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Full text of "Pamphlets on forestry in Hawaii"

^ 



FORESTRY PAMPHLETS 
HAWAII 



VOL. 

rport of the Division of Forestry, for the 
Biennial Period Ending Dec. 31, 1910* 

Report of the Division of Forestry, for the 

's 

Biennial Period Ending Dec. 31, 1912. 

Report of the Division of Forestry for the 
Biennial Period Ending Dec. 31, 1914. 

Eucalypti;s Culture in Hawaii. By Louis 
Margol in , Fer^s^ij^rTiTr@~^~tr. : ~~. Dapt^ 
of A^^iroulrtua^e . Bulletin No. 1. 



New and Noteworthy Hav/aiian Plants. By 

Dr. L. Hadlkoffer, Munich, Germany, and 
J. F. Hock, Division of Forestry, Hono- 
lulu, T. E. Botanical Bulletin No. 1. 
September, 1911. 

List of Hawaiian Names of Plants. By J. F. 

Rock. Botanical Bulletin No. S. June, 1913. 

Suggestions in regard to the Arbor Day Tree Planting 
Contest. Press bulletin no. 2. 

Revised list of the forest and ornamental tree seed 

for sale at the Government nursery. Press bulletin 
no. 3 



Instructions for Propagating and Planting 

Forest Trees. By David Haughs. Bulletin 
No. 4. 

Instructions for Planting Forest, Shade and 
Ornamental Trees, with Brief Notes on 
Propagation. By David Haughs. Bulletin 
No. 5. 

An Offer of Practical Assistance to Tree 
Planters. Circular No. 1. 

Instructions for Propagating Forest, Shade 

Q_ , V. _ - (, OL I- t T O v Si 

and Ornamental Trees. By David Haughs. 

f-\ 

Publications for Distribution. Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry. 

J?he Forests of the Hawaiian Islands. By 

BU I. Hall, 1904, U. S. De; t. of Agri- 
culture, Bulletin ^o . 48. 



338487 



TERRITORY OF HAWAII 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 



DIVISION OF FORESTRY 
RALPH S. HOSMER, Superintendent 



REPORT 

OF THE 



DIVISION OF FORESTRY 



FOR THE 



BIENNIAL PERIOD ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1910 



REPRINT FROM THE REPORT OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS 
OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 




HONOLULU, T. H. 
HAWAIIAN GAZETTE CO., LTD. 

1911 



CONTENTS. 



DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 

PAGE. 

Report of the Superintendent of Forestry 17 

Staff and appropriations 19 

Forest reserves 19 

New reserves 22 

Object of certain reserves 22 

Minor changes in forest reserves 23 

Table showing area of forest reserves: 

Eeserves arranged in chronological order 24 

Reserves arranged by islands and counties. . . . % . . . 26 

Forest reserves pending ." 28 

Planting in forest reserves 28 

Forest f en,ce at Pupukea 29 

Condemnation of forest land on K'ohala Mountain 29 

Forest extension 30 

Assistance to forest planters 30 

The establishment of sub-nurseries 31 

The nursery at Homestead, Kauai 32 

Trees distributed from Homestead nursery 32 

The Hilo nursery 33 

Trees distributed from Hilo nursery 33 

Temporary distributing stations 33 

Arbor and Conservation, Day. . . . , 34 

Statistics of Arbor Day distribution. 35 

Tree planting by corporations 36 

Number of trees reported planted (table) 37 

Plant introduction work 39 

Federal experimental planting 40 

Eucalyptus study 41 

B-otanical investigations 41 

Miscellaneous forest work 42 

Rubber investigation 42 

Exhibits and educational work 43 

National Irrigation Congress 44 

Cooperation with other local institutions 44 

Lumbering operations 45 

Forest fires 46 

The District Foresters 46 

Reports of District Foresters: 

Report of A. S. Wilcox 47 

W. R. Castle 47 

H. B. Penhallow 48 

L. von Tempsky 48 

Geo. C. Watt 51 

John Watt 51 

R. von S. Domkowicz 51 

' ' John Maguire 52 

Summary of recommendations 53 



IV 

PAGE. 

Eeport of the Forest Nurseryman 56 

Nursery 56 

Collection and exchange 'of seeds 56 

Seed received through exchange 57 

Distribution of plants from Government Nursery and Ma- 

kiki Station 59 

Free list 60 

Nursery grounds 61 

^Realizations 61 

Advice and assistance 62 

Kukaiau Plantation Company 62 

Lower Pauhala in Kaikele, Oahu (Kunia) 62 

Pioneer Mill 62 

Grove Farm 63 

Pupukea, Koolauloa, Oahu: 63 

Waialua Agricultural Company 63 

Congressional vegetable seed 63 

Experiment Garden, Makiki 63 

Tantalus forest 65 

Nuuanu Station 66 

Eeport of the Botanical Assistant 67 

The Herbarium 67 

Forest and botanical exhibit 69 

Botanical explorations 71 

North Kona, Hawaii . . . : 71 

Puuwaawaa 73 

Hualalai 73 

Waimea 76 

Exploration on Kauai 76 

Visit to Molokai 78 

Kohala, Hawaii 78 

Trip t'o Lanai and West Maui 79 

Exploration of Haleakala 80 

Ulupalakua 81 

Collection of native seed 82 

Exchange of herbarium specimens 82 

Investigation of stock-poisoning plants 82 

Eucalyptus investigation 82 

Plants new to science 83 

Scaevola Swezeyana Eock 83 

Pittosporum Hosmeri E'ock 84 

Sideroxylon rhynchospermum Eock 84 

Lysimachia glutinosa Eock 85 

Dubautia Waialealae Eock 86 

Herbarium extension 87 

List of District Foresters 89 

List of District Fire Wardens 93 

Address delivered at special Conservation meeting 98 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate 1. A completely forested watershed Frontispiece 

Facing Page 

2. A forest cover protects the streams 17 

3. Eucalyptus robusta on Tantalus. 32 

4. Eucalyptus citriod'ora in the Tantalus forest 32 

5. The Government Nursery, Honolulu 32 

6. Views of the Hilo Nursery 33 

7. Experimental Garden, Makiki Valley, Honolulu 40 

8. Interior of propagating house, Government Nursery 40 

9. Native undergrowth coming up under a planted forest. ... 65 

10. 'WjMcesia gymnoxyphiiim Gray. Iliau 70 

11. Plant specimens for Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Expositi'on . . . . 70 

12. Wood specimens exhibited at Seattle 70 

13. Hawaiian Eed Cotton, Gossypium drynarioides Seem 72 

14. Lobelia Kauaensis (Gray) Heller 77 

1 5. Br'ujliamia insignia Gray * 3 

16. Lobelia Gandicliaudli DC 78 

17. Aryyroxyphium Sandwiccnsc DC: Beta var. i<icroc<'i>li<ili<iii 

Hbd 80 

18. Silver Sword in flower. Ahinahina 80 

19. Alcctri/on luucrococciim Eadlkf 81 

20. Pittosporum Hosmcri Rock 84 

21. Sideroxylon rkyncliospermum Rock 84 

22. Dubautia 'W.aialealae Rock. . 86 




75 

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Division of Forestry. 

Report of the Superintendent of Forestry. 



Honolulu, Hawaii, December 31, 1910. 

The Board of Commissioners of 

Agriculture and Forestry, 

Honolulu, Hawaii. 

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to present the report of the 
work of the Division of Forestry for the calendar years 1909 
and 1910. 

The function of an annual report is to set forth the accomplish- 
ments of the past year and to point the way to things that should 
be done in the future. During the period covered by the present 
report the progress of forestry in Hawaii has been steady and 
constant. There have been no spectacular achievements, but the 
passing months have been marked by evidences of a better appre- 
ciation of the reasons that lie behind forest work in these islands 
and a more general understanding of the intimate relation that 
exists between the right use of the forest and the maintenance 
of economic prosperity. 

Far more than in most states, in Hawaii forestry is a matter 
of immediate practical concern to all the people of the Territory. 
Here, under unusual conditions of location, topography and 
climate the influence of the forest on the everyday life of the 
community is direct and easily seen. The prosperity of Hawaii 
depends on agriculture. Success in agriculture depends in turn 
upon irrigation and without the aid of the forest it would be 
impossible to maintain a dependable water supply. These state- 
ments are axiomatic, but it does no harm to repeat them, for they 
are the reasons that underlie the local necessity for forestry and 
forest work. 

Scarcely less important is the demand for wood. Here again 
the part of the forest is to supply a most practical want. In both 
instances the practice of forestry be it by the Territorial Gov- 
ernment or by private individuals or corporations is founded 
on an economic need. This justifies the work. And because it 
does, it promptly raises the question in all thoughtful minds 
whether far-sighted wisdom does not demand a larger present 
investment for forestry. With larger appropriations far greater 
results would be obtained than with the present allotments are 

2 B. A. 



'18 

possible of accomplishment. The purpose of this report is in 
part to answer this question, by showing in what ways the forest 
work could advantageously be expanded. 

In Hawaii the forest work being done by the Territorial Gov- 
ernment falls naturally under two main heads the care of the 
existing native forests and the extension of a forest cover over 
areas that can be used to better advantage for growing trees than 
for any other purpose. 

That the native forest may be managed in a way that shall 
make it of the greatest possible service to man, forest reserves 
are created and provision (at present altogether inadequate) 
made for their administration. Along with this goes a study 
of the forest from the botanical standpoint, for to manage our 
forests in the most efficient manner we must know more than 
we now do of the habits and characteristics of the various plants 
found therein. 

Interest in tree planting naturally centers in the economic utili- 
zation of waste or barren areas not suitable for agriculture but 
which nevertheless can, if rightly managed, be made to yield sup- 
plies of wood and timber ; but it also includes the introduction 
into the Territory of new and valuable kinds of trees and shrubs, 
and their systematic trial under various local conditions of climate 
and elevation. 

In a Territory where so much of the forest work is being done 
under private auspices, the scope of a report like this must neces- 
sarily be broadened to include, as this does, not alone the work 
of the Division of Forestry but also an account of the general 
advance that has been made in forestry in Hawaii in the period 
covered. 

Specifically the points of greatest forest interest during the 
past two years are the extension of the forest reserve system by 
the creation of seven additional reserves ; the decided increase of 
interest in tree planting, especially as evidenced by the activity of 
a number of influential corporations in this direction ; the wider 
observance of Arbor Day and the ready response that has fol- 
lowed the establishment of sub-nurseries for the local distribution 
of trees ; a detailed study of the planted groves of Eucalypts, 
made through the cooperation of the Federal Forest Service ; the 
continuation and extension of the plant introduction work ; the 
resumption of forest planting by the Territorial Government it- 
self ; and the investigation of the native forest from the botanical 
standpoint. 

Other special activities not directly connected with the branches 
of work listed above have also been prosecuted as far as oppor- 
tunity and limited funds permitted. On the following pages is 
recorded what has been accomplished in these several ways dur- 
ing the past two years, with recommendations for the continuation 
and extension of the forest work. 



19 

During the summer of 1909 there was assigned to the Superin- 
tendent of Forestry the special duty of representing the Territory 
at the Seventeenth National Irrigation Congress, held at Spokane, 
Washington, with the object of agitating the question of the ex- 
tension to Hawaii of the Federal Reclamation Act of June 17, 
1902 ; a quest that was successful in so far as the securing of 
the passage of the desired resolution by that organization was 
concerned. 

STAFF AND APPROPRIATIONS. 

The regular staff of the Division of Forestry has remained 
unchanged during the past two years. It consists of the Super- 
intendent of Forestry (Ralph S. Hosmer), the Forest Nursery- 
man (David Haughs), and the Botanical Assistant (Joseph F. 
Rock). 

For a period of six months, from November, 1909, to May, 
1910, Mr. Louis Margolin, Forest Examiner of the Forest Ser- 
vice of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, was detailed to Ha- 
waii under a cooperative agreement between that Bureau and this 
Department, for an investigation of the Eucalyptus in Hawaii. 
During this time Mr. Margolin was on the payroll of the Board 
under the title of Forest Inspector. 

One or two changes have been made in the staff of District 
Foresters and District Fire Wardens during the past two years. 
These are indicated in revised lists of these volunteer officials, 
given elsewhere in this report. 

The period of this report covers parts of two biennial fiscal 
periods. During the six months from January to June, 1909, 
the allotment for the Division of Forestry from the general appro- 
priation of the Board was at the rate of $7,620.00 per annum for 
salaries and payrolls, and $4,960.00 per annum for incidental and 
general expenses. Since July 1, 1909, all the expenses of the 
Board of Agriculture and Forestry have come from the Conserva- 
tion Fund, raised by the special Immigration-Conservation Income 
Tax. The money for the Board of Agriculture and Forestry has 
been turned over as a lump sum ; for the greater part of the time 
at the rate of $3,500.00 a month. Of this sum the total allotment 
to the Division of Forestry has amounted, approximately, to 
$14,000.00 per annum. Besides the above, $5,000.00 was allotted 
by the Apportionment Board for forest planting on the Kohala 
mountains, Hawaii, and $2,100.00 for fencing and forest planting 
at Pupukea, Oahu. Both these projects are now in progress. 

FOREST RESERVES. 

Since the establishment of the Division of Forestry, the build- 
ing up of a forest reserve system has rightly held first place in 
its activities. In Flawaii, because these islands are an agricultural 



20 

community largely dependent on irrigation, the relation between 
continued economic prosperity and the right use of the forest is 
peculiarly intimate and direct. For this reason I consider it one 
of the essential duties of my office to continue to emphasize the 
principles that underlie the forest policy of the Territory to the 
end that they may be well and generally understood. 

As I have pointed out in previous reports there are in Hawaii 
two main classes of forest, which for the sake of convenience 
may be termed the "water bearing forest" and the "commercial 
forest." The water bearing class consists at present almost ex- 
clusively of the native Hawaiian forests, situated for the most 
part in the windward districts, covering the watersheds and catch- 
ment basins of the streams that supply water for irrigation, power 
development and other economic uses. The chief value of this 
forest is that it protects the headwaters of these streams. Its 
most important product is water, and the treatment indicated for 
it is therefore the one which will best serve to produce the largest 
quantity of water. For the Hawaiian forest to render to the full 
its beneficial service as a conservator of water, it is essential that 
the forest cover be kept strictly intact, for owing to its character 
and composition it is easily damaged by the inroads of cattle and 
other enemies. The method of management best adapted to 
secure the result desired with this class of forest is to keep it as 
a "protection forest," from which men and animals are strictly 
excluded. Only by so managing it can it be made to yield per- 
manently the largest share of its most valuable product, water. 

The other main class, the commercial forest, includes two sorts 
of forest: (a) those sections of the native forest (for the most 
part in the districts on the leeward side of the Island of Hawaii) 
where from the nature of the topography and the remarkable 
porosity of rock and soil there are no permanently running 
streams and only occasional springs, and where, consequently, 
the problem of watershed protection does not enter; and, (b) 
the artificially introduced forests, like the belts of self-sown Alga- 
roba, or the planted stands of Eucalypts, Ironwoods and other 
exotic trees. The value of the forests of the commercial class 
rests in the wood or timber that the forest can be made to produce, 
or in some special benefit it may render, as by forming a wind- 
break or shelterbelt for valuable agricultural land. 

It should be said in this connection that of the total area of 
native Hawaiian forest the portion that can be classed as "com- 
mercial forest" is relatively small. Considered on the basis of 
area, or of money producing value, there is no comparison of 
the worth of the native Hawaiian forest for wood as against 
water. Wherever water is to be obtained, it is the chief and 
most important product of the Hawaiian forest. A very large 
percentage of all the now existing Hawaiian forests belongs to 
the water bearing class. This area should, for that reason be 



21 

managed as protection forest. The real importance of the com- 
mercial class of forest as a source of wood will, as time goes on, 
more and more rest in the planted stands of Eucalypts and other 
introduced forest trees. 

Both the water bearing and the commercial classes of forest 
are of great practical importance to this Territory. But from 
their very nature the two closses require radically different 
treatment. In the one case the important product is water; in 
the other, wood. Each class should be so cared for and adminis- 
tered that it will yield, permanently, as large a share of its most 
valuable product as may be. If it is of the water bearing class 
it should be made to yield as much water as possible, in as regular 
and equalized a flow as local conditions will permit. This means 
in practice that the forests of the water bearing class should be 
managed as protection forests, and kept as nearly as possible in 
their primitive state. If, on the other hand the forest is of the 
commercial class, it should be so managed that one crop of trees 
will be made to follow another in regular order. 

These considerations are at the basis of the whole forest sys- 
tem in. Hawaii. It is because the forest can be made the better 
to do its duty by being systematically cared for that forest reserves 
are set apart and the agitation for their better administration 
continued. Considerable forest area in Hawaii has now been 
technically declared reserved, but up to the present but scant heed 
has been paid properly to taking care of this area. Until adequate 
provision is made for protecting the forest reserves from injury 
by fire, animals and trespass, the Hawaiian forests cannot be 
made to serve to the full the objects for which the reserves are 
created. 

Two years ago I pointed out that the essential needs were 
money for fencing such stretches of forest reserve boundaries on 
government land as cannot be provided for through fencing re- 
quirements in leases of adjoining government tracts; a fund 
from which expenses for fighting forest fire on government land 
could be paid, in times of necessity; and an appropriation suffi- 
cient to permit the employment of forest rangers to see that the 
forest reserve boundaries are maintained and respected, to prevent 
trespass by animals and men, to protect the forest reserves from, 
fire, and in general to give the forest the care it requires if it is 
to be made of the greatest service to man. Along with this in 
some of the reserves there is need of forest planting to fill out 
blanks in the cover and repair damage done through the opening 
up of the forest in former years. 

The experience of the past two years only accentuates the 
arguments put forth at that time. Until the boundaries of the 
reserves are fenced, where they are not in themselves natural 
barriers, and until there is provision made for the protection of 
the forest against fire and trespass, the Hawaiian forest will not 



22 

render to the people of the Territory the duty that it ought. To 
provide these things costs money ; but such an outlay is as surely 
an investment as if the money were put out at interest with a 
banking house. The returns from forest protection, both direct 
and indirect, will amply repay the money advanced in the begin- 
ning. The protection and wise management of the forest is a 
fundamental need in Hawaii. It is the duty of this Board to 
make the people of the Territory so to realize this fact that thqy 
will make adequate provision for carrying on the necessary work. 

NEW RESERVES. 

During the calendar year 1909 four new forest reserves were 
set apart by proclamation by the Governor, aggregating a total 
area of 101,614 acres, of which 83,234 acres 82 per cent. is 
government land. 

In 1910 three more reserves were created, bringing the total up 
to twenty-three. The 1910 reserves aggregate 29,132 acres, all 
government land. The gross area of the twenty-three forest 
reserves so far established is 575,154 acres, of which 386,547 
acres, 67 per cent., is land belonging to the Government. 

The list of new reserves is as follows : 

Name. District. Island. Date 

1909. Proclaimed. 

Manna Kea Hamakua Hawaii June 5, 1909 

Waihon Spring Hamakuap'oko. . . . Mani June 5, 1909 

Lihue-Koloa Puna and Kona. . .Kauai June 5, 1909 

Moloaa Koolau Kauai June 5, 1909 

1910. 

Pupukea Koolauloa Oahu May 10, 1910 

Hauola Hamakua Hawaii June 13, 1910 

Kahoolawe Maui County Kahoolawe Aug. 25, 1910 

On following pages are tables showing full data in regard to 
these and earlier established forest reserves, arranged both 
chronologically and by islands. Detailed reports in connection 
with each reserve are made and submitted to, and approved by 
the Board at the time of the setting apart of the reserve. These 
reports later appear in the Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist. 

Object of Certain Reserves. 

Of the new reserves it may briefly be noted here that the 
primary object in the creation of four of them Waihou Spring, 
Lihue-Koloa, Moloaa and Pupukea was, in common with most 
of the reserves that have heretofore been set apart, to secure 
better protection for the forest cover on important water sheds. 
The reservation of Mauna Kea and Kahoolawe involves a some- 
what different principle. These tracts are non-water-bearing and 



23 

both contain considerable areas of land not now under forest, 
nor indeed covered by any useful sort of vegetation.. In both these 
cases the object of setting the lands apart as forest reserves is to 
facilitate the taking of measures that in the end will make them 
of greater value to the people of the Territory on Mauna Kea 
by establishing a forest of economically valuable trees on what is 
now classed only as waste land ; on Kahoolawe through the recla- 
mation of that island by establishing a cover of vegetation to 
replace the former cover that has largely been lost through con- 
tinued mismanagement. Work of this character can best be 
handled by the Territorial Government through the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry. The setting apart of these lau&s as 
forest reserves transfers their control to this Department and 
makes it possible to undertake their systematic development at 
any time when funds may become available. In the mean, time 
experimental work can be started and carried on to better advan- 
tage than if these tracts were merely public lands subject to con- 
stant change of status. 

The island of Kahoolawe is still under lease the term of the 
expiring lease not running out till January 1, 1913, at which 
time the reservation becomes effective. The setting apart of the 
island took place this year that there may be no question as to 
the intentions of the government when the term is up. This 
action is in accord with one of the recommendations of a concur- 
rent resolution (House, No. 19) adopted by the Legislature at the 
Session of 1909. Arrangements are now being perfected whereby 
the work of reclaiming Kahoolawe can be begun in a small way 
at once. Work on a larger scale must necessarily, and should, 
await the completion of forest work in certain other more im- 
portant localities. 

Minor Changes in Forest Reserves. 

It is proper to note here one modification of a forest reserve 
boundary, whereby the area of the Makawao Forest Reserve on 
Maui is increased from 1,796 to 1,830 acres. This change will 
facilitate the better protection of that reserve when it becomes 
possible, as I trust it will in the near future, to fence it off. The 
proclamation effecting this change of boundary was signed by 
Governor Frear on June 5, 1909. Also, that on August 25, 1910, 
Governor Frear signed proclamations setting apart certain gov- 
ernment forest lands in the Hilo, the Kau, the West Maui and the 
Ewa Forest Reserves tracts lying within the established limits 
of those reserves but not technically set apart when those reserves 
were created, because of having at that time been under lease. 
This action removes a possible cloud as to the legal status of these 
forest reserves. 



24 



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28 

FOREST RESERVES PENDING. 

It has been stated in earlier reports that it is the intention of 
the Territorial Government ultimately to include within the boun- 
daries of its forest reserves a gross area of approximately three 
quarters of a million acres, of which about 70 per cent, will be 
government land. A number of important units still wait for- 
mally to be set apart, although all but the final steps have been 
taken in most of these projects. 

Four projects in particular are the proposed forest reserves in 
South Kona, Hawaii ; Kohala Mountain, Hawaii ; the upper part 
of the Kula District, Maui; and the upland of Molokai. These 
areas will unquestionably be set apart as reserves early in 1911. 
Large portions of the areas both on Kohala Mountain and on 
Molokai have in practice been actual reserves for a number of 
years, maintained under fence and protected through the interest 
of private corporations. 

With the setting apart of these areas and a few smaller tracts 
on Maui, Hawaii and Oahu, the formal creation of a forest reserve 
system in Hawaii will have been practically accomplished. But 
as has many times before been pointed out, the technical reserva- 
tion of forest land is but the first step toward its efficient manage- 
ment. The next move can and will be made as soon as the 
Legislature provides the funds with which to go ahead. 

PLANTING IN FOREST RESERVES. 

Under special allotments made by the Apportionment Board 
from the Conservation Fund, the Territorial Government has 
started forest planting in two localities the Pupukea Forest Re- 
serve on Oahu and Kohala Mountain, Hawaii. At Pupukea 
under a contract with Mr. C. G. Owen, 25,000 trees Eucalyptus, 
Monterey Cypress and Japanese Cedar have been planted on 
approximately 35 acres, on the portion of the forest reserve for- 
merly known as "Water Reserve C ;" the area planted being the 
sides of gulches and a small flat above certain springs that are 
to be used for the domestic supply of the Pupukea Homesteaders. 
Seedlings were shipped from the Government Nursery at Hono- 
lulu. The trees are spaced 8x8 feet, or 680 to the acre. The 
planting began in March and was continued at intervals during 
the early summer. Part payment was made after the trees were 
planted; the remainder of the contract price will be paid when 
the trees reach a height of three feet. 

For planting on the Kohala Mountain the sum of $5,000. was 
allotted, which has been met by an equal amount by the Parker 
Ranch. This money was not available till December 1, 1910; 
consequently no trees have yet been put into the ground, but a 
goodly number are being made ready at nurseries at Waimea. 
These will be planted early in 1911. 



29 

The area where the planting is to start is immediately above 
Waimea Village, above and including the upper end of the 
Puukapu Homestead Tract, on a slope of the Kohala Mountain 
that is tributary to springs from which water is piped down to 
the plains below. The area to be planted under the auspices of 
the Ranch is the adjoining fee simple land. Together the two 
tracts will make a continuous block. 

FOREST FENCE AT PUPUKEA. 

In this connection mention may be made of the construction 
by contract during the summer of 1910 of about a mile and a 
half of forest fence on the outside boundaries of the Pupukea 
Forest Reserve, Oahu, to keep cattle out of the woods. The cost 
of this fence was borne jointly by this Board and the Ranch 
Department of the Oahu Railway and Land Co. 

In several localities stretches of forest fence have been built 
along forest reserve boundaries, or in places where a fence shuts 
off access to the reserve, by sugar plantation companies and other 
private corporations. If there were a regular fencing fund avail- 
able so that the Government could cooperate with corporations 
in the cost of fencing, as well as build fences itself, it would be 
possible to secure the construction of many miles of fence in 
places where it is very much needed. 

CONDEMNATION OF FOREST LAND ON KOHALA MOUNTAIN. 

Following a thorough investigation of the question and sev- 
eral abortive attempts to get something done in the matter of 
the actual reservation of the forest at the north-west end of the 
Kohala Mountain, the Board finally succeeded in getting the 
Sugar Plantation Interests of the Kohala District to contribute 
a substantial sum to be used for the purchase of certain privately 
owned forest lands of strategic importance in the proposed Ko- 
hala Mountain Forest Reserve. Twenty-four thousand dollars 
was raised in this way, especially with the idea of securing the 
forested portion of the land of Kehena 2 lying to the east of the 
Hooleipalaoa gulch, belonging to the Estate of the late James 
Woods, Esq. The money was contributed on the understanding 
that the Territory should fence and where necessary, plant the 
area acquired; this to be done upon the transfer of the fee to 
the Government. Failing to come to terms with the trustees of 
the Woods Estate, the Government, in the autumn of 1910, in- 
stituted condemnation proceedings to acquire the land by eminent 
domain. The case has not yet come to trial. In the meantime, 
pending the adjustment of this matter, the project of setting apart 
the Kohala Mountain Forest Reserve has been temporarily 
held up. 



30 
FOREST EXTENSION. 

Forest Extension embraces the activities of the Division of 
Forestry in growing and distributing trees, including the special 
free distribution on Arbor Day, the giving of advice and assist- 
ance to individuals and corporations regarding tree planting, 
and the introduction and trial of trees and shrubs new to the 
Territory. This section of the Division's work comes under the 
immediate charge of Mr. David Haughs, the Forest Nursery- 
man, in whose report will be found a detailed account of the 
results accomplished during the past two years. It is not the 
intention here to repeat the statements made by Mr. Haughs, 
but it is pertinent to give space to certain general observations on 
matters not specifically covered in his report. 

ASSISTANCE TO FOREST PLANTERS. 

One of the most important branches of the work of the Divi- 
sion of Forestry is the assistance given to individuals and cor- 
porations desiring to undertake forest work of one and another 
sort: This help is rendered in two ways : first, by advice as to 
how to accomplish the results desired ; and second, by the grow- 
ing and furnishing of seedling plants and of seed at cost price. If 
there were some graphic way of showing the effort expended in 
this direction, this chapter of the report would contain a very 
interesting series of charts and diagrams. As it is, it may be 
stated that scarcely a day passes but that anywhere from one to 
half a dozen persons are given definite, practical directions about 
the planting or care of trees, or concerning other matters germane 
to the work of this office. This advice is given in personal inter- 
views, by letter, or in the case of more important work, by care- 
fully prepared reports, the result of a personal inspection on the 
ground, outlining in detail the recommendations made. 

Among the more important forest planting plans prepared 
during the past two years were reports for the Molokai Ranch 
Company, the Lanai Company, and for the planting on Kohala 
Mountain, to be done jointly by the Government and the Parker 
Ranch drawn up by the Superintendent of Forestry; and for 
the Kukaiau Plantation Company, the Pioneer Mill Company, 
and the Waialua Agricultural Company, prepared by the Forest 
Nurseryman. All of these plans are being carried into effect, 
in whole or in part. 

In October, 1909, there was issued a revised edition of the 
press bulletin of the Division of Forestry giving directions in 
regard to tree planting. This little pamphlet has been much in 
demand. It was printed both in English and in Hawaiian 
another instance where the Board has endeavored to follow the 



31 

recommendations of the last Legislature as made in a concurrent 
resolution, already referred to. 

On the side of furnishing actual material for planting, more 
forest tree seed and more seedling plants have gone out from the 
Government Nursery this last year than ever before, not to speak 
of the plants distributed from the sub-stations. The combined 
total of trees distributed from all the government stations, in- 
cluding those sold and those given away on Arbor Day and at 
other times, is 112,590 for 1909 and 264,573 for 1910. 

Recently several sugar plantation companies have been supplied 
with seedling trees in seed boxes, just ready for the first trans- 
planting. As the greatest losses in tree growing are caused by the 
damping off fungus, which works in the very early stages of the 
tree's life, this arrangement has given general satisfaction, because 
when the little trees are large enough to transplant they have 
passed the period of danger. The price of seedlings varies with 
the species, but in all cases is only enough to cover the cost. It 
should be noted here that when large numbers of trees are 
wanted, orders must be placed well in advance. It takes from 
two to four months to grow the seedlings to a size large enough 
to send out. It is neither practicable nor advisable for this Nur- 
sery to keep on hand large quantities of seedlings, but upon due 
notice all reasonable demands will be complied with. 

Reference has already been made under the heading Forest 
Reserves to the planting of government land at Pupukea, Oahu r 
and on Kohala Mountain. This is a branch of work to which 
it is hoped there will be reason to give much more space in 
future reports. Specifically the areas that are most in need of 
forest planting are the Kohala Mountain, Hawaii, Polipoli Spring 
Reserve and portions of the upper Kula slopes, Maui, and the 
Pupukea Forest Reserve, Oahu. Experimental planting should 
be undertaken on certain of the government lands on the wind- 
ward side of Maui, in the Koolau Forest Reserve, in the areas 
where the native forest died out a few years since ; and also in 
the Makawao Forest Reserve, above Kailiili a locality that offers 
exceptional advantages for the trial of timber trees new to the 
Territory. There is no lack of other places that ought also to be 
planted if only funds were available. 

Along with the forest planting here recommended every effort 
should be made to extend the limits of the Algaroba forest, espe- 
cially along the lee shores of the several islands. This valuab 1 e 
tree will grow if given half a chance. Its spread ought sys- 
tematically to be assisted, both by the Government and by privat^ 
interests. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SUB-NURSERIES. 

To meet the constantly growing demand for trees for forest 
and other planting, and especially that homesteaders and other 



32 

small land holders may readily be supplied, it is the definitely 
announced policy of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry to 
establish and maintain sub-nurseries and distributing stations on 
each of the larger islands of the group. 

The Nursery at Homestead, Kauai. 

There are now two regular sub-nurseries with paid employees ; 
at Homestead (Kalaheo), Kauai, and at Hilo, Hawaii. In both 
places the success of the undertaking is due to the generous 
cooperation of gentlemen who, making tree growing their prin- 
cipal avocation, have been willing to oversee the work of the 
laborers paid by the Division of Forestry and to put into execu- 
tion the general plan laid down by this office. 

The Nursery' at Homestead was established in October, 1908, 
when one laborer was provided to work under the direction of 
Mr. Walter D. McBryde, the local District Forester. Some addi- 
tional labor, with a few tools, pots and other supplies for the 
Nursery have been furnished from time to time during the past 
two years. The following tabulation shows the number of trees 
given out from this Nursery during 1909 and 1910: 

TREES DISTRIBUTED FROM HOMESTEAD NURSERY. 

1909. Arbor Day: 

Called for at nursery 2,575 

Sent away 522 3,097 

1910. January to June 6,711 

June to December 3,240 

Arbor Day: 

Called for at nursery 2,333 

Sent away 300 2,633 

Grown for planting in Papapaholahola Reserve. . . . 3,665 

Sold 6,000 

Total for 1910 '. 22,249 

It is only just that the hearty thanks of the Division of For- 
estry should here officially be given to Mr. McBryde for his zeal 
and unflagging interest in making the Nursery at Homestead the 
success that it unquestionably is. 

As has elsewhere been noted, Mr. McBryde has done much 
private tree planting during the past five years, more particularly 
on the prominent hill top makai of Homestead, which he has 
christened "Kukuiolono Park." On Arbor Day 1909, he planted 
6,000 trees there, mainly Eucalypts ; and during 1910 he has set 
out 13,298 more, bringing the total of trees planted on the hill 
up to 36,540. 




Plate 3. Eucalyptus robusta on Tantalus. 




Plate 4. Eucalyptus citriodora in the Tantalus Forest. 




" ' - 

- 



Plate 6. Views of the Hilo Nursery. 



33 
The Hilo Nursery. 

The Nursery at Hilo is under the direct charge of Bro. 
Matthias Newell, principal of St. Mary's School for Boys. For 
a long time Bro. Matthias, with the aid of his pupils, has been 
growing trees and other plants and distributing them to people 
in and about Hilo. In 1910 the Division of Forestry was able 
to supply a regular laborer and in part to equip the Nursery 
with much needed supplies. Prior to 1910, Bro. Matthias did 
a large share of the nursery work with his own hands, putting 
in at the Nursery the greater part of the scant time that is his 
personally after attending to the duties of his office. Bro. Mat- 
thias modestly refuses even to tell the story of the Nursery in 
his own words, but the people whom he serves in Hilo do not 
need to be reminded of his good works. 

During the past year special attention has been paid to dis- 
tributing trees from the Hilo Nursery to schools and to home- 
steaders all the way from Laupahoehoe to the Volcano House, 
and large numbers of trees have been placed where they are most 
needed. In this distribution the Hilo Railroad Company, through 
its Superintendent, Mr. R. W. Filler, and the Volcano Stables 
and Transportation Company, through its manager, Mr. C. E. 
Wright, have helped much by carrying many lots without charge. 

Following is a statement of the plants given out from the Hilo 
Nursery during 1909 and 1910: 

TEEES DISTRIBUTED FROM HILO NURSERY. 
1909. Arbor Day 3,500 



1910. January to June 2,120 

July to Arbor Day 9,459 

Arbor Day to December 31 7,580 

Total for 1910 19,159 

Temporary Distributing Stations. 

While lack of funds has prevented the establishment of other 
regular sub-nurseries, the Division of Forestry has been fortunate 
in being able to arrange with the managers of several sugar 
plantation companies and other gentlemen to grow trees at cost 
price for local distribution, especially in connection with Arbor 
Day. Those who most actively cooperated in this way were 
Messrs. L. Weinzheimer, Lahaina; H. B. Penhallow, Wailuku ; 
D. T. Fleming, Paia; L. von Tempsky, Makawao (in 1909) ; and 
John Chalmers, Hana, all on the island of Maui; and Messrs. 
G. C. Watt, Kohala, and A. W r . Carter, Waimea, Hawaii. A 



3 B. A. 



34 

number of other persons have helped distribute shipments of trees 
sent from Honolulu. It should be added, too, that many of the 
sugar plantation companies and other corporations having nur- 
series of their own make a practice of giving away trees to home- 
steaders and others in their vicinity. Prior to Arbor Day, notices 
of the free distribution of two dozen trees each to every applicant, 
in English, in Hawaiian and in Portuguese, were given wide 
publicity throughout the Territory so that any one who really 
wanted trees has only himself to blame if he did not get them. 

On Maui and on Oahu trees for roadside planting have, upon 
request, been supplied free to the County officials. With the 
establishment of more sub-nurseries it is hoped that this branch 
of the work can be extended. 

ARBOR AND CONSERVATION DAY. 

Interest in Arbor Day has steadily increased. In his proclama- 
tion in 1909, Governor Frear gave the observance of the day a 
wider scope by terming it "Arbor and Conservation Day," a 
usage which was repeated this last year. In almost all the schools 
appropriate exercises are now held each November, with con- 
siderable enthusiasm. It is to be regretted that not as much can 
be said of the success of the trees that have been set out. It 
takes a long time to impart the obvious Arbor Day lesson that 
to make a tree grow requires something more than to stick it 
in the ground. But there is a gradual gain, which makes the 
effort worth while. 

As in former years the Board of Education has cooperated 
with this Department by paying the freight charges on Arbor 
Day shipments, as well as in other ways. The Arbor Day exer- 
cises in the schools were made more interesting and varied both 
in 1909 and 1910 by the efforts of the Women's Clubs, which have 
taken up this work in an earnest and active way, furnishing 
speakers at many schools and helping to devise attractive pro- 
grams elsewhere. 

In this connection mention may well be made of the wide 
spread and genuine interest in Conservation that has been mani- 
fested by several organizations of women in this Territory, not- 
ably by the Hawaii Branch of the Woman's National Rivers and 
Harbors Congress and by the Conservation Committees of the 
Hawaii Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution 
and the College Club of Honolulu. Among other things prizes 
have been offered in a number of schools for essays on Conserva- 
tion, and various meetings held at which creditable papers have 
been presented dealing with Conservation and Forestry. 



35 

Statistics of Arbor Day Distribution. 

The following table shows for the past two years the number 
of trees given out for Arbor Day planting. In 1908 Arbor Day 
trees were distributed only from the Government Nursery at 
Honolulu; 15,703 were given out. 

FEEE DISTRIBUTION OF TREES FOR ARBOR DAY PLANTING. 

1909. 

Government Nursery, Honolulu 
Schools 4,452 
Churches 3,858 
Public 33,467 

41,777 

Subnurseries. 

Homestead Nursery, Kauai 3,097 

Hilo Nursery, Hilo, Hawaii 3,500 

Temporary Distributing Stations. 

Haleakala Eanch Nursery, Makawao, Maui 4,577 

Wailuku Sugar Co.'s Nursery, Wailuku, Maui 1,163 

Kaeleku Sugar Co. 's Nursery, Hana, Maui 8,000 

Parker Eanch Nursery, Ahualoa, Hawaii 1,500 



Total for 1909 63,614 

1910. 

Government Nursery, Honolulu 
Schools 3,003 
Public 5,068 

8,071 

Subnurseries. 

Homestead Nursery, Kauai 2,633 

Hilo Nursery, Hilo, Hawaii 7,000 

Temporary Distributing Stations. 

Wailuku Sugar Co. 's Nursery, Wailuku, Maui 2,345 

Paia Agricultural Co. 's Nursery, Paia, Maui 1,881 

Kaeleku Sugar Co. 's Nursery, Hana, Maui 5,000 

Kohala Sugar Co.'s Nursery, Kohala, Hawaii 3,000 

Ahualoa Nursery, Hon'okaa, Hawaii 552 



Total for 1910 30,482 

The very considerable difference in the number of trees given 
out for Arbor Day 1910 as against 1909, is accounted for by the 
fact that in 1909 considerable shipments of tree seedlings in 
transplant boxes were made to several homestead tracts, notably 
Kau, Hawaii, Pupukea, Oahu, and Palolo and Alewa Heights, 
Honolulu the people at these places receiving, through special 
arrangement, a larger number of trees than the two dozen usually 
given to a single applicant. Getting enough trees at that time to 



36 

do what planting they desired to, these persons have not applied 
again. It will be noticed in this connection that the difference in 
the two years is mainly in the number given out from Honolulu. 
The establishment of sub-nurseries on the other islands, from 
which persons in the vicinity can get trees at any time, has also 
tended to reduce the number of applications sent in to Honolulu 
for this special distribution. 

TREE PLANTING BY CORPORATIONS. 

One of the most important evidences of the progress of forestry 
in Hawaii is the growing interest that is being taken in tree 
planting throughout the Territory, both on a small scale by in- 
dividuals and in the establishment by certain of the larger cor- 
porations of regular forest plantations. 

As being of general interest for purposes of comparison, the 
Division of Forestry has compiled a table giving statistics of 
tree planting in Hawaii during the past two years. This appears 
on the following pages. Comparing the totals of trees planted 
with those given in earlier reports (especially the report of the 
Division of Forestry for 1908, pp. 27 and 28) it will be seen that 
there has been a marked gain. The grand totals for the last 
three years are as follows : 

Total Number of Trees Reported Planted. 

1908. 1909. 1910. 

498,677 597,381 725,022 

It is, of course, to be understood that this table is merely a. 
record of trees planted and not of forest planting as such. The 
various entries include trees planted for windbreaks and shelter- 
belts, for stock shelters, for ornamental purposes, and along road- 
sides, as well as plantations made with the object of watershed 
protection and direct commercial return. It is nevertheless of in- 
terest as showing the large number of trees set out. While nat- 
urally not all of the seedlings listed will live to become mature 
trees, it is believed that the greater part of the planting covered 
by this table was done under conditions that insure the trees doing 
well. In such a table there must, almost necessarily, be some 
omissions, but it is believed all the more impoortant projects are 
included. The figures given were for the most part supplied by 
the corporations doing the work. Those otherwise obtained are, 
if anything, over-conservative. The table does not include school' 
ground planting, nor with the exception of the Homestead plant- 
ing in Kau, Hawaii, the many small lots, of trees set out by in- 
dividuals. Taken by and large a record of seven hundred and 
twenty-five thousand trees planted in one year is not a bad" 
showing : 



37 

TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF TREES PLANTED IN THE TERRI- 
TORY OF HAWAII, MAINLY BY CORPORA- 
TIONS, IN 1909 AND 1910. 



Kauai. 



1909. 



Name of Corporation. 

Kilauea Sugar Plantation Co 

Makee Sugar Co 

Lihue Plantation Co 20,000 

Grove Farm 20,000 

Koloa Sugar Co 3,500 

Hawaiian Sugar Co 

W. II. Eice 

W. D. McBryde (Kukuiolono Park) 12,000 

Papapaholahola Eeserve 1,000 



Number t>f Trees 
Planted. 



Totals for Kauai 56,500 

Oahu. 

Laie Plantation 700 

Kahuku Plantation Co 2,000 

Waialua Agricultural Co 6,980 

Waianae Co 9,408 

Oahu Plantation Co 

Honolulu Plantation Co 

Hawaiian Pineapple Co , 36,294 

Hawaiian Development Co 19,000 

li Estate ( Waipio) 29,575 

Kunia Development Co 600 

Dowsett Co. (Nuuanu) 

W. E. Castle (Tantalus) 1,000 

O. E. & L. Co. Eanch Department 

C. G. Owen (Pupukea) 

Pupukea Forest Eeserve 

County Eoad Boards 

Totals for Oahu 105,557 

Maui and Molokai. 

Kaeleku Sugar Co 

Maui Agricultural Co 

Kailiili and Opana 142,705 

Paia Nursery 23,000 

Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co 500 

W,ailuku Sugar Co 13,855 

Pioneeer Mill Co 6,000 

Haleakala Eanch 19,314 

Honolua Eanch 300 

Country road planting 1,200 

Molokai. 

Molokai Eanch 

Kalawao and Kalaupapa 6,000 



1910. 
200 

4,400 
25,000 
22,000 

5,500 
10,000 
14,000 
13,298 

3,665 

98,063 



1,200 
2,000 

31,212 

6,287 

200 

14,200 

1*9,666 

30,000 

16,000 

1,200 

1,000 

6,000 

2,000 

25,000 

6,000 

161,299 



600 

95,034 

40,000 
2,270 
18,987 
10,000 
11,300 



2,300 



2,000 
8,116 



Totals for the County t)f Maui 212,874 



190,607 



38 
Hawaii. 

Niulii Mill & Plantation 750 2,050 

Kohala Sugar Co 24,000 20,500 

Hawi Mill & Plantation Co 500 1,000 

Parker Eanch 15,733 

Pacific Sugar Mill 2,700 2,000 

Laupahoehoe Sugar Co 120 

Paauhau Sugar Plantation Co 30,000 10,000 

Hamakua Mill Co 60,000 100,000 

Kukaiau Plantation Co 100,000 110,000 

Olaa Sugar Co 300 

Hawaiian Agricultural Co 3,500 6,500 

Kapapala Eanch 1,000 650 

Homesteaders in Kau 5,000 

Huehue Eanch 1,200 

Totals for Hawaii 222,450 275,053 

SUMMARY BY ISLANDS. 

(Showing also totals for 1908.) 

1908. 1909. 1910. 

Kauai 58,925 56,500 98,063 

Oahu 42,802 105,557 161,299 

Mam . . 197,518 212,874 190,607 

Hawaii 199,432 222,450 275,053 

498,677 597,381 725,022 

It would be invidious to single out any one corporation for 
special praise in tree planting, but it is proper to make this general 
note of those that are most active in establishing real forest plan- 
tations, as distinguished from windbreak, stock-shelter or orna- 
mental and roadside planting. 

For many years now the Lihue Plantation on Kauai has been 
adding annually block after block to its extensive Ironwood forest. 
Mr. G. N. Wilcox, at Grove Farm, Lihue, has also been starting 
true forest plantations, while on Kukuiolono Hill at Kalaheo, 
Mr. Walter D. McBryde has in the past three years planted a 
close set forest now numbering 36,540 trees. 

On Oahu, the last two years have seen systematic forest plant- 
ing on a considerable scale got well under way by the Waialua 
Agricultural Company. The Waianae Company, the Honolulu 
Plantation and the li Estate are also doing true forest planting 
on this island. 

On Hawaii the Kohala Sugar Company and the Parker Ranch 
have of late done more than others in this direction, though sev- 
eral of the sugar plantations along the windward coast have 
planted groves for fuel wood supply, as well as for windbreaks, 
in which latter direction their efforts in recent years have been 
more directed. 



39 

Maui is easily the banner island in forest planting. The Pio- 
neer Mill Co. at Lahaina, the Wailuku Sugar Co., and the Maui 
Agricultural Company are all actively engaged in this work. The 
last named corporation maintains regularly two forest nurseries 
in which trees are raised for planting on adjacent lands; one at 
Paia, under the charge of Mr. David T. Fleming; the other at 
Opana, for planting the lands there and at Kailiili. This last nur- 
sery is in charge of Mr. Waldemar Hannestad, who justly takes 
pleasure in introducing visitors to his many acres of close set, 
thriftily growing forest of commercially valuable Eucalypts. 

In view of the increasing demands for wood and timber that 
are necessarily a part of the development of this Territory, forest 
planting on a commercial scale cannot fail to yield good 
financial returns to those who have .suitable, fee simple land 
and who can afford to embark on a long term investment. 
Forest planting in Hawaii is a form of investment admir- 
ably adapted for the long lived corporations. The market 
is sure, danger from fire and other risks has hardly to be con- 
sidered, while the rapid growth of most of the trees used not 
only offsets the costs of establishing and caring for the forest 
but returns to the owner in much shorter time than he could count 
on in forest operations in most other countries, an extremely 
good profit on his investment. It would be to their own interest, 
as well as to the general good of the community, if more of the 
large corporations would devote a larger share of their waste 
and unproductive areas to growing commercial forest. 

PLANT INTRODUCTION WORK. 

One of the underlying objects of all the forest work in Hawaii 
is to discover trees good for one or another purpose that will 
propagate themselves readily and spread without human aid. 
The native Hawaiian forest is, as has been pointed out earlier in 
this report, of the greatest value as a watershed cover, but from 
the commercial standpoint much better results can be got from 
introduced species than from Hawaiian trees. The local needs 
in wood are for posts, ties, timber and fuel. These are best sup- 
plied by introduced trees, but by no means has the last word 
been said as to what introduced trees are best for local conditions. 
Indeed this field of investigation has as yet hardly been touched. 
The need is for trees that will be of value and that can be de- 
pended on to spread themselves. We are w r onderfully fortunate 
in having the Algaroba, and from all appearances certain of the 
Eucalypts are becoming established so that in time they will make 
self-sown forests. But there are many places where these trees 
do not do well non-productive areas that ought to be in forest, 
for which other trees must be found. 



40 

The only effective way of securing such desirable introductions 
is through systematic experimenting the introduction and trial 
under varying local conditions of promising species. This is 
work that properly belongs to the Government. In trying out 
new plants there must necessarily be many failures. Private cor- 
porations, and still less individuals, as a rule do not care to plant 
trees unless there is at least a reasonable certainty that they will 
do well. But such investigation is essentially work that ought 
to be done, particularly in a country like Hawaii. Unless, how- 
ever plant introduction is carried on carefully and in a highly sys- 
tematic way much of it goes for nothing. It is work, too, that 
must be managed by technically trained men, for there is always 
the possibility that some plants may be introduced which it is not 
wise to permit to grow here, Therefore the experimental intro- 
duction of exotic trees and shrubs is one of the important investi- 
gations that lies before the Division of Forestry. 

During the past two years progress has been made in this 
direction by the better equipment of the Experimental Garden 
in Makiki Valley and by improvements in the seed testing houses 
at the Government Nursery. These changes will facilitate later 
work. 

The Territory has been fortunate in receiving at the hands of 
Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder, a former member of the Board of Com- 
missioners of Agriculture and Forestry, seeds of a great variety 
of trees and shrubs, which he has secured during an extended 
tour around the world. These plants are now being propagated 
at the Nursery and the Makiki Station. Other consignments of 
exotic seed are constantly being received in a small way from 
various sources. The importance of this work is such that it 
justifies the making of ample provision for carrying it on. It is 
to be hoped that it can be expanded during the coming period. 

Federal Experimental Planting. 

Mention may properly be made here of the continuation of the 
experimental planting of temperate zone trees on the upper slopes 
of Mauna Kea and Haleakala, begun in 1908 under the auspices 
and at the expense of the Forest Service of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. Three consignments of seedling trees pines, 
spruces and firs have been obtained from forest nurseries on the 
American mainland and planted out in the fenced experimental 
plots on these mountains. While there have been severe losses, 
as was to be expected, the latest examination made showed that 
a fair percentage of the little trees were alive and apparently 
established. 

During the spring and summer of 1910 seed of some forty odd 
kinds of temperate zone trees, both conifers and broadleaf species, 
was sown in seed spots in the experimental plots. It is too soon 



41 

yet to have data in regard to this experiment. During the spring 
of 1911 a considerable number of additional tests will be made 
and also there will be planted in some of the plots, seedling trees 
of a number of species of Eucalypts. 

The amount allotted by the Forest Service for this project was 
$2,000.00 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909. This was 
mostly spent in fencing in a number of five-acre plots on each 
of the two mountains. 

Last year $1,350.00 was allotted. This was used in the pur- 
chase and transportation of nursery stock, for labor, and for the 
enclosure of an additional plot on Mauna Kea. 

This year the amount is $1,000.00, which will be used mostly 
for labor in planting out seedlings and seed. 

EUCALYPTUS STUDY. 

Also in cooperation with the Forest Service there was under- 
taken, beginning late in 1909, a thorough investigation of the 
planted groves of Eucalypts in Hawaii, with the object of com- 
piling and making available for the ready use of those interested 
all the information obtainable about the growth and yield under 
local conditions of trees of this valuable genus. Under an agree- 
ment whereby the Territory was to pay part of the cost of the 
investigation and to publish the results, Mr. Louis Margolin, 
Forest Examiner of the Forest Service, was temporarily detailed 
to Hawaii from November 1909 to May 1910, inclusive. 
During this time he visited all the Eucalyptus groves of impor- 
tance in the Territory, made measurements and collected all the 
available data in regard thereto. The material so gathered he 
worked up in a report that is shortly to be published as Bulletin 
No. 1 of the Division of Forestry. 

The appearance of this bulletin during the summer of 1910, 
as was expected, was prevented by shortage of funds. When it 
does come out, it should be of very considerable interest and real 
value to all tree planters in Hawaii, because it contains just the 
information needed by persons desiring to establish forest planta- 
tions. Eucalypts are among the most important of our intro- 
duced trees ; this report brings together in usable form all the 
information now available about them under local conditions. 

BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

A line of work of much interest during the past two years 
is the botanical survey of the forests of the Territory now being 
carried on by the Botanical Assistant of this Division, Mr. Joseph 
F. Rock. As Mr. Rock clearly shows in the introductory para- 
graphs of his own report, a study of this character is essential 
to a correct understanding of our forests. Without exact knowl- 



42 

edge concerning the habits of the trees and other plants found 
therein, plans for the proper care of the forest can not be as 
wisely made as when these data are available. The investigations 
being carried on by Mr. Rock deal in many cases with questions 
of pure science, but they all have their practical bearing in one 
way or another. 

In his report along with an outline of the work done on his 
collecting trips, Mr. Rock records many interesting facts about 
the vegetation of certain little explored localities. It contains in 
this way much of interest from a geographical as well as from a 
botanical standpoint. 

The importance of the results already got in this investigation 
justify better provision being made for it in the future. Not only 
are additional herbarium cases needed for taking care of the 
material collected, so that it will be protected from insects and 
housed in a manner where it will be readily available, but pro- 
vision should also be made for the publication of results. This, 
as Mr. Rock points out, is an essential part of this sort of study. 

Although somewhat out of place here, it might be said in this 
connection that the Board of Agriculture and Forestry has for 
some time had the manuscript of two bulletins ready for printing, 
the publication of which has been prevented by lack of funds. 
One is a popular treatise on "The Vegetable Garden in Hawaii," 
by Professor F. G. Krauss, which contains just such information 
about gardening methods as people are constantly asking for. 
The other is a compilation of the laws concerning, and the rules 
and regulations made by the Board of Agriculture and Forestry. 
Both are useful books, that ought to be published. 

MISCELLANEOUS FOREST WORK. 

The activities of the Division of Forestry are not confined 
strictly to the work described under the heads Forest Reserves 
and Forest Extension. Other branches of forest work are pur- 
sued as fast and as far as time and resources permit. 

RUBBER INVESTIGATION. 

As entitled, chronologically at any rate, to first mention, is the 
successful outcome of the investigation on methods of tapping 
rubber trees, carried on jointly by this Division and the Hawaii 
Agricultural Experiment Station during the spring of 1909. It 
will be remembered that out of its allotment for the fiscal period 
ending June 30, 1909, the Division of Forestry contributed 
$1200.00 toward this study the Experiment Station providing 
the men to do the necessary work in field and laboratory. This 
investigation proved that with systematic methods of tapping the 
Ceara rubber tree in Hawaii will yield profitable returns, a fact 



43 

that up to that time was in doubt. The full results of this investi- 
gation were published early in 1910. as Bulletin No. 19 of the 
Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station. 

EXHIBITS AND EDUCATIONAL WORK. 

Following the policy that with a subject of such general in- 
terest to the people of the Territory as is Forestry, a legitimate 
amount of publicity is not only permissible but wise, the Division 
of Forestry prepared exhibits illustrating its work for the annual 
shows of the Hawaiian Poultry Association in 1909 and 1910, 
and for the Hawaii Building at the Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Exposi- 
tion at Seattle, Washington, during the summer of 1909. In Mr. 
Rock's report will be found a description of this latter exhibit. 
For it the Board of Agriculture and Forestry was awarded a 
special diploma and a gold medal. The exhibit, being the prop- 
erty of the Territory, was returned to Honolulu, where it is now 
held with other like material until such time as it may again be 
needed. If there were space for it, this exhibit could well be set 
up in the Board's office, but the cramped quarters at the Govern- 
ment Nursery utterly preclude such a possibility. 

Other educational work in forestry and in the closely related 
but still broader field of Conservation, has been carried on during 
the past two years by addresses and talks made by the Superin- 
tendent of Forestry before various assemblies, and by articles 
dealing with forestry prepared for various local publications. 

In particular two Conservation meetings are to be recalled. 
The first was a joint session of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives of the Territory of Hawaii, held in the Throne 
Room on March 1, 1909. It was called that the members of the 
Legislature might listen to addresses on the meaning and local 
necessity for Conservation. A complete report of this meeting 
was later published in pamphlet form, both in English and in 
Hawaiian, and generally distributed throughout the Territory. 

The second meeting was somewhat similar in general char- 
acter, being a public meeting held in the Throne Room on No- 
vember 16, 1910, under the joint auspices of the Board of Agri- 
culture and Forestry and the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Associa- 
tion, to consider the practical application of the principles of 
Conservation to certain of our local economic problems. As in 
the case of the former meeting-, addresses were made by a number 
of the men locally best qualified to present authoritative state- 
ments in regard to the several phases of the subject. A full 
report of this latter meeting appears in the Hawaiian Forester 
and Agriculturist for January, 1911. Because containing state- 
ments of general interest, not found elsewhere in just this form, 
the address of the Superintendent of Forestry is reprinted as a 
part of this report. 



44 

Among other addresses given by the Superintendent of For- 
estry were two lectures at the College of Hawaii in February, 
1909 ; several talks at various times at the McKinley High School, 
the Normal School and Oahu College; speeches at the annual 
meetings of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association and of 
the Hawaiian Rubber Growers' Association, and before several 
local clubs and literary societies. 

Besides articles for the "Forester," several contributions have 
been made to the local newspapers, particularly for special edi- 
tions. In connection with the exhibit at the Seattle Exposition 
a little circular was prepared showing why the practice of forestry 
is an economic necessity in Hawaii. This was distributed with 
other literature at the Hawaii Building. 

As in former years all forest reserve reports and other official 
forestry papers have appeared in the "Forester" in due course, 
together with the proclamations and other By Authority notices 
in regard to the various projects. 

NATIONAL IRRIGATION CONGRESS. 

Mention has already been made of a special mission on which 
the Superintendent of Forestry was sent during the summer of 
1909 officially to represent the Territory, with other delegates 
from Hawaii, at the Seventeenth National Irrigation Congress, 
held at Spokane, Washington, in August. As the result of the 
efforts of the Hawaii Delegation the following plank was in- 
cluded in the platform of resolutions adopted by that Congress: 

"We urge the Congress of the United States to extend the 
Reclamation Act to the Territory of Hawaii." 

A resolution of similar tenor was also secured at the First 
National Conservation Congress held in Seattle early in Septem- 
ber, 1909, to which the Superintendent of Forestry was also a 
delegate. Addresses were delivered by him at both these 
meetings. 

( 

COOPERATION WITH OTHER LOCAL INSTITUTIONS. 

The Division of Forestry stands essentially for the policy of 
team play in local institutions. Especially cordial relations are 
maintained with the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station and 
the College of Hawaii. The College, through its department of 
engineering, is now engaged with this Division in a cooperative 
investigation of the strength of, and proper seasoning methods 
for several island grown woods, both native and introduced 
species. Large beams of Ohia Lehua, supplied by the Pahoa 
Lumber Mill of Pahoa, Puna, Hawaii, have been broken 
by the powerful Riehle Timber Testing machine at the Coollege 
laboratory, and other tests made with this wood. Further, blocks 



45 

and small timbers of several species of Eucalyptus, cut in the 
Tantalus Forest under the direction of the Division of Forestry, 
are now being subjected to various seasoning tests. The results 
of these investigations will later be made public, probably in a 
bulletin to be published by the College. 

Through an arrangement with the Oahu Railway and Land 
Company railroad ties have been cut from three species of 
Eucalyptus growing on Tantalus, E. globulus, E. robusta and 
E. cornuta, for trial under varying conditions in the track around 
this island. The ties are now being seasoned. When they are 
laid, careful record will be made and kept of their relative value. 

LUMBERING OPERATIONS. 

The exploitation of certain forests of the "commercial class" 
on the island of Hawaii has continued during the past two years ; 
more particularly the logging of Ohia Lehua in the Puna District 
for railroad ties and other lumber. 

In January, 1910, Mr. J. B. Castle's lumber company, now 
known as the Pahoa Lumber Mill, secured from the Territorial 
Government at public auction, the right to lumber the forest on a 
tract of unleased government forest land in Puna, adjoining the 
Kaohe Homesteads at Pahoa, and having an approximate area 
of 12,000 acres. 

The Governor not deeming it expedient that this area should 
be set apart as a forest reserve prior to the lumbering, the Board 
of Agriculture and Forestry has no official connection with the 
management of the tract, but in the contract between the lumber 
company and the Commissioner of Public Lands there were in- 
cluded certain provisions suggested by the Superintendent of 
Forestry as the result of investigations made at the request of 
the Land Office. 

Under the terms of the contract, which runs for ten years from 
January, 1910, the lumber company pays to the government a 
stumpage price of $5.00 per acre for all forest cut over; subject, 
however, to the termination of the contract at the option of the 
government, after the expiration of five years. 

The area covered by this contract is, as has been said, 12,000' 
acres ; a block of heretofore practically unexplored forest. A 
portion at least of this tract is agricultural land, which will in 
due course be opened up for settlement. The section that is 
suitable only for forest ought to be set apart as a forest reserve. 

In the matter of the utilization of Ohia Lehua, the original 
contract between the Pahoa Lumber Mill and the Santa Fe 
Railway has been revised. Ties are still shipped to California, 
but increasing attention is being paid to finding a market for Ohia 
for uses of higher grade. Especially is an effort being made to 
introduce Ohia as flooring a use to which the firm, close texture 



46 

of the wood and its handsome color lend themselves admirably. 
The waste from the Ohia mills (slabs, etc.) is sold for firewood, 
not a little of it being shipped to Honolulu. 

Another company, Cant & Bolte, Limited, is also operating 
in Puna, on privately owned forest lands. This company also 
sells its product both for ties and for lumber. 

The latter firm is also conducting logging operations on private- 
ly owned lands in South Kona. These, it is expected, will later 
assume much more important proportions than they have at 
present. 

FOREST FIRES. 

The Territory has been extremely fortunate in the last two 
years in not having had any forest fires of sufficient importance 
to justify more than passing mention here. 

At the same time it has been evident in several instances that 
it was a good thing to have a strict forest fire law on the statute 
books, for while there have been no active prosecutions, the moral 
effect of the law has more than once been felt. 

That the absence of forest fires in this period may not create 
a sense of fancied security from danger, it must again be pointed 
out that at present there exists no fund from which expenses 
can be paid for fighting fires on unleased government lands. 
Under the present law the Government can compel its lessees and 
also private owners to take proper precautions as to the use of 
fire, on penalty of fines and damage suits, should fires originating 
on a given tract spread and do damage. But on its own unleased 
lands and most of the lands in the forest reserves are now in 
this class the Government is powerless to take effective steps to 
stop or to control fires that may start from one or another cause. 
The remedy lies in a provision whereby money for fighting forest 
fires shall be made available for use in case of necessity. This 
item could well be included with others, as in an appropriation 
for "fencing forest reserves and protecting them from forest fire." 
Such an emergency forest fire fund should amount to at least 
$5,000. It is devoutly to be hoped that the need for it may never 
again arise in Hawaii, but as in other forms of insurance, the 
wise course is to be fore-armed. 

THE DISTRICT FORESTERS. 

REPORTS OF DISTRICT FORESTERS. 

Following the custom of former years, opportunity was 
given each of the District Foresters to submit notes of forest 
happenings in their respective districts or recommendations 
in regard to forest work. The following extracts are taken 
from the reports received: 



47 
A. S. Wilcox Lihue, Kauai. 

"Your communication asking for a brief report on forest 
happenings came duly to hand. In reply I would say that in 
the district of Halelea, in which I act as District Forester, 
the conditions remain somewhat similar to those mentioned 
in my former report. 

"Private Forest Reserves: Practically half of the land of Kali- 
hiwai has been a private forest reserve for many years. The 
growth is dense, and this has rendered fencing unnecessary. 
The area, roughly speaking, is about 4000 acres. The land is 
owned by myself, and it has always been my purpose to pro- 
tect the forest as much as possible in order to maintain the 
water supply. This Kalihiwai land, in conjunction with the 
forest on the upper lands of Hanalei, makes quite a large 
forest reserve. The few cattle which formerly got into this 
reserve have all been removed. 

"Forest Fires: There have been no extensive forest fires, and 
no damage done by cattle to signify. I may say that there 
was a very small fire several months ago on the lands of 
Waioli, but apart from the burning of the undergrowth and 
the scorching of a few trees no serious damage resulted. 

"In general, I would say that with the absence of any de- 
structive forest fire, the reduced number of cattle ranging in 
the forest reserve, and an abundant rainfall, these conditions 
have tended to keep the forest reserve in excellent shape.''' 

W. R. Castle Honolulu. 

"As I have never made a written statement of my forestry 
work on the southeast slope of Pauoa, I will give you a word 
about that now. 

"I have about thirty acres of mountainside on the south- 
east side of Pauoa Valley. When I acquired the land some 
years ago, it was covered with grass only, excepting a few 
Eucalyptus and some trees which came down over the crest 
of the ridge in one or two places. During the past five years 
I have planted about 2000 koa trees and perhaps 3000 Euca- 
lyptus of various descriptions. Besides these main lines, I 
have planted a great variety of other trees and shrubs, so 
that the mountainside now begins to have quite a forest ap- 
pearance. It is my intention to let the public use this ground 
for purposes of recreation, etc., with proper restrictions as to 
fires and so on. 

"In Kona, where I have been largely interested, nothing 
has been done in the line of setting out new forest except 



48 

by private individuals, so far as I know, and not a great deal 
of that. But in my own lands of Papa, etc., I am now setting- 
out Eucalyptus, Rubber, and other trees, and intend within 
a short time to build fences and other guards to prevent the 
incursion of cattle on the upper lands, where there is today a 
heavy growth of Koa, Ohia and other Hawaiian forest 
growths. Of all of which I will give vou fuller particulars 
later." 

H. B. Penhallow Wailuku, Maui. 

"Other than the usual yearly tree-planting of the Wailuku 
Sugar Company, there is nothing of special note to report 
concerning forestry in this district. 

"There is a rumor, however, that some Hawaiians are run- 
ning cattle in the forest reserve back of Waikapu, but have 
not been able to look into this carefully. If there had been 
an available forest ranger, this matter could have easily been 
taken up, and if cattle are being run on the reserve it would 
have been stopped long ago. I believe that even if the neces- 
sary number of rangers could not be provided for by the 
funds available for your Board, a few would be of great 
benefit. There is no doubt that there are a great many abuses 
which are going on in the reserves, which a few rangers 
would prevent." 

L. von Tempsky Makawao, Maui. 

"During the year 1909 I planted out some 19,314 trees, of 
various sorts and at various altitudes; also in localities where 
climatic conditions were unlike, viz., in the Hilo grass or 
windward district, and in the Kula or dry district. 

"The highest altitude at which the trees are planted is a 
little over 6000 feet, and the lowest 2000 feet. The varieties 
planted are mainly Eucalypts, comprising botryoides, cory- 
nocalyx, crebra, gunnii, leucoxylon, rhilaris, polyanthema, 
rostrata, saligna and some Cryptomeria Japonica. 

"In September, 1909, I planted in the Hilo grass land 3350 
Cryptomeria Japonica at an elevation of 2800 feet, also 1200 
E. botryoides and E. rudis, about half of each -kind. The 
Eucalypts were planted in the formation of two sides of a 
square, the object being that later on they would form a 
breakwind for the Cryptomeria Japonica, which tree has a 
strong objection to the trade wind. The Eucalypts have done 
exceedingly well, and seem very well suited with the condi- 
tions that obtain there. The Cryptomeira has also thriven 
well and has grown very fast, almost equaling the growth of 
the Eucalypts. I may also mention 'that where the land was- 



49 

furrowed out for planting, innumerable Koa trees made their 
appearance ; this seed has been lying dormant for the last 
twenty-five years to my certain knowledge, as I was all over 
that locality at that time, and the forest then was a thing of 
the past. 

"The other plantings of that year took place in October, 
at about 6000 feet elevation on the Kula side of the ranch; un- 
fortunately the weather conditions after the planting was 
finished were not at all favorable, and, although we did not 
lose a great number of trees, it set back their growth con- 
siderably. I also planted 300 Eucalypts at about 6300 feet 
elevation on the windward side, mauka of the forest line ; 
these trees also suffered from the dry weather which was 
prevalent all over the ranch at that time. These two plant- 
ings of like species, at approximately the same elevation, and 
at the two extreme ends of the ranch where usually weather 
conditions are decidedly unlike, should form in the future an in- 
teresting subject for comparison. 

"The area planted in lots amounted to forty-four acres, 
taking 16,444 trees, or about, say, 375 trees to the acre. The 
balance, 2870, being planted along fences, etc., etc. 

"The trees planted on the mountain were principally in- 
tended for shelter purposes for stock. 

"In December, 1910, I planted 11,300 trees. I had a great 
deal of trouble with the seed, which delayed the growth of 
the seedlings, causing the planting to be later than usual 
and running over some five or six thousand into 1911, which 
should have been planted in 1910; these will not be put into 
the ground till February or March. 

"I planted seed of some twenty-five different species of 
Eucalypts (a list of which I append herewith) ; some of the 
seed was very slow of germination, and some did not sprout 
at all, so that I had only nineteen varieties that were fit to 
transplant into the identification lot, a list of which I also 
append. 

"In the identification lot (five acres) I have planted 2000 
trees arranged alphabetically from E to W. This lot has 
been thoroughly plowed and harrowed, and I intend at the 
proper time to plant potatoes and beans between the rows 
of trees to reduce, if possible, the cost of cultivation of these 
trees ; a report of this w r ork and the results thereof will be 
forwarded you later on. The elevation of this lot is 2300 feet, 
and it is situated immediately mauka of the ranch house lot. 

"The balance of the year's planting was done on the moun- 
tain, the highest elevation being Lot No. 13, which is close 

4 B. A. 



50 



to 6800 feet, and is situated at the -foot of Puu Oili on the 
western side. 

'This lot, and all others planted on the mountain with one 
exception, are for stock sheltering purposes, and in a few 
years' time will be of great service to the ranch in protecting 
its stock from the raw, cold winds that blow there, and also 
for protecting them from the fierce rays of the sun. 

"One lot I planted (ten acres) at and above a spring which 
supplies water to our mountain dairy. I have planted imme- 
diately around the spring 1000 Grevillea robusta, the balance, 
1300, are Eucalypts of various sorts. I find from experience 
that the Grevillea robusta in a very short time will form a 
very deep mat from the leaves that it is constantly shedding, 
which should form a fine sponge for retaining the moisture, 
incidentally, I hope, increasing, or, rather, making more per- 
manent, the flow of the spring. 

"Outside of the foregoing, I may mention that I have had 
scattered on the plains at an elevation of from 800 to 1000 
feet, 150 sacks of horse manure; this manure was fully 
impregnated with Keawe seeds, and I hope in a few years to 
have a fine young Keawe forest growing there, as the Alga- 
roba grows well on the western slopes of Haleakala up to an 
elevation of 1200 feet. We have some trees growing as high 
as 2800 feet elevation. Of course, the growth at that elevation 
is not so rapid as it is at or near sea level, but still they seem- 
to get along very well. 

"It may be of interest to you to know that since January, 
1900,.! have planted about 140,000 trees, of which 138,380 
are growing. The area planted in lots is 256 acres, taking 
127,230 trees, the balance, 11,150, have been planted along 
fences for brea'kwinds, etc. These trees have cost up to date 
four and a half cents each, which includes everything, such 
as purchase of seeds, nursery work, plowing, holeing, hoeing^ 
and fencing." 

List of twenty-five varieties of Eucalypts planted at the- 
Haleakala Ranch: 



Eucalyptus bicolor 

botryoides 

calophylla 

corymbosa 

corynocalyx 

diversicolor 

ficifolia 

goniocalyx 

leucoxylon 

longifolia 

melliodora 

microfrheca 

obliqua 



Eucalyptus obtusifolia 
paniculata 
pillularis 
polyanthema 
regnans 
rostrata 
rudis 
saligria 
siderophloia 
siberiana 
teretic.ornis 
viminalis 



51 

Geo. C. Watt Kohala, Hawaii. 

"The Kohala Sugar Company is planting the exposed sites of 
gulches and in waste places where cane cannot be grown at a 
profit. The object of planting is as windbreaks and for fuel. 

"I am not able to give yields from planted acres, but from 
trimming and thinning out of trees we have obtained sufficient 
fire-wood for all of our labor for the last three years. The shelter 
they afford to cane fields in a windy district like Kohala more 
than compensates for the outlay." 

John Watt Olaa, Hawaii. 

"The only matter of note which has taken place here dur- 
ing the years 1909 and 1910 is the operations being carried 
out by the Pahoa Lumber Mill at Pahoa. In the past two 
years they have lumbered something over 1000 acres. This 
has been partly upon the Catholic Mission lands at Pahoa 
and Kaohe homesteads and Government land mauka of the 
Kaohe homesteads. 

"A considerable area of the land cleared by this company 
has been planted to cane, and during the coming planting 
season the Olaa Sugar Company will plant some two or three 
hundred acres of this cleared area. So far as I know most 
of the land cleared of trees is arable, and fairly good agri- 
cultural land. As you are quite familiar with the operations 
being carried on by this company, it is needless for me to 
go into details. 

"There is no other change in the condition of the forests 
in this district worth mentioning, except that I might again 
call your attention to the condition of the Government Re- 
serve along the Volcano Road from the 13 miles up. This 
reservation has never been fenced, and many of the trees are 
dead on account of the residents along the line of the road 
pasturing horses and cattle. I have on a good many occa- 
sions tried to get these people to keep their animals off, but 
so far without success. The forest otherwise seems to be in 
a healthy condition, and no forest fires have taken place 
during the past twelve months." 

R. von S. Domkowicz South Kona, Hawaii. 

"In accordance with your request, I hereby submit my re- 
port as Forester of the South Kona District, covering the 
area from the Kau boundary line to Kaohe. 

"There has been very little change in the condition of the 
forest in this district since my previous report. The forest 
where it is kept free from cattle is in good condition, and 
there have been no noticeable insect pests. 



52 

"Planting of forest trees has not been done here to a great 
extent, except the few trees which I have set out, grown from 
seeds sent me through the courtesy of your department. And 
all these are doing well, especially Cryptomeria Japonica, 
Cypress, Ironwood, and Grevillea robusta; the latter seeding 
within four years of setting out. 

"As there are no forest reserves in Kona, my district, I 
would respectfully urge that the Kipahoehoe and other avail- 
able lands be set aside for forest without delay, and, if pos- 
sible, fenced. 

"Owing to the operation of the Lumber Company here, 
which is cutting down trees indiscriminately on several pri- 
vate lands, there will be no forest in a few years to give pro- 
tection to vegetation and give rain." 

John Maguire North Kona, Hawaii. 

"The constant dry spells which Kona seems to be having 
almost discourages one in the effort at tree-planting, and yet 
it is wonderful how some of the trees which evidently seem 
dry during the drought quickly come to life again after one 
or two good showers. The Grevillea is quickly spreading all 
over the pastures, just from a row of trees along the road. 
The wind and birds are scattering the seeds all over. A 
thousand and one or two hundred of trees have been planted 
on Akahipuu, one of the spurs of Hualalai, 300 and more of 
Grevilleas, over 200 Eucalyptus, 66 Pepper, 51 Monterey Cy- 
press, 28 Manele, 34 Kukui, 125 different Pine, 16 Jackaranda, 
about 100 Peach, about 30 Cherimoyers, and a few figs and al- 
ligator pears, which will probably never bear, as the eleva- 
tion is over 2000 feet. 

"The twelve Japanese Cedars are doing very well ; then 
there are a variety of other trees. The Eucalyptus are 
mostly the botryoides and rudis, a few robusta and lemon 
scented. The enclosure will probably hold another thousand 
or two trees. The object of covering the hill with trees 
is to gather whatever moisture may collect around it and 
also to beautify Huehue. We have tried to plant trees that 
will be of commercial value later on. The Grevillea, we 
hear, makes very fine furniture wood. It is hard and makes 
good fence posts and shoots out again when cut down. 

"The forest reservation of Honuaula is doing very well, 
the undergrowth having grown a great deal. It is a pity 
though that it is so small (only 600 acres), when there are 
thousands of acres of Government land around. 

"The thimble berry is spreading very rapidly, and in a few 



53 

years' time will destroy more pasture land than the lantana 
ever did. There was a portion on Honuaula where the cattle 
were actually lost and could not be seen in the thimble berry 
growth, and there w r ere places that the men and horses could 
not get' through. One has to see to realize what a pest it is." 

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

In the foregoing pages there have been traced briefly the main 
activities of the Division of Forestry during the past two years.. 
It has been shown that with no increase in appropriations over 
former periods except for two special projects of forest plant- 
ing much useful work has been done and many good results 
accomplished. The lack of funds has, however, hampered prog- 
ress in many ways. Lines of work that ought actively to be 
pushed have had to wait, while much of the work in hand, like 
that of the sub-nurseries, has been hindered by the inability to 
supply needed equipment. There is so much forest work waiting 
to be done in Hawaii which would yield definite and practical 
returns that it is doubly unfortunate that adequate provision for 
it is not made. 

Besides covering the official work of the Territorial Govern- 
ment in forestry this report also shows, by enumerating various 
pieces of forest work now in progress under private auspices, 
that in Hawaii forestry is not regarded merely as a function 
of the Government. Rather do these things prove that the general 
and well informed interest that now unquestionably exists 
throughout the Territory rests on the sure foundation of well 
grounded belief in the principles of Forestry and of Conservation. 

For the very reason that this is so, better provision ought to be 
made for continuing and extending the Government's share of 
forest work. Appropriations for forestry are legitimately to be 
regarded as investments. The existing forests of Hawaii are 
today of great value to the Territory. They could be made of 
much more value if they were better taken care of. Similar con- 
siderations apply to other branches of forest work. With more 
local nurseries many more persons could be supplied cheaply 
with trees. More forest plantations would be started, as well as 
more trees planted for ornamental and esthetic purposes. With 
increased appropriations the Government could itself go ahead 
with forest planting on some such scale as it really ought. All 
of which would in the end make for the permanent betterment 
of the Territory. 

So, too. with the introduction of new trees and shrubs. With 
better provision for this work vastly more could be accomplished ; 
especially now that the machinery of plant-houses and experi- 
mental gardens has, in part at least, been provided. 



54 

That the facts found out in these and the other investigations 
carried on by the Division of Forestry may be widely dissemi- 
nated among all the people of the Territory provision should 
be made for the publication of bulletins and circulars, the em- 
phasis being placed always on those which shall make available 
the required information in a form in which it can be used by 
the every day citizen. 

Two things are to be borne in mind in regard to forestry, be 
it in Hawaii or be it anywhere else in the United States. First, 
that forestry is a business proposition, in that forests are grown 
to meet definite, practical economic needs. And second, that 
forestry is a matter which concerns the individual and the cor- 
poration as well as all the people collectively. We are too prone 
to think of the Government as something apart from the People. 
The reason why forestry is practiced in this Territory is because 
it serves the interests of the people of Hawaii better to have 
certain portions of the islands under a forest cover than to use 
those lands in any other way. Similarly the corporations that are 
active in protecting the native forest on their own fee simple 
lands, or that are establishing new forests of introduced trees, 
are doing it, and should do it, because it is to their interest so 
to do. Forestry is essentially a matter of business. Greater 
care in the administration of our forests is urged because it is 
better business to take good, rather than poor, care of them. 
The more generally these truths are realized the better it will 
be for all concerned. 

Forestry in Hawaii is then, a matter which concerns both 
private interests and the Government. Each manager 'of a cor- 
poration owning or controlling land should look to it that his 
forests are well cared for and that waste or other land that can- 
not be utilized more intensively, is planted with trees. And the 
people as a whole, through their representatives in the Legisla- 
ture, should make adequate provision for the proper care and 
development of the forest areas belonging to them, but managed 
for them by the officers of their government the forests on gov- 
ernment land. 

Specifically as regards the government forests of Hawaii pro- 
vision should be made by adequate appropriations for five main 
branches of forest work : 

(1) For the proper maintenance and protection of the exist- 
ing native forests through the fencing of forest reserve boun- 
daries, the care of the forests and their protection from trespass 
by forest rangers, and a special fund, to be used only in case of 
need, for fighting forest fire ; 

(2) For the planting of open places in forest reserves and 
of other government lands where the growing of a forest is the 
best use to which the land can be put ; 



55 

(3) For the extension and better equipment of the system of 
sub-nurseries and local distributing points for the giving away of 
trees ; 

(4) For the introduction and experimental planting of 
economically desirable trees and shrubs new to the Territory; 

(5) For the general administrative and routine expenses of 
the Division of Forestry in carrying out these several branches of 
work and in its more strictly technical investigations, such as the 
work being done in connection with the Herbarium; it being 
understood that the allotment for this last section should be suf- 
ficient to include provision for the publication of results. 

Forestry has a very definite duty to perform in Hawaii. Its 
place has come to be well recognized. It is for the people of 
the Territory now to demand that provision be made for forest 
work in a measure commensurate with its importance. 

Very respectfully, 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 
Superintendent of Forestry. 



Report of the Forest Nurseryman. 



Honolulu, Hawaii, December 31, 1910. 

R. S. Hosmer, Esq., 

Superintendent of Forestry, 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Dear Sir: I herewith submit a report of the work done at 
the Government Nursery, Experiment Station, Makiki, Tantalus 
Forest and Nuuanu Station for the years 1909 and 1910. 

NURSERY. 

COLLECTION AND EXCHANGE OF SEEDS. 

The collection of seed has been continued and the demand is 
increasing. The local demand is greater than it has ever been, 
owing to a large number of corporations and others starting to 
do tree planting. Our exchange list includes institutions in al- 
most every country on the globe, from a number of which we 
are continually receiving requests for seed of our exotic and in- 
digenous plants. 

A great deal of the Eucalyptus seed wanted for local use is 
collected on Tantalus; in fact, the great bulk of the forest tree 
seed used in the Territory is collected locally. The price charged 
for seed collected by us is less than half of the cost of similar 
seed if compared with the catalogue prices in other countries. 
Our prices are based on the cost of collecting. 

In the introduction of seed and plants new to the Territory 
great credit is due Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder, who has been untiring 
in his efforts to introduce new plants and seed. Mr. Wilder has 
collected and forwarded plants and seed from the following 
countries: Manila, P. I.; Singapore, Straits Settlement; Pe- 
nang, Strait of Mallaca ; Hongkong ; Colombo, Ceylon ; Calcutta, 
B. I.; Naples and Florence, Italy; Vienna, Austria; Carlsbad, 
Bohemia; Brussels, B'elgium; Godsberg, Germany; London, 
England ; Paris, France ; also from a number of places in the 
West Indies. 

Mr. Wilder was at Antigua when this report was being pre- 
pared. Porto Rico, Jamaica, Havana, Cuba, Mexico and Cali- 
fornia are also included in the list of places he intends visiting. 

The seed and plants received from Mr. Wilder are being started 
in our propagating houses, and every attention and care used in 



o/ 

fostering the growth of the many different species. A record of 
all the seed and plants collected and forwarded to us is kept on 
file and can be referred to at any time, the dates when received, 
also donors and species, being carefully kept. 

A list of the seed distributed and introduced by exchange and 
otherwise is herewith enumerated. The list does not include the 
full amount of seed collected, as there is always from one-fourth 
to one-half of unavoidable waste owing to the loss of vitality ; 
also by insects and other causes. We endeavor to give the freshest 
and best seed that can possibly be got; consequently, if there is 
any doubt regarding its vitality, etc., it is discarded and new seed 
used. 

Owing to a weevil that has made its appearance within the 
last t\vo or three years and is doing much damage to the seed 
of the different Cassias which include the Golden Shower, Pink 
Shower, Pink and White Shower, as well as other trees it looked 
as if it would be impossible to get any good seed from the trees 
affected. We found, however, that by picking the seed just be- 
fore it got ripe and handing it to Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn, Superin- 
tendent of Entomology, who has invented a form, of fumigation 
which kills the insect without harming the seed, we can manage 
to continue raising those trees and distributing the seed. 

The following is the amount of seed distributed, by weight: 

Forest Tree Shade and Ornamental 

Seed. Tree Seed. Palm Seed. 

1909 29 Ibs. 75 Ibs. 62^ Ibs. 

1910 48 Ibs. 118^ Ibs. 105 Ibs. 

The great bulk of this seed is used for exchange purposes, 
also supplying the Nursery, Homesteaders, District Foresters, 
etc., all of whom received seed gratis. 

Seed Received Through Exchange. 

1909. Pkts. 

Feb. 19. 1 Mr. A. Robertson, Proschowsky, St. Helene, Nice, 

France. 
Mar. 5. 17 Royal Botanic Garden, Ceylon, at request of Mrs. 

Dora Isenberg, Kauai. 

Mar. 22. 1 R. v. S. Domkowicz, Kona, Hawaii. 
Mar. 22. 1 James Lindsay, Haiku, Maui. 
Mar. 23. 28 J. F. Rock (from, Dec., 1908, to March 23, 1909). 
Sept. 3. 3 Royal Botanic Gardens, Sibpur, near Calcutta. 



58 



1910. Pkts. 



Jan. 10. 2 J. G. Jack, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 

Massachusetts. 

Jan. 10. 3 The Yokohama Nursery Co., Yokohama, Japan. 

Jan. 10. 14 Al Giardinaggio, Napoli, Al Borsa. 

Jan. 10. 1 No name. 

Jan. 18. 2 H. Louis, Red Bluff, California. 

Feb. 7. 5 Imperial Biological Agr. Institution, German E. 

Africa. 

Feb. 24. 1 Dep. Van Landbouw te Buitenzorg, Java. 

Apr. 1. 16 Gerrit P. Wilder from Manila, P. I. , and Ceylon. 

Apr. 12. 2 Gerrit P. Wilder, Singapore, Straits Settlement. 

Apr. 14. 2 Chas. H. Muir, Major 23rd Infantry, P. I. 

Apr. 15. 54 Gerrit P. Wilder, Rangoon, Burmah. 

Apr. 20. 2 Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India. 

Apr. 20. 8 Y. Wada, Kumamoto Forest Station, Japan. 

Apr. 29. 33 Gerrit P. Wilder, Singapore, Straits Settlement. 

May 4. 1 R. F. G. Timully, Africa. 

May 5. 1 Royal Botanic Gardens, Sibpur, near Calcutta. 

May 5. 8 Gerrit P. Wilder, Colombo, Ceylon. 

May 5. 1 Botanic Gardens, Pamplemousses, Mauritius. 

May 10. 13 Experiment Sta. H. S. P. A. ; seed from Africa. 

May 11. 16 Gerrit P. Wilder, Naples, Italy. 

May 11. 7 T. Inemura, Gov. Bot. Gardens, Formosa, Japan. 

May 16. 132 Royal Botanic Gardens, Sibpur, near Calcutta. 

May 18. 1 Dep. van Landbouw te Buitenzorg, Java. 

May 19. 2 Gerrit P. Wilder, Florence, Italy. 

June 1. 4 Gerrit P. Wilder, Florence, Italy. 

June 7. 6 J. G. Jack, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 

Massachusetts. 

June 16. 4 Gerrit P. Wilder, Vienna, Austria. 

June 21. 12 Tokyo Plant-Seed & Implnt. Co., Tokyo, Japan. 

June 27. 1 Royal -Botanic Gardens, Sibpur, near Calcutta. 

June 27. 8 Dr. F. Franceschi, Santa Barbara, California. 

June 27. 4 Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Honolulu. 

June 27. 10 Rev. H. Isenberg, Kauai; seed from New York 

and Germany. 

July 21. 3 Harry H. Shaw, Honolulu. 

Aug. 19. 10 T. Inamura, Botanic Gardens, Koshun, Formosa. 

Aug. 29. 12 Gerrit P. Wilder, Carlsbad, Bohemia. 

Sept. 7. 6 E. M. Ehrhorn, from Bolivia. 

Sept. 10. 12 Gerrit P. Wilder, Carlsbad, Bohemia. 

Sept. 20. 1 Royal Botanic Gardens, Sibpur, near Calcutta. 

Sept. 20. 7 Gerrit P. Wilder, Brussels, Belgium. 

Sept. 28. 5 Gerrit P. Wilder, Brussels, Belgium. 

Oct. 4. 1 Gerrit P. Wilder, Brussels, Belgium. 



59 

1910. Pkts. 

Oct. 18. 4 Dr. Watase, Tokyo, Japan. 

Oct. 21. 1 Dept. Agriculture, New Zealand. 

Oct. 25. 3 Capt. J. Kidwell, from Botanic Gardens, Uganda, 

Africa. 

Oct. 25. 3 Gerrit P. Wilder, Godsberg, Germany. 

Nov. 2. 6 J. G. Jack, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, 

Massachusetts. 

Nov. 9. 9 Gerrit P. Wilder, London, England. 

Nov. 14. 3 Gerrit P. Wilder, Kew Gardens, London, Eng. 

Nov. 16. 4 North Island, Nfew Zealand. 

Nov. 23. 3 Botanic Gardens, Koshun, Formosa. 

Nov. 23. 2 Gerrit P. Wilder, Paris, France. 

Dec. 5. 7 Gerrit P. Wilder, London, England. 

Dec. 15. 8 Botanic Gardens, Koshun, Formosa. 

Dec. 21. Gerrit P. Wilder, West Indies. 

Dec. 27. 134 Gerrit P. Wilder, Antigua, W. I. 

DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS FROM GOVERNMENT NURSERY AND 
MAKIKI STATION. 

Sold and given gratis, including Arbor Day, from January 1 
to December 31,, 1909. 

In seed In boxes 

boxes. transplanted. Pot-grown. Total. 

Sold 30,000 3,400 3,576 36,976 

Gratis 9,000 2.000 1,000 12,000 

Arbor Day . 25,000 16,777 41,777 



Total .... 39,000 30,400 21,353 . 90,753 

Sold and given gratis, including Arbor Day, from January 1 
to December 31, 1910. 

In seed In boxes 

boxes. transplanted. Pot-grown. Total. 

Sold 95,000 10,347 15^634 120,981 

Gratis 25,400 33,505 22,430 81,335 

Arbor Day 8,071 8,071 



Total 120,400 43,852 46,135 210,387 

It will be seen from the above tables that there is a large in- 
crease in the number of plants sent out in the seed boxes. This 
system was first started about three years ago, when a ship- 



60 

ment of Ironwood was sent as a trial to Mr. Jas. Gibb, then man- 
ager of Paauhau Plantation, Hawaii. It seemed to work well, 
and more shipments were made. Since then shipments of seed- 
lings have been sent to different people in Hamakua and Ko- 
hala, also several places on Oahu and Kauai, with good results. 
We have found, however, that should the plants receive rough 
treatment at the hands of the steamship people or others, there 
is liable to be considerable loss. 

A box containing from 700 to 1000 Eucalyptus or Ironwood 
plants costs $1.00 at the Nursery, the size of the box being 3 
inches deep and 12x16 inches. Plants in same size of box trans- 
planted, 50 plants to each box, cost from 75 cents to $1.00, ac- 
cording to species, while pot-grown plants are from, l l / 2 cents to 
2 l / 2 cents each. It will be seen that in shipping plants in the 
seed boxes the freight bill is reduced considerably, the freight 
being the same for a box containing from 700 to 1000 seedlings 
as it is for a box holding 50 transplants. 

Before the seedlings are sent out, they are past the damping- 
off stage, and there ought to be very little loss if handled rightly. 
Any careful man can do the transplanting. This system is to be 
recommended to those ordering plants from the Nursery in large 
quantities for the reason that transplanting involves often more 
labor than we have at our disposal. 

We require advice in advance should large numbers be 
wanted; from six weeks to two months for seedlings, and about 
three months for transplants ready to set out. 

Free List. 

The following is a list of those who have been given plants 
gratis during the past two years. Whether this liberal free list 
can be kept'up in the future will depend on the labor at our dis- 
posal and the demand of people who may wish to pay for plants : 

Leper Settlement, Molokai. 

All the schools of the Territory, public and otherwise. 

The different Road Boards on Oahu. 

Public grounds of all descriptions, including court yards, ceme- 
teries, and church yards. 

Improvement Clubs, for street planting. 

Homesteaders who do not have the means to buy trees. 

The U. S. Military and Naval Stations, forts, barracks and 
yards. 

The list of plants given gratis includes the planting at the 
Pupukea Forest Reserve, above the Pupukea Homesteads over 
30,000 having been used, principally Eucalyptus robusta, with 
about 3,000 divided as follows: Japan Cedar (Cryptomeria 



61 

japouica), Monterey cypress (Ciipressus macro car pa], and High- 
land Ironwood (Casnarina quadrivalvis) . 

Large quantities of trees have been sent to the different mili- 
tary headquarters (Fort Shafter, Fort Ruger, Schofield Bar- 
racks) ; also the Naval Station. And a request has been re- 
ceived from Lieut. Roy Smith, who is in charge of laying out 
the grounds at Parl Harbor, for a large number of trees, as 
well as instructions about planting. A great many different 
kinds are still wanted for the places mentioned, and wie are try- 
ing to get as many as possible ready. 

NURSERY GROUNDS. 

During the month of October, 1909, part of the fence around 
the grounds was removed, leaving the strip around the offices, 
nursery and cottage enclosed. Since the removal of the fence 
I am glad to state that very little damage has been done to the 
trees, and quite a number of people have been using the park 
for the purpose of studying the trees, as well as for recreation. 

We are again indebted to Sheriff Henry for his kindness in 
supplying us with the use of two prisoners, without which it 
would be impossible for us, with the present help of one man, to 
keep the grounds in good condition. Mr. Henry has also on 
two occasions sent a gang of men to the Makiki Station to assist 
in trenching and levelling, for which we are very much obliged 
to him. 

REALIZATIONS. 

During the years 1909 and 1910 there has been collected and 
deposited with the Treasurer of the Territory, as a Government 
realization, the sum of $989.20. The amount is itemized as 
follows : 

1909 Sale of plants $352.35 

Sale of seed 14.40 

Sale of wood from Tantalus 82.00 

Freight on plants 2. 50 $451 .25 

1910 Sale of plants 499.25 

Sale of seed 22.20 

Sale of wood from, Tantalus 2 . 50 

Sale of boxes 1.00 

Freight on plants . . . . ' .50 

From Division of Animal Industry 

for hauling garbage 12. 50 537.95 



Total $989.20 



62 
ADVICE AND ASSISTANCE. 

Under the above head the writer is frequently called to all 
parts of the city, and sometimes to the outside districts. Numer- 
ous calls are also made at the office. The demand for advice and 
assistance has increased a good deal during the past two years. 
This is due principally to the presence of the military organiza- 
tions and also to the large number of people who have bought 
land in the suburbs and are building homes. Many of the people 
who are making homes have recently arrived from the main- 
land, and, of course, know little or nothing about what to plant 
or how to go about it. By such people as these a large num- 
ber of requests for advice and assistance are being made. 

The officers of the different military organizations are also 
anxious to beautify their respective posts, and numerous requests 
for plants, and also for advice and assistance are continually 
being made. The following gives a number of the most im- 
portant requests that have been made from the outside districts. 

Kukaiau Plantation Company. 

Government Lease #623, Kaohe 11-B. 

Government Lease #625, Hoea-Kaao Mauka. 

Government Lease #626, Manowaialee. 

Government Lease #627, Niupea Kealakaha. 

A planting plan for the above-mentioned tracts of Government 
land lately leased to the Kukaiau Plantation Company and situ- 
ated in the District of Hamakua, Hawaii, with provisions for 
tree planting, April 20, 1909. 

Lower Pouhala in Waikele, Oahu. (Kunia) 

At the request of Mr. A. W. Van Valkenberg an examination 
v/as made of a tract of land lately leased by him from the Ho- 
nouliuli Ranch Company. The tract adjoins the land controlled 
by the Hawaiian Fibre Company at Lower Pouhala, Waikele. 
Advice was wanted regarding the best kinds of trees to plant; 
also how to plant them.. June 15, 1909. 

Pioneer Mill Company. 

Report with recommendations on the planting of trees on cer- 
, tain lands belonging to the Pioneer Mill Company, Lahaina, 
Maui. July 15, 1909. 



63 
Grove Farm. 

At the request of Hon. Geo. N. Wilcox, Grove Farm, Lihue, 
Katiai, a visit was made for the purpose of giving advice on 
the propagating of trees, etc. October 31, 1909. 

Pnpukea, Koolauloa, OaJiu. 

Report with recommendations on two tracts of land set aside 
as water reserves. 

Waialua Agricultural Company. 

At the request of Mr. W. W. Goodale, manager Waialua 
Agricultural Company, an elimination was made of two tracts 
of land intended to be planted in trees. One tract contained 34 
acres and the other 25 acres. Advice was wanted regarding the 
best trees to plant, etc. 

CONGRESSIONAL VEGETABLE SEED. 

During the month of January, 1909, a consignment of vege- 
table seed, consisting of 10,000 packages, and also about 300 
packages of flower see, was received from the Honorable J. K. 
Kalanianaole. Another similar consignment was received during 
the month of January, 1910, and the last consignment of 10,000 
packages of vegetable seed and 300 packages of flower seed was 
received, for the year 1911, on December 1, 1910. 

The demand for this seed is getting greater each year, and 
the seed is very much appreciated by homesteaders, and, in fact, 
every person who may have a small piece of land. Requests 
come from all over the Islands for packages of the congressional 
vegetable seed with good reports regarding the previous lots. 
Many Hawaiians who never tried to raise vegetables before are 
now, owing to this free distribution, planting and raising vege- 
tables for their own use, and from these people a great many 
requests for seed are coming in. 

All the schools of the Territory receive annually a number of 
packages for the school garden and for instruction. All appli- 
cations for seed sent by mail receive prompt attention. Persons 
calling at this office can get what they want and take it with 
them. 

EXPERIMENT GARDEN, MAKIKI. 

! 

During the past two vears several additions have been made 
to the buildings. A lath house, 18x36x10 feet high, was built 



64 

and an addition to the potting shed and store room; also a shed 
for hold soil, sand and manure. The large boiler that used to be 
at the Nlursery was carted to the garden and installed as a soil 
sterilizer. All the work conected with the building-in of the 
boiler, as well as building the lath house and extra shed room, 
was done by the regular men at the garden, the wood used being 
in part from the old nursery fence, in part from the old quarters 
removed from the Nuuanu Station. 

We have found the sterilizer of great benefit in destroying 
weeds and insects, etc., that happen to be in the soil. All the 
soil used for seed boxes and potting at the garden and also at 
the Nursery, is sterilized. The sterilizing is done by steaming. 
A grating is placed across the boiler about eight inches from the 
bottom, the space under the grating being filled with water. The 
soil is put into the kerosene tins and placed on top of the grating. 
A close-fitting wooden lid prevents the heat and steam from get- 
ting out too freely. From three to four hours is sufficient to 
cook and kill everything in the soil, without harming it. 

We have on hand .a large number of plants new to the Terri- 
tory, most of which are getting ready to plant out. When the 
trial ground is finished, the plants will be planted and carefully 
studied. 

No plants will be allowed to leave the garden until we are 
absolutely sure that they will not become pests. We do not have 
any plants so far that are likely to become pests. On the con- 
trary, they have proved to be beneficial in the countries from 
wtiiich they were sent. Sometimes, however, plants assume dif- 
ferent habits when transferred from one country to another 
sometimes better, but often worse hence the reason for care 
and study before distributing. 

About a year ago the Honorable A. de Souza Canavarro, Con- 
sul-General for Portugal, delivered to us a number of cuttings 
of the basket willow which he received from some of the Portu- 
guese immigrants. This plant is used for making all sorts of 
baskets. The cuttings were planted in the garden and are doing 
exceedingly well. Cuttings will be available for distribution in 
a few months. They ought to be planted in moist places, prefer- 
ably along the sides of streams. 

We have a large number of plants at the garden introduced 
by Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder, which include flowering, forest and 
fruit trees. Three new varieties of coconuts are also among 
his introductions. 

A large number of the new and rare plants raised from seed re- 
ceived from different Botanic Gardens are all worthy of being 
given a trial, and some of them may become of great value 
to the Territory. 




Plate 9. Native Undergrowth Coming Up Under a Planted 

Forest. 



65 

A good deal of the time of the men at the Garden has been 
taken up in assisting in the raising of trees for general distribu- 
tion, also for Arbor Day. The additions to the buildings and 
other improvements which have been done has also taken up 
much time. No more additions or improvements are necessary 
at present, so that the men can now devote all their time to the 
care of the plants and getting the trial grounds ready for plant- 
ing. 

TANTALUS FOREST. 

During the summer of 1909, which was exceptionally dry, the 
danger of fires starting in the forest became apparent and steps 
had to be taken to eliminate the danger. The floor of the forest 
was covered in most places with a dense tangle of dead and 
dying lantana, which might have been ignited by people passing 
through the forest. 

To protect the forest from this danger all the laborers em- 
ployed by the Division of Forestry at the Nursery and Makiki 
Garden were taken up to the forest one day each week to beat 
and cut down the lantana and lay it as flat on the ground as pos- 
sible. This work continued for from three to four months. After 
it was done the forest was practically safe from fire, for should 
a fire have got started after the lantana was beaten and trampled 
dowft flat it would have burned slowly and been easily put out. 
The forest now is safe from fires, the ground being covered in 
most parts by honohono (Coinmelina nudiflora) and air plant 
(Bryophyllnm calycimim'). The lantana has disappeared with the 
exception of a few shoots that have come up here and there from 
the old roots. 

The dead wood has been cut down and carted away. About 
50 Eucalyptus trees have been cut down for testing purposes and 
for making volume tables. The forest is now in good condition, 
very few dead trees are to be found. 

The Ranger, David Kapihi, has done good work in keeping 
the trails through the forest in good shape; also the trails run- 
ning along the bottom of Makiki Valley and over to the oppo- 
site ridge. Other work which he has to attend to, is to look out 
for people who sneak into the forest every now and again and 
cut and cart away grass and sometimes trees. He is also sup- 
posed to be on the ground when people have dry grass or weeds, 
etc., to burn off. 

During the year 1909, twenty-two permits w'ere issued to 
people desiring to burn dry grass, brush, etc. The number of 
permits issued for same purpose during 1910 was seventeen. 



5 B. A. 



66 
NUUANU STATION. 

One man has been employed at the station from January 1, 
1909, to December 31, 1910. At the latter date it was deemed 
necessary to dispense with his services. After this there will be 
no one at the Station, but the water-tender at the dam has prom- 
ised to keep a lookout and report when anything is wrong. The 
Work done by the man during the last two years consisted prin- 
cipally of clearing away vines from the trees and patrolling the 
forest in search of estrays, etc. 

It may be necessary again to employ one or two men in the 
near future to keep in check the vine Maile Pilau and other vines 
from smothering the trees. At present the forest is in a healthy 
condition and making a fast growth. The Eucalyptus robust a 
has proved itself well adapted for this situation. This tree is 
doing better than any of the other species planted. 

Places where previously the ti plant and ferns were almost 
gone before the trees were planted, are now assuming the ap- 
pearance of a typical Hawaiian forest, as far as the undergrowth 
is concerned. Ferns, ti leaf and vines are sprouting up in some 
places and covering the ground completely. This condition is 
particularly noticeable where the upper road from the old quar- 
ters joins the Pali road. Where the Hilo grass is very dense, 
however, it is difficult for the natural undergrowth to get a hold. 

The old quarters were taken down and carted to Makiki. This 
was done because of the buildings being on the site of the new 
reservoir. The wood and iron roofing has been advantageously 
used at Makiki for different purposes. Two of the houses used 
by Mr. L. Whitehouse for his men when building the dam were 
left, an agreement to that effect having been made between Mr. 
Campbell and Mr. Whitehouse. Should there be more tree 
planting done in Nuuanu, the houses will come in handy for 
the men. 



Respectfully submitted, 



DAVID HAUGHS, 

Forest Nurseryman. 



Report of the Botanical Assistant. 

Honolulu, T. H., December 31, 1910. 

Mr. R. S. Hosmer, 

Superintendent of Forestry, 
Honolulu, T. H. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith my report for 
the biennial period ending December 31, 1910. 

Since October, 1908, I have been engaged by the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry with the view to investigate the Flora 
of these Islands and to establish an herbarium comprising not 
only native forest trees and shrubs, but also all lower Crypto- 
gams, as well as grasses, pulses and ferns. 

Before going any further, I shall try to give an introductory 
explanation of the nature of an herbarium, its practical uses, and 
the necessity for systematic work on plants, as well as for forest 
protection, as only through an intimate knowledge of the life 
histories of our trees and plants which make up our forest shall 
we be enabled to devise plans for efficient protection. 

THE HERBARIUM. 

Among the divisions of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry 
the herbarium occupies a place of great importance, but one that 
requires some explanation in view of possible misconception. An 
herbarium is a systematically arranged collection of authentically 
named dried plants, and is highly essential for instruction and 
research. It is somewhat of the nature of a museum, a laboratory 
and a library. As a collection or assemblage of plant material 
it resembles the museum. It might be included in the laboratory 
as an essential apparatus without which systematic work on 
plants is impossible, and as illustrated literature it is a kind of 
library extremely useful for reference. 

First of all, it may be worth stating that no botanist would 
think of making an herbarium simply for the sake of having a 
collection. It is in no sense a fad. It is however, sometimes 
looked upon by the layman as any other collection, as of perhaps, 
china cups, postage stamps, or any other objects of someone's 
passion. 

It is in the first place necessary that the herbarium should con- 
tain authentically named specimens, as it is not always possible 
to recognize plants by the brief descriptions which are some- 
times published in various languages. Illustrative material is 



68 

absolutely necessary to determine the plants of one's own en- 
vironment and to be able to recognize species new to science. 
The determination of plant species is by no means the sole factor 
in botanical work, but is of subsidiary importance. An herbarium 
may be consulted for a particular specimen, the name of which 
may be known beforehand in order to compare its structure with 
other forms, or to ascertain the relationship of an unknown plant. 

The herbarium may be compared to a great illustrated volume, 
to the pages of which the botanist refers daily in quest of in- 
formation. The administration of such an herbarium may be 
paralleled in the management of an office, as that of registry of 
deeds. 

The herbarium of this Board is not extended indefinitely be- 
yond the borderlands of the Pacific, but comprises only such 
Floras as are closely related with the Flora of these Islands. 
Only in a few cases it was found necessary to have Floras, such 
as of Mauritius and other islands having an insular Flora, for of 
island floras botanists distinguish two kinds, "insular" and "con- 
tinental" floras. 

As research in Hawaii is not limited to certain fields of sys- 
tematic botany, as forest trees, but also is extended to grasses 
and pulses, it was found necessary to make the herbarium general 
in its scope, and it was desired that it should contain all the lower 
Cryptogams, as well as Phanerogams, for purposes of instruc- 
tion and in order to give a general conspectus of the plants of 
these Islands. An herbarium should be looked upon, not as a 
show piece or an accomplished task, but as a growing and work- 
ing mechanism that will return daily a large interest by way of 
instruction and research upon the capital invested in its establish- 
ment and maintenance. 

It being an impossibility to conduct such work without facilities 
for publication, it therefore may not be out of place to make a 
few general remarks regarding such. The dissemination of 
knowledge about plants is the very essence of botanical research 
activity. Unless the results of research are made known to the 
scientific world through some precise announcement, they are of 
no value whatsoever. 

A station like the Board of Agriculture and Forestry should 
be engaged in the publication of original scientific investigations, 
as well as of popular or semi-popular treatises, such as lists of 
stock-poisoning plants, pests, etc., occurring in the Territory, 
with ample illustrations in order to enable the ranchman to 
recognize his enemies and deal with them accordingly. 

It is indeed of the greatest importance and advantage for an 
establishment of this kind to control its own publication to the 
extent of at least one or two bulletins, thus giving it the oppor- 



69 

tunity to express freely its individuality. I therefore recom- 
mend and urge this Board to find means whereby we will be 
enabled to publish at least one series of bulletins, which shall 
appear whenever there is material on hand, either scientific or 
popular. By the freedom of exchange such contributions form 
the most useful and practical medium of communication between 
different institutions of the world, and will help to promote and 
advertise, as well as make the world acquainted with the work 
accomplished by the Station in question. 

FOREST AND BOTANICAL EXHIBIT. 

During the month of January, 1909, it was decided by the Ha- 
waii Commissioners of the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition to 
send a forestry and botanical exhibit to the Exposition. 

The collecting of the wood specimens forming a part of the 
forestry exhibit and the arrangement of the botanical display was 
entrusted to me. At the suggestion that the Punaluu Mountains 
would be the best place from which to secure Oahu specimens, 
permission was secured from the Trustees of the Bishop Estate, 
as well as from Mr. J. B. Castle, to proceed to Punaluu Camp 
and there cut the desired number of trees. 

On February 1, 1909, according to instructions, I went to the 
above named place, camping there for several days, and cutting 
about forty logs, including duplicates. Ten natives were em- 
ployed for nearly a week. The hauling of the large logs to the 
railroad track was not only difficult, but exceedingly dangerous. 
They had to be carried from an elevation of 2500 feet over a 
narrow, zigzag foot trail, cut into the face of a precipitous cliff, 
which, during the continuous rain at that time prevailing, was in 
almost impassable condition, two landslides having occurred at 
the time. Besides the logs, herbarium material of 500 specimens 
was collected. 

On February 11, I proceeded in company with one of the 
Commissioners, Mr. A. F. Knudsen, to Kauai, going to Waimea. 
Immediately after arrival I started for the mountains accom- 
panied by several natives, Mr. Knudsen following the next day. 
Halemanu mountain-house was made headquarters. Most of 
the trees cut for wood specimens came from) Kopiwai forest, 
which is rather open and more accessible than the forest back 
of Halemanu, besides being drier, and therefore richer in species. 

From Halemanu I made trips into the interior of Kauai, visit- 
ing Kalalau and Kilohana, where the beautiful Wilkesia gym- 
noxyphiwn Gray, (Iliau) (see plate 10) is to be found in com- 
pany with Lobelias. The great bog of Lehua makanoe, with its 
fragrant endemic violets and insect-eating plant Drosera longi- 
folia, a native of Europe, was explored, as well as Mohihi, Alakai 



70 

swamp, besides the drier districts, as Milolii, etc. Large bo- 
tanical material was collected at the above named localities be- 
sides seeds and a few wood specimens. 

The work having been completed at that section of the island, 
I proceeded to Makaweli. Mr. Francis Gay, who takes great 
interest in the native flora and who, I would say, is the authority 
on native plant names as well as Meles and Oliolis, in which 
such names occur rendered great assistance in straightening out 
the native names of the Kauaian plants. He is extremely well 
posted and has gained information from the old Hawaiians that 
can be had from no one else. 

Kaholuamano, Mr. Gay's mountain house, is on the leeward 
side of Kauai at an elevation of 3800 feet, back of Waimea. 
There I made my headquarters. I had the good fortune to have 
Mr. Gay's company for several days, which enabled me to get 
much data concerning native names of plants and their medicinal 
properties, as well as Meles and Oliolis, in which some of them 
occur. Fourteen days were spent at that locality making trips 
to Lehua makanoe, Mahana, etc. On March 12, I returned with 
four pack mules loaded with botanical material, to Makaweli. 
In the drier lowlands and gulches a number of logs were col- 
lected for wood specimens. 

On March 20, I proceeded to Lihue. On account of the limited 
time and heavy rains I was unable to camp in the woods back of 
Lihue, but worked part of the Haupu range, ascending Haupu 
proper, shortly afterwards returning to Honolulu. 

After my arrival on Oahu, I proceeded to the windward side of 
said Island, making Waiahole my headquarters, with a view* of 
collecting additional wood specimens, as well as to secure herb- 
arium material. 

During the months of April and May I worked on the botanical 
exhibit. Four koa stands with swinging frames (see plate 11) 
were made by Mr. Ira Eskew, then of Kamehameha School. Each 
stand carried two rows of fifteen double frames each ; in all 240 
specimens. Stand one contained specimens of Hawaiian Algae 
(Limu) in the upper row and the native ferns in the lower. 
Stands two and three contained specimens of native shrubs and 
trees, and stand four introduced ornamental plants. Three koa 
frames were made for the wood specimens (see plate 12), each 
one exhibiting thirty specimens, the individual specimen measur- 
ing one foot in length, five inches in width, and one inch in 
thickness, showing the bark on one side. 

A gold medal was awarded for the above described Forestry 
and Botanical Exhibit by the Alaska- Yukon-Pacific Exposition. 




Photo by A. Gartley 

Plate 10. Wilkesia gymnoxyphium Gray. 
Length of flower about 3y 2 feet. 




Plate 11. Plant Specimens for Alaska- Yukon-Pacific 
Exposition. 




Plate 12. Wood Specimens, Exhibited at Seattle. 



71 
BOTANICAL EXPLORATIONS. 

NORTH KONA, HAWAII. 

On June 1, 1909, I left Honolulu on the S. S. Mauna Loa for 
Kailua, Hawaii, to make a botanical survey of Mt. Hualalai, as 
well as to explore parts of the Parker Ranch and Hamakua. 

Headquarters were established at Mr. John Maguire's Huehue 
Ranch, situated at an elevation of 2000 feet on the slopes of Hua- 
lalai. The time from June 3 to June 7, inclusive, was spent in 
collecting, at an elevation of 2000 feet, in the vicinity of Huehue, 
mainly along the government road. The forest along the road 
is intersected by two large a-a flows, as well as pahoehoe lava 
flows dating back to the last eruption of Hualalai, in 1801. 

It may not be out of place to give a general description of that 
most interesting of all districts, including Puuwaawaa. 

The most prevailing tree near Huehue is Plectronia odorata 
(Walahee or Alahee), belonging to the order Rubiaceae, which 
has, besides the coffee, one other representative at this elevation, 
the "Nau" of the natives (Gardenia brighami), which on ac- 
count of its large white and fragrant flowers is worthy of culti- 
vation. The latter was not previously recorded from Hawaii. 

A few trees of the Hame or Haa (Antidesnta platyphyllum) , 
without blossom or fruit, were found near a large Kukui grove, 
while only 500 feet higher the same tree was found loaded with 
the black ripe berries. Another species belonging to the Eu- 
phorbiaccae, Euphorbia lorifolia, or Akoko of the natives, who 
make charcoal of its wood, was seen on a-a lava fields ; here it 
formed a small, straggling shrub of about four feet, while 700 
feet higher it is a tree of considerable size, with a trunk of almost 
ten inches in diameter. A rosaceous shrub (Osteomelcs anthyl- 
lidifolia), Ulei, grew nearby. On the more exposed places Rey- 
noldsia sandwicensis, the "Ohe," a represetnative of the order 
Araliaceae, is abundant on the a-a lava fields. The most com- 
mon of the shrubs is the native Kului, (Nototrichium sandivi- 
censc}. It forms a hedge on both sides of the government road. 
Its foliage is of a silvery gray which blends with the color of the 
lava. The Lama (Maba Sandwicensis}, a very handsome tree 
of small size, is quite common. Aalii (Dodonaea eriocarpa), a 
shrub 6-8 feet in height, grows on open places which are desti- 
tute of other vegetation. Myoporum sandwicense, or Naio, is 
predominant on the roadside. 

One of the most interesting and rare trees is Gossypium dry- 
narioides, the native brown cotton, "Kokio" (see plate 13), 
Hillebrand in his "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands," says : "The 
species was imperfectly described by Seeman from a specimen 



72 

in the British museum, collected by Nelson, the companion of 
Captain Cook." North Kona, Hawaii, is a new locality, as the 
species had only been recorded from the western end of Molokai. 
In the latter place the writer found one single tree of this species 
still bearing fruits, but almost dead. 

On Hawaii about six of these trees are alive and are much 
taller than the one on Molokai, having a straight trunk with an 
average height of 25 feet; one trunk measured 12 inches in 
diameter. One tree was dead, and the others, if not properly 
protected, will soon be a thing of the past, as the natives had 
stripped several trunks of their bark, which contains a rich red- 
dish-brown sap used by them for dying their fish-nets. The 
species is of striking beauty when in blossom and deserves to be 
cultivated. 

Another handsome tree is Colubrina oppositifolia, whose wood 
surpasses that of its relative Alphitonia ponderosa, the Kauila 
from Kauai, in being harder grained and in possessing a deeper 
red color. 

The Uhiuhi (Mesoneurum Kauaiense) is quite plentiful, one 
tree being of especially large size. The wood is highly prized 
by the natives, it being the hardest and heaviest of all native 
woods. Its color is almost black. The winged, papery pods are 
destroyed by a species of Tortrix ( ?). 

The Alaa (Sideroxylon sandwicense) is occasionally met with. 
It is a handsome tree, of considerable size. On Kauai, where the 
tree reaches a greater height than in Kona, I found it destitute 
of fruit with the exception of a few abortive ones, while at North 
Kona, Hawaii, the tree is loaded with berries of the size of a 
Chinese orange. 

The lava flow of 1801 is bare of vegetation, with the excep- 
tion of Ohia lehua (Mctrosideros polymorpha), of which single 
trees have come up, some of them only 12 to 15 inches high, al- 
ready bearing flowers and fruit. The hardiness of the tree is 
remarkable, and where nothing else can live, not even the Ma- 
mani (Sophora chrysophylla) , the Ohia lehua adapts itself to 
almost any condition and environment. It is found in the black 
bogs of Lehua makanoe on Kauai, as well as in the swamps of 
the Kohala Mountains, Hawaii. At the former place it is dwarfed, 
reaching only a height of 6 to 8 inches, and bearing flowers and 
fruit. It thrives well in the hottest and driest regions, on bare 
lava as well as in black, muddy soil, at 4000 to 5000 feet, in com- 
pany with Acacia Koa. Where it reaches its greatest height it 
sometimes exceeds 100 feet. Again, it can be found at the sum- 
mit of Hualalai, 8200 feet elevation, growing at the rim of a 
crater, stunted and rugose throughout. 




Plate 13. Hawaiian Red Cotton: Kokio. 

drynarioidcs Seem. 



73 

Of the Urticaccac, the Mamake (Pipturns albidus) , Maoloa 
(Neraudia uiclastomacfolia), and Wauke (Brousonettia papy- 
rifera) are here represented. The Wauke, which w&s used by 
the natives for making their tapa, or paper cloth, was extensively 
cultivated in former days. It is only found at the settlement of 
Puuanahulu in the midst of a Cactus hedge. 

A few adaptive characteristics of the plant covering of this 
hot and dry district may be mentioned before this paragraph is 
dismissed. The prevailing type of wood is of a hard, close- 
grained texture, such as that of Mezoneurum Kauaiense, Colu- 
brina oppositifolia, and Acacia Koaia, the latter being found 
on the dry slopes of Puuanahulu ; also Maba sandwicensis, Plec- 
tronla odorata, Sophora crysophylla, and others. 

It appears that in this dry, rocky region the tendency for trees 
and shrubs of slow growth is to form harder and finer wood 
than those of rapid growth. 

PUUWAAWAA. 

The greatest variety of trees and shrubs is found on the little 
hill called Puuwaawaa, and in its vicinity. This 300-foot hill, 
rising at an elevation of 2700 feet, is like an oasis in a desert, 
the like of which can be found in the upper regions of Hualalai. 
Rough a-a surrounds its base, while on its slopes luxurious 
vegetation grows in the rich, dark soil, bearing some resemblance 
to the plant covering of Waihou and the middle forest belt of 
Mt. Hualalai. 

The Olopua, or Pua (Olea sandwicensis), a handsome tree, 
is found on its lower slopes near the edge of the lava fields in 
company with a Sapindus, an apparently underscribed species. 
Charpcnticra ovata and Pisonia incrmis, both very soft wooded 
trees, called Papala by the natives, can be found here in company 
with representatives of the order Rutaccae. 

Pittosporutn Hosiucri, a species new to science, (see plate 20 
and description in part), called Aawa hua kukui by the natives, 
on account of the large fruits resembling the Kukui nuts, is a 
common tree in this region. It is astonishing that a tree as com- 
mon as the above mentioned Pittosporum should have been over- 
looked. It can only be assumed that the region in question had 
never been visited by any collector or botanist. 

The mature fruits of said Pittosporum are of enormous size 
with woody capsule of 3^x2^2 inches. 

HUALALAI. 

On June 8, preparations were made for the ascent of Hualalai, 
where camp was established at Kalulu, an elevation of 6000 feet. 



74 

While at this camp I experienced a slight earthquake, which was 
felt stronger at Huehue. On June 9, the ascent was made to 
Honuaulu, the highest peak of Hualalai, 8273 feet, of which I 
shall give a general account and description of the country 
traversed. 

At 2000 feet elevation commences the lower forest zone, with 
valuable pasture lands extending up to about 3500 feet, beyond 
which the soil is black and muddy and covered by a forest mainly 
composed of Ohia lehua, Kolea (Myrsine Lessertiana) , Byronia 
Sandwicensis and Acacia Koa, forming the middle forest zone. 
Most of these Koa trees are nearly smothered beneath great 
masses of runners of the wild raspberry (Rubus macraei), the 
stems of which are sometimes over two inches thick and 25 feet 
long, thus forming impenetrable thickets. 

From 5000 to 6000 feet the vegetation is stunted, the most 
prevailing trees being again Ohia lehua and Kolea. Above it 
the vegetation gives place to lava fields of rough a-a, which 
gradually pass into a small, dismal plain composed of Pahoehoe 
and gravelly sand. Here is the home of Geranium cuneatum, the 
wild strawberry (Fragaria chilensis), species of Raillardia and 
Coprosnia ernodeoides or Kukaineenee, whose black berries are 
eaten by the native geese (Bernicla sandwicensis) . 

The vegetation now takes a different character. A legumi- 
nous tree, the Mamani of the natives (Sophora chrysophylla), 
and the Naio (Myoporum sandzvicense) , which forms here a tree 
of 25 to 30 feet in height, are abundant, while at lower elevations 
both are small, 5 to 6 feet high, and branching from the base. 
The plain above as well as the forest beneath is intersected by 
lava streams. Here and there in the extensive lava fields are 
beautiful green hills covered with old giants of Acacia Koa, 
which, from their elevation, escaped destruction by the fiery 
streams, and now appear like oases in a desert. From here to 
about 7400 feet, within which lies the upper forest zone, Mamani 
and Naio seem to be the only trees, while Dodonaea eriocarpa, 
Cyathodes tameiameia, and Coprosma Menziesii form the scrub 
vegetation up to the summit. 

The summit itself is composed of a number of large craters, 
some 200 to 500 feet deep by 3000 feet in circumference Ho- 
nuaulu forming, as before mentioned, the highest point, 8273 
feet above sea level. The walls of the craters are solid and al- 
most perpendicular, the bottoms flat and gravelly. Some of the 
craters were full of lava blocks which have fallen from the steep 
walls. 

Northwest from Honoaulu, a half mile distant, are a series of 
craters and cones, one being especially remarkable for its un- 
fathomable depth. It is a veritable chimney about 100 feet high, 



75 



and composed of rough a-a with a blow-hole of 10 feet in diam- 
eter, the inner walls of which are perfectly smooth, only one 
side having fallen in. A stone dropped by the writer into this 
chimney fell for 16 seconds before the first reverberation could 
be heard. Between this cone and Honuatilu is a plain covered 
with a thin crust of lava which breaks at every step. 

The slopes of Hualalai, from the Puuwaawaa side, are very 
steep and bear only one crater of considerable size, at an eleva- 
tion of 5000 feet. 

On June 15, I proceeded to Puuwaawaa, where headquarters 
w i ere established. Trips were made into Waihou forest, Puua- 
nahulu, and across the extensive lava fields. On June 20, an- 
other ascent was made to the summit of Hualalai from its north- 
ern slope. 

During my stay in North Kona I collected several thousand 
herbarium specimens, and also made a supplementary collection 
of the following woods: 



Manele 

Olei 

Ohe 

Aiea 

Papal a 

Akoko 

Coffee 

Aawa hua Kukui 

Papala kepau 

Kopiko ula 

Kokio 

Nau 

Kauila 

Alani 

A'e 

A'e 

Aalii 

Pukeawe 

Pilo 

Naenae 

Ohe 

Uhiuhi 

Poola 

Kului 

Maoloa 

Iliahi 

Opuhe 

Alaa 

Ulei 

Momona 



Sapindus sp. (?) 
Ochrosia sandivicensis 
Rcynoldsia sandivicensis 

Nothocestrum breviflorum 
Gharpentiera ovata 
Euphorbia lorifolia 
Coffee arable a 
Pittosporuin Hosmeri 
Pisonia inennis 
Straussia hawaiiensis 
Gossypium drynarioides 
Gardenia brighami 
Colubrina oppositifolia 
Pelea cinerea var. delta 
Xanthoxylwn kauaiense var. 
Xanthoxylum dip et alum var. 
Dodonaea eriocarpa 
Cyathodes tanieiamcia 
Coprosma rhynchocarpa 
Dubautia plantaginea 
Tetraplasandra sp. ( ?) 
Mezoneurum Kauaiense 
Clao.vylon sandwicense 
Nototrichium sandwicense 
Neraudia melastomae folia 
Santalunt freycinettianum var. 
Urera sandimcensis 
Sideroxylon sp. (?) 
Oste o meles an thyllidif olia 
Anona cherimolia 



76 

WAI ME A. 

On June 21, I proceeded to Waimea via Keaumoku. At Ma- 
kahalau, in the central part of Parker Ranch, I camped for 
twelve days, searching the paddocks for stock-poisoning plants, 
as well as making a general survey of its vegetation. During 
that time the following places were carefully gone over : N.ienie, 
Mana, Kanahiokaoka, Paauhau Nos. 1, 2, 3, Puuohia, Punohu, 
Palihookapapa, Wahinekea, Kapepe, Kipukoa, Puupueo, Hanei- 
poe, Puuhuluhulu, Kaluamakani, and Moano on the slopes of 
Mauna Kea. 

July 5, I returned to Waimea, from which point an expedi- 
tion was made into the swamps of the South Kohala Mountains 
and to the crater Puukawaiwai. July 9 was spent in a trip from 
Waimea to the head of the Holokaiea Gulch, which yielded 
much interesting material. 

On July 10 and 111 followed the upper ditch trail leading to 
Alakahi and Kawainui to an elevation of 4050 feet. An attempt 
was made to reach the summit of that range, but could not be 
carried out on account of the extensive bogs. 

On July 15, I went from Waimea to Kukuihaele, where head- 
quarters were established at the Hamakua Ditch Company. July 
16, a collecting trip was made into Waipio Gulch proper, as well 
as into the smaller valleys, as Hiilawe, Waima, Alakahi and Ka- 
wainui, on the windward side of Hawaii. July 18, a trip was 
made into the woods above Hiilawe and Puakalehua Gulch, 
which is really a continuation of Hiilawe. Nearly all the above 
mentioned places had never been visited by any collector or 
botanist. July 20, I crossed Waipio and followed the trail lead- 
ing to Waimanu. July 22, I returned to Honolulu with several 
thousand specimens of plants. 

EXPLORATION ON KAUAI. 

On July 31, 1909, I left once more for the island of Kauai, 
going immediately after arrival at Makaweli up to Kaholuamano, 
Mr. Gay's mountain house. All the Lobelias were then in blos- 
som as well as many other plants. I explored the great bog of 
Lehua makanoe, and proceeded into the interior of the island, 
collecting at Waiakalipo, Waiakealoha, Kahana Valley, etc. As 
only one botanist, Dr. Wawra, of the Austrian Exploring Ex- 
pedition, had ever visited Waialeale, thex5ummit of Kauai, and 
that in the first half of the last century, I found it advisable to 
arrange an expedition to said mountain. With a guide and three 
natives carrying botanical outfit, blankets and provisions for one 
week (including two hundred pounds of poi for the natives) we 
started for Keaku, a cave at an elevation of 4800 feet, made by 




Plate 14. Lobelia Kauaensis (Gray) Heller. 
Habitat, Mt. Waialeale, Kauai. 



77 

natives in the olden times who spent months at a time in that 
locality hunting birds. The beauty of the surrounding country 
is almost indescribable. The dense jungle of tropical vegetation 
uncontaminated by civilization, with its many gay-colored birds 
feeding on the exquisite giant-lobelias, the beautiful streams of 
refreshing water, bordered by the immense Ape ape (Gunnera 
pctaloidea) whose leaves are sometimes 5 ft. in diameter, with 
an inflorescense of nearly 4 ft. in length, is a picture which will 
ever be held in memory by him who was so fortunate to see it, 
and even more fortunate to collect in such virgin forest. 

After crossing Wailenalena stream we came to the high central 
plateau where thousands of the most beautiful of all Hawaiian 
Lobelias, the "Pue" (Lobelia kauaensis) (see plate 14) and 
"Kolii" (Lobelia macrostachys) formed the main vegetation. 
Late at evening, long after the sun had set, we had still two 
miles to \valk, and that in the stream-bed of Kaluiti and Kailiili, 
between boulders, and every now and then climbing over the sides 
of a waterfall, finally reaching the Cave Keaku, situated on the 
slopes of Kaluiti Valley, hidden under vines and ferns. 

The writer spent five days in that locality exploring the forest 
and ascending the summit of Kauai, "Waialeale" an extensive 
open swamp constantly enwrapped by clouds and harboring most 
interesting plants. There are to be found the "Mikinalo" (Dro- 
sera longifolia) the insect-eating plant, Giant Lobelias, Violets, 
Geraniums, strange grasses, and peculiar woody composites. 
Among them was one species new to science (see description and 
plate) besides Cyperaceae; also an Umbellifera and many other 
plants. 

Heavily laden with rare and interesting material I returned to 
Kaholuamano where I spent several days in straightening out the 
plants collected. My native guide, an old Hawaiian, was well 
versed in the native folklore, and through him I was able to secure 
Meles and Oliolis about the plants of ''Waialeale." 

During the first week in October I explored the beautiful canon 
Olokele, which yielded material of great interest. The work 
having been completed, I returned to Honolulu, only to start 
as:ain for Kauai on October 14. Mr. Marshall, Chief Geographer, 
U. S. Geological Survey, was to visit the island and I was to 
accompany him as guide. Taking advantage of the opportunity 
I took some of my botanical outfit along, with the intention of 
collecting wherever we would go. We first proceeded to Lihue, 
from there to Hanalei and then to Kekaha ; afterward, camping 
at Halemanu, at Malua Poha, Mr. Faye's mountain house. Trips 
were made to Kilohana, Kalalau, and into Alakai swamp. After 
an absence of ten days we returned to Honolulu. 

During the months of November and December, 1909, and 
January, 1910, I was engaged in classifying the plants collected 
on previous trips. 



78 

VISIT TO MOLOKAI. 

On February 15, 1910, I proceeded, according to instructions, 
to the island of Molokai, with the view of collecting botanical 
material as well as to investigate the forage plants on the Molokai 
Ranch, especially the stock-poisoning plants. I spent ten days 
at Kamoku camp, collected along the main ridge, in Kawela 
swamp, Pelekunu Pali and along the ridge to Wailau, where ex- 
tensive collections were made comprising all species and classes 
of plants found in that region. 

From Kauluwai, after several days spent in search for 
obnoxious weeds, as well as grasses making, so to say, a botani- 
cal survey of the pasture lands I proceeded to the Leper Set- 
tlement and to Kalawao where most interesting shore-plants were 
collected. The trip to the Settlement was made mainly to explore 
the valleys back of the same, as well as Waikolu, which have 
been explored very little botanically. Two new species were 
found in the latter which will be described in the near future. 
The western end of Molokai, which seemed to offer very little 
botanically, was a great surprise, as nearly as much material was 
collected there as at Pelekunu. 

After having completed that section of the island I proceeded 
to Mapulehu. From there all the valleys on the leeward side 
were explored, as well as another ascent made to Pelekunu from 
Kamalo. A trip was made across the Mapulehu Pali near Puu 
Wailau into Wailau Valley proper, on the old native trail. Several 
days were spent in the valley and an attempt w r as made to climb 
Olokui, the highest peak in that section, but on account of the 
heavy rains, which made the crossing of the stream; dangerous, 
and the unwillingness of the natives to accompany me, the trip 
was given up and I returned to Mapulehu over the Wailau Pali 
and from there started for Halawa, where the extensive swamps 
back of the Twin falls were explored, as well as the valley itself. 
The preliminary botanical work for that season having been com- 
pleted on Molokai the writer returned to Honolulu on April 29. 

The number of specimens collected during the Molokai trip 
amount to approximately 3,000. Besides flowering plants, and 
forage plants and grasses, a great number of lichens, mosses, 
ferns, etc., were collected, which have been forwarded to the 
various specialists in Europe for identification. 

KOHALA, HAWAII. 

In the month of May, 1910, I proceeded to Hawaii, landing at 
Kawaihae and going at once to Waiki, where an investigation 
was made of the different pasture grasses and poisonous plants. 
Mauna Kea was ascended three times from Waiki and interesting 
material secured. 




Plate 15. Brighamia insignis Gray. 

Native names Ptiaala on Molokai ; Alnlu on Xiihau. Grow 
ing on the cliffs at Halawa, Molokai. 




Plate 16. Lobelia Gaudichaudii DC. 

Fruiting specimen; growing on Pelekunu Pali, Molokai, at. 
an elevation of 4500 feet. 



79 

Waimea plains, respectively, Makahalau, Nienie, Mana, Hanei- 
poe, Paauhati No. 1, 2 and 3, Nohonoohae and other paddocks 
were searched for stock-poisoning plants as well as other unde- 
sirable weeds and grasses of which a complete set authentically 
named, with a typewritten history of each plant will be given to 
the Parker Ranch in the near future. 

Mauna Kea was again ascended from Kemole, Kaluamakani, 
and from Nau, near Horner's Ranch, as the vegetation at the 
higher levels varies considerably in the different localities. The 
woods back of Waimea were explored again, especially Alakahi 
and Kawainui. 

Then in North Kohala, the lower ditch was followed up, way 
into the heart of the mountains back of Honokanenui, Pololu, 
etc. Twice the attempt to cross the intervening gulches from 
Kohala to Awini had to be postponed on account of the swollen 
streams, which made the passing with pack mules not only dan- 
gerous, but impossible. Finally I reached Awini, and from 
there proceeded afoot for several miles into the woods, carrying 
botanical outfit, provisions, etc. ; camping there five days. From 
this point the summit of Kohala was reached after having cut a 
sort of trail through the swampy jungle. The botanical gain 
from that locality was immense. A number of new species were 
discovered, among them a violet which covered the ground thick- 
ly, and which scented the air with fragrance. It grew in an open, 
flat swamp, resembling somewhat Lchiia makanoe of Kauai. 

Mauna Kea and Kohala mountain yielded about 3500 speci- 
mens, some of which are new, besides a large number of lower 
Cryptogams. 

Returning to Honolulu on June 25, I was occupied from 
June 26 to July 18 in partly arranging the large material col- 
lected on the different trips. 

TRIP TO LANAI AND WEST MAUI. 

On July 19 it was thought advisable to visit the Island of 
Lanai, having made arrangements with Mr. J. T. McCrosson 
and Mr. Chas. Gay previously. Mr. Marston Campbell con- 
sented to have Mr. J. G. Hammond, a local teacher, accompany 
me. Mr. Hammond had had experience in collecting plants, etc., 
and was therefore a great help in the field, his duty being the 
drving of blotters and labelling, as well as collecting plants. 

Lanai was thoroughly explored from the summit Lanaihale 
to Kaa ; the vallevs Maunalei and Nahoku, the two largest ones, 
were visited besides Mahana and Kaiholena and the small gulches 
on the slope of the main ridge. 

A new violet was discovered on the main ridge, that seems 
to be peculiar to Lanai. It is woody, three feet high, with pink 



80 

flowers and narrow lanceolate leaves. The dry districts were of 
the greatest interest, especially the valley of Kaiholena. Here 
also several new species were discovered. The material collected 
on the Island of Lanai comprises about 2500 specimens; the 
largest amount of species of Lichens were found on that Island. 
After a month's sojourn on Lanai I left the Island for Lahaina 
on the "Nunulaweleka," a whale-boat carrying- the U. S. mail 
between Halepalaua and Lahaina, Maui. 

Through the courtesies of Mr. Weinzheimer, manager of the 
Pioneer plantation, in supplying men and pack mules, I was en- 
abled to ascend the highest peak on West Maui, Puu Kukui, 
5788 feet elevation. Gamp was pitched at an elevation of 4200 
feet on the edge of Honokawai gulch. From there the summit 
could be reached in four hours' walk through the swampy jungle. 
P"uu Kukui is of greatest interest, its vegetation being of similar 
character as Waialeale of Kauai, elevation 5250 feet, which 
mountain I ascended the previous year. With exception of the 
insect-eating plant Drosera longifolia and a new species of Com- 
posite, since described by me in The Torrey Botanical Glub Bul- 
letin, the flora is practically the same. Though several plants 
are peculiar to Puu Kukui as a violet, lobelia, and several others, 
I was greatly surprised in finding the Silversword, or Ahinahina 
of the natives, known from Haleakala and Mauna Kea, at the 
summit of West Maui, growing in a veritable pool. As the plant 
was not in flower it was impossible to determine if the same is a 
new species or not, but it may be an intermediate form of the 
green silversword from the western slopes of Haleakala and the 
well-known silversword from the crater and Mauna Kea. About 
1000 specimens were secured on this trip. 

EXPLORATION OF HALEAKALA. 

Having returned to Honolulu the latter part of August, on 
September 23, 1910, a trip was made to East Maui in compliance 
with instructions to explore the slopes as well as the crater of 
Haleakala. 

The first camp was pitched near Olinda at Mr. Fred. Harvey's 
survey camp. From there the forest of Hamakuapoko was ex- 
plored as best as conditions permitted; from Waikamoi to Puo- 
haokamoa and to the headwaters of Honomanu, where the jungle 
is dense and the vegetation exceedingly tropical; large material 
was secured at that locality. 

The camip was then transferred to Ukulele Dairy, 1000 feet 
higher than Olinda. The upper slopes of Haleakala, whose vege- 
tation consists mainly of shrubby, woody composites and geran- 
iums, besides a large number of plants belonging to other en- 
demic genera, were traversed in all directions. 




Plate 17. Argyroxyphium Sandwicense DC. 
Beta var. macrocephalum Hbd. 

Silver Sword Ahinahina in Haleakala crater, Maui. 




Plate 18. Argyroxyphium Sandwicense DC. 

Beta var. macrocephalum Hbd. 
Silver Sword in flower Ahinahina. 




Plate 19. Alectryon macrococcum Radlkf. 

Mahoe. Showing young and mature fruits, and seed. Slightly 

less than one-third natural size. 



81 

On October 24, Mr. L. von Tempsky, Mr. Sam Baldwin and 
I descended into the crater and camped in Kaupo Gap for five 
days. The crater was crossed from Kaupo to Koolau, and as 
much material as the short time permitted was collected. After 
the return from Koolau Gap the flora of the Makawao forest 
and of Puukakae was investigated and found to yield very in- 
teresting species, among them a species of Nbni (Morinda tri- 
mera), only previously collected by Mr. Lydgate fifty years ago. 
One tree only was observed ; rediscovered . by Mr. L. von 
Tempsky. 

ULUPALAKUA. 

Going on to Ulupalakua, Dr. Raymond's ranch, a study was 
made of the different Eucalypts originally planted by Captain 
Makee. Auahi and Kahikinui, seven miles from Ulupalakua, 
where I stopped for twelve days, was the most interesting field 
ever visited by me on any island, with the exception of Puuw'aa- 
waa, Hawaii. On an area of 350 acres not less than 47 species 
of trees were observed. Special mention may be made of one 
tree, thought to be extinct since the time of Hillebrand. This 
tree, belonging to the order of Sapindaceae, possesses an edible 
fruit, of the size of a large potato, and is worthy of culti- 
vation. About forty trees were observed and mature seeds of 
the same collected; it is called Mahoe by the natives, and was 
described by L. Radlkofer in the Sitz. math.-phys. bayer. Akad. 
Wiss. XX. 1890; the name, Alectryon macroccocum. (See plate 
19). 

Auahi and Kahikinui on Maui may be compared, and that 
justly, to Puuwaawaa on Hawaii. Nowhere in the group, with 
the possible exception of certain small areas in Kau, Hawaii, not 
yet visited by me, is there such a variety of species to be found as 
in these two localities. Both places have much in common, though 
each has its peculiar species. Gossypiuns drynarioides, the red 
native cotton, is also present at Auahi, previously thought to be 
growing only on West Molokai. The genera Pittosporum, Pe- 
lea, and others have most interesting representatives at Auahi, 
Maui, as well as at Puuwaawaa, Hawaii. 

I returned from this trip to Maui early in December, since 
when I have been occupied with the classification of the plants 
collected in the above described trips. 

The number of specimens in the herbarium amounts to ap- 
proximately 20,000 sheets, including duplicates. Over 1000 
were received through exchange with foreign countries, repre- 
senting genera of plants closely allied to Hawaiian genera. 



6 B. A. 



82 

COLLECTION OF NATIVE SEED. 

On Kauai and at Puuwaawaa, Hawaii, as well as at Kahiki- 
nui, Maui, the writer was enabled to collect seed of some forty- 
five native species, amounting to over 100 pounds. 

EXCHANGE OF HERBARIUM SPECIMENS. 

For over a year the writer has been in correspondence with, 
the leading herbaria of Europe, America, and the different Bo- 
tanic Institutions in the Orient and Australia in regard to the 
exchange of herbarium specimens. 

At present the Department has exchanged with the Sydney 
National Herbarium, New South Wales; Botanic Gardens, Pera- 
denya, Ceylon, India; Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java; Herb- 
arium Bureau of Science, Manila, P. L, and Botanic Station,. 
Mauritius. 

The following institutions have consented to exchange: Paris, 
Jardine du Plant, Tahitian flora; Imper. Roy. N.'at. Hist. Mu- 
seum, Vienna, Austria, Samoan material; Herbarium British 
Museum, London, Fiji material; Botanic Station, Taihoku, For- 
mosa, Formosan plants ; Berkeley, CaL, Herbarium, California, 
plants ; New York Bot. Gardens, Bronx Park, West Indian and 
Central American material ; Botanic Station, Sipbur, near Cal- 
cutta, Indian plants; Botanic Gardens, Singapore, Malayan 
plants. 

INVESTIGATION OF STOCK-POISONING PLANTS. 

As soon as the large material of pasture plants, grasses, etc.,, 
in this herbarium can be worked up, an account will .then be 
published in popular language, with ample illustrations, de- 
scribing the obnoxious as well as useful pasture plants occurring 
in the Territory, so that every ranchman will be enabled to re- 
cognize a plant as his friend or enemy, and deal with it accord- 
ingly. 

EUCALYPTUS INVESTIGATION. 

The writer has made a special effort to straighten out the dif- 
ferent species of Eucalypts growing in the Islands. On Tantalus 
material from 40 species and varieties was collected and far- 
warded to Dr. J. H. Maiden, Government Botanist, Sydney, New 
South Wales, Australia, the Eucalyptus expert, who kindly con- 
sented to identify the same for the Department. The diagnosis 
of over 20 species he has sent lately. Of the remaining ones, 
Dr. Maiden requested more complete material. This has been- 



83 

forwarded to him, as well as to Dr. Baker, who inquired if he 
could obtain specimens of the various species of Eucalypts -cul- 
tivated in the Islands. The identification of the latter is still 
pending. Of natural grown Eucalypts in Australia the Herb- 
arium contains an almost complete set, authentically named. 

PLANTS NEW TO SCIENCE. 

In the mountains at Punaluu, Oahu, at an elevation of 2000 
feet, on August 24, 1908, I discovered and collected specimens 
of one tree new to science belonging to the genus Euphorbia and 
of one violet. These, together with a plant belonging to the 
genus Lysimachia, have been described by C. N. Forbes of the 
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, in the Occasional Papers of that 
Institution, as Euphorbia Rockii, Viola oahucnsis, and Lysiina- 
chia longiscpala. The first two, Euphorbia and Viola, were col- 
lected by me (August 24, 1908). The Lysimachia he obtained 
when in company with me at Punaluu, November 14-21, 1908, 
and not as given by him, on August 14-21, 1908; his first four 
specimens having been collected by me. 

It may be remarked that Mr. Forbes overlooked the creeping 
rhizome in Lysimachia longiscpala, which my co-type speci- 
mens, collected November 14-21, 1908, plainly show. 

Besides the above, the following plants new to science were 
discovered and described by the writer, with exception of 
Sidcro.vylon rhynchospcrinuni, which was first collected by Dr. 
H. L. Lyon of Honolulu. 

Scaevola Swezeyana Rock Bull. Torr. Bot. CL, 36:645, 1909. 

A shrub 9-12 dm. high, with stiff, glabrous, rambling branches. 
Leaves glabrous, oblanceolate, 38-76 mm. X 12-18 mm., on 
petioles 6-13 mm. long, mucronate, entire, somewhat fleshy; 
peduncle single-flowered, 4-6 mm. long, entire, slightly pubescent, 
with two oblanceolate, foliaceous bracts below the calyx 6-18 
mm. long by 2 mm. broad ; calyx 4 mm., glabrous, with short, 
bluntish teeth of unequal size ; corolla pubescent, 5-lobed, yel- 
lowish green with reddish brown streaks ; tube 18 mm.- long, 
erect, corolla-lobes linear-lanceolate, sharp-pointed, scarcely 
margined, 16 mm. X 3 mm. ; stamens somewhat longer than the 
tube ; style incurved, pubescent throughout, little shorter than 
the corolla, indusium glabrous, ciliate ; drupe glabrous, crowned 
by the calyx-teeth, 5-6 mm., two-celled, putamen black, crusta- 
,ceous. 

The type is No. 4804 (in the herbarium of the Board of Agri- 
culture and Forestry), collected in the woods on the middle ridge 



84 

of Niu Valley, Oahu, at an elevation of 1200 feet (August 22, 
1909). The species is named in honor of Mr. O. H. Swezey of 
the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Exi eriment Station, 

Pittosporum Hosmeri Rock Bull. Torr. Bot. Cl., 37:297, 1910. 

Arbor 6.5-10 m. alta, ramis robustis; folia coriacea, 90-125 
mm. longa, 18-38 mm. lata, oblanceolata, obtuse acuminata, supra 
glabra, subtus lanuginosa, petiolo tomentoso 12-25 mm. longo; 
capsulae maturae 3 aut 4 in pedunculo 12-20 mm. longo, lig- 
nosae, glabrae, oblongo-subquadrangulatae, 55-75 mm. longae, 
45 mm. latae ; semina nigra, rugosa, 6-7 mm. diam. 

A tree 6.5-10 m. high, with a straight trunk and rather stout 
branches, young shoots pubescent; leaves crowded at the ends of 
the branches, coriaceous, 90-125 mm. X 18-38 mm., oblanceolate, 
bluntly acuminate, the upper side glabrous and wrinkled with a 
close net-work, covered underneath with a silvery gray wool, 
entire, gradually narrowing into a pubescent petiole of 12-25 
mm. ; open mature capsules single or 3 or 4 on a woody peduncle 
of 12-20 mm. and pedicels of 2 mm., thick-woody, oblong to sub- 
quadrangular, 55-75 mm. X 45 mm., opening into two, three, 
or sometimes four valves with a longitudinal median groove, 
glabrous when old, covered with a grayish brown wool when 
young; endocarp bright orange-colored, seeds black, rugose, 6-7 
mm. in diameter. The fruits exude a milky glutinous sap. 
FloWers not collected. 

This tree is rather common on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa, 
Hawaii, at an elevation of 3000 feet. The species is remarkable 
for the unusually large, woody capsules which open into two, 
three, and sometimes four valves. (Native name Aawa hua 
kukui.) 

The type number is 3957 in the herbarium of the Board of 
Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, Territory of Ha- 
waii. Collected at an elevation of 3000 feet. (/. F. Rock, June 
17, 1909.) 

Sidei^oxylon rhynchospermum Rock Bull. Torr. Cl. 37 :297, '10. 

Arbor 10-20 m. alta; folia coriacea, obovato-oblonga, 14-18 
cm. longa, 4.5-8 cm. lata, petiolo 2.5-3 cm. longo, alterna, stipulis 
0, prorsus glabra, folia novella tomentosa; calyx fere usque ad 
basin partitus, segmentis 5, acuminatis, imbricatis ; corolla lutea, 
campanulata, lobis 5 ; stamina glabra, ad basin corollae afftxa ; 
stylus brevis ; bacca ovoidea, purpurea vel nigra 4.5-5 . 5 cm. X 
3.5-4 cm.; semina 3-5, testa Crustacea nitida, plana rostrata, 
25-30 mm. longa, 12-14 mm. lata. 







Plate 20. Pittosporum Hosmeri Rock. 
About four-fifths of the natural size. 




f 



Plate 21. Sideroxylon rhynchospermum Rock. 
About two-fifths of the natural size. 



85 

A tree 10 m.-20 m. high, dividing freely into ascending 
branches ; bark brownish, with shallow, narrow longitudinal cor- 
rugations about 3 mm. thick, trunk up to 45 cm. in diameter four 
feet from the ground; leaves coriaceous, obovate-oblong, 14-18 
cm. X 4.5-8 cm., on petioles of 2.5-3 cm., alternate, estipulate, 
quite glabrous with age, some pubescence remaining on the 
sides and angles of the midrib and veins, especially on the lower 
surface, shining above, dull beneath, midrib prominent, with 
lateral veins leaving midrib at wide angles (about 80 in center 
of leaf) parallel to margin and connected by a continuous intra- 
marginal nerve, young leaves densely covered with appressed 
brown hair on both surfaces; flowers in clusters 2 or 3 (?) on 
tomentose pedicels, 12-20 mm. long; calyx 5-parted to near the 
base, lobes imbricate, acuminate, 3-5 mm. ; corolla light yellow, 
long'er than the calyx, 4-5 parted to the base, lobes acute ; stami- 
nodia half as long as the lobes, linear, w'ith a faint nerve ; stamens 
5, inserted at the base of the corolla, glabrous ; anthers erect, 
ovate, the cells confluent at the apex, opening laterally; ovary 
hirsute, 5-celled, style short-conical ; fruit a purple or black 
plum-like berry 4.5-5.5 cm. X 3.5-4 cm., rather fleshy, 3-5- 
seeded ; seeds enclosed in a papery pyrena, 25-30 mm. X 12-14 
mm., flat, beaked at both ends of the ventral angle, which is oc- 
cupied by the scar of the raphe, the crustaceous testa thin, of a 
light brown color. 

This tree was discovered by Dr. H. L. Lyon, pathologist of the 
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, in the woods of 
Nahiku, Maui, at an elevation of 1300 feet, where he collected 
the type material. Dr. Lyon observed one large tree at Kailua, 
Maui, which had a straight trunk fully 30 feet to the first branch. 

The type is number 6061, given by Dr. Lyon for the herbarium 
of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, 
collected January 15, 1909, at Nahiku, Island of Maui. 

Lysimachia glutinosa Rock Bull. Torr. Bot. Cl. 37:300, 1910. 

Frutex 10-12 dm. altus; folia alterna, chartacea, obovato-ob- 
longa, acuminate, 38-102 mm. longa, 12-30 mm. lata, petiolis lon- 
gitudine 12 mm. ; pedicelli axillares, ex axillis foliorum super- 
iorum; calyx fere usque ad basin partitus; corollae rotato-cam- 
panulatae, albae, lobis 5-8, ovatis ; capsula lignosa, ovata, 5-10 
valvis dehiscens ; semina numerosa. 

A diffusely branching shrub 10-12 dm. high, glutinous; leaves 
alternate, chartaceous, entire, obovate-oblong, acuminate, 38-102 
mm. X 12-30 mm., narrowing into a winged petiole of 12 mm., 
upper face covered with a glutinous exudation, underneath glab- 
rous and pale with prominent nerves ; inflorescence viscid ; flow- 



86 

ers solitary in the axils of the upper leaves on pedicels of 38 
mm. (50-76 mm. when with fruit) ; calyx persistent, with ovate- 
lancealate acute lobes free to near base, and half the length of 
the corolla, punctate; the imbricate corolla large, rotate-campa- 
nulate, cream-colored, 25-38 mm. in diariieter, cut deeply into 
5-8 ovate lobes, tube 4 mm. long; stamens half the length of the 
corolla or little more, the rather long filaments united at the base 
by a granular membrane, anthers erect ; style little shorter than 
the stamens ; capsule ovoid, smooth, 12 mm. or more long, lig- 
nescent, glossy inside, opening by 5-10 valves; seeds numerous. 

This plant is sometimes covered with hair, flies, and dirt, which 
adhere to the very viscid inflorescence and leaves ; the large, 
showy flowers are of striking beauty (February to March). In 
the herbarium the dried specimens leave large oil spots on the 
paper. 

The type is number 1770, in the herbarium of the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry of the Territory of Hawaii, collected 
on the highest ridge west of Halemanu, Kauai, on rather open 
places at an elevation of 4500 feet (February 14, 1909). A few 
shrubs were seen in the woods back of Kalalau. 

Dubautia Waialealae Rock, Bull. Torr. Bot. Cl. 37:304, 1910. 

Planta hirsuta, 2-3 dm. alta; folia coriacea, 15-20 mm. longa, 
4-6 mm. lata, terna, sessilia, oblanceolata ; capitula 5-10 mm. 
diam., hirsuta, in pedicellis 4-27 mm. longis ; corymbus foliaceus ; 
involucrum angustum, bracteis 5-6; receptaculum conicum, hir- 
sutum ; corollae luteae ; pappi paleae lanceolatae, ciliatae ; achaenia 
parce pilosa. 

Whole plant hirsute, 2-3 dm. high, with stout, woody branches 
covered with leaf-scars throughout ; leaves thick-coriaceous, 
crowded, 15-20 mm. X 4-6 mm., ternate, sessile, oblanceolate, 
acute, narrowing below, remotely denticulate in the upper half, 
covered with small, stiff, whitish hairs on both sides, many- 
nerved ; flower-heads 5-10 mm. in diameter, hirsute on pedicels 
of 4-27 mm. in groups of 4-18 at the ends of the branches, 
corymb foliaceous ; involucral bracts 5 or 6, almost as high as the 
heads ; receptacle conical, covered with long, white hairs ; florets 
6-30; corolla bright yellow, silghtly exserted, deeply 5-cleft, 
lobes reflexed ; pappus chaffy, the narrow lanceolate ciliate pa- 
leae as long as the hispid straight achenes. 

The type number is 5030 in the herbarium of the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry of the Territory of Hawaii ; collected 
(September 24, 1909) at the summit of Mt. Waialeale, Kauai, 
at an elevation of 5250 feet, where the plant grows in company 
with Geranium hmnile, Lobelia kauaensis, Pclea Waialealae, 
and Drosera longifolia. 




Plate 22. Dubautia Waialealae Rock. 
Less than one-half the natural size. 



87 
HERBARIUM EXTENSION. 

The herbarium is exceedingly crowded for space. Only four 
herbarium cases have been provided by the Board, which natur- 
ally cannot house all of the material so far collected, as well as 
the plants received by means of exchange. Five big boxes are 
now filled with plant material. It is exceedingly difficult to 
work on the collections on account of the limited space. At least 
four more cases are needed for housing the present collection 
properly, and in order to protect it from insects, which cannot 
be done when specimens are stored away in boxes. 

The room provided for the herbarium of this Board is alto- 
gether too small, and the moving of the same into larger quarters 
is an imperative necessity, if systematic work is to be carried on 
properly. 

None of the Hawaii plants have as yet been mounted, with 
exception of the Cyperaceae. All plants received through ex- 
change have been mounted and labeled. 

The writer's time has been chiefly occupied in field work. As 
lias been stated before, all Phanerogams, endemic and introduced, 
as well as ferns, mosses, lichens, fungi, fresh water and marine 
algae, have been collected in order to make the collection com- 
plete. It is the plan of the writer later to compile a complete 
flora of the Islands comprising all Phanerogams, as well as 
Cryptogams, with illustrations of the new and noteworthy 
species, to be published by the Board of Agriculture and 
Forestry. 

The following specialists have kindly consented to work up 
our Hawaiian Cryptogams, and some of our Phanerogams : 

Dr. Alexander Zahlbruckner, Vienna, Austria ; Lichens. 

Dr. Casimir De Candoll, Geneva, Switzerland; Piperaceae 
(Peperomia). 

Prof. E. Hackel, Attersee, Austria; grasses. 

Rev. G. Kfickenthal, Koburg, Germany ; Cyperaceae. 

Dr. A. W. Setchel, Berkeley, California; Algae. 

Of the photographs of plants reproduced in this report, all 
were taken by the writer with the exception of one taken by Mr. 
A. Gartley. 

The writer wishes to express his great indebtedness and sin- 
cere thanks to all those who have helped him in his floral search 
on the various Islands. He is especially indebted to Mr. Francis 
Gay of Makaweli, Messrs. Augustus F. and Eric A. Knudsen and 
Mr. Hans P. Faye of Kekaha, Mr. John Maguire of Huehue, 
Mr. Robert Hind of Puuw^aawaa, Dr. B. D. Bond of Kohala, 
and to Mr. A. W. Carter, manager of the Parker Ranch, to Mr. 
P. W. P. Bluett of Kohala, Mr. Charles Gay of Lanai, Mr. J. 



88 

T. McCrosson of Kukuihaele, Mr. George P. Cooke of Kauluwai, 
Mr. L. B. Nevin, Mr. James Munroe, Mr. C. C. Conradt, Mr. 
J. D. McVeigh of Kalaupapa, Mr. J. F. Brov/n of Halawa, Mo- 
lokai ; Mr. L. von Tempsky of Makawao, Mr. F. E. Harvey, 
Mr. L. Weinzheimer of Lahaina, Dr. J. H. Raymond, and last 
but not least, to Mr. A. Dowsett of Ulupalakua, for their kind 
hospitality and courteous assistance, and without whose aid the 
investigation of the Hawaiian Flora would have been impossible. 
I also wish to express my appreciation and thanks to .Mr. J. 
G. Hammond, who assisted me greatly in the explorations of 
the Island of Lanai and Puu Kukui on West Maui. 



Respectfully submitted, 



JOSEPH F. ROCK, 

Botanical Assistant. 



89 

LIST OF DISTRICT FORESTERS. 

(Corrected to February 1, 1911.) 

Following is a list of the (thirty-nine) District Foresters with 
their respective jurisdictions. Those marked with a star (*) 
have been appointed Special Territorial Police Officers to enforce 
the Terms of the Wild Bird Law, Act 104 of the Session Laws 
of 1907 : 

KAUAI. 
* ALBERT S. WILCOX. 

In and for the District of Halelea. 

J. E. MYERS. 
In and for the District of Koolau, excepting the land of Anahola. 

* GEORGE H. FAIRCHILD. 

In and for the land of Anahola and the northern portion of the Dis- 
trict 'of Puna, extending as far as the land of Wailua. 

* F. WEBER. 

In and for the portion of the District of Puna, south of and includ- 
ing the land of Wailua, except the lands controlled by Grove Farm 
Plantation. 

* EDWARD BROADBENT. 

In and for those lands in the District of Puna, controlled by the 
Grove Farm Plantation. 

REV. J. M. LYDGATE and * WALTER D. McBRYDE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, lying to the east of 
the Hanapepe Valley. 

* FRANCIS GAY. 

In and for that portion of the District t)f Kona, lying between and 
including the Waimea, Poomau and Kauaikanana Valleys on the west 
and the Hanapepe Valley on the east. 

* AUGUSTUS F. KNUDSEN. 

In and for the District of Na Pali and that portion of the District 
of Kona, formerly known as the District "of Waimea, lying to the west 
of the Waimea, Poomau and Kauaikanana Valleys 



90 

OAHU. 

* ANDBEW ADAMS. 
In and for the District of Koolauloa. 

* L. L. McCANDLESS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Roolaupoko extending 
from Koolauloa to the land of Heeia. 

* W, C. WEEDON. 

In and for that portion of the District of Ko'olaupoko extending from 
and including the land of Heeia to the land of Kailua. 

*JOHN HEED. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaupok'o extending from 
and including the land of Kailua to Makapuu Point. 

*PAUL B. ISENBEEG. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona extending from Maka- 
puu Point to and including Manoa Valley. 

* WALTEE F. DILLINGHAM. 
In and for the Districts of Ewa and Waianae. 

W. W. GOODALE. 
In and for the District of Waialua. 

MOLOKAI. 

* JAMES MUNEO. 

In and for that portion of the Island 'of Molokai lying to the west of 
"Wailau Valley and the land of Mapulehu. 

*C. C. CONEADT. 

In and for that portion of the Island of Molokai, including and lying 
to the east of Wailau Valley and the land of Mapulehu. 

LANAI. 

* CHAELES GAY. 
In and for the Island of Lanai. 

MAUI. 

H. P. BALDWIN. 
District Forester at Large for the Island of Maui. 



91 

*L. WEINZHEIMEB. 

In and for the District of Lahaiua. 

H. B. PENHALLOW. 
In and for the District of Wailuku. 

* H. A. BALDWIN. 

In and for the District of Hamakuapoko and the western half of the 
District of Hamakualoa. 

*W. F. POGUE. 

In and for the District of Koolau and the eastern half of the District 
of Hamakual'oa. 

* C. J. AUSTIN. 
In and for the District of Hana. 

* L. VON TEMPSKY. 
In and for the District of Makawao. 

L. VON TEMPSKY and DE. J. H. EAYMOND. 

In and for the Districts of Kula ? Honuaula, and the lands beyond 
to and including Kaupo. 

HAWAII. 

* G. C. WATT. 



In and for the District of North Kohala, and that porti'on of the 
District of Hamakua lying between the District of North Kohala and 
the Waimanu Valley. 

*A. W. CAETEE. 
In and for the District of South Kohala. 

* A. AHEENS. 

In and for that portion of the District 'of Hamakua from and includ- 
ing the Waimanu Valley to the District of Hilo. 

*JOHN M. EOSS. 

In and for that portion 'of the District of Hilo extending from the 
District of Hamakua as far as the- land of Makahanaloa. 

* JOHN A. SCOTT. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo extending from the 
District of Puna to and including the land of Kikala. 



92 

* JOHN WATT. 
In and for the District of Puna. 

* JULIAN MONSAEEAT. 

In and for that portion -of the District of Kau extending from the 
District of Puna to and including the land of Punaluu. 

*GEOEGE C. HEWITT. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kau extending from the 
land of Punaluu to the District of Kona. 

* E. VON S. DOMKOWICZ, 

In and for that portion of the District of South Kona extending from 
the District of Kau to the land of Kaohe. 

W. E. CASTLE. 

In and for that portion of the District of South Kona extending from 
and including the land of Kaohe to the District of North Kona. 

* JOHN D. PAEIS. 

In and for that portion of the District of North Kona extending from 
the District of South Kona to and including the land of Kahaluu. 

* JOHN A. MAGUIEE. 

In and for that portion of the District of North Kona extending from 
Kahaluu to the District of South Kohala. 



93 

LIST OF DISTRICT FIRE WARDENS. 

(Corrected to February 1, 1911.) 

Following is a list of the (forty-nine) District Fire Wardens, 
with their respective Districts : 

CHIEF FIRE WARDEN. 

EALPH S. HOSMER. 
Superintendent of Forestry, ex officio. 

DEPUTY FIRE WARDEN AT LARGE. 

DAVID HAUGHS. 
In and for the Territory of Hawaii. 

DISTRICT FIRE WARDENS. 
KAUAI. 



In and for the Wainiha Valley, District of Halelea. 

W. F. SANBOEN. 

In and for the District of Halelea, excepting the Wainiha Valley. 
J. E. MYEES. 

GEOEGE HUDDY, 
Assistant District Fire 'W.arden. 

In and for the District of K'oolau, excepting the land of Anahola. 
GEOEGE H. FAIECHILD. 

In and for the portion of the Districts of Koolau and Puna, extend- 
ing from the land of Anahola to the land of Olohena, inclusive. 

F. WEBEE. 

In and for the portion of the District of Puna, south of and includ- 
ing the land of Wailua. 

EEV. J. M. LYDGATE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, formerly known as 
the District of Koloa. 

FEANCIS GAY. 

In and for that portion 'of the District of Kona, lying between and 
including the Waimea, Poomau and Kauaikanana Valleys on the west 
and the Hanapepe Valley on the east. 



94 

AUGUSTUS F. KNUDSEN. 

In and for the District of Na Pali and that portion of the District of 
Kona, formerly known as the District of Waimea, lying to the west 
of the Waiinea, Poomau and Kauaikanana Valleys. 

OAHU. 

ANDREW ADAMS. 
In and for the District of Koolauloa. 

FRANK PAHIA. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaupoko, extending from 
the Koolauloa District line to the land of Heeia. 

GEORGE CAMPBELL. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaup'oko, extending from 
and including the land of Heeia to the land of Kailua. 

JOHN HERD. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaup'oko, extending 
from and including the land of Kailua to Makapuu Point. 

CHARLES H. BAILEY. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from Maka- 
puu Point to Palolo Valley. 



In and for Palolo Valley, District of Kona. 
W. M. GIFFARD. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, lying between Pauoa 
and Manoa Valleys. 

G. H. MOORE. 

In and for Pauoa and Nuuanu Valleys, District of Kona. 
WALTER F. DILLINGHAM. 

In and for the District of Ewa and that portion of the District of 
Waianae lying to the East of the Waianae Mountains. 

F. MEYER. 

In and for that portion of the District of Waianae lying to the West 
of the Waianae Mountains. 

*W. M. TEMPLETON. 

In and for the District of Waialua. 



95 

MOLOKAI. 

JAMES MUNEO. 

In and for that portion of the Island of Molokai lying to the West 
of Wailau Valley and the land of Mapulehu. 

C. C. CONRADT. 

In and for that porti'on of the Island of Molokai including and lying 
to the East of Wailau Valley and the land of Mapulehu. 

LANAI. 

CHAELES GAY. 
In and for the Island of Lanai. 

MAUI. 

H. P. BALDWIN. 
Fire Warden at Large, for the Island of Maui. 

L. WEINZHEIMEE. 
In and for the District of Lahaina. 

E. C. SEAELE. 
In and for the District of Kaanapali. 

H. B. PENHALLOW. 
In and for the District of Wailuku. 

H. A. BALDWIN. 

In and for the District of Hamakuapoko and the west half of the 
District of Hamakualoa. 

W. F. POGUE. 

In and for the District of Koolau and the east half of the District, 
of Hamakualoa. 

JOHN CHALMEES. 
In and for the District of Hana 



In and for the District of Kipahulu. 

J. H. EAYMOND, M. D. 
In. and for the Districts of H'onuaula and Kahikinui. 

L. VON TEMPSKY. 
In and for the Districts of Kula and Kaupo. 



96 

HAWAII. 

G. C. WATT. 

In and for that portion of the north half of the District of Kohala, 
extending from the land of Kaauhuhu to the Hamakua District line. 

SAM P. WOODS. 

In and for that p'ortion of North Kohala, extending from the north- 
ern boundary of the land of Kawaihea I to and including the land of 
Kaauhuhu. 

SAM M. SPENCER. 
In and for the District of South Kohala. 

AUGUST AHEENS. 

. In and for the western part of the District of Hamakua, extending 
to the boundary of the land of Paauhau. 



In and f'or that portion of the District of Hamakua, extending from 
the western boundary of the land of Paauhau to the boundary of the 
land of Kukaiau. 

ALBEET HOENEE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hamakua, extending from 
and including the land of Kukaiau to the Hil'o District line. 

i 

JOHN M. EOSS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo, extending from the 
Hamakua District to the land of Makahanaloa. 

JOHN T. MOIE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hiro, extending from and 
including the land of Makahanaloa to the land of Kikala. 

JOHN A. SCOTT. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo, extending from the 
Puna District line to and including the land 'of Kikala. 

JOHN WATT. 
In and for the District of Puna. 

WILLIAM G. OGG. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kau, extending from the 
Puna district line to and including the land of Punaluu. 



97 

CARL WOLTEBS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kau, extending from the 
land 'of Punaluu to the Kona District line. 

E. VON S. DOMKOWICZ. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
Kau District line to and including the land of Kaapuna. 

T. C. WHITE, Acting. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kaapuna to and including the land of Hookena. 

JOHN D. PAEIS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Hookena to and including the land of Kaawaloa. 

T. C. WHITE. 

In and for that portion 'of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kaawaloa to and including the land of Kahaluu. 

JOHN A. MAGUIEE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kahaluu to the Kohala District line. 

FOREST RANGER. 

DAVID KAPIHE. 

In and for that section of the District of Kona, Island of Oahu, 
bounded on the east by Manoa Valley, on the north by the Konahuan,ui 
Mountain Eange, on the west by Nuuanu and Pauoa Valleys, and on 
the south by the makai edge of the Eucalyptus forest, the Makiki reser- 
voir and the mauka boundary of the Judd land in Makiki and Manoa. 



7-B. A. 



Address delivered at Special Conservation 
Meeting, November, 1910. 



THE PART PLAYED BY THE FOREST IN 
CONSERVATION. 

By 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 
Superintendent of Forestry. 

On November 16, 1910, there was held in'the Throne Room, 
at the Capitol, Honolulu, under the joint auspices of the Terri- 
torial Board of Agriculture and Forestry and the Hawaiian 
Sugar Planters' Association, a Special Conservation Meeting to 
consider some of the fundamental principles of Conservation in 
their relation to local needs. 

The address of the Superintendent of Forestry is reprinted 
here, as it contains some matter not otherwise available. Mr. 
Hosmer's address was as follows: 

The five cardinal points for which conservation stands are the 
right use of lands, waters, forests and minerals, and the systematic 
safeguarding of the public health. Here in Hawaii we are more 
intimately concerned with conservation than are most communi- 
ties. With us the very economic life of the islands depends on 
the wise use of waters, lands and forests. While standing as 
we do, the western outpost of our nation, this community has 
placed upon it responsibilities in matters affecting the public 
health that require a large measure both of zeal and discretion. 

My share on this program is to speak of the part that the for- 
est has to play in Hawaii and to point out certain things that 
must be done, if our local forests are to be made to render their 
full service to the people of this Territory. 

The forest situation in Hawaii is familiar to most of those in 
this audience. But let me briefly review the salient points. Ha- 
waii is essentially an agricultural community, largely dependent 
upon irrigation. Under our local conditions of sharply diversi- 
fied climate, of varied topography and of the need the more pro- 
nounced because of our limited areas of putting to its highest 
use every acre of our arable land, it is essential that provision be 
made for the wise utilization of every drop of water that can be 
made to do duty be it used for irrigation, for domestic supply, 
for fluming cane or for power development. 



99 

This can only be accomplished with the aid of the forest. With 
our short, steep watersheds, heavy rainfall and lack of adequate 
storage facilities it is self-evident that the function exercised by 
the forest on the catchment basins and in general over the water- 
sheds, is of much more importance here than in most other coun- 
tries. Far and away the chief value of the Hawaiian forest is 
as a protective cover for equalizing and making dependable the 
sources of our water supply. For retarding run-off, protecting 
the surface against erosion and helping to form a natural reser- 
voir, from which are fed the streams and springs, it is hard to 
conceive of a better cover than the dense mass of trees, shrubs, 
ferns and undergrowth that together make up our native forest. 
Its value is too evident to require argument. 

But under present day conditions such a forest can only be 
permanently maintained by being cared for. That this may more 
effectively be done, forest reserves have been created and a gen- 
eral program drawn up looking to the adequate care of the for- 
est. But such a plan takes time to carry into effect and the co- 
operation of all forest owners, be they the general public, inter- 
ested as joint owners of the public domain, or more directly, be- 
cause they themselves control land in fee simple. 

A good start has been made, but much of what has so far been 
accomplished is but preliminary to what waits to be done. Be- 
fore the house can be built the foundations must be laid. So 
with the creation of a forest reserve system. The fixing of 
boundaries, the proclamations, and the coloring in of areas on a 
map are but steps toward the realization of an ideal. The time 
has now come in Hawaii when we must go further. 

And why is it that we must do this? Why this constantly 
recurring talk of forests and forest protection? Why not leave 
it to the government officials to look after the forests? That is 
what they are paid for. 

The answer to these questions is simply and solely because 
in Hawaii forestry is a business necessity. Wood and water 
are the first needs that must be satisfied in any community. 
Both are products of the forest. Wherever it can be got water 
is the most valuable product that the native Hawaiian forest can 
be made to yield. In Hawaii, without the native forest we 
should be without water. And in our planted forests, we have, 
too, an asset of constantly increasing value ; for the production 
of wood is one of the pressing needs of local conservation. 

The truth of these assertions is self-evident. But notwith- 
standing, there is much delay in putting into practice things 
which everybody agrees ought to be done to make our forests 
render their full quota of service. The object of this meeting 
is to bring home to those on whom rests the duty of managing 



100 

the material resources of Hawaii, the fact that wise use means 
not alone the prevention of waste but as well, and even more, 
the full utilization of all our resources. The prevention of waste 
does not mean the locking up of our natural resources. That is 
no part of the conservation program. On the contrary the key- 
note of conservation is use. But use from the standpoint of con- 
servation essentially means wise use use by which we may enjoy 
the benefits from a given resource, not only today but also in the 
years to come. And in Hawaii this cannot be brought about 
save through the cooperation of all concerned. 

Now obviously the first step in wise use is to stop waste. And 
unfortunately all over the Territory waste is now going on 
waste of waters, of forests and of lands. This is not good busi- 
ness. It must be put an end to. When artesian waters are not 
needed for actual use the wells must be shut off. Where erosion 
can be checked by altering the method of cultivation, that must 
be done. And where the forest by being protected can be made 
the better to do its part, it is but short-sighted economy that 
refuses to build the necessary fence. 

In an address made at the recent Conservation Congress at 
St. Paul, Henry S. Graves, Chief Forester of the United States, 
said: "The practice of forestry by private owners is a public 
necessity." This declaration is particularly applicable to Ha- 
waii. All the more important of our local forest reserves are 
made up of both government and privately owned lands. To 
secure the most efficient management of these areas requires that 
the owners of the lands cooperate with the government more 
actively than they now do. The most pressing needs in the forest 
reserves at present are, in most cases, fencing; in some the ex- 
termination of wild cattle and goats ; and in others the replace- 
ment of the forest on areas where the growing of trees is the best 
use to which the land can be put. In addition there is always to 
be considered the planting of waste land with trees of com- 
mercial value. 

It is no part of the plan of the government to abate its ac- 
tivity in forest work, nor to shirk any responsibilities that rightly 
belong to its officers. On the contrary it is the desire and in- 
tention of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry each year to 
render more and more efficient service through its several 
divisions. But it is not enough that the forest officials do their 
work. Seeing to it that the forests of Hawaii get proper care 
is a matter quite as much to the interest and benefit of individual 
land owners and corporations as of the government itself. We 
cannot hope in this Territory to make our forests do their full 
duty until all who are charged with their management give evi- 
dence of their faith through tangible works. 



101 

I am not making this plea on the grounds of abstract altruism. 
I am merely putting up to you as business men, a business 
proposition. The time has come when to make the most of our 
Hawaiian forests there is demanded the active cooperation of 
all forest owners. The place has been reached where the owners 
of Hawaiian forests cannot afford not to take active and united 
steps for the better protection of the forest, both by seeing to it 
that the appropriate branches of the government are given the 
adequate financial support by which alone can the government 
lands be properly administered, and also, and fully as important, 
by themselves undertaking forest work, each on his own land, 
but all uniting in a general plan. 

It is not enough merely to pass resolutions approving and ap- 
plauding these projects. The time has come to put words into 
deeds. Let every plantation manager think of the forest above 
his plantation. Let every land owner have in mind the condition 
of his forest holdings. Are your forests, and through them 
your streams, receiving the protection that the best interests of 
the plantation demand to be given them? Is there not some- 
where a place where a short stretch of fence would shut off and 
protect a large area of forest? Are there not areas of waste 
land that if protected would grow up again with native forest, or 
that could be planted with useful trees of commercial value? 
These, gentlemen, are practical questions. I put them to you 
because I believe they are of real and vital moment. Every one 
can be translated directly into terms of money and everything 
done is for your own benefit. Can you afford not to take account 
of these realizable assets ? 

It is not within the scope of this talk to go into details of what 
should be done in this or that place, or to prescribe ways and 
means. By this time every one now in Hawaii likely to need 
such service, ought to know that the staff of the Division of 
Forestry is always ready to advise forest owners how best to 
care for their forests and where, when and how to plant trees 
on their areas of waste land to get certain desired results. The 
object today is not to give such advice. What I have tried to do 
rather, is to set each man thinking if there is not forest work on 
his own land that if it were done would increase the value of 
his property; that if it is not done, will result in its depreciation. 

I do not forget that much excellent forest work has been done 
by private interests in Hawaii and that the last year has been 
marked by a gratifying increase in forest planting by numerous 
plantation companies. But it is not enough. Every plantation 
companv that has waste land ought each year to plant up definite 
areas with forest trees quite as regularly as it harvests its cane. 
It ought also and of the two this is the more imperative to 



102 

fence off and efficiently protect the areas of native forest from 
which come its supplies of water. From my knowledge of the 
Territory I am positive that to incur the expense necessary to 
get such work started is in every case a good investment. It is 
for your own interest, gentlemen, that I ask you to give these 
subjects thought. Forestry in Hawaii is not a matter for any 
one man or set of men ; it is one that in its results affects us all. 
The purpose of conservation is so to use the natural resources 
that first and foremost we ourselves may derive the fullest benefit 
from them today, but also that we may then pass them on, unim- 
paired, so that those who come after us may continue to enjoy 
the same benefits. Let us, here in Hawaii, look to it, each man 
on his own land, but all working together to a common end, that 
every one is doing his part to conserve through wise use the most 
important of our natural resources, the forests and waters of 
Hawaii nei. 



TERRITORY OF HAWAII 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 



DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

RALPH S. HOSMER, Superintendent 



REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY 



FOR THE 



BIENNIAL PERIOD ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1912 



REPRINT FROM THE REPORT OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS 
OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 




HONOLULU, T. II. 

HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN, LTD. 
1913 



CONTENTS. 



DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 

PAGE. 
Report of the Superintendent of Forestry. 

Introduction 49 

The reason for practicing forestry in Hawaii 49 

Summary 51 

Staff 51 

Appropriations 52 

Forest Reserves 52 

New reserves 54 

Tables with forest reserve statistics: 

Forest Reserves arranged in chronological order... 56 

Forest Reserves arranged by islands and counties. . . 58 

Proposed forest reserves 60 

Fencing forest reserve boundaries 60 

Kahoolawe 61 

Forest Planting 62 

Eucalyptus bulletin 63 

Plant Distribution 64 

Sub-nurseries 65 

Table of trees distributed 65 

Tree planting by corporations 66 

Table, number of trees planted 1911 and 1912 68 

Spreading the Algaroba 70 

Tree Planting on Government land 70 

Pupukea, Oahu 70 

Waimea, Hawaii 71 

Fungus disease of Eucalyptus 72 

Plant Introduction Work 73 

Experimental planting 73 

A new introduction 74 

Papapaholahola Station, Kauai 74 

Forest planting in Koolau, Maui 75 

Federal experimental tree planting 75 

Nuuanu Valley 75 

Experimental plots on the high mountains 76 

Miscellaneous forest work 77 

Reports and publications ' ] 77 

Botanical Survey 78 

Forest Fires ] 79 

Summary of Recommendations 80 

Report of the Forest Nurseryman. 

Nursery 82 

Collection and Exchange of seeds 82 

Exchange of seed 82 

Seed received through exchange 83 

Plant distribution 84 

Propagating trees for plantation companies 86 

Realizations 86 

Other work 87 

Nursery grounds 87 

Advice and assistance 87 

Congressional seed and year books 88 



iv 

PAGE. 

Experimenal Garden, Makiki 88 

Basket Willow 88 

Tantalus Forest 89 

List of District Fire Wardens 90 

List of District Foresters 94 

Report of the Consulting Botanist. 

Exploration of the windward side of Haleakala, Maui 95 

Transfer of the Herbarium 97 

Plant protection 97 

Discovery of a Native Hawaiian Rubber-producing tree 98 

Collection of seed for exchange purposes 98 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate 1. A Hawaiian Protection Forest Frontispiece 

Facing Page 

6. An Irrigation Ditch in the Forest 49 

" 7. Dense Forest on a Ridge in a Watershed .' . . 52 

8. A Hawaiian Forest after fire and grazing 52 

9. Remnants of the Past 52 

" 10. The ultimate result of forest destruction. Kahoolawe . . 52 
" 11. A Shipment of Seedlings for a Sugar Plantation Company 64 
" 12. Papapaholahola Sub-Nursery and Experimental Plant- 
ing Ground, Homestead, Kauai 72 

" 13. Experimental Eucalyptus Plantation, Nuuanu Valley near 

Honolulu 72 

" 14. Eucalyptus Robusta Windbreak, Nuuanu Valley Planta- 
tion 72 

" 15. Experiment Garden in Makiki Valley 88 

" 16. Potting Shed, Soil Sterilizer and Seedling Benches. Ma- 
kiki Station 88 

" 17. Willow Baskets Made from Plants Grown at Makiki Ex- 
periment Garden 88 

" 18. The Koko or Akoko 96 

" 19. Kokia Rockii Lewt. Kokio 96 

" 20. Kokia Rockii Lewt . 96 



2. le-ie Vine on Ohia Lehua Tree 100 

3. The Upper Transition Zone 100 

4. Where the forest gives place to grazing land 100 

5. Fern Undergrowth in the Hawaiian Forest 100 




Plate 6. An Irrigation Ditch in the Forest. 



Division of Forestry. 

Report of the Superintendent of Forestry. 



Honolulu, Hawaii, December 31, 1912. 

The Board of Commissioners of 
Agriculture and Forestry, 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to submit as follows the re- 
port of the Division of Forestry for the calendar years 1911 and 
1912. 

THE REASON FOR PRACTICING FORESTRY IN HAWAII. 

"Save the forests Store the floods." To the people of Hawaii 
this .notto of the National Irrigation Congress voices an impera- 
tive demand. Vitally important in the Western States, the con- 
servation of water is also, and perhaps even in greater measure, 
required for this Territory. Water is a fundamental need every- 
where. In Hawaii the foundations of the whole economic struc- 
ture of the Territory rest on its wise and right use. Everything 
that tends to perpetuate or increase the local supply of water is 
of interest and moment. 

One of the chief factors in maintaing an assured water supply 
is the forest. It needs no argument to prove this. The truth of 
the statement is self evident. But because this is so, the practice 
of forestry in Hawaii becomes an economic necessity. The ob- 
ject of this report is to sum up the reasons why the forest area 
of Hawaii must be protected and increased, and briefly to outline 
what has been accomplished during the past two years in this and 
the kindred lines of forest work now being carried on under the 
direction of the Territorial Government. 

The way in which the native Hawaiian forest exerts its influ- 
ence on water supply has so often been pointed out that it ought 
now pretty well to be understood. But with the added demands 
that each year's development makes on the sources of supply, the 
need becomes more apparent of husbanding this most important 
of our natural resources. 

In Hawaii with its short, steep watersheds, the limited area of 
its catchment basins and the great and sudden fluctuations in 
rainfall, even in the supposedly wet districts, it is of paramount 
importance that a cover of vegetation be permanently maintained 



50 

on the slopes of the mountains whence come the streams that feed 
the irrigation ditches. On the continuance in good condition of 
large tracts of forest depend the prosperity and well being of 
many people, for a body of forest reacts favorably on the region 
adjacent to it in many ways. 

In our present state of knowledge we may not know just how 
this influence is exerted, nor how far reaching are its effects, as 
for example on local climate and on health. But it is the experi- 
ence of mankind that a body of forest is a valuable asset, a heri- 
tage which ought not to be jeopardized through neglect or mis- 
management. 

The droughts of the past season bring home the vital connec- 
tion that exists between water and the yield of the sugar planta- 
tions. How much more would serious deterioration of the forest 
spell a general diminution of prosperity. And yet that is just 
what is happening all over the Territory, in all the windward dis- 
tricts where the native wet forest is not being protected from 
trespass and kept free from injury by man, wild stock and the 
rank-growing introduced grasses and other weeds. 

With the outlook for the future what it is in this Territory to- 
day, the time has unquestionably arrived when greater care must 
be given the forests. Fencing, the extermination of wild cattle 
and goats, the extension of the native forest cover, are all things 
that urgently call for prompt and energetic attention. 

There has been enough and to spare of talk. What is demand- 
ed now is the means to carry into effect the plans which the 
Board of Agriculture has worked out for meeting the present 
needs. These plans have been developed in conjunction with the 
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association and will receive the sup- 
port of that organization, but it is not enough for the corpora- 
tions only to take a hand in this matter. The protection and right 
use of the native Hawaian forest is an issue that concerns all the 
people of the Territory, large interests and small landholders 
alike, for everybody uses water. The need for water is a com- 
mon need. A well kept forest cover on the watersheds is essen- 
tial to an assured supply. 

The means for doing what is required can be had by devoting 
to forest purposes, especially to forest protection, a portion of the 
revenues now derived from the water right leases and licenses 
in the existing forest reserves. Upwards of $67,000 per annum 
is now received by the Territory from this source- A part of 
this money ought to be reinvested in the forest as a revolving 
fund, which in the end would pay back the amount so invested, 
with good interest. I earnestly recommend that this matter be 
given serious consideration by the Commissioners. 

During the past two years a large share of attention has been 
paid by the Division of Forestry to interesting corporations and 



51 

individuals in tree planting, both through the giving of advice 
and by the supplying of actual plant material. This work is of 
much practical importance and should be continued, but for 1913 
the forest needs of the Territory are first and essentially the bet- 
ter protection of the native forst. While there is yet time let 
us here in Hawaii "conserve the foundations of our prosperity." 

SUMMARY. 

During the past two years the activities of the Division of For- 
estry have followed in general the program laid down when for- 
est work was systematically begun in this Territory ten years ago. 
Four new forest reserves have been added to the chain extending 
through the islands and three of the older reserves have been in- 
creased in area. Most of the necessary field work preliminary 
to the technical reservation of the remaining forest areas that it 
is proposed to add to the forest reserve system has been com- 
pleted. Measures looking to the maintenance in good condition 
of the native forests, particularly those set apart as forest re- 
serves, have been forwarded. Tree planting on government land 
and by private owners has received a decided impetus through 
the activities of this Division. The giving of advice on various 
forest matters has been continued and has met a hearty response 
from those benefitted. Additional information has been secured 
concerning the value locally of trees of economic importance new 
to the Territory. And through the forest fire service, protection 
has been afforded against that danger. Altogether the years 1911 
and 1912 have seen a marked advance both in the status of for- 
estry in Hawaii and in results actually accomplished. 

The important thing now is to treat what has already been 
done merely as an incentive for better efforts in the future and 
to press on toward the goal of all forest work the wise use of 
the forest for the continuing good of all the people. 

STAFF. 

During the past biennial period the staff of the Division of For- 
estry has consisted of the Superintendent of Forestry (Ralph S. 
Hosmer) and the Forest Nurseryman (David Haughs). Until 
September, 1911, Mr. Joseph F. Rock was also a member of 
the staff, under the title of Botanical Assistant. He was then 
transferred to the faculty of the College of Hawaii, but as an 
honorary officer of the Board his name is still carried on the rolls 
as Consulting Botanist. 

Certain changes among the District Fire Wardens are indi- 
cated in a revised list of these volunteer officials of the Board 
that appears elsewhere in this volume. 



52 

APPROPRIATIONS. 

For the past two years the expenses of the Board of Agricul- 
ture and Forestry have been met from the Conservation Fund. 
Of this the expenditures of the Division of Forestry were as fol- 
lows: 

Salaries and 
Year. Pay Rolls. Current Expenses. Total. 

1911 $9,765.05 $ 807.63 $10,572.68 

1912 8,813.43 1,246.97 10,060.40 

From special allotments there was also expended during these 
years for forest work: 

Forest Planting, Pupukea, Oahu $ 831.30 

Kohala Mountain, Hawaii.. 3,421.60 



$4,252.90 

From the sale of Ohia timber, under a territorial license, in the 
Puna Forest Reserve, Hawaii, the sum of $2,955 was realized in 
June, 1911. This amount was set apart, under the law, as a spe- 
cial fund for forest work. In 1912 this money was transferred 
to the account of forest planting on Kohala Mountain- 

At the close of 1912 there still remains available $4,402.25 for 
additional planting in this account. 

As general realizations from the sale of seeds, plants, etc., 
and of dead wood from the Tantalus forest, there have been 
turned into the Territorial Treasury by the Division of Forestry 
the following amounts : 

For the year 1911 $612.75 

1912 295.40 

FOREST RESERVES. 

To those who have followed the earlier reports of this office, 
the reasons underlying the creation of forest reserves in Hawaii 
are an old story. But the need for forest protection and forest 
work remains and will always continue in Hawai to be a vital 
one. 

Many of the great functions of the Government now go on so 
smoothly that we have ceased to think much about them, but 
nevertheless it is well for us that our fundamental rights are 
safeguarded. 

In a somewhat similar way it must not be forgotten that agri- 
culture cannot exist in these islands in a large way, without irri- 



53 

gation. Under the natural conditions that obtain here climatic, 
geologic, topographic an assured supply of water cannot be re- 
lied on unless the catchment areas are kept clothed with vegeta- 
tion. The native Hawaiian rain-forest is the ideal of the type of 
protection forest needed. It is a plant community that precisely 
fills man's needs for keeping conditions at the head waters of the 
streams as he desires them. 

But owing to the extreme susceptibility of the Hawaiian forest 
to injury and to the rapidity with which it deteriorates when 
trouble gains a foothold, it is absolutely essential, in order to re- 
tain and perpetuate the conditions most favorable for water con- 
servation, that the native forest receive adequate protection and 
care. This is the reason why forest reserves are created. The 
areas necessary to protect given streams are set apart that they 
may be managed to help secure for all time the largest possible 
flow in the streams or springs whose sources they surround. So 
too, with the artesian supply. Unless the catchment basins are 
protected, the flow in the wells below will fluctuate and eventually 
decrease. 

By far the greater part of the native Hawaiian forests, espe- 
cially in the districts on the windward sides of the several islands, 
are of value primarily on account of the water which can be got 
from them. As has often been said of these forests, water, not 
wood, is their important product. Their management must 
therefore be with reference to water. This means in practice 
that the water bearing forests should be treated strictly as "pro- 
tection forests," from which men and animals alike are to be ex- 
cluded- The continuation of primitive conditions is the ideal 
the elimination of all sorts of trespass. 

That we are yet very far, in Hawaii, from the realization of 
this ideal is unfortunately true. Technically, to be sure, forest 
reserves have been set apart on each of the larger islands. Prac- 
tically, only a few of those created are receiving the care neces- 
sary to keep them in the condition in which they should be main- 
tained for the good of all concerned. Through the co-operation 
of corporations and individuals much, of course, has been and is 
being done, in fencing, in protection, and in some cases in forest 
planting. But the need remains for more fences, for the com- 
plete eradication of wild cattle and goats and in some cases pigs 
from the reserves, for continuing protection from fire, and in 
many places for improving the forest cover and extending it, par- 
ticularly in those forest reserves that are created essentially for 
water protection. 

These are the needs of the present. They are needs that must 
be met. For unless the required protection is given, and that 
speedily, the native Hawaiian forest will recede and disappear 



54 

just as surely as it has already gone in Hamakua, Hawaii, or as 
it is now going in North Kona. 

The mere formal creation of forest reserves, the delimiting 
of boundaries and the coloring in of given areas on a map are of 
course only steps in the process of getting the forests under 
proper control. These are necessary steps and have to be gone 
through with, but the essential thing is protection and the ap- 
pointed time for securing protection is now. 

The Board of Agriculture has detailed plans showing what 
ought to be done in the way of fencing and protection on each 
reserve. The practical requirement is for funds with which to 
get this work under way. As has already been pointed out, the 
reasonable solution of this problem is through the assignment to 
forest work of a portion of the revenues now received by the 
Territory from the leases and licenses of water rights in a num- 
ber of the forest reserves. A percentage of this money ought 
to be devoted to the protection and improvement of the native 
forest on Government land. Every effort should be made to 
secure its use for this purpose. 

NEW RESERVES. 

During the past two years four new forest reserves were 
added to the list, making a total at the close of 1912 of 27 forest 
reserves that have formally been set apart. The new reserves 
are as follows : 

South Kona Kona and Kau, Hawaii. May 17, 1911. Total 
area, 36,952 acres ; area of Government land 29,260 acres. 

Puna Puna, Hawaii- June 29, 1911. Area 19,850 acres, all 
Government land. 

Molokai Molokai. September 11, 1912. Total area, 44,674 
acres ; area of Government land, 13,268 acres. 

Kula Kula, Maui. September 11, 1912. Total area, 6,075 
acres ; area of Government land, 5,069 acres. 

In February, 1911, the boundaries of two of the older reserves, 
West Maui and Kau, Hawaii, were modified and the areas some- 
what increased. Similar action was taken in September, 1912, 
with regard to the Waianae kai Forest Reserve on Oahu, and 
through a land exchange on Kauai, 420 acres of forest in the 
Lihue-Koloa Forest Reserve were transferred from private to 
Government ownership. 

At the close of 1912 there are twenty-seven forest reserves in 
the Territory of Hawaii with a total area of 683,101 acres, of 
which 454,810 acres, 67 per cent., is Government land. On fol- 
lowing pages are tables giving in detailed form the statistics of 
each reserve. 



55 

Of the four new forest reserves, Molokai is essentially pro- 
tection forest- Puna and South Kona, being in districts where 
there are no running streams, were set apart primarily because of 
the prospective value of the forest on them from a commercial 
standpoint. 

Soon after the establishment of the Puna Forest Reserve a 
payment of $2955, made on behalf of the Hawaii Lumber Com- 
pany for the right to cut Ohia timber, under an existing license, 
was received by the Division of Forestry. This money was set 
aside under the forest law (Chapter 28, Section 385, Revised 
Laws of Hawaii) as a special fund for conducting forest work. 
In that this payment was the first one to be made under this sec- 
tion of the law, it may be of interest to note it here. The money 
has been allotted for forest planting on the Island of Hawaii 

Kula consists mainly of a portion of the upper slopes of Mt. 
Haleakala,. above the area of especial value for grazing. Like 
the Manna Kea Forest Reserve on Hawaii, the object here is to 
keep under control of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry 
land now of but little value for any form of agriculture, with the 
expectation that in time considerable portions of it may be made 
to grow useful trees. Experimental work is constantly going on 
to find out what species of economic trees can be made to grow 
in various parts of the Territory. It is confidently expected that 
in the end one or more species will be found that will do well on 
the upper slopes of our higher mountains. 



56 



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60 

PROPOSED FOREST RESERVES. 

Reports recommending the creation of additional forest re- 
serves on the Waianae Hills, Island of Oahu, are now in the 
hands of the Committee on Forestry. Other forest reserve proj- 
ects on Oahu and Hawaii only wait the completion of the techni- 
cal description by the Survey Department to be brought to th? 
stage of final action. 

Condemnation proceedings instituted by the Territorial Gov- 
ernment for the acquisition of a portion of the land of Kehena 2 
on the Kohala Mountain, Hawaii, which it is proposed be in- 
cluded in the Kohala Mountain Forest Reserve, were still pending 
at the end of the year. 

Under the heading "Forest Planting" mention will be made of 
work in forest replacement carried on in two of the forest re- 
serves. 

FENCING FOREST RESERVE BOUNDARIES, 

It is the policy of the Territory so far as possible to provide 
or the construction and maintenance of fences on forest reserve 
boundaries through clauses in the leases of adjoining government 
lands that are devoted to agriculture or grazing. Under such a 
requirement a fence was' built in 1911 by the Princeville Planta- 
tion Company along a section of the boundary of the Halelea 
Forest Reserve above Hanalei, Kauai. The fence runs between 
the Kalihiwai and the Hanalei streams. While only a little over 
a mile long it shuts off and protects a very large area of the forest 
above. The fence itself is very substantially built and should 
stand for a considerable time with only such minor repairs as 
must always be given to any fence line in the woods. Special 
mention is made of it here because this fence was practically 
built voluntarily, the requirement that such a fence be built hav- 
ing been inserted in this lease at the suggestion of the officers of 
the Princeville Plantation Company. As will be recalled, similar 
co-operation has been shown in past years by a number of other 
corporations throughout the Territory. 

Other localities where fence building is required on govern- 
ment land, along forest reserve boundaries, by government leases 
now in force are Kula, Maui, on lands leased to the Cornwell 
Ranch ; Kapaa and Kamalomalo, Kauai, on lands above the 
Kealia Plantation ; Waioli, Kauai, under a lease to C. B. Makee ; 
East Ohia and Kahananui, Molokai, under leases respectively to 
A. Rodriguez and C. Kaanoi ; and Humuula, Hawaii, under a 
lease to the Humuula Sheep Station. 



61 

Other leases call for the building of fences on forest reserve 
lines as soon as certain proposed forest reserves on Oahu shall 
have been officially set apart. While again, still other leases call 
for the up-keep of fences built, voluntarily or under lease require- 
ments, in former years, on forest reserve boundaries on each of 
the larger islands of the group. In addition many miles of 
forest fence are voluntarily maintained by sugar plantation com- 
panies and ranches on forest reserve boundaries across Govern- 
ment lands, not to speak of forest fences wholly on privately 
owned lands. 

An estimate recently made of forest fencing now in existence, 
required to be constructed under leases in force, and needing to 
be built for the better protection of the native forest, shows the 
following data, which while only pretending to be approximate, 
give a fairly good idea of the length of fencing required: 

Government Private 

Lands. Lands. 

Miles. Miles. 

Existing forest fences 110.0 111.0 

Fences required to be built 

under leases now in force 21.5 

Needed fencing 85.0 91.0 



216.5 202.0 

When this needed additional fencing is all done and the fences 
so built and those now in existence are being properly cared for, 
the forests of Hawaii will be in vastly better condition than they 
are today. The particular forest need of the present year is to 
get this work started and under way. 

KAHOOLAWE. 

Perhaps at this point reference should be made to the reclama- 
tion of the Island of Kahoolawe. 

This small island (28,260 acres) was, upon the expiration of 
a fifty-year lease, set apart in August, 1910, as a forest reserve. 
This action was taken at the suggestion of the Governor and was 
in accordance with a concurrent resolution passed by the Leg- 
islature at the session of 1909. The purpose of the action was to 
bring Kahoolawe under the control of the Department of the Ter- 
ritorial Government best fitted to handle the task of restoring to a 
condition where it would be of real value, an island that through 
continued over-stocking by cattle and sheep followed by the ac- 
tion of the elements, has been reduced in large part to an abso- 
lutely barren waste. 



62 

As it is now, somewhat over half of the entire area of Kahoo- 
lawe is absolutely destitute of all vegetation, the result of erosion 
by wind that since the cover of grass and other herbage was 
broken, has gone on with increasing destructiveness for many 
years. The process has now gone so far as to m'ake efforts at 
reclamation extremely difficult. The problem presented, if it is 
possible to do anything at all, is to put back a cover of some sort 
of vegetation. Then to improve its condition. And so, eventual- 
ly, to restore the island to a condition of productivity. The ques- 
tion is much more one of establishing soil binding plants than of 
tree planting, though of course windbreaks will have their place. 

For some time now there have been no cattle on Kahoolawe. 
A few sheep yet remain and there is also a band of wild goats. 
The first move is, of course, to get rid of these animals. In ter- 
minating the old lease an arrangement was made to drive and 
kill a part of the goats. 

Over perhaps a third of Kahoolawe is good pili grass and a 
scattering growth of Algaroba trees. This forest is spreading 
slowly but the process ought to be helped along. 

Owing to the fact that no funds were provided by the Legis- 
lature for such work, no further attempt than the above men- 
tioned action has as yet been made to undertake active work in 
the reclamation of Kahoolawe. Conditions have for a long time 
now been so bad over a large part of the island that it makes the 
outlay of any considerable amount of money on the barren por- 
tion partake of the character of a somewhat doubtful speculation. 
But it can be said that on the section of the lower lands where 
Algaroba is already growing, the stand should be extended. The 
trees are spreading naturally but if the process could be hastened 
it would be that much better. Were it found possible to devise 
some practicable but v^ry inexpensive way in which assistance 
of this kind could be given, the matter would at least be worth 
considering. 

FOREST PLANTING. 

During the past two years especial efforts have been made by 
the Division of Forestry to push work in forest planting, both 
on Government land and by corporations on their own, fee simple 
property. The reasons for this are plain. In Hawaii the native 
trees do not yield wood suitable for structural purposes. Fur- 
thermore, in many of the districts where wood is most needed, 
the native forest has already been pushed back as far as or 
farther than is safe from a water protection standpoint. Conse- 
quently there, even the cutting of fire wood is, or should be, tabu. 

On the other hand the demand for wood for all sorts of uses 
is constantly on the increase. Large quantities of lumber are 



63 

annually imported from the American mainland and in the na- 
ture of things this must continue for many years. But there 
seems no good reason why wood and timber for minor uses, such 
as posts, ties, rough bridge and flume sticks and the like, should 
not be supplied from local grown trees. Then, too, fuel wood is 
an item of very considerable importance on plantations on the 
windward side of the islands, in localities where the Algaroba 
will not grow. Windbreak, roadside and ornamental planting 
also require annually a goodly number of trees of various species. 

To provide a local source of wood supply is so evidently a 
good business proposition that it does not need any argument at 
all to prove it so. The main drawbacks to forest planting in Ha- 
waii are the initial cost and the length of time that must neces- 
sarily elapse before returns can be got. But on both counts Ha- 
waii is more fortunate than many places, for even if only fuel is 
cut, the yields from planted groves are sufficient to make the rate 
of interest on the investment a satisfactory one. With a longer 
term investment, yielding a higher grade of wood product, re- 
turns in Hawaii can, because of the fact that quick growing trees 
like the Eucalyptus are for the most part the ones used, be got 
very much sooner than in most places elsewhere in the United 
States. 

The function of the Division of Forestry in this matter is, first, 
to make available information as to what, where and how to plant 
to get the results desired, and second, further to assist the planter 
of trees by supplying at cost price seed and seedlings of the spe- 
cies of trees locally most in demand. 

A considerable part of the time of the Forest Nurseryman is 
devoted to the former work. Information is given out verbally, 
by correspondence, and through publications. In June, 1912, a 
new and revised edition was issued of the circular entitled "In- 
structions for Propagating Forest, Shade and Ornamental 
Trees." For a detailed account of this phase of the Division's 
work, the report of the Forest Nurseryman should be consulted. 

EUCALYPTUS BULLETIN. 

Perhaps it is not out of place here to make mention of a bulle- 
tin entitled "Eucalyptus Culture in Hawaii that was issued in 
July, 1911, as Bulletin No. 1 of the Division of Forestry. This 
report, written by Mr. Louis Margolin of the U. S. Forest Ser- 
vice, gives the results of the investigation carried on in 1910 with 
the co-operation of the Forest Service, when all the planted 
groves of Eucalypts in Hawaii were visited and all the informa- 
tion locally available in regard to this genus got together. An ed- 
ition of 3,000 copies was printed, so that the bulletin could be 



64 

given wide distribution. For those who are minded to establish 
Eucalyptus plantations this bulletin contains much material that 
is of interest and value. Copies may be had upon application, 
without charge. A further account of the investigation itself 
may be found in the biennial report of the Division of Forestry 
for 1909-1910, page 41. 

PLANT DISTRIBUTION. 

The distribution of plant material during the past biennium 
has exceeded in number of plants given out any previous record. 
For the most part the tree seedlings are sold at cost, but also 
many plants are given away, free. Especially is this true of 
Arbor Day, when an effort is made to get trees into the hands 
of as many individuals as possible, each person who applies being 
given not to exceed 24 seedling trees, chosen by him out of one 
or more of about a dozen species. In 1911 the total number of 
trees given away at the Government Nursery on Arbor Day was 
11,508. In 1912 it was 13,645. A phase of considerable import- 
ance in the plant distribution work is the supplying material for 
planting the grounds of schools and other public institutions, for 
street planting by local improvement associations and other simi- 
lar clubs, and for use at the Army and Navy posts and stations. 
Up to the present practically all material of this class has been 
furnished free, save that the Department of Public Instruction 
has paid the freight on shipments made to schools. 

Regularly the Government Nursery does not deal in orna- 
mental vines and shrubs, but in the case of certain schools and 
of the Army an exception has. been made and more or less plant 
material of this sort has been got ready for planting out. The 
justification of such co-operation rests on the desire of the Terri- 
tory to assist the Federal Government in every way possible. 

In addition to its plant distribution to individuals, the Divi- 
sion of Forestry has in the past two years furnished large num- 
bers of small seedlings to sugar plantation companies throughout 
the islands at cost. Many of the plantation managers are will- 
ing to set out a few thousand trees every year, but do not care 
to be bothered with the trouble of raising them. Under a plan 
that has been carefully worked out by the Division of Forestry, 
seedlings for this use can be got cheaply from the Government 
Nursery in seed boxes. The seedlings are not sent out until they 
have passed the "damping off" stage and are ready for the first 
transplanting. This any laborer can do, and then after a time 
set out the little trees in their permanent place without more 
than ordinary supervision. 



E M 

CTQ ' 

3> 
3 <S 






. 



o 

o o 

W 3 
00 




65 

In 1911, 349,000 seedling trees were grown and sent out for 
this class of planting. In 1912 the orders (to be rilled during 
the winter of 1912-13 ) amounted to 666,730 trees. One plantation 
company alone wanted 500,000. Considering that a few years 
ago the total number of trees planted in the Territory was offi- 
cially estimated at 498,677 (1908), this is certainly a gain worthy 
to be noted, for of course only a part of the trees now annually 
planted throughout the Territory come from the Government 
Nursery. 

Seed as well as seedlings of the trees most in demand for 
local planting is kept on hand at the Government Nursery at 
Honolulu, for sale at cost price. As far as possible the tree seed 
is collected locally so as to secure the advantage of acclimatiza- 
tion. With species that do not seed readily here, seed is pur- 
chased from commercial seedsmen elsewhere and imported. 
Upon request the Division of Forestry will endeavor to procure 
seed of any kind of tree desired by any citizen of the Territory, 
the only charge being the actual cost of the seed itself. 

SUB-NURSERIES. 

Besides the Government Nursery at Honolulu, as a part of and 
in connection with which is maintained the substation and experi- 
mental garden in Makiki Valley, there are at present two sub- 
nurseries of the Division of Forestry on the other islands. These 
are respectively at Hilo, Hawaii, under the charge of Brother 
Matthias Newell, and at Homestead, Kauai, under the direction 
of Mr. Walter D. McBryde. To both these gentlemen it is ap- 
propriate that a renewed expression of thanks should here be 
made, for without their generous contribution of much time and 
thought it would be impracticable under present conditions for 
the Division of Forestry to maintain these stations. 

Following is a table which shows the totals of seedling trees 
distributed from Division of Forestry nurseries in 1911 and 1912: 

TOTALS OF DISTRIBUTION OF SEEDLING TREES. 
Sold and Given Gratis from Division of Forestry. 

Nursery 1911 1912 
Government Nursery, including Makiki 

Station, Honolulu 597,396 787,704 

Hilo Nursery, Hawaii 12,104 12,490 

Homestead Nursery, Kauai 11,239 6,343 



Total 620,739 806.537 



66 

A detailed tabulation of these figures, showing the numbers 
of trees supplied for various classes of planting is given in the 
report of the Forest Nurseryman. 

The need for other sub-nurseries in various districts on the sev- 
eral islands, pointed out in previous reports, continues to increase. 
In a few places on Maui and on Hawaii, temporary arrangements 
have been made with plantation companies and others to supply 
trees to individuals for local planting, especially at Arbor Day 
time. But there ought to be better provision made for this phase 
of the work. People on Maui, for instance, have just as good a 
right to a local Nursery as persons in Hilo. Provision should 
be made for the establishment of more sub-stations. 

As it is now, apart from the seedlings distributed from depots 
established by temporary arrangement, a good many plants are 
of course shipped from Honolulu, so that those who really want 
them have no need to go without. But, obviously, a local nursery 
has its advantages, to say nothing of the saving of time, cost and 
liability of damage over inter-island shipments. 

TREE PLANTING BY CORPORATIONS. 

Without reference to where the plant material came from, it 
can truly be said that interest in tree planting by corporations 
has increased markedly during the period of this report. Most 
of those sugar plantations which were before doing a good deal 
have increased their activities. Others that had not before en- 
gaged in tree planting have taken up the work. And best of all, 
almost all the planting by corporations is being done in a careful 
and systematic manner, which should insure the ultimate success 
of the trees set out. 

Tree planting by sugar plantation companies can naturally be 
divided into three classes : wind breaks, roadside planting and 
camp adornment, and planting for direct economic return 
through wood production. Within the past two years noticeable 
additions have been made to the shelter belt of Ironwoods ( Casu- 
arina) along the windward shore of Hawaii in the Hamakua and 
Kohala Districts. Similar planting is also in progress on Maui, 
Oahu and Kauai. On good authority it is stated that in the lower 
fields on windward plantations which are protected by an Iron- 
wood windbreak, the yield of sugar has been increased very ap- 
preciably, as much in some cases as one half ton or more per 
acre. Also it has been possible in some cases to bring some new 
fields under cane since windbreaks were established. 

Of the planting of roadside trees and ornamentals near the 
camps no special mention is necessary except that it might well 
be noted that practically all the leading sugar companies are pay- 



67 

ing- much more attention to the appearance of their mill grounds 
and camps than was the case even a few years ago a movement 
that certainly is to be encouraged. 

Tree planting for commercial return by sugar plantation com- 
panies is usually confined to areas unavailable for agricultural 
crops, such as gulch sides, rocky corners and the like, that would 
otherwise be classed as waste land. Almost every plantation has 
such land. Much of it is in close proximity to camps where 
live the people who would be the chief users of fuel wood. But 
whether trees are planted with the object of producing fuel or 
some other form of wood, it is good business so to utilize- areas 
that would otherwise lie unproductive. The plantation companies 
that are vigorously carrying on such work now will benefit from 
it largely in the future. 

The accompanying table, compiled from answers to a general 
request for tree planting data sent to sugar plantations, stock 
ranches and other large tree planters, shows approximately the 
total number of trees set out throughout the Territory during the 
past two years. The figures in each case are those given by the 
companies themselves. While of course the grand total cannot 
be claimed to include all trees planted, it is thought to be a pretty 
close approximation to the true figure. Naturally this table in- 
cludes all classes of tree planting, as have similar estimates in 
former years. For comparison the totals for the last five years 
may be given, as follows: 

Total Number of Trees Reported Planted, 1908-1912. 

1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 

498,677 597,381 725,022 1,134,940 1,303,698 

As in past years the Division of Forestry stands ready, upon 
request, to draw up planting plans for any locality in the islands, 
having in mind the desire of the owner for one or another type 
of forest, and based on a study of the local conditions. The cost 
of this service consists merely in the traveling expenses of the 
agent sent. As has already been said, plant material can be ob- 
tained from the Division of Forestry at cost price. 



68 



Table Showing Number Of Trees Planted In The Territory Of Hawaii, 
Mainly By Corporations, in 1911 and 1912. 



Name of Corporation. 



Number of Trees 

Planted.* 
1911. 1912. 



Kauai. 



Princeville Plantation Co 10,000 

Kilauea Sugar Plantation Co 2,000 2,000 

Makee Sugar Co 14,908 17,195 

Lihue Plantation Co 20,000 20,000 

Grove Farm 25,000 45,000 

Koloa Sugar Co 17,770 

Hawaiian Sugar Co 10,000 40,000 

W. D. McBryde (Kukuiolono Park) 42,000 3,000 

Papapaholahola Reserve 4,000 9,538 

McBryde Sugar Co 17,300 

Waiawa Ranch 1,000 

Lihue Ranch 72,000 161,000 

A. S. Wilcox (Kilohana) 2,500 20,000 

Rev. Hans Isenberg (Kukaua) 1,100 1,600 

Homesteaders on Kauai 15,000 10,000 

Totals for Kauai 208,508 375,403 

Oahu. 

Kahuku Plantation Co 5,000 8,000 

Waialua Agricultural Co. 50,000 10,000 

Waianae Co 5,177 3,336 

Honolulu Plantation Co 100,000 125,000 

li Estate (Waipio) 19,042 20,000 

Kunia Development Co 21,058 59,797 

O. R. & L. Co. Ranch Department 5,000 

C. G. Owen (Pupukea) 1,000 2,000 

Pupukea Forest Reserve 1,000 

Waimanalo Sugar Co 12,000 16,000 

Francis Gay (Kalihi) 5,000 

Totals for Oahu.. 218,277 250,133 



* A number of sugar plantation companies and others report 
that owing to the prolonged drought of 1912 seedling trees that would 
otherwise have been planted out during the year are still held In 
the nursery. 



69 

Maui, Lanai and Molokai. 
Maui Agricultural Co. 

Kailiili and Opana 300,000 417,000 

Paia Nursery 50,000 29,511 

Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co 6,594 7,780 

Wailuku Sugar Co 11,405 17,009 

Haleakala Ranch 1,450 8,250 

Honolua Ranch 500 

Polipoli Forest Reserve (Wailuku) 2,686 

Koolau District (H. C. & S. Co.) 18,015 66,812 

Homesteaders on Maui 5,000 5,000 

Molokai and Lanai. 

Molokai Ranch 15,000 18,000 

Kalawao (Bro. Joseph Button) 3,760 500 

Lanai Ranch (Koele) 500 8,000 

Totals for County of Maui 411,724 581,048 

Hawaii. 

Niulii Mill & Plantation 1,730 6,020 

Kohala Sugar Co 20,000 12,000 

Puakea Co 710 575 

Pacific Sugar Mill 5,000 10,000 

Hamakua Mill Co 25,000 

Honokaa Sugar Co 10,000 10,000 

Kaiwiki Sugar Co 400 500 

Kukaiau Ranch 45,003 29,070 

Hawaiian Agricultural Co 9,000 

Homesteaders in Kau 25,000 5,000 

W. R. Castle (So. Kona) 2,000 

Parker Ranch 

Kohala Mt 128,437 5,888 

Waiki & Makahalau 10,500 

Paauhau 14,151 14,561 

Other localities 1,500 1,500 

Totals for Hawaii 296,431 97,114 

Summary. 

Kauai 208,508 375.403 

Oahu 218,277 250,133 

County of Maui 411,724 581,048 

Hawaii 296,431 97,114 

Grand Total . 1,134,9401,303,698 



70 

SPREADING THE ALGAROBA. 

One other forest suggestion that is pertinent here is that more 
systematic effort should be made by those owning or controlling 
considerable areas of low lying land along the lee coasts of the 
several islands, to extend the Algaroba forest. Of course, 
through natural reproduction this tree is spreading now in almost 
every district, but there are many localities where the process 
should be assisted. When land of poor character, dry and rocky, 
can so easily be increased in value as by establishing on it an 
Algaroba forest it would seem to require little argument to in- 
duce land owners to take the simple steps necessary to bring* 
such afforestation about. As a bee pasture, as a source of stock 
feed and as a producer of fuel-wood, Algaroba is of increasing 
value in Hawaii. Provision ought to be made by the Territory to 
increase the Algaroba forest on Government lands. Private own- 
ers should put into force a similar program on their holidngs. 

TREE PLANTING ON GOVERNMENT LAND. 

Within the past two years the Territorial Government has re- 
sumed forest planting on its own lands, both directly under con- 
tracts for planting given areas, and also through requirements in 
public land leases whereby the lessee is obligated to establish a 
given number of trees within a certain period on specified tracts. 

Pupukea, Oahu. 

Two areas have been planted directly by the Government under 
contract. One is a portion of the Pupukea Forest Reserve, Waia- 
lua District, Oahu. Here on what was formerly known as "Water 
Reserve C" are now between 30 and 35 acres of forest, mainly 
Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta). This work was begun 
in 1910, as was noted in the report of this Division for that year, 
and completed in the early part of 1911. Final payment under 
the contract was made in October of that year. The result of this 
planting is a vigorous stand of thrifty, well developed trees. 

In February, 1912, a special agreement was entered into with 
Mr. C. G. Owen, whereby in return for the privilege of growing 
two crops of pineapples on some remnants of open land on the 
bluff adjoining the Pupukea forest plantation, he is then to plant 
trees on the area so cultivated. The satisfactory performance of 
this tree planting is insured by a bond fully covering the cost of 
the work. This particular planting will join and extend the stand 
already established. 



71 

Waimea, Hawaii. 

The other locality planted directly by the Government is on 
Kohala Mountain, above Waimea Village, Hawaii. In May, 
1911, a contract was signed with Mr. A. W. Carter, Manager qf 
the Parker Ranch, under which, in accordance with a planting 
plan drawn up by the Division of Forestry, 50 acres were planted 
during the winter of 1911-12. Here again Eucalyptus robusta 
was the principal tree used. The planting having been satisfac- 
torily completed, payment of the contract was made in the sum- 
mer of 1912 in two installments. 

A continuation of this planting has been made by the Parker 
Ranch on adjoining fee simple lands, so that altogether a consid- 
erable block of forest will soon be in evidence. The areas planted 
were open slopes on the hills above Waimea, adjoining the native 
forest out of which come streams now tapped for use on the Wai- 
mea plains. The object of the planting is to utilize otherwise 
unproductive land and in part to form a buffer belt, or transition 
zone between the native forest and the open grazing land. Under 
the peculiar conditions that obtain in the Hawaiian islands the 
outer edge of the native forest is often in poor health and reduced 
vigor. Unavoidable encroachments from the outside where the 
forest touches agricultural land, the spread into the forest of 
rank growing grasses, incursions by men and animals, and in 
places the danger of damage by fire, all tend to work injury to 
the close cover that is the characteristic and valuable feature of 
the indigenous forest 

By keeping the outer boundary of the forest somewhat farther 
out than in itself is actually required for watershed protection, 
the welfare of the forest as a whole is the better maintained. 

In the "wet" or water-bearing forest on the catchment basins 
of streams especially needed for irrigation, the retention of this 
"buffer belt" is a matter of much importance. For the most part 
the buffer belt should consist of an extension of the native forest 
cover. Where the cover is broken it should ordinarily be renewed 
through encouraging a return of the native vegetation, but in 
some few places a planted stand of introduced trees can be used 
to advantage to bridge the outer zone. In such places the planted 
stand can serve also as a source of local w~od supply. The plant- 
ing above Waimea Village falls into this latter class. Both pur- 
poses will there be served by the stand planted. 

Planting Under Government Le\ise Requirements. 

Under the requirements of Government leases issued by the 
Territorial Land office, forest planting is in progress on several 



72 

tracts on Hawaii now under the control of the Parker Ranch 
and of the Kukaiau Ranch. Visits of inspection were made to 
these localities in the summer and autumn of 1911, when the tree 
planting work was found to be going on satisfactorily in accord- 
ance with the requirements of the leases. 

In December, 1911, a planting plan was drawn up for certain 
Government lands in the Kula District, Maui, now under a lease 
to the Cornwell Ranch, carrying similar requirements. Planting 
on these lands, delayed during the past summer by unfavorable 
weather conditions, is now in progress. 

Through the voluntary co-operation of two sugar plantation 
companies the Waianae Company on Oahu, and the. Wailuku 
Sugar Company on Maui forest planting is now going on on 
Government land in forest reserves above those plantations. In 
both cases grass-covered slopes on the foot hills are being re- 
forested, mainly with Eucalypts. At Waianae 5177 trees were 
planted in 1911 ; 3336 in 1912. Above Wailuku, the planting of 
the land of Polipoli did not begin till 1912, when 2686 trees were 
set out. 

FUNGUS DISEASE ON EUCALYPTUS. 

During the autumn of 1912 the plant pathologists of the Ha- 
waiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station called attention to 
a fungus which is killing Eucalyptus trees in various parts of the 
Territory. Perhaps the place where the trouble has been most 
noticeable is the Tantalus Forest, back of Honolulu, where many 
large trees have been killed. Up to now the Eucalypts in Hawaii, 
except for injury from a leaf-eating beetle on one or two species, 
have been remarkably free from insect pests, blights and similar 
troubles so that the appearance of this fungus is an unpleasant 
surprise. 

As yet not as much has been found out about the fungus as 
will be known when investigations now in progress are complet- 
ed, but the indications seem strongly to be that it is most likely 
to attack individual trees rather than groves as a whole, so that 
if somewhat greater care is given the stand than has been thought 
necessary in the past, there need be no great cause for worry 
over a diminution of returns. Instead of periodical thinnings 
it may become necessary to remove individual trees should they 
die, whereby the spread of the fungus may be that much checked. 
This has been done on Tantalus the past autumn, the wood being 
sold for fuel, as it might be from any other stand. 

Basing the statement on information now in hand, it may be 
said that the danger of the disease becoming epidemic and at- 
tacking all the trees of a given grove at once seems remote. Ex- 
ceptional climatic conditions favorable to its spread might of 





Plate 12. Papapaholahola Sub-Nursery and Experimental Planting 
Ground, Homestead, Kauai. 




Plate 14. Eucalyptus Robusta Windbreak, Nuuanu Valley Plantation. 

Two years and ten months from seed. Rows of Eucalyptus corynocalyx at left. 



73 

course occur but taken by and large it seems probable that only 
a small percentage of the trees in any one stand would be at- 
tacked. As Eucalyptus plantations need to be thinned vigorously 
anyway and as the margin of profit in this form of investment in 
Hawaii is considerable, there seems no good reason for discon- 
tinuing the planting of Eucalypts for commercial returns, espe- 
cially on waste lands adjoining sugar plantations, provided the 
work is gone about in the right way to start with, and a rea- 
sonable amount of subsequent care can be assured. 

PLANT INTRODUCTION WORK 

EXPERIMENTAL PLANTING. 

An important phase of forest work in Hawaii is the introduc- 
tion into the Territory of exotic trees of economic importance. 
This is a line of investigation that should receive much greater 
attention than has been given it in recent years. Much of the 
attractiveness of Honolulu and of our other towns today is due 
to the introductions made years ago by Dr. Hillebrand and the 
men in charge of the Government Nursery in its early days. 
Many of the trees brought in by them were ornamentals. What 
is needed now is to try out species primarily of economic and 
commercial value. There is also a real need for supplementing 
our native flora by the introduction of trees and shrubs of gener- 
ally similar botanic character that could be used for replanting 
areas in the water-bearing, protection forests, where for one or 
another reason, native Hawaiian plants cannot well be used. 

Such experimental work is necessarily slow, and to be effec- 
tive requires careful and painstaking devotion to details by well 
trained men. It is slow also because many of the plants tried 
will unavoidably be found to be unsuited to local conditions. But 
those that do succeed more than offset the failures. 

With the machinery now at hand at the Makiki Experimental 
Garden, a slight additional outlay would enable many new trees 
to be started there for use at the lower levels. If then, provision 
could be made for planting out and caring for these new species 
from Makiki, and as well from other experimental nurseries 
located at suitable places throughout the Territory, at various ele- 
vations and under varying climatic conditions, a work of great 
value to the people of the islands would be accomplished. Espe- 
cially should propagating stations be established at the higher ele- 
vations on the larger islands adjacent both to the native wet for- 
est on the one hand and the high slopes of the great mountains 
on the other. It is urgently recommended that provision be made 
for such investigations. 



74: 
A NEW INTRODUCTION. 

Through the courtesy of Hon. A. de Souza Canavarro, Consul 
for Portugal at Honolulu, this office received, early in 1911, a 
consignment of basket willow cuttings, brought direct from the 
Azores by Dr. L. R. Gaspar. These were planted in the Makiki 
Station grounds, where they did remarkably well. In January, 
1912, when the holts were first cut, a number of baskets were 
made up, as is shown in the accompanying illustration. In the 
Azores furniture and a variety of articles in addition to baskets, 
are made from willow. There seems no reason why the same 
should not in time be the case here. 

During the present winter cuttings will be distributed to per- 
sons desiring to establish stands of basket willow. In this way 
the initial steps are being taken to create a new industry in Ha- 
waii, one that in time may give employment to many persons. 

PAPAPAHOLAHOLA STATION,, KAUAI. 

In connection with the sub-nursery maintained by the Divi- 
sion of Forestry at Homestead, Kauai for the distribution of 
seedling trees to persons in that vicinity, a forest trial ground has 
also been started, where will be planted out many trees new to 
Hawaii. Of this experimental plantation, known locally as the 
"Papapaholahola Reserve," the agent in charge, Mr. Walter D. 
McBryde, has the following to say : 

"The Reserve covers 39% acres, the whole of it being fenced 
in. I have had some ten acres of this plowed, a part of which 
has been well harrowed preparatory to its being planted to trees. 
I have found that this initial expense is well repaid in the quick 
growth of the trees, thus also making a great saving in the care 
and cultivation of the trees owing to their shading the ground 
and thus keeping down the grass and weeds. 

"According to figures kept by the head worker at the Reserve, 
we have planted out during the year 1912 a total of 9,538 trees 
of the following varieties: Eucalyptus robusta, Blue Gum, E. 
diversicolor, Sugi or Japanese Cedar, Ironwood and Mexican Al- 
garoba. In 1911 there were planted something over 4000 trees. 

"The Papapaholahola Spring Reserve is becoming quite a show 
place, owing to the good work being done by the two men al- 
lowed by your Department and if the work is continued along the 
same lines as at present undertaken, the Government will have 
a Forest Reserve of which they can well feel proud." 

From a personal inspection of this tract made in the summer 
of 1912, I am inclined to speak with enthusiasm of the good prog- 
ress made. Were there other experimental tracts like this one, 



75 

distributed throughout the Territory, much more rapid advance 
than at present would result in securing definite, practical data 
as to the value for one and another purpose of newly introduced 
trees. 

FOREST PLANTING IN KOOLAU, MAUI. 

In co-operation with and at the expense of the Alexander & 
Baldwin Interests, experimental planting of certain introduced 
trees was undertaken in the summer of 1911 in a section of the 
forest bordering the irrigation ditches in the Koolau District on 
the Island of Maui. This work is being done in the locality 
where portions of the native forest died out a few years since 
from a cause that has never been satisfactorily explained. Shelter 
belts have been started in several places to provide protection 
from the wind to limited areas where it is proposed to try out spe- 
cial things. Experimental lots of a number of species of trees 
new to Hawaii are being planted to ascertain if among them are 
not kinds adapted for use under the conditions obtaining in this 
particular section, while other experiments are in progress to de- 
termine the best methods of propagating on an extensive scale, 
certain of the native Hawaiian forest plants that are valuable as 
members of the plant community that makes up the water-bearing 
forest. 

In April and May, 1911, an arrangement was made whereby 
Mr. H. M. Curran of the Philippine Bureau of Forestry visited 
Maui to confer with those locally interested, in their efforts to de- 
vise ways and means of handling this forest to the best advantage. 
A brief report containing Mr. Curran's recommendations was 
published in the Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist, June, 
1911; Vol. VIII, No. 6. 

FEDERAL EXPERIMENTAL TREE PLANTING. 

Nuuanu Valley. 

In the interest of forest extension, the Forest Service of the 
United States Department of Agriculture has for several years 
now made an allotment for experimental forest planting in Ha- 
waii. In the beginning all the money was used for the trial of 
temperate zone trees in fenced enclosures on the upper slopes of 
Mauna Kea and Mt. Haleakala. In 1911 an experimental planta- 
tion of Eucalypts was established on land controlled by the Hono- 
lulu Water Works above Luakaha, in Nuuanu Valley. Sample 
plots of eighteen different species of Eucalyptus were planted, 
kinds as yet little known in Flawaii but reputed to be of economic 
importance. Some additional planting and filling up of the blocks 



76 

to their full quota of trees was done in 1912. On the windward 
side of the plants a double line of Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus 
robusta) was set out, as a windbreak. This experimental planta- 
tion should yield valuable data in years to come. The species so 
far planted are as follows : 

E. corynocalyx E. melanophloia E. redunca 

E. crebnct E. microcorys E. rostrata 

E. gomphocephala ' E. microtheca E. rubida 

E. goniocalyx E. miielleriana E. siberiana 

E. leucoxylon E. obliqua E. smithii 

E. lo.rophleba E. pilularis E. tereticornis 

Experimental Plots on the High Mountains. 

Results from the sowing of tree seed in fenced enclosures on 
Mt. Haleakala and Mauna Kea have as yet been but meager, but 
enough has been accomplished to indicate pretty clearly that were 
it possible to give more care and attention to this line of investi- 
gation much better returns could be looked for. Counts of seed- 
lings in the seed spot beds in the several plots on both moun- 
tains made in the summer and autumn of 1911 showed that with 
a number of species of conifers the percentage of seedlings that 
had germinated and lived through the first season was sufficiently 
large to be really encouraging. 

The purpose of sowing tree seed direct was to find out if the 
seed spot method was at all practicable under the conditions ob- 
taining in Hawaii and to get an additional line on the behavior 
of the species tried. No very large returns were expected but as 
the cost of sowing the seed was very little, it was felt that the 
effort was justifiable- Experiments of this sort should be contin- 
ued, for if one or two species of conifers can be found that will 
grow on the upper slopes of these mountains it will mean much 
to the Territory. 

Seedlings of the following species were lound, among others, 
to have germinated and apparently to have started to grow in a 
number of the plots, both on Maui and on Hawaii ; Finns coulteri. 
P. contort a, P. ponder osa, P. murrayana, P. insularis, P. sylves- 
tris, P. radiata, Cupressus arizonica, Libocedrus decurrens, Picea 
engelmanni, P. parryana, and Pseudotsuga taxifolia. 

The amount alloted by the U. S. Forest Service for experi- 
mental planting in Hawaii was $750 for the fiscal period ending 
June 30, 1912. For the present year it is $500. The greater 
part of the money for this year and last has been expended for 
the wages of laborers used in planting out and caring for the 
Eucalyptus in the Nuuanu Valley Plantation. 



MISCELLANEOUS FOREST WORK. 

In addition to the lines of work which comprise the main ac- 
tivities of the Division uf Forestry, no inconsiderable amount oi 
energy is expended in efforts, not always easy to classify, which 
are designed in one way or another to benefit the people of the 
Territory. 

REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Under the heading publicity mlight be mentioned the written 
reports which are made to the Commissioners on all importam 
matters. 

Whenever a forest reserve is to be set apart a report is made 
summing up the reasons that underlie the action recommended. 
It is on the basis oi this report that the Board requests the Gov- 
ernor to take the action required by law. From time to time, too, 
special reports are prepared on the condition of given forests or 
on particular problems that arise in connection with their admin- 
istration. These reports are, of course, all based on field work, 
usually done by the Superintendent of Forestry. . Monthly rout- 
ine reports are also prepared to keep the Commissioners inform- 
ed of the current work of the Division. 

All of these reports are made public through the pages of the 
Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist, the monthly journal issued 
under the auspices of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry. It 
It is a part of the policy of the Board so to issue them, for the 
desire with forest work, as with all other activities of the Board, 
is to give the work being carried on such publicity that everyone 
who is interested in, or concerned by it can be fully informed as 
to what is going on. While necessarily some of these reports 
are technical in character the effort is alwavs made to couch 
them in terms that anyone can understand. 

Mention has already been made of Bulletin No. I, "Eucalyptus 
Culture in Hawaii," by Mr. Louis Margolin of the U. S. Forest 
Service, and of Circular No. 2, "Instructions for Propagating 
Forest, Shade and Ornamental Trees," by David Haughs, Forest 
Nurseryman, issued respectively in 1911 and 1912. The only 
other publication of the Division of Forestry, issued during the 
past two years, outside of contributions to the Forester and Agri- 
culturist, was the Biennial report for 1909-1910, which appeared 
on March n, 1911. 

In further effort to bring a knowledge of the reasons for forest 
work home to the people of the islands, public addresses are made 
occasionally by the Superintendent of Forestry before various 
organizations. In December 1911 a paper of this sort was read 



78 

at the annual meeting of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Associa- 
tion and a talk was given to the pupils of the Normal School on 
Arbor Day of that year. A paper on Street Tree Planting read 
before the Kilohana Art League was later published in more 
extended form in Thrum's Annual for 1913. This paper con- 
tains a list of trees suitable for use locally for this purpose, with 
brief notes in regard to each species. 

There are increasing calls for a popular bulletin descriptive 
of the common introduced trees planted in Honolulu. It is hoped 
that such a publication can be prepared and issued by the Divi- 
sion of Forestry. It would meet a real demand. 

BOTANICAL SURVEY. 

Until September, 1911, Mr. Joseph F. Rock was a regular mem- 
ber of the staff of the Division of Forestry. He was then trans- 
ferred to the faculty of the College of Hawaii. Mr. Rock con- 
tinues, however, as an honorary officer of the Board with the title 
"Consulting Botanist." 

Under a carefully worded agreement, the herbarium of the 
Board of Agriculture and Forestry, with the cases in which it is 
housed, has been loaned to the College of Hawaii. The collec- 
tion was transferred to the College building in Manoa Valley in 
the summer of 1912. It may there be consulted by those inter- 
ested. 

In the spring, of 1911, Mr. Rock made collecting trips to Ha- 
waii and Maui and that sumimer again visited the Kau District on 
Hawaii. On each of these expeditions he collected much new 
herbarium material which was added to the collection. Pend- 
ing the completion of the new building of the College of Hawaii, 
Mr; Rock continued to occupy quarters at the Board's office on 
King street, until July, 1912. 

In September 1911 there was issued as Botanical Bulletin No. 
I of the Division of Forestry, an illustrated 15 page pamphlet en- 
titled "New and Noteworthy Hawaiian Plants." In December 
1911 another similar bulletin was issued by the College of Ha- 
waii describing some additional new species, under the title "Notes 
upon Hawaiian Plants with Descriptions of New Species and 
Varieties." By means of a fund raised through private subscrip- 
tion, Mr. Rock expects in the near future to publish an illustrated 
book on the native trees of Hawaii, based upon data collected 
by him during his active connection with the Board. A brief 
report by Mr. Rock outlining certain interesting finds made by 
him on the Island of Hawaii, including one rubber producing 
tree, a Euphorbia, appears elsewhere in this volume as a special 
contribution. 



FOREST FIRES. 

With the exception of a few small brush and grass fires on 
Oahu and Kauai, all of which were extinguished before serious 
damage had resulted, the forest fire record for the years 1911- 
1912 is fortunately smiall. One of the fires on Oahu occurred in 
Manoa Valley in April 1911. The others, and there have been 
a number of them, were in the Ewa District in the vicinity of 
Leilehua and Wahiawa. The fires on Kauai were in the woods 
back of Kilauea. Both occurred in June, 1911. 

But while fortunate in escaping much damage from forest fire 
during this period, the Territory is by no means immune from 
forest fire danger. The liability of fire is always present unless 
there is a watchful and efficient forest fire service ready and able 
to take prompt action when ever necessary. And further, back 
of any system of fire fighting there must be public sentiment. 

Thanks to the efforts of the local district fire wardens a much 
better appreciation of the dangers of forest fires prevails now 
than formerly but there is still room for improvement. Particu- 
larly is it true that new comers to Hawaii should take more than 
ordinary precautions in the use of fire in or near the forest. Much 
of the native vegetation, even that growing in the truly wet for- 
ests, is extraordinarily inflammable. The common Staghorn fern 
and the le-ie vine are both examples. Both will burn readily 
even when in full leaf. Then, too, the Staghorn always has a 
lot of dry leaves and twigs underneath, that add to the flames. 

The number of grass and brush fires, especially on Oahu in 
1911 and 1912, indicate clearly enough a lack of care in throw- 
ing down burning matches and cigarettes. So far, thanks to 
prompt attention, serious damage has been averted, but one can 
never tell when the time will come when a fire may get beyond 
control and spread over half the Koolau range. Besides, each 
time a grass or brush fire has to be fought, it means just so much 
expense and loss of time for those who turn out. 

Everyone who has to do with the forests of Hawaii in any way 
should have it on his mind to be careful about fire. All those 
in charge of others would do well to issue strict instructions in 
regard thereto. Only through the cooperation of all concerned 
can we expect to be wholly free from this danger. 

In this connection the recommendation is again made, and 
that most urgently, that a special fund be provided from 'some 
source for fighting forest fires on Government land. At pres- 
ent this Department is powerless to take effective steps, except 
through the voluntary cooperation of corporations or individuals, 
in combatting fires in the forest reserves that consist of unleased 
government land. There should be an emergency fund of at 



80 

least $5,000 per annuam maintained for this purpose. This is 
one of the forest matters that decidedly demands attention. 

As in earlier years one ranger was employed throughout the 
period to patrol the Tantalus forest and to oversee the burning 
of brush, under permit, on Tantalus Heights. 

Several changes in the staff of volunteer fire wardens have 
lately been made by which the efficiency of the service as a skel- 
eton organization is maintained. A revised list of the District 
Fire Wardens appears elsewhere in this volume. 

SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS, 

From the statements in the foregoing pages it should be evi- 
dent that at the present stage of the game in Hawaii the essential 
need in forestry is for the better protection of. the native forests. 
And this is required not because of the worthiness of the forest 
in itself to be cared for, but because on the forest depends the 
continuance of an assured water supply. There are other needs, 
too, for there is much forest work in Hawaii that requires urg- 
ently to be done, to say nothing of tree planting on waste lands 
that will unquestionably be of profit to those who undertake it. 
But first and foremost at this time comes the call for better care 
of the existing forests on the watersheds. The necessary steps 
to be taken are fencing and the eradication of wild stock in the 
forest reserves cattle, goats and pigs which should be follow- 
ed by the extension of the forest, through planting, where the 
cover has been broken from any cause. 

To carry out as it should be done, these extensions of forest 
work will necessarily require larger expenditures than have been 
made in the past. To meet this demand a portion of the rev- 
enues now derived by the Territorial Government from water 
licenses on streams in the forests should be devoted to forest work. 
In a word, some of the money derived in these islands from water, 
a product of the forest, should be reinvested in the forest, to the 
end that for the future the supply of water may be assured, if 
indeed it cannot be increased. A revolving fund so established 
will in the end pay itself back many fold. It is the experience of 
all countries where forestry is practiced that the reinvestment, 
up to a certain point, in forest administration of the revenue de- 
rived from the forest, leads to an increase in subsequent returns. 
Hawaii would be no exception to this general law. Provision 
should be made for getting the adequate protection of the forest 
started without more delay. This is a matter that should be 
brought in the most forcibly way possible to the attention of 
the Legislature. 



81 

Along with the adequate protection of the native forest, the 
activities of the Division of Forestry should be carried on in ac- 
cordance with the general program that has been in force for 
the past several years. The growing and distributing of seed- 
ling trees, free or at cost price, from the Government Nursery 
at Honolulu and from sub-stations on the other islands ; the ex- 
tension of this work through the establishment of additional sub- 
nurseries in other districts ; the continuation of the policy of fur- 
nishing advice and suggestions as to tree planting and other for- 
est work; and the prosecution, for a while longer, of the cam- 
paign of education as to the necessity and desirability of forest 
work, until a larger proportion of the owners of fee simple land 
that should be under forest cover take effective steps to make it 
so; these are all lines of activity that should be continued; that 
could to the advantage of the people of the Territory, very well 
be expanded. 

In addition tree planting by private corporations should be 
further encouraged, both as to the planting of stands of commer- 
cially valuable trees for fuel, posts, etc., on waste areas near 
plantation camps, and also as to spreading the Algaroba forests 
along the sea coasts of the several islands. 

The forest fire danger in Hawaii is fortunately not great in 
most districts, but for this very reason all the more care should 
be taken to keep fire out of the forest altogether. New comers 
to Hawaii have difficulty in appreciating how inflammable much 
of the native vegetation is, even in the true wet forests. With 
the increasing necessity for keeping our water sheds in the best 
possible condition it is essential that no chances be taken with 
fire. The recommendations made in earlier reports that an emer- 
gency fund be provided for fighting forest fires on government 
forest land is here repeated with added emphasis. The need is 
more urgent now than ever before. From some source money 
must be provided for this purpose. 

The practice of forestry in Hawaii is not a panacea for all the 
difficulties that beset the Territory, but it is one of the essential 
factors in the maintenance of our present economic prosperity. If 
the people of Hawaii will but stop to think, the connection be- 
tween forest protection and assured stream flow is so obvious 
that it cannot escape even casual attention. Water is some- 
thing that everyone must have. The only way in Hawaii of be- 
ing sure of getting it in abundance is to keep the water sheds 
covered with dense vegetation. While there is yet time, let us 
then Save the Forests. 

Very respectfully, 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 

Superintendent of Forestry 
and Chief Fire Warden. 



82 

Report of the Forest Nurseryman. 



Honolulu, Hawaii, December 31, 1912. 

R. S. Hosmer, Esq., 

Superintendent of Forestry, 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Dear Sir: I herewith submit a report of the work done at 
the Government Nursery and Makiki Station, etc., for the years 
1911 and 1912. 

NURSERY. 

Collection and Exchange of Seeds. 

The collection is done principally by two boys who have to be 
proficient in the climbing of trees. This work can be done more 
economically and safer with two working together than one. 
One boy climbs the tree and the other directs where the best seeds 
are. He also gathers up the seed that is thrown down. We 
have found that it is necessary to have two together when climb- 
ing in case of accidents. We are glad to say that so far we have 
not had any serious accidents although the boys have had several 
bad falls. 

The most of the seed is collected in and around Honolulu. A 
great deal of our Eucalyptus, also Koa, is collected on Tantalus. 
Mr. J. F. Rock, Botanist, collected and handed to us large quanti- 
ties of indigenous seed of rare plants. This has been distributed to 
people who were particularly anxious to get seed of the native 
plants of the Islands. The cleaning and drying of the seed is 
done at the nursery and this work takes a great deal of time, 
some of the seed being quite difficult to separate from the pods 
or seed vessels. Some varieties, however, are easily handled. The 
seed boys also prepare packages for mailing and for distributing 
to people who may call at the Nursery. 

Exchange of Seed. 

During the period covered by this report we have had letters 
from a number of Botanic Gardens and Experiment Stations in 
addition to our regular list asking that they be put upon our seed 
exchange list. We have also received numerous printed lists giv- 
ing the names, of hundreds of species which would be mailed to 
us free upon application. We have not taken advantage of these" 
offers of seed for the reason that we are not equipped sufficiently 



83 

at present to give them a fair trial. We have supplied seed free 
to those who have made application for the same, including home- 
steaders and others all over the islands. Many of the tourists 
visiting the islands and those passing on steamers from and to 
the Orient and to the Australian Colonies call at the Nursery and 
ask for seed. Hardly a day passes without some callers of this 
sort. Not a little seed is given out in this way, a considerable part 
of it gratis. 

Seed Received Through Exchange. 

1911. No. Pkgs. 

Feb. 28 9 Government Gardens, Koshun, Formosa. 

Mar. 24 57 Jewish Agricultural Experiment Station, Haifa, 
Palestine. 

Mar. 27 61 Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

April 4 4 Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Massachu- 
setts. 

April 15 1 Marsden Manson, City Engineer, San Francisco. 

April 25 2 Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

April 26 1 Botanical Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java. 

May 6 1 Bro. Matthias Newell, Hilo, Hawaii. 

May 11 10 U. S. Experiment Station, Honolulu. 

May 17 12 Director, Public Gardens, Jamaica. 

June 5 2 Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

June 7 5 Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

June 21 2 Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

July 5 11 Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

July 14 1 Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java- 
July 14 2 Q. Q. Bradford, Formosa. 

July 19 27 Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

July 21 8 Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

July 23 1 Edward M. Ehrhorn, Honolulu. 

Sept. 7 7 Botanic Gardens, Dominica. 

Sept. 18 1 Mrs. Dora Isenberg, Lihue, Kauai. 

Sept. 28 1 Director Public Gardens, Jamaica. 

Sept. 30 4 Capt. E. E. Ropes, Die Lanel, Florida. 

Oct. 4 10 Edward M. Ehrhorn, Honolulu. 

Oct. 19 4 Hon. S. B. Dole, through Gerrit P. Wilder, Ho- 
nolulu. 

Nov. 18 1 Bro. Matthias Newell, Hilo, Hawaii. 

Nov. 21 5 Tokyo Plant and Seed Co., Tokyo, Japan. 

Dec. 6 1 T. Tnomura, Koshun, Formosa, Japan. 

Dec. 19 1 Edward M. Ehrhorn, Honolulu (seed from Peru). 

Dec. 20 1 Mrs. Gilbert, Honolulu. 

Dec. 27 8 Government Botanic Gardens, Koshun, Formosa. 

Dec. 27 1 Government Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java. 



1912. No. Pkgs. 

Jan. 4 50 Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java, through Mrs. 
F. J. Green, Honolulu. 

Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Assint College, Assint, Egypt. 

Jardin Botanique de Saizon, Java. 

Government Botanic Gardens, Koshun, Formosa. 

Dr. H. L. Lyon, H. S. P. A., Honolulu. 

Dr. H. L. Lyon, H. S. P. A., Honolulu. 

Bureau of Forestry, Manila. 

H. S. P. A., Honolulu. 

Gerrit P. Wilder, Honolulu. 

Mrs. Foster, Honolulu. 

H. S. P. A., Honolulu. 

L. Lewton-Brain, Director of Agriculture, Feder- 
ated Malay States. 

12 1 Dr. H. L. Lyon, H. S. P. A., Honolulu. 
19 2 Dr. H. L. Lyon, H. S. P. A., Honolulu. 
28 4 W. E. Shaw, Cuba. 



Jan. 


15 


6 


Jan. 


26 


5 


Jan. 


27 


26 


Mar. 


5 


8 


Mar. 


7 


9 


Mar. 


15 


16 


Mar. 


24 


5 


June 


14 


15 


July 


7 


5 


Aug. 


6 


1 


Aug. 


6 


1 


Aug. 


8 


1 


Oct. 


10 


2 



Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 



PLANT DISTRIBUTION. 



DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS FROM GOVERNMENT NURSERY AND 
MAKIKI STATION. 



1911 

'Sold: 
Gratis 



ibution 


In 

seed 
boxes 

35 900 


In boxes 
trans- 
planted 

9 823 


Pot 
grown 

10,184 


Totals 
55,907 






500 


11,008 


11,508 


rs and 

>sts 


others. 95,350 


6,823 
2,000 


2,300 
4,000 


104,473 
6,000 



Arbor Day 

Homesteaders 

Military 

Public and Private Schools 

and churches 

Molokai Settlement and 

Cable Station Midway.. 64,000 
Improvement Clubs and 

Street Planting 



2,200 500 

1,000 541 

1,267 1,000 



195,250 23,613 29,533 
Special Plantation Orders 338,000 11,000 




248,396 
349,000 



Grand Total . 533,250 34,613 29,533 597,396 



85 



1912 

Sold: 
Gratis: 



In 

seed 
boxes 

Regular Distribution 10,600 

Arbor Day 

Homesteaders and others. 29,000 

Military Posts 

Public and Private Schools 

and Churches 

Molokai Settlement and 

Cable Station, Midway.. 9,250 
Improvement Clubs and 

Street Planting 



In boxes 
trans- 
planted 


Pot 
grown 


4,570 
500 
5000 
5,500 


17,474 
13,145 
3,600 
3,640 


2,492 


2,760 


2,400 


6,000 


2,000 


3,143 



Totals 

32,644 

13,645 

37,600 

9,140 

5,252 

17,650 

5,143 



48,750 22,462 49,762 
Special Plantation Orders 624,000 35,400 7,330 



120,974 
666,730 



Grand Total 672,750 57,862 57,092 787,704 

It will be seen by the foregoing tables that the distribution of 
trees to the general public and also to plantation companies and 
other corporations has been larger this year than any previous 
year in the history of the Nursery. In general we are led to be- 
lieve that a great deal better use is being made of the trees that 
are distributed from the Nursery than in previous years. The 
examples which have come under the writer's personal observa- 
tion are the homesteaders, the military posts and the house-lot 
planting. In most instances the trees have been well planted and 
cared for. 

Special mention ought to be made in regard to the planting 
that has been done at Fort Ruger through the efforts of Major 
and Mrs. Timberlake. From a heap of dry rocks destitute of any 
vegetation save a few scrub bushes of lantana, Fort Ruger is fast 
becoming one of the beauty spots of Honolulu. Those in charge 
certainly deserve great credit for their work. 

The homesteaders are beginning to realize the value of trees 
on their homesteads and many inquiries are continually coming in 
regarding the best trees to plant for firewood, windbreaks and 
other purposes. 

The demand for ornamental trees for gardens, and for street 
and road planting has been large. For such purposes pot-grown 
seedlings should be used, which insures a good root system and 
also reduces to a minimum the danger of losing any trees in the 
transplanting. Terra Cotta pots are generally used for this pur- 
pose, although lately we have been experimenting with the dam- 
aged tin cans thrown away by the people at the Pineapple Can- 
nery and find that the cans make excellent pots for trees. 



86 

A machine was designed and made at the Nursery for cutting 
out the ends of the cans and we find that this machine is a great 
saving in labor as compared with the small hand cutter. 

The shipping of plants in crate form has been found to work 
well. An upright frame for placing the boxes in while the laths 
are being nailed on the corners is another labor-saving device 
which we planned and built at the Nursery. One man with the 
frame can do the work of two without it. 

Propagating Trees for Plantation Companies and Other Corpora," 

lions. 

The propagating of trees in large quantities for plantation com- 
panies and other corporations was started about two years ago. 
Previous to that time we managed to supply the trees wanted, 
with the regular men employed by the Board. Owing to the 
great increase in orders coming from companies and corporations 
we found it impossible to keep up the work and continue the reg- 
ular distribution, which was also increasing, without the help of 
more men. The matter was brought to the attention of the then 
President and Executive Officer of the Board, Mr. Marston 
Cai.ipbeil, who after consulting with the members of the Board, 
decided to continue the growing of trees in large quantities for 
plantation companies and other corporations with the understand- 
ing that the companies and corporations shall pay the cost of 
labor and material in supplying the required seedlings. The 
above plan has worked well and there is no doubt but that it has 
been the means of adding many thousands of trees to the barren 
districts of the Islands. 

The majority of the trees so ordered are shipped in the seed 
boxes, ready to transplant into other boxes or pots. The boxes 
are nailed together with laths in crate form with three or four 
together. A number of orders of from 1000 to 12,000 have been 
received for trees in transplant boxes ready to set out. These 
are crated in the same manner as the seedlings. 

REALIZATIONS. 

During the years 1911 and 1912 there has been collected and 
deposited with the Treasurer of the Territory as a government 
realization the sum of $1126.90. In addition to this there is also 
the sum of $2955 on special deposit for the use of the Board. 

The amount is itemized as follows : 



87 

1911 Sale of plants Government Nursery, Honolulu $ 405.60 

Sale of Seed, Government Nursery, Honolulu 9.15 

Sale of plants, Homestead Nursery, Kauai, by W. D. 

McBryde 150.00 

Sale of Wood from Tantalus 48.00 

Division of Animal Industry. 

Sale of one yellow mare 125.00 

Payment for use of Quarantine Station 35.50 

$ 773.25 

Payment by the Hawaiian Development Co. for timber cut in 
Puna Hawaii, Under logging license. Deposited with 
the Treasurer as a special fund for the use of the 
Board $2955.00 

1932 Sale of plants, Government Nursery and Makiki $ 189.40 

Sale of tree labels 1.00 

Sale of Wood from Tantalus 105.00 

Division of Animal Industry. 

Use of Quarantine Station 35.25 

Sale of Manure 23.00 



$ 353.65 
OTHER WORK. 

Nursery Grounds. 

One regular man with the aid of two prisoners has been labor 
enough to keep the grounds in fairly good condition and also at 
times to assist in other work. We are again indebted to Sheriff 
Henry for the use of the two prisoners and hope that this help 
will be continued. Many people take advantage of the open park 
portion of the grounds for rest and recreation. 

The sidewalk running along the King Street side of the 
grounds is sadly in need of a new curb. Stone curbing is laid on 
both Keeaumoku and Young streets and there was at one time a 
wooden curbing on the King Street side but it has practically all 
rotted away. 

Advice and Assistance. 

The work under this heading includes the giving of advice in 
regard to the propagating, planting, pruning and care of trees. 
Numerous calls are made at the Nursery for advice on those sub- 
jects. Requests to visit places in and around the city for the pur- 
pose of giving advice and assistance average from two to five 
visits a week. 



Congressional Vegetable Seed and Year Books. 

During the month of December, 1911, we received from Wash- 
ington, D. C., through Hon. J. K. Kalanianaole, Delegate to Con- 
gress, 10,000 packages of Congressional Vegetable seed and 300 
packages of flower seed. The consignment received in December, 
1912, contained about the same number of packages. The de- 
mand for vegetable and flower seed is increasing and the supply 
for 1912 was all distributed several months before we received 
the supply in December, 1912, intended for 1913. This seed is 
sent out to public and private schools, homesteaders and others 
all over the islands. 

Copies of the Year Book of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, also sent by the Delegate, are distributed annually to a care- 
fully made up list of persons throughout the Islands. Seven hun- 
dred and fifty books is the quota received. 

Experimental Garden, Makiki. 

Since our last biennial report we have found it necessary to 
enlarge the quarters. The old iron roofing taken from the office 
building at the Nursery on King Street was used for this purpose. 
An additional shed for storing pots, box shocks, etc., has been 
added to the buildings. A building 60 feet long by 24 feet wide 
has taken the place of the old potting shed and tool house. In 
this building the bins for holding soil, sand, manure, tin cans and 
pots of different sizes for potting of plants are conveniently ar- 
ranged. The soil sterilizer is also under the same roof, with suffi- 
cient space for mixing and preparing soil. The additions and im- 
provements to buildings have proved to be of great benefit in many 
ways. It would have been almost impossible to fill a number of 
the large orders from the plantation companies without this addi- 
tional room. The work was all done by our regular men. The 
men at the Nursery assisted as much as possible. All of the soil 
and sand used at the Garden as well as at the Nursery for propa- 
gating trees is mixed and sterilized here. With the addition of a 
propagating house similar to the two at the Nursery we would 
have the best of facilities here for propagating plants in large 
quantities. 

Basket Willow. 

For the past two years the Garden has been used principally 
for propagating plants, some of which deserve special mention. 

The Willow cuttings brought from Portugal about three years 
ago by Dr. L. R. Caspar and handed to us by the Honorable A. 



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de Souza Canavarro, Consul General for Portugal, have done ex- 
ceedingly well. Half a dozen baskets of different shapes and 
sizes were made from the cuttings taken off during the month of 
February, 1912. These baskets can be seen at the Government 
Nursery. There were also a quantity of cuttings taken off for 
distribution. 

We will have about 2000 plants ready for distribution by the 
end of March, 1913. In sections where there is plenty of mois- 
ture and especially along the edges of streams the growing of the 
basket willow for basket making should prove to be paying in- 
dustry. 

The Giant Bamboo, imported by Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder, is doing 
very well and without doubt will prove to be a valuable introduc- 
tion. 

Another tree introduced by Mr. Wilder which so far is doing 
very well is a species of Juniper. The trees are growing well and 
looking very healthy. A quantity of other trees introduced by 
Mr. Wilder are doing well, some of which have already been dis- 
tributed to people on different parts of the Islands. 

Tantalus Forest. 

With the exception of a number of trees that have died in the 
lower part of the forest during 1912, the condition in general is 
good. The trees that died were cut down and removed as soon 
as possible, the total cordage being 125. In the upper part of 
the forest the trees are healthy and growing well. Owing to the 
thick crop of honohono and air plant that is fast covering the 
floor of the forest, the danger of fires starting is reduced to a 
minimum. 

The Ranger, David Kapihi, has kept the two -trails running 
through the forest clear, also the one running down to the bot- 
tom of Makiki Gulch, which starts opposite the old quarters and 
nursery. He has also kept watch and patrolled the forest in 
search of stray animals and people who at times trespass in the 
forest and cut honohono and sometimes trees. 

Respectfully submitted, 

DAVID HAUGHS, 

Forest Nurseryman. 



90 
List of District Fire Wardens. 

Following is a list of the District Fire Wardens, with their re- 
spective Districts: 

CHIEF FIRE WARDEN. 

RALPH S. HOSMER. 
Superintendent of Forestry, ex officio. 
DEPUTY FIRE WARDEN AT LARGE. 

DAVID HAUGHS. 
In and for the Territory of Hawaii. 

DISTRICT FIRE WARDENS. 

KAUAI. 

A. MENEFOGLIO. 
In and for Wainiha Valley, District of Halelea. 

W. F. SANBORN. 
In and for the District of Halelea, excepting Wainiha Valley. 

J. R. MYERS. 
GEORGE HUDDY, 
Assistant District Fire Warden. 
In and for the District of Koolau, excepting the land of Anahola. 



In and for the portion of the Districts of Koolau and Puna, extend- 
ing from the land of Anahola to the land of Olohena, inclusive. 

F. WEBER. 

In and for the portion of the District of Puna, south of and including 
the land of Wailua. 

REV. J. M. LYDGATE. 

In and for that portion of the district of Kona, formerly known as 
the District of Koloa. 

FRANCIS GAY. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, lying between and 
including the Waimea, Poomau and Kauaikanana Valleys on the west 
and the Hanapepe Valley on the east. 

AUGUSTUS F. KNUDSEN. 

In and for the District of Na Pali and that portion of the District of 
Kona, formerly known as the District of Waimea, lying to the west 
of the Waimea, Poomau and Kauaikanana Valleys. 



91 

OAHU. 

ANDREW ADAMS. 
In and for the District of Koolauloa. 

FRANK PAHIA. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaupoko, extending from 
the Koolauloa District line to the land of Heeia. 



In and for that portion of the District of Koolaupoko, extending from 
and including the land of Heeia to the land of Kailua. 

JOHN HERD. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaupoko, extending 
from and including the land of Kailua to Makapuu Point. 

CHARLES H. BAILEY. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from Maka- 
puu Point to Palolo Valley. 

JOSEPH K. KAPONO. 
In and for Palolo Valley District of Kona. 

C. MONTAGUE COOKE. 
In and for Manoa Valley, District of Kona. 
W. M. GIFFARD. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, lying between Pauoa 
and Manoa Valleys. 

G. H. MOORE. 
In and for Pauoa and Nuuanu Valleys, District of Kona. 

WALTER F. DILLINGHAM. 

In and for that portion of the District of Ewa lying to the West of 
the main government road. 

JAMES GIBB. 

In and for that portion of the District of Ewa, lying between the 
lands of Moanalua and Waiawa. 



In and for that portion of the District of Ewa, lying to the East of 
the main government road between the northern boundary of the land 
of Manana and the Kaukonahua gulch. 

W. M. TEMPLETON. 

In and for that portion of the District of Waialua, lying between the 
Kaukonahua and Helemanu gulches. 



In and for that portion of the District of Waialua, lying to the north 
of the Helemanu gulch. 



92 

F. MEYER. 

In and for that portion of the District of Waianae lying to the West 
of the Waianae Mountains. 

MOLOKAI. 
JAMES MUNRO. 

In and for that portion of the Island of Molokai lying to the West 
of Wailau Valley and the land of Mapulehu. 

C. C. CONRADT. 

In and for that portion of the Island of Molokai including and lying 
to the East of Wailau Valley and the land of Mapulehu. 

LANAI. 

GEORGE C. MUNRO. 
In and for the Island of Lanai. 

MAUI. 

L. WEINZHEIMER. 
In and for the District of Lahaina. 

DAVID T. FLEMING. 
In and for the District of Kaanapali, 

H. B. PENHALLOW. 
In and for the District of Wailuku. 

H. A. BALDWIN. 

In and for the district of Hamakuapoko and the west half of the 
District of Hamakualoa. 

W. F. POGUE. 

In and for the District of Koolau and the east half of the District 
of Hamakualoa. 

JOHN CHALMERS. 
In and for the District of Hana. 



In and for the District of Kipahulu. 

ALIKA DOWSETT. 
In and for the Districts of Honuaula and Kahikinui. 

L. VON TEMPSKY. 
In and for the Districts of Kula and Kaupo. 

HAWAII. 
G. C. WATT. 

In and for that portion of the north half of the District of Kohala, 
extending from the land of Kaauhuhu to the Hamakua District line. 



93 

SAM P. WOODS. 

In and for that portion of North Kohala, extending from the north- 
ern boundary of the land of Kawaihae I to and including the land of 
Kaauhuhu. 

SAM M. SPENCER. 

In and for the District of South Kohala. 

AUGUST AHRENS. 

In and for the western part of the District of Hamakua, extending 
to the boundary of the land of Paauhau. 

ALEXANDER SMITH. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hamakua, extending from 
the western boundary of the land of Paauhau to the boundary of the 
land of Kukaiau. 

ALBERT HORNER. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hamakua, extending from 
and including the land of Kukaiau to the Hilo District line. 

JOHN M. ROSS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo, extending from the 
Hamakua District to the land of Makahanaloa. 

JOHN T. MOIR. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo, extending from and 
including the land of *the Makahanaloa to the land of Kikala. 

JOHN A. SCOTT. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo, extending from the 
Puna District line to and including the land of Kikala. 

JOHN WATT. 
In and for the District of Puna. 

WILLIAM G. OGG. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kau, extending from the 
Puna district line to and including the land of Punaluu. 

CARL WOLTERS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kau, extending from the 
land of Punaluu to the Kona District line. 

R. VON S. DOMKOWICZ. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
Kau District line to and including the land of Kaapuna. 

T. C. WHITE, Acting. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kaapuna to and including the land of Hookena. 

JOHN D. PARIS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land -of Hookena to and including the land of Kaawaloa. 



94 

T. C. WHITE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kaawaloa to and including the land of Kahaluu. 

JOHN A. MAGUIRE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kahaluu to the Kohala District line. 

Forest Ranger. 
DAVID KAPIHE. 

In and for that section of the District of Kona, Island of Oahu, 
bounded on the east by Manoa Valley, on the north by the Konahuinui 
Mountain Range, on the west by Nuuanu and Pauoa Valleys, and on 
the south by the makai edge of the Eucalyptus forest, the Makiki Park 
and the mauka boundary of the Judd land in Makiki and Manoa. 

DISTRICT FORESTERS. 

The names of the following gentlemen are borne on the rolls of 
the Board of Agriculture and Forestry as District Foresters. 
Those marked with a star (*) have been appointed Special Ter- 
territorial Police Officers to enforce the terms of the Wild Bird 
Law, Act 104 of the Session Laws of 1907: 

Kauai. 

"Albert S. Wilcox, J. R. Myers, *F. Weber, Edward Broadbent, 
Rev. J. M. Lydgate, *Walter D. McBryde, *Francis Gay, *Augiistus F. 
Knudsen. 

Oahu. 

*Andrew Adams, *L. L. McCandless, *John Herd, *Paul R. Isenberg, 
*Walter F. Dillingham, W. W. Goodale. 

Molokai. 
*James Munro, *C. C. Conradt. 

Lanai. 
Geo. C. Munro. 

Maui. 

.L. Weinzheimer, H. B. Penhallow, *H. A. Baldwin, *W. F. Pogue, 
*L. von Tempsky, Dr. J. H. Raymond, D. T. Fleming. 

Hawaii. 

*G. C. Watt, *A. W. Carter, *A. Ahrens, *John M. Ross, * John A. 
Scott, *John Watt, *Julian Monsarrat, *Geo. C. Hewitt, R. Von S. 
Domkowicz, W. R. Castle, *John D. Paris, *John A. Maguire. 



95 
Report of the Consulting Botanist. 



Honolulu, T. H., December 31, 1912. 

The Board of Commissioners of 

Agriculture and Forestry, 

Honolulu, Hawaii. 

GENTLEMEN : I beg to present a brief report of the work 
accomplished during the period from January 1, 1911 to Septem- 
ber 1, 1911, after which my connection with the Forestry Divi- 
sion as an active staff-member was severed. 

Up to April, 1911, the writer was engaged in identifying plants 
collected on previous exploring trips,, but especial mention must 
be made of the work in monographing one of our largest and 
most interesting plant families, namely Campanulaceae, with 
especial reference to the tribe Lobelioideae. In order to make a 
thorough and exhaustive study of this tribe which seemed to 
be in an eclipse, type material was found to be necessay in order 
to bring this huge task to a successful completion. Letters were 
written to the Directorates of the Berlin, Paris and Vienna Muse- 
ums as well as to Harvard (Gray Herbarium) asking for the loan 
of such type and other material of the tribe Lobelioideae as was 
in their possession. 

All these requests were kindly complied with and the material 
promptly forwarded. These very valuable collections were of in- 
estimable assistance in determining our plants and enlarging upon 
their original descriptions and making certain the determination 
of new species. 

All the type material was photographed and is expected to 
be published together with the numerous plates of new species in 
a forthcoming monograph by the writer. At about the same time 
the writer commenced writing the manuscript from the copious 
notes compiled in the field for his forthcoming book on the Indi- 
genous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands. 

EXPLORATION ON THE WINDWARD SIDE OF HALEAKALA FROM 
KAILUA, MAUI, TO HANA, MAUI. 

During the month of April the writer made a field trip to the 
Volcano of Kilauea on Hawaii to explore the neighboring districts 
and slopes of Mauna Loa as far as possible at that time- His atten- 
tion was called to a certain kipuka, or oasis as it may be termed, 
by Mr. L. A. Thurston, who had discovered this most interesting 
parcel of land containing 56 acres with more than 40 species of 
trees some of which were new and unique. 



96 

This kipuka is situated at an elevation of 4000 feet, about 
three miles from the Volcano House. Nowhere in the Territory, 
with the exception of few places on Hawaii and Maui, did the 
writer find such an interesting tree flora as covers these 56 acres, 
where virgin soil abounds, black, and rich and without a sign of 
rocks or lava. 

The fact that Puaulu remained so long undiscovered may be 
attributed to the vast aa lava fields which surround this kipuka 
and hide it completely from view, and more so on account of the 
huge Koa forest which has taken possession of the ancient lava 
flows which encircle this virgin parcel of land. 

Rich collections were made and several new species discovered ; 
among them a new genus of trees, which the writer called Hibis- 
cadelphus, and described with some others in a botanical bulle- 
tin issued by your Board, September, 1911. 

After spending a few weeks on Hawaii the writer joined a 
party consisting of Messrs. Hosmer and Curran at Mr, von Temp- 
sky's, Makawao, Maui, and proceeded across the forest from 
Olinda to Mr. Pogue's at Kailua, Maui, with the view of look- 
ing into the dead forest there. 

Taking advantage of the occasion offered, the writer stayed 
several weeks longer exploring the whole country from Kailua to 
Hana, especially the valleys of Waikamoi, Puohaokamoa, Hono- 
manu, Keanae, and the forests back of Nahiku. At Honomanu, 
at an elevation of 3000 feet, the writer discovered a new species 
of palm which is now being described with others by Dr. O. 
Beccari of Florence, Italy ; a translation of whose work on these 
palms will appear in the writer's tree book. In collecting, special 
attention was paid to the tribe Lobelioideae, numerous members 
of which were then in flower. 

After a sojourn of several weeks, the writer returned to Hono- 
lulu ; shortly before his departure from Maui, however, he se- 
cured one of the largest Silverswords from Haleakala crater, 
weighing 96 pounds, for the Promotion Committee, where it is 
on exhibition, together with some photographs taken by the au- 
thor and representing scenes from Maui. 

After an illness of over six weeks the writer again visited 
Kilauea, Hawaii, in company with Mr. W. M. Giffard. This time 
more for recuperating than collecting. However, botanical ma- 
terial was secured, especially of such plants of which complete 
material had not been collected previously, this having been the 
summer season when everything was either in flower or fruit. 

In September a bulletin was issued by the Board describing 
new species of trees discovered by the writer, with an original 
diagnosis of the interesting Alectryon macrococcus Radlk. by Dr. 
Radlkofer of Munich, Bavaria, with additional description of the 
male flowers, by the writer, which up to that time were unknown. 




Plate 18. The Koko or Akoko. 
A Hawaiian Rubber-producing Tree. 




Plate 19. Kokia Rockii Lewt. Kokia, 
One of the healthy cotton trees. 




Plate 20. Kckia Rockii Lewt. 
The majority of the trees are in a dying condition. 



97 

TRANSFER OF THE HERBARIUM TO THE COLLEGE OF HAWAII 

Owing to lack of funds, the Board found it advisable to dis- 
continue the botanical work of the Department of Forestry car- 
ried on by the writer, though, in order that the valuable material 
collected during a period of over three years should not be left 
undetermined and in such shape as would be practically useless to 
future workers, it was deemed best to transfer the whole her- 
barium to the College of Hawaii where- the writer could continue 
his researches and bring the whole work to a satisfactory conclu- 
sion. 

Under the new auspices the writer has made several field trips 
and enriched the herbarium by several thousand sheets. The 
grasses were worked up by Dr. Hackel of Austria, the rushes by 
the Rev. George Kukenthal of Coburg, the lichenes by Dr. A. 
Zahlbruckner of Vienna and the palms by Dr. O. Beccari of 
Florence. The writer takes this opportunity to express the 
thanks of the Forestry Division as well as his own to the above 
gentlemen, who are all authorities in their respective fields, for 
their valuable service. 

PLANT PROTECTION. 

Mr. Fairchild, Agricultural Explorer in charge of the Bureau 
of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. 
C, whose attention had been called to the writer's discovery of 
a species of Gossypium from Mt. Hualalai, Hawaii, through the 
writer's last report, entered into correspondence with the latter 
in regard to collecting of seeds of this rare Hawaiian plant, which 
he thinks to be of economic importance. He also advised to have 
these few remaining trees protected from cattle in order to as- 
sure their perpetuation for, at least, a few years more to come. 

The Territorial Government was in a way powerless to act 
as the trees are found on private estates, except in one place 
where they are growing on Government land, at present under 
lease to Mr. Robert Hind. 

Fortunately arrangement could be made with the Bishop Estate 
and Mr. Robert Hind in regard to the fencing of these rare and 
valuable trees. Nearly all of them are now fenced and protected 
from cattle which are very fond of the succulent branchlets and 
large leaves. The Board of Forestry also contributed $100 to- 
ward defraying expenses of fencing. Herbarium samples of 
these interesting trees were forwarded together with specimens 
from a related species from Molokai to Mr. Fred Lewton, Cura- 
tor of Textiles, who described the plants under a new genus 
"Kokia" after its native name Kokio. 



98 

The type of the genus is Kokia Rockii Lewton. His paper, 
which forms No. 5 of Vol. 60 of Smithsonian Miscellaneous col- 
lections, is entitled Kokia: A New Genus of Hawaiian Trees, 
and was issued October 22, 1912 ; it is illustrated by 5 plates, two 
of which were furnished by the writer. At the request of Mr. 
Fairchild, the writer caused seeds of Kokia Rockii to be gathered 
which were forwarded to the Bureau of Plant Industry, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

DISCOVERY OF A NATIVE HAWAIIAN RUBBER PRODUCING TREE. 

While on an official exploration trip at Puuwaawaa, North 
Kona, Hawaii, one of the richest botanical sections in the Terri- 
tory, the writer found a species of Euphorbia (E. lorifolia) which 
produced a tremendous flow of latex when bruised or cut. It is 
a tree of an average height of 20 feet and a trunk of about 10 
inches in diameter. It is very abundant and scattered over an 
area of more than 5000 acres. In certain localities the plants 
are so thick that it is impossible to ride through them. The 
ground is covered densely with the young seedlings and thous- 
ands upon thousands of plants cover that area. The writer 
tapped several trees and sent the secured latex to the Chemist 
of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station at Honolulu. 

Mr. Wm. McGeorge and Mr. W. A. Anderson published a 
paper or press bulletin* on the result of their investigation, to 
which the writer would refer any one particularly interested in 
this discovery. Samples of the crude dry material, rubber, resin, 
etc., were taken by Mr. Anderson to the Rubber Exposition in 
New York; one firm offered 70c per pound for the crude mate- 
rial. The writer has been told by Mr. R. Hind, on whose leased 
land the trees are found, that he is now shipping one ton of the 
crude material to a firm in the East, which is, I believe, for ex- 
perimental purposes. 

COLLECTING OF SEED FOR EXCHANGE PURPOSES. 

While on an exploring trip in Kau and South Kona, Hawaii, 
during the months of December, 1911, January and February, 
1912, the writer collected several hundred pounds of seeds of 
Hawaiian trees, the most noteworthy of which were the follow- 
ing: 



* Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, Press Bulletin No. 37, 
"Euphorbia lorifolia, a Possible Source of Rubber and Chicle," by 
Wm. McGeorge and W. A. Anderson. 



99 

Olopua, Osmanthus sandwicensis. 
Alaa, Sideroxylon atiahiense. 
Hame, Antidesma pulvinatum. 
Halapepc, Dracaena aurea. 
Hoawa, Pittosporum Hosmeri var. 
Lama, Maba sandwicensis. 

At Kapua, South Kona, the writer also collected additional 
wood specimens of 12 native trees, which were not in the collec- 
tion made previously for the Seattle Fair. 

Respectfully submitted,. 

J. F. ROCK, 

Consulting Botanist. 




Plate 2. le-ie Vine on Ohia Lehua Tree. 



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Plate 4. Where the Forest Gives Place to Grazing Land. A Forest Fence. 



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TERRITORY OF HAWAII 

BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 



DIVISION OF FORKHTRY 

RALPH S. HOSMKK. SiiiuTinU'iicliMit 



REPORT 



OF THE 



DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

FOE THE 

BIENNIAL PERIOD ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1914 



Reprint From the Report of the Board of Commissioners 
of Agriculture and Forestry 




HONOLULU. T.H. 

THE NEW FREEDOM PRESS 

1915. 



CONTENTS 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 

Report of the Superintendent of Forestry. 

Introduction 33 

Scope of this Report 33 

Resume of the Work Performed 33 

Page 

Staff 34 

Forest Reserves 34 

New Reserves 35 

Tables with Forest Reserve Statistics: 

Forest Reserves Arranged in Chronological Order 38 

Forest Reserves Arranged by Islands and Counties.. 41 

Fencing Forest Reserve Boundaries 43 

Fencing Under Lease Requirements 44 

Forest Extension 46 

Federal Assistance in Tree Planting 49 

Plant Distribution 50 

Advice on Forest Matters 52 

Plant Introduction 52 

Tree Planting Under Private Auspices 53 

Miscellaneous Activities 54 

Algaroba Licenses 54 

Hawaii Hardwood Lumber Company 54 

Fence Post Test 55 

Permits in Forest Reserves 55 

Honorary Forest Rangers 56 

Surrender of Forest Land 56 

Publications 56 

Forest Fires 57 

Summary of Forest Work in Hawaii, 1904-1914 58 

Recommendations 62 

List of District Fire Wardens 63 

List of Forest Rangers 67 

List of District Foresters 67 

Report of the Acting Superintendent of Forestry. 

Forest Extension 69 

Forest Reserve Fencing 70 

Dead Timber in Tantalus Forest 70 

Arbor Day 70 

Table, Number of Trees Planted 1913 and 1914 71 

Forestry Rule I 71 

Report of the Forest Nurseryman. 

Nursery 73 

Collection and Exchange of Seed 73 

Table, Plant Distribution 74 

Propagation of Trees for Plantation Companies, and other 

Corporations 75 

Government Realizations 76 

Collections on Account of Preservation and Extension of 

Forestry and Forest Reserves 76 

Other Work 76 

Nursery and Grounds 76 

Congressional Vegetable Seed and Year Books 77 

Advice and Assistance 77 

Makiki Station 77 

Tantalus Forest 78 

Honolulu Watershed Planting 79 

Report of the Consulting Botanist 81 



V 
ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate 2. An Ohia Forest on Hawaii 36 

" 3. Planted Forest on Tantalus near Honolulu 48 

" 4. Fig. 1. Cutting Algaroba in the Purely Commercial 

Forest on the Dry Lowlands 54 

Fig. 2. Makiki Nursery, Honolulu 54 

" 5. Fig. 1. Plants for Distribution, Makiki Nursery 76 

Fig. 2. Soil Sterilizing Shed, Makiki Nursery 76 

6. Fig. 1. Soil Sterilizer, Makiki Nursery 78 

Fig. 2. The Can Cutter at Makiki Nursery 78 



33 



Division of Forestry 



Report of the Superintendent of Forestry 



Honolulu, Hawaii, August 31, 1914. 

The Board of Commissioners of 

Agriculture and Forestry, 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit as follows the report 
of the Division of Forestry for the period from January 1, 1913, 
to August 31, 1914. This report is made at this time and to this 
earlier date instead of as usual to the end of the calendar year 
because of my resignation as Superintendent of Forestry, which 
takes effect on September 1, when I leave the Territory to become 
head of the Department of Forestry at Cornell University. 

SCOPE OF THIS REPORT. 

After the custom of past years this report recounts briefly 
the activities of the Division of Forestry for the current period. 
Accompanying it i s a revised table giving the essential statistics 
regarding the established forest reserves. Together with this bi- 
ennial statement it has seemed to me appropriate, as this is my 
last report as Superintendent of Forestry, to summarize what I 
conceive to have been the main accomplishments in forestry work 
in Hawaii during the past decade, the period since the establish- 
ment of the Division of Forestry, and to make certain recom- 
mendations as to the principles which I believe should guide forest 
work in Hawaii in the future. The statement concerning the 
years 1913 and 1914 precedes the general summary. 

RESUME OF THE WORK PERFORMED. 

The work of the Division of Forestry during this year and 
last has followed closely the lines laid down in earlier periods. 
Protection of the native Hawaiian forests on the important water- 
sheds and encouragement of tree planting to meet divers demands 
under various conditions, have remained the two dominant ideas 
that have guided its activities. Further repetition of the reasons 
for practicing forestry in Hawaii seems unnecessary, but the need 
itself is a continuing one and will always remain so. The eco- 
nomic life of the Territory rests on the tripod of the three essen- 



34 

tial natural resources of the islands water, forests and lands. 
To make the most complete use of tho land there must be water, 
and to insure a permanent arid adequate supply of water there 
must be forests. No one of the three can be spared from the 
foundation. And, scarcely less important, the forests cannot pro- 
perly be protected and cared for without men trained in the prin- 
ciples and practice of forestry. Forests and forest work form an 
integral part of the local economic structure, which in turn sup- 
ports our whole social organization. Forestry is therefore one of 
the fundamental needs of Hawaii. 

STAFF. 

No changes have been made in the salaried staff of the Divi- 
sion of Forestry in the past twenty months. As in former years 
the active work of the Division has been divided between the 
Superintendent of Forestry (Ralph S. Hosmer), who as well as 
having general charge of all its activities, has devoted particular 
attention to forest reserve matters, including fence construction, 
and the Forest Nurseryman (David Haughs), under whose imme- 
diate direction comes the propagation and distribution of seedling 
trees and other plant material and the answering of questions, 
verbal and by letter, of persons desiring advice and suggestions 
on various forest problems. 

A few changes, mainly additions, have been made in the list 
of District Fire Wardens. A revised list of these volunteer offi- 
cials accompanies this report. 

The appropriation for the Division of Forestry for the pre- 
sent fiscal period consists of one-half of a special fund created 
by Act 57 of the Session Laws of 1913 from the revenues derived 
from water leases and licenses of streams on Government forest 
lands. On other pages of this report are statements showing how 
the money has been expended. 

The Forest Nurseryman acts as Receiving Officer for the 
Board of Agriculture and Forestry. In his report will be found 
a statement of the realizations for 1913 and 1914. 

FOREST RESERVES. 

New Reserves. 

During 1913 and 1914 ten new forest reserves have been 
added to the Forest Reserve system. The list is as follows : 



35 



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36 

Oil October 13, 1913, the boundary of the Moloaa Forest .Re- 
serve on Kauai was modified by the elimination of 83 acres and 
tli'j addition of 34 acres, a net decrease of 49 acres. This action 
was taken on the basis of a revised survey to straighten the 
boundary line and exclude from the reserve a section of open 
land found not to be essential for water protection that was 
needed for grazing. 

On August 31, 1914, there are 37 forest reserves in Hawaii 
with a total area of 748,214 acres, of which 546,222 acres (68 per 
cent.) is land belonging to the Territory. On following pages are 
tables giving the essential statistics of all the forest reserves to 
date. 

Of the new reserves the three set apart in June, 1913, are 
located on the leeward slopes of the Waianae Mountains on Oahu. 
The object in each case was to protect the scanty sources of water 
supply at the heads of the valleys where even an intermittent 
supply of water has high value. 

The Kohala Mountain .Forest Reserve embraces the summit 
and southern slopes of Kohala Mountain. Protection of the water- 
shed is its purpose in that from this mountain comes the water for 
the Kohala and the Hamakua Ditch systems as well as for the 
Waimea Plains. This reserve had long been pending. It was in- 
deed one of the first suggested when the forest reserve policy was 
adopted. 

Upper Waiakea and Upper Olaa together embrace a large 
tract of dense forested country in the region between Hilo and the 
Volcano. Although without running water it was felt that this 
section should be under the control of the Board of Agriculture 
and Forestry, particularly as in time the question may arise of 
exploiting the 'timber trees on the tract. These Government lands 
were accordingly set apart so that they might be handled by this 
Department. 

The Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve and its neighbor, 
the Kuliouou Forest Reserve, are both on the slopes of the Koolau 
Kidve back of the City of Honolulu. The name of the former is 
sufficiently indicative of its purpose; the latter was created for 
the protection of the stream in Kuliouou Valley. 

The Kipahulu Forest Reserve on Mani, set apart in August, 
1914, is likewise designed for watershed protection. It was prac- 
tically the last large unreserved forest area in Hawaii needed to 
conserve a catchment basin. With its creation the forest reserve 
system throughout the Territory as regards watershed protection 
on Government lands may be regarded practically as technically 
complete, save for one land on Oahu, Mokuleia on the Waianae 
Hills. 

On August 20, 1914, there were also set apart as the "Ol;ui 




Plate 2. An Ohia Forest on Hawaii. 



37 

Forest Park Reserve/' three areas of government land along tlic 
Volcano Road in the Puna District, Hawaii. The purpose here is 
r<> preserve in its primitive condition the most easily accessible re- 
maining hlock of native Hawaiian forest in the Territory. Section 
A consists of a block of 374 acres of forest at 24 miles, a little 
above Glen wood. Section B is the small Koa grove at 29 miles, 
7 I--) acres. Section "( 1 " comprises the so-called "forest strips" 
along the Volcano Road from 18 to 24 miles, nrea 150 acres. Both 
I localise of its scientific interest and because the forest along the 
Volcano Road is one of the scenic features of Hawaii, and hence 
a tourist attraction, it is deemed good business formally to set 
this land apart. Tt really constitutes a forest park rather than a 
forest reserve in the usual sense, but for purposes of administra- 
tion and that the area may come under the Board of Agriculture 
and Forestry, this land was set apart as Forest Reserve l$o. 37. 



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43 

KK\CK\(; FOKEST RESERVE BOUNDARIES. 

But technical delimitation on a map and the formal phrase- 
ology of a proclamation do not alone constitute true reservation of 
a forest, nor do they protect it from the inroads of stock and other 
trespass. They are necessary preliminary steps which have to 
he taken, but they must be followed up, if the desired results are 
to be attained, by fences, forest rangers, and suitable adminis- 
trative control of the reserves. 

Getting the forest reserves throughout the Territory tech- 
nically established has been a principal part of the forest reserve 
work in the past decade. The job for succeeding years is to make 
the reserves do their full duty in the best way. 

The years 1913 and 1914 have, however, seen~a marked ad- 
vance in the better care of the Hawaiian forests. The action of the 
Legislature of 1913 in setting apart the water revenues from 
streams on government lands as a special fund to be used for 
forest and hydrographic work made a red letter day in the history 
of forestry in Hawaii. It was one result of the long campaign 
that has been carried on by the Board of Agriculture and For- 
estry to secure better protection of the native forests. 

Under the terms of the new law (Act 57 of 1913), one-half of 
the revenues derived from the lease of water rights is devoted to 
forest work. The annual income from water rights is a little 
over $66,000. The share of forestry for 1913 and 14 was there- 
fore $33,000 per annum, an increase of_about $22,000 per annum 
over the amount which the Division of Forestry had had in recent 
years. Continuing the staff of the Division of Forestry un- 
changed and making the same provision as in the past for its 
routine work, the bulk of the water money was allotted in July, 
1913, for the construction of forest fences on the boundaries of 
certain forest reserves across government land or on party lines 
where the government was one owner, in places where there were 
no natural barriers, or where there yet remained gaps in existing 
lines of fence. 

During the 20 months covered by this report fencing projects 
have been undertaken and in most cases have already been com- 
pleted, in the following districts: 



44 

Name of Project. District Island 

Moloaa Hanalei Kauai 

Wailua Lihue Kauai 

Lualualei (two) Waianae Oahu 

Waihou Spring Makawao Maui 

Nahiku Hana Maui 

Kawaihae N. Kohala Hawaii 

Waiaha Spring !N". Kona Hawaii 

Pinole Kau Hawaii 

Other fencing projects were contemplated, and had been 
provisionally arranged for, when in the spring months of 19.14 
came the call from the Territorial Administration to retrench in 
every possible manner. This has led to the postponement of 
several important fencing projects and the elimination of several 
more that were regarded as highly desirable. The projects al- 
ready under way will all be completed by the end of this calendar 
year. 

FENCING UNDER LEASE REQUIREMENTS. 

In addition to the fences built with the water revenues, con- 
siderable other forest fencing was done during 1913-14 by ranch 
and plantation companies under the requirements of government 
leases covering agriculture or grazing land adjoining forest re- 
serves. In particular attention may be called to fences built in 
this way in the Districts of Hanalei on Kauai, Kula and Wai- 
luku on Maui (two in each case), and North Kohala on Hawaii. 

Two of the fencing projects on Maui coming under this 
head are of particular interest. The fence on the boundary of 
the Kula Forest Keserve, from Waiakoa to Keokea, built by the 
Cornwell Ranch, and the repair and rebuilding of the fence 
around the Polipoli Spring section of the same reserve, by Dr. J. 
H. Raymond. With the completion of a short stretch of stone wall 
on the Kahikinui 'slope, now being built by Dr. Raymond, and 
the contemplated removal from Haleakala of a band of semi-wild 
cattle, now at large at the south end of the mountain, these 
fences, provided they are properly looked after, will satisfactorily 
protect the area included in the Kula Forest reserve. In that 
one of the chief reasons for setting apart this area was to pro- 
vide for its ultimate afforestation with temperate zone trees, this 
step is an important one. Practically all of the Government land 
included in the Kula Forest Reserve is too poor in character to 
be of value for grazing, but it can be made to grow such trees as 
pines, firs and cedars. It is the intention of the Board of Agri- 
culture and Forestry to stsrt such planting as soon as there are 
any funds available for the purpose. Consequently the comnle- 
tion of these fences now is particularly timely. Mention should be 



45 

made of the fact that the Cornwell Ranch carried the forest re- 
serve fence across its fee simple land of Kaonoula, thus throwing 
the mauka portion of that land into the reserve. 

On Kohala Mountain, Hawaii, under the requirements of 
leases obtained from the Government in July, 1913, the Parker 
Ranch has repaired and put in shape the forest fences 011 the en- 
tire south face of that mountain on the boundary of the forest 
reserve. In this case, too, several blocks of fee simple land have 
been fenced off and included in the reserve. 

An inspection of other forest fences on Hawaii, in the Haina- 
kua and Hilo Districts, was made by me during the early autumn 
of 1913. It showed the forest reserve fences around Manna Kea 
and, with one exception, those on the mauka side of the Hilo 
Forest Reserve, to be in good condition. On the mountain the 
fences are maintained under lease requirements by the Parker 
Ranch, the Kukaiau Ranch and the Humuula Sheep Station. 
Across the several private lands in the Hilo District, from 
Honohina to and across the government tract of Piihonua, Mr. 
W. H. Shipman was then just completing the relocation and re- 
building of the Pun Oo Ranch forest fence, approximately on 
the mauka boundary of the Hilo Forest Reserve. This fence is a 
substantial one, put up in a thoroughly satisfactory way. 

On the boundary between Humuula and the Hilo forest the 
fencing is of recent date, and in good condition. On the govern- 
ment land of Piha there has been trespass and a generally unsat- 
isfactory state of things, but arrangements are now well advanced 
that will soon put an end to that condition. Steps are also now 
being taken by the Government to prevent trespass by cattle along 
the lower edge of the Hilo Forest Reserve, above Hakalau, a mat- 
ter which has been under consideration by the Division of For- 
estry for some time. 

On the Kona side of Hawaii the Trustees of the Bishop 
Estate have within the past year had several miles of forest 
fence built and repaired on the boundaries of their private forest 
reserve above Kealakekua. 

In Kau the forest fence along the mauka side and at the East 
and West ends of the Kau Forest Reserve have recently been, or 
are at this date, in process of being reconstructed. The upkeep 
of these fences is required under government leases held respect- 
ively by the Hawaiian Agricultural Company and the Hutchinson 
Sugar Plantation Company. By mutual agreement between these 
companies and the Kahuku Ranch, portions of the mauka line are 
to be fenced by the latter. This Avork is now in progress. The 
sections built by the two plantations have already been completed. 
Both were inspected by mo during a special trip made to Kau for 
that purpose in July, 1914. 



46 

The Hutcliinson Plantation fence consists of four strands 
of No. 4 German galvanized wire, with substantial posts set 10 
feet apart. It runs from the northwest corner of the reserve east- 
ward along the mauka boundary of the forest for approximately 
7 1-2 miles. It is a thoroughly good piece of fence work and 
should give good service. 

The Hawaiian Agricultural Company's fence follows the line 
of the forest fence first erected by that company in 1896. The 
old fence was entirely rebuilt both as to posts and wire in 19.13. 
It now consists of five strands of No. 7 wire, English make, with 
posts of Ohia or Split Koa set 8 feet apart. This fence encloses 
the entire east end of the Reserve. The length is approximately 
15 miles. It was built under the personal supervision of Mr. 
Julian Monsarrat, who for 18 years now has had charge of the 
mountain fences of the Hawaiian Agricultural Company. Pro- 
perly maintained, as the past record of the company gives assur- 
ance that it will be, this fence will be an efficient barrier for 
many years. Special mention is made of these fences here be- 
cause the proper fencing of the Kau Forest Reserve is a matter 
that has received not a little attention from the Board. Because 
of them, and the other fences enclosing it, the Kau Forest Re- 
serve is now among the best protected of any of the forest reserves 
in the Islands. 

FOREST EXTENSION. 

The encouragement of tree planting has always been a very 
important part of the work of the Division of Forestry. It is 
carried on by the division in three ways: First, by the actual 
planting of government land with stands of forest trees : second, 
by the maintaining of nurseries for the propagation and distri- 
bution of tree seedlings ; and third, by the giving of advice on the 
best methods of growing and caring for trees planted for profit, for 
shade or for pleasure. 

During the past two years, under the water revenues fund, 
the Division of Forestry has itself carried on several planting 
projects. Perhaps the most important of these is the reforesta- 
tion of a portion of the Honolulu Watershed on Oahu. Here, on 
the slopes of Sugar Loaf, at the head of one of the branches of 
Makiki Valley, a stand of Hawaiian Koa (Acacia -Koa) has 
been set out, extended lower down on the sides of the gulch by 
another native tree, Kukui (Aleurites mohiccana). As a part of 
the city water supply for Honolulu comes from springs in the 
branches of Makiki Valley the planting of these slopes has econo- 
mic significance. Incidentally the reclothing of the grass-covered 
hills above the city will add much to the attractiveness of the 
view toward the mountains. 



47 

Beginning in July, 1913, with the preparations for planting, 
some 23 acres have now feen set out. The Koa trees are spaced 
15 x 15 feet, with the intention of securing a complete cover on 
the slopes. It is expected that this planting will be continued 
over all the open ridges between Sugar Loaf and the Tantalus 
forest. 

Another planting project carried forward by the Division of 
Forestry has been the continuation of the tree planting under- 
taken by the Alexander & Baldwin interests on Government land 
along the Koolau Ditch system on windward Maui. Begun in 
1911 under a planting plan drawn up by the Division of Forestry, 
the purpose of this planting is to assist in restoring the dense 
cover of vegetation on portions of this important watershed which 
had been opened up through the dying off of the forest during the 
years 1906 to 1908. The work of the past year has been primarily 
in caring for the seedlings previously planted until they became 
established, and in extending somewhat the areas set in trees. In 
part this planting is experimental. Various species of Eucalyptus 
are being tried out, while attention has also been paid to increas- 
ing the spread of Koa and of the native Bamboo. 

Further, in the way of experimental tree planting, the Divi- 
sion of Forestry has made progress during the past two years. 
Under its auspices such planting is now in progress in five locali- 
ties : two on Maui, two on Oahu and one on Kauai. Those on 
Maui are at Kailiili, above Makawao, and on the Government 
remnant called Polipoli, above Wailuku in the West Maui Forest 
Reserve. At Kailiili, through an arrangement with the ,Maui 
Agricultural Co., a number of species of Eucalypts are being 
planted in definite plots on a section of open land in the Makawao 
Forest Reserve, in return for the privilege granted that Company 
of removing dead wood from the land. 

Among the trees being tried at Kailiili are the following 
species of Eucalypts: E. gomphocephala ,E. gonio calyx, E. hemi- 
l>hloia, E. longifolia, E. leucoxylon, E. macrorliyncha, E. macu- 
lata, E. marrginata, E. paniculata, E. polyanthemos, E. punctata, 
E. saligna, E. siderophloia, E. sideroxylon, and E. tereiicornis. 

Other trees in the plantation are: Pinus massoniana, P. c<tn- 
uncnsis, P. radiate, and P. tuberculata. 

On the windward of the block is a belt of Eucalyptus robusta. 

Each species is in a plot by itself, plainly marked by a stake 
with a metal tag bearing the tree name and the date of planting. 
The object is to try out valuable species at present imperfectly 
known in Hawaii. Those that are found to do well at Kailiili 
can later be recommended for other localities where the conditions 
are similar as to elevation, rainfall and wind exposure. 

This project has been carried on for the Division of Forestry 



48 

by Mr. W. Hannestad, forester for the Maui Agricultural Co., in 
connection with the extensive tree planting that he has been doing 
on the privately owned lands of that company lying just to wind- 
ward of the Government tract. This private forest at Kailiili 
constitutes the largest area of artificially established forest in 
the Territory. Eucalypts of several different species have been 
the trees used, and since in almost all the stands the trees are 
close spaced, the result is true forest planting. The Kailiili 
forest should be of great value in years to come to the Maui Agri- 
cultural Company, not only for fuel but as well and more particu- 
larly for posts, railroad ties and other timber. 

The experimental planting above Wailuku has been carried 
on for the Division of Forestry by the Wailuku Sugar Company 
in connection with other planting which that company has been 
doing on the foothills back of the plantation. Plots of the fol- 
lowing species of Eucalypts have been planted : E. corynocalyx, 
E. diversicolor, E. salignek, and E. tereticornis. 

The purpose here is the same as at Kailiili, to try out trees 
new to Hawaii, under a variety of conditions. The project has 
had the personal supervision of Mr. H. B. Penhallow, manager .of 
the Wailuku Sugar Co., who has taken the greatest interest in 
getting trees started on all the waste, upper lands of the plantation 
from Waihee to Maalaea Bay. 

On Oahu the experimental plantation of Eucalypts in T^uuanu 
Valley, started in 1911 with funds supplied by the IT. S. Forest 
Service, may now be regarded as established. During the past 
two years all the blanks in the original planting have been filled 
and the little trees kept free from grass until they grew large 
enough to take care of themselves. There have been no serious set 
backs in this plantation through the trees dying or from other 
reasons. From it valuable data should be secured in later years 
as the trees develop. 

The other locality on Oahu where experimental tree planting 
has been done is Makiki Valley, where in the vicinity of and in 
connection with the experimental garden maintained by the Divi- 
sion of Forestry, many species of trees new to Hawaii have been 
started and planted out. 

On Kauai, above the sub-nursery maintained by the Division 
of Forestry at Homestead, in the Papapaholahola Spring Re- 
serve, blocks of a number of forest trees have been planted and are 
thriving. Especially to be noted here are the stands of Sugi or 
Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica'), a tree that .when 
planted in the right localities is bound to be of great value in the 
Islands. The local nursery at Homestead, as well as the experi- 
mental planting, is being looked out for by Mr. Walter D. 



49 

MeBryde, who for many years has been a most enthusiastic tree 
planter. 

Federal Assistance in Tree Planting. 

With the close of the fiscal year, June 30, 1914, came the dis- 
continuation of the allotments that had been made for six years 
by the U. S. Forest Service for experimental tree planting in 
Hawaii. Having before gradually diminished the amount, the 
service was obliged this year entirely to discontinue this project 
because of pressing demands in other directions requiring all its 
appropriations, particularly for combatting forest fires. But the 
attitude of the Forest Service in regard to this project is shown 
by the following paragraph from a letter from Mr. Henry S. 
Graves, Chief Forester of the United States, under the date of 
May 7, 1913 : 

"Your report on the experimental planting indicates con- 
clusively that you have obtained good results from this intensive 
study of the possibilities of reforestation in portions of the 
Hawaiian Islands. I feel that there is no question as to the wisdom 
of your undertaking these experiments or of the Forest Service's 
participating in them on the small scale which has been possible 
for us. I wish very much that it might be possible for us to con- 
tinue this cooperation on the same small scale as during the pre- 
sent fiscal year." 

The amount allotted for 1912-13 was $500; for 1913-14, $188. 
The greater part of this money was expended for labor in the Ex- 
perimental Plantation of Eucalyptus in Nuuanu Valley, Oahu, 
already referred to, in caring for the small trees until they became 
established. 

The earlier work with the Federal funds was on the high 
mountains on Hawaii and Maui, in the trial of temperate zone 
trees, especially conifers. Arrangements are now pending whereby 
such work can be resumed under Territorial auspices on the upper 
slopes of Mt. Haleakala. But in view of the fact that the first 
chapter of this investigation is now closed, it may not be out of 
place to insert here a summary of the results obtained with Fed- 
eral funds which I drew up for the Forest Service in February, 
1!>14, as follows: 

"Returns from the planting on the high mountains have not 
been as great as it was hoped would be the case. Through un- 
avoidable changes of program due to the death in one case and 
the unexpected departure in another of employees of neighboring 
ranches who were cooperating in the work, the original planting 
was handicapped, both through loss of material and through in- 
ability to secure proper care in the raising of seedlings in local 
nurseries. Further, climatic conditions at the higher plots on 



both momcfains were found to be more unfavorable than had beeii 
anticipated. But of the original seedlings and transplants set 
out, enough individuals have become established to show that such 
work is feasible. So, too, with the seed spots. Enough seedlings. 
have come up and lived through to give information that is de- 
cidedly worth while as to species to be granted further trial and 
as to methods to be used in subsequent work. Also, of course, the 
fenced enclosures on both Mauna Kea and Haleakala remain to 
be used in later experiments." 

"Strictly considered, the experimental plantings on the high 
mountains in Hawaii, whether of seedlings or of seed, so far carried 
on, would probably have to be classed as failures, but summing up 
the situation, I believe this project of the Forest Service to have 
been justified, first : because it has started a greatly needed study 
that is much more likely to be carried forward by the Territory 
now that there has been provided fenced enclosures that can con- 
tinue to be used for a long time. Second: because while the results 
in actual numbers of growing plants are meagre, it has been shown 
what classes and types of trt es are needed : namely, conifers accus- 
tomed to seini-arid conditions, as some of. those from the Ameri- 
can Southwest and Northern Mexico, or other related species. 
And, third, because considerable light has been thrown on methods 
desirable to follow or to avoid. To have got this information is 
worth while." 

One of the essential needs in forestry in Hawaii has been and 
is, that trees new to the islands be systematically tried out under 
the varying local conditions. With the pressing necessity to use 
Territorial revenues in other ways, it was possible to undertake- 
such experimental planting only with the aid of Federal funds. 
A good share of the money expended has gone into supplying- 
equipment that can be used for a long time to come. By inaugu- 
rating this investigation the Forest Service has rendered a lasting 
benefit to the Territory of Hawaii." 

Plant Distribution. 

Following the usage of past seasons the Division of Forestry 
lias continued to grow and distribute free or at cost price, seedling 
trees to all those desiring them in any part of the Territory. 

Tt is the intention of the Division to keep constantly on hand n 
few thousand each of the species most often called for forest, 
shade and ornamental trees to meet current demands. When 
larger numbers are desired though for forest planting by sugar 
plantation companies or other corporations, special consignments 
are started on due notice and shipped when the seedlings are large 
enough to plant out. Many corporations are finding it easier and 
cheaper to secure from the Government Nursery seedlings in seed 



51 

boxes, just ready for transplanting, rather than to grow them 
.themselves. This is partly because most of the troubles in grow- 
ing trees, such as the damping off fungus, etc., occur in the very 
early stages of a tree's life. 

Large lots can be got ready for shipment in from SLX weeks 
to two months, depending on the species. It is then a simple 
matter to transplant the seedlings and look out for them locally 
for a month or two more, when they are of sufficient size to be 
planted in their permanent place. The cost of the common forest 
tree seedlings in seed boxes varies from a dollar to a dollar and a 
half for 800 to 1000 plants. Pot-grown seedlings of shade and 
ornamental trees usually sell for 2i/ 2 cents each, the intention 
being in each case to have the price just cover the cost. Further 
details in regard to this phase of the work of the Division of 
Forestry may be found in the- report of the Forest Nurseryman, to 
whom should be addressed, at Box 207, Honolulu, all inquiries 
about the purchase, setting out and subsequent care of forest, 
shade and ornamental trees. 

Beside the Government Nursery at Honolulu, the Division of 
Forestry also maintains sub-nurseries at Hilo, Hawaii (in charge 
of Brother Matthias Newell), and at Homestead, Kaiiai (under 
the care of Mr. Walter D. McBryde). 

The report of the Forest Nurseryman covers this subject 
more in detail. It should be consulted by those interested. 

The Government Nursery, as a rule, does not deal in orna- 
mental shrubs, nor in fruit trees. But during the past several 
years an exception has been made as regards the former class of 
plants in favor of the United States Army. With the influx of 
soldiers into Hawaii, and the establishment and expansion of tar- 
various posts and forts on Oahu, the Division of Forestry has 
deemed it justifiable to cooperate as far as it reasonably could in 
helping to make their new quarters habitable, both for officers 
and enlisted men. The result has been that the Quartermaster's 
wagons have been frequent visitors at the Nursery, especially dur- 
ing the last two years, and that many plants have been furnished 
both to carry out the official programs of post planting and to 
make more attractive the temporary quarters that precede the per- 
manent streets and houses at the forts. During 1913 there was 
distributed in this way to the army a total of 4,447 plants from 
the Government Nursery. One of the most satisfactory things 
about this army distribution is that almost every plant sent out 
is taken care of until established a fate that unfortunately does 
not always befall the little- trees that go from the Nursery on 
other orders. 

Arbor Day continues to be a convenient point of departure for 
efforts to get more people* interested in tree planting. Coming 
the second Fridnv in November, trees set out then urf, in normal 



52 

season the advantage of the winter rains. Arbor Day is essentially 
the time for the free distribution of trees, but for the past two 
years a strong effort has been made to direct the distribution more 
carefully than in years before, so that trees should only be sent to 
those who really wanted them. The total number distributed is 
thus reduced, but it is believed that the net results are considerably 
higher.. 

Especial efforts have been made, both in 1913 and during this 
year, to get trees into the hands of the homesteaders at Haiku, 
Maui, Kapaa, Kauai and Waimea (Kamuela), Hawaii, all newly 
opened tracts where the settlers are trying to develop real Ameri- 
can communities. 

Advice on Forest Matters. 

Along with the actual distribution of plant material the Divi- 
sion of 1'orestry performs the important function of being ready 
at all times to offer technical advice about every sort of forest 
work from sowing the seed to securing a second crop of trees after a 
stand of timber has been harvested. 

The preparation of detailed planting and working plans is 
not often called for, though a few are drawn up each year, but 
much advice is given verbally and by letter every month. Indeed, 
judged by the number of requests that come in, this branch of the 
work is one of the most useful activities of the Division of For- 
estry. No charge is made for the suggestions given, whether at 
the Nursery or on the ground, except that in the latter case, if 
the locality visited is out of Honolulu, the actual traveling ex- 
penses of the agent sent are borne by the applicant. This function 
of the Division of Forestry is already pretty generally known, 
but it does no harm to say again that the members of the staff 
are always ready to answer any inquiries that may be made as to 
the how and why of forest work. 

Plant Introduction. 

One other phase of work of the Division of Forestry is en- 
titled at least to mention in this report the introduction into 
Hawaii of trees and shrubs new to the Territory. In earlier 
paragraphs the work in experimental planting has been described. 
This section deals with the bringing in of new plants. Lack of 
funds that could be devoted to it and the inherent difficulties of 
trying out new introductions without a series of experiment gar- 
dens under the control of the Division of Forestry, at various ele- 
vations and under differing climatic conditions, have kept this 
Avork down to very simple terms. But it remains a line of investi- 
gation that Hawaii ought to take hold of and push vigorously. 
Properly carried on there are few places in the world whore the 



53 

results from the introduction of valuable plants would be of more 
immediate value to the community. 

During the past year and a half a number of new plants 
have been received by the Division of Forestry, through gift and 
exchange, which are now being propagated for subsequent distri- 
bution. Especially may be noted a consignment of American 
basket willows, sent by the U. S. Forest Service as the result of 
our investigations two years ago with a basket willow from the 
Azores; a Juniper from the West Indies, brought back by Mr. 
Gerrit P. Wilder, and a variety of plants, largely ornamental, 
grown from seed collected and sent in by Mr. Joseph F. Rock, 
Consulting Botanist of the Board, while on an official tour around 
the world in the interest of the Botanical Department of the 
College of Hawaii. It is decidedly to be hoped that in later years 
this branch of the Division of Forestry may receive more attention 
than it has been thought practicable to give it in the past. 

Tree Planting Under Private Auspices. 

Owing to the general retrenchment that has been necessitated 
throughout the Territory by the approaching removal of the tariff 
on sugar, there has unavoidably been a marked falling off in tree 
planting, especially by sugar plantation companies. But never- 
theless enough planting has been done to make it certain that there 
has been no decrease in interest in the matter. The fact that 
fewer trees have been set out is purely a question of lack of funds. 

No data have as yet been compiled for 1913 and 1914 as to 
the number of trees planted by corporations, but from notes in 
hand I believe the total for 1913 will be found to be about one 
million trees. Of the sugar plantation companies that are actively 
though, of course, in varying degrees keeping up their tree 
planting, mention may be made of Makaweli, Grove Farm, Lihue 
and Kealia on Kauai ; of Waiahia on Oahu ; of Wailuku and the 
Maui Agricultural Company on Maui; and of Konokaa, Paauilo 
and Pahala on Hawaii. 

Several ranch companies are also actively continuing their 
tree planting, particularly the Parker Ranch on Hawaii and the 
Ilaleakala Ranch on Maui. And under the requirements of Gov- 
ernment Land Office leases, extensive blocks of trees are being; 
planted by the Kukaiau Ranch on Hawaii and the Cornwall 
Ranch on Maui. Inspections of both these projects made during 
the early summer of 1914 showed the work to be going on in 
earnest and the trees already planted to be in good condition. 

The forest plantation started by the Division of Forestry 
in 1910 and 1911 at Pupiikea, Oalin, and above W r aimea, Hawaii, 
are both in excellent condition I he frees growing well and de- 
veloping fast. 



54 

In March, 1914, another cooperative tree planting agreement, 
similar to the one made with Mr. C. G. Owen, of Pupukea, iir 
1912, was entered into with Messrs. Macfarlaiie and Robinson of 
Paumalu, Oahu, for the planting of a part of "Water Reserve A," 
a section of the Pupukea Forest Reserve. Temporarily the land is 
to be used for growing pineapples. During the year 1917 it will 
be planted with trees. The area involved is 814 acres. The- 
faithful performance of the contract is insured by a bond made 
out in favor of the Territory. 

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES. 

Algaroba Licenses. 

In addition to its regular lines of work the Division of For- 
estry is frequently called on to cooperate with other branches of 
the Territorial Government in matters more or less directly con- 
nected with forestry. By arrangement with the Commissioner of 
Public Lands all matters relating to public forests, whether within 
the limits of forest reserves or not, are referred to the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry for its special recommendations. Thus 
during the past year the Division of Forestry has drawn up plans 
for, and subsequently made inspections in the field of, the thinning 
of certain Algaroba groves which the Government desired to 
bring to a condition that would lead to the greatest possible pro- 
duction of flowers and beans, valuable locally for bee pasture and 
stock feed. The localities for which these algaroba licenses were 
issued were Nanakuli and Waianae, Oahu and Kihei, Maui. 

Hawaii Hardwood Lumber Company. 

In October, 1913, an inspection was made of the operations 
of the Hawaii Hardwood Company, successors to the Pahoa 
Lumber Mill of the Hawaiian Development Co., in Puna, Hawaii. 
This concern is logging Ohia lehua on government and private 
land in that district, but so far has barely reached the section set 
apart as the Puna Forest Reserve, although an advance payment 
was made in 19.11 for the timber on 591 acres of it. Since tlit- 
organization of the present company, following the loss of the 
Pahoa lumber mill by fire in January, 1913, the operations both in 
the woods and at the mill have been much more systematic and 
thorough than at any time in the past. Practically everything 
except small branches is taken out of the forest, to be worked up 
at the mill or sold as fuel. And at the mill scarcely any waste 
goes into the trash fire. 

Through persistent activity a place has been made in main- 
land markets for Ohia, and the mill is kept busy in supplying 
the increasing demands for Ohia, in one or another form. The 




Plate 4. Fig. 1 Cutting Algaroba in the Purely Commercial Forest 
on the Dry Lowlands 




Plate 4. Fig. 2. Makiki Nursery, Honolulu. 



55 

use to which. Ohia seems best adapted is flooring and wainscoting. 
Comparatively little Ohia is now sold for railroad ties, notwith- 
standing it was on this basis that the original company was organ- 
ized. With its operations conducted as at present, in the forest 
and at the mill, the Territory can have no complaint against the 
Hawaii Hardwood Company on the score of non-utilization. 

As more of the area of Ohia forest so far cut over has proved 
to be agricultural land, it is probable that the portion owned by 
the Government will sooner or later be opened for homesteading. 
Whether that lying within the boundary of Puna Forest Reserve 
is of like character remains yet to be seen. 

Fence Post Test. 

In August, 1914, a cooperative arrangement was entered into 
by the Division of Forestry and the College of Hawaii whereby 
there will be tried out for fence posts on the College Farm in 
Manoa Valley, Honolulu, timbers from a number of locally grown 
species of Eucalypts. The posts were cut from trees felled in the 
Tantalus forest under the direction and at the cost of the Division 
of Forestry. The hauling and setting of the posts and the treat- 
ing of them with preservatives was paid for by the College. The 
following species were used, the posts being cut from the trees 
averaging about thirty years in age: E. calophylla, E. citriodora, 
E. cornuta, E. globulus and E. robusta. The results of this test 
will be made public from time to time in the Hawaiian Forester 
iiiul Agriculturist. 

Permits in Forest Reserves. 

During the year 1914 a somewhat new departure has been 
made by the Division of Forestry in the issuance of a number of 
permits for privileges within certain of the forest reserves for 
which a cash return was demanded. Therefore most of the per- 
mits given have been for free use. Thus on Oahu, in the Hono- 
lulu Watershed Forest Reserve, three permits were given author- 
izing the holders to live on the reserve for a limited period, and 
make use of small portions of it for gardens. In return the per- 
mittees, in addition to the fee paid to the Government, agree to 
turn out in case of need, to fight forest or brush fires. One grass 
cutting permit was also issued for the Tantalus Ridge section, and 
one giving the holder the privilege of hunting wild cattle and pigs 
in the rpprr Olaa Forest Reserve on Hawaii. All these permits 
arc for limited periods only, and are made only on the condition 
o" the compliance with strict requirements. 

In August, 1914, one more permit was issued granting the 
privilege of establishing n mountain outing camp on the upper 
slopes of Iljilcnkjihi. \Faiii, in the Kula Forest Reserve, in return 



56 

for assistance to the Government in experimental tree planting in 
that reserve. In each case the object of these permits is to allow 
the fullest use to be made of the land, consistent with its proper 
maintenance as a forest reserve. 

Honorary Forest Rangers. 

Another departure in 1914 was the appointment of several 
Volunteer (or Honorary) Forest Rangers, to assist the Board in 
giving better protection to certain of the Forest Reserves. To 
this position for the Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve, Oahu, 
were appointed Messrs. Charles L. Beal and E. H. Hippie, of 
Honolulu; for the districts of Hilo and Puna, Hawaii, Mr. W. H. 
Shipman, of Hilo. The appointment of Mr. Beal was made prim- 
arily on account of the interest he -has shown in repairing and 
extending the trails on the mountains back of Honolulu. It was 
felt that it would mutually be a good thing if the Board had Mr. 
Beal's assistance and cooperation. 

Surrender of Forest Land. 

In June, 1914, under the terms of Chapter 28 of the Revised 
Laws of Hawaii, the Honorable George R. Carter formally turned 
over to the Board for a period of five years the custody and con- 
trol of a tract of 132 acres of forest land owned by him at the 
head of Manoa Valley, Oahu, within the Honolulu Watershed 
Forest Reserve. This is the second time in the history of the Divi- 
sion of Forestry that such a transfer has been made, the other 
instance being certain lands on the windward side of Maui that 
were similarly surrendered by the Alexander & Baldwin interests 
for a period of years, in 1906. Mr. Carter's action is more im- 
portant in that it confirms a precedent, than in the actual transfer 
itself. With a better system of protecting and administering its 
forest reserves the Territory would doubtless be in receipt of many 
applications from private owners of forest land requesting that 
the management of their lands be taken over by the Board. 

Publications. 

With the exception of the Biennial Report of the Division 
for 1911 and 1912, issued in March, 1913, the only publication 
of the Division of Forestry in its regular series has been Botanical 
Bulletin No. 2: "List of Hawaiian Names of Plants," hy Joseph 
F. Rock, Consulting Botanist of the Board. This pamphlet was 
issued in June, 1913, and gives the Hawaiian and scientific name 
for all the indigenous and many introduced trees and shrubs. The 
data there collected are taken from Mr. Rock's comprehensive con- 
tribution to Hawaiian botany entitled "The Indigenous Trees of 
the Hawaiian Islands," a volume of 518 pages, fully illustrated 



57 

by 215 full page plates, that was published under patronage and 
privately printed in Honolulu, in June, 1913. Most of the field 
work on which this book is based was done when Mr. Rock was a 
regular member of the staff of this Board. 

It was the intention of the Board to publish as a Bulletin, 
but in somewhat more amplified form, tlus general description of 
the Botanical Regions of Hawaii that constitutes the introduction 
to Mr. Rock's book. But lack of funds, due to the financial re- 
trenchment of the spring of 1914, made it necessary to postpone 
the issuance of this publication. 

As usual routine reports of the Division of Forestry in manu- 
script have been made to the Commissioners every month, together 
with many reports on Forest Reserves and other forest matters. 
The greater part of these reports have later appeared in the 
Board's monthly magazine, "The Hawaiian Forester and Agri- 
culturist." 

During the past two years a series of special, and in a measure 
confidential, reports on forest conditions on each island have 
been prepared for the- information of the Commissioners. The 
preparation of all these reports has taken not a little time, but in 
making them the policy of the Board has been complied with. 

In July of each year, statements for the Governor to use in 
making up his annual report have also been drawn up, and in 
January, 1914, a brief report of the Division of Forestry for 
1913 was prepared, which was published with the reports of the 
other divisions of the Board in the "Hawaiian Forester and Agri- 
culturist" for May, 1914. 

FOREST FIRES. 

The forest fire record for this Territory continues to be grati- 
fy ingly short. None of the fires reported in 1913 did serious 
damage although several required not a little hard work to put out 
before they should reach alarming proportions. The localities 
and dates of the fires in 1913 and from January to August inclu- 
sive, 1914, are as follows: 

1913 

Feb. 3 Waipio, Oahu. 
Mar. 9 Kalihi Valley, Honolulu, Calm. 
" 13 Pacific Heights, Honolulu, Oahu. 

30 Honouliuli, above Kunia, Oahu. 
Apr. 20 Ninole, Kau, Hawaii. 
May 20 Kapaa Homesteads, Kauai. 
July 23 Pukoo, Molokai. 
Aug. 8 Waipouli, Kauai. 

Wahiawa, Oahu (two). 



58 

1914 

Jan. 26 Nuuanu Valley, Honolulu. 

Apr. 10 Palolo Valley, Honolulu. 

The majority of these fires were in grass or brush. None of 
them burned over large areas. But had they not been stopped 
promptly it is possible that serious damage would have resulted, 
for several were in localities where, had the fire really got away 
into the forest it would have been exceedingly hard to combat. 
The fires near Honolulu were fought by the Honolulu Fire Depart- 
ment and the staff arid laborers of the Division of Forestry. Those 
in the country districts under the direction of the local District 
Fire Wardens. 

For setting the fire above Pukoo, Molokai, two men were 
arrested. They pleaded guilty, and were fined $25 each. 

A number of new names have been added during 1913 and 
1914 to the list of Forest Fire Wardens, which list, revised to date, 
accompanies this report. As in former years the Chief Fire 
Warden is glad of this opportunity to express the appreciation 
of the Board on the interest and public .spirit shown by the 
gentlemen named therein in making the Hawaiian Forest Fire 
Service an efficient skeleton organization, always ready for 
action. 

SUMMARY OF FOREST WORK IN HAWAII, 

19041914. 

In that iny resignation as Superintendent of Forestry, and 
the appointment of my successor will necessarily open a new chap- 
ter in the history of the Division of Forestry, it is perhaps not in- 
appropriate briefly to summarize what I conceive to be the essen- 
tial accomplishments in forest work in Hawaii during the past 
decade. 

The Division of Forestry was established under the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry by Act 44 of the Legislature of 1903 
(Chapter 28, Revised Laws of Hawaii). During the summer of 
1903, at the request of the Board, Mr. Wm. L. Hall, of the U. S. 
Forest Service, was sent to the Islands to investigate the local 
situation, and to suggest a forest policy. This he did and in 
December, 1903, upon recommendation of the Chief Forester 
of the United States, Mr. Gi fiord Pinchot, I was appointed Super- 
intendent of Forestry, reporting for duty in Honolulu in January, 
1904. 

During the past ten years the Division of Forestry has stood 
consistently for two main objects (1) the protection and proper 
administration of the native Hawaiian forest on the important 
watersheds, and (2) the planting of economically valuable trees on 
non-agricultural and other waste land. 



59 

The more important achievements of the Division may be 
summed up as follows : 

The creation of a forest reserve system and the laying of 
the foundation for a proper administration of the forest reserves. 

A decrease of trespass on the forests by the extension of forest 
boundary fences, the eradication of wild cattle and goats in most 
of the reserves, and the awakening of public opinion as to the 
importance of these measures. 

The securing of general assent to the doctrine of tree planting 
on waste land as evidenced by the establishment of many groves of 
trees and forest plantations throughout the Territory. 

An increase in popular knowledge and appreciation of certain 
valuable trees, and the keeping up of the agitation of the subject of 
the importance of systematic investigations with new trees and 
shrubs. 

The carrying on of a campaign of education as to the value 
and necessity of practicing forestry in these islands, and further 
as to the intimate relation which the right use of the natural 
resources popularly known as "Conservation" bears to the con- 
tinued economic well-being of this Territory. 

The enactment of a forest fire law and the organization of a 
forest fire service. 

And some share in the strengthening of the general public 
sentiment in favor of forestry and forest work that has found 
expression in continued and increased support by the Legislature. 

The protection of the areas of native Hawaiian forest cover- 
ing the important watersheds throughout the Territory has been 
sought through the creation of forest reserves. The essential ob- 
ject is to equalize and maintain the flow in these streams that feed 
the various ditch systems which make the water available for irri- 
gation, power development, cane fluming and domestic supply. 
There are now 37 forest reserves in Hawaii. These reserves in- 
clude both government and privately owned land. The total area is 
798,214 acres, of which 546,222 acres (68 per cent) belongs to 
the Territory. Twenty-eight of the reserves ;ire essentially pro- 
tection forests, primarily of value for safeguarding the cover of 
vegetation on watersheds. The other nine, almost all government 
land, were set apart that the areas included within their limits 
might eventually be brought under forest, or that the commercially 
valuable timber on them might be administered under the Board 
of Agriculture and Forestry. 

Technically the Hawaiian forest reserve system has now been 
pretty nearly completed. Only a few comparatively small lands 
remain to be set apart to round out the forest area needed for the 
protection of the important streams. What has so far been ac- 
complished is essential HS the first steps in the program, but to 



60 

secure the full benefits to be derived from the protection of the 
forest it must be followed up by systematic administration of the 
reserves, such as can only be secured by a forest ranger service. 
The immediate forest problem in Hawaii and the next step in the 
progress of forestry in this Territory is to get an effective field 
organization established and in working order. 

In large measure the boundaries of the forest reserves either 
consist of natural barriers or are fenced. Some of the fences are 
maintained under the requirements of government leases, some 
have been built and are maintained at government expense, and 
some are kept up voluntarily by corporations or private owners. 
The more important corners of a number of the forest reserves 
have been marked with metal monuments. All the forest reserve 
boundaries ought to be so defined. 

During the past two years the government has constructed a 
number of new fences. Several other stretches of fence required 
under leases have also recently been completed, and some other 
lines of forest fence have been erected at private cost. The general 
attitude of the public in regard to the protection of the forest has 
undergone a marked change in the past decade. While there is 
still more or less trespass going on on each island, the best senti- 
ment is now strongly against it, rather than being hostile or indif- 
ferent, as was the case previously. 

In a few of the reserves the forest is still being damaged by 
wild cattle and by goats, but in the last few years a very marked 
improvement has been effected on each o the larger islands in 
controlling this form of injury. 

The second main line of endeavor pursued by the Division of 
Forestry since 1904 has been the encouragement of tree planting. 
This the Department has sought to do by supplying technical ad- 
vice to all who desired it as to methods and means of nursery and 
tree planting work, by furnishing free or at cost price tree seed- 
lings of various species, and by a general campaign of education 
as to the desirability of establishing blocks of planted forest from 
the standpoints of commercial return, watershed protection or 
aesthetic consideration. 

Tree planting has been practiced in Hawaii both by the gov- 
ernment and by private individuals and corporations, for 30 years 
or more, but in the past few years there has been a marked increase 
in the number of trees set out and a much better understanding of 
the necessity for such work than at any time before. The doc- 
trine of using; for tree planting non-agricultural land on the sugar 
plantations that otherwise would be closed as waste area has been 
persistently preached, until it is now s^enerallv acknowledged to be 
a sound poliev to follow wherever it is possible to secure funds to 
defray the initial cost. 



61 

In this campaign much has been written and printed, in regu- 
lar reports, in the "Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist," and 
elsewhere, both as argument and exhortation, and also in the way 
o^ concrete examples showing the profit to be derived from tree 
planting in terms of compound interest. Among this matter the 
bulletin entitled "Eucalyptus Culture in Hawaii," by Mr. L. 
Margolin, calls for special mention. This report gives the result 
of a cooperative study made by the Division of Forestry and the 
U. S. Forest Service in 1910. That the efforts put forth have really 
told is evidenced by the increase in the number of trees planted 
each year. In 1912, the last year for which full records are at 
hand, the number planted was well over a million and a quarter 
trees. For the credit of creating this sustained interest the divi- 
sion of Forestry has the right to claim a share. 

In this connection it is only fair to make mention of the part 
played by the Forest Nurseryman of the Division of Forestry, 
Mr. David Haughs, who has charge of the section of the Division's 
work in dealing with the growing and distribution of trees. From 
his long experience in the islands Mr. Haughs' suggestions on all 
matters relating to tree growing are distinctly worth having. That 
this part is appreciated is proved by the steady stream of applica- 
tion for advice that come to the Division. Giving assistance of 
this sort is one of the important functions of this office. It is an 
essential part of the Territory's forest work. 

The introduction and experimental planting of trees new to 
the islands is a branch of forest work which it has been the aim 
of the Division of Forestry to foster, ever since its organization. 
Only by the actual trial of new trees and shrubs can it be known 
surely whether or not they will succeed here under our local con- 
ditions. The Division of Forestry has helped to make better and 
more widely known several species that had previously been intro- 
duced, especially Japanese Cedar, certain of the Eucalypts, and a 
basket willow from the Azores. It has as well developed the use 
of Ironwoods as a windbreak for canefields near the ocean, and 
has started upon the investigation of many new trees about which 
it is yet too soon to have positive information to give out. 

The forest fire law in Hawaii dates from 1905. Under its 
rcrnis a forest fire service consisting of volunteer district fire war- 
dens has been organized and kept strictly up to date. This skeleton 
organization has been effective in combatting all fires that have 
occurred, and furthermore lias gone a long way toward firmly fix- 
ing in the minds of the people generally that the Board of Agri- 
culture and Forestry meant business in its enforcement of tho 
terms of the forest fire la\v. A number of convictions have boon 
-ecnrod, especially during lhr past throo or four years, whore* fires 
had beoii allowed to oscape through preventable carelessness. This 



62 

action has had a salutary effect in certain sections of the Territory 
where the danger from fire was high. 

Very fortunately Hawaii has suffered but little from forest 
fires. But in the leeward districts and in occasional dry years 
even in those normally subject to heavy rainfall, the danger of fire- 
is always present. The time to make ready for fighting fire is 
before it starts. Hawaii is prepared. 

RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Just how soon it will be possible to establish a regular service 
of forest rangers, paid by and responsible solely to the Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry, is a question of financial policy. But 
until such a force of efficient men is organized to patrol the re- 
serves, prevent trespass, see that the fences are maintained, exter- 
minate the remaining wild stock in the forests, and prevent forest 
fires, the Hawaiian forest reserve system will not be properly 
administered. This is now the first need in forestry in Hawaii. 

JSText, the Territory is a long way yet from having enough 
grove and plantations of trees of economically valuable species. 
This is equally true of government and of privately owned land. 
Fuel supply in certain districts, fence posts, railroad ties, bridge 
timbers and other lumber for rough work, to say nothing of con- 
struction timber, will always be required in Hawaii. With the. 
diminishing wood supply on the mainland the price of lumber will 
certainly, not recede. It may make considerable advances. It 
has been demonstrated that there are trees well adapted to local 
conditions that can supply at least part of the local demand. It 
needs no argument to show the wisdom of establishing plantations 
of such species on land that cannot profitably be used for agri- 
culture. 

Along with the other forms of forest protection it is essential 
that the Territory keep up an efficient forest fire service. It will 
continue the duty of the Division of Forestry to see that the pre- 
sent forest fire organization is maintained, and when necessary 
expanded. 

There are, as well, many lines of forest investigation which 
it should be the policy of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry to 
oucourage. The introduction of species of trees new to the Islands, 
the experimental planting of temperate zone trees on the high, 
mountains, and enough publicity and educational work so that 
the public shall be kept fully informed as to the necessity for for- 
estry in the Islands and its needs, are all matters that should have 
attention. 

The practice of forestry must always continue to be one of 
the important functions of the Territorial Government. On the 



63 

foundation that has been laid in the past decade may the Division 
of Forestry build strongly and well. 

Very respectfully, 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 
Superintendent of Forestry and Chief Fire Warden. 



LIST OF DISTRICT FIRE WARDENS 

Following is a list of the District Fire Wardens, with their 
ivspoorive districts: 

CHIEF FIRE WARDEN. 
Superintendent, of Forestry, ex officio. 

DEPUTY FIRE WARDEN AT LARGE, 
DAVID HAUGHS, 

In and for the Territory of Hawaii. 

DISTRICT FIRE WARDENS. 

KAUA1. 
A. MENEFOGLIO. 

In and for Wainilm Valley, District of Halelea, 

W. F. SANBORN. 
In and for the District of Halelea, excepting Wainiha Valley. 

J. R. MEYERS. 
GEORGE HUDDY, 

Assistant District Fire Warden. 

In and for the District of Koolau, excepting the land of Anahola. 
GAYLORD P. WILCOX. 

In and for the portion of the Districts of Koolau and Puna, extend- 
ing from the land of Anahola to the land of Olohena,, inclusive. 

P. WEBER. 

In and for the portion of the District of Puna, south of and includ- 
ing the land of Wailua. 

FRANK A. ALEXANDER. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
Hanapepe Valley to the Puna District line. 

FRANCIS GAY. 
In and for that portion of the District of Kona, lying between and 



64 

including the Waimea, Poomau and Kauaikanana Valleys on. the west 
and the Hanapepe Valley on the east. 

AUGUSTUS F. KNUDSEN. 

In and for the District of Na Pali and that portion of the District 
of Kona, lying to the west of Waimea, Poomau and Kauaikanana 
Valleys. 

OAHU. 
C. J. WHEELER. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolauloa from the Waia- 
lua District line to and including the land of Kaunala. 

ANDREW ADAMS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolauloa lying to the 
north and east of the land of Kaunala. 

FRANK PAH I A. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaupoko, extending 
from the Koolauloa District line to the land of Heeia. 

OTTO LUDLOFF. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaupoko, extending 
from and including the land of Heeia to the land of Kailua. 

JOHN HERD. 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolaupoko, extending 
from and including the land of Kailua to Makapuu Point. 

CHARLES H. BAILEY. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from 
Makapuu Point to Palolo Valley. 

JOSEPH K. KAPONO. 
In and for Palolo Valley, District of Kona. 

C. MONTAGUE COOKE. 
In and for Manoa Valley, District of Kona. 
W. M. GIFFARD. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, lying between Pauoa 
and Manoa Valleys. 

L. A. MOORE. 

In and for Nuuanu Valley, District of Honolulu. 
WALTER F. DILLINGHAM. 

In and for that portion of the District of Ewa lying to the west of 
the main government road. 

JAMES GIBB. 



65 

In and for that portion of the District of Ewa, lying between the 
lands of Moanalua and Waiawa. 

H. BLOMFIELD BROWN. 

In and for that portion of the District of Ewa lying to the east of the 
main government road between the land of Waipio and the Kaukonahua 
giilch. 

W. M. TEMPLETON. 

In and for that portion of the District of Waialua, lying between 
the Kaukonahua and Helemanu gulches. 

GEORGE M. ROBERTSON. 

In and for that portion of the District of Waialua, lying between 
the Helemanu and Opaeula gulches. 

GEORGE WILSON. 

In and for that portion of the District of Waialua, lying between the 
Opaelua Gulch and the Koolauloa District line. 

F. MEYER. 

In and for that portion of the District of Waianae lying to the 
west of the Wai&nae Mountains. 

MOLOKA1. 
JAMES MUNRO. 

In and for that portion of the Island of Molokai lying to the west, 
of Wailau Valley and the land of Mapulehu. 

C. C. CONRADT. 

In and for that portion of the Island of Molokai including and lying 
to the east of Wailua Valley and the land of Mapulehu. 

LANA1. 

GEORGE C. MUNRO. 
In and for the Island of Lanai. 

MAUl. 

L. WEINZHEIMER. 
In and for the District of Lahaina. 

DAVID T. FLEMING. 
In and for the District of Kaanapali. 

ANDREW GROSS. 
In and for the District of Wailuku. 

F. F. BALDWIN. 

In and for the District of Hamakuapoko and the west half of the Dis- 
trict of Hamakualoa. 

W. F. POGUE. 

In and for the east half of the District of Hamakualoa and that 
portion of the District of Koolau lying to the west of Makapipi gulch. 

WILBUR A. ANDERSON. 



66 

In and for that portion of the District of Koolau Lying to the east 
of Makapipi gulch. 

JOHN CHALMERS. 
In and for the District of Hana. 



In and for the District of Kipahulu. 



In and for the District of Honuaula and KahikinuL 

L. VON TEMPSKY. 
In and for the Districts of Kula and Kaupo. 

HAWAII. 
G. C. WATT. 

In and for that portion of the north half of the District of Kohala 
extending from the land of Kaauhuhu to the Hamakua District line. 

SAM P. WOODS. 

In and for that portion of North Kohala, extending from the north- 
ern boundary of the land of Kawaihae I to and including the land of 
Kaauhuhu. 

O. L. SORENSON. 

In and for the District of South Kohala. 

ALEXANDER MORRISON. 

In and for the western part of the District of Hamakua extending 
to the west from the boundary of the land of Paauhau to the boundary 
of the land of Kukaiau. 

DONALD S. MACALISTER 

In and for that portion of the District of Hamakua, extending from 
and including the land of Kukaiau to the Hilo District line. 

JOHN M. ROSS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo, extending from the 
Hamakua District to the land of Makahanaloa. 

JOHN T. MOIR. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo, extending from and 
including the land of the Makahanaloa to the land of Kikala. 

JOHN A. SCOTT. 

In and for that portion of the District of Hilo, extending from the 
Puna District line to and including the land of Kikala. 

C. F. ECKART. 
In and for the District of Puna. 



67 

WILLIAM G. OGG. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kau, extending from the 
Puna District line to and including the land of Punaluu. 

GEORGE GIBB. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kau, extending from the 
land of Punaluu to the Kona District line. 

R. VON S. DOMKOWICZ. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona extending from the 
Kau District line to and including the land of Kaapuna. 

T. C. WHITE, Acting. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kaapuna to and including the land of Hookena. 

JOHN D. PARIS. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Hookena to and including the land of Kaawaloa. 

T. C. WHITE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kaawaloa to and including the land of Kahaluu. 

JOHN A. MAGUIRE. 

In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending from the 
land of Kahaluu to the Kohala District line. 

Forest Rangers. 
DAVID KAPIHE. 

In and for that section of the Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve, 
District of Honolulu, Oahu, bounded on the east by Manoa Valley, on 
the north by the Konahuanui Mountain Range, and on the west by 
Xuuanu and Pauoa Valleys. 

Volunteers. 
E. H. HIPPLE. 
In and for Manoa Valley, District of Honolulu, Oahu. 

CHARLES L. BEAL. 
In and for the District of Honolulu, Oahu. 

W. H. SHIPMAN. 
In and for the Districts of Puna and Hilo, Hawaii. 

DISTRICT FORESTERS 

Tho names of the following gentlemen are borne on the rolls 
<>F rho Board of Agriculture and Forestry as District Foresters. 
Those marked with n star have been appointed Special Territorial 



68 

Police Officers to enforce the terms of the Wild Bird Law, Act 
104 of the Session Laws of 1907 : 

Kauai. 

*Albert S. Wilcox, J. R. Myers, *F. We~ber, Edward Broadbent, 
Rev. J. M. Lydgate, *Walter D. McBryde, *Francis Gay, * Augustus F. 
Knudsen. 

Oahu. 

* Andrew Adams, *L. L. McCandless, *John Herd, *Paul R. Isen- 
berg, *Walter F. Dillingham, W. W. Goodale. 

Molokai. 

* James Munro, *C. C. Conradt. 

Lanai. 
Geo. C. Munro. 

Maui. 

L. Weinzheimer, F. F. Baldwin, *W. F. Pogue, *L. von Tempsky, 
Dr. J. H. Raymond, D. T. Fleming. 

Hawaii. 

*G. C. Watt, * A. W. Carter, * A. Ahrens, *John M. Ross, *John A. 
Scott, *Julian Monsarrat, Geo. Gibb, R. von S. Domkowicz, W. R. 
Castle, *John D. Paris, *Johr A. Maguire. 



69 



Report of the Acting Superintendent of Forestry 



Honolulu, Hawaii, December 31, 1914. 

The Board of Commissioners of 

Agriculture and Forestry, 

Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to submit herewith that part of 
the biennial report of the Division of Forestry for the period from 
September 1, 1914, to December 31, 1914, during which time I 
served at your direction as Acting Superintendent of Forestry after 
Mr. Ralph S. Hosiner's resignation from the super inteiidency. 

Forest Extension. 

The tree planting on that part of the Honolulu Watershed 
Forest Reserve, lying between Round Top Hill and the planted 
forest on Tantalus, including Sugar Loaf, has been continued to 
the end of the period. Up to December 31, 1914, a total area of 
39 acres has been planted. Of the total number of 7885 seedlings 
set out, 6136 are Koa and 1749 are Kukui. Owing to favorable 
weather throughout the summer of 1914 we were able to continue 
planting and the seedlings got a good start and are doing well. 

In September, 1914, I visited Kauai, and made final arrange- 
ments for planting the seed of the Chinese Plum (Eugenia sps.) 
on the Moloaa Forest Reserve at Anahola. The tract was exam- 
ined and instructions given as to how the work should be done, the 
spacing to be 10 x 10 feet. The work of digging the holes and 
planting the trees was begun in October, and completed in Decem- 
ber. At time of writing (Feb. 3, 1915), a report has been re- 
ceived from Mr. Kama D. Lovell (who had charge of the plant- 
ing) stating that he has examined the planted area, and found that 
out of the 18,900 holes planted, only between 50 and 60 trees failed 
to grow. This experiment will be watched with interest, and if it 
is found that certain bare areas within the forest reserves can be 
successfully covered with this tree at a cost of $10 per acre ; , which 
is approximately what this work has cost, it might be advisable 
to do more direct planting with this and similar species. The wood 
of this Eugenia makes good firewood, and it is also used to some 
extent for fence posts. 

Final arrangements for the planting of a double line of trees 
along the boundary fence between the Koolau Forest Reserve and 
the Nahiku homesteads on Maui were agreed upon, and for this 
purpose 2,200 seedlings of Eucalyptus robusta were sent up from 



70 

the Nursery in November. The work was undertaken by the man- 
ager of the Nahiku Rubber Company, Mr. W. A. Anderson, and 
was completed in December. Arrangements were similarly made 
with Mr. von Tempsky to plant trees on the Waihou Spring Forest 
Reserve near Olinda, Maui, and during November 2,500 seedlings, 
consisting half of Orevillea robusta in seed boxes and half of 
Cryptomeria Japonica (Japanese cedar) in transplant boxes were 
shipped from the Nursery for the work. At time of writing the 
work is reported to be progressing favorably. 

For the purpose of doing similar work on Water Reserve B ? 
Pupukea, Oahu, I visited the area in December, and made final 
arrangements with Mr. Mark Robinson, Jr., who agreed to under- 
take the work. A first shipment of 500 Ironwood trees has 
already been made and the work of planting is still in progress. 

Forest Reserve Fencing. 

The fencing off of the trail leading over the Kolekole pass in 
the Lualualei Forest Reserve at Waianae, Oahu, was completed in 
August. I .made an examination of the fence at that time and 
found it substantially built and according to specifications. An 
examination of the fence running along the matika boundary of 
the Lualualei Homesteads also showed that the repair work was 
satisfactory. 

Dead Timber in Tantalus Forest. 

In December a report was made on an application for the 
purchase and removal of the dead timber in the planted Tantalus 
Forest. The applicant offered to pay $1.50 per cord for the dead 
trees and limbs. My recommendations that cutting operations be 
not allowed in the forest during the rainy season on account of the 
damage that would be done to the roads was approved by the 
Board. 

Arbor Day. 



Arbor Day was celebrated on November 20, and proved to he 
very successful. The total number of trees distributed amounted 
to 17,595, which is nearly 6,000 more than for the year 1913. 
The trees were all pot grown, and with ordinary care ought to 
make a good growth: Arbor Day is getting more popular every 
year and more people are taking an interest in the planting iancl 
euro of trees. 



71 



TABLES SHOWING THE NUMBER OP TREES PLANTED IN THE 
TERRITORY OF HAWAII, PRINCIPALLY BY COR- 
PORATIONS, IN 1913 AND 1914. 

Name of corporation 1913 1914 Total 

KAUAL 

Koloa Sugar Co 11,199 5,901 17,100 

McBryde Sugar Co 17,839 17,839 35,678 

Makaweli Sugar Co , 

Lihue Plantation Co 

Papapaholahola Spring Reserve 18,544 20,381 38,925 

47,582 44,121 91,703 
OAHTL 

Waialua Agricultural Co 125,000 125,000 250,000 

Honolulu Plantation Co 30,000 30,000 

125,000 155,000 280,000 
HAWAII. 

Kukaiau Ranch 99,450 165,920 265,370 

Parker Ranch 33,832 96,394 130,226 

Kukaiau Plantation Co 2,000 2,000 4,000 

Niulii Mill & Plantation 1,700 1,700 

Honokaa Sugar Co 10,000 10,000 20,000 

Waiohinu Homesteads 2,000 2,000 

Bro. Matthias Newell (sub-nursery, Hilo) . 1,066 10,868 11,934 



146,348 288,882 435,320 
MAUI, LANAI AND MOLOKAL 
Maui Agricultural Co 255,033 255,033 



Wailuku Sugar Co 19,661 

Government Lands of Polipoli 4,653 

Honolua Ranch 2,000 

Cornwell Ranch 

Lanai Company Ltd 9,000 



Haiku Homesteads 



;,ooo 



29,261 

11,187 

3,500 

32,000 

1,340 

4,000 



48,922 
15,840 

5,500 
32,000 
10,340 

9,000 



146,348 288,882 435,230 
Total number of trees planted on all islands 359,244 824,324 1,183,568 

FORESTRY RULE I. 

On August 22, 1914, the Governor, upon the recommendation 
of the Board, approved the following rule concerning the protec- 
tion of the watersheds in J^uuanu and Makiki valleys within the 
Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve: 



72 

RULE AND REGULATION OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS 
OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY. 

FORESTRY RULE NO. 1. 

Concerning the protection of the Watersheds in Nuuanu and Makiki 
Valleys, Honolulu, T. H. 



The Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry of the 
Territory of Hawaii, hereby make the following Rule and Regulation 
for the purpose of protecting from contamination the watersheds 
tributary to the Honolulu water supply system, within the boundaries 
of the Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve: 

Section 1. All persons or corporations are hereby prohibited 
from cutting or removing grass and other forage plants, except under 
such permits as may be issued from time to time by the Board of 
Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry (1) from the govern- 
ment land in Nuuanu Valley, Honolulu, Oahu, lying within the 
boundaries of the Honolulu Watershed Forest Reserve, as established 
by a proclamation signed by Acting Governor E. A. Mott-Smith on 
October 13, 1913, which area, in part, includes the entire mauka por- 
tion of Nuuanu Valley above Luakaha; and (2) from all that portion 
of Makiki Valley, lying mauka of the Makiki Dam, on the government 
land of Makiki (also included in the above named forest reserve), as 
shown by registered map No. 2554, on file in the office of the govern- 
ment survey. 

Section 2. Any person violating the above rule shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by 
a fine not to exceed Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00), as provided by 
Section 390 of the Revised Laws as amended by Act 82 of the Session 
Laws of 1905, and Act 112 of the Session Laws of 1907. 

Section 3. This rule shall take effect upon its approval by the 
Governor. 

Approved : 

LUCIUS E. PINKHAM, 

Governor of Hawaii. 

Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, 
August 22, 1914. 



Respectfully submit ted, 

DAVID HAUOHS, 
Acting Superintendent of Forestry. 



73 



Report of the Forest Nurseryman 



Honolulu, Hawaii, December 31, 1914. 

Albert Waterhouse, Esq., 

Acting President and Executive Officer, 

Board of Agriculture and Forestry. 

Dear Sir: I herewith submit a report of the work done 
during the years 1913 and 1914. 

NURSERY. 

Collection and Exchange of Seed. 

The collecting of seed has been continued, and the two men 
employed have been kept busy at this work and at time assisted 
in packing up trees as well as collecting fruit and other material 
for the Entomologists. The seed collected in this manner is used 
for propagating purposes at the Government Nursery in Hono- 
lulu, and sub-Nurseries on the other Islands. The homesteaders 
and others all over the Territory are supplied with a reasonable 
amount of the locally collected seed free of charge, while the 
cost price is charged for imported seed which we buy from sales- 
men abroad. At the request of the officials of Botanic Gardens 
and other institutions in different parts of the world, we supply 
seed on the exchange system. In this way we are sometimes 
able to secure new and rare species which would be difficult to get 
otherwise. Tourists and others calling at the Nursery are often 
anxious to take away with them sample packages of seed. Those 
we supply with a few sample packages free. 

A large quantity of seed collected by Mr. J. F. Kock while on 
a tour during the early part of 1913 was sown on its arrival and 
some of the species have already been planted out along the trail 
leading to Sugar Loaf Hill. Others are in pots at the station. It 
is too early to make a statement regarding these introductions. 
Some of them, however, are certainly looking well and are making 
a good growth. 

The most promising introduction in the line of forest trees 
which we have been able to procure for a number of years is 
the Juniperus cedar of Jamaica, introduced by Mr. Gerrit P. 
Wilder, who sent us the seed while on a tour about four years 
ago. These trees have been distributed to people living at dif- 
ferent elevations on the Islands, and reports are coming in that 
they are doing well. We planted a few of these Junipers along the 



new trail leading to Round Top Hill, and they are making a 
splendid growth. We have been able, through our exchange sys- 
tem, to procure more seed of the same, or an allied species of thisr 
Juniper (Juniperus australis) from Mr, William Harris, Super- 
intendent of Public Gardens, Jamaica. Mr. Harris in his letter 
describes the Juniperus cedar as follows : "I now take pleasure in 
sending you two bags of seed of Juniperus cedar of Jamaica. It 
yields a beautiful timber, which is used in furniture, cabinet 
work, interior ornamental house work, etc. It grows in the moun- 
tains at from 3,000 to 5,000 feet altitude." The seed sent is ger- 
minating nicely, and we will have a large number of trees pro- 
viding nothing unforseen happens, 

PLANT DISTRIBUTION. 

Distribution of Plants from Nursery and MakiJci Station. 



In seed 



In boxes 



Pot 



1913 

Sold Regular Distri- 
bution 

Gratis 

Street Planting: - . : . 

Homesteads 

Military Posts 

Schools 

Parks 

Clubs 

Arbor Day 



boxes transplanted Grown 



7,800 
10,200 

'5,700 



628 



24,328 

Plantation Co.'s and 

other Corporations, etc. 451,620 



1914 

Sold 

Gratis 

Street Planting 
Homesteads . . 
Military Posts 

Schools 

Clubs 

Arbor Day 



6,250 
10,700 

6,000 
12,750 

1,000 



Gov't Forest Reserves 



1,250 



37,950 

Plantation Co.'s and 
other Corporations, &c. 81,850 



1,880 
2,402 

1,416 
1,723 

283 



7,704 



119,800 



1,301 

7,041 

100 

3,400 

550 

125 

850 

' '3,450 
16,817 
13,450 
30,267 



3,101 

5,018 

1,077 

690 

2,724 

680 

154 

776 

11,961 

26,181 



3,938 

7,853 

196 

1,422 

5,138 

1,160 

1,330 

17,575 

7,885 

46,597 

1,573 

48,170 



Totals 



12,781 

17,620 

1,077 

7,806 

4,447 

1,591 

154 

776 

11,961 

58,213 



451,620 
509,833 

11,489 

25,594 

6,296 

17,572 

6,688 

1,285 

2,180 

17,575 

12,585 



101,364 

96,873 

198,237 



75 

TOTAL PLANT- DISTRIBUTION. 

1913 1914 Totals 

Nurseries on Oahu 509,833 198,237 708,070 

Sub-Nursery, Homestead, Kauai . . 6,500 7,977 14,477 

Sub-Nursery, Hilo, Hawaii 1,066 10,868 11,934 



517,399 217,082 734,481 

Propagation of Trees for Plantation Companies and Other 
Corporations. 

The propagation of trees in large quantities for plantation 
companies and other corporations has been continued during the 
period. By this system, which was started about four years ago, 
companies and other corporations desiring large quantities of trees 
are required to pay the cost of labor and material in supplying the 
required seedlings. The majority of the trees ordered are shipped 
in seed boxes ready to transplant into other boxes or pots. As the 
seedlings are past the damping off stage before they are sent out 
there is no trouble in transplanting them, and any careful laborer 
can do the work. During the past two years we have distributed 
the following trees to plantation companies, etc. : 

In seed In transplant Pot 
boxes. boxes, Grown. Total. 

1913 451,620 451.6*0 

1914 81,850 13,450 1,573 96,873 



Total 533,470 13,450 1,573 548,493 

There is every indication that large numbers of trees will be 
set out by plantation companies during the early spring of 1915, 
as we are already receiving orders for quantities of seedlings to 
be delivered during February and March. 

Although we generally have in stock a reasonable number of 
the species which are in demand both in seed boxes and transplant 
boxes, we would again urge on those who require large quantities 
of trees to notify us in advance so that we will be sure to have 
the trees ready when required. The time required to get seed- 
lings ready for transplanting is from one month to six weeks and 
for transplants ready to set out from two and a half to three 
months. 

This system of supplying trees in large quantities to plan- 
tations and corporations has worked well and there is no doubt 
has been the means of adding considerably to the number of 
trees planted. 



76 

GOVERNMENT REALIZATIONS. 

1913. 

Sale of Plants $ 76.30 

Sale of Seeds 4.55 

The Board's share of the proceeds of sale by the Water- 
works Department of Automobile owned jointly 
by the Waterworks, Public Works and Board of 
Agriculture and Forestry, bought by Mr. Marston 
Campbell, July, 1909, when acting as Superintend- 
ent of Public Works, Commissioner of Public Lands 
and President of the Board of Agriculture and 

Forestry 437.50 

Rent of Building, Nursery Grounds 437.50 $619.75 



1914. 

Sale of Plants $ 80.75 

Sale of Seeds 8.00 

Rent of Building, Nursery Grounds 455.00 

5 Coils Fence Wire 11.15 

Freight on Plants 50 $555.40 



COLLECTIONS ON ACCOUNT OF PRESERVATION AND EXTEN- 
SION OF FORESTRY AND FOREST RESERVES. 

The following amounts have been deposited with the Treasurer as 
a Special Fund under the above heading: 

Rent of premises at Half Way House, Tantalus, at $10 

per month, April 1 to Dec. 31, 1914 $ 90.00 

Permit to cut grass, Tantalus Forest, at $20 per month, 

July and August, 1914 40.00 

For use of two acres of land (Kalawahine), Pauoa Val- 
ley, at the rate of $10 per year, April to Dec., 1914 15.00 

Fee for use of land and gathering Ti leaf on Kalawa- 
hine, Pauoa Valley, at the rate of $50 per year, 
June 1st, to Dec. 31st 37.50 $182.50 

OTHER WOKK 

Nursery and Grounds 

The work at the Nursery has been carried on with the 
assistance of one man whose principal work consists of potting 
and packing up trees. One man, employed by the Board, with 
the assistance of two prisoners, has attended to the grounds 
around the offices and also to the Park portion of the nursery 
grounds. 

There is great need of a stone curb alone; the King Street 
side of the Nursery grounds. The wooden curb, laid many years 
ago, is practically all rotted away and without a curb the sido- 
walk looks disreputable. 

We wish to extend our thanks to the High Sheriff for the 
interest taken and the assistance given us by supplying two 




Plate 5. Fig. 1. Plants for Distribution, Makiki Nursery. 




Plate 5. Fig. 2. Soil Sterilizing Shed, Makiki Nursery. 



77 

trusties, for with their help it would be impossible for us to keep 
the grounds in good condition. 

Congressional Vegetable Seed and Year Bool's. 

During the month of December 1912 we received from Wash- 
ington, D. C., through Honorable J. K. Kalanianaole, Delegate 
to Congress, 10,000 packages of vegetable seed and 500 packages 
of flower seed. The above consignment was all distributed during 
the year 1913; a similar supply was received in December 1913 
for distribution during 1914. This seed was sent out to public 
schools, homesteaders and others all over the Islands. 

Copies of the Year Book of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, also sent by the Delegate, are distributed annually to a 
list of people interested, throughout the Islands. Seven hundred 
and fifty books is the quota received. 

Advice and Assistance 

This branch of the work takes up considerable of the writer's 
time. Calls are made from time to time at the different Military 
Posts on Oahu, where a great deal of planting of trees, shrubs 
and vines is going on. The effect of this planting will, in a few 
years, show to good advantage, as most of the sites of these posts 
were without shade or shelter w r ith the exception of a tangle of 
lantana, glue bush and weeds. 

Advice and assistance has been given to the Out Door Circle 
of the Kilohana Art League Improvement Club, School Officials, 
and others. Advice by letter is given to people on the other islands 
and assistance and advice is given to people who make requests 
by telephone and who call at the nursery personally. The number 
of these requests has increased considerably during the past 
two years due principally, there is no doubt, to the increased 
population, the desire by the officers and men of the different 
Military Posts to beautify their surroundings, and the general 
cooperation of individuals with the civic organizations for the 
beautifying of their respective districts. 

Makiki Station 

At the station the work of mixing and sterilizing all the 
soil used there and at the main Nursery is done. The ste-nn 
sterilizer, installed about three years ago, has done excellent 
work. A great deal of the transplanting and potting of trees is 
done at this station. All the new introductions, after being 
started at the main nursery are sent to this station and grown 
in pots until they become large enough to be set out in a perman- 
ent position. 

Along the trail leading up to Sugar Loaf Hill samples of the 



78 

new introductions have been planted including the Juniperus 
cedar, introduced by Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder. This station is well 
situated and owing to the greater moisture, is better adapted for 
the propagating of some species than the Nursery. We have got 
a good road now, and the transfer of plants and soil is an easy 
matter. 

There is a large area of land around the station which we 
are gradually getting planted with trees. A collection of bamboos 
imported from Japan about four years ago, with few exceptions 
is doing well. 

The Basket willow is also doing very well. About a year 
ago we received cuttings of five varieties of Basket willow from 
Washington and with the exception of two they are doing very 
well. The variety brought here by Dr. L. R. Gaspar from Portu- 
gal, and handed to us by the late A. de Souza Canavarro, Consul 
General for Portugal has done exceedingly well. A great many 
cuttings of this variety have been sent to selected people on differ- 
ent parts of the Islands. More cuttings are now ready and we 
will be glad to fill orders providing the applicants are willing 
and agree to pay the freight or postage. 

Tantalus Forest 

During the summer of 1913 the dead wood was all removed 
from the forest for which the sum of $55.00 was realized. This 
amount was deposited with the Treasurer as a realization. During 
the month of August and September, 1914, 25 trees, 5 each of the 
following species were cut down: Eucalyptus cornuta, Eucalyptus 
citriodora, Eucalyptus calophylla, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyp- 
tus globulus. These were split up into fence posts and sent to 
the College of Hawaii to be tested as to their durability. A report 
of the finding will be furnished the Division of Forestry when 
complete. 

During the months of July and August, 1914, the privilege 
to cut gr.ass and honohono in the forest was granted to Mr. Farm 
Corn at a monthly rental of $20.00. Previous to that time com- 
plaints had been coming in about people carting away the grass 
(and cutting up the road) without permission. An effort w r as 
made to stop this unauthorized cutting of grass and honohono but 
as the grass cutters had permission to . cut grass on lands not 
controlled by us and of course had to pass through the forest 
to get this grass, they would at times, when ^the ranger was not 
around, fill their wagons from the forest. Hence the reason for 
giving a permit to one man. Mr. Farm Corn discontinued the 
cutting of grass in the forest at the end of August and there has 
been no other permit granted. 

The forest is in fairly good condition and with the exception 




O 



. a 

O> 



1 

ijiidar 





4 



79 

of a few dead trees that require to be removed, and the thinning 
out of parts where the trees are getting crowded, there is little 
else required at this time. 

The ranger, David Kapihi, has done good work in patrolling 
the forest and keeping the trails clear. There have been no fires 
in the vicinity of the forest during the period. 

Honolulu Watershed Planting 

A commencement was made in July 1913 011 the arrange- 
ments for the planting of Koa and Kukui trees on that portion of 
the Honolulu Water Shed lying between Round Top Hill and 
Tantalus Forest including Sugar Loaf Hill. The first work in 
connection with the planting was the making of trails. A new 
trail was made from the Makiki Station along the ridge on each 
side of Herring Valley and leading up to the base of Sugar Loaf 
Hill where a location for a small nursery was selected. A new 
trail was started from this point running across the face of Sugar 
Loaf Hill and connecting with the Round Top trail. Another 
trail from the small nursery and running across the head of 
Opu Valley was built so that trees could be packed over to the 
Round Top side of Opu Valley, also, as a convenience for the 
men while at work. These trails will all be necessary as a pro- 
tection in case of grass or brush fires and ought to be kept clear 
during the dry season at least. 

At the small nursery at the base of Sugar Loaf a shed, 
12 x 24 feet, with accomodations for tools, water barrels and a 
space for men to do potting and other work during heavy rains, 
had to be built. The material for this shed which is constructed 
of corrugated iron and 2x4 scantlings, was, with the exception 
of a few sheets of roofing iron, taken from the forestry buildings 
in Nuuanu Valley. The material was carted to the Makiki 
Station and from there carried by the men along the new trail to 
the base of Sugar Loaf Hill. Water barrels for storing water for 
sprinkling the young trees in the nursery had to be packed in the 
same manner as there is no wogan road near. 

The actual planting of trees commenced on the face of Sugar 
Loaf Hill on October 1, 1913. All of the hill was planted in 
Koa, with the exception of about 200 Kukui trees planted near the 
bottom. The work of filling up all the waste spaces lying between 
Round Top and Tantalus is progressing and in a short time this 
part of the Reserve will have a different appearance and will be 
of much more value as a watershed. The area now planted is 
39 acres. The number of trees planted up to the end of December 
1914 is as follows: 



80 

Koa 6,136 

Kukui 1,749 



Total 7,885 

These trees will require to be kept clear of grass and weeds 
until they get above the long grass and brush. A good many of 
the trees first planted are at the date of writing from four to six 
feet high. 

Respectfully submitted, 

DAVID HAUGHS, 

Forest Nurseryman. 



81 

Report of the Consulting Botanist 

/ 

Honolulu, Hawaii, December 31, 1914. 

The Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Gentlemen : 

I herewith present my report on the work carried on during 
the biennial period beginning January 1st, 1913 and ending- 
December 31st, 1914, in my capacity as Consulting Botanist. 

The writer's connection with the Forestry Division as an 
active staif member was severed on September 1st, 1911, but he 
was immediately appointed by your Board to the position of 
Consulting Botanist, in which capacity he has given advice and 
has assisted in the introduction of useful plants into this Terri- 
tory. On the most noteworthy work of this nature he will report 
in the following lines. 

In the earlier part of 1913 the writer was engaged in writing 
his book on the Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands, which 
was based mainly on the material collected by him under the 
auspices of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry. The volume, 
containing 530 pages with 215 plates, appeared June 26, 1913. 
The money necessary for the publication of the book in question 
was subscribed by some of our very liberal citizens. 

About the same time there was issued by the Board of Agricul- 
ture and Forestry, Botanical Bulletin No. 2, entitled : "List of 
Hawaiian Names of Plants," by J. F. Rock. This bulletin com- 
prises a most comprehensive list of all Hawaiian names of plants 
of all types, including mosses, lichen, sea weeds, herbs, shrubs, and 
trees which information was secured by the writer while in the 
employ of your Board. 

At the request of the President of your Board the writer 
compiled an extensive article on the forest covering of all the 
islands of the Hawaiian group, the manuscript of which now 
awaits publication. The writer would recommend the same to 
be published as Bulletin No. 3 of your Board, because he has 
received many inquiries from various institutions throughout 
the United States asking if the introduction in the writer's book 
on the Indigenous Trees of Hawaii has been printed separately. 
The article furnished by the writer on the forest covering of the 
islands of the Hawaiian group is in a great measure the same as 
his introduction in the book on trees, only it has been enlarged 
and does not discuss the group collectively; but each island, with 



82 

its various zones, has been discussed separately and in an appendix 
a review is given of the plant families which are predominant in 
the forests of these islands, stating their percentage in each of 
the various zones. \ 

On July 3, 1913, the writer left Honolulu on an exploration 
trip to the Island of Palmyra, at the invitation of the Hon. Henry 
E. Cooper. Much material was collected, especially seed of the 
two new species of Pandani (Screw pines) which are now thriving 
well in this Territory. 

In the month of September, 1913, the writer was especially 
commissioned by your Board as scientific explorer for the purpose 
of collecting seeds of useful as well as ornamental plants, and 
introducing the same into this Territory. On September 13, 1913, 
the writer started on his trip around the world at his own expense, 
permission having been given him by the Board of Regents of the 
College of Hawaii to carry on investigations in the various 
herbaria of Europe. He was properly commissioned to that effect. 
He was also commissioned by the United States Department of 
Agriculture as Collaborator of the Bureau of Plant Industry for 
the purpose of collecting or causing to have collected seeds of 
various plants, especially bamboos from the lower forests of 
Sikkim. 

The writer proceeded on the IT. S. Army Transport "Thomas" 
to Manila, Philippine Islands, via. Guam, in which latter place 
lie collected seeds of various trees during his brief stay in that 
port. 

While in the Philippines the writer spent some time with the 
officers of the Forest School at Los Banos, ascending Mt. Maquel- 
ing, where he collected a large quantity of seeds, as well as in 
the fine natural' arboretum around Los Banos Forestry Station. 
He then proceeded with several members of the Philippine For- 
estry staff to Batan Province, Luzon, where Mt. Mariveles was 
partly ascended and seeds collected, which, with instructions in 
regard to planting, were forwarded to Honolulu. 

From the Philippines the writer embarked for Hong Kong 
and Canton, China. In the former place arrangements were made 
with the Director of the Botanic Gardens to forward seeds of 
Chinese conifers and Araliaceae to Honolulu. 

In Singapore the writer was the guest of the Director of 
the Botanic Gardens, who helped him greatly in collecting the 
seeds of many of the wonderful plants found in that renowned 
garden. The result was the forwarding of a box of seeds of many 
species of palms and largo trees, a good many of which are now 
growing at the Government Nursery. 

From Singapore the writer proceeded to Johore, Penang and 
Rangoon. L T nfortunately the writer was taken ill at Penang, which 



83 

prevented him from carrying out his plans in that region. From 
Burmah he sailed for Calcutta and from there took the train for 
Darjeeling, the summer residence of the Bengal Government in 
the lower Himalayas at an elevation of 7,000 feet. In this most 
wonderful of all regions the writer stayed a month, making 
various journeys into the hills. He employed several Nepalese 
and Tibetans, instructing them to collect seeds of as many forest 
trees as they could find. As the trees found in this region are of 
a more temperate climate, they were intended for planting on 
some of our high mountains, such as Mauna Kea and Mt. Hale- 
akala. Seeds of not less than 82 species of trees and shrubs were 
collected in these magnificent hills and were forwarded to Hono- 
lulu. Arrangement was made to have collected a large amount of 
seeds of a giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii) growing 
in the Teesta valley' and in the lower regions of Sikkim. This 
bamboo was desired by the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 
the purpose of experimental planting along the Panama canal. 
It is one of the bamboos which flowers and fruits abundantly 
nearly every year. Over a large area this bamboo was in flower 
during the writer's visit in that district. 

At Calcutta the writer secured the help of the Director of 
the Botanic Garden at Sipbur in regard to the collecting and 
forwarding of seeds of valuable trees and shrubs and he has since 
been informed by Mr. Haughs of the Board of Agriculture that 
seeds have already been received from that garden. 

From Calcutta the writer journeyed through the whole of 
Northern India, visiting the districts of Benares, Agra, Delhi, 
Lahore in the Punjab and from Rawal pindi, the junction to 
Kashmere to Peshawar in the northwest frontier province. There 
he secured a pass from the residing political agent which enabled 
him to cross the mountains intervening between British India 
and Afghanistan by way of the famous Khyber pass. 

The mountains there are extremely arid and barren ; in the 
Khyber proper he found trees of an Acacia and other leguminous 
shrubs which reminded him very much of the Algaroba ; seeds 
were secured but unfortunately they never arrived in Honolulu. 
From the extreme northwest corner of India the writer traveled 
across to Bombay, Central India, Hyderabad in the Deccan, and 
via Madura to Tuticorin in the extreme south of India, emlbark- 
ing there for Ceylon. Shortly after arrival at Colombo he pro- 
ceeded to Kandy, the old Singhalese capital, spending most of his 
time in the famous botanic gardens at Peradenya, collecting seeds. 

At Colombo the w^ritsr embarked for Egypt, where he visited 
the sugar producing districts and the largest sugar mill in the 
world near Assiut. He collected seeds of many plants below 
Assuan, along the Nile. The most notable introduction into our 



84 

Territory from there is the Dom palm (Hyphaene thebaica), one 
of the very curious fan palms that branches like a Pandanus. It 
is known as the Ginger bread tree, as its fruit,, which is edible, 
savors of ginger. The seeds brought back by the writer have 
already germinated and the young plants should be planted in 
a conspicuous place in some park or at the Nursery grounds, 
where they can readily be seen. 

After .journeying through Algeria and collecting in the Atlas 
mountains, especially near El Karitara, the writer visited the 
famous oasis Biskra, with its wonderful date palm gardens, jour- 
neying south to the great oasis of Tuggurt in the land of the 
dunes. 

From Algeria he went straightway via Italy to Berlin where 
he spent most of his time at the Royal Botanical Museum working 
up the Hillebrand collection, making drawings of the types, etc. 
For the purpose of determining some of the more difficult 
Hawaiian genera, Herbarium material was forwarded from Hono- 
lulu to Berlin, which the writer compared with the Hillebrand, 
Wawra, and Chamisso collections at the Royal Botanical Museum. 
The authorities of the latter institution presented the Herbarium 
with almost a complete collection of Hawaiian plants, containing 
portions of types and co-types from the Hillebrand collection. 
This, with the co-types from the Asa Gray collection, generously 
given by the Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Massachusetts, makes 
the Herbarium of your Board, now in the safe keeping of the 
College of Hawaii, the most complete and valuable collection of 
Hawaiian plants in the world. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JOSEPH F. ROCK, 

Consulting Botanist. 



TERRITORY OF HAWAII 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

RALPH S. HOSMER, Superintendent 

In Cooperation with the 
FOREST SERVICE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

HENRY S. GRAVES, Forester 



EUCALYPTUS CULTURE IN HAWAII 



By 
LOUIS MARGOLIN 

Forest Examiner, Forest Service 
United States Department of Agriculture 




HONOLULU: 
HAWAIIAN GAZETTE CO,, LTD. 

1911 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Honolulu, Hawaii, 

May 10, 1910. 

The Board of Commissioners of 
Agriculture and Forestry 
Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Gentlemen: I have the honor to transmit herewith a manu- 
script entitled "Eucalyptus Culture in Hawaii," by Mr. Louis 
Margolin, Forest Examiner in the Forest Service, United States 
Department of Agriculture, which I recommend be published as 
Bulletin No. 1 of the Division of Forestry. 

This report is the result of a study of Eucalyptus plantations 
in Hawaii carried on through cooperation between the Forest 
Service and the Territorial Board of Agriculture and Forestry. 
The field expenses incident to the investigation were borne jointly 
by the Forest Service and the Board; the cost of publication 
wholly by the latter. 

The object of the report is to put before land owners in Ha- 
waii comprehensive suggestions and definite recommendations 
in regard to growing and managing Eucalyptus forests. In view 
of the demand for such information and the difficulty in getting 
hold of it, the report has been made to include much general in- 
formation in regard to the uses and value of Eucalypts, as well 
as some observations on the principles underlying forest man- 
agement. 

Sincere acknowledgment is here made to all those, plantation 
and ranch managers and others, who have given aid and en- 
couragement in the investigation, particularly to the manager 
of the Maui Agricultural Company, to whom special thanks 
are due. 

Very respectfully, 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 

Superintendent of Forestry. 
APPROVED : 

MARSTON CAMPBELL, 

President, Board of Commissioners 

of Agriculture and Forestry. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Introduction 1 

Need of local timber supply 1 

Forest planting in Hawaii in the past. 3 

The eucalypts 5 

Physical requirements 5 

Climate 5 

Soil 7 

Habit of growth 7 

Form and size 7 

Boot system 8 

Eeproduction 9 

Enemies 11 

Uses of Eucalyptus 13 

Fuel 13 

Fence-posts and ties 14 

Lumber and timber 15 

Watershed protection 16 

Other uses 17 

Establishing a Eucalyptus plantation 18 

Choice of species 18 

Nursery methods 19 

Methods of planting 21 

Clearing the land 21 

Transporting seedlings 22 

Spacing the trees 23 

Tending the grove 24 

Fertilizing, irrigating and cultivating 24 

Thinning 25 

Cutting the forest 26 

Age 26 

Methods 27 

Growth and yield of Eucalyptus 28 

Table 1, Growth of Blue Gum 29 

Table 2, Volume table, Blue Gum, cubic feet 31 

Table 3, Volume table, Blue Gum, cords 33 

Table 4, Yield of Blue Gum plantations 34 

Financial returns from Eucalyptus 35 

Costs 35 

Eeturns 37 

Forest management for sugar plantations 38 

Roadside planting of Eucalyptus 41 

Keeping records 42 

Sample form for record 43 



APPENDIX. 

PAGE. 

Character and uses of various species of eucalypts 47 

Summary of uses of eucalypts 57 

Size of eucalypts 58 

List of eucalypts planted in Hawaii 60 

List of books on Eucalyptus 61 

Field notes on the eucalypts found planted in Hawaii 64 

Volume tables 

Table 5, Blue Gum, Kok'omo, Maui 79 

Table 6, Blue Gum, Tantalus, Oahu 79 

Table 7, Yate (Eucalyptus cornuta") 80 

Table 8, Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta) 80 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE. 

Plate 1. Eucalyptus forest on Tantalus, Honolulu, Hawaii. Frontispiece 

' ' 2. Prospect Hill Grove, Ulupalakua, Maui 1 

" 3. Fig. 1. Blue Gum stand 8 years old. 

Fig. 2. Blue Gum stand 8 years old in need of a thinning 8 
il 4. Fig. 1. Eucalypts not yet 4 years old, Kailiili, Maui. 

Fig. 2. Eight year old Blue Gums with a dense stand of 

lantana and guava 16 

" 5. A sprout f'orest on Maui, Eucalptus resinifera 16 

" 6. Fig. 1. Sprouts, Blue Gum forest. 

Fig. 2. Natural reproduction of Blue Gum 24 

" 7. Fig. 1. Growth 'of Blue Gum, 5 years old. 

Fig. 2. Blue Gum trees 8 years old 40 

1 ' 8. Eucalyptus seedlings 40 

' ' 9. Sample map of Eucalyptus plantation 44 

1 l 10. Eucalyptus forest on Tantalus 48 

" 11. Eucalyptus citriodora in the Tantalus forest 56 

' 12. Eucalyptus robusta on Tantalus, 64 






EUCALYPTUS CULTURE IN HAWAII. 



The study of the eucalypts in the Hawaiian Islands, the 
results of which are now presented, was made in cooperation 
between the Forest Service of the United States Department 
of Agriculture and the Territorial Board of Commissioners 
of Agriculture and Forestry, at the request of the Superin- 
tendent of Forestry. 

The field work extended over a period of four months (De- 
cember 1909-March 1910), during which time practically all the 
important groves of Eucalyptus on the Islands of Hawaii, Maui, 
Oahu and Kauai were visited and examined. Complete measure- 
ments were made on 500 felled trees for the purpose of con- 
structing volume tables. Wherever the groves were old enough 
sample plots were established, which should serve as a basis for 
studying future growth. 

The object of this report is to bring together and correlate the 
information obtained in regard to Eucalyptus on the various 
islands, and to outline a system of forest management for planted 
groves. Since most of the systematic tree planting on these 
islands has been done only during the last decade, and few stands 
are now more than five or six years old, not enough definite data 
are available at present to forecast with any degree of certainty 
the exact financial returns that may be expected, but the informa- 
tion obtained indicates very clearly that a number of species of 
the eucalypts can be grown at a good profit in many places on 
the Hawaiian Islands. 

NEED OF LOCAL TIMBER SUPPLY. 

The Territory of Hawaii, with its extensive sugar plantations, 
camps, flumes, tunnels, and irrigation ditches, uses large quan- 
tities of timber and lumber. No complete statistics on this sub- 
ject are available, but the following figures may be considered 
as quite conservative. There were during the last three or four 
years used annually in Hawaii over forty million board feet 
of sawed lumber and timber, 75,000 cords of firewood, 20,000 to 
25,000 railroad ties, 25,000,000 shingles and 40,000 to 50,000 
fence posts. This annual consumption of wood represents a 
value to the consumer of at least one and one-half million dol- 



lars. With the more intensive development of the plantations, 
the increase in population, the development of irrigation sys- 
tems, homesteads, and small farming, and the further exten- 
sion of roads and power lines, the consumption of lumber will 
constantly increase. The problem of finding an adequate source 
of supply of wood becomes, therefore, of paramount importance 
to the future growth of the country. 

The native Hawaiian forest is entirely inadequate to meet the 
demand for lumber consumed in the Territory. Although the 
Islands have an extremely rich and varied flora, there are few 
native trees of commercial value. Few native trees average 
more than 10 to 12 inches in diameter or more than 50 feet in 
height, and the clear merchantable length of such trees is too 
small to be of any practical use for lumber. A dozen or more 
different species of native trees are used locally for various pur- 
poses, but the ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) and the 
koa (Acacia koa) are the only two timber trees in the Territory 
which, because of their size and abundance, have any commercial 
importance. Of these two species, koa is primarily a cabinet 
wood, leaving ohia lehua as the only all-around native timber 
tree ; and there is not enough of this tree to affect the situation 
materially. With few exceptions the chief use of the native 
forests is to conserve the water supply and regulate the stream 
flow, and their importance as a source of timber supply, except 
in a few restricted districts, is entirely negligible. 

The timber supply of the continental United States at the 
present rate of consumption can not last for a long time. As 
the supply of timber diminishes, export lumber from the United 
States may be expected to reach practically prohibitive prices 
for many uses. The trees native to the continental United States 
are all of comparatively slow growth. The more valuable pines 
and hardwoods require not less than 75 to 100 years to form 
trees big enough for lumber. It takes at least 30 to 35 years to 
grow tie timber, and even this rate of growth is restricted to 
only a few species. The rapid-growing Eucalyptus can be 
grown in the continental United States on only comparatively 
small areas in central and southern California, Arizona, south- 
ern Texas, and southern Florida. 

The Territoiy of Hawaii can not, therefore, depend indefi- 
nitely on the rest of the United States for its supply of lumber. 
Neither can it depend to any large extent on foreign countries. 
On the contrary, located as the islands are, and with a climate 
favorable to rapid growth, Hawaii, in course of time, should be 



able to export to the United States an ever-increasing supply of 
hardwood. 

Fuel wood of a low grade can be grown in Hawaii in five or 
six years, but trees of this age have very little value. Trees 
suitable for fence posts, railroad ties, and lumber, as well as for 
the better grades of firewood, require a much longer period to 
mature. Even the more rapid-growing species of eucalyptus 
and ironwoods, although growing faster than most hardwoods, 
require a number of years to reach a size which renders them 
fit for use as timber trees. The mistake in the past has been 
that trees were cut which were too young. Systematic tree 
planting in Hawaii can not, therefore, begin too soon, for the 
earlier the forests are established the less hardship will be ex- 
perienced when the supply of timber becomes less abundant. 

In short, an increasing supply of inexpensive lumber is essen- 
tial to the proper growth and development of the Hawaiian 
Islands. The native forests are entirely inadequate both in ex- 
tent and character to furnish this supply. The continental United 
States is approaching a time when it will be no longer in a posi- 
tion to export cheap lumber to Hawaii. The Islands can grow 
their own lumber supply before the timber scarcity comes, pro- 
vided immediate planting is done on a commercial scale. 

FOREST PLANTING IN HAWAII IN THE PAST. 

In the past, more or less sporadic tree planting was done in 
the Hawaiian Islands, which at first was confined mainly to the 
introduction of exotic fruit trees, such as mango, alligator pear, 
and similar plants, but later included many valuable ornamental 
and timber trees. The introduction of exotic plants received 
especial impetus in 1881, as a result of a tour of the world by 
King Kalakaua, who sent back to the islands seed and cuttings 
of many important plants, some of which may now be found 
growing on almost every island in the group. 

The early planting was largely without any system and was 
purely for ornamental purposes. Little attempt has been made 
to utilize the information obtained by this experimental planting, 
and outside of the eucalypts, ironwood (Casuarina), acacias, silk 
oak (Grevillea), and three or four other species, the introduced 
trees occur singly, and are rarely seen in groves or forests. It 
is not at all uncommon to find an old home surrounded by a 
grove containing from twenty to sixty different kinds of trees. 
Such planting, of course, is of little commercial value. 

What is probably the oldest systematic forest planting is found 



at Ulupalakua on the Island of Maui, where, on Prospect Hill, 
at an elevation of 2,800 feet, may be seen a grove of eucalypts 
40 to 50 years old. Although the trees were planted for orna- 
mental purposes, and are not properly spaced, they have shown 
remarkably good growth and clearly indicate the adaptability of 
the eucalypts to certain localities in Hawaii. Trees three or four 
feet in diameter and 75 to 100 feet in height are not uncommon. 

Next in point of age is a grove of ironwood (Casuarina equi- 
setifolia), about four acres in extent, planted in 1874 near Lihue, 
Island of Kauai, on the land of Grove' Farm. Here may also be 
found various younger groves of ironwood, as well as groves of 
eucalypts and silk oak (Grevillea robusta). 

The Lihue Plantation on the Island of Kauai was the first to 
begin the systematic planting of forests for purely commercial 
purposes. The native forest had been destroyed and a scarcity 
of wood was imminent. Accordingly, a German forester was 
employed in 1882 to plant trees for the purpose of supplying the 
plantation with fuel. The forester remained for fifteen years, 
during which time a large tract of land was replanted, mostly 
with ironwoods. Forest planting is regarded at Lihue as a reg- 
ular part of the plantation program, new groves being started 
every year. 

About the same time, 1880, the Government began the syste- 
matic reforestation of the slopes of Tantalus, back of Honolulu. 
More than thirty different species of eucalypts were here planted, 
besides a number of other kinds of trees. One of the most prom- 
ising commercial groves of trees may be found on the land of the 
Paauhau Plantation, in the Hamakua district, on the Island of 
Hawaii. On an area of about 40 acres two species of eucalypts 
were planted, E. globulus, the blue gum, and E. citriodora, the 
lemon-scented gum. A more complete description of this grove 
is given later on. 

The most extensive planting of Eucalyptus on a commercial 
scale was begun in 1896 on the Island of Maui by the Maui Ag- 
ricultural Company. This planting has continued almost with- 
out a break to the present time. A number of species have been 
thoroughly tried, and tfie results obtained are most encouraging. 

The planting in the past has shown that of the many kinds of 
trees so far tried, the various species of Eucalyptus are the most 
promising, and are best suited to the purposes for which plant- 
ing is done on the islands. Other trees, like ironwoods, are par- 
ticularly good for certain uses, as for windbreaks, and for cer- 
tain localities, such as sandy sea beaches, but the eucalypts are 



-5 

the best all-around trees in most situations. This report will 
concern itself exclusively with the eucalypts. 

THE EUCALYPTS. 

The genus Eucalyptus belongs to the Myrtle family, the 
Myrtaceae, to which family also belong the native ohia lehua 
(Metrosideros polymorpha) and the introduced Java plum (Eu- 
genia jambolana). The genus Eucalyptus includes about 200 
different species, but the specific differences are frequently 
slight, and are in many cases based on the structure of the 
stamen of the flower, and especially of the anther. In many 
cases, too, the different species grade into each other so imper- 
ceptibly that it is necessary to have not only the flowers and fruit 
but also the leaves, bark, and wood of a tree to determine the 
species to which it belongs. No attempt will be made in the 
present report to give a botanical description of any of the trees. 

The various species of eucalypts differ from each other not 
only in size and form but also in their physical and climatic re- 
quirements of moisture, temperature, soil, etc. Many eucalypts 
are straight, cylindrical, and clear of branches for a great height, 
while others are crooked, forked and branchy. The wood of 
some trees is soft and brittle, while that of others is hard and 
tough and very durable. Some eucalypts can thrive on poor 
soils and can stand much drought, while others require rich, 
moist soils and plenty of rainfall. By a judicious selection it is 
thus possible to choose species of eucalypts suitable to almost 
any situation in Hawaii and fit for almost any use to which wood 
is put. 

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS. 

There are two main natural factors which determine the pos- 
sibility of introducing eucalypts in any new region namely, (a) 
climate, including temperature, precipitation and wind, and (b) 
soil. 

Climate. 

The native home of the valuable eucalypts is in the warmer 
portion of Australia and a few of the adjoining islands. The 
question of hardiness to frost is of paramount importance to the 
growing of Eucalyptus on the continental United States, because 
the range of the tree is there determined by its ability to endure 
cold. In Hawaii, however, the question of frost hardiness is not 



of great consequence because outside of the summits of the three 
highest mountains on the Islands the temperature everywhere 
in the Territory is sufficiently warm for the growth of Euca- 
lyptus. 

Several species of eucalypts have been planted within the last 
three years on the west slope of Haleakala, on the Island of 
Maui, at an elevation of between 6,000 and 6,500 feet, and a 
number of them are doing very well, notably the peppermint 
gum (E. amygdalina), the blue gum (E. globulus), the moun- 
tain ash (E. siberiana), and the broad-leaved ironbark (E. 
siderophloia). Here the temperature is almost never lower than 
35 F. How much higher than 6,500 feet these trees would 
grow it is difficult to state, but there is no reason to believe that 
the temperature would be too low for a proper growth of the 
eucalypts at elevations as high as 7,000 or 8,500 feet, since the 
thermometer rarely drops below 32 F. 

The temperature and moisture conditions most favorable to 
the growth of Eucalyptus in Hawaii are an abundant rainfall, 
say between 50 and 100 inches per year, and a rainy season 
alternating with plenty of strong, warm sunshine. Prolonged 
rain suddenly followed by intense sunshine and heat is injur- 
ious, especially to seedlings. 

The eucalypts are intolerant of shade and require plenty of 
light for their proper development. When given too much 
light, however, the eucalypts will branch out immoderately and 
will then not be of much value as timber trees. The trees in 
their seedling stage can endure more shade than the older trees, 
and the very young seedlings require a certain amount of shade 
for their growth. When all planted at the same time, the euca- 
lypts can grow in dense stands, and the trees will then form 
straight, cylindrical trunks. They will not grow, however, 
planted in the shade of other trees. 

Most of the eucalypts have well-developed root-systems, and 
as a rule are not easily thrown by ordinary winds, but the foliage 
of many of the gums is affected by strong winds, and few species 
can therefore thrive in windy situations. The trees seem to 
suffer more by constant than by unusually strong winds, and 
the ordinary trade wind in an exposed situation will be more 
harmful than an occasional kona -storm. The foliage of blue 
gum (E. globulus) and red gum (E. rostrata) is particularly 
sensitive to strong winds. Sugar gum (E. corynocalyx) and 
peppermint gum (E. amygdalina) can stand much wind, though 
the trees will often lean to leeward and are then unfit for 
straight timber. The swamp mahogany (E. robust a) is gen- 



erally considered sensitive to strong winds in California, but 
in Hawaii it is found to grow straight and of good form even 
in the most exposed situations. 

The eucalypts, as a rule, prefer a very moist soil and respond 
readily to irrigation on dry situations. Swampy land, however, 
is not favorable to good growth, especially if the roots of the 
trees are constantly flooded. The red gum (E. ro strata) is 
probably the least exacting in this respect, and will thrive in wet 
swamps. Swamp mahogany (E. robusta), blue gum (E. glob- 
idus), and the bastard mahogany (E. botryoides) will also en- 
dure excessive moisture. The sugar gum (E. corynocalyx}, on 
the other hand, is the most intolerant in this respect. 

Soil 

Unlike agricultural crops, trees are not fastidious as to the 
quality of the soil on which they grow. There is hardly a soil 
so poor as not to be able to support some tree growth. The 
chemical composition of the soil is of little importance, provided 
its physical composition is favorable. The physical composition 
of the soil is important because it determines to a large extent 
the amount of available soil moisture. A deep, loose, moder- 
ately fine-grained, sandy loam is the best for most species of eu- 
calypts, as it is for almost all other forest trees. 

The following trees require good soil for their proper growth : 

Blackbutt (E. pihtlaris), red gum (E. rostrata), manna gum 
(. wminalis). 

The trees which are least fastidious as to their soil require- 
ments are peppermint gum (E. amygdalina), yate (E. cornuta), 
red mahogany (E. resinifera), swamp mahogany (E. robusta), 
and red ironbark (E. sideroxylon) . 

HABIT OF GROWTH. 

Form and Size. 

There are two general classes of eucalypts recognized in Aus- 
tralia, the tall timber trees, collectively known as "gums," and the 
scrubby species, known as "mallees." There is no reason for 
planting the mallees in this country except for forest cover and 
water protection, and even for this purpose some of the faster- 
growing gum trees would be preferable, both because of their 
more rapid rate of growth and because of their greater value. 

As a rule the timber eucalypts, when grown under forest con- 



8 

ditions, are tall, straight, cylindrical, and of symmetrical form 
and development, though species vary greatly in this respect. 
Trees grown in the wind are apt to be very much twisted in 
grain and gnarled in appearance. 

Some of the eucalypts are among the tallest trees in the world. 
A variety of the peppermint gum or messmate (E. amygdalina 
var. regnans F. v M., or E. regnans F. v M.) has been consid- 
ered to be the tallest tree in the world, specimens 400 to 500 
feet and more in height having been reported. More recent in- 
vestigations have proved that many of the reports as to the 
height of these trees are exaggerated. A tree reported by one 
observer to be 525 feet, and by another as 464 feet in height, 
was found to be barely 220 feet by actual measurement. A stand- 
ing reward of 100 offered by the Premier of Victoria to any 
one discovering a Victoria tree 400 feet or more in height has 
as yet been left unclaimed. The highest tree authentically mea- 
sured is 326 feet 1 inch. This height is exceeded by the Califor- 
nia coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), which attains a 
height of about 400 feet. The tallest redwood authentically 
measured (by Sargent) was 340 feet high. The*greatest diam- 
eter of any eucalypts authentically measured (E. regnans F. v 
M.) was 17 feet 8 inches, measured six feet from the ground. 
Mr. John Muir measured a California bigtree (Sequoia wash- 
ingtoniana) which had a diameter of 35 feet 8 inches, measured 
four feet from the ground. This is equivalent to a diameter of 
at least 33 feet if measured six feet from the ground. Califor- 
nia thus has the distinction of being the dome of both the tallest 
and the largest trees in the world.* 

Root System. 

All the eucalypts have deep root systems to supply their de- 
mand for plenty of soil moisture. The young trees have well- 
developed taproots, which disappear, however, in most cases, as 
the trees grow older. When grown on a shallow soil underlain 
by an impenetrable layer of rock, the trees are liable to be stunt- 
ed and scrubby. 

The roots of the eucalypts will spread to a great distance in 
search of water, and roots 100 feet or more in length are fre- 
quently found. It is this habit of root-spreading which has 
given the tree a bad reputation with many, because it is claimed 

* See The Forest Flora of New South Wales, Vol. II, Part 8, Pages 
159 to 165. By J. H. Maiden. 







w1r?^iK]P 

IT" 



I 



Plate 3. Fig. 1. Blue Gum Stand 8 Years Old. 

Showing bad effect of wide planting. 




Fig. 2. Blue Gum Stand 8 Years Old in Need of a Thinning. 
Kaluanui, Maui. 



that a Eucalyptus plantation or a windbreak of these trees will 
sap the moisture from the ground and prevent the growth of 
agricultural crops or grass in the immediate vicinity. There is 
no denying that the ground cover in the immediate proximity of 
a Eucalyptus grove or windbreak is not as luxuriant as it is 
some distance away from the trees, but observation will show 
that the damage done is greatly exaggerated. Furthermore, the 
benefit derived from the tree plantation, either as a windbreak 
or in other ways, more than compensates for the injury. 

To reduce the damage from superficially spreading roots, a 
scheme has been recommended for California which may be of 
equal value in this Territory. As soon as it is noticed that the 
roots are spreading too widely, a trench is run 3 or 4 feet deep, 
parallel to the row of trees, and about 10 feet away from it. 
This cuts the surface roots. The trench is then immediately 
refilled to prevent the roots from making their way under the 
trench. Every two or three years thereafter the trench is re- 
opened, the surface roots cut and the trench refilled. In this 
way it is possible, at a small expense, to keep the surface roots 
of the trees as limited in extent as desired. 

Another charge that is sometimes brought against Eucalyptus 
plantations is that the trees pump so much water from the 
ground as to interfere with springs and small streams by lower- 
ing the general water table of the soil. This may be true in 
certain cases, especially in situations where the air is dry. On 
the other hand, the condensation of air moisture in the humid 
atmosphere by the tall eucalypts is more than enough to com- 
pensate for the water used by the tree in its growth. In the fog 
belt of California where eucalypts are planted the trees are al- 
most constantly dripping with moisture. At upper Paauhau, on 
the Island of Hawaii, at an elevation of about 3,000 feet, a grove 
of blue gum condenses so much moisture from the air that 
troughs have been placed under the trees to catch the water for 
domestic purposes. 

Reproduction. 

The eucalypts reproduce prolifically both from seed and from 
sprouts. The trees begin to bear flowers and seed at a very 
early age, but the first few crops of seed are not fertile. At 
Umikoa, on the Kukaiau Ranch, on the Island of Hawaii, at an 
elevation of 3,700 feet, a line of blue gum trees eight years old 
has naturally seeded up a dry, rocky piece of land. At Olinda, 
on the Island of Maui, at an elevation of 4,000 feet, a planted 



10 

line of blue gum 35 years old is surrounded by several acres of 
younger trees which started from the seed dropped by the plant- 
ed trees. The ^oung trees are of excellent form and are grow- 
ing rapidly, the largest being 16 inches or more in diameter and 
70 to 80 feet in height. In another place near Olinda blue gum 
trees 12 years of age have produced fertile seed. 

The swamp mahogany (E. robusta) is probably not much in- 
ferior to the blue gum so far as age of seed bearing is concerned. 
In Makawao, on the Island of Maui, at an elevation of 3,000 
feet, swamp mahogany 20 to 25 years old produced fertile seed 
which has covered a small rocky ledge with young seedlings. 

No naturally sown seedlings of other species of Eucalyptus 
were observed in Hawaii ; but this is probably due to the fact 
that few other species have been planted long enough under 
such conditions as favor the germination of the seed when 
dropped from the tree. The seed will not, as a rule, germinate 
in turf or litter, but requires pure mineral soil. Most of the 
older eucalypts on the Islands, having been planted for orna- 
mental purposes, are surrounded by lawns. 

The ability of Eucalyptus to reproduce itself naturally by 
seed is unimportant commercially, when compared with its ca- 
pacity to grow from sprouts (or ratoons). All the trees of this 
genus reproduce themselves very rapidly from the stump when 
cut. If injured by cattle, wind, or fire, young shoots are ever 
ready to take the place of the injured parts. A tree blown down 
by the wind and partly uprooted will send out numerous shoots 
from the prostrate trunk, which may eventually form trees of 
desirable form and quality. A grove of blue gum at Kailiili, on 
Maui, was planted on a very windy hillside. The trees were 
spaced 10 by 15 feet, and many were blown down by subsequent 
storms. From the trunks thus bent to the ground numerous 
sprouts appeared, forming a comparatively dense growth, which 
developed into a remarkably good stand of trees. When the 
trees were about ten years old, the grove was thinned, with the 
result that the stand is now in excellent producing condition. 
In this case the wind had a decidedly beneficial effect. However, 
it is extremely unsafe to depend on the wind as a silvicultural 
tool, and the instance is mentioned here only to illustrate the 
wonderful sprouting capacity of blue gum. 

Other eucalypts than the blue gum have this power to an 
equal degree. A grove of mixed eucalypts, mostly of blue gum 
and red mahogany (E. resinifera) at Haiku Hill, on Maui, at an 
elevation of 500 feet, produced trees 30 to 40 feet high and 3 to 
10 inches in diameter in less than three years after the first crop 



11 

was cut. In this case the red mahogany sprouts showed a more 
rapid rate of growth than the blue gum. 

Trees of blue gum (E. globulus), swamp mahogany, (E. ro- 
busta) and yate (E. cornuta), cut on Tantalus, near Honolulu, 
early in December, showed numerous vigorous sprouts in the 
following April. Red gum (E. rostrata), manna gum (E. vimi- 
nalis) and other species of eucalypts in California are found to 
sprout readily after cutting, and there is every reason to believe 
that most of the other species will sprout equally well. 

It is this ability of the Eucalyptus to sprout which makes it 
such a desirable tree for firewood, for as soon as one crop is cut 
off a new growth of trees takes its place. A ratoon crop nor- 
mally grows much faster than the original stand for a time, be- 
cause no time is lost in establishing a root system, the sprouts 
deriving their nourishment from the roots already in existence. 
The number of successive crops that may be obtained from one 
set of trees has never been determined. Groves where five or 
six successive crops of trees have been cut may be found in Cali- 
fornia; and in Hawaii, in a grove about half a mile from the 
Makawao postoffice, on Maui, four or five successive crops of 
blue gum have been cut without apparently injuring the repro- 
ductive capacity of the trees. 

It is not to be presumed, however, that this process can be re- 
peated indefinitely. Judging by all that we know of other trees, 
sooner or later the vitality of the present root system will de- 
cline until eventually sprouts will no longer be produced. Gen- 
erally speaking, trees from sprouts do not reach dimensions 
equal to those of seedlings. The time of the year when the trees 
are cut seems to have a great influence on their sprouting ca- 
pacity, and it is asserted that trees cut in the summer or late 
spring will not ratoon readily. All who have had experience in 
cutting the eucalypts in Hawaii are unanimous in opinion that 
the rainy season from early November to about the middle of 
March is the most favorable time for cutting the trees to obtain 
a good sprout forest, though trees will ratoon if cut in other 
seasons. 

ENEMIES. 

The eucalypts in Hawaii, so far as observed, are remarkably 
free from insect and fungous enemies. In particularly dry loca- 
tions and in unusual drought a Eucalyptus plantation may be in 
danger from fire, since the dry leaves and twigs and the fallen 
shreds of bark are quite inflammable. The danger from fire is 
further increased by the rank growth of weeds found in the more 



12 

widely spaced plantations. The damage done would depend, of 
course, on the intensity of the fire and the age of the trees. A 
light ground fire in an old grove of trees will cause little injury 
aside from scorching the bases of the trunks, while even a mod- 
erately light fire will completely destroy a young plantation. In 
most cases even a very severe fire will destroy only the portions- 
of the trees above ground, and the roots will then send out a 
second crop of sprouts. However, a plantation is always set 
back by a fire, no matter how light, and every precaution should 
be taken to guard against fire, especially during unfavorable 
seasons. In extreme cases it may even be necessary to prohibit 
trespass through the plantation so as to avoid the danger from 
unextinguished matches and cigarette and cigar butts. 

The main precautionary methods to be adopted against fire 
are close planting to prevent the growth of weeds and brush, 
care in burning grass on adjoining land, and a fire guard or 
patrol for a short time during unusually dry and dangerous sea- 
sons. With a moderate amount of care and vigilance the fire 
danger should hot be a great deterrent to the successful cultiva- 
tion of Eucalyptus in Hawaii. 

Cattle, horses and pigs must be kept out of a young tree plan- 
tation. The animals bite off the young shoots, injure the bark y 
and trample down the trees without great benefit to themselves, 
for the Eucalyptus, at best, is but poor fodder, and there is noth- 
ing gained in letting the animals roam at will in young growth. 
After the trees have reached some size th'e harm done is greatly 
reduced, but even when they are 4 or 5 inches in diameter and 
25 or 30 feet high cattle may cause considerable damage by 
tramping and packing the soil and exposing the roots, especially 
during the rainy weather, when the soil is wet and easily packed. 

On some stock ranches in Hawaii eucalypts are planted for 
the express purpose of furnishing shade to cattle during the hot 
season, and shelter against rain and cold. Under such circum- 
stances the value of the trees for timber and fuel is a secondary 
consideration, and it is only necessary to protect the trees long 
enough to insure their successful establishment. A cattle-proof 
fence for the first five or six years will usually accomplish this 
object. At the end of that time the fence may be taken down 
and moved to a place where a new plantation is to be established. 

Where the primary object of a plantation is to raise timber 
trees, cattle should be kept out until the trees have reached a 
diameter of a least 4 inches. 



13 



USES OF EUCALYPTUS. 

The main objects in planting trees in Hawaii may be enumer- 
ated as follows : For the production of fuel, fence posts, lum- 
ber and timber ; for the protection of watersheds ; for wjnd- 
breaks and shade ; for esthetic purposes. It will be found that 
the various species of eucalyptus are admirably adapted to the 
.above uses. Not all of the eucalypts are equally well suited to 
the various purposes for which trees are planted, but among the 
long list of species some are best adapted for one use, some for 
another. A tree which may yield an excellent fuel wood may 
not rank high as a fence post tree, because its wood may not be 
durable ; and so with the other uses. The selection of the proper 
species for the desired purpose will require a knowledge of the 
qualities of the different eucalypts. A brief description of the 
uses of the leading species is given in the appendix. 

Fuel. 

The most immediate need for planting trees in Hawaii is to 
furnish the extensive plantations with an adequate supply of fuel. 
The sugar mills are invariably run with the bagasse or cane pulp 
left after the juice has been pressed out. In a few cases there 
is a slight excess of cane refuse which is bundled up and used 
as domestic fuel, but with this unimportant exception all the fuel 
used for domestic purposes is either wood or coal. 

The plantations usually agree to furnish their laborers with 
the necessary shelter and firewood. The fuel thus consumed 
averages, roughly, about half a cord of wood per person per 
year, counting not only the laborers, but also their families. 
With the average population on a plantation figured at 2,000 
persons, the annual consumption is about 1,000 cords of wood. 
The present price of cordwood delivered at the plantation va- 
ries from about $5.50 per cord for kiawe or algaroba and young 
folue gum to $12.00 or more per cord for slabs of ohia lehua, the 
fuel value of the latter being ranked very high. The fuel ex- 
pense to the average plantation amounts, therefore, to at least 
$5,500, and may run as high as $10,000 per year. On some plan- 
tations it is impossible to obtain wood at a reasonable price, and 
the laborers are supplied with coal or oil for fuel. The problem 
-of obtaining an adequate fuel supply is therefore of great im- 
portance to the plantations, and deserves careful consideration, 
for it must be remembered that the price of wood is constantly 
rising. 



14 

There are a number of trees grown on the Islands which yield 
good fuel wood, notably the iron woods (Casuarina), the black 
wattle (Acacia decurrens), and silk oak (Grevillea robusta). 
Many of the eucalypts, however, are superior to the above-men- 
tioned trees not only in their actual fuel value but also because 
they can grow in places and at elevations where the other trees 
can not thrive, and especially because of the ease with which the 
eucalypts reproduce themselves by sprouts, or ratoons. With 
a reasonable amount of care in cutting down the trees, one plant- 
ing of Eucalyptus should suffice for an indefinite number of 
crops of fuel wood, while with many other trees it may be neces- 
sary to replant the area each time the trees are cut. Further- 
more, in a properly-grown Eucalyptus forest, the fuel wood may 
be obtained as a by-product by thinning out the main stand, or 
from the tops and branches of trees cut for more useful pur- 
poses, such as poles, lumber, etc., while in many of the other 
trees planted, fuel wood is the main crop. If for no other rea- 
son than its rapid rate of growth, Eucalyptus should receive 
favorable attention as a fuel wood. 

Of the more common eucalypts the following four species are 
considered of high fuel value: Red box (E. polyanthemos), 
leather jacket (E. punctata), red gum (E. rostrata), and red 
ironbark (E. sideroxylon). The common species of Eucalyptus 
planted in Hawaii, namely, blue gum (E. globulus), swamp 
mahogany (E. robusta), red mahogany (E. resinifera), and 
lemon-scented gum (E. citriodora), though all furnishing good 
fuel wood, are inferior in this respect to the eucalypts mentioned 
above. In all cases the heartwood is of higher fuel value 
than the sapwood, and for this reason young trees, which have 
a high per cent, of sap, yield but indifferent firewood. 

Fence Posts and Ties. 

Next to the need for fuel the greatest need for wood on the 
Islands is for fence posts and ties. A considerable proportion 
of the fence posts and almost all the railroad ties used in the 
Territory are at present imported from the coast, at a cost aver- 
aging about 30 cents per post and 60 to 75 cents per tie. There 
is no reason why the demand for this material should not be 
supplied locally. Many of the eucalypts, because of the great 
durability of their wood when in contact with the soil, are well 
suited for ties and posts. The following species deserve especial 
attention in this respect: White mahogany (E. acmenoides), 
blood wood (E. corymbosa), Victoria gum (E. leucoxylon), 



15 

jarrah (E. margiuata), leather jacket (E. punctata), red ma- 
hogany (E. resinifera), and gray gum (E. tereticornis). Of 
the other commonly planted species, red gum (E. rostrata), 
swamp mahogany (E. robusta) , and blue gum (E. globulus), 
in the order mentioned, will last in the ground well, provided 
the heartwood is used, and provided the wood is allowed to sea- 
son for some time before it is used. 

In a number of instances Eucalyptus, especially blue gum as 
well as ironwood, has been used for fence posts and ties with 
poor results, it being found that the wood went to pieces at the 
end of three or four years. In almost every case this was due 
to the fact that young green saplings, consisting mainly of sap- 
wood, had been used.. All woods last longer after they are sea- 
soned, and the heartwood is almost invariably superior to the 
sapwood in this respect. No wood should therefore be con- 
demned until after the seasoned wood of fairly old trees has 
been tried. The kind of soil and its moisture content have also 
a decided influence on the durability of the wood. 

Lumber and Timber. 

The greatest value of the eucalypts lies in the general useful- 
ness of their timber which, with the gradual disappearance of 
the American hardwoods, is becoming of ever greater import- 
ance. Among the eucalypts may be found some of the most 
valuable timber in the world, though the species differ in the 
strength, weight and durability of their woods. The timber 
and lumber can be used for general construction purposes, for 
wharves, bridges, tunnels, mining shafts, culverts, street paving 
blocks, flooring, interior finish, furniture, car Construction, 
wheelwright work, wagon construction, tool handles, cooperage, 
and, in brief, for all purposes for which hardwoods are ordi- 
narily employed. 

In addition to fuel wood, posts and ties, the chief demand for 
wood in Hawaii is for general construction purposes, for flume 
and tunnel timbers and for piling and wharf construction. There 
are a number of eucalypts admirably suited for these purposes. 

The three species considered of the highest value in Australia 
for construction purposes and for general all-around timber are 
the jarrah (E. marginata), the karri (E. diver sic olor}, and the 
tooart (E. gomphocephala). In addition to the above the white 
mahogany (E. acmenoides) and the flooded gum (E. saligna) 
are of the highest value for general construction, while the folr 
lowing eucalypts are excellent for general saw timber: Sugar 



16 

gum (E. corynocalyx), blackbutt (E. pilularis), and red ma- 
hogany (E. resinifera). The jarrah and the red mahogany are 
especially highly esteemed for furniture. The blue gum (E. 
globulus), and the swamp mahogany (E. robusta), and the 
lemon-scented gum (E. citriodora) are good all-around timber 
trees, but they are inferior to the trees mentioned above. The 
blackbutt and the blue gum are especially liable to warp and 
twist unless carefully seasoned, and are objectionable for this 
reason. The blue gum (E. globulus), the jarrah (E. niargin- 
ata), and the red mahogany (E. resinifera) are especially well 
adapted for wharves and piling because they resist to a large 
extent the attack of the teredo, which destroys many other kinds 
of timber. 

A more complete table of the uses of wood of the various eu- 
calypts may be found in the Appendix. 

Watershed Protection. 

An abundant and regular flow of water is essential to the 
successful raising of crops in Hawaii, since, in spite of heavy 
rainfall in certain localities in the Islands, a large proportion of 
the cultivated land is under irrigation. Many of the richest 
sugar cane fields are absolutely dependent on an adequate supply 
of water during the dry season. 

There are few places in the world where the relation between 
forests and waterflow is so intimate as it is in certain parts of 
Hawaii. Because of the climatic conditions, the physiographic 
features, and the geologic formation prevailing here the destruc- 
tion of the forest, especially on the steeper slopes and at the 
higher elevations, is almost immediately followed by a marked 
decrease in surface run-off during dry seasons, while in heavy 
rains the water runs down in torrents, washing and gulleying 
the mountain sides. The native forest which once covered the 
mountains with its numerous ferns, moss, vines and brush, was 
an ideal watershed protection, acting as a sponge in catching 
the rain and retaining the water for a long time. No matter 
how dry the air, the floor of the forest was always damp and the 
springs were always full. In many places, however, the forest 
maintained itself with great difficulty ; and in consequence of 
the introduction by the white man of cattle, Hilo grass, lantana 
and other animals and obnoxious plants the native forest is 
rapidly disappearing and the denudation of the mountain slopes 
is becoming more and more serious. 

A systematic artificial reforestation of denuded slopes on im- 




Plate 4. Fig. 1. Eucalypts Not Yet 4 Years Old, Kailiili, Maui. 
Swamp Mahogany on the right, Blue Gum on the left. 




Fig. 2. Eight Year Old Blue Gums with a Dense Stand of Lantana and 
Guava, Kaluanui, Maui. 




Plate 5. A Sprout Forest on Maui, Eucalyptus resinifera/. 



17 

portant watersheds is already receiving attention, and the in- 
terest in this work will become more marked as time goes on. 
Planting trees to protect watersheds will be considered by many 
to be more important than planting them for lumber and fuel 
production, though under proper management one forest may 
be made to serve both purposes. Many eucalypts are well suited 
for the purpose of water protection if planted closely together 
or if under-planted with some undergrowth to afford protection 
to the soil. A properly-managed Eucalyptus protection forest 
should pay for itself in course of time. 

Other Uses. 

Because of their rapid growth, flexible trunks, and ability to 
grow in exposed situations, a number of the eucalypts make ex- 
cellent windbreaks, deflecting the wind upward and thus exert- 
ing their influence for a comparatively long distance. The plant- 
ing of Eucalyptus groves to protect cattle has already been men- 
tioned. In California the eucalypts are extensively planted to 
protect orange groves and other fruit orchards from blasting 
winds. In Hawaii, especially at the lower elevations, the iron- 
wood (Casuarina equiseti folia) is a better windbreak tree than 
most of the eucalypts, because of its ability to grow on sandy 
soils, to stand the salt ocean spray, and to form straight trunks 
under conditions extremely adverse to the growth of other 
trees. At higher elevations, where the ironwoods do not thrive, 
Eucalyptus was found to be advisable. The following species 
are considered particularly wind resistant: messmate (E. amyg- 
dalina), sugar gum (E. corynocalyx) , and swamp gum (E. 
rudis). In California swamp mahogany (E. robusta) is con- 
sidered to be a poor tree for windy situations because of its 
liability to breakage. In Hawaii, however, it is found to grow 
well in the most windy localities and apparently thrives in places 
where no other trees can exist. The blue gum (E. globulus) 
will grow in windy situations, but when growing under such 
conditions the trees are crooked and twisted, and (although 
valuable to some extent for a windbreak) the trees are therefore 
not good for timber. 

From the fact that the eucalypts are evergreen, they are ex- 
cellent shade trees for ornamental planting, and if properly 
grouped present a very pleasing appearance. The lemon-scent- 
ed gum (E. citriodora), with its tall trunk and slender, often 
pendulous branches, deserves special mention for ornamental 
purposes. Blue gum is an effective tree if grown in a clump or 



18 

grove. Messmate (E. amygdalina) is particularly valuable as 
a shade and ornamental tree, not only because of its attractive 
form but also because it exhales a delicious fragrance. The 
scarlet-flowered gum (E. ficifolia) is a favorite ornamental tree 
on account of its beautiful red flowers. The orange-flowered 
gum (E. calophylla), red gum (E. rostrata) and sugar gum (E. 
corynocalyx) are also valuable shade trees. The blue gum is 
sometimes called the fever tree and has been used successfully 
to improve the health conditions in the swampy places around 
Rome. Messmate is frequently planted on hospital and sani- 
tarium grounds. 

From the leaves and young twigs of the eucalypts are distilled 
many different kinds of oil, which are used as non-poisonous 
antiseptics, for perfumery, and for scenting soap. An extract 
made by steeping the leaves of Eucalyptus, particularly blue 
gum, in water is used for bathing in the treatment of certain 
skin diseases. The medicinal properties are probably more ame- 
liorative than curative in their effect. Some of the oils are the 
best known solvents for amber and other gums, and are there- 
fore of particular value for the manufacture of high-grade var- 
nishes. The distillation of eucalyptol and other oils is a growing 
industry in Australia and California, though the market for these 
products is rather limited. 

ESTABLISHING A EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION. 

CHOICE OF SPECIES. 

The first point to be considered in establishing a plantation is 
to decide what species to grow. With the long list of eucalypts 
available there is a wide choice, and the selection is not an easy 
matter. The species selected must depend on two considera- 
tions : first, the purpose for which the trees are grown, and, sec- 
ond, the physical conditions under which the trees are expected 
to grow that is, the soil, elevation, climate, etc. With soil and 
climate conditions as variable as they are in Hawaii, even in the 
same locality, no general rules as to species can be given. This 
is particularly true in view of the fact that few of the eucalypts 
have been grown here for any length of time, and most of the 
planting must therefore still be in the nature of an experiment. 
The species best suited for different uses have already been 
mentioned, and the various trees best adapted to the different 
physical factors have also been discussed. With these as a guide 
it should be possible to decide in a general way what trees to 
plant in a given place and for a given purpose. 



19 

Three species of Eucalyptus have so far been grown in Ha- 
waii with signal success. Blue gum (E. globuhis), in general, 
has been found to do excellently at elevations higher than 1,000 
feet above sea level, reaching its best development and most 
rapid growth at elevations between 3,000 and 4,500 feet, espe- 
cially on the windward side. Red mahogany (E. resinifera) 
has been found to grow well at elevations between 500 and 1,500 
feet. Swamp mahogany (. robusta) grows well in almost any 
place and thrives on poor soils and in windy situations, and un- 
der conditions which few other eucalypts can endure. It pre- 
fers, however, low, swampy land and ejevations below 2,000 
feet. Lemon-scented gum (E. citriodora) also calls for mention 
here. At Paauhau, in the Hamakua district on Hawaii, at an 
elevation of 1,600 feet, lemon-scented gum 20 years old is doing 
well, and it also thrives at lower elevations. 

Red mahogany (E. resinifera) is of the greatest commercial 
value, and is one of the best all-around eucalypts that can be 
grown. The other three species, though not of the highest value, 
are very desirable trees, and the blue gum is particularly rapid 
in rate of growth. No serious mistake can be made in planting 
these trees. Experimental planting to ascertain the suitability 
of other eucalypts to various conditions and localities is greatly 
to be desired, but it would be wise to confine planting on a com- 
mercial scale to the above species until results of the experi- 
mental planting undertaken in the last five years become ap- 
parent. 

To be of the greatest value, most of the experimental plant- 
ing should be in pure groves that is, groves consisting of only 
one species, of at least one acre each. Planting on a commer- 
cial scale also should be pure rather than mixed, unless expert 
knowledge is available to utilize the different site qualities for 
different species of trees and to regulate the future reproduc- 
tion of the forest. Mixed forests, on the whole, are desirable, 
but they require more skilled management than forests of only 
one species. 

NURSERY METHODS. 

Two methods of growing trees are in general practice: first, 
growing the young trees in beds in the nursery and transplant- 
ing them directly to the ground where they are to grow ; second, 
growing the seedlings in flats or boxes and eventually transplant- 
ing the trees in pots or bags of one kind- or another. In the first 
case the soil is carefully prepared in beds in the nursery, the 
beds being usually three to four feet wide and as long as desir- 



20 

able. The seed is planted directly on these beds. In Hawaii 
this method has been found to give satisfactory results only in 
localities favorable to tree growth, at elevations of 2,000 feet or 
more, and where there is an abundant rainfall. It has proved 
particularly successful in the nursery of the Maui Agricultural 
Company, Kailiili, at an elevation of about 2,500 feet. In less 
favorable situations the seedlings as a rule are grown in boxes 
or flats of convenient size, usually 12 x 18 inches and 3 to 4 
inches deep. In either case the soil in the seed bed should be 
light and friable, so that the seedlings may be readily trans- 
planted. A garden loam mixed with an equal quantity of sand 
and put through a sieve with a mesh as fine as coarse mosquito 
netting is the best. The soil is first made smooth ; then the seed 
is scattered evenly over the surface and pressed down lightly 
with a piece of board to imbed it in the soil, after which it is 
covered with a thin layer of pure sand or finely-sifted soil to a 
depth approximately equal to the thickness of the seed. To pre- 
vent the growth of weeds in the seed-bed, it is often desirable 
to sterilize both the soil and the sand. 

The seed will sprout and the young shoots will appear above 
ground in from three to ten days. The soil should be watered 
and kept moist with a very fine sprinkler, held close to the seed- 
bed. Unless great care is taken in watering, the seed may be 
washed out and the tender stems of the young trees broken by 
the force of the falling water. If the soil is kept too wet, .the 
trees will be killed by a fungus disease known as "damping-off." 
This disease is most serious during times when there is little 
evaporation taking place, as on damp, cloudy days and during 
still, warm evenings. Very little watering should therefore be 
done on cloudy days, and even on clear days the sprinkling 
should take place in the morning. 

For the first few weeks of their life the young seedlings are 
injured by excessive heat and light, and it is necessary to pro- 
tect them from the direct rays of the midday sun. Various de- 
vices are in use for shading the beds or boxes of seedlings, lath 
houses and lath screens being the most common. The lath in 
the screens are spaced their own width apart, and the screens 
are so arranged that they can be readily moved. If a lath house 
is used, the various panels composing the lath house are made 
removable. This is necessary because the screens must be moved 
in cloudy and humid weather in order to prevent "damping-off" 
in excess shade. In many nurseries in Hawaii the shade afford- 
ed by the large trees growing about the nursery is sufficient to 
protect the young seedlings, and no lath screens are necessary. 



21 

.- 

The seed boxes must not, however, be kept directly under the 
big trees, where the seedlings would be injured by the drip from 
the leaves. 

When the seedlings grow to be two or three inches high, they 
are transplanted in the nursery. This is done in order to give 
the young trees more room for growth and to encourage the de- 
velopment of a strong root system. The little trees are taken 
out from the seed boxes or beds and are set out either in other 
beds in the nursery or in other boxes. In transplanting, the 
trees, as a rule, are spaced about two inches apart, the ordinary 
box or flat containing 100 trees. The holes for the transplants 
are usually made with a small cylindrical stick or with the finger, 
and great care must be taken to spread out the roots in the holes 
and to press the soil around them. The roots should not be ex- 
posed to the air any more than is absolutely necessary, and the 
work of transplanting should be done during cloudy weather 
when there is little danger of the roots drying up and dying. 

After the trees have been transplanted they should be watered 
well and shaded from the sun. The trees are left in the nursery 
until they are from eight to fourteen inches in height, when they 
are ready to be set out in the place where they are to grow. 

An extremely efficient but somewhat more expensive method 
of raising young trees is to transplant them in the nursery into 
pots, bags or bottomless tin cans, about 4 or 5 inches deep and 
2 to four inches wide, before they are set out in the ground 
where they are to grow. The pots are usually made of hollow 
sections of bamboo or of ti leaves (Cordylina terminalis), while 
the bags are made from fertilizer sacks. They are left in the 
nursery for two months or more and are then set in the ground, 
the pot or bag eventually rotting away, and the trees soon be- 
coming well established in their home. 

METHODS OF PLANTING. 

Clearing the Land. 

The heaviest expense in planting forest in Hawaii is entailed 
in clearing the land of the rank growth of Hilo grass, guava and 
lantana, which is often six feet or more in height. The ground 
cover is frequently so heavy that any attempt to grow trees with- 
out first getting rid of it is absolutely futile. Three methods of 
preparing the ground are in general vogue, as follows : 

1. Where the ground cover is very tall and heavy, where 
sufficient money for proper planting is available, where the area 



99 



to be planted is not extensive, or where the ground cover is very 
light, consisting mostly of grass, the entire area is cleared with 
a scythe, cane knife, brush-hook or ax. 

2. Where the above conditions do not exist, instead of clear- 
ing the entire area, only alternate strips are cleared wide enough 
to allow the trees planted in these strips room for growth and 
development, while the ground cover on the intermediate strips 
is left untouched. 

3. Where the ground cover is not very heavy, the land is 
cleared only in patches immediately around the holes where the 
trees are to be set out, the space cleared depending on the na- 
ture of the cover and the kind of trees planted. A circle three 
to four feet in diameter is usually sufficient. 

Transplanting Seedlings. 

The method of transporting the seedlings from the nursery 
to the place where they are to be planted depends mainly on the 
way the trees were raised in the nursery and on the nature of 
the road or trail between the nursery and the plantation. 

In one place on the Island of Hawaii the seedlings are raised 
in large flats about 6 or 7 feet square, and when the trees are 
2^2 to 3 inches high the soil in the flats is thoroughly moistened 
and the trees and soil are transferred into smaller boxes about 
3 by 4 feet. Two of these boxes are then hung on a pole and 
so carried by Chinese laborers to the plantation. 

When the transplant seedlings are grown directly in the nur- 
sery beds, it is customary to take them up, dip the roots in a 
very thick puddle, wrap the lower parts of the trees in wet 
gunny sacks, and load them on mules, which can transport them 
in this manner for comparatively long distances without injury. 
If the transplants are grown in flats or boxes, it is usual to load 
as many flats as possible on.bullock, horse or mule wagons and 
so transport them. Pack saddles specially devised for carrying 
seedling boxes are also in use. 

After the land is cleared of the undesirable ground cover, 
three methods are in common use for preparing the holes to re- 
ceive the trees : 

1. The land is plowed one or more times and the holes are 
dug in the plow furrows with a kipikua or mattock. 

2. The land is not plowed, but circular holes are dug \ l /2 to 
2 feet in diameter and the soil is loosened to a depth of 10 to 18 
inches. 



23 

3. Where the climate and soil conditions are favorable for 
tree growth' and the nature of the cover will permit it, the land 
is not plowed and no holes are dug. The land is simply broken 
with a kipikua or mattock, the tree is set in the slit, and the soil 
is pressed back around the tree. 

Spacing the Trees. 

The question of spacing the trees properly is a very important 
one, and deserves close attention, since the success of the plan- 
tation for the purpose for which it was intended may depend 
on the distance apart at which the trees were set out. Wide 
spacing favors diameter growth and wide branching, while close 
spacing stimulates good height growth, favors the development 
of straight trunks free from branches, decreases the danger from 
windfall, and interferes with the growth of weeds and obnox- 
ious undergrowth. If, however, the trees are planted too close 
together, proper growth is interfered with and the trees tend to 
become tall and spindling. Between these two extremes there 
is what may be termed an optimum spacing, which will result in 
the most desirable height and form of a tree as well as in the 
best diameter growth. Such spacing utilizes the land to the 
greatest advantage. 

If trees are to be grown in windy situations, it is essential that 
they should be planted close together, the spacing recommended 
being 5 by 5 or at most 5 by 6. In case of exposure to very 
strong winds, or if the planting is done in a narrow strip, still 
closer spacing may be desirable, depending on the number of 
rows of trees planted. Spacing the trees 3 feet apart may not 
be too close if only one row of trees is planted ; if two, three or 
four rows are planted, the trees may be set out 4 feet apart, 
placing the trees in the alternate rows in the middle of the space 
between the trees in the immediately adjacent rows. Wide spac- 
ing in windy situations will result not only in poor growth but 
in a high percentage of windfall. 

The purpose for which the planting is done will also have to 
be taken into consideration in deciding on the proper spacing of 
the trees. A grove planted to shelter cattle will be much wider 
spaced than one established primarily for the purpose of grow- 
ing the best quality of lumber or for watershed protection. In 
general, it has been found that most of the planting done in Ha- 
waii has been too widely spaced. If there is any doubt as to 
proper spacing, it is better to set out the trees too closely than 
too wide apart, especially in the more windy situations, for if it 



24 

is found eventually that the spacing is too close the stand may 
be thinned and the trees cut used for fuel or for other purposes. 
On the other hand, if it is found that the trees have been planted 
too wide apart, it is difficult, and often impossible, to plant ad- 
ditional trees and make them grow in the shade of the trees al- 
ready established. It is better to plant a small area properly 
than to spread an insufficient number of trees over a large area. 

While it is risky to lay down hard and fast rules, the follow- 
ing general guide may be used in spacing blue gum. 

Trees on good soil and in favorable situations can stand wider 
spacing than groves on poor soils and grown in unfavorable 
situations. 

For a windbreak or shelter belt, plant the trees 3 to 5 feet 
apart, depending on the width of the belt. 

For the production of clear lumber and good quality of tim- 
ber, plant the trees 6 by 6 feet apart. In especially windy situ- 
ations or in very poor soils the spacing may be 5 by 5 or 5 by 6 
feet. 

For the production of fuel, plant the trees 6 by 8 or 8 by 8 
feet. 

For sheltering cattle from the hot sun or from wind and cold, 
space the trees 9 by 9 or 10 by 10 feet. 

When undergrowth is dense and it is desirable to get rid of 
it, plant the trees 5 by 5 to 5 by 6 feet. 

For watershed protection, plant the trees 6 by 6 or 6 by 8 feet. 
If the trees are to be underplahted by a shrub, they may be spread 
8 by 8 or 8 by 10 feet. 

TENDING THE GROVE. 

Fertilising, Irrigating and Cultivating. 

In their seedling stage almost all the eucalypts respond readily 
to soil fertilization and cultivation. In a particular plantation at 
Waipio, Island of Oahu, at an elevation of 1,000 feet, blue gum 
(E. globulus) eight months old showed a maximum height 
growth of 20 feet, while ten other species of eucalypts growing 
on the same plantation and treated in the same way all showed 
greatly stimulated growth as compared with the same species 
growing on an adjoining plantation, apparently under similar 
conditions, but not fertilized and not cultivated. Stable manure 
is the best for this purpose, though ordinary commercial fertilizer 
similar to the kind used in cane fields and pineapple plantations 
can be used with great advantage. It is very doubtful, however, 





Plate 6. Fig. 1. Sprouts, Blue Gum Forest. 
Kaluanui, Maui. Two years old. 




Fig. 2. Natural Reproduction of Blue Gum. 
Olinda, Maui. 



25 

whether it would pay to fertilize trees grown for commercial 
purposes. 

When grown in particularly dry localities, or if there should 
happen to come an extended drought immediately after the trees 
are planted, it may be necessary to resort to artificial irrigation 
in order to save the plantation. Where water is available and 
irrigation is inexpensive, the additional growth of the young 
trees due to artificial watering will more than make up for the 
expense involved. As a rule, however, irrigation is probably 
impracticable for commercial Eucalyptus plantations. 

Because of the rank weed growth in most places in Hawaii 
it is usually necessary to cultivate one or more times or cut back 
the grass and weeds in recently established tree plantations. 
This may be done with a scythe or a hoe, or an ordinary culti- 
ator may be used where the trees are planted sufficiently far 
apart. At the end of the first year, after the trees are 5 or 6 
feet high, they can take care of themselves and as a rule need no 
other attention, except that they must be protected against fire 
and cattle, as has already been described. 

Thinning. 

If the trees are planted close enough together, they will make 
a rapid height growth, each tree endeavoring to overtop the 
others to a sufficient amount of light. As a result height growth 
is made at the expense of increase in diameter. In this struggle 
of the trees to obtain a sufficient amount of light a point is soon 
reached when certain trees fall too far behind, become over- 
topped, suppressed, and stunted and become a hindrance to the 
better and more vigorous trees. It is then a good plan to cull 
out the suppressed trees in order to give the better individuals 
a chance to grow in diameter. This process of cutting out the 
poor trees is known as a thinning. 

The first thinning in a blue gum forest grown for timber or 
poles may be made, as a rule, when the plantation is seven to 
nine years old, the vigorous or dominant trees at that time being 
7 to 12 inches in diameter and 40 to 60 feet high. The rule 
for thinning stands is to thin lightly and to thin often. If too 
many trees are taken out at one time and the stand is opened up 
too much the remaining trees will begin to branch, the danger 
from windfall is increased, the ground may dry out, and weeds 
and grass may come in. As a rule the crown cover of the forest 
should not be broken more than can be filled by the growth of 
the remaining trees within three or four years. Ten to fifteen 



26 

per cent, of the total number of trees may be taken out in the 
first thinning. In addition to the suppressed trees, poor-shaped, 
forked, and diseased trees should be taken. 

At the time the first thinning is made about 200 or 250 of the 
best developed and most promising trees on each acre are se- 
lected for the final crop. The trees surrounding these selected 
individuals are not all cut, but are thinned out sufficiently to 
give the crown of each selected tree a chance to spread slightly. 
This operation is repeated as often as the space thus provided 
becomes filled by the growth of the crowns. If this is done 
carefully, a final stand of 200 or 250 large, well-formed trees is 
obtained. 

The material obtained from thinnings may be used for fuel, 
and the trees cut in the later thinnings may even be large enough 
for fence posts or for railroad ties. In most cases the wood 
thus obtained should bring more than enough to pay for the cost 
of cutting the trees, and the benefit to the trees of the main crop 
is thus obtained free of cost or even at a profit. 

CUTTING THE FOREST. 

Age. 

A forest crop differs from an ordinary agricultural crop in 
that there is a wide choice in the time when the forest crop may 
be harvested. Whether a forest is ripe enough to be cut or not 
is in most cases a purely financial consideration, and not a mat- 
ter of simple judgment as in the case of a farm crop. The 
standing trees in the forest may be considered as capital, and 
the yearly growth of the trees as the interest on the capital. 
Considered from a purely financial point of view, whenever this 
growth (or interest) falls below the rate which may be earned 
by the money into which the timber can be converted, the forest 
should be cut. Thus, if the trees grow in value at the rate of 6 
per cent, per year while money is worth 8 per cent., and the trees 
can be cut and sold, there is a loss entailed in letting the forest 
grow. This consideration, however, does not definitely deter- 
mine when the trees should be cut. It simply indicates the age 
beyond which it is unprofitable to let the forest grow. To find 
the proper rotation that is, the age at which the trees should 
be cut, it is necessary to know the value of the tree at different 
ages, all the items entering into the cost of producing the crop, 
and the rate of interest demanded on the money invested. This, 
in turn, involves the construction of yield tables showing the 



27 

contents and value of the forest at different periods of its 
growth. 

Unfortunately, there are not enough groves in Hawaii of the 
necessary age to be used for the construction of yield tables, and 
all that can be done at the present time is to indicate in a general 
way the age at which the Eucalyptus plantation may be cut. 

It should be remembered that the first few years in the life 
of a tree are spent in forming roots and crown, during which 
time very little merchantable wood is grown. In the case of the 
rapid-growing blue gum, this period covers at least five or six 
years, and it is only at the end of that time that it begins to pro- 
duce valuable wood. To cut the trees at that time is like draw- 
ing out money deposited in a bank just before the interest on it 
becomes due. Therefore, if it is at all possible to avoid it, no- 
young trees should be cut. 

As a tree grows in age and size, the percentage of sapwood 
decreases rapidly and the lumber becomes more valuable. Fur- 
ther than as determined by this general principle, the age of the 
trees to be cut must depend on the purpose for which the wood 
is to be used. If fuel wood is the main crop, the trees may be 
cut in rotations of eight or nine years, but it must be remember- 
ed that sapwood makes poor fuel and that the young trees there- 
fore make inferior firewood. 

If fence posts are desired, the plantation may be cut when the 
majority of the trees are 10 to 13 inches in diameter or larger. 
The stand at that time would be nine to twelve years of age. 

If railroad ties or telephone and telegraph poles are to be the 
main consideration, the trees should be at least 15 or 16 inches 
in diameter measured 4 l / 2 feet from the ground. The stand 
would then be 12 to 20 years of age, according to the locality. 

If the forest is grown for the production of wharf piles, lum- 
ber or large timbers, it is best to keep the trees for at least 25 
or 30 years, at which time, if grown on favorable situations, the 
trees may be more than 20 inches in diameter and 100 feet high. 

Methods. 

If a second crop is expected, it is necessary to take certain 
precautions when cutting the first stand of trees. The ability 
of the stumps to ratoon has already been discussed, and it was 
mentioned that the time of the year when the trees are cut has 
a decided influence on their sprouting capacity, the months from 
November to March being the most favorable in this respect. 



28 

Whenever possible the trees should be cut with a saw. If 
they are cut with an ax, the choppers should be cautioned against 
leaving ragged stumps unable to shed water. To prevent still 
further the collection of moisture, the stumps should be cut 
slantwise, sloping away from the center like the roof of a house. 
Low stumps are preferable to high ones, first because more wood 
is utilized, and second because it gives the young sprouts a 
chance to establish independent root systems of their own in 
case the old stump should rot away. 

GROWTH AND YIELD OF EUCALYPTUS. 

Most of the eucalypts are rapid-growing trees, and of these 
the blue gum (E. globulus) is the most rapid. A distinction 
must here be made between a rapid-growing tree and a persist- 
ently-growing tree. Many eucalypts make very fast growth in 
the first few years of their life, but slacken the rate of growth 
in about eight or ten years. Such trees make an excellent show- 
ing in a young plantation, but are often a disappointment later 
on. Blue gum is both fast growing and fairly persistent. The 
following table, prepared from notes taken in various parts of 
Hawaii, shows in a general way the size of blue gum trees at 
different ages and grown under different conditions. Particular 
attention is called to the trees fourteen years of age growing at 
Umikoa, on the Island of Hawaii. The growth made by this 
small clump of trees compares favorably with trees grown under 
the best conditions in California: 



29 





o 

03 
PH 

m 


02 O2 CQ 

o> ^ 


O O W CJ 

O3 o3 o3 o3 

02 CO O2 GQ 


O 

1 


H 


H ^ ^ 
02 M .( 


PH 

02 


i! 
I 


O 

O 
' 







O 
O 
CO 


02 


o 

Oi S. b- O 

CO CO H | 

a S *i 09 

.3 . 8 a 


0000 

o o o o 

(M IO O3 IO 

fl rt PI rt 

0000 


o 
o 

10 

rH 

O 



O 
l>- ^5 

CO ~$ 

1 .a 

"S o 


> "rt 
S ^ o S 

S-S^ 

<M ra cq 

rt of ^ d 
o o fl o 


d 
o 


s 

a> 

fl 




o 








w ^ 

W 

^ S 


o3 o) o3 HP 
^ ** ^ _tj o3 


03 03 "ri 03 
O) 0) 0) <X> 


"o3 
0) 


><o 

s ? 


-2 .^ o -M 

03 S 03 03 
t> fc P< > 


> 

O 
M 


> "S 









3 

W *r 


"^ ^ 1-3 H 


H W H H 


n 


of * 


pq JH pq 






PH< ' 

oiH 


M 

03 

1 




* 5 

03 


5 3 ^ . 

| Q sl S* 

OS C3 Ijfj M 

K ^ W ^^ ^ 


o o o o 

.o3 .03 .03 .o3 . 

o feio feoo ^10 fe*o 

^03^03'^03'^03 T ^ 

3 "S S 15 S ^ S 


o 

03 
^ 

5 ^^ 

^^ 


c3 e f--< 

e.s 


o3 . 'pj o 2 
10 g ^_ 

3 ^ o3 '3 

^sw 


llfl 

^^ 


3 05 

^S 

03 ^ 

MJ5 


44 o 

^ 






: s 




fl ^fl ^fl ^fl ~ fl 




':fl S 


bC;^ ..rT 




~ fl 


1^ 


p 


TABLE I. 


GROWTH OF EUCALYPTUS 

Blue Gum (E. globulus). 

Age Average Maximum 
Diameter Height Diameter Height 
breasthigh breasthigh 
Years. Inches. Feet. Inches. Feet. 
21/2 ... 5-10 4 25 Haw 
: 


W W S 

o o o 

T^ TfH 10 

JO IO t- 

00 
CO CO -^ 

Tt< CO 

CO 
(M * 

* 

(M CO CO 


o3 o3 o3 o3 

O O O O 
CO 1O CO CO 

CO CO CO IO 

i 1 rH i i T 1 

10 10 10 10 

T^ CO Tt< TtH 

05 GO 00 ^ 

to 10 co t- 


o 
t^ 

05 

O 


CD 
GO 


W 

10 

t- 
t^ 

T 1 

TjH 

1 1 

1 

CO 

i i 
co 


* 03 03 

S W W 

o o o 

Oi co 02 

t 1 

t- T^ CO 

i 1 <M i-l 

w o 

co o t, 

10 i-l 
rH i-i i-l 

rH TjH IO 

i 1 rH rH 


03 
W 

i 

oo 

o 
t~ 

o 

1 I 

o 

(M 


03 
W 

i 1 

<M 

(M 

O 
00 

t^ 

rH 

10 
<M 


10 

t- 

co 

CO 

IO 

(0 



CO 

10 

CO 





30 

Detailed tables similar to the above can not be made for the 
other species of eucalypts, but the field notes of the trees given 
in the Appendix state the age and size of a number of species 
found growing in various places in the Islands. 

The yield of wood or lumber to be obtained from a grove of 
a given age will depend, of course, not only on the size of the 
trees but also on the number of trees per acre. This, in turn, 
depends on the spacing of the trees in the plantation and the age 
of the stand. As a rule the older the grove the fewer trees to 
the acre, since more individuals are crowded out and killed in 
the struggle for existence. When trees are grown in compara- 
tively open stands, it sometimes happens that the number of 
trees at the end of eight or ten years is greater than the number 
of trees planted, in spite of the trees killed. This is due to the 
fact that a number of trees blown over send out numerous 
sprouts, some of which develop into good trees. 

To measure the yield of the various groves examined it was 
necessary to construct volume tables which show the average 
volume or contents of trees of various sizes. The volume of a 
tree of a given species depends on its diameter, height and age. 
Of two trees having the same diameter and the same height, the 
older tree has a slightly greater volume, because an older tree 
is fuller in form and more cylindrical. If very accurate results 
are desired, all the three factors must be known, but for prac- 
tical purposes two factors, such as diameter and height, or di- 
ameter and age, are sufficient. 

Table II shows the average volume in cubic feet of different 
sized blue gum trees.* 



* The left hand vertical column in this next table, shows the diameter 
of the tree at breast height; the uppermost horizontal line shows the 
total height X)f the tree from the ground to the top of the crown. To 
find the volume of a tree of any given diameter and height, as for ex- 
ample 10 inches in diameter and 70 feet high, look in the left hand 
column for the diameter (10), and under the height (70) find the volume 
of the tree (14.6 cubic feet). 



31 



03 05 05 03 03 TjH 00 03 t- 10 t- CO 
i 00 05 rH TjH t>I O CO t- O ^ 00 OJ 



' io CD' co o oi Tti t^ o co CD os oq id 

rHrHrHrHOdOJOlOJCOCO 



3 



5 



I 

O O ' O O (?q iq C<1 rH T}H 00 CO OS iO * CO CO 
' CO Th IO* 3 00 O OJ T(H t^ OS* CJ IO GO rH 

rHr-lrHrHrH<M(M<MeO 






^ I '. CQ CO TJH IQ CD QO O O * t OS rH - CD 
-M rH rH rH rH rH <M C<l CM 



> 



o 

-5 

PQ 



<p ^ iq os so TJI iq iq oa co os co iq TJJ in co CD 

""* O iH N CO rJH IO t^ GO* O CM' T|H CD CO* O ' 

rH tt rH rH i I (M 



o w i>- co o o o 03 

W ' rH (M* CO Tt^ 10 




32 

To construct the above table 415 felled trees were measured, 
the diameter being taken at intervals of eight feet along the stem 
of the tree. The volume of each tree was then computed and 
the data were plotted on cross-section paper, curves drawn, and 
the figures for the table read from these curves. The volume 
of the stump and of the top of the tree was not included. The 
stump as a rule was 6 to 12 inches high and the top was the 
portion of the tree above a point where the diameter outside the 
bark was less than two inches. Big limbs or branches were in- 
cluded if the diameter at the small end of an eight-foot section 
measured two inches or more. 

The volume table can not be safely used to measure the volume 
of single trees. The more trees measured, the closer the average 
volume will approach the values given in the table. The diam- 
eter of the trees refers to the diameter outside the bark, mea- 
sured at a point 4^ feet above the ground. This is known as 
the breast-high diameter. 

Volume tables for yate (E. cornuta) and for swamp mahog- 
any (E. robusta), based on diameter measurements alone, are 
given in the Appendix. 

To convert the volume of a tree in cubic feet to its equivalent 
in cords it was assumed that on the average 90 cubic feet of 
solid wood will equal one cord of 128 cubic feet. The values 
of Table II were, therefore, divided by 90. The resulting Table 
III shows the volume of different sized trees expressed in deci- 
mals of a cord. 



PQ 



33 



or-)c9iooC9<oocoa6eofc 

00 . . . . 0r -| r _|,-| r -|<M(MoOCOCOTt<T* 



b/) *" ' O O O i I T IT-IT t O3 OJ <M CO CO CO 




COQO-^fOJCO^QOi i 
O OOr- IOJOO^Ct~- 



34 

The above tables show the volume of trees expressed in cubic 
feet or in cords. Lumber trees, however, are usually measured 
in board feet, the board foot being a board one foot square and 
an inch thick. Since few of the trees measured were large 
enough to be scaled by the board foot, no table was constructed 
for Hawaii to show the lumber contents of various sized trees. 

YIELD. 

Because of the insufficiency of old groves it has been found 
impossible, as already stated, to construct tables showing the 
yield of wood from various plantations. Seven groves, however, 
varying in age from 5 to 20 years, were found growing under 
conditions regular enough to allow the measurement of sample 
plots, the results of which are summarized in Table IV. 

TABLE IV. 

YIELD OF BLUE GUM PLANTATIONS. 

Age No. trees Volume Volume 

Years, per acre. per acre, per acre. KEMAKKS. 

(cu. ft.) (cords) 

5 244 1363 15.1 Makawao, Maui; Elev. 4500 

ft. Spacing irregular about 
12x18. Many trees wind- 
thrown. 

5 180 1568 17.4 Makawao, Maui; Elev. 4200 

ft. Spacing 12x15. 

6 236 1853 20.6 Makawao, Maui; Elev. 4200 

ft. Spacing 12x15. 

7 176 1861 20.7 Makawao, Maui; Elev. 2400 

ft. Spacing 15x15. 

8 570 2039 22.6 Kaluanui, Maui; Elev. 1500 

ft. Spacing 9x9. 
11 216 3725 41.4 Kailiili, Maui; Elevation 2400 

Spacing 10x15. 
20 382 5292 58.8 Paauhau, Hawaii; Elev. 1600 

ft. Spacing 10x10. 

None of the groves in which the measurements were made 
for the above table were grown under ideal conditions or under 
proper spacing, and the yield of properly-regulated groves should 
have made a much more favorable showing. But imperfect as 
the above table is, it shows the disadvantage in cutting young 
trees. Thus while the yield of the seven-year-old grove was 20.7 
cords to the acre, and of the eight-year-old grove 22.6 cords to 



35 

the acre, the yield of the eleven-year-old grove ran as high as 
41.4 cords to the acre, in spite of the wide spacing, thus show- 
ing how fast the trees grow after they once establish their root 
systems. The above table, being based on very meager data, 
can not be very reliable. It shows merely what a few groves 
have done rather than what regularly-spaced, carefully-tended 
plantations will do. As soon as there are enough old groves in 
the Islands to justify the work new and more complete yield 
tables should be constructed. 

FINANCIAL RETURNS FROM EUCALYPTUS. 

When trees are grown for water protection, shelter for cattle, 
windbreaks, etc., the relation between the cost of establishing a 
plantation and the value of the wood or lumber that may be cut 
from the forest is of secondary importance. When forests are 
grown solely for the commercial purpose of wood or lumber 
production, then the value of the forest products balanced against 
the expense incurred in obtaining the products will determine 
the practicability of growing the forest. Thus, it is manifest 
that an expenditure of $100 an acre to grow Eucalyptus will not 
be justified if the returns in wood and lumber amounts to only 
$75 an acre, unless in addition to the wood material certain* in- 
direct benefits are enjoyed. It is, therefore, of the first import- 
ance to balance the cost of a plantation with the returns ex- 
pected. Furthermore, since most of the expenses are incurred 
at the time when the forest is planted, while the returns may not 
be obtained for years to come, it is necessary to carry forward 
all expenses with compound interest at an acceptable rate to the 
time when the crop is harvested. The cost of starting a planta- 
tion and the probable returns will, therefore, be examined next. 

COSTS. 

The cost of starting and maintaining a forest may be divided 
into three parts: (a) the cost of raising the trees in the nursery, 
(b) the cost of planting the trees, including the clearing of the 
land, and (c) the cost of tending and of protecting the grove. 

(a) The cost of raising the trees in the nursery varies from 
place to place, and is highest, of course, where conditions for 
tree growth are most unfavorable and where the trees, therefore, 
require most attention. In Hawaii it has been found that the 
cost of transplant trees in the nursery varies from $1.50 per 
thousand, where the trees are grown without boxes or flats, to 



36 

$35.00 or $40.00 a thousand where great care is necessary. The 
average figure would probably be between $20.00 and $25.00 
per thousand trees, but this average cost is unnecessarily high. 
This may be due to inexperience on the part of the planters, ex- 
cessive care, the limited extent of the majority of the nurseries, 
or faulty bookkeeping. One or two men, usually Japanese, are 
employed to do the nursery work, and the entire wages of these 
Japanese are credited to the nursery account. Frequently these 
laborers do other work than raising trees, such as keeping the 
grounds in order, general gardening, tending to irrigation 
ditches, etc., and this, of course, is reflected in increased figures 
for the value of young seedlings. In many cases the nursery 
men could raise twice as many sedlings with practically the same 
outlay if the nursery were managed on a wholesale basis. Since, 
however, the planting done on most of the plantations is rather 
limited in extent, there is no demand for large quantities of trees, 
and the cost of the smaller number is proportionately increased. 

After careful figuring, the conclusion is reached that with few 
exceptions trees can be raised in Hawaii for $10.00 a thousand 
for commercial planting. This includes the raising of seedlings 
in beds or boxes in the nursery and transplanting them in flats 
or boxes when the trees are 2 or 3 inches high. Under excep- 
tionally favorable conditions of tree growth this cost can be ma- 
terially reduced. 

(b) The cost of planting trees will depend on the character 
of the ground cover to be cleared, on the distance the plantation 
is from the nursery, the ease with which trees may be grown in 
a given locality, and on the extensiveness of the plantation. It 
has been found to vary from $10 to $75 an acre. Under average 
conditions it should be possible to clear the land and set out the 
plants for $17 an acre, planted to 1,000 trees. This will include 
a charge of $8 per acre to clear the land and plow, $8 per acre 
to dig holes and plant the trees, and $1 per acre to transport the 
seedlings from the nursery to the plantation. 

In many cases these figures will be found too low, especially 
the figure for clearing the land and plowing it, in case of un- 
usually heavy lantana, while in other cases the figures will be 
much too high, but it is believed that planting on a commercial 
scale can be done for these figures if proper care and economy 
is exercised. 

(c) The expense involved in tending the grove after it is 
once established consists of the cost of weeding or cultivating 
for the first year or two after the trees are planted. The ex- 



37 

pense will vary, but on an average it should not exceed $3.00 an 
acre. 

Adding up the average cost of the three items of expense, it 
appears that $30 an acre on an average should cover the expense 
of establishing a Eucalyptus plantation on a commercial scale. 
In addition to this initial outlay, there will be a slight expense 
incurred in taxes on the land. 

RETURNS. 

The returns obtained from the plantation will vary with the 
species of trees planted and with the class of wood cut. The 
following statements apply only to blue gum. 

If cordwood is to be the main crop, the entire grove will be cut 
over every eight years, at which time it should be possible to 
obtain at least 22 cords to the acre. Assuming a stumpage value 
of $2.50 a cord, the crop would bring at the end of the first eight 
years a return of $55 per acre, which is equivalent to a return of 
8 per cent, compound interest on the original investment of $30 
per acre. However, in addition to this satisfactory return on 
the original investment it will be possible to obtain wood to the 
value of $55 per acre at the end of every eight years for an al- 
most indefinite time from the stumps of the trees cut down, all 
of which would be clear gain, in addition to the interest on the 
money invested. This calculation, however, does not take into 
account the value of the land. 

In the absence of reliable yield tables, it can not be stated with 
any degree of accuracy what returns could be obtained from a 
forest grown for the production of lumber and timber. How- 
ever, all indications seem to point to the conclusion that on waste 
land unfit for other uses, the Eucalyptus should prove a remun- 
erative crop. In addition to the final crop certain immediate 
as a rule not only pay for itself but would leave a wide margin 
of profit. This will be especially true of the later thinnings 
returns may be obtained from the forest through thinnings. The 
cost of thinning the stand to produce the desired final crop would 
when material will be obtained suitable not only for firewood 
but also for fence posts and perhaps for railroad ties. A thin- 
ning made in an eight-year-old stand on Maui, in the District of 
Makawao, originally spaced 9 by 9, yielded 2.2 cords per acre. 

No data are available to show what the returns would be for 
plantations of Eucalyptus other than blue gum. Most of the 
species are slower-growing than blue gum, but many of them 
make up in higher value what they lose in the slower rate of 



38 

growth. One specific example of yield may here be mentioned. 
A nine-year-old stand of Eucalyptus, consisting mainly of red 
mahogany (E. resinifera), on Maui, yielded 723 cords of fuel 
wood and 1800 fence posts on an area of 33.16 acres, or an av- 
erage of 21.8 cords of wood and 55 fence posts to the acre, 
which at a value of $2.50 per cord of firewood and 10 cents 
apiece for the posts amounts to $60 per acre a very good show- 
ing. 

A Eucalyptus forest is a valuable and remunerative crop pro- 
vided the owner is willing to wait some years for the returns on 
his investment. The "business of raising Eucalyptus is, there- 
fore, particularly well adapted to long-lived corporations and 
companies. That the forest has a value before the crop matures 
goes without saying. This value can be quite accurately figured 
in the assets of a plantation by discounting back to present date 
at an acceptable rate of compound interest, the prospective or 
expected value of the forest at the time when it will be cut. Thus 
if it is expected to cut the forest at the end of eight years and 
obtain cordwood to the value of $55 per acre, and money is 
valued at 8 per cent., the value of the grove at the end of seven 
years is $50.92, at the end of six years $47.15, at the end of five 
years $43.65, and so on. A lumber forest may be discounted in 
the same way. This should be borne in mind by plantation man- 
agers who hesitate to invest money in forest planting because 
no showing is made of the money expended until the forest is 
cut. In this connection it may not be out of place to state that 
there is hardly anything on a plantation or ranch which shows 
the foresight and thrift of the manager and is a more enduring 
monument to his wise management than a well-regulated, rapid- 
ly-growing forest. 

FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR SUGAR J^ljAJM T ATiON S. 

It has been shown in the early part of the report that the fuel 
supply is becoming a serious problem with many plantations in 
Hawaii, that the fuel bill of the average plantation amounts to 
from $5,000 to $10,000 a year, and that there are a number of 
places where firewood .can not be obtained at any reasonable 
price. The fuel question in many cases can be solved only by 
the plantations devoting a part of their land to forest planting 
in a systematic way. On almost every plantation in the Islands, 
pineapple and coffee as well as sugar plantations, there are 
pieces of land, small in themselves, but aggregating a large total 
area, unfit for the main crop, either because the land is too steep. 



39 

the situation too windy, the soil too poor, or for other reasons, 
but which can support a good forest. The trees may be made 
frequently to serve as a windbreak to the main crop. In addi- 
tion to these small, scattered areas there is always some land on 
the edge of the plantation, frequently on the mauka or upper 
edge, which can not be used for growing the main crop because 
it is too high for irrigation or because the product can not be 
brought down at a profit, which is now lying idle, but which can 
be made to grow the annual fuel supply of the plantation. On 
the more extensive belts perhaps a few head of cattle graze now, 
but the land can probably be used to better advantage by grow- 
ing forest trees. A wise plantation management will utilize 
every square foot of ground to the best advantage, and so, while 
it is not expected that land fit for sugar or pineapples, or for 
growing agricultural crops, will be planted to trees, land not 
suitable for any more useful purpose should be covered with 
forest. To be of the greatest value all such planting should be 
systematically planned and carried out. 

Two general schemes of forest management are open to the 
plantation. 

1. If the plantation desires to raise its own supply of fuel 
but does not care to raise forests of large trees for lumber, ties, 
or dimension timber, the following plan may be adopted : Figure 
out the annual demand for firewood and plant an area suffi- 
ciently large so that the required quantity of wood may be cut in 
successive areas, returning to the first area when the ratoon crop 
on that area is large enough to be cut a second time. To take 
a specific case : Suppose the demand for firewood on the plan- 
tation is 1,000 cords per year, that it takes eight years to grow 
a crop of 22 cords to the acre, and that successive ratoon crops 
may be cut at the end of every eight years. In this case it would 
take about 45 acres of forest to supply the annual demand for 
firewood. Since it takes eight years for the ratoon crop to grow 
to sufficient size to be cut again, an area of 8 times 45 acres, or 
360 acres, will have to be planted. If, now, 45 acres are cut every 
year, the entire area of 360 acres will be cut over in eight years, 
but at the end of that time a second crop may be obtained from 
the 45 acres cut the first year. The next year it will be possible 
to cut again the portion of the forest which was cut the second 
year, and so on successively until the entire tract is cut over a 
second time, when the first area can be cut a third time, and the 
operation thus repeated many times, provided care is taken to 
cut the forest at the proper time of the year (from November to 
March), and provided the stumps are left in a good condition to 



40 

shed water. The necessary outlay for the plantation would be 
$30 an acre, or $10,800 for the entire 360 acres, not necessarily 
spent in one year, and at the end of eight years it would be pos- 
sible to reap a harvest of at least $5,000 each succeeding year 
for a long time to come. Already the more progressive planta- 
tion managers are beginning to see the wisdom and economy of 
this policy, and it will not be long before most of the planta- 
tions will grow their own fuel supply. 

2. When there is much land available unfit for any better 
purpose, a good return may be obtained on an investment in 
forest planting on this waste land for the purpose of producing 
lumber and timber. In this case most of the fuel wood necessary 
for the plantation may be obtained practically without cost by 
thinning out the main crop, and by using the tops and branches 
of the trees when eventually cut for lumber. It may be neces- 
sary, however, to devote at least a portion of the land to raising 
firewood exclusively, unless a very extensive area is planted in 
forest. The first thinning at the end of eight years will yield 
probably 3 cords to the acre; subsequent thinnings should yield 
more. On an average it may be figured that 5 cords to the acre 
can be obtained every eight years through thinnings. When 
the annual demand is 1,000 cords of wood, it will be necessary 
to thin 200 acres annually, and to allow for a rotation of eight 
years it will be necessary to have a planted forest of at least 
1,600 acres. Here the firewood would be incidental, since the 
main crop is the production of valuable lumber trees. The prac- 
ticability of this plan will depend on the amount of money that 
is available for investment in forest planting. There is little 
doubt that a good market can be secured for the product when 
the forest finally matures. 

On many plantations there are already more or less extensive 
planted forests, some of which are in excellent condition. In a 
number of places, however, the planted forest is not in the best 
producing state and can be greatly improved with a little at- 
tention. These latter plantations are faulty in one or two par- 
ticulars : First, the trees are planted too wide apart, and, second, 
inferior trees are planted in places capable of supporting a more 
valuable forest. The following remedies are suggested : 

Where the spacing is very w r ide, or where the trees already 
planted are not large and their shade will not interfere with the 
growth of new trees on the same area, then plant additional trees 
between the trees already growing, in order to form a fully- 
stocked forest. In this case shade-enduring trees should be se- 
lected for the new planting. The Japanese cedar or sugi 





Plate 7. Fig. 1. Growth of Blue Gum, 5 Years Old. 

On the slope of Mt. Haleakala, Maui. 





Fig. 2. Blue Gum Trees, Olinda, Maui. 



41 

(Cryptomeria japonica) and Monterey cypress may be tried 
for underplanting on elevations above 800 feet, while at the 
lower elevations one of the tolerant eucalypts like swamp ma- 
hogany may be tried. If the spacing or the size of the originally 
planted trees will interfere with the ready growth of additional 
trees, it may be necessary to cut off the present forest as soon as 
it is large enough to be utilized, and to plant additional trees 
between the stumps so that the sprouts of the stumps and the 
new trees planted will form a fully-stocked stand. 

Where the present forest consists of inferior species or poor- 
ly-developed trees, it is desirable to convert the_entire stand into- 
a more valuable forest with the least loss of time in order to- 
utilize the land to the best advantage. It would be poor policy, 
however, to cut off the entire forest at once until it is ascertain- 
ed that more valuable trees can be made to grow there. Fur- 
thermore, the forest already growing can be made to serve as a 
windbreak for the new plantation. Accordingly, a belt of the 
old forest, 100 to 200 yards in width, should be left on the wind- 
ward side, and behind this belt a few acres at a time should be 
cut and replanted with the more desirable trees until the entire 
stand back of the windbreak is restocked. Except in places 
where there is little danger from windfall it would probably be 
best to allow the strip of old forest to grow indefinitely and act 
as a windbreak or shelter belt for the more valuable stand. 

ROADSIDE PLANTING OF EUCALYPTUS. 

Many thousands of trees are planted along the roads in Ha- 
waii, as well as along fence lines and lot boundaries, and such 
planting can be made an important source of firewood and fence 
posts, if carefully managed. The eucalypts, as has already been 
stated, are excellent shade trees and make desirable roadside 
trees, especially the blue, red, and lemon-scented gums, the mess- 
mate (E. amygdalina), and the swamp mahogany. Complaints 
are sometimes heard that roadside planting keeps the roads in 
poor condition because it does not allow the surface to dry 
readily. If proper care is used in setting out the trees, this diffi- 
culty can be obviated to a large extent. Planting on the wind- 
ward side of the road should be either wide spaced or entirely 
omitted so that the wind may have free access to the road. On 
both sides of the road the trees should be spaced in such a way 
as to allow the sunlight to strike the road at some time during 
the day, successive parts of the road being in turn kept in shade. 
If these simple precautions are taken, there should not be diffi- 



culty in keeping the road dry, while at the same time securing 
the benefits of the shade trees. 

The yield of wood from roadside trees is considerable. The 
main road leading east from Waimea on the Island of Hawaii 
is lined with blue gum trees for several miles, spaced eight feet 
apart, and planted in 1894 and 1896. The trees, fifteen years 
old, average 11 inches in diameter and 70 feet in height. It will 
be found by referring to the volume table (Table III) that a 
tree 11 inches in diameter and 70 feet high contains on an aver- 
age .192 cords of wood. Trees planted 8 feet apart will run 660 
trees to the mile on each side of the road, or a total of 1,320 
trees for both sides. The roadside trees along the Waimea road, 
now fifteen years old, thus contain 253 cords of wood per mile, 
which, at a value of $2.50 a cord, amounts to $632.50. 

When planted on private land, the trees may be grown in two 
or more rows and managed in such a way that the rows are cut 
successively, at definite intervals, to supply the necessary fire- 
wood and fence posts without destroying the value of the trees 
for the main purposes for which they were planted. 

KEEPING RECORDS. 

If forest planting is to be done systematically and in a busi- 
nesslike manner, business methods should be used. It is very 
important that a record be kept of the trees planted, of the costs 
of the operations, and of the returns obtained. This does not 
involve complicated bookkeeping, a simple record of the differ- 
ent operations being sufficient. An occasional half hour spent 
in this work will keep the history of the plantation up to date. 
Following is a suggested form for keeping a record of the plan- 
tation : 



43 



fe 

O 







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44 

A map of the forest, showing the location of the trees, the 
time when the trees were set out, and the number planted, is 
almost indispensable. The map is particularly desirable in case 
of a Eucalyptus plantation, because, if track is once lost of the 
trees planted, many species can not be identified until the trees 
begin to bear flowers and seed, which often takes several years, 
and even at that time it will frequently require the services of 
an expert botanist. The attached diagram (Plate 9) shows the 
manner in which a simple map of the plantations may be made 
without much effort. The suggested form for keeping records,, 
as well as the attached map, are intended merely as guides, and 
there is no doubt that many of the plantation managers can de- 
vise better plans of their own. The form, of record is not im- 
portant, but only that a record should be kept. 




3 mches 



SAMPLE MAP Or EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION 
Plate 9. 



APPENDIX 



47 

CHARACTER AND USES OF VARIOUS SPECIES OF EUCALYPTUS 

IN AUSTRALIA. 

E. acmenoides, Schau. White mahogany. 

A medium-sized tree occasionally reaching a height of 100 feet 
and a diameter of 5 feet; usually smaller. Grows well on well 
drained sterile hills. 

Wood tough, strong and very hard. One of the most durable 
timbers, posts in Australia having lasted for over 50 years. Used 
for posts, piles, girders and general building purposes. Makes 
excellent ties. On account of the gum it contains, it is not a good 
saw timber. 

E. amygdalina, Labill. Messmate Peppermint gum. 

A variety of this tree or a distinct allied species (E. regnans) 
is one of the tallest trees in the world, reaching a height of 325 
feet or more, and a diameter of 15 feet or more. The tree does 
not endure dry heat, but can stand much wind. Not fastidious as 
to soil requirements, making good growth even on poor soils. 

The wood is not valued for fuel and does not last- well under 
ground. It is not very strong, splits very readily and warps and 
twists in drying. Used for shingles, fence rails and planking. 

The tree exhales a delicious aroma supposed to have salubrious 
qualities. It is frequently planted on sanitarium and hospital 
grounds. 

E. bicolor, A. Cunn. Black box. 

A tree rarely 100 to 150 feet high, but usually only a shrub. 
Uses of wood unknown. 

E. botryoides, Sm. Bastard mahogany. 

A tree 75 to 100 feet high. Grows very rapidly while young. 
Does not do well in dry climates. 

Wood durable under ground. Timber of doubtful quality, 
used for felloes, posts and shingles. 

E. calophylla, R. Br. Orange-flowered gum. 

Exceptionally a very large tree, 110 feet high and 10 feet in 
diameter. Usually very much smaller. 

Wood not durable under ground and hence unfit for posts. 



48 

Timber valuable for spokes, tool handles, and is taking the place 
of hickory. 

E. capitellata, Smith. Brown stringybark. 

Tree occasionally 200 feet but usually not more than 50 feet 
"high and 2 to 2% feet in diameter. Prefers moist soils. 

Wood tough, strong and durable ; splits very readily. Used 
for shingles, fuel and rough construction. 

E. citriodora, Hook. Lemon-scented gum. 

A rapid growing tree sometimes 125 fe.et high and 4 feet in 
-diameter. Rapid growing. 

Wood flexible, strong and durable. Used instead of hickory 
:in coach factories. 

E. cordata, Labill. 

A tree rarely more than 50 feet high. Uses of wood none. 
E. coriacea, A. Cunn. White gum. 

A medium sized tree, rarely 75 to 100 feet high and 3 to 5 
feet in diameter. Tree can not stand drought. Very hardy to 
climate and probably suitable to high elevations. 

Wood soft, fairly durable in the ground, splits well but is 
"brittle and warps easily. Good fuel; occasionally used for fence 
-posts. 

E. cornuta, Labill. Yate. 

A large tree in its native home but is apt to be spreading and 
"branchy. Endures much rain. Prefers rich moist soil, but will 
grow in poor soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, tough and elastic. Used for shafts and 
wagon work. 

E. corymbosa, Smith. Bloodwood. 

A tree occasionally 100 to 150 feet high, but usually much 
smaller and sometimes stunted and shrubby. 

Tree unsuited for lumber on account of kino or gum which it 
contains. Wood lasts well under ground and is valuable for 
fence posts even when the tree is young. Not very good for fuel 
-except in furnaces. 




Plate 10. Eucalyptus Forest on Tantalus. 



49 
E. corynocalyx, F. v M. Sugar gum. 

A tree of good timber form reaching a height of from 50 to 
100 feet, and a diameter of from 5 to 6 feet. It is of slower 
growth than blue gum but is a persistent grower. One of the 
most drought enduring trees, but prefers moisture. 

One of the best all around trees. Timber straight and even 
grained, durable in contact with the soil. Lumber does not warp 
much in drying. One of the strongest eucalypts ; the seasoned 
wood is better than the best grade of second-growth hickory. 

E. crebra, F. v M. Narrow-leaved ironbark. 

A slender tree 100 feet high and 2 to 3 feet in diameter. Not 
particular as to character of soil on which it grows. 

Wood durable under ground, and used for posts, ties, piles, 
bridges and wagon stock. A valuable timber tree. 

E. diversicolor, F. v M. Karri. 

This tree is among the tallest eucalypts, easily reaching a 
height of over 300 feet and diameter of 15 feet or more. Trunk 
usually straight and symetrical. Grows faster than Eucalyptus 
amygdalina. Does not endure dry heat, but likes moist climate. 

Wood straight grained, not very durable under ground but 
lasts in water and is good for piling. The timber is superior to 
that of blue gum. Used for masts, wheelwright work, ship build- 
ing, spokes, shafts, felloes and rails. 

E. eugenioides, Sieb. White stringybark. 

A tree 150 to 200 feet high. Prefers moist climate, which is 
not too hot. Tree is not fastidious as to soil requirements. 

Wood strong and durable, not very hard, easily worked, splits 
easily, and does not warp badly in drying. Used for fence posts, 
ties, flooring and paving blocks. Fairly good fuel. 

E. eximia, Schau. White bloodwood. 

A medium sized tree, rarely 80 feet tall, resembling E. corym- 
bosa. 

Wood soft and not durable. Good fuel. 



50 
E. ficifolia, F. v M. Scarlet-flowered gum. 

A scrubby tree rarely reaching a height of 50 feet; used pri- 
marily for ornamental planting. 

E. globulus, Labill. Blue gum. 

A tree occasionally 200 to 300 feet high with a diameter of 10 
feet or more. Can stand a fair amount of drought and cold. 
Probably the fastest growing tree in the world. The best known 
and most widely planted of eucalypts. 

The wood is among the stronger Eucalyptus timbers and is 
suitable for many purposes. It is not durable under ground, ex- 
cept the seasoned heartwood, but lasts well in salt water. The 
wood stands hard driving and is particularly immune to attacks 
of teredo. Used for fuel, manufacture of implements, tool han- 
dles, piles, railway cars, wheelwright work, ship keels, and other 
parts of ships. Timber is liable to check and warp unless care- 
fully seasoned. 

E. gomphocephala, D. C. Tooart. 

A tree sometimes 120 feet high, usually smaller. 

Wood tough and strong, hard to split, very durable. One of 
the strongest timbers in the world. Lumber does not check in 
seasoning. Used for ship building, bridge supports and wheel- 
wright work. 

E. goniocalyx, F. v M. Mountain gum. 

A large tree 300 feet high and 6 to 10 feet in diameter. It 
grows in the mountains in its native home in Australia. 

Wood hard and tough, durable under ground, hard to split. 
Good for fuel. Used in boat building, for general construction, 
wheelwright work, fence posts and ties. 

E. gunnii, Hook. Cider gum. 

A tree 250 feet high but usually much smaller. The trees are 
often crooked and irregular in form. They can stand a very hot 
climate. 

The wood is not much used, being too crooked for timber and 
not durable under ground. It makes fairly good fuel. 



51 
E. haemastoma, Smith. Scribbly gum. 

A slender tree, 50 to 100 feet high, erect and symetrical. This 
is one of the few eucalypts that can grow on sandy soils. The 
wood is not very durable, and it not of much use. It makes fairly 
good posts and is sometimes used for fuel. 

E. hemiphloia, F. v M. Gray box. 

A tree 75 to 100 feet high, and 1 to 4 feet in diameter. Not 
fastidious to soil or climate and is a rapid grower. 

Timber very heavy, strong, hard, not easily split; durable un- 
der ground, but liable to dry rot. Used for wheelwright work, 
posts, piles, ties and mauls. Makes excellent fuel. 

E. leucoxylon, F. v M. Victoria gum. 

A tree occasionally reaching a height of 100 feet, but is usually 
crooked and reclining. A rapid growing tree ^having a wide 
range of climate. Will grow well even on poor soil. 

Wood heavy, hard, strong and durable. Lasts well under 
ground and in water. Good for timber, fuel, wheelwright work, 
ties and tool handles. This is one of the strongest and most use- 
ful of eucalypts, and the wood is said to be stronger than hickory. 

E. longifolia, Link and Otto. Woolybutt. 

A tree 150 to 200 feet high, and 2 to 9 feet in diameter; usually 
much smaller. Straight and of good form. 

Timber fairly good, not very strong but very durable. Used 
for posts, ties and paving blocks. Makes a good firewood. 

E. macarthuri, H. D. & J. H. M. River box. 
A medium sized tree preferring low, swampy situations. 
E. macrorrhyncha, F. v M. Red stringybark. 

A tree sometimes 120 feet high but more often smaller. Can 
grow on poor soil, but will probably not stand high elevations. 

Wood hard, durable and easily split ; not as strong as blue gum. 
Lumber used for fencing, cheap construction, and shingles. It 
makes a fairly good firewood. 



52 
E. maculata, Hook. Spotted gum. 

A tree sometimes reaching a height of 150 feet. It can grow 
on poor soil. 

Wood very strong, tough, elastic and durable ; light in weight. 
Lumber liable to warp and twist in drying. Easily split. Wood 
used for ship building, wheelwright work, tool handles and rail- 
road car construction. 

E. marginata, Smith. Jarrah. 

A tree 100 feet high and 10 to 15 feet in diameter. It grows 
rapidly and does well in the mountains. Wood brittle, very dur- 
able under ground, and resists the attacks of teredo and the 
white ants. Lumber takes a good polish and is useful for fur- 
niture. Used for piles and for wharf construction. This is one 
of the best railroad tie timbers. One of the best ship building tim 
bers. Good for flooring, rafters and general construction. 

E. melliodora, A. Cunn. Yellow box. 

A tree 60 to 80 feet, rarely 100 to 120 feet high, and 1 to 2 
feet in diameter. It is easily propagated and makes fairly rapid 
growth. The trees can stand drought but prefer good soil. 

Wood quite strong, but not very durable. "Makes excellent 
firewood. 

E. obliqua, L'Her. Stringybark. 

Tall, straight tree, of rapid growth, sometimes 300 feet high 
and 10 feet in diameter. It will not endure drought but will grow 
on poor soil. 

A general all around wood in Tasmania, but is inferior to blue 
gum. Wood not very durable, easily split and liable to shrink 
and warp in drying. It takes a good polish and resembles oak. 
It is used for ship timber and makes an indifferent firewood. 

E. obtusiftora, D. C. 

An erect shrub or small tree, yielding an inferior timber. 
E. occidentalis, Endl. Flat-topped yate. 

A tree sometimes 100 feet high but usually a mere shrub. 
Timber hard, strong and durable. 



53 
E. paniculata, Smith. White ironbark. 

A tree 50 to 70 feet, sometimes 100 feet high, and 2 to 4 feet 
in diameter. The tree can stand very poor dry soil unfit for the 
growth of other species, but will not endure excessive heat or 
drought. 

Timber very hard, heavy, durable, and considered valuable. 
It splits easily and is used for posts, bridges and carriage work. 
It makes excellent railroad ties and fairly good fuel. 

E. pihtlaris, Smith. Blackbutt. 

A tree 100 to 150, rarely 300 feet high, and 3 to 5, rarely 12 
to 15 feet in diameter. It prefers damp climate and moist, rich 
soil. It makes rapid growth and is one of the best natural 
sprouters after the tree is cut. 

Wood durable and considered to be one of the best all around 
trees for timber. Used for ties, telegraph poles and wood paving. 
The lumber is difficult to season. 

E. piperita, Smith. Sydney peppermint. 

A tree 40 to 50, sometimes 80 feet high, and 1 to 3 feet in 
diameter. It will not stand dry heat, but will grow on poor soil. 

Timber not very durable, checks and splits in drying and is 
difficult to work. It is an inferior wood. 

E. polyanthemos, Schau. Red box. 

A medium sized tree, but occasionally 150 to 250 feet high. 
Does not make rapid growth. Timber hard, strong and durable 
but difficult to work. Used for ties, cogs and wheels. This is 
cne of the best fuel wood trees known. 

E. pulverulenta, Smith. Silver-leaved stringybark. 

A tall shrub or small tree rarely reaching a height of 50 feet. 
Timber very hard and brittle. 

E. punctata, D. C. Leatherjacket. 

A spreading tree 60 to 80, occasionally 100 feet high, and 2 to 
3 feet in diameter. It can grow on poor soil. 

Wood tough, hard, close grained, hard to split; very durable. 
Used for fence posts, ties and wheels. Makes an excellent fire- 
wood. 



54 
E. redunca, Schau. Wandoo. 

A very large tree, sometimes 17 feet in diameter. Will grow 
on poor soil, but requires moisture. 

Wood hard, heavy, durable. Used for wheelwright work. 

E. regnans, F. v M. See E. amygdalina. 
E. resinifera, Smith. Red mahogany. 

A medium sized tree, occasionally reaching a height of 100 
feet. It prefers moist, semitropical climate, but will grow on 
hard, gravelly soils. It is a hardy tree and can stand much 
drought. 

Wood very hard, strong and very durable. Used for fence 
posts, piles, paving blocks, shingles and general construction. 
It makes an excellent furniture wood. This is one of the most 
valuable hardwoods in Australia. It lasts a long time in salt 
water. 

E. robusta, Smith. Swamp mahogany. 

A tree 100 feet high and 4 feet in diameter. It prefers moist 
situations but will grow under almost any condition, where no 
other eucalypts can exist. 

Wood fairly durable under ground. Used for posts, railroad 
ties and ship building. 

E. rostrata, Schl. Red gum. 

A tree 100, sometimes 200 feet high, and 6 to 12 feet in dia- 
meter. Crooked and irregular in form, even when closely planted. 
It prefers low, moist, clayey soils, but can stand much heat. It 
makes fairly rapid growth but does not grow so rapidly, except 
in the seedling stage, as blue gum. It can withstand hurricanes, 
but will not thrive in a steady wind, unless cultivated and cared 
for in the early stages of its growth. 

Wood durable in the soil and water ; makes good fence posts, 
piles and railroad ties. It resists the attacks of teredo and white 
ants. It is used for ship building, piles, posts, paving blocks and 
street curbing; and is an exceptionally good fuel wood. 

E. rudis, Endl. Swamp gum. 

A tree 75 to 100 feet high. It requires a good deal of moisture 
for its proper growth. 
Good for fuel. 



55 
E. saligna, Smith. Flooded gum. 

A tall straight tree 100 to 200 feet high and 3 to 6 feet in 
diameter. It prefers rich alluvial soils. 

Wood strong, straight grained, easily worked. One of the 
lightest eucalypts in weight. Very durable under ground. Used 
for piles, beams, fence posts and railroad ties. This is a good 
lumber tree and the wood is extensively used by carpenters. 

E. siderophloia, Benth. Broad-leaved ironbark. 

A tree 100 to 150 feet in height and 3 to 4 feet in diameter. 
Wood hard, strong and durable. Used for bridges, posts and 
railroad ties. Fair fuel, but burns slowly. 

E. sideroxylon, A. Cunn. Red iropbark. 

A rather branchy tree, usually short, but sometimes 100 feet 
high and 4 feet in diameter. It grows naturally on poor soil, but 
makes rather slow growth. 

Wood hard, heavy, strong and durable under ground. Used 
for ties, spokes and shafts. This is one of the best fuel woods. 

E. sieberiana, F. v M. Mountain ash. 

Straight tall tree 100 to 150 feet high and 5 feet in diameter. 
It will grow on poor soils. 

Wood strong, elastic, splits easily and is used for shipbuilding 
and for tool handles. It makes second grade timber and the 
wood is attacked by white ants. Excellent fuel wood. Con- 
tradictory statements in regard to the durability of the wood. 

E. tereticornis, Smith. Gray gum. 

A tree 100 to 125 feet high and 3 to 4 feet in diameter. It 
makes a slower growth than blue gum. It frequently grows a 
straight trunk of larger dimensions. The tree can stand more 
drought than Eucalyptus rostrata, which it resembles, but is not 
so good. 

Timber strong, hard, heavy, quite durable when the wood is 
well seasoned. Used for ties, posts and wheelwright work. The 
lumber is liable to warp and twist in seasoning. It makes poor' 
fuel. 



56 
E. viminalis, Labill. Manna gum. 

A tree sometimes 300 feet high, and 15 feet or more in dia- 
meter, but often of irregular and poor form. The tree will not 
stand- much wind and will not thrive on poor soil. 

The timber is not valuable, but is sometimes used for shingles, 
fence rails and ship construction. It is not a very good fuel 
wood. 




Plate 11. Eucalyptus citriodora in the Tantalus Forest. 



Posts. Ties. Piles. A11 Around 
Saw Timbe 
.Excellent Excellent Excellent. . Poor 

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coriacea Good .... 
cornuta. . 


corymbosa Poor 
C'orvnocalyx. . 


crebra. . 


diversicolor. . 


eusrenioides. . . .Fair 


eximia Good .... 
globulus Good . . . 
gomphocephala 
goniocalvx. . . .Gnnd 


gunnii Fair 
haemastoma Fair 
hemiphloia Excellent 
leucoxylon Good. . . 
longif olia Good .... 
macrorhyncha. . . .Fair 


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obtusiflora. . 


paniculata. . 


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58 
SIZE OF EUCALYPTS. 

TALL EUCALYPTS, USUALLY MORE THAN 100 FEET IN HEIGHT. 

E. amygdalina Messmate. Peppermint gum 

E. calophylla Orange-flowered gum. 

E. cornuta Yate. 

E. diversicolor Karri. 

E. eugenioides White stringybark. 

E. globulus Blue gum. 

E. goniocalyx Mountain gum. 

E. gunnii Cider gum. . 

E. longifolia Woolybutt. 

E. obliqua Stringybark. 

E. pilularis Blackbutt. 

E. polyanthemos Red box. 

E. redunca Wandoo. 

E. saligna Flooded gum. 

E. siderophloia Broad-leaved ironbark. 

E. sieberiana Mountain ash. 

E. tereticornis Gray gum. 

E. viminalis Manna gum. 

MEDIUM-SIZED EUCALYPTS, USUALLY 50 TO 100 FEET IN HEIGHT. 

E. acmenoides White mahogany. 

E. bicolor Black box. 

E. botryoides Bastard mahogany. 

E. capitellata Brown stringybark. 

E. citriodora Lemon-scented gum. 

E. coriacea White gum. 

E. corymbosa Bloodwood. 

E. corynocalyx Sugar gum. 

E .crebra Narrow-leaved ironbark. 

E. eximia White bloodwood. 

E. gomphocephala Tooart. 

E. haemastoma Scribbly gum. 

E. hemiphloia Gray box. 

E. leucoxylon Victoria gum. 

E. macarthuri River box. 

E. macrorhyncha Red stringybark. 

E. maculata Spotted gum. 

E. marginata Jarrah. 

E. melliodora Yellow box. 

E. occidentalis Flat-topped yate. 



59 

E. paniculata White ironbark. 

E. piperita Sydney peppermint. 

E. punctata Leather jacket. 

E. resinifera Red mahogany. 

K. robusta Swamp mahogany. 

E. rostrata Red gum. 

E. rudis Swamp gum. 

E. sideroxylon Red ironbark. 

SMALL EUCALYPTS, USUALLY LESS THAN 50 FEET IN HEIGHT. 

E. cordata 

E. ficifolia Scarlet-flowered gum. 

E. obtusiflora 

E. pulverulenta Silver-leaved stringybark. 



60 



LIST OF EUCALYPTS PLANTED IN HAWAII. 



Trees marked thus (*) were identified by Dr. J. H. Maiden. 



Eucalyptus acmenoides, Schau. 
alba, Rein, 
amygdalina, Labill. 
bicolor, A. Cunn. 
botryoides, Sm. 
calophylla, R. Br.* 
capitellata, Smith.* 
citriodora, Hook, 
cordata, Labill. 
coriacea, A. Cunn. 
cornuta, Labill. 
corymbosa, Smith, 
corynocalyx, F. v M. 
crebra, F. v M. 
diversicolor, F. v M. 
eugenioides, Sieb.* 
eximia, Schau. 
ficifolia, F. v M. 
globulus, Labill. 
gomphocephala, D. C. 
goniocalyx, F. v M. 
gunnii, Hook, 
haemastoma, Smith 
haemastoma var. mi- 

crantha, D. C.* 
hemiphloia, F. v M.* 
hemiphloia var. mi- 

crocarpa.* 
lehmanni, Preiss. 
leucoxylon, F. v M. 
lon^ifolia, Link & 

Otto 
macarthuri, H. D. & 

J. H. M. 

macrorhyncha, F. v M. 
maculata, Hook, 
marginata. Smith, 
obliqua, L'Her. 
obtusiflora, D. C. 
occidentalis, Endl. 
paniculata, Smith.* 



White mahogany. 

Messmate. Peppermint gum. 
Black box. 
Bastard mahogany. 
Orange-flowered gum. 
Brown stringybark. 
Lemon-scented gum. 

White gum. 

Yate. 

Bloodwood. 

Sugar gum. 

Narrow-leaved ironbark. 

Karri. 

White stringybark. 

White bloodwood. 

Scarlet-flowered gum. 

Blue gum. 

Tooart. 

Mountain gum. 

Cider gum. 

Scribbly gum. 



Gray box. 



Victoria gum. 

Woolybutt. 
River box. 

Red stringybark. 
Spotted gum. 
Tarrah. 
Stringybark. 

Flat-topped yate. 
White ironbark. 



61 

Eucalyptus pilularis, Smith. Blackbutt. 

piperita, Smith.* Sydney peppermint, 

polyanthemos, Schau.* Red box. 

pulverulenta, Smith. Silver-leaved stringybark. 

punctata, D. C. Leather-jacket, 

redunca, Schau. Wandoo. 

resinifera, Smith. Red mahogany, 
resinifera var. grandi- 

flora, Benth. 

robusta, Smith. Swamp mahogany, 

rostrata, Schl.* Red gum. 

rudis, Endl. Swamp gum. 

saligna, Smith. Flooded gum. 

siderophloia, Benth.* Broad-leaved ironbark. 
sideroxylon, 

A. Cunn.* Red ironbark. 

sieberiana, F. v M. Mountain ash. 

tereticornis, Smith. Gray gum. 

viminalis, Labill. Manna gum. 

LIST OF BOOKS ON EUCALYPTUS. 

FOUND IN THE LIBRARY OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF 
AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, HONOLULU, HAWAII. 



Barrett, J. E. 

Shelter-Planting. New Zealand Department of Agricul- 
ture, Bulletin I, 1908. 
Baker, R. T., & Smith. H. G. 

A Research on the Eucalypts especially in regard to their 

Essential Oils, 1902. 
Beauverie, J. 

Le Bois, Vol. II, 1905. 
Bentham, G. 

Flora Australiensis. Vol. Ill, 1866. 
Cooper, Ellwood. 

Forest Culture and Eucalyptus Trees, 1876. 
Diels, L. 

Die Vegetation Der Erde-Die Pflanzenwelt von West-Aus- 

tralien Sudlich Des Wendekreises, Vol. VII, 1906. 
Gill, Walter. 

Annual Progress Report State Forest Administration in 
South Australia, 1901-1909. 



62 

Maiden, J. H. 

A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus. 

Forest Flora of New South Wales. 

On Hybridization in the Genus Eucalyptus. Extracts from 

Transactions Australia Association Advancement of 

Science, 1904. 
The Common Eucalyptus Flora of Tasmania and New 

South Wales. 

McClatchie, Alfred J. 

Eucalypts Cultivated in the United States. Bulletin 35, 
Bureau of Forestry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Mueller, F. von 

Eucalyptographia Eucalypts of Australia and Adjoining 

Islands, 1884. 

Forest Resources of West Australia, 1879. 
Select Extra Tropical Plants, 1885. 
Snow, Chas. H. 

The Principal Species of Wood : Their Characteristic 

Properties, 1903. 
Stone, H. 

The Timbers of Commerce and Their Identification, 1904. 



Agricultural Gazette, New South Wales, Vol. XVIII, Part 2, 

1907. 
Journal, Department of Agriculture, South Australia, Vol. XIII, 

No. 4, 1909. 
Journal, Department of Agriculture, West Australia, 

Vol. XI, Part 4, 1905. 

Vol. XVII, Part 4, 1908. 
Queensland Agricultural Journal. 

Vol. XIII, Part 6, 1903. 

Vol. XIV, Part 6, 1904. 

Vol. XV, Parts 1, 3, 5, 1904. 

Vol. XVIII, Part 4, 1907. 
Reports, Chief Conservator of Forests, Cape of Good Hope, 1904- 

1906. 

Tasmanian Crown Lands Guide, 1901. 
Tasmanian Timbers : Their Qualities and Uses, 1903. 
Tasmanian Forestry Timber Products and Sawmilling Industry, 

1905. 



63 

Since the compilation of the above list there have been added 
to the Library the following: 

Ingham, Norman D. 

Eucalypts in California ; Bull. 196, Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Berkeley, California. 1908. 
Lull, G. B. 

A Handbook for Eucalyptus Planters ; Circular No. 2, 
California State Board of Forestry, 2nd Edition, 1908. 
Sellers, C. H. 

Eucalyptus : Its History, Growth and Utilization. 1910. 
Rodney, L. 

Trees of the Tasmanian Forests: The Genus Eucalyptus. 

1910. 
Betts, H. S., & Smith, C. Stowell. . 

Utilization of California Eucalypts : Circular 179, Forest 

Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1910. 
Margolin, Louis. 

Yield from Eucalyptus Plantations in California. Bulletin 

No. 1, California State Board of Forestry. 1910. 
Zon, Raphael, & Briscoe, J. M. 

Eucalypts in Florida. Bulletin 87, Forest Service, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 1911. 



Westergaard, C. Jr. 

Eucalypts Cultivated in the United States : In "Forestry 

Quarterly," Vol. Ill, No. 7, pp. 280-303. 1909. 
Plummer, Fred G. 

The Growing of Eucalyptus. In Proceedings of the So- 
ciety of American Foresters, Vol. V, pp. 109-130. 
1910. (This article contains a bibliography of publi- 
cations about Eucalypts.) 



64 

TIELD NOTES ON THE EUCALYPTS FOUND PLANTED IN HAWAII. 

The following notes on the eucalypts were collected in various 
parts of the four islands visited. The names of the trees are 
based mostly on the names supplied by Eucalyptus seed dealers 
in Australia and California, and may not be authentic. Speci- 
mens of certain eucalypts growing on Tantalus on Oahu were 
sent to Dr. J. H. Maiden, the Government Botanist of New South 
Wales for identification. The species named by Dr. Maiden from 
these specimens are starred (*) in the following list: 
. Where no detailed description is given about a tree it is because 
the seed has been planted so recently that little information about 
It is available. 

E. acmenoides, Schau. White Mahogany. 

Kauai 

Planted at Kalaheo, at an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 
feet. 

E. alba, Rein. 
ICauai 

Planted at Kalaheo, at an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 
feet. The tree grows quite well. 

E. amygdalina, Labill. Messmate Peppermint gum. 

IVTaui 

Found growing in Makawao, at an elevation of 2,500 feet. 

Trees 12 years old are 75 feet high and 10 to 12 inches 

in diameter. Trees doing well. 
Makawao. At an elevation of 800 feet, trees 9 years old are 

50 to 60 feet high and 10 inches in diameter. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 feet the 

tree does fairly well, but the altitude is probably too low 

here. 
Kilohana. At an elevation of 1,000 feet the tree is growing 

quite well. 

E. bicolor, A. Cunn. Black box. 
Maui 

Planted at elevations of between 500 and 2,000 feet. 
E. botryoides, Sm. Bastard mahogany. 




Plate 12. Eucalyptus robusta on Tantalus. 



65 

Maui 

Makawao. At elevations of 2,000 feet and higher. This 
seems to be the fastest growing of all the eucalypts at 
higher elevations, but no old trees were seen. 
Oahu 

Waipio. At an elevation of 1,000 feet. Trees 5 months old 
are 4 to 7 feet high. Land was fertilized and cultivated. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Planted at an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 

feet. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. At an elevation of 2,700 feet the trees did not 
grow well in the nursery. 

E. calophylla*, R. Br. Orange-flowered gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. At elevations of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet 

the trees are growing quite well. 
Haiku. Trees at an elevation of 1,600 feet are growing 

well. 
Oahu 

Waipio. At an elevation of 1,000 feet trees one year old are 

10 to 15 feet high. Land cultivated and fertilized. 
Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 55 feet high and 12 inches in diameter. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 feet the 
seedlings did not do very well. 

E. capitellata*, Smith. Brown stringybark. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet 
trees three years old are about 10 feet high. Small bush. 
Oahu 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 35 feet high and 10 inches in diameter. 

E. citriodora, Hook. Lemon-scented gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. Trees doing well in nursery at an elevation of 
about 2,500 feet. Seedlings have not yet been planted 
but indications are that the tree will do well. 
At an elevation of 2,000 feet and higher the tree does very 

well. 

Haiku. Trees planted at elevations of between 500 and 
2,000 feet. 



66 

Hawaii 

Paauhau. At an elevation of 1,600 feet trees 20 years old 

are 60 to 75 feet high and 8 to 10 inches in diameter. 
Pahala. At an elevation of 2,000 feet trees 2 years old are 

6 to 10 feet high. 
Waimea. At an elevation of 2,700 feet trees do not grow 

well in the nursery. Probably too windy. 
Oahu 

Nuuanu Valley. Trees planted on poor soil and in windy 
situations at an elevation of 1,000 feet are not growing 
well. 
Waipio. Trees 10 months old at an elevation of 1,000 feet 

are 10 to 15 feet high. Land cultivated and fertilized. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 feet 

trees are growing quite well. 
Lihue. Trees 7 years old, growing hear sea level, are 40 

to 50 feet high and 8 to 10 inches in diameter. 
Kilohana. At an elevation of 1,000 feet the trees are grow- 
ing well. 

E. cordata, Labill. 
Maui 

Makawao. Trees planted at elevations of 2,000 feet and 
higher. 

E. conacca, A. Cunn. White gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet 
the trees are not growing very well, being tall and 
spindling. 

At elevations of 2,000 feet and higher, the trees are doing 

very well. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 feet 
the trees are rather slow growing. Trees 3 years old 
are from 4 to 5 feet high. 

E. cornuta, Labill. Yate. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet 
the trees are growing fairly well. 



67 

Oahu 

Waipio. At an elevation of 1,000 feet trees 10 months old 
are from 8 to 10 feet tall. Land is cultivated and fer- 
tilized. Trees grow rather bushy. 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 15 to 16 inches in diameter and about 
60 feet high. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees are planted at an elevation of between 900 
and 1,000 feet. 

E. corymbosa, Smith. Bloodwood. 
Maui 

Makawao. At elevations of between 2,000 and 3,000 feet 

trees grow rather slowly. 
At an elevation of 1,500 feet trees are growing fairly well. 

Oahu 

Waipio. At an elevation of 1,000 feet trees 10 months old 
are 8 to 10 feet high. Land was fertilized and culti- 
vated. Trees do not stand the wind very well. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted between 900 and 1,000 feet ele- 
vation. 

Hawaii 

. Waimea. At an elevation of 2,700 feet the seedlings did 
not grow very well. 

E. corynocalyx, F. v M. Sugar gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. At elevations of 2,500 to 3,000 feet the trees 
seem to be growing very well. Trees 80 feet high and 
8 to 10 inches in diameter were found, but the age of 
these trees is not known. 

At elevations of 2,000 feet and higher seedling trees are 
making very rapid growth. 

Haiku. Trees are planted at elevations between 500 and 

2,000 feet. 
Oahu 

Waipio. At an elevation of 1,000 feet trees 6 months old 

are 3 to 5 feet high. Land cultivated and fertilized. 



68 

Kauai 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 feet 
trees are making good growth. Trees 6 years old are 
30 to 35 feet high and 4 to 6 inches in diameter. Trees 
3 years old are 8 feet high. 

Kukuiolono. Trees planted at an elevation of 1,000 feet. 

Hawaii 

Waimea. Seedlings did not grow well at an elevation of 
2,700 feet. 

E. crebra, F. v M. Narrow-leaved ironbark. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of 2,000 feet the seedling trees 

are doing very well. Stand transplanting. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 and 
1,000 feet. 

E. diver sic olor, F. v M. Karri. 
Maui 

Haiku. Trees planted at elevations from 500 to 2,000 feet. 

Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees 3 to 4 years old are doing well at an eleva- 
tion of between 900 and 1,000 feet. 

Kukuiolono. At an elevation of 1,000 feet trees one year 
old are from 6 to 7 feet high. They do not stand up to 
the wind, leaning to leeward. 

E. eugenioides*, Sieb. White stringybark. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 and 

1,000 feet. 
Qahu 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 30 
years old are 40 feet high and 10 inches in diameter. 

E. exivnia, Schau. White bloodwood. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 and 
1,000 feet. 

E. ficifolia, F. v M. Scarlet-flowered gum. 



69 

Maui 

Makawao. At elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 feet. 
Trees are rather slow growing, 40 to 50 feet in from 
15 to 20 years. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 and 
1,000 feet. 

E. globulus, Labill. Blue gum. 

The tree grows well in practically all parts of all the islands 
at almost all elevations but does particularly well at alti- 
tudes higher than 1,000 feet. The tree grows in windy 
localities but in such places it is of very poor shape. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of from 2,500 to 3,000 feet trees 
are growing very well. Trees 4 years old are now 
about 25 feet high. 

At elevations of between 500 and 2,000 feet trees are grow- 
ing rapidly. 

At an elevation of 4,000 feet trees 35 years old are 30 to 36 
inches in diameter and 65 to 75 feet high. 

At an elevation of 5,300 feet trees 5 years old are 4 to 9 
inches in diameter and 40 to 45 feet high. 

For additional notes and diameters at different ages see 
Table I. 

Blue gum produced fertile seed when 25 years old at an 
elevation of 4,000 feet. In the same place fertile seed 
was produced by a tree only 12 years old. 

Hawaii 

Kukaiau. Trees 14 years of age at an elevation of 4,000 
feet are 15 to 24 inches in diameter and 100 to 130 feet 
high. 

Pahala. At an elevation of 1,800 feet shade trees near the 
"Stone Field" are remarkably tall and straight and from 
20 to 35 inches in diameter. Age unknown. 

Waimea. Trees can not stand the strong wind. At an 
elevation of 2,700 feet trees 5 to 6 years old are only 3 
to 15 feet high. 



70 

Oahu 

Nttuanu Valley. At an elevation of 1,000 feet in very windy 
places, growing in poor soil, blue gum 12 years old is 
only 20 to 25 feet high and 4 inches in diameter. 
Waipio. At an elevation of 1,000 feet trees 10 months old 
are 15 to 20 feet high, and are the best of eleven dif- 
ferent species planted. The land was cultivated and 
fertilized. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of from 900 to 1,000 feet trees 
are doing quite well. 

E. gomphocephala, D. C. Tooart. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of between 900 and 1,00 feet 
trees 3 to 4 years old are growing quite well. 

E. goniocalyx, F. v M. Mountain gum. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. At an elevation of 2,700 feet seedlings were 

growing quite well. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 feet 
trees 3^2 years old are 20 feet high. 

E. gunnii, Hook. Cider gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of between 2,500 and 3,000 
feet trees 3 years old are growing quite well. The 
seedlings are difficult to raise in the nursery. At ele- 
vations of 2,000 feet and higher trees are growing 
very rapidly. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 
and 1,000 feet. 

E. haemastoma, Smith. Scribbly gum. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. At an elevation of 2,700 feet seedlings were 

growing quite well. 

Kalaheo. At an elevation of between 900 and 1,000 feet 
trees 3 years old were growing well, but not rapidly, 
being 4 to 8 feet high. The tree does not stand the 
wind here. 



71 

Oahu 

Waipio. Trees planted at an elevation of 1,000 feet. 

E. haemastoma, var. micrantha* D. C. 
Oahu 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 45 feet high and 15.5 inches in di- 
ameter. 

E. hemiphloia* F. v M. Gray box. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 

and 1,000 feet. 
Oahu 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 45 feet high and 12 inches in diameter. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. At an elevation of 2,700 feet seedlings were 
growing quite well. 

E. hemiphloia, var. microcarpa.* 
Oahu- 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees are 50 
feet high and 16 inches in diameter. 

E. lehmanni, Preiss. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Low shrub at an elevation of between 900 and 
1,000 feet. 

E. leucoxylon, F. v M. Victoria gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of between 2,500 and 3,000 
feet seedlings are growing fairly well. The trees are 
hard to raise in the nursery. 

At elevations from 2,000 to 4,000 feet the trees are 
making very rapid growth. 

E. longifolia, Link and Otto. Woolybutt. 
Maui 

Makawao. The tree does well at elevations of 2,000 feet 

and higher. 

Haiku. The tree is planted at elevations of from 500 to 
2,000 feet. 



72 

Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of from 900 to 
1,000 feet. 

E. macarthuri, H. D. & J. H. M. River box. 
Maui 

Makawao. Young trees are growing well at elevations of 
2,000 feet and up. 

E. macrorhyncha, F. v M. Red stringybark. 
Maui 

Makawao. Young trees are doing well at an elevation of 
between 2,500 and 3,000 feet. The seedlings are hard 
to raise in the nursery. 

E. maculata, Hook. Spotted gum. 
Maui 

Haiku. Trees planted at elevations of between 500 and 
2,000 feet. 

E. marginata, Smith. Jarrah. 
Maui 

Makawao. Young trees are growing well at elevations of 

2,000 feet and up. 
Haiku. Trees planted at elevations of between 500 and 

2,000 feet. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees 3 years old at an elevation of between 900 
and 1,000 feet are growing slowly, being 4 to 5 feet 
high. 

E. obliqua, L'Her. Stringybark. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet 
seedlings of this tree did well in the nursery,* but died 
when transplanted. This may have been due to an 
exceedingly rainy season. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation between 900 and 
1,000 feet. 

E. obtusi flora, D. C. 
Maui 

Makawao. Young trees growing fairly well at an elevation 
of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet. 

E. occidentalis, Endl. Flat-topped yate. 



73 

Kauai 

Haiku. Trees planted at elevations of between 500 and 

1,500 feet. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees 6 years old growing at an elevation of 900 
feet are not doing well. Crooked and poor. 

E. paniculata* Smith. White ironbark. 
Maui 

Makawao. Young trees growing rapidly at elevations of 

2,000 feet and higher. 
Kauai 

Kukuiolono. Trees planted at an elevation of 1,000 feet, 
Oahu 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet are trees 
25 to 30 years old. 

E. pilularis, Smith. Blackbutt. 
Maui 

Makawao. Young trees are growing well at elevations of 

2,000 feet and higher. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees growing at an elevation of between 900 
and 1,000 feet 3y 2 years old are 20 feet high. Trees 
6 years old are 30 to 40 feet high and 3 to 6 inches in 
diameter. Trees stand wind quite well. 
Kukuiolono. Trees growing at an elevation of 1,000 feet 
are 4 to 5 feet high in one year. 

E. piperita* Smith. Sydney peppermint. 
Oahu 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 60 feet high and 14.5 inches in di- 
ameter. 

E. polyanthemos,* Schau. Red box. 
Maui 

Makawao. Young trees are growing quite well at eleva- 
tions of 2,000 feet and higher. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees 4 years old at an elevation of 900 feet are 

15 to 20 feet high. 
Oahu 

Government Nursery. Tree 40 feet high and 17.5 inches 
in diameter. Age unknown. 



74 

Hawaii 

Waimea. Young seedlings are growing well at an eleva- 
tion of 2,700 feet. 

E. pulverulenta, Smith. Silver-leaved stringybark. 

Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of 3,000 feet the trees are 
growing quite well. Seedlings do not stand trans- 
planting readily. 

E. punctata, D. C. Leather jacket. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 and 
1,000 feet. 

E. re dune a, Schau. Wandoo. 
Maui 

Haiku. Trees planted at elevations of between 500 and 
2,000 feet. 

E. resinifera, Smith. Red mahogany. 
Maui 

Makawao. At an elevation of 3,000 feet the tree does not 
grow well; apparently it is too cool. 

Haiku. At elevations of between 500 and 800 feet trees 
9 years old were 50 to 75 feet high and 9 to 11 inches 
in diameter. The tree grows well also at an elevation 
of 1,500 feet. Sprouts from trees cut 3 years ago are 
now 30 to 40 feet high and 5 inches in diameter. 

Grove Ranch. At an elevation of 900 feet trees 3 years 

old are 35 to 40 feet high and 8 inches in diameter. 
Oahu 

Waipio. Trees a few months old are planted at an eleva- 
tion of 1,000 feet. 
Kauai 

Kukuiolono. Young trees are growing well at an elevn- 

tion of 1,000 feet. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. Seedlings were growing at an elevation of 2,700 
feet. 

E. resinifera var. grandiflora, Benth. 



75 

Kauai 

Kalaheo. Elevation 900 to 1,000 feet. The trees are making 
excellent growth. Trees 3 years old are 25 feet high. 

E. robusta, Smith. Swamp mahogany. 
Maui 

Makawao. Elevation 2,500 to 3,000 feet. The tree grows 
well but is hard to start in the nursery at this elevation. 
At an elevation of 3,000 feet seedlings came up 
naturally on a very poor, rocky soil. 

At an elevation of 2,400 feet trees 5 years old are 
2 to 6 inches in diameter and 15 to 20 feet high. 
Oahu 

Wahiawa. At an elevation of 1,000 feet roadside trees 5 
to 6 years old are 50 feet high and 7 to 9 inches in 
diameter. 
Waipio. At an elevation of 1,000 feet trees 9 months old 

are 10 feet high. Land fertilized and cultivated. 
Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 15 to 20 inches in diameter and 60 to 
80 feet high. 
Hawaii 

Pahala. Elevation 2,000 feet. Trees 2 years old are 3 to 

4 feet high. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Elevation 900 to 1,000 feet. Trees 3 years old 

are 30 feet high and 4 inches in diameter. 
Lihue. Trees growing in the bottom of a gulch about 500 
feet elevation, 25 years old, are 16 to 20 inches in di- 
ameter and 80 to 100 feet high. 

E. rostrata* Schl. Red gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. Elevation 2,500 to 3,000 feet. Trees do not 
do well ; probably too windy. 

With elevations of between 2,000 and 3,000 feet, 
trees make rapid growth. 
Haiku. Elevations between 500 and 2,000 feet. Trees 

make fairly good growth. 

Wailuku. Elevation 700 feet. Trees on exposed ridge, 
14 months old, are doing well, but are bent with the 
wind. 

Ulupalakua. Elevation 2,000 feet. Trees 30 to 40 years 
old are doing very well. Some of the older trees are 
dying. 



76 

Oahu 

Waipio. Elevation 1,000 feet. Trees 6 months old are 5 

feet high. Land fertilized and cultivated. 
Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 30 
years old are 60 feet high and 20 inches in diameter. 

Hawaii 

Waimea. Trees planted at an elevation of 2,700 feet. 

Kauai 

Kalaheo. Elevation 900 to 1,000 feet. Trees growing very 

well, but do not stand the wind. 
Puhi Valley, Lihue. Grove 4 years old; where protected 

from wind the trees are 40 feet high and 4 to 6 inches 

in diameter. The trees clean themselves of branches 

quite readily. 
Kilohana. Elevation 1-,000 feet. Young trees are doing 

very well. 

E. rudis, Endl. Swamp gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. Young trees are growing rapidly at elevations 

of 2,000 feet and up. 
Haiku. Trees planted at elevations of between 500 and 

2,000 feet. 
Oahu 

Waipio. Elevation 1,000 feet. Trees 6 months old are 5 

feet high. Land fertilized and cultivated. 
Kauai 

Kukuiolono. Elevation 1,000 feet. Young trees are grow- 
ing very well. 

Kalaheo. Elevation 900 to 1,000 feet. Trees 3 T / 2 years 
old are 25 feet high. 

E. saligna, Smith. Flooded gum. 
Maui 

Makawao. Elevation 2,500 to 3,000 feet. Trees 3 to 4 
years old are doing very well. 

Trees planted at elevations of 2,000 feet and higher. 
Kalaheo. Elevation 900 to 1,000 feet. Trees 3 years old 

are 10 to 15 feet high. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. Young seedlings doing well at an elevation of 
2,700 feet. 

E. siderophloia* Benth. Broad-leaved ironbark. 



77 

Maui 

Makawao. Elevation 2,500 to 3,000 feet. Young trees are 
growing well but seedlings are hard to raise in nursery. 
Elevation 2,500 feet; young trees growing rapidly. 
Elevation 6,500 feet; trees grow quite well. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 and 

1,000 feet. 
Oahu 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 70 feet high and 19.5 inches in di- 
ameter. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. Young seedlings are doing well at an elevation 
of 2,700 feet. 

E. sideroxylon* A. Cunn. Red ironbark. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Trees planted at an elevation of between 900 

and 1,000 feet. 
Oahu 

Tantalus. At an elevation of about 1,000 feet trees 25 to 
30 years old are 45 feet high and 15 inches in diameter. 

E. sieberiana, F. v M. Mountain ash. 
Maui 

Makawao. Elevation 6,500 feet. Young trees growing 
well. 

E. tereticornis, Smith. Gray gum. 
Oahu 

Waipio. Elevation 1,000 feet. Trees 6 months old are 3 

to 5 feet high. Land fertilized and cultivated. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Elevation 900 to 1,000 feet. Trees 3^ years 

old are 10 to 15 feet high. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. Elevation 2,700 feet. Seedlings are growing 
quite well. 

E. viminalis, Labill. Manna gum. 



78 

Maui 

Makawao. Elevation 2,500 to 3,000 feet. Trees growing: 

very well. 
Haiku. Trees planted at elevations of between 500 and 

2,000 feet. 
Kauai 

Kalaheo. Elevation 900 to 1,000 feet. Trees 3 years old 

are 8 to 10 feet high. 
Hawaii 

Waimea. Elevation 2,700 feet. Young seedlings are doing 
well. 



79 



TABLE V. 

VOLUME TABLE. 

Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus). 
Kokom'o, Maui. Age 11 Years. Basis 315 Trees. 



Diameter 
Breasthigh. 

Inches. 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



Used volume 
with bark. 

Cubic feet. 

.3 

.7 
1.3 
2.4 
3.7 
5.5 
7.4 
9.5 



Diameter 
Breasthigh. 

Inches. 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



Used volume 
with bark. 

Cubic feet. 
11.8 
14.0 
16.6 
19.7 
23.1 
26.5 
30.0 
33.4 



TABLE VI. 



VOLUME TABLE. 

Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus). 
Tantalus, Oahu. Age 30 Years. Basis 75 Trees. 



Diameter 
Breasthigh. 

Inches. 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 



Used volume 
with bark. 

Cubic feet. 

2.7 

4.2 

5.9 

7.9 
10.4 
13.4 



Diameter 
Breasthigh. 

Inches. 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Used volume 
with bark. 

Cubic feet. 
16.6 
20.2 
24.0 
28.1 
32.4 



80 
TABLE VII. 

VOLUME TABLE. 

Yate (Eucalyptus cornuta). 

Tantalus, Oahu. Age 25 Years. Basis- 50 Trees. 

Diameter Used volume Diameter Used volume 

JBreasthigh. with bark. Breasthigh. with bark. 

Inches. Cubic feet. Inches. Cubic feet. 

5 5.2 12 21.4 

6 6.7 13 25.6 

7 8.4 14 30.5 

8 10.2 15 35.8 

9 12.3 16 41.1 
10 14.8 17 46.5 
H 17.7 

TABLE VIII. 

VOLUME TABLE. 

Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta). 

Tantalus, Oahu. Age 25 Years. Basis 25 Trees. 

Diameter Used volume Diameter Used volume 

Breasthigh. with bark. Breasthigh. with bark. 

Inches. Cubic feet. Inches. Cubic feet. 

5 3.1 10 18.5 

6 4.9 11 23.4 

7 7.3 12 28.4 

8 10.3 13 33.6 
-9 14.0 14 ?0.0 



IOTANICAL BULLETIN No. 1 



SEPTEMBER, 1911 



TERRITORY OF HAWAII 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY 



New and Noteworthy Hawaiian Plants 



BY 

DR. L. RADLKOFFER, 

Munich (Germany) 

AND 

J. F. ROCK 

From the Division of Forestry, Board of Agriculture and Forestry, 
Honolulu, T. H. 




HONOLULU: 
HAWAIIAN GAZETTE CO., LTD. 

1911 



NEW AND NOTEWORTHY HAWAIIAN PIANTS. 

BY DR. L. RADLKOFER AND J. F. ROCK. 

Alectryon macrococcus Radlkofer in Sitzungsber. K. Bayer. 

Ac. XX (1890) p. 255 et in Engl. & Pr. Pfl.-Fam. Ill, 5 (1895) 
p. 333. Mahoe, gen. nov.? Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isl. (1888) p. 
86. Dodonaea sp. Drake del Cast. 111. Fl. Ins. Mar. Pacif. (1890) 
p. 144 in obs. ad. Dod. vise. Vulgo Mahoe in Molokai teste 
Hillebr. 1. c. (quo nomine in Novo-Zealandia Melicytus rami- 
florus Forest, salutatur t. Kirk in Forest Fl. N.-Zeal., 1889, p. 3). 

Arbor mecliocris ; rami teretes, rnbri fusci, glabrati, juveniles 
striati, cum foliis novellis tomento adpresso sericeo flavescenti- 
cano induti; folia 2 5 juga; foliola magna, opposita, elliptica 
vel subovata, utrinque obtusa vel apice acuminata (t. Hillebr.), 
petiolulata, integerrima, undulata, coriaceo-chartacea, nervis late- 
ralibus sat approximatis obliquis subtus tit et nervo mediano valido 
dilatato supra piano prominentibus, glabra (vel subtus t. Hillebr. 
laxe tomentosa ) , utrinque nitidula, sicca e viridi subfusca, epider- 
mide non mucigera paginae superioris hypodermate suffulta ; 
paniculae axillares, basi ramosae, parvae ; flores (ignoti) ; fruc- 
tus 1 coccus, adhaerentibus loculis 2 abortivis ; coccus evolutus 
globosus, pro genere maximus, corticosus, glaber, fissuris irregu- 
lariter areolatus, intus pilis setaceis singulis adspersus ; seminis 
testa Crustacea, brunnea, splendens. 

Arbor 7 10 m alta. Folia petiolo ca. 10 cm longo adjecto 40 
cm et ultra longa ; foliola cum petiolulis 1 1, 5 cm longis ca. 20 
cm longa, 9 cm lata. Paniculae 10 cm et ultra longae. Fructus 
coccus diametro 2, 5 cm et ultra, pericarpio 1, 5 mm crasso. 

In archipelagi Sandwicensis insulis Oahu, Molokai et Maui : 
Hillebrand! ("Oahu, on the S. W. slope of Mount Kaala, left 
branch of Makaleha ;" "Molokai, on the pali of Kalaupapa ;" ca. 
1870; Hb. Kew. ; Berol.) ; J. F. Rock (Maui, in declivibus mentis 
Haleakala meridiem versus, a. 1910, fl. et fr., ex ipso in litt. m. 
Jan. 1911; spedmina non vidi). 22. II. ii. L. Radlkofer. 

The above description was communicated to me by Prof. Dr. 
L. Radlkofer of Munich for publication. (J. F. Rock.) 



Flowering specimens of Alectryon macrococcus which until 
now were unknown, were collected by me, together with young 
and mature fruits on the southern slope of Mt. Haleakala, Maui, 
on the lava field of Auahi at an elevation of 2,600 feet, where the 
tree is not uncommon (see Report of the Board of Agriculture 
and Forestry for the Biennial Period 1910, p. 81). 

Following is a description of the flowers of A. macrococcus with 
additional notes on the fruits : 

Inflorescentia paniculata, contracta, axillaris, pilis flavescentibus 
prorsus induta ; flores parvi, in pedicellos 2 mm longos, conferti ; 
calyx 5-lobus 2 mm longus, lobis subacutis, persistens in coccis 
junioribus ; petala nulla ; stamina 6-8, inter sinus disci parvi extus 
inserta, filamentis brevissimis, hirsutis; antherae rubrae, 1 mm 
longae, ad basin subdidymae; ovarium a lateribus compressum, 
dense strigosum, 1-2-cellulis ; stylus brevis, fere arcuatus, stig- 
mate 2-fido; fructus 1-2-cocci, juniores pilis fulvis setulosis ap- 
pressis, cum residnis styli, maturi glabri, fuscati, globosi, 3-6 cm 
cliametro, arillo coccineo, etc. 

Inflorescence an axillary contracted panicle, covered through- 
out with yellowish hairs ; flowers small, on pedicells of 2 mm, 
densely clustered ; calyx persistent with the young fruits, 5-lobed 
2 mm long, the lobes subacute ; petals none ; stamens 6-8 inserted 
externally between the sinuses of the small disc, on very short 
hirsute filaments, anthers red, 1 mm long, subdidymous at the 
base; ovary compressed, densely strigose, 1-2 celled; style short 
almost arcuate, stigma two lobed ; fruit consisting of 1-2-cocci, 
the young ones covered with appressed setulose, yellowish hairs, 
crowned by the remnants of the style, mature ones glabrous, dark 
brown, globose, 3-6 cm in diameter. Arillus scarlet, edible, etc. 

Flowering and fruiting specimens (No. 8642) collected Novem- 
ber 10-20, 1910. The wood is yellowish brown, hard grained and 
exceedingly tough. The flowers appear to be polygamous, as 
stamina are present in female flowers. 

July 8, 1911, J. F. Rock. Board of Commissioners of Agri- 
culture and Forestry, T. H. 





( 



Plate 1. Alectryon macrccoccus Radlk. 

Mahoe. Showing young and mature fruits and seed. Slightly 
less than one-third natural size. 



Sapindus Thurstonii, Rock sp. n. 

Vulgo A'e et Manele in Hawaii. 

Arbor (decidtia?) 10 m 26 m alta, truncus erectus 0.3 m 1.3 
m diameter ; cortice bruneo, desquamante ab arboribus maturis ; 
rami teretes brunei, glabrati ; folia alterna abrupte vel impari- 
pinnata, petiolis 4.5 cm 6 cm longis, tomentulosis, rachibus mi- 
nime marginatis et in folia novella alatis ; foliolis suboppositis, 
minime falcatis, 6 cm 12 cm longis, 2 cm 3.5 cm latis, apice 
acuminatis, basi rotundis, supra glabris, subtus tomentulosis ; ner- 
vo mediano valide prominente ; paniculae terminales pubescentes 
circa 12 cm longae; flores (ignoti) ; cocci 1 2 globosi 17 mm 
20 mm diamet.ro, ad basin connati vel singuli cum rudimentis 1 2 
ovulorum abortivorum ; pericarpium coriaceum; semina globosa, 
fuscata vel nigra 10 mm 12 mm diametro; testa ossea sine 
caespitosa pilositate ad basin. 

In archipelagi Hawaiiensis insula Hawaii : J. F. Rock leg. in 
declivibus mentis Hualalai, Puuwaawaa 2700 pedes s.mjun. a. 
1909 et Mauna Loa orientem versus, 4500 pedes s.m. Aprilis a. 
1911. 

A. deciduous? tree 10 m-26 m high with a trunk of 0.3 m-1.3 m 
in diam. ; bark light brown falling off in scales from old trees, 
exposing the smooth inner layers ; branchlets terete, light brown 
and glabrous ; leaves alternate abruptly or impari pinnate on a 
main petiole of 4.5 cm-6 cm, slightly tomentose, the rachis slightly 
marginate, but winged in the young leaves ; leaflets nearly oppo- 
site and subsessile in 4-6 pairs, chartaceous elliptical oblong 
slightly falcate, 6 cm- 12 cm x 2 cm-3.5 cm, acuminate at the apex 
but rounded at the base, glabrous, dark green and somewhat shin- 
ing above, light green and slightly tomentose underneath with 
the median nerve very prominent ; the pubescent panicles are ter- 
minal, about 12 cm long, and branching; flowers unknown; ripe 
fruits consisting of 1-2 globose cocci 17 mm-20 mm in diam., 
which are connate at the base, or when single bear the rudiments 
of two abortive ones; pericarp coriaceous, endocarp pergamen- 
eous pale ; seeds globose dark reddish brown or black 10 mm-12 
mm in diam. with a bony testa bearing no tufts of hair at their 
base. 

The tree is named in honor of Mr. L. A. Thurston of Hono- 




Plate 2. Sapindtrs Thurstonii Rock. 

A'e and Manele. Showing foliage, fruits and seeds. 

About one half natural size. 



8 

lulu, who called rny attention to its presence on Mauna Loa, 
The type material (No 8772) was collected when in company 
with Mr. W. M. Giffard on the eastern slopes of Mauna Loa, 
at an elevation of 4500 feet, in April, 1911. It is a remarkable 
tree attaining a height of about 80 ft. with trunks of more than 
four feet in diameter; it is plentiful in Kipuka Ki and Puaulu 
on the land of Keauhou about 6-8 miles from the Kilauea Vol- 
cano where it grows in company with Pelea, Ochrosia, Straussia, 
Zanthoxylum, etc. One would not suspect to find such trees in 
that locality as one travels for miles through Ohia (Metrosideros 
polymorpha) forest until all at once one strikes a grove of this 
remarkable tree which is called A'e by the natives on Mauna 
Loa, and Manele on Hualalai, North Kona. Unquestionably this 
tree must have extended farther down the mountain where the 
Ohia now grows, but was undoubtedly destroyed by the a-a 
(rough) lava flows from the flanks of the mountain. The few 
hundred acres on which this tree is found escaped the firy stream 
by their elevation, as no lava is visible, the soil being black and 
rich. The tree seems to be deciduous, as I have observed speci- 
mens with the leaves all yellow and dropping, while others had 
young leaves only, but I have not met with any having the 
branches entirely bare. 

On a subsequent visit (July- August, 1911,) specimens with 
flower-buds were collected but being badly attacked by a species 
of caterpillar it was impossible to make out the structure of the 
flowers. 

The writer waited several weeks for the flowers to unfold, but 
instead the whole inflorescenses began to wilt on every tree ex- 
amined, due to the work of the caterpillar. 

Hibiscadelphus Rock gen. nov. 

Bracteolae 5-7, angustissimae lineares, liberae ; calyx profunde 
et inaequaliter 2-3-fidus ; columna staminea infra apicem 5-denta- 
tum antherifera; ovarium 5-loculare, loculis 1-3 ovulatis ; styli 
rami 5, suberecti, apice in stigmata capitata dilatati ; capsula lignea 
loculide 5-valvis, endocarpio chartaceo solubili ; semina reni- 
formia, tomento albescenti-cano induta. Arbores mediocres cum 
tomento stellate; folia cordata, inaequaliter crenata; flores soli- 




Plate 3. Sapindus Thurstonii Rock. 
In forest on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. 



10 

tarii vel plures ex axillis foliorum ; colore rubido obscuro vel 
luteo; calyx deciduus in fructibus maturis. 

This proposed new genus consisting of 3 species peculiar to the 
clry sections of Hawaii and Maui, is nearest to Hibiscus from 
which it differs in its quite different flowers, deciduous calyx 
and woody capsule. All three species are exceedingly rare, 
only solitary trees being found in the various type localities, with 
exception of Hibiscadelphus Hualalaiensis of which several trees 
were found at Puuwaawaa and Waihou forest, on the western 
slope of Mt. Hualalai. 

Hibiscadelphus Giffardianus Rock sp. n. 

Arbor 7 m alta, truncus 0.3 m diam. cortice albineo glabrato, 
ramis robustis teretis; foliis longe petiolatis, orbiculatis rustice 
acuminatis basi cordatis, tomento stellato utrinque indutis ; palmato 
septemnervatis, cum glandibus hispidis in angulis nervorum ; 
stipulis parvis, triangulatis caducis ; floribus solitariis vel pluribus, 
bracteolis 5-7 linearibus liberis ; calyce saccato profunde et inae- 
qualiter 2-3-fido, lobis acuminatis, extus pilis stellatis induto, intus 
glabro; corolla convoluta inflexa dependente in pedicellis 2 cm-3 
cm longis ; petalis erectis obliquis oblongis, apice acutis 5 cni-6 cm 
longis, partibus petalorum expositis pilis stellatis dense punctula- 
tis ; columna staminea petalis longiore, ad basin hispida, tubo 
costato tractu longo filamentis longis affixis ; ovario glabro ; stig- 
matibus capitatis ; capsula lignea 4 cm- 5 cm x 2 cm-2.5 cm, pro 
genere maxima, oblonga, rugosa extus pilis stellatis luteis induta ; 
endocarpio chartaceo splendente tomentuloso, seminibus magnis 
ianatis. 

In archipelagi Hawaiiensis insula Hawaii : J. F. Rock leg. in 
declivibus montis Mauna Loa orientem versus 4300 pedes s. m. 
fr. et fl. ApriJis et Jun. a. 1911. 

A tree 7 m high with a trunk of 0.3 m in diam., bark smooth 
fibrous, whitish, branches terete, glabrous covered with leaf scars ; 
leaves on long petioles orbicular cordate bluntly acute at the 
apex 12-15 cm each way, unevenly crenate, papery, covered on 
both sides with a stellate tomentum, palmately 7-nerved, with his- 
pid glands in the angles of ribs and veins on both sides ; stipules 
small, triangular caducous ; flowers solitary or several on the 
axils of the leaves on the ends of the branches ; bracteoles 5-7, 




Plate 4. Hibiscadelphus Giffardianus Rock 

Hau Kuahiwi. Showing open flowers and mature fruits. 

About one half natural size. 



12 

very narrow, 2 cm long, free ; calyx saccate, as long as the 
bracteoles, deeply and unevenly 2-3 cleft, lobes acuminate, many 
nerved, yellowish-green outside, with stellate hairs, glabrous in- 
side ; corolla convolute, curved, only the very apex slightly open- 
ing, not spreading as in Hibiscus, dependent on pedicells of 2-3 
cm, petals erect 5-6 cm long, acute at the apex, oblique, oblong, 
deep magenta inside, grey with a stellate hispid tomentum on the 
exposed parts, especially on the prominent nerves ; staminal 
column one-third longer than the petals, with numerous long fila- 
ments on nearly half its length, hispid at the base ; style branches 
sub-erect 5 mm hispid ; stigmas flesh-colored ; capsule woody 
oblong 4-5 cm x 2-2.5 cm broadest at the base tapering towards 
the apex, rugose covered with stellate hispid hairs ; the calyx and 
bracteoles deciduous in mature fruits, endocarp chartaceous 
shining glabrous ; seeds large 7-10 mm reniform covered with a 
whitish grey wool. 

The type material (No. 8773 Herbar. Board of Agriculture and 
Forestry, T. H.) was collected in April, 1911, in company with 
Mr. W. M. Giffard of Honolulu, who was the first to introduce 
many beautiful varieties of Hibiscus into the Territory and in 
whose honor the plant is named. Only one tree was found on the 
eastern slope of Mating. Loa at Puaulu on the land of Keauhou a 
few miles from Kilauea Volcano, at an elevation of 4300 feet y 
within the area of the proposed National Park. 

Hibiscadclphus Wilderianus Rock sp. n. 

Arbor 5 m, trunco erecto ; foliis orbiculatis vel trilobatis cor- 
datis, apice acutis, in petiolis stramineis 7-10 cm longis, palmato- 
quinque- rarius septemnervatis, supra puberulis subtus pilis minu- 
tis stellatis inspersis, nervis prominentibus hispidis ; stipulis par- 
vis subulatis puberulis ; floribus solitariis in pedicellis 4 cm longis ; 
bracteolis linearis 2 cm longis, uninerviatis liberis ; calyce saccato 
inaequilatero trilobate, extus hirsute intus puberulo, lobis acumi- 
natis; (flores aperti ignoti). Petalis luteis in gemma; capsula 
ovoidea 3.5 cm x 3 cm, nigranta tuberctilata, stellato-hispida 
lignosa. 

In insula Maui : J. F. Rock leg. in declivibus mentis Haleakala 
meridiem versus Nov. a. 1910. 




Plate 5. Hibiscadelphus Wilderianus Rock. 
Showing foliage and fruit. About one half natural size. 



14 

Only one tree was observed on the southern slope of Haleakala 
on the lava fields of Auahi at an elevation of 2600 feet. (Type 
No. 8663 Herb. Board of Agriculture and Forestry, T. H.). 
Named in honor of Mr. Gerrit P. Wilder of Honolulu who has 
shown great interest in growing and producing many varieties 
of Hibiscus. 

Hibiscadelphus Hualalaiensis Rock sp. n. 

Arbor 5-7 m alta. trunco erecto, 0.3 m cliam. cortice albineo, 
glabrato; rami teretes, cum foliis novellis dense hirsuti, foliis reni- 
formi-cordatis in petiolis 10 cm-16 cm longis, supra pilis stellatis 
inspersis, subtus tomentosis ; (fiores ignoti) capsula parva ovata 
2 cm x 1.5 cm pilis stellatis flavescentibus dense induta. 

In insula Hawaii : J. F. Rock leg. in declivibus montis Hualalai 
occidentum versus Jun. a. 1909. 

Type material (No. 3915 Herbar. Board of Agriculture and 
Forestry, T. H.) collected June 18, 1909, at an elevation of 2700 
feet on the lava fields of Puuwaawaa and in the forest of Waihou 
where a number of trees is to be found. The flowers are said to 
be yellow. 




\ 




r 



Plate 6. Hibiscadelphus Hualalaiensis Rock. 

Showing foliage, mature fruits and seeds. About one half 

natural size. 



BOTANICAL BULLETIN NO. 2 



JUNE, 1913 



TERRITORY OF HAWAII 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 



List of Hawaiian Names oi Plants 



BY 



JOSEPH F. ROCK 

Consulting Botanist, Board of Agriculture ana Forestry 




HONOLULU: 
HAWAIIAN GAZETTE CO.. LTD. 

1913 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 



COMMISSIONERS. 

WALTER M. GIFFARD, President and Executive Officer. 
J. M.. DOWSETT ARTHUR H. RICE 

H. M. VON HOLT ALBERT WATERHOUSE 

CHIEFS OF DIVISIONS. 

EDWARD M. EHRHORN, Superintendent of Entomology and 

Chief Plant Inspector. 
RALPH S. HOSMER, Superintendent of Forestry and Chief Fire 

Warden. 
VICTOR A. NORGAARD, Superintendent of Animal Industry and 

Territorial Veterinarian. 



JOSEPH F. ROCK, Consulting Botanist. 



BOTANICAL BULLETIN NO. 2 



JUNE, 1913 



TERRITORY OF HAWAII 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 



List of Hawaiian Names of Plants 



BV 



JOSEPH F. ROCK 

Consulting Botanist, Board of Agriculture and Forestry 




HONOLULU: 
HAWAIIAN GAZETTE CO., LTD. 

1913 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF HAWAIIAN NAMES OF PLANTS. 



The following list of Hawaiian plant-names has been compiled 
from various sources. Hillebrand in his valuable Flora of the 
Hawaiian Islands has given many Hawaiian names, especially 
of the more common species ; these are incorporated in this list 
with a few corrections. Nearly all Hawaiian plant-names found 
in this list and not in Hillebrand's Flora were secured from Mr. 
Francis Gay of the Island of Kauai, an old resident in this Terri- 
tory and well acquainted with its plants from a layman's stand- 
point. It was the writer's privilege to camp with Mr. Gay in the 
mountains of Kauai collecting botanical material; for almost 
every species he could give the native name, which he had se- 
cured in the early days from old and reliable natives. Mr. Gay 
had made spatter prints of many of the native plants in a large 
record book with their names and uses, as well as their symbolic 
meaning when occurring in mele (songs) or olioli (chants), at- 
tached to them. 

For all this information the writer is indebted mainly to Mr. 
Francis Gay and also to Mr. Augustus F. Knudsen of the same 
Island. The writer also secured Hawaiian names from old na- 
tives and Kahunas (priests) in the various islands of the group. 

It is sad to relate that this interesting knowledge is fast dis- 
appearing; only the very old people are able to give reliable in- 
formation, while the middle-aged class perhaps has heard of the 
various Hawaiian plant-names but cannot associate them with the 
particular plants. With few exceptions the young generation 
of Hawaiians knows nothing of folk lore and less of plants and 
the uses for which their ancestors valued them. 

The names of plants vary on the different islands, and so it 
happens that a particular species might be known by three or 
four names. There is a close resemblance of Hawaiian names of 
plants and Tahitian and New Zealand plant names of related 
species; as for example the Hawaiian IE IE (Freycinetia Arnotti) 
and the New Zealand Kie kie (Freycinetia Bank si) of the same 
genus ; numerous instances of this sort may be cited. The 
scientific names are according to Engler and Prantl's Natiirliche 
Pflanzenfamilien and the laws of nomenclature as set forth in the 
Botanical Congress of Vienna (1905). 



LIST OF PLANTS MAINLY TREES AND SHRUBS. 

AAKA Dead trunks of Myoporum sandivicense. 

AALII KUMAKANI Dodonaea viscosa. 

AALII KUMAKUA Dodonaea eriocarpa. 

AALII MAHU Styphelia tameiameia. 

AAWA HUA KUKUI Pittosporum hosmeri. 

AE Poly podium pellucidum, 

A'E Xanthoxylum kauaiense. 

AE LAUNUI Asplenium sp? 

AEAE Lycium sandwicense. 

AHAKEA Bobea spp. 

AHAKEA LAU LII- Bobea elatior, var.br evipes. 

AHAKEA LAUNUI Bobea elatior. 

AHANIU Cladium Meyenii. 

AHINAHINA Argyroxiphium sandivicense. 

AIAI Pseudomorus Brunoniana. 

AIEA N otho oestrum spp. 

AIEA Ilex sandwicensis, only on Kauai. 

AKAAKAAWA Hillcbrandia sandzuicensis. 

AKALA Rubus hazvaiiensis and R. Macrael. 

AREA See AKIA. 

AKIA Wikstroemia spp. 

AKILOLO A variety of Sugar Cane. 

AKIOHALA Hibiscus youngianus. 

AKOKO Euphorbia lorifolia. Hawaiian Rubber. 

AKOKO Other species of Euphorbia. 

AKOLE Dryopteris unidentata. 

AKOLEA Boehmeria stipularis. 

AKU Cyanea tritomantha. 

AKULIKULI Sesuvium portulacastrum. 

AKULIKULI LAULII Portulacca oleracea. 

AKUPA Bobea Mannii. 

ALAA Sideroxylon spp. 

ALAALA Tubers of Dioscorea sativa. 

ALAALA HUA See MAHOE. 

ALAALAPULOA Waltheria americana. 

ALAALAWAINUI Peperomia spp. 

ALAE Asplenium horridum. 

ALAHEE Plectronia odorata. 

ALAN i Citrus aurantium. 

ALANI Pelea spp. 

ALANIWAI Pelea Waialealae. 

ALAWEO Cheno podium sandwicheum. 

ALE Plantago princeps. 

ALENA Boerhaavia diffusa. 



ALIIPOE Canna indica. 

ALULA Brighamia insignis. 

AMAU Sadleria pallida. 

AMA'UMA'U Sadleria cyatheoides. 

ANAPANAPA Colubrina asiatica. 

ANAUNAU Lepidium serra. 

ANINI Eurya sandwicensis. 

ANONIA See ALANIWAI. 

ANOUNOU Lepidium owahiense. 

ANUNU Sicyos spp. 

APE Alocasia wiacrorrhiza. 

APEAPE Gunnera petaloidea. 

APII See APE. 

APUU Sadleria squarrosa. 

Au Kadua acuminata. 

AUHOLA Tephrosia piscatoria. 

AUHUHU See AUHOLA. 

AULU Sapindus oahuensis; see LONOMEA. 

AULU Pisonia sandwicensis. 

AUPAKA Isodendrion pyrifolium. 

AWA Piper methysticum. 

AWAKANALOA Ranunculus mauiensis. 

AWAPUHI Zingiber serumbet. 

AWAPUHIAKANALOA Lipdris hawaiiensis . 

AWEOWEO See ALAWEO. 

AWIKIWIKI Canavalia galeata. 

AWIWI Kadua Cookiana. 

AWIWI Erythraca sabaeoidcs. 

EHUAWA Cyperus laevigata. 

EKAHA Asplenium nidus. 

EKAHA AKOLEA Polypodium lineare. 

EKAHA ULA Elaphoglossum micradcnium. 

EMOLOA Eragrostis variabilis. 

ENAENAE Gnaphalium luteo-album. 

ENUHE See ULUHE. 

HA A A n tidesma p la typ hyllum . 

HAH A Cyanea and Clermontia spp. 

HAHAAIAKAMANU Clermontia gaudichaitdii. 

HAHALUA Cyanea leptostegia. 

HAHANUI Cyanea ferox. 

HAILIOPUA Schizaea robusta. 

HAIWALE Cyrtandra gay ana. 

HALAPEPE Dracaena aurea. 

HALEAKAIA Cardiospermum Halicacabum. 



HAME or HAA Antidesma pulvinatum. 
HAO Rauwolna sandwicensis. 
HAU Hisbiscus tiliaceus. 
HAUHELE ULA Kokia drynarioides on Kauai. 
HAUHELE WAI See AKIOHALA. 
HAUOI Stachytarpheta dichotoma. 
HAWANE Pritchardia spp. ; and also seeds of same. 
HEAE See AE (Xanthoxylum). 
HEAU Exocarpus sandwicensis. 
HEII Cibotium Menziesii. 
HIALOA Waltheria americana. 
HINAHINA Heliotr opium anomalum. 
HOAWA Pittosporum spp. 
HOAWA LAUNUI Pittosporum kauaiense. 
HOE A MAUI Elaphoglossum micradenium. 
Hoi Dioscorea sativa, see ALAALA. 
Hoi Verbena bonariensis. 
Hoio Diplazium Arnottii. 
HOLA See AUHUHU. 
HOLEI Ochrosia sandwicensis. 
HOLIO Cryptocaria Mannii. 
HONA' Arera sandwicensis var. kauaiensis. 
HONOHINO Cleome sandwicensis. 
. HONOHONO Haplostachys Grayana. 
HONOHONO See HONOHONOWAI. 
HONOHONOWAI Commelina nudiftora* 
HONUAULU A variety of Sugar Can* 
HOWAIAULU Lagenophora mauiensis. 
HUAHUAKO Rumex albescens. 
HUAKEKILI Scaevola frutescens: 
HUEHUE Cocculus ferrandianus. 
HUEIE See HUEHUE. 

HUEWAI Lagenaria vulgaris; (Bottle gourd). 
HULUHULU Gossypium tomentosum. 
HULUHULUAIOLE Lycopodium cernuum. 
HULUMOA Exocarpus sandwicensis. 
HULUMOA Viscum articulatum. 
HUNAKAI Ipomoea acetosae folia. 

IEIE Freycinetia Arnotti. 

IHI Portulaca oleracea. 

IHIMAKOLE Portulaca sclerocarpa. 

IIWA LAULII Asplenium erectum. 

ILIAHI Santalum spp ; Sandalwood. 

ILIAHI Santalum F.reycinetianum; Sandalwood. 

ILIAHI ALOE Santalum Freycinetianum var. littorale. 



ILIAU Wilkcsia gymnoxiphium. 

ILIEO Plumbago seylanica. 

ILIHIA Cyrtandra be goniae folia. 

ILIMA Stda spp. 

ILIOHA Erigeron canadense. . 

ILIOHE See ILIOHA. 

ILIOHU Cleome sandzviccnsis. 

INALUA See HALEAKAIA. 

INIA Melia Azedarach. Pride of India. 

INIKA Basella rubra. 

INIKOA Indigifero anil. 

lo NUI Aspidium filix-mas. 

IPU Lagenaria vulgaris. 

IPU NUI Cucurbita maxima. 

IWA Pteris excelsa. 

IWAIWA Asplenium adiantum-nigrum. 

I WAI w A D o ryop tens decipiens. 

IWAIWA Adiantum capillus-veneris. 

IWAIWA LAUNUI Aspidium cicutarium var. Gaudichaudii. . . 

JWAIWA o KANE Asplenium bipinnatifidum. 

IWAPUAKEA Pteris irregularis. 

KAAPEAPE Polystichum falcatum var. 

KAAWAU Ilex sandwicensis; AIEA on Kauai. 

KAEEE Mucuna gigantea. 

KAIWI See NUKUIWI. 

KAKALAIOA Caesalpinia bonducella. 

KAKONAKONA Panicum torridum. 

KAKONAKONAPanicum nephelophilum var. xerophilum. 

KALAIPAHOA A Kahuna tree, extinct; (perhaps only mythic- 

al). 

KALAMALO Eragrostis vanabilis. 
KALAMO*HO LAULII Pellaea ternifolia. 
KALA MON A Cassia laevigata. 
KALEIOHIIAKA Pelea elliptica var. 
KALIA Elaeocarpus bifidus. 
KALILI Viola Kauaiensis; see POKE HIWA. 
KALO See TARO. 
K ALU A H A A stelia Menziesii. 
KALUHA Cy perns strigosus var. insularis. 
KAMANAMANA Adenostcma viscosum. 
KAMANI or KAMANU Calophyllum Inophyllum. 
KAMANI Terminalia catappa. 
KAMANOMANO Cenchrus calyculatus. 
KAMAKAHALA Labordia spp. 
KAMAKAHALA LAULII Labordia Waialealae. 



8 

KAMANU See KAMANI. 
KAMOLE See PUKAMOLE. 
KAMOLE Polygonum glabrum. 
KANAWAU Broussaisa arguta and B. pellucida. 
KANEHOA See PUKEAWE. 
KAPANA Phyllostegia grandiflora. 
KAUILA Colubrina oppositifolia. 
KAUILA Alphitonia excelsa. 
KAUILA MAHU Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii. 
KAULU Pteralyxia macrocarpa. 
KAULU Sapindus oahuensis (on Oahu). 
KAULU Pisoma sanduncensis (on Kauai). 
KAULU Sideroxylon sandivicense; see ALA A. 
KAUMAHANA Viscum articulatum. 
KAUMAHANA Exocarpus sanduncensis. 
KAUNOA Cassitha filiformis. 
KAUPOO See PAUOHIIAKA. 
KAUPU Poly stic hum aculeatum. 
KA w AU Ilex sanduncensis. 
KAWAUStyphelia tameiameia (on Lanai). 
KAWAU KUA KUKU KAPA Xdnthoxylum dipetalum var. y. 
KAWELU Schiedea stellarioides; see MAOLIOLI. 
KEA Mesoneurum kauaiense on Maui ; see UHIUHI. 
KEAHI Chrysophyllum polynesicum. 
KENIKENI See Ko. Sugar cane. 
Ki CordyHne terminalis. 
KIHE Polypodium serrulatum. 
KIKANIA Xanthium strumarium. 
KIKANIA PILIPILI Desmodium uncinatum. 
KIKAWAEO Dryopteris cyatheoides. 
KILAU Dryopteris glabra. 
KALAU Trichomanes davallioidcs. 
KILAU APUEO Pteridium aquilinum. 
KILIKA Morus nigra. 
KILIOOPU Cyperus auriculatus. 
KIOELE Kadua Mensiesiana. 
KIPONAPONA Phyllostegia racemosa. 
Ko Saccharum officinarum . Sugar cane. 
KOA Acacia Koa. 
KOAHAOLE Leucaena glauca. 
KOAIA Acacia Koaia. 
KOAKA See KOA. 
KOALI AI Ipomoea tuberculata. 
KOALI AWAHIA Ipomoea insularis. 
KOALI MAHU Ipomoea dissecta? 
KOAOHA See KOAIA. 



KOHEKOHE Heleocharis obtusa. 

KOHOLAPEHU Raillardia latifolia. 

KOI Coprosma stephanocarpa var. Kauaicnsis. 

KOREA See Ko. Sugar cane. 

KOKIO Kokia Rockii and K. drynarioides. 

KOKIO KEOKEO Hibiscus Arnottianus. 

KOKIO ULA Hibiscus Kokio. 

KOKO Euphorbia spp. 

KOKOKAHIKO Euphorbia pilulifera. 

KOLEA Suttonia spp. 

KOLEA LAULII Suttonia saudwicensis. 

KOLI Ricinus communis. 

KOLII Lobelia macrostachys. 

KOLOKOLO See MAHINALUA. 

KOLOKOLO KAHAKAI Vitex trifolia. 

KOLOKOLO KUAHIWI Lysimachia daphnoides. 

KOLOKOLO LEHUA See KOLOKOLO KUAHIWI. 

KOLOKOLO MOKIHANA Pelea sp? 

KONAKONA Panicum nephelophilum. 

KOOKOLAU Campylotheca spp. 

KOOKOOLAU See KOOKOLAU. 

KOPA Kadua glaucifolia. 

TCopiKO KEA Straussia Kaduana. 

KOPIKO ULA Straussia spp. 

Kou Cordia sub cor data. 

KUAHULU Ipomoea pentaphylla. 

XUAU Asplenium Kaulfussii. 

KUAWA Psidium guayava. 

KUAWAWAENOHU Schiedca lychnoides. 

KUHIAIKAMOOWAHIE Lobelia hypoleuca. 

KUKAIMOA Pelea microcarpa. 

KUKAINENE Coprosma ernodeoides. 

KUKAIPUAA Panicum pruriens. 

KUKUI Aleurites moluccana. 

KUKUIHI Jatropha curcas. 

KUKUKU Colubrina asiatica. 

XULUI Nototrichium spp. 

KUMUNIU Doryopteris decipiens; see IWAIWA and MANA- 

WAHUA. 

KUOLOHIA Rhynchospora lax a; see PUUKOA. 
KUPALA Sicyos pachycarpus. 
KUPAUA Raillardia scabra. 

LAAUALA The wood of Santalum Freycinetianum. 
LAHI See Ko. Sugar cane. 

I Names of the leaves of Cordyline terminalis. 



10 

LAMA Maba sandwicensis. 

LANIWELA Erigeron canadensc. 

LAPALAPA Cheirodendron platyphyllum. 

LAUALA See LAUHALA or PUHALA. 

LAUHALA Pandanus odoratissimus. 

LAUKAHI Dryopteris truncatum t 

LAUKAHI Dryopteris filix-mas. 

LAUKAHI Lindsaya repens. 

LAUKAHI Elaphoglossum wawrae. 

LAUKAHI Ophioglossum pendulum. 

LAUKAHI Ophioglossum vulgatum. 

LAUKAHI Pellaea ternifolia. 

LAUKEA Claoxylon tomentosum. 

LAUKONA A variety of Sugar cane (ribbon cane). 

LEHUA AHIHI Metrosideros tremuloides. 

LEHUA KAMAKUA- Metrosideros polymorpha with sessile 

leaves. 

LEHUA LAULII Metrosideros polymorpha. 
LEHUA MAKANOE Metrosideros pumila. 
LEHUA MAMO Metrosideros polymorpha; yellow flowered.. 
LEHUA PAPA Metrosideros rugosa. 
LEHUA PUAKEA Metrosideros polymorpha. 
LEPELEPEAMOA Selaginella arbusculla. 
LILILEHUA Salvia coccinea. 
LILIWAI Acaena exigua; see NANIWAIALEALE. 
LILIKOI Passiflora edulis. 
LIUA Lobelia hypoleuca. 
LOLA Asplenium acuminatum. 
LONOMEA Sapindus Oahuensis. 
LOULU Pritchardia spp. 
LOULU HIWA Pritchardia Gaudichaudii. 
LOULU LELO Pritchardia Hillebrandii. 

MAHINALUA Polypodium pseudogrammitis. 
MAHOE Alectryon macrococcus. 
MAHU Cheirodendron gaudichaudii; see OLAPA. 
MAIA Musa sapientum. Banana ; there are numerous varie- 
ties. 

MAIAPILO Capparis sandzvicheana. 
MAIELE Styphelia tameiameia. 
MAILE Alyxia olivaeformis. 
MAIRI Alyxia olivaeformis. 
MAKOLE Nertera depressa. 
MAKOU Ranunculus mauiensis. 
MAKOU Peucedanum sandwicense. 
'M.AKOu-^-Botrychium subbifoliatum. 



11 

MAKUE Elaphoglossum sqiiamigcrum. 

MAKUE LATJLII Poly podium Hookeri. 

MAMAKE or MAMAKI Pipturus spp. 

MAMANI Sophora chrysophylla. 

MANA Pteris irregularis. 

MANAWAHUA Doryopteris decipiciis. 

M A NELE Sapindus sap o naria. 

MANENA Pelea cinerea. 

MANENE Plantago pachyphylla var. Kauaiensis. 

MANIENIE Gynodon dactylon. 

MANIENIE Stenotaphrum americaniuu. 

MANONO Gouldia spp. 

MANULELE See Ko. Sugar cane. 

M A N u N E N E Kyllingia b revifo Ha . 

MAO Gossypium tomentosum. 

MAO Abutilon incanum. 

MAOHAUHELE Hibiscus Brackenridgei. 

MAOHIOHI Stenogyne rugosa. 

MAOLIOLI Schiedea stellarioidcs. 

MAOLOA Neraudia melastomae folia. 

MAPELE Crytandra sp.? 

MAUA Xylosma Hawaiiense and X. Hillebrandii. 

MAUNALOA Dioclea violacea. 

MIKANA Carica papaya, on Hawaii. 

MIKINALO Drosera longifolia. 

MILO Thespesia populnea. 

MOHIHI Stenogyne scrophularioides. 

MOKIHANA Pelea anisata. 

MULO See MILO. 

NAENAE Species of the genera Dubautia and Raillardia. 

NAENAE PUAKEA- Dubautia paleata. 

NAENAE PUAMELEMELE Dubautia laxa. 

NAENAE ULA Dubautia raillardioides. 

NAIEO See NAIO. 

NAIO Myoporum sandwicense. 

NAHELEHELE Ageratum conyzoldes. 

NANEA Vigna lutea. See PULIHILIHI. 

NANIWAIAI.EALE Acaena c.rigua. See LILIWAI. 

NANU Gardenia Remyi. 

NAU Gardenia Brighami. 

NAU See NANU. 

NAUPAKA KAHAKAI Scacvola fruiesccns. 

NAUPAKA KUAHIWI Scaevola spp. se 

NEHE Lipochaeta spp. 

NEKE Dryoptcris gongylodes. 



12 

NELEAU or NENELEAU Rhus semialata var. sandwicense. 
NIANIAU Nephrolepis exaltata. 
NINIKA Lithrum maritimum. 
NIOI Eugenia rarinora. 
Niu Cocos nucifera. Coconut. 
NOHU Tribulus cistoides. 
NOHUANU Geranium humile var. Kauaiense. 
NONI Morinda citrifolia. 
NUKUIWI Strongylodon lucidum. 
NUUMELA Asclepias curassavica. 
OALII MAKALII Schizaea robusta. 
OHA WAI Species of Clermontia. 
OHAI Sesbania tomentosa. 
OHAI KEOKEO Sesbania grandinora. 
OHE Joinvillea adscendens. 
OHE Isachne distichophylla. 
OHE Bambusa vulgaris. Bamboo. 
OHE KIKOOLA Tetraplasandra Waimeae. 
OHE KUKULUAEO Reynoldsia sandwicensis. 
OHE MAKAI See OHE KUKULUAEO. 
OHELO Vaccinium spp. 

OHE WAI Water containers made from Bamboo; see HUE- 
WAI. 

OHELO KAI Lycium sandwicense, 
OHELO PAPA Fragaria chilensis. 
OHENAUPAKA Scaevola glabra. 
OHEOHE Pterotropia kauaiense and dipyrena. 
OHEOHE Vittaria elongata. 
OHIA See OHIA AI. 
OHIA AI Jambosa malaccensis. 
OHIA HA Syzygium sandwicense. 
OHIA LEHUA Metrosideros polymorpha. 
OHIAKU Hymenopbyllum recurvum. 
Oi Verbena bonariensis. 
OKUPUKUPU Doodia media. 
OLAPA Cheirodendron Gaudichaudii. 
OLENA Curcuma longa. 
OLENA Coprosma Waimeae. 
OLIANA See Ko, a variety of sugar cane. 
OLOA Neraudia melastomaefolia. 
OLOHUA Solarum nodiflorum. 
OLOMEA Perrottetia sandwicensis. 
OLONA Touchardia latifolia. 
OLOPU Viola chamissoniana var. ft. 
OLUA Dryopteris punctata. 
OPEHA Elaphoglossum gorgoneum var. p. 



13 

OPUHE Urera sandwicensis. 
OPUHI Zingiber zerumbet. 
OWALII Asplenium trichomanes. 
OWALII Pteris cretica. 
PAI Poly podium hymenophylloides. 
PA-I-A Pteridium aquilinum. 
PAIHI Syzygium sandwiccnse, on Maui. 
PAINIU Astelia veratroides. 
PAKA Nicotiana tabacum and N. glauca. 
PAKAHA Sphacele hastata. 
PAKAHAKAHA Poly podium linear e. 
PALA Marattia Douglasii. 
PALAA Odontoglossum chinensis. 
PALAE See Uiui. 

PALAIHIHI Trichomanes davallioides. 
PALAIHINAHINA Hymenophyllum lanceolatum. 
PALAIHUNA Poly podium hymenophylloides. 
PALAILAAU Poly podium adenophorus. 
PALAILAULII Hymenophyllum obtusum. 
PALANI See Ko, a variety of sugar cane. 
PALAPALAI Microlepia strigosa. 
PALAPALAI AUMAKUA Dryopteris crinalis. 
PALAPALAI LAULII Diellia pumila. 
PALAPALAI o KAUMAPUAA Dryopteris globulifera. 
PAMAKANI MAHU Phyllanthus sandwicensis. 
PAMAKANI Senecio sandwicensis. 
PAMAKANI See PAMAKANI MAHU. 
PAMAKANI Viola Chamissoniana, on Molokai. 
PAMOHO Asplenium resectum. 
PAMOHO Nephrolepis exaltata. 
PAMOHO See OKUPUKUPU. 
PANAUNAU Lobelia yuccoides. 
PANINI Opuntia tuna. Cactus. 
PANUNU KUAHIWI Sicyos cucumcrinus. 
PAPAA See Ko, variety of sugar cane. 
PAPAHEKILI Pittosporum acuminatum. 
PAPALA Charpentiera obovata. 
PAPALA Pisonia umbellifera. 
PAPALA KEPAU Pisonia inermis. 
PAPAOI Polystichum lobatum. 
PAPAPA Dolichos Lablab. 
PAPIPI See PANINI. 
PAUOHIIAKA Jacqucmontia sandiviccnsis. 
PAUUOA Dry op tcris squamigcra. 
PA WALE Rumex giganteus. 
^ Poly podium spectrum. 



14 



PIA Tacca pinnatifida. 

PIIA Dioscorea pentaphylla. 

PIIPII Chrysopogon aciculatus. 

PIIPIILAUMANAMANA Asplenium pseudofcilcatum.. 

PILI Andropogon contortus. 

PILIKAI Argyreia tiliaefolia. 

PILO Coprosma spp. 

PILO Kadua laxinora? 

PILO KEA Platydesma campanulatum. 

PILO ULA Pelea kauaiensis. 

PILOKEA LAULII Platydesma. rostratum. 

PIOI Smilax sandwicensis, Kauai. 

PIPI Psilotum triquetrum. 

PIPIWAI See KOHEKOHE. 

POE Portulaca sclerocarpa. 

POHA Physalis peruviana. 

POKE HIWA Viola kauaiensis. 

POHEPOHE Hydrocotyle verticillata. 

POHINAHINA Heliotropium anomalum. 

POHOLE Diplazium Arnottii var. 

POHUEHUE I porno ea pes-caprae. 

POLINALINA Vitex trifolia. 

POLOLEI Ophioglossum continuum. 

POLOLO Cuscuta sandwichiana. 

POOLA Claoxylon sanduncense. 

POOLANUI Campylotheca cosmoides. 

PONIU See INALUA. 

POPOLO Phytolacca brachystachys. 

POPOLO Solatium aculeatissimum. 

POPOLO Solanum nodiflorum. 

POPOLO Cyanea solanacea. 

POPOLO AI A KE AKUA Solanum kauaiense. 

POPOLO KUMAI Solanum incompletum var. Mauiense. 

PUA Osmanthus sandwicensis. 

PUAAINAKA Stenogyne rotundifolia. 

PUAAKUHINIA Astelia mensiesii. 

PUA ALA Brighamia insignis. 

PUAHANUI Broussaisia arguta. 

PUAHEKILI Lysimachia Hillebrandii. 

PUAKALA Argemona mexicana. 

PUAKALA Cyanea solenocalyx. 

PUAKAUHI Canavalia gal eat a. 

PUAKEAWE Styphelia tameiameia. 

PUALELE Sonchus oleraceus. 

PUALOALO Hibiscus Koki'o. 

PUAMAKANUI Hillebrandia sandwicensis. 



15 

PUAMANA Erigeron canadense. 
PUANANAHONUA Solanum Carterianum. 
PUAOLE A flowerless sugar cane. 
PUAPILIPILI Desmodium uncinatum. 
PUAPILO Capparis sand^vicheana. 
PUAPUAMOA Ophioglossum pendulum. 
PU'E Lobelia kauaiensis. 
PUHALA Pandanus odoratissimus. 
PUKAMOLE Jussiaea villosa. 
PUKEAWE Styphelia tameiameia. 
PULIHILIHI Vigna lutea. 
PUUKOA Rhynchospora laxa. 

TARO Coloccasia antiquorum. 
Ti Cordyline terminalis. 
To See Ko. 
Tou See Kou. 
TUTUI See KUKUI. 

UALA Ipomoea batatas. Sweet Potato. 

UALA A variety of Sugar cane. 

UAHEAPELE Pelea barbigera. 

UHAOHAKO Rumex giganteus, on Molokai. 

UHI Smilax sandwicensis; see ULEHIHI. 

UHIUHI Mesoneurum kauaiensc. 

UHIUHI Cassia Gaudichaudii. 

Uiui or PALAE See NEKE. 

Uiwi See AWIWI. 

UKI Dianella odorata. 

ULAHIHI See KUAHULU. 

ULEHIHI See UHI. 

ULEI Osteomeles anthyllidifolia. 

ULIHI Phyllostegia sp. 

ULU arid ULUKAKA Artocarpus incisa. Bread fruit. 

ULUHE Gleichenia lincaris. Staghorn Fern. 

ULUHE LAUNUI Gleichenia longissima. 

ULUHI See ULUHE. 

ULUNAHELE Cyrtandra kauaiensis. 

ULUPUA Osmanthus sandwicensis. 

UMEALU Cenchrus echinatus. 

UMEKE POHUE Cucurbit a maxima. 

UMEKE After the gourd of Cucurbita maxima is cleaned. 

UNUHI See ULUHE. 

UULEI See ULEI. 

Uwiuwi Erigeron canadense. 



16 

WAHANE Seeds of Pritchardia, see HA WANE. 
WAHINE NOHO MAUNA Polypodium tamariscinum. 
WAIAWI Psidium pomiferum. 
WAIMAKANUI Dry op-tens Keraudreniana. 
WAIMEA Perrottetia sandwicensis, Maui. 
WAIMEA Pipturus ruber, Kauai. 
WALAHEE Plectronia odorata. 
WANINI Eurya sandwicensis. 
WAUKE Brousonetia papyrifera. 
WAWAE IOLE Lyco podium cernuum. 
WAWAE IOLE Lycopodium pachystachyon. 
WILIWILI Erythrina monosperma. 

LIST OF NATIVE NAMES OF INTRODUCED PLANTS. 

INIA Melia Azedarach. Pride of India. 

KIAWE Prosopis juliflora. Algaroba. 

OHAI Pithecolobium Saman. Monkey-pod.. 

OPIUM A Inga dulcis. 

WILIWILI Adenanthera pavonia (on account of the red seeds 

resembling the native Wiliwili). 
KLU Acacia farnesiana. 

LEMI WAI Passiflora lauri folia. Water-lemon (yellow). 
LILI WAI See LEMI WAI. 

Li LI KOI Passiflora edulis. Purple fruited water-lemon. 
LAKANA Lantana camara. Lantana. 
KILIKA Morus nigra. Mulberry. 

LIST OF HAWAIIAN PLANT NAMES WHICH CAN 
NOT BE IDENTIFIED. 

(Descriptions from original spatter work, made by Mr. F. Gay.) 

PULIHILIHI Evidently a trifoliate leguminous plant. 

LAUKUA A plant with an irregularly lobed leaf with broad 
sinuses between the lobes ; grows on Kauai. 

OLIKO A small plant with linear lanceolate leaves ; it may be 
Suttonia lanceolata. 

KILIOE A vine with small elliptical leaves at intednodes of 
4.5 inches. 

POKALAKALA A plant with a 5-6 palmatisect leaf on petioles 
of 2 inches. 

NAHUNAPALAI A small fern, probably an Aspidium. 



17 

LIST OF NATIVE VARIETIES OF THE BANANA. 

Musa sapientum. 

HAA or IHOLENA HA A Growing 6-8 feet high, leaf light 
green; stem light green with black streaks; scape short, but 
large, fruits pointed. 

One of the choicest varieties for cooking. 

PUAPUANUI, KAPUA, or PUUHALA A banana similar to the 
HAA, but is very tall like the LELE ; scape shorter and smaller 
than of the HAA. It is also called MAOLIILI-LAHILAHI. 

LELE A very tall banana, stem blacker than in the HAA; leaf 
of a reddish color underneath. , 

IIJOLENA, LOHA, iHo-u Stem tall .like that of the LELE, but 
leaf like that of the HAA, and not reddish, except on the margin. 
Growing in Kahana Valley at the mouth of Kawaiiki, Kauai. 

MAOLI, KAHIKI A very tall dark green stemmed 'banana, 
bearing a long and large bunch of long and round fruits of a dark 
green color, which become orange yellow when ripe'; has a very 
fine flavored fruit. This variety has several forms which are 
known as : MANAEULA or PONI, PUHI, KANALAU and KOAE. 

PONI, O'A Similar to the MAOLL, leaf stalk purple, stem red- 
dish ; the scape is shorter than that of the MAOLI and so is the 
fruit. Growing on Kauai, at Wainenene. 

HUAIWAENA or MAIA HAPAI A banana with very small scape. 

MAIA HUANUI A banana bearing from 2-4 bunches. 

KOAE or AEAE" A tall banana with white and green striped 
leaves ; the fruit is also white striped. 

POPOULU Similar of growth to the HAA, fruits short, and 
round, ends flattened. 

KANALUA A banana like the MAOLI, stem is shorter and the 
fruits resemble those of the PONI. 

MAIA HEI Leaf dark striped, scape standing erect. 

LIKO A Tahitian banana. 

MOA Stem very tall, bunches small, having only three rows of 
fruits, skin rough. 

Of foreign or introduced bananas the natives distinguish the 
following : 

MAIA ANOANO Manila banana. 

MAIA PAKE Chinese banana (Musa Cavcndeshi.) 

MAIA NUHOLANI Brazilian banana. 

OPULE or MAIA KOANA Fruits are spotted ; and produce seeds. 



18 

LIST OF HAWAIIAN ALGAE (SEAWEEDS) OR LIMU 
WITH THEIR NATIVE NAMES.* 

LIMU AALAULA C 'odium Muelleri Kiitz. 

" " tomentosum (Huds.) Stackh. 
" AKAAKOA Ectocarpus sp. 
" AKIAKI Ahnfeldtia concinna J. Agh. 
" AKUILA Chylocladia sp. 
" ALANI Dictyota acutiloba distorta. 

" " Dichotoma. 
" AUPUPU Criffithsia sp. 

" AWIKIWIKI Gymnogongrus disciplinalis (Bory) J. Agh. 
EKAHAEKAHA Gymnogongrus vermicularis americana 

J. Agh. 

EKAHAKAHA Gelidium filicinum. 
" ELEAU See AKIAKI. 
" ELEELE Enter omorpha ftexuosa (Wulf.) Agh. 

hopkirkii. 
" " " intestinalis (L) Link. 

prolifera (Muell.) J. Agh. 
" HAULA Nitophyllum sp. 
" HAWANE Polysiphonia mollis. 

Strebdocladia sp. 

" HULU Centroceras clavulatum (Agh.) Mont. 
" HULUHULUWAENA Grateloupia filicina (Wulf.) Agh. 
" HULUILIO See HULU. 
" Cladophora nitida Kuetz. 

" HULUPUAA Spiridia spinella. 
" HUNA Hypnea nidifica J. Agh. 
" HUNA Hypnea armata. 

" ILIO Chaetomorpha antennina (Bory) Kuetz. 
" KALA Sargassum echinocarpum J. Agh. 
" " cymosum J. Agh. 

polyphyllum J. Agh. 
" KALA-WAI Nais major All. 
" KALIPOA Griffithsia sp. 

" KAUPAU Chnoospora fastigiata pacifica J. Agh. 
" KIHE Chylocladia rigens? 
" KOELE Gymnogongrus spp. 

" KOELEELE See KOELE. 

" KOKO See KOHU. 

" KOHU Asparagopsis sanfordiana Harv. 



* The native names of the seaweeds were mostly compiled from 
a list by Miss Minnie Reed, an ardent student of the Hawaiian 
marine-flora. 



19 

LIMU KUWELA Gclidiuiii sp. 
" LIPAAKAI See KOHU. 

LEPEAHINA Halymciiia formosa. 

LIPEE -Laurencia pinnatifida (Gmel.) Lam. 
" LIPAHAPAHA Ulva lactua Tigida (Agh.) Le Jolis. 
" LIPAHEE Porphyra leucostica. 

" LIPALAHALAHA Ulva lactua lacimatd (Wulf.) J. Agh. 
" LIPALAWAI Pithophora sp. 
" LIPEHU See KOHU. 

LIPO Haliseris pardalis. 
" LIPOA Dictyota acutiloba distorta. 

Haliseris plagiogramma Mont. 
" LIPEPEIAO Amansia glomerata Agh. 
" LIPEEPEE Laurencia pinnatifida. 
" " obtusa. 
" " virgata. 

perforate 
" LIPUUPUU Laurencia sp. 

LOLOA Gelidium sp. 

LUAU Porphyra leucostica. 
" MANAUEA Gracilaria coronopifolia J. Agh. 
" MANEONEO Laurencia papillosa (Forst.) Grev. 
" MANU See ILIO. 
" MOOPUNA See AUPUPU. 

NEHE Spirogyra spp. 
" NEI See AWIKIWIKI. 
" OLIPEEPEE See MANEONEO. 

OOLU Champia compressa Harv. 

Chondria ten uissima. 
" PAHAPAHA Ulva fasciata Delile. 
" PAKAEA See LIPALAHALAHA. 

" PAKAELEAWAA See HuLUHULUWAENA. 

" PALAHALOHA See PAHAPAHA. 

PALAWAI Hydrodictyon reticulatum (L.) Lagerh. 

-See NEHE. 

" PEPEIAO- Padina pavonia. 
" " Durvillci. 
" See LIPEPEIAO. 

" PIPILANI Enter omorpha ftexuosa (Wulf.) Agh. 
" PUAKI Liagora decussata. 
" PUALU See HAWANE. 

UAUALOLI Gymnogongrus vermicularis americana J. Agh. 
" WAWAE-IOLE See HULU. 

-See AALAULA. 

" WAWAIIIWAA See KAUPAU. 
" WAWAIMOA See AALAULA. 



20 

LIST OF FUNGI. 

PEPEIAO AKUA Hirniola polytricha Mont. 
KALUKALU A species of Truffle. 

LIST OF LICHENES. 

UN A H E Farm elia. 

KUAALA Peltigera podydactyla var. dolichorhiza. 

LIMU HAEA Stereocaulon claviceps. 

UNAHE Parmelia perlata. 

LIST OF HEPATICS AND MOSSES. 

LIMU .KOHA A hepatic. 
LIMU AHUULA A moss. 

LILILEHUA A moss of fern-like habit covering tree trunks. 
LIMU HOLOAWAI A moss growing on rocks submerged in 
streambed, dark green. 

LIMU AHI A hepatic growing on trees. 

HlNEHINEULA A mOSS. 

HULUHULUAILJO A moss. 

LIMU HUNA A moss of fine thread-like branches. 

LIMU ALANI A moss. 

LIMU KAHA A hepatic. 

LIMU WAIKOI A hepatic. 

WAIOKILA Evidently a moss. 

Seaweeds have often the same native name as Liverworts or 
Mosses. The Hawaiian idea of creation is shown in a temple 
poem called PULE HEIAU, wherein it is stated that every plant 
created in the sea had its counterpart on land, which guarded the 
other with vigilance in the strife for existence. Hence. evidently 
the same names for land plants. 



PRESS BU LLETi N NO. 12. O I V I S I O IM OR RORELSTRY 

Boinl of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry 

TERRITORY OF HAWAII 
DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

RALPH S. HOSMER 



SUPERINTENDENT 



Suggestions in Regard to the Arbor Day Tree Planting 

Contest. 

[Prepared under the direction of the Superintendent of Forestry.] 



To fittingly inaugurate the first Arbor Day to be officially ob- 
served in Hawaii there has been raised, through the generosity and 
public spirit of Governor G. R. Carter and a number of firms and 
individuals in Honolulu, an Arbor Day Tree Planting Prize Fund. 
From this fund a prize to the value of five dollars is offered in each 
of the public schools in the Territory according to terms set forth 
in the report of a Special Arbor Day Committee. 

The committee's report is as follows : 

Honolulu, Oct. "24, 1905. 
Honorable A. L. C. Atkinson, 

Secretary of Hawaii, Honolulu. 

Sir: We, the undersigned, appointed by you as a committee to arrange the 
details of the Arbor Day tree planting contest, beg leave to report as follows: 

We are heartily in favor of the proposed contest, because we believe it is 
based on the true spirit of Arbor Day, which is to awaken and maintain a con- 
tinued interest in the planting and care of trees on school grounds and else- 
where. 

To carry out the plan in a successful way, and to arouse the lasting interest 
of both teachers and children, we recommend: 

First, that to every school making application to tin* Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, a prize of not less than five dollars in value, consisiing of 



QIT 



some object of beauty or utility, to be selected by the teachers of the school, 
be offered in each of the public schools of the Territory, to the grade planting 
on school grounds on Arbor Day, November 3, 1905, or before November 15, 
1905, the tree which as the result of being well cared for is in the best condi- 
tion on the succeeding Arbor Day, and that the prize be re-awarded each year 
thereafter under the same conditions. 

Second, that the prize be the property of the grade winning it for the peri- 
od of one year, and each year it shall have attached to it the name of the 
grade winning it, and a record kept of the names of the children in the grade. 

Third, that the planting be done in strict accordance with the directions 
prepared by the Superintendent or Forestry and furnished by him to the prin- 
cipal of each school. These directions will be drawn up so as to cover the va- 
rious conditions existing in the various parts of the Territory. 

Fourth, that the trees be judged before hand by the school agent of the 
district, after an examination of them and consultation with the teacher of 
each competing grade, and the prize publicly awarded on Arbor Day. 

Eespectfully yours, 

(Signed) RALPH' S. HOSMER, 

Supt. of Forestry. 

JAMES C. DAVIS, 
Supt. Public Inst., Committee. 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 

That the plan may be carried out in a systematic way and under conditions 
which will insure success, the following suggestions have been drawn up by 
the Division of Forestry for the guidance of teachers and pupils. The direc- 
tions should be carefully followed for it is not enough simply to set out a 
tree to secure lasting and satisfactory results. To insure success the tree must 
be selected with reference to the location where it is to go, must be carefully 
planted and intelligently cared for until it is thoroughly established. Where 
this is done the tree will become a valuable addition to the school ground, 
amply repaying the continued care given it. 

WHAT PLANTING TO DO. 

There should be both purpose and method in school ground planting. 
Trees must be so arranged as to serve both for protection and for ornament. 
At the same time, to grow well they must be adapted to the soil. On a small 
ground but little planting is possible; a group of trees or shrubs placed where 
they will look well or hide some unsightly feature of the schoolhouse or ground 
is sufficient. Instead of being continuous around the grounds the planting 



should be broken in places to preserve attractive views. The general condi- 
tion and size of the ground, direction and prevailing wind, slope and surround- 
ings should collectively determine the character of the planting. 

The selection of trees suitable for the different districts and localities in 
the Islands is a very important matter and should be made by those familiar 
with the local conditions and with the kinds of trees that are likely to do best. 

Indiscriminate planting of trees without first studying the local conditions 
can not be expected to yield good results. Throughout the Territory the chief 
factors to be taken into account are rainfall, elevation, soil, exposure to pre- 
vailing winds and the object of the planting, as, for example, whether protec- 
tion from the wind is desired rather than ornamental effect. 

KINDS OF TREES. 

The following lists give the names of the trees which can at the present 
time be supplied by the Government Nursery, and which are suitable for plant- 
ing under the several conditions called for. 

Trees best suited for windy and exposed places: 

Iron wood (Casuarina equisetifolia). 

Swamp mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta). 

Lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora). 

Java plum (Eugenia jambolana). 

Silk oak (Grevillea robusta). 

Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa). 

All of the above, except the ironwood, grow well from sea level up to an 
elevation of 3000 feet. The ironwood does not do well over 800 feet. 
Trees suited for clay or very heavy soil or wet situations: 

Swamp mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta). 

Lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora). 

Silk oak (Grevillea robusta). 

Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa). 
Trees suited to very dry places: 

Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia). 

Silk oak (Grevillea robusta). 

Pepper tree (Schinus molle). 

Wiliwili (Erythrina monosperma). 

The evelations at which trees recommended for school ground planting may 
be best grown are as follows: 

Flame tree (Poinciana regia), sea level to 1000 feet. 
Siris tree (Albizzia lebbek), sea level to 1800 feet. 
Monkey Pod (Albizzia saman), sea level to 1800 feet. 
Golden shower (Cassia fistula), sea level to 1000 feet. 
Pink and white shower (Cassia nodosa), sea level to 1000 feet. 
Java plum (Eugenia jambolana), sea level to 1800 feet. 



Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia), sea level to 1500 feet. 
Swamp mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta), sea level to 4000 feet. 
Lemon gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), sea level to 4000 feet. 
Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa), sea level to 5000 feet. 
Silk oak (Grevillea robusta), sea level to 3000 feet. 
Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia), sea level to 800 feet. 
Pepper tree (Schinus molle), sea level to 1000 feet. 
Wiliwili (Erythrina monosperma), sea level to 1000 feet. 

APPLICATION FOE TREES. 

Applications for trees for the Arbor Day Tree Planting Contest may be 
made to Mr. David Haughs, forest nurseryman, box 331, Honolulu, Oahu. The 
trees will be sent from the nursery prepaid, upon receipt of the application. 

It is suggested that each of the grades in a given school plant the same 
kind of tree, that all may start with an even chance. 

TREATMENT OF PLANTS WHEN RECEIVED FROM THE NURSERY. 

The box of plants when received from the Government Nursery should be 
placed in a partly shaded place, as under or behind a tree or bush, where it 
will be protected from the midday sun. It should there remain undisturbed 
until the holes are properly prepared and the time for planting arrives. A 
sprinkling of water each afternoon is all that is required. 

DISTANCE APART., 

In planting for shade, ornamental or landscape purposes, trees should not 
be set too close together. Crowding mars the effect. Sufficient room should, 
therefore, be given for the full development of the branches. 

Following is a list of the distances apart at which the trees named should 
be planted for the best effect: 

Flame tree (Poinciana regia), 35 feet. 

Siris tree (Albizzia lebbek), 40 feet. 

Monkey pod (Albizzia saman), 40 feet. 

Pink and white shower (Cassia nodosa), 25 feet. 

Golden shower (Cassia fistula), 20 feet. 

Java plum (Eugenia jambolana), 30 feet. 

Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia), 30 feet. 

Eucalypts (several species), 10-15 feet. 

Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia), 10-15 feet. 

Silk oak (Grevillea robusta), 25 feet. 

Pepper tree (Schinus molle), 30 feet. 

Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa), 18 feet. 



WINDBREAK AND FOREST PLANTING. 

For windbreak and forest planting the trees ought to be planted close, 
varying from two to eight feet, according to the kinds used. This point need 
not be further discussed here because most school ground planting is for orna- 
mental effect. 

MAKING HOLES AND PREPARING THE SOIL. 

In stiff or hard soil the holes should be made three feet square and from 
two and a half to three feet deep. As the top soil is generally the best, it 
should be thrown to one side, so that it can be used around the roots of the 
tree when the hole is refilled. The soil should be well broken up. If con- 
venient it is well to mix with it a few spadefuls of stable manure; the manure 
being thoroughly mixed with the soil. Such fertilization, where it can be done, 
will help the tree considerably. 

PLANTING THE TREE. 

If possible planting should be done on a cool, cloudy day. The hole should 
be refilled to within three inches of the surface, reserving the best soil to pack 
about the tree. The soil should be tramped lightly with the feet, leaving an 
opening in the center of the hole large enough to hold the tree. The tree seedling 
is to be placed in the soil just as it is received from the nursery, without 
removing it from the paper pot. After the tree has been placed in position 
and the good soil packed around it the soil should be tramped again, until it 
is properly firmed. Care should be taken not to plant too deep. The tree 
should be planted about one inch deeper than it was in the nursery and the 
surface of the ground around the tree should be almost level when the 
planting is finished. In ordinary situations a slight depression around the 
tree, to prevent the water running away when the tree is irrigated, is all 
that is required. In wet districts it is sometimes better to grade the earth so 
that the water will not collect around the tree. Water should not be applied 
until after the tree is planted, then half a bucketful may be gently poured on, 
wetting the soil immediately around the tree. If there are frequent showers 
no further watering will be necessary. 

CARE OF TREES AFTER PLANTING. 

Important as the process of planting is, much more depends upon the after 
treatment. In many places cultivation is absolutely essential and nearly every- 
where a tree will thrive better and grow faster during its early years with 
cultivation than without it. The purposes of cultivation are mainly to pro- 
tect the Doling tree from the encroachment of weeds and grass, to keep the 
soil about it in good condition and to retain the moisture. If planted in a 
dry time the tree should, if possible, be watered. This should be done by 



giving a good soaking once every two days for two or three months, or until 
the tree has got a good start, thence twice a week, and later once a week, 
as the roots go deeper into the soil. It should be remembered that the more 
careful the attention is that can be given to the tree the moie likely is it to 
become established as a vigorous and thrifty specimen. 

PROTECTION OF TREES FROM INJURY. 

Protection from strong winds in exposed places is necessary until the 
tree gets well rooted in the soil. This may be done in different ways. Proba- 
bly the cheapest and easiest plan is to drive in two stakes on the windward 
side of the tree about three feet apart, and to tie to them an old grain or 
sugar bag. One thickness is enough. Where there is danger of injury from 
cattle or other stock the young tree should be protected by some sort of a 
fence. While the tree is small, stakes set about it are usually sufficient; as 
the tree grows larger an inexpensive frame work should be built. 

Grass and weeds should, of course, be kept away from the tree until it 
grows large enough to rise above them, when it will take care of itself. 

Throughout the planting and the subsequent care of the tree both the 
teacher and the pupil should bear in mind that the object of the tree planting 
contest is not merely to get the seedling well started, but to have it develop 
into a vigorous and beautiful treo which will remain for many years a perma- 
nent and attractive addition to the school grounds. 

SUBSCRIPTION LIST. 

Arbor Day Tres-Planting Prize. 

For a five dollar prize in each of the 154 schools in the Territory $770.00 

Gov. G. R, Carter 385.00 

S. M. Damon 25.00 

G. P. Castle 25.00 

J. B. Castle 25.00 

Alexander & Baldwin 25.00 

Castle & Cooke, Ltd 25.00 

C. Brewer & Co 25.00 

Theo. H. Davies & Co., Ltd 25.00 

H. Hackf eld & Co., Ltd 25.00 

Wm. G. Irwin & Co., Ltd 25.00 

Oahu Railway and Land Co 25.00 

Henry Waterhouse Trust Co., Ltd 25.00 

F. A. Schaefer & Co 25.00 

W. O. Smith 10.00 

P. C. Jones 10.00 

Pacific Hardware Co., Ltd 15.00 



Benson, Smith & Co., Ltd 5.00 

C. M. Cooke 5.00 

Mrs. J. B. Atherton 10.00 

The Mary Castle Trust 10.00 

E. O. Hall & Son, Ltd 10.00 

Cash 1.00 

Lewers & Cooke, Ltd 9.00 

$385.00 



PRE6S BULLETIN IM O. 3. DIVISION OF" 

Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry 

TERRITORV OF HAWAII- 
DIVISION OF FORESTRY 



RALPH S. HOSMER 

SUPERINTENDENT. 



Revised List of the Forest and Ornamental 

Tree Seed for Sale at the 

Government Nursery. 



SEED COLLECTED IN NEIGHBORHOOD OF HONOLULU. 

FOREST TREES. 

Approximate Price 

Common and Scientific Name. No. Seeds Per Oz. 

Per Oz. Cents. 

Koa (Acacia koa) 500 15 

*Ironwood (Casuarina cquisetifolia) 22,000 10 

*Blue Ironwood (Casuarina glauca) 20,000 15 

Red Gum (S. W. Australia) (Eucalyptus calophylla) 350 50 

*Yate (Eucalyptus cornuta) 80,000 50 

*Bloodwood (Eucalyptus corymbosa) 70,000 50 

*Stringybark (Eucalyptus cugcnioidcs} 85,000 50 

*Svvamp Gum (Eucalyptus gunnii) 80,000 50 

"Tronbark (Eucalyptus Icucoxylon} 80,000 50 

*Yellow Box (Eucalyptus mclliodora} 80,000 50 

*Leather-Jacket (Eucalyptus punctata) 90.000 50 

*Red Mahogany (Eucalyptus rcsinifera) 90,000 50 

*S\vamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta) 90,000 50 

*Red Gum (Eucalyptus rostrata) 90,000 50 

Silk Oak (Grevillca robusta) 1.500 20 

[The kinds starred (*) are sold in 5 and 10 cent 
packages.] 



ORNAMETAL AND STREET TREES. 

Red Sandahvood (Adcnanthera pavonina} 85 25 

Siris Tree (Albizzia lebbek} 120 25 

Monkeypod (Albizzia saman} 150 15 

St. Thomas Tree (Bauhini tomentosa} 120 25 

Berria (Berria ammonilla) 1,000 20 

Silk Cotton (Bombax ceiba} 400 25 

Red Dyewood (Caesalplnia sappan} 30 25 

Yellow Poinciana (Caestalpinia sps.) 330 25 

Pink Shower (Cassia grandis) 38 25 

Golden Shower (Cassia fistula} 150 25 

Pink and White Shower (Cassia nodosa} 120 25 

Duranta (White) (Duranta plumieri alba} 400 25 

Duranta (Blue) (Duncwta plumieri) 400 25 

* Henna (Lawsonia alba} 24,000 20 

Pride of India (Melia azedarach} 30 10 

African Locust (Parkia africana} 30 10 

Royal Poinciana (Poinciana regia} 50 TO 

Pepper Tree (Schinus molle} 780 20 

Milo (Thespesia populnea} TOO 25 

IMPORTED SEED. 

% 

FROM AUSTRALIA. 

*Australian Ironwood (Casuarina stricta} 20,000 40 

*Ttirpentine Tree (Syncarpia laurifoliici) 90,000 40 

* Apple Tree of New South Wales (Angophora sub- 

velutina} i.ooo 50 

*Black Box (Eucalyptus bicolor} 90,000 45 

*Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor} 20,000 60 

*White Gum (Eucalyptus haemastoma} 80,000 45 

*Gray Box (Eucalyptus hcmiphloia} 90,000 45 

*Ironbark (Eucalyptus leucoxylon} 90,000 50 

*Woolly-Butt (Eucalyptus longifolia} 90,000 40 

*Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata} 6,600 50 

*Messmate (Eucalyptus obliquo} 30,000 40 

*Yellow Blackbutt (Eucalyptus obtusifolia} 30,000 40 

*Giant Gum (Eucalyptus regnans} 40,000 5 

*Weeping Gum (Eucalyptus saligna} 90,000 40 

*Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis} 80.000 40 



FROM CALIFORNIA. 

*Blue Gnni (Eucalyptus globulus) 7,800 30 

Black Wattle (Acacia decurrens) 2,200 25 

Australian Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) 2,000 25 

Cootamundra Wattle (Acacia baileyana) 1,000 30 

Leather-leaf Ash (Fraxinus velutina) 1,400 40 

Monterey Cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) 3,7OO 10 

Redwood (Sequoia sempcrvirens) 5,ooo 25 

Bigtree (Sequoia zvashingtoniana) 4,000 40 

Canary Island Pine (Finns can&iriensis) 225 25 

Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris) 4,800 15 

Seaside Pin (Pinus maritima) 550 15 

White Pine (Pinus strobus) k 2,000 20 

FROM GERMANY. 

Ceara Rubber (Manihot glaziovii) 50 20 

PALM SEED. 

Price 
per 100 

Red Palm (Areca rubra) 30 $1.50 

Wine Palm (Caryota urens) 10 1.50 

Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) 5 2.00 

Fan Palm (Latania borbonica) 12 i.oo 

Royal Palm (Orcodoxa regia) 60 i.oo 

Loulu Lelo (Pritchardia gaudichaudii) 8 2.50 

House Palm (Thrinax argcntca') 120 i.oo 

TREE SEEDLINGS. 

Beside seed there is also kept on hand a limited number of tree seed- 
lings. The following kinds may be bought for 5 cents each: 

Monterey Cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa). 

Brazilian Rosewood (Jacaranda mini osae folia). 

Longan (Nephelium longana). 
The trees listed below are sold at 2 l /2 cents each : 

Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia). 

Blue Ironwood (Casuarina glauca). 

Lemon-scented Gum (Eucalyptus citriodora). 

Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta). 

Silk Oak (Grevillca robust^. 

Siris Tree (Albizzia lebbek}. 

Golden Shower (Cassia fistula). 

Pink Shower (Cassia grandis). 

Royal Poinciana (Poinciana regia). 

Pride of India (Melia azedarach). 

Pepper Tree (Schinus molle). 



Packets containing seed will be sent postpaid upon receipt of price. 
Remittances must be made in coin or by U. S. Money Order, payable to 
the order of David Haughs. 

Persons desiring tree-seed in large quantities are requested to place 
their orders well in advance. 

All communications in regard to seed should be addressed to David 
Haughs, Box 331, Honolulu, T. H. 

To stimulate interest in tree planting and to encourage the introduction 
and wider application of improved ways of planting, caring for and finally 
of cutting the trees in forest plantations, the Division of Forestry stands 
ready to render assistance to individuals or corporations desiring to un- 
dertake such work. Full particulars of the plan of co-operation may be 
found in Circular No. I of the Division of Forestry, entitled "An Offer of 
Practical Assistance to Tree Planters." 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 
Superintendent of Forestry. 
Feb. 14, 1906. 



F>RESS BULLETIN No. -4-. DIVISION OF" FORESTRY 

Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry 

TERRITORY OF HAWAII 
DIVISION OF FORESTRY 



RALPH S. HOSMER 
SUPERINTENDENT 



Instructions for Propagating and Planting 
Forest Trees. 



BY DAVID HAUGHS 

Forest Nurseryinaii. 



INTRODUCTION. 

This press bulletin has been prepared to answer inquiries that 
are continually being made to the Division of Forestry regard- 
ing the best methods to use in tree planting in this' Territory. 
The directions here given are the result of many years experi- 
ence on the several islands of the group and will, it is believed, 
meet most of the more common difficulties. 

Those desiring further information on any of the points here 
mentioned, or on other matters having to do with tree planting 
should not hesitate to call upon the Division of Forestry. It 
is one of the functions of this office to give advice and assistance 
to all residents of the Territory desiring this kind of informa- 
tion. Letters of inquiry should be addressed to Mr. David 
Haughs, Forest Nurseryman, Box 331, Honolulu, Oahu. 

PROPAGATION. 
Seed Bo.vcs. 

Shallow boxes from 3 to 4 inches deep and from 12 to 14 
inches by 18 to 20 inches are the sizes generally used. 

Empty boxes can usually be bought cheaply from grocery or 
liquor stores and cut into the sizes required. 



Drainage. 

Five or six 24~ mc h holes should be bored in each box for 
drainage. 

Kind of Soil to Use. 

Good light soil well mixed with a liberal allowance of sharp 
sand and put through a fine, sieve is the best to use for seed 
raising. Some experience however is essential to the best re- 
sults in preparing it. It should be of such character that when 
a damp portion is firmly compressed in the hand it will fall apart 
when released. It should never bake. Good old garden loam 
to which an equal quantity of sand has been added is usually 
a good soil for propagating seed. The soil should be sifted 
and thoroughly fined before the seeds are put into it, especially 
when small seeds are to be sown. The sieve used should be as 
fine as mosquito netting. 

Filling the Boxes. 

The boxes should be filled to within half an inch of the top, 
and the soil smoothed over with a small piece of board. 

Sowing the Seed. 

The seed should be sown evenly over the surface and pressed 
lightly with a smooth piece of wood to imbed it in the soil. 

Proper Depth for Sowing. 

The proper depth for sowing varies according to the size of 
the seed. Seed such as the different species of Eucalyptus, 
Casuarina, etc., should be sown upon the surface and then cover- 
ed with a very thin layer of finely sifted soil or sand. If free 
loam cannot be obtained use fine sand mixed with about one- 
fourth soil. 

From one-sixteenth to one-eight of an inch of covering for 
seed such as the ones mentioned will give the best results. A 
very good rule to go by in regard to seed sowing is to make 
the thickness of the covering equal as nearly as possible the 
diameter of the seed. 

Attention to the Soil after Sowing. 

After sowing, the soil should be kept moist but not too wet. 



If too much water is used damping off is very apt to set in and 
this fungus disease often proves very disastrous to such seedlings 
as the different species of Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Grevillea> 
Acacia, etc. A fine sprinkler should be used when watering. 

Transplanting. 

When the plants have grown to from 2 to 3 inches high they 
should be transplanted into other boxes and the plants set in 
lines from 2 to 3 inches apart according to the species, some 
requiring more room than others. Thus the different species 
of the Iromvoods (Casuarina) and most of the Eucalypts should 
be planted about two inches apart, while the Black Wattle 
(Acacia dccitrrcns), the Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata) as well 
as the Koa (Acacia koa) and other Acacias should be planted 
about three inches apart. The latter distance is also suitable 
for the Silk Oak (Grevillea robusta), Monkey Pod (Albizzia 
sanian) and similar trees. The plants should remain in the 
transplant boxes until they are from 15 to 18 inches high, when 
they will be ready to plant out. The transplanting of the seed- 
ings into Hala or T!i leaf pots, instead of into boxes, leaving them 
until they reach the heights mentioned is also recommended. 
Where the Ti or the Hala is to be obtained easily the latter method 
has been found to work very successfully. 

PLANTING. 
Distance Apart. 

The distance apart at which to plant forest trees varies 
according to the species used and the object of planting. Trees 
such ast the Ironwoods and most of the Eucalypts ought to be 
planted 6 feet apart each way for general forest planting. For 
windbreak purposes, where a narrow strip of a few rows only 
is allowed, they couldi be planted even closer; 4 by 4 feet would 
be wide enough for a narrow windbreak. Trees such as the 
Black Wattle and Silver Wattle ought to be planted 8 by 8 feet 
each way. 

Making Holes. 

In ordinary cases holes dug from 12 to 15 inches square and 



a foot deep, with the soil loosened up in the bottom is generally 
sufficient for forest planting in these Islands. Exceptional cases, 
however, make it practical to use larger or smaller holes as con- 
ditions vary. When the soil is free and can be easily dug with 
the spade, even a smaller hole than the one mentioned would 
be sufficient, but where the soil is hard and stiff and requires 
a pick to loosen it up, it will pay to make a larger hole; even 
two feet square and 18 to 20 inches deep is not too large in 
such cases. 

In very dry districts it h advisable to leave a space around 
the tree after it has been planted, a little lower than the sur- 
rounding ground, so that the tree may have the benefit of what- 
ever moisture may collect. In wet districts the soil around the 
tree after it is planted should be left a little higher than the 
surrounding ground, so that the water may run off and not re- 
main stagnant around the tree. 

Planting. 

In planting out great care should be taken to prevent the 
tender roots from being exposed to the air. A;? much soil as 
possible ought to remain intact around the plant. 

A very general mistake in tree planting is to plant too deep. 
It must be remembered that the best soil is generally on or 
near the surface, and the tender roots of the young plant will 
take more kindly to it than to the often sour and poor subsoil 
to be found a little deeper. When digging the hole the best 
soil should be put at one side and used around the roots of the 
tree when planting. 

After planting, hoeing and cleaning away the grass and weeds 
is necessary until the young trees get well above the grass or 
brush. 

Forest trees like everything else will make a faster growth if 
kept clean. 
. APPROVED: 
RALPH S. HOSMER, 

Superintendent of Forestry. 

Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 6, 1906. 





SS BULLETIN IM CD . 5. D I V I S I CD IM OR RCDFR E STF=* V 

Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry 



TERRITORY OF HAWAII 
DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

RALPH S. HOSMER 

SUPERINTENDENT 



Instructions for Planting Poorest, Shade 
and Ornamental Trees, \vith Brief 
IVotes on Propagation. 

By DAVID HAUGHS 

Forest Nurseryman 



INTRODUCTION. 

One of the principal objects of the Division of Forestry is 
to encourage tree planting. This it does by giving advice on 
how to grow trees and by furnishing at cost price, tree seed and 
seedlings. 

Seedlings of the kinds of trees most in demand for planting 
in different parts of the Territory are kept constantly on hand at 
the Government Nursery at Honolulu and at several sub-nurser- 
ies on the other islands. Seed of a considerably larger number 
of trees, suitable for various purposes, may also be had from 
the Division of Forestry by those who desire to grow their own 
trees. 

This press bulletin has been prepared to answer inquiries that 
are constantly being made of the Division of Forestry regarding 
the "best methods to use in tree planting in Hawaii. The direc- 
tions here given are the result of many years experience on the 
several islands of the group and will, it is believed, meet most of 
the more common difficulties. 

KINDS OF TREES. 

The following list gives the names of the trees which can at the 
present time be supplied in quantity by the Government Nursery. 
Blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) 
Lemon gum (Eucalyptus cilriodora) 
Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta) 
Ironwood ( Casuarina equisetifolia) 
Silk Oak (Grevillea robusta'] 
Royal poinciana (Poinciana regia) 
Pink and white shower (Cassia nodosa) 



2 

Pink shower (Cassia grandis.) 

Golden shower (Cassia fistula) 

Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosaefolia) 

Yellow Poinciana (Peltophorum ferrugineum) 

Monterey Cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) 

Pepper tree (Schimts molle) 

TREATMENT OF PLANTS WHEN RECEIVED FROM THE NURSERY. 

The box of plants when received from the Government Nur- 
sery should be placed in a partly shaded place, as under or behind 
a tree or bush, where it will be protected from the midday sun. 
It should there remain undisturbed until the holes are properly 
prepared and the time for planting arrives. A sprinkling of 
water each afternoon is all that is required. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING FOREST TREES. 

Distance Apart. 

The distance apart at which to plant forest trees varies accord- 
ing to the species used and the object of planting. Trees such 
as the Ironwoods and most of the Eucalypts ought to be planted 
6 feet apart each way for general forest planting. For wind- 
break purposes, where a narrow strip of a few rows only is al- 
lowed, they could be planted even closer ; 4 by 4 feet would be 
wide enough for a narrow windbreak. Trees such as the Black 
Wattle and Silver Wattle ought to be planted 8 by 8 feet each 
way. 

Making Holes. 

In ordinary cases holes dug from 12 to 15 inches square and a 
foot deep, with the soil loosened up in the bottom is generally 
sufficient for forest planting in these islands. Exceptional cases, 
however, make it practical to use larger or smaller holes as con- 
ditions vary. When the soil is free and can be easily dug with 
the spade, even a smaller hole than the one mentioned would be 
sufficient, but where the soil is hard and stiff and requires a pick 
to loosen it up, it will pay to make a larger hole; even two feet 
square and 18 to 20 inches deep is not too large in such cases. 

In very dry districts it is advisable to leave a space around the 
tree after it has been planted, a little lower than the surrounding 
ground, so that the tree may have the benefit of whatever mois- 
ture may collect. In wet districts the soil around the tree after it 
is planted should be left a little higher than the surrounding 



ground, so that the water may run off and not remain stagnant 
around the tree. 

Planting. 

In planting out great care should be taken to prevent the 
tender roots from being exposed to the air. As much soil as 
possible ought to remain intact around the plant. 

A very general mistake in tree planting is to plant too deep. 
It must be remembered that the best soil is generally on or near 
the surface, and the tender roots of the young plant will take 
more kindly to it than to the often sour and poor subsoil to be 
found a little deeper. When digging the hole the best soil should 
be put one side and used around the roots of the tree when plant- 
ing. 

After planting, hoeing and cleaning away the grass and weeds 
is necessary until the young trees get well above the grass or 
brush. 

Forest trees like everything else will make a faster growth if 
kept clean. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Distance Apart. 

. In planting for shade, ornamental or landscape purposes, 
trc't-s should not be set too close together. Crowding mars the 
effect. Sufficient room should, therefore, be given for the full 
development of the branches. 

On the above list the first five may be classed as forest trees 
and the others shade and ornamental. 

Following is a list of the distances apart at which the trees 
named should be planted for the best effect. 

Royal poinciana (Poinciana regia) 40 feet. 
Pink and White Shower (Cassia nodosa) 30 feet. 
Pink show r er (Cassia grandis) 30 feet. 
Golden shower (Cassia fistula) 30 feet. 
J-acaranda (facaranda mimosaefolw) 35 feet. 
Yellow poinciana (Peltophornm ferrugineum) 40 feet. 
Monterey Cypress (Cupressns wiacrocarpa) 20 feet. 
Pepper tree (Schintis molle) 35 feet. 



4: 

Making Holes mid Preparing tfie Soil. 

In stiff or hard soil the holes should be made three feet square 
and from two and a half to three feet deep. As the top soil is 
generally the best, it should be thrown to one side, so that it can 
be used around the roots of the tree when the hole is refilled. 
The soil should be well broken up. If convenient it is well to 
mix with it a few spadefuls of stable manure ; the manure being 
thoroughly mixed with the soil. Such fertilization, where it 
can be done, will help the tree considerably. 

Planting the Tree. 

If possible planting should be done on a cool, cloudy day. 
The hole should be refilled to within three inches of the surface, 
reserving the best soil to pack about the tree. The soil should 
be tramped lightly with the feet, leaving an opening in the 
center of .the hole large enough to hold the tree. The tree 
seedling is to be placed in the soil just as it is received from the 
nursery, without removing it from the paper pot. After the 
tree has been placed in position and the good soil packed around 
it the soil should be tramped again, until it is properly firmed. 
Care should be taken not to plant too deep. The tree should 
be planted about one inch deeper than it was in the nursery and 
the surface of the ground around the tree should be almost level 
when the planting is finished. In ordinary situations a slight 
depression around the tree, to prevent the water running away 
when the tree is irrigated, is all that is required. In wet dis- 
tricts it is sometimes better to grade the earth so that the water 
will not collect around the tree. Water should not be applied 
until after the tree is planted, then half a bucketful may be gently 
poured on, wetting the soil immediately around the tree. If there 
are frequent showers no further watering will be necessary. 

Care of Trees After Planting. 

Important as the process of planting is, much more depends 
upon the after treatment. In many places cultivation is abso- 
lutely essential and nearly everywhere a tree will thrive better 
and grow faster during its early years with cultivation than 
without it. The purposes of cultivation are mainly to protect 
the young tree from the encroachment of weeds and grass, to 
keep the soil about it in good condition and to retain the moisture 
If planted in a dry time the tree should, if possible, be watered. 
'I his should be done by giving a good soaking once every two 



days for two or three months, or until the tree has got a good 
start, thence twice a week, and later once a week, as the roots 
go deeper into the soil. It should be remembered that the more 
careful the attention is that can be given to the tree the more 
likely is it to become established as a vigorous and thrifty speci- 
men. 

Protection of Trees from Injury. 

Protection from strong winds in exposed places is necessary 
until the tree gets well rooted in the soil. This may be done in 
different ways. Probably the cheapest and easiest plan is to 
drive in two stakes on the windward side of the tree about three 
feet apart, and to tie to them an old grain or sugar bag. One 
thickness is enough. Where there is danger of injury from cat- 
tle or other stock the young tree should be protected by some 
sort of a fence. While the tree is small, stakes set about it are 
usually sufficient ; as the tree grows larger an inexpensive frame 
work should be built. 

Grass and weeds should, of course be kept away from the tree 
until it grows large enough to rise above them, when it will take 
care of itself. 



THE PROPAGATION OF TREES. 

Where a large number of trees is desired it is usually better 
to establish a nursery in the immediate vicinity of the land to be 
planted. The following paragraphs tell briefly how to go about 
growing trees from seed. As noted above, seed of many kinds 
of trees suitable for use in Hawaii can be had at cost price from 
the Division of Forestry. 

Seed Boxes. 

Shallow boxes from 3 to 4 inches deep and from 12 to 14 
inches by 1 8 to 20 inches are the sizes generally used. 

Empty boxes can usually be bought cheaply from grocery or 
liquor stores and cut into the sizes required. 



Drainage. 

Five or si.c % inch holes should be bored in each box for 
drainage. 



6 
Kind of Soil to Use. 

Good light soil well mixed with a liberal allowance of sharp 
sand and put through a fine sieve is the best to use for seed rais- 
ing. Some experience however is essential to the best results in 
preparing it. It should be of such character that when a damp 
portion is firmly compressed in the hand it will fall apart when 
released. It should never bake. Good old garden loam to 
which an equal quantity of sand has been added is usually a good 
soil for propagating seed. The soil should be sifted and thor- 
oughly fined before the seeds are put into it, especially when 
small seeds are to be sown. The sieve used should be as fine as 
mosquito netting. 

Filling the Boxes. 

The boxes should be filled to within half an inch of the top, 
and the soil smoothed over with a small piece of board. 

Sowing the Seed. 

The seed should be sown evenly over the surface and pressed 
lightly with a smooth piece of wood to imbed it in the soil. 

Proper Depth for Sowing. 

The proper depth for sowing varies according to the size of 
the seed. Seed such as the different species of Eucalyptus, Casu- 
arina, etc., should be sown upon the surface and then covered 
with a very thin layer of finely sifted soil or sand. If free loam 
cannot be obtained use fine sand mixed with about one-fourth 
soil. 

From one-sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch of covering for 
seed such as the ones mentioned will give the best results. A 
very good rule to go by in regard to seed sowing is to make the 
thickness of the covering equal as nearly as possible the diameter 
of the seed. 

Attention to the Soil After Souring. 

After sowing, the soil should be kept moist but not too wet. 
If too much water is used damping off is very apt to set in and 
this fungus disease often proves very disastrous to such seedlings 
as the different species of Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Grevillea, Aca- 
cia, etc. A fine sprinkler should be used when watering. 



Transplanting. 

When the plants have grown to from 2 to 3 inches high they 
should be transplanted into other boxes and the plants set in 
lines from 2 to 3 inches apart according to the species, some re- 
quiring more room than others. Thus the different species of 
the Iroonwoods (Casuarina) and most of the Eucalypts should 
be planted about two inches apart, while the Black Wattle 
(Acacia dccurrens), the Silver Wattle (Acacia dealbata) as 
well as the Koa (Acacia- koa) and other Acacias should be plant- 
ed about three inches apart. 

Shade and ornamental trees ought however to be transplanted 
into pots. Either terra cotta, tin cans, bamboo or ti leaf will do. 
Forest trees stand transportation better and the percentage of 
failures during planting is considerably reduced if some kind 
of pot is used instead of the box system. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. 

Those desiring further information on any of the points here 
mentioned, or on other matters having to do with tree planting, 
should not hesitate to call upon the Division of Forestry. It is 
one of the functions of this office to give advice and assistance 
without charge, to all residents of the Territory desiring this kind 
of information. Letters of inquiry should be addressed to Mr. 
David Haughs, Forest Nurseryman, Box 331, Honolulu, Oahu. 

Approved : 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 

Superintendent of Forestry. 

Honolulu, Hawaii, Oct. 15, 1909. 



CIRCULAR N0.1. ^ DIVISION O F^ FORESTRY 

Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry 

TE:RRI~TORV OF HAWAII. 
DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

RALPH S. HOSMER 

SUPERINTENDENT. 



An Offer of Practical Assistance to Tree 

Planters. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Among the imports into Hawaii for the fiscal year ending 
June 30,,, 1905, wood products ranked seventh in value, the 
total for timber, lumber, door and window fittings, etc., and 
for furniture, being $528,110. In a price list recently issued 
by one of the leading lumber dealers in Honolulu ordinary 
rough lumber, Northwest (Red or Douglas Fir) and Redwood, 
is quoted.at from $30 to $35 per IYL, while Redwood fence posts 
are listed at 24 cents each. No stronger commentary is needed 
on the desirability of a local supply. 

THE OFFER. 

To assist in meeting the demand, the Division of Forestry- 
stands ready, so far as its limited appropriation will permit, 
to render practical and personal assistance to individuals or 
corporations desiring to establish forest plantations, wood lots 
or windbreaks, or to do other forest work. 

This assistance is given in two ways: 

First, by keeping constantly on hand fresh seed of the more 
important native and introduced trees and also a limited num- 
ber of nursery grown seedlings of the kinds most in demand; 
the seed and plants being sold at prices just covering the cost 
of collection or growing. 



Second, by advice and suggestion as to the kinds of trees best 
adapted for the purpose, locality and situation of the person 
desiring to plant, and the methods to be pursued to secure the 
best results in the planting. 

On each of the larger islands of the Hawaiian group there are 
considerable areas of forest, which play an important part in 
protecting the water sheds of the streams needed for fluming or 
irrigation, but unfortunately the native Hawaiian trees are 
for the most part not of economic importance. Where they are 
of value it is because of their worth as cabinet and other high 
class woods, rather than because they furnish construction 
material. To meet the ever growing demand for wood suitable 
for the various purposes of domestic supply, fence posts, rail- 
road ties, bridge timbers and general construction, not to men- 
tion fuel, which in certain districts is an important considera- 
tion, the Territory stands in great need of forest plantations 
of timber producing trees. 

Tree planting on a large scale in this country is necessarily 
a somewhat expensive operation and when undertaken should 
be done advisedly and in accordance with a systematic plan. 
The purpose of the Division of Forestry in offering to co- 
operate with the individual planter is to stimulate interest in 
tree planting, and by the introduction of good methods to 
secure the best results in the work done. To explain the offer 
of co-operation is the object of this circular. 

THE WORK OF THE DIVISION OP FORESTRY. 

Forest work in Hawaii falls naturally under two general 
heads: (1) the creation of forest reserves and the establish- 
ment of a system of forest administration, and (2) the intro- 
duction and propagation of exotic trees of value to the Ter- 
ritory. 

The forest reserve work has received first attention since 
the organization of the Division of Forestry and will continue 
to do so until the system is established and well under way. 
The reserves are for the most part "protection forests" on the 
important water-sheds and are made by setting apart areas of 



existing forest. While their essential object is to protect the 
slopes they cover, it is hoped that eventually, under forest 
management, the reserves may also be made to yield forest 
products on an economic basis. 

The other main line, plant introduction, is of no less impor- 
tance, but owing to the limited appropriation now available, it 
has for the present to take second place. 

There are many areas of waste land in the Territory where 
forest trees could, with advantage, be planted. On almost 
every sugar plantation are unproductive corners and strips 
of land, where it is not advisable to plant cane, which could 
well be devoted to trees. The proper kinds being set out 
would in time yield good returns for bridge timbers, fence 
posts, railroad ties or fuel, besides in the meantime improv- 
ing the appearance of the country-side. But tree planting is 
not restricted to the corporation or to the larger owner alone. 
To the homesteader it is equally, perhaps even more impor- 
tant, to have a wood lot from which he can obtain supplies 
of wood or fuel. And further, it should not be forgotten that 
the sale value of a place is increased by the presence of trees 
about the house, the whole protected if need be by a wind- 
break on the exposed side. 

TREE PLANTING IN THE PAST. 

The recommendations of the Division of Forestry are based 
on what has been actually accomplished in the Territory and on 
technical information brought together by the members of the 
staff. During the past thirty years much tree planting has 
been done in Hawaii- many species of trees having been tried 
under a variety of conditions and in many localities. Some 
have succeeded well. Others through their failure have proved 
equally instructive. The planting has included road-side and 
ornamental planting as well as windbreaks and forest planta- 
tions made primarily for commercial returns. As a result of all 
this work much valuable information has been accumulated, 
some of which the Division of Forestry expects later to publish 
in the form of bulletins. At preient it has not been fully com- 
piled. 



THE PLAN OF CO-OPERATION. 

The Division of Forestry stands ready to give advice as to 
the kinds of trees best adapted for particular needs and as 
to the methods which should be followed to insure success, in 
all classes of forest-tree planting. It will also undertake for 
a time to give advice on road-side and street tree planting, 
although this is not strictly within the province of forest work. 

The Division of Forestry has already in hand sufficient in- 
fomation so that in many instances, advice can at once be 
given to fully cover the needs of the applicant, particularly 
where only a limited area is to be planted. In other cases, 
and especially where planting is to be done on a large scale, 
an agent of the Division will visit the locality and inspect the 
conditions on the ground. Having become familiar through a 
personal examination with the situation, soil, exposure and 
other factors, he is prepared to make definite and comprehen- 
sive recommendations. These may sometimes be given ver- 
bally, but will usually be embodied in a planting plan. The 
planting plan includes a statement of the species best adapted 
for the desired purpose in the given locality, directions in re- 
gard to the starting' and care of the seedling trees in the nur- 
sery, the preparation of the soil, transplanting and setting out, 
the proper spacing of the trees and the subsequent care neces- 
sary to be given them. When advisable a diagram or sketch 
plan illustrative of the arrangement or spacing of the trees 
accompanies the report. 

The services of the agent of the Division of Forestry are 
without cost to the applicant, but his expenses for traveling 
from Honolulu to the locality visited and return, and his sub- 
sistence must be borne by the applicant. When several per- 
sons on a single island are visited on one trip, the cost of the 
trip will be divided among them. 

As one of the objects of the Division of Forestry in co-operat- 
ing with the individual planter is to secure the general intro- 
duction of better methods, the Division reserves the right to 
publish and distribute the plat! and its results for the informa- 
tion of the public. 



5 

Applications will so far as possible be considered in the order 
in which they are received, but precedence may be given to 
those likely to furnish the most useful examples. 

The form of co-operative agreement to be entered into by 
the individual planter and the Division of Forestry is given 
below. The agreement is not a formidable legal instrument; 
it is merely a statement of the conditions upon which the 
planting plan is prepared, and is only drawn up to prevent 
misunderstandings. It may be cancelled by either party upon 
ten days' notice: 

TREE PLANTING AGREEMENT. 

Honolulu, Hawaii, 
, 190. . 

The Division of Forestry of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry 

of the Territory of Hawaii and of , 

Island of Territory of Hawaii, mutually agree as fol- 
lows: 

1. The Division of Forestry, in order to spread a knowledge of prac- 
tical forestry in the Territory and to encourage tree planting therein, 
through the introduction and wider application of improved ways of 
planting and caring for forest plantations, wood lots and wind-breaks, 

agrees to prepare a planting plan for acres of the land of the said 

., situated and described as follows: 



2. The owner agrees to pay the traveling and subsistence expenses 
of the agent of the Division of Forestry, while engaged in the field 
work incident to the preparation and carrying out of the said planting 
plan. 

3. The owner does not agree to put the said plan into operation until 
it has been accepted by him. 

4. The owner agrees to keep such records of the work done under the 
said plan as may be recommended therein, and he further agrees that 
the Division of Forestry may publish, for the objects named in the first 
paragraph of this agreement, the information gained while preparing the 
plan or taken from the record made by the owner. 

5. After the completion of the said planting plan and its acceptance 
by the owner, the Division of Forestry will, upon a written request, 
undertake to supervise the execution thereof, so far as may be neces- 



sary, at a cost to the said owner to be definitely agreed upon before 
such supervision is undertaken. 

6. This agreement may be dissolved by either party upon ten days' 
notice given to the other in writing. 

(Signed) 

Owner. 

(Signed) 

Superintendent of Forestry. 

HOW TO MAKE APPLICATION. 

Applications for the assistance offered in this circular must 
be made in writing to the Superintendent of Forestry, P. 0. 
Box 331, Honolulu. They should specify the exact location, 
the acreage to be planted, the object for which the planting is 
done, and the time when it is desired to begin planting. 

Correspondence in regard to the purchase of seed and plants 
should be addressed to Mr. David Haughs, Forest Nurseryman, 
P. O. Box 331, Honolulu. 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 

Superintendent of Forestry. 
APPROVED : 

BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY. 

L. A. THURSTON, President. 
Honolulu, Hawaii, December 28, 1905. 



CIRCULAR NO. 2 DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

TERRITORY OF HAWAII 

Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry 



DIVISION OF FORESTRY 

RALPH S. HOSMER 

SUPERINTENDENT 



Instructions for Propagating Forest, Shade 
and Ornamental Trees. 



BY DAVID HAUGHS 

FOREST NURSERYMAN 



One of the principal objects of the Division of Forestry is to 
encourage tree planting. This it does by giving advice on how 
to grow trees and by furnishing at cost price tree seed and seed- 
lings. 

This circular has been prepared to answer inquiries that are 
constantly being made of the Division of Forestry regarding the 
best methods to use in tree planting in Hawaii. Detailed advice 
as to what trees should be planted to secure certain results will 
gladly be furnished upon application, which may be made either 
in person or by letter. 

PLANT DISTRIBUTION. 

Seedlings of the kinds most in demand for planting in different 
parts of the Territory are kept constantly on hand at the Govern- 
ment Nursery at Honolulu and at several substations on the 
other islands. Seed of a considerably larger number of trees suit- 
able for various purposes, may also be had from the Division of 
Forestry by those who desire to grow their own trees. 

Persons in the vicinity of Hilo should apply for trees at the 
local Nursery there, in charge of Brother Matthias Newell ; those 



on the western side of Kauai to the Nursery at Homestead, in 
charge of Mr. Walter D. McBryde. 

A charge of from \y 2 to 2V 2 cents is made for pot-grown plants 
and from 1 to \ l /2 cents for transplants in boxes. Seedlings in the 
seed boxes, just ready to be transplanted, of the Iron wood (Casu- 
arina), and of a number of the Eucalypts, such as the E. glo- 
bulus, E. citriodora and E. robusta, can be had for $1.00 per box 
of approximately 1,000 plants. Other species may be had at 
about the same figure, providing the seed can be collected here 
and that the trees grow freely. With the exception of the boxes 
of seedlings, reductions are made on large orders. 

A great many of the plantation and ranch managers are taking- 
advantage of the seed box system, which means a great saving on 
the price of freight. From 3,000 to 4,000 seedlings can be shipped 
to any port of the Islands for about 50 cents. One hundred and 
fifty plants, in transplant boxes with 50 in each box, would cost 
the same figure. While the freight on pot grown plants would 
be about 50 cents per 100, providing crates were used. All per- 
sons who may be contemplating the planting of large numbers 
of trees and who desire to have the Division of Forestry raise 
them, should give notice not less than three months in advance of 
the time the seedlings are required. By doing this delay in filling 
orders will be prevented. 

KINDS OF TREES. 

The following list gives the names of the trees which can usu- 
ally be supplied in quantity by the Government Nursery : 

Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus) 

Lemon Gum (Eucalyptus citriodora) 

Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robust a) 

Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) 

Monkeypod (Albizzia samari) 

Pride of India (Melia Azedarach) 

Silk Oak (Grevillea robusta) 

Sugi: Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica) 

Monterey Cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) 

Royal Poinciana (Poinciana regia) 



Pink and White Shower (Cassia nodosa) 

Pink Shower (Cassia grandis) 

Golden Shower (Cassia fistula) 

Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosae folia) 

Yellow Poinciana (Peltophorum ferrugineum) 

Pepper Tree (Schinns tnolle) 

Koa (Acacia Koa) 

In addition to the above list numerous species of Eucalyptus, 
Casuarinas and Acacias, with a limited number of trees and other 
plants propagated from seed received through our exchange sys- 
tem are at times to be had at the Government Nursery. If desired 
other kinds can also be propagated, provided due notice is given. 

TREATMENT OF PLANTS WHEN RECEIVED FROM THE NURSERY. 

The box of plants when received from the Government Nurs- 
ery should be placed in a partly shaded place, as under or behind 
a tree or bush, where it will be protected from the mid-day sun. 
It should remain there undisturbed until the holes are properly 
prepared and the time for planting arrives. A sprinkling of water 
each afternoon is all that is required. Care should be taken that 
seedlings that have just been watered are not exposed to the 
direct rays of the sun, especially during the middle of the day. , 

DIRECTIONS FOR PROPAGATING AND PLANTING FOREST TREES. 

When a large number of trees is desired it is usually better to 
establish a nursery in the immediate vicinity of the land to be 
planted. 

The following paragraphs tell briefly how to go about growing 
trees from seed. As noted above, seed of many kinds of t'-ces 
suitable for use in Hawaii can be had at cost price from the Divi- 
sion of Forestry or can be procured through this office from com- 
mercial seedsmen away from Hawaii. 

Propagation. 

In choosing a location for a nursery its convenience to the prin- 
cipal tracts to be planted ought to be the first consideration. If 
possible a level piece of ground protected from wind, with a sup- 
ply of water near by should be selected. A piece of land 100 



4 

feet square is large enough for 80,000 trees in 3-inch pots ready 
to set out, or 150,000 trees in transplant boxes ready to set out. 

Shallow boxes from 3 to 4 inches deep and from 12 to 14 inches 
by 16 to 18 inches are the size generally used. Empty cases can 
usually be bought cheaply from grocery or liquor stores, which 
can be cut into the sizes required. Through the wood merchants 
shocks for making seed and transplant boxes can be got at a very 
reasonable figure. The cost of shooks for a box 3 inches deep 
and 12x16 inches, of which the sides and bottoms are ^ inch and 
the ends of ^-inch material, averages S l / 2 cents each when or- 
dered in quantities of not less than 500. The Division of Forestry 
and also a number of the largest planters in the Islands arc now 
using the imported shooks. The saving of labor in making boxes 
from shooks warrants their use in preference to making boxe^ out 
of empty cases, especially where large numbers of trees are want- 
ed. Such boxes, being all of equal size, also make it more con- 
venient and economical when the plants have to be carted a long 
distance, or shipped by steamer or rail, for the reason that three 
or four boxes can be nailed together by using a lath at each cor- 
ner, the boxes being set one above the other just far enough apart 
to allow the plants room. 

A mistake that is often made by new comers to Hawaii and 
that ought to be avoided, is the temperate zone method of sowing 
tree seed in beds and afterward transplanting the seedlings to 
nursery rows and allowing them to grow until they are several 
feet high before planting out. The remarkable rapidity with 
which most trees grow in these islands makes this system imprac- 
tical except in a few exceptional localities situated at a consider- 
able elevation in the moist windward districts. Under average 
conditions in Hawaii trees from 12 to 18 inches high transplanted 
either into boxes or pots, are the best to use. If handled with care 
in planting out such plants will receive no set-back and will con- 
tinue growing right along. 

A box as described will hold, according to the species, from 500 
to 1500 seedlings of forest trees, or about 50 transplants. Orna- 
mentals as a rule require more room and are generally planted 
from the seed boxes into pots of some kind, either a 3 or 4 inch 



for the first transplanting. Before using the boxes either for seed 
or transplants, five or six ^4-inch holes ought to be bored in each 
for drainage. 

For propagating seed a light soil, well mixed with a liberal 
amount of sharp sand, and put through a fine sieve, is the best 
to use. For seed raising it should be of such character that 
when a damp portion is firmly compressed in the hand it will 
fall apart when released. It should never bake. Good old garden 
loam, to which an equal quantity of sand has been added, 
is usually a good soil for propagating seed. The soil should 
be sifted and thoroughly fined before the seeds the put into it ; 
especially when small seeds are to be sown. About one-third well 
decayed stable manure or leaf mold added to the above composi- 
tion would aid in the growth of the young seedlings. 

When wanted for propagation the boxes should be filled to 
within half an inch of the top and the soil smoothed over with 
a small piece of board. The seed should be sown evenly over the 
surface and pressed lightly with a smooth piece of wood to imbed 
it in the soil. 

The proper depth for sowing varies according to the size of the 
seed. Seed such as the different species of Eucalyptus, Casua- 
rina, etc., should be sown upon the surface and then covered with 
a very thin layer of finely sifted soil, or of sand mixed with about 
one-fourth soil. 

From one-sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch of covering, for 
seed such as the ones mentioned will give the best results. A very 
good rule to go by in regard to seed sowing is to make the thick- 
ness of the covering equal as nearly as possible the diameter of 
the seed. 

After sowing the soil should be kept moist but not too wet. If 
too much water is used "damping-off" is very apt to set in and this 
fungus disease often proves very disastrous to such seedlings as 
the different species of Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Grevillea, Acacia, 
etc. A fine sprinkler should be used when watering. The plants 
should never be watered when the sun is beating directly on them. 
If damping-off makes its appearance a sprinkling of hot sand will 
sometimes check it. 



Transplanting. 

When the plants have grown to be from 2 to 3 inches high they 
should be transplanted into other boxes and the plants set in lines 
from 2 to 3 inches apart, according to the species, some requiring 
more room than others. 

Thus the different species of the Ironwoods (Casuarina) and 
most of the Eucalypts should be about two inches apart. The 
Black Wattle (A cacia decurrens), Silver Wattle (Acacia deal- 
bata), as well as the Koa (Acacia Koa) and other Acacias, should 
be planted about three inches apart. 

Shade and ornamental trees ought to be transplanted into pots. 
Either terra cotta, tin cans, bamboo or ti leaf pots will do. 

Forest trees stand transportation better and the percentage of 
failures during planting is considerably reduced if some kind of 
a pot is used instead of the box system. 

Cheap and serviceable paper pots are now on the market and 
suit the purpose very well. They come in two sizes, 2 inches 
square by 5 inches deep and 2 inches square by 8 inches deep. 
There is no bottom to them and of course they require a level 
surface or a bed of sand to stand on after the tree has been planted. 
The price of these pots is from $4.00 to $6.00 per thousand. 

Distance Apart. 

The distance apart at which to plant forest trees varies accord- 
ing to the species used and the object of planting. When the pur- 
pose is the production of wood and timber, close spacing is desir- 
able because it causes the trees to make tall, straight, clean boles 
and because it more completely utilizes the ground. 

Trees such as the Ironwoods and most of the Eucalypts ought 
to be planted 6 feet apart each way for general forest planting. 
For windbreak purposes, where a narrow strip of a few rows 
only is allowed, they could be planted even closer ; 4x4 feet would 
be wide enough for a narrow windbreak. Trees such as the Black 
Wattle and Silver Wattle ought to be planted 8x8 feet each way. 

Making Holes. 
Where feasible plowing and cultivating of the land ought to be 



done. This method will add considerably to the growth of the 
trees. It will pay to plow every piece of land that can possibly 
be plowed before planting. 

Where it is not feasible to prepare the land by plowing, holes 
must be dug. In ordinary cases holes dug from 12 to 15 inches 
square and a foot deep, with the soil loosened up in the bottom is 
generally sufficient for forest planting in these islands. Excep- 
tional cases however make it practical to use larger or smaller 
holes as conditions vary. When the soil is free and can be easily 
dug with the spade, even a smaller hole than the one mentioned 
would be sufficient, but where the soil is hard and stiff and re- 
quires a pick to loosen it up, it will pay to make a larger hole ; 
even two feet square and 18 to 20 inches deep is not too large in 
such cases. 

In very dry districts it is advisable to leave a space around the 
tree after it has been planted, a little lower than the surrounding 
ground, so that the tree may have the benefit of whatever mois- 
ture may collect. In wet districts the soil around the tree after it 
is planted should be left a little higher than the surrounding 
ground so that the water may run off and not remain stagnant 
around the tree. 

Planting. 

In planting out great care should be taken to prevent the tender 
roots from being exposed to the air. As much soil as possible 
ought to remain intact. around the roots. After the plant is set 
the soil around it should be thoroughly firmed. If possible plant 
on a dull or showery day. 

A very general mistake in tree planting is to plant too deep. It 
must be remembered that the best soil is generally at or near the 
surface and that the tender roots of the young plant will take 
more kindly to it than to the often sour and poor subsoil to be 
found a little deeper. When digging the hole the best soil should 
be put to one side and used around the roots of the tree when 
planting. 

After planting, hoeing and cleaning away the grass and weeds 
is necessary until the young trees get well above the grass or 



8 

brush. It is almost needless to say that live stock should be kept 
out of the planted area, at any rate until the trees grow to be suf- 
ficiently large to be out of danger. 

A further discussion of the principles underlying the establish- 
ment and care of forest plantations is contained in "Eucalyptus 
Culture in Hawaii," a bulletin of the Division of Forestry which 
may be had free, upon application. As local conditions vary so 
much in the several districts it is well, if extensive planting is to 
be done, to have a regular planting plan drawn up. Upon re- 
quest, the Division of Forestry will assist the private owner in this 
way. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Distance Apart. 

In planting for shade, ornamental or landscape purposes, trees 
should not be set too close together. Crowding mars the effect. 
Sufficient room should, therefore, be given for the full develop- 
ment of the branches. 

Following is a list of the distances apart at which the trees 
named should be planted for the best effect : 

Royal Poinciana (Poinciana regia), 40 feet 

Pink and White Shower (Cassia nodosa), 30 feet 

Pink Shower (Cassia grandis), 30 feet 

Golden Shower (Cassia fistula), 30 feet 

Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosae folia), 35 feet 

Yellow Poinciana (Peltophorum ferrugineum), 30 feet 

Monterey Cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) , 20 feet 

Pepper Tree (Schinns molle), 35 feet 

Monkeypod (Albizzia saman), 45 feet 

Mahogany Tree (Sweetenia mahagoni), 40 feet 

Making Holes and Preparing the Soil. 

In stiff or hard soil the holes should be made three feet square 
and from two and a half to three feet deep. As the top soil is 
generally the best, it should be thrown to one side, so that it can 
be used around the roots of the tree when the hole is refilled. 
The soil should be well broken up. If convenient, it is well to 



mix with the soil a few spadefuls of stable manure. The manure 
should be well rotted. It must be thoroughly mixed with the soil. 
Such fertilization, where it can be done, will help the tree con- 
siderably. 

Planting the Tree. 

If possible planting should be done on a cool, cloudy day. The 
hole should be refilled to within three inches of the surface, re- 
serving the best soil to pack around the tree. The soil should be 
tramped lightly with the feet, leaving an opening in the center 
of the hole large enough to hold the tree. The tree seedling is 
to be placed in the soil just as it is received from the nursery, 
without removing it from the paper pot. After the tree has been 
placed in position and the good soil packed around it, the soil 
shoould be tramped again, until it is properly firmed. Care should 
be taken not to plant too deep. The tree should be planted about 
one inch deeper than it was in the nursery and the surface of the 
ground around the tree should be almost level when the planting 
is finished. In ordinary situations a slight depression around the 
tree to prevent the water running away when the tree is irrigated 
is all that is required. In wet districts it is sometimes better to 
grade the earth so that the water will not collect around the tree. 
Water should not be applied until after the tree is planted, then 
half a bucketful may be gently poured on, wetting the soil im- 
mediately around the tree. If there are frequent showers no 
further watering will be necessary. 

Care of Trees After Planting. 

Important as the process of planting is, much more defends 
upon the after treatment. In many places cultivation is absolutely 
essential and nearly everywhere a tree will thrive better and grow 
faster during its early years with cultivation than without it. 
The purposes of cultivation are mainly to protect the young tree 
from the encroachment of weeds and grass, to keep the soil about 
it in good condition and to retain the moisture. If planted in a 
dry time the tree should, if possible, be watered. This should be 
done by giving a good soaking once every two days for two or 



10 

three months, or until the tree has got a good start, then twice 
a week, and later once a week, as the roots go deeper into the 
soil. It should be remembered that the more careful the atten- 
tion is that can be given to the tree, the more likely is it to be- 
come established as a vigorous and thrifty specimen. 

Protection of the Trees From Injury. 

Protection from strong winds in exposed places is necessary 
until the tree gets well rooted in the soil. This may be done in 
different ways. Probably the cheapest and easiest plan is to drive 
in two stakes on the windward side of the tree about three feet 
apart and to tie to them an old grain or sugar bag. One thickness 
is enough. Where there is danger of injury from cattle or other 
stock the young tree should be protected by some sort of a fence. 
While the tree is small, stakes set about it are usually sufficient ; 
as the tree grows larger an inexpensive frame work should be 
built. 

Grass and weeds should, of course, be kept away from the tree 
until it grows large enough to rise above them, when it will take 
care of itself. 

Pruning and Care of Street Trees. 

This circular has outlined the different steps in connection with 
the raising, planting and protecting of trees to be used for orna- 
mental, shade and landscape purposes, but our work is not yet 
finished if we are going to make our streets and highways assume 
the appearance of some of the noted boulevards on the mainland 
or the continent of Europe. Supposing a careful selection of the 
trees t>est suited to the different streets and locations has been 
made and the instructions regarding planting, etc., have been car- 
ried out, constant care will be required to keep the trees in good 
shape until the crown or leaf canopy gets out of the reach of 
animals and the small boy. Pruning will have to be frequently 
done to keep the trees of a uniform shape and to make each tree 
look exactly like its next neighbor. 

; All the trees along both sides of a street or highway should be 
of the same species for a unit of distance, which should be at 



11 

least several blocks long. This rule should be strictly enforced 
when the street or highway runs in a straight line. The trees 
ought to be pruned and kept in shape so that they will have a 
straight stem and a uniform umbrella top. Palms require no 
pruning, with the exception of removing the lower leaves when 
they become dead and unsightly. 

Trees should never be allowed to intrude upon the street or 
roadway. Branches must be cut to avoid scratching the tops 
of vehicles, or people's hats or umbrellas on the sidewalks. In 
pruning, limbs and branches should be cut as close as possible 
to the main trunk. A coating of carbolinium or ordinary green 
stain will help to keep fungi and insects out of the wound until 
it begins to heal over. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. 

Those desiring further information on any of the points here 
mentioned, or on other matters having to do with tree planting, 
with the care and management of woodlands, or with the proper 
treatment of ornamental trees, should not hesitate to call upon the 
Division of Forestry. It is one of the functions of this office to 
give advice and assistance without charge to all residents of the 
Territory desiring this kind of information. Letters of inquiry 
should be addressed to Mr. David Haughs, Forest Nurseryman, 
Box 207, Honolulu, Oahu. 

Approved : 

RALPH S. HOSMER, 

Superintendent of Forestry. 

Honolulu, Hawaii, 
April 15, 1912. 



BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 

PUBLICATIONS FOR DISTRIBUTION. 

Any one or all of the publications listed below (except those 
marked *) will be sent to residents of this Territory, free, upon ap- 
plication to Mailing Clerk, P. O. Box 207, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

BOARD. 

'Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry for 1900; 66 pp. 
Report of the (Jommiss.oner of Agriculture and Forestry for 1902 ; 88 pp. 

*First Report of tue .board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, from 
July 1, 1903, to December 31, 1904; 170 pp. 

Second .Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for 
the year ending December 31, 1905; 240 pp.; 8 plates; 10 text figures. 

Third Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and forestry, for the 
year ending December 31, 1906; 212 pp.; 3 plates; 4 maps; 7 text figures. 

Fourth Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the 
calendar year ending December 31, 1907; 202 pp.; 7 plates. 

Fifth Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the 
calendar year ending December 31, 1908; 2-18 pp.; 34 plates. 

Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the bien- 
nial period ending December 31, 1910; 240 pp.; 45 plates. 

Report of the Board of Commissioners ol Agriculture and Forestry, for the Bien- 
nial period ending December 31, 1912. 

Jit-port of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the bien- 
nial period ending December 31, 1914. (This report.) 

''Notice to importers, 1 ' by H. E. Cooper; 4 pp.; 1903. 

"Digest of the Statutes Relating to Importation of Soils, Plants, Fruits, Vege- 
tauies, etc., into the Territory of Hawaii." General Circular iso. 1; 6 pp. 

"Important -Notice to Ship Owners, Fruit Importers and Other Rules and Regu- 
lations Prohibiting the Introduction of Certam Pests and Animals into t.ie 
Territory of Hawaii. 1 ' (General Circular No. 2; 3 pp.; 1904. 

"Laws and Regulations, Importation and Inspection of Honey Bees and Honey.' 1 
General Circular No. 3; 7 pp.; 1908. 

Act 71, .Session Laws of 1905: "To Provide for the Protection of Forest Laud 
\Vithin tne Territory from Fire.'' On Brush-burning Permit form; 1905. 

Act 104, Session Laws of 1907: ''To Provide for the Protection of Birds Beneficial 
to the Forests of the Territory of Hawaii.'' Unnumbered leaflet; 1907. 

1'nre Seed Law. Act '07, Session Laws of 1911: "To Regulate t.ie Importation 
and Sale of Seed Into and Within the Territory of Hawaii.'' Uunumoered 
leaflet; 4 pp.; 1911. 

"The Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist," a monthly magazine. Vols. I to XI; 
1904-1914. To be obtained from the Hawaiian Gazette Co., Honolulu, Ha- 
waii. Price $1 a year. (Issued under tue auspices of the Board.) 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 

1 'Eucalyptus Culture in Hawaii," by Louis Margolin. Bulletin No. 1; 88 pp 12 

plates; July, 1911. 

"An Offer of Practical Assistance to Tree Planters." Circular No. 1; 6 pp.; 1905. 
"Instructions for Propagating Forest, Shade and Ornamental Trees," by David 

Haughs; Circular No. 2; 11 pp.; June, 1912. 

* "Forest and Ornamental Tree Seed for Sale at Government Nurserv " Press 

Bulletin No. 1; 3 pp.; 1905. 

"Suggestions in Regard to the Arbor Day Tree Planting Contest." Press Bul- 
letin No. 2; 7 pp.; 1905. 

"Revised List of Forest and Ornamental Tree Seed for Sale at the Government 
Nursery." Press Bulletin No. 3; 4 pp.; 1906. 

* "Instructions for Propagating and Planting Forest Trees." Press Bulletin No 

4; 4 pp.; 1906. 

"Instructions for Planting Forest, Shade and Ornamental Trees." Press Bul- 
letin NO. 5; 7 pp.; 1909. 

"Na Hoakaka no ke Kanu Ana i na Laau Malumalu ame na Laau Hoohiwahiwa " 
Press Bulletin No. 6; 8 pp.; 1909. 

Report of the Division of Forestry, for the year ending December 31, 1905. Re- 
print from Second Report of the Board; 77 pp.; 5 plates. 

^Report of the Division of Forestry, for the year ending December 31, 1906. Re- 
print from Third Report of the Board; 123 pp.; 4 maps. 

Report of the Division of Forestry, for the year ending December 31, 1907. Re- 
print from Fourth Report of the Board ; 70 pp. 

Report of the Division of Forestry, for the year ending December 31, 1908. Re- 
print from Fifth Report of the Board; 85 pp. 

Report of the Division of Forestry, for the biennial period ending December 31, 
1910. Reprint from Report of the Board; 86 pp.; '22 plates. 

Report of the Division of Forestry, for the biennial period ending December 31, 
1912. Reprint from Report of the Board. 

Report of the Division of Forestry, for the biennial period end ins: D.-cember 31, 
1914. Reprint from Report of the Board. (This report.) 

Botany. 

"New and Noteworthy Hawaiian Plants," by Dr. L. Radlkoffer and J. F. Rock. 

Botanical Bulletin No. 1; 15 pp.; 6 plates; September, 1911. 
"List of Hawaiian Names of Plants," by J. F. Rock. Botanical Bulletin No 'J 

20 pp.; June, 1913. 






r Out of print. 



PUBLICATIONS FOE DISTRIBUTION (Continued). 

DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

"The Leaf -Hopper of the Sugar Cane," by R. C. L. Perkins. Bulletin No. 1; 

38 pp.; 1903. 
** "A Catalogue of the Hemipterous Family Aleyrodidae," by G. W. Kirkaldy, 

and "Aleyrodidae of Hawaii and Fiji with Descriptions ot New Species," i>y 

Jacob Kolinsky. Bulletin No. 2; 102 pp.; 1 plate; 1907. 
"Report of an Expedition to Africa in Search of the Natural Enemies of Friut 

Flies," with Descriptions, Observations and Biological Notes, by i'. Silvestri. 

Bulletin No. 3; 176 pp., 26 plates; February, h)i 4. 

* "On Some Diseases of Cane Specially Considered in Relation to the Leaf-Hopper 

Pest and to the stripping 01 Cane," by R. C. L. Peru IMS. Press Bulletin :\o. 
1; 4 pp.; 1904. 
"A Circular of Information," by Jacob Kotinsky. Circular No. 1; 8 pp.; luur.. 

* "The Japanese Beetle Fungus," by Jacob Kotinsky and Bro. M. Newell. Cir- 

cular No. 2; 4 pp., cut; 1905. 

"Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata)," by E. M. Ehrhorn. Circular No. 
3; 7 pp.; 2 plates; 1912. 

Rule -VII: "Concerning the Prevention of Distribution of the Mediterranean Fruit 
Fly"; unnumbered leaflet; 1910. 

Rule VIII: "Concerning the Importation of all Banana Fruit, Banana Shoots or 
Plants"; unnumbered leaflet; 1911. 

Rule IX: "'Concerning the Prevention of Distribution of Insect Pests from Oahu 
to the Other Islands"; unnumbered leaflet; 1911. 

Rule X: "Concerning Horticultural Sanitation in and about the City of Hono- 
lulu"; unnumbered leaflet; promulgated Nov., 1911; amended Mar., 1912. 

Rule XII: "Concerning the Control of Insect and Other Vegetable Pests in the 
Territory of Hawaii"; unnumbered leaflet; 1913. 

Rule XIV: "Concerning Horticultural Sanitation of the Island of Hawaii"; un- 
numbered leaflet; March, 1912. 

Rule XVII: "Concerning the Control of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Other 
Insect and Vegetable Pests"; repealing Rules X, XI, XIV, XV and XVI; un- 
numbered leaflet; September, 1912. 

Rule XVIII: "Concerning the Control of Fungus Diseases on Pineapples, Island of 
Kauai, " unnumbered leaflet; May, 1913. 

Rule XVIII: Amended to include Island of Oahu; unnumbered leaflet; June, 1914. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the year ending December 31, 1905. 
Reprint from Second Report of the Board; 68 pp.; 3 plates; 10 text figures. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the year ending December 31, 1906. 
Reprint from Third Report "of the Board; 25 pp.; 7 text figures. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the year ending December 31, 1907. 
Reprint from Fourth Report of the Board; 18 pp.; 1 plate. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the year ending December 31, 1908. 
Reprint from Fifth Report of the Board; 26 pp.; 2 plates. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the biennial period ending December 31, 
1910. Reprint from Report of the Board; 70 pp.; 10 plates. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the biennial period ending December 31, 
1912. Reprint from Report of the Board. 

Report of the Division of Entomology for the biennial period ending December 31, 
1914. Reprint from Report of the Board. (This report.) 

DIVISION OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

'Inspection of Imported Live Stock." Rule 1; 1 p. ; 1905. 

'Inspection and Testing of Imported Live Stock for Glanders and Tuberculosis." 

Rule 2; 1 p. ; 1905. 

'Concerning Glandered Horse Stock in the Territory." Rule 3; 1 p.; 1905. 
'To Amend Rule 1, Inspection of Imported Live Stock." Rule 4; 1 p.; 1907. 
'Quarantine of Horse Stock from California." Rule 8; 1 p.; 1908. 

"Rules and Regulations, Inspection and Testing of Live Stock Intended for Im- 
portation." Rules I to V and Laws; 11 pp.; unnumbered pamphlet; Effec- 
tive January 1, 1900 ; Replaces earlier rules. 

Rule VI: "Concerning the Quarantine of Dogs for Rabies;" 2 pp. ; unnumbered 
leaflet; 1912. 

Rule VII: "Concerning the Shipment of Hogs from the Island of Oahu to any 
Other Island in the Territory of Hawaii;" unnumbered leaflet; July, 1913. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the year ending December 31, 1905. 
Reprint from Second Report of the Board ; 62 pp. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the year ending December 31, 1906. 
Reprint from Third Report of the Board; 41 pp.; 3 plates. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the year ending December 31, 1907. 
Reprint from the Fourth Report of the Board; 104 pp.; 6 plates. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry for the year ending December 31, 1908. 
Reprint from Fifth Report of the Board; 44 pp. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the biennial period ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1910. Reprint from Report of the Board; 59 pp.; 13 plates. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the biennial period ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1912. Reprint from Report of the Board. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry for the biennial period ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1914. Reprint from Report of the Board. (This report.) 

DIVISION OF HYDROGRAPHY. 

Report of the Division of Hydrography for the biennial period ending December 
31, 1914. Reprint from Report of the Board. (This report). 



*This Bulletin will be sent only to persons interested in the subject. 
k Out of print. 



Press Bulletin iN'o. 



8 pp.; 1905. 
Newell. Cir- 

Circular No. 



PUBLICATIONS FOR DISTRIBUTION (Continued). 

DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

"The Leaf-Hopper of the Sugar Cane," by R. C. L. Perkins. Bulletin No. 1; 

38 pp.; 1903. 
** "A 'Catalogue of the Hemipterous Family Aleyrodidae,' ' by G. W. Kirkaldy, 

and "Aleyrodidae of Hawaii and Fiji with Descriptions of New Species," by 

Jacob Kotinsky. Bulletin No. 2; 102 pp.; L plan-; 1907. 
'Report of an Expedition to Africa in Search of the Natural Enemies of Friut 

Flies," with Descr.ptions, Observations and Biological Notes, by i' . Silvestri. 

Bulletin No. 3; 176 pp., 26 plates; February, 1914. 

* "On Some Diseases of Cane Spec. ally Considered in Relation to the Leaf-Hopper 

Pest and to the stripping of Cane," by R. C. L. PerKins. Pre* *-"-**- v.. 
I ; 4 pp.; 1904. 
"A Circular of Information, " by Jacob Kotinsky. Circular No. 1; 

* "The Japanese Beetle Fungus," by Jacob Kotinsky and Bro. M. 

cular No. 2; 4 pp., cut; 1905. 

"Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata)," by E. M. Ehrhorn. 
3; 7 pp.; 2 plates; 1912. 

Rule VII: "Concerning the Prevention of Distribution of the Mediterranean Fruit 
Fly"; unnumbered leaflet; 1910. 

Rule VIII: "Concerning the Importation of all Banana Fruit, Banana Shoots or 
Plants"; unnumbered leaflet; 1911. 

Rule IX: "(Concerning the Prevention of Distribution of Insect Pests from Oahu 
to the Other Islands"; unnumbered leaflet; 1911. 

Rule X: "Concerning Horticultural Sanitation in and about the City of Hono- 
lulu"; unnumbered leaflet; promulgated Nov., 1911; amended Mar., 1912. 

Rule XII: "Concerning the Control of Insect and Other Vegetable Pests in the 
Territory of Hawaii"; unnumbered leaflet; 1913. 

Rule XIV: "Concerning Horticultural Sanitation of the Island of Hawaii"; un- 
numbered leaflet; March, 1912. 

Rule XVII: "Concerning the Control of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly and Other 
Insect and Vegetable Pests"; repealing Rules X, XI, XIV, XV and XVI; un- 
numbered leaflet; September, 1912. 

Rule XVIII: "Concerning the Control of Fungus Diseases on Pineapples, Island of 
Kauai, " unnumbered leaflet; May, 1913. 

Rule XVIII: Amended to include Island of Oahu; unnumbered leaflet; June, 1914. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the year ending December 31, 1905. 
Reprint from Second Report of the Board; 68 pp.; 3 plates; 10 text figures. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the year ending December 31, 1906. 
Reprint from Third Report of the Board; 25 pp.; 7 text figures. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the year ending December 31, 1907. 
Reprint from Fourth Report of the Board; 18 pp.; 1 plate. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the year ending December 31, 1908. 
Reprint from Fifth Report of the Board; 26 pp.; 2 plates. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the biennial period ending December 31, 
1910. Reprint from Report of the Board; 70 pp.; 10 plates. 

Report of the Division of Entomology, for the biennial period ending December 31, 
1912. Reprint from Report of the Board. 

Report of the Division of Entomology for the biennial period ending December 31, 
1914. Reprint from Report of the Board. (This report.) 

DIVISION OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

"Inspection of Imported Live Stock." Rule 1; 1 p. ; 1905. 

* "Inspection and Testing of Imported Live Stock for Glanders and Tuberculosis " 

Rule 2; 1 p.; 1905. 

"Concerning Glandered Horse Stock in the Territory." Rule 3; 1 p.; 1905. 
"To Amend Rule 1, Inspection of Imported Live Stock." Rule 4; 1 p.; 1907. 

* "Quarantine of Horse Stock from California." Rule 8; 1 p.; 1908. 

"Rules and Regulations, Inspection and Testing of Live Stock Intended for Im- 
portation." Rules I to V and Laws; 11 pp.; unnumbered pamphlet; Effec- 
tive January 1, 1900 ; Replaces earlier rules. 

Rule VI: "Concerning the Quarantine of Dogs for Rabies;" 2 pp.; unnumbered 
leaflet; 1912. 

Rule VII: "Concerning the Shipment of Hogs from the Island of Oahu to any 
Other Island in the Territory of Hawaii;" unnumbered leaflet; July, 1913. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the year ending December 31, 1905. 
Reprint from Second Report of the Board ; 62 pp. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the year ending December 31, 1906. 
Reprint from Third Report of the Board; 41 pp.; 3 plates. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the year ending December 31, 1907. 
Reprint from the Fourth Report of the Board ; 104 pp. ; 6 plates. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry for the year ending December 31, 1908. 
Reprint from Fifth Report of the Board; 44 pp. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the biennial period ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1910. Reprint from Report of the Board; 59 pp.; 13 plates. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry, for the biennial period ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1912. Reprint from Report of the Board. 

Report of the Division of Animal Industry for the biennial period ending Decem- 
I <-r 31, 1914. Reprint from Report of the Board. (This report.) 

DIVISION OF HYDROGRAPHY. 

Report of the Division of Hydrography for the biennial period ending December 
31, 1914. Reprint from Report of the Board. (This report). 

'This Bulletin will he sent only (o persons interested in the subject. 
'Out of print. 









BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 

PUBLICATIONS FOR DISTRIBUTION. 

Any one or all of the publications listed below (except those 
marked *) will be sent to residents of this Territory, free, upon ap- 
plication to Mailing Clerk, P. O. Box 207, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

BOARD. 

*Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry for 1900; 66 pp. 

*Keport of the Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry for 1902 ; 83 pp. 

*First Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, from 
July 1, 1903, to December 31, 1904; 170 pp. 

Second Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for 
tne year ending December 31, 1905; 240 pp.; 8 plates; 10 text figures. 

Third Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the 
year ending December 31, 1906; 212 pp.; 3 plates; 4 maps; 7 text figures. 

Fourth Report of tne Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the 
calendar year ending December 31, 1907; 202 pp.; 7 plates. 

Fifth Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the 
calendar year ending December 31, 1908; 218 pp.; 34 plates. 

Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the bien- 
nial period ending December 31, 1910; 240 pp.; 45 plates. 

Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the Bien- 
nial period ending December 31, 1912. 

Report of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, for the bien- 
nial period ending December 31, 1914. (Tnis report.) 

"Notice to Importers," by H. E. 'Cooper; 4 pp.; 1903. 

"Digest of the Statutes Relating to Importation of Soils, Plants, Fruits, Vege- 
taoles, etc., into the Territory of Hawaii." General Circular No. 1; 6 pp. 

"Important Notice to Ship Owners, Fruit Importers and Other Rules and Regu- 
lations Prohibiting the Introduction of Certain Pests and Animals into t.ie 
Territory of Hawaii." General Circular No. 2; 3 pp.; 1904. 

"Laws and Regulations, Importation and Inspection of Honey Bees and Honey." 
General Circular No. 3; 7 pp.; 1908. 

Act 71, Session Laws of 1905: "To Provide for the Protection of Forest Land 
Within tae Territory from Fire." On Brush-burning Permit 1'orm; 1905. 

Act 104, Session Laws of 1907: "To Provide lor the Protection of Birds Beneficial 
to the Forests of the Territory of Hawaii." Unnumbered leaflet; 1907. 

Pure Seed Law. Act 107, Session Laws of 1911: "To Regulate tne Importation 
and Sale of Seed Into and Within the Territory of Hawaii." Unnumoered 
leaflet; 4 pp.; 1911. 

"The Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist," a monthly magazine. Vols. I to XI; 
1904-1914. To be obtained from the Hawaiian Gazette Co., Honolulu, Ha- 
waii. Price $1 a year. (Issued under the auspices of the board.) 

DIVISION OF FORESTRY. 

"Eucalyptus Culture in Hawaii," by Louis Margolin. Bulletin No. 1; 88 pp.; 12 

plates; July, 1911. 

"An Offer of Practical Assistance to Tree Planters." Circular No. 1; 6 pp.; 1905. 
"Instructions for Propagating Forest, Shade and Ornamental Trees," by David 

Haughs; Circular No. 2; 11 pp.; June, 1912. 

* "Forest and Ornamental Tree Seed for Sale at Government Nursery." Press 

Bulletin No. 1; 3 pp.; 1905. 

* "Suggestions in Regard to the Arbor Day Tree Planting Contest." Press Bul- 

letin No. 2; 7 pp.; 1905. 

"Revised List of Forest and Ornamental Tree Seed for Sale at the Government 
Nursery." Press Bulletin No. 3; 4 pp.; 1906. 

* "Instructions for Propagating and Planting Forest Trees." Press Bulletin No. 

4; 4 pp.; 1906. 

* "Instructions for Planting Forest, Shade and Ornamental Trees." Press Bul- 

letin No. 5; 7 pp.; 1909. 

"Na Hoakaka no ke Kami Ana i na Laau Malumalu ame na Laau Hoohiwahiwa." 
Press Bulletin No. 6; 8 pp.; 1909. 

Report of the Division of Forestry, for the year ending December 31, 1905. .Re- 
print from Second Report of the Board; 77 pp.; 5 plates. 

* Report of the Division of Forestry, for the year ending December 31, 1906. Re- 

print from Third Report of the Board; 123 pp.; 4 maps. 
Report of the Division of Forestry, for the year ending December 31, 1907. He 

print from Fourth Report of the Board; 70 pp. 
Report of the Division of Forestry, for the year ending December 31, 1908. Ke- 

print from Fifth Report of the Board; 85 pp. 
Report of the Division of Forestry, for the biennial period ending December 31, 

1910. Reprint from Report of the Board; 86 pp.; 22 plates. 
Report of the Division of Forestry, for the biennial period ending December 31, 

1912. Reprint from Report of the Board. 
Report of the Division of Forestry, for the biennial period ending December 31, 

1914. Reprint from Report of the Board. (This report.) 

Botany. 

"New and Noteworthy Hawaiian Plants," by Dr. L. Radlkoffer and J. F. Rock. 

Botanical Bulletin No. 1; 15 pp.; 6 plates; September, 1911. 
"List of Hawaiian Names of Plants," by J. F. Rock. Botanical Bulletin No. 2; 

20 pp.; June, 1913. 



*Out of print. 






BUL. 48, BUREAU OF FORESTRY. U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. 



PLATE I. 




INTERIOR OF LEHUA FOREST. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OE AGRICULTURE, 

BUREAU OF FORESTRY-BULLETIN No. 48. 

GIFFORD PINCHOT, Forester. 



THE FORESTS 



OF THE 



HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



BY 



WILLIAM L. HALL, 

In Charge of Forest I-:.>i<'iii<>n, /inn 'in <tf Forestry. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRIN TING ' OFFICE. 

1904. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



U. 8. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

BUREAU OF FORESTRY, 
Washington, D. (7., March 3, 1904. 

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report entitled "The 
Forests of the Hawaiian Islands," by William L. Hall, in charge of 
Forest Extension in the Bureau of Forestry, and to recommend its 
publication as Bulletin No. 48 of the Bureau of Forestry. The report 
is made in consequence of a reconnoissance of the forests of the islands 
during 1903, and its recommendations form the basis of a forest policy 
which is being put into effect by the Territorial government. 

The eight plates which accompany the report are necessary for its 
proper illustration. 

Very respectfully, GIFFORD PINCHOT, 

Forester. 

Hon. JAMES WILSON, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

The algaroba forests 9 

The native forests 11 

Situation 11 

Kauai ..'. 11 

Oahu 11 

Molokai 11 

Maui 11 

Hawaii 12 

Tropical character of forests 12 

Forest types 12 

Lehua 12 

Koa 14 

Mamane 14 

Kukui 15 

Mixed forests 15 

Limits of the original forests 15 

Rapid decadence of the forest 16 

Causes of decline 17 

Stock 17 

Insects 18 

Grasses 18 

Fire 19 

Cutting 20 

The crucial question on the island of Hawaii - 20 

Necessity for the clearing of land 23 

Importance of remaining forests 23 

Commercial interests concerned in the forests 24 

The government's interest 25 

( Jovernment forest work in the past 25 

Proposed forest service 26 

Future policy 27 

K< >rest reserves 27 

Planting 27 

Lumbering 28 

Clearing 28 

Extermination of insect pests 29 

Assistance to landowners 29 

Cooperation with the Bureau of Forestry 29 

5 



LLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

PLATE I. Interior of lehua forest Frontispiece. 

1 1 . Fig. 1. le-ie vine in lehua forest. Fig. 2. Undergrowth in a moun- 
tain cover 12 

III. A Hawaiian koa forest 12 

IV. Fig. 1. Forest nearly ruined by grazing, North Kohala, Hawaii. 

Fig. 2. Forest entirely ruined by grazing, Maui 16 

V. Fig. 1. Grazed land on left side of fence; right side protected for 

seven years. Fig. 2. Kukui forest, bottom and sides of deep gulch . 16 
V I . Grazed and ungraded land on % Maui, separated by an irrigating ditch. 16 
VII. Fig. 1. Clearing on a homestead, Hamakua. Fig. 2. A well- 
forested watershed, Maui 16 

VIII. Planted forest of eucalypts on Mount Tantalus, Oahu 24 

7 



THE FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 



There are two thoroughly distinct kinds of forest in the Hawaiian 
Islands. One kind occurs near sea level, in the drier portions of the 
islands, and is valuable on account of the timber and other products 
which it 3 r ields. The other kind is found on the mountain slopes, 
where the rainfall is heavy. It has little commercial but high pro- 
tective value. In no case do the two forests meet. 

THE ALGAROBA FOBESTS. 

The forests which occur near sea level consist of a single species, 
and this introduced. It is the mesquite of the southwestern United 
States and Mexico (Prosopis julifiorci), and is called algaroba. The 
first algaroba tree in Hawaii grew from a seed planted in 1837 by 
Father Bachelot, founder of tho Roman Catholic mission. This tree, 
which is about 2 feet in diameter and 50 feet tall, yet stands in thrifty 
condition at the corner of Fort and Beretania streets, Honolulu. It is 
the progenitor of at least 50,000 acres of forest, which is fairly well 
distributed over the different islands. 

On the island of Oahu the algaroba forest, covering densely about 
20,000 acres, extends in a narrow, almost continuous belt along the 
south and west coasts. In this situation it is fully protected from the 
northeast trade winds, which blow with great regularity from March 
to November exposure to which it can not endure. The young trees 
are now growing in great numbers as high as 1,500 feet above the sea. 
It is supposed by some people that algaroba is able to grow at this eleva- 
tion only by gradual adaptation. Starting at sea level, the trees were 
at first acclimated only to an elevation of a few hundred feet, but 
successive generations growing higher and higher up the slopes have 
at last produced trees which are able to grow at the altitude named. 
Indeed, since the trees now found at 1,500 feet are all young and 
thrifty, it seems probable that they will extend much farther up the 
mountain slopes than they have yet done. 

On the other islands the algaroba occupies the same relative position, 
reaching up the dry slopes to an elevation of several hundred feet. 
The land which it has taken possession of is usually so stony, arid, 
and precipitous as to be utterly worthless for other purposes. There- 
fore the advent of this tree is generally welcomed by the landowner. 

9 



10 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

In Hawaii the species grows much denser, as well as both taller and 
straighter, than in the United States. Where fully established it 
shades the ground so perfectly as to keep out all competitors, and 
attains a height of from 50 to 60 feet. While there are no records to 
jsupport the opinion, it is believed by some that the districts covered 
by algaroba receive more local showers than formerly. 

Situated as they are, the algaroba forests are more accessible than 
the other forests of the islands. Indeed, there are hundreds of cases 
where the forest has taken possession of old feed lots and pastures on 
farms and sugar plantations, and even on vacant lots in towns. Some 
of the suburbs of Honolulu are thickly grown up with algaroba. The 
wood, which is valuable for fuel, sells at the plantations and in Hono- 
lulu for $9 to $10 per cord. It lasts well in the ground when used as 
a fence post. Both fuel and fence posts are in such great demand 
that there is extensive cutting in these forests. 

Clean cutting is the method generally employed, and is entirely con- 
servative, since the growth renews itself rapidly by both seeds and 
sprouts. Within three or four years from the time of cutting the trees 
again take complete possession of the ground, and attain a height of 20 
to 25 feet. 

An important feature of the algaroba is the value of its pods as food 
for stock. Pods are borne witli great regularity and in abundance 
after the trees are 3 years old. They ripen during the summer months 
and fall to the ground, where they are either eaten by cattle, horses, 
and pigs, or are picked up to be fed. In eating the pods stock do not 
crush the small, horny seeds, which pass on through the alimentary 
system and are prepared for quick germination by the action of the 
digestive fluids. Stock are, therefore, solely responsible for the rapid 
and wide spread of this tree. Nor can it be said that their presence 
in the algaroba forests is noticeably injurious either to standing trees 
or to reproduction. No doubt they do to some extent browse on 
young seedlings, but in the abundance of reproduction this has no 
perceptible effect upon the stand. 

Forming, with the exception of grasses, the most important animal 
food in the islands, the pods are a boon to stockmen, who fatten cattle 
on them during July and August, when pastures are usually dry; to 
liverymen, who feed them mixed with corn meal or bran during a 
large part of the year; and in fact to all who have to supply feed for 
horses, cattle, or hogs. 

The algaroba forests are a valuable asset for Hawaii; they have no 
destructive enemies; they have tremendous powers of reproduction 
and extension ; and, best of all, they are so highly appreciated because 
of the character of the ground which they cover and the products 
which they yield that they will be cared for by the individual without 
special action on the part of the government. 



THE NATIVE FORESTS. , 11 

THE NATIVE FORESTS. 

All of the live important islands are mountainous, their highest 
points ranging from 4,030 feet on Oahu to 13,760 feet on Hawaii, and 
all the mountains are to a considerable extent forested. 

SITUATION. 

The forests are distributed on the different islands approximately as 
follows: 

KAUAI. 

The forest covers the highest portions of the mountains toward the 
central part of the island, extending down to an elevation of about 
1,200 feet on the windward (northeast) slope, and 1,500 feet on the 
leeward slope. It is practically all in one body, surrounding Mount 
Waialeale. 

OAHU. 

There are two distinct ranges of mountains on this island, both 
of which are forested. The Koolau liange, on the east side of the 
island, has much the larger forest. On this range a fairly good 
growth of timber extends from Pupukea and Paumalu on the north to 
Palolo on the south, above an elevation varying from 1,000 to 1,500 
foot. The forest extends over the highest peaks of the range. The 
Waianae Mountains, which form the western rim of Oahu, support a 
fair growth of forest above 2, 000 feet. As the lower elevation of this 
range receives loss rainfall than the Koolaus tho forest is limited to 
higher elevations. 

MOLOKAI. 

The only forest now remaining in the mountains of Molokai is found 
at elevations above 1,500 feet at the east end of the island. This for- 
est is extremely inaccessible on account of the precipitous character 
of the mountains. 

MAUI. 

The western peninsula of Maui, though small, has mountains over 
5,000 feet high. These are forested above 1,200 feet on the windward 
side and 2,000 feet on the leeward side. 

The windward slope of Haleakala, which rises to an elevation of 
10,030 feet on the main part of Maui, is densely forested up to an 
elevation of 8,000 feet. In this case the forest extends down to 
within 1,000 feet of the sea level, or even lower. The slope which it 
occupies is cut by so many deep gorges that it is practically inacces- 
sible, and has never been explored. This forest extends around the 
eastward slope of Haleakala, through the district of Hana, and a belt 



12 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

of it has in the past extended almost entirety around the mountain, at 
an ele\ 7 ation of from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. This belt is now largely 
destroyed on the western and southern sides of the mountain. 

HAWAII. 

The windward slopes of the Kohala Mountains of northern Hawaii 
are forested above the sugar plantations to the summit of the moun- 
tains. But on the leeward side the forest has been destroyed almost 
to the summit. Between Honokane and Waipio, where the moun- 
tains break off sharply into the sea, the forest extends to sea level. 
From Waipio to Kukaiau, in Hamakua, but a thin belt of forest now 
remains adjacent to the sugar plantations. This forest forms a part 
of the Parker ranch, and all portions of it are grazed. In the south- 
ern part of Hamakua, where the influence of Mauna Kea comes in to 
increase the precipitation, the forest rapidly widens and reaches in a 
great loop around Mauna Kea at an elevation of from 6,000 to 8,000 
feet. In Hilo it extends to a width of 20 to 25 miles on the gradual 
slope of Mauna Loa, but in Puna it is brought to a sudden limit where 
the rainfall ceases and the desert begins. In Kau another forest 
begins, and extends continuously through western Kau and Kona at 
elevations of 3,000 to 6,000 feet, 

TROPICAL CHARACTER OF FORESTS. 

The native forests are distinctively of tropical character. None of 
the familiar trees of the north temperate zone are present. The 
observer looks in vain for oaks, maples, pines, or spruces. There is 
one representative each of Sapindus, Sophora, and Zanthoxylum, and 
two or three of Acacia, but all differ distinctly from their congeners in 
the United States. 

FOREST TYPES. 

The forests are composed mainly of five distinct t}^pes: Pure growths 
of lehua, koa, mamane, and kukui, and mixed forests, which are made 
up of koa, koaia, kopiko, kolea, naio, pua, and other species. 

LEHUA. 

The ohia-lehua (Metrovid^os polymorpha), which forms pure stands 
or grows with a small admixture of koa, naio, kopiko, and pua on all 
the different islands, is the typical forest of regions of very heavy rain- 
fall, such as northeast slopes and mountain tops under 6,000 tVet 
elevation. It comprises probably three-fourths of the native forest. 

The lehua of itself seldom forms a dense stand. The trees are apt 
to grow far apart, and always have small, thin, upright crowns, which 
are very intolerant of shade. Under varying conditions in the forest 
the trees grow from 30 to 100 feet high. In the best forests, which 



Bui. 48, Bureau of Forestry, U. S Dept of Agriculture. 



PLATE II. 




FIG. 1. IE-IE VINE IN LEHUA FOREST. 




FIQ. 2. UNDERGROWTH IN A MOUNTAIN COVE. 



BUL. 48, BUREAU OF FORESTRY. U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. 



PLATE III. 




A HAWAIIAN KOA FOREST. 



TROPICAL CHARACTER OF FORESTS. 13 

always occur where the rainfall is greatest, many of the trees reach a 
diameter of 4 feet, a height of 100 feet, and a clear length of 40 to 50 
feet. The lehua trunk is straight, often twisted, deeply ribbed near 
the ground, and frequently divided into several roots 10 or 12 feet 
above the ground. The root system is very shallow, often spreading 
right on the surface of the mineral soil. 

i" 11 

Though the stand of trees be thin, the normal forest, on account of 
an abundant and luxuriant undergrowth, is impenetrable except as 
one cuts his way with knife and axe. Many of the trees support 
climbers such as the ie-ie vine, which grows into the crowns and may 
lure together with rope-like stems the trees of an entire forest. Then 
there is the fern growth, marvelous in its variety and luxuriance. 
With species which range in height from a few inches to 30 feet, grow- 
ing both on trees and on the ground, and running the whole scale of 
shade endurance, the ferns do much toward making the virgin lehua 
forest the impenetrable, dark jungle which it often is. Mosses in 
places cover the ground, fallen logs, and tree trunks several inches 
deep, and grow in bunches over a foot thick on suspended vines and 
drooping twigs, giving an appearance of weird drapery. 

Undergrowth of this kind affords a great quantity of humus, and 
possesses an enormous capacity for holding water. Even in a rather 
dry time one may squeeze enough water from a few handfuls of moss 
to obtain a good drink. Fallen logs, fern trunks, and all kinds of 
debris are constantly saturated. Mountain ridges less than a rod wide 
at the summit are often boggy where these conditions prevail. 

In so dark a forest it seems anomalous to find the lehua, a tree of 
pronounced intolerance, reproducing itself generation after generation. 
It does so through its singular habit of germinating on both standing 
and fallen trees, and especially on the fibrous trunk of the tree fern, 
which is admirably suited to its needs. Only in such places can it get 
the light it requires. As soon as it germinates it sends down several 
roots, which enter the ground and perform the normal functions of 
support and nutrition. When the host decays, the tree is left standing 
on these roots, which to all appearances are simply divisions of the 
trunk. The natives have an adage that the amau (tree fern) is the 
mother of the ohia lehua. (See frontispiece.) 

As one passes above an elevation of 4,000 feet, or out of the dis- 
tricts of greatest rainfall, the lehua relinquishes its prominent place 
and mingles with other species, such as the naio, kolea, kopiko, koaia, 
and koa. 

Lehua wood is of reddish color, heavy, and in drying checks and 
warps so badly as to be of little commercial use except for fuel. It 
has been used frequently by the natives in the building of log houses, 
and has also been used on the islands for railroad lies. 

The lehua forms the tallest and most impenetrable forests on the 



14 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

islands, and because of its character and of the fact that it covers dis- 
tricts where the rainfall is greatest and the mountains most precipi- 
tous, it forms the most valuable protective forest. Nearly all the dis- 
tricts which accumulate a large supply of water available for irrigation 
and fiuming purposes are covered by lehua forests. 



KOA. 



Besides growing in mixture with lehua, koa (Acacia koa) forms pure 
stands over extensive tracts in Hawaii and Maui. Koa has a leaf 
which is almost indistinguishable from the Australian blackwood 
(Acacia melanoxyloii), which has been commonly planted in southern 
California and to which it is closely related botanically. It is natu- 
rally a spreading tree with a short trunk, growing in somewhat scat- 
tered stands. Occasionally under normal conditions it reaches a 
diameter of 6 or 8 feet and a height of 75 feet. Much greater height 
than this is reported. (See PL III.) 

In crowded stands the koa is forced into a long, slender, but seldom 
straight stem. It is intolerant of shade at all ages, and will not 
germinate or grow without a large amount of light. Koa also has the 
fern undergrowth which characterizes the lehua, though as it grows 
in somewhat drier situations its undergrowth is usually not so luxuri- 
ant. The ie-ie vine especially is seldom seen in a koa forest. 

Koa is the one fairly abundant tree of the Hawaiian forests which 
is valuable because of its lumber. It is a highly prized cabinet wood, 
which has been largeh 7 used on the islands and has also been exported 
in limited quantities. Its color varies through many rich shades of 
red and brown; its grain is fine and indistinct. Curly koa is espe- 
cially prized, but is very rare. Most of the best koa on Maui has been 
cut, but an extensive mature forest exists in Hilo and Puna at eleva- 
tions of from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. This forest is but little known, but 
seems to contain some magnificent timber and to be in a good state of 
reproduction. Practically all of this forest is upon accessible govern- 
ment land, and could be utilized to great advantage should the gov- 
ernment build a road to it and establish a sawmill for working up the 
mature trees. 

MAMANE. 

Mamane (SvpJwra ckrysopkyttd) grows successfully only on the high 
slopes of Mauna Kea and Hualalai. It originally extended down to an 
elevation of about 4,000 feet on the north slope of Mauna Kea, but was 
killed out at this elevation apparently by the encroachment of Bermuda 
grass (manieie). But little of.it is now found except between 6,000 and 
8,000 feet, at which elevation it forms a belt clear around Mauna Kea. 
In this situation it is notable for its rapid extension within the last 
few years both up and down the mountain. This extension has taken 



LIMITS OF TIIK ORIGINAL FOKESTS. 15 

place in spite of heavy grazing, and forms the only example of the 
extension of the natural Hawaiian forest under such conditions. 
Unlike the case of the algaroba, cattle seem in no way responsible for 
the extension of the niamane, as they eat neither the seed nor the 
fruit. The seed, borne in great profusion, is readily disseminated by 
wind and water. Mamane also grows abundantly on Maui, particu- 
larly on the slope of Haleakala, at from 0,000 to 8,000 feet above sea 
level. It is not abundant on the other islands. 

Mamane is the best post timber of the native forest, and for this 
reason is a useful tree to the ranchman. It is not of great value as a 
soil cover, because it neither forms a dense stand nor is supplemented 
by a heavy undergrowth. 

KUKUI. 



Kukui (Altnri1.<x //v'/V^/), a handsome tree with large, silvery leaves 
pointed like the leaves of the California sycamore, characterizes the 
bottoms and sides of gulches and streams to an elevation of 2,000 
f<et. It is frequently called candlenut, because of the oily nut which it 
produces in abundance, and which in olden times was used by the 
natives for illumination. The kukui has value only as a cover for the 
steep slopes where it grows. In almost all cases it has beneath it a 
dense undergrowth of fern. In very moist coves, protected from 
severe winds, the wild banana often forms a part of its undergrowth. 
Near the edges of streams the kukui is frequently supplanted by the 
ohia-ai, which, in small patches, forms the densest forest to be found 
in the islands. 



MIXED FORESTS. 



Mixed forests of koa, koaia, kopiko, kolea, naio, pua, and other 
species occur on nearly all the islands, particularly on portions too 
dry for the species above named to form pure forests. Thus, on 
approaching a forest area from a desert, one encounters first a mixed 
forest and afterwards a pure forest of some of the kinds mentioned. 
Forming thus the edge of the natural forest, and occurring often on 
plains or gentle slopes, the mixed forests have suffered more from 
grazing than any other type. Very many of them have been almost 
entirely exterminated, as, for instance, those on the leeward slopes of 
the Kohala Mountains of Hawaii and those on the upper portion of 
Kula, on Maui. The mixed forests have often been injured by grasses, 
particularly the Bermuda grass, which thrives under the same natural 
conditions. 

LIMITS OF THE ORIGINAL FORESTS. 

Originally the forests were limited only by such natural conditions 
as lack of rainfall, elevations, and lava flows. 

The northeast trade winds keep the windward mountain slopes satu- 
rated by frequent rains during the greater part of the year, and on 



16 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

these slopes, at^elevations of 1,500 to 3,000 feet, where the niini'all is 
greatest, is found the heaviest forest. Toward regions of lessened 
exposure to trade winds and decreased rainfall the forest becomes 
thinner and of poorer quality, and on the leeward, where the rainfall 
is in places less than 30 or 40 inches per year, there was often no forest 
at all. Probably the area which originally bore no forest because of 
insufficient rainfall was quite large, for it is certain that all of the 
important islands now have large tracts to which no trees of the native 
forests are adapted. 

Elevation has put a sharp limit to the forest on the islands of 
Hawaii and Maui at from 6,000 to 8,000 feet. This leaves very large 
areas of Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, and Haleakala devoid of 
forest, and they have always been so. The mountains of the other 
islands, being under 6,000 feet, are forested to their summits. Six to 
eight thousand feet is a surprisingly low timber line, considering the 
favorable conditions of soil, moisture, and temperature which prevail 
at that altitude in Hawaii. The sufficient reason seems to be that the 
species composing the native forests are all representatives of the torrid 
zone, and in these islands, which lie right at the edge of the Tropics, 
find their limit at the low altitude named. 

On the slopes of Mauna Loa lava flows have put a sharp limit to 
the forest in a number of places. The flow of 1881, which ran from 
near the top of the mountain almost to the sea, cut a wide swath 
through a dense forest for fully 15 miles. Many previous flows had 
resulted similar!} 7 , and while the forest is slowly replacing itself on 
the older flows, hundreds of years are required for the lava to decom- 
pose sufficiently to support a normal growth of forest. Many thou- 
sand acres which once must have been well forested are now surfaced 
with lava rock (pahoehoe), and support only a meager growth of fern 
and stunted trees. Slowly this rock is decomposing, and as it decom- 
poses the forest improves. 

RAPID DECADENCE OF THE FOREST. 

The above were the chief agencies restricting the forest up to about 
one hundred years ago. Since that time various deleterious agents 
have worked so effectually toward the destruction of the woodland 
that every forest in the islands has been reduced, until it is now only a 
fragment of what it was" originally. The island of Molokai well 
illustrates this point. This island, 38 miles long by 8 miles wide, has 
a range of mountains over 4,000 feet high at its eastern end, drops to 
a low plain in the center, and rises to 1,380 feet near the western end. 
Originally all the eastern end well down to the central plain, and the 
highest part of the western end, were heavily forested. The plain 
was park-like, with scattering groves of trees. There is little at pres- 
ent even to indicate former conditions. All the western end is bare. 



Bui. 48, Bureau of Forestry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



PLATE IV. 




FIG. 1. FOREST NEARLY RUINED BY GRAZING, NORTH KOHALA, HAWAII. 




FIG. 2. FOREST ENTIRELY RUINED BY GRAZING, MAUL 



Bui. 48, Bureau of Forestry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



PLATE V. 



0) 

m co 

m o 
-, m 





Bui. 48, Bureau of Forestry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 



PLATE VI. 




Bui. 48, Bureau of Forestry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



PLATE VII. 




FIG. 1. CLEARING ON A HOMESTEAD, HAMAKUA 




FIG. 2. A WELL-FORESTED WATERSHED, MAUI. 



CAUSES OF DECLINE. 17 

trees are gone from the plain, and also from the western and 
southern slopes of the mountains at the eastern end. Only a few 
thousand acres of the highest south slopes and the precipitous north 
slopes of the mountains are now covered by growing forest. Stretch- 
ing around the living forest is a wide belt of leafless timber, which 
has died within the last decade, but has not yet fallen. 

Each of the other islands exhibits just the same conditions. More 
marked examples of declining forests can scarcely be imagined than 
exist in the districts of Hamakua and Kohala in Hawaii, and Kula in 
Maui, in which one may pass through thousands of acres of totally 
dead forest into equal areas of which the forest is in a dying condi- 
tion, and from these into the small remnant that yet remains thrift} 7 . 

No estimate can be given of the ratio of the present forest to that 
of a century ago. The former area is unknown, and the present forests 
are so inaccessible and so irregular in shape that a safe estimate can 
not be made without much further study. But it is certain that the 
present area, which may not be more than 20 per cent of the islands, 
is but a small part of what existed at that time. This result has been 
brought about by perfectly evident causes working unretarded year 
by year. 

CAUSES OF DEC. JE. 

The principal causes which have brought about the destruction of 
the forests are stock, insects, grasses, fire, and clearing. 

STOCK. 

Cattle were introduced into the islands late in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The} 7 were turned out to run at large, and strict laws prohibited 
their slaughter for a number of years. Under these favorable condi- 
tions they had increased to such numbers by 1815 as to be a menace to 
the forest. Their slaughter was no longer forbidden, but they con- 
tinued to multiply rapidly. By 1850 boiling plants had been put up 
in several places for the extraction of tallow, that being the only por- 
tion of the animal having an\ T value. These plants were in continuous 
use until the seventies, and indicate the great numbers of cattle which 
must have existed during that time. Only within the last few years 
have cattle been reduced in numbers to conform to the demands of the 
islands, and placed within fenced paddocks. Numbers of wild cattle 
still run at large in the various forests, although many have been 
driven out or shot. Mr. A. W. Carter, manager of the Parker ranch, 
on Hawaii, estimates the number of wild cattle on Mauna Kea to be 
10,000. 

That cattle did the first serious damage to the forest can scarcely be 
doubted when one considers their great numbers and the extent of the 
forest. At a very early day they must have gone through all the 
23631 No. 4804 2 



18 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

accessible parts. The more inaccessible and impenetrable parts 
remained intact till later, for cattle could only work around the edges 
of these, entering a little further each year; but now in many instances 
they have gone through the entire forest. 

The character of the Hawaiian forest makes it peculiarly susceptible 
to injur} T by cattle. The tender, succulent undergrowth is easily 
trampled down, and much of it, especially ie-ie, banana, and some of 
the ferns, is excellent food for stock. Yet this undergrowth is a vital 
part of the forest; without it the ground dries quickly and the shallow- 
rooted trees soon die. 

Goats were introduced into the islands many years ago, and have 
been particularly active agents of destruction. They are now found 
on all the important islands. Their work, though localized, is more 
thoroughly destructive than the work of cattle. Ridges where they 
rendezvous ma} 7 be distinguished for miles by their utter barrenness 
and eroded condition. Goats are especially hard on precipitous slopes. 
They will la} 7 completely bare places so steep as to be shunned alto- 
gether by cattle. 

Wild pigs, the progeny of stock introduced years ago, have done 
some damage on all the islands. They tear up the tree fern, seeking 
its roots for food. 

Deer brought to Molokai in the early sixties have taken their share 
in the destructive work. Several years ago they had increased to 
such immense numbers as to damage the forest considerably by brows- 
ing on and trampling down the undergrowth and rubbing the bark 
from the young trees. 

INSECTS. 

Following the attack of stock have come other agents of destruction. 
Injurious insects have at times appeared in numbers sufficient to 
deaden and even eventual^ to kill the timber over thousands of acres 
at a time. Ohia-ai, which grows in dense stands in low, wet valleys, 
was so completely defoliated a few years ago as to be almost ruined. 
Koa is periodically defoliated. It has upward of a dozen insect 
enemies which threaten its utter extinction. Borers are even more 
common than leaf -eating insects. In nearly all cases insects have been 
most severe where the forest was enervated by grazing. Portions of 
the ungrazed forest have at times been destroyed by insects, but only 
in consequence of the headway gained on near-by areas which have 
suffered by grazing. 

GRASSES. 

Many thousand acres of forest land despoiled by cattle have been 
overrun by rank-growing grasses, which have rendered conditions 
prohibitive of forest reproduction. Probably the worst of these is 
Hilo grass (Paspalum conjugatum), which grows 2 to 3 feet high in 



CAUSES OF DECLINE. 19 

the rainy districts and forms a dense mat several inches thick over 
the surface of the ground. Tree seeds can not germinate beneath it. 
Another coarse grass of similar habits is the so-called rice grass (mau- 
like). But it is neither so common nor so prohibitive of reproduction 
as 1 1 ilo grass. 

In drier districts Bermuda grass (manienie) obtains such a hold as to 
prevent forest reproduction, and even to hinder tree growth. Some of 
the forests of Hamakua and Kohala, in Hawaii, have died from no 
other apparent cause than a predominant growth of this grass. 

FIKE. 

Fire has done far more injury in Hawaiian forests than would be 
supposed in regions of so great rainfall. The most serious fire within 
recent years occurred two years ago in southern Hamakua. It burned 
an area 15 miles long and 2 to 4 miles wide, leaving unburned only 
occasional patches. Trees, undergrowth, and humus were generally 
completely destroyed. The forest was a normal one for the islands, 
consisting of a fairly heavy growth of lehua and koa, with a heavy 
undergrowth of fern and a deep accumulation of humus. Ordinarily 
this forest could not have been burned, but a severe drought prevail- 
ing for several months previously had dried it out to the point where 
it burned with great rapidit}^. At the present time the land is covered 
with fallen trees and debris, and in places a growth of weeds. But 
little reproduction has as yet taken place, and, as practically all seeds 
and seed trees on the area were burned, there is no possibility of 
immediate reproduction. Whatever growth comes up on the land 
must come from seeds carried in from other places. 

Other forest districts, particularly on Kauai and Maui, have also 
suffered from fire, though there have been no other recent burns so 
severe as the one mentioned above. 

There is distinct evidence of a severe fire upward of fifty years ago 
in the southern part of Hamakua. This fire burned over a tract of 
large, though unknown, extent. It killed practically all the forest 
and undergrowth, and consumed the humus. Its heat must have been 
intense, for it baked the soil to such an extent that at the present time 
it shows as a brick-like layer from 2 to 6 inches thick. In many cases 
it burned the roots of trees several feet below the surface. The 
forest which has come up on the ground following this fire, though 
composed of the same species as the ordinary Hawaiian forest, differs 
from it distinctly in conditions and requirements. The trees have 
grown slowly and have less than the usual amount of undergrowth, 
but thej' have far greater power than the normal forest to withstand 
grazing. 



20 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

CUTTING. 

The forest has been considerably reduced by cutting. Destructive 
cutting began by the removal of the sandal wood in the early part of 
the nineteenth century, and has continued intermittently till the present 
time. Except the sandalwood and koa, the main uses of the native 
timber have been for fuel and poles. Large quantities of native tim- 
ber have been used for fuel in the past, but the demand is now \ <; y 
largely supplied by the algaroba. Most of the sugar mills, which 
have been large consumers of native wood, have now turned to other 
kinds of fuel. Some use coal, some oil, and some the tailings of the 
cane (bagasse). In southern Hamakua and Hilo, in Hawaii, a few of 
the mills are still consuming a large amount of native wood, and two 
or three, with surprising lack of foresight, are cutting away the 
timber which lies just above their plantations and upon which prob- 
ablv their water supply largely depends. 

THE CRUCIAL QUESTION ON THE ISLAND OF HAWAII. 

At the present time a good deal of land is being cleared for the 
extension of cane fields and for the establishment of homesteads in 
Hamakua, Hilo, and Puna. The wisdom of the removal of these 
forests is a grave question, and there is emphatic difference of opinion 
concerning it. 

The whole northeast coast of Hawaii receives a variable but heavy 
rainfall, and was originally forested to the shore of the ocean. Years 
ago this region was found to be adapted to the growth of sugar cane 
without irrigation. Plantations sprang up rapidly, and soon formed a 
continuous chain from the north point of Kohala to several miles south 
of the town of Hilo, with the exception of the country between Hono- 
kane and Waipio, where the mountains break off squarely into the 
sea, leaving no cultivable land. As the land near the sea is all occu- 
pied, the only direction in which the plantations can extend is up the 
mountains; and this, many of them have continually striven to do. 
Already the land has been cleared to an elevation of from 1,400 to 
2,500 feet. In Hamakua there remains above the plantations a strip 
of forest varying from 1 to 4 miles wide. It is into this remaining 
strip that some of the plantations wish to extend. 

The sugar companies do not own very much of this land. It is 
owned principally by the Territorial government, which leases it to 
the sugar companies and gives them permits to clear it. Several 
requests are pending now for permits to clear land above the present 
limit. 

Now, it is recognized by sugar planters, landowners, and govern- 
ment that a limit exists above which clearing means ultimate disaster 



THE CRUCIAL QUESTION ON THE ISLAND OF HAWAII. 21 

to the sugar industry. In the opinion of some this limit has already 
been reached. During 1 the early part of the present year an expression 
of opinion of the plantation men was obtained as to what limit should 
be set for clearing. Most of them favored a limit below the 2,000- 
foot contour. Nevertheless, some of the managers are very anxious 
to extend their plantations beyond this limit. 

The opening up of large tracts of forest lands for homestead pur- 
poses has also complicated the problem seriously. Several years ago 
a preliminary trial indicated that coffee could be successfully grown in 
this region, and the insular government, importuned by those who 
desired to engage in its cultivation, threw open to settlement several 
large tracts lying just above the sugar plantations in Hamakua and 
Puna. Clearing and coffee planting went on rapidty for a few years, 
but came to a sudden halt when it was discovered that the coffee trees 
bore only a crop or two and then failed. Something had to be done 
with the homesteads. The most convenient thing was to turn them 
over to the sugar plantations, and this in most cases was done. Thus 
the possibility of using the homestead law for extending the sugar 
plantations was demonstrated. The pressure for opening tracts, osten- 
sibly for homesteads, has continued. Several tracts have been opened 
within the past few years, and the opening of others is under consid- 
eration. In a great man} 7 , probably a majority of cases, the home- 
steader has sold first the timber and then the cleared land to the plan- 
tations, for the settler has found it more profitable to dispose of his 
homestead in this way and afterwards work for the plantation than to 
till the land. 

Attempts to farm these homesteads have signally failed. The rain- 
fall is too great for some crops, and those which could be grown are 
usually devoured by insects, which seem to be always present in aston- 
ishing numbers. If by chance the homesteader manages to grow a 
crop he finds it difficult to get it to a shipping point over the mountain 
roads. The shipping rates to Honolulu, which is practically the 
only market on the islands, are excessive. And in the Honolulu 
market it is impossible for the Hawaiian farmer to compete with 
California in dairy products and cereals. Except for specialized crops, 
which will have high value in proportion to their bulk, farming in 
these districts is absolutely without promise of successful returns. 

The question may be asked, If sugar is so profitable a crop on this 
land, what reasonable objection can be raised to cutting away the for- 
est and growing sugar cane upon it? The danger is that the planta- 
tions may go so far in the matter as to bring ultimate disaster upon 
themselves by ruining their water supply and decreasing the rainfall. 
Many of the plantations now obtain water from the mountain streams 
for ffuming cane to the mills. There is scarcely enough water for this 



22 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

purpose, and it has been noticed that with the clearing of the lower 
slopes these small streams have been perceptibly diminished." 

The other and far more dangerous result to be feared in cutting 
away the forest is the modification of climatic conditions so that there 
will not be enough rainfall to insure the growth of sugar cane. 
Kohala and Hamakua have barely enough rainfall to produce good 
crops during the best seasons. Dry seasons cut down the crop till 
there is often no profit in it. In 1901 these districts produced 52,025 
tons of sugar, worth $4,080,505 15 per cent of the entire crop of the 
islands. In 1902 they produced only 17,079 tons, in consequence of a 
severe drought which affected the crop greatly. The crop of 1902 is 
said to have been produced at a loss to the planters. Frequent 
droughts such as that would soon put an end to the entire sugar indus- 
try in these districts, for there is no possible supply of water except 
rainfall. 

Throughout the Hawaiian Islands, but especially in these two dis- 
tricts, the influence of the forest upon both the amount and distribu- 
tion of rainfall is a matter of common observation and experience. 
Back of the sugar plantations in Kohala and most of Hamakua the 
land does not rise above an elevation of 3,000 feet, and therefore lacks 
the heavy rainfall which results from higher elevations. As the for- 
ests have occupied the land above the plantations they to a certain 
extent have answered the purpose of the mountains in cooling the 
atmosphere and causing the saturated trade winds to relinquish their 
moisture over the plantations. The evidence of this influence is con- 
vincing, and seems capable of demonstration to some extent by meas- 
urement. On the plains of Hamakua and the lower northeast slope of 
Mauna Kea, where heavy fogs blow over from the ocean and mists are 
of almost daily occurrence, the top of a single tree condenses enough 
moisture to make the ground beneath it muddy, or even to cause water 
to stand, while beyond the influence of the tree top the surface of the 
ground may be entirely dry. At Punohu, where the Parker ranch 
maintains a dairy, there is a short row of vigorous eucalypts about 
100 feet high. These trees condense so much water that the ground 
beneath them is always muddy. The ranch has taken advantage of 
this unusual circumstance by placing beneath the tree tops a roof of 
sheet iron which collects the water and runs it into a gutter, which 
leads it into a tank. The water thus collected is sufficient for a large 
number of stock. 

Since the reduction of the forest area has perceptibly diminished 

"The porosity of the soil in this district is remarkable. Between Waipio and 
Laupahoehoe there is scarcely a single stream affording enough water to flume cane, 
and even in portions of Puna, where the rainfall is from 150 to 200 inches per year, 
there are no streams whatever. The water which falls all sinks directly down and 
appears in the form of springs only at the edge of the ocean. 



NECESSITY FOR THE CLEARING OF LAND. 23 

the flow of Avater for flaming, and has decreased and made irregular the 
rainfall, it is reasonable to expect that the removal of the entire forest 
would make the water conditions so precarious as to reduce greatly 
the productiveness of the plantations, if not to ruin them entirely. 

NECESSITY FOB THE CLEARING OF LAND. 

Speaking of the islands as 51 whole, it must not be supposed that 
the removal of the forest has been unnecessary or without beneficial 
results. It was necessary to clear land in Hawaii for tillage and 
pasturage, just as it has been in the United States. Without the 
clearing of large areas of forest land the products of the islands would 
not, as at present, exceed $25,000,000 a year. The islands would not, 
as they do now, supply cattle for the present population. 

But the point has been reached in most districts where the removal 
of the forest can not proceed except at the serious injury of existing 
industries. The best sugar-producing lands and most of the best graz- 
ing lands arc now cleared. The forest which remains is that which 
controls, nay, even in some cases gives origin to, the water supply. 

IMPORTANCE OF REMAINING FORESTS. 

It can not be asserted that the native forests have great commercial 
value, for the reason that the trees which compose them are not, for 
the most part, commercially valuable. But for protecting the moan- 
tain slopes, and for gathering and distributing a useful supply of 
water, they have a value which, in the opinion of many, it is difficult 
to overstate. They lie directly above the cane fields, in manj T places 
cover steep, even precipitous slopes, receive from 50 to 200 or more 
inches of rainfall per A T ear, and possess so great a retentive power that 
they distribute very evenly this tremendous quantity of water. 

The land which depends upon them for a regular supply of water 
produces, in sugar and rice, crops of immense value. In 1903 the 
value of the sugar exported from the islands amounted to $25,310,684-, 
or 96 per cent of the total exports. Sugar is the sustaining crop of 
the islands. Other industries flourish largely because the sugar 
industry exists. 

Large tracts of land suitable for the production of sugar cane still 
lie out of use because there is no water supply for them. Many of 
the lands already producing sugar would be far more productive with 
a more abundant and regular water supply, as is evident from the 
short crop in Kohala and Hamakua in 1902, which fell to 33 per cent 
of the normal production because of drought. 

In so fa i 1 as watersheds have been denuded, the results have been 
disastrous and quickly felt in a dwindling water supply and the 
decreased productiveness of land. On the other hand, the protection 



24 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

of denuded watersheds has been accompanied by the most remarkable 
results in improved water conditions. In some cases the water supply 
has been in this wa} 7 so largely increased as to permit of considerable 
extension of the cane fields. . 

The abundant evidence that the forest has a direct influence on the 
increase of rainfall, at least in certain localities, has already been noted. 

Although the native forests are not of commercial value now, they 
may be made so within a reasonably short time if placed under man- 
agement. A large koa forest exists on the slopes of Mauna Kea and 
Mauna Loa, the products of which would be highly valuable if got 
out at reasonable expense and placed on a good market. A large part 
of the rest of the native forests may be brought to commercial value 
before many } T ears by the planting of valuable lumber trees. 

COMMERCIAL, INTERESTS CONCERNED IN THE FORESTS. 

Those business interests which, like rice and sugar production, are 
largely dependent upon the mountains for a supply of irrigation water 
naturally in most cases strongly favor preserving the mountain forests. 
With them this means a regular and maximum flow of water, which in 
turn means stead} 7 and heavy production of sugar. So strong has 
been the interest of some of the sugar companies in the preservation 
of the forests that they of their own account have maintained large 
forest reserves above their plantations. Notably among them are the 
Lihue plantation in Kauai, which has had fenced oft' for ten years a 
tract of about 10,000 acres, and the Pahala plantation in Kau, Hawaii, 
which for seven } 7 ears has maintained a reserve of some 50,000 acres. 
Private and corporate landowners who lease land to ranches and plan- 
tations have also reserved the forest, in some cases making it a condition 
of the lease that the forest be fenced and fully protected. The B. P. 
Bishop estate, the largest landowner in the islands, with the exception 
of the government, has thus reserved five tracts on Oahu and Hawaii, 
aggregating about 50,000 acres. 

Equally noteworthy is the tree-planting policy which has been faith- 
fully carried out by a number of landowners. Rev. Hans Jsenberg, 
president of the Lihue plantation, has planted several large blocks of 
forest. The most extensive tree planter of the islands is Mr. H. P. 
Baldwin, of Maui, who for years has systematically planted blocks of 
forests on his lands on the lower slopes of Mount Haleakala. Mr. 
Baldwin has now growing many hundred thousand planted trees of 
eucalyptus, koa, Casuarina, Grevillea, and Java plum. 

Occupying a different position from those who desire to keep the 
forests fully protected are those whose business is not dependent upon 
the water supply from the mountains and who could really use the 



BUL. 48, BUREAU OF FORESTRY. U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. PLATE VIII. 




PLANTED EUCALYPTUS FOREST ON MT. TANTALUS. OAHU. 



THE GOVERNMENT'S INTEREST. 25 

forested land to great advantage, namely, the ranchmen. Some of 
the very lands whose protection is of vital importance to the sugar 
plantations are excellent grazing lands, and greatly needed by the 
ranchmen who use them. And yet the line of personal interest is not 
so clearly drawn as may be imagined. Many of the ranchmen are also 
largely interested in the sugar plantations, and while they may be 
reluctant to give over for forest purposes some of their grazing lands, 
their other interests lead them to favor strongly, for the islands as a 
whole, a policy of forest protection. Even the ranchmen who are not 
concerned financially in sugar production, while not of course for- 
getting their private interests, are inclined to take a broad view of the 
situation. They realize that the development of the sugar industry 
means the development of the whole Territory, and consequently 
increased and stable markets for their own products. Indeed the 
ranchmen as a rule take a most reasonable attitude on the question. 

It is fortunate indeed that there is no general clashing of interests on 
the question of forest protection. In the local cases, where general 
welfare apparently opposes individual interests, a reasonable adminis- 
tration will in almost every instance be able to give entire satisfaction 
by the exchange of lands held either by leasehold or in fee simple. 

THE GOVERNMENT'S INTEREST. 

The government's course is plainly to seek such management of the 
forests as will secure the greatest productiveness of the commercial 
interests concerned. The plantations need an increased and regular 
water supply. Therefore, the forests must be protected in order to 
give it. But the system of protection must not be extended so far that 
its damage to the ranches will outweigh its benefits to the plantations. 
Each local problem will have to be worked out fairly and squarely, 
with due consideration of all the interests at stake. 

GOVERNMENT FOREST WORK IN THE PAST. 

Hitherto the government has given attention principally to the 
question of forest planting rather than to the preservation of the native 
forests. In 1882 an appropriation of $12,000 was made for forest 
work for the biennial period; later legislatures have continued this 
appropriation. A nursery was established and many trees have since 
been grown, some of which have been distributed for planting on pri- 
vate lands, some of which the government itself has planted. 

As a result of the government's planting then- has been developed 
on the slopes of Mount Tantalus, facing Honolulu, a fine forest of 
eucalypts and other trees, covering several hundred acres. More 
recently a considerable part of the Nuuana Valley, which forms the 



26 FORESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

watershed for the water system of Honolulu, has also been planted. 
Although portions of these are handsome examples of planted forests 
and are rightly highly appreciated by the people of the islands, it may 
fairly be questioned whether they have been profitable, considering 
their cost. It is certain that they have in no considerable degree 
compensated for the loss of the native forests during the past twenty 
years, and it is equally certain that no amount of planting which the 
government can afford to do can compensate for these losses under 
present conditions. 

The problem must be solved by first protecting the native forests 
from the forces which are working their destruction, so that as far as 
possible nature may accomplish their reproduction, and then by judi- 
cious planting in those places where the forest is unable to replace 
itself. 

PROPOSED FOREST SERVICE. 

The people of Hawaii almost unanimously favor the immediate 
institution of a system which will protect and restore the mountain 
forests. Guided by this emphatic sentiment, the last legislature 
passed a bill creating a forest service, and outlining to some extent a 
forest policy. Under the law the responsibility of the service rests 
on a nonsalaried board of agriculture and forestry, whose duty it is 
to gather and publish information concerning the forests of the islands, 
to provide for the introduction, propagation, and planting of useful 
forest trees, to establish forest reserves so far as necessary for the 
protection, extension, and utilization of the forests and the safeguard- 
ing of the sources of water suppty, and to protect the forest reserves 
from damage by cattle and other agencies. 

The board is authorized to appoint a superintendent of forestry, 
who is to be a trained forester, and under the direction of the board 
is to have immediate charg-3 of all forest work. The superintendent 
of forestry is to have such paid assistants and rangers as the board 
may find necessary for handling matters connected with the forests 
and forest reserves. 

The board is also to appoint in each district one or more consulting 
foresters, who are to serve without pay and advise with the board 
concerning forest matters in their districts. 

A biennial appropriation of approximately $28,000 per year has 
been made to carry the law into effect. 

The board of agriculture and forestry has invited the Bureau of 
Forestry of the United States Department of Agriculture to assume 
an advisory position in connection with its future policy. On the 
nomination of the Bureau a trained forester has been appointed as 
superintendent of forestry, and has already entered .upon his work. 



FUTURE POLICY. 27 

Appointments of assistant foresters and rangers arc being made as 

rapidly as the needs of the service require. 



FUTURE POLICY. 

No attempt can bo made here to do more than point out the main 
principles which must govern the future policy of the islands in the 
maintenance of a forestiy system. These are as follows: 

FOREST RESERVES. 

Nothing less will be effective toward the preservation of the Hawaiian 
forests than a carefully worked out system of forest reserves, which 
will include practicall} T all of the mountain forests previously men- 
tioned, as well as some potential forest land which has been denuded. 
This reserve system should be established as soon as possible, beginning 
probably in Kula, Hamakua, and Kohala, since in those districts there 
is greatest immediate need of protection. The Territorial government 
owns most of the land which should go into the reserves, but the govern- 
ment land is largely held by individuals or companies under leases, some 
of which will not expire for a number of years. The lessees of many 
important tracts are willing to relinquish the forest land to the govern- 
ment in exchange for reasonable extension of leases, or for new leases 
on other lands. Almost all of the reserves will also need to include 
some land held in fee simple by individuals or companies. Here, again, 
the only solution of the question is by the government exchanging with 
the private owners. 

It is evident that each reserve will have to be made, a part at a time, 
as satisfactory exchanges can bo made, both in leased and owned lands. 
The possibility of such exchanges is entirely dependent upon the 
cooperation of the government with the individuals interested. Good 
results will be accomplished only when both parties fully understand 
the importance of the proposed reserve, and enter into negotiation 
solely to secure fair and equitable exchanges. 

As soon as a reserve is formed, all cattle should be driven out and 
the portions which are accessible to cattle should be fenced. Those 
wild cattle which can not be driven out should be shot. An effective 
ranger service should be put into effect to keep stock and tire out of 
the reserved forest. As soon as practicable, on each reserve men should 
be employed to hunt down and exterminate the wild goats. 

PLANTING. 

With the reserves well protected, the forest will replace itself on 
many of the damaged areas, as reproduction under some conditions 
takes place rapidly. Whore the forest will not replace itself, planting 



28 FOEESTS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

will be necessary, and can be done with direct profit to the islands if 
commercially valuable species are made use of and are planted in the 
right situation. Conditions prevailing at 5,000 to 6,000 feet in Kula, 
Hamakua, and Kan strongl} 7 indicate that Pacific coast species, such as 
redwood and red fir, would do exceedingly well. Eucalyptus, Monterey 
cy press, Casuarina, Grevillea, and several other trees have already 
shown their adaptability for these situations. It is especially important 
to find trees suited to these and higher elevations, because the native 
forest is often deficient at such elevations, although the land is good 
forest land and can never be used for other purposes. In some situa- 
tions it may be desirable to plant species bearing edible fruit, such as 
the alligator pear and breadfruit. 

For the present, forest planting should wait on the formation of the 
reserves. Forests already planted on Mount Tantalus and in Nuuana 
Valley should be cared for, and the nursery should be maintained, but 
no extension of planting or of the nursery should be attempted until 
the reserve system is fairly under way. 

LUMBERING. 

As soon as practicable, an examination should be made of the koa 
forest on the east slopes of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, to determine 
whether or not it is feasible to build a road to it and locate a sawmill 
in it for the purpose of lumbering the mature trees. Some of the koa 
is without doubt very fine, and would form a source of revenue to the 
Territory, to which it belongs, if it could be got out without great 
expense. The law provides that any moneys which shall accrue from 
such products shall be held available as a special fund for the preser- 
vation, extension, and utilization of forests and forest reserves, in the 
same manner as moneys appropriated by the legislature. This makes 
it desirable as soon as possible to make the forest revenue producing, 
so far as this is compatible with its preservation for other useful 
purposes. It is believed that the situation and composition of the koa 
forest is such that the removal of the mature trees could be accom- 
plished without damage either to reproduction or to water supply. 

CLEARING. 

The law makes it mandatory upon the board of agriculture and 
forestry to pass upon the disposition of any public land, not including 
roads and city lots. All leases and sales of forest land, carrying the 
right to cut timber or clear the land, must therefore be approved by 
the board. Since the clearing of land for the extension of canefields 
and for homesteads is at the present time making irreparable inroads 
upon the virgin forest in important localities, it is of special conse- 
quence for the board to act with the greatest caution on all permits to 



FUTURE POLICY. 29 

clear land. The only safe attitude for the board to take under present 
conditions is to assume that all the Government's forests should remain 
intact, and it should recede from this position only in those individual 
cases where the contrary is plainly proved. 

EXTERMINATION OF INSECT PESTS. 

The effective work which has been done by the entomological service 
of the islands toward the extermination of certain kinds of injurious 
insects suggests the possibility of ridding the forests of some of the 
insects which are devastating them, and furnishes ground for the 
recommendation that the board, in connection with its entomologists, 
take the matter into consideration. 

ASSISTANCE TO LANDOWNERS. 

Throughout the islands there is great interest on the part of both 
individual and corporate landowners in the development and preser- 
vation of forests. And yet the individual is often at a loss to know 
what trees to plant for his situation where to get them, how to plant 
successfully, and how to care for the planted or native forest. This 
is information which only the trained forester can give. For lack of 
it some landowners have made no effort in forest work; others have 
worked with meager results. 

It should be a part of the forest policy to give such assistance to 
landowners as the need requires. Studies should be made on the 
ground to determine what trees to plant and what methods to adopt, 
both in the establishment and in the care of woodlands. In many 
cases it will be beneficial, if not necessary, to assist in procuring seeds 
and plants, especially those which have to be procured outside of the 
islands. In so far as the Government nursery is made use of for the 
production of trees for planting on private lands, the trees should be 
of valuable economic kinds, and where distributions are made from the 
nursery the planting should be done under the supervision of the super- 
intendent of forestry. 

COOPERATION WITH THE BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 

The close relation existing between the forest service of the islands 
and the Federal Bureau of Forestry can be maintained with direct 
benefit to each. It will strengthen the insular service to have the 
advice and support of the Bureau in dealing with the problems which 
it will have to meet. On the other hand, such cooperation will enable 
the Bureau to keep in as close touch with the forest administration of 
these important islands as it does with forest affairs in the different 
States. 

O 



Hawaii 



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