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Full text of "Paleontology of the Oligocene of the Chehalis Valley, Washington"

UC-NRLF 




UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATIONS 

GEOLOGY 
Vol. i, No. 2, pp. 69-97, pl. 6, 7 January, 19*8 



PALEONTOLOGY OF THE OLIGOCENE OF THE 
CHEHALIS VALLEY, WASHINGTON 



by 
KATHERINE E. H. VAN 



SEATTLE. WASH. 

PUBLISHED B^ THE UNIVERSITY' 
1918 



University of Washington Publications in Geology 

; che Librarian, Universit. 

: ' ,,:'. 



by < harles E. Weaver. 
\ Washington_, by Kath- 



UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

GEOLOGY 
Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 69-97, pis. 6, 7 January, 1918 



PALEONTOLOGY OF THE OLIGOCENE OF THE 
CHEHALIS VALLEY, WASHINGTON 



by 
KATHERINE E. H. VAN WINKLE 



CONTENTS Page 

Introduction 69 

Historical Review 70 

Stratigraphy 71 

Oligocene Fauna . . . 75 

Conditions of Environment 77 

Correlation 78 

Correlation Table of the Oligocene in Washington 79 

Conclusions 79 

Descriptions of New Species 81 

Plates . . 93 



INTRODUCTION 

The purpose of this paper is to record the results of an investigation made by 
the writer during the years 1916 and 1917 on the faunas and stratigraphy of the 
Oligocene formations exposed in Chehalis Valley between Chehalis and Porter, 
Washington. The occurrence of Oligocene fossils near Porter has been noted 
several times in the literature dealing with the Tertiary of the Pacific Coast. As 
a rule these fossils are in an excellent state of preservation and occur at different 
horizons from the basal to the uppermost beds of the formation. The region is of 
considerable importance in establishing the marine Oligocene stratigraphic column 
in western Washington. 

Stratigraphic field studies were carried on by means of a compass and tape 
traverse on Porter, Gibson, Mox Chehalis, Williams and Independence creeks. All 

[69] 



70 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 1 

observations made on the lithology of the rocks as well as the observations on strike 
and dip were tied in to these traverse lines. Fossils were collected wherever 
possible and their stratigraphic position determined. The faunal determinations 
were made by the writer in the Paleontological laboratory of the University of 
Washington. Twenty-five molluscan species are new and are described in the 
report. The writer wishes to express her acknowledgments to Professor C. E. 
Weaver, who has aided in and made possible the preparation of this report. 

HISTORICAL REVIEW 

One of the first references to the occurrence of Oligocene formations in the 
Porter area is in a report by Dr. Ralph Arnold 1 in 1906. In this paper a small 
geologic map of the border of the Olympic Peninsula is inserted, and upon this the 
occurence of Oligocene-Miocene strata is indicated along the north side of Chehalis 
River. In a paper published during the same year Dr. Arnold 2 refers to certain 
gray shales occurring in the vicinity of Porter, Chehalis County, Washington. Men- 
tion is made also of the occurrence of Oligocene fossils at Bean Point opposite 
Seattle, and in northern Clallam County along the south shores of the Strait of 
Juan de Fuca. In 1908 further reference is made to the occurrence of Oligocene 
strata by Dr. Arnold. 3 Three new species are described from Porter which are 
found in common with the Oligocene beds at San Lorenzo, California. These species 
are Malletia chehalisensis, Cardium lorenzanum and Strepsidura calif ornica. In 
the following year Dr. Arnold 4 in a paper on the Tertiary of the Pacific Coast pre- 
sents a correlation chart in which the Porter beds are placed in the Oligocene. 

The occurrence of the Oligocene beds at Porter is considered in more detail 
in a paper by Dr. C. E. Weaver 5 published in 1912. The beds at Porter are 
described as being a part of the lower portion of the Blakeley formation and as 
slightly younger than the Oligocene exposed in the region around Lincoln Creek. 
The areal distribution of the Oligocene around Porter is indicated on a geological 
map accompanying the report. Several new species of fossil mollusks are described 
from this region. 

In 1913, a paper appeared entitled "The Marine Tertiary Stratigraphy of the 
North Pacific Coast of America," by Dr. Ralph Arnold and Harold Hannibal. 6 In 
this report the Oligocene of Washington is divided into three formations : the San 
Lorenzo, or lowest ; the Seattle, or middle ; and the Twin River, or uppermost. These 
three formations are grouped as the Astoria series. The marine Oligocene exposed 
at Porter Creek is considered as belonging to the San Lorenzo or oldest division of 

1 Arnold, Ralph. Reconnaissance of the Olympic Peninsula, Geol. So<-. Am. Bull., vol. 
17, pp. 453-454, 1906. 

- Arnold, Ralph. The Tertiary and Quaternary Pectens of California, U. S. Geological 
Survey, P.P. No. 47, p. 15, 1906. 

3 Arnold, Ralph. Descriptions of New Cretaceous and Tertiary Fossils from the Santa 
Cru/ Mountains, California, Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, No. 1617, vol. 34, pp. 365-367, 190S. 

4 Arnold, Ralph. Tertiary Faunas of the Pacific Coast, Jour. Geol., vol. 17, pp. 509- 

. i . ' i . 1909. 

5 Weaver, C. E. A Preliminary Report on the Tertiary Paleontology of Western Wash- 
ington, Wash. Geol. Survey, Bull. 15, pp. 15-16, 1912. 

Arnold, Ralph, and Hannibal, Harold. The Marine Tertiary Stratigraphy of the North 
Pacific Coast of America, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., vol. 52, pp. 559-604, 1913. 






1918] Fan Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 71 

the Oligocene. Mr. Hannibal states, "The shales overlying the basal Astoria basalts 
north and east of Oakville, Porter and Elma; and the lowest Oligocene exposed at 
Lincoln Creek belong to the San Lorenzo formation." Several faunal localities in 
the vicinity of Porter Creek are listed as well as the fauna occurring at these places. 
He considers the San Lorenzo formation in the Grays Harbor area to have a 
thickness of 3,000 feet. 

In a report published in 1916 by Dr. C. E. Weaver 7 on the "Tertiary Faunal 
Horizons of Western Washington" the Oligocene strata occurring in the Porter 
Creek area are referred to as the Porter Horizon, which is considered to be of 
middle Oligocene age. A list is given of the fauna occurring in this horizon and 
also those species which are most characteristic of it. This fauna is referred to as 
the Turritella porterensis Zone. The fauna is regarded as being distinct from the 
lower beds exposed at Lincoln Creek and also from the upper beds at Restoration 
Point. Evidence for subdividing the Oligocene into three distinct formations did 
not seem warranted; however, three faunal zones were recognized, and the middle 
one of these was referred to as the Porter Horizon. Several new species were 
described from this area. 

Later in the same year a detailed paper appeared by Dr. Weaver 8 dealing with 
the stratigraphy of the Tertiary of western Washington. This report is accom- 
panied by areal geologic maps and cross sections. Upon these maps the distribution 
of the Oligocene sediments in the vicinity of Porter Creek is shown as well as the 
structural details. A list of the faunal species occurring here is also given. The 
strata are referred to as the Porter Horizon and the fauna contained within these 
strata are grouped as the Turritella porterensis Zone. 

During the summer of 1917 a paper appeared by Dr. Roy E. Dickerson,, 9 in 
which he describes a marine invertebrate fauna of 48 species which was collected 
by Mr. F. M. Anderson and Mr. Bruce Martin. Thirty-six of these species are 
new. This fauna occurs in a sandstone formation associated with conglomerate 
which outcrops at the Greece ranch on the east bank of Cowlitz River, about four 
miles east of Vader, Washington. Dr. Dickerson believes this fauna to be of 
Oligocene age and to represent a lower phase of the Molopophorous lincolnensis 
Zone as exposed on Lincoln Creek. 

STRATIGRAPHY 

The Oligocene formations in southwestern Washington occupy three areas 
which appear to have been laid down originally in a long narrow marine embayment 
extending from Grays Harbor along the Chehalis Valley southeasterly to a point 
four miles east of Vader on the Cowlitz River. The westernmost of these areas 
lies between Oakville and Porter. The middle area lies between Helsing Junction 

7 Weaver, C. E. The Tertiary Faunal Horizons of Western Washington, Univ. Wash. 
Publ. in Geol., vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-66, 1916. 

8 Weaver, C. E. The Tertiary Formations of Western Washington, Wash. Geol. Survey 
Bull. No. 13, pp. 180. 206 and 207, 1916. 

' Dickerson, Roy E. Climate and Its Influence on the Oligocene Faunas of the Pacific 
Coast, with Descriptions of some new Species from the Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci.. Fourth Series, vol. 7, pp. 157-192, 1917. 



72 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 1 

and Centralia. The third area is situated to the southeast between Winlock and 
the Cowlitz River. For purposes of reference this arm of the sea may be spoken 
of as the Oligocene Chehalis Valley embayment. 

The Oligocene formations exposed on Porter Creek are entirely composed of 
marine sediments, which attain a thickness of at least 1,200 feet. They rest im- 
conformably upon sandstones and basalts of Eocene Tejon age. The contact 
between the Tejon basalts and the basal Oligocene sediments occurs on Porter 
Creek three and one-half miles above its junction with Chehalis River. The basal 
Oligocene beds are composed of a medium-grained conglomerate in which the pebbles 
range in diameter from two inches down to a fine grit. These lower beds exhibit a 
rough stratification and are nearly always stained a reddish brown color, due largely 
to the circulating waters, which are charged with iroji derived from the nearby 
basaltic masses. The pebbles in the basal conglomerates are clearly derived from 
the underlying Tejon basalts. Exposures of Oligocene sediments occur at intervals 
in the banks and bed of Porter Creek southward from the contact. These strata 
have a prevailing northwest and southeast strike with a dip ranging from 1 to 20 
to the southwest. 

About seventy-five feet above the base of the Oligocene on Porter Creek, the 
gritty phase of the sediments grades over into a grayish brown, medium grained 
micaceous shaly sandstone, which in turn grades into a sandy shale. The middle 
and upper strata in this section are prevailingly massive and well developed bedding 
planes are usually absent. The rock is prevailingly a shaly sandstone possessing 
a light grayish brown color. The uppermost beds exposed in the railway and 
wagon road cuts at the town of Porter contain numerous rounded concretions 
averaging from two to four inches in diameter. In the interior of these are com- 
monly the fossil remains of mollusks or crustaceans. 

The contact as observed between the Eocene and Oligocene on Porter Creek, 
in the east half of Section 11, T. 17 N., R. 5 W., extends northerly and again 
appears on Mox Chehalis Creek about nine miles above its junction with Chehalis 
River, in Section 13, T. 18 N., R. 5 W. The Oligocene sediments at this locality 
rest unconformably upon the older Eocene basalts. 

Basal Oligocene conglomerates are exposed at the northwest end of a quarry 
composed of Tejon basalt situated one mile west of Oakville on the Northern 
Pacific Railway tracks. These conglomerates rest unconformably upon the basalt 
and have a thickness of about twenty feet. Above the conglomerates are massive 
gritty sandstones which are dipping at a low angle to the southwest. 

The Eocene-Oligocene contact is exposed on Cedar and Gibson creeks about 
one and one-half miles east of their junction with Chehalis River. The bed rock 
exposures east of this contact consist entirely of Eocene basalt. On the western 
side of the contact the basal beds are mainly gritty or conglomeratic, while the upper 
beds are for the most part composed of gray sandy shales. 

On the western side of Chehalis River, midway between Porter and Oakville, 
are exposures of massive sandy shales which may be seen in places along Williams 
Creek. The lack of good exposures renders it almost impossible to construct a 



1918] fan Winkle: Paleontology of 'the Oligocene 73 

stratigraphic section. The rocks are composed of massive gray sandy shales dipping 
at a low angle to the northeast. They seem to constitute the southwest limb of 
the Chehalis synclinal trough. The basal contact with the Eocene was not observed, 
although rocks of probable Eocene age exist not far to the south. 

On the south side of Chehalis River, between Oakville and Helsing Junction, 
the structural relations between the Eocene and Oligocene formations can be more 
clearly determined. The Oligocene strata rest with marked unconformity upon 
tlif upturned and eroded edges of the Eocene shales and basalts. Exposures of 
grayish brown sandstone containing characteristic marine Tejon fossils outcrop 
in the cuts along the C. M. & S. P. Railway from Balch Station, in Section 36, 
T. 1(3 X., R. 5 W., for a distance of three miles, to the southeast, where they rest 
upon the interbedded basalts. These strata strike northwest and southeast and dip 
from 10 to 30 to the southwest. In sections 8 and 9, T. 15 N., R. 4 W., a fine- 
grained badly altered basalt forms the rock along the south bank of Chehalis 
River. About one and one-half miles up Independence Creek are dark-colored 
massive shales which strike northwest and southeast and dip to the southwest. 
Lithologically they differ from the characteristic Oligocene sandy shales which rest 
unconformably upon the Eocene sediments. Westerly along the south side of 
Chehalis River from the mouth of Independence Creek are exposed light grayish 
brown shales having good bedding planes. These strata contain typical lower Oligo- 
cene marine fossils. They strike approximately N. 40 W. and dip to the northeast 
at angles ranging from 55 to 65. They rest unconformably upon the Eocene 
rocks below. The Oligocene strata exposed at the mouth of Independence Creek 
constitute a part of the south limb of the Chehalis Valley syncline and presumably 
extend northwesterly to Williams Creek beneath the marsh and alluvium of the 
valley. The unconformable relations between the Eocene and Oligocene forma- 
tions on Independence Creek suggest that during the latter part of Eocene time 
this part of Washington was undergoing uplift, folding and erosion. 

The type exposures of the Lincoln Horizon of the Oligocene occur in cuts along 
Chehalis River west of the mouth of Lincoln Creek. The basal beds of this section 
are not exposed. The strata are composed of massive gray sandy shales containing 
well preserved marine fossils. They dip to the southwest at a very low angle and 
have a thickness of at least 500 feet. 

The area between Oakville and Gate, along the present valley of Chehalis 
River, is deeply filled with gravel and alluvium, and the underlying bed rock is 
nowhere exposed. The structural conditions between Porter and Oakville and 
between Lincoln Creek and Helsing Junction suggest a direct connection of the 
Lincoln Horizon with some portion of the lower Porter Creek section. The strata 
at both localities seem to form a part of the northeast limb of the Chehalis 
Valley syncline. 

Bedrock exposures are for the most part absent south of Chehalis for some 
distance. In the rock bluffs along Olequah Creek, southwest of the town of Win- 
lock, there are exposures of massive gray sandy shales containing an Oligocene 
fauna similar to that at Lincoln Creek. These beds are resting almost horizontal 



74 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 1 

with a very low dip to the northeast. They are apparently unconformable upon 
the marine Tejon sediments which occur only 1,500 feet to the south. These 
beds were probably deposited contemporaneously with those at Lincoln Creek. 

About five miles to the southeast of Winlock, along the south bank of Cowlitz 
River, there are exposures of Oligocene strata. At this locality there is a cliff 
exposed for about fifteen feet above the water's edge. The lower five feet of 
this section is composed of a coarse-grained gritty to pebbly, massive, brown- 
colored, iron-stained sandstone, which lies nearly horizontal with a very low dip 
to the northeast. These rocks contain a rich marine molluscan fauna. The upper 
portion of this section grades into a conglomerate in which the pebbles range in 
size up to four inches in diameter. They have been derived largely from basalt. 
The upper beds are also fossiliferous. Exposures of marine Oligocene strata have 
not as yet been recognized southeast of Cowlitz River. The region is heavily 
covered with deposits of glacial drift or river wash. The Oligocene deposits at the 
Greece ranch on Cowlitz River were probably deposited during early Oligocene 
time near the south end of the Chehalis Valley embayment and in proximity to the 
mouth of some Oligocene river. 



1918] 



fan Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 



75 



OLIGOCENE FAUNA 




a S 

l 






I'elecypoda 



Acila gettysburgensis Reagan 

Aciia shumardi Dall 

Astarte perrini Dickerson 

Anomia subcostata Conrad 

Area washingtoniana Dickerson 

Barbatia '"merriami n. sp 

Barbatia andersoni n. sp 

Barbatia gabbi Dickerson 

Cardium lorenzanum (Arnold) 

Cardium lincolnensis Weaver 

Cardita weaver! Dickerson 

Chama pacifica Dickerson 

Corbula cowlitzensis Dickerson 

Chione cathcartensis Weaver 

Callocallista arnoldi Weaver 

Crenella porterensis Weaver 

Crenella washingtonensis Weaver 

Crassatellites washingtonensis Weaver . . . 

Crassatellites lincolnensis Weaver 

Diplodonta dalli Dickerson 

Glycimeris chehalisensis Weaver 

Glycimeris andersoni Dickerson 

Leda wasbingtonensis Weaver 

Leda impressa Conrad 

Leda lincolnensis Weaver 

Leda merriami Dickerson 

Lima bella Dickerson 

Malletia chehalisensis Arnold 

Marrocallista pittsburgensis Dall 

^ta rocallista vespertina Conrad 

Macrocallista newcombi (Merriam) 

Macoma astori Dall 

Modiolus directus Dall 

Modiolus restorationensis n. sp 

Mytillus sammamishensis Weaver 

Mytillus buwaldana n. sp 

Mytillus snohomishensis Weaver 

Ostrea lincolnensis Weaver 

Panope estrellana Conrad 

Pandora washingtonensis Weaver 

Psammobia martini Dickerson 

Pecten peckhami Gabb 

Pecten branneri Arnold 

Pecten porterensis Weaver 

Pitaria dalli Weaver 

Pitaria clarki Dickerson 

Phacoides acutilineatus (Conrad) 

Paphia landesi n. sp 

Solemya ventricostata Conrad 

Solen curtus Conrad 

Solen lincolnensis Weaver 

Saxicava arnoldi Dickerson 

Semele reagani Dickerson 

Semele gayi Arnold 

Spisula packardi Dickerson 

Tellina obruta Conrad 

Tellina oregonensis Conrad 

Tellina congesta Conrad 

Tellina lincolnensis Weaver 

Tellina gibsonensis n. sp 

Tracia trapezoidea Conrad 

Thyasira bisecta Conrad 

Venericardia castor Dall 

Yoldia oregona Shumardi 

Yoldia impressa Conrad 

Yoldia sammamishensis Weaver 



Soaphopoda 

Dentalium substriatum Conrad 
Dentalium stramineum Gabb. . . 






76 



University of Washington Publications in Geology 



[Vol. I 



OLIGOCENE FAUNA [Continued] 



^ 


Lower Porter 


Upper Porter 


Oakville 


Lincoln Creek 


Winlock 


Greece Ranch 


Blakeley 


c 

_o 
a? 
EH 


Monterey 


Montesanu 


a 
o 

o 


Gastropoda 














* 


















* 




























* 


















* 
























* 
























: 


















Actaeon parvum Dickerson 












* 




















* 
























* 






* 


* 
















* 


* 














Calytraea filosa Gabb . . 


* 






* 












* 




Cancellaria washingtonensis Weaver 








* 
















Cancellaria landesi n sp 












* 












Conus ruckmani Dickerson 












: 












Conus washingtonensis n sp 












* 
























* 




















* 
























* 
















Crepidula praerupta Conrad . . 














* 




* 


* 




Chlorastoma arnoldi Weaver . 




* 




















Cypraea oakvillensis n sp ... 






* 


















Drillia chehalisensis Weaver 




* 




* 


* 




* 

























* 






















* 


* 










Epitonium rugiferum Dall 




* 




















Epitonium merriami Dickerson . . 












* 












Exilia lincolnensis \Veaver . 






* 




* 














Exilia weaveri Dickerson . 












* 












Eudolium petrosum Conrad 














* 










Eulima clarki Dickerson 












* 












Eulima hiltoni n sp 












* 












Eulima smithi n sp 












* 












Fusinus stanf ordensis Arnold . . 














# 










Fusinus gesteri Dickerson 












* 












Fasciolaria gabbi Dickerson 












* 












Ficus oregonensis Conrad 














* 




* 






Ficus restorationensis n. sp 














* 










Galeodea dalli Dickerson 












* 












Haminea cf petrosa (Conrad) 












* 












Hipponyx ornata Dickerson. ..... 












* 












Hipponyx arnoldi Dickerson 












* 












Hemifusus lincolnensis n. sp -. 




* 




* 
















Hemif usus arnoldi n. sp 












* 












Littorina oligocenica Dickerson 






j 






* 












Molopophorous stephensoni Dickerson 












# 












Molopophorous lincolnensis Weaver 








* 
















Miopleiona indurata Conrad 








* 










* 






Mesalia lincolnensis Weaver 








* 










* 






Marginella pacifica Dickerson 












* 












Murex vaughani Dickerson 












* 












Natica oregonensis Conrad 














i 




* 






Natica lincolnensis Weaver 




* 




* 


* 














Natica washingtonensis Weaver 









* 
















Natica oligocenica n. sp 








* 
















Neverita nomlandi Dickerson 

























Nassa newcombei Merriam 






* 


















Patella subquadrata Dickerson . . 
























Pseudoliva packardi n. sp 
























Rissoa lettana n. sp.. 
























Seraphs andersoni Dickerson 
























Strepsidura packi Dickerson 
























Strepsidura oregonensis Dall 














* 










Strepsidura washingtonensis Weaver 








* 
















Strepsidura lincolnensis Weaver 








* 
















Surcula dickersoni (Weaver) . .. 








* 




* 












Scaphander washingtonensis Weaver 




* 




* 


* 














Scaphander oregonensis Dall 

























Turritella weaveri n sp 












* 












Turritella oregonensis Conrad. 














* ' 




* 






Turritella porterensis Weaver 




* 




* 


* 




* 











1918] 



I 'an Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 



77 



OLIGOCENE FAUNA [Continued] 





Lower Porter 


Upper Porter 


Oakville 


Lincoln Creek 


Winlock 


Greece Ranch 


Blakeley 


c 






Monterey 


Montesano 


Recent 
















* 






















* 




















* 




















* 




* 






* 














* 




* 






* 


















* 
















Turris lincolnensis \Veaver 








* 
















Turoicula washingtonensis Dall 














* 














* 




* 
























* 






* 




















* 














Terebratula occidentalis TDall 




* 




















Orustacea 




* 




* 
















Sharks teeth 








* 
















Barnacle sp 








* 
















Barnacle sp 






* 


















Teredo 




* 




















Chiton sp 












* 





































CONDITIONS OF ENVIRONMENT 

The faunas occurring in the lower Porter beds as exposed above the Eocene 
contact on Porter Creek in the conglomerate west of Oakville are typically littoral 
species, as represented by the Acmaeidae, Ostreidae, Mytilidae, etc. The waters 
in which these fauna lived were tropical, as indicated by the presence of the genus 
Cypraea and corals. The marine molluscan fauna found in the vicinity of the Greece 
ranch, at the south end of the Oligocene Chehalis embayment, appears to have lived 
in water ranging in depth from possibly two to twenty fathoms. The conglomeratic 
character of the rock as well as the presence of such shallow water genera as 
Patella and Littorina indicate a near-shore fauna, but the association with these of 
such genera as Rissoa, Leda, Lima and Strepsidura point to a depth of water of at 
least twenty fathoms. The faunal assemblage as a whole may be regarded as 
typically subtropical. 

The faunas occurring at Winlock, Lincoln Creek and the middle portion of 
the strata exposed on Porter Creek are typically those types which live in mod- 
erately deep water and are represented by genera which are decidedly subtropical 
to tropical. In the upper portion of the Porter section several genera appear 
which indicate a more temperate climate during the later portion of middle 
Oligocene time. Such forms as Phacoides acutilineatus, Thyasira bisecta, Thracia 
irapezmdea, are among the most common species found in the upper Oligocene or 
Acila gettysburgensis Zone of the Puget Sound area. It is quite probable that the 
uppermost Porter beds were being deposited contemporaneously with the lowermost 
beds exposed in the Puget Sound embayment. 



78 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 1 

The Acila gettysburgensis fauna lived in waters ranging from shallow to 
moderate depth and under climatic conditions which were much more temperate 
than those in existence during the lower and middle Oligocene. 

CORRELATION 

In a preliminary report by Dr. C. E. Weaver 1 in 1912, the Oligocene and 
lower Miocene formations in western Washington were described and provisionally 
divided into four formations. In the following year Arnold and Hannibal 2 divided 
the Oligocene of Washington into three divisions, which they termed the San 
Lorenzo, the Seattle, and the Twin River. They grouped them as the Astoria series. 

Later more detailed field studies were made by Dr. Weaver" on the Oligocene 
formations in western Washington, and he divided the faunas of the Oligocene as a 
whole into three faunal zones, which he termed the Molopophorous lincolnensis 
Zone, the Turritella porterensis Zone and the Acila gettysburgensis Zone. The sedi- 
ments containing these faunas he referred to as the Lincoln, Porter and Blakeley 
horizons. The Lincoln was regarded as the oldest or basal portion of the Oligocene. 

Studies made by Dr. Dickerson 4 in the Greece ranch locality show that the 
fauna represented there is probably to be correlated with the lower portion of the 
Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 

The fauna contained in the lower Porter beds as exposed at Oakville and 
on Porter Creek consist of thirteen species, all of which are typical shallow water 
or shore forms. This fauna resembles that of the Sooke beds on Vancouver Island, 
but sufficient evidence is not available for direct correlation. The lower Porter 
fauna is tropical to subtropical, as evidenced by the presence of Cypraea. This 
may be hereafter referred to as the Barbatia merriami Zone. The upper Porter 
fauna, which has been designated as the Turritella porterensis Zone, consists of 
thirty-five species. This fauna is a typical moderate to deep water group, and 
thus accounts for the small number of species in common with the lower Porter zone. 

The fauna found in the Lincoln Creek beds, which are referred to as the 
Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone, consists of fifty-nine species. These are moderat 
to deep water types and subtropical in character.- Twenty-six species of the Molo- 
pophorous lincolnensis fauna are found in the upper Porter beds. 

The Acila gettysburgensis Zone as exposed in the Puget Sound Oligocene 
embayment, consists of forty-nine species, eighteen of which are common to the 
Molopophorous Zone and fifteen common to the Porter beds. The fauna contained 
in the uppermost part of the Porter beds consists of such species as Thyasira bisecta 
Conrad, Thracia trapezoidea Conrad, Phacoides acutilineatus Conrad, which do not 

1 Weaver, C. E. A Preliminary Report on the Tertiary Paleontology of Western Wash- 
ington. Bull. 15, Wash. Geol. Surv., pp. 15-17, 1912. 

2 Arnold, R., and Hannibal, H. The Marine Tertiary Stratigraphy of the North Pacific 
Coast of America, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc.. vol. 52. p. 582. 1913. 

T> H* We Ve i r> C - E> , Tertiai< y Faunal Horizons of Western Washington, Univ. of Wash. 
Pub. in Geology, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 4-6, 1916. 

* Dickerson, Roy E. Climate and Its Influence on the Oligocene Faunas of the Pacific 
Coast, with Descriptions of some new Species from the Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone, 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., Fourth Series, vol. 7, pp. 157-159, 1917. 



u 

i 






1918] 



Fan Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 



79 



occur in the middle or lower portion of the Porter beds nor in the fauna of the 
Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. These forms are, however, characteristic of the 
entire Acila gettysburgensis Zone. It would seem therefore that the Molopophorous 
lincolnensis fauna is to be correlated with the lower part of the upper Porter 
beds and that the uppermost portion of the Porter beds are correlative with the 
lower portion, of the Acila gettysburgensis Zone. 

The fauna represented at the Greece ranch locality at the south end of the 
Chehalis Valley embayment is subtropical and lived in shallow water. This fauna 
consists of fifty-seven species, five of which are common to the Molopophorous 
lincolnensis Zone. However, a more detailed study of the fauna in this locality 
will result in the finding of a larger number of species, many of which will probably 
be common to the Lincoln Creek beds. The reason for the small number of species 
in common between the Greece ranch fauna and the Molopophorous lincolnensis 
fauna can probably be accounted for in the fact that the former lived in comparatively 
shallow water, while the Molopophorous lincolnensis fauna is typically a moderate 
to deep water facies. 

CORRELATION TABLE OF THE OLJGOCENE IN WASHINGTON 



OLIGOCENE 


Greece Ranch 


Lincoln Creek 


Oakville 


Porter 


Puget Sound 










Acilagettysburg- 
ensis Zone. 

Climate temper- 
ate. Depth to 
200 fathoms. 


Turritella porte- 
rensis Zone. 

U p.p e r portion, 
climate temper- 
ate. Depth 50 to 
200 fathoms. 

Lower portion, 
climate subtrop- 
ical. Depth 20 to 
200 fathoms. 




Molopopho r o u s 
lincolnensis Zone. 
Climate subtrop- 
ical. Depth to 
200 fathoms. 


Climate subtrop- 
ical. Depth to 
75 fathoms. 


Barbatia merri- 
ami Zone. 

Climate tropical. 
Depth to 10 
fathoms. 


Barbatia merri- 
ami Zone. 

Climate tropical. 
Depth to 10 
fathoms. 






EOCENE 


Post Tejon Eocene represented by folding, faulting 


uplift and erosion. 


Tejon epoch of western Washington represented by marine and brackish water em- 
bayments in which sediments were accumulating. Volcanic activity at intervals. 



CONCLUSIONS 

(1) Following the close of the Tejon epoch in Washington the upper portion 
of Eocene time was characterized by uplift, folding, faulting and erosion of the 
Tejon sediments. 

(2) Early in the Oligocene epoch a marine embayment was formed in the 
Grays Harbor region and extended inland along the present site of Chehalis Valley 
at least as far south as the Cowlitz River. 



80 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. I 

(3) The oldest fauna recognized within the Chehalis Valley basin occurs in 
the lowermost beds on Porter Creek and at Oakville. The fauna is subtropical in 
character and composed of shallow water to shore genera. 

(4) The Lincoln Creek beds are correlative with the middle portion of the 
Porter beds and contain a subtropical fauna. 

(5) The uppermost portion of the Turritella porterensis Zone is correlative 
with the lower portion of the Acila gettysburgensis Zone of the Puget Sound Oligo- 
cene embayment. It represents a more temperate climate than that of the middle 
or lower Oligocene. 

(6) The Greece ranch fauna is a shallow water representative of the lower 
portion of the Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 

(7) The fauna of the middle and upper portions of the Acila gettysburgensis. 
Zone is not represented in the Chehalis Valley embayment of southwestern Wash- 
ington. Presumably this embayment was being drained during the upper Oligocene. 



DESCRIPTION OF NEW SPECIES 

Pelecypoda v 
GENUS BARBATIA GRAY 

BARBATIA MERRIAMI n. sp. 
Plate VI, Figure 1 

Description Shell of moderate size, thick, roughly rectangular in outline and 
inequilateral ; dorsal margin nearly straight and merging into the posterior margin, 
which slopes to the posterior end of the umbonal ridge; ventral margin broadly 
arcuate; beaks situated about one-fourth the length of the shell from the anterior 
end. A marked umbonal ridge extends from the beaks to the posterior basal 
extremity; a deep broad umbonal groove situated immediately above this ridge and 
extending to the dorsal margin. Surface sculpture consists of numerous slightly 
sinuous radiating ribs with interspaces of about one-half their width. Lines of 
growth, which become more pronounced near the ventral margin, cross the 
radiating ribs. 

Dimensions Altitude 19 mm.; longitude 10 mm.; thickness 22 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 36 1 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the old dam on Porter Creek about two and one-half miles 
above its junction with Chehalis River in Section 14-, Township 17 North, 
Range 5 West. 

Horizon Lowermost Oligocene; Barbatia merriami Zone. 



BARBATIA ANDERSONI n. sp. 
Plate VI, Figure 2 

Description Shell small, roughly rectangular in outline; dorsal margin 
straight, posterior end truncate and sloping at a low angle from the dorsal margin ; 
ventral margin straight; anterior end broadly rounded; beaks very close to the 
anterior end. A poorly developed umbonal ridge extends from the beaks to the 
posterior extremity; a very slight radial depression extends from the middle of 
the shell to the ventral margin. The surface is ornamented with numerous radial 
ribs with interspaces of equal width. 

Barbatia andersoni differs from Barbatia merriami in the constancy of its 
smaller size, in the absence of a marked umbonal ridge and in the lack of the 
groove above it. 

[81] 



82 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 1 

Dimensions Altitude 7 mm.; longitude 13 mm.; thickness 5 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 364 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the old dam on Porter Creek about two and one-half miles 
above its junction with Chehalis River in Section 14, Township 17 North, 
Range 5 West. 

Horizon Lowermost Oligocene; Barbatia merriami Zone. 



GENUS MYTILUS LINNAEUS 

MYTILUS BUWALDANA n. sp. 
Plate VI, Figure 6 

Description Shell of moderate size, elongate, ventricose, moderately thick; 
liinge line nearly straight; the posterior dorsal margin slightly concave. At a 
distance of three-fourths the length of the shell from the anterior end the surface 
slopes rapidly to form a broadly rounded posterior margin where it merges at a 
Tery sharp angle into a slightly concave base. The maximum width of the shell 
is situated about one-third the length of the shell from the posterior end. A very 
pronounced umbonal ridge extends from the beaks through the middle portion of 
the shell and terminates near the junction of the ventral and posterior margins. 
This ridge is most strongly pronounced near the middle portion of the shell. Surface 
of shell is sculptured by very prominent concentric lines of growth, giving the surface 
of the shell a roughened appearance. 

Dimensions Altitude 21 mm.; longitude 38 mm.; thickness 18 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 161 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) about one mile west of Oakville on the Northern Pacific Railway. 

Horizon Lowermost Oligocene; Barbatia merriami Zone. 



GENUS MODIOLUS LAMARCK 
MODIOLUS RESTORATIONENSIS n. Sp. 

Plate VI, Figure 5 

Description Shell of moderate size and somewhat elongate; hinge line nearly 
straight and about two-thirds the length of the shell. The posterior dorsal margin, 
which is nearly straight, extends to the posterior end of the shell, where it merges 
abruptly into a very wide and broadly arcuate posterior margin. The maximum 
height of the shell is at the posterior end. The ventral margin is very slightly 
concave; anterior margin is narrow and slightly arcuate; beaks low, anteriorly 
pointed and very near to the anterior end. A well-defined umbonal ridge extends 



1918] I'an Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 83 

from the beaks to the junction of the posterior and basal margin,, but becoming 
less conspicuous at the posterior end. Surface of shell ornamented with well 
developed concentric lines of growth as well as very fine radiating ribs. 

Dimensions Altitude 44 mm. ; longitude 67 mm. ; thickness 20 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 13 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated on the north side of Restoration Point, Kitsap County, Washington. 

Horizon Upper Oligocene; Blakeley Horizon. 

GENUS PAPHIA BOLTON 

PAPHIA LANDESI n. sp. 
Plate VI, Figure 3 

Description Shell minute, approximately rectangular in outline, convex and 
very inequilateral; beaks low and situated about one-fifth the length of the shell 
from the anterior end ; posterior dorsal margin elongate and nearly straight, merging 
abruptly into a sharply arcuate posterior margin. Ventral margin is straight and 
parallel to the dorsal margin ; anterior dorsal margin slopes vertically from the beaks 
and then extends downwards at an angle of about 60, where it curves sharply and 
merges into the ventral margin. Exterior of shell characterized by very strong 
ornamentation, especially on the posterior portion of the surface. Posterior surface 
decorated with seven very prominent radial ribs which tend to become obscure 
toward the beaks but which greatly increase in size at the posterior margin. Middle 
surface of shell is ornamented with similar radiating ribs, which progressively 
become less well defined, until at the anterior end they are scarcely perceptible. 
The radiating sculpture is crossed by very prominent concentric ribs or lines of 
growth which have a somewhat wavy outline. At the intersections of the radial 
ribs and the lines of growth conspicuous scale like nodes have been developed. The 
external ornamentation is impressed on the inner surface of the shell. 

Dimensions Altitude 3 mm. ; longitude 5 mm. ; thickness 4 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank 
of Cowlitz River, in Section 25, Township 11 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 

GENUS TELLINA LINNAEUS 

TELLINA GIBSONENSIS n. sp. 
Plate VI, Figure 7 

Description Shell small, thin, inequilateral and smooth; beaks low, and situ- 
ated about two-fifths the length of the shell from the anterior end; posterior end 



8-t University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 1 

extended; posterior dorsal margin slopes down from the beaks at an angle of 
about 15 and gradually merges into the sharply arcuate posterior margin,, which 
in turn merges into a very broadly rounded base; anterior margin sloping down 
from the beaks very sharply at first and then much more gently to the anterior 
end; anterior end truncated. A ridge or fold extends from the umbones to the 
anterior basal margin. Posterior to this fold there is a faint concavity which 
extends half-way down the surface and merges into the basal margin. 

Dimensions Altitude 15 mm.; longitude 20 mm.; thickness 6 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 367 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated on Gibson Creek, a few hundred feet up from the Northern Pacific 
Railway crossing, in Section 2, Township 16 North, Range 5 West. 

Horizon Middle Oligocene; Turritella porterensis Zone. 

Gastropoda 

GENUS ACMAEA ESCHOCHOLTZ 
ACMAEA OAKVILLENSIS 

Plate VII, Figure 18 

Description Shell small, thin and moderately low; apex situated about one- 
third the length of the shell from the anterior end; anterior end with moderate 
slope; outline of shell oval; surface sculptured with numerous radiating ribs with 
wider interspaces. These are crossed by revolving lines of growth. 

Dimensions Altitude 4 mm.; diameter of base 13 mm by 9 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 161 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated about one mile west of Oakville on the Northern Pacific Railway. 

Horizon Lowermost Oligocene ; Barbatia merriami Zone. 

ACMAEA DICKERSONI n. sp. 
Plate VII, Figure 15 

Description Shell small and high; apex situated about one-third the length 
of the shell from the anterior end; base semi-oval in outline; anterior end steep. 
Surface marked by numerous radiating ribs which are crossed by faint revolving 
lines of growth. 

Dimensions Altitude 7 mm.; diameter of base 7 mm. by 10 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 161 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated about one mile west of Oakville on the Northern Pacific Railway. 

Horizon Lowermost Oligocene; Barbatia merriami Zone. 



1918] Van Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 85 

ACMAEA CLARKI n. sp. 
Plate VI, Figure 4 

Description Shell small, high and thin; smooth except for concentric lines 
of growth; apex situated about midway between the anterior and posterior ends. 

Acmaea clarki differs from Acmaea dickersoni in being on the average slightly 
higher; the apex more central and in the absence of radiating ribs. 

Dimensions Altitude 8 mm.; diameter of base 10 mm. by 12 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 161 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated about one mile west of Oakville on the Northern Pacific Railway. 

Horizon Lowermost Oligocene; Barbatia merriami Zone. 

GENUS EULIMA RISSO 

EULIMA SMITHI n. sp. 
Plate VII, Figure 22 

Description Shell minute, conical in outline and smooth except for very faint 
lines of growth; whorls seven in number; spire about twice the length of the body 
whorl: suture distinct, linear and appressed; aperture oval; canal short, broad and 
twisted to the left ; outer lip thin ; inner lip slightly calloused and reflected. 

Dimensions Altitude 3 mm.; altitude of spire 1.5 mm.; maximum diameter 
of shell 1 mm.; angle of spire 37. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cow 7 litz River, in Section 25, Township 11 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



EULIMA HILTOXI n. sp. 
Plate VII, Figure 12 

Description Shell minute, slender, thin and elongate; smooth except for very 
faint lines of growth; whorls seven in number; suture distinct linear and very 
appressed; aperture semi-oval as observed on other specimens. 

This species differs from Eulima smithi in that the former is conical. Eulima 
hiltoni averages much longer and is more slender. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 4 mm. ; altitude of spire 3 mm. ; maximum 
diameter 1.5 mm.; angle of spire 25. 



86 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 'I. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cowlitz River, in Section 25, Township 11 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



GENUS NATICA SCOPOLI 

NATICA OLIGOCENICA n. sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 23 

Description Shell small with five whorls the surfaces of which are evenly 
rounded except the posterior which is somewhat flattened; spire a little elevated 
for the genus ; shell smooth except for faintly developed longitudinal lines of growth ; 
suture distinct and appressed. The lower portion of body whorl merges into the 
base with a rounded angulation; surface of base below the angulation is deep and 
broad with the umbilical opening at its center. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 5 mm.; altitude of spire 1.5 mm.; maximum 
diameter 4.5 mm.; angle of spire 90. 

Occurrence At locality 352 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) in railway cuts on the line of the O.-W. R. R. & N. Co., one-fourth mile 
northwest of Lincoln Creek Station, in Section 27, Township 15 North, Range 3 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



GENUS RISSOA FREM 
RlSSOA LETTANA n. sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 13 

Description Shell minute, thick and moderately robust; whorls five and 
broadly convex; suture distinct and linear; surface ornamented by 21 well developed 
longitudinal ribs which extend over the upper two-thirds of the surface of the body 
whorl and become obsolete below; on the body whorl these are crossed by 18 
equally spaced and equally developed revolving ribs; between each of these is an 
interspace of about one-half the width of the ribs; aperture approximately oval but 
incurving slightly posteriorly; inner lip thickened but not calloused; outer lip entire 
and moderately thick. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 1.5 mm.; altitude of spire, .75 mm.; maximum 
diameter of shell 1 mm.; angle of spire 35. 



1918] Fan Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 87 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cowlitz River, in Section 25, Township 11 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



GENUS TURRITELLA LAMARCK 

TURRITELLA WEAVERI n. sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 14 

Description Shell minute, elongate and thin; whorls seven and slightly con- 
vex; suture sunken in a deep groove the larger part of which groove lies imme- 
diately above the suture line. The lower portion of the surface of each whorl is 
decorated with two very pronounced revolving ribs with interspaces of double width 
but containing no intervening threads; upper half of each whorl decorated with 
two similar but less well developed revolving ribs and interspaces. Longitudinal 
sculpture is absent except for numerous lines of growth; aperture oval; outer lip 
thin; inner lip slightly calloused. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 2.5 mm.; altitude of spire 1.5 mm.; maximum 
diameter of shell 1 mm.; angle of spire 35. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cowlitz River, in Section 25, Township 11 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



GENUS CERITHIOPSIS FORBES 

CERITHIOPSIS FASTENI n. sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 8 

Description Shell minute, slender and elongate; whorls eight in number and 
decorated with twelve very prominent longitudinal ribs which extend over the 
surface of all the whorls; these are crossed by four broad, well defined revolving 
ribs with interspaces of double width; within each interspace there is a single 
revolving thread. At the intersection of the longitudinal and revolving ribs are 
rounded moderately prominent nodes; suture distinct with a fine revolving cord 
immediatel yabove it; lower end of the middle portion of the body whorl merges 
at a sharp angle into a nearly flat base, which is decorated with four revolving 
ribs; aperture roughly oval in outline; canal short and incised. 



88 I* ni-rersitif of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. I 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 5 mm. ; altitude of spire 3 mm. ; maximum diam- 
eter of shell 2 mm.; angle of spire 35. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cowlitz River, in Section 25, Township 1 1 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone, 



GENUS CYPRAEA LINNAEUS 

CYPRAEA OAKVILLENSIS 
Plate VII, Figure 19 

Description Shell moderately large, sub-oval in outline and thick; broadest 
about one-third the length of the shell from the posterior end; surface smooth 
except for very faint lines of growth; aperture narrow and of about equal width 
from the anterior to posterior ends ; outer lip strongly incurved and bearing fourteen 
teeth or crenulations on both the inner and outer lips. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 23 mm.; maximum diameter of shell 15 mm. 

Occurrence At locality 161 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated about one mile west of Oakville on the Northern Pacific Railway. 

Horizon Lowermost Oligocene; Barbatia merriami Zone. 



GENUS FICUS BOLTON 
FlCUS RESTORATIONENSIS n. Sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 20 

Description Shell large and moderately thin; spire low; whorls six and 
rounded; body whorl very large and somewhat elongate; suture distinct; surface 
ornamented with 43 revolving ribs with interspaces of triple width. In the middle 
of each interspace are small revolving threads. The revolving ribs are crossed by 
very prominent longitudinal lines of growth ; aperture narrow ; canal very slightly 
twisted. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 69 mm.; altitude of spire 10 mm.; maximum 
diameter of shell 10 mm.; angle of spire 85. 

Occurrence At locality 13 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated on the north side of Restoration Point, Kitsap County, Washington* 

Horizon Upper Oligocene; Blakeley Horizon. 



1918] J'aii Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 8J> 

GENUS HEMIFUSUS SWAINSON 

HEMIFUSUS ARNOLDI n. sp. 
Plate VII, Figure 11 

Description Shell minute, slender and moderately thick; whorls seven in 
number ; suture distinct, appressed and sinuous ; upper surface of body whorl concave ; 
spire about equal in length to body whorl and canal; whorls sharply angulated 
about one-third the distance below the suture line; surface of whorls decorated 
by 13 prominent longitudinal ribs which become obscure on the posterior surface 
of the body whorl ; these are crossed by six prominent, rounded revolving ribs ; 
surface of whorls above the angle ornamented by four small revolving ribs with 
interspaces of triple width. On the angulated portion of the whorls somewhat 
prominent nodes are formed by the intersection of the longitudinal and revolving 
ribs ; body whorl ornamented by 1 8 prominent, flat-topped revolving ribs which 
progressively become less developed toward the end of the canal; between these 
are interspaces of double width which contain no revolving threads ; outer lip 
moderately thick; inner lip slightly calloused; aperture elongate-elliptical; canal 
short, broad and slightly reflected to the left. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 6 mm.; altitude of spire 3.5 mm.; maximum 
diameter of shell 3 mm.; angle of spire 35. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cowlitz River, in Section 25, Township 1 1 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene ; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 

HEMIFUSUS LINCOLNENSIS n. sp. 
Plate VII, Figure 10 

Description Shell of moderate size and moderately convex; whorls seven in 
number and slightly angulated; upper surface of body whorl above the angle 
moderately concave; middle portion strongly convex and merging into a sharply 
sloping base; the upper portion of the surface of the whorl develops into a collar 
which comes in contact with the whorl above along a well developed suture line. 
Surface of whorl ornamented by 13 well defined longitudinal ribs which are present 
on all of the whorls but are confined to the middle portion of each; they disappear 
entirely on the upper and lower thirds of the surface; they are crossed by numerous 
well defined revolving ribs and intervening threads; two well marked ribs are present 
on the collar just below the suture; eight nearly square topped, moderately well 
defined lines ornament the upper third of the surface of the body whorl; these are 
equally spaced and equally developed ; they are separated by interspaces of double 



90 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 1 

width and contain no revolving threads ; the middle portion of the whorl possesses 
four very prominent revolving ribs which are equally spaced and which when 
crossing the longitudinal ribs form fairly well developed nodes; between each of 
these four prominent ribs there are three less well defined minor ribs of about 
the same magnitude as those on the upper third of the surface of the body whorl; 
between each of the minor ribs are interspaces of approximately equal width but 
containing no ornamentation. The lower portion of the body whorl including the 
canal is ornamented with 13 equally developed and fairly prominent rounded 
revolving ribs with interspaces of triple width ; in the middle of each interspace 
is a minor revolving thread; canal about one and one-half times as long as the spire, 
twisted to the left and backward; aperture elliptical and terminating in an open 
canal ; inner lip moderately calloused, callous extending for some distance over on to 
the sculpture of the body whorl ; outer lip thin. 

This species differs from Hemifusus washingtonensis Weaver in possessing a 
longer canal which in all specimens of the species is reflected backwards. Hemifusus 
washingtonensis is characterized by having a straight canal. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 33 mm. ; altitude of spire 8 mm. ; maximum 
diameter of shell 16 mm.; angle of spire 53. 

Occurrence At locality 352 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) in cuts on the line of the O.-W. R. R. & N. Co., one-fourth mile west of 
Lincoln Creek Station, in Section 27, Township 15 North, Range 3 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



GENUS PSEUDOLIVIA SWAINSOX 

PSEUDOLIVIA PACKARDI n. Sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 16 

Description Shell minute, smooth and moderately thick ; whorls four in number ; 
spire very inconspicuous; body whorl swollen; suture linear and indistinct; aperture 
elongate, narrow at posterior end but gradually increasing in width toward the 
anterior end where it merges into a very short canal, which is slightly notched. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 4 mm. ; altitude of spire .75 mm. ; maximum 
diameter of shell 2 mm.; angle of spire 82. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cowlitz River, in Section 25, Township 11 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



1918] I 'an Winkle: Paleontology of the Oligocene 91 

(iKxus CANCELLARIA LAMARCK 

('. \NCELLARI A LANDESI n. sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 17 

Description Shell small; whorls five in number; body whorl greatly enlarged; 
whorls angulated and decorated with four broad, flat topped revolving ribs with 
interspaces of equal width; the upper rib lies upon the angulated portion of the 
whorl ; body whorl ornamented by seven broad, prominent, revolving ribs with equal 
interspaces. There is a prominent shoulder on body whorl a short distance below 
the suture; ten prominent axial ribs cross the revolving ribs, giving the surface an 
angulated appearance. Suture distinct and slightly sinuous ; aperture oval and 
slightly notched at the anterior end; outer lip thin and slightly crenulated ; inner 
lip slightly calloused; canal very short; columella with one strong oblique fold. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 7 mm. ; altitude of spire 2 mm. ; maximum diam- 
eter of shell 5 mm.; angle of spire 61. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cowlitz River, in Section 25, Township 11 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 

GENUS TURRIS BOLTEN 
TURRIS WORCESTERI n. Sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 21 

Description Shell small or slender with six or seven whorls; the middle 
portion of the whorls are marked by broad, sharply angulated, revolving folds ; on 
the surface between these folds and the suture are two revolving ribs. Body whorl 
is ornamented with 14- revolving ribs with interspaces of equal width; the first two 
ribs just below the prominent revolving fold are moderately prominent, the others 
decreasing in size as they approach the anterior end; aperture elongate-elliptical, 
wider posteriorly; canal short, wide and twisted to the left; inner lip calloused. 

This species differs from Turris thurstonensis Weaver in the fact that in all 
specimens of the species there are two constant revolving ribs between the suture 
and the angulated portion of the whorls. The intercalary threads are also absent 
between the revolving threads. The adult specimens of the species are smaller 
than in the case of Turris thurstonensis. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 10 mm.; altitude of spire 1 mm.; maximum 
diameter of shell 11 mm.; angle of spire 41. 

Occurrence At locality 352 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) in railroad cuts of the O.-W. R. R. & N. Co., one-fourth mile west of Lincoln 
Creek Station in Section 27, Township 15 North, Range 3 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



92 University of Washington Publications in Geology [Vol. 1 

TURRIS LINCOLNENSIS n. Sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 24 

Description Shell small; spire elevated; whorls six in number; each whorl is 
characterized by a very pronounced angle situated at about one-third the distance 
of the length of the whorl below the suture; the angle between the upper and lower 
surface of each whorl is approximately 110. The surface above the angle is very 
slightly concave; below the angle it is straight to very slightly convex; suture 
greatly impressed. Surface of whorls is ornamented with numerous very fine re- 
volving striae ; longitudinal ornamentation is absent except for fine lines of growth ; 
aperture roughly trigonal in outline; outer lip with a sharp angle at its junction 
with the shoulder of whorl; canal short with a very slight notch at its anterior 
end; outer lip thin; inner lip with very slight callous. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 16 mm.; altitude of spire 5.5 mm.; maximum 
diameter of shell 9 mm.; angle of spire 53. 

Occurrence At locality 352 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) in railroad cuts of the O.-W. R. R. & N. Co., one- fourth mile west of 
Lincoln Creek Station in Section 27, Township 15 North, Range 3 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



GENUS CONUS LINNAEUS 
CONUS WASHINGTONENSIS 11. Sp. 

Plate VII, Figure 9 

Description Shell minute; spire high, averaging between two-thirds and three- 
fourths of the length of the body whorl; whorls seven to seven and a half in num- 
ber; suture linear and appressed; on the middle of the surface of each whorl, just 
above the shoulder, there is a revolving groove; between the groove and the suture 
there is a convex revolving fold. Ornamentation of the shell consists of very faintly 
developed flat topped revolving ribs with interspaces of equal width; outer lip thin; 
inner lip without callous; aperture narrow. 

This species differs from Conus ruckmani Dickerson, in the constancy of the 
greater length of the spire and in the entire absence on all specimens of nodes on 
the shoulder of the whorls. 

Dimensions Altitude of shell 3.5 mm.; altitude of spire 1 mm.; maximum diam- 
eter of shell 2 mm.; angle of spire 60. 

Occurrence At locality 330 (University of Washington Paleontological Col- 
lection) situated at the Greece ranch, four miles east of Vader, on the east bank of 
Cowlitz River, in Section 25. Township 11 North, Range 2 West. 

Horizon Lower Oligocene; lower phase of Molopophorous lincolnensis Zone. 



PLATES 



[93] 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI 

Fig. 1. Barbatia merriami n. sp. x2 p. 81 

Fig. 2. Barbatia andersoni n. sp. xl p. 81 

Fig. 3. Paphia landesi n. sp. x6 p. 83 

Fig. 4. Acmaea clarki n. sp. xl p. 85 

Fig. o. Modiolus restorationensis n. sp. x2 p. 82 

Fig. 6. Mytilus buwaldana n. sp. x2 p. 82 

Fig. 7. Tellina gibsonensis n. sp. x3 p. 83 



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[95] 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII 

Fig. 8. Cerithiopsis fasteni n. sp. x4 p. 87 

Fig. 9. Conus waslningtonensis n. sp. x5 . . p. 92 

Fig. 10. Hemifusus lincolnensis n. sp. x2 p. 89 

Fig. 1 1. Hemifusus arnoldi n. sp. x6 p. 89 

Fig. 12. Eulima hiltoni n. sp. x4 p. 85 

Fig. 1 3. Rissoa lettana n. sp. x4 p. 86 

Fig. 14. Turrit ella weaveri n. sp. x4 p. 87 

Fig. 15. Acmaea dickersoni n. sp. xl p. 84 

Fig. 16. Pseudolivia packardi n. sp. x4 p. 90 

Fig. 17. Cancellaria landesi n. sp. x6 p. 91 

Fig. 18. Acmaea oakvillensis n. sp. x2 p. 84 

Fig. 19. Cypraea oakvillensis n. sp. x2 p. 88 

Fig. 20. Ficus restorationensis n. sp. x2 p. 88 

Fig. 21. Turris worcesteri ri. sp. x6 p. 91 

Fig. 22. Eulima smithi n. sp. x4 p. 85 

Fig. 23. Natica oligocenica n. sp. x2 . . p. 86 



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