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Painting and sculpture in California, th 
f N6530.C2 S26 15666 



NEW COLLEGE OF CALIFORNIA (SF) 



Louise Sloss Ackerman 



N 

6530 
C2 
S26 



DATE DUE 



San Francisco Museum 
of Modern Art 

Painting and sculpture 
in California, the 
modern era #9134 

BORROWERS NAmT 



N #9134 

6530 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art* 
C2 Painting an<l sculpture in California f 

S26 the modern era : [exhibition] San 
Francisco Museum of Modern Art 
September 3-November 21t 1976 ; 
National Collection of Fine Arts* 
Smithsonian Institutiont Washingtont 

D.C.t May 20-Septefflber 11, 1977. San 

Francisco : The Museum, cl977* 

272 p. z ill. (some col.) ; 28 x 22 
cm. 

Bibliography: p. 248-268. 
iK9134 Gift $ • • 



1. Painting, American — Exhibitions. 
2. Painting, Modern — 20th century — 
California — Exhibitions. 3. Sculpture, 
American — Exhibitions. 4. Sculpture, 

Modern 20th century California — 

Exhibitions. 5. Artists California — 

Biography. I. National Collection of 
Fine Arts (U.S.) II. Title 



31 JAN 91 



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3370173 NEWlxc 



76-15734 



DATE DUE 










































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HIGHSMITH # 45220 



THE LIBRARY 

NEW COLLEGE. OF CALIFORNIA 

5C FELL STREET 

&AN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA 94102 

(4)9i t>£6-4£U 



THE LIBRARY 

NEW COLLEGE OF CALIFORNIA 

50 FELL STREET 

SAN FRANOSCO, CALIFORNIA 94102 

(415) 626-4212 



Painting and Sculpture in California: 
The Modern Era 



San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 
September 3-November 21, 1976 

National Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.C. 
May 20-September 11, 1977 



\ 

a) 



This exhibition and its catalog 
were supported by grants from the 
Foremost-McKesson Foundation, Inc., 
the Crown Zellerbach Foundation, 
Mason Wells and Frank Hamilton and 
the National Endowment for the Arts, 
Washington, D.C., a Federal agency. 




(P 



Copyright 1977 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 

Library of Congress Catalog 

Card Number: 76-15734 



Table of Contents 



Page 

Acknowledgments 6 

Lenders to the Exhibition 9 

Preface 13 

Painting and Sculpture in California: 

The Modern Era 19 

A European's View of California Art 43 

Institutions 58 

Schools 69 

Collecting 76 

Checklist of the Exhibition 

1 Modern Dawn in California: 

The Bay Area 82 

2 The Oakland Six and Clayton S. Price 87 

3 Pioneer Moderns: Los Angeles 93 

4 Early Surrealist Explorations 97 

5 Public Art of the 1930's 100 

6 Into Abstraction: The Bay Region 1930-1945 104 

7 The Romantic Surrealist Tradition 109 

8 Climax: Hard Edge Abstraction, Los Angeles 115 

9 Clyfford Still 119 

10 Expressionism, Abstract and Figurative, 

in the Bay Area 1945-1956 123 

11 Expressionism, Bay Area and Los Angeles, after 1956 133 

12 Toward the Personal 145 

13 Collage/Assemblage and the Visual Metaphor 159 

14 Color and Field Abstraction 168 

15 New Realism and The Visionaries 179 

16 Conceptual, Environmental and Performance 186 

Artists' Biographies 196 

Selected Bibliography 248 

Photography Credits 270 

Board of Trustees and Staff Listing 271 



Acknowledgments 



"Painting and Sculpture in California: The Modern Era" was accepted 
by the Board of Trustees of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art as 
our contribution to the Twin Bicentennial of our nation and our city in 
early 1974. Shortly thereafter co-sponsorship was accepted by the 
National Collection of Fine Arts, a branch of the Smithsonian 
Institution in Washington, D.C. Our thanks go to the museum and to Dr. 
Joshua C. Taylor, Director of the NCFA as well as Harry Lowe, Harry 
Jordan and the staff of the Modern Art Department of that museum for 
their help and cooperation in this extensive project. 

Initially it was proposed that curatorial responsibility would be shared 
by four persons: Walter Hopps, Curator of Modern Art at the NCFA; 
Joseph Goldyne, who originally proposed a modified version of this 
exhibition to the Board; Suzanne Foley, Curator at the SFMMA and 
myself. It quickly became apparent that on-the-spot decision making 
was not compatible with the concept of committee selection and 
Joseph Goldyne gracefully stepped aside. Suzanne Foley has remained 
close to the project and has been responsible for selection in some areas 
but she accepted the primary duty of holding the rest of the museum's 
exhibition program together while Walter Hopps and I indulged 
ourselves in attempting to fulfill a long cherished dream. 

Michael McCone, Deputy Director, solicited financial help and guided 
the museum's operations. S.C. St. John wrestled with NEA forms and 
the budget. 

Karen Tsujimoto admirably carried out the task of coordinating loans, 
loan forms and photographs. Katherine Holland and Jan Butterfield, 
supported by Merril Greene, Linda Kent, Jean Laurie, Shelley Diekman 
and Louise Katzman, newly researched and compiled nearly two 
hundred biographies and bibliographical references from original 
source material whenever possible. 

Susan King, Registrar, executed the exacting task of arranging loan 
pickup, shipping, packing and insurance. Scott Atthowe of Atthowe 
Transportation responded admirably to the museum's statewide 
transportation needs. 

Alberta Mayo, Executive Secretary, carried out her regular full schedule 
and transcribed over one hundred and eighty-three pages of taped 
conversation between Walter Hopps and myself for use in the catalog. 
Karen Lee and Connie Goldsmith provided valuable clerical assistance 
beyond their normal duties. 

Julius Wasserstein and his staff completed our installation plans for the 
largest exhibition ever held in the museum, which meant removing 
and safely storing the entire permanent collection. 



Deepest appreciation is extended to the many museums, galleries, 
patrons and artists listed below who have lent cherished and often 
fragile works to this exhibition because they believed in the idea. Our 
real thanks to the artists included, who swallowed hard and accepted 
the fact that we were presenting them in the light of history rather than 
through their newest works. And equal thanks go to the estimated three 
thousand professional artists in California who are not included in this 
particular exhibition for accepting the fact that one cannot put every 
candle on a seventy year old's birthday cake even though each one has 
special meaning. 

Personal thanks are given to Hal Glicksman, Relf Case, John Humphrey, 
George Neubert, Lorser Feitelson, Helen Lundeberg, Nick Wilder, 
James Corcoran, Wanda Hansen, Diana Fuller, Ruth Braunstein, Paul 
Karlstrom, Harry Mulford and many others unnamed for their valuable 
assistance in locating specific works. 

Mason Wells and Frank Hamilton have a particular interest in the art 
and artists of California and have given financial assistance to many of 
our exhibitions dealing with California themes, including this one. 

And finally, it gives me great pleasure to thank the Foremost-McKesson 
Foundation, Inc., the Crown Zellerbach Foundation and the National 
Endowment for the Arts, Washington, D.C., a Federal agency, for 
generous grants in support of this exhibition and its catalog. 

Henry T. Hopkins 
Director, SFMMA 



Lenders to the Exhibition 



Private Lenders 

Tom Akawie, Berkeley, California 

Jo Harvey Allen, Fresno, California 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry W. Anderson, 
Atherton, California 

Jeremy Anderson, Mill Valley, 
California 

Ruth Armer, San Francisco, 
California 

Ruth Asawa, San Francisco, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. Sid R. Bass, Fort Worth, 
Texas 

Paul Beattie, Healdsburg, California 

Larry Bell, Ranchos de Taos, New 
Mexico 

Mrs. Allen Bleiweiss, Los Angeles, 
California 

Irving Blum, New York, New York 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter Bosko, Oakland, 
California 

John Bransten, San Francisco, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Bransten, San 
Francisco, California 

Rena Bransten, San Francisco, 
California 

Nick Brigante, Hollywood, California 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard F. Brown, Fort 
Worth, Texas 

Hans Burkhardt, Los Angeles, 
California 



Dr. and Mrs. Sandor Burstein, San 
Francisco, California 

Robert Colescott, Oakland, California 

Austin Conkey, San Francisco, 
California 

Timothy Corcoran, Los Angeles, 
California 

Charles Cowles 

Jay DeFeo, Larkspur, California 

Thomas Eatherton, Santa Monica, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. Gene A. Estribou, Big 
Sur, California 

Frederick Eversley, Venice, California 

Betty and Monte Factor Family 
Collection, Beverly Hills, California 

Mr. and Mrs. Lorser Feitelson, Los 
Angeles, California 

Mrs. Oskar Fischinger, West 
Hollywood, California 

Terry Fox, San Francisco, California 

Sam Francis, Santa Monica, 
California 

Howard Fried, San Francisco, 
California 

Charles Garabedian, Santa Monica, 
California 

Mrs. August Gay, Oakland, California 

Berta and Frank Gehry, Santa Monica, 
California 

Dr. and Mrs. Merle S. Click, Los 
Angeles, California 

Hal Glicksman, Venice, California 

Joe Goode, Los Angeles, California 

Joni and Monte Gordon Family, Los 
Angeles, California 



Robert Graham. Venice, California 

Ed Gregson, Santa Monica, California 

Grinstein Family, Los Angeles, 
California 

Hansel Hagel, Santa Rosa, California 

Newton Harrison, La Jolla, California 

Wally Hedrick, San Geronimo, 
California 

Maxwell Handler, Santa Monica, 
California 

George Herms, Los Angeles, 
California 

Gerald R. Hoepfner, Davis, California 

Sterling Holloway, Laguna Beach, 
California 

Mrs. F. Herbert Hoover, San 
Francisco, California 

Robert B. Howard, San Francisco, 
California 

Nick Hyde, San Francisco, California 

Edwin )anss. Thousand Oaks, 
California 

The Janss Foundation, Thousand 
Oaks, California 

Jack Jefferson, San Francisco, 
California 

David Jones, San Francisco, 
California 

Vivian Kauffman, Los Angeles, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. Francis V. Keesling, Jr., 
San Francisco, California 

James Keilty, San Francisco, 
California 



Peter Krasnow, Los Angeles, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. Moses Lasky, San 
Francisco, California 

M. Susan Lewis, Fresno, California 

Alvin Light, San Francisco, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip E. Lilienthal, San 
Francisco, California 

Frank Lobdell, Palo Alto, California 

Fay and Seymour Locks, San 
Francisco, California 

Maurice Logan, Oakland, California 

Douglas and Alexandra Lynch, 
Portland, Oregon 

Estate of Stanton Macdonald-Wright, 
Santa Monica, California 

Deborah Marrow, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania 

Fred Mason, Venice, California 

Robert McChesney, Petaluma, 
California 

Michael McGuire, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania 

James J. Meeker, Fort Worth, Texas 

Professor and Mrs. R. Joseph Monsen, 
Seattle, Washington 

Edward Moses, Venice, California 

Lee MuUican, Santa Monica, 
California 

Manuel Neri, Benicia, California 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen D. Paine, 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Max Palevsky, Los Angeles, 
California 

Sonny Palmer, Fresno, California 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene C. Payne, III, 
San Francisco, California 



Milton T. Pflueger, San Francisco, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. Gifford Phillips, Santa 
Monica, California 

Kenneth Price, Taos, New Mexico 

Richard Reisman, San Francisco, 
California 

Roland Reiss, Venice, California 

Mr. and Mrs. C. David Robinson, 
Sausalito, California 

Dr. and Mrs. K. Roost, Hillsborough, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. William M. Roth, San 
Francisco, California 

Robert A. Rowan, Pasadena, 
California 

Edward Ruscha, Los Angeles, 
California 

Betye Saar, Hollywood, California 

Darryl Sapien, San Francisco, 
California 

Louis Siegriest, Oakland, California 

Hassel Smith, Bristol, England 

Clay Spohn, New York, New York 



10 



Mr. and Mrs. Philip B. Starke, San 
Jose, California 

Laura Lee Stearns, Los Angeles, 
California 

Norman Stiegelmeyer, Walnut Creek, 
California 

Dean Stockwell, Topanga, California 

John E. Talbert, West Covina, 
California 

Michael Todd, Los Angeles, 
California 

DeWain Valentine, Venice, California 

James Valerio, Encino, California 

Robert de la Vergne, Tomales, 
California 

Julius Wasserstein, San Francisco, 
California 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick R. Weisman, 
Beverly Hills, California 

Ernest and Eunice White, Los 
Angeles, California 

Nicholas Wilder, Los Angeles, 
California 

Guy Williams, West Los Angeles, 
California 

Melinda Wortz, Pasadena, California 

Helen Wurdemann, Los Angeles, 
California 

Sid Zaro, Los Angeles, California 

Diana Zlotnick, Studio City, 
California 



Museums 

The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois 

Brigham Young University, Provo, 
Utah 

E.B. Crocker Art Gallery, Sacramento, 
California 

Des Moines Art Center, Iowa 

The Fine Arts Museums of San 
Francisco: California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor 

The Fort Worth Art Museum, Texas 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C. 

La JoUa Museum of Contemporary 
Art, California 

Long Beach Museum of Art, 
California 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
California 

The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, New York 

National Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C. 

The Oakland Museum, California 

Portland Art Museum, Oregon 

San Antonio Museum Association, 
Texas 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
California 

Stanford University Museum of Art, 
Stanford, California 

University Art Museum, University 
of California, Berkeley 

University Gallery, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis 

Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, New York 



Galleries 

John Berggruen Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Braunstein/Quay Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, New 
York 

Gallery Rebecca Cooper, Washington, 
D.C. 

The Claire Copley Gallery, Inc., Los 
Angeles, California 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los Angeles, 
California 

Hansen Fuller Gallery, San Francisco, 
California 

The Harmon Gallery, Naples, Florida 

Nancy Hoffman Gallery, New York, 
New York 

Gallery M, Washington, D.C. 

Maxwell Galleries, Ltd., San 
Francisco, California 

Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los Angeles, 
California 

Rose Rabow Galleries, San Francisco, 
California 

Jodi Scully Gallery, Los Angeles, 
California 

Smith Andersen Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Sonnabend Gallery, New York, New 
York 

Tortue Gallery, Santa Monica, 
California 

Daniel Weinberg Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, 
California 

James Willis Gallery, San Francisco, 
California 

The Zabriskie Gallery, New York, 
New York 



11 



Preface 



"Painting and Sculpture in California: The Modern Era" should be 
viewed as a beginning rather than an ending for in truth it is just that. 
This exhibition represents the first completely serious effort to 
document in a manageable, historical fashion, the vast multiplicity of 
creative effort which has taken place in the state of California over the 
past seventy years. The exhibition takes on the physical proportions of 
a festival by offering over three hundred works by nearly two hundred 
artists and still remains highly selective. 

"Painting and Sculpture in California: The Modern Era" offers more 
important twentieth century art from all of California under one roof 
and at one time than ever before in the history of this museum. Thus it 
should provide more insights, raise more questions and suggest more 
ideas for future exhibitions and scholarly study than ever before. It was 
of primary importance to us that this exhibition should develop within 
an historical context and we have, according to our best judgments and 
availability of works, carefully selected representation which shows 
the artist at the time, or times, of influence upon his peers. The artists' 
biographies, exhibition records and bibliographic references have been 
completely re-researched for accuracy from original sources whenever 
possible. These efforts become the beginning steps toward establishing 
a solid base for a new maturity in our understanding and appreciation 
of the vast infusion into the national art treasury which California- 
produced modern art of this century represents. 

There have been several other meaningful efforts made in the recent 
past to record certain aspects of California-produced modern art. These 
exhibitions and their catalogs have been of great value in our research 
and are listed in the bibliography. There have also been some attempts 
to skim the richest cream from what is a fully homogenized bottle, 
however, among these only a very few have tried to provide a 
comprehensive overview of the complete spectrum of activity. 

Frederick Wight's "The Artist's Environment: West Coast," which was 
organized in 1962, sought to extract the full western sensibility from 
Seattle to San Diego with no more than forty-nine works. The catalog 
essay dealt with history, but the majority of works selected were 
produced within two years of their presentation. This exhibition was 
shown at the UCLA Art Galleries, the Oakland Art Museum and the 
Amon Carter Museum of Western Art in Fort Worth, Texas. 

"Fifty California Artists" was gathered together by George Culler, then 
of the San Francisco Museum of Art, James Elliott, then of the Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art, and Lloyd Goodrich, then of the 
Whitney Museum of American Art, for showing at the Whitney Museum, 
the Walker Art Center, the Albright-Knox Art Gallery and the 

13 



Des Moines Art Center. This exhibition, also in 1962, was developed 
from readily available objects and made no attempt to place the work 
into the framework of history. 

Importantly, these two serious but somewhat narrow exhibitions, now 
fourteen years in the past, remain as the best efforts to present recent 
California art to the rest of the nation. 

It is therefore not surprising that this exhibition should emerge at this 
time for extended showing at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 
and the National Collection of Fine Arts, a branch of the Smithsonian 
Institution, in Washington, D.C. It is long overdue. 

That the exhibition should be developed for these two museums is 
more than fitting since both have records of long-standing interest in 
the collection, preservation and exposition of American art and, in 
particular, the art of the nation's regions. 

The National Collection of Fine Arts has developed collections in all 
phases of American art from the Colonial period to the present and has, 
under its present administration, placed unusual emphasis upon the 
scholarly documentation of the many schools and pockets of American 
art which have not been adequately dealt with at the national level. 
Exhibitions such as "The Arts of the Pacific Northwest," "Made in 
Chicago," and now "Painting and Sculpture in California: The Modern 
Era," are fresh examples of the national museum system working with 
other museums and experts in their region to retrieve and preserve 
America's art heritage. 

The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art is the third oldest museum 
of modern art in the nation and the fourth oldest in the world. 
Throughout its long history the museum has given encouragement to 
advanced American art activity with special emphasis placed upon the 
art of its own Bay Area. The museum exists as a rare, national example 
of a private museum dedicated to the preservation and presentation of 
contemporary art. 

Thus, the what, the where, the why and the when are simply stated 
when compared to the logistical complexity of the how. Our guidelines 
of selection were of necessity difficult, time consuming, and agonizing. 

The first determination was that the work to be shown was to have been 
produced in California. Secondly, the artists selected must have spent a 
reasonable number of their years of creative maturity working in the 
state. If this sounds excessively regional it was only partially reflective 
of our full intent for we recognize that putting a label "Made in 
California" on art and artists who hold international positions of high 



14 



esteem is nonsense. However, it was our purpose to examine, as closely 
as possible, environmental, philosophical, social, economic and 
political events which are special to this region and which provided 
the base for a massive contribution to the visual arts — a contribution 
which is unique. This guideline was not proposed to establish the fact 
that California-made art is better or worse than New York-made art any 
more than seventeenth century Italian art is better than seventeenth 
century Dutch art. Rather, it points up and takes pleasure in the 
differences as well as in the similarities. 

In this same context, it became increasingly apparent during our 
research that the compelling forces behind the art look of Northern and 
Southern California were often as different as those between the East 
and the West Coasts. One of the fascinations in watching this 
exhibition develop was seeing the moments of cross-fertilization and 
retreat which occurred through the era. For this reason we felt that 
these moments of contact should be given special emphasis. 

Our selection mandate led inevitably to a series of hard choices which 
were difficult both historically as well as in the present. Perhaps a few 
examples will help to clarify. It is a well-documented fact that the great 
pioneer modernist Hans Hofmann was brought to the University of 
California faculty by Glenn Wessels for the summer sessions of 1930 
and 1931 and that Hofmann also taught at the Chouinard Art Institute, 
Los Angeles, during the spring of 1931. He was even given a one-man 
show at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, in 
August 1931, but the show was one of drawings which reflected the 
mood of Matisse and the Fauves and did not represent the greatness of 
Hofmann that was yet to come. It would be wrong to declare Hofmann 
to be a seminal influence upon California art during his brief stay here. 

This is equally true of Mark Rothko who taught through the summers of 
1947 and 1949, and Ad Reinhardt who taught the summer of 1950 at the 
California School of Fine Arts, San Francisco, for even though this was 
an important period in the development of their own art the local 
influence is negligible when compared to that of their West Coast peers 
Clyfford Still and Hassel Smith. 

More recently, it would give great pleasure to include Mark di Suvero, 
Richard Serra, Michael Heizer, Walter De Maria and others of their 
generation who were born and schooled here but who have reached 
their maturity away from the region. Perhaps they will yet, like Sam 
Francis, find the West Coast environment compatible with their 
creative interests and return to work here. 



15 



Other different areas of decision-making were forced by our title 
"Painting and Sculpture in California: The Modern Era." The word 
"modern" is semantically insufficient but popularly understood 
enough to connote our desire to seek those knowns and relatively 
unknowns who have attempted to reach out through and bend the bars 
of the existing esthetic cage at whatever moment in time. It is this 
esthetic attitude and not from lack of respect that led us to exclude 
imposing academic figures such as Francis de Erdely and Charles 
White. 

The use of the terms "painting" and "sculpture" in the title should be 
self-explanatory, but they also raised the question of primary effort. 
June Wayne, John Paul Jones, Marvin Harden, Eleanor Dickinson and 
others are, in our minds, exceptional contributors to the field of graphic 
arts who may also paint or sculpt but still fall outside the exhibition 
guidelines. 

Quite beyond semantics, certain movements gave us real problems 
because of their size. For example, the group which emerged around 
Rico Lebrun and the Jepson Art Institute in Los Angeles still has 
several viable, youthful practitioners but for the sake of manageability 
we stayed close to the original members. Similarly, the very large group 
of so-called "Bay Area Figurative Painters" which emerged in the East 
Bay during the mid-1950's is represented by several primary figures 
rather than a comprehensive review of all participants. 

On the other hand, certain areas seemed to cry out for reasonably 
in-depth treatment. The group of teachers and students at the 
California School of Fine Arts from 1945 to 1950 were of particular 
concern, for even though the era is well documented in Mary Fuller 
McChesney's book "A Period of Exploration," it remains the most 
heroic and yet ignored episode in recent California art history. 

Almost equally ignored has been the collage and assemblage 
movement of the 1950's which was linked philosophically to the 
"Beat" generation. This group now emerges in form and content as a 
distinctive and almost uniquely California manifestation. 

Other areas could not be dealt with adequately in this type of 
exhibition and must wait for full-scale presentation at a later date. For 
example, our search turned up a highly interesting, unbroken chain of 
inventions and events dealing with light and color beyond painting 
which lead from the yet shadowy figure of Charles Doccum to Stanton 
Macdonald-Wright, Oskar Fischinger and the Whitney family of Los 
Angeles and on to the current experiments of Robert Irwin, Jim Turrell 



16 



and Maria Nordman. Full exposition of this very special and 
unheralded direction in California art will be spectacular. 

Another factor in our selection was the desire to represent specific 
works or groupings of works by artists who had some documentable 
influence, no matter how fleeting, upon peers or a wider artist 
audience. Many of these artists may not yet have received deserved 
public recognition but nonetheless they played prototypal roles in 
establishing direction and movements which have since borne fruit. 

And, of course, quality was a major consideration, but not always in the 
publicly accepted meaning of the word; historical quality, quality of 
invention, quality of intent, quality of mind and spirit, all "yes;" but 
not necessarily quality as related to skill and the production of the 
handsome object. 

I append this final word because I recognize the inevitability of 
questions concerning ethnic and male/female balance within the 
exhibition. Certainly we were aware during the selection process of the 
imbalance that would develop as a factual documentation of history as 
we understood it and we did not feel justified in subverting our 
understanding. 

So, we are attempting a great deal. We are fully cognizant of our 
strengths and weaknesses, but it is time to begin. 

It is time to begin, for it is only now, as we watch the chain of California 
art continue to thicken and strengthen, that we gain the perspective 
necessary to be aware that a rich modernist history emerged in this 
state concurrently with similar developments in the East. 

It is time to begin, for it is just now that a number of bright, young 
scholars. East and West, are finding art produced in California to be 
both fascinating and largely undocumented. 

It is time to begin from pride in those many artists who have chosen to 
work here, often under the most difficult conditions. To them this work 
is dedicated. 

Henry T. Hopkins 



17 




4 Gottardo Piazzoni Brushy Hillside 1904 



Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modem Era 



Even though California was discovered by the Spanish in 1542 little 
took place which had any real effect upon the natural environment 
until January 1769 when Don Caspar de Portola, Governor of the 
Californias under the Spanish crown and founder of the mission and 
town of San Diego, led an expedition northward up the coast and 
through the valleys to reach the Bay of San Francisco in the fall of that 
same year. Portola's group was the first of white men to see those 
waters. Anglo settlements began to develop around new mission 
centers as they were established in the 1770's and 1780's and the 
mission trail became the first historical linkage for travellers moving 
between Southern California and the Bay Area. 

In 1821 California's government shifted, through revolution, from 
a remote Spanish colonial society to a nearer-to-home Mexican 
provincial leadership. During the Mexican period the Russians, the 
English and the Anglo-Americans, as well as the commercial influence 
of the Pacific cultures of China, the Philippines and Hawaii, began to 
shape the environment and to form a cosmopolitan atmosphere which 
was unique on the North American continent. 

The Mexican wars of the 1840's, the transfer of government to the 
control of the American military and finally the discovery of gold in 
1849 led thousands of people from every cornerof the earth to try their 
luck in the loosely-formed and sparsely inhabited territory. Sizeable 
cities made up of a complex ethnic mix emerged almost overnight and 
even more than in eastern cities of that time a true "melting pot" 
culture was established. Ideas, events and a variety of religious 
attitudes produced a philosophy and a tolerance quite beyond anything 
in the American experience. Throughout this formative period the 
number of artists who came to document the vanishing frontier and 
stayed to affect the social formation was unusually high. Thus, even 
from the beginning, it is justifiable to reinforce the ever-present cliche 
that the footloose, the adventuresome and the dreamer loom large in 
the formation of California's compatible but strikingly individualistic 
social structure. 

In 1850, because of a dramatically enlarged population which was 
developing sea trade with the eastern cities as well as other world 
centers, California was accepted as the thirty-first state of the Union. 
Doing so without going through an extended period of territorial status 
is a fact which also set California apart from her sister states. 

By the 1860's Californians were able to help finance and to build the 
first transcontinental railway. The four "Barons" who provided funds 
for this great venture, Charles Crocker, Collis P. Huntington, Leland 



19 



Stanford and Mark Hopkins, filled their extraordinary houses with art 
of all kinds. Judge E.B. Crocker, for a moment, made Sacramento the 
cultural center of the West when in the early 1870's he attached a new 
and sumptuously furnished "art gallery" to his Sacramento home. The 
core of his collection of nineteenth century painting and drawing was 
purchased intact during one trip to Europe. 

By 1876 the first Southern Pacific rail line established a connection 
between San Francisco and Los Angeles. In 1885 a Santa Fe line was 
constructed to unite Los Angeles with Chicago via New Mexico. These 
lines not only served to reduce the real isolation of the West Coast but 
also opened up new agricultural, timber and oil lands which gave 
unusual stability to the economy of the state even after the "gold fever" 
had passed into history. The possibilities for the expansion of business 
and the excitement of travelling to the "old west" under safe and fast 
conditions brought wealthy eastern families to California, first for 
extended vacations and later to develop lavish summer residences. It is 
an interesting note that these vacation colonies developed not on the 
seashore, which they knew from home, but rather in the lush valley 
areas south of San Francisco and in Pasadena where the air was pure 
and clean and the mountains and the desert were close at hand. Many 
artists, well known and amateur, came here for similar reasons. 

The most highly regarded painters of the period, Albert Bierstadt, 
Thomas Hill and William Keith were, in fact, foreign born and trained. 
They were drawn to California via the East Coast by the majesty of 
Yosemite and other natural wonders. Keith, especially, found a ready 
local audience for his huge romantic landscapes, which, along with 
portraiture, dominated the art of the period. 

During the decades from 1850 to 1890 nearly all significant work in 
the visual arts came from the San Francisco Bay Area and the most 
important artistic center was the school of the San Francisco Art 
Association. The school offered enough solid technical training 
without repressiveness to assure growth and most aspiring young 
artists studied there. Often they went on to the European study centers 
and ateliers of Munich for finish. 

By the early years of the twentieth century several styles began to 
overlap. The Diisseldorf, Munich and Barbizon landscape styles of 
Keith and Hill still flourished as did a new American Impressionist 
style represented by Thaddeus Welch, Edwin Deakin and Theodore 
Wores. The dominant figure of the period, however, was Arthur 



20 



Mathews whose California Decorative style set the base for twentieth 
century California art. The style was derived from sophisticated French 
academic art of the time including Puvis de Chavannes, James McNeil 
Whistler and L'Art Nouveau. The paintings, landscape and figure, were 
elegant, flat, muted color harmonies. Mathews also evolved a 
thematically consistent style of furniture and other decorative arts. He 
became the central figure at the school of the San Francisco Art 
Association between 1879 and 1906 where he encouraged students to 
study at the Parisian Academie Julian rather than the conservative 
Munich schools. He, his wife Lucia Mathews and close friend Emil 
Carlsen, brought California art to a new plateau. His followers Xavier 
Martinez, Eugene Neuhaus and Gottardo Piazzoni continued to 
develop the style well into this century. 

By the end of the nineteenth century, a number of art colonies had 
developed in Southern California, and with the emergence of the 
motion picture industry in Los Angeles, which employed many art 
craftsmen, the geographical distribution of artists reached parity. 

The completion of the Panama Canal in August of 1914 can rightly 
be looked upon as the moment of transition from an adolescent to a 
mature West Coast society. The canal had particular relevance to San 
Francisco since one of her trade ships, "The Pleiades," was the first 
commercial vessel through the canal on her way from San Francisco 
to New York with five thousand tons of lumber. The trip, which took 
thirty days, would have taken from sixty to seventy days by the Straits 
of Magellan. The new route literally doubled trading capacity. 
Additionally, the new passage put San Francisco very close to the Great 
Circle Route, the shortest distance between the Orient and the Panama 
Canal, which made her a primary port-of-call on all East- West sea 
traffic runs to New York. It is little wonder that both San Diego and San 
Francisco wished to celebrate the opening of the canal in a manner 
never again to be matched. 

San Diego's Panama-California Exposition established that city's great 
park and zoo area as well as providing many buildings which still exist 
as museum structures. 

The Panama-Pacific Exposition was held in San Francisco in 1915 to 
celebrate the discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the construction of 
the Panama Canal. As an exposition it achieved a degree of fantasy 
surpassing that of Walt Disney at his best. Fantasy tempered by 
pragmatics, however, since the final expenditures which were in 
excess of twenty-five million dollars were balanced by receipts which 
left a profit of over one million dollars. 



21 



The exposition idea was initially proposed in 1904 and survived, was 
perhaps even enhanced, by the earthquake and fire of 1906 which gave 
the citizens of San Francisco a remarkably homogeneous spirit of 
regeneration. An entire temporary community, referred to as the "City 
of Ivory" developed in what is now the Marina district of the city. 
Buildings and malls took names such as "The Crystal Dome;" "The 
Forbidden Gardens;" "The Tower of Jewels;" "The Court of 
Abundance;" "The Court of the Universe;" and "The Forecourt of the 
Stars." A monumental night lighting display called the "Scintillator" 
was conceived to rival the Northern Lights. It was described as the 
greatest blaze of artificial light ever radiated from one spot on earth. 
The "Joy Zone" was the name given the amusement section after a 
public naming competition with a ten-dollar season-ticket book as a 
prize. 

The art exhibition, which was international in scope, could be called 
San Francisco's response to the New York Armory Show of 1913, for 
while most of the eleven thousand four hundred and three works 
exhibited represented popular academic trends, there was also a liberal 
sampling of the most advanced European and American work in 
painting and sculpture. Included were many of the French 
Impressionists, the Symbolists, the Nabis, the Norwegian Edvard 
Munch and a large section devoted to the Italian Futurists. 

Foremost among the American exhibitors were James McNeil Whistler, 
Frank Duveneck and William Merritt Chase, each having individual 
galleries devoted to the presentation of his work. The American 
"Eight" group was also well represented as were artists such as Stuart 
Davis. Several Californians including Lucia and Arthur Mathews, 
Maynard Dixon, Xavier Martinez and Frank Van Sloun were also 
shown. 

It is impossible to imagine what the response of the regional art 
community would be to viewing eleven thousand four hundred and 
three works but certainly such a manifestation should put to rest any 
thought that California artists lacked exposure to contemporary modes 
of expression. That it had an effect is borne out by a 1918 statement 
from Gottardo Piazzoni, an established and respected Bay Area artist, 
who by heritage was unusually attentive to contemporary art 
movements. 

"I strongly believe in any movement that makes for the advancement 
of art and the development of individuality. Especially am I interested 
in Futurism ... I have been associated with the movement since its 
beginning and am acquainted and in correspondence with the man 
who started it in Italy." 



22 




36 Stanton Macdonald-Wright Dragon Forms 1926 



A review of Piazzoni's work makes it clear that while his vision was 
advanced for that time and place it was not developed out of the fervor 
that guided Futurism through its short, influential history. Nonethe- 
less, such a statement gives a real clue to developing attitudes. 

Another reaction to the exposition resulted in reshuffling the staff of 
the Art Association's school. Pedro Lemos, the Director, resigned, and 
Lee Randolph, a young artist recently returned from Paris, replaced 
him. Most of the more academic instructors were dismissed and 
Gottardo Piazzoni remained to exert significant experimental 
influence. In 1922, Piazzoni, accompanied by sculptor Ralph 
Stackpole, revisited France and returned with a deeper conviction of 
the ascendancy of the Impressionists and their followers. 

By 1925 a casual group of "modernists" began to form. Along with 
Piazzoni and Stackpole, Rinaldo Cuneo, Charles Stafford Duncan, 
Helen Forbes, Otis Oldfield, Nelson Poole and Edgar Walter were 
members. Maynard Dixon urged the group to organize and form a 
gallery for the presentation and sale of their work and with this cause 
in mind Beatrice Judd Ryan founded the Beaux Arts Galerie under 
Dixon's guidance. The gallery was active from 1925 to 1933. 

Other artists in the area were also rallying to the new ideas. The 
Oakland Art Gallery, now the Art Department of The Oakland Museum, 
opened in the Municipal Auditorium on February 1, 1916. In 1918 
William H.Clapp, a primary member of an emerging group of 
Oakland painters known as "The Six," became part-time curator and 
quickly established a progressive exhibition program. His close 
associate, Florence Lehre, worked with him to show international, 
national and Bay Area art. In addition Lehre wrote criticism for The 
Oakland Tribune and a perceptive local publication known as The 
Argus. 

Clapp and the other members of The Six, which included Louis 
Siegriest, Maurice Logan, August Gay, Bernard von Eichman and their 
"Captain" Selden Gile, found influences which ranged from French 
and American Impressionism to Kandinsky-like abstraction, but they 
still managed to fashion a communal genre that was both advanced and 
reflective of the geographical region of its origin. The work, very 
modest in scale, composed rich color and dense pigmentation around 
views of the picturesque waterfront and the rolling hills above San 
Francisco's bay. 

In 1923 Clapp established an exhibition policy of annual shows for the 
Society of Six and penned the following manifesto for his group. 



24 



We Believe 

All great art is founded upon the use of visual abstractions to express 
beauty. 

These abstractions are: Vision, light, color, space (third dimensional 
form), atmosphere (air), vibration (life, movement), form (length and 
breadth) and form of accidents such as persons, trees, etc. 

Pattern is the means by which the abstractions are arranged and united 
in such a way as to procure the esthetic end. And by pattern we mean 
unity, contrast, harmony, variety, symmetry, rhythm, radiation, 
interchange, line, tone, etc. 

Form, i.e., objects, is accidental and transitory, except in its large 
sense — space. That the object we see happens to be a man instead of a 
tree or other object is an accident, since if we look a few feet to one side 
we see an entirely different object. Form is also destroyed and distorted 
by light, color, vision, and space — in other words, its visual existence 
is by grace of larger abstractions. We choose the greater rather than 
the lesser, inasmuch as painting is interpretation rather than 
representation, and it is only by sacrifice of the lesser that we can 
express the greater with most force. 

To us, seeing is the greatest joy of existence, and we try to express that 
joy. Hence the cheer and happiness of the present exhibition. 

We do not believe that painting is a language. Nor do we try to "say" 
things, but we do try to fix upon canvas the joy of vision. To express, to 
show — not to write hieroglyphics. We have no concern with stories, 
with lapse of time, nor with the probability or improbability of 
hereafter. In other words, we are not trying to illustrate a thought or 
write a catalogue, but to produce a joy through the use of the eyes. We 
have much to express, but nothing to say. We have felt, and desire that 
others may also feel." 

Perhaps it is here that one should state that the sensibility expressed by 
the painters of the Society of Six and their philosophical colleague 
Clayton S. Price, who was then working in California, set a pattern for 
Bay Area art which has continued to the present time without abate- 
ment. Simply stated it is a sense of place, an awareness and appreciation 
of the natural, physical environment. The Mathews, Piazzoni, the 
Society of Six, the Bay Area Figurative painters, the early and later 
Richard Diebenkorn, Wayne Thiebaud, the Photo Realists, William T. 
Wiley, William Allan, Joseph Raffael, Bill Martin and Gage Taylor, no 
matter what school title is devised to cover them all, each draws 
heavily upon the physical place of Northern California. To be sure, this 



25 




51 Lorser Feitelson Magical Forms 1948 



manifestation is only one of several, for a number of Bay Area artists are 
interior-urban oriented to the exclusion of nature. But, this is the 
unbroken string that not only separates the look of the art of this region 
from most of that of the East Coast but that of Southern California as 
well. This same continuity can be seen in the evolution of Northern 
California photography. 

Also, as much as the artists of the Bay Area accepted their natural, 
physical environment, the artists of Southern California rejected theirs. 
This is not to say that there is not a multitude of landscape and 
seascape painters in the South, but early on in the modernist movement 
they became the enemy. The Eucalyptus painters and the Laguna 
seascape painters became symbols of all that was wrong with art rather 
than something that could be built upon. Los Angeles artists renounce 
a sense of place in the immediate geographical sense but the "feel" of 
place is very much in evidence. The clarity of form and color, the open 
spaciousness, the smooth surfaces, all seem to speak of a lack of 
seasonal turbulence. The extensive use of new materials, plastic, glass, 
lacquers and chromed steel, as well as an interest in technical advances 
and kinetics, seem to reflect the newness and the high white finish of 
Los Angeles. The "dumbness" and "razzle dazzle" of much of the 
imagery accepts the heritage of Hollywood and Disneyland. 

1923 can be designated as a seminal year in the evolution of modernism 
since at the same time that Clapp was forming his manifesto, "The 
Group of Independent Artists" held its first exhibition in Los Angeles 
and the catalog introduction written by Stanton Macdonald-Wright 
also took the form of a manifesto. 

"The puerile repetition of the surface aspects of the Masters has ceased 
to interest any intelligent man. The modern artist striving to express 
his own age . . . cannot be expected to project himself with any degree 
of sureness five hundred years back and drag forth by the aid of 
necromantic stupidity the corpse of an art inspired and nourished by a 
period environment, a greater art, if you will, but a corpse nonethe- 
less Let our final work affect you as it will, but at least let your final 

opinion not be the result of a preconceived antagonism. 

To all workers in the graphic arts who rebel against the rule of thumb in 
art! . . . (The Group of Independents) has been organized to bring 
together experimental and creative artists, and, by holding frequent 
exhibitions of their work, afford opportunity to the public to follow the 
progress made in the field of artistic research . . . The group maintains 
that artistic manifestations such as Cubism, Dynamism and 
Expressionism, are sincere intellectual efforts to obtain a clearer 



27 



aesthetic vision . . . The apparent preference, in the past, for dead form, 
is not so much a preference, arising from Free selection as a habit due 
to the fact that any new work of an evolutionary character has been 
refused to exhibitions and thereby withheld from public view . . . The 
public will at last have an opportunity to comprehend the New Form 
and an incentive will thus be provided for a more fluent expression on 
the part of the artist." 

In addition to Macdonald-Wright, artists such as Ben Berlin, Boris 
Deutsch, Max Reno, Peter Krasnow and Nick Brigante were included. 
Interestingly, each of these artists had his own special sense of input. 
They were not a group with a homogeneous esthetic like the Society of 
Six. Macdonald-Wright was a colorist, Ben Berlin and Peter Krasnow 
were cubist-oriented abstractionists, Max Reno and Nick Brigante were 
interested in what could be called surrealist ideas and Boris Deutsch 
was a pure expressionist. 

It is here that one can make a second observation about modern art in 
California and that concerns the lack of homogeneity in the art of Los 
Angeles and the acceptance of it in the Bay Area. Only three "schools" 
can be clearly designated in twentieth century Los Angeles. The hard 
edge abstractionists, Rico Lebrun and his followers and, more recently, 
the perceptualists which could link artists such as Robert Irwin, 
Douglas Wheeler, Jim Turrell and Maria Nordman, but even these 
groupings began as independent efforts without common cause and 
were linked after emergence by museum curators and critics. A much 
more typical Los Angeles phenomenon would be represented by the 
group of strong artists around the Ferus Gallery which became a force 
in the late 1950's and early 1960's. Edward Kienholz emerged as an 
early assemblagist or environmental artist, Billy Al Bengston was 
immersed in heraldic central imagery with automotive surfaces, Robert 
Irwin was a pure abstractionist, John Altoon a surreal expressionist. 
Ken Price and John Mason were pushing ceramic sculpture in different 
directions, Ed Moses was a figurative abstractionist, and Craig 
Kauffman an abstract expressionist. Like their early counterparts in the 
Group of Independent Artists they were held together by the idea of 
advanced art, they were highly competitive and not interested in 
mutual problem-solving. 

In the North, the Society of Six, the group around the California School 
of Fine Arts at the time of Clyfford Still, the Bay Area Figurative 
painters which developed in the East Bay, the Dynaton group, the 
Assemblagists, the philosophical grouping of painters and ceramicists 
that Peter Selz would call "Funk," the Photo Realists, the Visionaries, 
are all groups which share common concern with other practitioners in 
the idiom. 
28 



Even with all the activity surrounding the formation of new modernist 
groups in the 1920's such ideas still represented only a small portion of 
the whole. With the depression of 1929 the percentage became even 
smaller. In California, as throughout the nation, there was a tendency 
among modern artists to pull back from the leading edge. The national 
press, guided by the economic and political mood of the country, gave 
great credibility to the American regional painters, especially Grant 
Wood and Thomas Hart Benton. It was in this context that Millard 
Sheets, a young Los Angeles social realist and California scene painter, 
became the momentary darling of the art world. His watercolors were 
particularly appealing and his work helped to breathe new life into the 
venerable California Watercolor Society. 

Fletcher Martin, who painted in Los Angeles for a brief period and later 
taught there, also claimed national attention at that time. 

In 1929, Diego Rivera was invited to San Francisco to produce a mural 
at the California School of Fine Arts and at the same time he painted a 
full stairwell at, of all places, the San Francisco Stock Exchange Club. 
It was very much a sign of the times that, while there was some 
grumbling about Rivera's Communist affiliations, he was allowed to 
proceed with his work. In 1930, Jose Clemente Orozco was in the Los 
Angeles area executing his powerful mural of Prometheus in Frary Hall 
at Pomona College. David Alfaro Siqueiros, the other of the big three in 
Mexican mural art and leftist politics, was also in Los Angeles for a 
period of time. Recollections from artists of the period suggest that 
Siqueiros completed a large outdoor mural at Olvera Street in the heart 
of old Mexican Los Angeles. No trace of this mural remains. 

The influence of these three great figures is being felt once more. In the 
late 1960's, as the Latino movement gained momentum, social content 
murals began to appear on many walls within the Mexican American 
communities from San Diego to San Francisco. The early examples 
were rather weak in their handling but now they have gained in style 
and technique. These murals, which pay homage to Rivera, Orozco and 
Siqueiros but deal with contemporary Latino concerns, have become 
an important part of California's present art scene. This heritage has 
also extended to the black communities. 

Holger Cahill, the National Director of the Federal Art Projects, wrote 
in 1936, "There is a theory that art always somehow takes care of itself, 
as if it were a rootless plant feeding upon itself in sequestered places. 
Many people are willing to believe, in a time like this, where art 
patronage has dwindled to infinitesimal proportions, that it is not 
necessary for organized society to do anything in particular, because no 



29 




85 lohn McLaughlin L/nlitled(yellow/blar.k) 1951 



matter what happens a few artists starving in garrets will see to it that 
art does not die. It is quite obvious that this theory will not hold." Thus, 
for the first time in the history of this country, the federal government 
took the lead in the maintenance and development of the arts. 

Interestingly, even though the art temper of the 1930's was reserved, 
two "modernists" were selected to head the W.P.A. Art Project in 
Southern California. Stanton Macdonald-Wright became the Director 
and Lorser Feitelson was chosen as his assistant. Macdonald-Wright's 
own murals, which were developed for the Santa Monica Public 
Library through the W.P.A. , displayed the prevailing tendency to 
produce art which could meet a more popular standard. These murals 
were removed when the library was torn down. 

In San Francisco, the Coit Tower murals were completed as part of the 
government project. And, though these murals are considered to be 
"social realist" in form, perhaps the emphasis should be upon "social" 
since they reflect the idealistic optimism of a happily revitalized 
America which was to be brought about by the communal efforts of 
America's labor force. There was no government pressure to paint in a 
specific mode but these, and many other murals created at that time, 
directly reflect the hope for the future inspired by President Franklin 
Delano Roosevelt's "Fireside Chats." 

If the forward thrust of painting was momentarily slowed during the 
era of the 1930's, it is worth noting that two remarkable architectural 
monuments were produced at that time in Los Angeles. Richard 
Neutra's "Health House" was completed just at the moment of the 
economic crash. It stood on its dramatic hill site as a prefiguration of 
developed International Style architecture. Nothing like it existed in 
America at that time and it even predated Le Corbusier's Savoye Villa 
in France. 

At the opposite end of the architectural spectrum was that amazing 
monument to the strength of the individual will, the Watts Towers. 
They were built singlehandedly by the eccentric Simon Rodia between 
1921 and 1954. While the towers were noted in some publications as 
early as the 1930's, they were publicly ignored until 1959 when they 
were threatened with destruction by the City of Los Angeles. A variety 
of structural tests were performed which proved them to be remarkably 
sound and they were allowed to stand. Perhaps fate has placed the 
towers in what is now the heart of Watts, the black community which 
erupted with such violence in 1965, as a symbol of individual strength 
and determination. 

An excellent essay by Mary Fuller McChesney, covering the period of 
the 30's, goes on to state that: 

31 



"Social Realism was not the only esthetic strand in the painting of the 
art projects. Then, as today, the painters were divided into different 
groups and individuals were responding in a variety of ways to the 
artistic influences from New York and Europe as well as from Mexico, 
even though much more slowly in those days before wide-spread color 
reproductions, television and the jet plane. Artists did not travel from 
New York and Europe to California the way they do now, a fact which 
had both disadvantages and advantages. The local art world was more 
provincial because of less contact but it was also less blatantly 
imitative. Still, Cubism and Surrealism were both known in the Far 
West and were influential on the project art. In San Francisco the 
Aquatic Park murals and sculpture reflect the modernistic European 
styles and taste and the easel projects were completely mixed bags of 
artists — Realists, American Scene Painters, Surrealists and 
Cubist-oriented abstractionists all together. 

Preparations for, and the final outbreak of, World War Two killed off the 
federal art projects. Some painters moved into poster work for the 
government but the majority went into the service or into industry and 
not much happened artistically until the war was over. Painting 
continued to be done, of course, and sculpture to be made but there 
were no big artistic changes. For some time there had been a kind of 
traditional watercolor painting going on both in San Francisco and Los 
Angeles and there had always been the individual eccentrics, taking 
their sources and inspiration from unlikely places and movements. The 
watered-down Cubism of the Berkeley School ruled the Bay Area art 
establishment and Post Surrealism flourished in Los Angeles along 
with a very traditional brand of oil painting. 

The end of World War Two and the G.L Bill of Rights brought a flood of 
veterans into the art schools of California. They were older than the 
usual student, they had been matured by the war, they had been 
horrified by the atom bomb and they were in a mood to question most 
accepted values. At the same time people such as Douglas MacAgy, the 
director of the California School of Fine Arts in San Francisco, and 
painters like Clyfford Still were bringing news of the artistic revolution 
happening in New York out West. These are some of the reasons for the 
sudden explosion of Abstract Expressionism in California painting. 
Artists were fed up with the past. They were looking for something 
new and the freedom of this kind of painting with its emphasis on 
individual expression, on letting go with a big gesture directly in paint 
on the canvas, was right for that time. Interestingly enough, and as 
usual, even in this so-called movement there were splits. The lack of 
discipline or structure or order in action painting repelled some of the 
artists and they, although totally abstract, moved off into a different 



32 



direction, using a deep space, more line and letting fewer of the 
accidents that occurred in the making of a picture remain. 

There has been critical talk about the development of a Pacific School 
of painting, or an 'Ecole du Pacifique' as they called it in Paris, during 
this period and some of the West Coast Abstract Expressionism does 
have a rougher, cruder look than most abstract painting of the same 
time done in New York, where the Cubist and Surrealist influences 
were so much stronger and direct. Even though by then there was more 
contact between the two coasts, the Western painting had a ragged, 
earthy, unsophisticated look that was different. 'Brutal' some New York 
critics called it. 

In the late 1940's there was an abrupt movement back to the figure and 
to landscape by some of the Abstract Expressionist painters, although 
in that move they took the large scale, rough paint handling and 
rawness of their earlier work along with them. Here again and as 
always, these directions overlap. Some painters continued to work 
abstractly. Some had never done so and they didn't 'go back to the 
figure.' They had never left it. And some California painters had been 
working consistently in a kind of hard-edge abstract style which was to 
come back into fashion, altered slightly, in a short time.''^ 

These hard-edge abstractionists were the Southern Californians John 
McLaughlin and Lorser Feitelson, followed by the youthful Karl 
Benjamin and Fred Hammersley. Such artists were fighting for clarity 
in form and color as a viable counterpoint to the widely accepted 
romantic cubo-expressionism practiced by Rico Lebrun and his 
followers. 

In addition to these hard-edge abstractionists a number of independent 
Southern California artists such as Helen Lundeberg, Leonard 
Edmondson, Ynez Johnston, Oliver Andrews, Lee Mullican, Richards 
Ruben, Gilbert Henderson and John Altoon were carrying out their own 
approaches to experimental art. Some of their ideas were European- 
based and some showed a consciousness of New York's Abstract 
Expressionists but all were reaching away from the academic influence 
which had controlled Los Angeles art for an extended period. 

The ceramicist Peter Voulkos reached farther than anyone and received 
national attention for taking ceramic sculpture out of the realm of crafts 
and into the area of Abstract Expressionism. His work, along with that 
of John Mason, bred a whole generation of clay experimentation 
including Kenneth Price in Los Angeles and Robert Arneson, David 
Gilhooly, Richard Shaw, Ron Nagle and others in the Bay Area. 



33 



By the early 1950's Bay Area "modernism," whether abstract or 
figurative, had found acceptance among artists as the mainstream of 
activity in California. Students graduating from the School of Fine 
Arts, the College of Arts and Crafts and the University of California at 
Berkeley were all beginning to think and to work in advanced modes. 
What was widely accepted by artists, however, was not widely 
accepted by the art public and the support system did not function. The 
experimental, cooperative Metart Gallery, which was founded by the 
students of Clyfford Still, had closed down. The King Ubu Gallery was 
transforming itself into the Six Gallery and Dilexi Gallery had not yet 
emerged. Clyfford Still had left the area and promising younger 
painters like Sam Francis, John Hultberg, Ernest Briggs, Madeleine 
Dimond and Deborah Remington left for New York or Europe. 

Still others settled in for the long wait, recognizing that even if 
galleries and collectors were not breaking down their doors, the 
general live and let live environment of the Bay Area was suitable to 
their evolution. Clyfford Still's strong statements about the dangers of 
the marketplace and the need for the artist to develop naturally were 
widely quoted at the time. 

Fortunately, in 1953 and 1954 Southern California began to come alive. 
An energetic group of young artists and appreciators, including Craig 
Kauffman, Walter Hopps, Ed Moses and Jim Newman, joined with Ben 
Bartosh to establish Syndell Studio in an old building made of pier 
pilings in Brentwood. The idea was to develop a salon where artists 
and friends could meet and talk and where exciting new work could be 
seen. Kauffman and Hopps had developed close contact with the artists 
of the Bay Area and began to bring their work to Los Angeles to show at 
the studio. 

This group developed a wildly experimental exhibition called 
"Action" which opened in the Merry-go-Round Building at Santa 
Monica Pier in May 1955. The exhibition introduced several Bay Area 
artists to Los Angeles and marks one of the very few moments in the 
long history of the two cities when cross-pollination occurred. Hassel 
Smith, Ed Corbett, James Budd Dixon, Julius Wasserstein, Roy De 
Forest, Jim Kelly, Sonia Gechtoff, Deborah Remington, Jay DeFeo, Relf 
Case, Madeleine Dimond, Richard Brodney, Fred Martin, Paul Wonner 
and William Theo Brown were all represented along with Paul 
Sarkisian, Gilbert Henderson and Craig Kauffman from the South. 

At this same time Edward Kienholz arrived in Los Angeles to establish 
The Now Gallery which was structured along democratic, first come 
first served, lines. Some of the exhibitions were exceptional and some 
weak but all broke away from the prevailing attitudes in the established 
commercial galleries. Kienholz also arranged exhibitions for the lobby 
34 




109 Richard Diebenkorn Berkeley #4 1953 



of the Coronet-Louvre Theater on La Cienega Boulevard. The theater 
which showed old movies and avant-garde films became more of a 
meeting place than the museums or the galleries. Barney's Beanery, a 
hash house-style restaurant nearby, became the focal point for late 
night artists' conversations. 

Kienholz and Walter Hopps pooled their interests to work on several 
projects together including "Action^" in the spring of 1956. This was 
the second and last North-South extravaganza which, along with many 
of the artists already named, gave credibility to a new kind of mythical 
collage and assemblage. In retrospect Wallace Berman and the printer/ 
designer Robert Alexander appear to be the spiritual fathers of this 
movement which became one of the strongest strains of 
California-produced art during the "Beat" movement of the late 1950's. 
Berman, Wally Hedrick, Bruce Conner, George Herms, Arthur Richer, 
Ben Talbert, Fred Mason, Jess Collins and, to a certain extent, Ed 
Kienholz and Fred Martin, shared different aspects of this esthetic. 
Strongly poetic, this love/hate art created from the transient residual 
leftovers of society, became the first movement to blanket the whole 
state. It also served a prototypal role for much of the popular and funky 
art which would come later. 

In 1957 Hopps and Kienholz opened the Ferus Gallery on La Cienega 
Boulevard which became the point of focus for avant-garde activity in 
Southern California. 

La Cienega was becoming the art gallery street. The established Esther 
Robles Gallery and the Felix Landau Gallery, which were somewhat 
more traditional in their style, supported many California artists. The 
Paul Kantor Gallery and the Frank Perls Gallery located in the more 
posh surroundings of Beverly Hills not only offered exceptional 
examples of international modern art but also showed artists of this 
region. 

Here, another point of difference between the art tastes of Southern 
and Northern California shows up. During the formative 1950's Los 
Angeles had a number of strong galleries where the casual visitor could 
view or purchase excellent examples of European and American 
modern art. Picasso, the German Expressionists, the Austrian 
Expressionists, Klee, Kandinsky, the Surrealists, Gaidar, Moore and the 
French Impressionists, were all available at one time or another. Such 
programming coupled with a revitalized Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art and the program of modern art education offered through UCLA 
Extension gave many a reasonably broad-based understanding of the 
art of this century including work produced in California. 



36 



In San Francisco the modern galleries have been much more regional 
in their orientation. In one sense this can be laudatory but it had a 
restrictive effect on general knowledge and presented an unbalanced 
picture of international art activity. A review of the Bay Area museum 
programs of the period shows this same bias. A major exception was 
R. E. Lewis' gallery which became a haven for many students and 
young collectors who could study primary examples of print work from 
Diirer to Picasso. Just recently the galleries of Daniel Weinberg and 
John Berggruen have begun to correct this imbalance. 

In the early 1960's June Wayne, printmaker and painter, convinced the 
Ford Foundation that it should support an experimental lithography 
workshop which would train master printers as well as artists in the 
complexities of this dwindling medium. Tamarind Lithography 
Workshop was formed in Los Angeles and brought many of America's 
best artists there on fellowships. Quite apart from the technical 
brilliance of the print production, many of the artists lectured and 
mingled with the expanding local art community which helped to 
develop common bonds of appreciation. 

Kenneth Tyler, a master printer trained at Tamarind, established 
Gemini G.E.L. and brought in well-known artists from the East such as 
Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly, Frank Stella and 
Claes Oldenburg to work in the shop. Gemini also produced a limited 
number of prints by Los Angeles artists John Altoon, Kenneth Price, Ed 
Ruscha and Joe Goode, but it remained for yet another print shop, 
Cirrus Editions, to concentrate on the printing of editions of many 
Californians. 

More recently, Kathan Brown established her Crown Point Press in 
Oakland to produce exceptional quality intaglio prints. Artists such as 
Claes Oldenburg, Dan Flavin, Sol LeWitt, Dorothea Rockburne and 
Brice Marden now find their way to Oakland and mix with the Bay 
Area art public. 

These efforts have stimulated many young collectors and created a 
market which might not have existed otherwise. 

In June 1962 John Irwin began to publish a remarkable art magazine in 
San Francisco. Art/orum began with the modest dictum that: 
"Art/orum is an art magazine published in the west — but not only a 
magazine of western art. We are concerned first with western activity 
but claim the world of art as our domain." 

During the first year of publication the magazine established Philip 
Leider as Managing Editor with John Coplans and Arthur Secunda as 
Contributing Editors from San Francisco and Los Angeles. Leider's 



37 



editorship, which held for several years, through the magazine's move 
to Los Angeles where it began to be published by Charles Cowles, and 
later to New York, brought the magazine to national prominence. By the 
mid-1960's it became the single most important reference for avant- 
garde activity in America. During its passage from one city to another 
the character of the magazine changed but it can be credited with 
bringing a number of West Coast artists to national attention and with 
helping to make Los Angeles this country's number two art city. )ohn 
Coplans became the Editor in 1970 and continues in that role to the 
present time. 

Since the early 1960's the art activity in California could no longer be 
labelled "modernist" or "conservative" for the bastions had fallen 
away. Museums and gallery exhibitions in all sectors of the state 
provided ample evidence that the modern art of California had 
achieved a position of wide acceptance. This closing of the circle 
allows one to pursue that elusive thing called "art" as he pleases, 
whether creator, collector or appreciator. 

The full impact of Southern California-produced art began to be felt at 
the international level. By 1960 the original Ferus Gallery artists had 
been joined by Larry Bell, Edward Ruscha, Joe Goode, Llyn Foulkes, 
Stephan von Huene and several others and all moved quickly toward 
first levels of real art maturity. 

At this time a number of new galleries also emerged. The Everett Ellin 
Gallery and the Dwan Gallery began to show the works of Robert 
Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, Franz Kline, Philip Guston and some 
of the advanced Europeans such as Yves Klein and Jean Tinguely. They 
also showed artists from the region. The Huysman Gallery introduced 
Joe Goode, Edward Ruscha, Larry Bell, Michael Todd and Ed Bereal 
during its nine months of operation. A Los Angeles version of San 
Francisco's Dilexi Gallery was operated by Rolf Nelson. David Stuart 
and Ed Primus combined an interest in showing both pre-Columbian 
and contemporary work. Eastern dealer Richard Feigen joined with 
Herbert Palmer to open a western branch, the Feigen-Palmer Gallery, 
and for a brief period New York's Pace Gallery joined Irving Blum's 
new Ferus Gallery in a joint venture. Comara Gallery, Heritage Gallery, 
Charles Feingarten Gallery and the Ankrum Gallery also joined the 
ranks. 

In the middle '60's Nicholas Wilder came from San Francisco to Los 
Angeles to open his gallery which for the next decade replaced the 
Ferus as the center of support for the artists of Southern California. 

More recently the James Corcoran Gallery.The Claire Copley Gallery, 
Margo Leavin Gallery and Tortue Gallery opened to show a broad 



38 



spectrum of the most advanced art, and the Jodi Scully Gallery is 
showing several of the best of the "old timers." 

With the obvious exceptions of Edward Kienholz and )ohn Altoon, Los 
Angeles art also developed a special look which could be characterized 
as cool, clear and clean. Individual esthetics remained intact but many 
artists shared a quality referred to by lohn Coplans as a "finish fetish." 
To my mind this is a misapplied term. Rather, the "look" is born out of 
deeper philosophical conviction. Craftsmanship becomes an inherent 
part of the full conception of the work and is not an added afterthought, 
as the word "finish" implies. 

For example, Kenneth Price would build beautiful and elaborate bases 
for the presentation of his small-scale ceramic sculpture. The purpose 
was to make it clear that this was work to be taken seriously and not to 
be confused with shelf ornamentation. Joe Goode would cover his large, 
rather roughly painted skies with plexiglass, not to protect the surface 
but to create the illusion of looking through a window. Robert Irwin 
would round edges and forms to defeat spatial boundaries, and so on. 
But, no question, the "look" was also related to place. 

Visitors to Los Angeles, especially Europeans, become entranced with 
the "pop" elements of the city (Forest Lawn, larger-than-life billboards, 
the Sunset Strip and Hollywood) but, in fact, Los Angeles, especially 
considering its size, is astoundingly pure and clean. Hundreds of new 
buildings bounce the clear light from these pale surfaces. Immaculate 
parks and lawns seem always green, civic plantings are landscaping 
wonders, the freeway system is a work of crisp precision and the 
shimmering Pacific laps at the doorstep of the city. There are smoggy 
days but residents don't dwell on them. 

Is it any wonder that light and reflective surfaces would play an 
increasingly major role in the art of that area? Or that, ultimately, in the 
1970's, light would become the primary medium in the work of Robert 
Irwin, Douglas Wheeler, Jim Turrell, Michael Asher, Maria Nordman 
and DeWain Valentine. 

It is also interesting to note that Northern California artists who found 
their way south, Ronald Davis, John McCracken, Tony DeLap and even 
Richard Diebenkorn, began to partake of this particular sensibility. 

Bay Area art of the 1960's also began to take a new turn. Worries about 
"abstract" and "figurative" disappeared in favor of "personalized" art. 
The sculpture of Robert Hudson and William Geis and the painting of 
William Wiley forced a new consciousness, as did the ceramic work of 
Robert Arneson, David Gilhooly and Richard Shaw. Built on the poetic 
base of assemblage, the intended awkwardness of Alvin Light's 



39 



sculpture, the strange presences of Jeremy Anderson and the "folk" 
characters, Roy De Forest and Wally Hedrick, Bay Area art for a brief 
moment escaped from the physical look of the region. The "feel" began 
to dominate. 

Perhaps these artists could be referred to as sophisticated rustics since 
they prefer the country to the city, a fact which shows in their work, but 
the often-used generic title "funk" does not apply. 

This particular sensibility, best exemplified by William Wiley, found 
wide acceptance among American university art students during the 
late 1960's as a symbol of their desire to escape the rigors of urban 
existence and return to a "homespun" life. 

To my mind it was not a dissimilar seed that spawned the particularly 
California brand of photo realism centered in the Bay Area. The 
celebration of the mobile middle class by Robert Bechtle and Ralph 
Goings seems to be the manifestation of a comfortably-off generation 
which retains vague, warm memories of Jack Kerouac and On the 
Road. 

And, undoubtedly, it was the same genetic structure, only slightly 
modified, which gave rise to the Bay Area Visionary painters, 
especially Bill Martin and Gage Taylor, who conduct the "acid rock" 
generation into thoughts of a pastoral Nirvana. 

San Francisco and Bay Area art galleries, if not the public, have always 
been supportive of their own and in recent years the situation has 
improved immeasurably. The pioneer efforts of Gump's Gallery, BoUes 
Gallery, Rose Rabow Galleries, Lucien Labaudt Art Gallery, Charles 
Campbell Gallery and the Triangle Gallery, as well as Metart, King Ubu 
Gallery, Six Gallery, East & West Gallery, Dilexi Gallery and Batman 
Gallery, smoothed the road for the future. Today the Braunstein/Quay 
Gallery, Hansen Fuller Gallery, Phoenix Gallery, James Willis Gallery, 
Smith Andersen Gallery, John Berggruen Gallery, Daniel Weinberg 
Gallery, Hank Baum Gallery, Berkeley Gallery, William Sawyer Gallery, 
Zara Gallery, Malvina Miller Gallery, Lester Gallery, The Allrich Gallery 
and the Grapestake Gallery are all functioning well. The Galeria de la 
Raza is giving support to emerging Latino artists and the Thackrey & 
Robertson Gallery and Focus Gallery are concentrating on photography. 

California has retained from its heritage a strong and stimulating sense 
of independence and openness which managed to hold through the 
emotional conflicts of the late 1960's and the economic recession of the 
1970's. Current issues have not so much to do with what art should be 
but rather upon how more art can be seen so that its message can be 



40 



imparted, its impact felt. This feeling is particularly strong among 
artists who are women or artists who have taken a strong ethnic 
position and who feel that the prevailing system of galleries and 
museums blocks adequate representation. This condition has led to 
the reemergence of the cooperative gallery, the open studio and the 
manifesto, all of which are healthy signs of art's self-regenerative 
powers. 

Henry T. Hopkins 



'Mary Fuller McChesney, A Century oj California Painting 1870-1970. Crocker-Citizens National 
Bank, Los Angeles, California, 1970. 

General References 

The Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, Fort Worth. Texas. The Artist's Environment; West 
Coast. 1962. Text by Frederick S. Wight. 

Crocker-Citizens National Bank, Los Angeles, California. A Century o/Caii/ornia Painting 
1870-1970. 1970. Essays by Joseph A. Baird (1870-1890), Paul Mills (1890-1910). Kent L. Seavey 
(1910-1930), Mary Fuller McChesney (1930-1950), Alfred Frankenstein (1950-1970). 

Moure. Nancy Dustin Wall. Dictionary of Art and Artists in Southern California Before 1930. Los 
Angeles: privately printed, 1975. 

The Oakland Museum, Oakland, California. Society of Six. 1972. Text by Terry St. John. 

Ryan. Beatrice Judd. "The Rise of Modern Art in the Bay Area," California Historical Society 
Quarterly, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 1, March 1959, pp. 1-5 (ill.). 

Todd. Frank Morton. The Story of the Exposition. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons for the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition Company, 1921. 

Taped conversation with Walter Hopps. July 1976. 



41 




98 Clyfford Still Untitled 1947-S (PH :i71) 1947 



A European's View of California Art 



An introduction to the situation of plastic art on the American West 
Coast can, to my mind, not get off to a better start than with an account 
of the impressions and experiences of the traveler who for the first time 
sets eyes on this area. Taking off, as I did, from one of the New York 
airports in the late afternoon, one realizes that one is headed for the 
unknown. So long as the slowly fading daylight permits — for about six 
hours we are flying west — one gets between the scattered clouds 
occasional glimpses of a continuously changing, in large parts thinly 
populated, scenery. Reminiscences of books and films about the 'great 
trek to the West' come to mind. Romanticism? Yes indeed, but a 
romanticism that will prove still actively alive in the actual on-the-spot 
experiences. 

Night has fallen and Las Vegas is pointed out to us. As the aircraft starts 
downward, an immense fair of lights gradually unfolds below: the Los 
Angeles agglomeration which is sprawling over an area of more than 
4000 square miles. It is inconceivable. Crossing from New York, with 
recollections of other major American cities like Chicago, Boston, 
Washington, one fails to adequately translate this carpet of lights; how 
does a city get that inconceivably big? 

After landing, in a bus on our way to the hotel, we pass through endless 
suburbial districts. We see a hotch-potch of all kinds of buildings. 
Spaciously laid out gas stations bathe in a sea of artificial light. In the 
hotel, an atmosphere of leisure prevails — the other America. Not until 
the next day, when we traverse the city from West to East on the 
enormous, yet very busy freeways, does the real picture reveal itself. 
Actually, Los Angeles is one vast suburb of gigantic dimensions. 
Building is still entirely in 'Wild West' fashion. Motivated by the fear of 
quakes, houses have of old been kept low. Only in recent years have the 
people ventured in places to break up the familiar pattern with closer 
formations of towering buildings. In spite of the splendid examples of 
older date (the works of Maybeck, Gill, Greene and Greene, Schindler), 
there is in Los Angeles in fact no architecture of any quality to speak of. 
Instead, we find either insignificant buildings or the most fantastic 
structures bordering on the grotesque. This may have been inspired by 
the extremely beneficial climate which in the eyes of the inhabitants, 
makes the automobile and the telephone, much more than the home, 
the most cherished necessities of life. (As a consequence of the extreme 
distances, the city has hardly any public transportation, not even taxis.) 

Wherever one looks, contrasts are staggering. Life seems to be marked 
by an exuberant urge of expression which oftentimes assumes a 
hypertrophic character. It radiates optimism, although it is here that the 



43 



contrasts are apt to explode in violent clashes, witness the treatment 
meted out to the hippies, and the student revolt in Berkeley, to cite but 
a few examples. 

Most remarkable of it all is the fact that the excessive urge of expression 
tends to manifest itself visually in all areas of life. 'Visualization seems 
to be a characteristic of life on the Pacific Coast,' Werner Spies aptly 
writes. Advertising boards, larger than the houses on or between which 
they are erected, dominate the face of the city. Everything, barring the 
gas stations, is dwarfed by them. 

Later, San Francisco indeed offers an entirely different picture — is this 
maybe, one wonders, why art life has shifted to Los Angeles? Or rather, 
why the actual breakthrough that made the new art of the West Coast 
emerge on an international level, did not originate in this wonderful 
city which, in many places, reminds [one] of the paintings of Edward 
Hopper? 

Against this exuberant background developed the art of the younger 
generation; with this background it is linked in an ambiguous way — 
it partly thrives on it, partly reacts upon and against it. Having 
experienced this background, one looks with more perspicacious eyes 
upon the few examples of West Coast art one has already come across 
in exhibitions on the East Coast or in Europe. In spite of the great 
difference in the work of the various artists, there is evidence of 
underlying relationships that are conditioned by the very climate, both 
spiritual and material, of the environment. It also explains why this 
work and its atmosphere are so very much unlike what we find in New 
York. The awareness of this adds to the self-confidence of the artists 
and makes them envision the seventies with great expectations. 
Characteristic for Los Angeles is also the fact that, unlike New York, 
there is no 'art center' as a focal point, but rather an 'art environment.' 
There are some major galleries and museums, but modern art is just as 
much to be seen in studios and private collections. These are usually at 
great distances from each other. 

Going back to the years just after the end of World War II, it is the state 
of art affairs in San Francisco and its Bay Area that determines our 
perspective. Not that the situation then and there was a very promising 
one, but at that time, in spite of the earlier presence of such artists as 
Man Ray and Archipenko, no major impulse was coming from Los 
Angeles. In fact, it harbored a conservative, classic, academic 
establishment under the lead of the painter Lebrun. 

In San Francisco, famed for its wonderful site on the large bay and its 
beautifully designed residential districts and relatively old houses, the 
academies, notably the California School of Fine Arts (now the San 



44 



Francisco Art Institute), have had a greater impact on the development 
of art than the local museums and art galleries. Not until the more 
recent years have the latter devoted greater attention to contemporary 
art. The great influence of the academies is to be laid to the fact that 
outside their walls interest in contemporary art was virtually nil. On 
account of the unfavorable art climate, artists who had come in contact 
with these institutions, not infrequently stayed around them and were 
often taken on as teachers. Others left for the East Coast or gave up their 
vocation. 

One of the most consequential impulses came from Clyfford Still who, 
like Mark Rothko, was invited to teach there toward the close of the 
forties. For the first generation represented in this retrospective survey, 
Clyfford Still has been of vital importance, both through his work 
and the type of artist he represents. Rothko's work, it is true, has 
undoubtedly left its marks, but this is maybe more clearly pronounced 
in the work of later generations. His influence appears therefore less 
marked. 

Clyfford Still, whose work is hard to obtain in loan — but little of his 
extensive oeuvre has been sold and the painter himself does not fancy 
collective exhibitions — is known for his outsize canvases. They are 
monumental in character and have a place of their own in Abstract 
Expressionism. In the years following the end of World War II, Abstract 
Expressionism sprang up on the East Coast with New York as a center. 
The key figures of this movement: Pollock, de Kooning, Newman, Still, 
Rothko, Kline and others, all reached the fruition of their own personal 
style around 1950. At that time, two trends are beginning to show: a. 
Action Painting which puts greater emphasis on movement (Pollock, 
de Kooning, Kline) and b. Chromatic Abstraction, a term applied to the 
work of Newman and Rothko. With his work, Clyfford Still stands 
between these two trends. His work is characterized on the one hand by 
the tangibility of the pigment which he often puts on thick with the 
spatula, on the other hand by the monumental aspect of his color fields 
achieved by the massive closeness of his monochrome fields of which 
the edges, by contrast, are breaking apart. His canvases give the 
impression of masonry and on this score have been of decisive 
significance for the field-painting that was especially practised on the 
East Coast. On the West Coast, emphasis was put more on the material 
aspect of the paint and the way it is put on — Still's concrete way of 
painting. This influence is strongly reflected in the work of Lobdell, 
but is also to be found — be it thoroughly transformed — in the so 
much different work of Thiebaud. His ethical views as well as his 
unapproachable attitude as an artist have also greatly affected the 



45 



artistic type of his generation. Like Still, many of these artists are living 
far from the art centers, Lobdell, for one, lives in the small town of Palo 
Alto, dozens of miles from the perimeter of San Francisco. In his work, 
the black backgrounds, done in a crustlike material, frequently 
dominate the painting. The oftentimes diagonally placed figures barely 
detach themselves from the background so that, notwithstanding the 
baroque design, the flat aspect of the painting remains intact. As to this 
diagonal effect against a dark fond which we also encounter in the 
work of many contemporary painters, Kienholz once pointed out to me 
that, when turning off an old vintage television set, one sees the picture 
disappear from the screen in a diagonal movement. 

For Hassel Smith, the years 1948-1952 at the California School of Fine 
Arts were decisive for his artistic growth. He made paintings in which 
an abstract-linear script is the salient feature. This he has in common 
with the well-known painter Tobey who for many years worked on the 
West Coast and settled in Basel afterwards, hi Smith's work too. the line 
appears autonomous which bespeaks the influence of Pollock. His 
treatment of the linear, however, shows a strong personal character 
unlike that of the two other artists. The line shoots over the canvas in 
sharp angles and curves, ends in or is accompanied by dots and stripes 
which makes for a humoristic effect. Smith was fascinated by comic 
strips and cartoons. 

One of the most significant painters of his generation is Richard 
Diebenkorn whose work testifies to a rich evolution. He started out 
under the influence of Edward Hopper's work which is notably 
apparent in the qualities of isolation, monotony and the disengagement 
of the human figures in the picture, hi 1947-1948 he teaches, along with 
Still, Parker, Smith and others, at the California School of Fine Arts. At 
that time, the composition of his work assumes a more structural 
character allied to Cubism. The surface is subdivided in a free, 
abstract-geometric pattern. Spatiality tends to flatten, increasingly so 
during his stay in Mjexico (1950-1951). His Albuquerque paintings 
dating from that time, are all but monochrome, of sand and meat 
coloring; they show an intermittently tense and relaxed linear 
movement that freely outlines the painted forms. Whereas his earlier 
(and more recent) paintings clearly bespeak his admiration for certain 
paintings by Matisse, here the unerring linear drawing technique of de 
Kooning asserts itself, be it that he handles it in a uniquely personal 
way. One wonders why these paintings of undoubtedly high quality 
have never met with the admiration they rightly deserve. Greater 
dynamic power emanates from his consequent series of scenery 
paintings, titled Berkeley. The diagonal continuously recurs in the 
composition. His color scheme Diebenkorn derives from the general 
mood of the landscape whose structural lines determine the 
46 




175 Robert Arneson Typewriter 1965 



composition. Until 1955, his paintings are nevertheless abstract. In that 
year, under the influence of the mediocre painter David Park, 
Diebenkorn moves toward figuration from which he has distanced 
himself only recently. In this figurative period, his paintings have 
become larger. Mention should be made furthermore of the 
cosmopolitan Sam Francis who, in addition to his studios in Tokyo, 
Bern and Paris, also worked and taught at the University of California, 
Berkeley. 

With this first generation, we leave the scene of San Francisco and the 
Bay Area. The latter half of the fifties is marked by the activities that 
take place at Los Angeles. Artists are leaving San Francisco to settle in 
Los Angeles or on the East Coast. Not until the sixties are new trends, 
be it spasmodically, to originate in this area. Also because the activities 
in Los Angeles are mainly focused on fields outside painting in its 
traditional form (except for the work of Feitelson and McLaughlin), this 
shift of scene marks an incisive change. 

Which are those fields outside conventional painting? First, we must 
point to the unconventional evolution that occurred in the field of 
ceramics. This will be dealt with in greater detail later. Next and along 
with it, there is the powerful progressive upsurge in the fields of the art 
of assemblage, lighting and the use of new media. At the same time, we 
witness the emergence of a peculiar Pop-image which, to a greater or 
lesser degree, uses the techniques of traditional painting. This is, 
admittedly only the broad outline, as there are individual painters who 
are active in several fields at the same time. In Los Angeles too, we find 
an older and a younger generation. The dividing line lies aroimd the 
year 1962. 

The development in the field of ceramics is one of the first major events 
on the West Coast that reflects a free and independent attitude of the 
artists vis-a-vis the traditional and what is simultaneously taking place 
on the East Coast. Ceramics had so far always been classed as applied 
art. Rebelling against the inherited hierarchical division of media, the 
artists began viewing ceramics in terms of its own specific merits. 
They no longer looked upon it in terms of its usefulness but of the 
possibilities inherent in the material. They were very bold in their 
approach. The story goes that Voulkos, first among peers in the group, 
at one point misread the scale of some reproductions showing 
examples of Japanese ceramics he very much admired and, on that 
basis, set out to free ceramics of its small dimensional proportions. 
This required, however, the solution of some major technical problems. 
In 1954, Voulkos came to Los Angeles where he set up a ceramics center 
at the Otis Art Institute; here he was joined by Mason, Price and 
Bengston. Since there existed no hierarchical distance between 



48 



Voulkos and his colleagues, a fruitful exchange of ideas was possible. 
Their joint endeavor resulted in the rediscovery of the essential 
characteristics of the medium clay as a very manageable and plastic 
material which lends itself to more than just the making of 
symmetrically-shaped functional pots. Voulkos and Mason attacked 
symmetry as their first target and the upshot was that the object, as it is 
viewed from different angles, now offers each time a different aspect 
and contour. Especially in the case of Voulkos and Mason, the new 
development moved toward sculpture. In an important part of his 
work. Price concentrates still on the creation of cups, of such fantastic 
shapes though that they altogether lose their functional character. In 
the expression of form and color, the work of these artists shows ties 
with Abstract Expressionism. Notably in the work of Price, color has a 
significant function. While on the pot shown in this exhibition, the 
color is put on in the form of glazing (compare the method of coloring 
with e.g. Clyfford Still's way of painting), later he aims at such 
powerful color and such a smooth sheen that he oftentimes paints his 
objects after baking. 

The confrontation with painting also applies to the others: like Still 
achieved masonry work with paint, Voulkos does it with clay; Bengston 
is to derive his world of signs of his later paintings from his earlier 
work in clay. Aside from the beauty and expressive power of the results 
reached, these ceramic experiments have an added importance in that 
they have opened new avenues toward a great number of novel 
possibilities. Overnight, color had become something that could be 
made with other materials and had a meaning of its own. The long 
process of drying and baking makes it unfeasible to foresee the various 
consecutive stages. From the struggle out of this situation grew a 
procedure and an experimental craftsmanship without which the 
current trends (e.g. Larry Bell, Craig Kauffman) are inconceivable. 
All criteria of form, color, structure, et cetera, called for a change of 
perspective as, from now on, all creative activity was to start out from 
the material and the working method. Later, it is true, for the purpose 
of achieving a specific objective, the artists reverted to choosing an 
appropriate material and the pertinent working method. But they 
had learned to be free in setting their goals and, in the process, an 
interaction between objective choice of material and working method 
developed. 

The evolution in the art of assemblage kept, at first, closer to the 
technique of painting. Inaugurator of this movement is Wallace Berman 
who, during the time he was employed in a furniture store (about 
1950), started assembling odds and ends of scrap material. In his work, 
he reacts upon sentiments that, repressed or openly, exist in the 

49 



environmental society: advertising, sex, violence together with the race 
issue, often combined in one work, are his recurrent themes. His only 
one-man exhibition organized in 1957, had to close its doors. Herman 
was arrested and put in jail on the score of pornographic activities. 
After that, he started making kinds of envelopes enclosing poems, 
photographs, drawings, et cetera. His works are only rarely shown 
nowadays. He influenced Bruce Conner and Kienholz, the key 
exponents of the movement. 

Bruce Conner, who started out by making collages, turned to making 
spatial works after meeting with Berman. From all kinds of objects 
such as old clothes, costume jewelry, old photographs, et cetera he 
made assemblages over which he often pulled ruined nylon stockings 
which created a romantically tinged alienation of every day reality. 
Like many of the works of Kienholz, they are 'memento mori' pieces 
with a bitter, caustic humor. More so than the work of Kienholz, they 
are mellowed by the romantic nostalgic veils of the nylons. Later he 
focused his activities on filmmaking. 

Kienholz' work has a more direct impact. After making wood reliefs of 
a rather formal character, he shifts, toward the close of the fifties, to 
making objects of a more spatial nature. This leads to the construction 
of environments, accessible or otherwise. One of his best but probably 
also most poignant works is his non-accessible 'State Hospital.' 
Kienholz' work springs from a direct reaction against the artificial life 
of his environment with which he feels, nonetheless, related. A major 
part of his work which will be shown in the Stedelijk Museum at 
Amsterdam, has a socio-critical angle with sometimes a hint of 
caricature. Kienholz stands out by his great inventive power and 
versatile craftsmanship. These qualities are clearly noticeable in his 
less socially engaged works. 

The younger generation includes William T. Wiley and Bruce Nauman. 
(Their work sometimes is termed 'funk-art.' The term 'funk' is taken 
from music and denotes the combination of heterogenous forms and 
techniques.) Through Kaspar Konig, both artists came in contact, at a 
relatively early stage, with the work of the German Joseph Beuys. Wiley 
made a great number of aquarel drawings of landscapes in which there 
are all kinds of bizarre objects or bizarre things are happening. The 
scenery is overgrown with the conception of an artificial world which 
finds its full expression in his later assemblage-like constructions. The 
artist draws our attention to the unusual processes we can observe in 
our backyards or which we can imagine. Wiley organized many 
happenings somewhat on the line of the 'fluxus' activities in Europe. 
Much of Bruce Nauman's work has the characteristic aspect of a 
happening or rather 'performance.' The inversion positive-negative is a 



50 




202 Wayne Thiebaud Pies 1961 



theme that recurs in his earlier work. When he makes, for instance, a 
sculpture of the space between two volumes or 'the space under my 
chair,' the inversion is applied in two ways: he not only makes the 
rather arbitrary space into a sharply defined tangible object but at the 
same time evokes again the now imaginary spatial parts of the original 
object. We encounter this inversion also in his experiments with new 
materials, his holograms: the 'light picture,' as a concrete construction 
in space, is here however virtual. It is, more so than Wiley's work, 
conceptual of character which adds a new effect to the title of his work. 
In this respect, he is linked up with the other group of artists who work 
with the medium of light. 

As for Robert Irwin, it may seem difficult to bring his work under the 
denominator of the art of light. In fact, as from the close of the fifties, 
this artist has developed a style in which the painting or, for that 
matter, any substitute object is, as to its presence, increasingly 
neutralized in the process of the visual experience of the spectator. For 
him, the visual experience is the only thing that counts; it cannot, then, 
be translated by anything else, including my introductory remarks, let 
alone be replaced. For Irwin, the only legitimate goal is that the 
conception be formed through and during the visual experience of 
light and non-light (shadow). Everything else has to recede before 
it — the concrete-material aspect of the work and its attributes, the 
spatial reality of the exhibition hall, even the rest of my descriptive text 
(be it so). 

Doug Wheeler is closely allied with Irwin's endeavor. Also in his 
work, we find the ambiguity of the presence of the object alongside its 
concurrent negation caused by the working of light. Unlike Irwin, he 
does not throw light on the object but makes the light flow through the 
work toward the spectator. The square light box is transparent in front 
and lighted from the back. The light is directed through the edges to 
the transparent front plate which makes for a richly shaded surface. 
The dimensions of both the work and the surroundings are essential for 
the viewer's reaction. 

Light, be it daylight or artificial light, as to the way it is modified by the 
work, is also a key element in the oeuvre of Larry Bell who introduced 
new media in his art. From painting (shaped canvases), the artist 
turned to making cube-shaped objects of coated glass which, through 
varying degrees of absorption and reflection, lend a very special 
quality of expression to the enclosed volume. This calls for an 
extremely high technical perfection which the artist developed entirely 
by himself. His studio is in fact a plant with special ovens, vacuum 
chambers, et cetera, which he runs with the aid of a few assistants. 



52 



Depending on the degree of reflection, the cube receives impulses from 
the environment which, in combination with the activity of the 
spectator, constitute the content of the work. For the benefit of the 
exhibition in Eindhoven, Bell wanted to step up the effect. Thanks to 
the recent acquisition of an oven of the required dimensions, he 
managed to make glass panels of more than man-size; with these he is 
now able to construct a regularly patterned footpath which makes the 
hitherto closed cubic space accessible. The mystery of the box (of . . . ] 
has been lifted without violating the visually happening magic; on the 
contrary, it intensifies the immediate contact between spectator and 
work. 

Craig Kauffman, one of the first initiators around the Ferus Gallery at Los 
Angeles, executes his later work in plexiglass moulded in the vacuum 
chamber. From one mould he has several forms made which he paints 
from within with various iridescent colors. As a result of the semi- 
transparency and the reflection on the outside of the object, a richly 
shaded color effect is achieved which can only be accomplished with 
this technique and in this material. Originally, the reliefs were 
moulded in monochromatic plexiglass. Later, Kauffman discovered 
that by spraying the swelling on the inside, a condensation is formed at 
that spot: this produces a certain ambiguity again as regards the 
interplay of color and form. The effect is still heightened, when various 
mutually blending colors are used. 

John McCracken makes monochromatic sculptural objects, mostly 
composed of composite wood or plywood finished with a layer of 
fiberglass and colored polyester resin. His minimal art-like sculptures 
often consist of several parts that are either detached or placed on top 
or next to each other. There is a close interrelation between proportions 
and choice of color. The form is sprayed with 20 to 30 layers of paint, 
then sanded and polished. Not transparent in itself, the surface lends 
transparency to the shiny surface. The quality of the surface luster 
affects the intensity of the color which dominates the sculptural 
aspect . . . color becomes volume and conversely. 

The Pop-image on the West Coast developed relatively independently 
of that on the East Coast. Also, within the West Coast area the work of 
Bengston, Ruscha and Thiebaud is widely different in character. 
Billy Al Bengston probably was the first and most influential of 
them. Following his ceramic period as referred to above, he turned to 
painting. It has been of paramount importance for the West Coast that, 
already at an early stage, Bengston not only saw but understood the 
work of Jasper Johns: from it he drew the conclusions that have greatly 
influenced the development on the West Coast. Aside from the work of 



53 



assemblage artists, it was through Bengston, a motorcycle racer of 
stature, that art developed in direct response to the social, cultural and 
political climate. Also in terms of form, he exerted great influence. In 
defiance of the current ideas infused by Abstract Expressionism, 
Bengston advocated toward the end of the fifties a radical symmetrism. 
Turning against all that is approximate and improvised, he upheld 
perfection of method and technique. His experiments resulted in a 
combination of various techniques, e.g. a clearly articulated brush 
stroke alongside a smooth surface technique. 

Fascinated by the light reflexes on the paintwork of his motorcycles, he 
was probably the first to handle the spray-gun as an artist. Bengston's 
work can be easily identified by the recurrence of a number of 
stereotyped emblematic forms such as crossform, heartform, iris, 
chevron, which as a rule are grouped in a small central section of the 
painting. 

Wayne Thiebaud is not so much concerned with the social 
environment but rather with the identity of painting method and 
subject (with him often foods such as pastries, cream puffs, ice creams, 
et cetera). As stated above, in his method of painting and the 
application of paint, the influence of Clyfford Still, though greatly 
transformed, is still traceable. In his composition, the serial element 
often plays an essential part. We must, however, not overrate the 
Pop-image aspect of his work: Thiebaud professes to be a realist, 
although he is aware that realism rarely, if at all, concerns itself with 
the choice of these kinds of objects, let alone in close-up form. 
Thiebaud had a telling influence on painters like Mel Ramos. 

Edward Ruscha came to the Art School as an ad man but, disappointed 
in commercial art, took up painting. His activities are twofold: 1. 
paintings, prints, et cetera, 2. books which he designs, publishes and 
distributes himself. He keeps these two activities strictly apart. In his 
paintings, Ruscha applies the technique of commercial advertising. 
Words like 'Space,' 'Smash,' 'Annie' he paints as is customary for 
advertisements: flat and schematic; they are for him only variable 
elements (he sometimes makes the words in his paintings drip like 
honey). In his books, Ruscha proves to be an extremely alert observer 
who succeeds in giving his photographically registered impressions a 
cool, yet deadly accurate typographic form. His books belong to the 
most penetratingly graphic visual information of the West Coast (Los 
Angeles) one can wish for. 

It is hard, at this point, to draw the balance sheet of West Coast art. 
For one thing, it appears fundamentally different from art on the East 
Coast. The idea and its conception, light and its reflection are the main 



54 




282 Sam Francis Blue Balls I 1960 



concerns of many of the West Coast artists. In this field, they have 
developed highly perfected techniques. In many instances, these 
qualities lend to the work an almost ephemeral character. The illusion 
against which the object-cultus of the East Coast stormed, returns here. 

But not in the old form nor with the same objectives as before. We are 
often confronted with an optical illusion in which the concrete 
presence of the work seems to dissolve. But this illusion is only created 
for the purpose of making the spectator inescapably aware that the art 
process gravitates in essence around his individual experience (in 
connection with something, say a work of art). With some artists, this 
view is stretched to the point where they are more concerned with the 
physiological than with the intellectually understood qualities of 
vision. Whereas the East Coast saw the concreteness of art in the 
process of making a work of art which has to be stripped of all 
illusionary elements, the West Coast seeks the concreteness of 
physiological vision to which the optical illusion may be instrumental. 
The technical perfection of the execution and the ephemeral aspect of 
many works sometimes induces us to suspect the artist of aestheticism. 
This would, however, be a misconception, for the artist, far from 
seeking beauty for the sake of beauty, resorts to these qualities as a 
necessary means to increase the intensity of the (visual) experience. In 
spite of these apparent differences, it is, as stated above, as yet difficult 
to draw the balance sheet of art on the West Coast. 

Source: Jan Leering, catalog essay 
for Kompas 4, West Coast USA, 
Van Abbemuseum Eindhoven, 
Netherlands, 1969. 
Translated from Dutch. 



56 



Institutions 



The Official Museum Directory, 1975 edition, lists forty-nine museums 
and art centers in California. Of these, thirty-six deal with modern art 
in a major or minor manner. The list does not include 
many of the small but enterprising public galleries associated with 
California's vast system of universities, state universities and 
community colleges. 

The oldest public art institution in the state is the E. B. Crocker Art 
Gallery in Sacramento which was established by Judge Crocker in 1873 
and turned over to the city as a municipal gallery in 1885. The Stanford 
University Museum and Art Gallery was foimded by Leland Stanford in 
1891. The Mark Hopkins mansion was turned over to the San Francisco 
Art Association for use as a school and art gallery in 1893. The 
Huntington Library, Art Gallery and Botanical Gardens, founded by 
Henry Huntington in San Marino, was incorporated in 1919. These bits 
of information have little to do with the evolution of modern art in the 
state but they do point up the fact that the four great "barons" of 
California were all dedicated patrons of the visual arts. 

Of the many institutions which have dealt with modern art, three have 
long records of interest. 

San Francisco Museum of Modem Art 

The San Francisco Museum of Art was incorporated in 1921 but did not 
begin to function in the fullest sense until January 18, 1935, when its 
present housing in the Civic Center was completed. The museum 
operated under that name until late 1975 when it became the San 
Francisco Museum of Modern Art. The name change was long overdue 
since the purpose of the museum from its inception was to present 
modern art to the community. It is the oldest such museum in the. West 
and the third oldest museum of modern art in the country being 
antedated by only The Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C. and The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Under the professional directorship of Dr. Grace L. McCann Morley, 
the first decade of activity kept pace with the East by presenting 
retrospective exhibitions of Paul Gauguin, Paul Cezanne, Wassily 
Kandinsky, Georges Braque and Paul Klee. Also shown were 
"Picasso — Forty Years of His Art," "Abstract and Surrealist Art in the 
United States," and exhibitions of Fernand Leger and Joan Miro. Dr. 
Morley also gave the first West Coast showing of Jackson Pollock and 
the first museum exhibition of Clyfford Still. The second decade 
included the first museum presentation of Arshile Gorky. Jacques 
Lipchitz and Henri Matisse exhibitions were imported from The 
Museum of Modern Art. Much to Dr. Morley's credit was the 



58 



introduction of California artists at the Sao Paulo Bienal in 1955 and 
her continuous showings of artists from the Bay Area in full scale and 
juried exhibitions. 

In 1960, Dr. Morley was succeeded by George D. Culler who saw his 
role as developing still further the emphasis upon art from the region 
which he promoted through theme and group exhibitions and the 
continuation of the San Francisco Art Association Annual, then in its 
eightieth year. He also continued to borrow major exhibitions from The 
Museum of Modern Art including the important "The Art of 
Assemblage" exhibition of 1962 which featured a number of West Coast 
artists such as Edward Kienholz and Bruce Conner. 

During this period the Society for the Encouragement of Contemporary 
Art was developed to give support to local artists and to aid the 
museum's program. 

Following Culler's resignation in June 1965, Clifford Peterson served 
as Acting Director until September 1966 when Gerald Nordland was 
appointed to the post. Nordland wished to broaden the program and 
while he still gave support to regional artists through exhibitions of 
Richard Diebenkorn, Peter Voulkos and John Altoon, he also developed 
traveling exhibitions of the work of Leon Polk Smith and Paul Jenkins. 

He continued the unbroken relationship with The Museum of Modern 
Art by showing "The machine as seen at the end of the mechanical 
age." Nordland can be credited with greatly enhancing the space and 
appearance of the museum by gaining an additional floor of the 
building for offices and education purposes thus freeing the entire 
fourth level for presentation of the permanent collection and changing 
exhibitions. He resigned his position in 1973 to become Director of the 
UCLA Art Galleries and was replaced in January 1974, by Henry T. 
Hopkins. 

After reviewing the program for the past ten years Hopkins felt that it 
was time to look again at some of the early modern masters. Exhibitions 
of "Arthur Dove," guest-curated by Barbara Haskell and "Picasso 
Braque Leger" were developed. "The Wild Beasts: Fauvism and Its 
Affinities" and the small but choice "The Paintings of Gerald Murphy" 
were borrowed from The Museum of Modern Art. In a more 
contemporary vein, exhibitions of Max Bill, Arshile Gorky, Louise 
Nevelson and "Poets of the Cities," an examination of artists of the 
"Beat" generation, were imported from other museums. Curator 
Suzanne Foley originated "Works in Spaces" which featured large- 
scale work by Sam Gilliam, Dorothea Rockburne, Robert Irwin, Ronald 
Bladen and Stephen Antonakos; a selection from the collection of 
Richard Brown Baker of New York and the Monsen Collection of 

59 



ceramic sculpture. She also developed a new video program for the 
museum. Curator John Humphrey, in addition to enhancing an already 
historically important photography collection and program, has 
originated traveling exhibitions of Roy De Forest and "Women 
of Photography." Though the title was controversial, Rolando 
Castellon's "A Third World Painting and Sculpture Exhibition" was 
the highlight of a series of exhibitions under his direction designed to 
reach for art world integration within the Bay Area. 

In late 1975 Clyfford Still once again entered the West Coast art picture 
by presenting twenty-eight of his monumental paintings to the 
permanent collection of the museum. 

At present community support is excellent. The Board of Trustees is 
embarking upon a major fund drive to strengthen the museum's 
financial position and with success one sees several years of healthy 
growth and program development ahead. 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

Prior to 1965 , the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was one part of 
the Los Angeles County Museum of History, Science and Art and was 
located in Exposition Park. Early director of the Museum, William 
Valentiner, had a deep interest in contemporary art especially the 
German Expressionists, but the story of modem art at the museum was 
more of curators than it was of directors. In 1952, Valentiner's assistant, 
curator James Byrnes, presented the "American Vanguard in Paris" 
exhibition which had been organized by Samuel Kootz in New York. 
This show became the first large-scale institutional showing of the new 
American abstract art in Los Angeles. A superior Josef Albers, and fine 
examples of Jackson Pollock and William Baziotes were purchased 
from the show which established a small but viable base for the future 
collecting of contemporary art. 

In the 1950's Richard F. Brown was selected to be Chief Curator of the 
Art Division and would later become the first director of the new 
museum which would be built under his leadership. Early in his tenure 
Brown developed full-scale exhibitions of Renoir and Stanton 
Macdonald-Wright. He appointed James Elliott to be Curator of Modern 
Art and later Chief Curator of Art. 

During the late 1950's and early 1960's not many exhibitions were 
originated but the percentage of modern exhibitions in what is a 
general museum began to increase. Grand exhibitions of Claude Monet, 
The Joseph Hirshhorn Sculpture Collection, Futurism, Philip Guston, 
Jean Dubuffet and the Ben Heller Collection were from The Museum of 
Modern Art and the Guggenheim Museum. The first American 
museum exhibition of Reuben Nakian was developed and Frederick 



60 



Wight guest-curated a complete Amedeo Modigliani retrospective. The 
grandiose "Artists of Los Angeles and Vicinity" juried annuals 
breathed their last gasp as the staff prepared to move the museum to its 
new site on Wilshire Boulevard. On April 1, 1965 the museum opened 
with Elliott's long-awaited Pierre Bonnard retrospective. 

One of Elliott's major contributions was the development of the 
Contemporary Art Council which has played an important role in the 
museum ever since. The Council gives cash awards to developing 
artists in Los Angeles, supports exhibitions of modern art and adds 
important acquisitions of contemporary art to the museum's collection. 

During the move to the new building Maurice Tuchman was named 
Curator of Modern Art and, with Elliott's departure to direct the 
Wadsworth Atheneum, Henry T. Hopkins, who had been on the staff 
since 1962, became Curator of Exhibitions and Publications. During the 
next few years Tuchman originated monumental exhibitions of "New 
York School: The First Generation: Paintings of the 1940s and 1950s," 
"American Sculpture of the Sixties," and "Chaim Soutine." He also 
presented important exhibitions of David Smith, Ron Kitaj, Peter 
Voulkos, John Mason, Robert Irwin and Kenneth Price, Billy Al 
Bengston and the wildly controversial showing of Edward Kienholz. 

Hopkins planned a major exhibition of Morris Louis with guest curator 
Michael Fried, arranged for guest curator Jules Langsner to develop a 
Man Ray retrospective and planned with Henry Seldis his Rico Lebrun 
retrospective. Hopkins also brought in retrospectives of Alberto 
Giacometti, Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning and the "Dada, 
Surrealism and Their Heritage" exhibitions from the East Coast. He 
also planned the first Los Angeles Museum performance and dance 
pieces with Robert Rauschenberg, Deborah and Alex Hay, Steve Paxton 
and Jill Johnston. 

After 1968 the Board of Trustees of the museum began to shift the 
emphasis to earlier periods of art history and since the completion of 
Maurice Tuchman's ambitious "Experiments in Art and Technology" 
and "Bruce Nauman," which was co-curated by Jane Livingston and 
Marcia Tucker, little of exceptional scope has been forthcoming in the 
modern art area. 

At present, because of the demise of the Pasadena Art Museum and 
the conservative policies at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
Southern California artists feel disenfranchised. Fortunately, exhibition 
areas outside the museum such as The Los Angeles Institute of 
Contemporary Art and the new Arco Center for the Visual Arts have 
responded to try to fill the gap. 



61 




277 Ronald Davis #110 Frame 1969 



Pasadena Art Museum 

The history of the Pasadena Art Museum, now the Norton Simon 
Museum of Art, is perhaps the most interesting of all as it relates to the 
presentation of modern art in California. It is interesting because the 
museum emerged from very modest beginnings into a major showcase 
of modern activity, almost against its will, then faded away. 

The museum came into being as the Pasadena Art Institute in the 
1920's and was housed in a modest wooden structure in Carmelita Park. 
The park at the edge of the business district had been laid out by the 
great naturalist John Muir. The museum trustees hoped for expansion 
on this site but their plans were aborted by the Great Depression. 

In 1942 a wonderful oriental structure which had been designed in the 
1920's by Grace Nicholson, a dealer in oriental art and antiquities, was 
made available to the museum. The building had been given to the City 
of Pasadena upon her death. The Trustees were reluctant to move from 
the Carmelita Park site and it was only after a pact that the museum 
could retain its right to build there for twenty years that this move was 
made. In fact, this oriental building, presenting a series of galleries 
around a lovely, enclosed garden proved very serviceable as a museum. 
The first professional director was John Palmer Leeper followed by W. 
Joseph Fulton. 

After World War II the museum opened an education department 
which provided a progressive approach to teaching art to children in 
Southern California. Many recent education projects in Los Angeles 
have staff who were developed in the Pasadena school. 

In 1951 the event which would lead the museum to a modern stance 
occurred. The Galka Scheyer Collection of six hundred paintings, 
drawings and valuable documents of Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, 
Lyonel Feininger and Alexi von Jawlensky, as well as a primary 1913 
Picasso painted construction, were deeded to the museum. Suddenly, 
this modest institution held an internationally prominent collection. 

During his tenure, Fulton circulated portions of the "Blue Four" 
collection and developed early exhibitions of the Abstract 
Expressionists in 1954 and later full exhibitions of Man Ray and David 
Alfaro Siqueiros. 

Thomas Leavitt, Assistant Director at the Fogg Museum, was named 
Director in 1957. Leavitt was able to bring the museum to professional 
standards of administration and in 1962 he was finally able to hire a 
curator, Walter Hopps. Leavitt produced a number of important 
modern exhibitions and paid particular attention to artists of West 
Coast origin. He presented Richard Diebenkorn and Hassel Smith in 



63 



full exhibitions. His last major show was Robert Motherwell. During 
his tenure plans for a new museum moved forward but Leavitt, feeling 
them to be unrealizable, resigned in May 1962 to become the Director 
of the Santa Barbara Museum of Art. 

Walter Hopps was appointed Acting Director and then Director. He 
hired James Demetrion, who had guest-curated a fine jawlensky 
exhibition for the museum, as curator. Few funds were available for 
acquisitions so the emphasis was placed on changing shows, 
originated and borrowed. Several of Hopps' exhibitions, including 
Kurt Schwitters (1962), Marcel Duchamp (1963), and "The New 
Painting of Common Objects," the first "Pop" art show in an American 
museum, brought the museum to national attention. Demetrion 
developed exhibitions of Lyonel Feininger, Frank Stella and completed 
Hopps' work on a beautiful Joseph Cornell show. Both of them also 
developed California art projects. 

Also during this period Mrs. Eudorah Moore set up a design section 
at the museum which existed as a separate corporation. "California 
Design," now in its tenth year, has become an important contribution in 
its own right. 

Hopps resigned in 1967, primarily because of problems related to the 
new building. Demetrion became Director and held the position for a 
short two years. One of Demetrion's stipulations for acceptance of the 
position was that he would have a minimum of $25,000 per annum for 
acquisitions. With this he was able to buy a Joseph Cornell, an 
Ellsworth Kelly, a Claes Oldenburg sculpture as well as works by 
Robert Irwin and Larry Bell which were the first major collection 
additions in several years. 

Through all of this the new, controversial Pasadena Art Museum was 
being completed at the Carmelita Park site. Demetrion appointed John 
Coplans as his curator. Coplans had already produced a successful Roy 
Lichtenstein exhibition for the museum in 1967. Then, Demetrion 
resigned before the opening of the new museum. Thomas G. Terbell, Jr., 
a young banker and collector, took over the directorship. 

The new museum opened in 1969 with a massive exhibition, "Painting 
in New York, 1944-1969," organized by guest curator Alan Solomon, 
and a smaller exhibition of West Coast artists. The opening was 
followed with exhibitions of the Bauhaus, Donald Judd and Andy 
Warhol. Soon after, Coplans, and then Tom Terbell, resigned their 
positions and William Agee was to see the Pasadena Museum of Art, 
fleetingly named the Pasadena Museum of Modern Art, through what 
were to be its final days. 

Even before the new building opened, critical financial problems had 
arisen and afterward the increased cost of operation, past deficits and 
64 



unpaid building costs made it necessary to close the museum. On May 
13, 1974, Norton Simon took possession of the museum and the 
existing collections for the presentation of the remarkable collections 
which he had formed. An understanding was reached that for five 
years 25% of the museum space would remain available for "exhibiting 
modern and contemporary art from the permanent Pasadena Museum 
collection, the Galka Scheyer Collection and other modern and 
contemporary art loaned to the museum for exhibitions." 

Thus, an exciting phase of the presentation of modern art in California 
came to an end. There can be little question that the Norton Simon 
collections are tremendously important to the West Coast and one 
prays that they will remain here, but nonetheless one regrets the 
circumstances that removed the Pasadena Art Museum from the 
pages of future history. 

Other California museums and public galleries have also made 
substantial contributions to modern art appreciation. 

The Oakland Museum, a museum which combines the history, science 
and art of the state of California, was founded in its handsome new 
building in 1969. However, prior to that time, as the Oakland Art 
Gallery, the institution had a long history of service. The gallery, 
developed from interest aroused among Bay Area artists by the 1915 
Panama- Pacific International Exposition, opened on February 1, 1916. 
Robert C. Harshe, former Assistant Director of the Fine Arts 
Department of the Exposition, became the first Director and Dr. 
William S. Porter, President of the Oakland Art Association, became the 
primary patron. Following brief directorial stints by Worth Ryder and 
Finn Froelich, William H. Clapp was appointed Director in 1918. With 
the assistance of Florence Lehre, Clapp established a progressive 
exhibition program. The first West Coast showing of Galka Scheyer's 
collection of the "Blue Four" was held there in 1926. It was shown 
again in 1931. The primary emphasis was placed upon juried annuals 
which used a three-juror system (radical, intermediate, conservative) 
that allowed for a broad range of representation from conservative to 
the most radically modern. 

After Clapp's retirement in 1951 and the temporary leadership of 
Lillian Canfield and Alice Mulford, Paul Mills became curator in 1953. 
He formalized the regional trend of the gallery's collection and in 1954 
established the Archives of California Art to provide a supporting 
research program. He also changed the name to the Oakland Art 
Museum. Mills produced exhibitions such as "Contemporary Bay Area 
Figurative Painting" in 1957 which gave wide credibility to David 
Park, Elmer Bischoff, Richard Diebenkorn and others. "Pop Art USA " 



65 




281 Frederick Eversley VnlUU-d 1971 



of 1963 was an early national survey of that movement and "New 
Perspectives in Black American Art," 1968, showed early concern for 
democratization. 

After Mills went to the Santa Barbara Museum of Art in 1970, George 
W. Neubert was named Curator of Art. Along with Terry St. John and 
the rest of his staff, he has given clarity to the pioneering efforts of 
Arthur and Lucia Mathews and Xavier Martinez, as well as producing 
well-documented exhibitions of contemporary California art including 
a giant showing of monumental sculpture for the urban environment, 
and retrospectives of Ronald Davis and Manuel Neri. 

The California Palace of the Legion of Honor and the M. H. de Young 
Memorial Museum of San Francisco are now combined under one 
administration and are known as The Fine Arts Museums of San 
Francisco. In recent years, because of a cooperative relationship with 
the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, these museums have 
minimized their modern art programs with the important exception of 
small exhibitions of Bay Area artists such as Bruce Conner, Eleanor 
Dickinson, William Allan and Robert Cremean. 

During and immediately following the World War II period, Jermayne 
MacAgy, Assistant Director of the Legion of Honor, mounted a number 
of modern exhibitions including "Contemporary American Painting" 
(1945], Charles Howard (1946), Clyfford Still (1947), and Morris Graves 
(1948). The de Young Museum, beginning with the era of curator Ninfa 
Valvo, did showings of Ralston Crawford, Cameron Booth, Kenzo 
Okada and an extended series of exhibitions of local artists including 
David Park, )ohn Baxter, Frank Lobdell, Elmer Bischoff, Arthur 
Holman, David Simpson, Faralla, Keith Boyle, Howard Hack and Bruce 
Beasley. 

The UCLA Art Galleries under Frederick S. Wight produced 
exhibitions of Arthur Dove, Hans Hofmann, Henri Matisse, Gerhard 
Marcks, Bradley Walker Tomlin, Hyman Bloom and Francis Bacon 
among others. Wight's tenure also produced a number of special 
California-related exhibitions including "The Artist's Environment: 
West Coast," "California Painters Thirty-five and Under" and "Fifty 
Paintings by Thirty-seven Painters of the Los Angeles Area." Since 
Gerald Nordland's directorship, beginning in 1974, exhibitions of 
Gaston Lachaise and "Fourteen Abstract Painters" have been formed. 

The University Art Museum at the University of California, Berkeley, 
under Peter Selz, produced exhibitions of Arnaldo Pomodoro, Richard 
Lindner, Hundertwasser, "Directions in Kinetic Sculpture," William T. 
Wiley, Harold Paris and the widely known "Funk" exhibition which 



67 



brought a number of California artists to prominence. Selz was 
supported in many of these projects by curators Tom L. Freudenheim 
and Brenda Richardson. After Selz' resignation in 1974, exhibitions of 
Joan Brown and Joseph Raffael, among others, were developed by 
Richardson. 

In 1976, James Elliott was offered the opportunity to return to 
California as Director of the museum, a challenge which he accepted. 

The Santa Barbara Museum of Art; Mills College in Oakland; the Los 
Angeles Municipal Art Gallery; Pomona College; the University of 
Southern California Art Galleries, Los Angeles; Pepperdine College in 
Los Angeles; California State University, Long Beach; California State 
University, Fullerton; Immaculate Heart College, Los Angeles; 
California State University, Los Angeles; University of California, 
Irvine; University of California, San Diego; University of California, 
Santa Barbara; Otis Art Institute Gallery, Los Angeles; San Jose State 
University Gallery and the de Saisset Art Gallery and Museum in Santa 
Clara have all made significant contributions. 

The La JoUa Museum of Art, now the La Jolla Museum of Contemporary 
Art, under the directorship of Donald Brewer and now Sebastian Adler, 
is doing an excellent job of presenting recent and sometimes difficult 
art in the San Diego area. 

The Long Beach Museum of Art, now directed by Jan Adlmann, is in a 
period of transition as it prepares yet another new museum structure. 
Of particular immediate interest in this program is the development of 
a wide ranging video art program formed by curator David Ross. 

And, the Newport Harbor Art Museum should receive special mention 
since it has, under the most adverse conditions of support, been able to 
produce a remarkable number of fine exhibitions, the majority of which 
have emphasized artists from the area. Often they have been the first to 
recognize and provide showings and documentation for emerging 
artists. 

This section cannot do full justice to the efforts made by institutions, 
large and small, in support of modern art in general and modern art of 
California in particular. It is also immediately apparent that these 
paragraphs are written from the viewpoint of the professional curator 
and directors in the field, which is not meant to remove proper 
recognition from the fact that no museum or public gallery can exist 
without continued work and support of its boards of trustees, volunteer 
groups and the membership at large. 



68 



Schools 



Schools have played an important role in the evolution of the style 
and character of the art of California. Perhaps more than museums and 
galleries the schools have been at the center of art life. They have 
served as philosophical as well as art training grounds. They have 
served as places of refuge and they have provided employment 
opportunities for many of the artists who have needed or wanted 
to teach. 

No better example of this exists than the San Francisco Art Institute 
which through its long and turbulent history has provided a sense of 
place. The San Francisco Art Association was founded in 1871, which 
in turn spawned the California School of Design in 1874. It was the first 
art school west of the Mississippi and the fourth oldest in the nation. 
After twenty-two years of existence in modest quarters the Association 
gained possession of the Mark Hopkins mansion and the organization 
combined under the umbrella title of the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art. 

In 1906 the disastrous fire which followed the great earthquake 
destroyed the mansion and the largest part of its contents. In less than a 
year's time the spirited supporters of art in the city had rebuilt on the 
same site and boasted more than three thousand members. Because the 
mansion no longer remained and because the group was looking for 
wider support the name was changed once again to become the San 
Francisco Institute of Art. 

After the Panama-Pacific Exposition in 1915 the Institute maintained a 
museum in the Palace of Fine Arts, a temporary structure built for the 
Exposition. In 1916 the group instituted an exhibition which presented 
over twelve hundred artists from many nations. A significant number 
of these were living and working in California. This site was main- 
tained until 1926. A new school building, modeled along the lines of a 
California mission, was opened on Russian Hill in 1926. This building, 
with recent additions, has served as the school until the present time. 
Also in 1926 the school became known as the California School of Fine 
Arts which was to hold until February 15, 1961, when the present name 
of the San Francisco Art Institute was selected. 

In 1935 this same association gave birth to the San Francisco Museum 
of Art. Separate boards of trustees were established at that time but the 
long heritage of kinship is still recognized. 

From its inception until World War II the School of the Institute was 
structured along academic lines. This was to change in 1945 when 
Douglas MacAgy was appointed Director. MacAgy had been brought to 
San Francisco in 1941 by Grace McCann Morley to be curator at the San 
Francisco Museum of Art. He was an enthusiast for contemporary art 



69 




53 Helen Lundnberg Double Porfra/t of the Artist in Time 1935 



and enjoyed direct contact with artists so when the school position was 
offered, he accepted. His plan was to utilize the teaching talents of 
some of the most advanced artists of the region such as David Park, 
Hassel Smith, Richard Diebenkorn and Clay Spohn and to bring in 
some additional thinking artists from outside the area. He employed 
Clyfford Still who had been working in the Bay Area and who had just 
had his first major gallery exhibition in New York at Peggy 
Guggenheim's Art of this Century gallery. He also employed Mark 
Rothko and Ad Reinhardt to teach summer sessions. The students 
during this exciting five year period from 1945 to 1950 were mostly 
returning G.I.'s who took this work very seriously and who were ready 
for the new revolutionary art attitudes expressed by Still and the 
others. 

The school became a hotbed of advanced, large-scale and heavily 
pigmented abstraction which in time and appearance rivaled the "New 
York School." That era is now referred to as the "Golden Age" of Bay 
Area art activity and with some real justification for the methods of 
teaching and the independent attitudes instilled by the faculty at that 
time are carried over from generation to generation. Since that time the 
school has maintained its reputation as a tough, artist-oriented place 
and many of the best artists of the region have continued to serve on the 
faculty. 

The California School of Arts and Crafts was established in Berkeley in 
1907 by Dr. Frederick H. Meyer with a handful of his art students from 
the earthquake-ravaged Mark Hopkins Institute in San Francisco. The 
school's name was changed to the California College of Arts and Crafts 
in 1936, a decade after it moved to the present site in the former 
Treadwell estate in Oakland. 

Even though the school has expanded dramatically over the years the 
architectural character of the Treadwell Mansion has been retained and 
in 1975 it was named an Oakland historical landmark. 

Dr. Meyer's approach to education was derived from the concepts of 
the British writer /craftsman William Morris and he stressed a unified 
approach to the arts and crafts. Interestingly, Meyer disagreed with the 
Morris edict that the machine was a destructive force in society and in 
building his program around the arts and crafts he accepted machine 
technology. Thus the school can be looked upon as a prototype of the 
German Bauhaus. 

The school was distinguished in its first fifteen years of existence when 
it was recognized by the California State Board of Education with its 
first accreditation. It remains the only private art college in the state 



71 



which is authorized to recommend candidates for the California 
Secondary Teaching Credential and the Standard Elementary 
Credential. 

The Art Department of the University of California in Berkeley was 
founded in 1902. Mills College in Oakland, one of California's oldest 
colleges, was established in 1852 to train young women in life 
preparation and the arts. 

The development of art schools in Southern California was not far 
behind with the establishment of several schools before the turn of the 
century. Among the earliest of these was the Stickney Memorial Art 
School in Pasadena which was founded in 1896 by Susan Horner 
Stickney to honor her sister Anna Stickney Whitney. Not atypically for 
the Los Angeles area, the school took the configuration of a replica of 
Anne Hathaway's cottage in Stratford-on-Avon. It was dedicated to the 
course of art in Southern California. After serving its purpose the 
school was sold in 1934 to raise funds for the Pasadena Art Institute 
which was later to become the Pasadena Art Museum. 

Another Southern California experiment which was to have more effect 
on the development of modern attitudes was the Art Students League 
of Los Angeles founded in 1906 by Hanson Duvall Puthuff. Rex 
Slinkard, one of the earliest modernist thinkers, began to teach there in 
1910 with students such as Nick Brigante. In 1918, after his return from 
Paris and his founding of the school of Synchromism, Stanton 
Macdonald-Wright was to become the school's leader. The members 
clustered around this school organized as the "Group of Independents" 
who in their first exhibition in 1923 offered a strong manifesto in 
support of modernist ideas. Macdonald-Wright, Boris Deutsch, Peter 
Krasnow, Nick Brigante, Ben Berlin and Max Reno were among the 
included artists. 

The two early schools which had the greatest influence and which 
exist to the present time are Otis Art Institute and Chouinard Art 
Institute. 

Otis Art Institute was established in 1918 when, shortly before his 
death, General Harrison Gray Otis, founder of the Los Angeles Times 
newspaper turned over his residence, "The Bivouac," to the county of 
Los Angeles for the advancement of art in the West. The school became 
affiliated through county supervision with the new Los Angeles 
Museum of History, Science and Art in Exposition Park. The property 
adjacent to "The Bivouac," located on Wilshire Boulevard, was 
acquired in 1939 and in 1954 major rebuilding and expansion was 
undertaken. The school was reorganized to be able to offer a Master of 
Fine Arts degree. Among other significant contributions the school's 



72 



strong ceramics department gave credibility to the ceramic sculpture 
breakthrough of Peter Voulkos and John Mason. Otis is still 
administered by the county with strong internal support groups and 
has several hundred full-time students. 

Chouinard Art Institute was founded by Nelbert Chouinard, an East 
Coast-trained art educator who came to Southern California in 1909. 
That same year she began teaching design and crafts at the Throop 
Polytechnic histitute in Pasadena. 

It is an interesting sidelight that the Throop Polytechnic Institute was 
established to develop the total person. Both male and female students 
took classes in science, natural history, art and a special series of 
classes in the manual arts of wood and metal working. By 1920 the 
teaching of science became emphasized and the Institute went on to 
become the California Institute of Technology. 

Nelbert Chouinard opened the art institute which bore her name in 
1921 at a location close to Otis Art Institute, for the school was founded 
to take care of the overflow from that popular school. In the post-World 
War II period the two strong schools became rivals and as Otis became 
more structured, Chouinard became more open and responsive to more 
aggressive modes of representation. Instructors such as Richards 
Ruben, John Altoon and Robert Irwin turned out students such as Larry 
Bell, Edward Ruscha, Joe Goode and Stephan von Huene, among others. 

In 1961 the Institute joined forces with the Los Angeles Conservatory of 
Music and became known as the California Institute of the Arts. 
Massive funding from a bequest by Walt Disney allowed them to build 
an extensive new campus in Valencia, some thirty miles north of Los 
Angeles. The premise of this new school was to integrate all of the 
arts — music, dance, theater, poetry and the visual arts along the 
Utopian lines of the earlier German Bauhaus. The recent history has 
been turbulent and it is yet too early to document the results. 

During the mid-1940's another short-lived but influential school 
developed in Los Angeles as the Jepson Art Institute. The school 
evolved to take advantage of the many returning G.I.'s who were 
looking for an art education outside of the university and formal art 
school structure. Rico Lebrun, then the dominant force in Southern 
California art, was the primary instructor with the support of long-time 
visitors such as Eugene Berman. Artists from that school like William 
Brice and Howard Warshaw have carried this tradition forward in their 
teaching and their art. 

The Art Center School in Los Angeles is primarily concerned with 
teaching design and commercial art but it has for decades served as a 
platform for the ideas and teachings of Lorser Feitelson. 

73 



In the 1950's the California system of universities and colleges 
exploded into a massive network which presently includes nine 
fully-recognized universities, nineteen state universities and one 
hundred and five community colleges. Almost all of these schools have 
art departments and several have good-to-excellent departments of art 
history which are beginning to produce scholars and teachers who 
have a special affinity for the art of California. 

The University of California with campuses in Berkeley, Los Angeles, 
Santa Barbara, Davis, Irvine, San Diego and Santa Cruz has unusually 
strong art programs as do the state universities in San Francisco, San 
Fernando Valley, Long Beach and San Jose. Even during the recent 
recession enrollment in the fine arts departments of these schools held 
steady while many other majors declined. Thus California, a state 
which has had from the inception an unusually high number of 
art-involved residents, continues to expand. In the mid-nineteenth 
century many artists were drawn here because of the unspoiled natural 
beauty of the sea, the coastal hills, the valleys and the great forests of 
tall trees — more recently they have come to participate in the 
hospitable social climate. For many, California still remains an open 
dream. 



74 




299 Ralph Goings Paul's Corner 1970 



Collecting 



The collecting of modern art in California by private patrons has had 
an erratic history, one marked by periods of great activity followed by 
lengthy pauses. 

In Northern California early interest in collecting was spurred by Sarah 
and Michael Stein who returned to the Bay Area from Europe shortly 
after the 1906 earthquake. They brought with them not only the 
romance of Paris and news of the illustrious Gertrude, but also the first 
paintings of Matisse to come to the United States. Their influence is felt 
to the present day through the extended patronage and collections of 
Mr. and Mrs. WaUer A. Haas, Sr., Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Crocker and 
Harriet Lane Levy. Fortunately, many of the fine works from these 
collections have found their way to the San Francisco museums along 
with large parts of the collections of Albert M. Bender, William L. 
Gerstle, Mr. and Mrs. Philip Lilienthal, Charlotte Mack, Jeanne Reynal 
and Mrs. Henry Potter Russell. 

Mrs. Alexander Albert, Mr. and Mrs. Prentis Cobb Hale, Mrs. Edgar 
Sinton and Mr. and Mrs. Hans Popper developed good collections as 
did Mr. and Mrs. Grover Magnin, who specialized in the French 
Impressionists, and Mr. and Mrs. Jaquelin Hume who prefer the 
German Expressionists. The collection of Madeleine Haas Russell is 
the most comprehensive of those dealing with the twentieth century 
European masters. In the 1940's Gordon Onslow Ford, an artist and 
early enthusiast of Surrealism, brought his collection of Yves Tanguy, 
Giorgio de Chirico, Paul Delvaux and others to the Bay Area from 
Britain. 

Collecting emphasis was placed almost completely upon modern 
European art until the 1950's when Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Bransten, Mr. 
and Mrs. Wellington Henderson, Mrs. Sally Lilienthal and Mr. Mason 
B. Wells began to take interest in American movements and collected 
works by Franz Kline, Hans Hofmann, Mark Rothko and Morris Louis. 
They also began to collect representative examples of the art produced 
in California as did John and Rena Bransten, Mary Keesling, Mr. and 
Mrs. A. Hunter Land, II, Mr. and Mrs. Moses Lasky, Mr. and Mrs. Robert 
Lauter, Byron Meyer, Mr. and Mrs. James Newman, William S. Picher 
and Walter Goodman and Rene di Rosa. Just now other collections are 
beginning to form. 

Dr. Samuel West and Nell Sinton both developed good collections of 
contemporary Bay Area art. 

Mr. and Mrs. C. David Robinson collect in the contemporary American 
field, including California, and hold examples of Ellsworth Kelly, 
Morris Louis, John McLaughlin, Larry Bell, Robert Hudson and 
William Wiley, among others. Almost all Northern California 
collectors maintain close ties to the local art scene but the Robinsons 



76 



are exemplary in their hospitality to developing artists. 

Unquestionably, the most impressive and comprehensive collection of 
modern art in Northern California has been developed over the past ten 
years by Mr. and Mrs. Harry W. Anderson. They began by collecting 
prime examples of early American and British furniture and then were 
lured into collecting lesser examples of French Impressionism which 
disappointed them. So, after gaining significant expertise, they 
launched into the art of the twentieth century. Painting and sculpture 
are their specialty areas though drawings and prints also consume their 
interest. Important works by Picasso, Giacometti, the early American 
modernists, the Abstract Expressionists, Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper 
Johns and many of the American artists of the 1960's, as well as a large 
collection of California contemporary art, grace their home and the 
offices and working spaces of Saga Foods, Mr. Anderson's company in 
Menlo Park, California. 

The pattern of collecting in Southern California is not dissimilar except 
that there has been more of it. However, while most Northern California 
collections are eventually given to the museums in the area, several 
select Southern California collections have been sold off or 
disappeared to the East Coast. 

The earliest example of such a loss was the collection of Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter Arensberg who moved to the Los Angeles area from the East in 
the 1930's. The Arensbergs developed an extraordinary collection of 
twentieth century art which included several exceptional works each 
by the early Cubists, Constantin Brancusi, the Surrealists and Marcel 
Duchamp. Their great desire to have the collection housed in a Los 
Angeles museum was thwarted when both the Los Angeles County 
Museum and UCLA refused to meet their terms of gift. The collection 
is presently housed in the Philadelphia Museum of Art where it has 
already served to educate several generations toward an understanding 
of modern art. 

As early as 1925, Galka Scheyer began to represent Wassily Kandinsky, 
Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger and Alexi von Jawlensky on the West 
Coast. She entitled the group the "Blue Four" in homage to their 
historical association to the "Blue Rider" movement in Germany. 
Essentially a dealer, Scheyer pursued her interests with great energy 
and arranged showings up and down the California coast. There was 
no market and upon her death the extensive holdings were placed in 
the Pasadena Art Museum, now the Norton Simon Museum of Art. 

The Ruth McC. Maitland collection, which reflected the taste of her 
friend Walter Arensberg through excellent examples of Picasso, 
Kandinsky, Dali and Miro, was, at the time of her death, sold off by the 

77 



78 



heirs. The collection of Mr. and Mrs. George Garde da Silva which 
emphasized the French Impressionists and the collection of Preston 
Harrison which had good American work of the 1930's suffered better 
fates and were turned over intact to the Los Angeles Gounty Museum of 
Art in the 1940's. Film pioneer Josef von Sternberg developed a fine 
comprehensive art collection some of which also found its way into the 
museum's collection. 

Mr. and Mrs. William Goetz collected importantly in the field of the 
French Impressionists and Post-Impressionists as did film actor 
Edward G. Robinson. Unfortunately, the best of the Robinson collection 
was dispersed in a divorce settlement. The movie colony as such has 
not provided as many major collections as one might think but 
Robinson, Vincent Price, who has a sensitive eye for drawings, and 
Sterling Holloway, who was among the earliest collectors of Galifornia 
art, became well- known proselytizers for art understanding through 
speaking engagements and television appearances. 

The Reverend James McLand built a nice collection of Marc Ghagall 
and Mr. and Mrs. Donald Winston sensitively collected lovely works 
including those of Oskar Kokoshka, Odilon Redon and Joan Miro. 

During the post- World War II era a number of important modern 
collections began to develop. Mr. and Mrs. Sidney F. Brody collected 
exceptional examples of Pablo Picasso, Pierre Bonnard, Amedeo 
Modigliani and Henri Matisse. Matisse's last commission was for a 
large ceramic wall in the patio of the Brody home. The paper model 
for this work is at UCLA. Mr. and Mrs. B. Gerald Gantor began their 
monumental collection of Rodin sculpture. A large part of the 
collection which was developed through their foundation is now 
placed at Stanford University and the Los Angeles Gounty Museum 
of Art. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gifford Phillips, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick R. Weisman, Mr. 
and Mrs. Taft Schreiber, Mr. and Mrs. Milton Sperling, Mr. and Mrs. 
Stanley Freeman, Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hirsch and Mr. and Mrs. David 
E. Bright all began to be responsive to American abstract art even while 
retaining an interest in European modernism. 

Upon the death of David Bright in 1965 his collection was divided 
between the Los Angeles Gounty Museum of Art, which received the 
paintings, and UGLA, which received the sculpture. The paintings 
greatly enhanced the museum 's collection and the sculpture provided 
the impetus for the development of an excellent, evolving sculpture 
garden at UGLA which has recently been named to honor retired 
Chancellor Franklin Murphy. 

It was also during this period that Norton Simon began to build his 
fabled collection which became increasingly historical in its emphasis 




308 Tom Akawie Pyramid Sunset 1974 



80 



but which nonetheless contains brilliant examples of early twentieth 
century material. 

In the early 1960's a number of younger and more venturesome 
collectors were reaching toward Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, 
Frank Stella, Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol as well as the more 
advanced Californians. Mr. and Mrs. Donald Factor and Mr. and Mrs. 
Dennis Hopper gathered balanced collections which are now 
dispersed. 

The leading collectors of Southern California contemporary art are 
Betty Asher, Sterling Holloway, Mr. and Mrs. Monte Factor, Mr. and 
Mrs. Stanley Grinstein, Mr. and Mrs. Michael Blankfort, Laura Lee 
Stearns and Diana Zlotnick. Bart Lytton built a well-rounded collection 
of Southern California artists and opened a public gallery in his 
Savings and Loan Headquarters. 

The premier Southern California collection of American art of the 
1960's was developed by Mr. and Mrs. Robert Rowan and includes 
multiple examples of Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, 
Ronald Davis and William Wiley, among others. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bert Kleiner developed an excellent collection from the 
same decade which included many examples of California art which 
were given to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. 

In Santa Barbara the influence of Donald and Esther Bear upon 
collectors and art appreciators was profound. Wright Ludington has 
been the most thoughtful collector of everything from classical to 
surrealist art and many of his objects have found their way into the 
collection of the Santa Barbara Museum of Art. 

The period from 1950 to 1968 has marked the zenith of Los Angeles 
collecting so far. Since that time the combination of education and 
enthusiasm has been lacking to support collector interest. Bay Area 
collectors seem to be developing a strong interest in support of the 
artists of the West Coast but it is still too early to say how this will 
develop. 

Quite apart from the momentary lull in activity, it can be stated without 
qualification that the growth of art collecting in California over the past 
thirty years has been nothing short of dramatic. This is even more true 
in pre-twentieth century collecting. The J. Paul Getty Museum in 
Malibu, with its magnificent new inheritance which is estimated to be 
four million dollars annually, will continue to develop its collection of 
Greek and Roman classical art. The public presentation of the Norton 
Simon collection in his own museum provides impetus for scholarship 
in many areas. This combined with the general collection growth of the 
art museums throughout the state establishes a solid base for study and 
developed appreciation for the visual arts. 



In the listing of dimensions, height 
precedes width precedes depth. 
Unitalicized, parenthetical entries 
in the checklist are descriptive 
information only. 

81 



1 Modem Dawn in California: 
The Bay Area 



Equally important to (Arthur F.] Mathews' style is the California 
landscape. The California landscape is truly distinctive in its contours, 
coloring, foliage and atmosphere. Arthur Mathews was frequently 
asked why an artist of his remarkable ability should prefer San 
Francisco to the art centers of the Eastern seaboard or those of Europe. 
"Why do I stay in California?" he asked, "California is an undiscovered 
country for the painter. It hasn't been touched. The forms and colors of 
our countryside haven't begun to yield their secrets ..." 

The tawny gold of California's summer hillsides and a glimpse of the 
sea beyond is characteristic of the Mathews style. Occasional views of 
urban scenery in his paintings consistently reflect the typical local 
architecture in both color and style. 

The mood of Mathews' paintings, whether portrait, figurative or 
landscape, is typically quiet and serene. The mood of revery in his 
portrait studies recalls that of Whistler. 

Further regional aspects of this so-called style derive from the 
Mathews' followers. Although there was never a movement or a school 
of art per se that could be identified with Mathews in the way certain 
other art movements were created, evidence of his widespread 
influence among California artists is evident. 

Certain aspects of the California Decorative style can be seen in the 
works of several noted California artists. Gottardo Piazzoni, Xavier 
Martinez, Francis McComas, Carl Armin Hansen and of course Lucia 
Mathews are but a few artists whose works bear testimony to the 
master's influence. 

Source: Harvey L. Jones, catalog 
essay for Mathews: Masterpieces 
of the California Decorative Style, 
The Oakland Museum, California, 
1972. 

A group of young artists, fresh with ideas and techniques, founded 
the California Society of Artists in 1902. This society was formed in 
reaction to conservative academic attitudes which restricted freer 
expressions and opportunities for the younger artists. Listed as 
founding members are Gottardo Piazzoni, Xavier T. Martinez, Blendon 
R. Campbell, Arthur Putnam, L. Maynard Dixon, Charles P. Nelson, 
W.H. Bull and Matteo Sandona. 

A manifesto published in May, 1902, on the occasion of their first group 
exhibition solicits cooperation and makes clear their goals: 



82 



California Society of Artists 
Manifesto 

As the California Society of Artists wishes to enlist your interest and 
cooperation in the movement for which it is organized, the objects of 
the society are here set forth: 

1st To benefit local art and artists by stimulating interest in art. To 
benefit equally the members of this society and all other artists 
who may exhibit with it, by bringing them into close contact with 
the public by holding independent semi-annual exhibitions 
which shall be more accessible to the public at large than those 
previously held here. 

2nd To bring the artists themselves into closer and friendlier contact 
with one another by maintaining an independent society of artists, 
conducted exclusively by and for artists. 

3rd To give the younger artists a freer opportunity of showing what 
they can do — providing always that their work be of good quality. 

Local artists are asked to exhibit with this society, the work of our own 
members being subject to just as searching criticism and careful 
selection as that of non-members. The intention of the society is to 
enlarge its membership to the fullest extent upon the basis of good 
work. 

Source: George W. Neubert, 
catalog essay for Xavier Martinez 
[1669-1943), The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1974. 



83 



Checklist 



Lucia Mathews 

1 Sand Dunes with Beach LJmbrelia 
in Background, 1899, oil on wood 
panel, 101/4x8%" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mr. Harold Wagner 

Arthur Mathews 

2 Landscape — San Francisco, not 
dated, oil on canvas, 26x30" 
Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
the Art Guild, The Oakland Museum 
Association 

3 The Swan, not dated, oil on canvas, 
26x23" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
the Art Guild, The Oakland Museum 
Association 

Gottardo Piazzoni 

4 Brushy Hillside, 1904, oil on 
canvas, 43V2X29V2" 

Lent by University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, University of California, 
Gift of Ansley K. Salz, San Francisco 

5 The Channel, 1918, oil on canvas, 
34V2X46" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, The 
Oakland Museum Founders' Fund 



Xavier Martinez 

6 Untitled (eucalyptus trees), 
1915-1918, oil on cardboard, 20x22" 
Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, 
Extended loan of Mr. and Mrs. Peter 
Bosko 

Maynard Dixon 

7 Mesas in Shadow, 1926, oil on 
canvas, 30x40" 

Lent by Brigham Young University, 
Provo, Utah, Brigham Yoimg 
University Permanent Collection 

Lucien Labaudt 

8 L'Homme au Chapeau Gris (Man 
with Gray Hat), circa 1920, oil on 
canvas, 26X28V4" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mrs. Lucien Labaudt 



84 





1 Lucia Mathews Sand Dunes with Beach 
Umbrella in Background 1899 



2 Arthur Mathews Landscape — San Francisco not dated 




5 Gottardo Piazzoni The Channel 1918 



85 




Xavier Martinez Untitled (eucalyptus trees) 1915-1918 7 Maynard Dixon Mesas in Shadow 




Lucien Labaudt L'Homme au Chapeau Gris circa 1920 



86 



2 The Oakland Six and 
Clayton S. Price 



Society of Six 

All the members of "The Six," Louis Siegriest, Maurice Logan, William 
Clapp, August Gay, Selden Gile and Bernard von Eichman, discovered 
for themselves during their long association what it was like to be an 
artist and a member of a close-knit, self-conscious art movement. They 
all had strong and independent personalities that helped them to 
avoid the studied and artificial attitudes previously adopted by past 
generations of Europeanized California artists. The Society of Six was 
intensely devoted to its self-imposed rough-and-tumble ideas. The 
members sensed that they were not making new art merely for the sake 
of newness, but with an exhilaration that was born from overthrowing 
subservient attitudes toward previously sanctified art modes. They 
were a part of the Bay Area art scene in the Twenties, but they had an 
allegiance primarily to themselves . . . they were forced to be their own 
best audience. Influences on the Society of Six artists ranged from 19th 
century Impressionism to European abstraction. Although it is fairly 
easy to trace their more obvious influences, they nonetheless managed 
to fashion their individualistic painting styles into a fresh and 
ingenuous genre that appears generally American and specifically 
Californian. It is regional painting in the best sense of the word. 

Source: Terry St. John, catalog 
essay for Society of Six, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 
1972. 

Clayton S. Price 

There followed a period of experimentation, which betrays a self- 
conscious concern with manner and style, typical of the work of the 
younger artists of the area. Still faithful to his farm and animal themes, 
he painted them now in Gauguinesque decorative silhouette and now 
in simplified Cezannesque volumes, but in neither idiom did they 
seem completely at home. 

About 1925 Price began to carve and paint wood and cork models of 
animals and farm workers. These little figures, frequently miniature 
sculptures of a high order, were part of an effort to simplify his 
conception of three-dimensional form and to strengthen the 
organization of his canvases. Horses in Barnyard is a careful, almost 
literal, rendering of these carvings, placed among paint rags on a table 
top. 

Source: Priscilla C. Colt, "Notes Memorial Exhibition, Portland Art 

on the Artist's Development," in Museum, Oregon, 1951. 
catalog, C.S. Price 1874-1950: A 

87 



checklist 



William Clapp 

9 Estuaiy Dwellings, 1920-1930, oil 
on plywood, 20x16%" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mr. Donn Schroder 

10 Oakland Yacht CJub, 1920-1930, 
oil on chipboard, 14^8X18" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mr. Donn Schroder 

August Gay 

11 Ranch in Carmel Valley, 1925, oil 
on paperboard, 8%xll%" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Dr. and Mrs. Frederick Novy 

12 Untitled (garden scene), not 
dated, oil on panel, 15V4XI8V4" 
Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, 
Extended loan of Mrs. August Gay 



Selden Gile 

13 Untitled (fishermen in 
Belvedere), not dated, oil on 
paperboard, 17x14" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Dr. and Mrs. Wallace W. Hall 

14 Untitled (country scene), not 
dated, oil on canvas, llxl5" 
Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mr. Louis Siegriest 

Maurice Logan 

15 Old Milk Ranch, 1925, oil on 
paperboard, lOx 113/4" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, 
Extended loan of the artist 

16 Point Richmond, 1929, oil on 
canvas, 14y8Xl7%" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mr. Louis Siegriest 

Louis Siegriest 

17 Oakland Quarry, 1920, oil on 
paperboard, 12x I6V4" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
the artist 

18 Landscape, 1926, oil on 
paperboard, 13y4Xl6V8" 
Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, 
Extended loan of the artist 



Bernard von Eichman 

19 China Street Scene No. 1, 1923, oil 
on paperboard, 191/4 x leW 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mr. Louis Siegriest 

20 China Street Scene No. 11. 1923, 
oil on paperboard, 21 x 14" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mr. Louis Siegriest 

Clayton S. Price 

21 Coastline, circa 1924, oil on 
canvas, 40V8X50" 

Lent by Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 

22 Horses in Barnyard, circa 1925, 
oil on canvas, 241/2x291/2" 

Lent by Douglas and Alexandra 
Lynch, Portland, Oregon 

23 Cart with Two Wheels, not dated, 
painted wood, 2 x 21/4 x 31/4" 

Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 

24 Man, Legs Spread, not dated, 
painted wood, 2V8Xiy8X%" 
Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 

25 Man with Hands on Hips, not 
dated, painted wood, 31/4x11/2x1/4" 
Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 

26 Standing Calf, not dated, painted 
wood and rope, 1 1/2 x 21/4 x %" 

Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 



27 Standing CoJt, not dated, painted 
wood, rope and leather, 25/8x3x3/4" 
Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 

28 Standing Cow, not dated, painted 
wood, 23/8x4x3/4" 

Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 

29 Standing, Grazing Horse, not 
dated, painted wood, 25/8X4x34" 
Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 

30 Standing Horse, not dated, 
painted wood, 21/2x3^x3/4" 
Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 

31 Standing Indian Woman, not 
dated, painted wood, 3x11/4x3/4" 
Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 

32 Standing Sow, not dated, painted 
wood, 11/8x2x1/4" 

Lent by Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon 



89 




11 August Gay Ranch in Carmel Valley 1925 




9 William Clapp Estuary DweHings 1920-1930 




13 Selden Gile Untitled (fishermen in Belvedere) not dated 



90 




16 Maurice Logan Point Richmond 1929 




17 Louis Siegriest Oakland Quarry 1920 







20 Bernard von Eichman China Street Scene No. /I 1923 



91 




22 Clayton S. Price Horses in Barnyard circa 1925 




Clayton S. Price Carved Wood Figures not dated 



92 



3 Pioneer Moderns: Los Angeles 



Rex Slinkard 

Slinkard studied under Robert Henri and at the College of Fine Arts, 
U.S.C. He also studied at the Art Students League of Los Angeles where 
he later (1910) took charge of the classes. In his spare time from teach- 
ing he painted poetic canvases at his father's ranch in Saugus. 

Source: Nancy Dustin Wall Moure, 
Dictionary of Art and Artists in 
Southern California, Los Angeles, 
1975. 

The Group of Independents 

The Group of Independent Artists of Los Angeles held its first 
exhibition in 1923. S. Macdonald-Wright wrote in the foreword to the 
exhibition catalogue a plea for fairness in judgment. 

The exhibitors with survival power were Boris Deutsch who showed a 
vigorous landscape, Peter Krasnow, and, of course, Macdonald-Wright 
himself, with Santa Monica Canyon , a watercolor partially abstract and 
quite oriental in conception if one is not reading too much of Wright's 
history into a dim reproduction. Wright had been teaching since 1921 
at the new Art Students League of Los Angeles. He had already 
established his early place in art history when he was a young painter 
in Paris before the first World War. Synchromism, the movement or 
invention associated with his name, was sufficiently related to Cubism 
to be grafted successfully on that tree. It was nonetheless distinct, a 
development that Wright shared with his friend, Morgan Russell, and it 
was doubtless due to Wright that Russell contributed two paintings to 
the show. The sculptor Zorach and Thomas Benton were also out-of- 
town contributors. A Nolde-like flower scene by Nick Brigante brought 
the German Expressionist way of seeing to Los Angeles, Max Reno 
painted a skeleton as a cellist bowing a female figure called Dying 
Vienna, and a geometric abstraction by Ben Berlin was all circles, rays, 
and saw-tooth patterns, quite in step with Kandinsky of the early 
1920's. 

Source: Frederick S. Wight, 
catalog essay for The Artist's 
Environment: West Coast, Amon 
Carter Museum of Western Art, 
Fort Worth, Texas, 1962. 



93 



checklist 



Stanton Macdonald- Wright 

33 Los Angeles Landscape, 1903, 
painted when the artist was 13 years 
old, oil on panel, 16x8" 

Lent by the Estate of Stanton 
Macdonald-Wright, Santa Monica, 
California 

34 Canon Synchromy (Orange), circa 
1919, oil on canvas, 24V8x24y8" 
Lent by University Gallery, 
University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Gift of lone and Hudson 
Walker 

35 Fire Synchromy, 1925, oil on 
canvas, 18x18" 

Lent by Tortue Gallery, Santa Monica, 
California 

36 Dragon Forms, 1926, oil on panel, 
26x151/2" 

Lent by The Harmon Gallery, Naples, 
Florida 

Rex Stinkard 

37 My Song, 1915-1916, oil on 
canvas, 37y2X5lV2" 

Lent by Stanford University Museum 
of Art, Stanford, California, Estate of 
Florence Williams 

Nick Brigante 

38 Porcelain and Oranges, 1931, 
watercolor on paper, 15 x 22" 
Lent by the artist 

39 Animated Rocker, 1948, 
watercolor on paper, 27x20" 
Lent by the artist 

40 Mitosis of Sea Plankton, 1956, oil 
on canvas, 60x36" 

Lent by the artist 

Peter Krasnow 

41 Untitled, 1940-1945, walnut, 
8OV4XI6XI8V2" 

Lent by the artist 



42 K-1 , 1944, oil on board, 48 x 35^8" 
Lent by the artist 

43 K-3, 1953, oil on board, 

473/4x671/8" 
Lent by the artist 

Ben Berlin 

44 Untitled, 1937, casein on firtex, 
221/4x281/2" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Lorser 
Feitelson, Los Angeles, California 

Oskar Fischinger 

45 Circles, Triangles and Squares, 
1938, oil on canvas, 48% x 36%" 
Lent by Mrs. Oskar Fischinger, West 
Hollywood, California 

46 Tower, 1954, oil on canvas, 
36x48" 

Lent by Mrs. Oskar Fischinger, West 
Hollywood, California 

Knud Merrild 

47 Equilibrium, 1938, painted wood 
and metal, 2 1 1/2 x 14^8 x 2" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter Conrad Arensberg 

48 Flux Bouquet, 1947, oil on canvas 
mounted on composition board, 
19x141/2" 

Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Gift of Dr. William 
R. Valentiner 

Charls Tracy 

49 The Sun Bathers, circa 1940, 
tempera on paper, 17x22" 
Lent by Helen Wurdemann, Los 
Angeles, California 



94 





33 Stanton Macdonald-Wright 
Los Angeles Landscape 1903 



42 Peter Krasnow K-1 1944 





39 Nick Brigante Animated Rocker 1948 



37 RexSlinkard My Song 1915-1916 



95 





44 Ben Berlin Untitled 1937 



45 Oskar Fischinger Circles, Triangles and Squares 1938 





49 Charls Tracy The Sun Bathers circa 1940 



47 Knud Merrild Equilibrium 1938 



96 



4 Early Surrealist Explorations 



On the West Coast of the United States, the "subjectively-organized" 
paintings of Helen Lundeberg and Lorser Feitelson of the early 1930's 
culminated in their joint exhibition of twenty California Post-Surrealist 
paintings in the Hollywood Centaur Gallery in 1934. Other artists from 
Northern and Southern California soon joined the new American 
movement, and in 1936 the California Post-Surrealists were invited to 
exhibit at the Brooklyn Museum for four months. From this substantial 
avant-garde presentation, works by the founders of this movement 
along with paintings by Knud Merrild were later presented in the 
"Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism" exhibition of the same year at The 
Museum of Modern Art in New York. For these pioneer painters of the 
1930's it must seem ironic to have made works of art nearly half a 
century ago that today might seem avant-garde, especially since after 
their initial explorations many West Coast artists continually engaged 
themselves with surrealism in one form or another, even when later 
developments such as Abstract Expressionism, Pop, Minimal and 
Conceptual Art arrived on the international art scene. 

Source: Joseph E. Young, "Los 
Angeles," Art International, 
Volume XV, No. 4, April 20, 1971. 



97 



Checklist 



Lorser Feitelson 

50 Genesis, First Version, 1934, oil 
on composition board, 24x30" 
San Francisco Museum of Modem 
Art, California, Gift of Helen Klokke 

51 Magical Forms, 1948, oil on 
canvas, 36x30" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Lorser 
Feitelson, Los Angeles, California 

Helen Lundeberg 

52 Artist, Flowers and Hemispheres, 
1934, oil on celotex panel, 23^8 x 30" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Helen Klokke 

53 DoublePortraito/ the Artist in 
Time, 1935, oil on fiberboard, 48x40" 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Lorser 
Feitelson, Los Angeles, California 



Knud Merrild 

54 Third Month, 1935, oil on 
masonite, ISVsXlS'A" 

Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter Conrad Arensberg 

Agnes Pelton 

55 Orbits, 1934, oil on canvas, 
361/2X30" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Concours d'Antiques, Art Guild, The 
Oakland Museum Association 



98 





50 Lorser Feitelson Genesis, First Version 1934 



52 Helen Lundeberg Artist, Flowers and Hemispheres 1934 




54 KnudMerrild Third iWonfh 1935 




55 Agnes Pelton Orbits 1934 



99 



5 Public Art of the 1930's 



In 1930 the Federal Government moved into California with the Federal 
Art Project and many of the more experienced artists were put to work 
on decoration for public buildings. The mural exercised a disciplining 
influence on the artists' work as it demanded specific subject matter 
and the creation of a special design to fill an allotted space. 

Among the interesting murals of this period remaining today are the 
decoration at the Mother House at the Fleishhacker Zoo, executed by 
Helen Forbes and Dorothy Wagner Puccinelli, the Beach Chalet 
decorations by Lucien Labaudt, the murals by Piazzoni in the Public 
Library, the decoration in the interior of the Aquatic Park Building, 
now the Marine Museum, by Hilaire Hiler, and the beautiful slate relief 
above the facade of the building by Sargent Johnson. 

Stimulated by the interest in mural decoration, Charles Peter Weeks, 
architect of the Mark Hopkins Hotel, commissioned Maynard Dixon 
and Frank Van Sloun to execute murals for the Room of the Dons, and 
Ray Boynton, just returned from a trip to Mexico, to do an encaustic in 
the dining room. Later both Dixon and Van Sloun were given a 
commission by Weeks to decorate the Sacramento Library. 

Timothy Pflueger, the architect of 450 Sutter Street, who later became 
President of the San Francisco Art Association, and in 1939-40 the head 
of the Department of Fine Arts at the hiternational Exposition, was 
instrumental in employing many artists by incorporating their work in 
his buildings. He commissioned Stackpole to do the sculpture on the 
outside of the Stock Exchange and several artists — Adaline Kent, Ruth 
Cravath, Otis Oldfield, Bob Howard, and others — to decorate the 
interior of the Stock Exchange Club, but in selecting an artist to execute 
the fresco on the stairway, he and Bertram Alanson, President of the 
Club, brought Diego Rivera from Mexico. Several years later Rivera was 
again commissioned by William Gerstle to execute the murals for the 
California School of Art. 

Source: Beatrice Judd Ryan, "The 
Rise of Modern Art in the Bay 
Area," California Historical 
Society Quarterly, Vol. XXXVIH, 
No. 1, March 1959. 



100 



checklist 



Maynard Dixon 

56 Free Speech, 1934-1936, oil on 
canvas, 36X40" 

Lent by Brigham Young University, 
Provo, Utah, Harold R. Clark 
Memorial Collection 

Sargent Johnson 

57 Negro Woman, not dated, 
lacquered cloth over wood, 
28XI2V4XII" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Albert M. 
Bender 

Ralph Stackpole 

58 Study /or San Francisco Stock 
Exchange (man), not dated, cement, 
10x5x21/2" 

Lent by Hansel Hagel, Santa Rosa, 
California 

59 Study/or San Francisco Stock 
Exchange (woman), not dated, 
cement, IOX5X2V2" 

Lent by Hansel Hagel, Santa Rosa, 
California 



Beniamino Bufano 

60 Female Torso, not dated, black 
gran ite , 2 2 1/4 x 1 V2 x 7 V2" 

Lent by The Fine Arts Museums of 
San Francisco: California Palace of 
the Legion of Honor, Gift of Mr. and 
Mrs. Budd Rosenberg 

Millard Sheets 

61 Angel's Flight, 1931, oil on 
canvas, 5OV4X 40" 

Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Gift of Mrs. L.M. 
Maitland 



101 




56 Maynard Dixon Free Speech 1934-1936 





59 Ralph Stackpole Study /or San Francisco Stock 
Exchange (woman) not dated 



57 SdrgeTil Johnson Negro Woman not dated 



102 




61 Millard Sheets Angel's Flight 1931 




60 Beniamino Bufano Female Torso not dated 



103 



6 Into Abstraction: 

The Bay Region 1930-1945 



During the years preceding World War II, years filled with economic 
chaos and signs of war, painting and sculpture in the San Francisco 
Bay Area continued in a traditional, almost reactionary, direction. The 
art produced outside the federal art program, like that within it, was 
tied to the American scene, or magical visions of it. Most of the Bay 
Region artists practiced some form of realism, while a few developed 
individual styles. Grace Clements, working in what she termed 
"modern classicism," painted ordered architectural works, concerned 
primarily with formal relationships. Matthew Barnes, a romantic, 
produced eloquent moonlit scenes, set with ghostly buildings and 
inhabited by solitary Ryderesque figures. 

Around 1938, however, a change began to occur and the wave of 
abstraction which had lain quietly beneath the swell of Social Realism 
and American Regionalism in the country, began to make itself felt in 
the Bay Area. Some artists, like Ruth Armer who had exhibited abstract 
paintings as early as 1930, continued to work in the abstract tradition. 
For others, abstraction was an entirely new adventure. These artists 
tended to take several paths. 

The artists connected with the University of California, Berkeley, 
generally went toward Cubism. The influence of Hans Hofmann, a 
great advocate of Cubism who had taught in Berkeley in 1930 and 1931, 
continued to be felt in the works of those after him. David Park's 
Woman in Red and White Robe shows quite directly the impact of 
Cubism with its planar construction and ambiguous space sense. James 
McCray, a student in the early thirties, also shows the effects of his 
Berkeley years in his disciplined picture structuring and emphasis on 
the horizontal and vertical. 

Other artists, particularly those clustered around the California School 
of Fine Arts, moved toward the surrealist end of abstraction. Charles 
Howard, who had exhibited with the International Surrealist Group in 
London in 1936, came to San Francisco in 1940 and remained there six 
years before returning to England. His works, with their biomorphic 
forms interlaced with linear elements, were widely exhibited during 
his stay and their influence was considerable. 



104 



Adaline Kent and her husband, Robert Howard, brother of Charles, 
both began to concern themselves with abstract problems. Kent, who 
had worked in a realistic, cut-direct tradition derived from her Paris 
training with Antoine Bourdelle, moved to three-dimensional works 
using organic forms controlled geometrically and often overlaid with 
simple linear tracings. In the early forties, Robert Howard worked 
through strongly Cubist sculpture, then developed his large carved 
wood sculptures which employed abstract forms jutting into space and 
often used motion to underline the thrusts of these forms. 

Clay Spohn moved toward Dada, experimenting with ideas he had 
garnered in Paris during a visit in 1926-1927. In his exhibition. 
Fantastic War Machines and Guerragraphs, held at the San Francisco 
Museum of Art in 1942, he showed color drawings of his dream 
reactions to World War II, fantasy forts and phantom tanks, all 
realistically drawn, illustrations of dreams. Later in the forties his 
images took on less realistic forms, and he employed abstract 
curvilinear shapes, broadly painted. 

With this background of abstraction in the Bay Region, the stage was 
set for the emergence of Abstract Expressionism. 

Katherine Church Holland 



105 



Checklist 



Ruth Armer 

62 Immaterial Forms, circa 1940, oil 
on canvas, 26V2X38" 

Lent by the artist 

Matthew Barnes 

63 Night Scene, circa 1932, oil on 
canvas, 35x42" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Albert M. Bender 
Memorial Fund Purchase 

Grace Clements 

64 Tokyo Restaurant, 1931, oil on 
canvas, 34x36" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
the artist 

Charles Howard 

65 First War Winter, 1940, oil on 
canvas, 24y8X34" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Purchase 

Robert B. Howard 

66 Semaphore, 1947, pearwood, 
44x14x12" 

Lent by the artist 

67 Night Watch, 1950, metal, 
gypsum, resins and wood, 
106x56x31" 

Lent by the artist 

68 Study /or Custodian, 1952, wood, 
metal, gypsum, polyvinyl acetate and 
redwood dust, 16V4X7xl6" 

Lent by the artist 



Adaline Kent 

69 Dark Mountain, 1945, plaster, 
33V2XI2V2X8" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Purchase 

70 Presence, 1947, magnesite, 
44V2 XI 33/4x7" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of the Women's 
Board and Membership Activities 
Board 

David Park 

71 Woman in Red and White Robe, 
1938, oil on canvas, 52 x 24" 

Lent by Maxwell Galleries, Ltd., San 
Francisco, California 

Clay Spohn 

72 The Rolling Fort, 1942, gouache 
and pencil on paper, 27x33" 

Lent by Milton T. Pflueger, San 
Francisco, California 

73 Conquistador and Thunderbird, 
1946, oil on canvas, 36x56%" 
Lent by the artist 



106 





62 Ruth Armer Immaterial Forms circa 1940 



64 Grace Clements Tokyo Restaurant 1931 





65 Charles Howard First War Winter 1940 



63 Matthew Barnes Night Scene circa 1932 



107 




66 Robert B. Howard Semaphore 1947 




72 ClaySpohn The RoJiing Fort 1942 





69 AdalineKent Dark Mountain 1945 




71 David Park Woman in Red and 
White Robe 1938 



108 



The Romantic Surrealist 
Tradition 



The Romantic Surrealists 

As far as the West Coast is concerned the Romantic Surrealist tradition 
began with Rico Lebrun. His Italian training in classical draughts- 
manship, a full knowledge of Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dali, as well 
as a compassionate nature, combined to form his powerful style which 
dominated Los Angeles art thought for a decade in the 1940's. Lebrun's 
ideas melded with those of the romantic Eugene Herman during a 
period of mutual growth as teachers at the Jepson Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, in 1947. Younger men at the Institute, Howard Warshaw and 
William Brice, absorbed and developed these methods into their own 
individual styles. 

Two artists, Jack Zajac and Robert Cremean, successfully translated the 
style into three-dimensional form. 

A somewhat different approach, reaching toward abstract art, was 
introduced to Los Angeles by Hans Burkhardt who developed many of 
his ideas from years of close association with the dynamic Armenian 
romantic Arshile Gorky. 

HT.H. 

Dynaton 

Gordon Onslow-Ford, Lee Mullican and myself have come to express 
the manifold expanse of transdimensional potentiality. Our points of 
departure are not any aspects of reality, but awareness of the formative 
powers which make and unmake reality. This awareness of the Dynaton 
gives us the emotional knowledge of forms beyond dimensions, of infra 
and ultra shapes. 

I call our concept of painting metaplastic, because although our means 
consist in direct plastic expression, our aims are not solutions of 
formal problems, but a new meaning. The meaning is to be the image- 
makers of a cosmic freedom which makes human consciousness find 
its true place as the beam of the balance between the infinitely great 
and the infinitely small. 

Art, for us, has no business to preach nor to teach, but to complement 
the quantitative understanding of science by a cosmography in terms of 
quality. But we will not become prisoners of any concepts, not even of 
our own. If the metaplastic idea ever came to degenerate into an "ism," 
we will be the first "anti-metaplasticians." 



109 



For us, a painting is beautiful when it makes the spectator partake 
emotionally in the great structural rhythms, the tidal waves of form 
and chaos, of being and becoming, which go beyond the accidents of 
individual fate. Our images are not meant to shock nor to relax; they 
are neither objects for mere aesthetic satisfaction nor for visual 
experimentation. Our pictures are objects for that active meditation 
which does not mean detachment from human purpose, but a state 
of self-transcending awareness, which is not an escape from reality, 
because it is an intuitive participation in the formative potentialities 
of reality. 

Source: Wolfgang Paalen, "Theory 
of the Dynaton," Dynaton 1951, 
book published to accompany 
exhibition, A New Vision, San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1951. 



110 



checklist 



Rico Lebrun 

74 The MagdaJene, 1950, oil on wood 
panel 64x48 1/4" 

Lent by Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California 

Eugene Berman 

75 Nike, 1943, oil on canvas, 

583/8X383/8" 

Lent by Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 

Howard Warshaw 

76 The Spectator, 1953-1955, oil on 
canvas, 70x72" 

Lent by Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California 

William Brice 

77 Figure and Pomegranates, 1959, 
oil on canvas, 201/4x161/4" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Richard F. 
Brown, Fort Worth, Texas 

Hans Burkhardt 

78 Abstraction, 1953, oil on canvas, 
60x50" 

Lent by the artist 

Lee Mullican 

79 The Splintering Lions, 1950, oil 
on canvas, 50x40" 

Lent by the artist 

80 Head, 1954, painted wood 
construction, 281/4x133/4x6" 
Lent by the artist 



Gordon Onslow Ford 

81 The GreatHaunts, 1950, oil on 
masonite, 48x76" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Extended anonymous 
loan 

Jack Zajac 

82 Bound Goat with Two Stakes, 
1958, bronze, 24X411/2X16" 
Lent by Jodi Scully Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California, and James Willis 
Gallery, San Francisco, California 

Robert Cremean 

83 Main Fragment for a Disputed 
Curia, 1962, laminated wood, metal 
and cloth, 74x31x29" 

Lent by Robert de la Vergne, Tomales, 
California 



111 




% 



n: 



k 



% ' 




74 Rico Lebrun The Magdalene 1950 



75 Eugene Herman Nike 1943 





77 William Brice 

Figure and Pomegranates 1959 



76 Howard Warshaw The Spectator 1953-1955 



112 




■t' 



^ 



78 Hans Burkhardt Abstraction 1953 



» I'lumiitlilf li.J_.JHi 




80 LeeMullican Head 1954 




79 LeeMullican The SpJintering Lions 1950 



113 




81 Gordon Onslow Ford The Great Haunts 1950 




82 lackZajac Bound Goat with Two Stakes 1958 




83 Robert Cremean Main Fragment /or a Disputed Curia 1962 



114 



8 Climax: Hard Edge Abstraction, 
Los Angeles 



Abstract Classicist painting is hard-edged painting. Forms are finite, 
flat, rimmed by a hard clean edge. These forms are not intended to 
evoke in the spectator any recollections of specific shapes he may have 
encountered in some other connection. They are autonomous shapes, 
sufficient unto themselves as shapes. These clean-edged forms are 
presented in uniform flat colors running border to border. Ordinarily 
color serves as a descriptive or emotive element in painting. Its relation 
to the viewer tends to be more visceral than cerebral. But in these 
paintings color is not an independent force. Color and shape are one 
and the same entity. Form gains its existence through color and color its 
being through form. Color and form here are indivisible. To deprive one 
of the other is to destroy both. To clarify matters, eliminate semantic 
confusion, it is helpful to unite the two elements in a single 
word — color/orm . 

The approach follows a track of ideas suggested by the pictures of 
Malevitch and the constructivists, and Mondrian and the painters of De 
Stijl. In the pictures of Malevitch and Mondrian there is a striving to 
create an art of flat geometric shapes that is not fixed and stabile. It is 
an art in which static elements are tensed, made to separate from each 
other, advance forward from the picture surface and back again. 

The California Abstract Classicists proceed from this intention of 
Malevitch and Mondrian. They seek to fluctuate forms that are tightly 
embraced together. Forms in their paintings are in continuous flux. 
Forms are not frozen in an instant of time, nor are they constructed as a 
building — firmly fixed in a stationary position. The paintings take 
place in space-time. At one moment a form announces its presence, and 
the next moment it slips away, only to reassert itself again. This 
alternation between forms in focus and the same forms thrust into 
periphery is precisely determined. The gears must interlock if the 
paintings are "to work." 

Source: Jules Lahgsner, catalog 
essay for Four Abstract 
Classicists, Los Angeles County 
Museum, 1959. 

Hard Edge painting is more closely associated with Southern 
California, however a few Northern Californians around Berkeley were 
experimenting with a more complex optical variant, here represented 
by James McCray. 

HT.H. 



115 



Checklist 



John McLaughlin 

84 Untitled (black/grey), 1946, oil on 
canvas, 20V2XI7" 

Lent by Nicholas Wilder, Los 
Angeles, California 

85 Untitled (yellow/black), 1951, oil 
on mason ite, 31%x37%" 

Lent by Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

86 No.l (blue), 1964, oil on canvas, 
48x60" 

Lent by Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

87 No. 7 (grey), 1974, oil on canvas, 
48x60" 

Lent by Nicholas Wilder, Los 
Angeles, California 

Lorser Feitelson 

88 Geomorphic Metaphor, 
1950-1951, oil on canvas, 58X82" 
Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Thomas C. McCray 

89 Dichotomic — Organization, 1959, 
oil on canvas, 50x60" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Lorser 
Feitelson, Los Angeles, California 



90 Hardedge Line Painting, 1963, 
enamel on canvas, 72 x 60" 

Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Anonymous Gift 
through the Contemporary Art 
Council 

Helen Lundeberg 

91 Sunny Corridor, 1959, oil on 
canvas, 20x24" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Lorser 
Feitelson, Los Angeles, California 

Karl Benjamin 

92 I.F. Black, Grey, Umber, Red, 
1958, oil on canvas, 62V2X42V4" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Ned C. 
Pearlstein 

James McCray 

93 Reticulation, 1945, oil on canvas, 
22x32" 

Lent by Milton T. Pflueger, San 
Francisco, California 



116 





86 John McLaughlin No. 1 (blue) 1964 



91 Helen Lundeberg Sunny Corridor 1959 




88 Lorser Feitelson Geomorphic Metaphor 1950-1951 



117 




93 James McCray Heticuiation 1945 




Karl Benjamin I.F. Black, Grey. L'mhi 



118 



9 Clyflford Still 



From the fall of 1941 until summer of 1943 he (Still) worked in war 
industry, as a steel checker for the Navy in Oakland and later as a 
materials release engineer for Hammond Aircraft in San Francisco. War 
work did not allow much painting time but a number of exceptional 
works were produced, some of which were included in his first 
one-man exhibition at the San Francisco Museum of Art in 1943. The 
exhibition was organized by Grace McCann Morley and, even though 
the exhibition wall label misspelled both of Still's names (Clifford 
Stills)^, this event undoubtedly helped bring about the gift to the 
museum. Of his eleven one-man exhibitions, three have been in San 
Francisco. The other two took place at the California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor in 1947 and at the Metart Gallery in 1950. 

Another factor of real importance must be his influence as a teacher in 
the Bay Area which continues to be felt. Still has been a teacher since 
1933, when he began at Washington State College in Pullman. He 
remained there in positions of increasing responsibility until 1941. 
After completing his war work in 1943, he taught at the Richmond 
Professional Institute, then a division of the College of William and 
Mary in Richmond, Virginia, until 1945. So, when in 1946, after a year 
in New York, he was asked to come to San Francisco to teach at the 
California School of Fine Arts (now renamed the San Francisco Art 
Institute), he was a seasoned professional. He taught there until the 
summer of 1948, when he again went to New York to bring into being 
an idea he had proposed to Douglas MacAgy and Mark Rothko in 1947. 
The idea was to bring together a number of active artists in a teaching 
group to aid younger men in the milieu of New York. The group became 
known as the "Subjects of the Artist.'"* 

By fall no action had been taken to put the idea into practice and Still 
returned once more to San Francisco and the California School of Fine 
Arts, where he planned and introduced a graduate painting class by 
which the school became especially known throughout the world. 

'From time to time Still would enter the classroom and begin to 
extemporize about the "revolution" which was going on in painting, 
insinuating that the center of it was precisely in the room where we all 



119 



were at the moment, and that we were engaged in some conspiratorial 
movement together, subverting the value of Western art. The reactions 
to a few moments of that kind of pep talk would send everyone back to 
his easel with the renewed conviction that the making of abstract 
painting was almost a secret weapon in the cause not only of beauty but 
of truth as well.'^ 

Source: Henry T. Hopkins, "Clyfford 
Still's Gift to the San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art," 
American Art Review, Vol. Ill, 
No. 1, January-February 1976. 



Footnotes: 

-'"Clyfford Still" appears on his birth certificate. The name was given to him by his father in honor 
of a friend whose name bore this unique spelling. 

••William Baziotes, Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still and later sculptor David Hare 
made up this group. 

^Hubert Crehan, "Art Schools Smell Alike." This World. San Francisco Sunday E.xaminere- 
Chronicle, October 4, 1970. 
120 



Checklist 



Clyfford Still 

94 UntitJed 1941-R (PH-169), 1941, 
oil on brown denim, 58x251/2" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of the artist 

95 UntitJed (PH-298), 1942, oil on 
blue denim, 58y2X27V2" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of the artist 

96 Untitled (PH-123), 1947, oil on 
canvas, 69V2x39y2" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of the artist 

97 Untitled 1947-H-No. 3 (PH-446), 
1947, oil on canvas, 91x57" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of the artist 



98 UntitJed 1947-S (PH-371), 1947, 
oil on canvas, 84 x 71" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of the artist 

99 Untitled, 1948, oil on canvas, 
803/4 X 68%" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, 
Extended loan of Hassel Smith 

100 Untitled (PH-84), 1952, oil on 
canvas, 6OX47V2" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of the artist 



121 




99 c:lvllnnl Shll Untitled 1948 



122 



10 Expressionism, Abstract and 
Figurative, in the Bay Area 
1945-1956 



Three events now seem to have been most instrumental in shaping the 
course of the Abstract Expressionist chapter of San Francisco art. The 
first and perhaps the most significant event was a sweeping change in 
the California School of Fine Arts' faculty and educational philosophy. 
Douglas MacAgy became Director and replaced most of the faculty 
with artists who not only experimented with radically new ideas but 
who encouraged their students to do the same. The next event that 
occurred was the influx of ex-G.I.'s into its student body. The final 
important factor was the post -World War II era itself. 

Although he lived in the Bay Area during most of the 1940's, Clyfford 
Still, a germinal CSFA teacher, had close contacts at that time with New 
York abstract artists. He was not only familiar with the New York School 
but influenced it considerably. The impact of his work was initiated by 
his one-man exhibition at Peggy Guggenheim's Art of This Century 
gallery in 1946 and at Betty Parsons' gallery in 1947. It is not of primary 
importance to establish whether Still was a California or New York 
artist, but to emphasize that he was the most influential teacher at the 
California School of Fine Arts in the late 40's. At the same time, it 
should be recognized that he possessed one of the most acutely 
perceptive outlooks on the role of the artist and his art to the society 
and the marketplace in the United States. He was not only wired into 
some of the most radical painting ideas of this century but also helped 
to place the comparatively small group of American Abstract 
Expressionists at the center of the international art scene. He, perhaps 
more than any other figure, helped to unlearn the subservient attitude 
that previous generations of Americans had towards 
European art. 

Another prophetic figure from the first generation of New York 
Abstract Expressionists who taught at CSFA was Mark Rothko. His 
ideas had less of an impact than Still's, primarily because he taught 
only two summer sessions. His ideas were nevertheless considered 
highly developmental to a significant degree by many of the students 
and instructors there. A third precursor of a new abstraction at CSFA 
was Ad Reinhardt who taught a summer session there in 1950. His 



123 



remarkable irreverence for anything that smacks of a messianic mission 
for the artists helped to counterbalance some of the existential 
hyperbole that occasionally inundated the school. Besides these three 
heavies there were others who were lesser known, but not necessarily 
less influential or important in their roles as instructors. Artists such as 
Robert Howard, David Park, Clay Spohn, Hassel Smith, Edward Corbett 
and Richard Diebenkorn taught until the Director, Douglas MacAgy, 
resigned in the summer of 1950. 

It can be said that during the years 1947-1953, the high point of 
Abstract Expressionism in the Bay Area produced an intensity of 
activity combined with an interchange of dialogues that at times 
anticipated developments in the East. The local development of 
Abstract Expressionism was relatively unknown on the East Coast 
probably because this art scene is rarely documented or covered by 
extensive national criticism and review. 

Source: Terry St. John, 
introduction to book A Period oj 
Exploration, San Francisco 
1945-1950, by Mary Fuller 
McChesney, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1973. 



124 



Checklist 



Jeremy Anderson 

101 Untitled, 1953, redwood, 
511/4x143/4x11" 

Lent by the artist, courtesy 
Braunstein/Quay Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

102 Altar, 1963, redwood, pine, 
privet and enamel, 89 x 31 x 33 V2" 
Lent by the artist, courtesy 
Braunstein/Quay Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

103 Riverrun, 1965, enamel on 
redwood and pine, 55x791/2x171/2" 
Lent by University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, University of California, 
Gift of the University Art Museum 
Council 

For exhibition at San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art only 

Ruth Asawa 

104 Woven Wire Sculpture, 
1954-1955, iron and galvanized zinc 
wire, 138x17" diameter 

Lent by the artist 

Elmer BischoET 

105 Two Figures at the Seashore, 
1957, oil on canvas, 56% x se^A" 
Lent by Sterling Holloway, Laguna 
Beach, California 

Ernest Briggs 

106 Untitled, 1951, oil on canvas, 
78X681/2" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Moses Lasky 

Edward Corbett 

107 Painting /or Puritans, 1956, oil 
on canvas, 52 x 341/3" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Extended anonymous 
loan 

Richard Diebenkom 

108 Untitled, 1949, oil on canvas 
mounted on board, 36x32" 

Lent by Mrs. F. Herbert Hoover, San 
Francisco, California 



109 Berkeley #4, 1953, oil on canvas, 
551/4x48" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. 
Bransten, San Francisco, California 

110 Berkeley #41, 1955, oil on 
canvas, 283/8X28%" 

Lent by Robert A. Rowan, Pasadena, 
California 

111 Cityscape 1, 1963, oil on canvas, 
601/2x501/2" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Purchase from 
contributions of Trustees and friends 
in memory of Hector Escobosa, 
Brayton Wilbur and J.D. Zellerbach 

James Budd Dixon 

112 Untitled, circa 1948, oil on 
canvas, 48x37%" 

Lent by Frank Lobdell, Palo Alto, 
California 

Edward Dugmore 

113 1950-CS, 1950, oil on canvas, 
61 X 541/2" 

Lent by Gallery M, Washington, D.C. 

Sam Francis 

114 California, 1953, oil on canvas, 
491/4x831/8" 

Lent by the artist 

John Hultberg 

115 Untitled, 1949, oil on canvas, 
40X2978" 

Lent by Frank Lobdell, Palo Alto, 
California 

Jack Je£Ferson 

116 Mission No. 11, 1955, oil on 
canvas, 69x63" 

Lent by Alvin Light, San Francisco, 
California 

117 January 1976, 1976, acrylic, 
silver pencil and oil crayon on paper, 
371/8x231/2" 

Lent by Frank Lobdell, Palo Alto, 
California 



125 



James Kelly 

118 Untitled, 1951, oil and tacks on 
canvas, 30x23V2" (sight) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
William M. Roth 

119 Assault on K-2, 1956, oil on 
canvas, 84 x66y4" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Gump's, Inc. 

Walter Kuhlman 

120 Untitled, 1957, oil on canvas, 
47X35" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
the artist 

Frank Lobdell 

121 5 October 1949, 1949, oil on 
canvas, 72x42V2" 

Lent by Jack Jefferson, San Francisco, 
California 

122 March 1954, 1954, oil on canvas, 

70 X 651/2" 

Lent anonymously 

123 Black Edge II, 3 March 1962, oil 
on canvas, 85V2X70" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Philip E. 
Lilienthal, San Francisco, California 

Seymour Locks 

124 The Pressure Cooker, 1955, 
wood, nails and paint, 45x12x16" 
Lent by Fay and Seymour Locks, San 
Francisco, California 

Robert McChesney 

125 Composition A#l, 1950, oil on 
canvas, 37X49" 

Lent by the artist 

David Park 

126 Rehearsal, 1951, oil on canvas, 
45x353/4" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Anonymous Donor Program 

127 Man in Tee Shirt, 1958, oil on 
canvas, 60X50" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Harry W. Anderson 



Deborah Remington 

128 Untitled, 1955, oil on canvas, 
30x36" 

Lent by James Keilty, San Francisco, 
California 

Philip Roeber 

1 29 Untitled , 1954, oil on canvas, 
60x50" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. William M. 
Roth, San Francisco, California 

John Saccaro 

130 Rock, Branch and Winter, 1952, 
oil on canvas, 41V2X47V2" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
the artist in memory of James Budd 
Dixon 

Hassel Smith 

131 The Nocturnal Prowl, 1945, oil 
on canvas, 33V4X29%" 

Lent by Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 
For exhibition at National Collection 
of Fine Arts only 

132 The Little Big Horn, 1952-1953, 
oil on canvas, 85 x 70" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Gifford Phillips, 
Santa Monica, California 

133 Untitled, 1958, oil on canvas, 
69X42" 

Lent by Robert A. Rowan, Pasadena, 
California 

134 #8, 1961, oil on canvas, 
693/4X68" 

Lent by Irving Blum, New York, New 
York 

Julius Wasserstein 

135 Untitled, 1952, oil on canvas, 
60X38V4" 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Rose 
Rabow Galleries, San Francisco, 
California 

136 Untitled, 1959, oil on canvas, 
68x34%" 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Rose 
Rabow Galleries, San Francisco, 
California 



126 




101 Jeremy Anderson Untitled 1953 




105 Elmer Bischoff TWo Figures at the Seashore 1957 



104 Ruth Asawa Woven 
Wire Sculpture 
1954-1955 



127 





lUb Ernest Bnggs L'niitled I'Jjl 



107 Edward Corbett Painting /or Puritans 1956 





112 James Budd Dixon Untitled circa 1948 



111 Richard Diebenkom City scape I 1963 



128 




113 Edward Dugraore 1950-CS 1950 




116 Jack Jefferson Mission No. 11 1955 




115 JohnHuItberg Untitled 1949 



»;♦ *i-^^i*-v 



^ 



--■^.^:^^ 



,i 



VTK 



vf 











V '^ 



119 James Kelly Assault on K-2 1956 



129 




120 Walter Kuhlman Untitled 1957 





122 Frank Lobdell March 1954 1954 




125 Robert McChesney Composition A #1 1950 



124 Seymour Locks The Pressure Cooker 
1955 



130 




-i>*^*rr 






126 David Park Rehearsal 1951 



128 Deborah Remington Untitled 1955 




1 







i- 




130 John Saccaro Rock, Branch and Winter 1952 



K 



129 Philip Roeber Untitled 1954 



131 




135 luliiis VVasserstein ilntithd 1952 



132 



11 Expressionism, Bay Area and 
Los Angeles, after 1956 



The Ferus Gallery opened its doors on March 15, 1957 with a group 
exhibition which included works by Richard Diebenkorn, Hassel 
Smith and Clyfford Still, as well as a host of younger Northern and 
Southern California artists. As Gerald Nordland, the art critic for 
Frontier magazine at the time, commented, "... the Syndell and Now 
Galleries have joined forces." The Now Gallery was owned by Edward 
Kienholz and the Syndell by Walter Hopps. Both Kienholz and Hopps 
were extremely influential not only as art dealers — sales were virtually 
non-existent — but as key figures who brought together the best 
younger artists in the Southern California region as a group. Hopps, 
Kienholz and, later, in the fall of 1958, Irving Blum and Sadye Moss 
were to a large degree responsible for promulgating the notion among 
patrons as well as artists that there indeed was a vital group of artists of 
the highest ambition who lived and worked in California. In the spring 
of 1957 it seemed necessary for both owners of the Ferus Gallery to 
establish the fact that the young abstract-expressionist painters in 
Southern California, including John Altoon, Billy Al Bengston, Craig 
Kauffman, Edward Moses and Paul Sarkisian, were of equal artistic 
merit as the better known artists of the San Francisco Bay Region, 
including Jay DeFeo, Sonia Gechtoff, James Kelly and a handful of 
others. 

The high degree of competence exhibited by these young artists — 
how intensely they understood the lessons of the fathers of Abstract- 
Expressionism — will astonish many visitors to this miniature survey of 
the early years of the Ferus Gallery. It has been my contention for the 
past few years that the second and third generation of abstract- 
expressionist artists in California compares favorably to other 
developments in this area throughout the world, and in almost every 
case is more serious, more engaging painting than any of the period 
with the exception of the best of the older generation. In arriving at this 
conclusion, which is justified by simple comparison of pictures 
completed between 1953 and 1962 by artists living on both coasts of the 
United States, as well as Europe and Japan, it appears that the original 
animus so evident in the best early works of Still, de Kooning, Rothko, 
Newman and Kline stimulated the highest later achievement on the 
West Coast rather than elsewhere in the world. It is this very quality of 
animosity, anarchy, even hatred, which animates even the sometimes 
lyric achievements of the artists within this exhibition. The rhetorical 



133 



pictures of de Kooning's emulators, exhibited in Tenth Street galleries 
on Manhattan Island, would for the most part not have been accepted 
as student work in the better art schools on the West Coast in the 
middle and late fifties. The artist's intentions as reflected in his art 
became extremely muddled in New York and Europe in the fifties, 
while in California a kind of moral criticism was practiced by the best 
teacher-painters on the work of art students. With the students of 
Clyfford Still it became evident that skill in manipulating paint was a 
very real detriment to be overcome in order to reach a level where a 
student's pictures embody his existential position as accurately as is 
humanly possible. Painting was not judged in terms of innovative uses 
of structure, color or form but rather how intensely it appeared, how it 
revealed the character and morality of the artist. One can characterize 
the difference on both coasts between hypothetical questions: the 
young East Coast artist working in the fifties asked of himself, "How 
can I find a combination of elements which will push painting forward 
and at the same time give me an identity?" On the West Coast the 
question would have been: "How can I find who I am through 
painting?" 

Source: James Monte, catalog 
essay for Late Fifties at the Ferus, 
Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1968. 



134 



Checklist 



Northern California: 
Arlo Acton 

137 Come One, Come Two, 
1963-1964, wood, 84V2X57X42" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of the Women's 
Board 

John Baxter 

138 Samurai, not dated, wood, stone 
and metal, 32x111/2x91/2" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
Mr. Victor Fischer 

Richard Brodney 

139 Bequest, 1953, oil on canvas, 
30x341/8" 

Lent by Private Collection, San 
Francisco, California 

Joan Brown 

140 GirJ in Chair, 1962, oil on canvas, 
60X48" 

Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert H. Ginter 

Claire Falkenstein 

141 PointAs a Set #18,1965 (surface 
reworked in 1976), copper tubing, 
37x39" diameter 

Lent by Tortue Gallery, Santa Monica, 
California 

Faralla 

142 Column A^, 1960, latex on wood, 
541/4x11x11" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
the artist in memory of Edna 
Stoddard Siegriest 

Sonia Gechtoff 

143 Painting No. 4, 1956, oil on 
canvas, 96x48" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
William M. Roth. 

Julius Hatofsky 

144 Voyage Continued 2, 1966, 
oil on canvas, 72 x 72" 

Lent by Smith Andersen Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 



Arthur Holman 

145 Reflection , 1958, oil on canvas, 
66x66" 

Lent anonymously 

Alvin Light 

146 Untitled, 1957, wood and 
pigment, 63x31x18" 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Hansen 
Fuller Gallery, San Francisco, 
California 

147 Untitled, September 1962, wood, 
pigmented epoxy glue and oil, 
119X37X34" 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Hansen 
Fuller Gallery, San Francisco, 
California 

Manuel Neri 

148 Male Figure No. 1 . 1956, enamel 
on plaster, chicken wire and wood, 
611/2X18x17" 

Lent by the artist, courtesy 
Braunstein/Quay Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

149 Standing Plaster Figure, 1959, 
enamel on plaster, 591/2x22x161/4", 
including base 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, William L. Gerstle 
Fund Purchase 

150 Untitled, 1970, fiberglass, 
60x18x12" 

Lent by Private Collection 

Nathan Oliveira 

151 Standing Man with Stick, 1959, 
oil on canvas, 68%x60i/4" 

Lent by The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, New York, Gift of Joseph 
H. Hirshhorn,1959 



135 



Nell Sinton 

152 PJatero #2, 1959, oil on canvas, 
50x60" 

Lent by Dr. and Mrs. K. Roost, 
Hillsborough, California 

Sam Tchakalian 

153 Fia, 1965, oil on canvas, 74x84" 
Lent by Braunstein/Quay Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Carlos Villa 

154 Feather Cape, 1972, analine dye 
and feathers on silk, 66 x 144" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. C. David 
Robinson, Sausalito, California 



James Weeks 

155 Two Children in a Garden, 1962, 
oil on canvas, 43x45" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Francis V. 
Keesling, Jr., San Francisco, 
California 

Paul Wonner 

156 TheNewspaper, 1960, oilon 
canvas, 47V4 x 541/4" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Hamilton and 
Wells Collection 



Southern California: 
John Altoon 

157 Hamburger and Gas Pump, 1959. 
gouache on illustration board, 
30x40" 

Lent by Dr. and Mrs. Merle S. Click, 
Los Angeles, California 

158 Ocean Pork Series #11, 1962, oil 
on canvas, 81 V2 x 84" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Purchase 

Leonard Edmondson 

159 Moon Curve, 1955, watercolor on 
paper, 27x34" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Gifford Phillips, 
Santa Monica, California 

Charles Garabedian 

160 Green China WaJ], 1970, latex 
and resin on wood, 95V2X72V2X4" 
Lent by the artist 



Gilbert Henderson 

161 Atavistic /mage, 1951, oil on 
canvas, 56x36" 

Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Purchase Award, 
Annual Exhibition of Artists of Los 
Angeles and Vicinity 

Ynez Johnston 

162 Alpine Lake, 1956, watercolor on 
paper, 12V4XIOV2" 

Lent by jodi Scully Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

Craig Kaufiman 

163 Tell Tale Heart, 1958, oil on 
canvas, 68V2X49" 

Lent by Vivian Kauffman, Los 
Angeles, California 



136 



John Mason 

164 Vertical Edge, 1961, stoneware, 
64x16x17" 

Lent by Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco. California 

165 Cross Form, 1963, stoneware, 
62x37x15" 

Lent by Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Edward Moses 

166 Untitled, 1958, enamel on paper, 
391/4 X34V2" 

Lent by the artist 

For exhibition at San Francisco 

Museum of Modern Art only 

167 Untitled (roses), 1961, acrylic 
and graphite on paper, 60x40" 
Lent by the artist 

For exhibition at San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art only 

Richards Ruben 

168 Augustin Autumn, 1957, oil on 
canvas, 54V2X46y8" 

Lent by Stanford University Museum 
of Art, Stanford, California, Gift of the 
Committee for Art at Stanford 



James Strombotne 

169 Juliet's Dream, 1965-1966, oil on 
canvas, 48x59" 

Lent by Jodi Scully Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

Peter Voulkos 

170 Sitting Bull, 1959, glazed 
stoneware, 69 x 37 x 37" 

Lent by Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California 

171 Hiro 11, 1967, bronze, 
96X372X72" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 

Art, California, T. B. Walker 

Foundation Fund Purchase 

On exhibition at Justin Herman Plaza, 

The Embarcadero at Washington 

Street, San Francisco 

For exhibition at San Francisco 

Museum of Modern Art only 



137 





137 Arlo Acton Come One, Come Two 1963-1964 



138 John Baxter Samurai not dated 




139 Richard Brodney Bequest 1953 




140 loan Brown Girl in Chair 1962 



138 




141 Claire Falkenstein Point As a Set #18 1965 





142 Faralla Coiumn IV 1960 




143 Sonia Gechtoff Painting No. 4 1956 



144 Julius Hatofsky Voyage Continued 2 1966 



139 




149 Manuel Neri Slanding Plfislur Figure 1959 



140 




151 Nathan Oliveira Standing Man with Stick 1959 







^-^^'W-^mm/^'^ 



\ 



152 NellSinton Platero #2 1959 






153 Sam Tchakalian Fia 1965 



154 Carlos Villa FeatherCape 1972 



141 



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^^^K ^l^^^^^^^^l 


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ap 






ir)5 liimes Weeks Two Chi/dren in n Garden 1962 



156 Paul Wonner The Newspaper 1960 






^pn^ 





irjll Leonard Kdmondson Moon Curve 1955 



157 lohnAltoon Hamburger and Gas Pump 1959 



142 





160 Charles Garabedian Green China Wall 1970 



164 John Mason Vertical Edge 1961 





162 Ynez Johnston Alpine Lake 
1956 



161 Gilbert Henderson Atavistic Image 1951 



143 





168 Richards Ruben August in Autumn 1957 170 Peter Voulkos Sitting Buli 1959 




169 James Strombotne Juliet's Dream 1965-1966 



144 



12 Toward the Personal 



The development in the field of ceramics is one of the first major events 
on the West Coast that reflects a free and independent attitude of the 
artists vis-a-vis the traditional and what is simultaneously taking place 
on the East Coast. Ceramics had so far always been classed as applied 
art. Rebelling against the inherited hierarchical division of media, the 
artists began viewing ceramics in terms of its own specific merits. 
They no longer looked upon it in terms of its usefulness but of the 
possibilities inherent in the material. They were very bold in their 
approach. The story goes that Voulkos, first among peers in the group, 
at one point misread the scale of some reproductions showing 
examples of Japanese ceramics he very much admired and, on that 
basis, set out to free ceramics of its small dimensional proportions. This 
required, however, the solution of some major technical problems. In 
1954, Voulkos came to Los Angeles where he set up a ceramics center 
at the Otis Art Institute; here he was joined by Mason, Price and 
Bengston. Since there existed no hierarchical distance between 
Voulkos and his colleagues, a fruitful exchange of ideas was possible. 
Their joint endeavor resulted in the rediscovery of the essential 
characteristics of the medium clay as a very manageable and plastic 
material which lends itself to more than just the making of 
symmetrically shaped functional pots. 

The younger generation includes William T. Wiley and Bruce Nauman. 
(Their work sometimes is termed 'funk-art.' The term 'funk' is taken 
from music and denotes the combination of heterogeneous forms and 
techniques.) Through Kaspar Konig, both artists came in contact, at a 
relatively early stage, with the work of the German Joseph Beuys. Wiley 
made a great number of aquarel drawings of landscapes in which there 
are all kinds of bizarre objects or bizarre things are happening. The 
scenery is overgrown with the conception of an artificial world which 
finds its full expression in his later assemblage-like constructions. The 
artist draws our attention to the unusual processes we can observe in 
our backyards or which we can imagine. Wiley organized many 
happenings somewhat on the line of the 'fluxus' activities in Europe. 



145 



Wayne Thiebaud is not so much concerned with the social 
environment but rather with the identity of painting method and 
subject (with him often foods such as pastries, cream puffs, ice creams, 
et cetera). As stated above, in his method of painting and application of 
paint, the influence of Clyfford Still, though greatly transformed, is still 
traceable. In his composition, the serial element often plays an 
essential part. We must, however, not overrate the Pop-image aspect of 
his work: Thiebaud professes to be a realist, although he is aware that 
realism rarely, if at all, concerns itself with the choice of these kinds of 
objects, let alone in close-up form. Thiebaud had a telling influence on 
painters like Mel Ramos. Edward Ruscha came to the art school as an 
adman but, disappointed in commercial art, took up painting. His 
activities are twofold: 1. paintings, prints, et cetera, 2. books which he 
designs, publishes and distributes himself. He keeps these two 
activities strictly apart. In his paintings, Ruscha applies the technique 
of commercial advertising. Words like 'Space,' 'Smash,' 'Annie,' he 
paints as is customary for advertisements: flat and schematic; they are 
for him only variable elements. 

Source: )an Leering, catalog essay 
for Kompas 4, West Coast U.S.A., 
Van Abbemuseum Eindhoven, 
Netherlands, 1969. 
Translated from Dutch. 



146 



checklist 



Northern California: 
William Allan 

172 Tentative Assault on Mt. Fear, 
1971, acrylic on canvas, 74XIIIV2" 
Lent by Richard Reisman, San 
Francisco, California 

Terry Allen 

173 The Arizon'ia Spiritual, from 
The Cowboy and the Stranger Series, 
1968, colored ink, oil pastel, colored 
pencil, graphite and contact lettering 
on illustration board with plexiglass 
box, fox head and Arizona State 
patch; tape of song, " Arizon'ia 
Spiritual" and map of Oklahoma 
displacement on verso, 29x23x11/2" 
Lent by Jo Harvey Allen, Fresno, 
California 

174 La Despedida fThe Parting], 
from the Juarez Section of the /uarez 
Series, 1974, colored ink, oil pastel, 
colored pencil, graphite, contact 
lettering, snapshots, burned balsa 
wood and scraps of paper on 
illustration board, 30x40" 

Lent by M. Susan Lewis and Sonny 
Palmer, Fresno, California 

Robert Arneson 

175 Typewriter, 1965, glazed 
earthenware, 61/8x113/8x121/2" 
Lent by University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, University of California, 
Gift of the artist 

176 KiJn Man, 1971, terracotta and 
glazed porcelain, 36x12" diameter 
Lent by Gerald R. Hoepfner, Davis, 
California 

Robert Colescott 

177 The End o/the Trail, 1976, 
acrylic on canvas, 72 x 108" 
Lent by the artist, courtesy John 
Berggruen Gallery, San Francisco, 
California 



Jay DeFeo 

178 The Eyes, 1958, graphite on 
paper mounted on canvas, 

415/8X865/8" * 

Lent by the artist 

179 Doctor Jazz, 1959, oil on paper 
mounted on canvas, 132x42V2" 
Lent by the artist 

Roy De Forest 

180 Equestrian Amazon, 1951, terra 
cotta, 12x33/4x16" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Philip B. Starke, 
San Jose, California 

181 God's Country and the Woman, 
1962-1963, wood, latex, oil and 
polyester resin, 32x28V2X9" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Moses Lasky, 
San Francisco, California 

182 Country Dog Gentlemen, 1972, 
polymer on canvas, 653/4 x 961/4" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Gift of Hamilton and 
Wells Collection 

William Geis 

183 Tensor 1 , 1966, plaster, 
fiberglass, vinyl, tempera and 
enamel, 60x48x48" 

Lent by University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, University of California, 
Gift of Dr. Samuel A. West 

David Gilhooly 

184 Elephant Ottoman #2,1966, 
glazed and stained white 
earthenware, vinyl and plywood, 
81/2x21x221/2" 

Lent by Professor and Mrs. R. Joseph 
Monsen. Seattle, Washington 

Wally Hedrick 

185 Here's Art For 'Em, 1963, oil on 
canvas, 1311/2x433/4" 

Lent by the artist 

Robert Hudson 

186 Space Window, 1966, 
automobile lacquer on steel, 
69X60X57" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Philip E. 
Lilienthal, San Francisco, California 



147 



187 Running Through the Woods, 
1975, stuffed deer, wood, rock, globe, 
metal, string, found objects and 
acrylic, 77x62x50%" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. C. David 
Robinson, Sausalito, California 

Robert Kinmont 

188 Broken thinker's chair repaired 
with three dead birds, 1973, gouache 
on birch and ash, steel, string and 
birds, 37V2XI5V8XI6V2" 

Lent anonymously 

Fred Martin 

189 Do You Know My Name, 1958, 
pencil, watercolor and collage on 
paper, series of twelve, 12x9" each 
Lent by Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

190 Landscapes, Diamond with Sun, 
1959, pencil, watercolor, hide glue 
and collage on paper, series of six, 
9x12" each 

Lent by Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

191 Cock-Book, 1961, pencil, 
watercolor, distemper and hide glue 
on paper, series of six, 9 x 12" each 
Lent by Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Jim Melchert 

192 Silvery Heart, 1965, glazed 
earthenware, 131/2x141/4x13" 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen D. 
Paine, Boston, Massachusetts 

193 Game in Layers #2, 1969, glazed 
earthenware, decals and plexiglass, 
19X24X24" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Purchase 



Don Potts 

194 A Made Blade Loses a Cut Strut 
Winner, 1965, wood and leather, 
78X54X28" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art. California, Gift of Sally Lilienthal 

Mel Ramos 

195 Hunt/ortheBesf,1965,oilon 
canvas, 47% X 30%" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Frederick R. 
Weisman, Beverly Hills, California 

Sam Richardson 

196 Most of that iceberg is below the 
water, 1969, plywood, polyurethane 
foam, polyester resin, fiberglass, 
polyester filler and nitro-cellulose 
lacquers, 10xll%xll%" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Harry W. 
Anderson, Atherton, California 

197 At this section 0/ land it is 
autumn: on browning grass stands a 
bush, 1970-1971, plastic, acrylic 
lacquer and bush, 6V4X49%x3y8", 
including plexiglass base 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Harry W. 
Anderson, Atherton, California 

Peter Saul 

198 Cowboy, 1974, acrylic on canvas, 
72x56" 

Lent by Rena Bransten, San 
Francisco, California 

Ursula Schneider 

199 Here 6- There, 1973. vinyl, 
acrylic and hair, 48x60" 

Lent by Dr. and Mrs. Sandor Burstein, 
San Francisco, California 

Richard Shaw 

200 Couch Landscape, 1965, acrylic 
on white earthenware and wood, 
11X26X11" 

Lent by Rena Bransten, San 
Francisco, California 



148 



Wayne Thiebaud 

201 Five Hot Dogs, 1961, oil on 
canvas, 18x24" 

Lent by John Bransten, San Francisco, 
California 

202 Pies, 1961, oil on canvas, 24x 30" 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Harry W. 
Anderson, Atherton, California 

William T. Wiley 

203 Columbus Re-Routed #3,1962, 
oil on canvas, two panels, 71^x141" 
overall 

Lent by E. B. Crocker Art Gallery, 
Sacramento, California, Cift of the 
Crocker Art Gallery Association with 
matching funds provided from the 
National Endowment for the Arts 



204 AJJ That Grass, 1966, acrylic on 
canvas, 65 V4X 723/4" 

Lent by Private Collection 

205 American Rope Trick, 1968, 
wood, rope and rock, 36 x 24 x 64" 
Lent by Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

206 HideAs a State 0/ Mind, 1971, 
ink and watercolor on paper, 
22V2X3OV4" 

Lent by Des Moines Art Center, Iowa, 
Dr. Maurice H. Noun Bequest Fund, 
1971 



Southern California: 
Vija Celmins 

207 Clouds, 1967, graphite on paper, 
263/4x391/4" 

Lent by Joni and Monte Gordon 
Family, Los Angeles, California 

208 Eraser, 1970, painted wood, 
3X2OX6V2" 

Lent by ]oni and Monte Gordon 
Family, Los Angeles, California 

James Eller 

209 Rat Garage, circa 1956, painted 
toy metal parking garage and toy 
rubber rats, 13 x 14 V2 x 25" 

Lent by Thomas Eatherton, Santa 
Monica, California 



Joe Goode 

210 Happy Birthday, 1961, oil on 
canvas with painted milk bottle, 
68X68"; bottle, 83/4x33/3x33/8" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Extended loan of the 
Janss Foundation 

211 HnfitJed (staircase), 1965-1971, 
wood and carpet, 48V4 x 70 x 49 V2" 
Lent by the artist 

212 Torn Cloud, 1975, oil on canvas, 
60x60" 

Lent by Private Collection, Los 
Angeles, California 

Lloyd Hamrol 

213 BJondie, 1960, painted wood, 
31X15x103/8" 

Lent anonymously 



149 



Phillip Hefferton 

214 Sinking George, 1962, oil on 
canvas, 90x67" 

Lent by Betty and Monte Factor 
Family Collection, Los Angeles, 
California 

Jerry McMillan 

215 Bronze Bag, 1971, bronze plating 
on paper, 16x12x10" 

Lent by The Fort Worth Art Museum, 
Texas 

Richard Pettibone 

216 Andy Warhol. Pepper Pot. 1962., 
1964, oil on canvas, OxsVs", 

Lent anonymously 

Kenneth Price 

217 Lou Minor Drake, 1960, glazed 
earthenware, wood, glass and lace, 
11x91/2X61/2" 

Lent anonymously 



218 L. Blue, 1961, glazed and 
lacquered clay, 6x 7%x5V2" 
Lent by the artist 

219 SilverDome, 1961, lacquered 
and glazed clay, 68V2X21%xl5", 
including wood pedestal 

Lent by James J. Meeker, Fort Worth, 
Texas 

Roland Reiss 

220 Adventures in the Painted 
Desert; A Murder Mystery, 1975-1976, 
wood, stone, plastic, glass and metal, 
12x48x48" 

Lent by the artist 

Edward Ruscha 

221 Standard Station with lOc 
Western, 1963, oil on canvas, 65 x 122" 
Lent by James J. Meeker, Fort Worth, 
Texas 

222 City, 1968, oil on canvas, 55x48" 
Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago, 
Illinois, 20th Century Purchase Fund 



150 





172 William Allan Tentative Assault on Mt Fear 1971 



176 Robert Arneson Kiln Man 1971 




174 Terry Allen La Despedida (The ParlingJ 1974 




177 Robert Colescott The End of the Trail 1976 



151 




178 layDeFeo The Eyes 1958 




183 William Geis Tensor 1 1966 





181 Roy De Forest God's Country and the Woman 
1962-1963 



184 David Gilhooly Elephant Otlumun #2 1966 



152 





186 Robert Hudson Space Windoiv 1966 



185 WallyHedrick Here's Art For 'Em 
1963 





189 Fred Martin Detail from: Do 
You Know My Name 1958 



188 Robert Kinmont Broken thinker's chair 
repaired with three dead birds 1973 



153 





192 Jim Melchert Silvery Heart 1965 



194 Don Potts A Made Blade Loses a Cut Strut Winner 
1965 





196 Sam Richardson Most of that iceberg is below 
the n-ater 1969 



195 Mel Ramos Huiil for the Bi-st 1965 



154 





198 Peter Saul Cowboy 1974 



199 Ursula Schneider Here S- There 1973 





200 Richard Shaw Couch Landscape 1965 201 Wayne Thiebaud Five Hot Dogs 1961 



155 




203 William T.Wiley Columbus Re-Routed #3 1962 




208 VijaCelmins Eraser 19/0 





210 loeGoode Happy Birthday 1961 



209 lames Eller Rat Garage circa 1956 



156 





213 Lloyd Hamrol BJondie 1960 



216 Richard Pettibone Andy Warhol, 
Pepper Pot. 1962. 1964 



iJ irniTTniLiiiiiiiiiiiunTiiDiiMrnii ijiin 



CERTS^IFIES THAT THERE 15 ON DEPOSIT IN THE TREASU_KY_OF uF OF OF 



@)f'J^ 





215 lerry McMillan Bronze Bag 
1971 



214 Phillip Hefferton Sinking George 1962 



157 





219 Kenneth Price Silver Dome 1961 220 Roland Reiss Adventures in tlie Painted Desert; A Murder Mystery 1975-1976 




221 Edward Ruscha Standurd Slulion with U)c Western 1963 



158 



13 Collage /Assemblage and the 
Visual Metaphor 



In California the style known as Assemblage is a covert art. It belongs to 
a small, arcane group of underground artists who draw upon a common 
source of literary, symbolic and visual metaphors which derive from a 
shared ambience as well as a close personal friendship and empathy for 
one another. All the artists in this exhibition are social critics of 
extreme candor who compulsively mirror their reaction to 
contemporary society. Critical to their work is the employment of 
human detritus, discarded and worn out objects which replace the 
conventional use of oil paint and canvas. The iconography informing 
the work of these artists is very often oblique and can only be decoded 
by the inner circle. For the most part, the artists in this exhibition are 
more concerned with a life style than making works of art, though very 
obviously their end product is distinctly art. Their art tends to be 
biographical and is very often ephemeral in quality. Generally 
speaking, these artists refuse to compromise their art for the sake of 
permanence. The exception to this is Edward Kienholz who engineers 
his work to a remarkable degree and bonds his surfaces with various 
plastics. Wallace Herman, Ben Talbert and Fred Mason tend to keep 
their work private. Bruce Conner who at one time sought public 
exhibition now reverses his position and has recently sought to 
repossess his work. George Herms appears to be completely indifferent 
to the fate of his art once it leaves his hands. Of all these artists Edward 
Kienholz has been the most active in attempting to force public 
institutions to exhibit his work without censorship. 

Source: John Coplans, 
acknowledgment for 
Assemblage in California, Art 
Gallery, University of California, 
Irvine, 1968. 



159 



Checklist 



Northern California: 
Paul Beattie 

223 Dark Sun, 1965, collage: 
printer's ink on paper, 11x9^8" 
Lent by the artist 

Bruce Conner 

224 Rat Bastard #2,1959, wood, 
nylon, nut shells, magazine 
reproduction, marbles, wax and 
feathers , 1 53/4 X 11 1/4 X 2 V2" 

Lent by Charles Cowles 

225 Child, 1959-1960, wax figure, 
wood high chair, nylon, cloth, metal 
and twine, 345/8x17x161/2" 

Lent by The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, New York, Gift of Philip 
Johnson, 1970 

226 Globe, 1964, acrylic on world 
globe and metal, 29 x 18%" diameter 
Lent by Braunstein/Quay Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Jess 

227 Tricky Cad , circa 1959, collage: 
newspaper on illustration board, 
19x7" 

Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Bruce Conner 



228 Fig. 204. — Gastro-duodenostomy 
(KocherJ, 1969, oil on canvas over 
wood, 33X25" 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago, 
Illinois, 20th Century Purchase Fund 

Harold Paris 

229 Chai 14, 1969, vacuum-formed 
polyvinyl, 8V2X20V2XI7V4" 

Lent by University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, University of California, 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Anton 
Marguleas, San Francisco 

Clay Spohn 

230 Precious Objects, circa 1949, 
metal and glass gum dispenser filled 
with toothpicks, cigarette butts, 
ashes, torn postcards, letter frag- 
ments, rhinestones and cloth rose, 
121/4x73/4x73/4" 

Lent by the Collection of The 
Oakland Museum, California, Gift of 
the artist 



Southern California: 
Robert Alexander 

231 Untitled, 1956, blood and typed 
poem on paper mounted on 
cardboard, 25VbX\7%" (sight) 

Lent by Sid Zaro, Los Angeles, 
California 

Ed Bereal 

232 Focke-WuI/FW 109, 1960, metal, 
canvas, pipes, paint and nails, 
21V4XI2X6" 

Lent by Betty and Monte Factor 
Family Collection, Los Angeles, 
California 

233 Stuka-/U 87, 1960, metal, 
canvas, pipes, paint and nails, 
14 V2X 11x31/2" 

Lent by Betty and Monte Factor 
Family Collection, Los Angeles, 
California 



Tony Berlant 

234 The Heart ofthe Deep, 1970, 
wood, polyester, tin, enamel, nails 
and whale's tooth, IIV2X7V8XIO" 
Lent by Edwin Janss, Thousand Oaks, 
California 

Wallace Barman 

235 SeminaNos. 1-9.1955-1964, 
assembled publication, each issue 
containing loose sheets with poems, 
drawings and photographs by various 
artists, in various containers; nine 
different sizes, from 73/3x4" to 11 x 9" 
Lent by Hal Glicksman, Venice. 
California 

236 Untitled, 1956, ink on treated 
paper mounted on canvas, 193/8 x 19 V4" 
Lent anonymously 



160 



237 UntitJed, 1956-1957, ink on 
treated paper mounted on canvas, 
19V2XI9V2" 

Lent by Mrs. Allen Bleiweiss, Los 
Angeles, California 

238 UntitJed, circa 1956-1957, ink on 
treated paper mounted on canvas, 
191/2x191/2" 

Lent by Hal Glicksman, Venice, 
California 

239 UntitJed, 1965-1968, verifax 
collage, 24x261/8" 

Lent by Dean Stockwell, Topanga, 
California 

240 UntitJed , circa 1966, verifax 
collage, 12x13" 

Lent by Timothy Corcoran, Los 
Angeles, California 

241 Untitled, 1967, verifax collage 
mounted on plywood, 48x451/4" 
Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, The Kleiner 
Foundation Gift of Contemporary Art 
through the Contemporary Art 
Council 

242 UntitJed , circa 1967-1968, 
verifax collage, 24 x 26" 

Lent by Sid Zaro, Los Angeles, 
California 

243 UntitJed, 1973, wood, rock, 
chain, paint, photograph and glass, 
91/2x91/2x6" 

Lent by Edwin Janss, Thousand Oaks, 
California 

Judy Chicago 

244 Transformation Painting, 1973, 
sprayed acrylic and felt-tip pen on 
canvas, 40i/8x40V8" 

Lent by Deborah Marrow and Michael 
McGuire, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

William Dole 

245 Printout, 1969, collage: 
watercolor on paper, 171/2XI6" 
Lent by Jodi Scully Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 



Llyn Foulkes 

246 FJanders, 1961-1962, 
polyethylene, canvas, acrylic, 
enamel, newspaper and wood, two 
units: 54x36x14"; I6XI53/4" 

Lent by Ernest and Eunice White, Los 
Angeles, California 

George Herms 

247 Three Cross, 1961, wood, wood 
cabinet door and metal faucet handle, 
25x17x81/2" 

Lent by Diana Zlotnick, Studio City, 
California 

248 Greet the Circus with a SmiJe, 
1962, wood, dressmaker's dummy, 
feathers, photographs, magazine 
pages, cloth, metal, cushion and 
found objects, 68 x 281/2 x 20" 
Lent by Ed Gregson, Los Angeles, 
California 

Daniel La Rue Johnson 

249 UntitJed, 1961, painted wood, 
wax and doll's head, 5% x 45/3 x 3%" 
Lent anonymously 

Edward Kienholz 

250 George Warshington in Drag, 
1957, painted wood relief, 
311/2x35x3" 

Lent anonymously 

251 Jane Doe, 1959, wood sewing 
chest with fur-rimmed drawers, head 
and neck of female mannequin, skirt 
of white bridal dress and oil, 
42X27X16" 

Lent by Laura Lee Stearns, Los 
Angeles, California 
For exhibition at San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art only 

252 /ohn Doe, 1959, two halves of 
armless male mannequin, child's 
perambulator and oil, 41x19x34" 
Lent by Sterling HoUoway, Laguna 
Beach, California 



161 



253 The Illegal Operation, 1962, 
fiberglassed shopping cart, furniture, 
concrete, medical implements and 
rug, 59x48x54" 

Lent by Betty and Monte Factor 

Family Collection, Los Angeles, 

California 

For exhibition at the San Francisco 

Museum of Modern Art only 

Fred Mason 

254 Super Ball , 1960, wood, basket, 
doll's plaster arms and legs, hair, 
feathers, mirror, cloth and dried rose, 
26X201/2X5" 

Lent by the artist 

255 Up's Brother, 1963, wood, 
rubber, leather holster, metal, doll's 
body, lace, magazine reproduction, 
photographs, cardboard, glove and 
dried rose, 30xl3V2x5" 

Lent by the artist 

Arthur Richer 

256 Semper Fi, 1957, oil on canvas, 
65X45" 

Lent by George Herms, Los Angeles, 
California 

Betye Saar 

257 Black Girl's Window, 1969, wood 
window frame, glass, color etchings, 
ink on paper, daguerreotype, cloth, 
paint and found objects, 35y4Xl8xlV2" 
Lent by the artist 

258 The Time Inbefween, 1974, wood 
box, magazine reproductions, leather 
glove, fan, jewelry and found objects, 
31/4x111/2x8" (closed) 

Lent by the artist 



Ben Talbert 

259 The Ace, 1961-1962, artist's 
easel, bicycle wheel, airplane wings, 
photograph, paper collage and oil, 
96x50x38" 

Lent by Hal Glicksman, Venice, 
California 

260 Registered Trademark, 1963, 
collage: magazine reproductions and 
colored and printed paper on paper, 
103/4x81/4" (sight) 

Lent by )ohn E. Talbert, West Covina, 
California 

261 Someone Pulled Out the Plug, 
1963, collage: newspaper and 
magazine reproductions on paper, 
101/4 X 71/8" 

Lent by )ohn E. Talbert, West Covina, 
California 

Stephan von Huene 

262 Totem Tone II, 1970, wood, 
leather, plexiglass, metal and 
pneumatic valves, 871/2x30^8x20" 
Lent by Mr. and Mrs. William M. 
Roth, San Francisco, California 



162 





223 PaulBeattie Dark Sun 1965 



225 Bruce Conner Child 1959-1960 





229 Harold Paris Choi 14 1969 



227 Jess Tricky Cad 
circa 1959 



163 





230 Clay Spohn Precious Objects 
circa 1949 



234 Tony Berlant The Heart of 
the Deep 1970 




232 EdBereal Focke-Wul/FW 109 1960 




231 Robert Alexander Untitled 1956 



164 



* V 

■ -, -J -■ 


■ ■■^l 




. • ■ T 




245 William Dole Printout 1969 



243 Wallace Barman Untitled 1973 




i44 )udy Chicago Transformation Painting 1973 





246 Llyn Foulkes Flanders 1961-1962 



165 



■aan 





248 George Herms Greet the Circus with 
a Smile 1962 



249 Daniel La Rue lohnson Untitled 
1961 





254 Fred Mason Super Ball 1960 



252 Edward Kienholz John Doe 1959 



166 





256 Arthur Richer Semper Fi 1957 



258 Betye Saar The Time Inbetween 
1974 





262 Stephan von Huene Totem Tone 11 1970 



259 BenTalbert The Ace 1961-1962 



167 



4 Color and Field Abstraction 



Color has played a major role in California painting and sculpture in 
both the Bay Area and Southern California from the very beginning of 
this century. In Oakland, in the 1920's, the Society of Six saturated their 
tiny canvases with joyful color reminiscent of the French Fauves. 
Stanton Macdonald-Wright, along with Morgan Russell and others, 
founded the international movement of Synchromism in Paris in 1912, 
which was based upon scientifically worked chromatic scales of color. 
Macdonald-Wright brought his ideas back to Los Angeles in 1919. 

Recent history shows that while color has been important to Northern 
California artists, especially its unique use in the sculpture of Seymour 
Locks, Jeremy Anderson, Manuel Neri and Robert Hudson, it remained 
for Los Angeles artists to give color a position of primacy in their work. 

In the 1930's Peter Krasnow and Oskar Fischinger were using geo- 
metric modules to contain their clean, opaque and transparent color 
studies. By the late 1940's the Los Angeles Abstract Classicists, John 
McLaughlin and Lorser Feitelson, had achieved a color and form 
expression which rivalled the sophistication of Josef Albers. 

Of the next generation probably Billy Al Bengston was the first to reach 
beyond traditional oil paint on canvas to achieve new and strikingly 
heightened color effects. Multiple sprayed layers of automobile 
lacquer on primed masonite gave his work the highly reflective but 
translucent surface of a surfboard. Kenneth Price and later John 
McCracken would utilize similar effects in their work. 

Robert Irwin's minimal line paintings of the early 1960's started him on 
an extended journey of extracting the essence of light and its colors 
from a variety of new materials for artists including spun aluminum, 
plexiglass, cast acrylic and, most recently, fabric scrim. 



168 



Craig Kauffman's vacuum-formed plastic wall units, paint-coated from 
the back, allow light to penetrate the surface and bounce back 
shimmering color sequences. The cast acrylic work of Peter Alexander, 
DeWain Valentine and Frederick Eversley provide similarly enhanced 
optical effects through translucency. 

Larry Bell, by applying vacuumed-attached colorants to glass surfaces, 
reaches for the ultimate cognizance of light and color in harmonious 
conjunction. 

Based on the work of these experimentors, young artists such as Jim 
Turrell, Maria Nordman, Michael Asher, Eric Orr and others are 
stretching light and color into fully saturated environmental chambers. 

In a more traditional vein the brilliant color handling and grand scale 
of Sam Francis, Ronald Davis, Tom Holland and the recent work by 
Richard Diebenkorn combine to absorb the viewer into expansive fields 
the Fauves could only dream of. 

HT.H. 



169 



checklist 



Northern California: 
Fletcher Benton 

263 SynchroneticC-2500-S,1969, 
stainless steel, plexiglass and motor, 
631/2x713/8X6%", including 
plexiglass base 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Harry W. 
Anderson, Atherton, California 

Tony DeLap 

264 Tango Tangles III, 1966, lacquer 
on wood and fiberglass, 39x39x39" 
Lent by Long Beach Museum of Art, 
California 

Tom Holland 

265 Untitled, from Berkeley 
Series, 1970, epoxy on fiberglass, 
9IX67V2" 

Lent by The Fort Worth Art Museum, 
Texas, Gift of Mr. J. J. Meeker 



David Jones 

266 Untitled , 1976, lacquer on steel, 
wood and fiberglass, 78V4X93V4" 
Lent by the artist 

Gregg Renfrow 

267 Untitled, 1976, polymer and 
fibermesh, two panels, 69x99" 
overall 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Eugene C. 
Payne, III, San Francisco, California 
For exhibition at San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art only 

David Simpson 

268 Red V\Iave, 1965, co-polymer on 
canvas, 66x66" 

Lent by La Jolla Museum of 
Contemporary Art, California 



Southern California: 
Peter Alexander 

269 Untitled, 1968, cast polyester 
resin, 661/2 X6V4X6V4" 

Lent by University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, University of California 

Charles Arnold! 

270 Boggie, 1973, acrylic on tree 
branches, 96X96" 

Lent by Robert A. Rowan, Pasadena, 
California 

Larry Bell 

271 Conrad Hawk, 1962, acrylic 
polymer on canvas and glass, 
601/8X6578X33/4" 

Lent by the artist 

272 Untitled, 1968, coated glass with 
vaporized metallic compounds and 
metal, 18i/8X18i/bX 181/3" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Extended loan of 
Rena Bransten 



273 Untitled, 1968, coated glass with 
vaporized metallic compounds and 
metal, 36x36x36" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. C. David 
Robinson. Sausalito, California 

Billy Al Bengston 

274 Bridgette, 1959-1960, oil on 
canvas, 171/3x13" 

Lent anonymously 

275 Buster, 1962, oil and sprayed 
lacquer on masonite, 60 x 60" 
Lent by La Jolla Museum of 
Contemporary Art, California 

276 Lady /rem Louisiana, 1968, 
acrylic lacquer on metal, 
12x111/4x11/2" 

Lent by The Fort Worth Art Museum, 
Texas, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Andrew P. 
Fuller 



170 



Ronald Davis 

277 #110 Frame, 1969, polyester 
resin and fiberglass, 50y2X 140V2" 
Lent by Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

278 Bridge through Frame, 1976, 
acrylic on canvas, 114x 122V2" 

Lent by Berta and Frank Gehry, Santa 
Monica, California 

Richard Diebenkom 

279 Ocean Park #53, 1972, oil on 
canvas, 100x76" 

Lent by San Antonio Museum 
Association, Texas, Purchased with 
aid of funds from the National 
Endowment for the Arts and the 
Brown Foundation 

Laddie John Dill 

280 Untitled, 1975, cement, polymer 
and glass on plywood, 84x60" 

Lent by James Corcoran Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

Frederick Eversley 

281 Untitled , 1971 , cast polyester 
resin, 36V2" diameterx9y8" 

Lent by the artist 

Sam Francis 

282 Blue BaJJs 1,1960, oil on canvas, 
119x1611/2" 

Lent by the artist 

283 Upper Yellow, 1967, acryUc on 
canvas, 865/8X1575/8" 

Lent by the artist 



Robert Irwin 

284 A Bed ojYKoses, 1962, oil on 
canvas, 66x65" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Sid R. Bass, Fort 
Worth, Texas 

285 Untitled, 1964-1966, oil on 
bowed convex canvas, 84x84" 
Lent by Melinda Wortz, Pasadena, 
California 

286 Untitled, 1968, sprayed 
plexiglass, 53" diameter x 24" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, T. B. Walker 
Foundation Fund Purchase 

Richard Jackson 

287 Untitled, 1976, canvas, wood 
and acrylic on wall, two walls, 
166X103" each 

Courtesy Daniel Weinberg Gallery, 
San Francisco, California 
Work created for site 

Craig Kaufiman 

288 Untitled VtlaW Relief, 1967, 
vacuum-formed plexiglass, 
50x72x15" 

Lent by Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, California, Gift of the Kleiner 
Foundation 



171 



John McCracken 

289 Column (blue), 1975, polyester 
resin, 90 X20V2XIOV2" 

Lent by Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

Edward Moses 

290 Hagamatama, 1972, acrylic on 
canvas and plastic resin, 84 x 108" 
Lent by Edwin Janss, Thousand Oaks, 
California 

Peter Plagens 

291 The Grave of Reason , 1976, oil 
and acrylic on canvas, 68x90" 

Lent by Nancy Hoffman Gallery, New 
York, New York 

Michael Todd 

292 Ako's Enso, 1976, varnished, 
welded steel, 114x112x50" 
approximately 

Lent by the artist, courtesy The 

Zabriskie Gallery, New York, New 

York 

For exhibition at National Collection 

of Fine Arts only 

293 Untitled, 1976, varnished, 
welded steel, 114x112x50" 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Nicholas 

Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, 

California 

For exhibition at San Francisco 

Museum of Modern Art only 



DeWain Valentine 

294 Triple Disk, 1966, fiberglass 
reinforced plastic, 72x84x72" 
Lent by the artist 

Guy Williams 

295 Untitled, 1960, oil on canvas, 
96x66" 

Lent by the artist 

Tom Wudl 

296 Untitled, 1972, acrylic polymer 
and gold leaf on perforated rice paper 
imbedded with maple and bamboo 
leaves, laminated with polymer, 
72X60" 

Lent by the Grinstein Family, Los 
Angeles, California 

Richard Yokomi 

297 Untitled, 1975, acrylic on 
synthetic canvas, 82y2x80" 

Lent by Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 



172 




263 Fletcher Benton Synchronetic C-2500-S 1969 




266 David Jones Untitled 1976 





265 Tom Holland Untitled, from Berkeley Series 1970 



264 Tony DeLap Tango Tangles III 1966 



173 





2liH David Simpson Hed Wave 19ii5 



269 Peter Alexander Untitled 1968 




^Ii7 Cii'HK Ki'iilnnv Cnlillcd 1976 




270 Charles Arnoldi Boggie 1973 



174 






1 



1 



279 Richard Diebenkorn Ocean Park #53 1972 




!;■ 




272 Larry Bell Untitled 1968 




275 Billy Al Bengston Buster 1962 



175 




280 Laddie lohn Dill Untitled 1975 





288 Craig Kauffman Untitled Wall Relief 1967 



287 Richard |ackson Untitled 1976 



176 





289 John McCracken Column (blue) 1975 290 Edward Moses Hagamatama 1972 




291 Peter Plagens The Grave o/ Reason 1976 




293 Michael Todd Untitled 1976 



177 




295 Guy Williams Untitled 1960 





297 Richard Yokomi Untilied 1975 



29(5 ■lomVVudl Untitled 1972 



178 



15 New Realism and The 
Visionaries 



New Realism 

"Beyond the Actual" implies more than the considerable skill of faith- 
fully rendering the factual literalness of a given subject. The artist is 
not a camera. The mind's eye is quite a different thing than the camera's 
lens as the image registered on the retina is always conditioned by 
human experience. Nevertheless, high fidelity to the actual subject 
appears to be unusually prevalent among a majority of these painters 
but it is a state best considered a means to another end. Most feel the 
reality of their work, its meaning, is reached beyond the literal ... in this 
sense, it is para-realistic! 

Located in major metropolitan cities: San Francisco, Oakland, Los 
Angeles, and Sacramento, the works of these artists initially seem to 
have much in common. A number of them are close friends, yet each 
works independently; and collectively, their works cannot be 
categorized as a school of painting with a common structure and 
purpose. 

If reasons exist which tend to unite these painters, they lie more in 
what has been rejected i.e., expressionism, the non-objective and 
abstract, and perhaps in technical aspects of their style. For example, 
use of the oil medium by the majority indicates the speed of com- 
pleting a painting is of secondary importance for many spend 
hundreds of hours in completing a painting. 

Source: Donald Brewer, catalog 
essay for Beyond the ActuaJ- 
Contemporary California Realist 
Painting, Pioneer Museum and 
Haggin Galleries, Stockton, 
California, 1970. 



179 



The Visionaries 

A strong, richly fertile undercurrent in the San Francisco area has been 
felt by a group of Bay Area painters who are utilizing it to produce a 
highly refreshing style of art. This new style is characterized by its 
intense introspective and spiritual qualities, its instructive nature and 
its dazzling technical skill. This "movement" has already been labeled 
visionary painting. 

To a degree this development has received ripples from earlier San 
Francisco movements. Conventions found in the forms of the poster- 
makers and psychedelic artists, content of the vast rock-music and 
light show performances, as well as the symbolism of Eastern and 
primitive religions and ancient occult societies, all have contributed 
raw source material. 

Yet the innovations produced by these visionaries have not come about 
only through immersion in these spiritual streams. They are often 
nourished through feeding upon, or reacting to, the events of past art 
history through the expansion or development of all but forgotten 
forms and concepts. The imagery and content within the work of these 
artists contain visual footnotes which refer to the contributions of other 
schools. 

Most immediate of these is a surface resemblance to the work of the 
surrealist, metaphysical and fantasy painters of the early part of our 
century. The difference between them lies not so much in method and 
technique but in motives and what today might be called group 
dynamics. 

The intensity and profusion of symbols which represent the 
subconscious are a measure of the San Francisco's group faith in the 
richness of its content. They simply want to use it to reach, touch, and, 
if possible, change people. They are more like emissaries projecting the 
more human possibilities of other realities. 

Perhaps reversing the idea of the earlier surrealists, these visionaries 
convey the sense that the conscious world is now that dark "Other 
Side;" conversely, the unconscious world — their primary source — is 
the only possible channel to a new alternate reality. They are trying to 
show the delight and mystery of this shadow land's erotic and sensual 
nature. 

Source: Donald Brewer, catalog 
essay for Other Landscapes and 
Shadow Land, University of 
Southern California Art Galleries, 
Los Angeles, 1971. 



180 



checklist 



New Realism 
Northern California: 
Robert Bechtie 

298 '60 T-Bird, 1967-1968, oil on 
canvas, 72x983/4" 

Lent by University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, University of California 

Ralph Goings 

299 Paul's Corner, 1970, oil on 
canvas, 48x75%" 

Lent by Max Palevsky, Los Angeles, 
California 

Howard Hack 

300 Window #21, F. Uri Meat Co., 
1967, oil on canvas, 84% x 109" 
San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Extended loan of Mr. 
and Mrs. Harry V/. Anderson 



Richard McLean 

301 Still Li/e with Black Jockey, 
1969, oil on canvas, 60x60" 
Lent by Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, New York 

Joseph Raffael 

302 Water Painting IV, 1973, oil on 
canvas, 78xll4" 

Lent by Private Collection, San 
Francisco, California 



Southern California: 
Robert Graham 

303 #2 Mirror, 1971-1973, bronze and 
mirror, edition of 6, 10y4X29y8X23y8" 
Lent by the artist 

304 Single Figure, 1973-1976, bronze, 
edition of 3, 66x9x9" 

Lent by the artist 

Maxwell Hendler 

305 BeerbottJe, 1968-1969, oil on 
canvas, 9X10" 

Lent by the artist 



Paul Sarkisian 

306 Untitled, 1970, acrylic on canvas, 
1171/4x141" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Gene A. Estribou, 
Big Sur, California 

James Valerio 

307 Swan Lake and SignoreJJi's 
Lament, 1974, oil on canvas, 96x112" 
Lent by the artist 



181 



The Visionaries 
Northern California: 
Tom Akawie 

308 Pyramid Sunset, 1974, 
airbrushed acrylic on masonite, 
9V2" diameter 

Lent by the artist 

309 PoIlyAnn Bakery, 1975, 
airbrushed acrylic on masonite, 
7x11" 

Lent by the artist 

Nick Hyde 

310 Urp, 1972-1973, oil on canvas, 
84x61 1/4" 

Lent by the artist 



Bill Martin 

311 /Autumn, 1974-1976, oil on 
canvas, 55" diameter 

Lent by Nancy Hoffman Gallery, New 
York, New York 

Norman Stiegelmeyer 

312 The Fluorescent Dancer Enters 
the Temple of the Golden Skull, 1967, 
acrylic on canvas, 65V2X67%" 

Lent by the artist 

Gage Taylor 

313 Holy Grove, 1975, oil on canvas, 
48" diameter 

Lent by Gallery Rebecca Cooper, 
Washington, D.C. 



Southern California: 
ClififMcReynolds 

314 A New Earth (11 Peter 3:13). 1976, 
oil on canvas, 40x40" 
Lent by Gallery Rebecca Cooper, 
Washington, D.C. 



182 





298 Robert Bechtle '60 T-Bird 1967-1968 



300 Howard Hack Window #21, F. Uri Meal Co. 1!)()7 




iiiiiiiiili^^ 

301 Richard McLean Stili Li/e with Black Jockey 
1969 




^S#^^! 



^jf'-^W-r-.-t 











302 Joseph Kdll.i. I IVuter Painting (V 1973 




183 





304 Robert Graham Single Figure 
1973-1976 



306 Paul Sarkisian Untitled 1970 




305 Maxwell Hendler Beerbollle 1968-1969 




307 James Valerio Sivan Lake and Signorelli's Lament 1974 



184 




311 Bill Martin Autumn 1974-1976 




313 Gage Taylor Holy Grove 1975 




312 Norman Stiegelmeyer The Fluorescent Dancer 
Enters the Temple of the Golden Skull 1967 




314 Cliff McReynolds A New Earth (JJ Peter 3;I3J 
1976 




310 Nick Hyde Urp 1972-1973 



185 



16 Conceptual, Environmental and Performance 



Conceptual art, performance art and environmental art, each have a 
quickly increasing group of practitioners and supporters in California 
as they do in the rest of the world, for it is this aspect of California art, 
both Southern and Northern, which has been absorbed most com- 
pletely into the international spectrum. Tom Marioni, founder of the 
Museum of Conceptual Art in San Francisco, Terry Fox, Bruce 
Nauman, Chris Burden, Michael Asher and others are probably better 
known in Italy, Germany and Yugoslavia than they are in California or 
the United States in general. 

The seeds of the ideas now flowering in these movements were 
planted in the 1920's in Europe. They were seedlings when used by 
Rauschenberg, Dine, Oldenburg, Tinguely, Cage and Kienholz in the 
1950's and 1960's. But, the harvesters, as participators and audiences, 
are the anti-object, post-museum generation of the 1970's. And, while 
it is understandable and seemingly desirable that internationalism 
should dominate the thinking of this generation there is still visible the 
vestigal remains of a sense of place as evidenced in the following 
statement. (H.T.H) 

"In the spaces created by Nauman, Orr, Wheeler, Asher, Irwin, Turrell 
and Nordman it is not in fact possible to escape the identity of one's 
body. Everything is reduced to perceiving a phenomenon which 
swings from within to without and vice versa, without settling on any 
object or crystallized and quantified product. By reducing references to 
quantified images to a maximum and polarizing the sense upon simple 
events of sound and light, these artists want the body's periphery to cut 
down its attention to external objects and to 'convey' itself towards 
inward processes, so that the person's enteroceptive sensitivity will 
then exalt the visceral sensations and their ways of association and 
experience. 



186 



These spaces, unlike European ones which are laden with optical and 
visual complications, being permeated with emptiness and nothing- 
ness, immobility and non-images, do in fact bring on a state of 
concentration and inward meditation. They seem to take one into 
non-matter, but this sensation turns out to be 'full of things,' chief 
among which are initially the elementary and minimal presence of 
light and sound, and then oneself. After having felt and tested the 
minimum alterations of the effects of light and sound, one feels the 
need to be alone with oneself, to sit down quietly, without moving, and 
to wait for something to happen. In this way one attains what is called 
the 'alfa state' — a 'calm, watchful, relaxed state, open to every pleasant 
experience,' in which 'one remains watchful, widening one's attention 
in all directions.' In this state, the visitor draws the experience into his 
own orbit of attention, so that the space, in its within and in its without, 
is merged together and the experience rediscovers itself." 

Source: Germano Celant, 
"Arte Ambientale Californiana," 
Domus, No. 547, June 1975. 
Translated from Italian. 



187 



Checklist 



Northern California: 
Terry Fox 

315 Our li/e /lows 800 times slower 
than a fly's /One minute for us is 12 
hours/orthe/iy, 1971-1976, black and 
white photographs and glass jar, 
series of 54 photographs, 72 x 72" 
overall; glass jar, 10x7" diameter 
Lent by the artist 

Howard Fried 

316 Synchromafic Baseball, 
1971-1976, documentation of event, 
San Francisco, California, September 5, 
1971, black and w^hite photographs 
and photostats, 46x53" 

Lent by the artist 

Tom Marioni 

317 Announcement of artist's 
appointment as Director of San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1973, offset 
lithography on card, 3% x 5%" 

Lent anonymously 

Bruce Nauman 

318 Untitled, 1965, fiberglass, 
83 X 48x31/2" 

Lent by Private Collection 

319 Window orWall Sign, 1967, blue 
and peach neon tubing, 59x55" 
Lent by Leo Castelli Gallery, New 
York, New York 

320 Untitled, 1974, pencil on paper, 
28x41" 

Lent by Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 



Darryl Sapien 

321 Sel/-Portrait, 1976, colored 
pencil and graphite on acetate, two 
drawings, 30y2X30V2"each 

Lent by the artist 

322 Studies for "Within the 
Nucleus," 1976, performance at San 
Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 
California, March 27, 1976; 
performers: Darryl Sapien and 
Michael Hinton, colored pencil and 
graphite on acetate, two drawings, 
43X32" each 

Lent by Austin Conkey, San 
Francisco, California 

323 Documentation of Within the 
Nucleus, 1976, performance at San 
Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 
California, March 27, 1976; 
performers: Darryl Sapien and 
Michael Hinton, six color 
photographs. 



a) 171/4x111/2" 

b) 171/4x111/4" 

c) 14X11" 

Lent by the artist 



d) 11x14" 

e) 171/8X113/8" 

f) 171/8x111/4" 



Southern California: 
Michael Asher 

324 Preliminary Drawing of 
Construction Detail for Documenta 5 , 
1972, pencil on paper, 22x30" 
Lent by The Claire Copley Gallery, 
Inc., Los Angeles, California 



John Baldessari 

325 ...no ideas have entered this 

work, 1966-1968, acrylic on canvas, 

671/2x561/2" 

Lent by Sonnabend Gallery, New 

York, New York 



188 



Chris Burden 

326 Prelude to 220, or 110, 1971, 
documentation of performance at F 
Space, Los Angeles, California, 
September 10-12, 1971, black and 
white photographs, 4/5 and 5/5, two 
photographs, 13V8XlOV8"each 
Lent by Riko Mizuno Callery, Los 
Angeles, California 

327 Bed Piece, 1972, documentation 
of performance on Market Street, 
Venice, California, February 18- 
March 10, 1972, black and white 
photograph, 5/5, 1034x13%" 

Lent by Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

328 7A7, 1973, documentation of 
performance near Los Angeles 
International Airport, California, 
January 5, 1973, black and white 
photograph, 5/5, 133/4X1034" 
Lent by Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, California 

329 Chris Burden 71-73, 1974, text 
and 53 photographs in binder 
documenting artist's events and 
performances from 1971 to 1973, 
36/50,115/8X111/4" 

Lent by Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, California 

Newton Harrison 

330 Outcome from Notations on the 
Ecosystem o]i\ie Western Salt Works 
(with the inclusion o/ brine shrimpj, 
1971, presented at Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, California, 
1971, photographs, collage, graphite, 
ink and oil on canvas, 73V2X55V2" 
Lent by the artist 

Allen Ruppersberg 

331 Sel/-Portrait and Sculpture, 
1973, cardboard box and paper, 
13x121/2x91/2" 

Lent by The Claire Copley Gallery, 
Inc., Los Angeles, California 



332 Reading and Drawing Pages 
1-250, 1975, pencil on paper, series of 
five drawings with 50 sheets of paper 
behind each drawing, 22V2X 281/2" 
each 

Lent by The Claire Copley Gallery, 
Inc., Los Angeles, California 

DeWain Valentine 

333 Catenary Light, 1970-1971, 
documentation of installation in 
artist's studio, Venice, California, 
color photograph, 39^x593/4" 
Lent by the artist 

William Wegman 

334 Cotto, 1969, black and white 
photograph, 1/10, IO1/2XIO3/4" 

Lent by Edward Ruscha, Los Angeles, 
California 

335 Dog/Milk, 1970, black and white 
photographs, 1/2, two photographs, 
131/2x101/2" each 

Lent by Edward Ruscha, Los Angeles, 
California 

336 Bedroom, 1972, black and 
white photograph, 1/1, 14xll" 

Lent by Edward Ruscha, Los Angeles, 
California 

337 Bubbles, 1972, black and white 
photograph, 1/1, 14xll" 

Lent by Edward Ruscha, Los Angeles, 
California 

338 WaVi AvjokeWialj Asleep .V^Tl. 
black and white photographs, 1 /2, 
two photographs, 14X11" each 

Lent by Edward Ruscha, Los Angeles, 
California 

339 Sweater Writing, 1972, black and 
white photograph, 1/1, 14xll" 

Lent by Edward Ruscha, Los Angeles, 
California 

Douglas Wheeler 

340 Un/inished Plan fLight and 
Soundless SpaceJ, 1973, graphite and 
colored pencil on graph paper, 
19X34" 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, California, Anonymous Gift 



189 





316 Howard Fried Synchwmatic Baseball 1971-1976 



Thr Bnnid of Tnttlrti of TAf San Fnnntttt Miurum of Art 
a'f plfMtd to nnitiiuntf llir appt'iilntm at Tlmmai •Vanoni 
01 [t'ttnor, /dniMrt './•?' 



317 Tom Marioni Announcement of artist's appointment as Directorof 
San Francisco Museum of Art 1973 



3 1 5 Terry Fox Our Li/e Flows 800 Times 
Slower... 1971-1976 



190 




319 Bruce Nauman Window or Wall Sign 1967 



IHJHTPh/ 






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UtOXVltlUOMCLEIC .\C[1) 



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TiZl Darryl Sapien Sludies for "Within the Nucleus" 
1976 



191 




Miili.ii'l Aslu 1 lnst,ill,ilii)n shot, September 1974. The daire 
Copley Gallery. Inc.. Los Angeles. California (Not in exhibition) 




EVERYTHING IS PURGED FROM THIS PAINTING 
BUT ART, NO IDEAS HAVE ENTERED THIS M/ORK. 



32R Chris Burden Prelude lo 220. or 110 1971 



325 



lohn Baldessari 
1966-1968 



. . no ideas hove entered this work 



192 




330 Newton Harrison Outcome from Notations on the Ecosystem 
ofthe Western Saltworks 1971 




lim Turrell Installation shot. Prado, 1967, Pasadena Art Museum. 
California (Not in exhibition) 




Maria Nordman Installation shot. Saddleback 
Mountain. September 25-October 28. 1973. Art Gallery. 
University of California. Irvine (Not in exhibition) 




331 Allen Ruppersberg SeI/-Porfrait and Sculpture 
1973 



193 





333 DeVVain Valentine Catenary Light 1970-1971 



334 William VVegman Cotto 1969 




340 Douglas Wheeler Un/inished Plan (Light and Soundless Space) 1973 



194 



Biographies 



Arlo Acton 



Born 1933, Knoxville, Iowa. Studied 
at Washington State University, 
Pullman, B.A., 1958; California 
School of Fine Arts (now San 
Francisco Art Institute), M.F.A., 1959. 
Settled in San Francisco, 1958. 
Resides, North San Juan, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Holies Gallery, San Francisco, 1962. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Hansen Gallery, San Francisco, 1967, 



1968; Esther Robles Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969. Group exhibitions 
include Troisieme Biennale de Paris, 
Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de 
Paris, 1963 (cat.); Funk, University 
Art Museum, University of 
California, Berkeley, 1967 (cat.); 
American Sculpture of the Sixties, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1967 (cat.). 



Tom Akawie 



Born 1935, New York. Moved to 
Los Angeles, 1937. Studied at Los 
Angeles City College, 1953-1956; 
Olympic Art Guild, Los Angeles, 
1955-1956; University of California, 
Berkeley, B.A., 1959; M.A., 1963. 
Lived in Northern California except 
for 1965-1966, Los Angeles. Resides, 
Berkeley, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Comara Gallery, 
Los Angeles, 1965. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 



Art Institute, 1968; California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1971. Group exhibitions 
include Art '65: Lesser Known and 
Unknown Painters, American 
Express Pavilion, New York World's 
Fair, New York, 1965 (cat.); Spray, 
Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
California, 1971 (cat.); Alternative 
Realities, Museum of Contemporary 
Art, Chicago, 1976 (cat.). 



Peter Alexander 



Born 1939, Los Angeles. Studied 
at University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1957-1960; Architect's 
Association, London, 1960-1962; 
University of California, Berkeley, 
1962-1963; University of Southern 
California, Los Angeles, 1963-1964; 
University of California, Los Angeles, 
B.A., 1965; M.F.A., 1968. Resides, 
Malibu, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Bowers Museum, 
Santa Ana, California, 1964. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Robert Elkon Gallery, New York, 1968, 



1969, 1970; Nicholas Wilder Gallery, 
Los Angeles, 1970. Group exhibitions 
include 14 Sculptors: The Industrial 
Edge, Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1969 (cat.); 
Transparency, Reflection, Light, 
Space: Four Artists, UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of California, 
Los Angeles, 1971 (cat.); Documenta 5, 
Kassel, Germany, 1972 (cat.); A 
View Through. The Art Galleries, 
California State University, Long 
Beach, 1975 (cat.). 



Robert Alexander 



Born 1922, Chicago, Illinois. No 
formal art training. Also works under 
names "alexander" and "baza". 
Moved to Los Angeles, 1933. Lived in 
San Francisco, 1957-1960. Resides, 
Venice. California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Coronet-Louvre 
Theatre, Los Angeles, 1955. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
room environment for Action^, 



Syndell Studio/Now Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1956. Group exhibitions 
include Directions in Collage: 
California, Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1962; Late Fifties at the 
Ferus, Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1968 (cat.); Collage and 
Assemblage in Southern California, 
The Los Angeles Institute of 
Contemporary Art, 1975. 



196 



William Allan 



Born 1936, Everett, Washington. 
Came to California, 1954. Studied at 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), B.F.A., 
1958. Left California, 1959; returned 
1966. Resides, Mill Valley, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at Scott 
Galleries, Seattle, Washington, 1964. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art (SECA 
Grant Exhibition), 1970 (cat.); 



Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1974 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Slant Step Show, 
Berkeley Gallery, San Francisco, 
1966; Funk, University Art Museum, 
University of California, Berkeley, 
1967 (cat.); Separate Realities, Los 
Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, 1973 
(cat.); America 1976, United States 
Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D.C., 1976 (cat.). 



Terry Allen 



Born 1944, Wichita, Kansas. Spent 
childhood and high school years in 
Lubbock, Texas. Came to California, 
1961. Studied at Chouinard Art 
Institute, Los Angeles, B.A., 1966. 
Resides, Fresno, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Michael 
Walls Gallery, San Francisco, 1968 
(also 1970, 1973 [Los Angeles], 1974 
[New York]). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1971 
(cat.); Contemporary Arts Museum, 



Houston, Texas, 1975 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include The Spirit of the 
Comics, Institute of Contemporary 
Art, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1969 (cat.); Surrealism 
is A Jive and Well in the West, Baxter 
Art Gallery, California Institute of 
Technology, Pasadena, 1972 (cat.); 
Extraordinary Realities, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1973 (cat.); Great American Rodeo, 
Fort Worth Art Museum, Texas, 1976 
(cat,). 



John Altoon 



Born 1925, Los Angeles. Studied at 
Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1947-1949; Art Center School, Los 
Angeles, 1949-1950; Chouinard Art 
Institute, Los Angeles, 1950. Died 
1969, Los Angeles. First one-man 
exhibition held at Santa Barbara 
Museum of Art, California, 1951 . 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1967 
(cat.), 1969; Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1971 (cat.). 



Group exhibitions include American 
Drawings, The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York, 
1964 (cat.); Late Fifties at the Ferus, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1968 (cat.); Spray, Santa Barbara 
Museum of Art, California, 1971 
(cat.); Eight from California, National 
Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., 1974 
(cat.). 



Jeremy Anderson 



Born 1921, Palo Alto, California. 
Studied at California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1946-1950. Resides, Mill 
Valley, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Metart Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1949. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1966 (cat.); Museum 
of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1975 



(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
IVlobiJes and Articulated Sculpture, 
California Palace of the Legion of 
Honor, San Francisco, 1948 (cat.); 
American Sculpture of the Sixties, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
California, 1967 (cat.); Continuing 
Surrealism, La Jolla Museum of Art, 
California, 1971 (cat.). 



197 



Ruth Armer 



Born 1896, San Francisco. Studied at 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute); The Art 
Students League of New York; New 
York School of Fine and Applied Art. 
Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-woman exhibition held at 
Vickery, Atkins and Torrey, San 
Francisco, 1922. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 



Museum of Art, 1936; Quay Gallery, 
San Francisco, 1972, 1975. Group 
exhibitions include American 
Painting Today 1950, The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, 1950 (cat.); IIIBienaJ, Museu de 
Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1955 
(cat.); Art: USA: 58, Madison Square 
Garden, New York, 1958 (cat.). 



Robert Arneson 



Born 1930, Benicia, California. 
Studied at California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland, B.A., 1954; Mills 
College, Oakland, M.F.A., 1958. 
Resides, Davis, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Oakland 
Art Museum, California, 1960. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Hansen Fuller Gallery, San Francisco, 
1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 
1974, 1975, 1976; Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Chicago, and San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1974 (cat.). 



Group exhibitions include Dada, 
Surrealism and Their Heritage, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1968 (cat.); Contemporary Ceramic 
Art: Canada, U.S.A., Mexico and 
Japan, The National Museum of 
Modern Art, Kyoto, Japan, 1971, and 
The National Museum of Modern Art, 
Tokyo, Japan, 1972 (cat.); Clay, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
Downtown Branch, New York, 1974 
(cat.). 



Charles Arnold! 



Born 1946, Dayton, Ohio. Came to Los 
Angeles, 1965. Studied at Chouinard 
Art Institute, Los Angeles, 1968. 
Lived in New York, 1970. Resides, 
Venice, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Riko Mizuno 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1971. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, 



1974, 1975; Robert Elkon Gallery, New 
York, 1975. Group exhibitions include 
Fifteen Los Angeles Artists, Pasadena 
Art Museum, California, 1972 (cat.); 
Documenta 5 , Kassel, Germany, 1972 
(cat.); Fifteen Abstract Artists, The 
Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Ruth Asawa 



Born 1926, Norwalk, California. 
Studied at Milwaukee State Teachers 
College, Wisconsin, 1943-1945; Black 
Mountain College, North Carolina, 
1946-1949. Settled in San Francisco, 
1949. Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-woman exhibition held at The 
Tin Angel Gallery, San Francisco, 
1953 (with Jean Varda). Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include Peridot 
Gallery, New York, 1954, 1956, 1958; 



M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco, 1960; San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1973 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Recent Sculpture 
USA , The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1959 (cat.); Cookies and 
Breads: The Baker's Art, Museum of 
Contemporary Crafts, New York, 1965 
(cat.); Public Sculpture /Urban 
Environment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



198 



Michael Asher 



Born 1943, Los Angeles. Studied at 
University of California, Irvine, 
B.F.A., 1966. Resides, Venice, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at La Jolla Museum of Art, 
California, 1969. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Lisson Gallery, 
London, England, 1973; Otis Art 



Institute Gallery, Los Angeles, 1975; 
The Floating Museum, San 
Francisco, 1976. Group exhibitions 
include Spaces, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1969 (cat.); 
Documenta 5, Kassel, Germany, 1972 
(cat.); XXXVm Biennale, Venice, 
Italy, 1976 (cat.). 



John Baldessari 



Born 1931, National City, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Berkeley, 1954-1955; San Diego State 
College, California, B.A., 1953; M.A., 
1957; University of California, Los 
Angeles, Otis Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, Chouinard Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, 1957-1959. Resides, Santa 
Monica, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Art Center in La 
Jolla, California, 1960 (also 1966). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Nova Scotia College of Art and 



Design, Halifax, 1971; Ileana 
Sonnabend, 1973 (Paris). 1974 (New 
York). Group exhibitions include 
Information, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1970 (cat.); 
Documenta 5, Kassel, Germany, 1972 
(cat.); (photoj (photo)^. . . (photoj". 
University of Maryland Art Gallery, 
College Park, 1975 (cat.); Southland 
Video Anthology, Long Beach 
Museum of Art, California, 1975 
(cat.). 



Matthew Barnes 



Born 1880, Kilmarnock, Scotland. 
Trained as an ornamental plasterer. 
Came to San Francisco, 1906. Died 
1951, San Francisco. First one-man 
exhibition held at The Modern 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1928. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Kleeman Gallery, New York, 1944; 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1944, 
1952; Lucien Labaudt Art Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1947 (cat.). Group 



exhibitions include Exhibition of 
American Painting, M.H. de Young 
Memorial Museum and California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1935 (cat.); Contemporary 
Art, Golden Gate International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 1939 
(cat.); Romantic Painting in America, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1943 (cat.). 



John Baxter 



Born 1912, San Francisco, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Los Angeles, A.B., 1933. Lived in San 
Francisco Bay Area except 1951-1955 
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Died 
1966, Oakland, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1947 (also 
1967; cats.). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include M.H. de Young 
Memorial Museum, San Francisco, 
1961 (cat.); California Palace of the 



Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 1963 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Abstract and Surrealist American 
Art /Fifty-Eighth Annual Exhibition 
of American Paintings and Sculpture, 
The Art Institute of Chicago, 1947 
(cat.); The Art of Assemblage , The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1961 (cat.); Contemporary American 
Painting and Sculpture, Krannert Art 
Museum, University of Illinois, 
Urbana,1963 (cat.). 



199 



Paul Beattie 



Born 1924, Bay City, Michigan, 
Studied at The Society of Arts and 
Crafts, Detroit, Michigan, 1945-1947; 
Sonoma State University, Rohnert 
Park, California, B.A., 1973; 
University of California, Berkeley, 
M.A., 1976. Came to San Francisco, 
1955; moved to Healdsburg, 
California, 1963. Resides, Healdsburg. 
First one-man exhibition held at 



Hansa Callery, New York, 1954. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
6 Gallery, San Francisco, 1955. Group 
exhibitions include Batman Gallery, 
San Francisco, 1963, 1964; Collage 
and Assemblage in Southern 
California, The Los Angeles Institute 
of Contemporary Art, 1975 (cat.); The 
Sky Show, Otis Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, 1975. 



Robert Bechtle 



Born 1932, San Francisco, California. 
Studied at California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland, 1950-1954, 
1956-1958, B.A., 1954; M.F.A., 1958. 
Resides, Berkeley, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Berkeley 
Gallery, Berkeley, 1965. Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include O.K. Harris 
Gallery, New York, 1971, 1974; E.B. 
Crocker Art Gallery, Sacramento, 



California, 1973 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Realism Now, 
Vassar College Art Gallery, 
Poughkeepsie, New York, 1968 (cat.); 
Documenta 5 , Kassel, Germany, 1972 
(cat.); Image, Color and Form, The 
Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio, 1975 
(cat.); America 1976, United States 
Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D.C., 1976 (cat.). 



Larry Bell 



Born 1939, Chicago, Illinois. Came to 
California in 1945. Studied at 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1957-1959. Moved to Talpa, New 
Mexico in 1973. Resides, Talpa, New 
Mexico. First one-man exhibition 
held at Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1962 (also 1963, 1965). Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1972 (cat.); 
Marlborough Gallery, Rome, Italy, 
1972 (cat.); Fort Worth Art Museum, 
Texas, in cooperation with the Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, California, 



1976 (cat: Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art). Group exhibitions include VIII 
BienaJ, Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, 1965 (cat.); 
Transparency, Reflection, Light, 
Space: Four Artists, UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of California, 
Los Angeles, 1971 (cat.); 1 1 Los 
Angeles Artists, The Arts Council of 
Great Britain, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1971 (cat.); 200 Years of 
American Sculpture, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 1976 (cat.). 



Billy Al Bengston 



Born 1934, Dodge City, Kansas. 
Moved to Southern California, 1948. 
Studied at Los Angeles City College, 
1953, 1954; Los Angeles State 
College, 1954-1955; California 
College of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, 
1955-1956; Otis Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, 1957. Resides, Venice, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1958 (also 1960, 1961, 1962). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 



1968 (cat.); Galerie Neuendorf, 1970, 
1972 (Hamburg, Germany), 1970, 
1971 (Cologne, Germany). Group 
exhibitions include VUIBienal, 
Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1965 (cat.); Ten From Los 
Angeles, Seattle Art Museum 
Pavilion, 1966 (cat.); Abstract 
Expressionist Ceramics, Art Gallery, 
University of California, Irvine, 1966 
(cat.); Pop Art. Whitney Museum of 
American Art. New York, 1974 (cat.). 



200 



Karl Benjamin 



Born 1925, Chicago, Illinois. Came 
to California, 1946. Studied at 
Northwestern University, Evanston, 
Illinois, 1943; University of Redlands, 
Redlands, California, B.A., 1949; 
Claremont Graduate School, 
Claremont, California, M.A., 1960. 
Resides, Claremont, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
University of Redlands, 1953 (also 
1956, 1962). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Long Beach 



Museum of Art, California, 1958; 
Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 
1970. Group exhibitions include Four 
Abstract Classicists, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art and San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1959 (cat.); 
Geometric Abstraction in America, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1962 (cat.); The 
Responsive Eye, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1965 (cat.). 



Fletcher Benton 



Born 1931, Jackson, Ohio. Studied 
at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 
B.A., 1956. Came to San Francisco 
c. 1958. Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-man exhibition held at The Attic, 
San Francisco, 1958. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1970 (cat.); The de 
Saisset Art Gallery and Museum, 
University of Santa Clara, California, 
1975 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 



Art '65: Young American ScuJpture- 
East to West, American Express 
Pavilion, New York World's Fair, New 
York, 1965 (cat.); American Sculpture 
of the Sixties, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1967 (cat.); Kinetics, 
The Arts Council of Great Britain, 
Hayward Gallery, London, 1970 
(cat.); Public Sculpture /Urban 
Environment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Ed Bereal 



Born 1937, Los Angeles. Studied at 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1958-1962, B.FA., 1962. Resides, Los 
Angeles. Group exhibitions include 
The Objectmakers, Pomona College, 
Claremont, California, 1961; War 
Babies, Huysman Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1961; The Negro in 
American Art, UCLA Art Galleries, 



University of California, Los Angeles, 
1966 (cat.); The Betty and Monte 
Factor Family Colection , Pasadena 
Museum of Modern Art, California, 
1973 (cat.); University of CaJi/ornia, 
Irvine, 1965-1975 , La Jolla Museum of 
Contemporary Art, California, 1975 
(cat.). 



Tony Berlant 



Born 1941, New York. Came to 
California, 1946. Studied at 
University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles, 1959-1960; University of 
California, Los Angeles, M.A., 1963; 
M.F.A., 1964. Resides, Santa Monica, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at David Stuart Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1963 (also 1965, 1967). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Wichita Art Museum, Kansas, 1971; 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 



New York, 1973 (cat.); Phyllis Kind 
Gallery, Chicago, 1974. Group 
exhibitions include Pop Art USA, 
Oakland Art Museum, California, 
1963 (cat.); American Sculpture of 
the Sixties, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1967 (cat); Human 
Concern /Personal Torment; The 
Grotesque in American Art, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1969 (cat.). 



201 



Ben Berlin 



Born 1887, Washington, D.C. Lived in 
Los Angeles from c. 1914. Died 1939, 
Los Angeles. Group exhibitions 
include Independent Artists of Los 
AngeJes, Taos Building, Los Angeles, 
1923 (cat.); Southern Cali/ornia Art 
Project, Los Angeles Museum, 1939 



(cat); Fifty Paintings by Thirty-Seven 
Painters o/theLos AngeJes Area, 
UCLA Art Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1961 (cat.); 
Arts of Southern California -XIV: 
Early Moderns, Long Beach Museum 
of Art, California, 1964 (cat.). 



Eugene Berman 



Born 1899, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
Studied with P.S. Naumoff and 
S. Grusenberg, St. Petersburg, 
1915-1918; Academie Ranson, Paris, 
1920-1925. Moved to Paris, 1918. 
Visited California, 1935; settled in 
California, 1940. Died 1972, Rome, 
Italy. First one-man exhibition held 
at Galerie Granoff, Paris, 1927. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Julien Levy Gallery, New York, 1932, 
1933, 1935, 1936. 1937, 1939, 1941, 
1943, 1946, 1947; The histitute of 
Modern Art, Boston, Massachusetts, 
1941 (cat.); The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1945 (cat.). Group 



exhibitions include Neo-Romantic 
Exhibition (with Berard, Tchelitchew, 
Leonide Berman, Therese Debains), 
Druet Gallery, Paris, 1926; Salon 
d'Automne, Paris, 1923; Milestones of 
American Painting in Our Century, 
The Institute of Contemporary Art, 
Boston, 1949 (cat.); Human 
Concern /Personal Torment: The 
Grotesque in American Art, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1969 (cat.). Ref: Levy, Julien. Eugene 
Berman. New York and London: 
American Studio Books, n.d. 



Wallace Berman 



Born 1926, Tompkinsville, New York. 
No formal art training. Lived in Los 
Angeles area except 1957 lived in San 
Francisco. Died 1976, Los Angeles. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 1957. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1968 (cat.); The Jewish Museum, New 
York, 1968 (cat.). Group exhibitions 
include Assemblage in Cali/ornia, 



Art Gallery, University of California, 
Irvine, 1968 (cat.); Poets of the 
Cities INew York and San Francisco 
1950-1965 , Dallas Museum of Fine 
Arts and Pollock Galleries, Southern 
Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, 
1974 (cat.); Art as a Muscular 
Principle. John and Norah Warbeke 
Gallery, Mount Holyoke College, 
South Hadley, Massachusetts, 1975 
(cat.). 



Elmer BischofF 



Born 1916, Berkeley, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Berkeley, 1934-1939, B.A., 1938; M.A., 
1939. Resides, Berkeley, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
California Palace of the Legion of 
Honor, San Francisco, 1947. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Staempfli Gallery, New York, 1960, 
1962, 1964, 1969 (cats.); The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1975 (cat.). 



Group exhibitions include Abstract 
and Surrealist American Art /Fifty- 
Eighth Annual Exhibition of 
American Painting and Sculpture, 
The Art histitute of Chicago, 1947 
(cat.); Contemporary Bay Area 
Figurative Painting, The Oakland Art 
Museum, California, 1957 (cat.); A 
Period of Exploration, San Francisco 
1945-1950, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1973 (cat.). 



202 



William Brice 



Born 1921, New York. Studied at The 
Art Students League of New York; 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles. 
Resides, Los Angeles. First one-man 
exhibition held at Santa Barbara 
Museum of Art, 1947 (also 1958; cat.). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Downtown Gallery, New York, 1949; 
The Art Gallery, University of 
California, San Diego, 1967 (cat.). 



Group exhibitions include 
Americans Under 36, The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, 1950; III Bienal , Museu de Arte 
Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1955 
(cat.); American Painting 1966, 
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 
Richmond, 1966 (cat.); Selected 
Artists-'67, Des Moines Art Center, 
Iowa, 1967 (cat.). 



Nick Brigante 



Born 1895, PaduUa, Italy. Came to 
Southern California, 1897. Studied at 
Art Students League, Los Angeles, 
1913-c. 1917. Resides, Hollywood, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Stendahl Galleries, Los 
Angeles, 1937 (cat.). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Los Angeles Art 
Association, 1963; PacifiCulture 
Foundation, Pasadena, California, 
1971; Silvan Simone Gallery, Los 



Angeles, 1974 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Independent 
Artists o/ Los Angeles, Taos Building, 
Los Angeles, 1923 (cat.); Then and 
Now. Los Angeles Art Association, 
1950; Watercolor USA , The 
Springfield Art Museum, Springfield, 
Missouri, 1964 (cat.); Nine Senior 
Southern California Painters, The Los 
Angeles Institute of Contemporary 
Art, Los Angeles, 1974 (cat.). 



Ernest Briggs 



Born 1923, San Diego, California. 
Studied at Rudolph Schaeffer School 
of Design, San Francisco, 1946-1947; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1947-1951. Left California for New 
York, 1953. Resides, New York. First 
one-man exhibition held at Metart 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1949. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
California School of Fine Arts, San 
Francisco, 1956 (cat.); Howard Wise 



Gallery, New York, 1960, 1962, 1963. 
Group exhibitions include Vanguard 
1955, The Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, 1955 (cat.); 12 
Americans, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1956 (cat.); Large 
Scale American Paintings, The 
Jewish Museum, New York, 1967; A 
Period of Exploration, San Francisco 
1945-1950, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1973 (cat.). 



Richard Brodney 



Born 1925, New York. Came to 
San Francisco, 1944. Studied at 
University of Wisconsin, Madison; 
University of California, Berkeley; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1951-1952. Moved to New York, 1956. 
Resides, Berkeley Heights, New 
Jersey. One-man exhibition held at 
Stryke Gallery, New York, 1963. 
Group exhibitions include Bart Perry, 



Roy De Forest, RelfCase, Richard 
Brodney, California School of Fine 
Arts, San Francisco, 1952; From San 
Francisco; A New Language in 
Painting, Kaufmann Art Gallery, 
YM-YWHA, New York, 1954; Action, 
Merry-go-round Building, Santa 
Monica Pier, Santa Monica, 
California, 1955 (cat.); group 
exhibition. Summit Art Center, 
Summit, New Jersey, 1976. 



203 



Joan Brown 



Born 1938, San Francisco. Studied at 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1955-1960, B.FA., 1959; M.RA., 1960. 
Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-woman exhibition held at 6 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1957 (with 
Mike Nathan). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Staempfli 
Gallery, New York, 1960, 1961, 1964 
(cats.); San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1971 (cat.); University Art Museum, 



University of California, Berkeley, 
1974 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Young America 1960, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1960 (cat.); Funk, University Art 
Museum, University of California, 
Berkeley, 1967 (cat.); Art as a 
Muscular Principle, )ohn and Norah 
Warbeke Gallery. Mount Holyoke 
College, South Hadley, 
Massachusetts, 1975 (cat.). 



Beniamino Bufano 



Born 1898, San Fale, Italy. Studied at 
The Art Students League of New 
York, 1913-1915. Came to San 
Francisco, 1915. Travelled in Europe 
and China, 1916-1921. Settled in San 
Francisco, 1921. Died 1970, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at Arden Galleries, New York, 
1925. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include San Francisco Museum of 
Art, 1935, 1936, 1937; California 



Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 
1974. Group exhibitions include 
SaJon d'Automne, Paris, 1927; 
CaJi/ornia Art Today, Golden Gate 
International Exposition, San 
Francisco, 1940 (cat.); Public 
Sculpture /Urban Environment, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1974 
(cat.). Ref: Fry, Roger, Henry Miller 
and others. Bufano. Florence, Italy, 
1936. 



Chris Burden 



Born 1946, Boston, Massachusetts. 
Studied at Pomona College, 
Claremont, California, B.A., 1969; 
University of California, Irvine, 
M.F.A., 1971. Resides, Venice, 
California. First one-man exhibition, 
5-Day Locker Piece , held at 
University of California, Irvine, 1971. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Bed Piece, Market Street Program, 
Venice, California, 1972; Riko Mizuno 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1973, 1975; 
Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York, 



1974, 1975, 1976. Group exhibitions 
include Southland Video Anthology, 
Long Beach Museum of Art, 
California, 1975 (cat.); University of 
California, Irvine, 1965-1975, La )olla 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
California, 1975 (cat.); Bodyworks, 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, 1975 (cat.). Ref: Burden, 
Chris, designer and publisher. Chris 
Burden. Venice, California: privately 
printed, 1974. 



Hans Burkhardt 



Born 1904, Basel, Switzerland. 
Studied at Cooper Union School of 
Art and Architecture, New York, 
1925-1928; Grand Central School of 
Art, New York, 1928-1929; Arshile 
Gorky Studio, New York, 1929-1936. 
Came to California, 1937. Resides, Los 
Angeles. First one-man exhibition 
held at Stendahl Galleries, Los 
Angeles, 1939. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The San Diego 
Art Institute, San Diego, California, 
1966 (cat.); Long Beach Museum of 



Art, California, 1972 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Abstract and 
Surrealist American Art /Fifty-Eighth 
Annual Exhibition of American 
Painting and Sculpture, The Art 
Institute of Chicago, 1947 (cat.); 
American Painting Today 1950, The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, 1950 (cat.); Nine Senior 
Southern California Painters, The Los 
Angeles Institute of Contemporary 
Art, 1974 (cat.). 



204 



Vija Celmins 



Born 1939, Riga, Latvia. Came to 
California, 1963. Studied at lohn 
Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis, 
Indiana, B.F.A., 1962; University of 
California, Irvine, M.F.A., 1965. 
Resides, Venice, California. First 
one-woman exhibition held at 
Dickson Art Center, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1965. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los Angeles, 



1970, 1973; Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1973 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include 24 Young 
Los Angeles Artists, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1971 (cat.); 
American Drawings 1963-1973 , 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1973 (cat.); University of 
California, Irvine, 1965-1975, La )olla 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
California, 1975 (cat.). 



Judy Chicago 



Born 1939, Chicago, Illinois. Moved 
to Southern California, 1957. Studied 
at University of California, Los 
Angeles, B.A., 1962; M.A., 1964. 
Resides, Santa Monica, California. 
First one-woman exhibition held at 
Art Center in La Jolla, California, 
1961. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Rolf Nelson Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1966, 1967; Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1969 (cat.); 
California State University, Fullerton, 
1970 (at which time the artist 
changed her name from Gerowitz to 



Chicago). Group exhibitions include 
Primary Structures, The Jewish 
Museum, New York, 1966 (cat.); 
American Sculpture o/the Sixties, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1967 (cat.); Womanhouse, Los 
Angeles, 1972 (made in collaboration 
with members of the Feminist Art 
Program, California Institute of 
the Arts, Valencia; cat.); Public 
Sculpture /Urban Environment, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1974 
(cat.). 



William Clapp 



Born 1879, Montreal, Quebec. Came 
to California, 1885. Studied with 
William Brymner, Montreal, 
1900-1904; at Academie )ulian, 
Academie Colarossi, Academie de la 
Grande Chaumiere, Paris. Returned to 
Oakland, California, 1917. Died 1954, 
Oakland. Group exhibitions include 
annual exhibitions of the "Society of 
Six", Oakland Art Gallery, California, 



1923-1928; Art Exhibition by 
California Artists, California 
Building, Golden Gate International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 1939 
(cat.); Society of Six, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1972 (cat.); 
Impressionism in Canada 1895-1935, 
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 1973 
(cat.). 



Grace Clements 



Born 1905, Oakland, California. 
Studied in New York, 1925-1930. 
Settled in Los Angeles, 1931. First 
one-woman exhibition held at Los 
Angeles Museum, 1931 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Post-Surrealist 
Exhibition, San Francisco Museum of 



Art, 1935; Southern California Art 
Project, Los Angeles Museum, 1939 
(cat.); Between Two Wars, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1942 (cat.); 3rd Group Show, Los 
Angeles Museum, 1944. 



205 



Robert Colescott 



Born 1925. Oakland, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Berkeley, A.B., 1929; M.A.. 1952; 
Atelier Fernand Leger. Paris, 
1949-1950. In Pacific Northwest. 
1952-1964; Egypt, 1964-1967; France, 
1967-1969. Settled in California, 1970. 
Resides. Oakland. California. First 
one-man exhibition held at 
Miller-Pollard, Seattle, Washington, 
1953 (also 1954). Subsequent solo 



exhibitions include Portland Art 
Museum, Oregon, 1958. 1966; Razor 
Gallery, New York. 1975. Group 
exhibitions include Le Salon de Mai, 
Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de 
Paris, 1950 (cat.); American Painting 
Today, Grand Rapids Art Gallery, 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1961 (cat.); 
A Third World Painting/Sculpture 
Exhibition, San Francisco Museum of 
Art, 1974 (cat.). 



Bruce Conner 



Born 1933, McPherson, Kansas. 
Studied at University of Wichita. 
Kansas. 1951-1952; University of 
Nebraska, Lincoln, 1952-1956, B.RA., 
1956; Brooklyn Museum Art School, 
1956; University of Colorado, 
Boulder, 1957. Came to San 
Francisco, 1957. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at East & West Gallery, San 
Francisco. 1958. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The Rose Art 
Museum, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts. 1965 (cat.); 
Institute of Contemporary Art, 



University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia. 1967 (cat.); The Fine 
Arts Museums of San Francisco: M.H. 
de Young Memorial Museum, 1974 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include The 
Art o/Assemblage, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1961 (cat.); 
American Sculpture of the Sixties, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1967 (cat.); Poets of the Cities INew 
York and San Francisco 1950-1965, 
Dallas Museum of Fine Arts and 
Pollock Galleries, Southern Methodist 
University. Dallas. Texas, 1974 (cat.). 



Edward Corbett 



Born 1919, Chicago, Illinois. Studied 
at California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 1937- 
1941. Left San Francisco, 1951. Died 
1971, Provincetown, Massachusetts. 
First one-man exhibition held at Pat 
Wall Gallery, Monterey, California. 
1948. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Grace Borgenicht Gallery, 
New York. 1956. 1959, 1961, 1962, 
1964, 1967, 1970, 1973; San Francisco 
Museum of Art. 1969 (cat.); The 
Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. 



1973 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Abstract and Surrealist American 
Art/Fi/ty-Eighth Annual Exhibition 
of American Painting and Sculpture, 
The Art Institute of Chicago, 1947 
(cat.); 15 Americans. The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1952 (cat.); 
American Landscape: A Changing 
Frontier, National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C, 1966 (cat.). 



206 



Robert Cremean 



Bom 1932, Toledo, Ohio. Studied at 
Alfred University, Alfred, New York, 
1950-1952; Cranbrook Academy of 
Art, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 
B.A., 1954; M.F.A., 1956. Lived in 
Southern California, 1956-1958; 
moved to Northern California, 1958; 
in Europe, 1969-1972. Resides, 
Tomales, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Toledo Museum 
of Art, Ohio, 1955. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include California Palace 
of the Legion of Honor, San 



Francisco, 1961; The California Arts 
Commission (circulating exhibition), 
Sacramento, 1966 (cat.); The Fine Art 
Museums of San Francisco: M.H. de 
Young Memorial Museum, 1976 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Pacemakers, Contemporary Arts 
Museum, Houston, Texas, 1957 (cat.); 
Annual Exhibition o/ Contemporary 
American Sculpture, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1960, 1964 (cats.); XXXA^BiennaJe, 
Venice, Italy, 1968 (cat.). 



Ronald Davis 



Born 1937, Santa Monica, Califorrna. 
Studied at University of Wyoming, 
Laramie, 1955-1956; California 
School of Fine Arts (now San 
Francisco Art Institute), 1960-1964; 
Yale University-Norfolk School of 
Music and Art, Norfolk, Connecticut, 
1962 (summer). Settled in Southern 
California, 1965. Resides, Los 
Angeles. First one-man exhibition 
held at Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1965 (also 1967, 1969, 1973). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, 1968, 



1969, 1971, 1974, 1975; Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery, 1975 (with 
Tom Holland; cat.); The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1976 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include A New 
Aesthetic, Washington Gallery of 
Modern Art, Washington, D.C., 1967 
(cat.); 4. Documenta, Kassel, 
Germany, 1968 (cat.); Painting, New 
Options , Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1972 (cat.); 
American Art; Third Quarter 
Century, Seattle Art Museum 
Pavilion, Washington, 1973 (cat.). 



Jay DeFeo 



Born 1929, Hanover, New Hampshire. 
Came to California c. 1931. Studied at 
University of California, Berkeley, 
1946-1951, B.A., 1950; M.A., 1951. 
Resides, Larkspur, California. First 
one-woman exhibition held at Dilexi 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1959. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 1960; 
Pasadena Art Museum, California, 



1969 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Sixteen Americans , The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1959 (cat.); 
New Works /Seven Bay Area Artists, 
The Oakland Museum, California, 
1971; Poets of the Cities /New York 
and San Francisco 1950-1965, Dallas 
Museum of Fine Arts and Pollock 
Galleries, Southern Methodist 
University, Dallas, Texas, 1974 (cat.). 



Roy De Forest 



Born 1930, North Platte, Nebraska. 
Came to San Francisco, 1950. Studied 
at California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 1950- 
1952; San Francisco State College, 
1952-1953, 1956-1958, B.A., 1953; 
M.A., 1958. Resides, Port Costa, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at East & West Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1955. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Dilexi Gallery, 
San Francisco, 1960, 1963, 1966, 1967; 



Allan Frumkin Gallery, New York, 
1966, 1972, 1975; San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1974 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include IIIBienal, Museu 
de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 
1955 (cat.); The Spirit of the Comics, 
Institute of Contemporary Art, 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1969 (cat.); 
Extraordinary Realities, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1973 (cat.). 



207 



Tony DeLap 



Born 1927, Oakland, California. 
Studied at California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland, 1946, 1947 
(summers); Academy of Advertising 
Art, San Francisco, 1948; Claremont 
Graduate School, Claremont, 
California, 1949-1950. In San 
Francisco Bay Area 1951-1965; moved 
to Southern California, 1965. Resides, 
Corona del Mar, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Gump's 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1954 (with 
Paul Darrow). Subsequent solo 



exhibitions include Art Gallery, 
University of California, Irvine, 1969 
(cat.); Art Galleries, California State 
University, Long Beach, 1974 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include The 
Responsive Eye, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1965 (cat.); 
American Sculpture of the Sixties, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1967 (cat.); Public Sculpture /Urban 
Environment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Richard Diebenkom 



Born 1922, Portland, Oregon. Studied 
at Stanford University, Stanford, 
California, 1940-1943, 1949, B.A., 
1949; University of California, 
Berkeley, 1943; California School of 
Fine Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1946; University of New 
Mexico, Albuquerque, 1950-1951, 
M.A., 1951. Returned to San 
Francisco Bay Area in 1953. Moved to 
Santa Monica, California, 1966. 
Resides, Santa Monica. First one-man 
exhibition held at California Palace of 
the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 
1948. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Washington Gallery of 



Modern Art, Washington, D.C., 1964 
(cat.); San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1954, 1972 (cat.); Marlborough Fine 
Art (London) Ltd., London, 1973 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Younger American Painters, The 
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 
New York, 1954; Contemporary Bay 
Area Figurative Painting, The 
Oakland Art Museum, California, 
1957 (cat.); Abstract Painting in the 
70's, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
1972 (cat.); Twenty-five Years of 
American Painting, 1948-1973, Des 
Moines Art Center, Iowa, 1973 (cat.). 



Laddie John Dill 



Born 1943, Long Beach, California. 
Studied at Chouinard Art Institute, 
Los Angeles, 1964-1968, B.F.A., 1968. 
Resides, Venice, California. FirSt 
one-man exhibition held at 
Sonnabend Gallery, New York, 1971 
(also 1972). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Riko Mizuno 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1973; )ames 
Corcoran Gallery, Los Angeles, 1974, 



1975. Group exhibitions include New 
Works for New Spaces , Walker Art 
Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
1971 (cat.); Fifteen Abstract Artists, 
The Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
California, 1974 (cat.); A View 
Through, The Art Galleries, 
California State University, Long 
Beach, 1975 (cat.). 



208 



James Budd Dixon 



Born 1900, San Francisco. Studied at 
University of California, Berkeley; 
Mark Hopkins Institute, San 
Francisco; California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1945-1947. Died 1967, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1939. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Area Arts Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1953. Group exhibitions 



include 3rd Annual Exhibition of 
Painting. California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 1949 
(cat.); Action. Merry-go-round 
Building, Santa Monica Pier, Santa 
Monica, California, 1955 (cat.); San 
Francisco 9, Contemporary Arts 
Museum, Houston, Texas, 1962 (cat.); 
A Period of Exploration, San 
Francisco 1945-1950, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1973 (cat.). 



Maynard Dixon 



Born 1875, Fresno, California. Came 
to San Francisco Bay Area, 1893. 
Studied at California School of 
Design, San Francisco, briefly in 
1893; otherwise self-taught. Lived in 
San Francisco and the Southwest, 
except for a period in New York, 
1907-1912. Died 1946, Tucson, 
Arizona. Began exhibiting c. 1895. 
One-man exhibitions include 
Macbeth Galleries, New York, 1923, 
1924; M.H. de Young Memorial 
Museum, 1956, 1968; The Fresno Art 



Center, California, 1975 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition, San 
Francisco, 1915 (cat.). Exhibition of 
American Painting, M.H. de Young 
Memorial Museum and California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1935 (cat.); Western Scene, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1975 (cat.). Ref: Burnside, Wesley 
Maynard Dixon. Provo, Utah: 
Brigham Young University Press, 
1974. 



William Dole 



Born 1917, Angola, Indiana. Studied 
at Olivet College, Olivet, Michigan, 
A.B., 1938; University of California, 
Berkeley, M.A., 1947. Stayed in 
Berkeley until 1949. Settled in Santa 
Barbara, California, 1949. In Florence, 
Italy 1955-1957. Resides, Santa 
Barbara, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Santa Barbara 
Museum of Art, California, 1951 (also 
1954, 1958 [cat.], 1962, 1968). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Art Gallery, University of California, 



Santa Barbara, 1965 (cat.); Los 
Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, 1976 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Directions in Collage: California, 
Pasadena Art Museum, California, 
1962; Contemporary American 
Painting and Sculpture, Krannert Art 
Museum, University of Illinois, 
Champaign-Urbana, 1965, 1967 (cat.); 
Collage and Assemblage in Southern 
California, The Los Angeles Institute 
of Contemporary Art, 1975 (cat.). 



Edward Dugmore 



Born 1915, Hartford, Connecticut. 
Came to San Francisco, 1948. Studied 
at Hartford Art School, Hartford, 
Connecticut, 1934-1938; California 
School of Fine Arts (now San 
Francisco Art histitute), 1948-1950; 
University of Guadalajara, Mexico, 
1951-1952. Moved to New York, 1952. 
Resides, New York. First one-man 
exhibition held at Metart Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1949. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Stable Gallery, 



New York, 1953, 1954, 1956; Green 
Mountain Gallery, New York, 1971, 
1973. Group exhibitions include 
Vanguard 1955 , Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1955 (cat.); 
American Abstract Expressionists 
and Imagists, The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York, 
1961 (cat.); A Period of Exploration, 
San Francisco 1945-1950, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1973 
(cat.). 



209 



Leonard Edmondson 



Born 191R, Sacramento, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Berkeley, A.B., 1940; M.A., 1942. 
Settled in Pasadena, California, 1947. 
Resides, Pasadena. First one-man 
exhibition held at Landau Gallery, 
Los Angeles, 1950 (also 1953, 1955, 
1958, 1960). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The Pasadena Art 
Institute, California, 1953; San 



Francisco Museum of Art, 1967 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Younger 
American Painters, The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York, 
1954 (cat.); IIIBienal, Museu de Arte 
Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1955 
(cat.); Graphics '71 West Coast 
U.S.A., University of Kentucky Art 
Gallery, Lexington, Kentucky, 1970 
(cat.). 



lames Eller 



Born 1943, Hollywood, California. 
Group exhibitions include Pop Art 
USA , Oakland Art Museum, 1963 
(cat,); Collage and Assemblage in 



Southern California, The Los Angeles 
Institute of Contemporary Art, 1975 
(cat.). 



Frederick Eversley 



Born 1941, Brooklyn, New York. 
Studied at Carnegie Institute 
of Technology, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, B.S., Electrical 
Engineering,1963; Institute Allende, 
San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, 
1963. Came to California in 1963. 
Resides, Venice, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Phyllis 
Kind Gallery, Chicago, 1970. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 



New York, 1970 (cat.); Santa Barbara 
Museum of Art, California, 1976 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include A 
Plastic Presence, Milwaukee Art 
Center, Wisconsin, 1970 (cat.); 
Contemporary Black Artists in 
America, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1971 (cat.); 
8 Artistes A/ro-Americains, Musee 
Rath, Geneva, Switzerland, 
1971 (cat.). 



Claire Falkenstein 



Born 1908, Coos Bay, Oregon. Studied 
at University of California, Berkeley; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art histitute), 1939. 
Came to California c. 1922. Resides, 
Venice, California. First one-woman 
exhibition held at San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1940 (also 1941, 1942, 
1949). Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Institute of Contemporary 
Arts, London, 1953; Fondation 
Maeght, St. Paul de Vence, France, 
1968; The Fresno Art Center, 



California, 1969 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Abstract and 
Surrealist American Art /Fifty-Eighth 
Exhibition of American Painting and 
Sculpture, The Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1947 (cat.); Mobiles and 
Articulated Sculpture, California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1948 (cat.); Etats-Unis 
Sculpture de XX'Siecle, Musee 
Rodin, Paris, 1965 (cat.); Public 
Sculpture /Urban Environment, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1974 (cat. 



Faralla 



210 



Born 1916, Brooklyn, New York. 
Came to C^alifornia, 1934. Studied at 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), B.F.A., 
1955; San Francisco State College, 
1956. Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-man exhibition held at Pasadena 
Art Institute, California, 1947. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco, 1963 (cat.); San 



Francisco Museum of Art, 1966, 1975 
(cats.). Group exhibitions include 
Contemporary California Sculpture, 
Oakland Art Museum/Kaiser Center, 
California, 1963; White on White, 
De Cordova Museum. Lincoln, 
Massachusetts, 1965 (cat.); 
Monotypes in California, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 
1972 (cat.). 



Lorser Feitelson 



Born 1898, Savannah, Georgia. 
Studied with Karl Teft, 1913. Settled 
in Southern California, 1927. Resides, 
Los Angeles. First one-man 
exhibition held at Daniel Gallery, 
New York, 1924. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The Pasadena Art 
Institute, California, 1952; Los 
Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, 1972 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism, The 



Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1936 (cat.); Four Abstract Classicists, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art 
and San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1959 (cat.); Geometric Abstraction in 
America, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1962 (cat.); 
Avant-Garde: Painting and Sculpture 
in America 1910-1925, Delaware Art 
Museum, Wilmington, Delaware, 
1975 (cat.). 



Oskar Fischinger 



Born 1900, Gelnhausen, Germany. 
Came to Hollywood to make films, 
1936. Began painting, 1936. Died 
1967, Los Angeles. First one-man 
exhibition held at Karl Nierendorf 
Gallery, New York, 1938. Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1953; Long 
Beach Museum of Art, California, 
1970 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 



Art in Cinema (avant-garde film 
series), San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1947 (cat.); Abstract and Surrealist 
American Art /Fifty-Eighth Annual 
Exhibition of American Painting and 
Sculpture, The Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1947 (cat.); Arts of Southern 
California-XrV: Early Moderns, Long 
Beach Museum of Art, California, 
1964 (cat.). 



Llyn Foulkes 



Born 1934, Yakima, Washington. 
Studied at Central Washington 
College of Education, EUensburg, 
Washington, 1953; University of 
Washington, Seattle, 1954; Chouinard 
Art Institute, Los Angeles, 1957-1959. 
Came to California, 1957. Resides, Los 
Angeles. First one-man exhibition 
held at Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1961. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1962; Galerie Darthea 
Speyer, Paris, 1970, 1975; Newport 



Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1974 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include United States of 
America IV Paris Biennale, Musee 
d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
1967 (cat.); Separate Realities, Los 
Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, 1973 
(cat.); Seventy-First American 
Exhibition, The Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1974 (cat.); Current 
Concerns, The Los Angeles Institute 
of Contemporary Art, 1975 (cat.). 



Terry Fox 



Born 1943, Seattle, Washington. 
Self-taught. Came to San Francisco, 
1963. Lived in Paris, 1967. Returned 
to San Francisco, 1968; resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at Gallery Reese Palley, San 
Francisco, 1970 (also 1971). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Gallery Reese Palley, New York, 1971, 
1972; Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, 1972; 
University Art Museum, University 



of California, Berkeley, 1972 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Sound 
Sculpture As, Museum of Conceptual 
Art, San Francisco, 1970; Project: Pier 
18, The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1971; Prospect 71: Projections, 
Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, Germany, 
1971; Video Art, Institute of 
Contemporary Art, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1975 
(cat.). 



211 



Sam Francis 



Born 1923, San Mateo, California. 
Studied with David Park, San 
Francisco, 1945-1946; University of 
California, Berkeley, B.A., 1949; M.A., 
1950. Lived in San Francisco Bay 
Area, 1946-1950; in Europe and the 
Orient, 1950-1961. Moved to Santa 
Monica in 1962 where he has resided 
up to the present time, with the 
exception of one year in Japan, 
1973-1974. First one-man exhibition 
held at Galerie du Dragon, Paris, 
1952. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Kornfeld and Klipstein, Bern, 
Switzerland, 1959, 1966, 1973 (cats.); 
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 
Texas, 1967 (cat.); Albright-Knox Art 



Gallery, Buffalo, New York, 1972 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 12 
Americans, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1956 (cat.); New 
American Painting, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1958 (cat.); 
First International Print Exhibition, 
National Museum of Modern Art, 
Tokyo, Japan, 1962; Post-Painterly 
Abstraction, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1964 (cat.); American 
Art: Third Quarter Century, Seattle 
Art Museum Pavilion, Washington, 
1973 (cat.). Ref: Selz, Peter. Sam 
Francis. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 
Inc., 1975. 



Howard Fried 



Born 1946, Cleveland, Ohio. Studied 
at Syracuse University, Syracuse, 
New York, 1964-1967; San Francisco 
Art Institute, B.F.A., 1968; University 
of California, Davis, M.FA., 1970. 
Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-man exhibition held at The Art 
Company, Sacramento, California, 
1969. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include de Saisset Museum and Art 
Gallery, University of Santa Clara, 



California, 1972; San Jose State 
University Art Gallery, California, 
1974 (with Paul Kos). Group 
exhibitions include Documenta 5, 
Kassel, Germany, 1972 (cat.); Video 
Art, Institute of Contemporary Art, 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1975 (cat.); Exchange 
DFW/SFO, San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (cat.). 



Charles Garabedian 



Born 1923, Detroit, Michigan. Came 
to Los Angeles, 1933. Studied at 
University of California, Santa 
Barbara, 1947-1948; University of 
Southern California, Los Angeles, 
1949-1950, B.A., 1950; University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1957-1961, 
M.A., 1961. Resides, Santa Monica, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Ceeje Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1965 (also 1967). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Fine Arts Gallery, 
California State University, 
Northridge, 1974 (cat.); Whitney 



Museum of American Art, New York, 
1976 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
6 Painters of the Rear Guard , Ceeje 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1964; 1975 
Biennial Exhibition; Contemporary 
American Art, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1975 (cat.); 
Critical Perspectives in American 
Art, Fine Arts Center Gallery, 
University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst (United States 
Representation, XXXVIIIBiennale, 
Venice, Italy), 1976 (cat.). 



212 



August Gay 



Born 1891, Rabou, France. Came to 
Alameda, California, 1900. Studied at 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1918-1919. Settled in Monterey, 
California, 1919. Died 1949, Carmel, 
California. Group exhibitions include 
annual exhibitions of the "Society of 
Six", Oakland Art Gallery, California, 



1923-1928; The Monterey Group, 
Beaux Arts Galerie, San Francisco, 
1927; Opening Exhibition /Fifty-Fifth 
Annual Exhibition of the San 
Francisco Art Association, San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1935 (cat.); 
Society o/Six, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1972 (cat.). 



Sonia GechtofF 



Born 1926. Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania. Studied at Philadelphia 
Museum School of Art, 1946-1950, 
B.F.A., 1950. Came to San Francisco, 
1951. Studied at California School of 
Fine Arts (now San Francisco Art 
histitute), 1952. Left California, 1958. 
Resides, New York. First one-woman 
exhibition held at Dubin Gallery, 
Philadelphia, c. 1948. Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include Ferus 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1957, 1959; 



Poindexter Gallery, New York, 1959, 
1960; Gallery One, Montclair State 
College, Upper Montclair, New 
Jersey, 1974 (cat.). Group exhibitions 
include Younger American Painters, 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York, 1954 (cat.); VI 
Bienal, Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, 1961 (cat.); Women 
Choose Women, The New York 
Cultural Center, New York, 1973 
(cat.). 



William Geis 



Born 1940, Salina, Kansas. Came to 
California, 1955. Studied at California 
School of Fine Arts (now San 
Francisco Art Institute), 1959-1963, 
B.F.A., M.F.A., 1963. Resides, 
Woodacre, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at BoUes Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1962 (with Carlos Villa). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Art Institute, 1966 
(with Bruce Nauman), 1970 (with 
Manuel Neri); Nancy Hoffman 
Gallery, New York, 1973; Berkeley Art 



Center, California, 1976 (with Marty 
Keane). Group exhibitions include 
Funk, University Art Museum, 
University of California, Berkeley, 
1967 (cat.); American Sculpture of 
the Sixties, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1967 (cat.); 1973 
Biennial Exhibition: Contemporary 
American Art, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1973 (cat.); 
Public Sculpture /Urban Environ- 
ment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Selden Gile 



Born 1877, Stowe, Maine. Came to 
California, 1903. Lived in Oakland 
and Belvedere, California. Studied 
briefly at California School of Arts 
and Crafts, Berkeley. Died 1947, 
Marin County, California. One-man 
exhibitions include Beaux Arts 
Galerie, San Francisco, 1928 (with 
Amy D. Flemming); Charles 
Campbell Gallery, San Francisco, 



1975, 1976. Group exhibitions 
include annual exhibitions of the 
"Society of Six", Oakland Art Gallery, 
California, 1923-1928; Opening 
Exhibition /Fifty-fifth Annual 
Exhibition of the San Francisco Art 
Association, San Francisco Museum 
of Art, 1935 (cat.); Society of Six, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1972 
(cat.). 



213 



David Gilhooly 



Born 1943, Auburn, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Davis, B.A., 1965; M.A., 1967. Moved 
to Canada, 1969. Resides, Aurora, 
Ontario. First one-man exhibition 
held at Richmond Art Center, 
California, 1965. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1967; Hansen Fuller 
Gallery, San Francisco. 1971, 1972, 
1973, i974, 1976; Art Gallery, York 
University, Toronto, Ontario, 1972 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 



Funk, University Art Museum, 
University of California, Berkeley. 
1967 (cat.); Clayuorks; 20 
Americans, Museum of Contempo- 
rary Crafts, New York, 1971 (cat.); 
Contemporary' Ceramic Art: Canada. 
U.S.A., Me.xico and Japan, The 
National Museum of Art, Kyoto, 
[apan, 1971 , and The National 
Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, 1972 
(cat.); Clay. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, Downtown Branch, 
New York, 1974 (cat.). 



Ralph Goings 



Born 1928. Corning. California. 
Studied at California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland, 1950-1953, 
B.FA., 1953; Sacramento State 
College, California, 1956. Lived in 
Sacramento until 1975. Resides, 
Charlottesville, New York. First 
one-man exhibition held at Artists' 
Cooperative Gallery, Sacramento, 
California, 1960 (also 1962, 1968). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Candy Store Gallery, Folsom, 



California, 1966; O.K. Harris Works of 
Art. New York, 1970, 1973. Group 
exhibitions include The Highway, 
Institute of Contemporary Art, 
University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, 1970 (cat.); Documenta 5, 
Kassel, Germany, 1972 (cat.); 
Photo-Realism, The Arts Council of 
Great Britain. Serpentine Gallery, 
London, 1973 (cat.); Super Realism, 
The Baltimore Museum of Art, 
Maryland, 1975 (cat.). 



Joe Goode 



Born 1937, Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma. Came to California, 1958. 
Studied at Chouinard Art Institute, 
Los Angeles, 1959-1961. Resides, 
Hollywood, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Dilexi Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1962. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The Fine Arts 
Patrons of Newport Harbor, Pavilion 
Gallery, Balboa, California, 1968 (with 
Ed Ruscha; cat.); Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum, Texas, 1972 (cat.). 



Group exhibitions include Six More. 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1963 (cat.); Ten From Los Angeles, 
Seattle Art Museum Pavilion, 
Washington, 1966 (cat.); Surrealism 
is Alive and Well in the West. Baxter 
Art Gallery, California Institute of 
Technology. Pasadena. 1972 (cat.); 
American Pop Art, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, 1974 
(cat.). 



Robert Graham 



Born 1938, Mexico City, Mexico. 
Came to California, 1950. Studied at 
San lose State College, California, 
1961-1963; San Francisco Art 
Institute, 1963-1964. Moved to 
Southern C^alifornia. 1965; lived in 
England and New York. 1967-1972. 
Resides, Venice, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Lanyon 
Gallery. Palo Alto, California, 1964. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, 



1966, 1967, 1968, 1974, 1975 (cat.); 
Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Texas, 
1972 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Annual Exhibition o/ Con temporary 
American Art. Whitney Museum of 
American Art. New York, 1966. 1969, 
1971 (cats.); Three Americans. 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 
London, 1971 (cat.); Separate 
Realities, Los Angeles Municipal Art 
Gallery, 1973 (cat.). 



214 



Howard Hack 



Born 1932, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Studied at Mills College. Oakland, 
California, 1949; California College of 
Arts and Crafts, Oakland, 1956-1957; 
University of San Francisco, B.S., 
1962. Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-man exhibition held at Holies 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1962 [also 
1963). Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include M.H. de Young Memorial 
Museum, San Francisco, 1967; Santa 



Barbara Museum of Art, California, 
1972. Group exhibitions include 
Third Winter Invitational, California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1961 (cat.); Annual 
Exhibition o/Contemporary 
American Painting, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1965, 1967 (cats.); Howard Hack/ 
Sylvia Lark /Leonard Sussman, San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1975 (cat.). 



Lloyd Hamrol 



Born 1934, San Francisco. Studied at 
University of California, Los Angeles, 
B.A., 1959; M.A., 1963. Resides, Santa 
Monica. First one-man exhibition 
held at Rolf Nelson Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1966. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include La Jolla Museum 
of Art, California, 1968; Pomona 
College Art Gallery, Claremont, 
California, 1970. Group exhibitions 



include American Sculpture of the 
Sixties, Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1967 (cat.); Invisible Painting 
and Sculpture, Richmond Art Center, 
California, 1969 (cat.); Public 
Sculpture /Urban Environment, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1974 
(cat.); Three L.A. Sculptors, The Los 
Angeles Institute of Contemporary 
Art, 1975 (cat.). 



Newton Harrison 



Born 1932, New York. Studied at Yale 
University, New Haven, Connecticut, 
B.RA., 1964; Yale University, 
Graduate School of Fine Arts, M.F. A., 
1965. Came to California, 1967. 
Resides, Lalolla, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at 10/4 
Group Gallery, New York, 1961. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Ronald Feldman Gallery, New York, 
1975. Group exhibitions include Art 



and Technology, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1971 (cat.); 
Exhibition 10, Contemporary Arts 
Museum, Houston, Texas, 1972 (cat.); 
Earth Air Fire Water: Elements of Art, 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
Massachusetts, 1974 (cat.); 1 1 Los 
Angeles Artists, The Arts Council of 
Great Britain, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1971 (cat.). 



Jidius Hatofsky 



Born 1922, Ellenville, New York. 
Studied at The Art Students League 
of New York, 1946-1950; Academie de 
la Grande Chaumiere, Paris, 
1950-1951; The Hans Hofmann 
School of Fine Arts, New York, 
1951-1952. In New York until 1961, 
when settled in San Francisco. 
Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-man exhibition held at 
Avant-Garde Gallery, New York, 1957. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Egan Gallery, New York, 1960, 1963; 



San Francisco Art Institute, 1970; 
Smith Andersen Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1976. Group exhibitions 
include Annual Exhibition of 
Contemporary American Painting, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York. 1958 (cat.); Contemporary 
American Painting and Sculpture, 
Krannert Art Museum, University of 
Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, 1965 
(cat.); Painting as Painting, 
University Art Museum, University 
of Texas, Austin, 1968 (cat.). 



215 



Wally Hedrick 



Born 1928, Pasadena, California. 
Studied at Otis Art Institute, Los 
Angeles; California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland; California 
School of Fine Arts (now San 
Francisco Art Institute), 1951-1955; 
San Francisco State College, M.A., 
1957. Resides, San Geronimo, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Pasadena Art Center, 
California, 1950. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include California School 
of Fine Arts, 1956 (cat.], 1967 (then 
San Francisco Art Institute); The Fine 



Arts Patrons of Newport Harbor, 
Pavilion Gallery, Balboa, California, 
1967 (with Sam Tchakalian; cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Sixteen 
Americans, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1959 (cat.); The 
Construction as an Object of Illusion, 
San Francisco Art Institute, 1962; 
Poets of the Cities INew York and San 
Francisco 1950-1965, Dallas Museum 
of Fine Arts and Pollock Galleries, 
Southern Methodist University, 
Dallas, Texas, 1974 (cat.). 



Phillip Hefferton 



Born 1933, Detroit, Michigan. 
Studied at the Society of Arts and 
Crafts, Detroit, 1955-1957. Came to 
Los Angeles, c. 1960. Resides, 
Davenport, California. One-man 
exhibitions include Rolf Nelson 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1964; Eugenia 
Butler Gallery, Los Angeles, 1971. 



Group exhibitions include The New 
Painting of Common Objects, 
Pasadena Art Museum, California, 
1962; Six More, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1963 (cat.); American 
Pop Art, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1974 (cat.). 



Gilbert Henderson 



Born 1925, Los Angeles, California. 
Studied at California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1949-1950; Otis Art 
Institute, Los Angeles, 1951; Jepson 
Art Institute, Los Angeles, 1951. 
Resides, Los Angeles. First one-man 
exhibition held at Associated 
American Galleries, Beverly Hills, 
California, 1949. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Ferus Gallery, Los 



Angeles, 1957; Grippi Gallery, New 
York, 1965; Molly Barnes Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969. Group exhibitions 
include Action, Merry-go-round 
Building, Santa Monica Pier, Santa 
Monica, California, 1955; Artists of 
Los Angeles and Vicinity (Annual 
Exhibition), Los Angeles County 
Museum, 1953 (cat.); Focus on Light, 
New Jersey State Museum Cultural 
Center, Trenton, 1967 (cat.). 



Maxwell Hendler 



Born 1938, St. Louis, Missouri. 
Studied at University of California, 
Los Angeles, M.F.A., 1962. Resides, 
Venice, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Ceeje Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1962 (with Arleen Goldberg; 
also 1965). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Eugenia Butler 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1969; The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, 1974. Group exhibitions include 



22 Realists, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1970 (cat.); 
1 1 Los Angeles Artists, The Arts 
Council of Great Britain, Hayward 
Gallery, London, 1971 (cat.); Separate 
Realities, Los Angeles Municipal Art 
Gallery, 1973 (cat.); America as Art, 
National Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C., 1976 (cat.). 



216 



George Harms 



Born 1935, Woodland, California. 
Lived in Southern California: 
Hermosa Beach, 1956-1957; Topanga, 
1962, 1965-1973; Los Angeles from 
1973. Lived in Northern California: 
Larkspur, 1958-1962; Mill Creek (near 
Healdsburg), 1963-1965. Resides, Los 
Angeles. First one-man exhibition 
held at Hermosa Beach, California 
("Secret Exhibition"), 1957. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Batman Gallery, San Francisco, 1961; 



Memorial Union Art Gallery, 
University of California, Davis, 1973 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include The 
Art of Assemblage, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New^ York, 1961 (cat.); 
Assemblage in California, Art 
Gallery, University of California, 
Irvine, 1968 (cat.); Art as a Muscular 
Principle, )ohn and Norah Warbeke 
Gallery, Mount Holyoke College, 
South Hadley, Massachusetts, 1975 
(cat.). 



Tom Holland 



Born 1936, Seattle, Washington. 
Studied at Willamette University, 
Salem, Oregon, 1954-1956; University 
of California, Santa Barbara, 1957; 
University of California, Berkeley, 
1957-1959. Resides, Berkeley, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Universidad Catolica de 
Chile, Santiago, Chile, 1969. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1972 
(cat.); Richmond Art Center, 



California, 1975 (cat.); Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery, 1975 (with 
Ron Davis; cat.). Group exhibitions 
include Off the Stretcher, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1971 
(cat.); Painting: New Options, Walker 
Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
1972 (cat.); 34th Biennial of 
Contemporary American Painting, 
The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1975 (cat.). 



Arthur Holman 



Born 1926, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. 
Studied at University of New Mexico, 
B.F.A., 1951; The Hans Hofmann 
School of Fine Arts, New York, 1951; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 1953. 
Settled in San Francisco, 1953; 
resides, Lagunitas, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Esther 
Robles Gallery, Los Angeles, 1960. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco, 1963 (cat.); William 



Sawyer Gallery, San Francisco, 1971, 
1972, 1974, 1975, 1976. Group 
exhibitions include Paintings by Art 
Holman and David Simpson; 
Sculpture by John R. Baxter, San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1959; 
Contemporary American Painting 
and Sculpture, Krannert Art 
Museum, University of Illinois, 
Champaign-Urbana, 1963 (cat.); Art 
on Paper, Weatherspoon Art Gallery, 
University of North Carolina, Chapel 
Hill, 1965. 



Charles Howard 



Born 1899, Montclair, New )ersey. 
Came to Berkeley, California, 1902. 
Studied at University of California, 
Berkeley, B.A., 1921. Lived in New 
York and Europe, 1922-1940. In San 
Francisco 1940-1946, then returned to 
England. Resides, Italy. First one-man 
exhibition held at the Whitney Studio 
Club, New York, 1926. Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1946 (cat.), 1953; 
Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 



1956 (cat.); McRoberts and Tunnard 
Limited, London, 1963 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include International 
Surrealist Exhibition, New 
Burlington Galleries, London, 1936; 
Abstract Painting and Sculpture in 
America, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1951 (cat.); British Art 
and the Modern Movement 
1930-1940, The Welsh Committee of 
the Arts Council of Great Britain, The 
National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, 
1962 (cat.). 



217 



Robert B. Howard 



Born 1896, New York. Came to 
Berkeley, California, 1902. Studied at 
California School of Arts and Crafts, 
Berkeley, 1915-1916; The Art 
Students League of New York, 
1916-1917. Resides, San Francisco. 
First one-man exhibition held at The 
Print Rooms, San Francisco, 1922. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1963 
(cat.); San Francisco Art histitute, 
1956 (then California School of Fine 



Arts), 1973 (cat.). Group exhibitions 
include Abstract and Surrealist 
American Art /Fifty-Eighth Annual 
Exhibition of American Painting and 
Sculpture, The Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1947 (cat.); IBienal, Museu 
de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 
1951, and III Bienal, 1955 (cats.); 
Public Sculpture /Urban 
Environment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Robert Hudson 



Born 1938, Salt Lake City, Utah. Came 
to San Francisco, 1957. Studied at 
San Francisco Art histitute, B.F.A., 
1961; M.KA., 1963. Resides, 
Sausalito, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Richmond Art 
Center, California, 1961. Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include San 
Francisco Art Institute, 1965; San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1973 



(with Richard Shaw; cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Funk, University 
Art Museum, University of 
California, Berkeley, 1967 (cat.); 14 
Sculptors: The Industrial Edge, 
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, 1969 (cat.); The Condition 
of Sculpture, The Arts Council of 
Great Britain, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1975 (cat.). 



John Hultberg 



Born 1922, San Francisco. Studied 
at Fresno State College, California, 
1939-1943; California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1947-1949; The Art 
Students League of New York, 
1949-1951. Resides, New York. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Contemporary Gallery, Sausalito, 
California, 1949. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Martha Jackson 



Gallery, New York, since 1955; The 
Roswell Museum and Art Center, 
Roswell, New Mexico, 1963 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include XXVIII 
Biennale, Venice, Italy, 1956 (cat.); 
Contemporary Urban Visions, New 
School Art Center, New York, 1966 
(cat.); American Painting 1970, 
Virginia Museum, Richmond, 1970 
(cat.). 



Nick Hyde 



Born 1943, San Francisco, California. 
Studied at San Francisco Academy of 
Art, B.A., 1967; San Francisco Art 
Institute, M.F.A., 1971. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at Sun Gallery, San Francisco, 
1969 (with Dena Petit). Group 
exhibitions include Other 



Landscapes and Shadow Land, 
University of Southern California Art 
Galleries, Los Angeles, 1971 (cat.); 
Imaginary Painting from San 
Francisco, California State 
University, San Jose, 1973 (cat.); 
Phantasmal Visions, Gallery Rebecca 
Cooper, Washington, D.C., 1975. 



218 



Robert Irwin 



Born 1928, Long Beach, California. 
Studied at Otis Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, 1948-1950; Jepson Art 
Institute, Los Angeles, 1951; 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1951-1952. Lived in Europe in 1954 
and 1958. Resides, Westwood, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Felix Landau Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1957. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Ferus Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1964; Fort 
Worth Art Center Museum, Texas (in 
cooperation with The Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., and 
the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
Netherlands], 1969 (with Doug 



Wheeler; cat.); Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1975 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include The 
Responsive Eye, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1965 (cat.); 
Transparency, Reflection, Light, 
Space; Four Artists, UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of California, 
Los Angeles, 1971 (cat.); 200 Years of 
American Sculpture, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1976 (cat.); Critical Perspectives in 
American Art, Fine Arts Gallery, 
University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst (United States 
Representation, XXXVIIIRiennaJe, 
Venice, Italy), 1976 (cat.). 



Richard Jackson 



Born 1939, Sacramento, California. 
Studied at Sacramento State College, 
California, 1959-1961. Resides, 
Pasadena, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at E.B. Crocker Art 
Gallery, Sacramento, California, 1961. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Bykert Gallery, New York, 1973; Riko 
Mizuno Gallery, Los Angeles, 1974, 
1975. Group exhibitions include 
Thirty-second Biennial Exhibition of 



Contemporary American Painting, 
The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1971 (cat.); John 
BaJdessari /Frances Barth IRichard 
fackson I Barbara Munger IGary 
Stephan, Contemporary Arts 
Museum, Houston, Texas, 1972 (cat.); 
Both Kinds; Contemporary Art from 
Los AngeJes, University Art Museum, 
University of California, Berkeley, 
1975 (cat). 



Jack Jefferson 



Born 1921, Lead, South Dakota. 
Studied at University of Iowa, Iowa 
City, 1940-1942; California School of 
Fine Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1946-1950. Settled in San 
Francisco, 1946. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at Metart Gallery, San Francisco, 
1949. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include M.H. de Young Memorial 
Museum, San Francisco, 1960, 1962 
(cat.); Smith Andersen Gallery, San 



Francisco, 1976. Group exhibitions 
include Large Scale Drawings by 
Modern Artists, California Palace of 
the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 
1950 (cat.); A Period o/ Exploration, 
San Francisco 1945-1950, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1973 
(cat.); 1975 Biennial Exhibition; 
Contemporary American Art, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1975 (cat.). 



219 



Jess 



Born 1923, Long Beach, California. 
Studied at California Institute of 
Technology, Pasadena, B.S., 
Chemistry, 1948; California School of 
Fine Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1949-1951. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at "The Place", San Francisco, 
1954. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include San Francisco Museum of 
Art, 1968 (cat.); Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1972 
(cat.); The Museum of Modern Art, 



New York, 1974. Group exhibitions 
include The Art o/AssembJage, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1961 (cat.); The Spirit of the Comics, 
Institute of Contemporary Art, 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1969 (cat.); Poets of the 
Cities INew York and San Francisco 
1950-1965, Dallas Museum of Fine 
Arts and Pollock Galleries, Southern 
Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, 
1974 (cat.). 



Daniel La Rue Johnson 



Born 1938, Los Angeles. Studied at 
Chouinard Art Institute, B.F.A.; with 
Alberto Giacometti in Paris. Resides, 
Los Angeles. First one-man 
exhibition held at Pasadena 
Community Center, California, 1953. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Chouinard Art Institute, 1956; Rolf 
Nelson Gallery, Los Angeles, 1964. 
Group exhibitions include Directions 



in CoJJage: California, Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1962; Boxes, 
Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, 1964 
(cat.); The Negro in American Art, 
UCLA Art Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1966 (cat.); 
Dimensions of Black, La )olla 
Museum of Art, California, 1966 
(cat.). 



Sargent Johnson 



Born 1888, Boston, Massachusetts. 
Studied at California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1919-1923 (with Ralph 
Stackpole and Beniamino Bufano), 
1940-1942, 1958 (summer). Died 1967, 
San Francisco. One-man exhibition 
held at The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1971 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include California Art 
Today, Golden Gate International 



Exposition, San Francisco, 1940 
(cat.); The Negro in American Art, 
UCLA Art Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1966 (cat.); 
Dimensions of Black. La Jolla 
Museum of Art, La Jolla, California, 
1970 (cat.); New Deal Art: California, 
de Saisset Art Gallery and Museum, 
University of Santa Clara, California, 
1976 (cat.). 



Ynez Johnston 



Born 1920, Berkeley, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Berkeley, B.F A., 1941 ; M.F A., 1946. 
Settled in Southern California, 1953. 
Resides, Los Angeles. First one- 
woman exhibition held at San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1943 
(also 1967; cat.). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1956 (cat.); )odi Scully 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1971, 1973, 



1976. Group exhibitions include 
Bunce /Johnston IMundt: New Talent 
Exhibition, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1950 (cat.); Ill Bienal, 
Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1955 (cat.); Graphics '71 West 
Coast, U.S.A., University of Kentucky 
Art Gallery, Lexington, 1970 (cat.); 
American Artists '76; A Celebration, 
Marion Koogler McNay Art Institute. 
San Antonio, Texas, 1976 (cat.). 



220 



David Jones 



Craig Kaufi&nan 



James Kelly 



Adaline Kent 



Born 1948, Columbus, Ohio. Came 
to San Francisco, 1970. Studied at 
Kansas City Art Institute, B.F.A., 
1970; University of California, 
Berkeley, M.A., 1971; M.F.A., 1973. 
Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-man exhibition held at San Jose 
State University, California, 1971. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art (SECA 



Grant 1974], 1974 (cat.); Michael 
Walls Gallery, New York, 1975. Croup 
exhibitions include The MetaJ 
Experience, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1971 (cat,); Market Street 
Program , Pasadena Museum of 
Modern Art, California, 1973; 1975 
Biennial Exhibition; Contemporary 
American Art, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1975 (cat.). 



Born 1932, Los Angeles. Studied at 
University of Southern California, 
School of Architecture, Los Angeles, 
1950-1952; University of California, 
Los Angeles, 1952-1956, M.A., 1956. 
Extended stays in San Francisco, 
1959-1960; New York, 1970-1971; and 
Europe, 1956, 1960-1961, 1975 and 
1976. Resides, Laguna Beach, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Felix Landau Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1953. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Pace Gallery, 
New York, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1970 



(cat.), 1973; Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1970 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include United States of 
America /V Paris Biennale, Musee 
d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
1967 (cat.); Los AngeJes 6, Vancouver 
Art Gallery, British Columbia, 1968 
(cat.); 14 Sculptors: The Industrial 
Edge, Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1969 (cat.); 
Transparency, Reflection, Light, 
Space: Four Artists, UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of California, 
Los Angeles, 1971 (cat.). 



Born 1915, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. Studied at 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 
Philadelphia, 1938; Barnes 
Foundation, Merion, Pennsylvania, 
1941 ; California School of Fine Arts 
(now San Francisco Art Institute), 
1951-1954. Left California, 1958. 
Resides, New York. First one-man 
exhibition held at "The Place", San 
Francisco, 1954. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The Stryke 



Gallery, New York, 1963; East 
Hampton Gallery, 1965, 1968 (with 
Sonia Gechtoff). Group exhibitions 
include Action, Merry-go-round 
Building, Santa Monica Pier, Santa 
Monica, California, 1955 (cat.); 
American Paintings 1945-1957, The 
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 
Minnesota, 1957 (cat.); The Last Time 
I Saw Ferus, Newport Harbor Art 
Museum, Newport Beach, California, 
1976 (cat.). 



Born 1900, Kentfield, California. 
Studied at Vassar College, 
Poughkeepsie, New York, B.A., 1923; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1923-1924; with Antoine Bourdelle, 
Paris, 1924. Died 1957, Marin County, 
California. First one-woman 
exhibition held at the Art Center, 
San Francisco, 1934 (with Harriet 
Whedon). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1948, 1958 (cat.); 
Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, 
1949, 1953, 1956. Group exhibitions 



include Mobiles and Articulated 
Sculpture, California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 
1948 (cat.); Abstract Painting and 
Sculpture in America, The Museum 
of Modern Art, New York, 1951 (cat.); 
Le Dessin Confemporain aux 
Etats-Unis, Musee National d'Art 
Moderne, Paris, 1954 (cat.). Ref: 
MacAgy, Jermayne, Alice C. Kent 
and Robert B. Howard, eds. Auto- 
biography from the Notebooks and 
Sculpture of Adaline Kent. Houston, 
Texas: privately printed, 1958. 



221 



Edward Kienholz 



Born 1927, Fairfield, Washington. 
Studied at Eastern Washington 
College of Education, Cheney; 
Whitworth College, Spokane, 
Washington. Resides Hope, Idaho, 
and Germany. First one-man 
exhibition held at Syndell Studio, 
Los Angeles, 1956. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1966 (cat.); 11 
Tableaux, organized by the Institute 
of Contemporary Arts, Nash House, 
London, for the Moderna Museet, 



Stockholm, Sweden, 1971 (cat.). 
Croup exhibitions include The Art of 
Assemblage, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1961 (cat.); American 
Sculpture of the Sixties, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1967 (cat.); 
Dada, Surrealism and Their 
Heritage, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1968 (cat.); 200 Years 
of American Sculpture, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1976 (cat.). 



Robert Kinmont 



Born 1937, Los Angeles. Studied 
Japanese calligraphy, Sumi-e, and oil 
painting, privately in Los Angeles; 
San Francisco Art Institute, B.F.A., 
1970; University of California, Davis, 
M.FA., 1971. Lived in Seattle, 
Washington, 1962-1964. Came to San 
Francisco, 1965. Resides, Bishop, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Gallery Reese Palley, San 
Francisco, 1971 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Slant Step Show, 



Berkeley Gallery, San Francisco, 
1966; Idea-Document, Paula Cooper 
Gallery, New York, 1969; Extra- 
ordinary Realities, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, 1973 
(cat.); Robert Bogan /Robert 
Kinmont //ock Reynolds, San 
Francisco Art Institute, 1974 (cat.); 
Word Works, Too, Art Gallery, San 
Jose State University, California, 1975 
(cat.). 



Peter Krasnow 



Born 1890, Ukraine, Russia. Studied 
at The School of The Art Institute of 
Chicago to 1916. Came to Los 
Angeles, 1922. Resides, Los Angeles. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Whitney Studio Club, New York, 
1922. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 1931 
(cat.); Lang Galleries, Scripps 
College, Claremont, California, 1964 



(cat.); Los Angeles Municipal Art 
Gallery, 1975 (cat.). Group exhibitions 
include III Bienal , Museu de Arte 
Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1955 
(cat.); Peter Krasnow, Max Band, 
Boris Deutsch, Westside Jewish 
Community Center, Los Angeles, 
1965; Nine Senior Southern 
California Painters, The Los Angeles 
Institute of Contemporary Art, 1974 
(cat.). 



Walter Kuhlman 



Born 1918, St. Paul, Minnesota. 
Studied at St. Paul School of Art, 
1936-1939; University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, B.A., 1941; California 
School of Fine Arts (now San 
Francisco Art Institute), 1947-1950; 
Academie de la Grande Chaumiere, 
Paris, 1950-1951. Resides, Sausalito, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1940. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
California Palace of the Legion of 
Honor, San Francisco, 1956, 1964; de 



Saisset Art Gallery, University of 
Santa Clara, California, 1969 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Iff Bienal, 
Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1955 (cat.); Pacemakers, 
Contemporary Arts Museum, 
Houston, Texas, 1957 (cat.); Recent 
American Paintings, University Art 
Museum, University of Texas, Austin, 
1964 (cat.); A Period of Exploration, 
San Francisco 1945-1950, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1973 
(cat.). 



222 



Lucien Labaudt 



Born 1880, Paris, France. Studied in 
London, 1901-1904. Settled in San 
Francisco, 1911. Died 1943, India. 
One-man exhibitions include 
California Palace of the Legion of 
Honor, San Francisco, 1933; San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1944 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Salon des 
Independents, Paris, 1921-1926 



(annually; cats.); Painting and 
Sculpture from 16 American Cities, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1933 (cat.); Post-Surrealist 
Exhibition, San Francisco Museum of 
Art, 1935; Contemporary Art, Golden 
Gate International Exposition, San 
Francisco, 1939 (cat.). 



Rico Lebrun 



Born 1900, Naples, Italy. Studied at 
National Technical School, Naples, 
1910-1917; National Technical 
Institute, Academy of Fine Arts, 
Naples, 1919-1921. Settled in 
Southern California in 1938. Died 
1964, Malibu, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Faulkner 
Memorial Art Gallery, Santa Barbara, 
California, 1941. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1940; Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1950, 1967 



(cat.); Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
California, 1971 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Americans 1942, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1942 (cat.); Abstract and 
Surrealist American Art /Fi/ty-Eighth 
Annual Exhibition of American 
Painting and Sculpture, The Art 
Institute of Chicago, 1947 (cat.); XXV 
BiennaJe, American Painting Today, 
Venice, Italy, 1950 (cat.); Master- 
pieces o/ReJigious Art, The Art 
Institute of Chicago, 1954 (cat.). 



Alvin Light 



Born 1931, Concord, New Hampshire. 
Came to San Francisco, 1951. Studied 
at California School of Fine Arts 
(now San Francisco Art Institute), 
1951-1953, 1956-1961, B.F.A., 1959; 
M.F.A., 1961. Resides, San Francisco. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Spatsa Gallery, San Francisco, 1959. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco, 1965 (cat.); San 



Francisco Art Institute, 1971. Group 
exhibitions include American 
Sculpture of the Sixties, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1967 (cat.); 
Public Sculpture /Urban Environ- 
ment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.); 1975 Biennial 
Exhibition: Contemporary American 
Art , Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1975 (cat.). 



Frank Lobdell 



Born 1921, Kansas City, Missouri. 
Moved to Sausalito, California, 1946. 
Studied at St. Paul School of Fine 
Arts, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1938-1939; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1947-1950; Academie de la Grande 
Chaumiere, Paris, 1950. Resides, Palo 
Alto, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Lucien Labaudt 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1949 (with 
George Stillman). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Ferus Gallery, Los 



Angeles, 1962; Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1966 (cat.); San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1969 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include IIIBienal, 
Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1955 (cat.); Kompas 4, 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1969 
(cat.); Contemporary American 
Painting and Sculpture 1974, 
Krannert Art Museum, University of 
Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, 1974 
(cat.). 



223 



Seymour Locks 



Born 1919, Chicago, Illinois, (lame to 
California, 1931. Studied at San |ose 
State College, California, A.B.; 
Stanford University, Stanford, 
California, M.A., 1946. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at Lucien Labaudt Gallery, 
San Francisco, 1955 (also 1957). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1960 



(with William Wiley); San Francisco 
Art Institute, 1974. Group exhibitions 
include From San Francisco: A New 
Language in Painting, Kaufmann Art 
Gallery, YM-YWHA, New York, 1954; 
The Art of Assemblage. The Museum 
of Modern Art, New York, 1961 (cat.); 
A Period o/ExpJoration, San 
Francisco 1945-1950, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1973 (cat.). 



Maurice Logan 



Born 1886, San Francisco. Studied 
at The Partington Art School, San 
Francisco; Mark Hopkins kistitute of 
Art, San Francisco, c. 1907-1914; The 
School of The Art Institute of 
Chicago; California School of Arts 
and Crafts, Berkeley. Resides, 
Oakland, California, One-man 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1940; Oakland Art 
Gallery, California, 1944; M,H. de 
Young Memorial Museum, San 



Francisco, 1957. Group exhibitions 
include Impressionistic Paintings 
by Western Artists, Los Angeles 
Museum, 1924; 200 Years of Water- 
color Painting in America , The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, 1966 (cat.); Society of Six. The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1972 
(cat.); California White Paper 
Painters /1930's-1970's, Art Gallery, 
California State University, Fullerton, 
1976 (cat.). 



Helen Lundeberg 



Born 1908, Chicago, Illinois. Came to 
Pasadena, California, 1912. Studied 
with Lorser Feitelson, 1930-1933. 
Resides, Los Angeles. First 
one-woman exhibition held at 
Stanley Rose Gallery, Hollywood, 
California, 1933. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The Pasadena Art 
Institute, California, 1953; La JoUa 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
California, 1971 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Fantastic Art, 



Dada, Surrealism , The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1936 (cat.); 
Geometric Abstraction in America , 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1962 (cat.); Nine Senior 
Southern California Painters, The Los 
Angeles Institute of Contemporary 
Art, 1974 (cat.); American Artists '76: 
A Celebration. Marion Koogler 
McNay Art Institute, San Antonio, 
Texas, 1976 (cat.). 



Stanton Macdonald-Wright 



Born 1890, Charlottesville, Virginia. 
Came to Santa Monica, California, 
1900. Studied at Art Students League, 
Los Angeles, 1904-1905; La Sorbonne, 
Paris, 1907-1909; and briefly at 
Academic Colarossi, Academie Julian 
and Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. Died 
1973, Los Angeles. First one-man 
exhibition held at Neue Kunstsalon, 
Munich, Germany, 1913 (first 
Synchromist exhibition, with Morgan 
Russell). Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C., 1967 (cat.); UCLA 



Art Galleries/The Grunwald Graphic 
Arts Foundation, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1970 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Pioneers 
of IVfodern Art in America, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1946 (cat.); Roots of Abstract Art in 
America 1910-1930. National 
Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C.. 1965 
(cat.); Avant-Garde: Painting and 
Sculpture in America 1910-1925. 
Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, 
1975 (cat.). 



224 



Tom Marioni 



Born 1937, Cincinnati, Ohio. Studied 
at Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, 
1954-1955; Cincinnati Art Academy, 
Ohio, 1955-1959. Settled in San 
Francisco, 1959. Founder and 
Director of Museum of Conceptual 
Art, San Francisco, 1970 to present. 
Resides, Berkeley, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Bradley 
Memorial Museum of Art, Columbus, 
Georgia, 1963. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Richmond Art 



Center, California, 1968 (cat.); The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1970; 
and/or, Seattle, Washington, 1976. 
Group exhibitions include Sound 
Sculpture As , Museum of Conceptual 
Art, San Francisco, 1970; Fish, Fox, 
Kos, de Saisset Art Gallery and 
Museum, University of Santa Clara, 
Santa Clara, California, 1971 ; South 
of the Slot, 63 Bluxome Street, San 
Francisco, 1974 (cat.). 



Bill Martin 



Born 1943, South San Francisco, 
California. Studied at San Francisco 
Art Institute, B.FA., 1968; M.F.A., 
1970. Resides, Woodacre, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1973 (cat.). 
Subsequent solo exhibition held at 
Nancy Hoffman Gallery, New York, 



1976. Group exhibitions include 
Other Landscapes and Shadow Land , 
University of Southern California Art 
Galleries, Los Angeles, 1971 (cat.); 
Baja, San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1974 (cat.); Alternative Realities, 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, 1976 (cat.). 



Fred Martin 



Born 1927, San Francisco. Studied at 
University of California, Berkeley, 
B.A., 1949; California Secondary 
Teaching Credential, 1951; M. A., 
1954; California School of Fine Arts 
(now San Francisco Art Institute), 
1949-1950. Resides, Oakland, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Contemporary Gallery, 
Sausalito, California, 1949. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Royal Marks Gallery, New York, 1965, 



1966, 1968, 1970; San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1973 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include The Construction 
as an Object of Illusion, San 
Francisco Art Institute, 1962; 
Extraordinary Realities, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1973 (cat.); Art as a Muscular 
Principle, lohn and Norah Warbeke 
Gallery, Mount Holyoke College, 
South Hadley, Massachusetts, 1975 
(cat.). 



Xavier Martinez 



Born 1869, Guadalajara, Mexico. 
Came to San Francisco, 1893. Studied 
at California School of Design, San 
Francisco, 1893-1897; Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, Atelier Gerome, Paris, 
1897-1899; Academy of Eugene 
Carriere, Paris, 1900-1901. Returned 
to San Francisco, 1901. Lived in San 
Francisco Bay Area until 1942 when 
he moved to Carmel, California. Died 
1943, Carmel. One-man exhibitions 
include Vickery Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1905, 1909; The Print 
Rooms, San Francisco, 1922; 
California College of Arts and Crafts, 
Oakland, 1941, 1967; The Oakland 



Museum, California, 1974 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include 
Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 1915 
(cat.); Opening Exhibition IFifty-Fifth 
Annual Exhibition of the San 
Francisco Art Association , San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1935 (cat.); 
The Color of Mood: American 
Tonalism 1880-1910, M.H. de Young 
Memorial Museum and California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1972 (cat.); California 
Design 1910, Pasadena Center, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



225 



Fred Mason 



Born 1938, El Monte, California. 
Studied at Immaculate Heart College, 
Los Angeles, 1955-1958. Resides, 
Venice, California. Group exhibitions 
include Directions in Collage; 
California, Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1962; The Contained 



Object, Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1966; Assemblage in 
California , Art Gallery, University of 
California, Irvine, 1968 (cat.); Collage 
and Assemblage in Southern 
California , The Los Angeles Institute 
of Contemporary Art, 1975 (cat.). 



John Mason 



Born 1927, Madrid, Nebraska. Came 
to Los Angeles, 1949. Studied at Otis 
Art histitute, Los Angeles, 1949-1951 , 
1954; Chouinard Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, 1951-1954. Resides, Los 
Angeles. First one-man exhibition 
held at Gump's Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1956. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Ferus Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1963; 
Pasadena Art Museum, California, 
1960, 1974 (then Pasadena Museum of 
Modern Art; cat.); Los Angeles 



County Museum of Art, 1966 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Abstract 
Expressionist Ceramics, Art Gallery, 
University of California, Irvine, 1966 
(cat.); American Sculpture of the 
Sixties, Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1967 (cat.); Sculpture Off the 
Pedestal, Grand Rapids Art Museum, 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1973 (cat.); 
200 Years of American Sculpture, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1976 (cat.). 



Arthur Mathews 



Born 1860, Markesan, Wisconsin. 
Settled in Oakland, California, 1867. 
Studied with Henry Bruen, Oakland, 
1875-1880; Academie Julian with 
Gustave Boulanger and Jules 
Lefebvre, Paris, 1885-1886. Returned 
to San Francisco, 1889. Died 1945, 
San Francisco. First one-man 
exhibition held at Vickery Gallery, 
San Francisco, 1890 (also 1905). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, San 



Francisco, 1898; The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1972 (with Lucia 
Mathews; cat.). Group exhibitions 
include the Salon, Paris, 1887, 1888, 
1889 (cats.); Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition, San 
Francisco, 1915 (cat.); California Art 
in Retrospect: 1850-1915, Golden 
Gate International Exposition, San 
Francisco, 1940 (cat.); California 
Design 1910, Pasadena Center, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Lucia Mathews 



Born 1870, San Francisco. Studied at 
Mills College, Oakland, California, 
1892-1893; Mark Hopkins histitute 
of Art, San Francisco, 1893-1894; 
Academie Carmen, Paris, 1899. Lived 
in San Francisco until 1951 when 
moved to Los Angeles. Died 1955, Los 
Angeles. Retrospective exhibition of 
the work of Arthur and Lucia 
Mathews held at The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1972 (cat.). 



Group exhibitions include Spring 
Exhibition, Mark Hopkins Institute 
of Art, San Francisco, 1896, 1906; 
Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 1915 
(cat.); California Art in Retrospect; 
1850-1915, Golden Gate International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 1940 
(cat.); California Design 1910, 
Pasadena Center, California, 1974 
(cat.). 



226 



Robert McChesney 



Born 1913, Marshall, Missouri. 
Studied at Washington University, St. 
Louis, Missouri, 1933-1934; Otis Art 
Institute, Los Angeles, 1936. Came to 
San Francisco c. 1938. Resides, 
Petaluma, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Raymond & 
Raymond, San Francisco, 1944. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1949; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 1957 



(cat.); Capricorn Asunder, San 
Francisco Art Commission Gallery, 
1974 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Abstract and Surrealist American 
Art /Fifty-Eighth Annual Exhibition 
of American Painting and Sculpture, 
The Art histitute of Chicago, 1947 
(cat.); niBienal, Museude Arte 
Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1955 
(cat.); A Period o/Exploration, San 
Francisco 1945-1950, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1973 (cat.). 



John McCracken 



Born 1934, Berkeley, California. 
Studied at California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland, 1958-1965, 
B.F.A., 1962. Moved to Venice, 
California, 1965; moved to New York, 
1968. Resides, Venice, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1965 (also 1967, 1968). Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include Robert Elkon 
Gallery, New York, 1966, 1967, 1968, 



1972, 1973; Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, 
1969, 1970. Group exhibitions 
include Primary Structures, The 
Jewish Museum, New York, 1966 
(cat.); Ten From Los Angeles, Seattle 
Art Museum Pavilion, Washington, 
1966 (cat.); A New Aesthetic, 
Washington Gallery of Modern Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1967 (cat.); Unitary 
Forms, San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1970 (cat.). 



James McCray 



John McLaughlin 



Born 1912, Niles, California. Studied 
at University of California, Berkeley, 
B.A., 1934; M.A., 1935; Barnes 
Foundation, Merion, Pennsylvania, 
1937-1939. Resides, Walnut Creek, 
California. One-man exhibitions held 
at California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 1955 
(cat.); Berkeley Rotary Art and 
Garden Center, California, 1968 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Abstract 



and Surrealist American Art / 
Fifty-Eighth Annual Exhibition of 
American Painting and Sculpture, 
The Art Institute of Chicago, 1947 
(cat.); New Works by Ruth Armer, 
Leah Rinne Hamilton, James McCray, 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1950; 
American Water Colors, Drawings 
and Prints, The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York, 1952 (cat.). 



Born 1898, Sharon, Massachusetts. 
Self-taught. Settled in Dana Point, 
California, 1946. Died 1976, Dana 
Point. First one-man exhibition held 
at Landau Gallery, Los Angeles, 1952. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
The Pasadena Art histitute, 1956, 
1963 (then Pasadena Art Museum; 
cat.); The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1968 (cat.); Art 
Gallery, California State University, 
Fullerton, 1975 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Four Abstract 



Classicists, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art and San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1959 (cat.); 
Geometric Abstraction in America, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1962 (cat.); 1 1 Los Angeles 
Artists, The Arts Coimcil of Great 
Britain, Hayward Gallery, London, 
1971 (cat.); Nine Senior Southern 
California Painters, The Los Angeles 
Institute of Contemporary Art, 1974 
(cat.). 



227 



Richard McLean 



Born 1934, Hoquiam, Washington. 
Studied at California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland, 1955, 1958, 
B.F.A., 1958; Mills College, Oakland, 
1960-1962, M.F.A., 1962. Resides, 
Oakland, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Lucien Labaudt 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1957. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Berkeley Gallery, Berkeley, California, 
1964, 1966, 1968 (Berkeley Gallery 



moved to San Francisco, February, 
1966); O.K. Harris Works of Art, New 
York, 1971 , 1973. Group exhibitions 
include 22 Realists, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1970 (cat.); Documenta 5, Kassel, 
Germany, 1972 (cat.); Photo-Realism, 
The Arts Council of Great Britain, 
Serpentine Gallery, London, 1973 
(cat.); Super ReaJism , The Baltimore 
Museum of Art, Maryland, 1975 (cat.). 



Jerry McMillan 



Born 1936, Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma. Came to California, 1958. 
Studied at Chouinard Art histitute, 
Los Angeles, 1958-1960. Resides, 
Pasadena, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1966. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, 
Iowa, 1970 (cat.); Newport Harbor Art 
Museum, Balboa, California, 1972 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 



Photography into Sculpture, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1970; Surrealism is Alive and WeJJ in 
ihe West, Baxter Art Gallery, 
California Institute of Technology, 
Pasadena, 1972 (cat.); A Drawing 
Show, Newport Harbor Art Museum, 
Balboa, California, 1975 (cat.); 
Collage and Assemblage in Southern 
California , The Los Angeles Institute 
of Contemporary Art, 1975 (cat.). 



Cliff McReynolds 



Born 1933, Amarillo, Texas. Studied 
at San Diego State College, California, 
B.A., 1959; M.A., 1960. First one-man 
exhibition held at Art Center in La 
JoUa, California, 1959 (also 1967, then 
La )olla Museum of Art). Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include San Diego 
City College, California, 1971; Gallery 
Rebecca Cooper, New York, 1976. 



Group exhibitions include Drawings 
USA 75, Minnesota Museum of Art, 
Saint Paul, 1975 (cat.); AhevvxaXive 
Realities, Museum of Contemporary 
Art, Chicago, 1976 (cat.); Mind- 
scapes — 5 Cali/ornia Artists, 
Oshkosh Public Museum, Wisconsin, 
1976 (cat.). 



Jim Melchert 



Born 1930, New Bremen, Ohio. 
Studied at Princeton University, A.B. 
1952; University of Chicago, M.F.A., 
1957; Montana State University, 
Missoula, 1958, 1959 (summers); 
University of California, Berkeley, 
M. A., 1961 . Came to Berkeley, 
California, 1959. Resides, Oakland, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Richmond Art Center, 
California, 1961. Subsequent solo 



exhibitions include San Francisco 
Art Institute, 1970; San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1975 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Abstract 
Expressionist Ceramics, Art Gallery, 
University of California, Irvine, 1966 
(cat.); Documenta 5, Kassel, 
Germany, 1972 (cat.); Public 
Sculpture /Urban Environment, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1974 
(cat.). 



228 



Knud Merrild 



Born 1894, Island of Jutland, 
Denmark. Studied at Arts and Crafts 
School, Copenhagen, 1914-1916; 
briefly at Royal Academy of Fine 
Arts, Copenhagen, 1917. Settled in 
Los Angeles, 1923. Returned to 
Copenhagen, 1954. Died 1954, 
Copenhagen. First one-man 
exhibition in United States held at 
Santa Fe Museum, New Mexico, 1923. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Hollywood Gallery of Modern Art, 



California, 1935 (cat.); Modern 
Institute of Art, Beverly Hills, 
California, 1948 (cat.); Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1965 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include 
Post-Surrealist Exhibition, San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1935; 
Fantastic Art, Dada, and Surrealism , 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1936 (cat.); Americans 1942, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1942 (cat.). 



Edward Moses 



Born 1926, Long Beach, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Los Angeles, B.A., 1956; M.A., 1958. 
Resides, Venice, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Ferus 
Gallery, 1958 (also 1959, 1961, 1963). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Pomona College Art Gallery, 
Montgomery Art Center, Claremont, 
California, 1971 (cat.); Andre 
Emmerich Gallery, New York, 1974, 
1975; Los Angeles County Museum of 



Art, 1976 (cat.). Group exhibitions 
include Documenta 5, Kassel, 
Germany, 1972 (cat.); American Art: 
Third Quarter Century, Seattle Art 
Museum Pavilion, Washington, 1973 
(cat.); Current Concerns, The Los 
Angeles Institute of Contemporary 
Art, 1975 (cat.); 18 UCLA Faculty 
Artists, Frederick S. Wight Art 
Gallery, University of California, Los 
Angeles, 1975 (cat.). 



Lee Mullican 



Bruce Nauman 



Born 1919, Chickasha, Oklahoma. 
Studied at Abilene Christian College, 
Abilene, Texas, 1937; University of 
Oklahoma, Norman, 1939-1942; 
Kansas City Art Institute, Missouri, 
1942. Moved to San Francisco in 
1947; moved to Southern California in 
1951. Resides, Arroyo Seco, New 
Mexico. First one-man exhibition 
held at San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1949 (also 1965; cats.). Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include Willard 
Gallery, New York, 1950, 1952 (cat.); 
UCLA Art Galleries, University of 



California, Los Angeles, 1969 (cat.); 
Rose Rabow Galleries, San Francisco, 
1955, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1970, 1974. 
Group exhibitions include A New 
Vision, (Dynaton group), San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1951 (cat.); 
American Painting Today 1950, The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, 1950 (cat.); IIIBienal, Museu de 
Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1955 
(cat.); The Institute o/ Creative Arts, 
Art Galleries, University of 
California, Santa Barbara, 1969 (cat.). 



Born 1941, Fort Wayne, Indiana. 
Studied at University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, B.S., 1964; University of 
California, Davis, M.FA., 1966. Came 
to California, 1964; lived in Northern 
California, 1964-1968. Moved to 
Pasadena, California, 1969, where he 
currently resides. First one-man 
exhibition held at Nicholas Wilder 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1966 (also 1969, 
1970, 1974). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Leo Castelli 
Gallery, New York, 1968 (cat.), 1969, 



1970, 1971, 1973, 1975; Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art in cooperation 
with the Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1973 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Eccentric 
Abstraction, Fischbach Gallery, New 
York, 1966; Documenta 5 , Kassel, 
Germany, 1972 (cat.); When Attitudes 
Become Form, Kunsthalle, Bern, 
Switzerland, 1969 (cat.); 200 Years of 
American Sculpture, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1976 (cat.). 

229 



Manuel Neri 



Born 1930, Sanger, California. 
Studied at San Francisco City 
College, 1950-1951 ; University of 
California, Berkeley, 1951-1952; 
California College of Arts and Crafts, 
Oakland, 1952-1953, 1955-1957; 
Archie Bray Foundation, Helena, 
Montana, 1953 (summer); California 
School of Fine Arts (now San 
Francisco Art Institute), 1957-1959. 
Resides, Benicia, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at 6 Gallery, 
San Francisco, 1957. Subsequent solo 



exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1971 (cat.); The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1976 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Abstract Expressionist Ceramics, Art 
Gallery, University of California, 
h-vine, 1966 (cat.); Funk, University 
Art Museum, University of 
California, Berkeley, 1967; 1970 
Annua) Exhibition: Contemporary 
American Sculpture, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1970 (cat.). 



Maria Nordman 



Born 1943, Goerlitz, Silesia, Germany, 
Came to California, 1961. Studied at 
University of California, Los Angeles, 
1961-1967, B.F.A., M.F.A. Currently 
resides, Santa Monica, California. 
One-woman exhibitions include 
University of California, Irvine, 1973 
(cat.); piece executed at 4th and 



Howard Streets, San Francisco, 1975. 
Group exhibitions include 15 Los 
Angeles Artists, Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1972 (cat.); 
Art /Environment 1915-1976, Italian 
Pavilion, XXXVIIIBiennale, Venice, 
Italy, 1976 (cat.). 



Nathan Oliveira 



Born 1928, Oakland, California. 
Studied at California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland, 1947-1952, 
M.F.A. , 1952; Mills College, Oakland 
(with Max Beckmann), 1950 
(summer). Resides, Stanford, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Eric Locke Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1957. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of California, 



Los Angeles, 1963 (cat.); San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1969 (cat.); 
The Oakland Museum, California, 
1973 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
New Images of Man , The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1959 (cat.); 
Art Since 1950, Seattle World's Fair, 
Seattle, Washington, 1962 (cat.); 
Pioneering Printmakers, Fine Arts 
Gallery of San Diego, California, 1974 
(cat.). 



Gordon Onslow Ford 



Born 1912, Wendover, England. 
Studied at Dragon School, Oxford; 
Royal Naval College, Dartmouth; 
Royal Naval College, Greenwich. 
Associated with the Surrealist group 
in Paris, London, and New York, 
1938-1943. Came to San Francisco, 
1947. Resides near Inverness, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Karl Nierendorf Gallery, New 
York, 1946. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1948 (cat.), 1959 
(with Richard Bowman), 1964, 1970; 
The Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, 



British Columbia, 1971 (cat.); 
Pyramid Galleries, Ltd., Washington, 
D.C., 1975 (cat.). Group exhibitions 
include A New Vision (Dynaton 
group), San Francisco Museum of 
Art, 1951 (cat.); Dada, Surrealism 
and Their Heritage, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1968 (cat.); 
Surrealitdt-BiJdrealitdt 1924-1974 , 
Stadtische Kunsthalle, Diisseldorf, 
Germany, 1974 (cat.). Ref: Onslow- 
Ford, Gordon. Painting in the Instant. 
New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 
1964. 



230 



Harold Paris 



Born 1925, Edgemere, Long Island, 
New York. Studied at Atelier 17, New 
York, 1949; Creative Lithographic 
Workshop, New York, 1951-1952; 
Akademie der Bildenden Kunste, 
Munich, Germany, 1955-1956. Moved 
to Northern California, 1960. Resides, 
Oakland, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Argent Gallery, 
New York, 1951. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Galerie Withofs, 



Brussels, Belgium, 1970 (cat.); 
University Art Museum, University 
of California, Berkeley, 1972 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Creative 
Casting, Museum of Contemporary 
Crafts, New York, 1963 (cat.); 
American Sculpture of the Sixties, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1967 (cat.); Transparent and 
Translucent Art, The Museum of Fine 
Arts, St. Petersburg, Florida, 1971 (cat.) 



David Park 



Born 1911, Boston, Massachusetts. 
Studied at Otis Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, 1928-1929. Moved to San 
Francisco, 1929. Lived in Boston, 
1936-1941. Returned to Bay Area, 
1941. Died 1960, Berkeley, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1936 (also 
1939, 1940). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Staempfli 
Gallery, New York, 1959 (cat.), 1960, 
1961 (cat.), 1963, 1966; University Art 



Gallery, University of California, 
Berkeley, 1964 (cat.); Maxwell 
Galleries, Ltd., San Francisco, 1970 
(cat.), 1973 (cat.), 1975, 1976. Group 
exhibitions include IIIBienaJ, Museu 
de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 
1955 (cat.); Contemporary Bay Area 
Figurative Painting, The Oakland Art 
Museum, California, 1957 (cat.); 
American Paintings 1945-1957, The 
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 
Minnesota, 1957 (cat.). 



Agnes Pelton 



Born 1881, Stuttgart, Germany. 
Studied at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 
New York; and with Arthur W. Dow, 
W.L. Lathrop and Hamilton E. Field 
in Rome and Ogunquit, Maine. 
Moved to Cathedral City, California, 
1931. One-woman exhibitions 
include Grace Nicholson Galleries, 
Pasadena, California, 1929; Argent 
Galleries, New York, 1931; The Desert 
Inn Gallery, Palm Springs, California, 
1936, 1938, 1939, 1940 (cat.); San 



Francisco Museum of Art, 1943. 
Group exhibitions include 
International Exposition o/ Modern 
Art (The Armory Show), 69th 
Regiment Armory, New York, 1913 
(cat.); The Palace of Fine Arts, 
California Pacific International 
Exposition, San Diego, California, 
1935 (cat.); Contemporary Art, 
Golden Gate International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 1939 
(cat.). 



Richard Pettibone 



Born 1938, Alhambra, California. 
Studied at Otis Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, M.F.A., 1962. Moved to New 
York, 1969. Resides, Charlottesville, 
New York. First one-man exhibition 
held at Aura Gallery, Pasadena, 
California, 1963. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Ferus Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1965, 1966; O.K. Harris 
Works of Art, New York, 1970, 1971, 
1973, 1974. Group exhibitions 



include Directions in Collage: 
California, Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1962; Pop Art USA , The 
Oakland Art Museum, California 
1963 (cat.); The Betty and Monte 
Factor Family Collection , Pasadena 
Art Museum, California, 1973 (cat.); 
The Small Scale in Contemporary 
Art, The Art Institute of Chicago, 
1975 (cat.). 



231 



Gottardo Piazzoni 



Born 1872, Intragna, Switzerland. 
Came to California, 1886. Studied at 
California School of Design, San 
Francisco, 1891-C.1893; Academie 
Julian, Paris, 1895; ficole des Beaux 
Arts, Paris, 1895-1898. Settled in San 
Francisco, 1898, but made several 
trips to Europe thereafter. Died 1945, 
Carmel Valley, California. One-man 
exhibitions include Paul Elder 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1914; Adams- 
Danysh Galleries, San Francisco, 
1933; California Historical Society, 



San Francisco, 1959. Group 
exhibitions include Salon de Ja 
Societe Nationaie des Beaux Arts, 
Paris, 1907; Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition, San 
Francisco, 1915 (cat.); Exhibition of 
American Painting, M.H. de Young 
Memorial Museum and California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1935 (cat.); California 
Design 1910. Pasadena Center, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Peter Plagens 



Born 1941, Dayton, Ohio. Studied at 
University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles, B.F.A., 1962; University 
of Syracuse, New York, M.K A., 1964. 
Settled in Los Angeles, 1965. Resides, 
Los Angeles. One-man exhibition 
held at Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1971. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Museum of Art, 
University of Oklahoma, Norman, 



1973; Nancy Hoffman Gallery, New 
York, 1975, 1976. Group exhibitions 
include 24 Young Los Angeles 
Artists, Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1971 (cat.); O/f the Stretcher, 
The Oakland Museum, California, 
1971 (cat.); Continuing Abstraction 
in American Art, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, Downtown Branch, 
New York, 1974 (cat.). 



Don Potts 



Born 1936, San Francisco. Studied 
at San Jose State College, San Jose, 
California, B.A., 1963; M.A., 1965; 
State University of Iowa, Iowa City, 
1963 (graduate work). Resides, 
Nicasio, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Art Unlimited 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1964. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Art Institute, 1970; 



Newport Harbor Art Museum, 
Newport Beach, California, 1972 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Young American Sculpture-East to 
West, American Express Pavilion, 
New York World's Fair, 1965 (cat.); 
Funk, University Art Museum, 
University of California, Berkeley, 
1967 (cat.); Statements, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1973 (cat.). 



Clayton S. Price 



Born 1874, Bedford, Iowa. Studied 
at St. Louis School of Fine Art, 
Missouri, 1905-1906. Visited San 
Francisco, 1915; lived in Monterey, 
California, 1918-1929. Moved to 
Portland, Oregon, 1929. Died 1950, 
Portland. First one-man exhibition 
held at Beaux Arts Galerie, San 
Francisco, 1925. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Portland Art 
Museum, Oregon, 1942, 1951 (cats.); 



The Fine Arts Patrons of Newport 
Harbor, Pavilion Gallery, Balboa, 
California, 1967 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Frontiers of 
American Art, M.H. de Young 
Memorial Museum, San Francisco, 
1939 (cat.); Romantic Painting in 
America. The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1943 (cat.); Fourteen 
Americans. The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1946 (cat.). 



232 



Kenneth Price 



Born 1935, Los Angeles, California. 
Studied at Chouinard Art Institute, 
Los Angeles; Otis Art Institute, 
Los Angeles; University of Southern 
California, Los Angeles, B.F.A., 1956; 
State University of New York at 
Alfred, M.F.A., 1959. Moved to Taos, 
New Mexico, 1972; resides, Taos. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 1960 (also 
1961,1964). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1966 (with 
Robert Irwin; cat.); Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, 1969 



(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Abstract Expressionist Ceramics, Art 
Gallery, University of California, 
Irvine, 1969 (cat.); 11 Los Angelas 
Artists, The Arts Council of Great 
Britain, Hayward Gallery, London, 
1971 (cat.); Contemporary Ceramic 
Art: Canada, U.S.A., Mexico, and 
Japan, National Museum of Modern 
Art, Kyoto, Japan, 1971, and The 
National Museum of Modern Art, 
Tokyo, 1972 (cat.).; Joe Goode/ 
Kenneth Price /Edward Ruscha, 
Museum Boymans Van Beuningen, 
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1972 (cat.). 



Joseph Ratfael 



Born 1933, Brooklyn, New York. 
Studied at Cooper Union School of 
Art and Architecture, New York, 
1951-1954; Yale School of Fine Arts, 
New Haven, Connecticut, 1954-1956, 
B.F.A., 1956. Lived in California, 
1966; moved to California 
permanently, 1969. Resides, San 
Geronimo, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Stable Gallery, New 
York, 1965. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Nancy Hoffman 
Gallery, New York, 1972, 1973, 1974; 
University Art Museum, University 



of California, Berkeley, 1973 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include DC Bienal , 
Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1967 (cat.); Human 
Concern /Personal Torment: The 
Grotesque in American Art, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1969 (cat.); Three Realists, Close, 
Estes, Raffael, Worcester Art 
Museum, Massachusetts, 1974 (cat.); 
America 1976, United States 
Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D.C., 1976 (cat.). 



Mel Ramos 



Born 1935, Sacramento, California. 
Studied at Sacramento City College, 
California, 1954-1955; San Jose State 
College, California, 1955-1956; 
Sacramento State College, California, 
1956-1958, A.B., 1957; M.A., 1958. 
Resides, Oakland, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Bianchini 
Gallery, New York, 1964 (also 1965). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1967; 
Mills College Art Gallery, Oakland, 



California, 1968 (cat.); Museum Haus 
Lange, Krefeld, Germany, 1975 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Six More, 
Los Angeles County Museum, 1963 
(cat.); Pop Art, The Arts Council of 
Great Britain, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1969 (cat.); Kunst um 1970, 
Neue Galerie der Stadt Aachen, 
Aachen, Germany, 1972 (cat.). Ref: 
Claridge, Elizabeth. The Girls of Mel 
Ramos. Chicago: Playboy Press, 1975. 



233 



Roland Reiss 



Born 1929, Chicago, Illinois. Came to 
California, 1941. Lived in Boulder, 
Colorado, 1957-1971. Resides, Venice, 
California. Studied at American 
Academy of Art, Chicago, 1948; Mt. 
San Antonio College, Walnut, 
California, A. A., 1950; University of 
California, Los Angeles, B.A., 1955; 
M.A., 1957. First one-man exhibition 
held at Casa Manana, Carmel, 
California, 1956. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include University of 



Kentucky, Lexington, 1969; Denver 
Center, University of Colorado, 1970. 
Group exhibitions include 1975 
Biennial Exhibition: Contemporary 
American Art , Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1975 (cat.); 
Masterworks in Wood: The Twentieth 
Century, The Portland Art Museum, 
Oregon, 1975 (cat.); Word Works, Too, 
San lose State University, California, 
1975 (cat.). 



Deborah Remington 



Born 1930, Haddonfield, New Jersey. 
Studied at California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1949-1952, 1953-1955, 
B.F.A., 1955. Lived in San Francisco 
except 1955-1958 in Far East. Moved 
to New York, 1965. Resides, New 
York. First one-woman exhibition 
held at King Ubu Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1953. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Dilexi Gallery, 



San Francisco, 1962, 1965; Galerie 
Darthea Speyer, Paris, 1968, 1971, 
1973. Group exhibitions include 
L'Art Vivant aux Etats-Unis, 
Fondation Maeght, St. Paul de Vence, 
France, 1970 (cat.); Image, Color and 
Form , The Toledo Museum of Art, 
Toledo, Ohio, 1975 (cat.); Painting 
Endures, Institute of Contemporary 
Art, Boston, Massachusetts, 1975 
(cat.). 



Gregg Renfrow 



Born 1948, San Francisco. Studied 
at San Francisco State College, 
1966-1969; San Francisco Art 
Institute, B.F.A., 1972; Skowhegan 
School of Painting and Sculpture, 
Skowhegan, Maine, 1972. Resides, 
San Francisco. First one-man 
exhibition held at William Sawyer 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1975. Group 
exhibitions include Three Painters, 



San Francisco Art Institute, 1974; 
1975 Biennial Exhibition: 
Contemporary American Art , 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1975 (cat.); Contemporary 
California Artists , Utah Museum of 
Fine Arts, University of Utah, Salt 
Lake City, 1975 (cat.); Exchange 
DFW/SFO, San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (cat.). 



Sam Richardson 



Born 1934, Oakland, California. 
Studied at California College of Arts 
and Crafts, Oakland, B.A., 1956; 
M.FA., 1960. In New York, 1961-1963. 
Resides, Oakland, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Art 
Unlimited, San Francisco, 1961. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1970 
(cat.); Akron Art Institute, Akron, 
Ohio, 1972 (cat.); Dallas Museum of 
Fine Arts, Texas, 1976 (cat.). Group 



exhibitions include A Plastic 
Presence, Milwaukee Art Center, 
Wisconsin, 1969 (cat.); The 
Topography of Nature, Institute of 
Contemporary Art, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1972 
(cat.); Public Sculpture /Urban 
Environment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.); The Small 
Scale in Contemporary Art, The Art 
Institute of Chicago, 1975 (cat.). 



234 



Arthur Richer 



Bom c. 1928, New York. Moved to 
California, c. 1950. Studied at 
Finch-Warshaw College, Los Angeles. 
Died 1965, Healdsburg, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Syndell Studio, Los Angeles, 1955. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 1959; 
Semina Gallery, Larkspur, California, 



1961. Group exhibitions include 
Elevated Underground: The North 
Beach Period, Cellini Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1968 (cat.]; Late Fifties at 
the Ferus, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1968 (cat.); The Last 
Time I Saw Ferus 1957-1966, Newport 
Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976 (cat.). 



Philip Roeber 



Born 1913, Delta County, Colorado. 
Moved to San Francisco, 1946. 
Studied at California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1948-1952. Moved to New 
York, 1960. Resides, Provincetown, 
Massachusetts. One-man exhibitions 
include East & West Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1955, 1956, 1957; Dilexi 
Gallery, San Francisco. 1959; Westerly 



Gallery, New York, 1965, 1967; 
Krannert Drawing Room, Purdue 
University, Lafayette, kidiana, 1971. 
Group exhibitions include Action, 
Merry-go-round Building, Santa 
Monica Pier, Santa Monica, 
California, 1955 (cat.); A Period of 
Exploration, San Francisco 
1945-1950. The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1973 (cat.). 



Richards Ruben 



Born 1925, Los Angeles. Studied at 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1944-1946, 1950-1951. Moved to New 
York, 1963. Resides, New York. First 
one-man exhibition held at Arts 
and Crafts Center, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, 1949. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1955, 1961 (cat.); 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1970. 



Group exhibitions include Younger 
American Painters, The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York, 
1954 (cat.); Premiere BiennaJe de 
Paris, Musee d'Art Moderne de la 
Ville de Paris, 1959 (cat.); The Last 
Time I Saw Ferus 1957-1966, Newport 
Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976 (cat.). 



Allen Ruppersberg 



Born 1944, Cleveland, Ohio. Came 
to California, 1962. Studied at 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
B.F.A., 1966. Resides, Santa Monica, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Eugenia Butler Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Pomona College 
Art Gallery, Claremont, California, 



1972 (cat.); Stedelijk Museum, 
Amsterdam, 1973 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include 24 Young Los 
Angeles Artists, Los Angeles County 
Museumof Art, 1971 (cat.); 
Documenta 5, Kassel, Germany, 1972 
(cat.); Southland Video Anthology, 
Long Beach Museum of Art, 
California, 1975 (cat.). 



235 



Edward Ruscha 



Born 1937, Omaha, Nebraska. 
Came to California, 1956. Studied at 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1956-1960. Resides, Hollywood, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1963 (also 1964, 1965). Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include The Fine 
Arts Patrons of Newport Harbor, 
Pavilion Gallery, Balboa, California, 
1968 (with Joe Goode; cat.); Leo 
Castelli Gallery, New York, 1973, 
1974, 1975; Albright-Knox Art 
Gallery, Buffalo, New York, 1976 



(cat.). Group exhibitions include DC 
Bienal, Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, 1967 (cat.); 1 1 Los 
Angeles Artists , The Arts Council of 
Great Britain, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1971 (cat.); American Pop 
Art, Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1974 (cat.); Critical 
Perspectives in American Art, Fine 
Arts Center Gallery, University of 
Massachusetts, Amherst (United 
States Representation, XXXVlll 
BiennaJe, Venice, Italy), 1976 (cat.). 



Betye Saar 



Born 1926, Los Angeles. Studied 
at University of California, Los 
Angeles, B.A., 1949; California State 
University, Long Beach, 1958-1962; 
University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles, 1962; California State 
University, Northridge, 1966; 
Pasadena School of Fine Arts 
(Filmmaking Department), 1970; 
American Film Institute, 1972. 
Resides, Los Angeles. First one- 
woman exhibition held at Multi-cul 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1972. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1973 (cat.); Fine Arts 



Gallery, California State University, 
Los Angeles, 1973 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include The Negro in 
American Art, UCLA Art Galleries, 
University of California, Los Angeles, 
1966 (cat.); 30 Contemporary Black 
Artists, The Minneapolis Institute of 
Arts, Minnesota, with Ruder and 
Finn Fine Arts, New York, 1969 (cat.); 
Dimensions of Black, La Jolla 
Museum of Art, California, 1970 
(cat.); West Coast '74lThe Black 
Image, E.B. Crocker Art Gallery, 
Sacramento, California, 1974 (cat.). 



John Saccaro 



Born 1913, San Francisco. Studied 
at California School of Fine Arts 
(now San Francisco Art Institute), 
1951-1954. Resides, San Francisco. 
First one-man exhibition held at San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1939 (also 
1959). Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include M.H. de Young Memorial 
Museum, San Francisco, 1946, 1956, 
1960; Oakland Art Museum, 



California, 1958; BoUes Gallery, New 
York, 1962. Group exhibitions include 
Iff Bienal , Museu de Arte Moderna, 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1955 (cat.); 
American Painting 1958, Virginia 
Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, 
1958 (cat.); A Period o/ Exploration, 
San Francisco 1945-1950, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1973 
(cat.). 



236 



Darryl Sapien 



Born 1950, Los Angeles. Studied at 
Los Angeles Valley College, 1967; 
Fullerton Junior College, California, 
1969-1971; San Francisco Art 
Institute, B.F.A., 1972; M.F.A., 1976. 
Resides, San Francisco. Performances 
include Synthetic Ritual (with 
Michael Hinton), San Francisco Art 
Institute, December 21, 1971; 
Split-Man Bisects the Pacific (with 



Michael Hinton), Sutro Baths ruins 
at Point Lobos, San Francisco, 
September 24, 1974; Splitting the 
Axis (with Michael Hinton), 
University Art Museum, Berkeley, 
August 26, 1975; Within the Nucleus 
(with Michael Hinton), San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art, March 27, 
1976 (part of exhibition, Video Art; 
An Overview; cat.). 



Paul Sarkisian 



Born 1928, Chicago, Illinois. Studied 
at The School of The Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1945-1948; Otis Art 
Institute, Los Angeles, 1953, 1954; 
Mexico City College, Mexico City, 
1955-1956. Lived in California, 
1948-1954; 1959-1970. Resides, 
Cerrillos, New Mexico. One-man 
exhibitions include Aura Gallery, 
Pasadena, California, 1962; Santa 



Barbara Museum of Art, California, 
1970 (cat.); Museum of Contemporary 
Art, Chicago, 1972 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Late Fifties at the 
Ferus, Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1968 (cat.); Documenta 5, 
Kassel, Germany, 1972 (cat.); 
Separate Realities, Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery, 1973 (cat.). 



Pbter Saul 



Born 1934, San Francisco, California. 
Studied at California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute); Stanford University, 
Stanford, California, 1950-1952; 
Washington University, St. Louis, 
Missouri, 1952-1956, B.FA., 1956. 
Lived in Europe, 1956-1964; returned 
to Northern California, 1964. Resides, 
Port Costa, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Allan Frumkin 
Gallery, Chicago, 1961 (also 1966, 
1969, 1972, 1974). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Allan Frumkin 



Gallery, New York, 1962, 1963, 1964 
(cat.), 1966, 1968, 1971, 1973, 1975 
(cat.); Galerie Darthea Speyer, Paris, 
1969, 1972. Group exhibitions 
include Nieuwe ReaJisten , Haags 
Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, The 
Netherlands, 1964 (cat.); Funk, 
University Art Museum, University 
of California, Berkeley, 1967 (cat.); 
Human Concern /Personal Torment: 
The Grotesque in American Art, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1969 (cat.). 



Ursula Schneider 



Born 1943, Zurich, Switzerland. 
Studied at Ceramic School, Bern, 
Switzerland, 1961-1964, B.FA., 1964; 
San Francisco Art Institute, 
1968-1972, M.FA., 1972. Came to 
California, 1968. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-woman 
exhibition held at Quay Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1974. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1975; Isabelle 



Percy West Gallery, California College 
of Arts and Crafts, Oakland, 1976. 
Group exhibitions include Six 
Painters, San Francisco Art Institute, 
1973 (cat.); 1975 Biennial Exhibition; 
Contemporary American Art, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1975 (cat.); Exchange 
DFW/SFO, San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (cat.). 



237 



Richard Shaw 



Born 1941, Hollywood, California. 
Studied at Orange Coast College, 
Costa Mesa, California, 1961-1963; 
San Francisco Art Institute, B.F.A., 
1965; State University of New York at 
Alfred, 1965; University of California, 
Davis, M.A., 1968. Resides, Stinson 
Beach, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at San Francisco Art 
Institute, 1967. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1973 (with Robert 



Hudson; cat.); Braunstein/Quay 
Gallery, New York, 1976. Group 
exhibitions include CJayworks; 20 
Americans, Museum of 
Contemporary Crafts, New York, 1971 
(cat.); A Decade of Ceramic Art: 
1962-1972, from the Collection of 
Pro/essor and Mrs. R. Joseph Monsen , 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 1972 
(cat.); CJay, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, Downtown Branch, 
New York, 1974 (cat.). 



Millard Sheets 



Born 1907, Pomona, California. 
Studied at Chouinard School of Art, 
Los Angeles, 1925-1929. Resides, 
Gualala, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Dalzell Hatfield 
Galleries, Los Angeles, 1929. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
The Pasadena Art Institute, 
California, 1950 (cat.); Lang Art 
Gallery, Scripps College, Claremont, 
California, 1976 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include 20th Century 



Artists, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1939 (cat.); 
Two Hundred Years of Watercolor 
Painting in America, The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York, 1966 (cat.); Los Angeles Painters 
of the Nineteen-Twenties, Pomona 
College Gallery, Montgomery Art 
Center, Claremont, California, 1972 
(cat.). Ref: Millier, Arthur and others. 
MiJJard Sheets. Los Angeles: Dalzell 
Hatfield, 1935. 



Louis Siegriest 



Born 1899, Oakland, California. 
Studied at California School of Arts 
and Crafts, Berkeley, 1914-1916; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1917-1918. Resides, Oakland, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Gump's Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1933. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Art Institute, 1965 (cat.); The Oakland 



Museum, California, 1972 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include The 
Twenty-second Biennial Exhibition, 
The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1951 (cat.); Society 
of Six, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1972 (cat.); 1973 Biennial 
Exhibition: Contemporary American 
Art, Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1973 (cat.). 



David Simpson 



Born 1928, Pasadena, California. 
Studied at Pasadena City College, 
1942-1943; California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1949-1951, 1955-1956, 
B.FA., 1956; San Francisco State 
College, 1956-1958, M.A., 1958. 
Resides, Pt. Richmond, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at San 
Francisco Art Institute, 1958. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 



San Francisco Museum of Art, 1967 
(cat.); Saint Mary's College Art 
Gallery, Moraga, California, 1974. 
Group exhibitions include 
Americans 1963, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1963 (cat.); 
Post Painterly Abstraction. Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art, 1964 
(cat.); Our Land, Our Sky, Our Water, 
International Exposition 1974, 
Spokane, Washington, 1974 (cat.). 



238 



Nell Sinton 



Born 1910, San Francisco. Studied at 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute], 
1926-1928; apprentice to Maurice 
Sterne, San Francisco, 1938-1939. 
Resides, San Francisco. First 
one-woman exhibition held at 
Raymond & Raymond, San Francisco, 
1947. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California, 1950; San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1957 (with William T. 
Brown), 1970 (cat.). Group 



exhibitions include California Art 
Today, Golden Gate International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 1940 (cat.); 
American Water Colors, Drawings 
and Prints, The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York, 1952 (cat.); 
Small Collages, Constructions and 
WatercoJors by Martin, De Forest, 
DeLap and Sinton, San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1962; Three Bay Area 
Painters, Santa Rosa Junior College 
Art Gallery, California, 1976 (cat.). 



Rex Slinkard 



Born 1887, Bicknell, Indiana. Studied 
at Judson Art School, Los Angeles; 
Art Students League, Los Angeles; 
with Robert Henri, New York, 
1908-1910. Returned to Los Angeles, 
1910. Served in World War I. Died 
1918, New York. One-man exhibitions 
include The Palace of Fine Arts, San 
Francisco, 1919 (cat.); Los Angeles 
County Museum, 1919, 1929 (cats.); 



Knoedler & Co., New York, 1920 (cat.); 
Stanford Art Gallery, Stanford 
University, Stanford, California, 1975. 
Group exhibitions include Inde- 
pendent Artists of Los AngeJes, Taos 
Building, Los Angeles, 1923 (cat.); 
Arts of Southern CaJi/ornia- 
XA^: Early Moderns , Long Beach 
Museum of Art, California, 1964 
(cat.). 



Hassel Smith 



Born 1915, Sturgis, Michigan. 
Studied at Northwestern University, 
Evanston, Illinois, B.S., 1936; 
California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1936-1938. Moved to Great Britain, 
1966. Resides, Bristol, England. First 
one-man exhibition held at San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1941 (with 
Lloyd Wulf ). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1961 (cat.); San 



Francisco Museum of Art, 1975 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Four 
Contemporary Artists, California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1953; The Current Moment 
in Art, San Francisco Art Institute, 
1966 (cat.); Late Fifties at the Ferus, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1968 (cat.); A Period o/ExpJoration, 
San Francisco 1945-1950, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 1973 
(cat.). 



Clay Spohn 



Born 1898, San Francisco, California. 
Studied at University of California, 
Berkeley, 1918-1921 ; California 
School of Fine Arts (now San 
Francisco Art Institute), 1921; The 
Art Students League of New York, 
1922-1925; Academie Moderne (with 
Othon Frieze), Paris, 1926-1927. 
Returned to San Francisco, 1927. Left 
California, 1952. Resides, New York. 
First one-man exhibition held at the 
Art Center, San Francisco, 1931. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
San Francisco Museum of Art 



(Fantastic War Machines and 
Guerragraphs), 1942; The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1974 (cat.). 
Group exhibitions include Mobiles 
and Articulated Sculpture, California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1948 (cat.); The Museum 
of Unknown and Little Known 
Objects (organized by Spohn), 
California School of Fine Arts, San 
Francisco, 1949; A Period of 
Exploration, San Francisco 
1945-1950, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1973 (cat.). 



239 



Ralph Stackpole 



Born 1885, Williams, Oregon. Came 
to San Francisco, 1901. Studied at 
Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, San 
Francisco, 1901-1902; Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, Paris, 1906-1908; with 
Robert Henri, New York, 1911. Settled 
in San Francisco, 1914. Left 
California, 1949. Died 1973, Chauriat 
Puy-de-Dome, France. First one-man 
exhibition held at Gump's Gallery, 
San Francisco, c. 1905. Subsequent 
solo exhibition held at Centre 



Cultural Americaine, Paris. 1959. 
Group exhibitions include First 
Exhibition of Selected Paintings by 
American Artists, California Palace of 
the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 
1926 (cat.); Painting and Sculpture 
from 16 American Cities, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1933 (cat.);£tats-L/nis Sculptures du 
XX'' Siecle, Musee Rodin, Paris, 1965 
(cat.). 



Norman Stiegelmeyer 



Born 1937, Denver, Colorado. Came 
to California, 1959. Studied at 
Pasadena City College, California, 
1959-1961; San Francisco Art 
Institute, B.F.A., 1963; M.F.A., 1964; 
Academy of Art, Nuremberg, 
Germany, 1964-1965. Resides, Walnut 
Creek, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at New Mission 
Gallery, San Francisco, 1964. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Richmond Art Center, California, 



1966; California Palace of the Legion 
of Honor, San Francisco, 1970. Group 
exhibitions include Human 
Concern /Personal Torment; The 
Grotesque in American Art, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 
1969 (cat.); Other Landscapes and 
Shadow Land , University of Southern 
California Art Galleries, Los Angeles, 
1971 (cat.); Archetypal Images, Civic 
Arts Gallery, Walnut Creek, 
California, 1976 (cat.). 



Clyfford Still 



Born 1904, Grandin, North Dakota. 
Studied at Spokane University, 
Spokane, Washington, B.A., 1933; 
Washington State College, Pullman, 
Washington, M.A., 1935. Lived in San 
Francisco Bay Area, 1941-1943, 
1946-1950. Moved to New York, 1950. 
Resides, New Windsor, Maryland. 
First one-man exhibition held at San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1943. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New 
York, 1959, 1966 (then Albright-Knox 



Art Gallery; cats.); Institute of 
Contemporary Art, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1963 
(cat.); San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include 15 Americans, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1952 (cat.); New York School: 
The First Generation , Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1965 (cat.); 
American Art: Third Quarter 
Century. Seattle Art Museum 
Pavilion, Washington, 1973 (cat.). 



James Strombotne 



Born 1934, Watertown, South Dakota. 
Came to California, 1952. Studied at 
Pomona College, Claremont, 
California, B.A., 1956; Claremont 
Graduate School, Claremont, 
California, M.FA., 1959. Resides, 
Laguna Beach, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Studio 44. 
San Francisco, 1956. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1961; Jodi Scully 



Gallery, Los Angeles, 1972, 1974. 
Group exhibitions include Young 
America I960, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1960 (cat.); 
The Painter and the Photograph , The 
Art Gallery, The University of New 
Mexico, Albuquerque, 1964 (cat.); 
Graphics '71 IWest Coast. U.S.A., 
University of Kentucky Art Gallery, 
Lexington, 1970 (cat.). 



240 



Ben Talbert 



Born 1933. Los Angeles. Studied at 
Texas A & M, College Station; 
University of California, Los Angeles, 
1957-1958, B.A., 1957. Died 1975, 
Venice, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Pasadena Art 
Museum, 1961 . Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Ten Years of 
Erotic Art, Mermaid Tavern, Topanga, 



California, 1975. Croup exhibitions 
include Object Makers, Pomona 
College, Claremont, California, 1961; 
Directions in Collage; California. 
Pasadena Art Museum, California, 
1962; Arena of Love, Dwan Gallery 
Los Angeles, 1965; Assemblage in 
California, Art Callery, LIniversity of 
California, Irvine, 1968 (cat.). 



Gage Taylor 



Born 1942, Fort Worth, Texas. Studied 
at University of Texas, Austin, B.F. A., 
1965; Michigan State University, East 
Lansing, M.F.A., 1967. Came to 
California, 1969. Resides, Woodacre, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at San Francisco Art Institute, 
1970. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Berkeley Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1971; National Museum of 



Fine Arts, Santiago, Chile, 1972. 
Group exhibitions include Other 
Landscapes and Shadow Land, 
University of Southern California Art 
Galleries, Los Angeles, 1971 (cat.); 
Baja, San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1974 (cat.); Alternative Realities, 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, 1976 (cat.). 



Sam Tchakalian 



Born 1929, Shanghai, China. Came to 
San Francisco, 1947. Studied at San 
Francisco State College. B.A., 1952; 
Special Secondary Credential in Art, 
1957; Junior College Credential in 
Art, 1958; M.A., 1958. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at Dilexi Gallery, San Francisco, 
1960 (also 1963). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include The Fine Arts 
Patrons of New^port Harbor, Pavilion 
Gallery, Balboa, California, 1967 (with 



Wally Hedrick; cat.); San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1967; Braunstein/ 
Quay Gallery, New York, 1975. Group 
exhibitions include Directions in 
Collage: California, Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1962; The 
Structure of Color, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, 1971 
(cat.); Fourteen Abstract Painters, 
Frederick S. Wight Art Gallery, 
University of California, Los Angeles, 
1975 (cat.). 



Wayne Thiebaud 



Born 1920, Mesa, Arizona. Came to 
California, 1939. Studied at San Jose 
State College, California, 1949; 
Sacramento State College, California, 
1949-1952, B.A., 1951; M. A., 1952. 
Resides, Sacramento, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at E.B. 
Crocker Art Gallery, Sacramento, 
1952. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1968 (cat.); California 
State University, Long Beach, 1972 
(cat.); The Denver Art Museum, 



Colorado, 1975. Group exhibitions 
include Pop Art , The Arts Council of 
Great Britain, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1969 (cat.); Documenfa 5, 
Kassel, Germany, 1972 (cat.) ; 
American Art: Third Quarter 
Century, Seattle Art Museum 
Pavilion, Washington, 1973 (cat.); 
Aspects of the Figure, The Cleveland 
Museum of Art, Ohio, 1974 (cat.); 
America 1976, United States 
Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D.C., 1976 (cat.). 



241 



Michael Todd 



Born 1935. Omaha, Nebraska. 
Studied at University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana, B.F.A., 1957; 
University of California, Los Angeles, 
M.A., 1959. Lived in Southern 
California, 1957-1961 ; Paris, 1961- 
1963; New York, 1968. Returned to 
Southern California 1968. Resides, 
Encinitas, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Hanover Gallery, 
London, 1964. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include UCLA Art 



Galleries, University of California, 
Los Angeles and The Salk Institute, 
La lolla, California, 1969 (cat.); Fine 
Arts Gallery of San Diego, California, 
1972 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Primary Structures, The Jewish 
Museum, New York, 1966 (cat.); 
American Sculpture o/ the Sixties. 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1967 (cat.); Public Sculpture/Urban 
Environment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Charts TVacy 



Born 1881, Columbus, Ohio. Studied 
at Columbus Art School, Ohio, and in 
Tahiti and Mexico. Lived in Southern 
California. Died 1951, Arcadia, 
California. One-man exhibitions 
include The Pasadena Art Institute, 
California, 1951; San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1951 (with Marion 
Messinger). Group exhibitions 
include 1949-1959 A Decade in the 



Contemporary Galleries, Pasadena 
Art Museum, California, 1959 (cat.); 
Fifty Paintings by Thirty-Seven 
Painters o/theLos Angeles Area, 
UCLA Art Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1961 (cat.); 
Arts of Southern California— XIV: 
Early Moderns , Long Beach Museum 
of Art, California, 1964 (cat.). 



Jim Turrell 



Born 1943, Los Angeles. Studied 
at Pomona College, Claremont, 
California, B.A., 1965; University of 
California, Irvine, 1965-1967. Resides, 
Santa Monica, California, One-man 
exhibitions include Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1967 (cat.); 
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
Netherlands, 1976 (cat.). Group 



exhibitions include Art and 
Technology, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1971 (cat.); 
University o/CaJi/ornia, Irvine 
1965-1975, La Jolla Museum of 
Contemporary Art, California, 1975 
(cat.); Art /Environment 1915-1976, 
Italian Pavilion, XXXVIIIBiennaie, 
Venice, Italy, 1976 (cat.). 



DeWain Valentine 



Born 1936, Fort Collins, Colorado. 
Studied at University of Colorado, 
Boulder, B.F.A., 1958; M,F.A., 1960; 
Yale University-Norfolk School of 
Music and Art, Norfolk, Connecticut, 
1958. Moved to Venice, California, in 
1965. Resides, Venice. First one-man 
exhibition held at The Gallery, 
Denver, Colorado, 1964. Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1970 (cat.); Long 



Beach Museum of Art, California, 
1975 (cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Fourteen Sculptors: The Industrial 
Edge, Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1969 (cat.); 
A Plastic Presence, The Jewish 
Museum, New York, 1969 (cat.); 
American Art: Third Quarter 
Century, Seattle Art Museum 
Pavilion, Washington, 1973 (cat.). 



242 



James Valerio 



Born 1938, Chicago, Illinois. Studied 
at The School of The Art histitute of 
Chicago, B.F.A., 1966; M.F.A., 1968. 
Moved to Los Angeles, 1970. Resides, 
Encino, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Gerard )ohn Hayes 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1971. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Michael Walls Gallery, New York, 
1974. Group exhibitions include 12 



Painters and the Human Figure /8 
Painters in "Documenta 5", Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, California, 
1973; Separate Realities, Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery, 1973 (cat.); 
The Super-Realist Vision, DeCordova 
Museum, Lincoln, Massachusetts, 
1973; Current Concerns (Part II), The 
Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary 
Art, 1975 (cat.). 



Carlos Villa 



Born 1936, San Francisco. Studied at 
San Francisco Art Institute, B.F.A., 
1961; Mills College, Oakland, 
California, M.FA., 1963. Lived in 
New York, 1963-1969. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at Poindexter Gallery, New York, 
1967. Subsequent solo exhibitions 
include Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1971, 1974; Nancy 



Hoffman Gallery, New York, 1973, 
1975. Group exhibitions include 
Rafbastards, Spatsa Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1958; Of/the Stretcher, 
The Oakland Museum, 1971 (cat.); 
Contemporary American Painting 
and Sculpture 1974, Krannert Art 
Museum, University of Illinois, 
Champaign-Urbana, 1974 (cat.). 



Bernard von Eichman 



Born 1899, San Francisco. Lived in 
San Francisco until the 1930's when 
moved to New York. Returned to San 
Francisco Bay Area c. 1942. Died 
1970, Santa Rosa, California. Group 
exhibitions include annual 
exhibitions of the "Society of Six", 
Oakland Art Gallery, California, 
1923-1928; Fifty-First Annual 



Exhibition of the San Francisco Art 
Association, California School of 
Fine Arts, San Francisco, 1929 (cat.); 
Fifty- Fourth Annual Exhibition of the 
San Francisco Art Association , 
California Palace of the Legion of 
Honor, San Francisco, 1932 (cat.); 
Society of Six, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1972 (cat.). 



Stephan von Huene 



Born 1932, Los Angeles. Studied at 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1959; University of California, Los 
Angeles, M.A., 1965. Resides, Los 
Angeles. First one-man exhibition 
held at Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1969 (cat.). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1970; Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1974 



(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
American Sculpture of the Sixties, 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
1967 (cat.); Elecfromagica, )apan 
Electric Arts Association, Tokyo, 
1969; Surrealism is Alive and Well in 
the West. Baxter Art Gallery, 
California Institute of Technology, 
Pasadena, 1972 (cat.). 



243 



Peter Voulkos 



Born 1924. Bozeman, Montana. 
Studied at Montana State College, 
Bozeman, 1946-1951, B.S., 1951; 
California College of Arts and Crafts, 
Oakland, 1951-1952, M.F.A., 1952. 
Lived in Los Angeles, 1954-1959; 
moved to Berkeley, 1959. Resides, 
Berkeley, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at University of 
Florida, Gainesville, 1953. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 



1965 (cat.); San Francisco Museum of 
Art, 1972 (cat.). Group exhibitions 
include Sculpture in the Open Air. 
Battersea Park, London, 1963 (cat.); 
Abstract Expressionist Ceramics, Art 
Gallery, University of California, 
Irvine, 1966 (cat.); American 
Sculpture of the Sixties, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1967 (cat.); 
Public Sculpture /L/rban Environ- 
ment, The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1974 (cat.). 



Howard Warshaw 



Born 1920, New York. Came to 
California in 1942. Studied at Pratt 
Institute, Brooklyn, New York; 
National Academy of Design School, 
New York; The Art Students League 
of New York, 1938-1942. Resides, 
Carpinteria, California. First one-man 
exhibition held at Little Gallery, 
Beverly Hills, California, 1944. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Esther Bear Gallery, Santa Barbara, 
California, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1966, 



1968, 1970, 1973; University of 
California, Santa Barbara, 1964 (cat.); 
Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 
Brunswick, Maine, 1972 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include III BienaJ, Museu 
de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 
1955 (cat.); American Paintings 
1945-1957, The Minneapolis Institute 
of Arts, 1957 (cat.); The Institute o/ 
Creative Arts, University of 
California, Santa Barbara, 1969 (cat.). 



Julius Wasserstein 



Born 1924, Providence, Rhode Island. 
Came to San Francisco, 1925. Studied 
at California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 
1950-1953; San Francisco State 
College, 1955-1958. Resides, San 
Francisco. First one-man exhibition 
held at King Ubu Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1953. Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include Ferus Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1957; Rose Rabow Galleries, 
San Francisco, 1959, 1961, 1968, 1973, 
1975; San Francisco Museum of Art, 



1962, 1964. Group exhibitions 
include /eremy Anderson, WaJJy 
Hedrick, /uJius Wasserstein , M.H. de 
Young Memorial Museum, San 
Francisco, 1955; Art; USA: 58. 
Madison Square Garden, New York, 
1958 (cat.); Contemporary Prints 
from Northern California. Oakland 
Art Museum/Kaiser Center, 
California, 1967 (cat.); The Last Time 
1 Saw Ferus, 1957-1966, Newport 
Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976 (cat.). 



James Weeks 



244 



Born 1922, Oakland, California. 
Studied at California School of Fine 
Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute), 1940-1942, 1946-1948; 
Hartwell School of Design, San 
Francisco, 1946-1947; EscuUa de 
Pintura y Escultura, Mexico City, 
1951. Lived in San Francisco Bay 
Area until 1967 and in Los Angeles, 
1967-1970. Moved to Boston, 1970. 
Resides, Bedford, Massachusetts. 
First one-man exhibition held at 
Lucien Labaudt Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1951. Subsequent solo 



exhibitions include San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1965 (cat.); 
Boston University Art Gallery, 
Massachusetts, 1971 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include Contemporary 
Bay Area Figurative Painting, The 
Oakland Art Museum, California, 
1957 (cat.); The Seashore: Paintings 
of the 19th and 20th Centuries. 
Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1965 (cat.); 
America 1976, United States 
Department of the Interior, 
Washington, D.C., 1976 (cat.). 



William Wegman 



Born 1943, Holyoke. Massachusetts. 
Studied at Massachusetts College of 
Art, Boston, B.F.A., 1965; University 
of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, 
M.F.A., 1967. Came to Southern 
California in 1970. Resides, New 
York. First one-man exhibition held 
at Pomona College Art Gallery, 
Claremont, California, 1971. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Ileana Sonnabend, New York, 1972, 
1974; Galerie Konrad Fischer, 
Diisseldorf, Germany, 1972; Los 



Angeles County Museum of Art, 1973 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
When Attitudes Become Form, 
Kunsthalle, Bern, Switzerland, 1969 
(cat.]; Video Art, Institute of 
Contemporary Art, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1975 
(cat.); Southland Video Anthology, 
Long Beach Museum of Art. 
California, 1975 (cat.); Bodyworks, 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, 1975 (cat.). 



Douglas Wheeler 



Born 1939, Globe, Arizona. Studied at 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1960-1964. Resides, Santa Monica, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1968 (cat.). Subsequent 
solo exhibitions include Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas, 1969 
(with Robert Irwin; cat.); Riko 



Mizuno Gallery, Los Angeles, 1974. 
Group exhibitions include Prospect 
'69, Stadtische Kunsthalle, 
Diisseldorf, Germany, 1969 (cat.); 
Larry Bell, Robert Irwin, Doug 
Wheeler, Tate Gallery, London, 1970 
(cat.); 71st American Exhibition, The 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1974 (cat.). 



William T. Wiley 



Born 1937, Bedford, Indiana. Studied 
at California School of Fine Arts (now 
San Francisco Art Institute), 1956- 
1962, B.F.A., 1960; M.FA., 1962. 
Resides, Forest Knolls, California. 
First one-man exhibition held at San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1960 (with 
Seymour Locks). Subsequent solo 
exhibitions include University Art 
Museum, University of California. 
Berkeley, 1971 (cat.); Stedelijk van 



Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 
Netherlands, 1973 (cat.). Group 
exhibitions include When Attitudes 
Become Form, Kunsthalle, Bern, 
Switzerland, 1969 (cat.); Documenta 
5, Kassel, Germany, 1972 (cat.); 
American Art: Third Quarter 
Century, Seattle Art Museum 
Pavilion, Washington, 1973 (cat.); 
Image, Color and Form, The Toledo 
Museum of Art, Ohio, 1975 (cat.). 



Guy Williams 



Born 1932, San Diego, California. 
Studied at Chouinard Art Institute, 
Los Angeles. Resides, Santa Monica, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at La Jolla Museum of 
Contemporary Art, California, 1961. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Pomona College, Claremont, 
California, 1971; Vassar College, 



Poughkeepsie, New York, 1972. Group 
exhibitions include Southern 
CaJi/ornia: Attitudes 1972, Pasadena 
Art Museum, California, 1972 (cat.); 
1 5 Abstract Artists , The Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, California, 
1974 (cat.); Both Kinds, University 
Art Museum, University of 
California, Berkeley, 1975 (cat.). 



245 



Paul Wonner 



Born 1920, Tucson, Arizona. Studied 
at California College of Arts and 
Crafts, Oakland, B. A., 1942; The Art 
Students League of New York, 1947; 
University of California, Berkeley, 
B.A., 1952; M.A., 1953; M.L.S., 1955. 
Lived in Northern California from 
1937-1963 except 1946-1950 in New 
York. Settled in Southern California, 
1963. Resides, San Francisco, 
California. First one-man exhibition 
held at M.H. de Young Memorial 
Museum, San Francisco, 1956. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 



Marion Koogler Mc:Nay Art Institute, 
San Antonio, Texas, 1965; The Art 
Calleries, California State University, 
Long Beach, 1975 (with Walter Askin; 
cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Younger American Painters, The 
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 
New York, 1954 (cat.); Contemporary 
Bay Area Figurative Painting, The 
Oakland Art Museum, California, 
1957 (cat.); Surrealism is Alive and 
Well in the West, Baxter Art Gallery, 
California Institute of Technology, 
Pasadena, 1972 (cat.). 



Tom Wudl 



Born 1948, Cochabamba, Bolivia. 
Came to California, 1958. Studied at 
California Institute of the Arts, Los 
Angeles, 1967-1970, B.F.A., 1970. 
Resides, Venice, California. First 
one-man exhibition held at Eugenia 
Butler Gallery, Los Angeles, 1971 . 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Ronald Feldman Gallery, New 



York, 1973; Dayton Gallery 12, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1974. Group 
exhibitions include Of/the Stretcher, 
The Oakland Museum, California, 
1971 (cat.); Documenta 5, Kassel, 
Germany, 1972 (cat.); 15 Abstract 
Artists, The Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California, 1974 (cat.). 



Richard Yokomi 



Born 1944, Denver, Colorado. Studied 
at Chouinard Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, 1962-1965. Resides, Los 
Angeles. First one-man exhibition 
held at Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969 (also 1971 , 1974). 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
Kornblee Gallery, New York, 1971; 
Felicity Samuel Gallery, London, 



1973. Group exhibitions include 
Color and Scale, The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1971 (cat.); 
Southern California; Attitudes 
1972 , Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1972 (cat.); 15 Abstract 
Artists, The Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California, 1974 (cat.). 



Jack Zajac 



Born 1929, Youngstown, Ohio. Came 
to California, 1945. Studied at Scripps 
College, Claremont, California, 
1949-1953. Divided time between 
Southern California and Rome, Italy. 
Resides, Rome. First one-man 
exhibition held at The Pasadena 
Art Institute, California, 1951. 
Subsequent solo exhibitions include 
The Fine Arts Patrons of Newport 
Harbor, Pavilion Gallery, Balboa, 



California, 1965 (cat.); Fine Arts 
Gallery of San Diego, California, 1975 
(cat.). Group exhibitions include 
Recent Sculpture USA , The Museum 
of Modern Art, New York, 1959 (cat.); 
Recent Painting USA: The Figure, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1962 (cat.); Pioneering 
Printmakers, Fine Arts Galley of San 
Diego, California, 1974 (cat.). 



246 



Selected General Bibliography 



The references in this bibliography 
have been compiled to give interested 
students sources to use for further 
investigation into the art of 
California. The books, catalogs and 
articles listed here either deal with 
California art of the twentieth century 
in general or with specific aspects of 
it, i.e., assemblage. Bay Area 
Figurative Painting, ceramic 
sculpture, etc. Annotations for each 
entry describe the subject of the book 
or article or the content and extent of 
the exhibition documented. Catalogs 
giving information on individual 
artists are noted in the biographies. In 
both the biographies and the 
bibliography a concerted effort has 
been made to cite those sources 
which contain extensive 
documentation or record historically 
significant events or exhibitions. 

Katherine Church Holland 



248 



Books 



Andersen, Wayne. American 
Sculpture in Process: 1930/1970. 
Boston, Massachusetts: New York 
Graphic Society, 1975. Chapter 
entitled "California Sculpture," (pp. 
145-178) traces sculptural activity in 
Los Angeles and San Francisco, 
especially since 1950. 

Art in California. San Francisco: 
R.L. Bernier, 1916. 185 pp.; 332 b/w 
ills. Contains twenty-two essays 
by various authors on California 
painting, sculpture, architecture and 
institutions, with special reference to 
the works represented in the Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition. Brief 
biographies for 106 artists. 

Hailey, Gene, editor. California Art 
Research. San Francisco: Works 
Progress Administration [Project No. 
2874), 1937. 21 volumes. Mono- 
graphs on eighty-eight 19th and 20th 
century artists of the San Francisco 
Bay Region. One black and white 
illustration for each artist, excerpts of 
contemporary criticism of the artist's 
work, lists of representative works, 
exhibitions and bibliographies. 

McChesney, Mary Fuller. A Period of 
Exploration, San Francisco 1945- 
1950. Oakland, California: The Oak- 
land Museum, 1973. 108 pp.; 65 b/w 
ills. Based on interviews with people 
associated with the California School 
of Fine Arts (now San Francisco Art 
Institute) during the intensely active 
MacAgy period of 1945-1950, this 
book not only explores that seminal 
period in California art history 
but also compares the Abstract 
Expressionism going on here with 
its counterpart in New York. Also 
included are biographies of those 
interviewed and a partial listing of 
the artists and students at C.S.F.A. 
between 1945 and 1951. 



Modern Artists in America. First 
series. Editorial associates: Robert 
Motherwell, Ad Reinhardt. Pho- 
tography: Aaron Siskind. Docu- 
mentation: Bernard Karpel. New 
York: Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., 
1951. San Francisco artists figure 
importantly in section illustrating 
works exhibited in galleries and 
museums during the 1949-1950 
season (pp. 40-97). 

Moure, Nancy Dustin Wall and 
Phyllis Moure. Artists' CJubs and 
Exhibitions in Los Angeles Be/ore 
1930. Los Angeles: privately printed, 
1975. (Publications in Southern 
California Art, Number 2). 162 
pp. Index of Southern California 
artists' clubs active before 1930 and 
the exhibitors and works in the 
annuals held at the Los Angeles 
Museum of History, Science and 
Art from 1914 to 1939. 

Moure, Nancy Dustin Wall. The 
California Water Color Society; 
Prize Winners 1931-1954; Index to 
Exhibitions 1921-1954. Los Angeles: 
privately printed, 1973. (Publications 
in Southern California Art, Number 
1). 82 pp. Includes a discussion of 
the history of the California Water 
Color Society; bibliography; checklist 
of the California Water Color Society 
Collection in the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art; chronologies of 
artists of the above list, with brief 
biographies; list of California Water 
Color Society exhibitions, and an 
index of these exhibitions by 
participating artist. 



249 



Moure. Nancy Dustin Wall. 
Dictionary of Art and Artists in 
Southern California Before 1930. Los 
Angeles: privately printed, 1975. 
(Publications in Southern California 
Art, Number 3). 306 pp.: 32 b/w 
ills. Biographies, bibliographies 
and illustration listings fore. 3000 
Southern California artists active 
before 1930. Contains reproductions 
of works by selected artists from the 
collection of the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, biographical listing 
of early historic artists and a general 
bibliography. 

Neuhaus, Eugen. The Art of the 
Exposition. San Francisco: Paul Elder 
and Company, 1915. 89 pp.; 33 b/w 
ills. The sculpture, architecture, 
landscape design and murals of the 
Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition are discussed with an 
appended listing of sculpture and 
biographical notes. 

Neuhaus, Eugen. The Art o/ Treasure 
Island. Berkeley, California: Univer- 
sity of California Press, 1939. 189 pp.; 
51 b/w ills. Commentary on the ar- 
chitecture, sculpture, landscape, 
murals, etc., of the Golden Gate Inter- 
national Exposition, 1939. Biograph- 
ical notes on the architects, painters 
and sculptors involved. 

Neuhaus, Eugen. The Galleries of the 
Exposition. San Francisco: Paul Elder 
and Company, 1915. 96 pp.; 31 b/w 
ills. A chronological investigation 
into the works of art exhibited at the 
Palace of Fine Arts of the Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition. 
Bibliography. 



Paalen, Wolfgang and others. 
Dynaton 1951. San Francisco: San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1951. 64 
pp.; 19 b/w ills.; 3 color plates. 
Essays by members of this Surrealist- 
oriented group active in the San 
Francisco Bay Area. Book accom- 
panied Dynaton group exhibition, 
A New Vision , shown at the San 
Francisco Museum of Art, January 23- 
March4,1951. 

Painting and Sculpture: The San 
Francisco Art Association . Berkeley, 
California: University of California 
Press, 1952. 114 pp.; 96 b/w ills. 
Contains three essays: Erie Loran, 
"California Artists of the San 
Francisco Art Association"; Weldon 
Kees, "A Note on Climate and 
Culture"; Ernest Mundt, "Three 
Aspects of Contemporary Art." Also 
includes extensive section illus- 
trating the work of members of the 
San Francisco Art Association. 

Plagens, Peter. Sunshine Muse. New 
York: Praeger Publishers, 1974. 200 
pp.; 150 b/w ills.; 8 color plates. 
History of modern art on the West 
Coast including Vancouver, B.C. 
Concentrates on period after 1945 in 
San Francisco; from mid-fifties in Los 
Angeles. Bibliography. 

Snipper, Martin. A Survey of Art 
Work in the City and County of 
San Francisco. San Francisco: Art 
Commission, City and County of San 
Francisco, revised edition, 1975. 122 
pp. Each piece of public art in San 
Francisco is listed with artist, 
medium, size, acquisition 
information and location noted. Brief 
biographies for relevant artists. 
Index. 



Southern California Creates. Los 
Angeles: Southern California Art 
Project, Work Projects Administra- 
tion. 1939. 27 unnumbered sheets; 
55 b/w ills. Mimeographed bro- 
chure describing units of WPA 
activity in Southern California. Fore- 
word by Stanton Macdonald-Wright; 
essays on murals, petrachrome, 
mosaic, sculpture, lithography, 
photography, models, information, 
children's education, Index of 
American Design. 

Todd, Frank Morton. The Story of 
the Exposition. New York: G.P. 
Putnam's Sons for The Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition, 
1921. 5 vols. Every aspect of the 
Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition is discussed in this 
official history, from organization 
through wrecking and salvage. 



250 



Catalogs 



Auckland, New Zealand. Auckland 
City Art Gallery. Painting from the 
Pacific. May, 1961. 48 pp.; 20 b/w 
ills. Includes paintings from Pacific 
Basin nations: Japan, United States, 
Australia, New Zealand. Introduction 
to American section by George Culler 
who divides the work into three West 
Coast centers: Pacific Northwest, 
Northern California (San Francisco 
Bay Area) and Southern California 
(Los Angeles). Very brief biography 
for each of the 26 West Coast artists. 

Balboa, California. See also Newport 
Beach, California. 

Balboa, California. The Fine Arts 
Patrons of Newport Harbor, Pavilion 
Gallery. California Hard-Edge Paint- 
ing. March 11-April 12, 1964. 30 pp.; 
22 b/w ills. Introductory essay by 
Jules Langsner defines hard-edge 
painting. Eleven Southern California 
artists participated in this exhibition 
which consists of 59 paintings dated 
1960 to 1964. Brief biographies; photo 
of each artist. 

Balboa, California. Newport Harbor 
Art Museum. Directly Seen: New 
Realism in California. March 11- 
April 12, 1970. 16 pp.; 12 b/w ills. 
Introduction by Thomas H. Carver. 
Exhibition contains 39 works by 12 
"new realist" artists, including 
Robert Bechtle, Robert Graham, 
Joseph Raffael. Very brief 
biographies. 

Berkeley, California. University Art 
Museum, University of California. 
Funk. April 18-May 29, 1967. 60 pp.; 
35 b/w ills.; 9 color plates. Text by 
Peter Selz. Exhibition includes 58 
works, nearly all dated between 1960 



and 1967, by 26 Bay Area artists. 
Biographies; photo of each artist; 
some statements by the artists. 

Berkeley, California. University Art 
Museum, University of California. 
Both Kinds: Contemporary Art from 
Los Angeles. April 1-May 18, 1975. 16 
pp.; 6 b/w ills. Introduction by Peter 
Plagens who selected the exhibition. 
Exhibition consists of 16 works, dated 
1973-1975, by six Los Angeles artists. 
Biographies. 

Brooklyn, New York. Brooklyn 
Museum. Oil Paintings and Wafer 
Colors by California Artists. April 
24 through the summer, 1936. 5 pp. 
Mimeographed brochure covers both 
Post-Surrealist exhibition organized 
by Lorser Feitelson (same exhibition 
shown at San Francisco Museum of 
Art, December 4, 1935-January 4, 
1936) and watercolor show by 
members of the California Water 
Color Society. 

Chicago, Illinois. The Art Institute 
of Chicago. Abstract and Surrealist 
American Art /Fifty-Eighth Annual 
Exhibition of American Painting and 
Sculpture. November 6, 1947-Ianuary 
11,1948. 64 pp.; 51 b/w ills. This 
national exhibition explores the ab- 
stract and surreal strains in American 
art and points up the importance of 
these tendencies on the West Coast. 
Essays by Frederick A. Sweet and 
Katherine Kuh trace the history of 
these trends and their present 
importance. One work each by 256 



251 



artists, 41 from California. Prizes 
awarded to Rico Lebrun, Eugene 
Berman, Knud Merrild. Robert B. 
Howard, among others. 

Claremont, California. Lang Gallery, 
Scripps College. Trends of Art of the 
Bay Area. January 17-February 16, 
1961.4 pp. Introduction by Herschel 
B. Chipp. List of 35 participating Bay 
Area artists with very brief bio- 
graphical notes. No checklist. 

Claremont, California. Pomona 
College Gallery, Montgomery Art 
Center. Los Angeles Painters of the 
Nineteen-Twenties. April 5-May 3, 
1972.40 pp.; 12 b/w ills. Organized 
by Nancy Dustin Wall Moure; essay 
by Arthur Millier, Art Critic for the 
Los Angeles Times, 1926-1958. 
Exhibition comprised of 51 works 
plus photographs of murals in the 
Los Angeles City Library. Individual 
biographies with bibliographies; 
photo-portraits of the exhibiting 
artists. Extensive bibliography 
includes listing of magazines 
relevant to the period, art critics and 
active art institutions and galleries. 

Dallas, Texas. Dallas Museum of Fine 
Arts and Pollock Galleries, Southern 
Methodist University. Poets of the 
Cities New York and San Francisco 
1950-1965. November 30-December 
29, 1974. (Also shown at San Fran- 
cisco Museum of Art and Wadsworth 
Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut.) 
Catalog published by E.P. Dutton & 
Co., Inc., 1974. 175 pp.; 59 b/w ills.; 8 
color plates. Essays by Neil A. 
Chassman, Robert M. Murdock, Lana 
Davis, Robert Creeley, John Clellon 



Holmes deal with underground 
poetry, music and art during this 
fifteen-year period. Exhibition 
consists of 66 objects by artists such 
as Wallace Berman, Bruce Conner, 
Jess. Numerous photographs of the 
artists; biographies; extensive 
bibliography. 

Eindhoven, Netherlands. Van 
Abbemuseum Eindhoven. Kompas 
4 West Coast USA. November 21, 
1969-January 4, 1970. 50 pp.; 74 b/w 
ills.; 4 color plates. Text in Dutch 
and English; introduction by Jan 
Leering. Text is organized into six 
areas: first generation, clay, assem- 
blage, light, new media, pop image. 
Exhibition includes 19 artists from 
California; works span period 1945 to 
1969. Individual biographies and 
brief general bibliography, all in 
Dutch. 

Fort Worth, Texas. The Amon Carter 
Museumof Western Art. The Artist's 
Environment; West Coast. 1962. (Also 
shown at UCLA Art Galleries, Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles, and 
Oakland Art Museum.) 132 pp.; 46 
b/w ills. Introduction by Frederick 
S. Wight discusses history of art on 
West Coast. Exhibition contains 49 
works by 43 artists from Washington, 
Oregon and California. Catalog 
includes a biography for each artist. 

Hamburg, Germany. Kunstverein. 
USA West Coast. 1972. (Also shown 
at Kunstverein, Hannover; Kunst- 



verein, Cologne; Wiirttembergischer 
Kunstverein, Stuttgart.) 150 pp.; 39 
b/w ills.; 16 color plates. Essays by 
Helmut Heissenbiittel ("West Coast 
und Neue Asthetik," text in German) 
and Helene Winer ("The Los Angeles 
'Look'," text in English and German 
translation). Exhibition includes 18 
artists, all but two from Southern 
California. Nearly all works date from 
1965 to 1971. Brief biographies for 
artists. 

Hayward, California. California State 
University, Hayward, Art Gallery. Nut 
Art. 1972. 40 pp.; 24 b/w ills. Some 
statements by the artists; works by 18 
Northern California artists, many of 
them ceramic sculptors; no checklist; 
"Nut Art Bibliography" by David 
Zack. 

Houston, Texas. Contemporary Arts 
Museum. San Francisco 9. No date 
[1962]. 8 pp.; 10 b/w ills. Brief 
introduction by James Boynton. 
Exhibition includes 28 paintings, 
collages and sculpture by nine Bay 
Area artists. Works date from 1960 to 
1962. Checklist; no biographies. 

Irvine, California. Art Gallery, 
University of California, Irvine. Five 
Los Angeles Sculptors and Sculptors 
Drawings Los AngeJes /New York. 
January 7-February 6, 1966. 36 pp.; 
13 b/w ills.; 6 color plates. Two 
separate exhibitions are documented 
by this catalog. A single introduction, 
by John Coplans, deals mainly with 
the Los Angeles sculptors. Biogra- 
phies for the five sculptors; none 
for the four additional artists in the 
drawing show. Fifteen sculptures; 
17 drawings. 



252 



Irvine, California. Art Gallery, 
University of California, Irvine. 
Abstract Expressionist Ceramics. 
October 28-November 27, 1966. (Also 
shown at San Francisco Museum of 
Art.) 54 pp.; 44 b/w ills.; 8 color 
plates. Text by John Coplans 
explores the activity in ceramics in 
California, especially between 1956 
and 1958. Checklist; no biographies; 
selected general bibliography. 
Eighty-four works by ten artists. 

Irvine, California. Art Gallery, 
University of California, Irvine. A 
Selection o/ Paintings and Sculptures 
From The CoJJections of Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert Rowan. May 2-May 21, 1967. 
(Also shown at San Francisco Museum 
of Art.) 8 pp.; 3 color plates. One 
hundred and fourteen works selected 
from a major Southern California 
private collection. Checklist only. 

Irvine, California. Art Gallery, 
University of California, Irvine. 
Assemblage in California. October 
15-November 24, 1968. 60 pp.; 33 b/w 
ills.; 4 color plates. Six assembla- 
gists are discussed in individual 
essays by John Coplans, organizer of 
the exhibition, Hal Glicksman, Walter 
Hopps, and Phil Leider. Each essay is 
followed by brief biographical notes. 
The exhibition includes 36 works 
dating from 1955 to 1963. 

Kassel, Germany. Documenta 5. 
June 30-October 8, 1972. Monumen- 
tal international exhibition includes 
numerous California artists. Detailed 
biography, individual bibliography 
and illustration of work for each 
artist. Some statements by the artists. 



La Jolla, California. La Jolla Museum 
of Art. New Modes in California 
Painting and Sculpture. May 20-June 
26, 1966. 32 pp.; 20 b/w ills. Brief 
introduction by Donald J. Brewer. 
Exhibition consists of 70 works, nearly 
all dated 1965 and 1966, by 20 artists. 
Majority of the artists are from 
Southern California; no biographies. 

La Jolla, California. La Jolla Museum 
of Contemporary Art. University of 
California, Irvine, 1965-1975. 
November 7-December 14, 1975. 96 
pp.; 66 b/w ills. Text by Melinda 
Wortz traces the history of the 
art department of University of 
California, Irvine, and analyzes 
its impact on contemporary art, 
particularly in Southern California. 
The 74 artists (with one work each) 
included in the exhibition have all 
either studied or taught at Irvine. 
Statements by the artists; list of 
exhibitions held at the art gallery; 
extensive general bibliography. 

London, England. The Arts Council 
of Great Britain, Hayward Gallery. 13 
Los AngeJes Artists. September 30- 
November 7, 1971. 64 pp.; 35 b/w ills.; 
6 color plates. Essay by Maurice 
Tuchman and Jane Livingston divides 
the eleven participating artists into 
first, second and third generations, 
then discusses each artist individu- 
ally. Includes 98 works dating from 
1964 to 1971. Detailed biographies 
and bibliographies for each artist. 

Long Beach, California. The 
Municipal Art Center. California 
Painting 40 Painters. 1956. 80 pp.; 40 
b/w ills. Forty works selected by 
Samuel Heavenrich and Grace L. 
McCann Morley. Biographies and 



statements by the 40 Northern and 
Southern California artists. 

Long Beach, California. Long Beach 
Museum of Art. Fifteen American 
Painters. May 3-31, 1957. 16 pp.; 15 
b/w ills. One undated work each for 
15 Southern California artists, all 
from the stable of the Landau Gallery, 
Los Angeles. Biographies; photos of 
the artists. 

Long Beach, California. Long Beach 
Museum of Art. Arts of Southern 
California -XIV: Early Moderns . 1964. 
40 pp.; 16 b/w ills. Brief intro- 
duction by H.J. Weeks. Exhibition 
catalog documents works by 16 artists 
active in the 1920's and 1930's, many 
of whom are undocumented 
elsewhere. Individual biographies. 

Long Beach, California. Long 
Beach Museum of Art. Invisible /21 
Artists /Visible. March 26-April 23, 
1972. 60 pp.; 21 b/w ills. Exhibition 
includes 52 works, dated 1969 to 
1972, by 21 women artists, all from 
Southern California. Introduction by 
Dextra Frankel and Judy Chicago. 
Biographies. 

Long Beach, California. Long Beach 
Museum of Art. Southland Video 
Anthology. June 8-September 7, 1975. 
(Also shown at San Francisco 
Museum of Art.) 44 pp.; 72 b/w 
ills. Essay by David A. Ross 
includes discussion of the medium, 
brief history of video in Southern 
California and notes on the artists in 
the exhibition. Exhibition consists of 
videotapes produced by 65 artists in 
Southern California between 1968 
and 1975. 



253 



Los Angeles, California. Biltmore 
Salon, Los Angeles Art Association. 
First Annual AJI-Cali/ornia Art 
Exhibition 1934. May 15-Iune 15, 
1934. 16 pp.; 24 b/w ills. One work 
each by 93 artists from Northern and 
Southern California. Selected by local 
committees, then juried by Los 
Angeles Art Association committee. 
Short biography for each artist. 

Los Angeles, California. Crocker- 
Citizens National Bank. A Century of 
California Painting 1870-1970. June 
1-30, 1970. (Also shown at Fresno Art 
Center, Fresno. California; Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art; California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco; de Saisset Art Gallery, 
University of Santa Clara, Santa 
Clara, California; E.B. Crocker Art 
Gallery, Sacramento, California; 
The Oakland Museum, Oakland, 
California.) 24 pp.; 8 b/w ills.; 6 color 
plates. Introduction by Kent L. 
Seavey; historical essays on periods 
within the century by )oseph A. Baird 
(1870-1890), Paul Mills (1890-1910), 
Kent L. Seavey (1910-1930), Mary 
Fuller McChesnev (1930-1950), 
Alfred Frankenstein (1950-1970). 
Exhibition includes 51 works by 50 
artists, nearly all from Northern 
California. Checklist; no biographies. 

Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles 
Museum of History, Science and Art. 
Southern California Art Project. 
September 1-October 8, 1939. 16 pp.; 
6 b/w ills. Brief forward by Stanton 
Macdonald-Wright, State Supervisor 
of the Southern California Art Project, 
WPA. Checklist groups works by 
media including mural decoration, 



mosaics, drawings, easel paintings, 
watercolors, models, sculpture, 
prints; 267 works by 99 artists. 

Los Angeles, California, Los Angeles 
County Museum. Artists of Los 
Angeles and Vicinity. Exhibitions 
held annually from 1939 to 1961. 
Catalogs published. Annual juried 
exhibitions open to artists living 
within 125-mile radius of downtown 
Los Angeles. 

Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles 
County Museum. California Centen- 
nials Exhibition of Art. September 30- 
November 13, 1949. 148 pp.; 78 b/w 
ills. Two-part exhibition: "Historic 
California" covers work from 1840 
through 1870 with introduction by 
Arthur Woodword and biographies of 
selected artists; "Artists of California, 
1949" is an exhibition juried by Dr. 
Lester A. Longman, Perry T. Rathbone 
and Dr. Andrew C. Ritchie, with 
introduction by james B. Byrnes, 
hicluded are 207 paintings, sculp- 
tures, prints and drawings by 187 
artists. Biographies of award winners. 

Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles 
County Museum. 1951 Annual Ex- 
hibition /Contemporary Painting in 
the United States. )une 2-luly 22, 
1951. 64 pp,; 70 b/w ills. Intro- 
duction by lames B. Byrnes. Two-part 
exhibition includes invited section of 
paintings by artists of the United 
States and jury-selected group by 
Southern California artists. Combined 
checklist reflects 140 works in 
exhibition; no dates given for works. 



Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles 
County Museum and San Francisco 
Museum of Art. Four Abstract 
Classicists. 1959. 70 pp.; 37 b/w ills.; 
4 color plates. Introduction by Jules 
Langsner. Biographies of the artists. 
Includes 10 "hard-edge" paintings by 
each of four artists: Karl Benjamin, 
Lorser Feitelson, Fred Hammersley, 
John McLaughlin. 

Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art. Late Fifties at 
the Ferus. November 12-December 17, 
1968. 8 pp.; 4 b/w ills. Introduction 
by james Monte deals with the early 
years of the Ferus Gallery. Exhibition 
includes 19 works by 19 artists. 
Checklist; no biographies. 

Los Angeles, California. The Los 
Angeles Institute of Contempo- 
rary Art. Nine Senior Southern 
California Painters. Published in 
journal (The Los Angeles Institute 
of Contemporary Art), Number 3, 
December, 1974, pp. 45-54; 9 b/w 
ills. Organized by Fidel Danieli; 
catalog essay published in the 
/ournal. Number 2, October. 1974, 
pp. 32-34. Exhibition includes 23 
paintings by these nine artists who 
have played important roles in the 
development of Southern California 
modernism. Individual biographies. 

Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery. Separate 
Realities. September 19-October 21, 
1973. 62 pp.; 39 b/w ills.; 8 color 
plates. Text by Laurence Dreiband. 
Exhibition consists of 87 works by 27 
Northern and Southern California 
artists working in a representational 
mode. Exhibition listings for each 
artist. 



254 



Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery. 24 From Los 
AngeJes. October 30-December 1, 
1974. 52 pp.; 24 b/w ills. Brief 
introduction by Virginia Ernst Kazor. 
Seventy works by 24 Southern Cali- 
fornia artists; individual biographies. 

Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery. Winners 
1953-1974. May 7-June 1, 1975. 20 
pp.; 11 b/w ills.; color cover. Brief 
introduction by Curt Opliger traces 
the history of Los Angeles' All City 
Outdoor Art Festival. The 86 works in 
the exhibition were Festival purchase 
award winners by Los Angeles artists 
from the collection of Home Savings 
and Loan Association. Also contains 
list of festival jurors. 

Los Angeles, California. Lytton 
Center of the Visual Arts. Contempo- 
rary California Art from the Lytton 
Collection. Summer, 1966. (Also 
shown at Stanford Art Museum, 
Stanford University, Stanford, 
California; Occidental College, Eagle 
Rock, California, and extended 
college tour through 1969.) 8 pp.; 4 
b/w ills. Brief introductory notes by 
Andrea S. Andersen and Bart Lytton. 
Exhibition consists of one work each 
by 23 artists. Checklist; list of Cali- 
fornia artists in Lytton Collection. 

Los Angeles, California. Lytton 
Center of the Visual Arts. California 
Art Festival. October 1 -November 30, 
1967. (Also shown at Lytton Center, 
Palo Alto; Lytton Center, Oakland.) 
28 pp.; 15 b/w ills. Introduction by 
Irving Stone. Exhibition includes 



75 paintings and sculpture by 67 
artists from Northern and Southern 
California. All works were borrowed 
from American museums outside 
California. Works date from 1920 to 
1967 with the majority dated in the 
1960's. 

Los Angeles, California. Art Galleries, 
Dickson Art Center, University of 
California, Los Angeles. California 
Painters and Sculptors, Thirty-Five 
and Under. January 19-February 22, 
1959. 4 pp. Unillustrated brochure 
contains introduction by Jules 
Langsner, who also selected the 
exhibition. Exhibition includes work 
by 40 young artists from Northern 
and Southern California with stated 
purpose of comparing and bringing 
together contemporary works by 
artists from both parts of the state. 

Los Angeles, California. UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of California, 
Los Angeles. Fifty Paintings by 
Thirty-Seven Painters of the Los 
Angeles Area. 1961. 20 pp.; 5 b/w 
ills. Introduction by Henry T. 
Hopkins puts works into historical 
context. Exhibition includes 37 
painters with works dating from 
1912 to 1960. 

Los Angeles, California. UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of California, 
Los Angeles. Transparency, Reflec- 
tion, Light, Space: Four Artists. 
January 11-February 14, 1971. 144 pp.; 
27 b/w ills. Interviews by Frederick 
S. Wight with Peter Alexander, Larry 
Bell, Robert Irwin, Craig Kauffman 
constitute text. Exhibition consists of 
four works, each done by the artist in 
response to the space alloted to him. 
Detailed biographies; extensive 
individual bibliographies; photos of 
the artists. 



Los Angeles, California. University 
of Southern California Art Galleries. 
Other Landscapes and Shadow Land. 
November 10-December 3, 1971. 32 
pp.; 19 b/w ills. Exhibition docu- 
ments the work often visionary 
painters active in the San Francisco 
Bay Area. In an introductory essay, 
Donald J. Brewer discusses the 
sources of this style and the indivi- 
dual artists. Checklist of 53 works, 
dated 1968-1971; artists' biographies. 

New Plymouth, New Zealand. 
Govett-Brewster Art Gallery. The 
State o/CaJi/ornia Painting. May 
23-June 15, 1972. (Also shown at 
Waikato Museum, Hamilton; City 
of Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland; 
National Art Gallery, Wellington; 
Robert McDougall Art Gallery, 
Christchurch; Dunedin Public Art 
Gallery, Dunedin. J 84 pp.; 29 b/w 
ills.; 4 color plates. Introduction 
by Michael Walls gives historical 
outlines of contemporary art in 
California; statements by Billy Al 
Bengston and Jack Barth. Works in 
the exhibition date from 1967 to 1971; 
section on group exhibitions of 
California art with listings of the 
artists in these shows who are also in 
"The State of California Painting". 
One-man exhibitions listed for each 
of the 34 participating artists. 

Newport Beach, California. Newport 
Harbor Art Museum. The Last Time I 
SawFerus 1957-1966. March 7-April 
17, 1976. 80 pp.; 54 b/w ills. Intro- 
duction by Betty TurnbuU traces the 
history of the Ferus Gallery, Los 
Angeles. Exhibition consists of 62 
works by the California artists who 
exhibited there. Catalog contains full 



255 



list of gallery exhibitions as well as 
photographs documenting the gallery 
and reproductions of exhibition 
announcements/ posters. 

New York, New York. Gotham Book 
Mart Gallery. San Francisco Renais- 
sance/Photographs of the '50s and 
'60s. November 24-December 20, 
1975. 20 pp.; 27 b/w ills. Organized 
by Robert E. Johnson; introduction by 
Merril Greene. A photography 
exhibition documenting the "beat" 
era in San Francisco. Includes 130 
photographs by 14 photographers. 

New York, New York. Sidney Janis 
Gallery. Los Angeles '72. May ll-June 3, 
1972. 12 pp.; 10 b/w ills. Introduc- 
tion by Maurice Tuchman and )ane 
Livingston. Twenty-three works, 
including video, by 12 artists; works 
dated 1970 to 1972. Checklist; no 
biographies. 

New York, New York. The Pace 
Gallery. A Decade of California Color 
1960-1970. 13 loose-leaf pp.; 10 b/w 
ills. Includes 13 Southern California 
artists whose primary concern is 
color. No introductory essay; biog- 
raphy for each artist. Works date from 
1962 to 1970. 

New York, New York. Whitney 
Museum of American Art. Fifty Cali- 
fornia Artists. October 23-December 2, 
1962. (Also shown at Walker Art 
Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, 
New York; Des Moines Art Center, 
Iowa.) 114 pp.; 49 b/w ills. Organized 
by the San Francisco Museum of Art 
with the assistance of the Los Angeles 



County Museum of Art for the 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
this exhibition of 114 works takes a 
non-historical approach and includes 
only works dating from 1958 to 1962. 
Brief biography for each artist. 

Oakland, California. Oakland Art 
Museum. Contemporary Bay Area 
Figurative Painting. September, 
1957. 24 pp.; 13 b/w ills.; 1 color 
cover. Exhibitionof 33 works brings 
together the expressionistic figure 
painters of the San Francisco Bay 
Area. The essay, which incorporates 
biographies of the twelve participat- 
ing artists, is by Paul C. Mills. 

Oakland, California. Oakland Art 
Museum and California College of 
Arts and Crafts. Pop Art USA . 
September 7-29, 1963. 64 pp.; 39 b/w 
ills.; 8 color plates. Introduction by 
John Coplans. Exhibition includes 
works, nearly all dated 1960 to 1963, 
by 49 artists, 23 from California. 

Oakland, California. The Oakland 
Museum. Society of Six. October 3- 
November 12, 1972. 64 pp.; 21 b/w 
ills.; 5 color plates. Exhibition 
documenting a group of Bay Area 
artists active from 1918 to 1941. 
Extensive essay and biographies by 
Terry St. John. Bibliography. 

Oakland, California. The Oakland 
Museum. Public Sculpture /Urban 
Environment. September 29-Decem- 
ber 29, 1974. 71 pp.; 42 b/w ills.; 4 
color plates. Introduction by George 
W. Neubert. Exhibition includes 20 
works from the museum's permanent 
collection plus outdoor sculpture by 
30 invited California artists. 
Individual biographies. 



Omaha, Nebraska. )oslyn Art Mu- 
seum. Looking West 1970. October 18- 
November 29, 1970. 81 pp.; 60 b/w 
ills.; 5 color plates. Introduction by 
LeRoy Butler. Includes 74 artists; 
about half from Northern California, 
half from Southern; detailed biog- 
raphy for each artist. With very few 
exceptions, works dated 1968-1970. 

Paris, France. Musee d'art moderne 
de la ville de Paris. Onze Sculpteurs 
Americains de J'Universite de 
CaJifornie, Berkeley. September 28- 
November 3, 1963. 18 pp.; 11 b/w 
ills. Introduction by Herschel B. 
Chipp. Catalog documents the United 
States section of the Biennale de 
Paris, 1963. Exhibition includes 15 
works by 11 sculptors, all connected 
with University of California, Berke- 
ley; brief biography for each artist. 

Pasadena, California. Baxter Art 
Gallery, California Institute of Tech- 
nology. Surrealism is Alive and Well 
in the West. February 25- April 14, 
1972. 48 pp.; 33 b/w ills.; 8 color 
plates. Unsigned, extensive text 
gives a brief history of surrealism, 
then deals with the various forms the 
surreal strain takes in California art. 
Thirty-two artists are included in this 
78-work show. Checklist; no 
biographies. 

Pasadena, California. California 
Design, Pasadena Center. California 
Design 1910. October 15-December 1, 
1974. 148 pp.; 306 b/w ills. Reflect- 
ing the influence of the Arts and 
Crafts Movement on California art 
between 1890 and 1920, this exhibi- 
tion includes architecture, pottery, 
metalwork, book printing and bind- 
ing and education, as well as paint- 
ing and sculpture. The beautifully 
designed and well-documented cata- 
log includes biographies of the artists 
and general historical information. 
Edited by Timothy ). Andersen, 
Eudorah M. Moore, Robert W. Winter. 



256 



Pasadena, California. Pasadena Art 
Museum. A Pacific Profile of Young 
West Coast Painters. 1961. Circu- 
lated by Western Association of Art 
Museums. 36 pp.; 8 b/w ills. Forty 
paintings dated 1959 to 1961 by 40 
young artists from California, Oregon 
and Washington. Introduction by 
Constance Perkins. Brief biography 
and photograph for each artist. 

Pasadena. California. Pasadena Art 
Museum. West Coast 1945-1969. 
November 24, 1969-January 18, 1970. 
(Also shown at City Art Museum of 
St. Louis; Art Gallery of Ontario, 
Toronto; Fort Worth Art Center, 
Texas.) 25 loose-leaf pp.; 24 b/w 
ills. Introduction by John Coplans. 
Includes 25 California artists, mostly 
from Southern California. Concen- 
trates on Los Angeles art of the sixties 
with less emphasis on Abstract Ex- 
pressionist work from San Francisco. 
Despite exhibition title, works date 
from 1956-1969; 3 from the fifties, 22 
from the sixties. Catalog contains 
individual biographies and 
bibliographies. 

Pasadena, California. Pasadena Art 
Museum. 15 Los Angeles Artists. 
February 22-March 29, 1972. 40 pp.; 
26 b/w ills. Forty-three works, 
including conceptual pieces, 
sculpture, paintings, video, dated 
1971 to 1973, by 15 artists living in 
the Los Angeles area. Biographies. 



Pasadena, California. Pasadena Art 
Museum. Southern California: 
Attitudes 1972. September 19- 
November 5, 1972. 40 pp.; 21 b/w 
ills. Brief preface by Barbara 
Haskell notes the diversity within 
the artistic activity of Southern 
California. Biography for each artist; 
some photos of the artists. 

Portland, Oregon. Portland Art 
Museum. The West Coast Now. 
February 8-March 6, 1968. (Also 
shown at Seattle Art Museum, 
Seattle, Washington; M.H. de Young 
Memorial Museum, San Francisco; 
Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery.) 
168 pp.; 62 b/w ills. Selection by 
committees in each of the major cities 
of the West Coast: Vancouver, B.C., 
Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Los 
Angeles. Contains recent works (one 
by each artist) by 62 artists, 43 of 
them from California. Introduction to 
Southern California section by Henry 
T. Hopkins; essay for Northern Cali- 
fornia by Gerald Nordland. Emphasis 
on young, lesser-known artists. 

Portland, Oregon. Reed College. 
California Ceramic Sculpture. 
November 16-December 10, 1966. 16 
pp.; 6 b/w ills. Twenty-one works 
by six Northern California ceramic 
sculptors are included in this 
exhibition. Introduction by Erik 
Gronborg. Biographies. 

Sacramento, California. E.B. Crocker 
Art Gallery. Sacramento Sampler L 
April 1-May 7, 1972. (Also shown at 
The Oakland Museum.) 36 pp.; 32 
b/w ills.; 4 color plates. Introduc- 
tion by Roger D. Clisby discusses the 
intense artistic activity in the 
Sacramento area of Northern 
California. Thirty-six works, mostly 



dated 1968-1972, by 18 artists are 
included. Brief biographies; photo of 
each artist. 

Sacramento, California. E.B. Crocker 
Art Gallery. Sacramento Sampler 11. 
January 27-February 25, 1973. 36 pp.; 
32 b/w ills.; 4 color plates. Second 
exhibition surveying the work of 
Sacramento area artists. Includes 36 
works, nearly all dated 1971 to 1973, 
by 18 artists. Brief biographies; photo 
of each artist. 

San Antonio, Texas. Witte Memorial 
Museum. Selections from the Work 
o/Cali/ornia Artists. October 10- 
November 14, 1965. 16 pp.; 26 b/w 
ills. Thirty-eight artists included; 
27 from Northern California. Brief 
introduction. Small section of 
ceramics included. Checklist only; 
no biographies. 

San Francisco, California. California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor. First 
Spring Annual Exhibition. April 3- 
May 5, 1946. 36 pp.; 14 b/w ills. 
Juried exhibition of contemporary 
American painting. Introduction by 
Alfred Frankenstein. Two hundred 
and four works by 180 artists, mostly 
from California. Checklist; no 
biographies. 

San Francisco, California. California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor. 2nd 
Annual Exhibition of Painting. 
November 19, 1947-January 4, 1948. 
47 pp.; 31 b/w ills. Introduction by 
Jermayne MacAgy with special 
emphasis on Clyfford Still and Mark 
Rothko. This part-juried, part-invited 
exhibition consists of 239 works by 
239 artists from the United States, 
many from New York such as William 



257 



Baziotes, Arshile Gorky, Adolph 
Gottlieb, Ad Reinhardt, Mark Rothko. 
Checklist, no biographies. 

San Francisco, California. California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor. 
Mobiles and Articulated Sculpture. 
October 2-November 21, 1948. 
Catalog published as Bulletin of the 
California Palace of the Legion of 
Honor, vol. Six, no. Seven, November, 
1948. 8 pp.: 9 b/w ills. First 
exhibition dealing with moving 
sculpture. Introductory essay by 
lermayne MacAgy. Exhibition 
includes 15 artists, among them 
[eremy Anderson, Alexander Calder, 
Marcel Duchamp, Robert Howard, 
Clay Spohn. Checklist; no 
biographies. 

San Francisco, California. California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor. 3rd 
Annual Exhibition of Painting. 
December 1, 1948-January 16, 1949. 
47 pp.; 44 b/w ills. Essay, "Variety 
and Exploration," by Jermayne 
MacAgy. Exhibition was part-invited, 
part-juried. Consists of 150 works 
by 150 national artists. Checklist; 
no biographies. 

San Francisco, California. California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor. Large 
Scale Drawings by Modern Artists. 
February 17-April 9, 1950. 14 pp.; 11 
b/w ills. Introduction by Jermayne 
MacAgy discusses history of drawing 
and importance of large scale to 
contemporary artists. The 17 
drawings were executed by San 
Francisco Bay Area artists. 



San Francisco, California. California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor. 4th 
Annual Exhibition ofContemporary 
American Painting. November 25, 
1950-Ianuary 1, 1951. 72 pp.; 37 b/w 
ills. Essays by Thomas Carr Howe, 
Jr.; Jermayne MacAgy; Frederick S. 
Bartlett. Part-invited, part-juried 
exhibition includes one work each 
by 141 artists. Checklist only; no 
biographies. 

San Francisco, California. California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor. 5th 
Annual Exhibition of Contemporary 
American Painting. January 24- 
March 2, 1952. 48 pp.; 51 b/w ills. 
All-invited exhibition with emphasis 
on West Coast painters. Short 
foreword by Thomas Carr Howe, Jr. 
Exhibition includes 150 works by 150 
artists. Checklist; no biographies. 

San Francisco, California. California 
Palace of the Legion of Honor. 
Painters Behind Painters. May 
13-June 25, 1967. 80 pp.; 60 b/w ills.; 
6 color plates. Introduction by 
Thomas C. Howe describes the com- 
mon thread of the 66 participating 
artists as their college teaching in 
central and northern California. 
Biography for each artist; 66 works in 
the exhibition. 

San Francisco, California. Golden 
Gate International Exposition, 
California Building. Art Exhibition 
by California Artists. February 18- 
December 2, 1939. 44 pp.; 49 b/w 
ills. Organized by the California 
Commission, this exhibition of 554 
works by contemporary California 
artists includes oil paintings, 
watercolors, pastels, miniatures, 
sculpture, prints and pictorial 
photography. Checklist; no 
biographies. 



San Francisco, California. Golden 
Gate International Exposition, De- 
partment of Fine Arts. Contemporary 
Art. 1939. 82 pp.; 147 b/w ills. The 
United States section of this exhibi- 
tion includes work by 71 California 
artists. Checklist; no biographies. 

San Francisco, California. Golden 
Gate International Exposition, Palace 
of Fine Arts. California Art in Retro- 
spect-1850-1915. 1940. (Contained in 
general catalog, Art, Palace of Fine 
Arts, Golden Gate International 
Exposition, San Francisco, pp. 
150-156; 6 b/w ills. 1 Historical 
view of California art includes 102 
paintings and sculpture by 97 
artists, among them Matthew Barnes, 
William Clapp, Maynard Dixon, and 
others. Checklist; no biographies. 

San Francisco, California. Golden 
Gate International Exposition, Palace 
of Fine Arts. California Art Today. 
1940. (Contained in general catalog, 
Art, Palace of Fine Arts, Golden Gate 
International Exposition, San Fran- 
cisco, pp. 160-170; 8 b/w ills.) 
Brief introduction by Stephen Pepper. 
Juried exhibition consists of 458 
works by contemporary artists from 
Northern and Southern California. 
Checklist; no biographies. 

San Francisco, California. Hansen 
Gallery. Plastics West Coast. October 30- 
November 29, 1967. 7 pp.; 5 b/w 
ills. Exhibition includes works in 
various synthetic media by 22 Cali- 
fornia artists. Extremely informative 
press release contains information on 
media and techniques. Organized 
and text by Carol Lindsley. 



I 



258 



i 



San Francisco, California. Inter- 
section and Glide Urban Center. 
RoJJing Renaissance: San Francisco 
Underground Art in Celebration: 
1945-1968. Summer, 1968; 2nd 
edition, 1975. 64 pp.; 55 b/w 
ills. Essays on the underground arts 
of San Francisco — visual arts, poetry, 
dance, music, drama — by Thomas 
Albright, Philip Elwood, Mary Fuller 
McChesney, James Broughton and 
others. This publication documents a 
series of exhibitions which took place 
in San Francisco galleries and 
museums during the summer of 1968. 
No checklists; no biographies. 
Second edition contains additional 
essays by John Williams and Thomas 
Albright. 

San Francisco, California. Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition, 
Departmentof Fine Arts. 1915. 256 
pp. Complete listing of works in the 
Palace of Fine Arts, Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition, plus 
biographical index for artists 
included in the United States section. 

San Francisco, California. Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition, 
Department of Fine Arts. 
Post-Exposition Exhibition. January 
1-May 1, 1916. 112 pp.; 64 b/w 
ills. Published by the San Francisco 
Art Association, catalog documents 
exhibition of 7023 works including 
those by numerous California artists. 
Section at the back contains two 
essays by Michael William: "Western 
Art at the Exposition" and "Art in 
California. A Brief Review of a 
Monumental Book." Checklist; no 
biographies. 



San Francisco, California. San 
Francisco Art Association. Annual 
Exhibition of the San Francisco Art 
Association. Exhibitions held 
annually (with a few exceptions) 
from 1876 to 1966. Catalogs pub- 
lished. Juried national exhibitions 
of varying sizes held at San Francisco 
Museum of Art from 1935 to 1966. In 
addition to the central exhibitions 
which included painting and 
sculpture, auxiliary annuals of 
watercolors and drawings and prints 
were held from 1935 to 1961. 

San Francisco, California. San 
Francisco Museum of Art. Molten 
Image: 7 Sculptors. June 9-July 8, 
1962. 18 pp.; 15 b/w ills. Intro- 
duction by John Humphrey. The 
surge of activity in cast sculpture 
centering around foundries in 
Berkeley, California, is documented 
in this exhibition of 21 works by 
seven sculptors. Biographical notes. 

San Francisco, California. San 
Francisco Museum of Art. A Decade 
of Ceramic Art: 1962-1972, from the 
Collection of Professor and Mrs. R. 
Joseph Monsen. October 14-December 
3, 1972. 60 pp.; 53 b/w ills.; 3 color 
plates. Introductory essay 
by Suzanne Foley discusses the West 
Coast activity in ceramic sculpture 
from 1962 to 1972. Exhibition 
includes 140 works by 47 artists, 25 
from California. Brief biographies; 
selected general bibliography. 

San Francisco, California. San 
Francisco Museum of Art. A Third 
World Painting /Sculpture Exhibition. 
June 8-July 28, 1974. 36 loose-leaf pp.; 
60 b/w ills. Juried exhibition of 104 
paintings and sculpture by 60 artists. 
Jury: Rolando Castellon (organizer of 
the exhibitionj, Raymond Saunders, 
Ruth Tamura. Checklist; no 
biographies. 



San Francisco, California. San 
Francisco Museum of Modern Art. 
Exchange DFW/SFO. January 
23-March 7, 1976. Folder; 25 b/w 
ills. Introduction by Suzanne Foley. 
An exchange exhibition of 122 
current works by 25 artists from the 
San Francisco Bay Area and the 
Dallas/Fort Worth area, Texas. 
Includes painting, sculpture, 
graphics, photography, video, events, 
concerts and films. 

San Jose, California. Student Union, 
California State University at San 
Jose. Imaginary Painting from San 
Francisco. F'ebruary 28-March 20, 
1973. 30 pp.; 10 b/w ills. Exhibition 
of 10 works, dated 1971-1972, by 10 
Bay Area "visionary" artists. Intro- 
duction by Phil Linhares; brief 
biographical notes on each artist. 

Santa Barbara, California. Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art. Second 
Pacific Coast Biennial Exhibition of 
Paintings and Watercolors. Septem- 
ber 10-October 13, 1957. (Also shown 
at California Palace of the Legion of 
Honor, San Francisco; Seattle Art 
Museum, Washington; Portland Art 
Museum, Oregon.) 17 pp.; 5 b/w 
ills. Introduction by Ala Story. 
Invitational exhibition comprised of 
76 works by 76 artists from 
Washington, Oregon and California. 
Biographies for award winners only. 

Santa Barbara, California. Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art. Third Pacific 
Coast Biennial. October 9-November 
8.1959. 42 pp.; 48 b/w ills. Intro- 
duction by Hilton Kramer. A survey 
of recent developments in the work of 
artists from Washington, Oregon and 
California; 118 works; 109 artists. 



259 



Santa Barbara, California. Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art. Pacific Coast 
Jnvitritionfil. November 30-December 
30, U)B2. (Also shown at F-'ine Arts 
Ciallery of San Diego; Municipal 
Gallery, Los Angeles; San P'rancisco 
Museum of Art; Seattle Art Museum; 
Portland Art Museum, Oregon.) 56 
pp.; 24 ills. Four works each by 
painters and sculptors from Wash- 
ington, Oregon and California 
scilected by regional committees. 
Nearly all works dated 1960-1962. 
Biography for each artist. 

Santa Barbara, California. Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art. Spray. April 
24-May 30, 1971. 32 pp.; 27 b/w 
ills. Text by Paul C. Mills traces the 
historical development of the use of 
the spray technique and discusses its 
importance in contemporary art, 
especially in Southern California. 
Exhibition consists of 55 works by 36 
arti.sts, 20 of them from California. 
Checklist; no biographies. 

Santa Barbara, California. Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art. 15 Abstract 
Artists. January 19-March 10, 1974. 24 
pp.; 14 b/w ills. Thirty paintings by 
15 Los Angeles artists working with 
abstract forms. Interview by a 
"famous Los Angeles collector" with 
a "Los Angeles artist" who states his 
views on the work of the artists 
included in the exhibition. Intro- 
duction by Ronald A. Kuchta. 

Santa Clara, California, de Saisset Art 
Gallery and Museum, University of 
Santa Clara. New DeaMrt; Cali- 
fornia. January 17-Iune 18, 1976. 



Approx. 200 pp.; 30 ills. Essays by 
Francis V. O'Connor, Steven M. 
Gelber, Lydia Modi-Vitale, Charles 
Shere, George Boiling and Paul 
Hoffman deal with many facets of the 
federal art projects in California. 
Biographies; bibliography. 

Sao Paulo, Brazil. Museu de Arte 
Moderna. IIIBienaJ. July-October, 
1955. United States Section: pp. Ill- 
ISO; 4 b/w ills.: pp. 306-309. The 
first foreign showing of a selection of 
West Coast Art as such. Included 
representation from Washington, 
Oregon and California. A portion of 
the United States section was cir- 
culated in 1956 by the San Francisco 
Museum of Art under the title. 
Pacific Coast Art (catalog published). 
Selected by local representatives 
under the guidance of Grace L. 
McCann Morley, San Francisco 
Museum of Art. 88 artists; 98 works. 
Checklist only; no biographies. 

Seattle, Washington. Ten from Los 
Angeles. July 15-September 5, 1966. 
72 pp.; 13 b/w ills.; 9 color plates. 
Introduction by John Coplans draws 
the common element of these artists 
as a sense of craft. Exhibition 
includes 45 works by ten artists; 
works dated 1961-1966. Individual 
essay, biography and bibliography for 
each artist. 

South Hadley, Massachusetts. John 
and Norah Warbeke Gallery, Mount 
Holyoke College. Art as a Muscular 
Principle. February 28-March 20, 
1975. 98 pp.; 25 b/w ills. Intro- 
ductory essays by Merril Greene; 
individual essays including 



biographical material by Alix Meier 
and Merril Greene. Documents ten 
artists active in San Francisco 
between 1950 and 1965. 110 works 
dating from 1952 to 1973. 

Stanford, California. Stanford 
Museum, Stanford University. 
Current Painting and Sculpture of the 
Bay Area. October 8-November 29, 
1964. 34 pp.; 23 b/w ills. Brief 
introduction by Joanna Magloff. 
Cross-section of painting and 
sculpture by Northern California 
artists between 1962 and 1964. Short 
biography for each artist. 

Stanford, California. Stanford 
University Art Gallery. Some Points 
ofView-'62. October 30-November 
20,1962.52 pp.; 47 b/w ills. Fore- 
words by Robert Richardson Sears 
and George D. Culler. Forty-seven 
works by 47 artists give a survey of 
prevalent trends in the Bay Area in 
1962. Brief biographies; some artists' 
statements. 

Tampa, Florida. The Tampa Bay Art 
Center. 40 Now California Painters. 
April 8-May 14, 1968. (Also shown at 
The John & Mable Ringling Museum 
of Art, Sarasota, and the Galleries of 
Florida State University.) 48 pp.; 21 
b/w ills.; 2 color plates. Preface 
by Henry T. Hopkins gives brief 
summary of historical development 
of modern art in California; intro- 
duction by Jan Von Adlmann and 
Karl M. Nickel discusses the works in 
the exhibition, all executed between 
1963 and 1968. Checklist only; no 
biographies. 



260 



Vancouver, British Columbia. The 
Vancouver Art Gallery. Los Angeles 6 . 
March 31-May 5, 1968. 44 pp.; 6 b/w 
ills.; 6 color plates. John Coplans 
discusses the Los Angeles scene as 
exemplified by the six participating 
artists. Individual essays, statements 
or interviews for each artist; detailed 
biographies; extensive bibliography. 
Twenty-two works included. 

Walnut Creek, California. Civic Arts 
Gallery. Archetypal Images. March 
9-April 21, 1976. 20 pp.; 16 b/w 
ills. Foreword by )eanne Brubaker 
Howard, essay by Norman 
Stiegelmeyer, co-curators of the 
exhibition. Includes 67 paintings and 
sculpture by 16 Bay Area artists 
working with special archetypal 
symbols. Works date from 1949 to 
1976, with the majority dating in the 
1970's. 

Washington, D.C. National Collection 
of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution. 
Eight from California. November 29, 
1974-February 9, 1975. 18 pp.; 8 b/w 
ills. Essay by Janet A. Flint dis- 
cusses printmaking in California. 
Exhibition includes 36 prints by eight 
artists best known for their work in 
other media. Biographical notes and 
brief bibliography for each artist. 



261 



Articles 



Albright, Thomas. "Looking Back 
on Bay Area Art," This World, San 
Francisco Sunday Examiner and 
ChronicJe, August 18, 1968 (ilL). 
Extensive review of On Looking 
Back: Bay Area 1945-1962 , an 
exhibition organized by the San 
Francisco Museum of Art which 
covered the major currents of artistic 
endeavor during 17 years of Bay 
Region art history. 

-. "Mythmakers,"The Art Gallery, 



voL XVIII, no. 5, February 1975, pp. 
12-17,44-45 (ill). Discussion of 
the regional character of Northern 
California art with short sketches on 
individual artists. 

Alloway, Lawrence. "Classicism or 
Hard-Edge?," Art International, vol. 
IV, no. 2, February-March 1960, p. 60 
(ill.). Extended review of exhibition, 
West Coast Hard-Edge, held at 
Institute of Contemporary Art, 
London. 

"Artists: Assemblage at the Frontier," 
Time, vol. 86, no. 16, October 15, 
1965, pp. 106-108(111.). The 
California tradition of assemblage 
and the object is discussed with 
special emphasis on William Wiley, 
Edward Kienholz and Simon Rodia. 

"Artists: Place in the Sun," Time, vol. 
92, no. 9, August 30, 1968, pp. 38-41 
(ill.). Brief survey of Southern 
California artists with short 
paragraphs on Craig Kauffman, Doug 
Wheeler, Robert Graham, Billy Al 
Bengston, William Fettet. 

Ashton, Dore. "An Eastern View of 
the San Francisco School," Evergeen 
Review, vol. 1, no. 2, 1957, pp. 148- 
159. New York critic discusses the 
artists emanating from the California 
School of Fine Arts, San Francisco, 
from 1945-1952 with special focus on 
Clyfford Still. 



Baker, Elizabeth C. "Los Angeles, 
1971," Art News, vol. 70, no. 5, 
September 1971, pp. 27-39 (ill.). Ex- 
tensive article on the contemporary 
Los Angeles art scene with short 
looks at many individual artists. 

Brown, Richard F., Clair Wolfe and 
others. "A Museum Portfolio," 
Arf/orum, vol. II, no. 12, Summer 
1964, pp. 19-36 (ill.). Brief essays by 
staff members on exhibiting insti- 
tutions in Southern California with 
reproductions of works from their 
collections. 

Caldwell, Katherine Field. "An 
American Patron," Magazine of Art, 
vol. 31, no. 8, August 1938, pp. 
444-449 (ill.). The great contri- 
bution of Albert M. Bender, important 
Bay Area collector and patron, is 
assessed. 

Celant, Germane. "Arte Ambientale 
Californiana," Domus, no. 547, June 
1975, pp. 52-53,1(111.). The art of 
Michael Asher, Bruce Nauman, 
Robert Irwin, Eric Orr. Jim Turrell, 
Maria Nordman and Doug Wheeler, 
and their common concern with 
perceptive spaces is explored. In 
Italian and English. 

Chase, Linda, Nancy Foote, Ted 
McBurnett, Brian O'Doherty. "The 
Photo-Realists: 12 Interviews," Art in 
America, vol. 60, no. 6, November- 
December 1972, pp. 73-89 (ill.). 
Interviews with 12 artists including 
Robert Bechtle, Don Eddy, Richard 
McLean, Ralph Goings. 



262 



Coffelt, Beth. "End of The Game," 
California Living, San Francisco 
Sunday Examiners- Chronicle, May 
18,1975(111.). The strange story of 
Dr. Samuel West, Bay Area collector 
extraordinaire. 

-. "The Big Wave Was Rising," 



California Living, San Francisco 
Sunday Examiner & Chronicle, 
November 9, 1975 (ill.). The history 
of the San Francisco Art Institute 
with special emphasis on the 
MacAgy years, 1945-1950. 

Coplans, )ohn. "Sculpture in 
California," Art/orum, vol. II, no. 2, 
August 1963, pp. 3-6 (ill.). Survey of 
developments in California in the 
early 1960's with specific comments 
on various movements and 
institutions. 

-. "Out of Clay," Art in America, 



vol. 51, No. 6, December 1963, pp. 
40-43 (ill.). Evaluation of the West 
Coast ceramic sculpture movement 
with an emphasis on the Southern 
California artists working in clay. 

-. "Circle of Styles on the West 



Coast," Art in America, vol. 52, no. 3, 
June 1964, pp. 24-41 (ill). Impor- 
tant article deals with art activity in 
San Francisco and Los Angeles, 
especially during postwar years. 
Highly critical of San Francisco's 
milieu. 

"A Portfolio of Contemporary 



Los Angeles Art: Formal Art,' 
Art/orum, vol. II, no. 12, Summer 
1964, pp. 42-46 (ill.). Three groups 
of artists, all primarily concerned 
with formal means in their work, are 
discussed as a three-armed unit. 



."Los Angeles: The Scene," Art 

News, vol. 64, no. 1, March 1965, 
pp. 28-29, 56-58(111.). The emer- 
gence of Los Angeles as a center of 
serious art activity is discussed in 
terms of a new museum, new 
collectors, new dealers, new artists. 

. "The New Abstraction on the 



West Coast U.S.A.," Studio Inter- 
national, vol. 169, no. 865, May 1965, 
pp. 192-199 (ill.). Commentary on 
the rectilinear abstraction In the 
painting and sculpture of, particu- 
larly, Los Angeles. 

Cravens, Junius. "Work at Museum 
Called BestThree-Dimensional Art 
Done in Northern Area in 30 Years," 
San Francisco News, August 24, 
1935. Sculpture exhibition at San 
Francisco Museum of Art provides 
impetus for survey of Bay Area 
sculpture. 

Crehan, Hubert. "Is There a California 
School?," Art News, vol. 54, no. 9, 
January 1956, pp. 32-35, 64-65 (ill.). 
Asserts that there is not a California 
school, then assesses the Influence of 
Clyfford Still at the California School 
ofFlne Arts, 1945-1950. 

'Art Schools Smell Alike,' 



This World, San Francisco Sunday 
Examiner and Chronicle, October 4, 
1970 (ill.). Discusses California 
School of Fine Arts during the 
post- World War II years. 

Danieli, Fidel. "A Portfolio of 
Contemporary Los Angeles Art: 
Figurative," Art/orum, vol. II, no. 12, 
Summerl964, pp. 53-58 (ill.). The 
Los Angeles figurative painters are 
grouped around three poles: the 
influence of Rico Lebrun, the realistic 
tradition, and the use of flat, diagram- 
matic image components. 



. "Nine Senior Southern 

California Painters," Journal (The Los 
Angeles Institute of Contemporary 
Art), no. 2, October 1974, pp. 32-34 
(111.). In discussing LAICA's opening 
exhibition, Danlell asserts that Los 
Angeles does have an artistic history 
and promotes the need for research in 
this field. 

Danysh, Joseph A. "The Federal Art 
Project," San Francisco Art Associa- 
tion Bulletin, vol. 3, no. 1, May 1936, 
pp. 2,4. Main points of the Bay 
Area Federal Art Project are outlined 
by the Regional Advisor. 

Davis, Claudia. "The Western Artist 
East of the Rockies," San Francisco 
Art Association Bulletin, vol. Ill, no. 
3, August 1936, pp. 3-5. Report on 
how the work of West Coast artists is 
received by institutions and the 
public in the Middle West and East. 

Factor, Donald. "A Portfolio of 
Contemporary Los Angeles Art: 
Assemblage," Art/orum, vol. II, no. 
12, Summer 1964, pp. 38-41 (ill). 
After a brief historical introduction, 
the work of artists active in 
assembled sculpture is explored. 

Farber, Manny. "Art," The Nation, 
vol. 172, no. 1, January 6, 1951, p. 19. 
Discusses painting In the Bay Area 
with emphasis on Clyfford Still and 
Edward Corbett. 

Ferling, Lawrence. "Expressionism in 
San Francisco Today," Counterpoint, 
January 1952, pp. 16-19 (ill). Short 
glimpses of the work of several 
contemporary Bay Area artists. 



263 



FitzGibbon, John. "Sacramento!," Art 
in America, vol. 59, no. 6, November- 
IJecember 1971. pp. 78-83 (ill.). A 
full-scalf! (sxploration into the 
extremely active art community in 
Sacramento nnd the work done there. 

Frankenstein, Alfred. "A Roof Garden 
of Sculpture," This World, San 
Francisco Sunday Glironicle, August 
25, 1963 (ill.). Review of the monu- 
mental exhibition of Galifornia 
sculpture, organized by The Oakland 
Art Museum and exhibited at Kaiser 
Center, Oakland, for which no catalog 
was published. 

Fuller, Mary. "Emblems of Sorrow," 
Artforum. vol. II, no. 5, November 
1963, pp. 34-37(111.). Survey of 
federally-funded New Deal art 
projects in San Francisco. Includes 
list of artists who worked on the 
various projects. 

"San Francisco Sculptors," Art 



in America, vol. 52, no. 3, June 1964, 
pp. 52-59 (ill.). Examination of the 
burst of sculptural activity which 
occurred in the Bay Area in the early 
sixties. 

. "Was There a San Francisco 



School?," Art/orum, vol. IX, no. 5, 
January 1971, pp. 46-53 (ill.). 
Excerpts from interviews with artists 
active at the California School of Fine 
Arts during the MacAgy years, 
1945-1950. 

Gelber, Steven M. "The Irony of San 
Francisco's 'Commie Art'," City of 
San Francisco, February 4, 1976, pp. 
24-28,37(111.). Appraisal of the 
political and sociological ideas put 
forth in the murals produced in 
California under the New Deal. 



Geldzahler, Henry. "Los Angeles: The 
Second City of Art," Vogue , vol. 144, 
no. 5, September 15, 1964, pp. 42, 56, 
62,64. Reasons for the shift of 
artistic activity from San Francisco to 
Los Angeles with short discussions of 
major Los Angeles artists, collectors, 
museums and recent visitors. 

Giambruni, Helen. "At the University 
of California, Irvine: Abstract Expres- 
sionist Ceramics," Craft Horizons, 
vol. XXVI, no. 6, November- 
December 1966, pp. 26-35, 61 (ill.). 
Extended review of exhibition. 
Abstract Expressionist Ceramics, 
organized by Art Gallery, University 
of California, Irvine, includes 
background of ceramic sculpture in 
California. 

Glueck, Grace. "Art is Alive and Well 
in the Bay Area," This World, San 
Francisco Sunday Examiner and 
Chronicle, April 13, 1969 (ill.). First 
printed in The New York Times, this 
article reviews positively the art 
activity in the Bay Area. 

. "Los Angeles Regains Vigor as 

an Art Center," The New York Times, 
June 2, 1969 (ill.). A look at the 
reasons behind the revitalization of 
Los Angeles with special emphasis 
on museums. 

Gordon, Joni. "Artfrom," Journal 
(The Los Angeles Institute of Con- 
temporary Art), no. 1, June 1974, pp. 
24-25. Achart of Los Angeles 
galleries showing their periods of 
activity between 1963 and 1974. 

"A Guide to the Galleries," Art/orum , 
vol. II, no. 12, Summer 1964, pp. 
75-80 (ill.). This article traces the 
history of galleries in Los Angeles 
and lists current galleries and their 
stables. 



Cuilbaut, Serge. "The Bongo-Bingo 
Art Scene," Journal (The Los Angeles 
Institute of Contemporary Art), no. 5, 
April-May 1975, pp. 22-27 (ill.). The 
"beat" scene in Los Angeles, espe- 
cially the artists and the gathering 
places. 

Hopkins, Henry T. "A Portfolio of 
Contemporary Los Angeles Art: 
Abstract Expressionism," Art/orum, 
vol. II, no. 12, Summer 1964, pp. 
59-63 (ill.). A discussion of the role 
of abstract expressionism in the early 
work of Los Angeles' younger artists, 
the influence on L.A. artists by work 
of San Francisco's expressionists, and 
the mature abstract expressionist 
painting of Woelffer, Ruben and, 
especially, Altoon. 

"West Coast Style," Art Voices, 



vol. IV, no. 4, Fall 1966, pp. 60-70 
(ill.). Discussion of Los Angeles art 
with statements by the artists on the 
effect the environment of Los Angeles 
has had on their work. 

Kozloff, Max. "West Coast Art: Vital 
Pathology," The Nation, vol. 199, no. 
4, August 24, 1964, pp. 76-79. 
Recent California art divided into two 
strains, the "Sterilized" and the 
"Sweaty". Discussion of the artists 
and their relationship to, especially, 
the Los Angeles environment. 

Kramer, Hilton. "Month in Review," 
Arts IVfagazine, vol. 34, no. 4, January 
1960, pp. 42-45 (ill.). The figure vs. 
abstract expressionism is explored in 
terms of the Bay Area figurative 
movement. 



264 



. "Los Angeles, Now the 'In' Art 

Scene," The New York Times, June 1, 
1971 (ill.]. Extended review of 24 
Young Los AngeJes Artists , Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art. 

Labaudt, Lucien. "An American 
Renaissance," San Francisco Art 
Association Bulletin, vol. 4, no. 3, 
Octoberl937,p. 2 (ill.). A promi- 
nent San Francisco artist's positive 
reaction to the Federal Art Project. 

Langsner, Jules. "America's Second 
Art City," Art in America, vol. 51, no. 
2, April 1963, pp. 127-131 (ill.). Dis- 
cussion of art activity in Los Angeles, 
especially galleries, museums. 
Tamarind Lithography Workshop, 
and a survey of trends among major 
artists. 

Lavrova, Nadia. "Forty-Six 
Artists — One Palette." Christian 
Science Monitor, August 1 , 1934 
(ill.). Contemporary discussion of 
the murals in San Francisco's Coit 
Tower and the federally-funded 
artists who painted them. 

Leider, Philip. "California After the 
Figure," Art in America, vol. 51, no. 
5, October 1963, pp. 73-83 (ill.). 
Author views the Northern California 
figurative style as disappearing and a 
new art emerging in Southern 
California. 

. "A Portfolio of Contemporary 

Los Angeles Art: The Cool School," 
Art/orum, vol. II, no. 12, Summer 
1964, pp. 47-52(111.). An explora- 
tion into the work of the Los Angeles 
avant-garde, with its precise surface, 
oft-times pop-derived images, use of 
parody and compressed statement. 



Leider, Philip and John Coplans. 
"West Coast Art: Three Images," 
Art/orum, vol. I, no. 12, June 1963, 
pp. 21-25 (ill.). Extended review of 
three exhibitions of West Coast art. 

Licka, C.E. "A Prima Facie Clay 
Sampler: A Case for Popular 
Ceramics," Currant (San Francisco). 
Part I: vol. 1, no. 3, August-September 
1975, pp. 30-34, 60 (ill.); Part II: vol. 1, 
no. 4, October-November 1975, pp. 
8-13,50-53(111.). A new strain of 
ceramics has developed in two major 
centers: Seattle and the San Francisco 
Bay Area. This movement is dis- 
cussed and assessed. 

Loran, Erie. "San Francisco," Art 
News, vol. XLVIII, no. 5, September 
1949, pp. 45, 52-53 (ill.). A survey of 
the styles currently prevalent in the 
Bay Area. 

Louchheim, Aline. "San Francisco: 
Division and Vitality," The New York 
Times , October 24, 1948. An 
easterner's view of the San Francisco 
art scene, particularly the activity at 
California School of Fine Arts. 

McClellan, Douglas. "A Portfolio of 
Contemporary Los Angeles Art: 
Sculpture," Art/orum , vol. II, no. 12, 
Summer 1964, pp. 69-74(111.). Com- 
mentary on trends in Southern 
California sculpture. 

MacAgy, Douglas. "A Note on the 
Western Round Table on Modern 
Art," San Francisco Art Association 
Bulletin, vol. 15, no. 4, April-May 
1949, pp. 1-3 (ill.). The director of 
the California School of Fine Arts 
looks back on this historic meeting of 
artistic minds. 



"MacDonald Wright [sic] Feature of 
Show by 10 Pacific Coast Artists," 
The Art Digest, vol. X, no. 12, March 
15,1936, p. 34 (ill.). Review of show 
held at Carl Fisher Gallery, New York, 
which included work by 10 West 
Coast artists; emphasis on Stanton 
Macdonald-Wright. 

Macdonald-Wright, S. (tanton). "Art 
News from Los Angeles," Art News, 
vol. 54, no. 6, October 1955, pp. 8, 
59-60(111.). Brief but important 
history of the development of the arts 
in Southern California. 

Marioni, Tom. "Out Front," Vision 
(Oakland), no. One, September 1975, 
pp. 8-11 (ill.). A discussion of 
several artists in San Francisco and 
Los Angeles with special emphasis 
on performance sculptors. 

Martin, Fred. "The Birth of The 
Thing, Or, Some Recent Develop- 
ments in the Art of the San Francisco 
Bay Area," unpublished ms., 12 pp., 
1956. Typed manuscript growing 
out of a panel held at the Oakland Art 
Museum, 1956, entitled, "California 
School — Yes or No?". Discusses 
post-Still art in San Francisco. 

. "Art in The San Francisco Bay 

Area, Early Winter 1965," Art Inter- 
national, vol. X, no. 2, February 1966, 
pp. 76, 78-79, 81-83 (ill). Report on 
the current art scene in the Bay Area. 

"Remembering The School," 



Artweek (Oakland). Part I: November 
1, 1975; Part II: November 8, 1975; Part 
III: November 15, 1975 (ill.). Remi- 
niscences of the San Francisco Art 
Institute by its former director. These 
articles were written to coincide with 
a three-part exhibition, A Tribute to 



265 



the San Francisco Art Institute, held 
at the Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, October 20-November 29, 
1975. 

Maxwell, Everett C. "Approach to 
California Art," California Arts and 
Architecture . vol. LV, no. 2, February 
1939, p. 7 (ill.). Brief general look at 
the state of painting in California. 

Millier, Arthur. "New Developments 
in Southern California Fainting," 
American Magazine of Art, vol. 27, 
May 1934, pp. 241-247 (ill.]. Empha- 
sizes landscape painters. 

. "The Pacific Coast: Artists are 



Stimulated by Its Diverse Climates," 
The Art Digest, vol. 26, no. 3, 
November 1, 1951, pp. 30-31 (ill.). 
Historical discussion of West Coast 
art with special emphasis on 
institutions. 

Mills, Paul. "Bay Area Figurative," 
Art in America, vol. 52, no. 3, )une 
1964, pp. 42-45 (ill.). Lively defense 
of figurative painting movement in 
San Francisco by its most vocal 
proponent. 

Munro, Eleanor. "Figures to the 
Fore," Horizon, vol. II, no. 6, luly 
1960, pp. 16-24, 114-116 (ill.). 
Detailed investigation into Bay Area 
Figurative painting. 

Nordland, Gerald. "The Regional 
Exhibitions," Frontier, vol. 13, no. 12, 
October 1962, pp. 23-25 (ill.). An 
evaluation of the regional exhibitions 
in Southern California. 



. "Boom. Boom, Boom," Frontier, 

vol. 14, no. 11. September 1963, pp. 
19-21 (ill.). A look at the collecting 
and exhibiting policies of the Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art. 

"Collecting in Los Angeles," 



Artforum. vol. II, no. 12, Summer 
1964, pp. 12-18(111.). A survey of 
Southern California collectors with 
special emphasis on Mr. and Mrs. 
Gifford Phillips, Dr. and Mrs. Leonard 
Asher, Robert Rowan, David E. Bright 
and Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Weisman. 

'A Portfolio of Contemporary 



Los Angeles Art: A Succession of 
Visitors,"Art/orum, vol. II, no. 12, 
Summer 1964, pp. 64-68 (ill.). The 
incidence and impact of visits to 
Southern California by influential, 
mature artists is explored. 

. "Pioneer Moderns," Frontier, 



vol. 15, no. 4, February 1964, pp. 
22-24 (ill.). Extended critical review 
of Arts of Southern CaJi/ornia-XIV: 
Early iVfoderns , held at the Long 
Beach Museum of Art. 

Overend, William. "Behind Scenes at 
Bohemia-by-the-Beach," Los AngeJes 
Times, )uly 20, 1976 (ill.). Venice as 
an "art community" with emphasis 
on three artist-residents: Alexis 
Smith, Robert Graham, Billy Al 
Bengston. 

Perkins, Constance. "Los Angeles: 
The Way You Look At It," Art in 
America, vol. 54, no. 2, March-April 
1966, pp. 112-118 (ill.). Historical 
survey of the art of Los Angeles with 
discussion of a few contemporary 
artists. 



Phillips, Gifford. "Culture on the 
Coast," Art in America, vol. 52, no. 3, 
)une 1964, pp. 22-23. Examination 
of the "art boom" in California, 
especially collecting and the museum 
situation in Los Angeles. 

Pierre, )ose. "Funk Art," J'Oeil, no. 
190, October 1970, pp. 18-27, 68 
(ill.). Extensive and well-illustrated 
article in French explores the "funk" 
style of the San Francisco Bay Area. 

Plagens, Peter. "Before What Flower- 
ing? Thoughts on West Coast Art," 
Artforum, vol. 12, no. 1, September 
1973, pp. 33-37(111.). West Coast 
artists outside the "mainstream" of 
art: a survey of California art in the 
twentieth century extracted from 
Plagen's book. Sunshine Muse. 

"The Soft Touch of Hard Edge,' 



Journal (The Los Angeles Institute of 
Contemporary Art), no. 5, April-May 
1975, pp. 16-19 (ill.). A commentary 
on hard-edge painting with emphasis 
on Karl Benjamin, Lorser Feitelson, 
John McLaughlin. 

"A Portfolio of California Sculptors," 
Artforum, vol. II, no. 2, August 1963, 
pp. 15-59 (ill.). A brief biography, 
black and white illustration and, 
rarely, a statement for each of 76 
California sculptors. 

Pugliese, Joseph A. "Casting in the 
Bay Area," Artforum, vol. II, no. 2, 
August 1963, pp. 11-14(111.). The 
rapid development of bronze casting 
and foundries around San Francisco 
is explored. 



266 



. "At Museum West: Ceramics 

from Davis," Craft Horizons, vol. 
XXVI, no. 6, November-December 
1966, pp. 26-29 [ill.). Extended 
review of ceramic sculpture 
exhibition by artists connected with 
the University of California, Davis. 

Richardson, Brenda. "Bay Area 
Galleries," Arts Magazine, vol. 44, 
no. 8, Summer 1970, pp. 51-52 
(ill.). Survey of galleries in the Bay 
Area with particular attention paid to 
Hansen Fuller Gallery and Gallery 
Reese Palley. 

"Bay Area Survey: The Myth of 



Neo-Dada," Arts Magazine, vol. 44, 
no. 8. Summer 1970, pp. 46-49 (ill.). 
Bay Area artists do not adhere to a 
single style; Richardson discusses 
some of the trends in their art. 

Rose, Barbara. "Los Angeles: The 
Second City," Art in America , vol. 54, 
no. 1, January-February 1966, pp. 
110-115(111.). Report on "L.A. 
Sensibility" with discussion of its 
sources. 

. "California, Here It Comes," 



New York, vol. 5, no. 23, June 5, 1972, 
p. 66 (ill.). Extended review of Los 
Angeles '72 . exhibition shown at 
Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, 
underlines differences between New 
York and California art. 

Ryan, Beatrice Judd. "The Rise of 
Modern Art in the Bay Area," 
California Historical Society 
Quarterly, vol. XXXVIII, no. 1, March 
1959(111.). An historical view of 
modern art in San Francisco from 
1915 to 1935 by the director of two 
San Francisco galleries, Beaux Arts 
Galerie and the Rotunda Gallery, 
City of Paris. 



Salinger, Jehanne Bietry. "The 
Monterey Group," The Argus, vol. I, 
no. 3, June 1927 (ill.). Review of 
exhibition held at Beaux Arts Galerie , 
San Francisco, of the work of artists, 
especially C.S. Price, who worked in 
the Monterey area. 

Schjeldahl, Peter. "L.A. Art? 'hiterest- 
ing — But Painful', " The New York 
Times,May 21,1972 (ill.). Condes- 
cending look at contemporary art in 
Los Angeles. 

Seitz, William C. "The Real and 
the Artificial: Painting of the New 
Environment," Art in America, vol. 
60, no. 6, November-December 1972, 
pp. 58-72 (ill.). Full examination of 
Photo-Realist movement with pages 
68-71 devoted to California's 
contribution. 

Seldis, Henry J. "Pasadena's Lopsided 
West Coast Survey," Los Angeles 
Times, November 30, 1969. Review 
of West Coast 1945-1969, Pasadena 
Art Museum's opening exhibition at 
its new building. Also discusses 
Pasadena's role as a modern art 
museum. 



. "The Pioneer Modernists: A 

Sure Cure for Amnesia," Los Angeles 
Times, December 8, 1974 (ill.). 
Extended review of Nine Senior 
Southern California Painters, the 
inaugural exhibition held at The Los 
Angeles Institute of Contem- 
porary Art. 

Selz, Peter with Jane Livingston. 
"Two Generations in L.A.," Art in 
America, vol. 57, no. 1, January- 
February 1969, pp. 92-97 (ill.). 
Along with the first generation of 
successful sixties Los Angeles artists, 
new talent has emerged and is here 
evaluated. 



Sharp, Willoughby. "Los Angeles 
Galleries," Arts Magazine, vol. 44, 
no. 8, Summer 1970, p. 50 (ill.). 
Historical survey of galleries in Los 
Angeles. 

. "New Directions in Southern 



California Sculpture," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 44, no. 8, Summer 
1970, pp. 35-38(111.). A look at the 
major Los Angeles sculptors of the 
sixties and the new movements 
emanating from them, especially 
artists such as Jim Turrell, Michael 
Asher, David Deutsch. 

"Willoughby Sharp Interviews 



John Coplans," Arts Magazine, vol. 
44, no. 8, Summer 1970, pp. 
39-41. Interviewed shortly after his 
resignation from Pasadena Art 
Museum, John Coplans voices his 
opinions on the Southern California 
art scene and, in particular, the 
Pasadena Art Museum. 

Slivka, Rose. "The New Ceramic 
Presence," Craft Horizons, vol. XXI, 
no. 4, July-August 1961, pp. 30-37 
(ill. J. The beginnings of the ceramic 
sculpture movement are herein dis- 
cussed and evaluated. 

Solomon, Alan. "They Know What 
They Want," The New York Times, 
July 4, 1965. Particular emphasis is 
placed on institutions and collecting 
in this easterner's view of San 
Francisco and Los Angeles. 

. "Is California Art the Equal 

of Eastern Art?," This World, San 
Francisco-Sunday Examiner &- 
Chronicle, July 18, 1965 (reprinted 
from The New York Times). Los 



267 



Angeles' relationship to New York: its 
irrelevance for artists, importance for 
collectors. Brief look at the work of 
several Southern California artists. 

Temko, Allan. "The Flowering of San 
Francisco," Horizon, vol. I, no. 3, 
January 1959, pp. 4-23 (ill.). San 
Francisco abounds in things cultural. 
The fine arts, architecture, literature 
and the performing arts of the Bay 
Region are all explored in this richly 
illustrated article. 

Tarshis, Jerome. "Letter from San 
Francisco," Studio International, vol. 
186, no. 960, November 1973, pp. 192- 
193 (ill.). Commentary on Northern 
California's contribution to the use of 
clay as a sculptural medium. 

van der Marck, Jan. "The Califor- 
nians," Art International, vol. VII, no. 
5, May 25, 1963, pp. 28-31 (ill.). 
Short survey of California art in the 
sixties, prompted by the exhibition 
Fifty California Artists, with brief 
look at California's contribution to 
the art of the day. 

Ventura, Anita. "The Prospect Over 
the Bay," Arts Magazine, vol. 37, no. 
9, May-June 1963, pp. 19-21 (ill.). 
Incisive and extensive look at state of 
Bay Area art, prompted by the 82nd 
Annual Exhibition of the San 
Francisco Art Institute. 

, "Field Day for Sculptors," Arts 



Magazine, vol. 38, no. 1, October 
1963,pp. 62-65 (ill.). Survey of 
developments in California sculpture 
as exemplified by three exhibitions 
and one magazine issue, all devoted 
to sculpture. 



. "San Francisco: The Aloof 

Community," Arts Magazine, vol. 39, 
no. 7, April 1965, pp. 70-73 (ill.). 
The problem of community support 
in San Francisco and a look at the San 
Francisco Art Institute and the art 
department of University of 
California, Berkeley. 

Wilder, Mitchell. "A Stirring in the 
Pacific Paint Pot," Saturday Review, 
vol. XLV, no. 42, October 20, 1962, pp. 
56-59(111.). Art on the West Coast 
with emphasis on state universities, 
the art market, publications. 

Wilson, William. "The Explosion 
That Never Went Boom," Saturday 
Review, vol. L, no. 38, September 23, 
1967, pp. 54-56(111.). The flowering 
of Los Angeles, discussed and 
reasoned. 

. "Figurative to Funk at Barnsdall 

Park Exhibit," Los AngeJes Times, 
September 8, 1968 (ill.). Review of 
exhibition. The West Coast Now, with 
special concern about the objectivity 
of California art displayed therein. 



268 



Major Sources of Archives of American Art, 

Archival Material on California Art Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D.C. 

Offices: Washington, D.C; San 

Francisco; New York; Detroit, 

Michigan; Boston 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, Louise Sloss Ackerman Fine Arts 
Library, San Francisco 

The Oakland Museum, Archives of 
California Art, Oakland, California 

National Collection of Fine Arts 
Library, Smithsonian Institution, 
Ferdinand Ferret Research Library, 
Washington, D.C. 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
Art Research Library, Los Angeles 

California State Library, Sacramento 

California Historical Society, 
Schubert Hall Library, San Francisco 

University of California, Berkeley, 
Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California 



269 



Photography Credits 



Except in those cases listed below, all 
photographs of works of art 
reproduced have been supplied by 
their owners or custodians. The 
numbers listed refer to checklist 
numbers. 

Eric H. Anderson, Mill Valley, 
California, 101 

Rudy Bender, San Francisco, 98, 181 

Brigham Young University, Provo, 
Utah, 7, 56 

Rudolph Burckhardt, New York, 
courtesy Leo Castelli Gallery, New 
York, 319 

Geoffrey Clements, Staten Island, 
New York, courtesy The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 151, 225; 
courtesy Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 301 

Gallery Rebecca Cooper, Washington, 
D.C.,313 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los Angeles, 
280 

Edward Cornachio, Pasadena, 
California, 157 

Liam Cutchins, Ross, California, 177 

Bevan Davies, New York, courtesy 
Nancy Hoffman Gallery, New York, 
291, 311 

Eeva-Inkeri, New York, courtesy 
Allan Frumkin Gallery, New York, 
198 

The Fine Arts Museums of San 
Francisco: California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, 60 

The Fort Worth Art Museum, Texas, 
215,265 

Larry Fox, San Francisco, 316 

Phillip Galgiani, San Francisco, 72, 
77. 78, 210, 267, 306. 317, 322 



William H. Grand, Portland, Oregon, 
22 

Hansen Fuller Gallery, San Francisco, 
147, 164, 186 

Helen Harrison, La Jolla, California, 
330 

Paul A. Hassel, San Francisco, 104 

Herrington & Olson, Oakland. 
California, courtesy The Oakland 
Museum, 2 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C., 75, 131 

Isha, Sebastopol, California, 125 

Ute Klophaus, Wuppertal, Germany, 
315 

Gary Krueger, Los Angeles, courtesy 
The Claire Copley Gallery, Inc., Los 
Angeles, 324, 331 

La Jolla Museum of Contemporary 
Art, California, 268, 275 

T.S. Leong, Oakland, California, 154 

Long Beach Museum of Art, 
California, 264 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
54,61, 88, 140, 161, 227,288 

A.F. Madeira, Sacramento, California, 
courtesy E.B. Crocker Art Gallery, 
Sacramento, 203 

Maxwell Galleries, Ltd., San 
Francisco, 71 

Colin McRae, Berkeley, courtesy 
University Art Museum, University 
of California, Berkeley, 183, 229, 269, 
298 

Alfred Monner, Portland, Oregon, 
23-32 

National Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C., courtesy Gallery M, 
Washington, D.C., 113 



The Oakland Museum, California, 1, 
5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 17, 20, 55, 64, 99, 

105, 120, 126, 130, 138, 142, 230 

Karl Obert, Santa Barbara, California, 
courtesy Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, 74 

San Antonio Museum Association, 
Texas, 279 

San Francisco Museum of Modern 
Art, 47, 50, 52, 57, 63, 65, 69, 92, 93, 

106, 107, 111, 119, 137, 143, 149, 156, 
194, 340 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 
California, 76, 170 

Schopplein Studio, San Francisco, 4, 
33, 36, 51, 53, 59, 62, 85, 109. 116, 
128, 132, 144, 145, 152, 153, 159, 172, 
174, 175, 176, 178, 184, 185, 188, 189, 
192, 200, 202, 213, 244, 254, 262, 266, 
272, 287, 295, 296, 299, 302, 308, 
310,312,314,334 

Robert I. Shankar, Emeryville, 
California, 81, 112, 115, 129, 135, 
139, 196, 216, 223, 263, 300, 326 

Edmund Shea, San Francisco, 199 

Stanford University Museum of Art, 
Stanford, California, 37, 168 

Frank J. Thomas, Los Angeles, 42, 79, 
80, 82, 86, 122, 141, 162, 169, 195, 
201, 208, 209, 214, 231, 232, 234, 243, 
245, 248, 249, 251, 256, courtesy 
Monique Knowlton Gallery, New 
York: 258, 259, 270, 277, 281, 282, 
289, 290, 297, 305 

Jann & John Thomson, Los Angeles, 
246 

Bob Wharton, Fort Worth, Texas, 219, 
221 



270 



San Francisco Museum of 
Modem Art 
Board of Trustees 



San Francisco Museum of 

Modern Art 

Staff 



Eugene E. Trefethen, Jr., President 

Mrs. Walter A. Haas, Jr., Executive 

Vice-President 

A. Hunter Land, II, Secretary 

Alan L. Stein, Treasurer 

Mrs. John L. Bradley 

Mrs. Rena Bransten 

Robert W. Cahill 

Richard P. Cooley 

E. Morris Cox 

Vernon A. DeMars 

George Gund 

Mrs. Walter A. Haas 

Frank O. Hamilton 

Harold J. Haynes 

Mrs. Randolph A. Hearst 

Mrs. Wellington S. Henderson 

Mrs. Francis V. Keesling, Jr. 

Moses Lasky 

Mrs. Philip E. Lilienthal 

Edmund W Nash 

AlvinC. Rice 

C. David Robinson 

William M. Roth 

Robert A. Rowan 

Mrs. Madeleine Haas Russell 

Daniel G. Volkmann, Jr. 

Mrs. Brooks Walker 

Mrs. Paul Wattis 

Ex-Officio: 

Jaquelin H. Hume 
Trustee Emeritus 

Mrs. Francis F. Owen 
Trustee Emeritus 

Mrs. Nicholas G.K. Boyd, Jr. 
President, Modern Art Council 

Dr. William R. Fielder 
Chairman, SECA 



Henry T Hopkins 
Director 

Michael McCone 
Deputy Director 

S.C. St. John 
Controller 

Suzanne Foley 

Curator 

John Humphrey 

Curator 

Rolando Castellon 

Curator 

Kenneth DeRoux 

Film Curator 

Karen Tsujimoto 
Assistant Curator 

Eugenie Candau 
Librarian 

Inge-Lise Eckmann 
Chief Conservator, Paper 
Phillip Goddard 
Bookshop Manager 
Bonita Hughes 
Membership Secretary 
Susan King 
Registrar 

Thornton Rockwell 

Chief Conservator, Paintings 

Mary Miles Ryan 
Publicity Director 

Julius Wasserstein 
Gallery Supervisor 

Robert Whyte 
Education Supervisor 

Ed Bartlett 

Assistant Gallery Supervisor 

James Bernstein 
Conservator 

Jan Butterfield 
Research Associate 

Didi Codre 
Admissions 

Shelley Diekman 
Research Assistant 

Shirley Eng 

Assistant to the Controller 



Constance Goldsmith 
Modern Art Council Secretary 
Katherine Church Holland 
Research Associate 

Philip Jessie 
Gallery Technician 

Chris Johns 

Bookshop Assistant 

Toby Kahn 

Assistant Manager, Bookshop 

Debbie Lande 
Bookshop Assistant 

Karen Lee 

Secretary for Film and Education 

Lee Loomis 

Bookshop Assistant 

Dorothy Martinson 
Membership Assistant 

Alberta Mayo 
Secretary to the Director 
George Milligan 
Mailing 

Pauline Mohr 
Conservator 

Nancy Morrison 
Conservation Administrator 
Dennis O'Leary 
Supervisor of Museum School 
Cherie Pinsky 
Bookshop Assistant 

Nancy Rolf 

Secretary to the Controller 

Adrian Schafgans 
Museum Technician 
Mauritz Schauer 
Conservation Assistant 

Joseph Shields 
Gallery Attendant 
Ferd Von Schlafke 
Gallery Technician 

Loretta Wilcher 
Curatorial Secretary 



271 



National Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution 
Sta£F for the Exhibition 



Dr. Joshua C. Taylor, Director 

Harry Lowe, Assistant Director, Operations 

Harry )ordan, Administrative Officer 

Department of Twentieth Century 

Painting and Sculpture: 

Walter Hopps, Curator 

[oyce C. Kaminski 

Florine E. Lyons 

Lynda C. Roscoe 

Elizabeth A. Stack 

Office of Exhibition and Design: 

David B. Keeler, Chief 

Oliver Anderson 

Carole Ann Broadus 

Frank Caldwell 

John Fleming 

Ralph Logan 

James Maynor 

Breton B. Morse 

George Nairn 

Gervis Perkins 

Georgine Reed 

Anton ia Ropa 

Office of the Registrar: 

W. Robert Johnston, Registrar 

Andrea Brown 

Burgess A. Coleman, Jr. 

Joshua Ewing 

Deborah Jensen 

Martha Russell 

Office of Public Affairs: C 

Margery Byers, Chief 
Sidney Lawrence, III 
Theresa O'Brien 



Catalog Design: Ross San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 

Typography: CTS Typography Inc. Van Ness at McAllister 

Photolithography: Phelps /Schaefer San Francisco, California 94102 

Litho-CraphicsCo. (4151863-8800 

272