUITABLE FOR 
LOCOMOTIVES. 



ATTACHED IN A MOMENT. 




PLATE GLASSES INSTANTLY 

REMOVABLE 

BY THUMB CLIPS, 



CAN BE ATTACHED TO 
EXISTING GAUGES, 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE OF BOILER FIHINGS. 




U 



CHARLES WINN & C»- Engineers, Birmingham. 



Gve. DETOMBAY, Mce. DELANGE & Cie. 

Engineering Works, HOBOKEN, near ANTWERP. 

Specialities : APPLIANCES FOR PUBLIC WORKS :— 
Dredgers. — Elevators. — Excavators. — Tugs. — Centrifugal 
Pumps.— Sand Pumps. — Ballast Barges.— Lighters.— Yachts.— 
Hand, Steam and Hydraulic Cranes. — Drawbridges. — Pontoons. 
—Derricks.— Hand and Steam Winches.— Steam Engines. — 
Traction Engines.— Plant for Blast Furnaces.— Steel Works, 
Rolling Mills. — Gasholders. — Steam Hammers. — Shearing and 
Plate-edge Planing Machinery, &c. 




L 




J.B.Treasure&CO- 

Excelsior Flre-Polisbed 

GAUGE GLASSES, 

LUBRICATORS, 
INDIA RUBBER WASHERS, 

Sec, &c. 

Vauxhall Road, Liverpool. 



STEAM STOP VALVES. 

May we put your name do'wn for a copy 
of our new Catalogue, Ref. J 22, presently 
being issued ? See our advertisecnent 
next month. 

ALLEY 6 MacLELLAN, Limited, 
POLMADIE, GLASGOW. 



55 




Boilers 




^a?^a?a?'i?a?a?!i»ii!i!!i'! : !'i»i!!: » i!!i;' i ia? 



:: 



COCHRAN 



PATENT 

VERTICAL 

MULTITUBULAR 




BOILERS 

SAVE 25% IN FUEL. 

Easily Cleaned. Easily Erected. 



iff DelWery from Stock. 

In Units from 

,10° 150 

* l.H.P. 



:ii; 



?? 



IN BATTERIES 

up to 

ANY POWER. 



! 



COCHRAN & Co. 

ANNAN, LTD. 

Head Office and Works : 

Annan, SCOTLAND. 

London Office : 
Sanctuary House, Tothill Street, 




WESTMINSTER, S.AV. "MULTITUBE, ANNAN." *' MULTITU BE. LONDON.' 






?? I ?? I ?? I ?? I ?? I ?? I ?? l !i I ?i I ;? JHI t? I ?? I ?? I ? U ?? I ?? I ?? I ?? K 

56 




S^^5ffl 




Boilers, &c. 




BABCOCK & WILCOX Ltd., 

Patent Water=Tube Boilers. 



Engineers and 
Manufacturers of 




OVER 4,500,000 H.P. IN USE IN ALL INDUSTRIES. 

The only Water-Tube Boiler which gained the GRAND PRIX 
(Highest Aw-ard) at the Paris International Exhibition, 1900. 



Complete Installations of Steam 

Piping and Boiler House Plants. 



ALSO 



WATER-TUBE MARINE BOILERS. 



ESTIMATES AND PLA\S ON APPLICATION. 



Head Offices- 



Babcock & Wilcox Boiler, fitted with Superheater. 



A valuable treatise on " Steam " and " Ac- 
cessories " Catalogue free on application, 
to Engineers and Steam Users. 



LONDON : Oriel House, Farringdon St., 
E.C. ; and Branches. 

WORKS: RENFREW, Scotland. 



Boltons' Downtake 
Superheater 



WITH DOLBLE 
CIRCULATION. 



IMPROVED BOX AND "FIELD" TUBES. .Patexted) 



Simple and Reliable. 
Saves 10 to 15 ^ ,. 
Is made of Steel 

throughout. 

A large number 
working in — 
■ Textile Mills, 

Paper Works, 

Collieries, 

Electricity Stations, 

Flour Mills, etc. 
Suitable for any 

Wopkinsr Pressure 

up to 200 lbs. per 

square inch. 
Approved of by Lead- 
. ing Engineers and 

Insurance Co.'s. 

REPEAT ORDERS 
- BBISa GIVEN, 



Readily Applied. 



Inexpensive. 




Patentees and Sole Makers :— 



BOJL.T'ON & CO., 

Ensinecrs and Superheating Specialists, 
49, Deansgate, MANCHESTER, 



LEEDS CITY BOILER WORKS 

(Established 1862.) 
OH AD.MIRALTY LIST. 



MAKERS OF 



High-Class 



BOILERS 

To stand any test or 
pass any inspection. 



.■nADE BY THE 

LATEST IMPROVED 
MACHINERY. 



Most 

Modem and 
Complete 
Plant in 
Yorkshire. 

r r 



VERTICAL BOILERS 

Always la Stack and la Progress- 

SPECIALITY.— Boilers fitted with Deighton's Patent Corrugated 
Flues give 20 per cent, increased heating surface over ordinary- Sues. 

Contractors for Roofs and all kinds of Structural Iron ard 
Steel Work. 





TTT 



^MMEl Condensing- Plant 




The Mirrlees Watson Co., Ltd., 



GLASGOW. 



f^k; 



Speciality: High Vacuum. 




CONDENSING PLANT 




OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 




"^~^li5 — ^ 



'«!' " TP" 



fii^(§^llEIE)ff Gas= Producing Plant 



,'jLtlU lil 




Economy. 




GAS 



as a Motive Power has no interest 
for the ordinary commercial man 
unless it effects a considerable saving. 
We venture to suggest that no 
subject is of greater interest to the 
Manager of any Works where 
HEAT or POWER is required than 
the economy we have been able to 
secure, after very exhaustive and 
costly experiments, under our com- 
bined DUFF & WHITFIELD 
PATENTS, in the production of a 
CHEAP COMMERCIAL GAS 
from Bituminous or Anthracite Coals 
or Coke. If you are interested send 
for particulars. 

W. F. MASON, Limited, 

ENGINEERS, 

MANCHESTER. 




^l^ A \l)^ 





59 




"Tf ff 



BmMm 



'~^ 



Bennis Stokers 



'" 





BENNIS STOKERS, CONVEYING AND ELEVATING PLANT, ON CORNISH, LANCASHIRE, 

AND WATER-TUBE BOILERS. 



60 




Bmrnm 




Furnaces 




POETTER & CO., 



Tekgrafhic Address: 
" Mallmaxx, Loxdox.' 

Telephone ft umber : 
533S Westmixster. 



Civil Engineers and Contractors, 

116, VICTORIA STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W. 



Sole Representative 



P. J. MALLMANN, M.A., C.E. 



New Continuous Re-heating Furnace 

of American Type, with our own Improvements. 



No Smoke Development with our Air Heating Apparatus, using gas or half 
gas, or with direct firing. 

Regenerative and recuperative system. 

Output 30 to 200 tons per day of twelve hours. 
Superior to the Furnaces now in use. 

One Furnace can replace two to three Furnaces of the usual construction. 
Economy of Fuel : 50 per cent. 
Great Reduction of Waste. 

Fifty to Seventy per cent, reduction in cost of labour. 
Working" ot Furnace exceedingly easy. 
Repairing" work reduced to a minimum. 
Initial Cost of laying down Plant ver^' moderate. 

Applicable for re-heating ingots and half-finished material of all dimensions. 
Results obtained by the trial working of our new Continuous Re-heating 
Furnace in a Plate Rolling Mill for several months: — * 

Output in twelve hours ... ... ... ... 105 tons. 

Waste ... . ... ... ... ... ... 4 per cent. 

Consumption of Fuel per day :— 

Without night coal 9 tons (9,000 kilos). 

Including night coal ... ... ... ... 102 tons (10,200 kilos). 

Furnace hands required, including handling cold and removing heated 
blocks : — 

per day 

per night ... 

Coal Slack of Gas Coal used for firing. 



7 men 
2 men. 




The Furnaces are supplied ready to be started. 



Correspondence Invited. Estimates on Application 




61 




mimf 



Destructors 




HORSFALL DESTRUCTORS 

HAVE BEEN ADOPTED IN 

EVERY TOWN SHOWN ON 

\ THIS MAP-WE CAN SHOW 

NEW PLANTS WITH 
EVERY MODERN 
IMPROVEMENT AND 
OLD PLANTS IN 
GOOD ORDER AFTER 

15 YEARS 



Z M^ ^Syf^ **_ - • 




SERVICE 



To Bffussc-s 



The Horsfall Destructor Company Limited- 



Armley- • LEEDS- 



— Telegrams :'' Destructor Leeds' 



-Telephone 2006 ©entral — 



-eoDES: ABC (5th Edition) and Liebers Standard — 



02 




ME LDR()M BR03 IID 



imberley neap AVanchesfep. 



Weekly l^un at Burnley with 



MELDRUM SIMPLEX DESTRUCTOR 

Week ending Sunday, April 3rd. 

One 4=grate, with Lancashire Boiler, 200 lbs. pressure. 



Deslructc 



MONDAY 


15,380 


gallons 


evaporated 


TUESDAY 


13,940 


f> 


f> 


WEDNESDAY 


13,080 


„ 


„ 


THURSDAY = 


14,850 


t» 


tf 


FRIDAY 


13,650 


•t 


>t 


SATURDAY = 


14,540 


•f 


•• 


SUNDAY 


10,590 


>• 


i> 



96,030 

REFUSE BURNT - - - - Tons 266 IS cwt. 

AVERAGE EVAPORATION FROM BOILER 

10.000 lbs. per hour, from noon to midnight. 



This illustration shews half 

the plant destined for Johan= 

nesburg erected in our shop 

before being shipped. 



TIMPERLEY, MANCHESTER, 



AND 



66. VICTORIA STREET, 
WESTMINSTER. 

LONDON. 




63 




Ji III' !?)(^ 

mimtlf Bridges and Roofs 



nil III" 




MACHINERY FOR 
ECONOMIC HANDLING 
OF MATERIALS. 



DESIGNED AND BUILT BY 



5-ton ELECTRIC TRAVELLING CANTILEVER CRANE 

For Stocking and Loading Material. Span, 325 ft. 



The Brown Hoisting Company. 

London Office — 

39, VICTORIA ST., S.W. 

Main Office and Works — 

CLEVELAND, OHIO, U.S.A. 

New Yoric Office — 

26, CORTLANDT STREET. 




More durable than iron. Cheapest for all spans up to 100 Fe6l. 



D. ANDERSON 6 SON, Ltd.. 



LAGAN FELT WORKS. BELFAST, and 
FINSBURY PAVEMENT HOUSE. LONDON. E.C. 



64 




^ii-5) 



DKIIEiff Bridges and Roofs 





MOTHERWELL. SCOTLAND. 



ii 



=^)2oorf3^ 

gUlLPCC?: 

5TIZI 



flNDLAY. hOTHERW: 

s^T.^LOCiJE:^ HAY BE HAD ' 






SPECIALTTJ- 
AllKimps or 



HYPgAOLIC 



' ^ -^ *r T — ^ 



* 9 ^^ V rr » 



RAILWAY BPIRjE I 



BUILDIMflS i-.C: 




/^ 




^ 



65 




.(§MHK[E|f Conveying Machinery 



IT r- 



GRAHAM 





& Co., Ltd. 



WORKS AND HEAD OFFICE. 



LEEDS. 




Complete Coal Comeying Plant made and erected by us for handling Coal at the 

rate of 50 tons per hour. 

Makers and ErectOi*s of all Classes of 



CONVEYING PLANTS. 



SCREENING and WASHING PLANTS 
COAL HANDLING PLANTS, etc. , 

LONDON OFFICE: LENNOX HOUSE. NORFOLK STREET, STRAND, W.C. 

66 




HJlg&gME' f Electric Cranes, &c. : 








^PTON & C0MP4^ 



^ 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, 



ro 



^SFO 



RD & 



loyS 



O^ 



Telegrams ■ 
"CROMPTON, CHELMSFORD. 
CROMPTON, LONDON 



OVERHEAD TRAVELLING CRANES. 
LOCOMOTIVE CRANES. 
BICYCLE CRANES. 
JIB CRANES. 
DERRICKS, HOISTS, & 
ONE. TWO, AND THREE- 
MOTOh CRANES. 



Telephcnes: 
CHELMSFORD No. 2. 
1959 LONDON WALL (NATIONAL). 
4735 CENTRAL (POST OFFICE 




3-TON SINGLE MOTOR LOCOMOTIVE CRANE. 



67 



F2 




IriiAdMIlCai ¥ Weighing Macliinery 




CRANE WEIBHERS 



OURS STILL LEAD FOR ANY 
NATIONAL STANDARD. 



S.DENISON&SON, 

Hunslet Moor, 

Near LrE^£DS» 




JOHN Z. THOM. 



Why do you pay 9d. to I/- per 1,000 gallons 
for water, when you can pump it for less than I^d. 
from an Artesian Well on your own premises? 

Let me know the amount of water you require 
and I shall be pleased io quote. 



I^ATRICROFT. 




68 




Cranes 




JOSEPH BOOTH & B 



ROS, 



r-To.. 



Rodley, LEEDS, 

For Cranes and Lifting Machinery, 6c, 




20 Tons Steam Locomotive Cranes w^ith Excavator. 



Locomotive Cranes 
Overhead Cranes 
Goliath Cranes 
Wharf Cranes 
Derrick Cranes 



WORKED BY 



Electricity, 
Steam, 

Hydraulic 

Power, 

Air, or 

Hand. 



Makers to Home, Colonial, and Foreign Governments. 

Crown Agents for Colonies and all the Leading Firms in Great Britain. 

INQUIRIES SOLICITED, 

69 



Iron and Steel 





When punching the 
hundreds of tons of 
link stuff -we're re- 
minded of its quality. 
The "chug" of the 
punch tells you it's 
tough. The strips of 
steel scrap spring like 
an Ivanhoe's sword. 
The wearing qualities 
are there. The guaran- 
tee against breakage 
is assured. We can't 
recommend VULCAN 
CHAIN PIPE WRENCHES 
T.oo highly. Pipe work 
and Yulcan Wrenches 
are simply insepar- 
able— have been so for 
twenty years. For sale 
all over the ■world. 

J. H. Williams & Co., 

Drop=rorgings 
only, 

Brooklyn, Mew York. 



ON ADMIRALTY LIST. 



Telegrams: "CRANKS. LINCOLN. 



F©R eRHNKS 
& FORGINGS 
©F EVERY 
DESeRIPTICN 
WRITE T© 




eLHRKE'S 
eRTlNK & 
FORGE eO., 
LTD., LIlVeOLN, 
ENGLHND. 




Iron and Steel 





^ THOMAS SMITH s50N5^-5ALTLEYLg BIRMINGHAM, c^^ 



■CD >f 



nt^^- 



^< 



AND 








'"co^-- 



-'S^S 



'S^^ 



AND 




EDGAR ALLEN & CO-, L™ 

TOOL STEEL, SAW & FILE MANUFACTURERS, & STEEL FOUNDERS. 



SOLE MAKERS OF 



The EDGAR ALLEN 



O^ir-hardTnIR^ 

M^^^^^^\ TRADE MARK GRANTED 1885 

HIGH-SPEED TOOL STEEL AND TWIST DRILLS. 

Allen's ^^ iWanganese Steel 

CASTINGS & BARS for TRAMWAY POINTS & CROSSINGS, DREDGER PINS & BUSHES, ORE CRUSHERS, Ac. 

COFRRESI^ON D ENCE INVITED. 

Imperial Steel Works, Tinsley, SHEFFIELD. 




Iron and Steel 




Farnley Iron 




COLD BLAST FURNACES AND REFINERIES. 



Farnley Bar Iron is used in 
Mining for pit cages, suspending 
gear, and other important parts, 
and on all the leading Railways 
in Great Britain, India, and the 
Colonies, for shackles and other 
vital parts subjected to repeated 
shocks. 

Farnley Iron will stretch cold 
from li in. to 2^ in. in a length 
of 6 in. before fracture, and is 
safest for welding. 



Address: The Farnley Iron Co., Ltd., Leeds, England. 




HerbertWPermL™ 

fipoDCAtE5^v/ol{KS 
BiRmiHCHAM. 

TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS 

"FLOODGATE" BIRMINGHAM. 

TELEPHONE N9 373. 

STOCK 250,000. CROSS 





72 




^~^ 



(^Mmm 



Iron and Steel 




Head Office — 
St Pauus Square. 

Birmingham. 



^^^^o 



A/fi>. 



Waterloo Chambers 
19,Waterloo Street, 

Glasgow. 



Samh Buckley 



Styrian Steel WoRKS-S 



CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



PROMPT REPLIES 



PROMPT DELIVERIES 




\>\iii 



^^* 



CHVtF ADVANTAG£5 






»HC, 



Simple to forge and harden. 
High Speed and deep cuts. 
Increased OUT-PUT when turning 
Cast Iron and Mild Steel. 




Iron and 5teel 





INQUIRE 

. . FOR . . 

COLLIERY 
PLANT 

. . AXD . . 

MINING 
MACHINERY. 



BLAST 
FURNACE 

. . AND . . 

STEEL 
WORKS 
PLANT 

. . FROM . . 

HEAD, 

WRIGHTSON, 

& Co., Ltd., 

TEESDALE IRON WORKS, THORNABY-ON-TEES : 

STOCKTON FORGE WORKS, STOCKTON-ON-TEES: 

EGGLESCLIFFE FOUNDRY, STOCKTON-ON-TEES. 



74 



\ 




Iron and Steel 




CONSETT IRON COMPANY L 



WORKS andOFFICEIS - CONSETT c Durham 



Oteel Plates & A.ngles 

(Siemens Acid Process). 

Tees, Bulbs, Zeds, Channels, Bulb Tees, and Angles, 

ROUND, SQUARE AND FLAT BARS. 

STEEL CHEQUER PLATES 



BESSEMER PIG IRON. 



Oval and Diamond Patterns. 



ViTEEICLY OXJTI»XJT: 



Steel Plates 
„ Angles 



2,500 Tons. 
1,500 




COAL OWNERS and Makers of 

^ ^ Firebricks, CoKe, 6c., for Blast Furnaces and Foundries. 



Material of the HIGHEST QUALITY manufactured, such as <.s used by the British and Foreign Governments for 

Shipbuilding and Engineering purposes. 



OFPicEscoNSETT o^f^HAM ANDisiE WCASTLE °^ T YNE 



75 




KiMi 




Iron and Steel 




WALTER SCOTT, Ltd., 




LEEDS SXEHL Telegrams: 

" Bessemer, 

WORKS . . . leeds." 
LEEDS, ENGLAND. 

Manufacturers of . . 

Rolled Steel 
Joists, 
Channels, etc. 

Mild Steel Blooms, Billets, 
Slabs, Tinbars, Rounds, 

and Flats, 

Speciality: 



Tramrails. 



Books oj Sections and other information 
on application. 



C/rankshafts and r orgings 

(ON ADMIRALTY, WAR OFFICE, 6c.. LISTS.) 

BENT CRANKS 

(Square or Round) 

For Marine and 
other purposes. 




Bent Three>Throw Pump Crankshaft. 



«ffriA> 



WOODHOUSE AND RlXSON, 



SJaJBFFISX^D. 



70 




Iron and Steel, &c. 



Gilbert Thompson & Co., 

IRON it STEEL WORK CONTRACTORS, 
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, &c. . . 



London Representative : 

Paul Jm Mallmann, M./l., 

Civil Engineer. 



London Office : 



Telegrams: "Mallmann, London." 

Telephone Xo. : 5338 Wkstmixster. 



116, Victoria Street, 
\A/estrninster, S■^A/■ 



sPE ciAU T YLi POETTER'S GAS PRODUCING PLANT. 



IRON AND STEEL WORK OF ALL KLND5 
. IN . . 
GIRDERS, COLUMNS, 
BRIDGES, ROOFS, 
BUILDINGS, FENCING, &c., &c. 



DESIGNS AND ESTIMATES 
ON APPLICATION. 



PROMPT DELIVERY AT 
LOWEST PRICES. 



Sankev's Fire Bricks and Fire Cements. 

Every Description of HRE^CLAY GOODS. STOCK UNEQUALLED. 

VARIOUS BRANDS. 



^ SAPJKEV • 
LONDON. E. 



Engineers' Designs made to Order of the best 
Fire^resisting Materials. 

WRITE FOR NEW CATALOGUE. 




J. H. SANKEY & SON, Ltd., JJrrd Essex Wharf, CANNING TOWN, E. 



ESTABLISHED 1857. 



HI GH-GRAD E. THE "DIAMOND*' TWIST DRILLS. warranted. 

The Cheapness of a Drill depends 
upon its Durability. 



100 Drills at 4s. each are dearer than 
75 Drills at 5s. each of the same size 
if these will do the same amount of worK. 



If you cannot get these Goods from your Dealer, apply to the Makers — 

THE WHITMAN & BARNES Manufacturing Go,, 

149, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, E.C. 




Whits Lines on BlusGrjund; Blue Lines on White Ground; Black Lines on White Ground. 



PRICE LIST ON APPLICATION. 

New Catalogue in the Press. Price Is., post free. 

MANUF/\CTURERS OF PHOTOCI{APHIC DRY PLATES, P/VPEI{S, MOUNTS, CAMERAS, AND SUNDRIES. 

MARION {3 Co., Ltd., 22, 23, Soho Square, London, W 




MSMm 




Tubes 




MANUFACTURERS OF 

Weldless Steel 




Iron 
Tubes, 



Steam Pipes, Hydraulic 
Tubes, Boiler Tubes, 
High Pressure . . 
Steam Mains, 



HOLLOW FORCINGS. 
COLLARS. FERRULE 
BUSHES. LINERS. 
COUPLINGS. AXLES. 
PISTON RODS. 
Etc.. Etc.. 
Quoted for on . . 
receipt of . . . 
particulars. 



Soper-heaters 

A SPECIALITY. 



Contractors to the War Office 
and Admiralty. 

Tubes Limited 

BIRMINGHAM. 



Nat. Telephone No.: 2582. Telegrams: " Cylinders. Birmutghain.' 



78 



I 




Tubes, &c. 




Thomas Piqqott & Co., Ltd., 



ATLAS WORKS. 
SPRING HILL, 
BIRMINGHAM. 



GAS, HYDRAULIC and 
GENERAL ENGINEERS. 

* * * 

Caa Plants and Construc- 
tional Ironwork of all 
descriptions. 

Columns Girders, Castings. 

Welded and Rivetted Steel 
Pipes. 

Stamped and Steel Angle 
Flanges. 

Steel Chimneys of all sizes 
and designs. 

Tanks in Steel or Cast Iron 
for Petroleum & Water. 

Pans for Sugar, Cassada. 
Ac. for all BSarl<ets. 

* * * 

London Office: 

63. Quean VictoriaSt , F.C. 

TeUgrams : 
• Atlas, Birmingham." 
" Intersection, London." 

ABC and Ai Codes usid. 




Steel Lattice Girder Bridge, in one span of 115 feet 10 inches. 12 feet deep, and 13 feet \vjde. erected 

over the River Teme at Ludlow, and carrying WVlded Steel Main 3 feet 6 inches diameter, 

I'or the Birmingham Welsh Water Scheme. 



LAUNDRY MACHINERY 



Also 



COOKING 
APPARATUS 



Catalogues on Application. 




W. Summerscales & Sons, Ltd., 

Phoenix Foundry, KEIGHLEY, England. 



79 




fcim 




Electrical Apparatus 




If 



P.D.M. 



" MOTORS FOR ALL PURPOSES 

IN ALL SIZES FROM 1 TO 500 BHP. 



COOL RUNNING, 
EXCELLENT CONSTRUCTION, 
LOW, FIRST COST, 
HIGHEST EFFICIENCY. 



PHCENIX DYNAMO 
MANUFACTURING 
CO., LTD., BRADFORD. 



Agents : — 
London, E.G.: F. S. Dudgeon, 30, Gt. St. Helen's. 
Birmingham : Sandford & Dix, 44, Waterloo Street. 
Glasgow: Christie & Co., 82, Gordon Street. 




120 B.H.P. SEMI-ENCLOSED. 500 REVS. 




" WOODITE " WORKS, MITCHAM COMMON, SURREY. 

NOTICE TO ENGINEERS, ELECTRICIANS, STEAM USERS, and OTHERS.— " WOODITE" articles can now be obtained 
with the utmost despatch. "WOODITE" has stood the severest test for six years. No material in existence can equal it for Steam or 
Electrical Purposes, and other appliances : has stood every test up to 40,000 volts for 1/8 in. sheet, without breaking down, by the London 
Klectric Light Corporation and others. Ram "U" Hat Joint and Packing Rings, Pump Cups, Gaskets, Manholes, V.ilves, Sheeting. Patent 
"WOODITE" G. G. Rings, ard all Mechanical and other Goods which have hitherto been manufacUired in India Rubber, Leather, etc., 
can now be made of "WOODITE." 

"WOODITE" COMPANY, MITCHAM, SURREY. 



\ 



f Electrical Apparatus 





8=; 




TT- 



Electric Cranes, &c. 



'"' 




Electric Cranes 



UP TO 




100 TONS 



CAPACITY. 



SEND FOR OUR NEW 
CATALOGUE. 



THOMAS BROADBENT 6 SONS, 

Limited. 

HUDDERSFIELD. 




FAIRBANKS-MORSE ENGINES 

operating on Gas, Oil, or Petrol, always 
develop more than their rated H.P. 



Close Regulation and Reliable. 
Special Engines for Electric Lighting. 

Send for Neiv Catalogue No. 443. 



2 TO 150 H.P. 



FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO., 



MANUFACTURERS, 



P'ranklin & Monroe Streets. 
Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 



133, Liberty Street, 
New York, U.S.A. 



126, Southwark Street, S.E., 
London, Eng. 




cS6 




HSaIS 



Electrical Apparatus 




GREENWOOD & BATLEY, Ltd., leeds. 



ENGINEERS' GENERAL TOOLS and of SPECIAL TOOLS 
for War Material and a Great Variety of Purposes. 



a 



MAKERS OF EVERV DESCRIPTION OF 

Representative in South Africa :— 
W. G. TEBBUTT. 
P.O. Box 1471 Cape^Town. 







De Laval Patent 
Steam Turbine 
Dynamos, 
Turbine Motors, 
Pumps and Fans. 






Dynamos and 

Motors, 

Complete 

Electrical 

Installations. 





No. 6352. 200 B.H.P. Electric Motor, 420 ▼olts, 400 revolutioas. 



Turner, Atherton & Co.. Ltd., 



London Offices: — 110, Cannon Street, E.C. 



Economical 
Efficient . 



DENTON, 
MANCHESTER. 



Patent . 



Reliable 



Electric . 
Motors and 
Elevators . 




Start ing . 
Switch . 
and . . 
Automatic 
Controller. 



Specialite :— 

Electric Elevators for Goods and Passenger Service. 



87 



H 2 




Ventilation 





"SIROCCO" 
Centrifugal 
Cased 
Fan. 




Discharges THREE to FOUR 

TIMES MORE AIR per 

revolution than any 

other Centrifugal 

Fan of equal 

diameter. 



"SIROCCO'' 
Propeller 
Fan. 



ELECTRIC 



BELT-DRIVEN. 



Greater 
volumetric capacity 
and higher mechanical 
efficiency than any other 
Fan designed for similar work. 




DAVIDSONS CO., L 



™ "SIROCCO" 
1 ENGINEERING 
WORKS, 



Belfast. 



37, Corporation Street, 
MANCHESTER. 



115, Hope Street 
GLASGOW. 



13, Victoria Street, Westminster, 
LONDON. 

Sole Representatives for the Continent of Europe :— 
WHITE, CHILD, 6 BENEY, Ltd., 62 and 63, Queen Street, LONDON, E.C. 

88 




MPROVED 
Autoniatic 
Numberiqg 
Machitie 



STEEL WHEELS 



lnexpei]sive 
First-class 
Machine 



to^ASDl 




Miscellaneous 



OUR SPECIALITIES. 



Perforating Presses 

Embossing „ 

Company Seals 

Steel Dies & Punches 

Wrot>iron Brands 

Patent Stencil Drums 
& Stencil Plates 

ENCiNEE^S 

INSTRUCTION 
and N^VME PLATES. 




THE RUBBER STAMP COMPANY, 

14, Broad St. Corner, BIRMINGHAM. 

MORETON'S E.G. PAINL 

{ELECTRO OALVANlSINa.) 
Unequalled for . . 

Coating all kinds of Machinery. 

Ask lor, and see you i^ct the only genuine. 
Guaranteed ^ ^ to withstand 

heat up to ^^'"^^""'^Ci^ 400 degrees 
Fahr., and is ^^H. Moreton^^ not affected 
by climatic ^^^^^^^^^ conditions, 
THE PAINT THAT WON'T COME OFF. 
Send for Sarriple of the Sole Manufacturers— 

The Metallic Paint Co., Ltd.. Cardiff. 



PHOTO-PRINTS 
IN TWO MINUTES 

By Electric Light in 
your o^vn office. ^ 

580 MACHINES IN USE. 




Full Psrticulars oa application to the Original 
laveators:— 

B. J. HALL 6 CO., 

<^ Drawing Office Stationers, 

39, Victoria Street, LONDON, S.V/., 

And at 32, Paradise Street, Birmingham. 




He who worKs with bad tools is 
thrice tired." 



FOR WRITING 



the only perfect tool 
is a * . . 



"SWAN" 




Founta 
Pen. 



SOLD BY 

STATIONERS 

and 
JEWELLERS 
in all parts 
of the 
World. 



.^^ 



PRICES 



£20. 



The gold nib makes 
writing rapid and easy. 

The perfect double-feed 
and ink reservoir make 
dirty inkpots useless. ^ 



SUPPLIED IN Broad easy running for correspondence 
ALL POINTS. Fine for draughting. ^ ^ ^ 



CATALOGUE POST FRBE. 

MABIE, TODD & BARD, 

93, Chcapside, LONDON, E.G. 

BRANCHES:— 

95a, Regent Street, "W. ; and 3, Exchange Street, Manchester. 
And at New York, Cliicago, and Paris. 



89 




Miscellaneous 




DON'T HESITATE, 

BUT INSTRUCT YOUR STATIONER TO SUPPLY 



Every Sheet 
bears this 
Watermark, ^ 



^^@®kl©/ 





Manufactured in 
Laid and Wove 
FOUR - 
THICKNESSES. 



THE OFFICE TYPEWRITING PAPER. 



^' •5»^^'«» '^it' ^'^ ^1^ J^!«« ^!«« ^Mi ^l^i-Jl^i^I^^tii^l^^!^ ^?>?. ^!^^t* 

I "New Zealand 
I Mines Record." 

I PRICE Is. 



^! A MONTHLY JOURNAL issued by the New 

:^! Zealand Government Mines Department, 

^! containnig information respecting the Mining 

^! Industry in New Zealand, abstracts of Geological 

^! Reports, Reports from the Wardens of the Gold- 

^j fields, and Reports of the Inspectors of Mines, 

t &c., &c. 



^1 Copies can be obtained at the New Zealand 

^1 Government Office, 13, Victoria Street, S.W., and 

^j Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding 

•?! Street, Fetter Lane, E,C. ; also of Messrs. Street 



;&( ' ' ' 

^j AND Co., 30, Cornhill, E.G. 



1] ■ i«* 

^"^jS" •y»«' Oi^ •*»«• ti^ •>*«* ft^ •?»<• •**<* •^i'S* •J't«* vj** -yiv •?!«* *f(f- fi^'ii^i^ 



Carbo-Silica 



(PATENT) 



Refractory Bricks and 
Blocks for 

Furnaces 

for temperatures 

OVER 3,500° Fahr. 

__M 

E. J.& J. Pearson 

LTD., 

STOURBRIDGE. 






90 




Printing 




ouW there 
in printing n 
other industries, 
cal Society de 
on t^ microscope or 
soiutelyjiized^the screw§ 
L^A-^ •xtjy^^efinitetaind^ 
hod-^^o that eyeWS 
^ , ler atto^so »nts mav 




Will Not Suffice 

for the production of Effective Printing, 
unless there be added 

Ideas « Art ^ Experience 

We are able to throw these essentials into 
every Catalogue or Circular undertaken, 
and thus assist you to arrest the attention 
of your public. 



SouTHWooD, Smith & Co., Ltd., 

Plough Court, Fetter Lane, 
LONDON, E.C. 



Telephone No. 504 Holborn. 
Telegrains: " SoirrHERNWooD, London.' 




ff Business Systems, &c. 





SHANNON SYSTEMS 



Dealing with Correspondence. 

FIRST : Copy your letters, agreements, 
and other outgoing correspondence 
on the Shannon Letter Copier, 
which copies ten times as quickly 
as an ordinary screw press. 

SECOND : File the copies of answers 
with the original letters received in 
a Shannon Letter Filing Cabinet, 
in alphabetical and chrono- 
logical order. 



THE RESULT: 

Perfect Copies. Instant 
reference to outgoing and 
incoming correspondence. 
Great saving of time, 
worry, and hard cash. 






The Shannon Letter Copier. 



Shannon Letter Filing Cabinet. 

Write for our Booklet No. 20, which deals exhaustively with this modern system. 

X^ Shannon Ltd., 

Head Offices and Showrooms : 

RopemaRer St., LONDON, E.G. 

F. W. SCHAFER, Manag^ing^ Director. 





II 



between various grades of steel 
is made easy and certain by 
our . . . 

"R[CIIL[8C[NCE OUIFII." 

Curve A is characteristic of a 
certain sample of 0'35 carbon 
steel ; it indicates the manner 
in which the temperature 
varied when the steel was 
slowly heated up and then 
allowed to cool. Observe the 
smooth hump on the heating 
side of the curve and the sharp 
kink on the cooling side. These 
" recalescence points" appear 
still more prominently on curve 
B, which was obtained from a 
sample of 090 carbon steel. 
The marked differences be- 
tween tlie two curves are all 
highly characteristic. 

// you lire interested in the 
hardening or annealing of steel, 
a knowledge of " recalescence 
points "is of the first imfortance. 

Further interesting infor- 
mation on these matters will 
be sent free on request. 



THE CAMBRIDGE SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT COMPANY, Ltd. 



London Sho-wroom : 

92, HATTON GARDEN, E.C. 



Works and Head Office : O AIVI BFRI D G E, 

Where all correspondence should be addressed. 
92 




Tt T^ 



\MME)f Business Systems 



.r *- 



'"■ 




IT IS REMARKABLE 

the number of splendidly equipped 
factories and stores we find working 
their offices and counting = houses 
on methods which are about equi = 
valent to the old ** chalk-it-up- 
behind-the-door " style. If these 
concerns would remember that 

"MEN COST MORE THAN 
METHODS 



n 



they would, without hesitation, 
adopt systems for their account- 
keeping which have been found so 
invaluable that their use has 
always been extended after a fair 
practical trial. 



We will tell YOU all 
about them If you write 
on your business iiead- 
ing to 



D.P.L. Dept., 



THE 



TRADING & MANUFACTURING Co., Ltd., 

Temple Bar House, 
LONDON, EX. 

Telegrams: "DEVISERS, LONDON.' 



93 




Engineers' Appliances 







J. Halden & Co., 



e 




8, Albert Square, 

MANCHESTER. 

LONDON, NEWCASTLE = ON=TYNE, 
BIRMINGHAM, and GLASGOW. 

The most improved Drafting Table extant. 
Compact, practical, and simple in manipula- 
tion- Complete with instructions for erection. 



Double Elephant size ... 
Antiquarian size ... 



... Jt9 
10 10 



DRAWING 



INSTRUMENTS 

Made in our own Workshops 
by skilled workmen, and of 
the best material. 

No. 755 Case (a speciality) 
containing superior electrum 
instruments, with needle points J^4 

No. 755 B. Contents as No. 755, 
but tailed with B needle points 




5 



Nos. 755 and 755 B. 



^ 

^ 

(i 
^ 
^ 
O 



SAMPLE SHEET. 22 BY IS, 
POST PREB ON REQUEST. 

SEND FOR DRAWING OFFICE 
MATERIAL CATALOGUE. 



The " ARC " Tracing Cloth, 

Super, Super Quality, Guaranteed j 

30 inches wide by 24 yards roll j *^** "^■ 



London, Manchester, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Birmingham, and Glasgow. 



■^^^C'C'-^^C^O'C^ <?•<?• ^^ 



• 0'<?^<?-CP'<:?<?'<?-0^ 



94 



. ^T ^ T! W — ^/C V "f^ »■ TT "^ 

']m^^BmMim]\ office Appliances 




WHAT IS THIS ? 





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Mr 
















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WHY-A COMBINATION FILING OUTFIT! 

(TRUCK STYLE.) 



File Your Running Correspondence 

IN THE RUNNING CABINET. 

AND IT WILL HELP 

To Run Your Business. 
THE LYLE COMPANY, Ltd., 

HARRISON ST., GRAY'S INN RD.. LONDON, W.C. 



95 




Business Systems 



9to *€ard ifj/dtQm lOiUgide H^af id factory 
Tiedu/fdWif/touf 9*erfeef 7llaferia/if, 

L.S.Co. Card Cabinets have Special Features distinct from tliose of other 
malcers. 

AUTOMATIC GRAVITY CATCHES.- An important accessory. No tray 

can be removed accidentally from the cabinet and upset. 
AUTOMATIC GRAVITY /JODS.-Quiclcly released or replaced. 

PERFECT ADJUSTING ANGLE BLOCKS.— A perfect device. Can be 
moved freely to and fro in the tray and locked instantly at any point. 

CONSTRUCTION.— L.S.CO. Cabinets are built for hard wear. They are 
more heavily constructed than any other cabinets on the market. 
Strongly dovetailed and handsomely finished. 

CAPACITY.— L.S.Co. Cabinets give 20 per cent, greater capacity than 
similar cabinets at same price. 

There is the further satisfaction in knowing that the Best Designed 
Cabinets, with perfect mechanical fittings, are of British Invention, 
made by British Labour, and run by British Capital. 



Catalogues post free on application. 



L.S.Co. (supply?.), 181, Queen Victoria Street, EC. 





BmMm 




Business Systems 




Elliott-Fisher 
Billing Machines 



If we can save you fifty per cent, in your Billing and Order 
Departments, and suggest a better and safer system than you now 
have, will you allow us the privilege of showing you how ? 

The system will be devised specially for your needs and 
submitted for your approval — you adopt or reject it as you 
please — 7io cost or obligation either way. Our motive is not 
unselfish. We build a wonderful yet simple machine that 
revolutionizes methods of doing the work. If you adopt the 
system you will want the machine, and that will be our 
compensation. 

We have at our various branches more than sixty experts devoting their 
entire attention to the devising of Billing and Order Systems. We offer 
you the combined knowledge and experience without cost. 

We have installed systems and machines in several thousand 
manufacturing, wholesale and retail establishments and banks. 

As soon as you know, you'll be sorrj' you didn't know sooner. 

ADDRESS: OFFICE SYSTEM DEPT., 

ELLIOTT-FISHER CO., 

85, Gracechurch Street, London, E.G. 




ST Iff — 5\[^ (Ik ""'H ■ " IT TT 

fc@^HKIE)ff Time Recorders 




IcontrolI 

o 
o 
o 

OF ^ 

TIME AND COSTS I 



IN 



o 
o 
o 
o 

8 



, WORKS AND OFFICE, 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

COMPLETE SYSTEMS ORGANISED AND INSTALLED, g 

O 

o 
o 
o 

8 

o 

For Details and Appointments, write— ?k 

International Time Recording Co., g 

171. Queen Victoria Street, LONDON, E.G. ; g 

O 

And 19, Waterloo Street, GLASGOW. JJ 

o 

98 




Time Recorders 




EMPLOYERS OF LABOUR 

Can save at least 5° » ON THEIR WAGES 
BILL, and thousands of employers do so by 

the use of the 

"Dey " Time Registers 

-which are automatic machines for registering the hour and minute at 
-which Employees start and flnish -w^orK, 

and, with New CARD ATTACHMENT for COST KEEPING. 

They are of British Manufacture Throughout. 

They are absolutely the best Time Recorders in the World. 
They are the cheapest up-to-date machine on the market. 

They are guaranteed perfect in every detail. 
THEY COMPEL PUNCTUALITY 



The " Dey " time and ^vages sheets combined do away 
with time booKs, w^ages books, and save 90 *o of clerical 
w^orK. They are adaptable to every requirement, no matter 
ho^KT complicated. 

A firm using 1 5 machines -w^rites : " We shall be sorry when we 
change the boiler-shop machine, as it was one of the earliest, and has had the 
roughest of usage together with the maximum of vibration, and rudest of shocks ; 
but it has gone on working the whole time (nearly six years) night and day, and 
when it goes to you for repairs, it will be the first time it has been in the infirmary." 



P'ull particulars from the Patentees and Manufacturers ;— 

HOWARD BROS., 

10, St. George's Crescent, LIVERPOOL. 

Telegraphic Address: "Soxxez, Liverpool." Telephone: 7150 Liverf>ool. 

London Offices : 100c, Queen Victoria Street. E.C. 

Telegraphic Address: "Couxtablk, Loxdox." Telephone: 569c Bank. 

99 





Miscellaneous 







T 
E 


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CONTRACTORS TO H M GOVERNMENT. FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS HOME & FOREIGN RAILWAYS 
''^Cn^ tiRMS ESTABLIS HF ft ^ .qS 



FltmHC,BFRKBY&£00DAll|S 



Vfest- Grove Mill, HALIFAX 




>rM(c ADDKhSS: '" FLffAING, HALIFAX." 
Telcphone No. 48 Halifax. 




El 
L 
T 
I 

N 
G 



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|i^$$i^$$$i^$$$$$^$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$#$$$$$$$$^ 




THE 



"DRUM" 

PUMP. 

JOHNSON'S PATENTS. 



Write /or Catalogue 63. 



POSITIVE ACTION. 

NO VALVES. 
HIGH EFFICIENCV. 



Section of "Drum" Pump. 



DRUM 
ENGINEERING CO., 

27. Charles St.. 

BRADFORD. 



British Steam Specialties, Ltd., 

LEICESTER, & 73, FARRINCDON RD., LONDON, 

E.C. 

No. 1. Standard 
Globe Valve. 

fin. lin. ijin. ijin. 2in. 
4/- 5/6 9/. ii/r> 16/- 

No. 2. Renewable 
Disc Globe Valve. 

Jin. lin. ijin. ijin. 2in. 
5/6 7/- 10/- 13/- 20/- 

No. 12. Standard 
FuUway Gate Valve. 
_ _ _ Jin. lin. ijin. ijin. 2in. 

ALL 4/- 6/- 8/- n/- 16/- 

TYPESn LIBERAL DISCOUNT. 




No. I. 



No. 2. 



VALVES 



WAYGOOD 
LIFTS. 

aSs Special appointment to "ttj-iW). tbe IRing. 








Electric, Hydraulic, Belt Driven, Hand 

LIFT S & C RANES. 

Falmouth Rd.. LONDON, S.E. 



GREEN'S ECONOMISER 



Saves 15 to 25 per cent, in Coal. 



MAKES 

EASY 

WORKING 

IN THE BOILER HOUSE. 






More Steam and 
higher efficiency at less 
cost. Large reserve of 
feed water at evapora- 
tive point always ready 
on sudden demand for 
extra power. 

Catalogue gives 
details. 



E. GREEN & SON, Ltd., 



WAKEFIELD, MANCHESTER, LONDON, 
AND GLASGOW. 



49i 
49' 
4i 
4i 
4i 
4l 
4S 
49 
41 
49 
4i 
4f 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 
^ 
49 
49: 
49 
49 
49 
49 
49 _^ ^ 

Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

Burnham, Williams & Co. Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

Code Address : " BALDWIN. Philadelphia." 
General Agents : Messrs. Sanders & Co., 110, Cannon St., London, E.C. 





Broad and Narrow Gauge LOC OMOTIVES. 

ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES with Westlnghouse 

Motors. TRUCKS for ELECTRIC CARS. 

Mine, Furnace, and Industrial Locomotives. 

Operated bySteam, Compressed Air, & Electricity. 



Tbe INDIA RUBBER, GUTTA PERCHA & TELEGRAPH WORKS 

Co., Ltd., 

Offices : 
106, Cannon St., 
LONDON, E.C. 




Works : 
SILVERTOWN, 
LONDON, E. 



The 



POWER BAS CORPORATION 



LTD., 



39, VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, S.W., and STOCKTON-ON-TEES. 

Producer=Gas Specialists, 

And MANUFACTURERS of 

PRODUCER-GAS PLANT for POWER & HEATING, 

WITH OR WITHOUT AMMONIA RECOVERY, 

UNDER MOND, DUFF and TALBOT pa™t8. 



^TESCYLINOERSETC l^'Z^}''' wTre WopIc.^gIuz; ^ ^^ ^" Metalllc^lame Plates, 

K Metallic Name Plates i Descriptions. 



TO Vi INCH 
THICK. 




Taper 
Holes. 



Wire Work 
of all kinds. 




W. Barns & Son, 

Christopher Works, 

Ohalton Stroo*, Euston Road, 

London, N.W. 




PnnMd lor ihe Proprietor* by SoiriHWoou. SMtTH & Co., Limited. 6, 7. 8, 9, Plough Court, Fetter Lane, London, E,C., and PubUslied at 

dun House Siirrev .Sireit Slrnnri l.niiHon \V C.