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Full text of "The Pandit, Volume 23"

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I^Af c// 3SO. SL 



fgarbarDi College i^tbrars 

FROM THE BBqyKST OF 

MRS. ANNE E. P. SEVER, 
OF BOSTON, 

Widow of Col. Jamxs Warrbm Sevbr* 
(OlMS mt ISIT), 



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cfiT»JII4l<£II^^IMI^: 

NO 



THE PA DIT. 

A MOHTHLT PUBLICATION 

OF THE 

BENARES COLLEGE 

DSYOTXD TO 

SANSKEIT lilTEBATURB. 



NEW SBRIES. 



Vol. XXIIL 



BENARES: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE PROPRIETORS, 
E. J. LAZARUS AND CO., AT THE MEDICAL HALL PRESS. 



1901. 



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INDEX TO VOLUME XXIII. NEW SERIES. 



The SiDDHiNTALE9A ... 1, 633, 597. 

\Nt1yasiddhInjanam ... 9, 65, 133, 197, S6l, 325, 405, 485, 
565, 677, 765. 
*The TiRKiKARAKSl •.. 25, 97, 173, 253, 373, 541. 693^ 

1 Tm TarkiabhIBa ... 49, 118, 196,(^57; 

^ NtItasGtbaviyara^am ... 157, 229, 298, 367, 42J, 601, 613, 

783. 

-The Pakcap^diki of Padma- 

PlDA ... ... 189, 246, 701, 709. 

-LaukikantIyasamoraha ... 213, 277, 341, 487, 469, 549, 629, 

661. 717. 

j rBBlHJfASPHUTASiDDHlNTA 309, 389, 463, 617, 581, 645. 

yTBE Sambandhayirtika of 

Subb?vabAchArya ... 445, 477, 606, 749. 



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WTHE PANDIT i 

Y\\ BENARES COLLEGE, fCh^ 

1 V?)l DEVOTED TO VC?^ 

.^JSA^NSKEIT lilTERATURB. [(^ 

'%] - f 

ill NEW SERIES. |( 

• "vl No. 1.] January, 1901. [Vol. XXIIL /U 
J) W 

^;i BENARES: )>I 

^m[\ PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THB PROPRIETORS^ |^^ 

^ '^)| K. J. I-AZARUS AND CO., AT THE MEDICAL HALL PRESS. vCr 

I* Price Bs. 8-0 jper awaumJ] [All tighU r€$ervcd. 

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TH^^'WrFHESS AS BUSS. 113 



thus, it cannot be said that when, -ip the absence of any 
reflecting mediui|[k, the expanding sunlight is shining in 
the sky but not brightly^ its brightness is increased by 
an increase in its volume/ owing to a lustrous mirror or 
other medium blocking tbe passage of the rays of light — 
though indeed a stream of water flowing to a lower level is 
increased in volume by the action of a dam ; nor can it be 
said, further, that more voluminous tbiin this light is that 
to which is added the lustre from the reflecting medium. 

' And even if the illustration be granted to be just, 
the application of it would imply that Absolute Bliss is 
present to our consciousness in a lesser degree, just as the 
sunlight diffused through the sky is less vivid ; whereas 
the Bliss disclosed by the vrtti in the form of pleasure is 
present in a greater degree, just as the sunlight becomes 

I more vivid when acted on by a reflecting medium. And 
hence it would follow logically that the present life of 
bondage is more worthy of our regard than is Final 
Release itself. 

And the argument just recited will suffice to refute 
the position that, during the transmigratory life. Bliss is 
present to consciousness, though indistinctly as being 
obscured by our false knowledge and by the mental re- 
tenta left behind thereby, just as the light of a lamp 
flickers indistinctly in a strong wind: whereas, in the 
state of final release. Bliss is present in its true and 
full nature ; for then error, and the impressions left be- 
hind by error, have ceased to exist. Because when Bliss, 
which is essentially an undifferenced entity, is shining 
forth, there can be no question of degree as regards the 
Bliss, which present in the state of final release is said 



l_No. 1, Vol. XXIIL— January, 1901. 



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114 



SIDDHANTALBQA. 



not to shine distinctly owing to the defects of Nescience. 
Thus the conclusion is that it is incorrect to suppose 
that the Bliss which is the Witness is not concealed 
by Nescience. : ' r 

(b) It is not concealed by Nescience : nop does this 
view overthrow the distinction between Bondage 
and Release. 

The writer of ^^^he AdvaitavidyS teaches as follows : 
When a single object of pure whiteness is reflected on 
many mirrors that have been tarnished in various degrees, 
the decreasing shades of whiteness are supposed to be 
visible in the reflexion of the object, in correspondence 
with the degrees of tarnishing in the adjuncts l^. the 
mirrors; so when the one absolute Bliss, which in its real 
nature is an undifferenced unity, appears to have become 
the Bliss which is the Witness (9rcqR««) by being re- 
flected in the many inner organs ; and so also when it 
appears to have become Bliss in the form of a sense- 
object ( fsnnipnv ) by being reflected in the vrttis which 
have taken the form of pleasure * and to which belong 
successive degrees of purity, i.e. a greater or a lesser 
degree of the sattva element— such purity being due to 
contact with a definite kind of object, viz. one that has 
more or less sattva in itself, and this contact being the 
matured result of good deeds done in former births, — 
then, in these two (the saksyananda and the visayananda) 
a less and less degree of Bliss is erroneously imagined to 
exist, as having been brought under the influence of the 






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TH£ WITNESS AS BLISS. 115 



tamos elementy^ which is also present in yarying degrees 
as an adjunct to the T^ttis of the inner organ. 

Thas, although the principle of Bliss is present to 
our consciousness during the life of bondage, we are dis* 
satisfied because we erroneously imagine degrees of Bliss ; 
but when true knowledge has arisen, all desire is >t an 
end, for we no longer erroneously imngine that degrees 
of Bliss really exist. And since the distinction between 
the life of bondage and final release^ can thus be consist* 
ently maintained, this writer concludes that the Bliss 
principle as the Witness is present to our consciousness 
as the object of unbounded love and is assuredly not con- 
cealed^by Nescience. 

(e) The Biiss principte Is concealed by Nesolenoe; 
I but Bondage and Release are logical ly d latin* 

guishable.8 

Other writers declare that the Bliss principle eren 
p gg when shining forth, is indeed concealed by 
Nescience ; for one's own consciousness, ex- 
pressed in the words — 'Bliss does not exist forme, is 
not perceived by me' — is a direct proof of such conceal- 
ment. And since under the influence of Nescience differ- 
ent characteristics may\>e surmised erroneously in the 
Witness which is really a unity, the concealment by 
Nescience of the Witness in its character as Bliss is com- 

•1. ii*n:icnD9T WBrrsreRdrjpSTfiWiwr^ H^fViwrRi #idijui%QivTf>3 

2, fisril9nnmft% i gffsdnK^iUfii fti: i Ti. 
firan^ rfrfii •vij' iffi I T^. r 



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116 SIDDHANTALSgA. 



patible with the nou-coocealment of it in its character as 
Intelligence. And since Absolute Intelligence deed not 
put an end to the concealing power of Nescience, its shin- 
ing forth is compatible with its concealment by Nesci- 
ence at the same time;^ for such concealment in regard 
to a presented object is a matter of common experience 
as expressed in the words — * I do not know clearly the 
thing that you say.'^ Nor is it right to say that in such 
a case the concealment by Nescience {viz. the conscious- 
ness of our own ignorance) of the special character of a 
given object is perceived in so far as it is determined 
by our. consciousness of the general character of the 
object.^ For such a rule would extend too far so as to 
imply that the consciousness of our ignorance of A was 
determined by our igQorance of B, (i. e. would necessarily 
imply that we were ignorant of B also). 

Against this it cannot be argued that the determin- 
ing rule, in such a case, is the relation between the 
special and the general character of a thing, and there- 
fore the rule does not unduly extend to the case of A 
and B between which no such relation exists. For since 
this so-called relation of special to general is nothing but 
the well-known relation of vydpti (i. e. invariable con^ 
comitance proved by induction as existing between the 
less general or vyapya and the more general the vyapaka), 



Wfi* *«f ^?nr* ^1 Ti. 



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THE WITNESS AS BLISS. 117 



it Would follow that my consciousness of my ignorance, 
expressed in ' I do not perceive fire/ would imply my 
consciousness of my ignorance of smoke ( whereas, in 
inferencci I pass from the perceived smoke, vyapya, to a 
knowledge of the unperceived fire, vyapaka). Hence when 
Nescience as concealing a certain thing is present to our 
consciousness, then that thing is indeed a 'concealed' 
thing; and thus it is logically consistent to hold that a 
thing, even while present to consciousness, can be an ob- 
ject for Nescience (to conceal). And just as Nescience 
conceals Intelligence (Brahman) without aflfecting the 
Witness, so it also conceals Bliss without touching that 
Bliss which consists in the vrttis of pleasure. And this is 
what is meant by the overcoming of the Nescience which 

) conceals Bliss in the form of sense-objects (cf. pp. 77, 85.) 
This * overcoming' is present in different degrees as de- 
pending on the character of the vrttis ; and this charact- 
er, again, is due to the special character of the causes, 
viz. the various forms which Bliss has taken in sense- 
objects. Just as the dark shades of things seen in the 
grey dawn are overcome by the different degrees of light. 
Thus, conclude these writers, the difference between 
Absolute Bliss and that Bliss which sense-objects are, 
and also the varieties of the latter form of Bliss have 
been satisfactorily accounted for."^ 

The point common to the views thus discussed is 
that the Principle of Intelligence as the Witness illumines 

• ?!tiT n Ararat vra^cmfsi^ST hwt mRnrm^fR^: «9«urs3 wq. 
mm^ isJFoAi I Ti. 



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118 SIDDHANTALE^A. 



the Inner Organ (^WJj^Tt) and its attributes, but does 
not need the mediation of any yrtti to oyercome conceal* 
ing Nescience,^ since under no circumstances is thd 
Witness concealed by Nescience. 

A general objection is now stated : If it be held 
that no vrtti is needed by the Witness (ll^i?). then it be- 
comes impossible to explain how a reproduction in the 
form of memory ( ia^«UT? ) can take place in regard to 
the Inner Organ and its attributes; JTor while presenta- 
tion continues ( 9T^ ^ffk ) the mental retentum ( ^R^iiTC ), 
i. e. a subtile form of the presentation, could not arise^ 
because it could not be produced by the Witness^ which 
is an eternal presentative consciousness. 

Some writers reply to this as follows : — The Inner 
Organ, while it is ever illumined by the Witness which 
is in contact with it, is also illumined by that other form 
of the Witness which is present to the Inner Organ when 
the latter has become a vrtti and has taken the form of an 
external object : now since this other form of the Witness 
( npi ) is not an eternal presentation (but a temporary 
product, janya), it can produce a mental retentum of 
the Inner Organ and its attributes, just as it pro* 
duces a retentum of external objects. Nor, say these 
writers, is there a restrictiye rule to the effect that 
only the Witness present to a vftti of the giyen object 
can giye rise to a mental retentum of that object ; for 
if such a rule were admitted, then a representation in the 
form of memory ( Vinn) of a given vftti could not arise 
because a mental retentum of that vrtti would be im- 
possible — to provide for the possibility of the retentum, 

1. ThiB ootnmon point U teohaioallj stated as ftc w mirilllWIW ' 
Hlfmd^^iH I Cf. p. 75 n. 



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THB WITNESS AKD REPRBSBNTATIOK. 119 



a second yrtti of the given yj^^ would have to be postu- 
lated, but as this would lead to an infiDite regress of 
vrttisy the view that a presentation needs a second to 
make it known (lljUl6llllt| ) must be rejected and along 
with it the view that a vftti needs a second vftti. On 
the contrary, the only restrictive rule is to this effect : — 
the mental retentum is produced by means of a virtti of 
all those objects which are illumined by the Intelligence 
underlying that vrtti. And in accordance with this rule, 
the production of a mental retentum of the various at- 
tributes of the Inner Organ, vis. cognition, pleasure, 
pain, &c. may justly be accounted for : — each of these at- 
tributes is illumined by that Intelligence which as under- 
lying each of them may be regarded as the non-eternal 
Witness of each; just as each spark flying out of a red- 
hot mass of iron is illumined by the fire present in each 
spark. 

Then as to the view of the K&tasthadlpa chapter of 
p g- the Paficada9l which regards cognition as a 
predicate of the cognised object (i. e. as a re- 
sult produced in the cognised object) and illumined by 
Brahman underlying that object : — thus verse 4 — '' Intel- 
ligence reflected in the vrtti, which has taken the form of 
an external object, can illumine only that object. Brah- 
man, Absolute Intelligence, illumines the ' object cts a 
cognised object'';^ — and also as regards the view of the 
Tattvapradlpik& that Cognition, Desire and the other 
attributes of the Inner Organ are illumined by absolute 
Intelligence as the eternal Witness, the view of both these 



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120 SIDDHANTALSgA. 



works must be held to be that the Illumining Intelligence 
is in relation with the vrtti ; for this Intelligence is the 
immediate presentative consciousness of that thing which 
is in relation with it ; and as defined by its relation to 
these things this Inielligence is regarded as a non-eternal 
entity ; and hence there is no logical difficulty in accounting 
for the production of a mental retentum of these things. 

Other writers explain how a mental retentum of the 
consciousness expressed by I arises, by premising that a 
vrtti of Nescience in the form of the I exists, as indeed a 
vrtti of Nescience in the form of pleasure &c.^ has to be 
assumed as existing, during dreamless sleep, in order to 
account for that recollection of pleasure &c. which accrues 
to the man on his awaking from dreamless sleep.^ Nor 
if this view be accepted (sc. that recollection is brought 
about by the vrttis of Nescience in the form of the i) 
is it logically impossible to explain how a recollection of 
the / is produced— even though the /was presented along 
with a continuous presentation of some other object, as 
when a man expresses hia consciousness in the words — ' / 
continued to see this object through this length of time' — . 
Just as pleasure and pain may occur simultaneously as 
being determined by different parts of the phydcal body; 
so two vrttis may occur together without either overthrow- 
ing the other: hence it is possible for a continuous series 
of vrttis of Nescience to exist in the form of the /, even 
along with a continuous presentation of some other object. 

2. vfcranfsr wnfiw* ^^gg^i; #0111^ 1 Ti. 



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CONTENTS. 



Page. 



THE SIDDHiNTALEgA op APPAYADlKglTA, Trans- 
lated by Arthur Veuia , 

NYiYASIDDHANJANAM, Ed. R&ma Mifra gastrin, Pro- 
fessor, Sanskrit College, Benares. 

THE TARKIKARAKSi and SARASAMORAHA of 
YARADARAJA, with the glosses Niska^takA of 
Mallinatba EolScala and Laghudlpiki of Jfi&na* 
pHrnia, Ed. Vindhye9varipra8ada Dvivedin, Libra* 
rian, Sanskrit College, Benares. 

THE TARKABHASi with the Commentary Nyiyapradlpa, 
and Contents, Ed. Sarendral&la QosT&min, Professor 
Sanskrit College, Benares. 






S5 



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nhl^llddJIMbllMlU: 



THE PANDIT 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION 




OF THE 



BENARES COLLEGE, 



DEVOTED TO 



I8ANSKEIT lilTERATURB. 



NEW SERIES. 



No. 2.] February, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. 



BENARES: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THB PROPRIETORS, 
S. J. LAZARyS AND CO., AT THE JdEDICAL HALL PRESS. 




R$. 0-0 per annum.] 



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CONTENTS. 



Page. 



f NYAYASIDDHiNJANAM, Ed. R&ma Mijra gaatrin, Pro^ 
fesBor, Sanskrit College, Benares. 

THE TlRKIKARAKSi and SARASAMGRAHA of 
« VARADARAJA, with the glosses Niskantakft of 
Mallin&tba Kol&cala and LaghudlpikS of Jfi&na- 
pUr^a, Ed. VindbjefYarfpras&da Dvivedin, Libra- 
rian, Sanskrit College, Benares 

THE TARKABHiSi with the Commentary Nyftyapradlpa, 
I Contents and Preface, ko. Ed. Surendral&la Gosvamin^ 

professor Sanskrit CollegOi Benares. 



65 




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aiT^nToranrerem^Tu: 



€the pandit 

A MONTHIJ POBLICATION 

OFTHB 

BENARKS COLLEGE, 

OKVOTED TO 

SKBIT LITBRATUBB. 



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i 



NEW SIfiRIES. 



No. S.] March, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. 







(I 



BENARES: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE PROPRIETORS, 
E. J. LAZARUS AND CO., AT THE MEDICAL HALL PRESS. 

I90I, 

'iff\:>* Copyright on each article reserved. 

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THE 

PAiSCAPADIKA 

OF 

PADMAPADA 

TIll.NSLA.TBD BY 

ARTHUR VENIS. 



li— No. 3, Vol. XXIII March, 1901. ^c^ 

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In the margin of the translation is shown the paging 
of the Sanskrit text of the Vizianagram Series. 

The adhikaraQas of Yedftnta are indicated by the 
corresponding adby&ya and sutras. 



Further abbreyiations are :— - 

Viv = PafLcap&dikaviyara^a 

V. F. S. « ViyaraQapr^meyasaipgraha 



IViz. Series. 



S. L. » SiddbfiDtaleja : English translation by 
A. Venis. 

S. M. = Vedantasiddhantamuktavali : English trans- 
lation by A. Veuis. 

jBA0»Bhamati: Biblio, Indie Edition. 



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PAlJCAPADIKA. 

Reverenoe to Brahman, the Witness, Bliss eternal, 
Intelligenoe unchanging, the One existent without end 
and untouched by the net- work of duality I 

Reverence to the sage B&dariyaQa, the abode of 
calm, who unfolds Yedanta as the sun expands a lotus- 
duster I 

I salute that wondrous Qapkara, who is not surround- 
ed by serpents, nor is cohered with sacred ashes, half of 
whose form is not the body of Uma and who is not ter- 
rible, who is unattended by Vin^yaka, and from whom 
the dark poison stain has disappeared ! ^ 

I bow my head to that teacher who has become 
famous through his Bh&sya and whose honey-like teachings 
in the Bhasya that issues from his mouth as from the 
lake Manasa are drunk in by his humble and attentive 
pupils, in every quarter, as by bees. 

Devoutly I begin this commentary on the Bhasya, 
which clear and profound supports a weight of words and 
thoughts, as a plant supports its stalks and foliage. 

* Mo0t of the epithets in this stansa have a doable meaning^ 
one in reference to the God ^tva and another in referoDce to ^aj^khr- 
ftc&rjra. Thus iiHit is both a serpent and a sensual persou ; aud ^Itt 
means both ashes and wealth ; and fei^TQiS is both Ga^e^ and an obstacle. 
Thi^n, vipri « fi^juni , inference, and also ««|*3«n i. e. not-Um&; so 
thai ^'^okar&c&rja is described as 'consisting half of reasoning/ where- 
by he supports the other half, yis., the teaching of r^yeaied Veda. 



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PANCAPADIKA. 



The Bhasya, opening with the words — (the object 
and the subject) which are present to consciousness 
AS thh: Thou and th : I respectively — and ending, It is a 

NATURAL MODE OF THOUGHT AND SPEECH TO SAY — I AM ThAT, 

That is mine, — closes finally with the passage — All Ve- 

DANTA texts ARE TO BE STUDIED, IN ORDER TO DESTROY THAT 
FALSE NOTION WHICH IS THE CAUSE OF EVIL, AND SO TO GAIN A 
(true) KNOWLEDGE j OF SeLF AS THE ABSOLUTE UnITY. 

It sets forth the subject-matter of the VedSota System 
and its aim, because these are taught implicitly in the 
fir^stsfitra. And this point we will make clearer in dis- 
cussing the passage— Therefore Brahman ought to be 

an object of INQUIRY.* 

But if this be so, interposes an objector, the Bhosya 
should confi le itself to that passaga in which the words — 

IN ORDER TO DESTROY THAT FALSE NOTION, &C. — Set forth 

the aim of the Vedanta System, and the words — and so 

TO GAIN A TRUE KNOWLEDGE OF SeLF AS THE A.BSOLUTE UnITY — 

declare the subject-matter of the System ? Of what use is 
the earlier passage, teaching as it does that Nescience 
(Avidya) bringsabout the common modes of thought and 
speech, e. g. lam a maM— wherein the /and That is mine 
are falsely predicated of one's body and sense-organs. 

To this objection the reply is that the knowledge of 
Brahman, enounced in the opening sutra, is |indeed that 
which destroys the cause of evil (i. e. Nescience). And 
evil consists above all in the notion that one is a knower 
and an agent and an enjoyer. Now if these were realities, 
knowledge could not destroy them ; for it is only the 

* Cf. Text pp. 66, 67. 



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THE LOGICAL ORDER OF THE BHASYA. 



unreal or Nescieace that cai be destroyed by kaow- 
ledge. Whereas if the notion of agency &c. is due to 
Patfe 2 Nescience as its cause, then the statement 
that the knowledge of BiMhrn%n destroys 
the c%use of evil is logically consistent. For this reason, 
while indicating that the knowledge of Brahman destroys 
the cause of evil, the Su-.ra-writer himself clearly means 
to show that the notion of agancy &c. is due to Nesci- 
ence as its cause. Hence also the aim of this the 
opening pissaga of the Bhasya is to serve as an Intro- 
duction^ to the entire Vedanta System, helpful to an 
understanding of the sutras by showing that the no- 
tion of agency &3. is due to Nescience as it^ cause. And 
80 the aim of the Veianta System is set fjrth in the 
statement that Vedaata texts ter ninate in the doctrine 
that Self, which is cjmnonly regarded a^ an individual 
bound to a world of chancre, is in its own true nature 
nothing bat the undiffcjrenced and unchanging Intelli- 
gence, the Real, the absolute Bliss. But this doc- 
trine is contradicted by the seemingly unrefuted conscious- 
ness which, vouched for by direct perception, fi ids ex- 
pression in the words — I am an agent, I am joyed, I am 
pained. Hence, to remove this contradiction, it must 
be proved thit N'escience produces characteristics in Self 
which are opposed to the tru3 nature of Brahman ; and 
until this has been proved, Veianta texts must appear 
as meaningless as the sentence ' An old ox sat at its 
door chanting benedictions.' Hence, it must be proved 
that it is Nescience that projects on the Self a nature 

• Pa^ffT U^rffe^^TJ^T^iim IW^S I Another de6n. h ufnai- 

aw5 jSt *njfr qtn?! Hariaii5Rr9i5^wfff i V. P. S.p. 8. 1. 20. 



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PANCAPADIKA, 



other than that of Brahman. And this point the Sutra- 
writer will prove in the Chapter termed Avirodha, under 
the section dealing with Jiva or the personal sentiency^- 
11. 3. 29. 

But it may be urged that, if this is the case, that 
Satra should come first in order of enunciation. By no 
means so : for the priority of a passage mutt be settled 
by reference to its definite subject-matter.^ And when, 
in regard to this subject-matter, the purport or application 
of a given sentence has been shown, then a doubt, which 
might overthrow that application, and also a resolution 
of that doubt, can logically find expression. Whereas the 
doubt and its &verthrow would be irrelevant, if the defi- 
nite application of a given sentence had not previously 
been shown. However, to make the point easy of compre-* 
hension, the writer of the Bhasya expounds (in his Intro- 
duction) what is necessarily implied in the opening sutra 
of the System though really proved by II. 3. 29. Thus no 
fault attaches to the order of exposition in the Bhasya. 

But here another objection is brought against the 
Bhasya, as follows : — When entering on a task, e. g. the 
writing of a book, all good men begin with some auspici- 
ous preliminary adequate to the task in hand, whether by 
worship and reverence of their favourite deity or by 
thinking of such words as oUha and v^ddhi or by looking 
at such substances as curds. This immemorial practice 
of good men is an infallible rule for us. And the auspici- 
ous introduction, it is well known, is intended to remove 
obstacles. Further, great hindrances may be anticipated 

* n jftliii i mqji : — the proof svuffi: (of its priaritj) depends 
on its special subject-matter, fr^ferdSnf nvofw: i 

%es 



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THE MANQALA OF THE BHA^TA. 



in the case of a writer beginning a work with final release 
as its high aim ; for it is a common fact that the best 
things are attended by many hindrances. Veda also 
teaches — ' Hence they (the Gods) like not that men should 
know this' — * and human experience also is to the effect 
that they hinder what they like not. How then is it that 
the Bhasya- writer neglects this immemorial practice and, 
fearlessly, begins his treatise without an auspicious intro- 
duction ? 

To this objection we reply : The opening passage of 
Patfe 3 ^^^ Bhasya, ending with the words * taddhar- 
MAi^ABCAPi,&c., &c/ is the auspicious introduc- 
tion to the work. What this passage implies is that the 
Inner Reality, the Pratyagartha or Self, is pure Intelli- 
gence or Brahman, and is free from all defects. Hence 
no defect in the form of a hindrance can attach to 
him who, in order to declare (as the Bhasya- writer de- 
clares) that the presentation to consciousness of an entity 
in a form other than tliat in which it really exists as above 
described is a false presentation, must have thought of 
the Self as essentially Intelligence and as free from defect 
of every kind, — though indeed this opening passage deals 
with a different matter (viz. adhyasa). Therefore, fore- 
most in maintaining the immemorial practice of good 
men in regard to an auspicious introduction is the writer 
of the Bhasya. 

The Bhfisya reads ; It is well-known that Identity 

OF SUBJECT AND OBJECT, WHICH ARE BT NATURE OPPOSED TO 
EAOH other as light AND DARKNESS ARE, IS IMPOSSIBLE. 

* Brh. Up. L 4. 10. the word Uhii^ meaQB ^THIfHWW IH 



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8 pancapadikA. 



But what, it may be asked, is this Opposition ; or 
what sort of identity is intended, in regard to whose 
impossibility light and darkness furnish an illustration? 
If the intended opposition means the impossibility of co- 
existence of two things (in space and time), then it must 
follow that darkness cannot exist when and where light 
exists. But this is not a fact ; for colour is seen indis- 
tinctly in a badly lighted house but distinctly elsewhere; 
and, therefore, the persistence of darkness to some extent, 
in a badly lighted house, is an observed fact. Similarly, 
the fact that some degree of heat is felt in a shady spot 
implies the existence of light also in that spot. So that 
co-existence of this kind must be considered predicable of 
heat and cold also, since these two are felt simultaneously. 

We reply : The opposition consists in the essential 
difference (of subject and object), that is to say, there 
cannot really be th^t fusion* of subject and object which 
is held to exist, for example, in the case of the uni- 
versal and the individual. Hence, identity of subject 
and object, consisting as it would in their fusion, is im- 
possible. But why not ? Because the subject whose sole 
essence is Intelligence cannot of itstlf become the 
object-element i. e. non-intelligent ; nor is this possible 
from without, for Intelligence is not a divisible material 
substance to undergo change of its parts, nor is it under 

* Satnbheda is tidfttinya, or identity of esaenoe together with 
some kaown differeuoe. It is uot numerioal identity, ekatva, which 
excludes all diileieuoe. Cf. V.P.S. p. 14 1.21. UTr^U791R?qrRmncrf€r- 
Trf>J rrraTrW*? I W3feilf>J WIFaftrftf H&rfiaftl^Krm?! I The Vedauta 
regards jiti or the universal, as a property, dharma, residing in and 
really ideutioal with its substrate, dharniiu; and it expresses this ideu- 
tity by t&daimyam, itaretarabhavah, dharmadhurminorabhedah. 



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THE 

TARKABHASA 

OP 

KECAVAMICRA 

WITH THE GOMMBNTABT 

NYAYAPRADIPA 

** OF 

VigWAKARMAN 

BDITSD BY 

SURENDRALALA GOSVAMIIf 

PR0FB880R, SANSKRIT COLLBQB, BBNARS9. 



BENARES : 

PBINTED AT THE MEDICAL HALL PBB88. 



1901. 



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Hiti9^9ftiHTin ^^^shmmr^aiisr: ^^. 



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CONTENTS. 



Page 



)\nyAYASIDDHANJANAM, Ed. R&ma Mi9ra gastrin, Pro- 
fessor, Saoskrit College, Benares. ... 133 

irYAYASOTRAVIVARA^TAM, Ed. SurepdnU^a Gosvtoin, 

Fro^sor, Sanstsrit College, Benarjss 157 

THE TARKIKARAKSA and SARASAMGRAHA of 
VARADARAJA, with the gbssea Ni8kant;Mk& of 
Mallin^tba Kotftcala and I^aghiidlpika of Jt^&na- 
pftrpa, Ed. Vindhy^9valipra»ada Pyiyedip. Libra- 
rian, SainskHt College, Penares. 173 

THE PANCAPADIKA of PADMAPADA, Translated by 

Arthur Vpnis. .,. ,,. .., 189 

THE TARKABHASA vi^h the Cororoentary Kjliyapradlpa, 
Title Page &o , Ed. Surendralila GosT&min, Professor, 
' Sanskrit College, Benares. } 96 








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't 








^) chi^iRidjiHUifiifu: 

•^Ithe pandit 

4 



OrTUM 

BKNARES COLLEGE, 

DBVOTED to 

8KRIT LITERATDBB. 
I^EWSERICS. 



No. 4.] April, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. 




BENARES: 

PRIMTBD AND PUBLISHED BY THB PROPRIETORS, 
B. ;. LAZARUS AMD CO., AT THE MEDICAL HALL PRESS. 

190I. 







Copyright on each articU rtttnMd. 

Prkt «•. 9-0 per annutn.} 

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(«) « %fWT ?«sT?«5t»raTfaffT w iw3d>«» awii! met i « fgfw- 



»--iro. i, rvt. xxiii.— ApfiT- WM. -»«« 



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SUBJECT AND OBJECT. 9 



any external influence. By parity of reasoning, the object 
cannot ofitselj become Intelligence, for that would be to 
lose its character as object; nor is this possible ^om 
without, for Intelligence cannot move into or mix with 
anything else.^ 

The BhSsya continues : All the mors impossible is 
THE identity Of THEIR RESPECTIVE properties. What this 
passage shows is that, since identity of subject and object 
is impossible ( iPff^QH )> it is a matter of common consent 
that properties cannot leave their proper substrate to take 
up their abode in some other substrate. The word iti 
(in the next clause of the Bhasya) states a reason :— 
' because the argument adduced has proved that identity 
of subject and object is impossible, therefore (na: ) in the 
subject which consists of Intelligence and which is present 
to consciousness as the /&c. &c.'^. In our consciousness 
of the / is present a certain non-object element i. e. the 
pure undifferenced Intelligence. A fusion appears to 
take place between this pure Intelligence (fl^R^) and 
our consciousness of ourselves as individual men ; and 
this man-character may be termed the object-element 
(QOiac^RI) in accordance with the deGnition of an object, 
for this man-character is presented only in so far as it is 
a something illumined by pure Intelligence.^ This ap- 

1. Cf. Yogabh&aya I, 2: rfrfn^rf?ffCqftlinf«T^ VflfHejin i 
The RijamarttaoddTrtti to IV, 21 explains m Virf?f9|;m ^ fvaij) 
rfHUffti wi^ niw awr; m H^ifwr i vAn v9|t^T frfii uraq i 

2. Text p. 3, 1 22 : divide thus, firarmii vfev I V^rfQ^od, ho. <&e. 

3. In the judgment, *l am a man/ the subjeot or ego-elemeut 
v^Al^:, 18 reallj pure Intelligeoce; for it is Self-luminous: whereas 
the predicate or man-oharacter n^fd, is the object-element, gvr^^:, 
because it is not self-luminous but is illumined b; some other i. e, bj 



«— No. 4, Vol. XXIII.— April, 1901. 9»Vl 



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10 PANCAPADIKA. 



pearance of fusion is termed adhyasa or false predicatioa.^ 

And the properties of the object — Tbe properties 
are here mentioned separately ; for though a false pre^ 
dication of predicates is logically implied in a false predic- 
ation of their substrates, cases do exist in which the for* 
mer kind of predication takes place without the latter 
kind taking place : thus a man says — I am deaf — , but 
p - not — I am the ear — , though strictly deafness 
is a predicate of the hearing organ. 

Conversblt, of the subject and its properties — 
that is to say, of the Principle of Intelligence and its pro- 
perties. Against this it may be said that to the subject, 
which is undifferenced Intelligence, no properties can be- 
long to be falsely predicated of any object. We reply 
that the properties are Bliss, Consciousness of Objects 
and Eternal Being. These appear as if they were differ- 
ent from the Principle of Intelligence, though they are 
not really different. Hence our position is logically sound. 

pure Intelligenoe, orVKTld. An ohjeet is teohnioallj defined as that 
which is illumined by -something other than itself — gms^: mcmRrVQ: i 

cf. v.P.S. p. 9. 11.26, 27: — vwij^sn f u dwufSi gwar* fftawjui- 

1 . Adh jisa is termed arth&dhyasa when regarded from the point 
of view of the thing (artha) which is falsely predicated, and jji&n&- 
dhy&sa from the point of Tiew of the presentation (jfi&na) ; but of 
course each of these aspects implies the other. In the former case, 
the falsely predicated thing is like, but U not really, a remembered 
thing. In the latter case, the false presentation is like, but u not 
really, a re-pcesentation or remembrance. Cf. infra, and V. P. S. 
p. 26 : 11. 2-4. — ^fgfei^ wnm^ mmMwij sir .y^ftrfwii nw irtii i 
nfujn fii€ii]%Mdiii€i94d f *^if*i*iiiiniiw#*i*ii .s^svtsvmH ifti 9W{ i 



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FALSE PRBDIOATIOK. II 



False predicatioi^ adhyasa^ occurs^ wben certain 
qualities appear to oor eonsoiousiiess as existiDg m a cer- 
tain substrate to which they d^ not really beloog. Hence 
(says tbeBhac^a) such predicatioBisboaldlogicaUy beheld 
U> be false, -mitby ft. The word mrtiiya, fcdse, has two 
meanings as hnplying (a) the negatien (of the existence 
of a tbiDg) oc (&) the ij^xplicabiiity (of a thing). In the 
present context it is used in the former sense ; and the 
clause of the Bha^a means that the logical result should 
bo to deny the existence of f^ilse predication (i. e. the 
Tory possibility of it should be denied, in accordance 
with the reasons advanced in the opening passage of 
the Bhasya). And though this is the case, yet the 
common mode of thought and expression, conveyed in 
the words — * lam that ' and ' That is miney and consist- 
mg in the false predication of subject and object in re- 
spect of each other, is a natvnral result due to the 
fact that an Inner Principle of Intelligence, Pratyak. 
caitanya, exists. "What the Bbasya passage means is 
that the existence of adhyasa must not be denied 
on the ground of the common experience described 
above (R«l), as indeed the existence of the / is not 
denied on the same ground. The word loka denotes men 
in general, each consciously asserting — I am a man. The 
word vyavahara naeans activity. And the cooi^poimd 
LOKAVYAVAHARAif is ap positional, and means that activity 
which asserts itself in the words^ — / am a man. 

The Bhagra runs : — EIavino joined^ the Real and 
THE Unreal. The Real is the Subject or Intelligential 
Principle : the Unreal is the Object or thing denoted 
by the word Thou, and its unreality d^nsists in its very 



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12 PANCAPADIKA. 



character as something predicated. The suffix tvd of the 
participles adhtasta and mithuni^i^tya in this passage is 
not employed to express a chronological priority to, or a 
real difiference of activity from, the activity expressed in 
lokavyavahara, as is the case in such a sentence as — 
' having eaten^ he departs.' For a further action repre- 
sented by another verb cannot be admitted as necessary 
to complete the meaning of the passage. Also because 
the sentence — Adhtasta • • • naisaroiko ' tam loka- 
vtavahAra?— is completed in setting forih only the 
nature of adhyasa ; and because it is just this point 
that is summed up in the passage recapitulatory of the 
whole introduction of the BhSsya : — EvahanAdirananTo 
naisaroiko' dhtasa^. Hence the double predication con- 
veyed in the participles and the compound word lokavya- 
vaharah of the sentence in question must be held to be 
merely formal,^ similar to that expressed in the sentence — 
Intelligence is the nature of the Soul — (for Intelligence 
and the Soul are really one). 

The Bhasya says that the common form of thought 
and expression has as its cause Nbscibnob whioh is un- 
real. The compound methyajnanam is appositional, i. e. 
ajnanain is mithya. The word mithya. unreal, implies 
inexplicability. By the word ajnana, Nescience, is meant 
the opposite^ of Intelligence (jfiana), i. e. the non-intelli- 
gent power termed Avidya. has as its cause Nbsoibncb 
1. e. has Nescience as its material cause. 



1. Adhy&sa and lokavyavahara are not two distinct activities, 
though the grammatical construction of the sentence might lead us 
to think that they were distinct. 

2. AjfiUna, Nescience^ is not the merely logical negation or pri- 
vation (abhlvartl pa) of J fiana, the Intelligential Principle; but is a 
positive entity (bhavartlpa) and is by nature opposed to Intelligence. 
For Abh&va cf. S. L. p. 64, n. 2. 



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NESCIENCE AS A POWER LOGICALLY NECESSARY. 13 



But here it may be objected that the aforesaid com- 
moQ mode of thought and speech (p. 4) cannot be termed 
natural (naisargika i. e. without origia), if (as explained 
abjve) it is due to a certain cause (naimittika). We 
reply : — It is logically necessary to assume a certain 
power or Nescience (avidyajakti) as existing in the ex- 
ternal and internal wqrlds and depending entirely on the 
existence of the Principle of Reality (the Brahman or 
Self, tatsvartipa) ; for an no other assumption can we 
account for the presentation of unreal objects in conscious- 
ness. This Power of Nescience does not preclude for us a 
consciousness of the non-intelligent nature of these thing? 
(tatsTarupa); for the fact that we sometimes fail to perceive 
noo-intelligent things is entirely due to the absence of 
some instrument of knowledge (i. e. is due to Nescience 
concealing the Principle of Intelligence which is the in- 
strument of knowledge).^ And this is in accord with our 
general experience that even before and after the presen- 
tation of an unreal object, e. g. unreal silver (in the place 
of the mother-of-pearl shell), and even while 
^® • Nescience continues to exist (i. e. while we 
continue to think and speak of the object as silver) we 
do perceive something real, (svartipa i. e. the mother-of- 
pearl shell).2 Hence, in regard to all non-intelligent 

1. Cf. V»V. p.u. 11. 10, 11 : ^mmvunmpt 9ir{^^ Bm^tn^j^t- 

mi^^ rcWRITSf^lflfkFe^^ F^nd qflHT^mv OI^HtuflTFITS: l It is Brahman 
alone that oan be concealed by .Nesoienoe. A non-intelligent thing 
(ja4aTasta), in itself consisting of Nesotence, cannot be said to be thus 
concealed: it is an appearance projected (viksopa) by Nescience. 
And the non*intelligent comprises all that appears to be different 
from Brahman (atadrQpa). 

2. Nescience is there present ; for name and form are imputed 
to the thing perceived. If therefore Nescience is present, and if at the 



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14 PANCAPADIKA. 



things. Nescience is nothing more than the material cause 
out of which issues a false presentation of these non- 
intelligent things. But as to the fact that Brahman in 
its absolute nature is not present to the Inner Self, (Pt-a- 
tyagSbman) which is self-luminous as being essentially 
Intelligence — we hold that this non-presentation of Brah- 
man, since it cannot be due to any other cause, must be 
du3 to an obstruction wrouj^ht by Nescience, a power 
which is itself without beginning, as is its relation with the 
Self. Our view therefore, is that Nescience prevents the 
presentation of the absolute Brahman to the Inner In- 
telligence (Pratyakcit), and at the same time causes a 
presentation of what is not-Brahman, atadrupa, viz. the 
whole phenomenal world beginning with personal consci- 
ousness (ahamkara). Further, that during dreamless 
sleep and similar conditions,* Nescience remains latent 
as a residue in the form of all the mental retenta of the 
phenomenal world, viz. personal consciousness, &c. which 
are projections (viksepa) from Nescience ; and that Nes- 
cience again rises into activity. And it is for these 
reasons that the Bhasya declares that, though natural 
(i. e. without a beginning in time), the human conscious- 
ness asserting itself as / and mine is made up of inex- 
plicable Nescience which is its material caused but that 
it is not the product of any extrinsic cause, (i. e. a cause 
other than Nescience). Thus the fact that the common 
mode of thought and speech is natural is not incompati- 
ble with the fact of its being the result of a definite cause. 

same time a thing is perceived, we caniiot say that Nescience has the 
power of concealing (&yarana9akti) non-intelligent thingst Gf.S.M.p. 33. 
* e.g. a fit of swooning and a world-catastrophe, murcha and pralaya. 



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NESCIENCE AS k MATERIAL CAUSE. 1 5 

And THEia rbspbotivb properties — the Bbasya here 
tnentioas properties apart from their substrates, in order 
to show that in some cases a property by itself is falsely 
predicated. Bt not discriminating the one from the 
OTHER— that is, by thinking of them as identical. The 
Bhasya-writer will himself explain how false predication 
of a subject in regard to another subject takes place, and 
also of a property by itself in regard to another property. 
He shows here that the essence of false predication is ex- 
pressed by such forms as / am That and That is mine. 
The false predication expressed by the word / is the first 
to be made. 

But it may be objected that it is the absolute, im- 
partite Intelligence which shines forth in the conscious- 
.ness expressed by the word /; so that in this case no part 
of any other subject is falsely predicated or left unpredi- 
cated. We reply that we shall show that this case includes 
that of the false predication of a part. 

It may be objected, further, that what appears in 
consciousness as That is our body, which supplies the 
personal sentiency with objects for its fruition ; and that 
the consciousness — That is mine —expresses the relation 
of ownership existinjy between the personal sentiency and 
the body ; so that in this case nothing appears to be 
falsely predicated. We reply that if personal sentiency 
consists in false predication, all that attends on such 
sentiency must be equally false. No real retinue attends 
the man who becomes a king in his dreams or by way of 
magic. And thus our common modes of thought and ex- 
pression, made up as these are of actiyitiea and agents, 
instruments and objects of activity, and the fruits thereof — 



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16 PANCAPADIKA. 



and all these starting from the false notion of personality — 
aro falsely predicated of the Self which, in its essence, is 
the eternal, undifferenced and unfettered Principle of 
Intelligence. And, hence, false predication which is the 
cause of all evil can logically be said to be destroyed by 
means of that knowledge which terminates in the intui- 
tion (anubhava) that Self is identical with Brahman which 
is this Principle of Intelligence : hence also an inquiry into 
the Upanisads can logically be taken in hand, haying 
that intuition and the destruction of evil a;s its motive 
and subject-matter. 

The passage beginning with the words — Aha ko' 
TAMADHTAso nAma — is dcvoted to proving that false pre- 
dication exists. As parts of this passage, the sentence 
prior to that beginning with the words — Katham ponara • • 
vidyavadvisayani — has its purpose in stating the defini- 
tion of false predication and shewing the possibility of its 
existence; and the latter sentence (fl^nffC) is intended 
to prove the existence of false predication. 

' This is how the whole passage should be 
analysed. 

But it may be argued that, if this is so, the sentence 
shewing the definition of, and the possibility of the exis- 
tence of, false predication is unnecessary, as distinct 
from the proof that such predication really takes place. 
For it cannot be said that a thing unknown and impossi- 
ble is a matter of proof. And it would be especially 
difficult to prove the existence of an object already pre- 
sent to our consciousness. 

We reply that we do not prove that personal con- 
sciousness consists in false predication by merely exhibit- 



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H — No. 4, VoL XXIII April, 1901. Ml 



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CONTENTS. 



Page. 

JntAYASIDDHANJANAM, Ed. Rtoa Mi^ra gastrin, Pro- 

feasor, Sanskrit (College, Benares. ... ..ft 197 

LAUKIK NTlYASAMGRAHA, Ed. Oang&dhara gastrin, 

Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares. 21 3 

/[ NYAYASOTBAVIVARAlsrAM, Ed. SurendraUQa Gosvimin, 

// Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares ^ 329 

THE PANCAPADIKA op PADMAPADA. Translated hj 

Arthur Yenis. 245 

THE TARKIKARAKSA and SARASAMGRAHA op 
YARADARAJA, with the glosses NiskanfakS of 
Hallin&tha Kolioala and Laghudlpik& of Jfiftna- 
pinr^a, Ed. Yindbye^varipras&da Dmedin, Libra- 
rian, Sanskrit College, Benares. « 253 





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•fil t H E PANDIT jl 

•^J A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ((f ' 

;{ BENARES COLLEGE, fK 

DKYOTSOTO VGr 

8AN8KBIT LITER ATTJ BE. [|^ 




N£W SERIES. 



No. 5.] May, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. 



BENARES : 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE PROPRIETORS, 
LAZARUS AND CO., AT THE MEDICAL HALL PRESS. 

1901. 

Copyright on each article reserveiSL 
jprJM B$. 9-0 p€T annum*] 

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*^ 




CONTENTS. 



jNTATASIBDHAJrjAMAM, Ed. Rftmft Mifra Cftstrin, Pro- 

feasor, Sanskrit College, Benares. ... 261 

LAUKIKANT&TASAMGRAHA, Ed. Gao>ftdliara gsstrin, 

Professor, Sanakrit College, Benares. • S77 

NTAYASOTRAVIVARANAM, Ed. Surendralftla Gosyimin, 

Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares ..• 293 

BB&HMASPHUTASIDDHANTA, Edited with his own com- 
mentary bj Mah&mahoptdhyaya Sudh&kara Drivedin, 
Professor, Queen's College, Benares 309 






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l!) T H E PANDIT W 

•^ I MONTHLY PUBLICATION 

^S^\ OP THB 

21 BENARES COLLEGE, ff 

V^j DBVOTBDTO \( 

•^IsANSKRIT lilTERATURB. (I^* 

(i 
I 



NEW SERIES. 



No. ,6.] June, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. 



!• 9 




BENARES: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THB PROPRIETORS, 
LAZARUS AND CO., AT THE MEDICAL HALL PRESS. 




Copyright on each article reeerved. 
Price Be. 9-0 per annum.] 

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CONTENTS. 



Page. 



/JJTIYASIDDHANJANAU, Ea. Rftma Mi^ra ^gaatrin, Pw- 

fesBor, Sanskrit College, BenaFOfl ^5 

LAUKIEANYATASAM6RAHA, Ed. Ga»gtdha»i •(!&8trhi, 

Frofessory Sanskrit College, Benares* ... , . . HI 

)'' JTYlTASOTRAVI VARAN AM, Ed. Sureadral&la Gosvimin, 
Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares ^7 

THE TIRKIKARAESA anb SlRASAMGRAHA op 
VARADARlJA, with the glosses Nieka^t^kH oC 
Mallinltha Kol&cala And Laghudipiki of JB&na- 
pttr^a, Ed. Vindhye^varipras&da Dvivedin, Libra- 
jian, Sanskrit College, Benares, «•• Z3^ 







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M-i 



f) T H E PANDIT (1 

•I5) A MOBTHLY PUBLICATION 



OTTHC 

BENARES COLLEGE, 
ssTonmto 

SAN6KBIT lilTEBATUBQ. 



NEW 8BRIBS. 



No. v.] July, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. 






BENARES: 

PRIMTra> AND raBLISHEO BY THB PROPRIETORS, 
LAZiURUS JMO COn AT THB MEDICAL HALL PRESS, 



I. 




Copyright on $aclh artieli rmrvtd* 
Trici JU, 9-0 ptr wmum.} 

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THE SAlMBANDHAVARTIKA OF 
SURESVARACHARYA. 



1. I bow with devotion to Him Who is considered 
as multiple^ by those whose conception of Atman is 
blinded by the deep-rooted delusion that springs from 
their extreme nescience and from the consequent sense 
of universal duality ; who, nevertheless, is the indivisible, 
changeless, eternal, all-pervading One, far beyond the 
scope of all word and thought, in Whom all the worlds 
rejoice.* 

2. With the object of clearing away certain doubts 
created by sophists, this work is begun on a small scale, 
to bring out, by logical reasoning, the meaning of the 
hhdshya (or vritti)^ written for the instruction (lit paci- 
fication) of the virtuous, wherein the venerable teacher 
(Sankara), pursuing the path of his predecessors, has 
examined the import of the entire Vedas under the pre- 
text of a commentary on the Kdnvopanishad.^ 

3. Here (as elsewhere) the word upanishad has but 
one meaning, namely, the knowledge of the Supreme 
Self (or hrdhmavidya) ; for,* the literal interpretation of 

^ The allasion here is to the Ml mimeakas who nphold the die- 
tinettoQ between the enjojed {hhdgya) and the eojojer (hhdktfi.) 

* Hence, Himself full of bliss, siuoe one must possess what he Sm 
able to impart to others. 

' Another name for the Brikaddranjfokdpaniihad, also called the 
Vdjiuanesfibr&hmandpanithad. 

* The objection is raised that the word upanishad is a rO^ word, 
used as the name of the aeveral Vedio texts so called. Thii is met by . 
saying that it should be interpreted etjmologically as a ydi/a vord, ' 
and, the several parts of the Scripture are named Upanishadi, becaase ] 
they teach upanishad ot^brahmamdyd. See slpka 8. -t 



tl^— No. ?, Vol. XWII.— July, 1901. ni% 

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THE SAMBANDHAVARTIKA 



the word leads only to that. How, then, is this (inter- 
pretation) ? 

4. The prefix upa denotes proximity, namely in 
rel^ttion to the Self (pratyag dtraan) : and the prefix ni 
qualifies the threefold meaning of the verb sad} 

5. Bringing this soul {Jivdtman) into union with 
Brahman who is without a second, it dispels (or scatters) 
nescience (avidyd) and its consequences. Hence it (the 
Brahma-vidyd) is termed upanishad* 

§. Or, destroying our nescience which is the prime 
source of all misery, it makes us attain the indivisible 
Supreme in Its aspect of the Inner Self (pratyag). 
Hence, ^Iso, the term upanishad. 

7. Or else, knowledge {vidyd) putn an end to the 
source of all worldliness by cutting off its very root. 
Hence, too, the term upanishad. 

8. Because the text inculcates the knowledge re- 
ferred to above {hrahmavidyd), and does not differ, there* 
fore, from the kno>» ledge itself,^ the name upanishad is 
applied to it, in the same way as the plough is spoken of 
as one's livelihood.^ 

9. It (the text) is termed draf^yaka^ because it is 
(or, must be) recited in the forest (aranya.) It is named 
(bfihqddranyaka) by reason of the great length of the 
text, as also of its deeply philosophical signification. 

^ The three meaniogs are < shatteriog/ < motion/ and termination': 

]IUch of theae it dealt with in order in the 5th^ 6ih and 7th yersea. 

3 This is a sort of metonjrmj, where no diSereiice is made be- 
tween what teaches {vyutpOdak^) an<l what is taught {vjifUpddifa ), be- , 
tween the effect {MAdhyn) and that by which it is effected (tddkaka ). 

' Whereas it is only a {ueaua to it. 



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OF SUllESVARACHARYA. 



10. Thus, under the guise of an etymological ex- 
planation, suitable to the context, the commentator has 
indicated that the sole purpose of all upanishads is final 
liberation (mukti.) 

11. The commentator then says, " For (the benefit 
of) such as wish to escape from birth and death/' with 
the object of establishing a mutual difference (or con- 
trast) between the doer of rituals {karmddhikdrin) and 
the aspirant of spiritual knowledge (jndnddhikdrin.y 

12. He alone is authorised to study the Veddntaa^ 
who has renounced all action (hriyd), and who wishes to 
be free from birth and death (samsdra)^ and, also to un- 
derstand the unity of the Self {aikdtmya). 

13. Even the Scripture, in the passage. '* This 
only,* etc." {etam ei;a),^fays that he alone who has relin- 
quished all action (karman) has the right, to acquire 
knowledge whereby to understand the real nature of the 
inner Self (pratyag). 

14. To stimulate a desire for realising the supreme 
Self, tke reciting of the Vedas (and other rites) are pres- 
cribed ; but all of them must be renounced if Brahman 
is sought to be attained. This is supported by the use 
of ipsanti in the Vedic text (quoted above). 

15. With a view to bestow knowledge on a student 
so entitled, it is next written, "From the cause of births 
anddeaths,etc.,"3 a phrase full of evidently right principles. 

1 That is to say, onlj seekers after knowledge are fit to be stud- 
ents of this Upaniihad, 

^vn^ na Hwrfai^ ^5CTj nm^i (or ijs^^: ) xinm^ i 

^Sankara writes that his hhdshya is intended to confer on the 
student a knowledge of the identity of the soul with Brahman^ and 
thftt this knowledge is the instrument of liberation from the root of I 



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THE 8AMBANDHAVARTIKA 



16. Since no other topic is comprised in the teach- 
ings of Veddnta than the unity (of the soul with Brahn 
man), a knowledge of that unity, therefore, will dispel 
spiritual darkness. 

17. This sacred Vedantic upanishad, was compiled 
with great pains to facilitate the ac^quisition of that 
knowledge which alone could destroy nescience, the ori- 
gin of samsdra. 

18. A true understanding of the nature of the 
Supreme Self alone can root out the ignorance of that 
Self, and such an understanding springs from the (spon- 
taneous) awakening of the soul (dtmotpatti). Nothing 
else^ is necessary for the dispulsion of darkness. 

19. The methods for obtaining what is sought and 
the persons authorised to pursue those methods, have 
now been differentiated with respect to the karmakdnda 
and the jndnakdnda. Now, directions are given for such 
persons in the pursuit of those methods. 

20. ' May we not take it that final liberation, like 
happiness {svarga^ etc ), is by virtue of scriptural injunc- 
tions {vidhi) ?' For, without something being enjoined 
to be done (kdrya) there can be neither a person authorised 
(adhikdnn), nor the relation of cause and effect between 
sacrifices and their fruits. 

21. ' It is so even in temporal matters ; why not so 

^That 18, not onlj ia larman not neoesaarj for gaining the 
highest knowledge^ bat e?ea refleotion or meditation (prasamkk^d$%a) . 
is onlj aeoondai J. 

*0r, In other words, even liberation (mykti) it the result of per- 
forcnin*; karman, Thia and the next two are the argumenta of the 
opponent, the Mtn^dtHs^ica. 



I 



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OP SURS^VARAGHARTA. 



in Scripture ? ^ There are also passages in the Vedas to 
show that liberation is dependent on the carrying oat of 
Vedic injunctions. 

22« 'Just as there are mandatory texts like '* One 
should perform sacrifice, etc." in the case of temporal 
happiness, so, too, there are texts like *' One should 
worship" in regard to emancipation (mukti).* 

23. No, it is not correct to assume a common 
means for the attainment of temporal happiness and of 
final liberation, for the two are essentially different in the 
facility or difficulty, in the certainty or uncertainty, of 
their attainment. 

24. What is best (jndna) is one thing, and what is 
agreeable (karman) is another (i.e. the two are diiferent) 
both of them affect the same individual with diflferent 
results (mukti and svarga). Good (final liberation) will 
come to him who chooses the best, but he who chooses 
the agreeable will lose the fruit (heavenly happiness, etc. 
which are only temporary).* 

25. Haying examined the nature of the life (in 
other worlds) that results from the performance of action 
ihe Brdhmanrt (lit one who has studied the Yeda^^) will 
begin to despair (by reason of the transitoriness of such 
life), thinking, "How can that which is non-action mwi- 
ti) be the eflEeot of action {karman) V And, to gain that 
knowledge, he must needs go, samidh (fuel for the sacred 
fire) in hand, to a teacher who is well-versed in the 
Vedas and ever beint on a contemplation of the Supreme 
(brahmanishiha). 

^ The Vedas are sapposed to oonform to common twage. Henoe 
thero too there can be no odMtdrin without a kdr^a, 
I ^Ka^ha, H. I. . ' 



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THR SAMBANDHAVARTIKA 



26. Is not liberation, like temporal bliss, a thing 
to be accomplished,^ being of the nature of something 
not attained ? Not so ; liberation is not even a thing to 
be accomplished, for, it is not like temporal happiness. 

27. Since the knowledge of the Self destroys the 
nescience of a person when the obstacles to bis progress 
have spontaneously disappeared, it is therefore said, in 
figurative language (upachdrdt) that liberation is to be 
accomplished i>y such knowledge. 

28. As a sick man is restored to health by medical 
treatment, so also does one obtain liberation when his 
ignorance of the Self is destroyed by spiritual wisdom.* 

29. Scripture says ** This was Brahman^ ete.,"^ 
and Brahman alone, etc."* So the student (who desirea 
liberation), like one who is asleep, is merely to be awaken- 
ed by Scriptural teaching, but not to be made to act, by it. 

30. What purpose does injunction serve, since 
knowledge is independent of human endeavour. Such 
texts as do occur are meaningless in this connection, 
since they cannot have a mandatory signification. 

31. The objection that there can be no authorisa- 
tion (adhikdra) without something ordained to be done 
(kartavyu), will be confuted later on,^ by saying that it 

1 Henoe, requiring a means of aooompliahing it. MukU is net 
like warga^ the result of conscious effort. 

3 The medicine is not the direct cause of health, which is but 
the natural state. It simply removes the ailment. So knowledge merely 
removes avidyd^ and is heuoe figuratively said to ba the means of mukti. 

^ mR 9T ^z HQ ^^^^ I 

^See verse 228. That is, the previlege of performing sacri- 
fices, etc., may be hemmed in by limitations^ but knowledge is open to 
every one univerBally^ and hence requires neither adhik&ra not vidhi. 



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OF SURESVARACHARTA. 



(knowledge) may be prescribed for all. 

32. Another (opponent) says, ** If you desire to 
attain liberation (srey(ts)y which is no other than the na- 
tural condition of the soul, that end can be accomplished 
only by performance of rites {karmahhyah), for karman 
is mentioned in the Vedas [as the means io purushdrthas 
of which mukti is one.] 

33. " Since, in Sruti as well as in Smritif karman 
alone is ordained to be done, there can be no other means 
than barman both for final liberation (mukli) and for tem- 
poral happiness (abhyudaya), 

34. " Let us endeavour and reason it out, consider- 
ing it in its Vedio aspect. For, every Vedic text can 
only mean either a prohibition or an injunction. 

35. " * But (says the opponent's opponent), I have 
already quoted several Vedic passages, which are not 
injunctory ; and therefore what you say is unreasonable.' 

36. *' There will be consistency of meaning {ekavd- 
kyatvay if such passages are construed to be injunctory, 
on the authority of the aphorisms, " Because the Vedas 
aim at rites, etc./'^ and ** iSince it explains the injunc- 
tion, etc."^ 

37. " But if we construe these texts which do not 
enjoin actions as syntactically different {vdkyahheda);^ 

^ This 28 a oanou of the Uimamsa, by whioh a merely affirma- 
tive passage, ocourrins^ in the same context as a mandatory text, is 
interpreted to be explanatory of the latter, and, therefore, to be iuolud- 
ed in the injunction. Of a different interpretation the Mimamsaka 
would say that his is the more natural and the other is strained. 

^wreniFi fiinniS^Tff, etc. 
*f«ihinn g inrarowmTfj, etc. 

^ That is, as not expiauatory of, or as not supplementing, the 
injunctory passage. 



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8 THE SAMBAKDHAVA&TIKil 

such an interpretation will be far-fetched. ' Now (says 
the opponent's opponent again) the reward of final liber- 
ation is said to be everlasting (not transitory), 

38. " ' How can it be everlasting, if it is the reward 
for performing rites (karman); for, nothing in this world 
that results from karmaUf is known to be permanent 
(dhruva) 1 

39. '* 'Liberation must be the result of some means 
Hence (if karman is not the means), what remains, 
namely, jtiana, must be the means,^ since it is also so said 
in the Veddnta.' 

40. '* It is not so, since mukti is established to be the 
result of karman, * But ( the opponent's opponent again ) 
how can it be permanent if it is the fruit of karman ? ' 
Listen, then, to my explanation.^ 

41 & 42. '*^j the non-performance of prohibited 
rites (nishiddha) and of rites having special objects (kdmya), 
by the performance of prescribed (or necessary) duties 
(nitya), by the consequent removal of impediments, and 
the wearing out, by enjoyment and suffering (hhdga), of 
the germs of a second bodily life, the inner soul will reach 
liberation by dint of karman alone in the manner aforesaid, 
even without any instruction as to the unity of the Self 
{aikdtmya). 

43. '' It may be said, ' In such Vedic passages as 
^'Having realized him, etc/' and *' knowing Brahman, 
etc."* a reward (mukti) is prescribed for knowledge of 

^ Though not direotly, nt leMt m the mMnt of remoTing th« 
impedimeiita to mukti. 

^SorefTAra's opponent tries to show tkst mukti maj beparma* 
nent, and yet be the result of karman. 

* fwiiiiiifiHfyiyiiiiwywfi and nviSaiiviiiiiirA i 



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CONTENTS. 



BBiHMASPHTJTASIDDHlNTA. Edited with his own com* 
mentary by Mah&mahopidby&ya Sudh&kara DYWedin, 
t*rofo88<^y Quiden^s Oollege, Benares ... ... »*• 389 

MTiTASIDDHlNJANAM, Ed. R&ma Mi9ra g&strin, Pro- 
fessor, SanskHt College, Benares. .., >«« ... 405 

)' NYlYASOTRAVIVABA??AM, Ed, SurendralUa QosYinuB^ 
Professori Sanskrit Oollege, Benares ... • 421 

ILAnEIEANTATASAMGBAUA, Ed. Gapgidhara {ISstrin, 
Professor, Saaskrit CoHege, Benares. 437 

THE SAMBAJTDHAVARTIKA of SURESVARACHIRYA 
Translated by S. VeDkataraaLaQan^ B. A.« B. L., Badftha 
!Lodge« Triplicane, Madraa. 445 




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OP S0RE9VARACHARYA, 9 



Self (dtmahodhay Not so; they are mere explanatory 
remarks (arthavdda). 

44. " This is because we see everywhere in Scrip- 
ture (Sdstra) that passages prescribing rewards in the case 
of the materials and the preparation for rites and the rites 
themselves, are but explanatory remarks^ (arthavdda)^ 
as, for example, the passages enjoining a reward for the 
use of parfyxmayiJ^ 

45. " Since the soul must be purified by karman 
(karmafeshatvdty knowledge of the Self also depends on 
karinan. And, though you hold that the Veddnta is not 
injunctory, you must, however, concede that such pass- 
ages are mere explanatory remarks {arthavada).'^ 

46. It is not so ; since final liberation and temporal 
happiness differ from each other, both as to their means 
(hetu) and as to their nature (rupa),^ your argument is, 
therefore, unsound. 

47. You say that liberation is the natural (or un- 
modified) condition of the soul (svarupa) and that this is 
the result of avoiding rites with special objects, etc., 
{Jcdmyddivarjanddihhyah). 

48 & 49. Is the soul, then, previously out of its 

1 Compare ;[9l-^nTt'«Ril§ wrfiWRf iw^Th^ ^tHto: WTif i 
(Jaimini's Sutras, IV. 3. 1.) 

3 The use of the wood called pamamayi for the jvhu or sacrificial 
ladle, is said to be meritorious, and rewards are ordained for its use. 

^Karman purifies the soul which is the doer (karifi), and is 
hence the indirect cause of jn&tia. With this verse ends the argu* 
meut of SurSsvara's opponent, who holds that kat/nan is the only means 
to mukU 

^The meaas of muka is jndna which springs from nveka, while 
that of alhyudaya is karman which springs from awiveka. The nature 
of mukU is dhruva, and, of the other, adkruva* 



-No. 8, Vol. XXIII.— August, 1901. VM 



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10 THE SAMBAKDHAYARTIKA 

natural state, so that it stands in great need of a means 
for bringing it to such a state ? If so, that state cannot 
b^ its natural condition, in which it does not, of itself, 
exist, but to which it has to be brought by forcible means. 
If, on the other hand, it already exists in its natural 
state, why seek for a means to attain that state ? 

50. If (it be said that) even in its natural condi- 
tion, it might be performing rites, then there will be no 
liberation at al).^ Hence the liberation of the soul oannot 
be the result of avoiding prohibited rites, rites with 
special objects, etc. 

51. If it be argued that liberation is the removal 
of the unnatural state (of the soul) that results from the 
repeated contact with objects of sense, what is the cause 
(we ask) of such contact ? 

52. If you hold that such contact is accidental, 
then, since there is nothing to prevent such contact even 
after liberation, there will be, according to you, no liber- 
ation at all. 

53. If you say that the cause of such contact is 
virtue and vice (dharmddharmajf then, do virtue and 
vice cause this contact by force, even for the soul which 
is, by its very nature, non-attached (asanga'Svahhdvasya)^ 

54 jc 55. In the same way as the bhaUcUaka (marking 
nut) produces a stain on cloth, it is not possible even for an 
able and intelligent potter to make a pot of the atmosphere 
(vydman) which is not of the nature of a pot, as he could 
make one of cjay ; nor can the (cool) breeae cool the fire. 
If you say that the soul is of the nature of a doer, etc., 
then you need not, in the least, hope for liberation. 

^ Since for performing karman, a corporeal ezidtenee is necettsiy. 



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OF SUBEfVARACHlBTA. 11 

56. For, the nature of things, like the heat of the 
sun, cannot change. If a thing loses its nature, it be- 
comes unnatural (or non-existent, impossible), like the 
sky-blossom {Jcha-^ushpay 

57. Just as fire does not, in any case, lose its heat 
without itself being quenched, so, too, unless the soul 
ceases to be the doer, etc.,^ there can be no liberation by 
any other means. 

58 & 59. You may say, ** Since the bondage of the 
soul {dtmasamsfiti) is the kdrya (result), and not the $akti^^ 
of its being doer and enjoyer, if we suppose that its sakti 
alone remains, the soul's liberation is possible by reason of 
its freedom from all misery."* Not so ; it leads to a fallacy 
whether we differentiate between aakti and kdrya, or not. 

60. For, there is no difference between sakti and its 
kdrya. If we assume such a difference, the inyariable re- 
lation (of cause and effect) will be lost. 

61. If they differ in their essence, there cannot 
then be the relation of cause and effect. If they do not 
differ, then, since they become identical, how can they be 
cause and effect ? 

^ And heuoe loses its nature as doer. 

^ Sakti is the inherent power of a dause to produce its effect 
The following extract from Anandaglri's gloss makes clear the aim of 

stansas 55, etc mm?m ■ li^^nfaw w wia Ida I w f HW fwwwwi 

fraidmira: fit w imrffiisniTQ: i wtd KJ^vrTncT^^flren 9Tf«i^ 

gffft^duiviT 9% I unffvivni i w i oiw^fifa i ^ fgpi^ivitv 

^f^fifi K^fQTfnro^artvmii^ nFafiBW HfsffR^tvifrfsiafi 

^ For, anartha is the harya, not th« taHui of iariritva^ since 
daring sleep, for instanoe, when sakti alone remains, the sense of 
misery is altogether absent. 



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12 THB SAMBAKDHAVARTIKA 



62, 63 and 64. We have not known of a cause that 
does not produce an effecti or of a result that is not 
caused. If they do not differ, then, when the kdrya is 
destroyed, its sakti too would be destroyed, since they 
are identical And when the nature of sahti is lost, that 
of which it is the §akti {§dhtimaty also loses its nature, 
since these two are not distinct from one another. This 
leads to the same uadeairable conclusion referred to be- 
fore, namely, the non-existence of the soul.^ Hence 
such an argument is unsound. 

65. If it be argued that liberation is merely the 
non-resulting of kdrya from sdkti owing to the complete 
absence of its causes,^ such a reasoning is improper, 
since sakti and the causes of the kdrya will still exist. 

66. Moreover, there is an invariable connection of 
the nature of sakti, between causes (nimitta) and effects 
(naimittika). Hence it will be like the heat of fire, etc.* 

67. For, if kdrya is dependent on sakti, then since 
the cause (kdrana, hence sakti), always exists, there will 
therefore be incessant manifestation of kdrya, like that 
of heat in summer.^ 

68 & 69. Iq the same way, even if we suppose that 
kdrya is independent of ?akti (saktyatantratve) the same 
fallacy would result, for, since the cause {kdrana) ceases 

1 The§akiimai is the kartft, or iUfMn,sinoe it is karifttffa(Hs9abhd¥a. 

3 See stttQEas 56 and 57. 

'And not, as the former opponents said, the destruotion of 
§akii or kdrya. I'he causes of kdrya are dharmddharmau, eto.; which 
will not ceaiie to exist even after muhu 

^i. e. the causes must produce their effects even after mukU, as 
fire inevitablj produces heat. 

^ Here Anandagiri makes oat foiU and kdrana to be identical, 
meaning puthialakdrana or iamagra-hitu. 



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OF SimE^VARACHABTA. 13 



to exist forever, the kdrya will also never be produced, 
as, for example, cold in summer. Therefore such an argu- 
ment is fallacious. If kdrya be said to result without a 
cause, then it would be so produced for even 

70 & 71. Further, how can it be kdrya, if it is not 
dependent on Icdrana ? It is not possible, even for the 
ablest of men, to vow the avoidance, from their birth to 
their death, of all prohibited rites, rites with special ob- 
jects, etc.; for, even the most diligent have been known 
to fall into minute errors* 

72. At least such a possibility is to be doubted, 
and this itself disproves the proposition.^ But you may 
say that he, to whom it might be so possible, will be 
liberated. 

73. It cannot be as you say, since it is illogical 
With respect to liberation, a certain means, namely, jndna 
must be predicated.^ 

74. A wise man ought not to speak of success as 
depending on mere accident. Such a thing would be 
within the scope, not of human effort, but of destiny. 

75. It cannot bd said that it is also within the scope 
of human effort, on the principle that injunction implies 
endeavour; for, there is no injunction (aMi/Sto) to that 
effect.* 

76. There is no injunction anywhere in the Veda 
that he' who longs for liberation should avoid rites with 

1 For none will venture on a doubtful project, which is especi- 
ally not an easy one. 

^ And not a doubtful means as you suggest. 
• Such a principle will hold good, onlj when there is a WdAi, 
But there is no rule that a mumuhhu should abandon kdmya, etc. Here 
I $^kii means manuihyasakH. 

M,,^— — — — ^B— ———I III ■iiii M i— ■qyPijF^ 



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14 ¥Hti SAltBAlTDdAtARtlKA 



special objects, etc., that will enable you to say that en- 
deavour is implied in the injunction. 

77. Since then the abandonment of kdmya, etc., is 
a mere product of your fancy, it cannot, in any way, be 
argued that human endeavour also plays a part in such 
abandonment. 

78. Not by the performance of prescribed rites, etc. , 
nor by the abandonment of kdmya, etc., can liberation be 
attained ; for, in that case, knovirledge [vidya) vrould be- 
come fruitless.^ 

79. Even if heaven (svarga), etc., cease to result 
from kdmya rites, and the corresponding results (hell, etc.,) 
from prohibited rites,^ still there is nothing to prevent 
their resulting from other causes or by themselves 
(arthdntardt svabhdvdt vd). 

80. If you say there is no proof positive of their 
springing from other causes, such a thing is at least open 
to doubt ; and that very doubt is enough to vitiate and 
disprove your proposition. 

81. There is not even this doubt, since such per- 
sons, as disobey all injunctions {vidyd and karman) are 
also subject to pleasure and pain, as is evident from the 
passage, " Then, of these two, etc."» 

^ Since suob passages as firaTml Hl^ifUIIHlJflii J I would be 
meaningless. 

3 i. e. even after the avoidance of kdmya, niihiddha^ and other 
rites, there will be no mukti, since heaven and hell maj result in 
other ways. 

'^ivd: q ii l4<SHln m m Compare Vedanta-sutras* III. 1. 

18, all which show that such persons enter the lowest forms of crea- 
tion, which is called the third waj, the other two being the dhaydnm 
and pUriydna, 



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OP SURE^VARACHARYA. 15 



82. Though the non-perforinance of prescribed 
(nitya) rites is sin, and their performance not, yet there 
is no proof that such sin cannot result from other causes ^ 
or by itself. 

83. If it be said that sins already incurred will be 
atoned, by the present performance of nitya and other 
rites, still there springs a doubt, as before, with respect 
to sins that might be incurred in the future. 

84. Though sins, which yield evil fruits (anabhishta- 
phala)f might be obliterated, virtues, that lead to tempo- 
ral happiness, will not cease, being the very thing you 
desire.2 

85. It cannot be said that virtue, like vice, is an 
evil (even for one who longs for liberation), for, what is 
enjoined cannot be an evil. It is not like hawk-sacrifice, 
etc,,' since there, the fruit being evil, it too is evil. 

86. If it be said that liberation results from a • 
knowledge of the unity of Self, it is vain, then, to argue 
that it depends on performance of rites. That knowledge 
is a direct means to attain it, is seen from passages like 

' tam etarrij etc' 

87. It has been shown* that rites which, in the 
manner aforesaid, purify the doer, are also helps towards 
a knowledge of the unity of Self. 

88. Therefore he who knows the true signification 
of the Vedas, will learn the fruitlessness of Writes, and, 

^ Such M non-performanoe of such ritei in a former life or lives. 
^ ^ell06 a birth in oonsonaoce with thoaa Tiitues, and oonse- 
qaentlj no muM. 

. ^ There the frail is evil, beeauee it contra venee the principle 

^ In the Vedaata-avtras. 



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16 THB SAMBANDHAVARTIKA 

destroying ]iis sins by penance, strive for a knowledge of 
the unity of Self. 

89. ^He who is, by reason of action in former 
lives, free from all desire, is qualified at the very outset, 
and does not stand in need of further rites* 

90. For, he who is free from worldly attachment 
and thirsts for knowledge, longs only for accurate know- 
ledge and for nothing else. Kites are needed when an 
object is to be accomplished, but are unnecessary when 
the end has been achieved. 

91. Keligious studentship is known to have been 
properly begun, in the case of Vdmadeva^ Maitreyi and 
Gdrgi, because (immediate) renunciation is enjoined. 

92. Since the means of attaining heaven, such as 
Vedic and Smartic rites (ishidpilrta), are of endless varie- 
ty, it is difficult to understand why (even if kdmya^ etc. 
be abandoned) there cannot be other causes (of another 
birth,) for other causes may exist. 

93 & 94. The same reasoning applies in the case of 
prohibited rites {nishiddha) and of prescribed rites {nitya) 
Hence such methods do not guarantee liberation ; for, 
there exists kai^man^ both good and bad, stored up 
through innumerable lives, and, like the killing of a 
Brdhmanct; giving rise to endless births. 

95. The existence ofkarman that has not begun to 
bear fruit (andrahdhaphala) is indicated in such passages 
as 'tatah seshena, etc.'^ and ' tad ya iha^ ete.'* 

1 Staosas 89, 90 and 91 justify Mfinydta even iu the first 
Airanut. 

^ eiiiiwi if i^!a»JrH^ i :iw*4<wiii|^wi i >fi8fir€irgid3 g q i ifa 






veil 



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n ^: N 

in)^nii in: i 
i^int ciHH^m m: i 

*l'*IIJl*MH, 4/*4HKf^fl*li|W4, ?w^ fiffpt^re- 
^ V-'No. 8. Vol. XZIII.— August, 1901. ii«v 



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BRiHMASPHTTFASlDDHANTA, Edited with his own com- 

mentary by MahSmahop&dhySya Sudh&kara Dvtvedio, ^v 

Professor, Queen's College, Benares 453 

)' LAXJKIKANTiYASAMGRAHA, Ed. Gaug&dhara gastrin. 
Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares 469 

THE SAMBANDHAVARTIKA op SURESVARACHARYA 
Translated by S. Venkataramanan, B. A., B. L., Badsha 
LodgOi Triplioane, Madras. 477 

ij NYiYASroDHlSjANAM, Ed. Rftma Mijra gastrin, Pro- 

ft fessor, Sanskrit College, Benares 485 

) 1 NYAYASOTRAVIVARAlSrAM, Ed. Surendralala Oosvtoiin, 

\\ Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares ^ ... 601 



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^) c hi a n i^dui wM i H i a : (i 

•fij T H E pk^.i^ j>a T w 

•^ A MONTHLY PUBLICATION ((f* 



OFTAE 

BENARES COLLEGE, 

IIS70TBS TO 

SEEITIilTEBATURB. 




NEW SERIES. 



^ ■ (i 

No, 9.] ISei^tember, 1901. [Vol. XXIJI. ^^ 





BENARES : 
PKINTBD AND PUBLISHED BY THE HlOPRf 

LAZARUS AND CO., AT THE MEDICAL MALL PRESS. 

CopyrigU on €wh artich renrved. 




Prict Ri. 9-0 ptr annum] 



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^snn fktni israr mnft^ i wr ^aw ilm^ ^daon wrf^ i 



^ 9 — No. 9, Vol. XXIIi.— »ei.tetnt>er, 1901. 



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PERSONAL CONSCIOUSNESS. 121 



Others, agftin, holding that the vrtti in the form of 
the / is indeed a vrtti of the Inner Organ, deny that it 
is knowledge in the sense of a produced mental activity 
(VR); for it is not produced by any of the causes of 
mental activity;^ thus, it is unlike the vrtti that is pro- 
duced in the case of religious meditation, or in the case of 
desire etc. It cannot be said that a perceptional know- 
ledge of the / is produced by the organ of vision or by 
any other organ of sense. Nor can inference be the in- 
strument ; for it is a common fact that a man is conscious 
of the / even when he has not gone through any inferen- 
tial process. Nor is the Inner Organ the instrument ; 
for in no other case has it been proved that the Inner 
Organ, which is the material cause of all vrttis^ is also 
their %n$trumental cause.^ Nor do these writers admit 
that their view implies that the recognition of the identity 
of the /is not a form of mental activity (jfifina). For 
although such recognition is not a form of mental activity 
as regards the I per se, it has this character in regard to 
the object-element, ( Hfltd, viz. the / recognised as a 
self-identical object) ; because this recognition is an 
activity produced out of existing mental retenta by 
means of remembrance as the instrument. And, farther, 
since the object of knowledge has different aspects,' it is 
possible for a vrtti (V!^) in the form of the object to 
have the character of a mental activity in regard to one 

1. Knowledge as a mental aotivity ( mnii finn ) demands some 
instrument («nl) whereby it may be aroused. 

2. A thing cannot be both material (substantial) and instru- 
mental cause of the one product. 

3. 4«diiffif I fenA«3Jns*im: mm xnUm ^Ifini wvAi nmmm 



^ 9l_No. 9, Vol. XXIII.— September, 1901. ^i% 

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122 aiDDHANTALE^A. 



aspeot and not to have it ia regard to aaother aspect of 
the object; just m a vftti ia said to be immediate and 
mediate, according as the object ia, or ia Dot^ in contact 
with some organ of sense ; or is said to have, or not to 
have, the character of prama, accordiog as the object is 
one now presented for the first time or ia a represented 
objeci^ 

But other writers^ hold that the vrtti in the form of 
the / is certainly that menial activity termed knowledge 
(jftftna) ; for oar immediate assurance expresses itself in 
the words--^! know myself. And aa instrument for this 
activity is possible ; for» in accord with the assurance ex- 
pressed abova^ we must suppose that the manas,^ which 
is the Imier Organ, ia also the instrument of this mental 
activity* 

If this be so, i. e. if an immediate vrtti in the form 
of the / is really produced, then the law that 
^ a vrtti has the power to overcome the Ne- 

science concealing the object has in the end to be confined 
to the caae of an immedkUe v^tti in the form of an exler- 
ncU object.^ 

But some would deny any such law on the ground 
that in the case of the false judgment-^Thie thing is 

1. notes pp. 95, 96, 98. 

2. The Tlk& explains that this view is based on II. 2. 25, and 
the Bhisja thereto, whioh teaoh that Jiva, the thing denoted bj / 
( H^N; W^ iqfviti^V^a^ l si^i VSI^ )> is a permanent entity. 

3. W9m w mfiwJmii »w§s i nft^i litqwiirtsmwiiun w^- 

¥^91 IR:sweiyUlsftlSUW 9iQn?| nSQf^imilf l Tl. For #siw9ifwifirt 
see notes pp. 75, 118, 135. 

iuisRHiKiHmiiid^ ii^3i ^BTffirnis5WfiTwn?j i Ti, 



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FALSE PREDICATION. 123 



Bilver — the vrtti tbat has taken the bare form of the pre- 
seoted object viz. mother-of-pearl, which is denoted by 
the w<^d this^ cannot overcome the Nescience which con- 
ceals the object; <»*, that if ihe vftti be sapposed to 
have this power (vam), then the false silver cannot 
oome into being at all, since {ex hypothesi) its material 
cause, sc. Nescience^ has been destroyed previously by 
tbe vytti. 

To this objection some writers reply as follows : The 
material cause of tbe false silver b only that Nesoience 
which conceals all the distinctive pn^rties of the 
mother-of-pearl shell; since these properties continue to 
be hidden, i. e. unperoeived, even after a vrtti in the 
form of the object has destroyed tbe Nescieiice which 
concealed the object as a bare something (idamaipja) ; and 
because the false silver is presented to oonsdousness only 
when the distinctive properties of the pearl didl are not 
thus jMresented, and is not presented when these properties 
are presented.^ And tiieir view (say these writers) is 
supported by the VivaraQa,^ which in treating of false 
predication declares that its material cause is that Ne- 
science whose presence and absence we perceive as 
attendant on our non-perception and perception, respect* 
ively, of the falsely surmised object. And it is on this 
very ground (say they) that a distinction is made in the 
Samk8epa9&rlriika' between two aspects of the real thing, 

1. vvrni^ fa is i n^ j fyftm i j^quM Bi imtn i Ti. 

3. In Ved&ntA literatvire, ^a^kara't tntrodaotion to the first 
sCltiea is oommOnly described as the Adhjisabb&sja, and PadmapSda's 
P^iloapftdikl as the ftkl, and Prak&s&tman's Pafioa^dikiTivara^a as 
^e VlTarapa, (see Via. Sanst Series). 

3. SamksepagEHraka. I. 31, 32. 



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124 SIDDHANTALBQA. 



which may be regarded (in the order of existence) as the 
adhisihdna or material cause of the false silver, i. e. the 
pearl shell, which is concealed by the Nescience that 
projects the false silver in its place ; and (in the order of 
thought) as the ddhdra or logical subject, the bare some- 
thing denoted by the word this, l e. the pearl shell, which 
though really different from the false silver appears as the 
logical subject of the judgment with the attributes of 
silver as its predicate.^ 

Others, however, hold that the false silver, which is 
perceived as identical with the bare thing denoted in the 
judgment — ^this thing is silver — , has as its material cause 
only that Nescience which conceals the bare thing ;^ and 
that although its concealing power is destroyed by the 
vrtti that has taken the form of the bare thing, yet as 
continuing to exist as a projecting power,^ this Nescience 
can be the material cause of the false silver. And 
this must be admitted (say these writers) on the 
same grounds that Nescience as aided by its projecting 
power is held to be the material cause of the unreal in- 
verted tree seen reflected in water, and of the unreal mani- 
fold sense-experience which continues to present itself to 
the man who is emancipated while still living, although the 
concealing power of Nescience was destroyed after a full 
and complete knowledge was obtained of that reality 
(adhisthfina) in regard to which the false predication was 
made in each case. 



lradil«i ffff «% >f livrar ^wiii i i i iiiiMffirirn nm: i Tf • 

faeiim i raa «irftfifmi( nfj^ti \jmm^ mnurt wafi i iwin 'wA g* 
ifif I'p. 

3. Cf. p. 41. 



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FALSE PREDICATION. 125 



On the other hand, the Kavitarkika CalA*avartin, 
Npsiipbabhatta Upadhyaya maintains that» previous to 
the production of the false silver, no vrtti in the form of 
the bare thing exists at all, as a vrtti distinct from the 
erroneous one which finds expression in the judgment — 
this thing is silver — ; and that, therefore, it is a ground- 
less task to inquire whether a vptti in the form of the 
bare thing can, or cannot, destroy Nescience.^ To ex- 
plain further: It cannot be said that such a vritti is 
vouched for by our direct consciousness of it as distinct 
from the false vftti expressedin the judgment — this thing 
is silver — ; since we are not conscious of two judgments 
(the one expressed by *Uhi8 is" and the other by '^ this 
is silver"). Nor can it be said that the cause of false 
predication is a general or indefinite knowledge of the 
underlying real object, and hence a vrtti in the form of 
the bare object must be inferred to exist from the exist- 
ence of the effect, viz. false predication. For no proof is 
forthcoming that such general or indefinite knowledge 
produces a false judgment. Nor as a proof of this can 
it be urged that, where no contact of a sense-organ with 
the real object exists, there no false predication of silver 
and the like is brought about For this would prove that 
it was only the contact of a defective sense-organ that 

The Tiews whioh Nrsimha opposes are known teohnioallj as 
DBABMuirXNAKXRAKATXDi L 0. M teaching that a yftti in the form of 
the bare thing presented to the senses is a necessary condition of 
adbjEsa The JVa explains: — ^fJ^l^mUf f q i S f^ Mnmf -W^' 

it > qni»Ki tfvivlfii urn « «f«T «fiimi mmtfrrarafwilhm 



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126 SIDDHlNTALR^A. 



was the cause of false predication. Nor in reply to this 
can it be said that false judgment is not invariably attend- 
ed by such contact, whereas the presentation of the real 
thing invariably attends the fisilse id^itifioation of the 
Inner Organ and its properties with the self-laminous 
Inner Self. For this general or indefinite presentation 
of the underlying reality ( nm ) is not found in the case 
of the erroneous predication of the ooxDmon things of 
practical life (ghatadi), since, prior to the perception of 
theee common things, there could be no vf tti of the visual 
organ in the form of the Reality und^iying 
them, i. e. of the pure formless Brahman ; 
and because the Illumining Principle underlying these 
things is concealed by Nescience. And if it be said that 
the cause of adhy&sa is nothing but Brahman the Prin- 
ciple of Reality and Illumination, whether concealed or 
not conoesied by Nescience, then since this Piinciple 
exists, though concealed, as the basis of tiie perceived 
object, vix.9 the mother-of-pearl shell, even before the 
contact of a sense-organ with this object baa taken place, 
it would follow logically that adhyasa should occur prior 
to the contact of sense-organ and object (which is not 
the case). Nor can it be urged here that the common 
cause of adhy&sa in general^ is the underlying Illumining 
Principle per «^, and that the special cause of a special 
kind of adhyasa, i. e. the pratibhasika kind (in which the 
perceived thing has no practical reality), is the same 
Principle when disclosed to our consciousness (abhi vyakta) 
by means of a vrtti, and that thus the logical inconse- 
quence noted above is avoided — it being logically con- 



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FALSE PREDICATION. 127 



sistent to assign a common cause for a class of facts, and 
a special cause for a special feet. For if this point be 
conceded, the Bhatta replies that the alleged cause of the 
pr&tibh&sika or special kind of adhyasa is not invariably 
present, e. g. in the case of the conch shell which appears 
yellow (to the jaundiced eye) and the water which appears 
dark as it lies in a well : for there can be no visual con- 
sciousness of a colourless object (as Brahman is), and prior 
to the adhyasa there is no perception of the (real) white 
lustre of the shell and the water ; hence prior to the 
adhy§sa there can be no vrtti in the form of the Real 
Illumining Principle, which itself colour-less underlies 
the lustrous shell and the water. Nor can the opponent 
hold that among the various cases of the special kind 
of adhy&sa termed piatibhftsika fJready explained, the 
special cause viz. the underlying Principle of Reality, 
when disclosed to our consciousness by means of a 
vrtti, operates to bring about only an adhyftsa of silver 
(in mother-of-pearl). For if the other cases, e.g. the 
yellow conch shell ftc., be excluded from the operation 
of this special cause ( iraT frfn ), they must be explained 
as due to the contact of some defective sense-ergan ; other- 
wise a false perception of such things should occur prior 
to the contact of a sense-organ : but in accordance with 
the law of parcimony it is just this contact of a defective 
organ that is proved to be the cause of all cases of pr&ti- 
bhasika adhySsa ; and the operation of this cause serves 
to explain the fact that false silver is perceived only on 
certain occasions : hence (the Bhatta concludes,) it has not 
been proved that Brahman, the underlying Illumining 
Principle, whether considered per se or as disclosed to 



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128 SIDDH ANTALEQA. 



our consciousness by means of a vrtti, is the cause of 
any kind of false predication.^ 

But here the opponent rejoins:^ Although Brah- 
man may not be the cause of those other kinds of adbyasa 
which do not depend on the recognition of a certain 
similarity (between the real object and the false object 
perceived in its stead) ; yet in such cases of adhyasa as 
that of silver, which do depend on the recognition of 
a certain similarity, we must admit that the cause is our 
vague perception of the underlying reality, i. e. is our 
judgment in which the subject (viz. the mother-of-pearl) 
has for its predicate those definite points of similarity 
which it shares with the false silver: for if contact 
with a defective organ be held to be the sole cause, then 
we ought to perceive silver in the place of a piece of 
charcoal no less than in the place of mother-of-pearl. 
Nor will the opponent admit that a real similarity in it- 
self (as distinct from our recognition of it) is the cause 
of adhyasa, so far as it may be termed a defect in the 
perceived object ; for adhyasa occurs in regard to a dis- 
similar object, if a false recognition of similarity has 
previously taken place: — thus, the (white coloured) stream 
of ocean seen at a distance appears like the flat surface 
of dark coloured rocks. Nor will he accept as satisfac- 
tory the statement that the sole cause of adhyasa is the 
means or process by which a recognition of similarity is 
eflfected, as in accord with the rule that by the cause of a 



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OFTHB 

BENARES COLLEGE, 



an^rfsRorearf^ra: (i 

•f) THE PANDIT [\ 

•^J A MONTHLY PUBLICATION 

X^j DKVOTEOTO 

^JSANSKBIT LITBEATURB. 

•*' - L 

NEW SERIES. [(a, 

*?•{/ Ho. 10.] October, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. /[T"^ 

I) (^ 

J/ BENARES: JiT 

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..,59, « ^: «„|: - ^!^ . ^, .*^e . 

wn^: ■ — E- — I tm «^^ whf « !l^ M 

« IE— Mo. 10, Vol. XXUL— October, 1901. 



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tALBA FR8I>I0AtIOir« 129 



tbiog must be utidetatood the immediau oaiise alone : 

because (he argues) in no case has tiie meau or process 

of IcDowledge been tonnd also to bring an object into exis* 

tence, and because it is logically sinipleY to postulate the 

recogniti<Hiofsimilarity asthe sole cAuse of adbjrfisa. Nor 

again win the opponent admit the view that just as a 

dark colour is surmised wisely, in i^ case of pure lus- 

trous water eten as it lies in A pitcher df pure bright gold^ 

but is not surmised in the case of the pearl shelli such 

being the natare of these thififgisii so it mdst be due 

simply to the nature of things^ dUd not to any recognition 

of similarity, that cdtyer |s erroneodsly predicated of 

mother-of-peail only and not of a piece of cbarooaL 

He aigues that aHhoug|^ a mere piece of cantass 

is ncTor mistaken for a lotus bud, yet the 

^^^ ' mistake does arifl^ When the eanvass baa been 

cut so as to resemble the flower; and henee induction 

establishes the fii^t that adhyftsa is due not to the nature 

of things per $e but to the presence or absence of a re* 

cognition of similarity in the two things^ On the other 

hand, if the cause of adhySsa lies in the very nature of 

things (HMUT), adhy3Aa of a lotus flower in apiece of can- 

rass should occur cTen before the latter hat been cult so as 

to resemble the shape of the former ( mtT )• *^ 

To all thiaf argumentation Nrsiipbabhat^ would 
reply aa follows:^ Eten if H be held that a recognition 
of similarity is the cttuse of adbyaaai its causal actiirity 
must be limited to such oases aa that of silter and 
mother-of-pearl, in all of which the adhyasa is preTented 
fr<M» taking plaee, if the points of difference between the 



1. vfihii^Hi wns«iiiiuw*i wTd Jfuoii vfemfiiiiia iguiff 
^ifii^ii "^w»" iiuifem "^ g** fSi r 71- 



^ l_No. 10, Vol. ZIII Ootober, 1901. UM 



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130 3IDDfiAKTAL£gA. 



two things have bMn petceived ; it cannot be held to 
operate in such cases as that of the yellow conch shell ftc., 
in all of which the adhyasa continues to occur, although 
points of difference between the two things have been 
perceived— «(the white shell continues to appear yellow; 
and the water in a well continues to appear dark in colour) 
— for in such cases no real similarity is possible*^ And since 
obstructive power in regard to the former kind of adhyasa 
must belong exclusively to the means of knowledge as 
that which obstructs the adhy&sa, it follows that the 
sum total of conditions which make up what is termed 
perception of points of difference must be the cause ob- 
structive^ of this kind of adhyasa ; and since the rationale 
of the whole matter lies in the o&^tn^<{t;e cat^s^ being this 
perception of differences, it is unnecessary to assume that 
recognition of similarity is a cause of adhyasa. And so 
this writer would go on to explain that silver is not pre* 
dicated of a piece of charcoal, because wh^n the eye is in 
contact with the charcoal there are present all the condi- 
tions, necessary for a perception of the peculiarities of the 
charcoal e. g. its dark colour &c ; and, ag^in, silver is not 
predicated even of mother-of-pearl shell when the eye is 
in contact with the dark outer surface of the shell, be- 
cause the conditions for a judgment of difference are. pre* 
sent ; whereas when the eye is in contact only with that 
portion of the pearl shell which resembles silver in its 
brightness, then silver is falsely predicated of the shell, 
because the conditions for a judgment of difference are 
no longer present. 

2. vfHiRsriit% nT^oiwini I T^' 



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FALSB PRBDiCATiaN. 131 



But it may be objected that no adhyarn <^ Mlver 
should occur even vfhetk the eye is in contact with only 
that portion of the oyster sbeU which resembles silyer 
in its brightness ; because there are present all the 
conditions necessary for a perception of the special char- * 
acter of the object, L e. its character as an oyster shell. 
To this the Bha^ would reply ^ that since tius distinct- 
ive perception of the oyater shell as such does not exist 
when silver is falsely predicated of the shelly the opponent 
(rVnf^)^ .must also admit that» previous to the false 
predication of the silver, the conditions necessary fo^ j^ 
distinctive perception of the object as oyster shell did 
not exist. 

The opponent may rejoin that for his part'(llll) ^ 
he admits that these conditions did not exist at that 
time, because they were obstructed by the defect, viz. 
recognition of similarity, wbicOti is the cause of the adh- 
ySsa of silver ; whereas for our author ( !W ) * to make 
this admission is to place himself in the helpless position 
of the man who to escape paying toll at a ferry wanders 
through the night and in the morning finds himsdf back 
at the ferry, (i. e. NrsirpI a Bhaita has at last to admit 
recognition of similarity as a cause of adhySsa). But 
this objection the Bhatta rejects.* For after coming 
near to thegivenobjeet one perceives that theglitter, which 
is the point of similarity, belongs really to the oyster 

v^ifttm I Ti. 
1' wnfemi Ti. 



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ISi BlADUAWAUfUQA. 



•hell ; heBoe the reoogDiUon of riinilarity is not a cause 
obstruetive of the oonditions necessary for a distinctive 
perception of the object as being an oyster shell ; and 
hence also the absence of all such necessary conditions 
"must be explained as due either to an obstruction in the 
form of some such defect as excessive distance of the 
object from the sense^orgaUi or to some want i^ adjust- 
ment on the part of the sense-organ, whose ft^netion it 
is to catch all the essential features (vyafijaka) of the 
oyster i^elly vis. its dark-coloured outer surliBtee i^. as 
wdl as its glittering inner surface* 

A similar explanation (continues our author) will 
apply to the ffAse presentation of a dark-coloured, flat, 
rocky surfS^^e in the place of the bngbt*coloured stream 
of ocean ; for here too are absent the necessary conditions 
for a distinctive perception of the object^ i. e, as having a 
bright-colour and as being the ocean or a msigs of water ; 
and the absence of th^^^ conditions id di^e both to some 
defect which cau999 darl^ colour to appear lidsely in 
the water of the opeau, invariably, i, e. whether the 
oceaq be i^ear the pbseryer or at a distapce, apd also 
to fK>me lack of adjustment on the part of the sense- 
organ to the op^i^n when seen at a distance, so tiiat the 
eye fails to catch the esp^tial features of tbo water, via. 
its wavy surface /kc* Similarly, when the necessaiy con* 
ditions are present fbr a perception of the definite form 
i. a the outspreadness of a piece of canvasia^ tl^n the 
form of a lotus flower is not falsely predicated of the 
canvass ; whereas when those conditions are absent — the 
canvass having been cut into the shape of a lotus flower-^ 
then such false predication does occur. 



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FAL9B FftBDiQATION. 138 



H^r© it may be asked by way of objeetion why sil- 
v^r 13 9ot fatoely predicated of a piece of iron held oover- 
ed io the baad ; for in thia oaae the ueoeBsary eonditioM 
for a distinctive yisual perception of the dark colour 
of the iron are absent; and, in the Bha^t^'s vie^, 
recognitiw of siqEmarity is not a cawe of adhySsa? 
The reply is that the fiilse predication of siWer does take 
place in this case (under certain circumstances) ; on the 
other band, a false predication of copper or gold 1^, niay 
also take place^ bemuse here also are absent the necessary 
conditions for a visual perception of. those 
^^ * special qualitiea of iron which distiDguish it 
from copper ^ ThnSt in cases where seyeiid predioates 
are possible, the adhy&aa assumes the form of a d<mbt» 
e. g. Is the thiog in my hand a piece of silver or a piece 
of copper 3 Again silver, and onfy silver, is ]»redicated of 
the iron, if the observer at the tiine happens to be inside 
a Treasury which he belieres to be ibU of eilyer. In 
other c^ses, again, no adhyjMUi of silver occurs, but this 
fact does not overthrow our author'a view ; for his oppo- 
nent has to admit that even when the similarity be- 
tween silver and the oyster sheU bas been recognised it 
sometimes happens that no adhy&sa of the silver occurs 
owing to the &ct that the sense-of|^ is free firom defect 
at that time. 

Bence (ecmoludes the Bhatta) the e^isteice of e vrtti 
in the bare form of the object l^t i« preewt to the 
senses cannot be inferred from the esdetence of effect, 
yi;^; folse predication, nor tiBom the esliteoce ^ the oanee, 
vis^ unobstructed contact of senesHDrgan with the object. 

And for this reaeo« (i^ye he) we hi^ve held 
that when a vri^t^i in the form of the real object has 



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134 SIDDHlNTALEQA. 



indeed come into existeBee, it ean make knowB the false 
silver whioh was produced contemporaneously with the 
vrtti (sva)' — the vrtti being a material product erf the 
Nescience which was stirred into activity by the contact 
of a defective sense-organ with the real object ( which is 
also a material product of that Nescience ). And in the 
case of adhyftsa (VIS «), the cognisabifity of the false 
silver by the eye can be explained as due to the contact 
of the eye and the real object with which the Mse silver 
has been identified ; although thepe coitld no be eontaet 
prior to the false presentation of the silver, for ^this silver 
is something whose coming into being is «tnctly contem- 
poraneous with l^e presentation of it ^md whose existeDce 
does nol extend beyond ihaA presentation. And as a 
matter of fact our consciousness, expressed in the words 
'I see the silver with my eyes/ testifies that the merely 
apparent (prfttibbsLsika) silver is an object of visual p^- 
ception, although it is tfot in contact with the eye. 

Nor will the Bhatta admit the following objections : 
tiiat the unreal silver is not an object of visual perception, 
because ihe simple fact of its not being in odntact with 
the eye excludes the possibility of its being such an 
object : further, that the silver, which is alleged to have 
been produced conten^poraneously with the vrtti, cannot 
have been produced by the contact of a defective sense- 
organ with the real object ; for this contact of sense-organ 
and object can produce a knowledge of the bbject but not 
the object itself: that, on the contrary, the false silver is 
produced l^ the vrtti iu the form of the real object and 

1. To iiote t P- ^1* Text, ftdd the following : — ^ii^ ^fHHtif I 



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FALSE PREDICATION. 135 



follows it in time-order ; ^ and that it is illumined hy the 
WitoesS)^ which is disclosed by the vrtti (tat) and which 
is the ultimate reality of which the unreal silver is 
predicated : that our consciousness of the silver as a 
visible object may be explained as due, but only second- 
arily, to the eye which brings about the vrtti in the form 
of the real object, this vrtti again being that which 
discloses the Intelligence that UlurrUnes the real mother- 
of-pearl and the unreal silver (sva).^ 

Our author replies : If the opponent's view be ad- 
mitted, (viz. that only the real thing is an object of sense- 
perception, whereas the unreal thing is an object illumined 
by the Witness ^), then the eye will not be a necessary 
factor in the case of the yellow conch shell; for since 
the bare shell cannot be se^n without its real whiteness, 
the eye is not necessary as regards the shell : nor is the 
eye necessary for the perception of the unreal yellowness, 

1. The Trka sums up the opponent's position: ff^MlluBini - 

fciaiiviii'iihiin ^fffvifn ?hit fmmiv wfH rufavi^iiia^Hm wn Heft 

2. H]giF9TiifiT HrffERimfirRnS: i 5? it w^Nf^nwnFWi ^ftre- 
da«q)iir«7^9 gifawT MJ ii idir J wi^ i hot n hot ^qgwgy^ ma J u > m€ h 

OTftwnwftijTiffirfii nmmif s Ti. 

^nf^ediHrufu^HiviiTt^HTOTir 5 OTOT?f wl ini^ru i ii i ^iirhia^ i^ hot 

H^f ' fiOT hT?i ' iftf I ^rf^THsrni&Fs^inRRiHmTdOT^m^ h g ^i^ww 
wa jfa^ggr^OT y gqifft nfif tmii 1 Ti. 



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186 fllDDHAKtALB^A. 



for the opponent himself does not admii tfaiit an titireAl 
thing is an object of eenee-peroeption (aiadriyakatva). 
Nor againat thisoan it be argued that the eye ia neoesaary 
for a preaentation of the yello\r coloar^ on the groand 
that, though the yellowneaa per se ia not folaely predicatedi 
what ia thus predicated ia a bare relation between the 
conch shell and the peroeived yeUowneas of the bile in 
the diaea^ed organ of riaion. For if it be gpranted that 
what is perceived by the eye ia the yellow bile in the eye« 
then it muat follow that the ahell and ita relation with 
the yellow bile are not objecta of viaion ; since theae two 
are not in relation with, and cannot therefore be illnmined 
by, the Witness which was disclosed by the vrtti that bad 
taken the form of the yellow bile located in the eye : and 
the opponent (it must be added) does not allow that itf 
aucb a case of adhyft^a there ia but one Tfttf uniting the 
ahell and the yellow colour. Nor again can it be argued 
ibat what ia &laely predicated in this caae » not a relation 
between the ahell and the yellownesa of the bile located 
in the eye--4i relation due to aotne defect in the eye** 
but ia a relation between the shell and the bile that 
moving outwards along with the rays from the eye perva- 
des the dielli just as a tbing coloured with aaffroa is aaid 
to have that colour ; and thus a relation is possible between 
p -^ the shell and the Witness, which (underlying 
the shell) is disclosed by the vrtti that has 
taken the form of the yellow bUe, For if it be admitted 
that the btle has coloured the ahell yellow, then eyea that 
are not diaordered by bile should also perceive the shell as 
of a golden colour. And by way of meeting this last point 
it cannot be said that the yellow colour becomes visible at 
a distance, i. e. in the shell, if it was first aeen at clbsa 



Ces 



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OF surbjvarAcharya. - 17 

96. The fruit of performing prescribed rites is not 
the iBere reiuoTal of impedimentSy^ but other rewards 
also are directly meutioned, for example, in the Amra- 
smriti.^ 

97. The passages in the Smriti of Apastamha 
**The mango beiug the cause, etc." declare that even 
prescribed {nitya) rites produce results. 

98. The consequences of doubt have already been 
indicated.^ It can now be aflSrmed with certainty that 
saktif as long as it lasts, will be producing some result or 
other. 

99. For, in the absence of result, the cause itself 
will be non-existent. Of the effect and its cause, neither 
will exist independent of the other. 

100. Thus, by understanding the Supreme Self 
(antardtman) to be of the nature of doer and enjoyer, 
there will be, in the light of the arguments heretofore 
advanced, no hope of liberation at alL 

lOL Since man is liable to err, liberation, accord- 
ing to your theory, will.be a matter of doubt for the 
twice-born, but one of certainty for the donkey, etc.* 

102. But was it not said^ that knowledge is a 



^Hencd tbe oppotieot arg^uea that nitya rite» will not fttsind in 
the way of liberation by brioging about further birihs. 

This is summarised iu the uext verse. 

^ See stanza 80. 

^ ^uce tbe liability ta err and henoe tbe danger of sin are only 
for the adhi&rU%, and not iu the leattt for the anadhikriia of unauthoris- 
ed beings like the donkey. 

^ See stanza 45. 



^ ^_No, 10, Vol. XIll. — October, 1901. 6eU 



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18 



THE SAMBAKDHAVARTIKA 



mere department of ritual, aud that the soul is a doer of 
sacrifices ? It is not so, since this kin 1 of knowledge 
that is dependent on ritual, is not what is required (for 
liberation). 

103, For, even without any refereuca to sacrifices, 
the soul i^ undoubtedly the doer, for it is the doer of all 
actions without exception. Hence what you say is 
unsound. 

104, It cannot be said that without a knowledge of 
the Self, it would be impossible to perform rituals, in 
the same way as it would be impossible to use the sacri- 
ficial ladle without a knowledge of the parna wood. 

105. But (it may be said that) a prudent person 
will not perform rites to secure a higher world, without 
first satisfying himself that there is a soul (separate from 
the body) as the basis of a future bodily lifa.^ 

106. Thus, then ; the knowledge of Atman cannot 
be a part of ritual, since a doer^ is the only thing neces- 
sary for rites (ishta), as in the case of one desiro us of 
fruit (phaldrthivat).^ Further such a knowledge is not 
prescribed as essential for rites. 

1 For, the aim of ritea is the enjoyment of heaven, etc. for 
which bodies like those of g)da and other superhuman beiugs are neces- 
sary, though the same soul will coutinue to dwell in them. 

2 That is, only a doer is necessary aud not a knowledge of the 
doer. Verse 103 shows that the soul is the doer not ouly of stictitioes 
but of all actions iu general. As an example of the general not be'm^ 
part of the particular, the phalartkin is brought in. The desire of fruit 
is the incentive to every action, aud the. necessity for understanding 
it is not therefore contined to Vedic rites alone. 

5R^Tf HTvaTCmWTrimaR^luT'ffwfil^: II Auaudagiri. 



S^S 



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OP SURESVARACHARYA. 19 

107. * But, even so, the knowledge of Atman must 
enter into every rite by reason of its compatibility 
[sanarthydt)} thought not by virtue of any injunction.' 

108. It is not so; for, only he is directed (or 
authorised) to perform rikes, who has not grasped the 
truth (tattva) and who is characterised by what is called 
not-self^ 

109. The existence of the At man in its natural 
state (svarupe) is spoken of by the wise as liberation (nis- 
sreyasa); and the contact of the Atm%n with any other 
condition is the result of nescience- {ajnlna or avidyd). 

110 and 111. The Atman xxx^y itself be conscious 
of its impending condition of not-self. But it does not 
follow therefrom that, for a liberated soul in its natural 
state, the character of doer, enjoyer, etc., rites and the 
enjoyment of their fruit, and the external organs of sense, 
can result from any other cause than ignorance of the 
self (pratyag). 

112 and 113. The same is the cause of the external 
(physical) body, of caste that is inherent therein (sa7na' 
vdyini)y of old age, death and birth, whose seat is the 
body (dehddhikarandm)y and of wife, child, riches, etc. 
which are external to the body, all of which tend to fit 
the soul, by itself unauthorised (svatah anadhikdrinah), 
for the performance of rites. 

114 and 115. It is thought that these things differ- 
entiate the undifferentiated soul by reason of nescience ; 

1 For, without such knowledge, there will be no doing of rites. 
See verse 105. 

2 There is no adhikdra without a limitation of the soul hy a 
body or bodies ( avachchhedt ), and every limitation is the result of 
ignorance (ajn^a) 



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20 THE SAMBANDHAVAETIKA 



for nothing in the world has been seen to be the attri- 
bute or condition (viseshanam svarupam vdy of another 
except through ignorance, but it is seen to be so in every 
instance through ignorance. The unknowing man does 
not say * the thief is staring at me' and attribute the 
qualities of a thief to the post, except in darkness. 

116. * But there are instances of one thing being 
the attribute of another even in the absence of ignorance, 
e. g., aupagava (son of Upagu), nripahaya (the king's 
horse), syendchit (performer of hawk-sacrifice),^ etc' 

117. It is not so; for, in none of these cases is the 
attribute identically related (pratyaktayd samhandhah) to 
the thing qualified, as in the example '' I am lean."^ 

118. For instance, the meaning of the stem, upagu^ 
' the father,' qualifies an entirely different idea, namely 
the meaning of the suffix * son of — ' in aupagava ; and 
so on, in the other cases also. 

119. Not so does a person think of the attributes 
beginning from that of doer and ending with the body, 
and the attributes of caste etc. inherent in the body, as 
essentially distinct from the Atman itself^ 

120. For, he applies these attributes to the attri- 
buteless soul as though they refer to the soul itself; e.g. 

1 This is taobnioallj known as adhydsa whose only source is avidyd. 

2 Upagu qualifies the suffix meaning * son of — ', nripa qualifies 
kayo, and syena qualifies chU. Now, the ignorance of the speaker or 
hearer is not an essential condition of the attributive.relation in these 
examples. 

3 Here, it is the ego itself that is supposed to be lean. But in 
the instances cited by the opponent the thing which qualifies was 
entirely different from the thing qualified. . 

^For the list referred to, see yerses 111, 112 and 113. 



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OF SURESVARACHARYA. 21 



* / do/ ' / am blind/ * / am a twice-born/ ' / am a child/ 
' / am burnt/ * / am cut/ ete. 

121. The relation of the qualifying and the quali- 
fied cannot exist between them except by reason of ne- 
science. And it must be known that this alone is the 
reason of the soul being obliged (or privileged) to per- 
form rites. 

122. Further, it is because those only who are 
ignorant of the unity of self are authorised to perform 
rites, that qualifications are laid down for persons officiat- 
ing at the BrihcLspati'SSkcnfioef etc.^ 

123. 124, 125. The knowledge, derived from Ve- 
dantic study, of th3 real nature of the ^preme .self 
(pratyag) whose existence is proved by the Vedas etc., 
puts an end to all action (rites), by destroying the 
nescience that is its root ; for, knowledge is known only 
to remove ignorance.^ But knowledge does not prompt 
us to action. Hence the passage prescribing fruits can- 
not be said to be merely explanatory,^ though it is rightly 
so in the case of the parna wood, which is part of ritual. 

126. This answers your argument* whereby you 
asked me to admit these passages to be explanatory re- 
marks though I wa3 unwilling to admit that knowledge 
was the subject of injunction. 

127. I concede that it is an explanatory passage in 

^Otherwise everyone will be qualified for everything and no 
qoalifications are needed at all. 

2 And therefore indirectly terminates harman. 

^See verses 44 and 45, 

^ Suresvara repeats the argament of his opponent contained in 
verse 45. 



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22 THE SAMBANDHAVARTIKA 



so far as it is dependent on another passai^e;^ but it is 
not a passage that contains an untruth (abhutdrthavdda), 
since it states only what is recited in Scripture {s)'utt). 

128. This is like the passage " The new moon and 
full moon sacrifices are performed for attaining heaven 
{svarga)."^ But it cannot be said to contain an untruth 
merely because there is no passage punishing with sin 
the non-doing thereof (pdpasldkdsruteh). 

129. ' How is the reward to be inferred ?^ ' The 
fruit derived from the knowledge of the Self is an object 
of direct perception (pratyaksham avagamyate) ; and 
therefore knowledge is not included in ritual. 

130. Sfnce performance of rites (pravritti) is an 
obstacle to, and, therefore, inconsistent with, liberation, 
the duty (adhikdra) of the aspirant for liberation is to 
renounce all action {nivrittau sarvakarmandm). 

131 and 132, No wise man will under any circum- 
stances, desire to return to worldly lifa pravritti) afcer 
the destruction of the very sources of such worldly life 
(such as, greed eta), like a bewildered traveller who pur- 
sues the wrong track, abandoning the easy and safe route 
that leads to his destination, with water and food acces- 
sible throughout, and devoid of all danger. 

133, 134 and 135. Having soon realised the divine 
changeless Self, which is without the properties of doer 
etc. that are the result of nescience, unprompted to action, 

1 The passage must be either «^m7 or ^f!1^8|l3r. Suresvara 
admits it is the former, because it is subsidiary to the mST^W which 
proclaims the unity of the Self. 

2 So a passage can be both v^CTT? and ^rfltSeiT^ at the same time. 
^That is, there is no other paAsage to corroborate or confirm the 

same. 



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OF SURE9VARACHARYA. 23 



bestower of all the purushdrthds, and kno^able by self- 
intuitioa, and knowing that the desired fruit which is 
eternal and independent of all external means, is depend- 
ent on such knowledge alone, how can an all-knowing 
individual turn his mind, even in jest, to the performance 
of rituals, with rewards of a different character, depend- 
ent on external means, where there are innumerable 
causes to prompt one to action ? 

136. Further, for one whose entire ignorance is 
exterminated by sound knowledge, it is impossible to 
pursue once more, as formerly, the path of non-know- 
ledge (ritual etc.), because there is nothing to prompt 
him to action. 

137 and 138. Since a wise one who desires as re- 
ward a knowledge of the Riality which is gathered from 
a correct understanding of the Scriptures, never longs for 
the performance of rite? which is an impediment to him, 
therefore the injunction of rituals, shunned by all aspir- 
ants to liberation, is only for tbe ignorant soul with the 
qualities of doer etc. which belong to the non self 

139. The nature of doer etc. is to be abandoned, 
because knowledge and nescience (mdha) are opposed to 
each other both in their nature and in their effects, and 
because it is productive of evil, like illness etc. 

140, 141, and 142. It is infant's babble to say that the 
function of doer etc. is the very nature of the soul (that 
desires to abandon such function^ ; for, if the soul that is 
directly perceived to be of the nature of non-doer, be 
said to be of the nature of doer, it is opposed to the 
knowledge derived from direct perception etc. and even 
final liberation would become impossible.^ 

^This is to meet the argument that, because the soul is of 
tbe nature of doer, etc., it can uever shake off its nature. Such an 
argument leads to a fallacy. If the soul loses its nature, it becomes 



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1 



24 



THE SAMBANDHAVARTIKA 



' Well,then,i let there be no possibility of liberation 
since the soul (drisi), being the eirjoyer of fruits, is liable 
to change,^ like fire. Or, if not, let the soul be non-exist- 
ent like ether (^dsa).' Not so ; for, the soul is ever- 
lasting (dhruva) and, therefore, not susceptible of change. 

143. How can any change aflfect the soul (prjtyag) 
that is neither corporeal nor incorporeal ? Enjoyment is 
nothing else than becoming conscious, and the soul is al- 
ways endowed with such consciousness. 

144 and 145. It is not liable to change like wind 
and fire, because it has not, like them, previous non-exist- 
ence etc ^ In the case of fire etc. which are composed 
of parts and which have the character of effects, it is pro- 
per that there should be manifestation (and change), 
whenever their nature is attacked by such mighty causes 
as tbe adding of fu A or the churning of wood. 

146. But, since the soul htis no parts, and since it 
is self-existent, the two chief changes, namely, manifest- 
ation and disappearance, can never happen to it 

147. Manifestation, even if conceded, does not 
necessarily imply change in the thing to be manifested; 
and, so also, non-manifestation. This is common to all 
schools of reasoning. 

148. Hence, the nature of doer etc. as applied to 
the soul, must be understood solely to result from the 
nescience of those who do not admit the possibility of 
liberation. It is not, however, the real truth. 

non-exUtent, and since there is uothiiig to be liberated, there can be no 
liberation. If it retains its nature as doer, then too there caa be no 
liberation by reason of that very natnre. 

^ This is the argument of the lokayaia or atheist. 

2 For, enjoyment necessarily means change. 

Simwrn, «>zrBmT9, mw^HmrBI, and vsqpurirra; change presap. 
I poses some or tiH of these. 



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CONTENTS. 



BRIHM 
men 
Pro! 



THE SI 

. lat 

THE SA 
\\ Trai 

Lod 

nyAyai 

Pro 



FA, Edited with his own com- 
dhjftja Sudhakara Dviyedio, 
Benares 581 



Iff 



APPAYADlKSITA, Trans- 



697 



L OP SURESVARiCHiRYA 
iramanan, B. A., B. L., Badsha 

• •• ••• ••• ••• OUd 

Ed. Surendralala GosT&min, 
, Benares ... .. ... 613 



LAUKIKANYiYASAMQRAHA, Ed. Gai^gftdhara Qtetrin, 
^ I Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares 




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-)\ 




iJTHE PANDIT (i 

A MONTHIiT PUBLICATION 

07 IBB 

BENARES COLLEGE, 

D8Y0TKDT0 

SANSKBIT lilTEEATURB. 



NEW SfiRieiS. 



8) 

j) E.J. 



No. 11.] November, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. 



BENARES: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE PROPRIETORS, 
LAZARUS AND CO., AT THE MEDICAL HALL PRESS. 




Copyright on each article reserved. 
JPrice Re, 9-0 per annum.] 



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^ ll_No. 11, Vol. XXIII.— November, 1901. tm 



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METHOD OF THE BHA^YA. 17 



ing the fact that the person as kaower is conscious of 
the body, sense-organs etc. as the /, as Mine. What 
then is the ground for this statement ? The ground is 
that, as regards the personal consciousness, no feeling of 
assurance has arisen as to its being a case of false predi* 
cation ; whereas, in the other common instances e. g, the 
false silver and the double moon, an immediate assurance 
of their falsity has arisen. Again, this assurance arises 
after Nescience has been destroyed (badhe) ; but, in the 
case of personal consciousness, the destruction of Ne- 
science has not taken place. Hence it is logically proper, 
first to state a definition of false predication ; and then to 
shew that the thing as thus defined really exists. 

But even so, it may be argued, all that need be shewn 
in this context is the real existence of the thing defined. 
For when the existence of a thing has been ascertained 
through some organ of knowledge, no doubt as to the 
possibility of its existence can arise ; and when no such 
doubt has arisen to be removed, it is unnecessary to shew 
further that the existence of the thing is possible. So 
far true, we reply. But the fact is that a certain kind of 
thing, 6. g. a cavity of evil omen sometimes observed in 
the sun, or the swallowing of palaces by a magician, is 
rejected as a sheer impossibility, on the testimony of 
some organ of knowledge found trustworthy and appli- 
cable without exception to all our experience, and this in 
spite of the fact that an object of this kind is present to 
our oonsciousness: — the reason being that, though search- 
ing with all care, we have failed to discover any condi- 
tions which operating as defects could have brought about 
this unusual consciousness. Similarly, a person might 

^ H— No. 11, Vol. XXIII.— Nuvember, 1901, 4»o^ 



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Id PikfiOAPADIKA. 



argue that false predication in regard to the Self shoald 
be rejected as an impossibib'ty, being an error of which no 
faulty condition ig perceived as the cause — since the Self 
(as described in the Vedanta system) is not an object of 
knowledge, is unrelated and without any conditions that 
could cause a false predication ; and also because^ it can 
annul a false predication in regard to anything else, as 
being itself the pure Principle of Intelligence. Hence, 
to meet such an argument, it is necessary to make a dis- 
tinct statement as to the possibility of false predication, 
apart from the proof of its existence. And this is it is 
that the Bhasya passage enounces. The sentence — What 
IS THIS FALSE PREDICATION ? — ^is enouuccd as a tantra, i.e- 
though uttered but once, it conveys more than one mean- 
ing, because the pronoun what may imply a mere question 
and also an objection ; and both senses are possible in the 
present context. The BhS^ya-writer first answers the 
question by stating the definition of false predication ; and 
then premising a doubt as to the possibility of its existenoe, 
he resolves that doubt. To aid the understanding of 
learners in regard to such a bubject^matter, teachers adopt 
this method — first, an imaginary opponent is introduced, 
and the teacher, supposing that the opponent and the 
pupil are urging an objection and asking a simple ques- 
tion, respectively, in the one sentence, replies thereto : 
then the opponent further expounds his position— in this 
way learned teachers introduce counter argumedits and 
refute them. Such is the invariable method of ehioidation 
adopted in composing passages of su<^ a nature.* 



♦ Cf. Teit: p. 17, 11. 2, 4. 



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FALSE fKEDICATIOlir DEFINED. 19 



I 



The prbsbntatjok of sombthikg previously known 

ELSKWHEBEi AS IF IT WEBB A BEMEMBBRBB THING — tbese 

words give a definition of adhyasa, which word occurs in 
the preceding question— What then is this adhtAsa? 
The vroxA elsewhere paratra, implies that a presentation 
of something else, paiasya, had taken place. And it 
is of this something that the words — ^as if rr had th» 
oharactbr of a bbmbmbbrbd thing — are predicated. The 
word smrti here means a thing remembered ; for even 
p - when not forming a name, the suffixes ghafi 
etc. can be applied to denote the syntactical 
object or the instrument, though not the agent, of the 
verbal root. This other something appears as if it were, 
while really it is not, a remembered thing ; for it is clearly 
known as an object now directly present to consciousness. 
The fiwjt of its having a character like that of a remem- 
bered thing is demonstrated by the words — a presenta- 
tion oftr SOMBTHINO PRBViousLY KNOWN. For in the ca-e of 
a man who has not previously known what silver is, silver 
is not presented to his consciousness when a mocher-of- 
pearl shell is in contact with his sense-organs. And 
hence the single definition of adhyasa will apply equally 
to the presentation and to the thing presented* — such 
being the force of the sentence conveying the definition. 
We explain how this is possible. The character of this 
presentation is like that of remembrance but it is not 
riemembrance; foritdoes notre-presentany individual object 
that had been presented previously through some organ 
of knowledge. But why is this presentation said to be 
like remembrance ? Because it is mediated by the prior 

♦ Cf. p. 10, n. 1. 



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20 PANCAPADIKA. 



activity of some organ of knowledge. The presentation 
of an object, which is not now in relation to some sense- 
organ, cannot arise except as being mediated by the prior 
activity of some organ directed towards that object 

But an opponent may urge : If, while the organ of 
vision is in relation with a certain object, a knowledge of 
some other object results, this knowledge is certainly 
remembrance, though its re-presentative character is for 
our consciousness obscured. The remembrance of that 
definite object is aroused as the result of some particular 
defect attaching to the sense-organs and to the other 
sources of knowledge. And, owing to this defect, the 
sense-organ is unable to make known the special object 
with which it really is in relation. Thus, owing to a 
defective sense-organ, we fail to distinguish, in such cases, 
between the presentative element (dar9ana) and the re- 
presentative (smara^a) which succeeds to it without any 
break ; and as a consequence results the error of regard- 
ing them as numerically one consciousness, although they 
are not so presented. Compare here the case of two trees 
which seen from a great distance appear to be one tree, 
though not presented as one. 

If, again, it be asked how a bitter taste arising in 
regard to a sweet object and due to some defect of the 
bile can be a re-presentation, in the case of an infant who 
has never bad experience of a bitter flavour : — The op- 
ponent replies that the bitter taste must have been ex- 
perienced by the child in some previous stage of existence. 
For if such previous experience be denied, no reason can 
be given why Si seventh kind of flavour* is not perceived 



FiavourB are of iix kinds only. 



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IT IS NO MERE TRICK OF MEMORY. 21 



by the infaat, siace equally with the bitter flavour this 
seventh kind has never been experienced, being in itself 
a sheer non-entity. Hence bile as a defect is the sole 
cause of the sweet flavour not being perceived and of the 
re^presentative nature of the bitter flavour being obscur- 
ed : for the existence of a particular cause has to be in- 
ferred from the nature of the results produced.* Sum- 
ming up the opponent's view :— in all cases where a 
sense-organ is in relation with a certain object^ and a 
consciousness of some other object arises, this conscious- 
ness must be explained as a re-presentation followed by 
the obscuring of its re-presentative nature. 

To all this we reply by asking the opponent to ex- 
plain what he tneans by ' our consciousness of remem- 
brance as re-presen tati ve '. ( which character is obscured, 
he says, in certain cases.). He certainly cannot mean 
that we are now conscious of remembrance as a some- 
thing bound up with (and thus defined by) a prior pre- 
sentation ; for, when a presentation has lapsed, it cannot 
reappear in consciousness to qualify t'le very thing which 
it had made known as object, in the first instance. Hence 
what remembrance makes known is the bare thing, and 
not the thing as bound up with the prior presentation of 
it. And this explains the fact that no presentation of a 
thing takes place when the latter is re-called to mind by 
means of its proper name. Otherwise it would follow 
that a word denoted not only a thing but also our cons- 
ciousness of that thing. Again, our remembrance of 
some pleasant spot, as when we say — that is the place to 
live in — brings up the place merely and not our knowledge 

' • CL Viv. p. 23. 11 4, 5. ~ 



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22 PAi^CAPADIKA, 



of the place. And, further, many remembrances do occur 
which do not bring up the prior presentations. 

Nor, again, does this * consciousness of remem- 
p . Q brance' present itself as a distinct and self- 
defined (svagata) variety of cognition in 
general. For nothing, whether it be cognition, which is 
always a matter of inference, or anything else, is known 
as a merely self-defined entity. Hence the statement 
(of the ^barabhasya I. 5.) :— " We infer that cognition 
as a form-less something exists." "By form-less is meant 
that the special form of cognition cannot be described, 
its specific property is not made clear. So, then, this 
consciousness of remembrance cannot be a self-determined 
entity (^smi I e., independent of the objects remem- 
bered). 

Nor can it be said that this ' consciousness of re- 
membrance * is due to a special kind of object i. e. to the 
object as remembered ; for the latter is neither more nor 
less than the object which was perceived, in the first in- 
stance, by some organ of sense. Nor can it be due to a 
special kind of result i. e. a change wrouj^ht in the Intel. 
ligential Principle when remembrance takes place) ; for 
this result is determined by the same objects that wrought 
a change in the Int^liigential Principle through the organs 
of knowledge. On the other hand, the knowledge expressed 
in — * I remember this or that object as one perceived else- 
where and at some other time' — is due to the connexion 
between words and the things signified ; just as £he 
judgment — '* this thing is a cow ' — is due to the connexion 
between the word cow and an individual thinor with 
definite bodily parts. Hence remembrance, as being 



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IT IS A DISTIKGT KIND OF PRESENTATION. 



28 



it:3elf the Fesult of a mental relic of the object previously 
made known by some organ of knowledge, is confined 
to making known the said object. Then again, whether 
firom the point of view of knowledge or of the thing 
known^ there exists no farther element in regard to 
which an obscuring might be supposed to occur as being 
due to the result of a defect in some organ of sense. 
Nor can it be argued that, in the case in question, re-pre- 
sentation takes place of that object, e.g. silver, which had 
been already presented through some organ of knowledge ; 
for, as we have said, that object is clearly known as 
something now present to consciousness. Hence we 
conclude that the knowledge which arises in regard to a 
certain object, while the sense-organ is in contact with 
some other object, is not remembrance, but is a distinct 
kind of presentation termed adhyasa or false knowledge. 

But the opponent may rejoin that, if such false 
knowledge is to be regarded as a distinct kind of present- 
ation, a contradiction will arise as between the statement 
that lalse silver is presented to consciousness and the 
statement that the real pearl-diell is the real objeot of I 
perception; and that such a contradiction eanjodt be 
agreeable to those who profess to Ibllow the deliverances 
of ooDScioasness^ And if, by way of ooitotei*-reply, it be 
said that the pearl-shell even Wheik presented as sueh is 
termed a tMl object in the sense only that it is some- 
thimg capable of being dealt with in that character i^hich 
the presentation of it determines; thdt the shell certain- 
ly a^pearfi^ at the present moment as if it could be treated 
as srieef, tioA hence there is no reason wby^ in thief sefMse, 
ii should not be teamed the real object of perception ; 



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24 pancapAdikJL 



then, urges the opponent, let the question be whether 
this presentation of the shell as silver is true or false. 
If this were a true presentation, no negation of it could 
occur as expressed in the judgment — this thing is not 
silver— as indeed no negation of the pearl-shell is found 
to occur. But as a fact of experience, silver is denied in 
such oases. Hence (says the opponent) this view is 
without logical support. 

Again, it may be argued that, owing to some defect 
operating as a cause, a material change is produced in 
the pearl-shell so that it takes the form of silver. But 
this view, the opponent rejects, as equally unsound ; his 
grounds are that in regard to the' substance curds, which 
is a material product of milk, we are not conscious of it 
as milk, in the first instance, nor do we subsequently say 
that the perceived thing is not curds ; whereas both these 
points hold in regard to the silver in question : he argues 
further that if the pearl-shell is materially changed into 
silver, just as the substance of milk changes into curds, 
then it should continue to exist in the form of silver even 
after the defect which brought about the change had 
ceased to operate. To meet this latter point, it may be 
urged that just as the heat of the sun is observed to be 
this cause both of the opening of the lotus flower and of 
its continuing open — the flower being seen to close when 
Patfe 9 *^^ heat is removed ; so the silver ceases to 
exist, when the defect which .brought it into 
existence has ceased to operate. But, rejoins the oppo- 
nent, this illustration is not apposite, for, as in the case 
of the lotus, so in the case of the silver you ought to b^ 
conscipus of it as haying returned to its earlier condition 



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CONTENTS. 



Page. 

1 witk hia own com- 
idb&kara Dvivedin, 
646 



>Ogldhara Qsstrin, 



661 



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f l(ra C!&8trini Pro- 



67T 



LMOBAHA OF 
Ni8ka]ritak& of 

j>ik& of JS&na* 
ptlrna, Ed. Vindhje9yaripradlda Dviyedin, Libra- 
rian, Sanskrit College, Benares 69S 

THE PANCAPlDIKl of PAOMAPiD^ Translated by 

Arthur Venis, ... 701 




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,. T H E PANDIT ||* 

^ A MONTH rj POBLICATIOH ((f ' 

)\ or TBI \\ 

<< BENARES COLLEGE, r\ 

jj DBVOTBDTO \( 

^JSANSKBIT LITBBATUEB. ((^ 

i) - » 

S\ NEW SERIES. ((K 

U So. 12.] December, 1901. [Vol. XXIII. )>r 

:) » 

7 BENARES: Ws 



) PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE PROPRIETORS, l)^ 

B, J. LAZARUS AND CO., AT THE MEDICAL HALL PRESS. VCS^ 




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THE VIEWS OF OPPONENTS STATED AND REFUTED. 25 



(viz. that of the shell); you ought not to deny, as you 
do in fact deny, that the silver is the pearl-shell. 

On the other hand, some one may argue that the 
false silver is produced simply out of that presentation 
which was effected through a defective organ of sense. 
This view also is rejected as by no means correct. The 
silver cannot be an object fbr that presentation out of 
which it is said to be produced ; because it does not e&ist 
in the same time as *that of the presentation, which as 
cause is necessarily prior to its product, the silver. Nor 
again, will it suffice to say that the silver is the object of 
a presentation other than that out of which it is said to 
have been produced ; for, if this be granted, logic would 
require that the silver be perceived also by an on-looker 
(and this is not the case). It may be rejoined that there 
is no reason why an on-looker should perceive the unreal 
silver ( — his sense-organs being in a healthy condition) ; 
whereas the silver is the object of a presentation that 
was effected through some defective conditions, fiut 
this rejoinder is of no avail For a second presentation, 
similar to the first in point of its defective origin, would 
complete its function in producing a second unreal silver; 
just as the first presentation is said to have produced 
unreal silver. Hence, as not being an object for either 
the first or the succeeding presentation, the silver would 
be in the same position as if it had not been produced at 
all i. e. would be unperceived. Thus, sums up the oppo- 
nent, by a logical process of exclusion the conclusion has 
been reached that, in regard to the knowledge of silver, 
a certain obscuring of its re-presentative character does 
indeed take place. 



^ H— No. 12, Vol. XXIII.— December, 1901. ""^^^ 



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26 paStgapadika* 



But the opponent starts again : You bold, says he, 
that an obscuring of remembrance is not possible : simi- 
larly, the followers of another system have defined re- 
membrance as a form of knowledge that does not appro- 
priate any objects other [than those which have been 
previously presented (YogasHtra 1. 11.): What explana* 
tion, then, is to be given of the fact that, while the 
sense-organ is in contact with the pearl-shell, the silver 
is presented to consciousness? 

We reply : Remembrancci which is the result of a 
mental relic, and which is not recognized as remembrance, 
is not something produced independently of the knowledge 
gained through a sense-organ ; but it is a single concrete 
form of knowledge produced by a sense-organ as aided 
by a mental relic. And how thi3 happens, we explain. 
A defect in the cause iaable not only to binder the power 
of the cause to produce its appropriate eS^qt but also to 
awaken some one definite mental relic; for what a defect 
in the cause can do must be inferred from the results 
actually observed in any given case. And, so in the pre- 
sent case, the necessary pre-Qondition or cause is but one, 
i. e. the presence of a mental relic and 9k defective sense- 
organ taken together. This single cause produces but one 
result, viz. a single concrete cognition. And unreal silver 
in the place of the pearl-shell is presented quite consist- 
ently as the object of this cognition, which was produced 
by a defective sense-organ aided by a definite mental 
relic. Hence by false knowledge, mitbyl^&ana, is meant 
knowledge whose object is unreal. Falsity cannot be- 
long to knowledge in itself; for there is no means of 
proving knowledge to be false. (Ct p. 39.) 



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HATA produces THB XnritBAL SILVER WHICH WB PBRCBIVB. 27 

But here the opponent may object that the cause of 
the cogDition in^question consists of two*specifically dis- 
tinct factors (as above explained), and it cannot therefore 
produce a single concrete cognition. Our view, however, 
is faultless. It is commonly observed, for example, in 
the case of an inference, that two distinct factors, viz., 
perception of the logical reason (lioga e. g. smoke) and 
the mental relic (of the observed connexion between 
smoke and fire) combine to produce an inferential know- 
ledge of the thing to be proved (liogin e. g. fire). 
In a similar manner is produced the recognition of the 
identity of an object. In both cases, from a sense-organ 
and a mental relic conjoined is produced but the one con- 
crete presentation, which carries remembrance within 
itself and which is termed pram&giaj&ana i. e. cognition 
by means of an instrument of knowledge. Ai^^ since 
no such cognition takes place if the mental relic has 
not been awakened, the latter is held to be a cause. 
Hence it must be said that the perception of the logical 
reason, e. g. smoke, awakens the mental relic of the rela- 
tion observed between smoke and fire, and, then, aided 
by this mental relic it produces an inferential knowledge 
of the thing to be proved e. g. the unperceived fire. 
And similar ' reasoning applies to the case of recogni- 
tion of the identity of an object. Nor, on the other 
hand, can the opponent adduce any proof of 
^* * his view that, in such cases, there are two 
distinct cognitions (produced successively by two separate 
and independent causes). Against his view may be cited 
the instance of the single concrete perception of a va- 
ricmsly coloured object., where the causes of this percep- 



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US 



PAKCAPADIKA. 



tion, viz. the various colours and so forth, are speciBcally 
different. But there is a difference to be noted, and it 
is this:-^inferentialjknowIedgey recognition of identity 
and the perception of a spotted object are effected by 
untainted causes and are, therefore, true presentations ; 
whereas the perception of the silver in question proceeds 
from a tainted cause and is therefore a false presentation. 
Nor does our view conflict with the direct testimony of 
consciousness, for what this testifies to is only the silver 
as it presents itself. And thus we term the silver a 
product of M&y& {mvjwi). On the other hand, if the 
silver were real, it would be perceived by all the on- 
lookers. For of course real silver, in order to be perceived, 
does not require the operation of a tainted cause. Other- 
wise it would follow that the knowledge of real silver 
could not be produced, if a tainted cause happened to be 
absent; just as colour is not perceived in the absence of 
light. But if the silver be held to be a product of May&, 
we can consistently hold that only those persons whose 
organs are tainted can see the silver; just as persons 
whose eyes are under some magic^charm can see the ma- 
gic object. Moreover, the denial (which results on the 
perception of the real shell and which is expressed in the 
words — Hhis thing is not silver' — implies that the silver 
is a prodvbCt of Maya. We explain how this is so. This 
very denial (W!) implies the unreality (mithyfttva) of the 
Idilver (nw) ^s a consequence of the statement as to the 
inexplicable character (nirupakhyata) of the silver ; for 
this denial means that — 'this thing is not silver; the 
silver appeared in an inexplicable manner, mithyft i. e. 
it was unreal.' And this [unreality would not bold 



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THE SILVER APPEARS : WE CANNOT EXPLAIN HOW. 29 



I 



goody if the silver could be explained as a positive entity 
(^91$) with some one definite predicate or another; 
just as the (real) pearl-shell which is ia contact with a 
sense-organ cannot be held to be unreal ; or as the cogni- 
tion, which makes known an unreal object, cannot itself 
be held to be unreal (i. e. the judgment — ' this thing is 
silver' — ^is something real, though the silver which it 
makes Icnown, is unreal). 

But here it may be objected that the definition of 
'&lse predication' (given in the Bhasya) is not wide 
enough, since it cannot apply to the conditions of sleep and 
of sorrow for an absent object. In these conditions there 
is no contact of sense-organs with the perceived objects ; 
so that there can be no presentation of something previ- 
ously known elsewhere (which the definition requires). 
Hence also 'false predication' is remembrance, it is not a 
presentation like remembrance, for over and above the 
mental relic there is no cause to produce it. We rep]y that 
it is not remembrance, because the thing known is known 
as directly present to consciousness. Nor can it be some- 
thing like remembrance, retorts the opponent, for it is 
nothing but a product of the mental relic that resulted 
from the prior activity of some organ directed towards ' 
the object known. We reply that, as already declared, 
the nature of remembrance is confined to making known 
an object that had been presented at some previous time 
by means of some sense-organ. Hence, in the ca^e of 
a dream, the inner organ gives rise to a knowledge of 
an unreal object : the inner organ at this time is tainted 
by certain defects of the sleeping condition, and its 
activity corresponds to the character of those mental 



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30 PiiJCAPADIKA. 



traces which are now awakened by that (most general) 
cause of activity termed Adpsta or the unseen power of 
previous actions : Intelligence, self-presented, is the re- 
ality underlying that knowledge of an unreal object; in 
this Intelligence resides a certain power of Nescience ; 
and it is this Nescience that seems to change materially 
into the unreal object of that knowledge, i. e. into the 
unreal silver. But, argues the opponent ; if this is so, 
the presentation of dream-objects should be of a purely 
inward or subjective character. Well, we certainly do 
not deny this character. But, the opponent rejoins, in 
dreaming as in waking we perceive spatial limits ; and 
this is not possible of dream^bjects, if these b?long tea 
purely subjective consciousness. He continoea : if yon 
hold that space also is ot this subjective character, how 
is it that relation with such a space gives rise to a know- 
ledge of a limit between an inner consciousness and an 
object outside cimsciousness ? Here then is another 
weak point in your position. But we reply that this is 
not a weak point : For even in the waking condition, the 
immediacy that belongs to the perception of an external 
object is not something different in kind from that inner 
and immediate consciousness which is usually termed 
knowledge (of an object) gained through an organ 
( ummHIfJ ): Illumination, i. e. knowledge, is 
^^ of one kind only; Hence, even during the wak- 

ing condition, an external object is perceived only in so 
far as it becomes enveloped within our inner and immediate 
consciousness; in no other way is knowledge possible of a 
thing which in itself lacks the nature of iotelligenoe : 
And the case here is like that of the eartiien vessel 



MH 



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MAYA PROJECTS AN INSIDB AND OUTSIDE OF CONSCIOUSNESa S 1 



which being enveloped by darkness cannot come into 
view until it has been enveloped by the light of a 
lamp: Then as to the presentation of a limit i. e. 
an inside and an outside^ that is something wrought 
by M&ya even during our waking life; for all this 
manifold world has its sole basis of reality in the Intel- 
ligential Principle, and to this Principle, which is 
without parts, no such spatial limits can pertain : and it 
is as seemingly divided into parts by this manifold world 
that the Principle of Intelligence shines forth as if it 
were outside and inside. 

Or ( to meet another group of objections ) let it be 
granted that space and ether exist as two substances, 
which we know only through the mind ( i. e. by inference, 
and not by sense-perception ) and which ( as being of 
infinite extent themselves ) are the two realities of which 
in every case of false predication something else is pre- 
dicated : if this be granted, then the word elsewhere 
is consistently employed ( in the definition of false pre- 
dication.) 

Here the opponent asks how it is that ( in many 
Vedic passages ) Brahman is predicated of Name and 
other things ; and, when asked for the ground of his 
question, he explains that in a predication of this kind 
we have not to deal with a tainted organ of knowledge 
or with the presentation of an unreal object (both Veda 
as organ of knowledge and Brahman as object are real). 
True enough, we reply : this predication we hold to be 
a form qf mental (zctivity and not a form of knowledge ; 
becaqse it has its source in a Vedic injunction ( preacrib- 
ing that Brahman should be pondered as being this or 



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32 paStcapAdikA. 



I 



that thing ), and because as an activity this predication 
or pondering of Brahman may be performed, or not 
performed, by the individual man as he may desire : An 
unreal thing can be made known by a tainted organ ; but 
knowledge can be neither produced nor destroyed by the 
desire of a man, since it depends for its existence entirely 
on its cause sc. an organ of knowledge ; hence human 
desire cannot enter in to determine knowledge* 

Against this it may be argued that it is an observed 
fact that knowledge in the form of remembrance is 
produced by a straining of the mind and is checked by a 
checking of the mind. True enough, we reply : this 
straining and this checking of the mind ( which depend 
on a man's desire ) are directly concerned in bringing 
about remembrance or in checking it ; on the other hand, 
the man's desire, though directly concerned in urging or 
preventing the activity of the organ of knowledge, e. g. 
in opening or closing his eyes (as he may choose to look 
at the object or not ), is not directly concerned in pro- 
ducing knowledge ( i. e. the man can no longer choose to 
see or not to see when once the visual organ has started 
into activity ). Hence our regarding Brahman as this 
or that thing is simply a form of unreal predication, 
which has its origin in a Vedic injunction and is to be 
made with a view to obtaining a certain result ; just as a 
man is told to regard the wife of another as if she were 
his own mother in order to get rid of his sensual thoughts. 
Hence, in conclusion, a faultless definition of adhyftsa 
was given in the Bbasya, viz. thb presentation of some* 

TBINO PREVIOUSLY KNOWN ELSEWHERS| AS IP IT WERE A 
REMEMBERED THING. 



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OF SURE9VAHACHARYA. 25 



149 and 150. The nature of doer etc. is not inherent 
in the soul, because we know by direct perception what 
the nature of the soul is.^ The proofs for the existence 
of matter cannot be applied in the case of the Supreme 
and omniscient Self, in the same way as a firebrand can- 
not set fire to fire itself. 

151. The relation of seer and seen, which obtains 
with reference to the material world, can never be ap- 
plied to the thing which is the seer itself and whose 
nature is pure enjoyment.^ 

152. How can one thing (the self) be cognised by 
that method of knowledge by which we perceive the not- 
eelf, such as the enjoyed, the doer, etc., which are con- 
stituted by things entirely diflFerent (from the self) ? 

153. So, too, let not desire, hatred, etc., be deem- 
ed to be the properties of the self; for, they are known to 
be the properties of the mind (manas), from the passage, 
* Desire is wish (or volition).* 

154. The assumption that the soul {sva)^ or the 
supreme self (para)^ or both, is the cause of desire, 
hatred etc., leads to the conclusion that liberation is 
impossible.^ Hence a careful consideration shows that 
they are the effects of nescience alone. 

155. If the soul be the cause of desire etc., how 
can the knowing soul inflict injury on itself as on an 



^ The true nature of the sopl is i^sa or pure consciousness 
The opponent says that the idea of '1/ such as *I do' etc., shows 
by direct perception that the soul is also of the nature of doer and so 
on. Verse 150 is an answer to this. 

^ t . e. there can be no seer of the seer. 

^This is explained in the three following verses. Fnf is used 
for 9h€lifil9|, and fit for MiH I Wf. 



^ U—So. 12, Vol. XXill. — December, IS^Ol. ^h€, 

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26 THB SAMBANDHAVARTIKA 



enemy ? Hence it is not right that the soul is their 
cause. 

156. In the same way, if the supreme self (para) 
is their cause, then, since the evil is not (necessarily) 
cured, the reward (i. e. liberation), like the remedy for 
disease etc., will not be permanent (ekdntika).^ 

157. How can the liberated soul (drisi), which has 
neither a body (karana) nor composition {samhati), get 
out of the evil ? In the same way, if both be said to be 
the cause, there will be no permanent reward. 

158. Since the will of the Supreme Self is unres- 
trainable, there will be no certainty of liberation. But 
there is no such fallacy if we suppose their source to be 
nescience which is without a cause ; for, nescience is des- 
troyed (on liberation) through the instrumentality of the 
Supreme Self (pra^iddfia).^ 

159. The knowledge to be derived from the au- 
thority of Vedantic utterances is of the same nature as 
that which is admitted to be derived from proofs by 
which objects of sense etc. are perceived.' 

160. If anything else (than the non-dual Brahinan) 
be supposed (to be the object of knowledge), the Vedan- 
tas would lose all authority (as regards J?ra^man). There- 
fore no other object (of knowledge) should be assumed. 

161. Even then, does not the injunction of ritual* 

1 This is beofiuse the supreme self that causes desire etc., for the 
soul in boadfige may do the same after liberation. 

2 Anandagiri explains 1lf9\X as nmmmi WS^mimm vfvw 

HrrfW WTH^TOirrRD HJ WIPaNl ^HHTIVT 9fii9{ > Auandagiri. 
* •*. e, the JCarmakdnda, 



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7 



OP SURE9VARACHARYA. 



271 



lose its authority ? Hence, it would surely follow that 
the Vedantas, too, cease to be authoritative. 

162. It is not so, for, all pioofs continue to be 

proofs, only until the realisation of the Supreme Self 
since all proofs merge therein. 

163. After thai, no proofs will remain, since they 
are obliterated by the mere unity of Self, in the same 
way as the injunction of hawk-sacrifice etc. is rendered 
nugatory by the injunction of non-killing. 

164. Hence, rituil is ordained only for the person 
who has nescience, and not for the Brahmana who has 
uprooted e\ery spring of action. 

165. Therefore, from the reasoning heretofore ad- 
vanced, it follows that the duty (adhikSra) of the dis- 
criminating individual is to renounce all rites, but not, 
in the least, to perform rites. 

166. As long as we speak of a doer, the stainless 
soul (vcistu) cannot be realised ; and, if the pure soul is 
realised, all talk of a doer must likewise cease. 

167. Like light and darkness, the two ideas of doer 
and non-doer, being opposed to each other, cannot exist 
in the same thing and at the same time. 

168. It cannot be said that, like standing and walk- 
ing, the one follows the other in succession and that they 
are therefore not inconsistent, because, the knowledge of 
Self has for its object the Supreme Soul.^ 

169. Fire that is felt to be hot cannot, either by 
degrees or suddenly, grow cold of its own accord, but 
may do so if acted upon by some agent.^ 

^ Suresvara admits the transition, from doer to uou-doer, but denies 
the contrary. Knowledge of Self leads to Brahman and not to karman. 
^But the Self cannof be made to change its nature. 



<»V^ 



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28 THE SAMBANDHAVARTIKA 

170. If you say that there is no inconsistency be- 
cause the same object (Self) may appear differentiated 
or undifferentiated, it is not logical, since your statement 
is in itself contradictory. 

171. The many cannot logically be one, nor the 
one, many ; for, knowledge is only of what is real. If it 
be otherwise, it will be false knowledge. 

172. How it is contradictory, will be explained 
later on The only object of knowledge (meya) is the 
unity of Self, since that alone remains unknown. 

173. Things that differ from each other are known 
by reasoning based on absence^ (abhdvena pramdnena). 
Hence your statement is contradictory. 

174. Whether duality (samsriti) be supposed to be 
different from or identical with Brahman, it would fol- 
low that Brahman is not-Brahmant or, in the same 
way, that knowledge is fruitless and Brahman is divisible. 

175. It is a fatal fallacy if you say that Brahman 
is possessed of nescience ; and, if it is not possessed of 
nescience, it follows that knowledge is fruitless.^ 

176. It cannot be ignorantly contended thai, Brah- 
man has nescience ; for. Brahman^ as actually seen, 
negatiTes all idea of nescience. 

177. Since nescience is the result of experience, 
like the experience *^ I sua Brahman,'' ^ therefore, even 

^i,e. one can be perceived only in the absence of another, 
since, being different, both cannot be ainiultaueouslj perceived. 

2 Since the jita too, which is identical with Brahman, would 
likewise be free from nescience. This is to explain the latter part 
of the preceding verse. 

^ ^Hra^ftiaiwRftwtK wmwr^ f^fwrgwrfiii^ni « 

Anandagiri. 






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OF SUHESVARACHARYA. 29 



Descionce, when destroyed by knowledge derived from 
Scripture (mdna), becomes of the nature of Self. 

178. As long as Brahman is not known, it cannot 
. be learnt by perc ption (bod^t) that it has nescience. 

And, if it is accurately known, false knowledge (mrishd- 
dhlh) will not remain unaffected (or undestroyed). 

179. He who has nescience is not capable of dis- 
cerning that nescience himself. Hence, considering the 
true nature of things, nescience is not perceivvrd as such. 

180. It is not proper that knowledge should exteud 
to things which have no actual existence {vastunah anya- 
tra) ; and nescience is not a thing that really exists, 
since it cannot stand the test of (accurate) knowledge 
{mdna). 

181. That nescience is no more than nescience (or 
false), is established by this one criterion alone, namely, 
that it cannot stand the test of (true) knowledge. 

182. In your argument, numerous assumptions will 
have to be made, all of them being opposed to correct 
knowledge. But in my argument, only nescience has to 
be assumed, and that, too, is dependent on actual experi- 
ence. 

183. On the mere springing-up of accurate know- 
ledge derived from passages like ' That thou art,' etc., 
nescience and its effects will cease to have existed, to 
exist, or to come into existence. 

184. Hence it is impossible to see, by any method 
of knowledge,^ that there is nescience in him {Brahman), 
or what is the nature of such nescience, or whence it is ; 
for it is exclusively the result of experience. 



^ i. e. V701?, MigiTR, ^W. 



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30 THE SAMBANDHAVARTIKA 



185. 'Let things like deities, materials, doer, etc., 
be Dot non-dual (or dual), since it is clearly seen to be so 
everywhere and since, also, their non-duality is not com- 
monly known.' ^ • 

186. This is not sound, for, their is no proof known 
as ' being known everywhere' (sarooUoka), among the 
(established) methods of proof, upon the strength of 
which you argue in this manner. 

187. Moreover where a belief exists in the mind 
of everyone that a certain fact is directly perceived,^ 
such a belief is declared to be illusive.' 

188. Just as objects near and within our sight are 
more longed for than things out of sight, so is the case 
with knowledge, derived from Scripture, which com- 
pletely transcends eveiything, in its application to the 
Supreme Self.* 

189. Direct perception, etc., exist only as depen- 
dent on self-experience. And, since such experience is 
its own proof, where is the necessity for proving the 
existence of Self ? 

190. And, since a thing is directly perceived not 
by itself but only on the strength of self-experience, the 
unity of Self spoken of in the Vedantas must be under- 
stood to be knowable by the Self alone. 

^This is to refute the latter portion of veroe 183, where 
^iiesoieiice and ita effeott etc' impltea that duality is an illusion and 
•nlj temporary. 

^i, e. if «Q#T« be included in «?QV. 

8 e. g. iu the passage mvm^YQ fmrc: etc. 

^Tbat ia, though Scripture intends only Brahman^ yet is Brah- 
man transoends all, nescience makes it apply to such things only as 
are actually seen. I 



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i 



OF sure^varAchArya. 31 



191 and 192. With reference to your argument 
that, because the Vedas and Smritis are based on rites, 
therefore tliere is no means of liberation apart from rites, 
who ever maintained that rites do not also form a means 
of liberation? Have you not heard the Vedic passage, 
*tam etam etc./ and the Smriti, ' samskdrdh etc.'^ 

193. Though the knowledge of the unity of Self 
is not directly inculcattd by Sruti and Smriti, yet it is 
not foreign to these two, for, these two alone teach us 
about the Self. 

194. Your argument^ that the Vedas do not teach 
us the true nature of the Self (vastu)'has already been 
exploded^ and will also be refuted later on. 

195. Your contention,* too, that, in the absence of 
injunction, the passage (about knowledge of Brahman) 
ceases to have any force, will also be refuted with skill 
later on by arguments both clear and logical. 

196. You have also said : ** By the sole reason of 
their declaring the real nature of Self, we cannot con- 
clude that the Vedantas aim at liberation (pumartha), 
for they are seen to abound in narratives^ {dkhydna), 

197. " From the mere declaration that there was a 
king called Rama, it cannot be gathered in any case, in 
the absence of an injunctory passage,^ that liberation is 
the object. 

^ ^Si^^H^wnFtUfri ws \x\vm Bwnu* Higw wHb b 

^See verse 33. 

8 By verse 123. 

^See veises 34 and 35. 

^Siich as stories of fights between gods and demons. And 
everj such narrative does not preach liberation. 

^Liberation, as forming one of the fnnr piiruihdrthdi, must de- 
pend on an injunction^ au3 onnnot be impHpift R^rrt it m ere assertion. 




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32 THE SAMBANDHAVAHTiKA 



198. "Also, knowledge is seen thvoug^hout to be 
subservient to the other (viz. ritual), and, having gather- 
ed knowledge from the passage enjoining rites, the wise 
man perform^ sacrifice." 

199. This has already^ been, and will hereafter 
be, met by the argument that the fruit of knowledge is 
an object of direct perception. 

200. ' But the declaration in Scripture that the 
fruit (of knowledge) is the destruction of misery etc., 
is merely a statement in praise of the soul (which is the 
doer).2 Hence your argument^ is purely a product of 
your fancy/ 

201 and 202. This is my answer; leaving aside the 
fruit which is intended by the context and implied by the 
passage, why do you, like an ignorant person, extract 
from it the secondary meaning of | raise, which is neither 
supported by Scripture nor intended by the context? 

203. Nor is there any unity of object {ekavishaya- 
tva) between direct perception and Scripture ; for, Scrip- 
tuie itself has, in various places, by passages referring 
to the non-attachment of the soul, pointed out the dis- 
tinction by alluding to the passing through the states of 
dream etc.* 

ISee verse 129. 

2 The opponent says that passages like B ^fa ii I ^WTfwfaif refer to 
the flSl$Thl«7fT?«T^, and are uo authority as to the efficacy uf jnana, 

^Thnt the fruit of knowledge is the object of direct perception. 

^ The opponent argues thar. the direct perception snoh as ' I am 
miserable' etc., is opposed to the Vedic declaration that misery ceases. 
The answer is that the two refer to two distinct objects, misery beiug 
connected with the three states of waking, dream and sleep, with 
which the pralyag&tman is entirely nnconnected and of which it is a 
mere onlooker tl^^xm there is uo faTT>jl, as ihr-^ isjio g^famiw . 



>US 



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^^^^^^^M^^^^^^V^/^/X'VN^N^^ 



NYAYASIDDHANJANAM 

BY • 
VENKATANATHA DE^IKA. 

EDITKD BV 

S. S. A. S. T. S. P. S. M. M. RAMA MIS'RA SA'STRF, 

PROFESSOR, SANSKRIT COLLEGE, BENARES. 




t 1— No. 12. Vol. XXIII.— December, 1901. ^C^ 

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tirwwstTfaqi wrqm ^na^a i « 

^vj<i|jf<ir«i4Uioi; I a«^ I fi 

w^nnf I %^ I a 

fnKimifar«i%mui| i aw i as 

ihiir^4U4iii( I a«tf I s 



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Vff^ff iv^HVrf^iMfBiiimsfsvra^vdii: •• •• •• s\j 

mWI<ni%T mwij^Tin^fiyfiffftihft 9zhi: • • • • • • • • jj^ 

diji: Vfidr fii^: ^Hiwidiaw i ii ^' mifnikiiiriwi i rw - 

\ ximim r^Wiwilfir^iiwqa o *> •• %nm) 

*«S[F««ftlST ftfii*»i: liy 

miAd^ra^i €kj 

«ifci9i sdrf^m johim mjn) 

mn ^wcTwr ♦♦ cjy 

^^umiBW i a g ftwftiwT •♦ • •• ^u) 

irtfaf ■^iiiwiifn: I •••••••• •• •• •• •• ^ 

f aHiftw I gT, <tg\im€rgydrgicffmT H») 

jgmrnaimm ^Viwr erim i • • • • •" mj 

faggrm <^nd^<wS8^ farffwif i m) 
WKiif Ti iasmgt -B^Srtf^y^tg^s, 9iviii44)uiiiriivi««ii«|HiO feifiKdis- 

vtnmni^ tttMHtluwiii^eiid: •• ' w; 

ms^Hlsdfvmm f««Mi)iiMiii^md; ^^ 

vimz^^ hFwi I •• •• •• •• •• iiy 



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THE PANCAPADTK& of PADMAPADA, Translated by 

Arthur YeDis. 709 



LAUKI^ANYJLYASAMGRAHA, Ed. Gaog&dhara gftstrin, 
\\ Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares 717 

7 NYiYASCTRAVIVARAISlAM, Ed. Surendralila Gosvimin, 

Professor, Sanskrit College, Benares ... 733 

THE SAMBANDHAYlaTIKA of SURESYARACHIRYA 
Translated by S. Yenkataramanani B. A., B. L., Badsha 
Lodge, IViplicane, Madras. 749 

tHE TlRKIKARAKSA and SIRASAMGRAHA of 
YARADARAJA, with the glosses NiskA^taki of 
Mallin&tha Kolftoala and Laghudlpiki ' oi JSftua- 
pUngA, Ed. Yindbye^Tariprasida Dvivedin, Libra- 
rian, Sanskrit College, Benares 757 

MYlYASIDDHlNJANAM, Ed. R&ma Mi^ra {Gastrin, Pro- 
fessor, Sanskrit College, Benares, 2*iiU pagt dsc. ... 765 





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