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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



PANJAB CASTES. 



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Sm-vev of Luha Oi'Fu-ns, C;d,nLtta,131fi. 



SIR DENZIL CHAE.LES JELF rBBETSCm K.C. S.I. 



PANJAB CASTES, 



Being a reprint of the chapter on 
" The Races, Castes and Tribes of 
the People " in the Report on the 
Census of the Panjab published 
in 1883 by the late Sir Denzil 
Ibbetson, K.CSJ, 




Lnhore : 

Peintbd by the Supbeintendent, Govbenment Peintins, Punjab, 

1916. 

Price Rs. 4-0-0 or 6s. 



P6 

P)9TlZ 

CONTENTS. 

Page, 
introductory Note ... ... ... ... i 

The original preface to the Census Keport of 1881 ... ... Hi 

The Chapter in the Census Report of 1881 on ' The RaceSj Castes 
and Tribes of the Pan jab ' — 

Parti. — Caste in the Panjab ... ... ... 1 

Part II. — The Biloch, Pathan and allied Races ... ... 38 

Part III. — The Jat, Rajput and allied Castes ... ... 97 

Part IV. — The Minor Landowning- and Agricultural Castes ... 164- 

Part V. — ReligiouS; Professional, Mercantile and Miscellaneous 

Castes ... ... ... ... 214 

Part VI. — Vagrant, Menial and Artisan Castes ... ... 266 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

The Census of the Panjab Province was carried out in 1881 by Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Denzil) Ibbetson of the Indian Civil Service and his Report 
on the Census was published in 1883. The Report has always been recognised 
as one of the most remarkaljle official publications in India, and a work of 
the greatest value both from the administrative and from the literary and 
scientific point of view. It at once attracted widesj)read attention^ more 
especially in view of the copious information which it provided regarding the 
people oF the Province, and a separate volume was issued in 1883, under the 
title of *' Panjab Ethnography " which contained a reprint of those portions 
of the Report which dealt with the Religions, the Languages, and the Races, 
Castes and Tribes of the people. The number of copies published, however, 
both of the Report and of the Ethnography, was comparatively small and they 
are now difficult to procure outside Indian official circles. There are at the same 
time indications of a continuing demand for the Report, and more especially for 
the ethnological portion of it, and to meet this demand the Punjab Government 
has determined to undertake the issue of the present volume. 

This volume reproduces a portion only, — but that is the most important 
portion, — of the original Report, namely the chapter on the Races, Castes and 
Tribes of the Panjab. The chapters on Religion and Language, which formed 
part of the "Ethnography " published in 1883, though valuable and interest- 
ing, have necessarily lost something of their original importance owing to the 
progress made in scientific enquiry during the last thirty years, but the chapter 
on the Races, Castes and Tribes still contains much valuable information that 
cannot be obtained elsewhere, and this chapter must always command attention 
and respect for its vigorous and comprehensive treatment of the subject. The 
figures are, of course, out of date and the territorial boundaries of the Province 
and districts with which the chapter deals are now considerably altered. There 
are also, no doubt, points on which later investigation suggests modification of 
the facts and opinions originally given, but it has been thought best to repro- 
duce the chapter as it stands, without any attempt to annotate it or bring it up 
to date. It is believed that in this way the wishes of most readers will best be 
met, and it is felt that by this course the volume will best fulfil the further 
object which the Government of the Panjab has in view, namely, the per- 
petuation of the memory of the original writer. 

There are so many still alive to whom Sir Denzil Ibbetson was personally 
known that anything like a complete description of his career in this introduc- 
tion is unnecessary, but it may not be out of place to mention a few of its 



ii INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

outstanding features. He was born on August 30th; 1847, and after being 
educated at St. Peter's College, Adelaide, and St. John's College, Cambridge, 
entered the Indian Civil Sor\ace in 1870. He was early in his service selected 
for the special posts of Settlement Officer of the Karnal District and Superin- 
tendent of Census Operations in the Panjab. He subsequently filled from time 
to time the appointments of Director of Public Instruction and Financial Com- 
missioner in the Panjab, Secretary to the Government of India in the Revenue 
and Agricultural Department, Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces, and 
Member of the Viceroy's Council. In 1907 he became Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Panjab, but held that important post for all too short a time, succumbing 
to a fatal malady on the 21st of February 1908. 

No one to whom Sir Denzil Ibbetson was known can ever forg-et his 
personality : his tall and commanding presence, his vivacious and original 
conversation, his constant sense of humour, his quick indignation and his equally 
quick sympathy. For the thoroughness of his erudition in many directions he 
was unsur^jassed in India and as an administi^tor there are not a few who hold 
him to have been the greatest Indian Civil Servant of oui* time. His character 
and career are admirably summed up in an inscription placed by the Viceroy 
on whose Council he served on the walls of the Simla Church which runs as 
follows : — 

Untiring in Administration, 

Fearless in doing right, 

a scholar and a man of affairs, 

Loyal in co-operation, devoted in friendship. 

He gave to India his love 

and his life. 



m 



ORIGINAL PREFACE 

TO THE REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF 1881. 

In writing the accompanying report on the Panjab Census of 1881, I 
have steadily kept two main objects before me. FirHtly^ I have attempted to 
produce a work which shall be useful to District officers as a handbook of 
reference on all the subjects dealt with in Ihe Census Schedules, and which 
shall stand with regard to such subjects in a position somewhat similar 
to that occupied by the modern Settlement Report in respect of revenue 
matters. Secondly, I have endeavoured to record in some detail the experience 
gained at this Census, for guidance on the occasion of future enumerations. 
My pursuance of each of these objects has helped to swell the size of the 
report. 

It would have been easy to write a short notice of some of the more 
obvious conclusions to be drawn from the Census totals of the Province as a 
whole ; and such a notice would doubtless have technically sufficed as a report 
to Government upon the operations which I had superintended. But it would 
have been of small use for future reference, and would have served no purpose 
beyond that of furnishing the text for a Government resolution. A Census 
report is not meant merely for the information of the Secretariat; it is 
intended to be constantly referred to in every office of the Pro\nnce. The 
mere results would ill serve this end in the absence of an interpreter. It is of 
but small advantage to cast voluminous tables of naked figures at the heads of 
District officers, without at the same time explaining what they represent, 
which can be done by no one but him who compiled them, and drawing from 
them the more important conclusions to which they lead, which few will draw 
but he whose special business it is to do so.^ 

In the ordinary routine of district work, information is constantly needed 
regarding some feature or other of the society which we govern. That in- 
formation often exists in print ; but in India libraries are few and books scarce ; 
while where the latter are available, they are often too detailed or too learned 
for the practical purposes of the District officer. It has been my endeavour to 
furnish such a sketch of the salient features of native society in the Panjab 
as will often supply the immediate need, and at the same time to indicate 
where, if anywhere, further details may be found. A Census report is not 



» Much of the length of the report is due to tlic exceptionally large number of the administrative 
unite for which the separate fig\ire8 had to he discusfled. (See section 929, page 4'6S.) The Native 
States took great pains with the Census ; and, apart from the intrinsic value of the results, it would 
Ijftve been ungracious to discuss their figxires less fully than our own, 



iv ORIGINAL PREFACE. 

light reading ; and men take it up, not to read it tlirongh, Init to obtain from 
it information on some definite point. It is therefore more important that it 
should l)e complete than that it sliould be brief; and so long as its ai-range- 
ment directs the student at once to the place where he \\\\\ find wliat he wants, 
without compelling him to wade through irrelevant matter, the fuller the 
information which he there finds on the sub-ject, the more valua})le will the 
report be to him. I have therefore omitted nothing relevant that seemed to me 
to be interesting or useful, simply because it occupied space. 

The difficulty of an Indian Census springs mainly from two sources ; the 
infinite diversity of the material to be dealt with, and our own infinite ignor- 
ance of that material. The present Census was, as regai'ds the Panjab and in 
respect of its minuteness and accuracy of detail, practically a first experiment ; 
and one of its most valuable results has been to show us where our chief 
difficulties lie, and how and why we have on this occasion frequently failed to 
overcome them. If the present Census had been one for all time, nothing more 
would have been needed than such a brief account of the operations as would 
have explained to the student of the results how those results had been 
obtained. If, on the other hand, a Census were of annual recurrence, an 
'^ office," with its permanent staff and traditions, would have taken the place of 
the record of the experience which I have attempted to frame. But the 
operations will be repeated after intervals of ten years. It has therefore been 
my endeavour to record the experience now gained in such detail as may enable 
us to avoid past errors on a future occasion, to point out every defect that 
the test of actual practice disclosed in the scheme, and to put forth every 
suggestion that my experience led me to think could be of use to my successor 
in 1891. 

Till now nothing of the sort has been attempted in the Panjab. The 
meagre report on the Census of 1868 afFords no record of the experience of the 
past or suggestions for guidance in the future; while though Settlement 
reports and similar publications contain a vast mass of invaluable information 
regarding the people, it is scattered and fragmentary, and needed to be 
collected, compared, and consolidated. A Census recurs only after considerable 
intervals, and it will not be necessary on each subsequent occasion to rcM'rite 
the whole of the present repoi-t. Much will be added ; more will be corrected ; 
the new figures will be examined and compared with the present ones ; the old 
conclusions will be modified, and new ones drawn. But the main groundwork 
of the report will stand unaltered. 

I have not absolutely confined myself in the following pages to facts and 
figures which will be immediately useful for the actual purposes of administra- 
tion. I have not hesitated to enter occasionally into general discussions 



ORIGINAL PREFACE. v 

on certain sul)3ects, fnich as roligion and caste, and to express my own views on 
the matter. T venture to think tliat these digressions are not the least interest- 
ing portions of tlie vohime ; and in a report which must of necessity consist 
for the most part of a dry discussion of figures, any passage of general interest 
is welcome, if only as a relief. But my chief object in entering upon these 
discussions has been, to draw the attention of ray readers to the extraordinary 
interest of the material which lies in such aljundance ready to the hand of all 
Indian officials, :ind which would, if collected and recorded, be of such immense 
value to students of sociology. Our ignorance of the customs and beliefs 
of the people among whom we dwell is surely in some respects a reproach 
to us ; for not only does that ignorance deprive European science of material 
which it greatly needs, but it also involves a distinct loss of administrative 
power to ourselves. And if aught that I have written in this report should 
incline any from among my readers to a study of the social and religious 
phaenomena by which they are surrounded, I at any rate shall be amply repaid 
for my labour. 

JNIoreover, Indian official literature is gradually gaining for itself students 
from beyond the limits of India, and European scholars are turning to it for 
the facts of which they find themselves in need. In his Village Communities 
{pages 34-5) Sir Henry Maine writes of Indian Settlement reports : " They 
"constitute a whole literature of very great extent and varietv, and of the 
" utmost value and instructiveness. I am afraid I must add that the Eno-lish 
"reader, whose attention is not called to it by official duty, not unusually finds 
" it very unattractive or even repulsive. But the reason I believe to be, that 
" the elementary knowledge which is the key to it has for the most part never 
" been reduced to writing at all." I see no reason why an Indian report 
should of necessity be repulsive or unintelligilile ; and I have ventured, 
here and there, to add at the expense of brevity matter which would perhaps 
be superfluous if addressed exclusively to Indian oflScials. 

The more we learn of the people and their ways, the more profoundly 
must we become impressed with the vastness of the field and with the immense 
diversity which it presents. Not only is our knowledge of the facts as nothing 
compared with our ignorance ; but the facts themselves vary so greatly from 
one pnrt of the Panjab to another, that it is almost im2)0ssible to make any 
general statement whatever concerning them which shall be true for the whole 
Province. I have not always stopped to say so ; and I have not unfrequently 
made assertions, as it were ex cathedra infallihili. But I would always be 
understood to mean, in writing of the people, that while I have taken pains to 
obtain the l»est and most trustworthy information available, I only present 
it for what it is worth, and that it will almost certainly be inapplicable 
to some parts at least of the Panjab. Yet I do not think that the uncertain 



VI 



ORIGINAL PREFACE. 



value which attaches to the information that I have recorded renders that in- 
foiTiiation less worthy of record. lu matters such as are discussed in this 
report^ the next 1)est thing' to having them put rightly is to have them put 
wrongly, if only the wrongness he an intelligent wrongness ; for so we stimu- 
late inquiry and provoke criticism ; and it is only by patient and widespread 
inquiry and incessant and minute criticism, that we can hope to arrive on these 
sul)jects at accurate information and sound generalisations. Nothing would be 
so welcome to me as to find the officers of the Province setting to work to 
correct and supplement the information given in my report ; for the more 
holes they will pick and the more pul>licly they will pick them, the faster shall 
we extend and improve our knowledge of the matters discussed.^ 

I need not apologise for the many and palpable defects of the report, so 
far as they are due to the haste with which all official publications have to be 
prepared. Pages which have been written against time in the first instance, which 
have been sent to press often without even the most cursory revision, and which, 
when once in type, the writer has not felt at lil)erty to improve save by the most 
trifling corrections, must not be judged by any literary standard. But I must, 
in justice to myself, be allowed to make one explanation which will account for 
much hurried and slovenly work that is only too apparent in the following 
pages. On the loth of January 1883, I received orders from the Paujab 
Government to the effect that the report must be finished without fail by the 
end of the following February. When these orders reached me, I had com- 
pleted only Chapters I, II, and IV, and the first two Parts of Chapter III ; 
while Part II of Chapter VI which deals with Pathans and Biloches, and the 
greater portion of Chapters XI and XII and of the first two Parts of Chapter 
XIII, were written in the rough, though exceedingly incomplete. Thus I had 
six weeks allowed me within which to fill in the lacun<t 'n these last sections, 
to discuss increase and decrease of population, language, caste with the excep- 
tion of Pathans and Biloches, age, sex, and civil condition, occupations, educa- 
tion, and infirmities, and to summarise the results of our Census experience. 
The portion of the report which was wholly written within these six weeks 
compi-ises some 260 pages of print. It is hardly to be wondered that my 
treatment of these su})jeets is hasty and imperfect. My own feeling on looking 
back, is one of suqirise that I accomplished the task after any fashion whatever. 
But on the 26th of Feljruary the MS. of my report was completely ready for 
.press, and has not been touched since then. The press has been kept fully 
supplied witli copy from the end of Octol)er 1882 ; and the subsequent delay is 
wdiolly due to the difficulty experienced in getting the report printed and 
published . 



> 1 would suggest the pages of Panjdh Notes and Queries, a small periodical juat started 
under the Editorship of Captain Temple of Ambdla. as a convenient medium for discussion. 



ORIGINAL PREFACE. vii 

1 need hardly say how largely I am indebted to others for both facts and 
ideas. The greater part of the information contained in the report has been 
either taken from scattered publications and from district Settlement or Census 
reports, or furnished me by correspondents. I owe much to Mr. Wilson's 
Code of Tribal Custom in Sirsa and to Mr. Barkley's notes on the Jalandhar 
district, both of which the writers placed in my hands in MS., and to Mr. 
Tupper's work on Panjab Customary Law ; while every chapter of the report 
attests my obligations to Mr. Alex. Anderson for the prompt and complete 
manner in which he answered my numerous inquiries about the peculiar and 
interesting tract of which he was in charge. In one respect I was singularly 
ill-fitted for the task entrusted to me ; for practically speaking my whole 
Indian service had been confined to a single district (Karnal), which does not 
even lie in the Panjab pnoper. Thus I have been throughout in the greatest 
danger of wi-ongly extending to the Province, as a whole, knowledge acquired 
in a small and very special poi-tion of it. I can hardly hope that I have 
altogether escaped this pitfall ; but that I have not fallen into it more fre- 
quently, is wholly due to the invalual^le assistance rendered me by Messrs. 
Alex. Anderson, Coldstream, Douie, O'Brien, Steedman, Thomson, and Wilson. 
These gentlemen have carefully read the proofs of the report as they issued 
from the press ; and their criticisms have enabled me to correct many faults 
and errors, and to add much that is valuable. I cannot express too strongly 
my obligation to them for undertaking and carrying through in their hardly- 
earned leisure so tedious and uninteresting a task. My warmest thanks are 
also due to Messrs. Cunningham, Douie, and Merk for valuable help un- 
sparingly given on all points relating to the frontier tribes ; to Major Plowden 
for his careful examination of the sections on the Pathans and their language ; 
to Mr. Christie for his copious and suggestive annotation of my discussion of 
the vagrant and criminal classes ; to Mr. Tupper for much valuable help given 
in the earlier stages of the operations ; and to Dr. Dickson and the Rev. Mr. 
Wherry for the personal attention they most kindly bestowed on the Census 
printing, without which I should scarcely have succeeded in getting the work 
done. But these are only a few among the many who have helped me. I 
applied for assistance to many ofiicers of many Departments, and to none in 
vain ; and it is to the help thus received by me, that whatever value my rej)ort 
may be found to possess is mainly due. 

My warmest acknowledgments are due to Mr. W. C. Plowden, Commis- 
sioner of Census, for his ever ready help and counsel, for the patient consider- 
ation with which he listened to my difficulties and suggestions, and for the 
kind anxiety which he evinced from first to last to do anything and everything 
that might make matters easier for me, so far as the unity of the Imj)erial 
scheme permitted. 



viii ORIGINAL PREFACE. 

Finally, I would express ray grateful sense of the oourtesy and consider- 
ation which I experienced at the hands of District officers throughout the oper- 
ations. My position as Superintendent of the Census was one of some delicacy ; 
for it obliged me to inspect, criticise,, and report on the work of officers much 
senior to myself. That my relations with those officers were throughout of the 
most pleasant and cordial nature, is due to a good feeling on their part for 
which I am indebted to them. 

Simla : ^ 

I- DENZIL IBBETSON. 

Vie BOth AuguU 1883. J 



PANJAB CASTES. 

(Being a eeprint of the cnAPTEn on < The Eaces, Castes and Tribes of 
THE People' in the Beport on the Panjab Census of 1881.) 



PART I.— CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 

IP. 172] c33. The popular conception of caste.-An old agnostic is said to have 

cammed up his philosophy m the following words :-- The only thing iVnow 
IS that I know nothm^^; and I am not quite sure that I know that " H^ 
words express very exactly my own feelings regarding caste in the Paniab. Mv 
experience is that it is almost impossible to make any statement whatever Ve^ 
garding any one of the castes we have to deal with, absolutely tmeasit may be 
as regards one part of the Province, which shall not presently be contrSed 
with equal truth as regards the same people in some other district. Yet f 
shall attempt to set forth briefly what seem to me the fundamental ideas upon 
which caste is based ; and in doing so I shall attempt partly to explain whyi^ 
18 that the instituion IS so extraordinarily unstable/ and its phLomena so 
diverse in different locahties What I propound in the following paragraphs 
IS simply my working hypothesis as it at present stands ; but I shall nft ston 
tTU? ^?,V ^^*^' *^«^g^fl?^ost every proposition made must be taken sub? 
ject to limitations, often sufficiently obvious, and not unfi-equently involved in 
some other proposition made in the very next paragraph. My views are of 
little weight so long as they are not illustrated and supported by instances dmwn 
from actually existing fact Such instances I have in great abundance, and th^y 
will be found in part in the detailed description of castes which follow this d2 
cussion. But I have leisure neither to record all my evidence, nor to marshal 
what I have recorded ; and I give my conception of caste with a crudeness of 
exposition which lack of time forbids me to modify, not because I think that 
it IS anything even distantly approaching to the whole truth, but because I 
^::^:,SZ'''^ ^^'^^'^^^^^^ ^^^ .eneraHy iWed theory of 

The popular and currently received theory of caste 1 take to consist of 
three mam articles : — 

(1) that caste is an institution of the Hindu religion, and wholly 

peculiar to that religion alone : '' 

(2) that it consists primarily of a fourfold classification of people in 

|eneral under the heads of Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and 



'Owingto the limitation of the time aUowed me to complete the renort th^ w}inl« nf +w<. 
chapter except Part II was written in less than three weeks. Tt would have ta£n me a« minv 
months to have digested and put into shape the whole of my material ^ 



PANJAB CASTES. 

(3) that caste is perpetaal and immutable, and has been transmitted 

from generation to generation throughout the ages of Hindu 

history and myth without the possibility of change. 

Now I should doubtless be exaggerating in the opposite dii-ection, but I 

think that I should still be far nearer to the truth if, in opposition to the 

popular conception thus defined, I were to say — 

(1) that caste is a social far more than a religious institution ; that it has 

no necessary connection whatever with the Hindu religion, fur- 
ther than that under that religion certain ideas and customs 
common to all primitive nations have been developed and per- 
petuated in an unusual degree ; and that conversion from 
Hinduism to Islam has not necessarily the slightest effect 
upon caste : 

(2) that there are Brahmans who are looked upon as outcasts by^ those 

who under the fourfold classification would be classed as Sudras ; 
that there is no such thing as a Vaisya now existing ; that it is 
very doubtful indeed whether there is such a thing as a 
Kshatrlya, and if there is, no two people are agreed as to where 
we shall look for him ; and that Sudra has no present significance 
save as a convenient term of abuse to apply to somebody else 
whom you consider lower than yourself; while the number of 
castes which can be classed under any one or under no one of the 
four heads, according as private opinion may vary, is almost in- 
numerable : 

(3) that nothing can be more variable and more difiicult to define than 

caste ; and that the fact that a generation is^ descended from 
ancestors of any given caste creates a presumption, and nothing 
more, that that generation also is of the same caste, a pre- 
sumption lialile to be defeated by an infinite variety of circum- 
stances. 
334. The hereditary nature oJ occupations. — Among all primitive 
peoples we find the race split up into a number of tribal communities held 
together by the tie of common descent, each tribe being self-contained and 
self-sufficing, and bound by strict rules of marriage and inheritance, the common 
object of which is to increase tlie strength and preserve the unity of the tribe. 
There is as yet no diversity of occupation. Among more advanced societies, 
where occupations have become dilferentiated, the tribes have almost altogether 
disappeared ; and we find in their place corporate communities or guilds held 
too-ether by the tie of common occupation rather than of common blood, each 
guild being self-contained and self-governed, and bound by strict rules, the 
common obiect of which is to strengthen the guild and to confine to it the 
secrets of the craft which it practises. Such were the trades-guilds of the 
middle ages as we first meet with them in Em-opean history. But all modem [P, 173] 
inquiry into their origin and earlier constitution tends to the conclusion— and 
modern authorities on the development of primitive institutions are rapidly 
accepting that conclusion — that the guild in its first form was, no less than the 
tribcj based upon common descent ; and that the fundamental idea which lay 
at the root of the institution in its inception was the hereditary nature of 
occupation. Now here we have two principles, community of blood and com- 
munity of occupation. So long as the hereditary nature of occupation was in- 



CASTE IN THE PAN JAB. 3 

violable, so long* as the blacksmith's soa must be and nobody else conld be a 
blacksmith^ the two principles were identical. But the struggle for existence is 
too severe^ the conditions of existence too varied^ and the character and capacity 
of individuals too diverse to permit of this inviolability being long main- 
tained ; and in any but the most rudimentary form of society it must, like the 
socialist's dream of equal division of wealth, cease to exist from the very instant 
of ita birth. And from the moment when the hereditary natiire of occupation 
ceases to be invariable and inviolable, the two princij)les of community of blood 
and community of occupation become antagonistic. The antagonism still con- 
tinues. In every comnmnity which the world has ever seen there have been grades 
of position and distinctions of rank; and in all societies these grades and distinc- 
tions are governed by two considerations, descent and calling. As civilisation 
advances and the ideas of the community expand in more liberal growth, the 
latter is ever gaining in importance at the expense of the former ; the question 
what a man is, is ever more and more taking precedence of the question what 
his father was. But in no society that the world has yet seen has either of 
these two considerations ever wholly ceased to operate ; in no community has 
the son of the coal-heaver been born the equal of the son of the nobleman, or 
the man who dies a trader been held in the same consideration as he who dies a 
statesman ; while in all the son has begun where the father left off. The com- 
munities of India in whose midst the Hindu religion has been developed are 
no exceptions to this rule ; but in their case special circumstances have com- 
bined to preserve in greater integrity and to perpetuate under a more advanced 
state of society than elsewhere the hereditary nature of occupation, and thus in 
a higher degree than in other modern nations to render identical the two prin- 
ciples of community of blood and community of occupation. And it is this 
difference, a difference of degree rather than of kind, a survival to a later age 
of an institution which has died out elsewhere rather than a new growth pecu- 
liar to the Hindu nation, which makes us give a new name to the old thing 
and call caste in India what we call position or rank in England. 

335. Occupation the primary basis of caste. — The whole basis of diver- 
sity of caste is diversity of occupation. The old division into Brahman, 
Kshatriya, Vaisya, Sudra, and the Mlechchha or outcast who is below the 
Sudra, is but a division into the priest, the warrior, the husbandman, the 
artisan, and the menial ; and the more modern development which substitut- 
ed trader for husbandman as the meaning of Vaisya or " the people " did not 
alter the nature of the classification. William Priest, John King, Edward 
Farmer, and James Smith are but the survivals in England of the four varnas 
of Manu. But in India which, as I have already explained in chapter IV, 
sections 211-12, to which I would here refer the reader, was priest-ridden to an 
extent unknown to the experience of Europe even in the middle ages, the 
dominance of one special occupation gave abnormal importance to all distinctions 
of occupation. The Brahman, who could at first claim no separate descent by 
which he should be singled out from among the Aryan community, sought to 
exalt his office and to propitiate his political rulers, who were the only rivals he 
had to feai', by degrading all other occupations and conditions of life. Fur- 
ther, as explained in the sections just referred to, the principle of hereditary 
occupation was to him as a class one of the most vital importance. As the 
Brahmans increased in numbei', those numbers necessarily exceeded the possible 
requirements of the laity so far as the mere performance of priestly functions 
was concerned, while it became impossible for them to keep up as a whole even 



4 PANJAB CASTES. 

the semblance of sacred learning. Thns they ceased to be wholly priests and a 
large propoiiion of them became mere Levites. The only means of preserving 
its overwhelming influence to the body at large was to substitute Levitical 
descent for priestly functions as the basis of tliat influence, or rather perhaps 
to checlc the natural course of social evolution which would have substituted 
the latter 'for the former ; and this they did by giving the whole sanction of 
religion to the principle of the hereditary nature of occupation. Hence sprang 
that tangled web of caste restrictions and distinctions, of ceremonial obliga- 
tions, and of artificial purity and impinity, which has rendered the separation 
of occupation from descent so slow and so difficult in Hindu society, and 
which collectively constitutes what we know as caste. I do not mean that the 
Brahmans invented the principle which they thus turned to their own purpose ; 
on the contrary, I have said that it is found in all primitive societies that 
have outgrown the most rudimentary stage. Nor do I suppose that they 
deliberately set to work to produce any craftily designed effect upon the 
growth of social institutions. But circumstances had raised them to a position 
of extraordinary power ; and naturally, and probably almost unconsciously, 
their teaching took the form which tended most effectually to preserve that 
power unimpaired . 

Indeed in its earlier form, neither caste nor occupation was even supposed 
in India to be necessarily or invariably hereditary. It is often forgotten that 
there are two very distinct epochs in the post-Vedic history of the Hindu 
nations, which made respectively contributions of very different nature to that 
body of Hindu scriptures which we are too apt to confuse under the generic 
name of the Shastras, and which affected in very different manners the form of 
the Hindu religion. The earlier is the epoch of the Brahmanas and the 
Upanishads, while Hinduism was a single and comparatively simple creed, or 
at most a philosophical abstraction ; and the later is the epoch of the Puranas 
and Tantras, with their crowded Pantheon, their foul imaginings, their de- 
graded idolatry, and their innumerable sects. The former may be said to end 
with the rise and the latter to begin with the growdng degeneracy of Buddhism. 
In the earlier Hinduism we find that, while caste distinctions were primarily 
based upon occupation, considerable license in this respect was permitted to the 
several castes, while the possibility of the individual rising from one caste to 
another was distinctly recognised. This was the case even as late as the age of 
Manu, by which time the caste system had assumed great strictness, and the 
cardinal importance of occupation had become a prominent part of the 
Brahminical teaching, though its hereditary nature had not yet been so 
emphatically insisted on.' It was in the dark ages of Hindu history, about [P, 174] 
the beginning of an sera during which Brahrninism was substituted for 
Hinduism and the religion became a chaos of impure and degraded doctrine 
and sectanan teaching, that the theory of the necessarily hereditary nature of 
occupation seems to have taken its present form. In the earlier epoch the 
priest was always a Brjihman ; in the later the Brahman was always a priest. 

336, But if occupation was not necessarily transmitted by descent and 
if caste varied with change of occupation in the earlier sera of Hinduism, it is no 

' For instances of the possibility of change of caste it will be sufficient to refer the reader to 
Cnnningham's History of the Sikhs, Appendix IV, to Muir's Sanskrit Texts, Vol. I, Chap. IV, and 
still rnore to a Buddhist pamplilet called Vajra Shuchi which is translated at Vol. I, pages 296 // 
of Wilson's Indian Caste, and which for direct vigorous reasoning and scathing huruour would 
not disgrace the best days of English party polemics. 



CASTE IN THE PAN JAB. 5 

less true that this is the case in the present day ; though under caste restrictions 
as they now stand the change, in an upward direction at least, is infinitely 
slower and more difficult than then, and is painfully effected by the family 
or tribe in the course of generations instead of by the individual in the 
course of years. The following pages will contain numerous instances of the 
truth of this assertion, and the whole body of tribal and caste tradition in 
the Panjab supports it. I have not always thought it necessary to state their 
traditions in di^^cussing the various castes ; and I have seldom stopped to com- 
ment on the facts. But the evidence, imperfect as it is, will be found to 
possess no inconsiderable weight ; while the very fact of the general currency of 
a set of traditions, groundless as they may be in individual instances, shows 
that the theory of society upon which they are based is at least not repugnant 
to the ideas and feelings and even practice of the people who believe them. 
Indeed, for the purposes of the present enquiry it would almost be allowable to 
accept traditional origin ; for though the tradition may not be true, it might 
have been, or it would never have arisen. Instances of fall in the social scale 
are naturally more often met with than instances of rise, for he who has 
sunk recalls with pride his ancestral origin, while he who has risen hastens to 
forget it. 

337. The political and artificial basis of caste. — But before proceeding to 
give specific instances of recent change of caste, I must adopt a somewhat 
extended definition of occupation, and must take a somewhat wider 
basis than that afforded by mere occupation, even so defined, as the foundation 
of caste. 

In India the occupation of the great mass of what may be called the 
upper or yeoman classes is the same. Setting aside the priests and traders on 
the one hand and the artisans and menials on the other, we have left the great 
body of agriculturists who constitute by far the larger portion of the 
population. This great body of people subsists by husbandry and cattle-farm- 
ing, and so far their occupation is one and the same. But they are also the 
owners and occupiers of the land, the holders of more or less compact 
tribal territories ; they are overlords as well as villains ; and hence springs the 
cardinal distinction between the occupation of ruling and the occupation of 
being ruled. Where the actual calling of every-day life is the same, social 
standing, which is all that caste means, depends very largely upon political 
importance, whether present or belonging to the recent past. There is the 
widest distinction between the dominant and the subject tribes ; and a tribe 
which has acquired political independence in one part of the country, will there 
enjoy a position in the ranks of caste which is denied it in tracts where it 
occupies a subordinate position. 

Again, the features of the caste system which are peculiar to Brahminical 
Hinduism, and which has already been alluded to, have operated to create a 
cm'iously artificial standard of social rank. There are certain rules which 
must be observed by all at the risk of sinking in the scale. They are, broadly 
speaking, that widow marriage shall not be practised ; that marriages shall 
be contracted only with those of equal or nearly equal standing ; that 
certain occupations shall be abstained from which are arbitrarily declared to be 
impure, such as growing or selling vegetables, handicrafts in general, and 
especially working or trading in leather and weaving ; that impure food 
shall be avoided; and that no communion shall be held with outcasts, 



6 PANJAB CASTES. 

such as scavengers, eaters of carrion or vermin^ and the like. There are 
other and similarly artiRcial considerations which aifect social standing, such 
as the practice of secluding the women of the family, the custom of giving 
daughters in mari'iage only to classes higher than their own, and the like; but 
these are of less general a])plicaiion than those fu'st mentioned. Many of these 
restrictions are exceedingly irksome. It is expensive to keep the women 
secluded, for others have to be paid to do their work ; it is still more expensive 
to purchase husbands for them from a higher grade of society, and so forth ; 
and so there is a constant temptation to disregard these rules, even at the cost 
of some loss of social position. 

Thus we have, as the extended basis of caste, first occupation, and 
within a common occupation political prominence and social standing, 
the latter being partly regulated by a set of very arbitrary rules which 
are peculiar to Indian caste, and which are almost the only part of the 
system which is peculiar to it. It is neither tautology nor false logic 
to say that social standing is dependent upon caste and caste upon social 
standing, for the two depend each upon the other in different senses. The rise 
in the social scale which accompanies increased political importance will present- 
ly be followed by a rise in caste ; while the fall in the grades of caste which a 
disregard of the arbitrary rules of the institution entails, will surely be ac- 
companied by loss of social standing. 

338. Instances of the mutability of caste. — The Brahmans are generally 
husbandmen as well as Levites, for their numbers are so great that they are 
obliged to supplement the income derived from their priestly office. But 
when a Brahman drops his sacerdotal character, ceases to receive food or alms 
as offerings accej)table to the gods, and becomes a cultivator pure and simple, 
he also ceases to be a Brahman, and has to employ other Brahmans as priests. 
Witness the Taga Brahmans of the Dehli division, who are Tagas, not Brah- 
mans, because they have ^'abandoned''' {idff dena) their priestly character. 
Indeed in the hills the very practice of agricultm'e as a calling or at least the 
actual following of the plough is in itself sufficient to deprive a Brahman of all 
but the name of his caste ; for Mr. Lyall points out that in the following 
quotation from Mr. Barnes " ploughing " should be read for " agriculture " or 
" husbandry,'^ there being very few, ev^au of the highest Brahman families, who 
abstain fi-om other sorts of field work. 

" It will afford a tolerable idea of the endless ramification of caste to follow out the details of rp_ j^Sj 
" even the Sarsut tribe as established in these hills. The reader acquainted with the country will 
"know that Brahmins, though classed under a common appellation, are not all equal. There are 
" primarily two great distinctions in every tribe claiming to be of such exalted origin as the 
" Brahmins, — viz., those who follow and those who abstain from agriculture. This is the great 
"touchstone of their creed. Those who have never defiled their hands with the plough, but have 
"restricted themselves to the legitimate pursuits of the caste, are held to be pure Brahmins ; 
" while those who have once descended to the occupation of husbandry retain indeed the name, 
"but are no longer acknowledged by their brethren, nor held in the same reverence by the people 
"at large." 

So again if a Brahman takes to handicrafts he is no longer a Brahman, 
as in the case of the Thavis of the hills, some of whom were Brahmans in 
the last generation. The Dharukras of Dehli are admittedly Brahmans who 
have within the last few generations taken to widow marriage ; and the 
Chamarwa Sadhs and the whole class of the so-called Brahmans who minister 
to the outcast classes, are no longer Brahmans in any respect beyond the mere 
retention of the name. The Maha Brahman, so impm-e that in many villages 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 7 

he is not allowed to enter the gatesj the D^kaut and Gujrati,, so unfortunate 
that other Brahmans will not accept offerings at their hands^ are all Brahmans, 
but are practically differentiated as distinct castes by their special occupations. 
Turning to the second of Manu^s four great classes, we llnd the Mahajan a 
Mahajan in the hills so long as he is a raerchant_, but a Kayath as soon as he 
becomes a clerk ; while the Dasa Banya of the plains who has taken to the 
practice of widow man-iagc is a Banya only by name and occupation, not 
being admitted to communion or intermarriage by the more orthodox classes 
who bear the same title. The impossibility of fixing any line between Raj- 
puts on the one hand, and Jats, Gujars, and castes of similar standing on the 
other, is fully discussed in the subsequent parts of this chapter, in the para- 
graphs on the Jat in general, on the Rajputs of the eastern hills, and on the 
Thakar and Rjithi. I there point out that the only possible definition of a 
Rajput, in the Panjab at least, is ho who, being the descendant of a family 
that has enjoyed political importance, has preserved his ancestral status by 
strict observance of the caste rules enumerated above. The extract there 
quoted from Mr. LyalFs report sums up so admirably the state of caste 
distinctions in the hills that I make no apology for repeating it. He 
says : — 

" Till lately the limits of caste do not seem to have been so immutably fixed in the hills as 
" in the plains. The Raja was the fountain of honour, and could do much as he liked. I have 
" heard old men quote instances within their memory in which a Raja promoted a Gii-th to be a 
" Rathi, and a Thakur to be a Rajput, for service done or money given ; and at the present day 
" the power of admitting back into caste fellowship persons put under a ban for some grave act of 
' ' defilement is a source of income to the Jagirdar Rajas. 

" I believe that Mr. Campbell, the present Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, has asserted that 
" there is no such thing as a distinct Rajput stock ; that in former times, before caste distinctions 
" had become crystallized, any ti'ibe or family whose ancestor or head rose to royal rank became in 
" time Rajput. 

" This is certainly the conclusion to which many facts point with regard to the Rajputs of 
"these hills. Two of the old royal and now essentially Rajput families of this district, »t«., 
" Kotlehr and Eangahal, are said to be Brahmin by original stock. Mr. Barnes says that in 
" Kangra the son of a Rajput by a low-caste woman takes place as a Rathi : in Seoraj and other 
" places in the interior of the hills I liave met families calling themselves Rajputs, and growing 
"into general acceptance as Rajputs, in their own country at least, wliose only claim to the title 
" was that their father or grandfather was the offspring of a Kanetni by a foreign Brahmin. On 
" the border line in the Himalayas, between Thibet and India pi'oper, any one can observe caste 
" growing before his eyes ; the noble is changing into a Rajput, the priest into a Brahmin, 
" the peasant into a Jat ; and so on down to the bottom of the scale. The same process was, 
" I believe, more or less in force in Kangra proper down to a period not very remote from 
'« to-day," 

And Kangra is of all parts of the Panjab the place in which the proudest 
and most ancient Riijput blood is to be found. As Captain Cunningham 
says in his History of the Sikhs: "It may be assumed as certain that, had 
" the conquering Mughals and Pathans been without a vivid belief and an 
^' organised priesthood, they would have adopted Vedism and become enrolled 
" among the Kshatriya or Rajput races.'' In Sii'sa we have instances of clans 
who were a few generations ago accounted Jat being now generally classed as 
Rajputs, having meanwhile practised greater exclusiveness in matrimonial 
matters, and having abandoned widow marriage ; while the reverse process is 
no less common. So the Chauhans of Dehli are no longer recognized as 
Rajputs since they have begun to marry their widows. Finally, we have the 
whole traditions of the Panjab tribes of the Jat and Gujar status to the effect 
that they are descended from Rajputs who married below them, ceased to 
seclude their women, or began to practise widow marriage ; and the fact that 



8 PAN JAB CASTES. 

one and the same tribe is often known as Rajput where it has, and as Jat where 
it has not risen to political importance. 

339. But it is possible for Rajputs and Jats to fall still lower. The 
Sahnsars of Hushyarpur were admittedly Rajputs till on\j a few generations 
agOj when they took to growing vegetables^ and now rank with Ai-ains. 
Some of the Tarkhans, Lobars, and Nais of Sirsa are known to have been Jats 
or Rajputs who within quite recent times have taken to the hereditary 
occupations of these castes ; and some of the Chauhans of Karnal, whose 
fathers were born Rajputs, have taken to weaving and become Shekhs. So 
too the landowning castes can rise. A branch of the Wattu Rajputs of the 
Satluj; by an affectation of peculiar sanctity, have in the course of a few 
generations become Bodlas, and now deny their Rajput and claim Qureshi^s 
origin ; and already the claim is commonly admitted. A clan of Ahirs in 
Rewari has begun to seclude their women and abandon widow marriage ; they 
no longer intermarry with the other Ahirs, and will presently be reckoned a 
separate caste ; and there is a Kharral family lately settled in Bahawalpm- who 
have begun to affect peculiar holiness and to marry only with each other, and 
their next step will certainly be to claim Arab descent. The process is going 
on daily around us, and it is certain that what is now taldng place is only 
what has always taken place during the long ages of Indian history. The 
ease with which Saiyads are manufactured is proverbial, and some of our 
highest Rajput tribes are beginning in the Salt-range to claim Mughal or 
Arab origin. On the frontier the dependence upon occupation of what there 
most nearly corresponds with caste, as distinct from tribe, is notorious. A 
Machhi is a Machhi so long as he catches fish, and a Jat directly he lays hold 
of a plough. There are no Rajputs because there are no Rajas ; and those 
who are notoriously of pure Rajput descent are Jats because they till the land. 
Among the artisan and menial tribes the process is still more common, 
and the chapter on this section of the community abounds with instances. 
One Chamar takes to weaving instead of leather-working and becomes a 
Chamar-Julaha ; presently he will be a Julaha pure and simple : another does 
the same and becomes a Rangreta or a Bunia : a Chuhra refuses to touch 
night-soil and becomes a Musalli or a Kutana. Within the castes the same 
process is observable. The Chandar Chamar will not eat or marry with the 
Jatia Chamar because the latter works in the hides of impure animals ; one [P. 176] 
section of the Kumhars will hold no communion with another because the 
latter burn sweepings as fuel ; a third section has taken to agriculture and 
looks down upon both. In all these and a thousand similar instances the sec- 
tions are for all practical purposes distinct castes, though the caste name, being 
based upon and expressive of the hereditary occupation, is generally retained 
where the main occupation is not changed. Indeed I have my doubts whether, 
setting aside the absolutely degrading occupations such as scavengering, the 
caste does not follow the occupation in the case of even each individual among 
these artisan and menial castes much more generally than we suppose. We 
know next to nothing about their organisation, and I do not pretend to make 
anything more than a suggestion. But it is certain that these lower castes have 
retained the organisation of the guild in extraordinary completeness long after 
the organisation of the tribe or caste has almost completely died out among 
the landowning classes whom they serve. And it may be, especially in towns 
and cities, that this organisation is meant to protect the craft in the absence 
of the bond of common descent, and that men belonging by birth to other 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 9 

castes and occupations may on adopting a new occupation be admitted to the 
fraternity which follows it. 

340. The nature and evolution of the institution of caste. — Thus we see 
that in India, as in all countries, society is arranged in strata which are based 
upon differences of social or political importance, or of occupation. But here 
the classification is hereditary rather than individual to the persons included 
under it, and an artificial standard is added which is peculiar to caste and 
which must be conformed with on pain of loss of position, while the rules 
which forbid social intercourse between castes of different rank render it 
infinitely difficult to rise in the scale. So too, the classification being- here- 
ditary, it is next to impossible for the individual himself to rise ; it is the 
tribe or section of the tribe that alone can improve its position; and this it can 
do only after the lapse of several generations, during which time it must aban- 
don a lower for a higher occupation, conform more strictly with the arbitrary 
rules, affect social exclusiveness or special sanctity, or separate itself after 
some similar fashion from the body of the caste to which it belongs. The 
whole theory of society is that occupation and caste are hereditary ; and the 
presumption that caste passes unchanged to the descendants is exceedingly 
strong. But the presumption is one which can be defeated, and has already 
been and is now in process of being defeated in numberless instances. As in 
all other countries and among all other nations, the graduations of the social 
scale are fixed ; but society is not solid but liquid, and portions of it are 
continually rising and sinking and changing their position as measured by 
that scale ; and the only real difference between Indian society and that of 
other countries in this respect is, that the liquid is much more viscous, the 
friction and inertia to be overcome infinitely greater, and the movement there- 
fore far slower and more difficult in the former than in the latter. This 
friction and inertia are largely due to a set of artificial rules which have been 
grafted on to the social prejudices common to all communities by the peculiar 
form which caste has taken in the Brahminical teachings. But there is everj^ 
sign that these rules are gradually relaxing - Sikhism did much to weakerj 
them in the centre of the Panjab, while they can now hardly be said to exist 
on the pm*ely Mahomedan frontier ; and I think that we shall see a still 
more rapid change under the influences which our rule has brought to bear 
upon the society of the Province. Our disregard for inherited distinctions have 
already done something, and the introduction of railways much more, to 
loosen the bonds of caste. It is extraordinary how incessantly, in reporting 
customs, my correspondents note that the custom or restriction is fast dying 
out. The liberty enjoyed by the people of the Western Panjab is extending 
to their neighbours in the east, and especially the old tribal customs are 
gradually fading away. There cannot be the slighest doubt that in a few 
generations the materials for a study of caste as an institution will be infinite- 
ly less complete than they are even now. 

341. Thus, if my theory be con-ect, we have the following steps in the 
process by which caste has been evolved in the Panjab — (1) the trilml 
divisions common to all primitive societies ; (3) the guilds based upon hereditary 
occupation common to the middle life of all communities ; (3) the exaltation 
of the priestly ofiice to a degree unexampled in other countries ; (4) the 
exaltation of the Levitical blood by a special insistence upon the necessarily 
hereditary nature of occupation ; (5) the preservation and support of this 
principle by the elaboration from the theories of the Hindu creed or cosmo- 



10 PANJAB CASTES. 

gonj of a purely artificial set of mles, regulating marriage and intermarriage, 
declaring certain occupations and foods to be impure and polluting, and 
prescribing the conditions and degree of social intercourse permitted between 
the several castes. Add to these the pride of social rank and the pride of 
blood which are natural to man, and which alone could reconcile a nation to 
restrictions at once irksome from a domestic and burdensome from a material 
point of view ; and it is hardly to be wondered at that caste should have 
assumed the rigidity which distinguishes it in India. 

342. The tribal type of caste. — Thus caste in the Panjab is based pri- 
marily upon Occupation, and given that the occupation is that most respect- 
able of all occupations, the owning and cultivation of land, upon political 
position. But there are other forms which are assumed by caste, or at least 
by what most nearly corresponds with it in some jDarts of the Province, which 
may in general be referred to two main types. The fii'st type is based upon 
community of blood ; the second is a trades-guild pure and simple. Both are 
strictly analogous to caste proper ; but the existence of both in their present 
forms appears to be due to the example of those Musalman nations who have 
exerted such immense influence in the Panjab, and both differ from caste 
proper in the absence of those artificial restrictions which are the peculiar 
product of Brahminism. The purest types of the ethnic or national caste are 
the Pathans and Biloi:hes, both untainted by any admixture of Hindu feeling 
or custom. Here the fiction which vmites the caste, race, nation, or whatever 
you may choose to call it, is that of common descent from a traditional 
ancestor. In the main it Is something more than a fiction, for if the common 
ancestor be mythical, as he probably is, there is still a very real bond of 
common origin, common habitat, common customs and modes of thought, 
and tribal association continued through several centuries, which holds these 
people together. But even here the stock is not even professedly pure. 
It will be seen from my description of the two great frontier races whom 
I have quoted as types, that each of them includes in its tribal organisa- 
tion affiliated tribes of foreign origin, who sometimes but by no means 
always preserve the tradition of their separate descent, but are recognised C^- ^77] 
to the full as being, and for all j^ractical purposes actually are Biloch 
or Pathan as truly as are the tribes who have certainly sprung from the 
parent stock. Still more is this the case with the Mughal, Shekh, and 
Saiyad, who arc only strangers in the land. '^ Last year I was a weaver, this 
" year I am a Shekh ; next year if prices rise I shall be a Saiyad. ■'' The process 
of manufacture in these cases is too notorious for it to be necessary for me to 
insist upon it; and so long as the social position of the new claimant is 
worthy of the descent he clainjs, the true Mughals, Shekhs, and Saiyads, after 
waiting for a generation or so till the absurdity of the story is not too obvious, 
accept the fiction and admit the brand new brother into their fraternity. 

Thi'oughout the Western Plains, and In a somewhat lower degree through- 
out the cis-Indus Salt-range Tract, where Islam has largely superseded 
Brahminism and where the prohibition against marriage with another caste is 
almost universally neglected, we find the distribution of the landowning classes 
based upon tribe rathei than upon caste. The necessity for community of pre- 
sent caste as a condiliou of intermarriage having disappeared, the more com- 
prehensive classification of caste has become a mere tradition of ancestral 
status, and the Immediate question is, 7iot is a man a Rajput or a Jat, but is 
he a Sial or a Chhadhar, a Janjiia or a Manhds. The restrictions upon inter- 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 11 

marriage are in actual practice almost as strict as ever; but they are based 
upon present social rank^ without reference to the question whether that rank 
has vet received the impress or sanction of admission into the caste with which 
it wouUl correspond. In fact the present tendency fvcn in the case of Rajputs^ 
and still more in that of lower castes of Indian origin^ is markedly to reject 
their original Hindu caste, and to claim connection with the Mughal con- 
querors of their country or the Arab founders of their faith. Thus we have 
no broad classification of the people under a few great castes with their 
internal division into tribes, such as we find in the Hindu portion of the 
Pan jab ; or rather this classiticatiou is of far less importance, being little more 
than a memory of origin, or a token of a social rank which is more precisely 
expressed by the tribal name. 

343. The effect of occupation upon the tribal form of caste. — So too, the 
lines which separate occupations one from another are relaxed. In the case of 
the impure occupations which render those who follow them outcasts, this is 
not indeed the case. The Pathan who should become a scavenger would no 
longer be recognised as a Pathan, though he might still claim the name; 
indeed, as already pointed out in the Chapter on Religion, the prejudice is 
can-ied into the very mosque, and the outcast who has adopted Islam is not 
recognised as a Musalman unless at the same time he abandon his degrading 
occupation. But the taint is not so markedly hereditary, nor is the prejudice 
against menial occupations or handicrafts generally so strong. A Pathan who 
became a weaver would still remain a Pathan, and would not be thought to be 
polluted 3 though, as in all countries, he would be held to have fallen in the 
social scale, and the better class of Pathan would not give him his daughter to 
wife. In fact the difference between ihe condition of a Pathan who took to 
weaving on the frontier and the Rajj)ufc who took to weaving in the Dehli 
Territory, would be precisely that between caste in India and social standing 
in Europe. The degradation would not in the case of the former be cere- 
monial or religious, nor would it be hereditary save in the sense that the 
children would be born in a lower condition of life ; but the immediate and 
individual loss of position would be as real as among the strictest castes of the 
Hindus. Thus we find on the frontier men of all castes engaging from 
poverty or other necessity in all occupations save those of an actually degrad- 
ing nature. Between these two extremes of the purely Mahomedan customs 
of the Indus and the purely Hindu customs of the Jamna we meet with a 
very considerable variety of intermediate conditions. Yet the change is far 
less gradual than might have been supposed probable, the break from Islam to 
Brahminism, from tribal position and freedom of occupation to the more rigid 
restraints of caste, taking place with some suddenness about the meridian of 
Lahore, where the great rivers enter the fertile zo)ie and the arid grazing 
grounds of the West give place to the arable plains of the East. The 
submontane zone retains its social as well as its physical characteristics 
much further west than do the plains which lie below it, and here the 
artificial restrictions of caste can hardly be said to cease till the Salt-range is 
crossed. 

Closely allied with these tribal or ethnic communities based upon identity 
of recent descent, is the association which binds together small colonies of 
foreign immigrants under names denoting little more than their origin. Such 
are the Purbi, the Kashmiri, the Bangali. These people have their own dis- 
tinctions of caste and tribe in the countries whence they came. But isolation 



12 PANJAB CASTES. 

from their fellows in a land of strangers binds them together in closer union. 
The Purbi is a Purbi to the people of the Panjab, and nothing more ; and in 
many eases this looseness of classification spreads to the people themselves, and 
they begin to class themselves as Purbi and forget their original divisions. 
Examples may be found even nearer home. The Hindu is a small class on 
the frontier, and he is generically classed as Kirar without regard to his caste. 
The men of the Bagar are strangers in the Panjab, and they are commonly 
known as Bagri irrespective of whether they are Jats or Rajputs. Many more 
instances of similar confusion might be given. Even community of creed, 
where the numl)ers concerned are small, constitutes a bond which cannot be 
distinguished from that of caste. The resident Sikhs on the Peshawar 
frontier are a caste for all practical purposes ; while the case of the Bishnois of 
Hariana who are chiefly recruited from two very different castes is still more 
striking. 

344<. The trades-guild type of caste. — The second type which I have 
included together with castes proper and the western tribes in my caste tables, 
is almost precisely the trades-guild of Europe in the middle ages. And it 
again owes its existence very largely to the prevalence of Mahomedan ideas. 
It is found chiefly in the larger cities, and is almost always known by a 
Persian or Arabic name. The class of Darzis or tailors is a good example of 
what I mean. Here the caste organisation, the regulations of the fraternity, 
and the government by common council or panchdyat are as complete as 
among the true castes. But there is no longer even the fiction of common 
origin_, and the only bond which unites the members of the guild is that of 
common occupation — a bond which is severed when the occupation is aban- 
doned and renewed when it is resumed. I have already said that I am not at 
all sure whether this is not the case with the artisan castes in general in a far 
greater degree than is commonly supposed. It appears to me that in the case 
of the menial and artisan classes the real caste is what I have already noticed, 
and shall presently describe more particularly, under the name of the section ; [p. i78] 
and that the caste name is often merely a generic term used to include all who 
follow the same occupation. If the numerous agricultural tribes of the Indus 
who are included under the generic term Jat obsei-ved caste distinctions and 
refused to eat together and intermarry, we should have a state of things corre- 
sponding exactly with what we find throughout the Province among the 
industrial classes^ where each so-called caste comprises under a common 
occupational term a number of sections of different geographical origin and of 
different habits, who refuse to hold communion with one another, and are for 
all practical purposes sej^arate castes. But even here the distinction is often 
based upon minor differences in the occupation or in the mode of following it ; 
and community of origin in the remote past is often^ though by no means 
always, admitted. And even if my suggestion be well-founded, there is still 
this cardinal distinction, that in the case of the caste or section of the caste the 
basis of the organisation is hereditary, and the stranger is admitted voluntarily 
and deliberately ; whereas in the case of the guild there is no pretence to com- 
munity of Idood, and anybody following the craft is admitted almost as a 
matter of right. To this class probably belong the Mallah, the Qassiib, the 
Sabzi-farosh, the Mashqi when not a J bin war, the Nungar, and many of 
those quasi-castes of whom I have to say that I cannot tell whether the name 
signifies anything more than the occupation of the people included under it. 
Somewhat similar to these are the followers of divers occupations which are 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 13 

almost If not altogether confined, in the east of the Province at least, to the 
members of a single caste^ of whicli the chapter on artisan and menial castes 
furnishes so many examples. The Bharbhunja is almost always, I believe, a 
Jhinwar ; the Jarr^h is almost always a Nai ; but it would not have been safe 
to claPs them as Jhinwar and Nai respectively, and so I have shown them 
separately in my tallies. Yet anotlier form of quasi-caste is afforded by the 
religious and ascetic orders oi fakirs which, in the absence of all pretence of 
conmiunity of blood and the purely voluntary nature of their association, are 
somewhat analogous to the trades-guild. These men abandon caste properly 
so called on entering the order to which they belong ; bxat it would have been 
absurd to omit them altogether or to show them under " Miscellaneous,^' and 
I have therefore ranked them in my tables as castes. Many of them are sub- 
ject to some form of authority which is exercised by the order in its corporate 
capacity ; but many of them are absolutely fi'ee from restrictions of any kind, 
and the word caste is not really applicable to these classes. 

345. Different types included in the caste-table'. — Thus the figures of 
my tables of tribes and castes include groups formed upon several very distinct 
types. There is the true caste in the Brahminical sense of the term, the 
Brahman, Rajput, Banya, and so forth ; the tribe or race based upon common 
blood, such as the Pathan, Biloch, Kathia; there is the colony of foreigners 
like the Furbi and Kashmiri, or of believers in a strange creed like the Bishnoi ; 
there is the true occupational caste such as the Nai, the Chamar, and the 
Chuhra; there is the common trades-guild like the Darzi and the Qassab; 
there is the occupation pure and simple as the Jarrah and Gharami; there is 
the ascetic order as the Gosain and Nirmala ; and besides these there are all 
possible intermediate stages. Moreover, the name which is applied to a time 
caste or race in one part of the Panjab, in another merely signifies an occupa- 
tion; of which fact A rain and Biloch are two notable examples, the first 
meaning nothing more than a market-gardener in the Salt-range Tract, the 
latter little more than a camelman in the centre of the Province, and each in 
either case including an indefinite number of castes or tribes with nothing but 
community of occupation to connect them. 

346. Effect of conversion upon caste. — At the beginning of this chap- 
ter I stated, admittedly as an exaggeration of the truth, that caste has little 
necessary connection with the Hindu religion, and that conversion from 
Hinduism to Islam has not necessarily the slightest effect upon it. I shall 
now consider how far that statement has to be modified. I have attempted to 
show in the preceding paragraphs that pride of blood, especially in the upper, 
and shame of occupation, especially in the lower classes, are in all societies the 
principal factors which regulate social rank; and that when Brahminism 
developed caste, all that it did was to bind the two together, or at least to pre- 
vent the dissolution of the tie which bound them and which would have 
broken down in the ordinary course of social evolution, and while thus perpe- 
tuating the principle of the hereditary nature of occupation and social status, 
to hedge it round and strengthen it by a network of artificial rules and restric- 
tions which constitute the only characteristic peculiar to the institution of 
caste. This I take to constitute the only connection between Hinduism and 
caste ; and it is obvious, that these restrictions and prejudices once engrafted 
on the social system, mere change of creed has no necessary effect whatever 
upon their nature or their operation. As a fact in the east of the Panjab con- 
version has absolutely no effect upon the caste of the convert. The Musalm^n 



14 PAN JAB CASTES. 

Kajput, Giijar, or Jat is for all social, tribal, political, and administi-ative pur- 
poses exactly as much a Rajput, Gujar or Jat as his Hindu brother. His 
social customs are unaltered. Lis tribal restrictions are unrelated, his rules of 
marriage and inheritance unchanged ; and almost the only difference is that he 
shaves his sealplock and the upper edge of his moustache, repeats the Mahome- 
dan creed in a mosque, and adds the Musalman to the Hindu wedding cere- 
mony. As I have already shown in the chapter on Religion, he even worships 
the same idols as before, or has only lately ceased to do so.^ 

347. The fact is that the people are bound by social and tribal custom 
far more than by any mles of religion. Where the whole tone and feeling of 
the country-side is Indian, as it is in the Eastern Panjab, the JNIusalman is 
simply the Hindu with a difference. Where that tone and feeling is that of 
the country beyond the Indus, as it is on the Panjab frontier, the Hindu even 
is almost as the Musalman. The difference is national rather than religious. 
The laxity allowed by IMahomet in the matter of intermamage has no effect 
upon the INIusalman Jat of the Dehli division, for he has already refused to 
avail himself even of the smaller license allowed by the Hindu priests and 
scriptures, and bound himself by tribal rules far stricter than those of either 
religion. But the example of the Pathan and the Biloch has had a very great 
effect upon the Jat of the Multan division; and he recognises, not indeed 
the prohibitions of Mahomet, — or rather not only them, for they represent the [ p. 179] 
in-educible minimum, — but the tribal rales of his frontier neighbours, more 
strict than those of his religion but less strict than those of his nation. 
I believe that the laxity of the rules and restrictions imposed by the customs 
of castes and tribes which is observable in the Western Panjab, and among the 
Hindus no less than among the Musalmans, is due far more to the example 
of the neighbouring frontier tribes than to the mere change of faith. The 
social and tribal customs of the eastern peasant, whether Hindu or Musalman, 
are those of India ; while in the west the people, whether Hindu or Musalman, 
have adopted in great measure, though by no means altogether, the social and 
tribal customs of Afghanistan and Bilochistan. In both cases those rules and 
customs are tribal or national, rather than religious. 

At the same time there can be no doubt that both the artificial rales of 
Hindu caste, and the tribal customs which bind both Hindu and Musalman, have 
lately begun to relax, and with far greater rapidity among the Musalmans 
than among the Hindus. And this difference is no doubt really due to the 
difference in religion. There has been within the last 30 years a great _ 
f Musalman revival in the Panjab; education has spread, and with it a more 
^ accurate knowledge of the rales of the faith; and there is now a tendency , 
which is day l)y day growing stronger, to subst.tute the law of Islam for tribal 
custom in all matters, whether of intermarriage, inheritance, or social 
intercourse. The movement has as yet materially affected only the higher 
and more educated classes ; but there can be little doubt that it is slowly 
working down through the lower grades of society. The effect of conversion to 
Sikhism has already been noticed in the chapter on Religion, as has the effect 
of change of creed upon the menial classes ; and this latter will be dealt with 
more at length in that part of the present chapter which treats of those castes. 

I This is much less true of the middle classes of the towns and cit'es. They have no reason to 
be particularly proud of their ( a-te ; while the superior education and the more varied constitution 
of the urbivu population weaken tl;e power of tribal custom. In such (fthCS the convert not unfre- 
quently takes the title of Shekh : though even here a change of caste name on conversion is pro- 
bably the exception. 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 16 

348. Effect of Islam in strengthening the bonds of caste.— But if the 

atloption of Islam does not absolve the individual from the obligations common 
to his tribe or caste, still less does its presence as such tend to weaken those 
obligations. Indeed it seems to nic exceedingly probable that where the 
Musalmdn invasion has not, as in the Western Panjab, been so wholesale or 
the country of the invaders so near as to change bodily by force of example 
the whole tribal customs of the inhabitants_, the Mahomedan conquest of 
Northern India has tightened and strengthened rather than relaxed the bonds 
of caste ; and that it bas done this by depriving the Hindu population of their 
natural leaders the Rajputs, and throwing them wholly into the hands of the 
Brahmans. The full discussion of this question would require a far wider 
knowledge of Indian comparative soc^iology than I possess. But I will briefly 
indicate some considerations which appear to me to point to the probable truth 
of my suggestion. I have said that caste appears to have been far more loose 
and less binding in its earlier form than as it appeared in the later develop- 
ments of Brahminism ; and we know that^ at least in the earlier and middle 
stages of Hinduism, the contest between the Brahman and the Rajput for the 
social leadership of the people was prolonged and severe (see Muir's Sanskrit 
Texts, Vol. I). The Mahomedan invaders found in the Rajput Princes 
political enemies whom it was their business to subdue and to divest of 
authority ; but the power of the Brahmans threatened no danger to their rule, 
and that they left unimpaired. The Brahminic influence was probably never 
so strong in the Panjab as in many other parts of India ; but it is markedlyl 
strongest in the Delili Territory, or in that portion of the Province in which, | ■ 
lying under the very shadow of the Mughal court, Rajput power was most' .^-^ 
impossible. Moreover, it is curious that we tind the institutions and restrictions -"- 
of caste as such most lax, and a state of society most nearly approaching tbat 
which existed in the earlier epoch of Hinduism, in two very dissimilar parts 
of the Panjab. One is the Indus frontier, where Mahomedanism reigns 
supreme ; the other is the Kangi-a hills, the most exclusively Hindu portion of 
the Province. On the Indus we have the Saiyad and the Pir, the class of 
Ulama or divines who take the place of the Brahman ; the Pathan or Biloch 
as the case may be, who correspond with the Kshatriya ; the so-called Jat, 
who is emphatically the ^' people " or Vaisya in the old sense of the ^'ord, and 
includes all the great mass of husbandmen of whatever caste they may be, 
Awans, Jats, Rajputs and the like, who cannot pretend to Kshatriya rank ; 
the Kirar or trader of whatever caste, Banya, Khatri, or Arora, con-esponding 
with the later use of Vaisya ; the artisan or Sudra ; and the outcast or 
Mlechchha. The two last classes have no generic names; but the three first 
con-espond almost exactly with the Brahman, tlie Kshatriya, and the Vaisya 
of the middle Hindu scriptures, nov nre the boundaries of these divisions more 
rigorously fixed than we find them in those scriptures. The other portion of 
the Province in which caste restrictions are most loose and caste divisions most 
general and indefinite is the Kangra hills ; or precisely the only part of the 
Panjab into which Mahomedani;^-m has found no entrance, in which 
Mahomedan ideas have had no influence, in which Hinduism has remaine^d ^ 
absolutely sheltered from attack from without, and in which the oldest Rajput 
dynasties in India have preserved tVicir supremacy unbroken up to wdthin the 
last eighty years. On the Indus we appear to have caste as it is under the 
Mahomedan, on the Jamna as it is under the Brahman, and in the Hinii^layas 
of Kangra as it is under the Rajput. The state of caste relations in the 
Kangra hills is fully described under the heads of Jats in general, Rajputs of 



16 PANJAB CASTES. 

the Eastern Hills, Thakars and Rathis, Kanets, and Hill Menials, The whole 
matter is summed up in the quotation from Mr. Lyall ^iven on page 175. 
Here the Rajput is the fountain of honour, and the very Brahman is content 
to accept rank at his hands. Mr. Barnes writes of the Kangra Brahmans : — 

"Tlie hills, as I have already stated, were the scats of petty independent princes, and in every 
" principality the Brahmans are arranged into classes of different degrees of purity. The Eaja was 
" always considered the fountain of all honour, and his classification, made probahly at the counsel 
'•'of his religious advisers, was held binding upon the brotherhood. In these graduated lists no 
"account was ever taken of the zamindar Brahmins, as they were contemptuously styled; — they 
" were left to themselves in ignoble obscurity. Thus, in the days of Raja Dharm Chand, the two 
"great trhes of Kangra Brahmins,— the * Nngarkotias ' (from N'agarkot, the ancient name of 
" Kangia) and the ' Batehrns,' — were formally sub-divided into clans. Of the Nagarkotias 
"Dharm Chand established 13 different families, of which, at the risk of being considered tedious, 
" I subjoin a catalogue." 

So we find the Raja of Kangra bribed to elevate a caste in the social 
scale ; and the Raja of Alwar making a new caste of a section of the Minas, 
and prescribing limits to their intermarriage with those who had till then been 
considered their brothers. 

Under ]\Iahomedan rule the Rajput disappeared, and for the Hindu 
population the Brahman took his place. Hence the wide differences between 
caste in Kangra and caste in the Dehli Territory. In the Hills, the very [ P. 180 ] 
stronghold at once of Rajput power and of Hindusim in its mxOst primitive 
form, we have the Brahman, but with a wide difference between the Brahman 
who prays and the Brahman who ploughs ; we have the Rajput, a name strictly 
confined to the royal families and their immediate connections, and refused to 
such even of those as soil their hands with the plough ; we have the great 
cultivating class, including the Thakars and Rathis of acknowledged and 
immediate Rajput descent who furnish wives even to the Rajputs themselves, 
and the Rawats, Kanets, and Ghiraths of somewhat lower status ; we have 
the Kirar or Mahajan, including not only traders, but all the Kayaths and the 
clerkly class, and even Brahmans who take to these pursuits ; we have the 
respectalde artisan class, the carpenter, mason and water-carrier ; and finally we 
have the Koli or Dagi, the outcast or Mlechchha of the hills. And from top to 
bottom of this social scale, no single definite line can be drawn which shall 
precisely mark off any one caste or grade from the one below it. Each one 
takes its wives fi-om and eats with the one immediately below it, and the 
members of each can, and they occasionally do, rise to the one immediately 
above it. 

349. Tribal divisions among tho landowning castes.—Within the 
caste the first great division of the landowning classes is into tribes ; and the 
tribe appears to me to be far more permanent and indestructible than the caste. 
i have already shown how in the west of the Panjab the broader distinctions 
of caste have become little more than a tradition or a convenient symbol for 
social standing, while the tribal groups are the practical units of which the com- 
miinity is composed. There is, I fancy, little doubt that when a family or 
section of a caste rises or sinks in the social scale, while it changes the name of 
its caste, it often retains its tribal designation ; indeed it is probable that that 
designation not unseldom becomes the name of a new caste by which it is to 
be known in future. Thus the widow-marrying Chauhan Rajputs of Dehli are 
now known as Chauh^ns, and not as Rajputs ; while their brethren of the next 
district, Karnal, who have not infringed the caste rule, are known as Rajputs, 
and only secondarily as Chauhan Rajputs. This theory is in accordance with 
the tradition by which the constant recurrence of tribal names in different 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 17 

castes is accounted for by the people themselves. The Chauhan Gujars, for 
instance, \v\\\ tell you that their ancestor was a Chaulian Rajput who married 
a Gujar woman ; and that his descendants retained the tribal nanie^ while sink- 
ing to the rank of Gujars owing- to his infringement of caste regulations.* 
Indeed this is simply the process which we see in actual operation before our 
very eyes. As I have already remarked, the same tribe is known as Rajput in 
a tract where it has, and as Jat in a tract where it has not risen to political 
importance; but tlie tribal nan)c, indicating a far stronger and more enduring 
bond tlian that of common caste, still remains to both. Sir Henrv Maine 
has pointed out how two considerations gradually tend to Ije substituted 
for or added to the tie of conmion descent as the basis of tribal unitv, 
common occupation of land, and common subjection to tribal authority. He 
writes : — 

" From tho uiomcut wlieu a tribal commniiiiy r^ettks down fiually upon a definite space of 
"land, the Innd begins to be the Iwsis of society instead of the kiusliip. The change is exceed- 
" i"gV gradual, and in some particulars it bai< not even now been fully accomplished; but it has 
•' been going on through the whole course of history. The constitution of the family through 
" actual blood relationship is of cour-e an observable fact ; but for all groups of men larger thau 
" the family, the laud on which they live tends to become the bond of union between them, at 
•' the expense of kinship ever more and more vaguely conceived." A ad again—" Kinship as the 
" tie binding communities together tends to be regarded as the same thing with subjection to com* 
" mou authority. The notions of Power and Consanguinity blend, but they in nowise supersede 
" one another." 

The institution of liatmdyah among the Biloches and Pathans, by which 
refugees from one tribe who claim the protection of the chief of another 
tribe are affiliated to, and their descendants become an integral part of the 
latter, is an admirable example of the second of these two processes ; and in 
the substitution of land for blood as the basis of tribal unity, we very probablv 
find the explanation of that standing puzzle of Indian tribal tradition, how the 
common ancestor managed to conquer the tribal territory single-handed, or 
how, if he had followers, it happens that all the living members of the tribe 
trace their descent from him, while the lineage of those followers is nowhere 
discoverable. 

350. Within the tribe the same basis of sub-division is often found to 
exist, the clans being apparently territorial, while the smaller septs are pro- 
bably founded upon real descent. In fact it is exceedingly difficult to draw 
the line between tribe and clan, except where the two are connected by the 
present occupation of common territory and subjection to a common tribal 
authority. When a section of a great tribe such as the Punwar Rajputs 
separates from the parent tribe and acquires for itself a new territory as did 
the Sials, the section becomes for all practical purposes a new and indepen- 
dent tribe, and the memory of the old trilie is to the new one what caste is 
to tribes in the west, a mere tradition of origin. So when a member of a 
tribe rises to such importance as to become independent of tribal authority, 
he practically founds a new tribe, evrn though he may still occupy the 
territory formerly held as part of the old tribal domain ; as, for instance, 
appears to have been the case with the Barar section of the Sidhu Jats. 
Perhaps the most striking instance of the degree in which tribal divisions 
depend upon political and territorial independence, is afforded by the Biloch 

'There is another possible explanation of the tradition, and that is that the caste was inherited 
in the female line. There is no inconsiderable weight of evidence to show that this was the 
custom, at any rate among certain classes, within comparatively recent times. But the matter, 
like all other similar matters, needs further examination. 



18 PANJAB CASTES. 

tribes, who were orginally five. Of these two, the Rind and Lash^i, rose 
to prominence and divided the nation into two corresponding sections. As 
time went on the nation broke up into a number of independent tribes, each 
vnth a separate tt n-itory and organisation of its own ; and now, though every 
Biloch refers himself * to either Rind or Lashari stock, the names are but a 
tradition of origin, and in the Panjab at least no Rind or Lashari tribe can 
be said to exist as such. The groups of tribes found in different parts^ of the 
Province who claim common descent from some one of the great Rajput races, 
the Bhatti, Chauhan, Punwar, and the like, are instances of the _ same process. 
The local tribes are now independent units, and can hardly be included under 
the original tribal name save as a symbol of origin. Thus the line of demar- 
cation between tribe and clan is no better defined than is that between caste 
and tribe. As soon as a section of a caste abandons the customs of the parent 
stock, whether as regards hereditary occupation or social habits, it tends to 
become a new caste. As soon as a clan separates itself from the territory and 
organisation of the parent tribe, it tends to become a new tribe. Where 
the Indian tribal and caste restrictions upon intermarriage are still observed, j- p ^gj^ -. 
the best definition would probably be obtained by taking endogamy and 
exogamy as the differentiae of the caste and tribe respectively ; a caste being 
the smallest group outside which, and a trn:)e the largest group within which 
raan-iage is forbidden. But in a gi-eat part of the Panjab this test does not 
apply. 

351. Tribal divisions among the priestly and mercantile castes. — In the 
case of the castes or classes who, not being essentially landowners, possess no 
political or temtorial organisation, the basis of tribal division is very different. 
Here we have no compact tribes based upon real or fictitious community of 
blood and occupying tribal territories. The Brahman has almost invariably 
accompanied his clients in their migrations ; and indeed it will sometimes be 
found that the Brahmans of a tribe or of a group of village communities, 
being too small in number to be independent, have kept up the connection with 
their place of origin long after it has fallen into neglect or even oldivion 
among the landowning communities with whom they dwell. Thus we find 
Brahmans of different gotras or clans scattered haphazard over the country 
without any sort of tribal localization, and the same is true of the mercantile 
classes also. In both cases the divisions are wholly based upon real or 
imaginary common descent. The gotras of the Brahmans, the clans of the 
Khatris and Aroras are innumerable ; but they are not localised, and are there- 
fore probably more permanent than are the territorial tribes of the landowners. 
This a1 sence of tribal organisation is perhaps one of the reasons why, of all 
classes of the community, the Brahmans and traders observe most strictly the 
aiiififial mles which preserve tlie integrity of caste organisation. How far 
the Brahmini -al qotra is really tribal is a distinct question to which I shall 
presently return. 

But in the case of both the priestly and the mercantile classes, we find 
that their castes are broken up into sections, too large and too devoid of 
cohesion to be called tribes, and approaching much niore nearly to separate 
castes, both in the actual effect of the divisions upon social intercourse and 
intermarriage, and pro1)ably also in their origin. These divisions are generally 
known by geographical designations, such as the Gaur Brahmans of the 
ancient Gaur and the Sdrsut Brahmans of the Saraswati and the Panjab, the 
Uttar^dhi Aroras of the north and the Dakhani Ai'oras of the south, the 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 19 

Agarwill Banyas of Agroha and the Oswal Banyas of Osia. But the present 
distinction between these sections is as a rule based upon difference of social and 
religious customs. It is not unnatural that, in the course of agcSj the strictness 
with which the artificial restrictions which regulate social and caste matters 
are observed should vary in different parts of the country ; and it is no less 
natural that, where the two standards come into contact, those whose standard 
is the stricter should look down upon those whose practice is more lax. Tlie 
Guur Brahman sees with horror his Sarsut brother eat bread from the hands of 
other than BriihnianSj and do a thousand things which to him would be pollution. 
The result is that the Gauv refuses to eat or intermarry with the Sarsut, and 
that for all practical purposes the sections are not one but two castes ; far 
more so indeed than, for instance, the Jat and the Glijar. Nor does it seem 
to me impossible that these sections may in some cases represent real diversity 
of race or origin ; that the Gaurs may have ])cen the Brahmans of Gam' 
and the Stirsuts the Brahmans of the Panjab, both called Brahmans because 
they were priests, but having nothing else in common. Again, among some 
of the Panjab trading castes great sections have been fixed within recent times, 
which are Ijased not upon geographical distribution, but upon voluntary diver- 
gence of social custom. Such are the great Dhaighar, Charzati and other 
sections of the Khatris described under that caste heading. Throughout all 
these great sections, whether geographical or social, the same triljal divisions are 
commonly found unchanged. The tribes or clans of the Gaur and Sarsut 
Brahmans, of the Uttariidhi and Dakhani Aroras, of the Agarwal and Oswiil 
Banya are in great part identical. Now where these divisions are really tribal, 
and based upon common descent, this must mean that the tribal divisions 
preceded the divergence of custom which resulted in the formation of what 
I have here called sections, and that the original stock was one and the same. 
But where, as is often the case, they are mere Brahmnical gotras, I do not 
think that this necessarily follows.^ 

352. Tribal divisions among artisan and menial castes.— Among the 
artisan and menial castes we find precisely the same great sections, based either 
upon differences of custom which in turn depend upon geograj)hical distribu- 
tion or, I believe in very many cases indeed, upon difference of origin, one 
section of an industrial caste being descended from Jats who have sunk in the 
social scale, another perhaps from Ahirs, while a third is the original stock to 
which the industry has been hereditary beyond the memory of the tribe. The 
Chamar of tlie middle Satluj will not internian-y with the Jatia Chamar of 
the Dehli Territory because the latter works in the skins of im])ure animals ; 
the Suthar carpenter from Sindh looks down upon and abstains from marriage 
with the Khati of the Malwa ; and so forth throughout the list. Among the 
menial castes moreover, as among the priestly and mercantile, we have a double 
classification : and by the side of the great sections we find what correspond 
with tribal divisions. But among the menial castes, or at least among those 
who occupy the position of hereditary village servants, I believe that these 
divisions often have their origin rather in allegiance to the tribal master than 
in any theory of conmion descent. It has often been noticed that the menial 
castes denote their tribal sub-divisions by names famous in political history, 
such as Bhatti, Khokhar or Chauhan ; and our present papers furnish abundant 
instances. Now on the frontier a Lobar who is attached to the village of 
the Muhammadzai tribe will call himself Lobar Muhammadzai, while one 

^ See further section 353 on the next pa ge. 

02 



20 



PANJAB CASTES. 



who lives in the service of the Dauklkhel will call himself Loha.- Daulatkhel. 
There can be no douU that the connection between the village rnemals and 
the agricultural comn.unities Nvhom they serve was in old times hereditary and 
not voluntary, and that the former were in every sense of the word acUcnpU 
ylehcB. In fact, as I shall presently explain in greater detail we still hnd 
the tribal organisation of the ten-itorial owners of a tract peiTetuatejl m 
great integritv by the territorial org^anisation of the village menials, where 
all but its inemorv has died out among their masters It seems to me more 
than probable that in old days, when menials were l)Ound more closely to the 
tribes they served, the names of those tribes were used to distinguish the 
several groups of menials ; and that for instance Chamars serving i3hattis 
would be called Chamnr tribe Bhatti, and those serving Khokhars called 
Cham^r tribe Khokhar. When the bonds grew less rigid and a change ot 
masters became possible, the old name would be retained though t|ie reason 
for it had ceased to exist, and thus we should find Bhatti and Khokhai [P. 
Chamai-s scattered throughout the Province. In fact the process would be 
simply another instance of that substitution of the idea of sub3ection to a 
common authoritv for that of common blood as the basis of tribal ^ division, 
regarding which I have already quoted Sir H. Maine's language m section 
349. 

353. The Brahminical gotras. — 1 have >aid that among the piiestly and 
mercantile castes we find a set of divisions corresponding with the true 
tribal divisions of the landowning classes, which runs through the great 
geoo'raphical or social sections which I have described above. These divisions 
are, among the Khatris and A.roras, in all probability real tribes denoting 
common descent, or at any rate special association of some sort, at an earlier 
stage in the history of the caste, of the ancestors of all those who now 
bear the same tribal name. Among the Brahmans and Banyas these divisions 
are known as gotras, and it is not so certain that their origin, among the 
Banyas at least, is tribal. The word gotra, more commonly known under 
the corrupted form of got, means a family or lineage, the descendants from 
a common ancestor, and it also means a fioek, those who shelter within a 
common fold. The Brahmans say that their gotras are named after the 
great Hindu Rishis, though it does not clearly appear whether the members 
of each gotra claim descent from the Rishi whose name it bears as fron) a 
carnal or as from a si)iritual father. It is curious that the names of many 
of the founders of these gotras occur among the ancient genealogies of the 
prehistoric Rajput dynasties, the Rajas in question being not merely name- 
sakes of, but distinctly stated to be the actual founders of the gotra j and 
it would be strange if inquiry were to show that the priestly classes, like 
the menials just discussed, own their tribal divisions to the great families 
to whom their ancestors were attached.^ At any rate, whatever their origin, 
the Brahminical gotras have among the Brahmans become absolutely heredi- 
tary ; and every Brahman, whether Gaur, Sursiit, Dalvaut, or otherwise belongs 
to some one or other of these gotras. Thus, taking these great sections as 
tribes, the gotra is wider than the tribe ; and while new tribes and clans can 
be and are constantly being formed, no new go'ra is possible. ^ 

^ For a curious inbtaiice of classification of Erabniaiis into tribes by tbe couiuiand of a Rajput 
ruler, see the quotation from Mr. Barnes given on page 179. [Census Report.] 

' Is it possible tbat the gotra is a relic of descent tiivongli the female liuo, like the corre- 
spoiuVmg pba3uomenon among the Australian and North American Indians ? [Census Report.] 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. n 

Hut thf Biahuiinitjal (/oira extends far beyond the body of Brahmans; for 
the theory of the Hindu religion is that every Hindu, whatever be his 
caste, belongs to some one or otlier of them. The (j/oira thus defined is used 
only at marriage, on the occasion of sanl-al/n/, and in similar formal cere- 
monies; and the great majority of the Hindu peasantry do not so much 
as know that they have a pofra at all, much less what it is. But all the 
stricter Hindu castes, such as the Banyas and Khatris and Aroras, know and 
recognize their //otra. Indeed the Jianyas have, so far as I know, no tribal 
divisions within the great sections of Agarwal, Os^^■al and the like, except these 
Brahminical goh-as. Thus the question suggests itself whether the universal 
currency of the same set of gotras throughout the whole Brahman caste, and 
their adoption by the Banyas, is not due to a wish to conform with the rale 
of Hinduism just enunciated, rather than to any real community of descent 
denoted by a common gotra. In any case these gotras are of singularly 
little importance. Except to the priests and mercliants and to some of the 
stricter and more educated classes they menu little or nothing; while although 
to those priests and merchants they do stand in some degree in the place of 
tribal divisions, yet as they are in no way localised their significance is 
almost wholly religions, and the divisions which are really importiint among 
these castes are what I have calhxl the great sections. It matters little or 
nothing whether a Brahman, a Banya, or an Arora is of the Gautama or 
of the Bharadwaj gotra j what we really want to know is whether he is 
Gaur or Sarsiit, Agar^^■al or Oswal, Uttaradhi or Dakhani. The horrible 
trouble and confusion which resulted in the Census from the fact that the 
peasantry of the eastern Pan jab call their tribes by the same word got as 
is commonly used for the Bralnninical gntra^ will i)e noticed presently. 

354. Tribal divisions of womeHo— A curious question arose in the record 
of tribes in the Census schedules; namely, whether a woman changed her 
father''s tribal name for that of her husband on marriage. There is no doubt 
whatever that the Brahminical gotra follows that of the husband ; and the 
more educated enumerators, knowing this, often objected to record the got 
or tribe of the wife as different from that of the husband. I asked some 
of my friends to make enquiries as to the custom in various parts of the 
Province, but in many cases the got and gotra have evidently been confused 
in their investigations and rejdies. But on the whole the result seems to 
be as follows. With Brahmans, Banyas, Khatris, Kayaths, and Aroras 
the woman^s got follows that of her husband. But this is almost certainly 
the Brahminical gotra. In some of the eases it must be so, as the sec- 
tions do not intermarry, and there is nothing else to change. Among the 
Khatris it ^\•onld be interesting to know whether a Kapur woman marrying 
a Mahra m;\n would l)e considered a Ka})ur or a jMahra. Throughout the 
Western Plains Hindus change the clan; but here again they almost all 
belong to the castes mentioned above. In the hills and the sul)-montane 
tracts the tribe is certainly changed ; for in the lower hills there is a formal 
ceremony called got Jcnndla or "^ the tribal trencher,^' at which the w^omen of 
the tribe eat with the bride and thus admit her to the community. In the 
eastern districts the tribe is as co'tainly not changed at marriage, nor does a 
Ijov change it on adoption. It is born and dies unaltered with both man and 
woman. In Sirsa it does not change, for a man always speaks of his wife by 
her tribal and not by her personal nau\e; and the same custom olitains among 
the Dehli Gujars. On the other hand in Firozpur, which adjoins Sirsa, the 



n PANJAB CASTES. 

custom of got l-undla is said to obtain. Among the Musalmans of the west 
the tribe does not appear to change 1 .y marriage ; but if the wife is of standing 
which is nearly but not quite equal to that of her husband, she is often ad- 
dressed by courtesy as belonging to the tribe of the latter. The point is practi- 
cally important in this way. The diversity of custom which prevails, added to 
the interference of the educated enumerator, makes the record of tribal divisions 
for women of exceedingly uncertain value ; and it would have been better to 
tabulate the males only for the several tribes and clans. At a future Census 
the enumerator should be directed to record the clan or tribe of a married 
woman as stated by her husliaud, whether the same as his own or different. 

355. The tribal organisation of the people. — An extensive collection of [P. 188] 
facts bearing upon the tribal organisation of the people, together with a most 
valuable dissertation on the general subject, will be found in Vol. II of 
Mr. Tupper's treatise on Tanjab Customary Law. The Panjab affords a pecu- 
liarly complete series of stages between the purely tribal organisation of the 
Pathan or Biloch of the frontier hills and the village communities of the 
Jamna districts. The territorial distribution of the frontier tribes in the 
fastnesses of their native mountains is strictly tril al. Each clan of each tribe 
has a tract allotted to it ; and within that tract the families or small groups of 
nearly related families either lead a semi-nomad life, or inhabit mde villages 
round which lie the fields which they cultivate and the rough irrigation works 
which they have constructed. In these they have property, but beyond them 
there are no boundaries in the common pasture lands of the clan. Where the 
tribe or clan has occupied a tract within our border in sufficient numbers to under- 
take its cultivation, the distribution differs little from that obtaining beyond the 
border. We have indeed laid down boundaries which mark off areas held by 
groups of families ; but these boundaries are often purely artificial, and include 
hamlets which are united by no common tie and separated fi'om their neigh- 
bours by no line of demarcation save one based upon administrative conveni- 
ence. When however the tribe conquered rather than occupied the tract, 
and its cultivation is still in the hands of the people whom they subjugated, 
we find that they did almost exactly what we have done in the case last 
described. They drew arbitrary boundaries which divided out the land into 
great blocks or village areas, and each clan or section of a clan took one of 
these blocks as its share, left the cultivating population scattered in small 
hamlets over the fields, and themselves occupied central villages of some 
strength and size. These two types are found more or less prevailing through- 
out the Western Plains and Salt-range Tract. But in the great grazing 
groimds we find, perhaps even more commonly than either of these, a third 
type which is not based upon any sort of tribal organisation. A miscellaneous 
collection of cultivators have broken up the land and so acquired rights in it, 
or have been settled by capitalists who acquired grants of land on condition 
of bringing it under cultivation. This form of settlement was especially 
encom-aged under Sikh rule ; when the cardinal principle of administration 
was to crush the gentry, to encourage cultivation, and to take so much from 
the actual cultivator as to leave nothing for the landlord. 

356. In the east of the Province we find the village community about 
which so much has been written ; and nowhere perhaps in more vigorous per- 
fection than in the south-eastern districts. But it is a great mistake to 
suppose that the village community wholly supersedes tribal organisation. 
The tribal maps of the Panjdb when published will show how very generally 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 23 

tribes hold compact temtorieSj even where the village communities are 
strongest. Where this is the case the villages of the tribe constitute one or | 
more thapas, or tribal groups of village communities held together by feudal / 
ties and by the fact or fiction of conmion ancestry. Under the Mughals the 
revenue administration used to be l)ased upon these thapas, the revenue being 
assessed upon the group of villages as a vvhole, and being distributed among 
them by the headmen of the collective villages under the presidency of 
the headman of the parent village. So too, till our time the definite bound- 
aries which now separate each village from its neighbours were very indefi- 
nitely marked even in the cultivated tracts,, as is proved by the manner in 
which they zig-zag in and out among the fields ; while in the common 
pastures they were probably almost unknown, as to this day the cattle of 
neigh]:)0uring villages belonging to the same tribe graze in common without 
reference to boundaries. The following description of the thapa organisation 
is taken from my settlement report of Karnal. The vigorous organisation 
of the priestly and menial castes, based upon the tribal organisation of their 
clients and masters, is especially interesting with reference to the remarks 
made in sections 351-52. It would be interesting to know whether the same 
holds good with the mercantile castes. 

" A tribal community having obtainod possession of a tract, in course of time it would be 
" inconvenient foi' them all tj live together, and a part of the community would found a new 
" village, always on the edge of a drainage line from which their tanks would be filled. This pro- 
" cess would be repeated till the tract became dotted over with villages, all springing originally 
" from one parent village. The people de cribe the facts by saying that of several brothers one 
" settled in one village and one in another ; but this no doubt means that the parts of the com- 
" munity that migrated con<i<ted of integral families or groups of families descended in one 
" common branch from the ancestor. In this way were divided the many villages known by the 
" same name, with the addition of the words k dnn and khurd ^big and little). This by no means 
" implies that kalau is larger than khurd, but only that the elder branch settled in kalan. 

" The group of villages so bound together by common descent form a thapa, and are con- 
" nected by sub-feudal ties which are still recognized, the village occupied by the descendants of 
" the common ancestor in the clde t line being, however small or reduced in circumstances, still 
" acknowledged as the head. To this day when a headman dies, the other villages of the thapa 
" assemble to instal his heir, and the turban of the parent village is first tied on his head. When 
" Brabmans and the brotherhood are fed on the occasion of deaths, &c., it is from the thapa 
" villages that they are collected; and the Brabmans of the head village are fed first, and receive 
'• double fees. So among the menial castes, who still retain an internal organization of far greater 
" vitality than the higher ca-tes liow po=se s, the repi-esentative of the head village is always the 
" foreman of the caste jury which is assembled from the t'^ apa villages to hear and decide disputes. 
'•' In old days the subordinate villages used to pay some small feudal lees to the head village on 
" the day of the great Diwali. The head village is still called ' the great village,' the ' turban 
" ' village, ' ' the village of origin,' or ' the ftka village,' tika being the sign of authority formally 
" impressed in old days on the forehead of the heir of a deceased leader in the presence of the 
" assembled thapa. In one case a village told me that it had changed its thapa because there 
" were so many Brabmans in its original thapa that it found it expensive to feed them. I spoke 
" to the original tika village about it, and they said that no village could change its thapa, and 
" quoted the proverb' ' A son may forget his sonship ; but not ' a mother her motherhood.' " 

It is curious to note how the fiction of common descent is preserved when 
strangers are admitted into these tribal groups or village communities. The 
stranger who receives by gift a share of another's land is called a bhumbhdi or 
*' earth brother ; " and if a landowner of a tribe other than that of the 
original owners is asked how he acquired property in the village, his invariable 
answer is " they settled me as a brother.^' 

357. Marriage and intermarriage between tribes. — The restrictions upon 
intermarriage will be given in some detail in Part II of Chapter VII in 

^ Mr. Douie notes that the members of all the villages included in the thapa make offeriugg 
once a year at the Satti of the tika village. (See paragraph 220 supra.) 



24 PANJAB CASTES. 

treating of civil condition ; and it is unnecessary to repeat the information 
here. The custom as to intermarriage in the hills will be found described in 
the sections on Rajputs of the eastern hills; Rathis and Rawats^ and Kolis and [P- 184] 
Dagis ; while the curious rule against talcing a bride from a village marching 
with one^s own has already been discussed in section 136. The marriage 
customs of the people of Karnal will be found minutely described at pages 
127 to 134 of my settlement report on that district. A brief notice of some 
curious customs will be found in the present chapter under the head of Jats 
of the western sub-montane. The subject is one of great interest and value^ 
and sadly needs more detailed inquiry. Customs of this sort are of all others 
the most persistent, and often throw most valuable light upon the origin and 
affinities of the tribes. The reason why I allude to the subject in this place 
is, because I wish to point out how obviously the rules and customs regulating 
marriage point to the former existence of marriage by captiire and, perhaps 
less obviously, of an intermediate stage when the capture had become fictiti- 
ous, but the fiction was enacted with greater veri-similitude than now-a-days. 
Some of the suggestions I am about to make may very probably be fanciful ; 
but the general tendency of tlie facts is beyond the possibility of a doubt. 
The strict rule of tribal exogamy which still binds all classes both Hindu and 
Musalman throughout the Eastern Plains, excepting however the priests and 
traders who observe only tlie prohibitions of the Sanskiit scriptures ; especially 
the mle against marrying from a neighl)0uring village ; the formal nature of 
the wedding procession, Avliieh must be as far as possible mounted on horses, 
and in which only males niay take part ; the ])reparatory oiling of the bride- 
groom, the similar treatment of the bride bei)ig perhaps a later institution ; 
all point to marriage by capture. So does the use of the mark of the bloody 
hand at both villages. Tlie marking all the turnings from the village gate 
to the bride's house may be a survival of a very common intermediate stage, 
where the bridegroom visits the In-ide by stealth. The rule that the pro- 
cession must reach the girl's village after midday, and must not enter the 
village, but remain outside in a place allotted to them; the fight between 
the girPs and boy's parties at the door of the bride's house ; the rale that the 
girl shall wear nothing belonging to herself ; the hiding of the girl from the 
boy's peoj^le at the wedding ceremoiiy ; all jjoint to marriage by capture. 
So do the rule Ijy which the boy's party must not accept food at the hands of 
the girl's people after the wedding, and must \)^y them for what they eat on 
the succeeding night, and the fiction by which the girl's father is compelled 
to ignore all payment of money by the bridegroom's friends. The bloody 
hand stamped on the shoulder of the boy's father by the girl's mother 
as he depai-ts, and the custom AA'hieh directs the girl to go off bewailing 
some one of her male relatives who has lately died, saying " Oh my fa- 
ther is dead," or " Oh my brother is dead," are very marked ; as is the 
fight with sticks between the bride and bridegroom. Finally we have the 
rule that after the ceremonial goings and comings are over, the wife 
must never visit her fatlier's house without his special leave; and the fact 
that— 

" the village iuto wLieli his chniglitcv is inarried is utterly tabooed for Ler father, her elclev brother, 
" and all near older relatives. They niny )iot go into it or even drink water from a well in that 
" village, for it is shamei'ul to tnke anything from one's daughter or her belongings. Even her 
" more distant elder relations will not eat or drink from the house into which the girl is married, 
" though they do not taboo the whole village. The boy's father can go to the girl's village by leave 
" of her father, but not without." 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 25 

Similarlyj all words denoting male relations by marriage are commonly 
used as terms of abuse ; a,s, for instance; susra, sdla, bahnoi, jaiodi, or father- 
in-law, wife's brother, sister's husband, and daughter's husband. Of these the 
first two are considered so offensive, that they are seldom used in their ordi- 
nary sense.' 

358. Social intercourse between castes.— The rules regulating social inter- 
course between different castes as they exist in the Jamna districts are given 
in the following quotation from the Karnal Settlement Report. 

" Broadly spcakiiiji'. no superior tribe will eat or drink from tbc liaiids or vessels of an inferior 
" one, or smoke it> pipes. But the reputed puril yiug influence.-; of fire especially as exercised upon 
" ghi and sugar, and the superior cleanliness of metal over oartlicn vessels, are the foundation of a 
" broad distinction. .\U food is divided into palcJci roU, or fried 'Iry witli gltl, and Icachcliiroti, or 
'■ not so treated. 'I'lms, among the Hindus a Clujrati Hralnnan will eat paJeJci, bvxt not kach'chi 
" ;'0^', from a Gaur. a Gnur from a Taga, any Brahman or Taga from a lla.jput, any Brahmau, 
" Taga or Rajpiit from a .lat, Giijar, or Kor. Excepting Brahmans and Tagas, each caste will 
" drink water from a metal vessel if previously scoured with earth (nidnjna), and will smoke from a 
" pipe with a brass bowl, taking out tlie stem and using the hand with the fingers closed instead, 
" from the same people with whom tliey will eat pakJci bread ; but they will not drink or smoke 
" from earthen vessels, or use tlie same pipe-stem, except with those whose kachchi bread they can 
" eat. Jats, Gujars, Rors, Rahbaris and Ahi^rs eat and drink iu common without any scruples. 
" These again will eat a goldsmith's paJcM bread, Iiut not in his house ; and they used to smoke 
" with carpeTiters, but arc ceasing to do so. Musalmans have lately become much less strict about 
'' these rules as governing their intercourse among themselves, and many of them now eat from 
" any respectable Musalman's hand, especially in the cities. And, subject strictly to the above 
" rules, any ilusalmau will eat and drink without scruple from a Hindu ; but no Hindu will touch 
" either palJci or kaclichi from any Musalman, and will often throw it auay if only a Musalman's 
" shadow falls upon it, partly perhaps because Musalmans eat from earthen vessels, which no 
" Hindu can do unless the vessel has never been used before. This affords an easy mode of telling 
" whether a deserted site has been held by Musalmans or Hindus. If the latter, there will be 
" numbers of little eartlien saucers (rilcdlis) found on the spot. Brahmans and Rajputs will not 
" eat from any one below a Jat, Giijar, or Ror, while these three tribes themselves do not as a 
" rule eat or drink with any of tlie menial castes ; and the following castes are absolutely impure 
" owing to their occupation and liabits, ami their mere touch defiles food ; leather-maker, washer- 
•' man, barber, blacksmith, dyer {chJumpi), sweeper, clum, ami dhdnah. The potter is also looked 
'' upon as of doubtful piu-ity. The pipes of a village, being often left about in the common rooms 
" and fields, are generally distinguished by a piece of something tied round the stem— blue rag for 
" a Musalman, red for a Hindu, leather for a Chamdr, string for a sweeper, and so forth ; so that 
" a friend wLsliing for a smoke may not defile himself by mistake. 

" Qur and most sweetmeats can be eaten from almost anybody's hand, even from that of a 
" leather-worker or sweeper ; but in this case they must be whole, not broken." 

The extraordinary state of matters in the hills is described under the 
heads Hill Menials, and Kolis and Dagis. In the west of the Province, where 
all caste restrictions are so \2l\, any Musalman will eat from the hands of anv 
respectable member of the same faith, while even Hindus are raueh less strict 
than in the east. So in the Sikh tract also; but here the rale against a 
Hindu eating from the hand of a Musalman seems to be even more strict than 
in the east. In all parts of the Province and among all classes any sort of 
intercourse Mith the impure castes, Avhcther polluted by their occupatiim or bv 
the natiire of their food, is scrupulously avoided. 

Community of food is formally used as an outward and visiltle token of 

[P. 185] community of Idood ; and any ceremony in which the tribe, clan, or other 

agnatic group takes a part as such, generally includes some sort of formal 

1 Mr. Wilson writes : " There is a very general rule agaiust speaking of one's wife's father aa 
"'father-in-law' [siUra^. Tlie Musalmans of Sirsa call him 'uncle' (fdt/a or chdcha) ; the 
" Brahmans of Gurgaon, • Pandit .Ji ' or ' Misr Ji ; ' the Kayatlis, ' Rai Sahib ; ' Ihe Banyns, ' Lala 
'• Sahib ' or ' Sah .li ; ' the Meos, ' Chaudhri ' or ' Muqaddam ' or— a specially ^leo usage — dokra 
" or 'old man' ^sce Fallon) ; insomuch that if you call a Mco woman dohri, she will fly at you 
" with ' Do you call me your mother-in-law !'; while if you address her as burhj/i, which really 
*' means exactly the same thing, she will reply ' Very well, my son ! Very well ! ' '"' 



2« PAN.TAB CASTES. 

eating together or confarreatio, more especially when the object of the cer«- 
mony is to admit a new member into the group, as at adoption or mariiage.^ 

359 General distribution of agricultural castes.— Abstract No. 64 

on the next page- shows the general distribution of castes throughout the *P. 28-9. 
Province, the hgures representing the proportion borne by each group of 
castes to every thousand of total population. 

The distribution of each caste will be discussed more fully when the 
caste itself comes under consideration. It will of course be understood that 
the castes are grouped very roughly. Indeed it will be apparent from the 
following pages that any but the roughest classification is impossible, for not 
only is the class within which any given caste should fall incapal^le of exact 
definition, but it varies in different parts of the Province. Still some sort of 
classification was necessary on Avhich to arrange the chapter, and I have there- 
fore divided the various castes and tribes into three great groups. The first 
or landowning and agricultural group comprises half of the total population 
of the Panjab, and is even more important socially, administratively, and 
politically than it is numerically. It is divided into"^ six sections. The first 
includes the two great frontier races, the Eiloches and Pathans ; and with 
the latter I have taken the TanaoH, Tajik and Hazara_, as closely allied to 
them if not really entitled to be ranked with them. Next follows the great 
Jat race, and after that the Rajputs, with the Thakars and Rathis whom it is 
so impossible to separate from them, and one or two minor castes which are 
perhaps rather Rajput tribes than separate castes. The next class, the minor 
dominant tribes, includes all those castes which, while hardly less important 
in their particular territories, are less numerous and less widely distributed 
than the four great races already specified. Such are the Gakkhars and 
Awans of the Salt-range Tract, the Kharrals and Daudpotras of the Western 
Plains, the Dogars and Rors of the Eastern Plains, the Meos of Gurgaon, 
and the Gujars of the hills. Next follow the minor agricultural tribes, the 
Sainis, Arain^, Kanets, Ghiraths, Ahirs, Mahtams and the like, who, while 
forming a very important factor in the agricultural community of the Panjab, 
occupy a social and political position of far less importance thiin that of the 
dominant tribes. The last class is headed Foreign Races, and inchides Shekhs, 
Mughals, Tui-ks, and the like, most of whom perhaps have no real title to the 
name under which they have returned themselves, while many of them own 
no land and are mere artisans, though these cannot be separated fi-om the still 
greater number who are landowners. 

360. The distribution of these classes is very marked. The Biloches 
and Pathans are of course chiefly to be found in the trans-Indus districts ; 
but while the latter form the great bulk of the group in the districts where 
they prevail, the former, who have settled in the Province at a far more 
recent date, are accompanied by a very large class of inferior cultivating 
classes of all castes who are, in accordance with the custom of the lower 
Indus,^ grouped under the comprehensive name of Jat, a term whose signifi- 
cance is in these parts occupational as much as ethnic. Setting these districts 
aside, the Jats are to be found in greatest predominance in the great Sikh 
States and districts, and in the south-east of the Province in Rohtak and 
Hissar. In the sub-montane districts, the Salt-range Tract, and Kaugra, 

' For instance, the ceremony of ^^0^ Tcundla described in section 354. The eating together 
very commonly takes the form of a distribution of ^«;- or 8weatmeat<«. 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 27 

and throughout the cis-Indus districts of the Western Plains^ excepting 
Muzaffargarh which goes with the truns-Indus ,y:roup, the Rajput to a great 
extent takes the place of the Jat. In the Hill States^ with the exception of 
Chamba, Rajputs are few, and are ivnportant by their social and political 
position rather than by their numbers. But the figures are of no very certain 
significance, since the line of demarcation between Thakar and Rathi who 
have been classed with Rajputs, and Kanels and GIraths who have been 
classed as minor agricultural tribes, is exceedingly difficult to draw, and the 
abnormal figures for Chamba are due to this cause. The proportion of minor 
dominant tribes naturally varies from district to district, and their distribution 
is discussed in the section devoted to their consideration. The same may be 
said of th( minor agricultural castes, the group being too miscellaneous in 
its composition for its distribution to present very general features. But it 
is noticeable that where the Jat, who prefers to do his own cultivation is 
numerous, these castes are found only in small numbers, while they bear 
the highest proportion to total population in those tracts where the Hill 
Rajput, who looks upon agriculture as degrading, is most largely represented. 
Taking the landowning and agricultural castes as a whole, they form the 
largest proportion of the population in the trans-Indus districts ; and this 
is due to the freedom from occupational restraints which I have already 
noticed as prevailing on the frontier, a very large proportion of the industrial 
and menial work being done on the frontier by members of the dominant 
and agricultural tribes, and not, as in the rest of the Province, by separate 
castes. They are least numerous in the sub-montane tract and in the 
Eastern Plains, where they are assisted in the cultivation by a numerous 
class of village menials, and where, the Hindu religion being most prevalent 
and commerce most important, the religious and mercantile elements of 
societies are most numerous. 

361. General distribution of professional castes. — The next great group 

consists of the priestly, ascetic, professional, and mercantile castes, and includes 
people of very different social positions, from the priestly Brahman to the 
wandering pedlar. As a whole they occupy a position superior to that of the 
landowning classes if measured by a religious standard, for the great mercan- 
tile castes come next after the Brahmans in strictness of religious observance , 
but indefinitely inferior if the comparison be made from a social or political 
standpoint. The Brahmans are naturally most numerous in the Hindu and 
the iSaiyads in the Musalman portions of the Province, the former being 
extraordinarily numerous in the hills where Hinduism is stronger than in 
any other part of the Pan jab. The ascetic orders are chiefly to be found 
in the eastern and central districts, partly perhaps because they are more 
common among Hindus than among Mahomedans, but still more I suspect 
because it is in these districts that the wealth of the Province is concentrated, 
and in them that there is most hope for an idle man who wishes to live at 
the expense of his fellows. The minor professional group consists of Nais, 
187] Mirasis, Jogis, and the like, and its numbers are tolerably constant throughout 
the cis-Indus Panjab, while beyond the Indus it is hardly represented. Taking 
the professional groujo as a whole, and especially the religious element, its 
numbers decrease steadily from east to west ; chiefly because the Brahmans, 
who form an integral portion of the stock from which the Hindu population 
has chiefly sprung, are naturally far more numerous than the Saiyads, who are 
but foreign immigrants in the Panjab. The mercantile castes are found in 



28 



PANJAB CASTES. 





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so PANJAB CASTES. 

greatest abundance in the south-western districts ; not because commerce is 
there peculiarly extensive^ but because the Aroras, the principal mercantile 
castes of these parts, are not mere traders^ but largely follow all sorts of 
occupations both industrial and agricultural. Setting these districts aside 
the trading-castes are least numerous in the hills, where commerce is very 
much in the hands of the Brahmans. The miscellaneous class is largely 
composed of Kashmiris, who are chiefly to be found in thi districts on the 
Kashmir border, and in the great Kashmiri colonies of Amritsar and 
Ludhiana. 

362. General distribution of menial castes. — The last of the three 
groups comprises all the lower strata of society, the vagrant, criminal, and 
gipsy tribes, the village menials, and the industrial classes. I shall show 
when I come to discuss these castes in greater detail, how wholly impossible 
it is to class them by occupation with even approximate accuracy. Thus 
the classes into which I have divided them in the abstract have no very 
definite significance. Still certain broad facts are brought out by the figures. 
The vagrant tribes are chiefly to be found in two parts of the Province, on 
the Rajputana border and under the central and western hills. Among the 
village menial castes who perform so larg'e a part of the agricultural labour 
in the Panjab, namely the leather-workers, scavengers and watermen, the 
leather-workers prevail throughout the eastern districts, the hills and the 
great Sikh states. In the centre of the Panjab, and to a less degree in the 
Western Plains, their place is taken by the scavengers, and partly by the 
watermen. The menial and industrial class as a whole is most numerous in 
the hills where they have much of the cultivation in their hands, and in the sub- 
montane and central districts where wealth is greatest and the standard of 
cultivation highest. It is curiously scanty in the west, and particularly on 
the Indus frontier ; and this partly because, as I have already pointed out, 
the hereditary restrictions upon occupation are more lax, and the poor Pathan 
thinks it no shame to earn his bread by callings which would involve social 
degradation where caste-feeling is stronger ; but also very largely because on 
the lower Indus the menial who cultivates becomes a Jat by mere virtue of 
the fact, and is classed as such, whereas in the rest of the Panjab he would 
have retained his menial caste unaltered. In Sirsa, and to a less degree in 
Hissar, the exact opposite is the case. There the menial classes are more 
numerous than in the neighbouring districts because the tract is to a great 
extent newly settled, and land is so plentiful and the demand for agricultui'al 
labour so great that the lower classes have flocked into these districts, and 
though retaining at present their caste unaltered, have risen in the social 
scale by the acquisition of land or at least by the substitution of husbandry for 
menial callings. 

368. Arrangement and contents of the caste-chapter. — The rough 
classification adopted in Ai)stract No. 64 on the opposite page'^^' will serve as a 
clue to the arrangement of the detailed description of f he various castes. A 
complete index of castes and tribes will be found at the end of the volume. 
I shall close this part of the chapter by discussing the system adopted for 
the record of castes and tribes and their sub-division at the present Census, 
and the nature of the results obtained. The matter is one of considerable 
moment, and the system followed has been the subject of adverse criticism 
both within and without the Province. The tribal constitution of the popu- 
lation possesses much more political and administrative importance in the 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 31 

Panjab than in most other parts of Northern India, and indeed it may be 
said that the statistics which disphiy it arc almost the most valiTable results 
of a Panjab Census. The remaining- parts of the chapter will he devoted to 
an examination of the figures for each caste, and a description of the caste so 
far as my knowledge enaljles me to describe it. The crudencss and imper- 
fection of this portion of the work are to me a source of great regret. It is 
not only that our knowl'nlge is as nothing compared with our ignorance of 
the subject ; that is unavoidable. But 1 have to feel that of the information 
that I have collected only a portion has been utilised^ while even that portion 
has been hastily put on record without any attempt to arrange or dio-est the 
material. I had intended to make some attempt at classification of the 
various castes based in some measure upon what appeared to be their ethnic 
affinities, and to examine carefully the question of the probable origin of each 
with the help of the whole of my material ; and indeed I have carried out 
this intention to some extent with regard to the Biloch and Pathan tribes, 
the sections on which were written before orders regarding the early com- 
pletion of the report were received. But as regards the remaining castes and 
tribes the time allowed me was too short to permit of any such treatment 
of the subject ; and I was compelled to arrange the castes roughly in classes 
and to content myself with stating the leading facts regarding each. The 
chap<"er has been written backwards, l^eginning from the end, and I have not 
been able even to read over again what I had written before sending it to 
press. As I proceeded with the work faults in the classification became only 
too apparent, new lights were thrown upon what had gone before, and new 
facts were brought to light. There was no time to re-write what had once 
been wi-itten, and all that I could do was to add the new to the old. Thus I 
shall often be found to repeat myself, the sequence of ideas will often appear 
to be broken and irregular, and even conflicting statements may have escaped 
my notice. But the present chapter must be taken as only a rough preli- 
minary outline of the suljject. Detailed tables of tribes and clans are now in 
course of preparation which will embody all the sub-divisions of castes entered 
in the schedules of the present Census. Maps showing the distribution of the 
landowning castes and tribes have been prepared for each district and state 
and though it would have been impossible without great delay and expense to 
reproduce them with the present Report, I hope that the material thus 
collected will be more fully utilised on some future occasion. One apparent 
omission in my treatment of the subject calls for a word of explanation. I 
had prepared tables comparing the caste figures of the present with those of 
the last Census. But I found that the classification followed in 1868 had so 
evidently varied from district to district that the figures were devoid of any 
determinate meaning, and it would have been sheer waste of time to attempt 
any such comparison. To take one instance only, I find that in the Census 
of 1868, of 205,000 Musalman Jats returned for the Multan division, 
T. 188] 159,000 are in Muzaffargarh, 29,000 in Montgomery, 17,000 in J hang, and 
only 63 in Multan. In Dera Ismail Khan and Shahpur this column is 
actually blank. 

364. Scheme adopted for the record of castes and tribes— Unless I have utterly failed 
to express tlie iacts, a perusal of tlie foregoing paragraphs will have made it clear that we have 
three main units of social and ethnic classification to deal with in the Panjab ; the caste or race, the 
tribe proper, and what I have for want of a better word called the section of the caste. Now these 
three units are of very different value in different parts of the Province and among various classes 
of the_ community. In the east caste is of primary importance; among the landowning com- 
munities of the west it is little more than a tradition of ancient origin. Among the agricultural 



32 PANJAB CASTES. 

classes the tribe is most important, and in the west it is the one great fact to be ascertained ; 
among the priestly and mercantile classes il is almost meaningless, and what we want is the section 
of the caste. Wliat we did was to attempt to record all three facts, where they existed, intending 
afterwards to select our figures. If we had a-ked for two only we should have run the risk of 
getting one we did not want and missing one that we did want. Of two Khatri brothers one 
would hare returned himself as Khatri Kapur and the other as Khatri Charzati ; of two Brahman 
brothers one would have appeared as Brahman Sarsut and the other as Brahman Gautama ; of two 
Bilot-h brothers one would have lieeu recorded as Biloch Rind and the other as Biloch Laghari ; 
tabulation would liave given u< wholly meaningh'ss and imperfect figures. We therefore divided 
our caste column into three sub-columns headed ■' original caste or tribe, " " dan, " and •' got or 
sept." Now the first difficulty we encountered was the translation of the-e headings. In the east 
qaum is used for religion and z/it for caste ; in the west qaum for caste, zdt for tribe or clan. In the 
east qot is the universal word for trilie among the peasantry, insomuch that the na.iputs call their 
royal races not kult hut gots ; everywhere it is used by Brahmans, Banyas and the like for the 
Brahminical gotra ; in the west it is unknown >ave in the latter sense. As for the local term for 
smaller tribes or clans they vary almost from district to district and from caste to caste. After 
considting Commissioners we translated our headings ' usl qav.m,' ' zdt ya firqah,''got ya 
' shdJch.' The instructions issued for filling up these columns will be found in general letter C, 
Appendix D., section 5, at section 13 of the enclosed instructions to enumerators and at section 25 
of the enclosed instructions to supervisors. Tlieir general tenour was that the caste or race such 
as Eajput or Pathan was to be shown in the first, its principal section such as Bind, Gaur, 
Agarwal in the second, and its secondary sub-section such as Chauhan, Ghatwal, Bliaradwai in the 
third column ; that the .^'o^ if there was any was always to go into the third column ; and that 
where tliere was only one division the second column was to he left empty. The staff was warned 
against the loose use of the terms .Tat and Gujar as names of occupations, and it was explained 
that the * original caste ' column was intended to contain, not the caste of traditional origin, but 
the actual caste to whicli tlie people were recognized as now bidonghig. To these instructions was 
appended a sample schedule lilled up by M-ay of example. 

365. Errors in the record of castes and tribes.— I should explain that when I drafted 
tliese instructions I knew nothing of any portion of the Panjab except the Jamna districts, and 
had no conception how utterly different the divisions of the population and the relations between 
tribe and caste were in the west of the Province. For my sample schedule I procured specimens 
filled up by District and Settlement Officers from all parts of the Province, and consulted many 
natives of different castes, yet there were several mistakes in the schedule ; in fact I believe 
it would be impossible to frame a set of entries which should not contain errors if judged by the 
varying standards current in different parts of the Panjab. More than this, there were errors in 
the very examples given in the instructi us ; for I had not propei'ly apprehended the nahire of 
what I have called " sections, " and I did not rightly estimate the relation between the Eajput 
tribes of tl.i.- Faujab and the great huh or royal races. But the worst mistake of all was the use of 
the wjrd asl or " original " with ca<te, and the use of the word " got. " The addition of asl 
induced many of the tribes of the western districts and Salt-range Tract to return, not their caste, 
or tribe as it now stands, but the ilughal, Kureshi, or other stock from which they are so fond 
of claiming descent ; and it doubtless tempted many imdoubted Jats to record their Rajput origin. 
And the use of the word got set people to find out what was the Brahminical gotra of the person 
under enumeration. In the eastern districts the word was perfectly understood. But in tine hills 
and in the Western Plains it is only used in the sense of gotra. It did not matter that I had asked 
for <]ot or shdkh. The latter word is not commonly used in connection with family or tribe ; 
the former is ; and every enumerator insisted upon each person having a got. In Plach 
Ml". Anderson found a village all tutored as of one _9'o#ra, and that an uncommon one. "On 
" inquiry from the people themselves they said they really did not know what was their got, but 
" tliat some one in the village had consulted the Brahmans at Nirmand, who told him he was of 
" the Pethinesi got, and the whole village followed him. The headman of the village when asked 
" of what got he wa~, could not even pronounce tlie word. The better and more intelligent 
" classes know their /7o/ .9, and others did ncit wish to be behind them. " Xow all this trouble was 
obviously caused liy asking for i\\G gotra. AVhat I wanted, and what I said I wanted plainly 
enough in the instructions, was the tribe or sub-division of the caste ; and that the people could 
probably have given readily enough. What was needed was to substitute tlie local term, whatever 
it might have been, for got or -^hakh ; but the people knew what a got was, even if they did not 
know what was their got, and lieuce the confusion. Another great cause of error was the 
insistence with which the Census Staff demanded that all three columns should he filled up for each 
person. I had said that I only wanted two entries where there was no >ccond sub-division, as is 
the case in a very lai-ge number of cases, l)ut that did not mattter ; the columns were there with 
separate headings, and one after another the District Officers in their reports point out the diffi- 
culty of getting entries for all three, the reason being that in many cases there were only facts 
enough f'lr two. The result i« that many of the Jats entered as the third bending the name of the 
Rajput tri))e from wliicli they claim to liave sprung. And another most fertile cause of error mu^t 
have been tlie ettbrts that were made to attain uniformitv, In many districts committees weje 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 33 

lield and n sclicine of entries decided upon and prescribed for the guidance of all enumerators. I 
have discussed tlu; danger of all such attempts in my section ou Difticulties and Suggestions in 
Chapter XIII under the head ' Discretion to be allowed iu enumeration. ' P]duoated natives are 
almost more apt tlian we ourselves to go wrong iu such mattersj for we at least are free from 
prejudice and are ready to admit our ignorance ; and a comniittco composed of the Tahsildars and 
Extra Assistants of a district with power to decide upon the entries of caiites and tribes, would 
ensure with absolute certainty the ruin of a caste Census as au independent means of acquiring 
information. 

366. Inherent difflcultles of a record of caste.— But even supposing that I had not umde 
any mistakes in my instructions and examples, and supposing that they had been rigidly followed 
according to their intention, the difficulties inheieut iu the case are still so enormous that a really 
accurate record which should be correct in all its details wouhl have been quite beyond hope of 
attainment. I have attempted to show in the preceding pages that it is almost impossible to 
define a caste aud difficult to define a tribe, and that it is often impossible to draw a clearly marked 
line between two castes of similar standing. In fact the tribe proper is afar more definite and 
permanent unit than the caste. Mr. St^edmau, who has criticised the scheme more severely 
and at greater length than any other officer, sets forth the difficulties so ably and completely that 
I quote the passage iu full : — 

" With the exception of the three columns relating to caste no difficulty was found in filling 
" the schedules up. It will be understood that my remarks regarding these three columns are 
" solely applicable to the Western Panjab. 1 have had no experience in the Panjab east of the 
" Eavi. Having spent three years in Gujrat, 3J in Jhang, and 2 in Dera Ismail Khan, I think 
" that my remarks will apply to the Mahomcdan population of most districts west of the 
" Chenab. 

" These three columns assume, as Mr. Finlay very truly wrote, that the zemindars know far 
" more about their ancestry and ti'ibal divisions tliat they actually do. I do not deny that the 
" three columns could be filled up correctly for each caste by an intelligent enumerator who 
" understood exactly what was wanted, and who was acquainted with the tribes whose members 
" he had to enumerate ; but the Census economy prohibited the employment of men of this stamp, 
" There are a considerable number of Mahomedan Piajputs in the Western Panjab, known as Syals 
" or Chaddhars in Jhang, Janjuhas, Bhakhrals, Budhals, Satis, Dhunds, Alpials, Jodras, &c., &c., 
" in the Rawalpindi Division. Now any member of these tribes if asked what his ' kaum ' was 
" would reply Bhakhral or Sati, &c., as the case might be. Or he might very probably give the 
" sub-division to which he belonged. A Syal would be sure to answer thus. You would iu nine 
" cases out of ten have to put some distinctly leading question before you ascertained whether he 
" claimed to be a Rajput or not. The result is that sometimes Rajput the ' asl kaum, ' some- 
" times ' Syal ' the clan, aud sometimes Chachkana the sept or family, is entered in the first of the 
" three sub-divisions of column 7 : I noticed many entries of this description. In fact most of 
" the Rajputs of this district would give Rajpiit as their ' got, ' placing their tribe as the ' asl 
" kaum.' Entries of this description naturally depreciate the tabulation results considerably. 

" Similar errors crept into the entries of the village artisans. A man may ply the trade of a 
" weaver, oil-presser, or shoe-maker without being a weaver, oil-presser, or shoe-maker, by caste. 
" In Jhang weaving had been taken to as a livelihood by many persons who were not 
"of the weaver tribe. Yet many of these I have no doubt will be put down as weavers 
" in the * asl kaum ' column. Again men of these low castes are very fond of claiming 
" relationship with the higher tribes, especially those of Rajput origin. I saw many entries 
" such as these — 'asl kaum' Mochi * zat ' Janjuha, Bhatti. Awan, &c. Now Janjuhas and 
" Bhattis are Rajputs. If the Mochi was a Janjiiha originally his ' asl kaum ' is Rajput, 
" his zat Janjuha, and shoe-making is his trade. If he is a Janjuha by fiction then 
"Janjuha must be put down as he states. Shekhs, i.e. converted H Indus, or men of low caste 
" who have risen in the world, also advance most ungrounded claims in the way of descent 
" Apparently there is no escape from these difficulties in the c;iBe of village artisans, Shekhs, and 
" other similar tribes ; but in the case of agriculturists I think more definite instructions would 
" ha\o left the tabulation entries nuich more trustworthy. 

" I now venture to criticise some of the specimen entries attached to the enumerator's in- 
" structions. The entries opposite the name of Mahomed Ibrahim are 1, Rajput ; 2, Syal ; 
«' 3, Panwar.^ I can confidently assert that not one man in a hundred of the Syals is aware that 
«' he IB a Panwar Rajpvit. I wonder if there are ten men who have heard they are descended from 
'' this got of the Rajput tribe. I know exactly what ausv.ers an enumerator would get from a 
«' representative Syal zamindar. Question. — What is your tribe (A;aM»i) ? Answer. — Bharwana -. 
•' Question. — What is your clan (xdt) ? Answer. — Syal. Question. — What is yoiu- family {got or 
«' shdlch) ? Answer.— QtoHi only knows. He will inevitably give his sub-division as his asl kaum 

* This is one of the mistakes I have already referred to. The «iUtry should have been ^' Mdj' 
p tit—Funwdr — Sid I." 



84 PANJAB CASTES. 

" and his dan as his zdf. Nothing less than a direct question as to whether he is a Eajput or a 
" Jat will elicit from him the fact that he is a Eajput. As for ' got ' he prohahly has never heard 
" the word. The truth is that the present Mahomedan trihes of the Western Pan.-jah, though 
" iramigratits from Hindustan, have forgotten their 'pots' entirely and very often their' asl 
" ' kaum.' In some few instances only is the name of the ' flot ' preserved, and then the tribesmen 
" are quit« unaware that their tribal name is that of their old ' get.' 

" The next question is. What arc the asl Tcaums in each district ? I notice that in one of the 
" specimen entries Gujar is so entered. There are various theories as to whether the Gujar is a 
" separate tribe of Tartar or Hindu oridr, or whether it is an offshoot of the great Jat tribe. In 
" Jhang and D era Ismail Khan and Sliahpur the JMahomedan agriculturists are usually divided 
" into Rajputs and Jat? in local parlance. I mean that if a Rajput i-; asked whether he is a Jat 
" he will at once denv it, while a Jat admits that he is a member of the tribe. I do not mean to 
" assert that, excluding Rajputs and other tribes who ha\e migrated from the other side of the 
" Indus, all other agriculturists must be Jats ; but if they are not I ask who are the numerous 
" tribes who reside in the Chach and Siud Sagar Doabs and along the left hank of the Chanab ? 
"What is their as/ Tcanm'^ Their Hindu origin is undoubted. They are not Rajputs. If' they 
" were they would claim their relationship. I have not room here to go fully into this question. I 
" have noticed it in the Final Report of the Jbang Settlement. But my object is I think attained, 
" and that is to indicate how vcr^' nece-^sary it is that instructions should be given separately for 
"each district as to « hat tribes are to be considered' Asl kavun.' Take the Khokbars. They are 
" an inflnential tribe in Jhelam, Shahpur, and Gujrat. Are they converted Rajputs as many 
" claim, or descendants of the son-in-law of the prophet as the Shahpur Khokbars state, or mere 
" Jats as their enemies allege. In the second case only can they be an asl kaum. If in the 
" tabulation of different districts the tribe is sometimes entered as an ' asl kaum ' and at others as 
" a branch of the Rajput and Jat tribes, the results are likely to be misleading. Then again there 
" are tribes who are admittedly of ancient standing and yet have no traditions. Who are these ? 
'' It is not unlikely that they were the original inhabitants before the immigration of the Hindu 
" settlers. As far as my limited experience goes I think it would be an easy matter to settle this 
" point beforehand for all the main tribes of each district, and also to give a few general instructions 
" as to how doubtful tribes were to be treated. The question Are you a Rajput or a Jat ? would 
" clear up most cases of doubt where the tribe was originally Hindu, the enumerator being warned 
" of the custom of calling all agriculturists Jats. Then all tribes who came from the other side of 
'' the Indus would also be ' a«l kaum, ' the Pathans, Biloches, Muglials, &c. The village Kamins 
'' would al=o be included in the same list. Here the enumerators would he warned to ask the 
'' individual whether he was a Kamin by trade only or both by trade and tribe.' I would 
'' arbitrarily class all agriculturists who admitted that they were not Rajpvits and who were of 
" undoubted Hindu origin, as Jat^. This clas'^ification is perhaps not ethnologically accurate, but 
" every Patwari and most zamindars would understand what is meant. I think too for the 
" Mahomedan population two columns would have been enough. It seern'^ unnecessary to ascer- 
" tain the numbers of each sub-division. We want to know the total Syal, Ghakkar, and Awan 
" population. I do not think much is gained by working out returns showing the total popnlation 
" of the Bharwana, Chvichkana, Adnial, Firozal, aiid Bugdial families. There are no restrictions on 
" iotermarriage between members of the different families." 

I have already explained the reason why three columns were taken instead of two. We 
wanted two facts only ; but we wanted to make sure of getting them in the many cases where 
three facts were available and one was not wanted, by recording all three and rejecting for 
ourselves the useless one ; otherwise if we had had two columns only, one of them might have been 
wasted on the useless fact. As it was, one of our three C'^himns was commoidy occupied by the 
name of some wholly unimportant sept or family. And I do not agree with Mr. Steedman in his 
proposal to issue detailed instructions concerning the agricultural tribes of each district. 
Who is to issue them ; and how is it to be ensured that the same tribe is classed similarly in two 
(Cerent districts ? 

867. Reasons why the scheme did not work. — I think that on the whole the scheme was 
the b( st Ihat could have been adopted ; and if it had been possible to carry it out to the end as 
it had been intended to do when the instructions were framed, I believe that results of very con- 
siderable accuracy would have beou obtained. Wliat was intended was this — to record every- 
thing;, to tabulate "all the entries, and /^f-ii to classify them throughout and produce the results 
as the final ca-^te table. Thus, supposing one man bad entered himself as Jat Bhatti and 
another as Rdjput Bhatti, or one man as Qureshi Khattar, another as Awan Kbattar, 
and a third as Qutbshahi Khattar, we sh( uld have tabulated them all separately, and then classed 
them as might be decided upon after cons; lertitiun and inquiry. It was not expected that the 
material would l)e properly arranged in tl c schedules ; l)ut we hoped that it would all be recorded 

1 Would not this suggest to the artisan the setting up for himself of a mythical origin from 
some aaste of glorious renown ? 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 35 

there, to be arranged afterwards. But when we came to examine the schedules we found that 
the separate entries in the caste column alone were numbered by thousands, while the sub- 
divisions were nnmlicred by tens of thousands. I certaiidy had not, and I do not believe that any 
body else concerned had, tlie very faintest conception of how numerous the entries would be. At 
any rate it was obviously quite out of the ((uestion to tabulate and examine them all before com- 
pilation ; and what was done was to deal with the entries in the first or caste column only, so far 
as the compilation of the final Census Table VIII was concerned. Even those entries I was com- 
jielled, for reasons given in the Chapter on Tabulation, to allow the Divisional Officers to class'fy 
for themselves where there appeared to be no reasonable doubt as to the classification. With tlie 
headings for which tliey returned separate figures I dealt as is described in the Cliapter on Com- 
pilation. The figures for the sub-divisional entries were tabulated in detail ; but only certain 
selected entries were taken out to bo used in the Census Report, the principles on which the selection 
was made being explained in the Cliapter on Compilation. 

368. Nature and degree of error in the flnal figures. —Thus the figures as now given in 
the abstracts and appendices of this report are liable to error in several ways. In the first place 
many members of a caste or tribe entered as their caste some race to which they are pleased to refer 
their origin in remote antiquity. For instance, some Gakkhars returned themselves as Gakkhar and 
others as Mughal, and are shown under those headings respectively in the final tables, which there- 
fore do not give the total niimbcr of Gakkhars in the Panjab. So some low caste men returned their 
caste as Eajpiit or Mughal or Quiesh ' out of joke ' a-i several Deputy Commissioners note. On the 
other hand some men of good caste, such as Sial, Khokhar, or Mughal, who were following the 
trade of weaver or carpenter, returned their caste as Paoli or Tarkhan, though the adoption of that 
hereditary occupation had been in many cases too recent to have brought about a change of caste. 
This last error was for the most part confined to the Western Plains. Again, persons who 
belonged to the same tribe and returned that tribe as their caste will have been diiSerently 
classed in difPerent divisional offices, or classed under one heading in one division and returned 
separately and then classed by myself under another heading in another division. Thus the 
Bhattis will have been classed as Jats by the Dcrajat and as Eajputs by the Eawalpindi office. 
So the Langahs were classed as Jats in Multan, while the Derajat returned them separately and 
I classed them as Pathans. These errors however aifect only those cases where the tribe was 
returned and not the caste. Where a man returned himself as Jat, Rajput, Pathan and so forth, 
he was treated as such although the tribe he gave might raise suspicion as to the correctness of 
the returns. Moreover the errors, if they must he so called, do represent actual facts. The 
IShatti is a Rajput in Rawalpindi because there Rajputs are recognised. In the Dcrajat he is 
a Jat, because there no distinction is drawn between Jat and Rajput. And it must be remembered 
that though the cases in which the errors detailed above occurred are numerous^ the total figures 
affected are seldom large. There were certainly hundreds, I believe there were thousands of 
so-called castes returned in the Multan division which only included ten or fifteen people in the 
whole division. The great mass of each caste returned themselves rightly and are shown correctly 
in our tables : the items that are wrongly clashed are wholly insignificant in their total amount as 
compared with the items that are rightly classed. But there are exceptions to this statement. 
The distinction between Jat and Eajpiit is so irdefinite and so variable that it can hardly be 
called a mistake to class a tribe as Jat in one place and Rajput in another. This however has 
been done. But I have picked out the figures in each case and put them side by side in the 
ah-tracts contained in the Fcction on these two castes, and I think the error which has not been 
corrected may be taken as exceedingly fmall. It is now in each man's power to transfer the 
figures for any tribe from Jat to Rajpiit or vice versd, according to individual taste. The other 
chief exceptions are in the case of Mughals and Shekhs. For Shekhs I was prepared. I knew 
that all sorts of low caste men, recent converts to Islam, would return themselves as Shekh ; 
and I had the figures examined with a view to separate these, and the details will be found in 
the text of this chapter. But I did not know that in some parts of the western Panjab Mughal 
was as favourite a supposititious origin as Shekh is m other parts of the Province, and I have not 
had the details worked out so carefully. Still almost all the large numbers have been separated 
from these two entries. So with Pathims. Many people, such as Dilazak, have returned them- 
selves as Path<ans who do not really belong to the race ; but their claim to the name is often admitted, 
and they have become in a way affiliated to the nation. Thus the considerable errors in the caste 
tables, as corrected in this chapter, anu unt to this ; that there is a confusion between Jat and Raj- 
pvit and between Pathdn and certain allied races, which exists in actual fact fully as much as in the 
figures ; that some tribes or castes have been wrongly shown as Mughal and Shekh ; and that some 
ot the artisan castes have been shown as belonging to the higher castes, Avhile some of the higher 
castes have been included in the artisan castes merely because they followed their occupation. 
Taking the Province as a whole the errors are probably insignificant, and hardly affect the 
general distribution of the population by caste. They are probably greatest in the cis-Indus Salt- 
range tract, where the tendency to claim Mughal origin m strongest. 

369. Error in the figures for tribes and sub-divisions.— The figures for tribes and 
Bub-divisions given in this chapter are professedly only rough approximations. The manner in 

d2 



36 PANJAB CASTES. 

which they were tahulated and the final figures compiled will he explained iu Book 1 1 under the 
heads Tabulation and Compilation. The whole process was intended to he mei'ely a rough one. 
The detailed tabulation is now in progress, and I hope wii.hin the next few years to bring out 
detailed tables of tribes and clans for the whole Panjab. Rut beiides inaccuracies that will have 
crept into the wcrk of tabulation, there are several causes of error inherent in the material. In 
the first place the spelling of local names ol" tribes, a^ rendered by the enumerating staff, varied 
extraordinarily. Some were evidently mere variations, as Dhariwiil, Dhaliwal and Dbaniwal ; 
some I knew ito represent separate tribes, as Sidhu and Sindhu, Chhi'na and Clu'ma ; some I an\ 
still in doubt about, as Biita and Bhutta, Sara and Sarai. In working with a staff not always 
acquainted with tlie names of the clans, figures referring to two different tribes must often 
have been .-joined together, and other figures wrongly omitted because of some variation 
in the spelling. Another source of error doubtles-: was the uncertainty regarding the 
woman's clans discussed iu section 354. On a future occa-iou I would tabiJate sub- 
divisions of castes for males only. Again many of the people are presented twice over 
in two columns. Thus the Sial are Puuwar Eajpiits by origin. Suppose tbat 1,000 Sials 
returned themselves as Rajput Punwar Sial, auother thousand as Sial Puuwar, another 1,000 
as Eajpiit Sial, and a fourth 1,000 as Rajput Punwar. All the 4,000 people would be shown iu 
Table' VIII as Rtljput ; but in the details of tribes we should have 3,000 Sial and 3,000 
Punwar or 6,000 in all. This was quite unavoidable so long as only one tribal division was 
tabulated ; hut as a fact the cases in which this happened were few, or at least the numbers 
affected small. I had all cases iu which the same people were entered twice over shown in a 
separate memorandum attached to the tribes table, and wherever the numljers were at all con- 
siderable I have mentioned the fact of their double inclusion in the text. This double entry 
occurred most often with the Jat tribes, who, in order to fill up their three columns, entered the 
Rajput tribe from which they claimed origin as well as their own Jat tribe, so that we had 
peDple retiirning tliemselves ai Jat Sidhu Bhatti, and sucli people appear among the Jat tribes 
both as Sidhu and as Bhatti. 

370. Proposals for next Census. — What then is best to be done at next Census ? It will 
be seen that many of the difficulties are due to the intrinsic difficulty of the question and to the 
varying nature of caste in the Pan jab. So far as this is the case no scheme will help us. 
In one respect, however, 1 hope that the task will be made much easier by next Census. I hope 
by then to have brought out classified lists of all the tribes and clans returned in the present Census. 
The way in which they will facilitate the treatment of the subject is explained in the section on 
Tabulation. If I had had such a classified list my task on this occasion would have been easy enough ; 
and it is I think one of the most valuable results of the present Census that it has given us 
materials for the preparation of such a list. Witli such a list the three columns of the schedule of 
1881 are almost perfect in theory. But 1 do not think they worked as well in practice. I believe 
that the three columns which tliey erroneously tliought thoy were hound to fill up, puzzled 
both people and staff, and caused a good many of our difficulties. Thus iu future I would have 
but two columns, and would head them Quam and ShdJch. I would not care whether caste or 
tribe was entered in the first column, as the classified list would show the tabulator how to class 
the tribe J and I would hope that the second column at any rate would generally give tribe. 
In very many cases it would not. There would be entries like Biloch Rind instead of Biloch 
Laghari, Brahman Bashisht instead of Brahman Sarsiit, Banya Kasih instead of Banya Agarwal, 
and so forth. But on the whole I think it would be better to accept the fact that the entries 
must ho incomplete, whatever scheme be adopted ; and would prefer the certainty of error of the 
two columns, rather tb an the confusion and perplexity which the three columns cause to those 
concerned in the enumeration. Above all things I would avoid the words asl and oot. I would 
let the patwaris, who shoiild make the preliminary record, exercise their discretion about entering 
high castes for menials or artisans, directing them to show the caste by which tlie people were 
commonly known in the village. I would tabulate both males and females for tribes and clans, 
and arrange them in order of numbers ; and 1 would have the Deputy Superintendent personally 
examine the tribal tables for all above say 500, before compiling his final caste tables. Such 
an examination would do an immense deal towards increasing the accuracy of the caste figures ; 
but it was impossible in tlie pi'esent Census owing to the double sub-division. I would show in 
njy tribal tables tlie figures for males only, though those for females must he tabulated in the 
first instance in order to allow of transfer of entries from one caste heading to another, 

371. Bibliography. — The most detailed and accurate information available in print regard- 
ing certain, aud those the most important from an administrative point of view, of the Panjab 
castes is to be found in tlie numerous Settlement Reports, and more esjiecially in those of recent 
years. Unfortunately they deal almost exclusively with the landowning and cultivating castes. 
Sir H. Elliott's Races of the N. W. P., edited by Mr Beames, is, so far as it goes, a mine of 
information regarding the castes of the eastern districts. Sherring's Ilindu Castes contains 
much information of a sort, the first volume being really valuable, but the second and third being 
infinitely less so ; while the whole is rendered much less useful than it might be by the absence 
of any index save one that maddens the anxious inquirer. On the ancient form of the institution 



CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 37 

of Caste, Wilson's treatise on Indian Caste, and Vol. I of Muir's Sanskrit Texts are the 
authorities. The second volume of General Cunningham's ArcJiceological Reports has a dis- 
sertation on Punjab Ethnology by way of introduction, and there are many small pamphlets 
which contain useful information. But on the whole it is wonderful how little has been 
published regarding the specially Panjab castes, or indeed regarding any of the menial and out- 
cast classes. Sir Geo. Campbell's Indian Ethnology I have not seen ; but it should be instruc- 
tive. At the head of the section on Pathaus and Biloches I have noticed the books which may 
be most usefully consulted. In the case of the other castes I know of no works that deal with 
any one particidar, or indeed with our Paiijab casi^es iu general save those specilied above. 



38 



panjab castes. 



PART II.— THE BILOCH. PATHAN. AND ALLIED 

RACES. 



372. Introductory and General.— Of the Panjab castes and tribes I shall [P. I9i] 
first discuss the Biloch and Pathan who hold all our trans-Indus frontier, and 
with them two or three races found in tho Province only in small numbers 
whichj though not Pathan by origin or indeed in name, have by long associa- 
tion with the Pathans become so closely assimilated to them that it is best to 
take them here. The figures will be found in Abstract No. 65 below : — 

Abstract No, 65, showing Biloches, Pathans, and Allied Races for 
Districts and States, 







FiflTTRP*? Peopoetion per 1,000 op Total 












POPULATION. 




IS 


6 


54 


145 


183 


18 


6 


54 


145 


183 




4 




"tj 


4 


"■03 




i 




4 


1 


r« 


^03 








o 


53 




• r-a 


ts 


o 


:§ 


a 


*r-s 


2 H 


< 




r72 


is 


s 


^e3 


« .r? 


« 


03 


^lS 


^ o 


(8 




pq 


Ph 


H 


_H_ 


W ! pq 


PU( 


H 


H 


n 


H 


o 


Delhi 


1,318 


15,969 


... 


1 


2 


25 






25 


27 


Gurgaon 


2,166 


4,945 


... 




3 


8 






'.'.'. 1 8 


11 


Kanial 


440 


5,898 






^^ 


... 1 


9 


... 






9 


10 


His-^r 


554 


2,416 






1 


5 








5 


6 


Rohtak 


1,986 


5,155 






4 


9 








9 


13 


Sirsa 


1,380 


1,554 


... 




5 


6 








6 


11 


Ambala 


1,070 


9,845 


... 




1 


9 








9 


10 


LtidbUua 


425 


3,629 






1 


6 








6 


7 


Simla 




1,420 










33 




... 




33 


33 


Jalandhar 


379 


4,808 










6 








6 


6 


HuqhvRrpur 


94 


7,514 






.. 




8 


> • • 






8 


8 


Kdngra 


40 


1,095 












1 


... 






1 


1 


Amritsar 


548 


4,349 










1 


5 








5 


6 


Gurclaspur 


124 


9,784 






" 1 ... 




12 








12 


12 


Sialkot 


339 


4,118 










4 








4 


4 


Lahore 


5,247 


6,976 






1 


6 


8 


... 






8 


14 


GujranwaLi 


2,800 


912 








5 


1 


... 






1 


6 


Firozpur 


1,766 


3,122 








3 


5 


... 






5 


8 


Rdwalpiudi 


906 


36,465 


3 


11 


1 


44 




. 


44 


45 


.Tehlatn 


2,840 


4,618 


1 




5 


8 


... 


... 




8 


13 


Gujrat 


886 


2,033 


... 




1 


3 








3 


4 


Shabpnr 


8,865 


3,076 


... 


... 


21 


7 


... 






7 


28 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 



39 



Abstract No. 65, showing Biloches, Pathans, and Allied Races for 
Districts and States— conchded. 







FiauBES. 






Pkopobtion per 1,000 


OF Total 














POPPLATIOX. 






18 


6 


54 


145 


183 


18 

.si 
o 
o 


6 

a 

.a 

eS 


54 

a 


145 


183 

g 

S3 


t4 
■< 

H 



a 




4 


1 


a 




2 

N 


•< 

P5 




n 


Pi 


s 


H 


M 


pq 


16 


H 


H 


W 


H 





Multan 


18,547 


9,067 








34 






... 


16 


50 


Jhang 


15,093 


1,710 






... 


38 


4 




... 




4 


42 


Montgomery 


13,513 


1,987 








32 


5 




... 


... 


5 


37 


Muzaff argarh . . . 


58,356 


3,959 








172 


12 








12 


184 


Derah Ismail 


41,356 


73,022 








94 


165 








165 


259 


Khan. 


























Derail Ghazi 


115,749 


9,871 








319 


27 


... 




... 


27 


346 


Kban. 


























Ban mi 


2,189 


141,022 




... 


... 


7 


424 


... 




... 


424 


431 


Peshawar 


449 


276,656 


1,366 


1,889 


358 


1 


467 


2 


3 


1 


473 


474 


Hazara 


33 


64,695 


39,981 


147 


• • • 




159 


98 


... 


257 257 


Kohat 


504 


116,431 


37 






3 


640 




.., 




640 


643 


British Territory 


299,962 


838,233 


41,388 


2,048 


359 


16 


44 


2 


... 




46 


62 


Patiala 


1,134 


6,647 






... 


1 


5 








5 


6 


Nabha 


295 


1,691 


> . • 


• •€ 




1 


7 




. t • 


• •• 


7 


8 


Kapurtbala 


80 


1,125 




• •• 


... 




4 




.. 




4 


4 


Jind 


193 


1,126 




... 




i 


5 




• •• 




5 


6 


Maler Kotla 


... 


1,165 




... 


... 


... 


16 




... 


... 


16 


16 


Total East. Plains 


2,099 


14,196 








1 


6 


... 




... 


6 


7 


Bahawalpnr 


53,175 


5,567 








93 


10 




... 


... 


10 


103 


Total Hill States 


2 


1,586 




... 




... 


2 




... 


... 


« 


2 


British Territory 


299,962 


838,233 


41,388 


2,048 


359 


16 


44 


2 






46 


62 


Native States 


55,276 


21,349 








14 


g 






• ■. 


6 


20 


Province 


355,238 


859,582 


1,388 


2,048 


359 

i 


16 


38 


"2 


... 


... 


40 


56 



[P. 192] 



These two great natious, the Pathan and Biloch, hold the whole countiy 
to the west of the Paujab, the latter lying to the south and the former to the 
noi-th of a line drawn from the western face of the Sulemans opposite 
Derah Ghazi Khan almost due west to Quetta. But in the trans-Indus 
valley and on the Panjab face of the Suleman Range the Biloches have 
pushed much further north than this,, and the southern border of the 
Derah Ismail Khan tashil roughly marks the common boundary, while on this 
side the river the Biloches again stretch somewhat further to the north than 
on the other. On either bank their common frontier is lield by a tribe 
of mixed affinities, the Khetran being Biloch in Derah Ghazi, Pathan 
in Derah Ismail, and probably of Jat origin in ])0lh ; while in the t/ial 
the southernmost Pathan tribe is the Baluch, which is probably of Biloch 
descent. 



40 PANJAB CASTES. 

These two great races present many features of unusual interest. Among 
both the tribal organisation still siu'vives^ in parts at least; in the most 
complete integrity, and affords lis examples of one extreme of that series 
which terminates at the other in the compact village communities of our 
eastern districts. jMoreover the intense tribal feeling of the Biloch and 
Pathan and the care with which they keep up their genealogies, enable us to 
point to both nations for undoubted examples of the process by which a race 
possessed of pride of blood in an extreme degree affiliates to itself sections 
of other races, gives them a place in its tribal organisation on condition only 
of subjection to the sitpreme authority, and after a time invents a fiction 
of common descent by which to account for their presence. There can 
be little doul^t that the process which we know has taken j)lace among the 
Pathan and Biloch has not been without examj^les among the other races 
of the Panjab, and that aboriginal, Mongol, and other elements have in a 
similar manner been absorbed into the tribal or caste organisation of the Aryan 
stock. 

373. The Pathans and the Biloches are both foreigners in the Pan jab 
proper, and have entered its political boundaries within the last few hundred 
years, though it is not impossible that in doing so the Pathans only re-entered a 
country which their ancestors had left more than a thousand years ago. Yet 
their freedom from the irksome and artificial restrictions of caste, and 
the comparative license which their tribal customs permit them in the matter 
of intermarriage, have caused their example to produce a wonderful effect 
upon the neighbouring Indian races ; and it is the proximity of these races, 
and the force of that example daily set before them by nations living next 
door, to which, far more than to the mere political supremacy of a Mahomedan 
dynasty or adoption of the Mahomedan creed, I attribute the laxity of 
caste rules and observances which characterises the people of our Western 
Plains. The point has already been noticed in section 347. Some of the 
social and tribal customs of these people are exceedingly curious. Un- 
foiiunately we know but little of them, and what little information I 
have been able to collect I have not had leisure to record in the following 
pages. I may however mention two of theu' most striking customs. One is 
the prevalence of the vesh or periodical distribution of land among the comi)o- 
nent households of a clan, which we found to be the practice on some 
parts of the frontier when we annexed the Panjab, while it still exists in full 
force among both the Biloches and the Pathans of Independent Territory. 
The second custom is also one common to both nations, though not I believe to 
all their tribes. It is the existence of a Levitical clan, often called Mirkhel 
among the Pathans, who have the exclusive privilege of performing certain 
priestly functions connected, not with the !Mahomedan religion but with tribal 
ceremonies, such for instance as the dedication by passing under spears of the 
fighting men of the tribe when about to go to war. 

874. Tabulation of tribal statistics. — Political considerations rendered it far more impor- 
tant to obtain lor administrative purposes fairly correct statistics of tlic Eiloch and Pathan tribes 
than of the more settled tribes of the cis-lndus Panjab. But when 1 took up the question I found 
the difficulties fo great, and my own ignorance of the subject so comi)lete, that I obtained the 
sanction of Government to have these figures compiled by the Deputy Commissioners of the 
frontier districts. The difficulties mainly arose from three causes. In the first place the same 
T\ord is, especially among the Pathans, constantly recurring among the various tribes as the 
name of clans who are wholly distinct from one another. Secondly, the same clan, especially 
among the Biloches, is affiliatt'd to a larger tribe in one district wliilc in another it forms a distinct 
tribe of itself. Thirdly, many of the entries did not show full details of the tribe and clan, often 
only giving the Dames of the sept or family ; and the only hope of classing such entries rightly 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 41 

lay in having the classifioatiou made on the spot. The system adopted was as follows. Each 
Deputy Commissioner di'ew up a list of the tribes and clans for which he wished to obtain 
separate figures for his own district. Of this list he sent copies to all the other districts concern- 
ed. A joint list was then drawn up incluilinjj all tribc^ or clans mentioned in any one of 
these district list<, and the figures were tabulated in accordance with that joint list. The Biloch 
tribal figures were then compiled on tlic spot in the two Derails and Mu/affargarli, and those for 
Patbans in the Peshawar Uivi-iion, Derail Isniai'L Khan, and Bannu. For other districts and for 
Native States tlie figures were compiled to the best of our ability in the Central OlHce in accordance 
with the joint list already mentioned. 

THE BILOCH (CASTE No. 18). 

375. Meaning of Biloch —Bibliography.' -Tlio word Biloch is variously used in the 
Pan jab to denote the following people : — 

(1) The Biloch proper, a nation which traces its origin from the direction of Makran, and 
now holds the lower Sulemaus ; 

(2) A criminal tribe settled in the great jungles below Thanesar; 

(3) Any Musalman camelman except in the extreme east and the extreme west of tlie 
Panjab ; 

(4) A small Pathan tribe of Derah Ismai'l Khan, moi'c properly called Baliich. 

The criminal tribe will be described under vagraut and gisjiy tribes. It is almost certainly of 
true Biloch stock. The Pathan tribe will be noticed under the Pathaus of Derah Ismail. It also 
is in all probability a small body of true Biloches who have become affiliated to the Pathans. 
Our figures for the most part refer to the true Biloch of the lower frontier and to their represcn* 
tatives who are scattered throughout the Panjab. But in the upper grazing grounds of the 
Western Plaius the Biloch settlers have taken to the grazing and breeding of camels rather than 
to husbandry ; and thus the word Biloch has become associated with the care of camels, insomuch 
that throughout the Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Amritsar, and Jalandhar divisions, the word 
Biloch is u-ed for any Musalman camelman whatever be his caste, every Biloch being supposed to 
be a camelman and every Mahomedan camelman to be a Biloch. In Sirsa we have Punwar 
Rajputs from Multan who are known as Biloch because they keep camels, and several Deputy 
Commissioners recommended that Untwal, Sarbau, and Biloch should be taken together as one 
caste. The headmen of these people are called Malik, and I have classed some five hundred 
Musalmans who returned themselves under this name, chiefly in the Lahore division, as Biloch. 
it is impossible to say how many of the men returned as Biloch because they keep camels arc of true 
Biloch origin. Settlements of Biloches proper are, excluding the Multan and Derajat divisions, 
and Sbahpur, reported in Dehli, Gm'gaon, Karnal, Hissar, Rohtak, Liidhiana, Amritsar, Gujran- 
wala, Pi'rozpur, and Rawalpindi ; but in all these districts except the first five the word is used for 
camelmeu also, and the figures cannot be separated. 

Bibliography. — The following books will be found to contain information regarding the 
Biloch nation : Hughes' Bilochistdn, a useful compilation of perha]is somewhat doubtful authority ; 
Brace's Memorandum on tlie Derah Ohdzi District (Panjab Selections, IX, 1S71) chiefly 
statistical, and by no means free from error; Douie's BilocJii jK^imaA translated ; and Dames' 
Biloch Vocabulary (J. A. S. B., 18^), both including collections of Bilochi folklore; Pottiugcr's 
rp inoT r^areis «w 5-j7ocAisf<f« and iS'iM(i/» and Massous' Travels in the same countries. Fryers' Settle' 
■- ■ -• ment Report of Derah Ohdzi Khdn and 'M.ACi^vGgox's Gazetteer of the N. W. Frontier give 
most valuable accounts of the iJiloch tribes ; while the Settlement Reports of those other districts 
in which Biloches are found in any numbers contain much useful information. 

376. Description of tlie Biloch. — The Biloch presents in many respects 
a very strong contrast with his neighbour the Pathan. The political organi- 
sation of each is tribal ; but while the one yields a very large measure of 
obedience to a chief who is a sort of limited monarchj the other recognises no 
authority save that of a council of the tribe. Both have most of the virtues and 
many of the vices peculiar to a wild and semi-civilised life. To both hospitality 

' I had, with the valuable assistance of Mr. Douie, written a far more complete account of the 
Biloch than that given in the following pages. But after Mr. Douie had left India and 
many of ray notes had been destroyed, a great part of the MS. was lost in the office ; and I had to 
rewrite it as best I could with very incomplete materials, and a very short time in which to 
complete it. 



42 PANJAB CASTES. 

is a sacred duty and the safety of the guest inviolable ; both look upon the 
exaction of " blood for blood ''■' as the first duty of man ; both follow strictly 
a code of honoui* of their own, though one very different from that of 
modern Europe ; both believe in one God whose name is Allah, and whose 
prophet is Mahomet. But the one attacks his enemy from in front, the 
other from behind ; the one is bound by his promises,^ the other by his 
interests ; in short, the Biloeh is less turbulent, less treacherous, less blood- 
thirsty, and less fanatical than the Pathan : he has less of God in his creed 
and less of the devil in his nature. 

His frame is shoiter and more spare and wiry than that of his neighbour 
to the north ; though generations of independence have given to him too a 
bold and manly bearing. Frank and open in his manners and without 
servility, fairly truthful when not corrupted by our Courts, faithful to his 
word, temperate and enduring, and looking upon courage as the highest 
virtue, the true Biloeh of the Derajat frontier is one of the pleasantest men 
we have to deal with in the Panjab. As a revenue payer he is not so satisfac- 
tory, his want of industry, and the pride which looks upon manual labour 
as degrading, making him but a poor husbandman. He is an expert rider, 
horse-racing is his national amusement, and the Biloeh breed of horses is 
celebrated throughout Northern India. Till quite lately he killed his colts 
as soon as they were born ; and his preference for mares is expressed in the 
proverb — " A man with his sa^ldle on a mare has his saddle on a horse ; a 
" man with his saddle on a horse has his saddle on his head.'''' If he cannot 
afford a whole mare he will own as many legs of one as he can manage ; and, 
the Biloeh mar« having four legs, will keep her a quarter of each year for 
each leg of which he is master, after which she passes on to the owner of the 
remaining legs. He is a thief by tradition and descent, for he says, " God 
" will not favour a Biloeh who does not steal and rob '''' and " the Biloeh who 
'' steals recures heaven to seven generations of his ancestors.''' But he has 
become much more honest under the civilising influences of our rule. 

His face is long and oval, his features finely cut, and his nose aquiline ; 
he wears his hair long and usually in oily curls and lets his beard and whiskers 
gTOw, and he is very filthy in person, considering cleanliness as a mark of 
effeminacy. He usually carries a sword, knife and shield ; he wears a smock 
frock reaching to his heels and pleated about the waist, loose drawers and a 
long cotton scarf ; and all these must be white or as near it as dirt will allow 
of, insomuch that he will not enter our army because he would there be 
obliged to wear a coloured uniform. His wife wears a sheet over her head, 
a long sort of nightgown reaching to her ankles, and wide drawers ; her 
clothes may be red or white ; and she plaits her hair in a long queue. 

377. As the time Biloeh is nomad in his habits he does not seclude his 
women ; but he is extremely jealous of female honour. In cases of detected 
adultery the man is killed, and the woman hangs herself by order. Even 
when on the war-trail, the women and children of his enemy are safe from 
him. The Biloeh of the hills lives in huts or temporary camps, and wanders 
with his herds from place to place. In the plains he has settled in small 
villages ; but the houses are of the poorest possible description. When a male 
child is born to him, ass^s dung in water, symbolical of pertinacity, is dropped 
into his mouth from the point of a sword before he is given the breast. A 

' TheTe is, in the hills above Haraud, a " stone or cairn of cursing," erected as a perpetual 
memorial of the treachery of one who betrayed his fellow. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 43 

tally of lives due is kepi, between the various tribes or families ; but when 
the account grows complicated it can be settled by betrothals^ or even by 
payment of cattle. The rules of inheritance do not follow the Islamic law, 
but tend to keep property in the family by confining- succession to agnates ; 
though some of the leading and more educated men are said to be trying to 
introduce the shara into their tribes. 

The Biloehes are nominally Musalmans, but singularly ignorant of their 
religion and neglectful of its rites and observances ; and though they once called 
themselves and were called by old historians " friends of Ali/"" ancl thouo-h, if 
their account of tlieir ejection from Arabia be true, they must have originally 
been ki^hiah, they uow belong almost without exception to the Sunni sect. 
Like many other Musalman races of the frontier they claim tv) be Qureehi 
Arabs by origin, while some hold them to be of Turkoman stock ; their customs 
are said to support the latter theory : their features certainly favour the former. 
The question is discussed at pages 19^ of Mr. Fryer's Settlement Report of 
Derah Ghazi. Their language is a branch of the old Persian, and apparently 
contains many archaic forms which throw light upon other modern develop- 
ments from the same source. It is described in the Chapter on Languages. 
It is now hardly spoken, so far as the Pan jab is concerned, beyond the tribal 
organisation of the Derah Ghazi Biloehes ; and even among them it is 
being gradually superseded by Multani or Jatki, the language of the plains, 
and a Biloch Chief has been known to learn the language in order to talk 
it to English officials. They have no written character, and no literature ; 
but they are passionately fond of poetry, chiefly consisting of ballads describ- 
ing the events of national or tribal history, and of love-songs ; and local 
poets are still common among them. 

378. Early history of the Biloch. — Their account of their origin is that 
they are descended from Mir Hamzah, a Qureshi Arab and an uncle of the 
Prophet, and were settled at Halab or Aleppo, till, siding with Husen, they 
were expelled by Yaziz, the second of the Umeyid Caliphs. This would be 
about 680 A. D. They fled to the hill country of Kirman in Persia, w^here 
they lived quietly for some time, and so increased in numbers that the King 
became desirous of binding them io himself by ties of marriage. He accord- 
ingly demanded a wife from each of the forty-four bolaks or tribes into which 
194] they are said to have then been divided, though all traces of them have 
long since been lost. But their fathers had never given their daughters in 
wedlock to a stranger, and they therefore sent forty-four boys dressed up in 
girls' clothes, and fled before the deception could be discovered. They moved 
south-eastwards into Kech Makran or the tract between Afghanistan and the 
coast of the Arabian Sea, then but partially inhabited, and there finally 
settled in the country which is now known as Bilochistan.^ 

From Jalal Khan, the Chief under whose leadership they made their last 
migi'ation, sprang four sons, Rind, Hot, Lashari and Korai, and a daughter 
Jato. Five of their tril^es still bear these names, but the Rind and Lashari 
xppear to have been pre-eminent ; and the Biloehes, or at least that portion of 
the nation which later on moved northwards to our border, were divided into 
two great sections under those names, and I believe that all Biloch tribes 
still consider themselves as belonging to one or other of these sections. Thus 

^ Ml'. Fryer quotes authorities for the occupation of the Makran Mountains by Biloehes at 
least BB early as (1) the beginuiUi? of the fifth century; (2) the middle of the seventh century. 
(D^rah Ghizi Settlement Report, p. 19.) 



44 PANJAB CASTES. 

the Mazari and Drisbak, wlio trace their descent from Hot^ claim to belong 
to the Rind section. Some five hundred years after their settlement in Kech 
Maknui, the Rind, Lashiiri, and .Tatoi moved northwards into the country 
about Kelat, to the west of tlie lower Sulem^ns, " the Rind settling in Shoran, 
"the Lashari in Gandava, and the Jatoi in Sevi and Dhadon, while the Khosa 
'^ remained in Kech and the Hot in Makran.^^^ They are said to have dis- 
jDOSsessed and driven into Sindh a Jat people, ruled over by a Hindu prince 
with the Sindhi title of Jiim and the name of Nindava, whose capital was 
at Kelat. After a time the charms of a \voman led to jealousy between the 
nephews of Mir Chakar and Mir Gwahram Khan, the Chiefs of the Rind 
and Lashari sections. Their claims were to be decided by a horse-race held 
in Rind Territory, in which the hosts loosened the girth of their rivaFs saddle. 
A fight resulted, and the Rind, who were at first worsted, called to their aid 
Sultan Husen,- King of Khorasan, and drove the Lashari out into Haidarabad 
and Tatta in Sindh, where they no longer exist as an individual tribe. From 
this event the Biloches date the growth of their present tribal organisation ; 
and as there is now no localised tiibe bearing the name of Rind, and as almost 
all the great tribes of our frontier claim to be of Rind extraction, it is 
probable that the Rind, left sole possessors of the hill country of Kelat (for 
the Jatoi also consider themselves as belonging to the Rind section of the 
nation), gradually split up into the tribes which we now find on the Derah 
Ghazi border. Several of these tribes have taken their names from the locali- 
ties which they now hold, which shows that their names are not older than 
their occujiation of their present territories.^ 

379. Advance of the Biloclies into the Panjab. — The Biloches had thus 
spread as far north as the Bolan ; but apparently they had not yet encroached 
upon the Suleman range which lay to the east of them, and which was held 
bv Pathans, while a Jat population occupied the valley of the Indus and the 
country between the Sulemans and the river. But about the middle of the 
15th century, the Turks or Mughals under their Arghun leader invaded 
Kachhi and"^ Sindh, and twice took Sibi, in 1-1.79 and in 1511 A.D. About 
the same time the Brahoi, a tribe believed to be of Dravidian origin,* and 
who appear to have followed in their tracks, drove the the Biloch out of the 
fertile valley of Kelat and established a supremacy over their northern tribes. 
Yielding to the pressure thus put upon them, the Kelat tribes moved east- 
wards into the lower Sulemans^ driving the Pathans before them along the 

' Shoran is probably another reading of Sara wan, the country between Quetta and Kelat ; 
Gaudava is on the northern frontier of Mudh, south-east of Sarawan ; Sevi and Dhadon are 
doubtless other forms of Sibi and Dadar, north of Gandava and south-cast of Quetta. 

-This name should fix the date of the coute^t; but 1 have been unable to identify the 
soviiruigu in question, who is also described as Sultau Shah Husen, King of Persia. Mir Chakar 
lived in the time of Humayun, about the middle of the I6th century ; but it is probable that these 
events took place at least two centuries earlier. Mir Chakar and Mir Gwahram are renowned in 
Biloch story as the national heroes, and it is not unnatural that any great event should be referred 
to them. 

3 When the name applies to a tract, the ti'act may have been called after the tribe ; but where 
the name belongs to a mountain, river, or other natural feature, the converse seems more 
probable. 

4 It is thought probable by some that the Brahoi language will be found, when we learn more 
about it, to be Iranian and not Uravidian. 

s One account postpones the occupatiou of the lower Sulemans by Biloches to the expedition 
with Hum^yiin to be mentioned presently. It is trae that about the time of Humayiin's conquest 
of India the Pathans of the Derah Ismail frontier were at their weakest, as will be explained 
when those tribes come under discussion. But it is also true that there is a tendency to refer all 
past events to the time of any famous incident, such as the march to Dehli with Humayun. 



BILOCII, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 45 

range^ wliile the Bilocbos from SinJh began to spread tap the Indus. Many 
of these latter took serviee with the Langiili rulers of Multun and were granted 
lands along- the river ; and about 1480 A. D. Ismail Klian and Fatah Khan, 
the two sons of Malik Sohrtib KhaUj and Ghiizi Kbau, son of Iliiji Khiin, 
all Dodai Biloohes and of Rind extraction, founded the three Derahs which 
still bear their names, overcame the Lodis of Siti)ur_, and establislied themselves 
as independent rulers of the low-er Derajat and IMuzaffargarh, which position 
they and their descendants maintained for nearly 300 years.^ Thus the 
Southern Biloches gradually spread up the valleys of the Indus, Chanab, and 
Satluj ; while the Derah Ghazi tribes came down from their hills into the 
pachhdd or sub-montane tract, displacing a Jat population and driving them 
down to the river, where they still form an important element of the popula- 
tion even in tracts owned by Biloches. In 1555 a large body of Biloches 
accompanied Humayun, whom they had previously harassed in his retreat, in 
his victorious re-entry into India, under the leadership of Mir Chakar, the 
great Rind hero of Biloch stoiy. They are said to have consisted chiefly of 
Laghari, Drishak, Gopang, and Jatoi. Mir Chakar eventually settled in 
Montgomery, where a consideral^le tract, still partly held by Biloches, was 
granted to him by the grateful sovereign, and died and was buried at Satgarh 
in that district. It is probable that many of the Biloch settlements in the 
eastern districts of the Province sprang fi-om Humayun^s attendants. 

The tribal organisation of the Biloches now covers the whole of our 
southern frontier as far north as the boundary between the two Derahs, 
being confined for the most part to the hills and the land immediately 
under them, but stretching east to the Indus in the neighbourhood of 
Rajanpur. There is also a large Biloch element throughout the river lands 
of the Indus in both the Derahs, more especially in the southern and 
northern portion of Derah Ghazi and just above the Derah Ismail border ; 
while in Bahawalpur and Muzaffargarh they form a large proportion of 
the whole population, and they hold considerable areas on the Satlu] in 
Multan, to the north of the Ravi in Montgomery, on the right bank 

[P. 195] 0^ ^^® Chanab and along the Jahlam in Jhang, and on the latter river in 
Shahpur. But outside the Derah Ghazi Khan district, and indeed along the 
greater part of the river border of that district, the Biloch settlers own no 
allegiance to any tribal Chief, are altogether external to the political organisa- 
tion of the nation, and do not hold that dominant position among their 
neighbours which is enjoyed by the organised tribes of Derah Ghazi. Many 
of them have been settled in their present holdings within comparatively 
recent times or, to use the words of Mr. Tucker, have acquired them "as 
cultivating proprietors, rather than as a military caste which ruled the country 
but left the occupation of the land to the Jats.''"' Figures showing the dis- 

♦ P 38-9 tribution of the Biloches will be found in Abstract No. 65, page 191.* 

380. Tribal organisation of the Biloches.— Sohrab Khan, the chief of 
the Dumki, a Rind tribe, is the nominal head of the Biloches, or at any rate 
of those on our frontier ; while all the noi-them tribes beyond our border 
acknowledge the supremacy of the Brahoi Khan of Kelat, a supremacy the 
reality of which has always varied with the personal character of the Khan, 
and which it is probable that our own frontier policy has lately saved from 
total extinction. But for all practical purposes"^ the frontier tribes are 

' The subsequent history of these tribes is related in section 385. 



46 PANJAB CASTES. 

independent both of forelg-ners and of one another, and are held together by 
a common nationality against outsiders only. The tribe, at least in its 
present form, is a political and not an ethnic unit, and consists of a con- 
g^lomeration of clans bound together by allegiance to a common Chief. 
Probably every tribe contains a nucleus of two, three, or more clans descended 
from a single ancestor. But round these have collected a number of affiliated 
sections ; for the cohesion between the various parts of a tribe or clan is- not 
always of the strongest;, and it is not very uncommon for a clan or a portion 
of a clan to quarrel with its brethren, and leaving its tribe to claim the 
protection of a neighbouring Chief. They then become his h.amsd)/ahs 
or dwellers beneath the same shade, and he is bound to protect them antl they 
to obey him. In this manner a small section formerly belonging to the 
Laghari tribe, and still bearing its name, has attached itself to the Qa-rani ; 
while there is a Jiskani section in both the Drishak and the Gurchani tribes. 
Thus too, Rind triljes are sometimes found to include Lashari clans. So 
when Nasir Khan, the great Khan of Kelat who assisted Ahmad Shah in 
his invasion of Dehli, reduced the Hasanni tribe and drove them from their 
territory, they took refuge with the Khetran, of which tribe they now form 
a clan. Even strangers are often affiliated in this manner. Thus the 
Laghari tribe includes a section of Nahar Pathjins (the family from which 
spining the Lodi dynasty of Dehli), who are not Biloeh but who are Khetran. 
And the Gurchani tribe includes sections which, though bearing a ]5iloch 
name and talking the Bilochi language, are not allowed to be of Biloeh race 
and are almost certainly Jat. 

The tribe {tnma.'n}) under its chief or tumanddr is sub-divided into a 
small number of clans (para) with their ijuqaddams or headmen, and each 
clan into more numerous septs (/^/^a^/i). Below the jo/^ff^/^' come the families, 
of which it will sometimes contain as few as a dozen. The clans are 1 ased 
upon common descent ; and identity of clan name, even in two different 
tribes, almost certainly indicates a common ancestor. The sept is of course 
only an extended family. The tribal names are often patronymics ending 
in the Bilochi termination dni^ such as Gurchani, Balachani ; or in some few 
cases in the Pashto zai. An individual is commonly known by the name of 
his clan, the sept being comparatively unimportant. Marriage within the 
sept is forbidden,^ and this appears to be the only restriction. The Biloches 
freely marry Jat women, though the first wife of a Chief will always be a 
Biloehni. They say that they never give their daughters to Jats ; but this 
assertion, though probably true on the frontier, is most certainly not so 
beyond the tribal limits. 

The tract occupied by each division of a Biloeh tribe is sufficiently well 
defined ; but within this area the people are cither wholly nomad or, as is the 
case within oui* frontier, live in small hamlets, each inhabited by only a few 
families, having property in their cultivated lands and irrigation works, but 
without any actual demarcation of the surrounding pasture lands. Thus the 
large and compact village community of the Eastern Panjab is unknown, 
and our village or matzah is in these parts merely a collection of hamlets 
included witliin a common boundary for administrative purposes. 

1 A Persian (? Turkoman) word meaning 10,000 ; a body of 10,000 troops ; a district or 
tribe furnishing a body of 10,000 troops. 

^ But Mr. Fryer eays that cousins commonly intermarry. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 47 

•P. 48-9. 381. Tribal statistics.— Abstract No. 66 on the next page* shows tlie figures 

tP. 50-51 for the main Bihjdi tribes^ Abstract No. G7t gives those for minor tribes 
t?. 52. for certain districts only^ while Abstract No. QS^ shows the principal clans. 

The percentage of the Biloch population not included in these details 
is small in the districts where the JMloch element has any importance, 
being only 9 per cent, in Derah Ghazi Khan, LS per cent, in Dcrah 
Ismail Khan, 15 per cent, in Muzaffargarh, and 19 per cent, in ]^,Iultan. 
In other districts it is much larger. As has already been explained, sec- 
tions of the same name occur in different tribes; while a clan of one 
tribe will bear the tribal name of another tribe. Thus, where the columns 
for sub-divisions of caste have not been filled up with sufficient care, 
errors in tabulation are almost unavoidable. For this reason the tribal and 
clan figures were tabulated in the district offices. Unfortunately, the Deputy 
Commissioner of Derah Ghazi, from whom I had hoped for great assistance, 
was so busy that he was unalile to pay any attention to the matter; and "one 
or two of the results which the Derah Ghazi figures gi\e are patently absurd. 
It is to be regretted that the opportunity which a Census affords only at long 
intervals of obtaining an accurate detail of the Ghazi tribes, should not have 
been made the most of. The points in which the figures are untrustworthy 
are indicated below. 

382. Tlie organised Biloeh tribes of tlie Derajat. —It is only in Derah 
Ghazi Khtin and on its frontier that we have to do with Biloch tribes having 
a distinct tribal and political organisation. Elsewhere in the Panjab the 
tribal tie is merely that of common descent, and the tribe possesses no 
corporate coherence. The Derah Ghazi tribes are in the main of Rind origin. 
They are, beginning from the south, Mazari, Bugti, Marri, Drishak, Gurchani, 
Tibbi Lund, Laghari, Khetran, Khosa, Sori Lund, Bozdar, Qasrani, and 
Nutkani ; and of these the Marri, Bugti and Khetran are wholly, and the 
Gurchani and the Leghari partly independent, while the Nutkani has recently 
lost its in iividu.ality as a tribe. The figures for Ijoth the Lunds are certainly, 
and those for the Gurchani possibly wrong, as is noted under the respective 
tribes. 

rp 197-1 The Mazari (No. 11) are practically found only in Derah Ghazi Khan, of which they occupy 

the southernmost portion, their western boundary being the hills and their eastern the river. Their 
country extends over the Siudh f ronti(T into Jacohabad, and stretches northwards as far as tlmrkot 
and the Pitok pass. Eoihan is their headquarters. They say that about the middle of the 17th 
century they quarrelled with the Chaiidia of Sindh, and moved into the Siahaf valley and Marao 
plain, and the hill country to the west now occupied by the Bugti; but obtaining grants of land in 
the lowlands gradually shitted eastwards towards the river. Mr. Fryer puts their fighting strength 
at 4,000, but our returns show only 9,000 souls in the Province and there are very few beyond our 
border, the Shambani territory lying just behind it. The tribe traces its descent from Hot, son of 
.Talal, and is divided into four clans, Rustamani, Masidani, Balachani, and Sargani • of which the 
first two are the more numerou-:, though the chief is a Balachani. 

The Marri, and the Bugti or Zarkanni (No. 38) hold the country beyond our southern border; 
and are wholly independent, 01' ra' her nominally subject to the Khan oi' Kelat, not being found 
within the Panjab. They are both of Rind origin. The Marri, who hold a large area bounded by 
the Khetran on the east, the Bugti on the south, Kachhi of Kelat on the west, and Afghanistan on 
the north, are the most powerful and consequently the most troublesome of all the Biloch tribes. 
They have four clans, the Ghazaui, Loharani, Mazaraniand Bijarani, of which the Mazar^ni live 
beyond Sibi and the Bolan and are almost independent of the ti'ibe. The tribe is wholly nomad and 
prffidatory. The Bugti, who occupy the angle between the frontiers of the Panjab and Upper 
Sindh, are also called Zarkanni' and their clans are the Ralicja, Nuthani, Musuri, ivalpur, Phono-, 
and Shambani or Kiazai. The last, which is an almost independent section, separates the main tribe 
from our border; while the Marri lie still further west. Both these tribes are pure Rind, 

' A sept of their Baheja clan is also called Zarkanni, 



4.8 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 66, showing the principal [P- 190] 





1 


2 


3 


4 





6 


7 


8 





















"d 






•6 

a 


to 


o 


"5 

.a 

o 


•a 

1 


1 


o 
Ui 


.a 
H 


<• 
1 


Lahore ... 


351 




1,045 




86 




56 






Qajianwala 




... 


147 


... 


78 


... 


... 


... 


... 


FirozpuT ... 


36 




595 


... 


80 




30 




... 


Rawalpindi 


48 








16 




102 






Jhelam ... 


87 


... 


400 




148 




916 




40 


Qnjrat ... 




... 


13 




14 


... 


71 




... 


Shahpur ... 


1,850 


... 


2,229 




1,053 


... 


402 


... 


35 


Multan ... 


6,008 


35 


606 




1,865 




2,696 




873 


Jhaug ... 


6,223 


167 


1,849 


... 


696 




197 




187 


Montgomery 


1,460 


... 


4,106 




754 


... 


806 


... 


4 


Mnzaftargarh 


4,5.30 


1,159 


4,674 




2,629 


106 


3,385 


... 


7,290 


Derah Ismail Khan ... 


2,233 


2,195 


1,232 


42 


4,270 


32 


1,234 




1,813 


Derah Ghazi Khan ... 


6,136 


22,980 


2,829 


17,099 


1,354 


11,808 


727 


10,888 


413 


Baniui 


237 


75 


1 


... 


325 


... 


70 


... 


124 


Dfehli Divieiou 


158 












15 






HiBsar Division 


108 




504 




467 




59 


... 


M. 


Ainbala Divieioii 




... 


65 


... 


18 




33 


... 


... 


Jalandhar Division... 


1 




48 


... 


... 




... 




... 


Aiuritsar Division ... 




... 


9 


... 


46 


..< 


29 






PeBliawar Division... 


10 


25 


7 


... 


3 


... 


179 




«•• 


British Territory 


27,988 


26,636 


20,159 


17,141 


18,902 


11,446 


10,996 


10,888 


10,785 


Nabha .luil Faridkot 


68 




163 




98 




30 




... 


BahawalpuT 


8,287 


97 


4.272 
24,698 




3,205 


1.011 


4,435 




1,263 


Total Province .. 


86,843 


26,783 


17,141 


17,295 


12,457 


15,481 


10,888 


12,048 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 
Bilcch Trlbfs for Districts and States. 



49 



17 

1 

8,4ftO 



24 
1,230 



10,788 
5,437 



5 
8,649 



U 



;8 

118 



21 

121 

I 

176 



842 

774 

6S4 

1,105 



1,072 
282 
66 



11 
317 

7 

4 

10 

36 



8,668 5,783 

... I 14 

.548 3,3il 



.'597 
4,671 



2."7 2,fi22 



1.076 

1.666 

1 



5,546 5,-3S7 



16,175 I 9,511 

I 



9,138 i 5,516 5,327 



157 
53 
41 

977 



3,724 



17 18 



14 



1,675 
2,615 



78 
270 



317 374 



3,705 

13 

2 



3,796 



Lahore, 

Oujranwala, 

Firozpur. 



Rawalpindi. 
Jhelam. 
Qnjrat. 
ShahpnT, 



Mnltan, 
J hang. 
Montgomery. 
Muzaffargarli. 



Derah Ismail Khan 
Derah Ghazi Khan. 
Bannn. 



Dehli Division. 
Hipsar Division. 
Anibala Division. 
Jalandhar Pivteion. 
Araritsar Division, 
Peshawar Division. 



268 , 4,418 4,398 4,170 



371 



333 



British Territory. 

Nabha and Faridkot. 
74 I Bahawalpur. 



5,639 4,418 4,781 4,244 Total Provinco. 



50 



PANJAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 67, showing [P- 196] 





19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 j 


26 


2d 


DiSTElCTS AND 
Staisb, &0. 








1 






-a 
o 


o 


"S 

V.-S 

3 


43 
o 


'o 


o 

a 
3 


1o 
a 

Q 


'S 

•a 

'a 


Derah Ismail Khan 


1,344 


1,752 


2,188 


285 


28 


140 


813 




D crab Ohazi E hau 


133 


92 


91 


1,715 


1,300 


63 


610 


1.017 


MniafiBirgarb ... 


1,441 


803 




107 


685 


1,743 


405 


655 


Other districts ... 


16 


118 




4 


77 


151 


255 


... 


Total British Terri- 
tory 


2,934 


2,855 


2,279 


2,111 


2,090 


2,087 


2.083 


1,672 


Bahawalpar 


810 


62 


... 


73 


686 


... 


1.808 


... 


Total Province ... 


8,744 


2,917 


2.279 


2,184 


2,776 


2,087 


8,891 


1.672 





36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


DiSTEIOTS AND 
BlATBS, &0. 






















Bugti. 


1 


53 


1 


1 

1 


Derah Ismail Khan 


... 


340 


234 


604 


... 


28 


13 


Derah Ohazi Khan 


... 


246 


295 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Muzaffargarh 


680 




... 


... 


291 


369 


161 


Other districts 


106 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Total British Terri- 
tory 


686 


586 


629 


604 


291 


897 


164 


Bahawalpur 




10 








... 


... 


Total Province ... 


C36 


605 


529 


504 


291 


397 


161 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES, 
minor Blloch Tribes. 



51 



27 28 20 80 



1,629 



1.629 



43 



24 



22 



46 



46 



r' 



a 



10 

1,094 

293 



271 
528 
505 
40 



748 

33 

303 

175 



32 



33 



34 36 



1,132 



1,397 



1,844 1,259 

! 42 



1,132 



960 
2 



962 
42 



842 



842 
6 



795 612 



135 



DlSTlIOTS AITD 

Staibs, &o. 



795 



1,629 1,397 I 1,344 j 1,301 1,132 1,004 848 795 747 Total Province 



747 



Derah Ismail Khan. 
Derah Ghazi Khan. 
Muzaffirgarh. 
Other distrlots. 



Total British Terrl. 
tory. 



Bahawalpur. 



44 



45 



46 



47 I 48 



363 
64 
45 



49 



50 51 



23 



472 



78 



12 



23 



472 



78 



12 



23 



84 



182 



182 



15 



15 



99 



284 



DlSTBIOTB AlfD 



Derah Ismail Khan. 
Derah Qhazi Khan. 
MazafiUrgarh. 
Other districts. 



Total British. Terri- 
tory. 



Bahawalpur . 



99 284 Total Province. 



b2 



52 



PANJAB CASTES. 
Abstract No. 68, showing the principal Blloch Clans. 



[P. 196.] 









2. Laghabi, 




3, JATor. 


DiSTEIOT. 






1 . 1 

•a ^ 












"3 


2 


^ ^ ^ 

3 ^ g 


i 


i 


•s? 


'•i 




^ 


■^ 


^ i -s 


H 
O 


'i 


P 






'^ 


W 


I w 


w 1 o 


22,980 


PQ 


SI 


t> 


Derah Ghazi Khan 


3,031 


54 


: 1,753 


1,031 17,111 








Derab Ismail Kbaii 




567 


i ••• 


1,628 


2,195 


272 


891 


24 


Muzalfargarh 


89 






1,070 


1,159 




891 


24 j 


Total 


3,120 


621 


1,753 

1 


1,031 19,809 26,23i 


272 



45 



1,232 







4. Gttechanx 


1 


6. Khosa. 




DiSTEICT. 






1 




'S 








O 






*3 


•>H 




"3 


o 




"a 




w 






:g 


^«8 

.a 


^ 
" 


vo8 


s 


<1 


<a 






^ 




^o8 


«a 




Sj 


^ 


H 


.a 




^ 


E-( 




^ 








5 


o 




^M 


^3 


O 




m 


t-^ 


Pm 


51 


O 
5,066 


H 


pq 


t-l 


O 


H 


Derah Ghazi Khan 


659 


9,525 


1,798 


17,099 


1,797 


2,619 


6,892 


11,308 


Derah Ismail Khan 




... 


... 


42 




42 ■... 




32 


32 


MuzafBargarh 




1 ■■• 


... 




5,066 


... 




106 

7,030 


106 


Total 


659 


19,525 


1,798 


93 


17,U1 1.797 


2,619 


11,446 





8. TiBBi Lttnd. j 




11. Mazbai. 




District. 


tS 


ii 


< 


1 

rP 


"3 
i 




■3 




t-i 




§ 


:2^ 


EH 

O 


^ 


S 
p 


S 


E? 


:S 


H 





1-:; 


O 


E-i 


pq 


PS 


2,760 


m 
1,257 



681 


E-I 


Derah Ghazi Khan 


7,188 


3,700 


10,888 


1,179 


2,772 


8,649 


Derah Ismail Khan 




... 


... 








5 


5 


Mnzaffargarh 




... 1 ... 


1,179 


2,772 


2,760 


1,257 


7 


7 


Total 


7,188 


3,700 1 10,888 


693 


8,661 





17. JlSKANI. 


18, Deishak, 


38. BtTGTI. 


District. 






'5 




1 








-a 


1 




% 






■3 


•3 


1 




S3 




■3 


^08 


u 
i-i 


< 


1 


p 


k4 

-<1 




S 


^ 


cs 


C3 


-3 





.fc! 


9 


.4 





03 


^ 







C/J 


CO 


t-^ 


i==i 





H 


W 
210 




724 





H 


160 



135 


H 


Derail Clhazi Khan 




2,862 


3,796 


295 


Derah Ismail Khan 


1,020 


506 


9'] 6 


813 


456 


3,705 












234 


234 


Muzaffargarh 


1,020 


506 


910 


813 


456 


... 




52 

776 


322 

3,184 


374 








Total 


3,705 


210 


4,170 


160 


369 


529 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 5S 

The Drlshak (No. 18) are tlic most acattercd of nil the Dcrah Gliazi tribes, many of their 
A'illage-; lyin<? amon;^ a .Tat population on the hank of the Inrlns; and this fact renflcrs the tribe 
les-! powerful than it sh mid he from its numbers. They hold no portion of the hills, and are 
prai^'tically confined to the Ghazi district, lying -catterel about between (he Pitok pasi on the north 
and the Sori pass on the sout'i. The tribe belongs to the Rind section; but claims dc-ccnt from 
Hot, son of Ja'al Khan. It^ sections are the Kirmani, Mingwani, Gulfaz, Sargani, Arbani and 
Jiskani, the chief belonging to the first of the-e. Their headquarters are at Asnl close to Rajanpur. 
They are said to have descended into the plains after the Mazdri, or towards the end of the 17th 
century. 

The Gurchanl (No. 4) own the Mari and Dragal hills, and their boundary extends further into 
the mount;iins than that of any othe.- of the tribes subject to us ; while their territory does not 
extend much to the ea^t of the Sukmaas. They are divide 1 into eleven clans, of which the chief 
are the Durkani, Shekhani, La<hj,ri, Petafi, Jiskani, and S ibziini. The last four are true Bilochcs 
and the last throe Rinds ; the remainder of the tribe being said to have descen led from Gorish, a 
grandson of Raja Pdifrasen of Haidarabad, who was adopted by the Blloches and married among 
them. He is said to have accomp^nied Humayuu to Dehli, and on his return to have collected a 
Biloch following and cj; cted the Patban hollers fi'om the present Gurchani holdings. It is not 
impossible that a considerable number of the Lashari clan, -who are not too proud of their affili- 
ation to the Gurcbani, may have returned themselves as Lashari simply, and so have been included 
in the Lashari tribe. The whole of the Durkani and about lialf of the Lashari live beyond our 
border, and are not subject to us save through their connection with the trib". The latter is the most 
turbulent of all the clans, and they and the Petafi used to rival the Khosa tribe in lawlessness of 
conduct. They have lately been given fresh lands and are graluiUy settling down. The Gurchanl 
tribe is said to possess 2,600 fi;^hting men. They are not found in any other part of the Panjab 
than Dcrah Ghazi. 

The Tibbi Lund (No. 8) are also wholly confined to the Ghazi district, where they occupy a 
small area in the midst of the Gurchaui country. They are composed of Liinds, Rinds and Khosas, 
all of true Rind origin, the Lund clau comprising some two-thirds of their whole numbers. These 
three sections were only quite recently unit>.d under the authority of the Tibbi Lund tumanddr. 
Unfortunately, the figures given for this tribe evidently include those of the Sori Lund mentioned 
below. 

The Laghari (No. 22) occupy the country from. the Kiira pass, which is the Gurcbani northern 
border, t j the Saklil Sir ,/ar pasj a little to the north of Derah, which divides them from the Khosa. 
They are of pure Rind origin and are divided into four sections, the Haddiani, Aliani, Bughlani, 
and Haibatani, of which the fi:st inhabit the hills beyond our border anl are not subject to our rule, 
and are, or were in 18G0, nomadic and inveterate thieves. The chief belongs to the Aliani clan. 
Their head-quarters are at Chhotl Zerin, where they are said to have settled alter their return from 
accompanying Humayun, expelling the Ahmadanis who then held the present Laghari country. 
The tr.be numbei-s some 5,000 fighting men. They are also found in considerable numbers in 
Derah Ismail and Muzaffargarh ; but these outlying settlements own no allegiance to the tribe. 
The Talpur dynasty of Sindh belonged to this tribe, ^ and there is still a considerable Lhghari 
colony in that Province. It appears probable that the representatives of several of the Northern 
Biloch tribes which are now found in Sindh, are descended from people who went there during the 
Talpur rule. 

383. The Khetran (No. 37) are an independent tribe living beyond our border at the back 
of the Laghari, Ki.osa, and Lur.d country. Their original settlement was at Vahoa in the country 
of the Qasraui of Derah Ismail Khan, where many of them still live and hold land between the 
Qasraui and the rivei-. But the Emperor Akbar drove out the main body of the ti-ibe, and they 
took refuge in the B.-irkhan valley of the L igliari hills, and still hold t'le surrounding tract and 
look to the Laghari chief as their protector. They are certainly not pure Biloch, and ai-c held by 
*P. 66-71 rii*ny to he Pathans, decended from Miana (No. 87 in the Pathan table of tribes, page 205 \* 
brother of Tarin, the ancestor of the Abdali ; and they do not in some cases intermarry with Pathans 
But they confessedly resemble Biloches in features, habits, and general appearance, the names of 
their tepts end in the Biloch patronymic termination dni, and they are now for all practical pur- 
poses a Biloch tribe. It is probaljle thai, they are in reality a remnant of the original Jat popula- 
tion ; they speak a dialect of their own called Khetranki which is an Indian dialect closely allied 
with Sindhi, and m fact probably a form of the Jatki speech of the lower Indus. They are the least 
warlike of all the Biloch tribes, capital cultivators, and in consequence exceedingly wealthy. lu 
this Census they returned themselves as follows within British Territory -. — 

Pjithdns. Biloches. Total, 
Derah Ismail Khan ... ... ... 1,324 340 1,664 

Derah Ghazi Khan ... ... ... 32 246 273 

Total Province ... ... ... 1,553 605 2,163 

' See Macgregor's Gazetteer of the North- West Frontier, Vol. II, page 259, for an acco^ont cf 
ita origin. 



54 PANJAB CASTES. 

The tribe as it now stands is composed of four clans, of which the Gaujura represents the 
original Khetran nucleus, while to them are affiliated the DhariwaU or Chaeha who say that they 
are Dodai Ililoches, the Hasanni, once an important Biloch tribe which was crushed by Nasir Khan, 
the great Khan of Kclat, and took roi'uge with the Khttniii of whom they are now almost inde- 
pendent, and the Nahar or I'^abai', who are by origin Lodi Pathans. 

The KhOSa (No. 6) occupy tlie country between the Lngliari and the Qasrani, their territory 
being divided into a northern j.ik\ a southern portion by the territory of the Lunds, and stretch ing 
from the foot of the hills nearly across to the river, 'i'hey are -aid to have sct'.led (rigiunlly in 
Kech ; but with the exception of a certain number in Bahawalpur, they are, so far as the Panjab 
is concerned, only f.)uud in Derail Ghazi. Tliey liold, hawcviTj extensive lands in Sindh, wliich 
were granted them by Humayiin in return for military service. They a c one of the most power- 
ful tribes on the border, and very iiidepeulent ot tlicir Cliief and arc " admitted to be among the 
brave-t of the liiloches." They are true Itinds and are divided into six clans, of whicli tiie l^abe- 
lani and l-ani are the mo-t imp n-taut, the hittu' bc'ng an oiT^hoot of the Klict 'an aiUliated to the 
Khosa. Tlie other four are Jaggel, Jiuidaiii, Jarwa:", and MalirwaTii. The Chief belongs to the 
riatel clan. The Khosa is the mu.it industrious of the organised tribes ; and at the same t'me the one 
which next to the Gurchani bears tlie worst ciiaracter for lawlessness. In 1S59 Ma.jor Pollock 
wrote : " It is rare to Unci a Khosa who has not been in prison for cattle-stialiiig, or desei'ved to 
" be J and a Khosa who has not committed a murder or debauched his neighbour's wife or destroyed 
" his neighbour's landmark is a decidedly creditable specimen." And even now the description 
is not very much exaggerated. 

The Lund (No. 49) or Sori Lund, as they are called to distinguish them from the Tibbi Lund, [P. 198] 

are a small tribe which has only lately risen to importance. Their territory diviiles that of the 
Khosa into two parts, and extends to the bank of the Indus. They are not pure Eiloclics, and are 
divided into six clans, the Haidarani, Bakrani, Zarlani, Garzwani, Nuhani, and Gurchani, none of 
which are important. The figures given for this tribe are obviously absurd, and they have appa- 
rently been included with the Tibbi Lund (No. 8). 

The Bozdar (No. 22) are an independent tribe situated beyond our frontier at the back of the 
Qasrani Territory. They hold from the Saughar Pass on the north to the Khosa and Khetran 
country on the south ; and they have the Liiui and Musa Khcl Pathans on their western border. 
Abstract No, 67 shows over 2,000 men as having been within the Panjab at the time of the Census, 
almost all of them in the Ghazi district. These live in scattered villages about Kajanpur and 
among the Laghari tribe, and have no connection with the parent tribe. The Bozdar are of Rind 
extraction, and are divided into the Dulani, Ladwani, Ghulatnaui, Chaknini, Sihani, Shahwani, 
Jalalani, Jafirani, and Rustamani clans. Ihey are more civilized than most of the transfrontier 
tribes and are of all the Biloches the strictest Musalmans. Unlike all other Biloches they light 
with the matchlock rather than with the sword. They are great graziers, and their name is said 
to be derived from the Persian buz, a " goat." 

The Qasrani (No. 16) are the northernmost of the tribes which retain their political organi- 
sation, their territory lying on either side of the boundary between the two Derahs, and being 
confined to the hills both within and beyond our frontier and the sub-montane strip. Their name 
is written (^aizarani or Imperial. The tribe is a poor one, and is divided into seven clans, the 
Lashkarani, Khiibdin, Budani, Vaswani, Laghari, Jarwar, and Rustamani, none of which are 
important. They are of Rind origin, and are not found in the Panjab in any number beyond the 
Derah district. 

The Nutkani (No. 13) are a tribe peculiar to Derah Ghazi Khan, which holds a compact 
territory stretching eastward to the Indus and between the Northern Khosa and the Qasrani. The 
tribe once enjoyed considerable influence and importance, holding rights of superior ownership 
over the whole of the Sanghar country. But it no longer possesses a political organization, having 
been crushed out of tribal existence in the early days of Ranjit Singh's rule. But the event is so 
recent that it still retains much of its tribal coherence and of the characteristics of its race. 

384. The broken Biloch tribes of Derah Ghazi.— The tribes above enu- 
merated are the only ones to be found within or immediately upon our border 
whieh have a regular tribal organisation. But there are many other Biloch 
tribesj and among them some of those most numerously represented in the 
Panjab; whieh occupy large areas in the south-western districts of the Pro- 
vince. They no longer hold compact territories exclusively as their own, 
while to great extent in the Devajat itself, and still more outside it, they have 
lost their peculiar language and habits^ and can hartlly be distinguished from 
the Jat population with whom they are more or less intermixed, and from whom 

^ Dbariwal in the name of an important Jat tribe. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 55 

they differ in little but race. The history of the Biloches of the Derah Ghazi 
lowlands is briefly sketched in the next paragraph. Their most iinporlant 
tribes are the Rind/ the Jatoi^ who still hold as a tribe, though without 
political organisation, a compact tra^t in Sindh between Shikarpur and the 
Indus, (he Lashari/ CTopiing, Gurmiini, Mastoi, Hajani, Sanjrani, and 
Ahmadani. These all lie scattered along the edge of the Indus, intermingled 
with the Jats of the Kachi or low riverain tract. 

335. Biloch tribes of Derah Ismail.— I have already stated that the three 
sons of Malik Sohriib Khan and G^.uzi Khjin, Dodais, founded Derah Ghazi, 
Derah Ismail, and D.rah Fatah Khun. The tiibal name of Dodai seems to 
have been soon dropped, or perhaps the leaders were of a different tribe from 
their followers ; for the representatives and tribesmen of Ghazi Khan are 
locally known as Mihrani, those of Ismail Khan as Hot, and those of Fatah 
Khan as Kulachi. The party of Fatah Khan never seems to have attained to 
any importance, and was almost from the beginning subject to the Hot. 
With Ghazi Khan came the Jiskani, who occupied the cis-Indus tract above 
Bhakkar, while with the Hots came the Korai whose name is associated with 
them in an old Biloch verse. " The Hots and Korai are joined together ; 
" they are equal with the Rind."'' The Korai do not appear to have exercised 
independent rule. At the zenith of their power the Hot, Mihrani, and Jiskani 
held sway over almost the whole of the Indus valley and of the f/ial between 
the Indus and the Chanab, from the centre of the Muzaffargarh district to the 
Salt-range Tract, the northern boundary of Sanghar and Leiah being the 
northern boundary of the Mihrani, while the Indus separated the Hot from 
Jiskani. During the latter half of ihe 1 6ih century Daud Khan, a Jiskani 
and the descendant of one of Ghazi Khan's followers, moved southwarJs and 
su "jugatcd to himsflf the givatec ptrt; of the Leiah ^ounay. A^voar di-ipersed 
his trii)e, but early in the 17th century the independence of the Jiskani un ler 
Biloch Khan was recognised, and it is from Biloch Khan that the Jisaini, 
Mandraui, Mamdani, Sargani, Qandrani, and Maliani, who still occupy the 
Bhakkar and Leiah tahsils, trace their descent. In about 1750 — 1770 A. D. 
the Mihrani, who sided with the Kalhoras or Sarais of Sindh in their struggle 
with Ahmad Shah Durrani, were driven out of Derah Ghazi by the Jiskani 
and fled to Leiah, where many of them are still to be found ; and a few years 
later the Kalhoras, exjpelled from Sindh, joined with the always turbulent 
Sargani to crush the Jiskani rule. About the same time the Hot were over- 
thrown after a desperate struggle by the Gandapm- Pathans. 

The Biloches of Dera Ismail are now confined to the low lands, with the 
exception of the Qasrani and Khetran of the southern border who have already 
been noticed in section 383. The upper hills are held by Pathans. The 
principal tribes are the Lashari,^ the Kulachi and the Jiskani. After them 
come the Rind, the Lagliari, the Jatoi, the Konii, the Chandia, the Hot, the 
Gurmani, the Petafi, the Gashkori, and the Mihrani. Of the four last all but 
the Petafi seem almost confined to Derah Ismail. 

38S. Tlie -""iloch tribes of Muzaffargarh.— In Muzaffargarh more perhaps 
than in any other district the Bilocli is intc'rmingled with the Jat population, 
and the tribal name merely denotes common descent, its common owners 

» It is possil)le that some Biloclies may have returned themaelves as Ri:ul orLashari with refer- 
ence to their original stock rather than to their present tribe ; and that aome of the La^hari clans 
of the Gurchani tribe may have been included in the Lashari tribe. 

3 Soe note to the preceding paragraph. 



U IPANJAB CASTES. 

possess no sort of tribal coherence. The reason doubtless is that since the 
Biloch immigration the district has formed the borderland between the Lodi 
of Sitpur, the Daudpotra of Bahawalpnr, tlie ]\Iihrani of Derah Ghazi, and the 
Langah of Multan. The Gopiing, the (,'handia, the Rind, the Jatoi, and the 
Korai are the tribes most numerously represented. Then came the Laghari, 
the Lashari, the Hot, the Gurmani, the Petafi, the Mashori, and the Sahrani, 
of which the last two are hardly found elsewhere. 

387. The Biloch tribes of the Lower Indus and Satluj. — A very consider- 
able number of Biloches are scattered along the lower Indus and Satluj in 
Bahawalpur and ^lultan, and especially in the former. The most important [p 199J 
are the lUud,^ the Korai, the Gopang, the Jatoi, the Lashari,' and the 

Hot, while less numerous bat still important are the Chiindia, the Khosa, 
and the Dasti. 

388. The Biloch tribes of the Ravi, upper Jahlam, and Chanab. — The 
Biloches of the Eavi are chiefly found in the bar of the Montgomery and 
Jhang districts, where they occupy themselves in camel-breeding, holding 
but little land as cultivators. They consist almost wholly of Jatoi and 
Rind, which latter tribe has penetrated in some numbers as high up as 
Lahore. They are probably descendants of the men who under Mir Chakar 
accompanied Humayun and received a grant of land in Montgomery in 
return for their services. In the Jhang and Shahpur districts, on the Jahlam 
and the right bank of the Chanab, the principal tribes to be found are the 
Rind, the Jatoi, the Lashari, and the Korai. 

389. Course of migration of the Biloch tribes.— Of the original location 
of the tribes I know next to nothing, and what information I have been 
able to collect is given in section 378. But the above sketch of their 
existing distribution enables us to follow with some certainty the later 
routes by which they arrived at their present settlements. The organised 
tribes of Derah Ghazi, including the Nutkani, would appear to have descended 
from the hills eastwards towards the river ; and the four most insignificant 
of the broken tribes, the Mastoi, the Hajani, the Sanjrani, and the Ahmadani, 
seem to have followed the same course. A few Laghari are found in Derah 
Ismail and Muzaffargarh, and a few Khosa in Bahawalpur ; but with 
these exceptions not one of the above tribes is represented in the Panjab 
outside the Ghazi district_, except the Qasrani whose hill territory extends 
into Derah Ismail. On the other hand all the larger broken tribes of 
Derah Ghazi, with the single exception of the Nutkani which was till 
lately organised, and all the remaining tribes which possess any numerical 
importance in the Panjab except four Derah Ismail tribes to be mentioned 
presently, seem to have spread up the Indus from below, as they are without 
exception strongly represented on the lower course of the river, and not 
at all in the hill country. The Rind and the Jatoi seem to have come 
up the Indus in very great numbers, and to have spread high up that 
river, the Chanab, the Jahlam, the Ravi, and the Satluj. The Lashari 
and the Korai followed in their track in slightly smaller numbers, but 
avoided to a great extent the Ravi valley. The Chandia, the Gopang, the 
Hot, and the Gurmani seem to have confined themselves chiefly to the valley 
of the Indus, the Chandia having perliaps passed up the left bank, as they are 
found in Derah Ismail but not in Derah Ghazi. So indeed are the Hot, 

^ Se« note to section 384. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. hi 

but that is accounted for by their seat of Grovernnient having- been Derah 
Ismail. Pour tribes, the Kulaehi, the Jiskani, the Gashkorl, and tho Mihrani, 
the two last of whicli are comparatively insiiG^nificant, are found in Derah 
Ismail and nowhere else save in Muzaifargarh, where the first three occur 
in small number-?. As already stated in section 885, the Jiskani and Kulachi 
apparently had their origin as tribes in Leiah and Derah Fatah Khan, 
while the j\Iihrani were driven there from Derah Ghazi. It would seem 
probable that the Gashkorl either came across the hills in the south of the 
disti'ict, or are a local sub-division of some larger tribe which followed 
the usual track along the river. Tlie Korai are Rind; the Gopang and 
the Dasti are not pure Biloch, but are said to have accompanied the Rind 
in their wanderings. 

THE PATHAN (CASTE No. 6). 

390. Figures and Bibliography for Pathans.— The figures given in Table VIII A., under 

the head Pathiin, abn<)4 certninly include m;uiy pfi'sons whose Patliaii origin is to say the least 
doubtful; -while the ilE^uros to be discussed in tlie following pages show that snch tribes as 
Tanaoli, .Tadun. Uilazak, Tajik, Khetran, and even ]\Iughals have returned themseh'es as Pathans. 
Major Waco writes : " The tribes in the west and north- west of the Pan jab, who during the 
" last three ceiituries were frequently raided upon by Afghans, got into tho habit of inventing 
" histories of Afghan origin as n protection against ill-treatment -. " and even where this motive 
was absent, the treneral tendency to claim kinship with the dominant race would produce 
the same effect. Moreover tho origin of some of the tribes on the Peshawar frontier is tloubtful, 
and their affiliiition with the Pathans incomplete^ and thus they would set up a claim to 
be Pathiin which the true Pathan would indignantly repudiate. Mr. Thorbu'^n notices the 
many and bitter disputes caused by the preparation of the genealogical trees during the Bannu 
Settlement, and the attempts made by Jat clans to be recorded as Pathans. He writes : " A 
" low-caste man born and brought up in a Pathan couutr}^, if serving away from his home, 
"invariably affixes Khan to his name and dubs himself Pathan. It goes down if he can talk 
" Pashto, and his honour proportionally goes up." Still the great mass of those returned as 
Pathans are probably really so, and the figures represent very fairly the general distribution 
of the race. 

lu the second place, it must be remembered that of those who are really Pathan and returned 
as such, many are not British subjects at aU. Such tribes as the Bar Mohniand of the Peshawar 
frontier, who, while essei.t'ally independent tribes, hold land within our border, come down 
in considerable numbers in the winter to cidtivatc their fields; while in the summer tliey 
retreat to their cool valleys in independent territory. So too the very numerous Fawindahs 
of Derah Ismail only wintir in the Panjab, and the number thus temporarily added to our Pathan 
])opnlatiun is exceedingly hirge (section 398). Again, almost the whole of the local trade across 
the border is in the bands of independent tribes whose members come into our districts in 
considerable numbers with merchandize of sorts ; while the seasons of drought and distress 
which preceded the Census drove many of the frontier hill-men into our districts in search of 
employment, and especially on the Bannu border, and on the Thai road in Kohat and the Swat 
canal in Peshawar. 

As for the figures for the separate tribes, they were classified, not by my central office, 
but by the Deputy Commissioners of the several frontier districts, at least so far as regards 
the figures of those districts. Tlius far greater accuracy will have been secured than would 
otherwise have been possible. But the lists of tribes received from some of the districts, on 
which the selection of tribes for tabulation was based (see Chapter on Tabulation, Book II), 
were in some instances very imperfect and the classification exceedingly faulty ; tribes of 
considerable numerical importance in British Territory being omitted, frontier tribes represented 
in the Panjab by only a few score of person? being included, and tribes, clans, and septs being 
mixed up in a perfect chaos of cross-classification. So too the constant recurrence of the 
same clan name among fhe various tribes was a certain source of error. Such names as Daulat 
Khel, Fi'roz Khel, Usmanzai, and Mahaminadzai recur in many separate ti'ibes ; and where 
the schedule entry of sub-divisions did not specify the tribe, no certain classification could 
be made. 

The best authorities on the subject of the Pathan nation as a whole are Dorn's translation 
of Niamat Ullah's History of the Afghans {Oriental Translation Committee, London, IS39), 
Priestly's translation of the Haiyat-i- Afghani called Afghdnisti'm and its Inhabitanis {Lahore, 
i874), Eiphinstone's iCffSK^, and MiWcw'^ Races of Afyhdnistdn. Bellew's I^ti«t«/2(it, Plowden't 
translation of th« Kalid-i-Afghdni, and ths Settlement Reports of the districta »f tbe northern 



58 PUNJAB CASTES. 

frontier contain full iufovmation concerning the Pathans of the Panjab border, as do Macgregor's 
Gazetteer of the N.-W. Frontier, and Paget's Expeditions against the N.-W. Frontier 
Tribes. 

391. D scription of the Pathans. — The true Pathau is perhaps the most 
barhario of all the racjes with which we are brought into contact in the 
Paujab. His life is not so primitive as that of the gipsy tribes. But he 
is bloodthirsty^ cruel, and vindictive in the highest degree : he does not 
know what truth or faith is^ insoaiuch that tlie saying Afghan be imdn 
has pa-sed into a proverb among his neighbours ; and though he is not 
without courage of a sort and is often curioudy reckless of his life, he 
would scorn to face an enemy whom he could stab from behind, or to 
meet him on equal terms if it were possible to take advantage of him, 
however meanly. It is easy to convict him out of his own mouth ; here 
are some of his proverbs : " A Pathan's enmity smoulders like a dung-fire.^' — 
" A cousin's tooth breaks upon a cousin." — " Keep a cousin poor, but 
" use him." — " When he is little play with him : when he is grown up he 
" is a cousin ; tight him." — " Speak good words to an enemy very softly : 
" gradually destroy him root and branch.^" At the same time he has 
his code of honour which he observes strictly, and which he quotes with 
pride under the name of Pakhtunwali. It imposes upon him three chief 
obligations, Nanaiodtai or the right of asylum, which compels him to shelter 
and protect even an enemy who comes as a suppliant ; h'adal or the necessity 
to revenge by retaliation ; and Meluiastia or open-handed hospitality to 
all who may demand it. And of these three perhaps the last is. greatest. 
And there is a sort of charm about him, especially about the leading men, 
which almost makes one forget his treacherous nature. As the proverb 
says — " The Pathan is one moment a saint, and the next a devil." For 
centuries he has been, on our frontier at least, subject to no man. He 
leads a wild, free, active life in the rugged fastnesses of his mountains ; 
and there is an air of masculine independence about him which is refreshing in 
a country like India. He is a bigot of the most fanatical type, exceedingly 
proud, and extraordinarily superstitious. He is of stalwart make, and his 
features are often of a markedly Semitic type. His hair, plentifully oiled, hangs 
long and straight to his shoulder f he wears a loose tunic, baggy drawers, 
a sheet or blanket, sandals, and a sheepskin coat with its wool inside ; his 
favourite colour is dark-blue,' and his national arms the long heavy Afghan 
knife and the matchlock or jazail. His women wear a loose shift, wide 
wrinkled drawers down to their ankle?, and a wrap over the head ; and are 
as a rule jealously secluded. Both sexes are filthy in their persons. 

Such is the Pathan in his home among the fastnesses of the frontier 
ranges. But the Pathans of our territory have been much softened by our rule 
and by the agricultural life of the plains, so that they look down upon the 
Pathans of the hills, and their proverbs have it —" A hill man is no man," 
and again, " Don't class burrs as grass or a hill man as a human being." 
The nearer he is to the frontier the more closely the Pathan assimilates 
to the original type ; while on this side of the Indus, even in the riverain 
itself, there is little or nothing, not even language, to distinguish him 

•The Pasbto word tarhdr is used indifferently for " cousin " or for " enemy j" and tarbiirwali 
either for "cousinhood" or for "enmity." 

3 This is not true of the northern Pathans, who shave their heads, and often their beards also. 

3 The colour and cut of the clothes vary greatly with the tribe. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 59 

from his nelglibours of the same religion as himself. The Pathtins arc 
extraordinarily jealous of female honour, and most of the blood feuds for 
which they are so famous originate in quarrels about women. As a race 
they strictly seclude their females, but the poorer tribes and the poorer 
members of all tribes are prevented from doing so by their poverty. Among 
the tribes of our territory a woman's nose is cut off if she be detected in 
adultery ; and it is a favourite joke to induce a Pathan woman to unveil 
by saying to her suddenly " You have no nose ! " The Pathan pretends 
to be purely endogamous and beyond the border he probably is so ; while 
even in British Territory the fii-st wife will generally be a Pathan, except 
among the poorest classes. At the same time Patluin women are beyond 
the Indus seldom if ever married to any but Pathans. They intermarry 
very closely, avoiding only the prohibited degrees of Islam. Their rules 
of inheritance are triljal and not Mahomedan, and tend to keep jiroperty 
within the agnatic society, though some few of the more educated families 
have lately begun to follow the Musalman law. Their social customs differ 
much from tribe to tribe, or rather perhaps from the wilder to the more 
civilised sections of the nation. The Pathans beyond and upon our frontier 
live in fortified villages, to which are attached stone towers in commanding 
positions which serve as watch-towers and places of refuge for the inhabitants. 
Small raids from the hills into the plains below are still common ; and beyond 
the Indus the people, even in British Territory, seldom sleep far from the 
walls of the village. 

The figures showing the distribution of Pathans are given in Abstract 
♦P.38-9. No. 65 on page 191.* They are the dominant race throughout the whole 
tract west of the Indus as far south as the southern border of the tahsil 
of Derah Ismail Khan, which roughly divides the Pathan from the Biloch. 
On this side of the Indus they hold much of the Chach country of Hazara 
and Rawalpindi, they have considerable colonies along the left bank of 
the Indus till it finally leaves the Salt-range, and they hold the northern 
portion of the Bhakkar thai. Besides those tracts which are territorially 
held by Pathans, there are numerous Pathan colonies scattered about the 
Province, most of them descendants of men who rose to power during the 
Pathan dynasties of Dehli, and received grants of land-revenue which their 
children often increased at the expense of their neighbours during the tui'moil 
of the 18th century. 

392. Origin of the Patlian.— The Afghans proper claim descent from 
Saul, the first Jewish King, and there is a formidable array of weighty 
authority in favour of their Semitic origin. The question of their descent 
is discussed and authorities quoted in Chapter VI of the Peshawar Settlement 
Report, and in Dr. Bellew^s Eaccs of Afghdnistdn} Mr. Thorburn quotes 
in support of their Jewish extraction, " some peculiar customs obtaining 
" among the tribes of purest blood, for instance the Passover-like practice 
" of sacrificing an animal and smearing the doorway with its blood in order 
''to avert calamity, the offering up of sacrifices, the stoning to death of 
" blasphemers, the periodical distribution of land, and so forth ; " and he 

» Dr. ISellcw suggests that the original Afghans were the Solymi of Herodotus, and were 
Qureshi Arabs who lived in Syria and there became intermiuglcd with the .Jews, or who 
migrated to Ghor where the fugitive .Jews took refuge with them. This supposition would explain 
the name Sulemaui which is often applied to the Afghans, and their own assertion that Khalid ibu 
Wdlid the Qureshi was of the same stocik with themselves. 



60 PANJAB CASTES. 

points out that most of the learned men who reject the tradition of Jewish 
descent have no personal acqiiaintauee with the Afghiin people. The Afghan 
proper is said still to call himself indifferently Ban-i- Afghan or Ban-i-Israil 
to distinguish himself from the Palhan proper who is of Indian, and the 
Ghilzai who is probably of mixed Turklsli and Persian extraction. Pashto, 
the common language of all three, is distinctly Aryan^ being a branch of 
the old Persian stock. It is described in Chapter Y, sections 322-3 of this 
Report. 

There is groat conflict of o])inion concerning both the origin and constitu- [P. 201] 
tion of the Pathan nation. Not a few deny that there is any distinction 
whatever between the ori^iuMl Afuhan and Pathan stocks, though these are for 
the most part officers of our frontier who are not brought into contact with the 
original Afghans. I have however been obliged to adopt some one theory of 
the constitution of the nation as a basis for ray classification of tribes ; and 1 
have therefore adopted that of Dr. Bellew, who probably has a greater 
knowledge of the Afghans of Afghanistan as distinct from the Panjab frontier^ 
and especially of the old histories of tlie nation, than any other of the author- 
ities who have treated of the matter. The constitution and early history of the 
nation according to Dr. Beilew's account are discussed in the paragraphs 
presently following. But whatever the origin of Afghans and Pathans proper 
may be, the nation to Avhich tlie two names are now applied indifferently in 
Persian and Pashto respectively, occupying as it does the mountain country 
lying between the Persian emj^ire on the west, the Indian on the east, the 
Mongol on the north, and the Biloch on the south, includes as at present con- 
stituted many tribes of very diverse origin. They are without exception 
Mussalmans, and for the most part bigoted followers of the Sunni sect, hating 
and persecuting Shiahs, or as they call them Rafazis.^ 

393. Tribal organisation of the Patlians, — The tribe is probably far more 
homogeneous in its constitution among the Pathans than among the Biloches. 
Saiyad, Turk, and other clans have occasionally been affiliated to it ; but as a 
rule people of foreign descent preserve their tribal individuality, becoming 
merely associated, and not intermingled, with the tribes among whom they 
have settled. Even then they generally claim Pathan origin on the female 
side, and the tribe is usually descended in theory at least from a common 
ancestor. The hmmdyali custom described in section 380, by which strangers 
are protected by the tribe with which they dwell, is in full force among the 
Pathans as among the Biloches. But with the foraier though it does protect 
in many cases families of one tribe who have settled with another, it seldom 
accounts for any considerable portion of the tribe ; and its action is chiefly 
confined to traders, menials, and other dependents of foreign extraction, who 
are protected by but not received into the tribe. Thus a blacksmith living in 
an Utmanzai village will give his clan an Utraanzai ; but his caste will of 
course remain Lobar. The nation is divided genealogically into a few great 
sections which have no coi-porate existence, and the tribe is now the practical 
unit, though the common name and tradition of common descent are still 
carefully preserved in the memory of the people. Each section of a tribe, 

' The 52 Hindus shown in the tables are probably traders liviug under Pathan protection, or 
due to errors in enumeration. Tiiere are several Shiali clans among the Orakzai of Tirah on the 
Kohat border. The people of the Samilzai tapah of the Kohat di4rict, which is conterminous 
with tlic territory of tliese clans, are also Sliialis. All own allegiance to the Shiah Saiyads of 
the Orakzai Tirah j while everywhere many of the tribes which claim Saiyad origin are Shiaha. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 61 

however small, has its leading- man who is known as Malik, a specially Pathan 
title. In many, but by no means in all tril)es, there is a Klum Kliel or Chief 
House, usually the eldest In-anch of the tribe, whose Malik is known as Khan, 
and acts as chief of the whole tribe. But he is seldom more than their leader 
in war and their agent in dealings with others ; he possesses influence rather 
than power ; and the real authority rtsts with the Jirffak, a democratic council 
composed of all the Maliks. The tribe is split up into numerous clans, and 
these again into septs. The tribe, clan, and sept are alike distinguished by 
patronymics formed from the name of the common ancestor by the addition of 
the word Zai or Kkel, Zai l)eing the conniption of the Pashto zoe meaning 
" son, " while KJul is an Arabic word meaning an association or company. 
Both terms are used indifferently for Ijoth the larger and smaller divisions.^ 
The stock of names being limited, the nomenclature is exceedingly puzzling, 
certain names recurring in very different tribes in the most maddening 
manner. Moreover the title which genealogical accuracy would allot to a 
tribe or clan is often very different from that by which it is known for practi- 
cal purposes, the people having preferred to be called by the name of a junior 
ancestor who had acquired local renown. The frontier tribe whether within or 
beyond our border has almost without exception a very distinct corporate 
existence, each tribe and within the tribe each clan occupying a clearly defined 
tract or country, though they are in the Indus Valley often the owners merely 
rather than the occupiers of the country, the land and smaller villages being 
largely in the hands of a mixed population of Hindu origin who cultivate 
subject to the superior rights of the Pathans. These people are included by the 
Pathans under the generic and semi-contemptuous name of Hindki ; a term 
very analogous to the Jat of the Biloch frontier, and which includes all 
Mahomedans who, being of Hindu origin, have been converted to Islam in 
comparatively recent times.2 

394. Constitution of the Pathan nation.— The words Pathan and Afghan 
are used indifferently by the natives of India to designate the nation under 
discussion.' But the two words are not used as synonyms by the people 
themselves. The original Afghans are a race of probably Jewish or Arab 
extraction ; and they, together with a tribe of Indian origin mth which they 
have long been blended, still distinguish themselves as the true Afghans, or 
since the rise of Ahmad Shah Durrani as Dui-ranis,* and class all non-Durrani 
Pashto-speakers as Opra. But they have lately given their name to Afghanis- 
tan, the country formerly known as Khorasan, over which they have now 
held sway for more than a century, and which is bounded on the north by the 
Oxus, on the south by Bilochistan, on the east by the middle course of the 
Indus, and on the west by the Persian desert ; and, just as the English and 
Scotch who early in the 17th century settled among and intermarried with the 
Irish are now called Irish, though still a very distinct section of the popula- 
tion, so all inhabitants of Afghanistan are now in common parlance known as 

> When our ill-fated Resident Major Cavagnari was lately living at Kabul under the Amir 
Yakub Khan, those who favoured the British were known as Cavagnarizai, and the national party 
as Yakubzai. The ending zai is never used by the Afridi. 

2 The Dilazak are often called Hindkis by the true Pathans, as having come from India and 
not from Afghanistan. 

3 In Hindustan they are often called Rohillahs, or Highlanders, from Rohi the mountain 
country of the Pathans (Roh = Koh, a mountain.) 

* Either from Durr-i-Baurdn " pearl of the age " or from Dtin-i-Durrdn '• pearl of pearls." 
The title was adopted by Ahmad Siiah Abdali when he ascended the throue, in allusion to the 
Abdali custom of wearing a pearl stud in the right ear. 



62 PANJAB CASTES. 

Afghan, the races thus included being the Afghan proper, the Pathdn proper, 
the Gilzai, the Tajik, and the Hazara, besides tribes of less importance living 
on the confines of the country. 

The true Pathans are apparently of Indian origin. Their language is 
called Pasbto or Paklito and they call themselves Pukhtana^ or Pakhto- 
speakers ; and it is this word of which Pathan is the Indian corruption. They 
held in the early centuries of our rera the whole of the Safed Koh and Northern 
Snleman systems, from the Indus to the Helmand and from the soui-ees of the [P. 202] 
Swat river and Jalalaljad to Peshin and Quetta. The Afghans and Gilzais 
spread into their country and adopted their language and customs ; and just as 
Insh, Scotch, and Welsh speaking the English langaagc are commonly called 
Englishmen, so all who speak the Pakhto tongue came to be included under 
the name Pathan. Thus the Afo:hans and Gilziiis are Patlians by virtue of 
their language, though not of Pathan origin ; the Tajiks and Hazaras, who 
have retained their Persian speech, are not Pathans ; while all five are Afghans 
by virtue of location, though only one of them is of Afghan race. 

395. Early history of the Afghans. — The origin and early history of the 
various tribes which compose the Afghan nation are much disputed by 
authorities of weight who hold very different views. I have in the following 
sketch followed the account given by Dr. Bellew, as it affords a convenient 
framework on which to base a description of those tribes. But it is said to be 
doubtful whether the distinction which he so strongly insists upon between 
Pathan proper and Afghan proper really exists or is recognised by the people ; 
while the Jewish origin of any portion of the nation is most unceitain. But 
the division of the nation into tribes, the internal affinities of those tribes, 
and the general account of their wanderings are all beyond question ; and the 
theories which account for them are only accepted by me to serve as 
connecting links which shall bind them into a consecutive story. The tradi- 
tions of the true Afghans who trace their name and descent from Afghana, 
the son of Jeremiah, the son of Saul, and Solomon^s commander-in-chief and 
the builder of his temple, say that they were carried away from Syria by 
Nebuchadnezzar and planted as colonists in Media and Persia. Thence they 
emigrated eastwards into the mountains of Ghor and the modern Hazdra 
country. The Afghans early embraced the creed of Islam, to which they 
were converted by a small body of their tribe on their return from Aralua, 
where they had fought for Mahomet under their leader Kais. It is from this 
Kais or Kish, namesake of Sanies father, who married a daughter of Khalid- 
ibn-Walid a Qureshi Arab and Mahomet^s first apostle to the Afghans, that 
the modern genealogists trace the descent alike of Pathans, Afghans, and 
Gilzai, or at any rate of such tribes of these races as we have here to deal 
with ; and to him they say that the Prophet, pleased with his eminent services, 
gave the title of Pathan, the Syrian word for rudder, and bade him direct 
his people in the true path. Meanwhile, about the 5th and 6th century of 
our a?ra, an irruption of Scythic tribes from beyond the Hindu Kush into the 
Indus Valley drove a colony of the Buddhist Gandhari, the Gandarii of 
Herodotus and one of the four great divisions of that Pactyan nation which is 
now represented ])y the Pathans proper, from their homes in the Peshawar 
valley north of the Kabul river and in the hills circling it to the north ; and 

* Dr. Bellew and Major James identify them with the Pacfciyans of Herodotus, and seem half 
inclined to connect them with the Picts of Britain, as also the Scyths with the Scots, and certain 
Pathin and Brahoi tribes with Cambrians and Ligurians ! 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 63 

they emigi'ated en masse to a kindred people on the banks of the Helmand, 
where they estal)lished themselves and founded the city which they named 
Gandhav after their native capital, and which is now called Kandahar. 

It is not certain when the Afghans of Ghor moved down into the 
Kandahar country where the Gandhari colony was settled ; but they pi'obably 
came as conquerors with the Arab invaders of the 1st century of the Mahome- 
dan a?ra. They soon settled as the dominant race in their new homes, 
intermanied with and converted the Gandhari, and adopted their language ; 
and in course of time the two races became fused together into one nation 
under the name of Afghans, as distinguished from the neighbouring Pathans 
of whom I shall presently speak^ though the original stock of Ghor still called 
themselves 13an-i-Israil to mark the fact that their origin was distinct from 
that of their Gandhari kinsmen. It is probable that this tradition of Jewish 
origin was little more distinct than is the similar tradition of Norman descent 
which some of our English families still preserve. Thus the Afghan proper 
includes, firstly the original Afghans of Jewish race whose principal tribes are 
the Tarin, Abdali or Durrani and Shirani, and secondly the descendants of the 
fugitive Gandhari, who include the Yusufzai, Mohmand, and other tribes of 
Peshawar. These latter returned about the first half of the loth century of 
our tera to their original seat in the Peshawar valley which they had left 
nearly ten centuries before ; while the original Afghans remained in Kandahar^ 
where in the middle of the 18th century they made themselves rulers of the 
country since known as Afghanistan, and shortly afterwards moved their 
capital to Kabul. The tribes that returned to the Peshawar country were 
given by Ahmad Shah the title of Bar or " upper " Durrani, to distinguish 
them from the Abdali Durrani who remained at Kandahar. 

396. I have said that the Gandhari were one of the four great divisions 
of the Pactiya3 of Herodotus. The other three nations included under that 
name were the AparytcB or Afridi', the Satragyddse or Khatak^ and the 
Dadicse or Dadi, all alike of Indian origin. At the beginning of the Mahome- 
dan sera the Afridi held all the country of the Safed Koh, the Satragyddse 
held the Suleman range and the northern part of the plains between it and the 
Indus, while the Dadi held modern Sewestan and the country between the 
Kandahar Province and the Sulemans. These three nations constitute the 
nucleus of the Pathans proper. But around this nucleus have collected many 
tribes of foreign origin, such as the Scythic Kakar, the Rajput Waziri, and 
the many tribes of Turk extraction included in the Karlanri section who came 
in with Sabuktagin and Taimui' ;- and these foreigners have so encroached 
upon the original territories of the Pactyan nation that the Khatak and Afridi 
now hold but a small portion of the countries which they once occupied, while 
the Dadi have been practically al^sorbed by their Kakar invaders. The whole 
have now become blended into one nation by long association and inter- 
marriage, the invaders have adopted the Pakhto language, and all alike have 
accepted Islam and have invented traditions of common descent which express 
their present state of association. The Afridi were nominally converted to 
Islam by Mahmud of Ghazni ; but the real conversion of the Pathan tribes 
dates fi'om the time of Shahab-ul-din Ghori, when Arab apostles with the title 

^ The Afridi still call themselves Aparide. There is no/ in Pashto proper. 

2 The various accounts given of Karlan's origin all recognise the fact that he was not a Pathan 
by birth ; and even the affiliation of the Karlanri is doubtful, some classing them as Sarbani aud 
not Ghurghushti. 



64 PANJAB CASTES. 

of Saijad and Indian converts who were called Shekli spread through the 
country, and settled among, married with^ and converted the Pathans. The 
descendants of these holy men still preserve distinct tribal identity, and as a 
rule claim Saivad origin. 

The Gilzai are a race probably of Tui-kish origin, their name being 
another form of Khikhi, the Turkish word for '^ swordsman,'^ who early settled, 
perhaps as mercenaries rather than as a corporate tribe, in the Siah-band range 
of the Ghor mountains where they received a large admixture of Persian blood. 
The official spelling of the name is still Ghaleji at Kabul and Kandahar. 
They first rose into notice in the time of Mahmud Ghaznavi, whom 
they accompanied in his invasions of India. Not long afterwards they 
conquered the tract between Jalalabad and Kelat-i-Ghilzai, and spread east and [P- 308] 
west over the country they now hold. In the beginning of the 18th century 
they revolted against their Persian rulers, established themselves under Mir 
Wais as independent rulers ;it Kandahar, and overran Persia. But a quarter 
of a century later they were reduced by Nadir Shah, and their rule disappeared, 
to be succeeded not long after by that of the Durrani. 

With the remaining races of the Tajik and Hazara which form part of 
the Pathan nation in its \videst sense, we have little concern in the Panjab. The 
former are the remnants of the old Persian inhabitants of Afghanistan, and the 
word is now loosely used to express all Pathans who speak Persian and are neither 
true Afghans, Saiyads, nor Hazaras. They are scattered through Afghanistan, 
Persia, and Tiirkistan, in which last they hold some hill fastnesses in inde- 
pendent sovereignty. The Hazaras are Tartar by origin, and are supposed to 
have accompanied Chengiz Khan in his invasion. They occupy all the moun- 
tain countrv formed by the western extensions of the Hindu Kush between 
Ghazni, Balkh, Hirat, and Kandahar. I have included in my account of the 
Pathans a few allied races, who though not usually acknowledged as Pathans, 
have by long association become closely assimilated with them in manners, 
customs, and character. They chiefly occupy Hazarn, and are called Dilazak, 
Swati, Jodiin, Tanaoli, and Shilmani. 

397. Tribal affinities and statistics. — The Pathan genealogies, which were 
probably concocted not more than 400 years ago, teem with obvious absurdities. 
But they are based upon the existing affinities of the people whom they trace 
back to Kais ; and they will therefore afford a useful basis for a discussion of 
the tribes with which we in the Panjab are concerned. I give in Abstract 
No. 69 on pages SOi and 205* a table showing the traditional grouping of the ♦?. 
divisions of the Pathan nation. This grouping corresponds fairly well with 66-71. 
their present distribution by locality, and I shall therefore take the tribes in 
order as they lie along our Ijorder, beginning from the south where they 
march with the Biloches. Unfortunately the figured details for the various 
tribes which I give In Abstract No. 70, on page 206t are in many ways f P« 7J-5 
unsatisfactory. I have already explained that the Deputy Commissioners 
of the frontier districts were asked to prepare li^-ts of the tribes for which 
figures should be separately tabulated for each district, and it is new apparent 
that these lists were drawn up far more with regard to the political needs of 
each district than with reference to any ethnic or triljal system of classification. 
The figures given, however, will probably satisfy all administrative require- 
ments : though they are so full of double or incomplete classification that they 
are of little use to me in the description of the tribes, and T have hardly 
alluded to them in the following pages. I have, however, grouped the figures 



BILOCH, PATH AN, AND ALLIED RACES. 65 

on the l)asis of 1 he tribal classinciition adopted in Abstract No. 60, and have 
added below eaih headiiig; in Abstract No. 711 the serial numbers of the tribes 
shown in Al)stract No. G9 which it may be considered to include, so tbat the 
information contained in the figures is connected as closely as possible with the 
grouping of the tribes which I have followed. The figm-es being tabulated 
on tbe spot by a local staff are probably as accurate as the material 
will permit of. Rut errors must have o.'Curred, both from the constant 
recurrence of the same clan name in different tribes, and from the difhoulty 
pointed out in the following quotation from 'Mv. Beckett's Pei^hawar Census 

Report : — 

"Ainou^ Miiliaumiailan;;, c-pecially among Afghnn-s, tril>C8or section-* multiply witli genera- 
" tions ; for instance as tlie descendants increase tlieir branches or sections iucreasc with tlieui, 
" so the mistake which has occurred is that, of a few men who>e origin wa^ the same, some were 
" placed under the name of the old ancestor of the family, some under the name of an intermediate 
•'ancestor, and others under the nam" of a more modern or lower generation. Similarly tho^e 
<' who should have bceii catered under the original branch were shown under numerous branches." 

398. Pathan tribes of Derah Ismail Khan. — Tlie tribes of our lower 
frontier belong almost exclusively to the lineage of Shekh Baitan^, third son 
of Kais. His descendants in the male line are known as Bitanni, and are 
comparatively unimportant. But while, in the early part of the Sth centmy, 
Baitan was living in his original home on the western slopes of the Siah- 
band range of the Ghor mountains, a prince of Persian origin flying 
before the Arab invaders took refuge with him, and there sedujed and 
married his daughter Bibi Matto. From him are descended the jNIatti section 
of the nation, which embraces the Ghilzai, Lodi, and Sarwani Pathans. The 
Ghilzai were the most famous of all the Afghan tribes till the rise of 
the Durrani power, while the Lodi section gave to Delili the Lodi and Sur 
dynasties. The Sarwani never rose to prominence, and are now hardly 
known in Afghanistan. To the Ghilzai and Lodi, and especially to the former, 
belong almost all the tribes of warrior traders \v'ho are included under the term 
Paivindah, from Parioindah, the Persian word for a bale of goods or, perhaps 
more probably, from the same root as ^o?^a/, a Pashto word for " to graze.'''"2 
They are almost whollv engaged in the carrying trade between India and 
Afghanistan and the Northern States of Central Asia, a trade which is almost 
entirely in their hands. They assemble every autumn in the plains east of 
Ghazni, with their families, flocks, herds, and long strings of camels laden with 
the goods of Bukhai-a and Kandahar ; and forming enormous caravans, number- 
ing many thousands, march in military order through the Kakar and Wazii i 
country to the Gonial and Zho^) passes through the Sulemilns. Entering the 
Derail Ismail Khan district, they leave their families, flocks, and some two- 
thirds of their fighting men in the great grazing grounds which lie on either 
side of the Indus, and while some wander off in search of employment, others pass 
on with their laden camels and merchandize to Multan, Rajputana, Lahore, 
Amritsar, Dehli, Cawnpore, Benares, and even Patna. In the spring they 
again assemble, and return l>y the same route to their homes in the hills about 
Ghazni and Kelat-i-Ghilzai! When the hot weather begins the men, leaving 
their l)elongings behind them, move off to Kandahar, Hirat iind Bukhara with 
the Indian and ]']uropean merchandize which they have brought from Hindus- 
tan. In October they return and prepare to start once more for India. 

1 Dr. Bellew point: out that I'aitan has an Indian sound ; while Shekh is the title given, 
iu conlradistinction to Saiyad, to Indian converts in Afghanistan. Thus the Ghilzai (the Tiirk 
term for swordsman) arepruhahly of Turk extraction, witli Indian and Persian ailmixturcs. 

• The pronunciatiou is Powindah, rather than Pawindah. 



66 



PAN.TAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 69, showing the [P. 204] 



^ Origin and natural Divisions and 








Tribal Divisions. 


6 


iz; 


Athmties 






























"3 


5 
















£ 



















tn 


CD 


















1 












1*^ 


Hi 


Sarw'ini. 


^arwani 


1 




^ 










m«al 




1 




2 


■g 

c3 


)oubtful. 














Khasor. 


Khasor 


2 










3 


a 
■3 






1 










Pringi. 


Pringi 


3 










4 


(S 






g 











Sir. 


sar 


4 




eS 


























a 






■1^ 










\ 








5 









a 
1 










i 




TitOT 


5 


— 






6 


1 


Doubtful. 




a 










'5 ! 




Baluch 


6 




"3 






'a 










-.- zz 








7 


.2 






^ 










, a 


s 


Daulat Khel 


' 




1 






"3 
e5 





a 







M 



1-5 






8 


Mi&n Khel 


8 




CS 








.2 

























% 


c3 


» 














9 


a 


Saiyad 




B 





a 
£ 










Balchtiar (r-) 


9 











a> 





« 






. 








10 


.=3 
60 






■3 

s 


a" 

c3 


e3 










Marwat 


10 












M 

— i-1 


a 


a 


a" 
a 


5 
1 












11 


c 


Niiizi (proper) ... 


11 


12 


oa 

^ bo 




SI 


^ 
a "ti 
■5.3 

'S bo 




,a 

a 



"o 
t-l 

"bo 






Ni47.i .. i 


Kuiidi 


12 










13 


■TS a 




i-i 


•5 a 


'C 


13 







Dutanni 


Dutanni 


13 




eS 







^^ 




p 




















H 


3 
a 






1^ 


a 


1 






r 


Hotak 


U 




1 






'5 


'5 





3 




Turin ...-{ 






15 


Tokhi 


15 










16 


■5 


Doubtful 




-a 
a 


P3 


a 

a 








Nasar 


16 








17 


5 

3 








a 











1. 


. Kharoti 


17 




^^ 























18 


1 
13 






g 

P4 








P. 


a 


! 


' Suleuian Khel .. 


18 











'S 








^ 








19 




- 1 

la 






0) 








CS 

15 





Ali Khel 


19 


20 


Aka Khel 


20 










E-< 










Ibruliimzai .. ■< 












21 


8 


















Ishaq 


21 


22 


•3 


















Andar 


22 


2C 


















- Tarakki 


23 



BILOCH, P4THAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 
Principal Divisions of tli3 Pathan Nation. 



67 



Notes. 


Present Holdings. 


Country, district, 
or frontier to 
which each tribe 
appertains. 


1 

Sections of the 
' report in which 
tg each tribe is 
oo described. 


o 

'm 
Ui 


No longer found in Afghanistan. Maler 
Kotla family belongs to the Saripal clan. 


Scattered through Hindustan 


Hindiistin 


1 


A fmall tribe of doubtful origin 


Trans-Indus Salt Range of Derah 
Ismiil Khan. 


D. I. Kh4n 


3(^9-402 


2 


Gave Lodi dynasty to Dehli ^ 

(^ Mi grated to 


Scattered through HindCistan 


Hind<istSn 


399 

398-9 


3 


■" ■ I Hindustan. 
Gave Sur dynasty to Dehli J 


4 


Insignificant, since crushed by N&dir Sh4h 


Tank in Derah Ismiil Kh&n 


s 

a 
— . « 

.a 
S 


401 


6 


Small and of uncertain origin. Affiliated 
to No. 7. 


Dera Ismiil Khan Salt Range and 
cis-Indus plain. 


399-402 


6 


A sept of the M4mil Khel, to the whole of 
which it h^s given its name. Rulers 
of T4nk are of the Katti Khel sept. 


Part of Tank in Derah Ism&il Kh4n 


401 


7 


Often held to include Bakhtiar, No. 9 


1 

■ The central part of trans-Indus 
Derah Ism4il Khan. 


401-2 


8 


A Saiyad tribe from Persia, affiliated to 
No. 8. See also No. 29. 


401 


9 


Known as Spin LohSni. Nos. 5 to 9 being 
called TArLohani. 


South-west portion of Bannu Dis- 
trict. 


6 

a 

§ 

pq 


404 


10 


Chief clans, Is&khel, Sarhang, Mushani ... 


Both banks of Indus in north of 
linnnn. 


403 


11 


The Ni4zi descent not always admitted ... 


Part of T4nk in Derah Ism&ll Kh4n 


Q 

fl 

.a 

M 

1 
t 

a> 


402 


12 


Unimportant 


Pawindah tribes with homes in 
the Ghilzai country, between 
.TalMabAd and Kelat-Qhilzai. 
. Their families spend the winter 
there, and the summer in the 
Derah Ismail Khan plains. For 
a description of the Pawindah 
traffic, see Section 398. 


402 


13 


Gave the Ghilzai kings to KandahSr. 
Crushed by Nadir Shah 


402 


14 


Once the principal Ghilzai tribe 


402 


15 


Their Ghilzai origin is doubtful 


402 


16 


Their Ghilzai origin is doubtful 


402 


17 


Now the principal Ghilzai tribe 


402 


18 


Unimportant 




19 


Unimportant 




20 


Chief clan is Ydsuf Khel 


i 




21 


The M&sa Khel Kdkar are affiliated to this 
tribe. 


402 


22 




402 


23 



J 2 



68 



PANJAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 69, showing the 




[P. 205] 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 



69 



Principal Divisions of the Pathan Nation— continued. 



Notes. 



Clans Warshpun and Kajiu (septs Dhanne 
and Tattc). 



Descended from Sharkabun by a Kakar 
mother. Shirani (luarrellcd" with his 
brothers, and allied himself to the 
Kakar branch ol the Ghurghusht sec- 
tion, with which his descendants arc 
still associated. See No. 86. 



Saiyad tribes affiliated to the Shirani. 
No. 31 includes several clans of true 
Pathbin origin. 



"^ Fawindoh tribe in the Ghilzai 

■ country. 

,' South-west of Derah Ismail Khin 



Bellcw allies the Kakar to the Gakkhars. 
They include several clans of distinct 
" origin, all called Kakar after the chief 
tribe. 



! Of Rdjput origin. The larger portion of 
f them is still settled in Phekhiiwatti 
j and Haidarabad. 



the ancient 



The representatives of 

Dadicae. __^______^^_ 

Ancestor separated from his brother 

through a feud. 



Chief clans Alfzai and Bahlolzai 



Unimportant. Practically a separate tribe 



Chief clan Utmanzai and Ahinadzai 



Hybrid tribe, with many clans of mixed 

origin. 

Unimportant 



Pathin origin doubtful 



Claim descent from Khugiani; bat of 
doubtful Pathan origin, and now separate 
[" tribes. Very probably Turks who came 
I in with Changiz and Taimur. 



Should perhaps be classed as Durrani (Nos. 
82, 83). 



Present Holdings. 



North- West of Derah Ismail Khan 



Country round and west of the 
Takht-i-Suleman on the Derah 
Ismail Khan border. 



South of Derah Ismail Khan, and 
adjoining parts of Suleman 
mountains. 



/ North-west of Derah Ismail Khan 



[•Kakaristan in south-east of Af- 
ghanistan, between the Ghilzai, 
Spin, Tarin, and Biloch territo- 
ries and the Suleman mountains. 



Northern slopes of Western Safed 
Koh. 



Hills on north-west frontier of 
Derah Ismail Khan. 



Hills on the Bannu border 



North-west of Bannu district 



Both banks of Eirer Tochi on 
Bannu border. 



South-west corner of Khost 



^ Head of K urram valley 
1 Kurram valley ^ 



Khost 



Chief clans Bulaqi, Tari Tarkai. Two 
territorial sections, Akora or Eastern and 
Teri or Western. 



Chief clans Adam Khel, Al;a Khel, and 
Kliaibar Afrldi (IvCiki Khel, Malikdin 
Khel, Qambar Khel, Kamar Khel, Zakha 
Khel, Sepah). 



Accompanied Ydsufzai to Peshawar 



North-west slopes of Safed Koh, 
west of Shinwari. 



South, centre, and east of Kohat ; 
south-east of Peshawar, and west 
of Baizai valley ; north-east of 
Bannu. 



Khaibar range, hills on south- 
west border of Peshawar south of 
Kabul river, and north-east border 
of Kohat. 






■A 



'c ■S'S- 
11.5 II 



402 
401 



401 

4ul 



j4in 
396 



412 



396 

405 



405 



405 

405 
4«4 



406 
406 



29 

"30" 
31 

32 
33 
34 
35 



39 



Perhaps of Turk origin 



Formerly closely associated with No. 56 



This and No. 57 affiliated to Karl&nri 



No longer a separate tribe 



Ditto ditto 

Scythic origin. 



Probably of 



Includes elans of distinct origin. Begani of 
BhopAl belongs t o tliis tribe. 

Chief elans G.'ir (clans Baizai and Jliranzai) 
and Simil. NawAbs of Purrukhabad are 
Ban gash. 



Banks of Swat river to Araug Baran ; 
and in Baizai valley. 



Hills between Khost and Zurmat. 



Mountains 
Kurram. 



west of Khost and 



Between Hazara and North Ghilzai 
countries. 



Scattered 



Scattered through India 



Mountains of Tirah west of Adai 
Khel. 



MIranzai and Koh.it valleys in 
north-west of Kohat district, and 
in Kurram. 



Peshawar 
border. 



403 



4u3 
408-9 



407 



4u7 



53 

54 



_67_ 
58 

"59" 

"eiT 



70 



PANJAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 69, showing the 



Origin and natural Divieions and 
AflSnitics. 



70 


|l 


71 


'S^ 




«F: 






7« 


"S 














73 


vs el 




'O*^ 












O'-S 


74 






c-u 




f^-ki 


76 


c p. 





o^ 


76 


=3 S 


■ 


;=.Q 


77 






^- eS 


78 


-X o 




■^ 5? 




bcO. 


79 


< a 


., , 


— ■o 


80 










bc.S 














81 






o a, 


82 


■£,« 




.o ^ 




«.« 








•< 






m 






,a 










H\ 


^ 









i-s 


86 


a 




o 




9 




o 


Pfi 














o 





.a 


87 


a 




o 





C3 



? Persian, 



Doubtful 



? Persian 



S^5 





^S 




-do 




g^ 


M 


rt 


W 




(i^ 




o 


a 


M 


<0 


fk 


o 




! 


W 




!i 


o 



S° 

O *j 

a g 

(0 u 

dg 

OJTS 



Tribal Divisions. 



Zamand 



£&UBi 



Tarkl&nri 



Surgi4ui .. 



Khweshgi 
Muhammadzai 



Shinwai-i 



UsmSnzai 



Utmanzai 


66 


Saddozai 


66 


Razar... 


67 


BAdi Khel 


68 


Is4zai 


69 


Ili&szai 


70 


Malizai 


71 


Akozai 


72 



Gugi&ni 



TarkUuri 



MuUagori 



Bar Mohmand 



Plain Mohmand . 



D&Mzai 



Khalil 



Chamkanni 



Zirani 



Turin 



Abdali or DurrAni .\ 



Shirani 



Mi4na 



Baraich 



Zirak 



Panjpai 
Tflr Tariu 
Spin Tarin 



Shirini 



MiAna 



Baraich 



61 
62 



64 



87 



Urniar 



Urmar 



BILOCII, PATIIAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 
Principal Divisions of the Pathan Nation — concluded. 



71 



Notes. 


Present Holdings. 


Country, district, 
or frontier to 
which each tribe 
appertains. 


Sections of the 
report in which 
each tribe is 
described. 


d 
"A. 

1 


Scattered. Some in Multin ... 


Some in Ghorband Mountains 


Afghanist&n 

S 
3 

P 

C3 

.a 

i2 


413 


61 


Accompanied Yiisufzai to Peshawar 


Hashtnaghar, in Peshawar 


408-10 


62 


Probably accompanied YAsufzai to Pesha- 
war. Connected with Ghilzai. 


Northern slopes of Safed Koh, east 
of Khugiani. 


411 


63 


Clans Kamalzai and Am&zai 


1 

Yiisufzai plains in Pcsluiwar, the 
J- Chamlah valley, and the left 
bank of Indus in Hazara. 

J 


409-10 


64 


f Both Usmanzai by descent, though now 
r separate. 


400-12 


65 


4U9-10 


66 


Brother of Mandan, but now included in 
Mandanr. 


409-10 


67 


Almost extinct 


Swat, Buner, and the hills north of 

- Peshawar, and a part of the 

Lundkhwar valley in Peshawar. 

J 


411 
411 


68 


Clans Hasauzai, Akazai, Aladdo Khel 


69 




411 


70 


Clans Daulatzai, Chagharzai, Nurazai 


411 


71 


Clans Eanizai, Khwajazai, Baizai 


410 


72 


Descended from Mak, a brother of Mand ... 


Doaba of PcshAwar, between Sw&t 
and Kabul rivers. 


408-10 


73 


Descended from Mak, a brother of Mand ... 


Bajaur, north-west of Peshawar ... 


408-9 


74 


Path An origin doubtful. Vassals of No. 76 


niills west of Peshawar border along 
C both banks of KAbul river. 


411 


75 


(Of common descent, but now separate 
f tribes. 


409-11 


76 


South-west plain of PeshAwar, 
f south of Kabul river. 

J 


409-10 


77 




409-10 


78 




409-10 


79 


Early separated from kinsmen. Perhaps 
Persians. 


South-eastern Safed Koh, north of 
Kurram. 


i2 


406 


SO 


Insignificant, often confounded with TAjik 


Scattered through Afghanistan ... 


409 


81 


Clans Popalzai (sept Saddozai), Barakzai, 
Alikozai. Saddozai gave ShAhs to Kan- 
dahir; and Barakzai, Amirs to Kibul. 


All the Kandahar country in south 
■ of Afghanistin. The MultAni 
Pathans arc AbdAli. 


395 
395 


82 


Clans Ishaqzai, N<irzai, Khakwani, Mahu... 


83 




Peshfn, south of Abdali country ... 


408-11 


84 


The Zaimnsht clan is in Kurram on Kohit 
border. 


Sewestan, in south-east of Afgha- 
nistan. 


408-11 


85 


Classed with Ghurghushti Path&ns, Nos. 
25-28. 


Takht-i-Sulemin, See Nos. 25-28 


D. I. Khan. 


402 


86 


Only the Khetrdn of the Derijat exists as a 
tribe. 


Scattered through Afghanistan ... 


1 

is 

"3 

•a 
< 


.383 


87 


Insignificant tribe ... 


L6hra river between Abddli and 
Biloch territory. 




88 


Speak Hindki. Probably of Hindu origin... 


Scattered through Afghanistan ... 




£9 



7^ 



PANJAB CASTES. 
Abstra: No. 70, showing the distiibution of the pri:icii)al [P- ^<J6] 



Serial No. 



10 



GHILZAI 



Tribal 
Divisions. 



XoR. of Abstract 
No. 69, pages 
66-71. 



Dolill 

(T'.irgaon 

Karnal 



Eohtak 
Airibala 
Jalandliar 



Hushyarpur.. 
Lalhjrc 
Rawalpindi .. 



Dcmli^ Ismail 

KLaii. 
Derail Gliazi 

Kliaii. 
Faimu 



Pe-^hawar 

Hazara 

Kohiit 



LoDi Section. 



Ghilzai 



2 to 13 



536 

81 
456 



32 

1 ,910 
1,117 



884 

536 

L035 



192 

67 
15 



294 
279 



2,092 



British Terri- 11,793 

tory. I 

Native States 1,368 

Province ... 13,161 



3,203 
2 

544 



Lohani. 



W 



33 
9 



6 
193 

97 



2,099 
2,099 



3,749 
3,749 



1,386 

1 

1.387 



3,646 

140 
10 

1,085 
5,498 



Nidzi 



10 



^5 
11 



12 



G.771 
1 

40,765 



47,546 



63 
5,561 I 47,546 



117 
65 



12 

30 
71 



2,377 

201 
30,199 

1 

2,677 

36,314 

57 
36,371 



13 



3,590 

5 

21 



1,328 



35 



3,667 
3,667 



1,383 
1,363 



o 



14 to 23 



38 
16 



25 
21 



298 

23 

1,768 



2,453 

100 

3,280 

2,643 
2,962 

14,011 

I5r: 
14,168 



BILOCII, PATIIAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 
Piithan Tribes for Districts and States. 



n 



11 12 13 14 1 



IG 17 18 19 2U 



21 22 



^(1 



NATION. 



PATHAN NATION. 



Sectiox. 


3 


Kakar Seciion. 


c 

a 


a 


"p 
17 


Shirdni. 


'5 




A 


likar. 




^5 


"3 
5 


cS 

28 




1 

3 

32 


*3 




"i 

p1 


18 


IG 


24 


2 


30 


31 












24 




6 
12 

106 

"5 


1 

... 

14 


... 




11 

211 

496 


"12 

11 

4 
201 


'"7 

324 

138 
1 




2,861 


8,419 


5,136 


2,671 


1,252 


1,716 


1,223 


1,517 


7,875 


666 


6S3 


470 


... 


... 






10 


21 


89 


36 


87 


75 


732 


979 


11 


... 


1;970 


57u 


2,003 


806 


7 


16 


21 


16 


44 


113 




17 


... 


374 


16 


5 


14 






465 






716 

256 


2 


84 


1,241 


5,205 


9,005 


7,144 


3,574 


1,310 


2,202 


2,222 


1,42 


8,082 


4,748 


1,998 


1,256 


1,241 


5,2(35 


9,005 


5 

7,149 


3,574 


tsio 


9 
2,211 


209 
2,431 


4 
1,646 


13 
8,095 


11 
4,759 


1,998 


553 
1,809 


1,241 



75 



PANJAB CASTES. 
Abstract No. 70, showing the distribution of the principal 



Soial No. 


24 


25 


26 


27 28 


29 


SO 


31 




PATHAN NATION. 


AFGHAN 




KABIiANia Sectiox. 




Okigixal 


TiiiBAL Divisions. 






















la 
o 


J 


< 


o 
(3 

1 


'5 

,3 

C3 

o 

59 


to 
60 


1 

s 

i 


Nos. of Abstract No. 69, 


38 to 41 


42 


.51 


52 


53 


62 


pages 66-71. 


















Dchli ... 


100 




4 


785 






291 


111 


Gurgaou 






983 


10 






19 


31 


Karual ... 


... 




11 


236 








79 


Rohtak ... 








4 








27 


Ainhala ... 






1 


20 






91 


60 


Jalamlliar 






14 






... 


1 


94 


Hushj'arpur 
Lahore ... 


... 




9 
13 


"ll7 




3 


""37 


13 

38 


Rawalpindi 






347 


52 


148 


14 


360 


212 


Derail Ismail Khaii ... 


454 


123 


144 


64 




4 


3 


6 


Derah GliazA Khan ... 


7 


2 


41 


52 






54 


15 


Bannu ... 


19,262 


20,182 


13,265 


151 




1 


191 


8 


Pcsliawiir 
Hazara ... 






36,447 
8a3 


6,590 
46 


6,768 


874 


5 


18,035 
12 


KoMt ... 


909 




66,278 


8,715 




6,245 


16,4^7 




British Territory ... 
Native States 


20,741 
2 


20,307 


118,048 
2 


17,323 
103 


6,923 
1 


7,157 


17,565 


19,426 
178 


Province 


20,743 


20,307 


118,050 


17,426 


6,924 


7,157 


17,565 


19,604 



*NoTE. — I am informed that Sargani is the same as Sarwani, tribe No, 1 



BILOCII, PATH AN, AND ALLIED RACES. 
Pathan Tribes for Districts and States — concluded. 



75 



32 



3;i 31 



35 



36 



37 



38 39 



40 



41 



42 43 



NATION. 



Indian Skction. 



Original Aeojjan Section. 



Yiisufzai, 



64 to 72 



3,901 
1,083 
1,890 



1,854 

4,641 

478 



921 
1,466 
1,550 



204 
595 
992 



70,235 
929 
637 



95,426 

3,551 

98,977 



f5 



75 



^ 



76 to 77 



296 



41 

27 

1 



5,156 



36 



26 
11 

27 



652 



215 

400 



96 
12 
33 



40,080 

41 

2,414 



1 




a 




^ 


d 


^S 




^03 


r^ 


P 

78 


W 


79 



82 and 
83 



10 

24 

1 



5 

44 
107 



22 



4,949 



13,268 
5 



5,547 1,249 43,960 5,890 13,595 

49 ; 8 
5,547 ! 1,249 44.009 5,898 13,595 



78 
60 



1,029 

21 

476 



7,231 
272 

264 



9,738 
9,738 



Tar in. 



84 and 
85 



6 
36 



7 

205 

36 



114 

60 

608 



90 

192 

20 



660 
1,355 



4,902 

910 

5,812 



85 



87 



89 



1,335 



1,335 
1,335 



1,324 
32 



1,558 
1,558 



34 
340 

3,187 
176 

3,737 
3,737 



1 
429 



140 

153 

9 



1 
674 



16 



795 



3,159 
781 

3,940 



)f Abstract No. 69 ; if so they should have come first in this table. 



^6 PANJAB CASTES. 

In 1877 the numbci* of these traders which passed into the district of Derah 
Ismail Khan was 76yilJ0, of which nearly half were grown men. In the year 
of the Census, the number was 49^39:2. These Pawindah tribes speak the soft 
or western PashtOj and have little connection with the settled tribes of the 
same stock. ^ 

399. It is not to be wondered at that these warlike tribes cast covetous ['■20'; 
eyes on the rich plains of the Indus, held as they were by a peaceful Jat 
population. Early in the loth century, about the time of Shahab-ud-din 
Ghori, the Prangi and Sur tribes of the Lodi branch Avith their kinsmen the 
Sarwani, settled in the northern part of the district immediately under the 
Sulemans, the Prangi and Sur holding Tank and Rori, while the Sarwani 
settled south of the Luni in Draban and Chandhwan. With them came the 
Balueh, Khasor, and other tribes who occupied the branch of the Salt-range 
which runs along the right bank of the river, and still hold their original 
location. In the early j^art of the 15th centviry the NIazi, another Lodi tribe, 
followed their kinsmen from Ghazni into Tank, where they lived quietly as 
Paioindahs for nearly a century, when they crossed the trans-Indus Salt- 
range and settled in the country now held by the Marwat in the south of the 
Bannu district, then almost uninhabited save by sprinkling of pastoral Jats, 
where Babar mentions them as cultivators in 1505. 

During the reign of the Lodi and Sur Sultans of Dehli (li5U to 
1555 A.D.), the Prangi and Sur tribes from which these dynasties sja'ang, and 
their neighbours the NiazI, seem to have migrated almost bodily from 
Afghanistan into Hindustan, where the Niazi rose to great power, one of their 
tribe being Su!)ahdar of Lahore. These last waxed insolent and revolted in 
alliance with the Gakkhars, and in 1547 Sultan Salim Shah Suri crushed the 
rebellion, and with it the tribe. At any rate, when in the early days of 
Akbar's reign the Ijohaui, another Lodi tribe, who had been expelled by the 
Suleman Khel Ghilzai from their homes in Katawaz in the Ghazni mountains, 
crossed the Sulemans, the Lodi tribes were too weak to resist them ; and they 
expelled the remaining Prangi and Sur from Tank, killing many, while the 
remainder fled into Hindustan. The Lohani are divided into four great tribes, 
the Marwat, Daulat Khel,^ Mic4n Khel, and Tator.^ About the beginning 
of the 17th century the Daulat Khel quarrelled with the Marwats and Mian 
Khel and drove them out of Tauk. The ]Marwats moved northwards across 
the Salt-range and drove the Niazi eastwards across the Kurram and Salt- 
range into Isa Khel on the banks of the Indus, where they found a mixed 
Awan and Jat population, expelled the former, and reduced the latter to 
servitude. The Mian Khel passed southward acros" the Luni river and, with 
the assistance of the Bakhtiar, a small Persian tribe of Ispahan origin who had 
become associated with them in their nomad life,* drove the Sarwani, already 

' The Pawindahs arc well described at pages 103^ of Dr. Bcllcw's Races of Jfcjhdnistdn, 
and at pages 18/f of Priestley's translation of the Haiydt-i- Afghan i, while Mr. Tucker gives much 
detailed iuformatioTi conccruirig them at pages 184^ of his Settlement Report of Derah Ismail 
Klian. 

2 The Daulat Khel is really only a clan of the Mamu Khel tribe; but it has become so 
prominent as practically to absorb the other clans, and to give its name to the whole tribe. 

^ Wrongly spelt .lator throughout Mr. Tucker's settlement report. 

■•They arc a section of the Bakhlinri of Persia. They first settled with the Shii'anl Afghans 
and a section now lives at Margha in tlie Ghilzai country, and is engaged in the puwt»daA trade 
but has little or no conuectiou with the Bakhtiar of D erah Ismail. 



BILOCII, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 77 

weakened by feuds with the Sur, out of tlieir country into Hindustan. In 
this quarrel the Daulat Khel were assisted by the Gandupur, a Saiyad tribe 
of Ushtan'mi stock (see next paragraph) ; and the latter were settled by them 
at Rori and gradually spread over their present country. 

400. The Shirani Afghans had been settled from of old in the 
mountains aliout the Takht-i-Sulernan. They are by descent Sarbaui Afghans ; 
but their ancestor, having quarrelled with his brothers, left them and joined 
the Kiikar from whom his mother had come ; and his descendants are now 
classed as (Ihurglmshti and not as Sarbani. About the time that the Lohaui 
came into the district, the Babar, a Shirani tribe, descended from the hills into 
the plains below and subjugated the Jat and Biloeh population. Finally, 
about a century ago, the Ushtarani proper, a Saiyad tribe affiliated to the 
Shirani Afoluuis, havin.; cpmrrelled with the ]\Iusa Khel, acquired a good deal 
of the plain country below the hills at the foot of wldch they still live, 
subjugating the Biloeh inhabitants and encroaching northwards upon the 
Babar. These are the most recently located of the trans-Indus tribes of Derail 
Ismjiil Khan. Thus the Pathans hold a broad strip of the trans-Indus portion 
of the district running northwards from the border of the Khetran and Qasrani 
Biloches (see section 3SP)) along the foot of the hills and including the western 
half of the plain country between them and the Indus, and turning eastwards 
below the Salt-range to the river. They also hold the trans-Indus Salt-range, 
and the Sulemans as far south as the Biloeh border. But while in the extreme 
northern portion of the tract the population is almost exclusively Pathjin, the 
proportion lessens southwards, the Pathans holding only the superior property 
in the land, which is cultivated by a subject population of .Tat and Biloeh. 
Beyond the Indus the Baluch who hold the north of the Bhakkar tlml are 
the only Pathjin tribe of importance. Their head-quarters are at Paniala in 
the trans-Indus Salt-range, and they seem to have spi'ead across the river below 
jMianwali, and then to have turned southwards down the left bank. Although 
living at a distance from the frontier, they still talk Pashto and are fairly pure 
Pathans. The other Pathans of the Khasor hills, though trans-Indiis, are, like 
all the cis-Indus Pathans, so much intermixed with Jats as to have forgotten 
their native tongue. The ]Mian Khel and Gandapur wore deprived of many 
of their eastern villages in the beginning of this century by Nawalj Muham- 
mad Khan Saddozai^ Governor of Leiah. 

401. The Pathan tribes of Derah Ismail Khan continued.— I now proceed to give a brief 

description of llie various trilic-i lieginnino; from tlie south : — 

The Ushtarani. — Tlie Uslitaraui proper arc tlio ucsceiidauts of Hannar, one of tlie sous of 
Us'aryarii, a .^'aivad wlio settle! among and married into tlie Shirani section of Afghans, and whose 
progeny are shewn in the margin. They were settled w'.th tlie Shiranis to the south of the 

Takht i-Suleman, and till about a century 

ago they were wholly pastoral ^w^-pawin- 

fllannar Usi tariinl. - dali. But a quarrel with tlieir neighbours 

I Amarkhel ^ | the Musa Khel put a stop to their annual 

U-,tarvani ...^Gnidapur I ,, .. \ ^vestward migration, and they were 

JIarere ;' j- Gandapur. | forced to take to agriculture. Their 

I sijekhi 3 j descent into the plains has been described 

I in section 400. They still own a large 

— — tract of hill country, in which indeed 

most of them live, cultivating laud ini- 
mediatdj under the hills and pasturing their flocks beyond the border. Their territory only 
includes tlie ea-t<'rn slopes of the SulcniaiiiJ, the crest of the range being held by the ]\Iusa Khel 
and Zinari. They are divided into two main clans, the Aliniadzai or Ainazai and the Gagalzai, and 
these again into nuniornus septs. They are a fine manly race, many of them are in our army and 
police, and they arc quiet and well behaved, cultivating largely ^vitli their own hand-;. A few of 
them are still paiviudnhs. They are much hai'assed by the independent Bozdar (Biloeh). Tliey 



78 PAN JAB CASTES. 

are all Sunnis. The bomidary between the Ushtarani and Eahar was originally the Ramak stream. 
But in a war between them the former drove the latter back beyond the Shiran stream which now 
forms their common boundary. 

The Babar are a tribe of the Shirani stock whose affinities have been described in section 400, 
thoiiffh they are now quite separate from the Shirani proper. They are divided into two sections, [P 208] 
one living wholly within our border, while the other holds the hill country opposite, but on the 
other side of the Sulemans The two have now little connection with each other. The Eabar 
of the plains hold some 180 square miles between the U4itar,ini and 'J.Iian Khel, Chandwan being 
their chief town ; and include the Mahsud and Ghora Khel clans of the tribe. The result of their 
quarrels with the Ushtarani has just been mentioned, while their advent in the plains has been 
described in section 400. They are a civilised tribe, most of them beins: able to read and write, and 
are much addicted to commerce, being the richest, quietest, and most honest tribe of the sub- 
Suleman plains. Sir Herbert Edwardes considered them " the most superior race in the whole of 
" the trans-Indus districts," and their intelligence has given rise to the saying " A Babar fool is a 
" Gandapur sage." They are extremely democratic, and have never had any recognized Chief. 
Indeed the tribe is a scattered one, many of them still residing in Kmdahar and other parts of 
Khoras-in. Some of them are still engaged in the pawindah traffic. They cultivate but little 
themtelves. 

The Mian Khel are a Lohani tribe whose coming to the district and subsequent movements 
have already been described in section 339. Tliey hold some 260 square miles of plain country 
between the Gandapur and the Babar. With them are associated the "Fakhtiar (see section 339) 
who, though of Persian origin, now form one of their principal sections. The greater number of 
them still engage in the trans-Indus trade ; and they are the richest of all the patoindah tribes, 
dealing in the more co=tly descriptions of merchandize. Tliey are divided by locality into the 
Braban and Miisa Khel sections, the latter of which hold the south-west quarter of their tract. 
Tliey are a peaceable people with pleasant faces, and more civili-ed than most of the pawindah 
tribes. Tliey seldom take military service, and cultivate but little themselves, leaving the business 
of agriculture to their Jat tenants. They have a hereditary Khan who has never possessed much 
poM-er. 

The Gandapur.— The origin of the Gandapur has been described in section 399. Besides the 
original stock, they include by affiliation some off-shoots of the Shirani. the Miishezai section of the 
Ghurghu-hti Pathans, and the Eauizai section of the Yusafzai tribe. The manner in which they 
obtained their present country is described in section 339. They hold the whole of the north- 
western part of trans -Indus I) erah Ismafl east of Tank and south of the Nila Koh ridge of the 
Salt-range, comprising an area of 460 square miles abutting on the Suirmans to the west; and the 
town of Kulachi is their head-quarters. They were criginally a poor pazvindnh .md pastoral tribe, 
but they now cultivate more largely than any other Derah Ismail Pathans, They reached the 
height of their prosperity about the middle of the 18th century, but lost their eastern possessions 
some VO years later, they being confiscated by the Saddozai Governor of Leiah. They still engage 
in the paivindah traffic. They are lawless, brutal and uncivilised ; and their hereditary Khan 
has hut little power. 

The Bitanni include all the descendants in the male line of Baitan, the third son of Kais. 
They originally occupied the western slopes of the northern Sulemans ; but, being hard pressed 
by the Ghilzai, moved, in the time of Bahlol Lodi, through the Gomal Pass and occupied the eastern 
side of the north of the range, as far north on its junction with the Salt-range and as far west as 
Kanfguram. Some time after the Waziri drove them back to beyond Garangi, while the Gurbuz 
contested with them the possession of the Ghabbar mountain. They now hold the hills on the west 
border of Tank and Baunu, from the Ghabbar on the north to the Gomal valley on the south. In 
their disputes many of the tribe left for Hindustan where their Lodi kinsmen occupied the throne of 
Dehli, and the trilie has thus been much weakened. Sheikh Baitan had four sons, Taji'n, Kajin, 
Ismail, and Warshpun. The tribe consists chiefly of the descendants of Kajin, with a few of those 
of Warshpun. Ismail was adopted by Sarban, and his descendants still live with the Sarbani 
Afghans. Tlie Tajin branch is chiefly represented by the clans Dhanne and Tatte, said to be 
descended from slaves of Tajin. A small Saiyad clan called Koti is affiliated to the Bitanni. Till 
some 50 years ago they lived wholly beyond our border; but of late they have spread into the Tank 
plr.ins where they now form a large proportion of the Pathau population, occupying some 550 
square miles, chiefly south of the Takwara. They also hold some I md in the Bannu district at 
the mouth of the parses which lead up into their hills. They are a rude people just emerging 
from barbarism, but keen-witted. They are of medium weight, wiry, and active, and inveterate 
thieves and abettors of thieves ; and they have been called the jacknls of the Waziri. They have 
no common Chief. The proverbial wit of the countryside thus expresses their stupidity and 
Uirifdessncss. — '■ Tlie drum was beating in the plains and the Bitanni were dancing on the hills ;" 
and " A hundred Bitanni eat a hundred sheep." 

The Daulat Khel.— The coming of this tribe to the district has been described in section 399. 
Their principal clan was the Katti Khel ; and under their Chief Katal Khan the Daulat Khel 
ruled Tank and were numerous and powerful about the middle of the 18th century. They 



BILOCII, PATIIAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 79 

accompanie.l the DiuTani into Iliudustan, and brought Ijack mucli wealth But since that 
time the Bitanni and other tribes have eucroaclied, and <hey are now small and feeble. The 
Xawab of Tank, the principal jagirdar of the district, is a Katti Khel. 

The Tator have been mentioned in section 899. They were very roughly treated by Nadir 
Shah, and the Uaulat Khel completed their ruin. Thty are now almost extinct. Their two clans, 
the Bara Khel and Dari Khei, hold a small area on the Tank and Kulachi frontier. 

402. Pawiudah, Border, and other tribes.— The trihc-i not po^se.islng sufficient importance 
to merit detailed desci'iptiou are — 

The Zarkani, a small colony of Shekhs who settled some 503 year> ago in a corner between 
the trandapuranl Miaii Kliol c )Uiitry, under the fojt of the Salomslna. 

The BalUCh, a small tribe of uncertain origin affiliated to the Lodi tribes.' They seem to have 
come in with the earliest Pathan i:ivadors. They hold the country round Paniala, at the foot of 
the Salt-range where it leave* the Inlu;t.) turn novthwa'ds, and arc the dominant race in the 
north of the cis-Indus pjrtion of tlic dis trict. 

The Khasor, with the Nur Khel and Malli Khel, form a small tribe which claims kinship with 
the Lodi, who repudiite the claim. Tliey liold the Kliasor range, or the ridge, of the lower Salt- 
range which runs down the right bank of the Indus. 

The Ghorezal, a petty clan of the Tabarak Kaka, and the Miani, an insigniticaut pawindah 
clan of the Shlrani tribe, hold iands in the Gonial valley, the former lying south and the latter 
not th of the Liini river. They graze their flocks during summer on the western slopes of the 
Sulcmans. A portion of the Miani are independent pa^vindaliK, but closely allied to those of our 
plains. 

The Kundi are a small pawindah clan who claim descent from the ancestor of the Niazi; 
They settled in Tank with the Uaulat Khel Lohani, and originally held the tract along the Suheli 
stream in the North-east corner of Tank. But within the last 50 years Marwat immigrants have 
encroached largely on their eastern lands. They are a lawless set and great robbers, and the 
proverb runs — "A dead Kundi is better than a live one. "2 

The Pawindah Tribes.— These tribes, which have been described generally in section 398' 
although not holding lands in the district, are of considerable administrative interest, as enormous 
numbers of them spend the cold weather iu the pastures on either side of the Indus. The principal 
tribes are noticed below : — 

The Nasar claim descent from Hotak, a grandson of Ghilzai ; but the Hotak tay that they are 
a Biloch clan, and merely dependent on them.3 They speak Pashto, but differ from the Ghilzai 
in physique. They are the least settled of all the paivindahs, and winter in the Derajat and 
summer in the Ghilzai country, having no home of their OAvii. Their chief wealth is in flocks and 
herds, and they act as carriers rather than as traders. They are a rough sturdy lot, but fairly well 
behaved. 

The Kharoti say they are an offshoot of Tokhi, mother of Hotak mentioned above. But the 
Tokhi say they are descended from a foundling whom the tribe adopted. They hold the country 
about the sources of the Gonial river in Warghiin south by east of Ghazni, and they winter in the 
Tank tahsil. They are a poor tribe, and many of them work as laboirrers or carriers. Dr. Bellew 
identifles them with the Arachoti of Alexandes's historians, and points out that they still live in the 
ancient Arachosia. He considers them and the Na-ar to be of different origin from the mass of the 
Ghilzai. 

The Suleman Khel are the most uumeroas, powerful, and warlike of all the Ghilzai 
[P. 20?] ^'•'it>es, and hold a large tract stretching nearly the whole length of the Ghilzai country. 
Those who trade with India come chiefly from the hills ea<t of Ghazni and winter in the 
northern trans-Indus tract. They bring but little merchandize with them, but go down- 
country in great numbers, where they act a; brokers or dalldls between the merchants 
and other pawindahs. They are fine strong men and fairly well behaved, though not bearing 
the best of characters. 

The Mian Khels have ah-eady been described in section 401. The trading and landowning 
sections are still closely connected, and in fnct to some extent indistinguishable. 

The Dutanni inhabit the Warrak valley and the country betft'ceu the Waziri hills and 
Gomal. They are a small, but well-to-do tribe, and trade with Bukhara. 

* It is not perhaps impossible that these may be of Biloch origin. The Khetran, perhap.^ of 
Pathan origin, have become the nucleus of a Biloch tribe ; while 351 men of Derah Ismail returned 
themselves in this Census as caste Biloch, tribe Andar, which latter is one of the Patoindah tribes 
of Pathans. 

2 Macgregor says they are c^uiet and inoffensive. 

3 One story makes them the descendants of a gang of blacksmiths who in the 14th century 
accompanied the Mi'an Khel on cue of their return journeys to Khorasan and settled there. 



80 PAN.TAB CASTES. 

The Tokhi were the most proniineut of nil the Cihilzal tril)es till the Ilotak gave rulers 
to Kandahar ahout 1700 A.D. They hold the valley of the Taruak and the north valley of the 
Argaiidah, with Kelat-i-Ghilzai a-; their principal centre. 

The Andar occupy nearly the whole of the extensive district of Shalgar south of Gl.aziii. 
With them are associated the Mu>a Khel Kakar. who arc descended from an Andar woman, 
and live south and we^t of Shalgar.* 

The Tarakki winter about Kandahar. They are largely nomad. 

The Border tribes. — The most impcrtant trilies on the Dcrah Ismail border are, beginning from 
the south, the Qasvani Biloch and the Ushtarani, already described in sections 883 and 401, 
the Shirani, and the j\Iah>ud Wazi'ri. The Wazfri will be described when I cone to the 
border tribes of Bannu (section 404\ 

The Shirani have already been mentioned and their origin described in ?ection 400. They 
occupy the country round the Takht-i-Suleman. hounded to the north by the Zarkanni stream 
and to the south by the Ushtarani border, their principal habitat being the low valleys to 
the east of the Takht. They are divided inti the Shirani proper who bold the greater part 
of tlie tract, the Rabar of our plains described in section 401, and the small tribes of Hiripal 
and Jalwani lying to the south of the Shirani proper. They are of medium height, wiry, and 
active, and wild and manly in their appearance. Tlieir dress consists of a couple of coarse 
blankets, and their principal occupation is agriculture. 

403. The Pathan tribes of Bannu. — On the southern bonier of the 
Bannu district, marching with Derah Ismail; we find the Marwat and the 
Niitzi; the northernmost of the Indian descendants of Baitan, while further 
north lie the Wa/iri and Bannuchi of the great Karlanri sevtion of Pathans. 
The migration of the Niazi from Tank across the Salt-ra)ige, and how the 
Marwat followed them and drove them across the Kurrain, have already 
been described in section 399. Their ancestor Niazai had three sons, Bahai, 
Jamal, and Khaku. The descendants of the first are no longer distinguish- 
able ; ■svhile the Isa Khel among the Jamjil, and the Musliani and Sarhang 
clans among the Khaku, have overshadowed the other clans and given 
their names to the most important existing divisions of the tribe. The 
Isa Khel settled in the south and the Mushani in the north of the country 
between the Kohat Salt-range and the Indus, while the Sarhang crossed 
the river ,3 and after a struggle lasting nearly a century and a half with their 
quondam allies the Gakkhars and their Jat and Aw^iin subjects, finally drove 
the Gakkhars, whose stronghold on the Indus was destroyed by Ahmad 
Shah in 1 748, eastwards across the Salt-range, and established themselves 
in Mi an wall. 

Towards the close of the 13th century^ the Mangal, a tril)e of the 
Kodai Karlanri, and tlie Ilanni, an affiliated tribe of Saiyad origin, left 
their Karlanri home in Birmil, crossed the Sulemans into the Bannu dis- 
trict, and settled in the valleys of the Kurram and Gambila rivers. About 
a century later the Bannuchi, the descendants of Shitak, a Kakai Karlanri 
by his wife Mussammjit Bannu, who with their Daur kinsmen then held 
the hills lying east of the Khost range in the angle between the Kohat 
and Bannu districts, with their head-quarters at Shawal, were driven from 
their homes by the Waziri, and, sweeping dowai the Km-ram valley, drove 
the JNIangal and Ilanni back again into the mountains of Kohat and Kurram 
where they still dwell, and occupied the country between the Kurram and 
Tochi rivers which they now hold in the north-western corner of the district. 

* The figures for Biloch include 351 Andar in this district, who retui'ned themselves as 
Biloch Andar. 

- The Kalul-i- Afghdni says that they held Lakkl and were driven out across the river by 
the Khatak. Tiiis seems improliable. 

^ Tlie Kalid-i-Afghfhii fixes this dale at Ihe middle of the 121 h century, and that of the 
Bannuchi invasion at about 1,300 A.D, 



BILOCH, PATTTAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 81 

At the same time the DauV; a tribe of evil repute in every sense of the 
word, occupied the l)anks of the Tochi beyond om- border, which they 
still hold. Some 400 years ago the Bangi Khel Khatak, whose history 
will be sketched in sections 406-7, occupied the trans-Indus portion of 
the district above Kalabagh and the spur which the Salt-range throws 
out at that point. This they have since held without disturbance. 

"When the Darvesh Khel Waziri (see above), moving from their 
ancestral homes in Birmil, drove the Banniichi out of the Shawal hills, 
they occupied the country thus vacated, and for 350 years confined them- 
selves to the hills beyontl our border. But during the latter half of last 
century they began to encroach upon the plain country of the Marwat on 
the right bank of the Tochi, and of the Bannuchi on the left bank of the 
Kurram. At first their visits were confined to the cold season ; but early 
in the present century, in the period of anarchy which accompanied the 
establishment of the Sikh rule in Bannu, they finally made good their 
footing in the lands which they had thus acquired and still hold. 

The latest comers are the Bitanni (see section 401), who have within 
the last 60 years occupied a small tract on the north-eastern border of the 
Marwat at"^ the foot of the hills. Thus Pathans hold all trans-Indus 
Bannu, and as much of the cis-Indus portion of the district as lies north of a 
line joining the junction of the Kurram and Indus with Sakesar, the peak at 
which the Salt-range enters the district and turns northwards. The trans- 
Indus Pathans, with the partial exception of the Niazi, speak Pashto of the 
soft and western dialect ; the Niazi speak Hindko, especially east of the Indus. 

404. I now proceed to a detailed description of the different tribes, 
beginning from the south : — 

The Marwat hold almost the whole of the Lakki tahsil, that is to say the south-eastern 
half and the whole central portion of the country between the trans-Indus Salt-range and 
the Waziri hills. Within the last fifty years they have begun to retrace their footsteps and 
have pas-ed southwards over the Salt-range into Derah Ismail, where they occupy small 
tracts wrested from the Kundi in the northern corner of Tank and along the foot of the hills 
and from the Balucli in the Paniala country. Their most important clans are the Miisa Khel, 
Acha Khel, Khuda Khel, Bahram, and Tapi. With them are associated a few of the Niazi 
who remained behind when the main body of the tribe was expelled. The Marwat are as fine and 
law-abiding a body of men as are (o be found on our border. They are a simple, manly, and 
slow-witted people, strongly attached to their homes, good cultivators, and of pleasing 
appearance. Their women are not secluded. Their history has been sketched in section 399. 
Their hereditary enemies the Khatak say of them : "Keep a Marwat to look after asses; 
•' his stomach well filled and his feet well worn." 

The Bannuchi hold the central portion of the Banuu tahsil, between the Kurram and Tochi 
rivers. Their history is narrated in section 403. They are at present perhaps more hybrid 
than any other Patliau tribe. They have attracted to themselves Saiyads and other doctors of 
Islam in great numbers, and have not hesitated to intermarry with these, with the scattered 
representatives of the former inhabitants of their tract who remained with them as hamsdyah, 
and with the families of the various adventurers who have at different times settled amongst 
them ; insomuch that " Banniichi in its broadest sense now means all Mahomedaus, and by 
" a stretch, even Hindus long domiciled within the limits of the irrigated tract originally 
" occupied by the tribe." The descendants of Shitak, however, still preserve the memory of 
their separate origin and distinguish themselves as Bannuchi proper. They are of inferioi 
physique, envious, secretive, cowardly, lying, great bigots, inoffensive, and capital cultivators. 
Sir Herbert Edwardes says of them : '" The Banmichis are bad specimens of Afghans ; can 
" worse be said of any race ? They have all the vices of Pathans rankly luxuriant, their 
«• virtiies stunted." Their Isakhi clan, however, is famed for the beauty of its women. " Who 
" marries not an Isakhi woman deserves an ass for a bride." 

The Niazi hold all the southern portion of Isa Khel and the country between Mianwali 
and the hills ; in other words so much of the Bannu district as is contained between the Salt- 
range on either side the Indus, and the Kurram and a line drawn from its mouth due east across 

a 



82 PANJAB CASTES. 

the Indus. Tlieiv history and distribution Lave been rclaled in sections 399 and 403. They 
are indifferent cultivators, and still retain much of tbe Patban pride of race. The cis-Indus 
branch is the more orderly and skilful in agriculture. Tbe Isa Khcl is tbe predominant and 
most warlike section ; but they all make gooi solliers. A section of them is still independent 
and engaged in pawindah traffic, spending the summer about Kandahar and wintering in 
Derab Ismail. Tliey are strict Sunuis. They seem to be a quarrelsome people, for the proverb 
says — The Niazi like rows." 

Minor tribes are the Mughal Khel clan of Yusufzai who conquered a small tract round 
Ghcriwal some seven centuries ago, and still show their origin in speech and physiognomy. 
The Kbatak will bo described when I di.-cuss the Koliat tribes. 

405. The Waziri. — The whole of the Bannu portion beyond our border is occupied by 
the Dai'vcsh Khcl Waziri, while south of them, along the Derab Ismail border, behind the 
Bitanni country, and as far south as the Gomal pass, lie the Mahsud clan of the same tribe. 
The Waziri are descended from Suleman, son of Kakai, and are one of the Karlanri tribes. * 
The original seat of the iribc M-as in the Birmil bills, west of the Khost range which separates 
them from their kinsmen tbe Baunucbi descendants of Shitak. Suleman had two sons, Lalai 
and Kbizrai. Lalai had to fly by reason of a blood fend, and settled in !Ningiahar on the 
northern slopes of the western Safed Kob, where his descendants the Lalai Waziri are still 
settled. Khiz:ai had three sous, Miisa, Mah-ird, and Gurbuz. From Mab=ud are descended 
the Mahsud Waziri, divided into tbe Alizai and Eablolzai ; while from Slusa Darvesli are 
descended the Utnianzai and Ahmadzai clans, usually joined under the title of Darvesh Khel 
Waziri. 

About the close of the 14th century the Waziri began to move eastwards. They first crossed 
the Khost range and drove tbe Banniichi out of Shawdl, and occupied the hills of the Bannu 
and Kohat border north of the Toehi. Then, c-ossing that river, they drove the Urmar 
Afghans, descendants of Urmar, son of Sharkabiin and near kinsmen of the Abdali,^ oiit of 
the hills south of the Tochi on the lower Bannu and Tank borders to take refuge in the Loghar 
valley near Kabul, and dislodging the Bitanni from Kaniguram, drove them back beyond 
Garangi to the low hills on our immediate frontier. They thus obtained possession of all that 
confused system of mountains which, starting from the Gomal pass which marks the northern 
extremity of the Sulemans proper, runs northwards along our border to Thai and the Kurram 
river, where it joins the lower ranges of the Safed Koh. Their two main sections are the 
Mah=ud and Darvesh Khel, the former holding the hills to the south, and the latter those to the 
north of the Tochi river and the Khasor pass ; while of the Darvesh Khel country, the Ahmadzai 
occupy the southern and the Utmanzai the northern parts. The Hasan Khel, an important 
Utmanzai sept, hold the extreme north-western portion of the tract. The two great sections 
are practically independent tribes, owning no common head, and with but little common feeling. 
They still nominally hold the Birmil country, though the Suleman Khel and Kharoti Ghilzai 
winter there with their flocks, and during their stay the Waziri are confined to their walled 
villages. They wcve till lately wholly nomad and pastoral ; but they have of late years encroached 
upon the plain country of the Marwat, Banniichi, and Kbatak, and now hold cultivated lands 
in Bannu and Kohat. 

The Gurbuz, an unimportant tribe, accompanied the Waziri in their movements, and once 
occupied the hiUs between their Mahsud and Darvesh Khel brethren, where, as already narrated, 
they disputed the possession of the Ghabbar peak with the Bitanni. They have now returned 
to their original seat west of the Khost range, and north of the Daur who hold the trans-border 
banks of the Tcchi river. 

The Waziri are one of the most powerful and most troublesome tribes on our border, the 
Mahsud being pre-eminent for tui-bulence and lawlessness. They are exceedingly democratic 
and liave no recognised headmen, which increases the difficulty of dealing with them. They 
are tall, active, muscular, and courageous, and their customs differ in several respects from those 
of the Pathans in genci-al. They are stiU in a state of semi-barbarism. They are well described 
'nit\\e Rai^ at -%• Afghani {]i^gcfi 221 ffoi the translation). The large number of Waziris shown 
in the Bannu district is partly due to the Census having been held on the night of the weekly 
fair. But Mr. Thorburn estimates the Waziri population of the purely Waziri border villages 
alone at 13,523, and there are always many members of the tribe scattered about the district 
* in search of work or of opportunities for theft,' especially during the spring months. On the 
Bannu border distress owing to failure of rain had probably made the number of such persons 
unusually high at the time of the census. 

' Dr. Bellew makes them tbe Wairsi sept of the Lodha tribe of Pramara Kajpiits j and says 
that they crossed from the Indus riverain across the Sham plain into the Birmil hiUs, then held 
by the Kbatak wlitm they dro\e northwards, taking the whole of their country Irom the Sham 
plain to the Koliat \ alley. He gives no authority for these statements. 

2 This is according to the genealogies. But the Urmar are probably of Hindki origin, and 
speak a Panjabi dialect known as Urmari, of which a grammar has just be( n submitted to 
Government for api>roval, 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 83 

406. The Pathan tribes of Kohat.i— The Pathans of Kobat belong 
almost entirely to two great tribes, the Khatak of the the Kakai section of 
the Karlanri, and the Bangash, a Qui-eshi tribe of Arab descent. The 
original home of the Khatak, in common with the other sections of the 
Karbinri, was the west face of the northern Sulemuns, where they held the 
valley of Shawal now occupied by the Waziri.- Towards the close of the 
13th century'^ they, witb the Mangal and Hanni, two tribes of the Kodai 
section of the Karlanri, moved eastwards, the two last descending into the 
Bannu district and settling along the Kurrara and Gambila, while the Khatak 
held the hills to the west of our border. A century later the Bannuehi drove, 
as already related in sectioii 40o, the Mangal and Hanni out of Bannu; and 
not long after this the Khatak, quarrelling with the Bannuehi, moved to the 
north and enst and occupied the hilly country, then uninhabited, wbicb 
stretches across the centre of the Kohat district to the Indus, leaving 
behind them the Chamkanni, a tribe (perhaps of Persian origin) who had 
taken refuge witb them, and the bulk of whom now occupy the north-east 
corner of the Kurram Yalley, while another section still lives in a state of 
barbarism about Kaniguram as the subjects of the Waziri. At this time 
the Orakzai, another tribe of the Kodai Karlanri, held all the valley of 
Kohat in the north and north-east of the district fi'ora Resi on the Indus 
to Kohat ; while the Bangash, already alluded to, lived in the country about 
Gardez in Zurmat. But in the latter part of the 14th century the Bangash, 
[P. 211] increasing in number and being pressed upon by the Ghilzai, emigrated east- 
wards en masse and settled in Kurram. Being presently driven out by the 
Turi* and Jaji, tribes of doubtful origin who claim descent from Khugiani, 
son of Kakai, but who are perhaps of Awan stock^ though now Pathans for all 
practical purposes, and who still occupy the valley, they joined with the 
Khatak who had quarrelled with the Orakzai, and drove the latter out of 
Kohat. The struggle was prolonged for nearly a century ; but l)y the close 
of the 15th century the Orakzai had been driven into the lower of the ranges 
which form the eastern extremity of the Safed Koh and lie along the north- 
western border of the Kohat District. The Khatak and Bangash then possessed 
themselves of all the northern and central portions of Kohat and divided the 
country between them, the former taking all the southern and central portions, 
while the latter took the northern and north-western tract consisting of the 
Kohat and Miranzai valleys up to the base of the Orakzai or Samana range ; 
and the hills between Gada Khel and Lachi were then fixed and still remain as 
the boundary between the two tribes. In the time of Akbar, Malik Akor was 
the leader of the Khatak, and he was granted an extensive tract of land south 
of the Kabul river between Khairabad and Naushahra on condition of his 

* Unfortunately tlie Settlement Officer of Kohat went on furlough without reporting his 
settlement. Consequently I have far less full information regarding this than regarding any other 
frontier district. I have, however, done my hcst to supply the defect from other soui'ces. 

2 Dr. Bellew says that the Khatak held aU the plain couuti'y of the Indus as far south as 
Derail Ismail Khan till driven out hy the Waziri, who beiug in their turn driven northwards 
by the pressure of Biloch tribes moving up the Indus valley, passed onwards into the hills then 
held by tlie Banniichi. He gives no authority for this account, which does not agree with the 
traditions of the Khatak themselves as related in the Kalid-i- Afghani. 

3 The Kalid-i AfgJidni places the migration in the middle of the 12th centmy, and the 
Canuuchi migration at about 1300 A.D. 

•) The Turi were originally Tiamsdyahs of the Bangash, but rose in rebellion against their 
masters. 

5 Mr. Merk, however, tells me that the Khugiani claim Durrd.ni origin; and that the claim is 
admitted by the Durranij and supported by their genealogies. 

g2 



84. PANJAB CASTES. 

guarding the high road between Attak and Peshawar. This brought him into 
contact with the ]Mandanr of Yusufzai who hehl the country opposite on the 
left bank of the Kabul river. Their quarrels were continual ; and at length in 
the time of Shah Jahiin the Khatak crossed the river, possessed themselves of 
the strip of land along its north bank from the junction of the Swat river 
to the Indus and for a short distance along the right ]iauk of the Indus, and 
also pushed across the plain and acquired a position about Jamalgarhi to the 
north of Mardan, in the very heart of the Mandanr country, whieh commaiuls 
the approaches to Swat on the one hand and Buner on the other. They have 
also encroached on the Mohmand and Khalil who lie to the west of their 
Peshawar temtory. Meanwhile they had gradually spread southwards to the 
trans-Indus Salt-range and the Bannu border, and across the Salt-range to the 
Indus at Kalabagh ; and they now hold a broad strip running along its ri;;ht 
bank from a little above the junction of the Kabul river to Kalabagh, all 
Kohat save the j)ortion occupied by the Bangash in the north and north-west 
of the district, and the western half of the Lundkhwar valley in the north of 
Yusufzai. They crossed the Indus and are said to have at one time conquered 
the Awan country as far east as the Jahlam. But about the middle of the 
1 7th century they relinquished the greater part of this tract ; and now only 
hold Makhad in the Rawalpindi district, and the left bank of the river as 
far south as Mari in Bannu. There are other Khatak holdings scattered 
about the cis-Indus plains ; but their owners have no connection with the 
tribe. 

About the middle of the 18th century two parties grew up in the tribe. 
They temporarily combined to accompany and assist Ahmad Shah Durrani 
in his invasion of Hindustiin ; but after his departure the division became 
permanent, the eastern or Akora faction holding the north-eastern portion of 
Kohat and all the Khatak country of Peshawar, with their capital at Akora. 
on the Kabul river, while the western or Teri division hold all the remainder 
of Kehat, including the south-eastern corner occupied by the Saghri clan, and 
the adjoining territory of the Bangi Khel Khatak of Bannu. The western 
section have their caj^ital at Teri, south-west of Kohat, and in the centre of the 
hills they first occupied. 

Thus with the exception of a few Awan villages in the Bangash country, 

and a Saiyad village here and there, the whole of Kohat is held by Patbjins, 

and with the excej^tion of a narrow strip of land stretching along the northern 

border of the Teri Khatak from Togh to Dhoda which is held by the Niazi 

(see section 400), the whole is in the hands of the Bangash and Khatak. The 

Nawab of Khatak holds the Teri tract in jagir, j)0ssessing exclusive revenue 

jurisdiction, and large criminal and police powers. 

407, The Khatak.— The history of the Khatak trihe has bccu sketched above. They 
are descended from Luqnian suruamed Khatak, son of Burhau, son of Kakai.^ Luqman had two 
sons Turmau and Bulaq. The doscendants of the hitter are still known as the Bulaqi section ; 
while Tarai, son of Turnian, rose to such distinction that the whole section, including two main 
clans, the Tari proper and the Tarkai, is culled by his name. Tliey have absorbed several small 
tribes of doubtfnl origin, the Mugiaki andSaniiui- belonging to the Enliiq, while the Jalozai, 
Dangarzai, and t'ria Khel belong to the Tari section. The most important clans of the Tari 
section are the Anokhel to which the chief's family belongs, and which includes the septs of the 
upper and lower Mohmandi ^ who hold the right hank of tlae Indus below Attak, and the Mir 

' Kakai was sou of Karldn, founder of the Karlanri division of the Afghans. 

2 Dr. Bellew interprets those names as meaning respectively Mongol and Chinese. 

3 The Mohmandi of the Khwarra valley of the Kohat District are quite distinct from the 
Mohmand of Peshawar. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 85 

Kliel who hold the Chaniifra valley in tlic centre of the Teri tract. Among the Hulaqi the 
most important elan is the Saghri, with its practically independent Bangi Khcl sept. These 
hold the right bank of the Indus above Kalabagh, while the Sagliri, with tlie Habar family of the 
Bangi Khcl, also occupy the cis-Indns possessions of the tribe. Most of the Khatak in Yiisufzai 
are also Bnlar[. The K;ika Khel section of the Khatak arc descended from the famous saint 
Shekh Ralii'm Kar, and arc consequently venerated by all northern Pathaus. The Khatak are a 
fine manly race, and differ from all other I'atluins in features, general appearance, and many of 
their customs. They are the northernmost of all the Pathans settled on our frontier who speak 
the soft or western dialect of I'ashlo. Thty are of a warlike nature and have been for centuries 
at feud witli all their neighbours and with one another. They are active, industrious, and " a 
" most favoui'able specimen of Pathan," and are good cultivators, though their country is stony 
and unfertile. They are also great carriers and traders, and especially hold all the salt trade with 
Swat and Hnucr in their hands. Tliey are all Sunnis. Tlie Mai-wat, the licreditavy enemy of the 
Khatakj says : " Friendship is good with any one but a Khatak : may the devil take a Khatak " 
and "A Khatak is a hen. If you seize him slowly he sits down; and if suddenly he clucks." 
Another proverb runs thus : " Though the Khatak is a good horseman, yet he is a man of but 
" one charge." 

The Bangash. — The early history of the Bangash has been narrated above. Since they 
settled down in their Kohat possessions no event of importance has marked their history. They 
claim descent from Khali'd ibn Walid, Mahomet's apostle to the Afghans of Ghor, ' and liimself 
of the original stock from which they sprang ; but they are Pathans " as regards character, cus- 
" toms, crimes, and vices." Their ancestor had two sons Gar and Samil, who, on account of the 
bitter enmity that existed between them, were nicknamed Bunkasli or root destroyers. These 
sons have given their names to the two great political factions into which not only the Bangash 
themselves, but their Afridi, Orakzai, Khatak, Turi, Zaimusht, and other neighbours of the 
[P. 212j Karlanri branch are divided, though the division has of late lost most of its importance.^ The 
Gari are divided into Miranzai and P.aizai clans. The Baizai hold the valley of Koliat proper; 
the Miranzai lie to the west of them in the valley to which they have given their name ; while 
the Samilzai occupy the northern portion of Kohat and hold Shalozan at the foot of the Orakzai 
hills, where they are independent, or live in Paiwar and Kurram under the protection of the Turi. 
The Bangash Nawabs of Furrukhabad belong to this tribe. 

Border tribes. — The tribes on the Kohat border, beginning from the south, are the Uarvcsh 
Khel Wazi'ri, the Zaimudit, the Orakzai, and the Afridi. The Waziri have already been described 
in section 405. The Zaimusht are a tribe of Spin Tarin Afghans who inhabit the hills between 
the Kurram and the Orakzai border on the north-west frontier of Kohat. They belong to the 
Samil faction. The early hist jry of the Orakzai has been given in section 406. With them are 
associated the Alfkhel, Mi'shti, the Shckhan, and some of the Malla Khel, all of whom are now 
classed as Orakzai of the Hamsayah clan, though, as the name implies, distinct by descent. The 
Orakzai hold the lower south-eastern spurs of the Safed Koh and the greater part of Ti'rah. They 
are divided into five great clans, the Allezai, Massozai, Daulatzai, Ismailzai, and Lashkarzai, of 
which the Daulatzai and Massozai are the most numerous. The Muhammad Khel is the largest 
sept of the Daulatzai, and, alone of the Orakzai, belongs to the Shfah sect. They are a tine manly 
tribe, but exceedingly turbulent. They are divided between the Samil and Gar factious. There 
are a considerable number of Orakzai tenants scattered about the Kohat District. The present 
rulers of lihopal belong to this tribe. The Afridi will be described among the border tribes of 
Peshawar. 

408. The Pathan tYibes of Peshawar. — The Pathans of Peshawar belong, 
with the exception of the Khatak described above^ almost wholly to the 
Afghans proper, descendants of Sarban ; and among them to the line of 
Karshabun or the representatives of the ancient Gandhari, as distinguished 
from the true Afghans of Jewish origin who trace their descent from 
Sharkhabun. I have already told, in section 395, how during the 5th or 6th 
century a Gandhari colony emigrated to Kandahar, and there were joined and 

> Dr. Bellew thinks that they and the Orakzai are perhaps both of Scythian origin, and 
belonged t ) the group of Turk tribes, among whom he includes all the Karlanri, or, as he calls 
them, Turklam-i, who came in with the invasion of Sabuktagin in the 10th and Taimur in the 16th 
century of our asra. 

" Dr. Bellew is of opinion that these names denote respectively the Magian and Buddhist 
religions of their ancestors. The present division of the tribes is given as follows by Major James : 
Samil. — Half the Orakzai, half the Bangash, the Mohmand, and the Malikdin Khcl, Sepah, Kainr, 
Zakha Khel, Aka Khel, and Adam Khel clans of Afrfdi. Qdr. — Half the Orakzai, half the 
Bangash, the Khali'l, and the Kiiki Khel and Qambar Khel clans of Afridi. The feud betw^eea 
the two factions is still very strong and bitter, and is supplemented by the sectaiian animosity 
between Shi'ah and Sunni, 



86 



PANJAB CASTES. 



r 



Mandanr 



fYusuf zai 



Kand 



Khakhai i 



I 



convei-terl by the Afghan stock of Ghor who Mended witli them into a single 
nation. Their original emigration was due to the pressure of Jat and Sc3rthic 
tribes who crossed the Hindu Kush and descended into the valley of the Kabul 
river. Among those tribes was probably the Dilazak/ who are now 
classed as one of the Kodai Karlanri^ and who were converted by IMahmud 
Ghaznavi in the opening of the 11th century. They extended their 
sway over the Rawalpindi and Peshawar districts and the valley of the 
Kabul as far west as Jalalabad, driving many of the original Hindki or 
Gandhari inhabitants into the valleys of Swat and Buuer which lie in the 
hills to the north, and ravaging and laying waste the fertile plain country. 
Amalgamating with the remaining Hindkis they lost the purity of their 
faith, and were described as infidels by the Afghans who su1)sequently drove 
them out. 

The Kandahar colony of Gandhari was divided into two principal 
sections, the Khakhai and Ghoria Khel, besides whom it included the descend- 
ants of Zamand and Kansi. I give below the principal tribes which trace 
their descent from Kharshabun for convenience of reference : — 

Hold the Peshawar plain north of the Kahul 

river, called British Yusufzai, the Chamlah 

valley on the Peshawar border, and part of 

I (, the Haripur tract in Hazara. 

I Yiisuf z ai ( Hold Swat, Euner, Panjkora. and Dir; the 

l^ proper. )^ hills north of the Yiisufzai plain. 

( Hold Doaba ; the plains in the angle between 
■■■ ^ the Kabul and Swat rivers. 
Hold Bajaur tract west of Swat. 
Plains ]\Ioh- ( Hold plains of Peshawar on right bank of Bara 
^ river. 

( Hold mountains north of Kabul river and west 
\ of the Swat-Kabul Toab. 
f Hold Peshawar plain on right bank of Kabul 
■J river to a little below the junction of the 
(. Bara river. 
Hold the Peshawar plains between the Daiidzai 

and the Khaibar. 
Hold Hashtnaghar, the plains east of Swat 

river in Peshawar. 
Scattered. 
Hold part of Khaibar mountains and the noi'th- 

ern slopes of the Safed Koh. 
Scattered. 

About the middle of the 13th century they were settled about the head- 
waters of the Tarnak and Arghasan rivers, while the Tarin Afghans held, as 
they still hold, the lower valleys of those streams. As they increased in 
numbers the weaker yielded to pressure, and the Khakhai Khel, accompanied 
by their first cousins the Muharamadzai descendants of Zamand, and by their 
Karlanri neighbours the Utman Kliel of the Gomal valley," left tlieir homes 
and migrated to Kabul. Thence they were expelled during the latter half of 
the 15th century by Ulugh Beg, a lineal descendant of Taimur and Babar's 
uncle, and passed eastwards into Ningrahar on the northern slopes of the 
Safed Koh, and into the Jalalabad valley. Here the Gugiani settled in 
eastern and the Muhammadzai in western Ningrahar, the Tarklanri occupied 

* Dr. Bellew seems doubtful whether the Dilazak were of .Jat or of Edjput extraction. He 
says the name is of Buddhist origin, 

- Another story makes the Utman Khel descendants of one Utman, a follower of Mahmiid 
Ghaznavi, who settled circa 1,000 A. D. in the country which they now hold. 



Ghoria 
Khel. 



Gugiani 
t.Tarklanri 

TMohmand 

(^Daudzai 
Khalil 



c 

) mand. 
1 Bar Moh- 
C mand. 



Zamand 



Kansi 



r Muhammadzai 

1 Others 
f Shin war i 

"' I Others 



BILOCH, PATPIAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 87 

Lughmjii), while the Yiisiifzai (I use the word throughout in its widest sense 
to include both the Mandanr and the Yusufzai proper) and Htm an Khel 
moved still further east through the Khaihar pass to Peshawar. Here they 
settled peacefully for a while ; but presently quarrelled with the Dilazak and 
expelled them from the Doaba or plain country in the angle between the Swat 
and K{il)ul rivers, into which they moved. They then crossed the Swat river 
into Hashtnaghar and attacked the Eastern Shilmani, a tribe probably of 
Indian origin, who had only lately left their homes in Shilman on the Kurrara 
river for the Klmibar mountaius and Hashtnaghar. These they dispossessed 
of Hashtnaghar and drove them northwards across the mountains into Swat, 
thus acquiring all the plain country north of the Kabul river and west of 
Hoti Mardan. 

[P. 213] 409. Meanwhile the Ghoria Khel whom they had left behind in the 

Kandahjir country had been following in their track ; and early in the 16th 
century they reached the western mouth of the Khaibar pass. Here they seem 
to have divided, a part of the Mohraand now known as the Bar Mo'hmand 
crossing the Kaljul river at Dakka, while the remainder went on through the 
pass to the plain of Peshawar lately vacated by the Yusuf zai, where they 
defeated the Dilazak in a battle close to Peshawar, drove them across the 
Kabul river into what are now called the Yusuf zai plains, and occupied all the 
flat country south of the Kabul river and west of Jalozai. This they still 
hold, the Daudzai holding the right bank of the Kabul river, and the Khalil 
the left bank of the Bara river and the border strip between the two streams 
facing the Khaibar pass, while the Mohmand took the country south of the 
Bara and along the right bank of the Kabul as far as Naushahra, though they 
have since lost the south-eastern portion of it to the Khatak. Meanwhile the 
Bar Mohmand made themselves masters of the hill country lying north of the 
Kabul river as far up as Lalpura and west of the Doaba, ancl possessed them- 
selves of their ancestral capital Gandhilra, driving out into Kafiristan the in- 
habitants, Avho were probably their ancient kinsmen, the descendants of such 
Gandhari as had not aecompanied them when, two centuries earlier, they had 
migrated to Kandahar. They then crossed the Kabul river, and possessed 
themselves of the country between its right bank and the crest of the Afiidi 
hills to the north of the Khaibar pass. 

While these events were occurring, the Gugiani, Tarklanri,' and Muham- 
madzai, who had been left behind in Niugrahar, moved eastwards, whether 
driven before them by the advancing Ghoria Khel, or called in as allies against 
the Dilazak by the Yusuf zai. At any rate they joined their friends in Doaba and 
Hashtnaghar, and attacking the Dilazak, drove them out of Yusufzai and across 
the Indus. They then divided their old and new possessions among the allies, 
the Gugiani receiving Doaba, the Muhammadzai Hashtnaghar, while the 
Yusufzai, Utman Khel, and Tarklanri took the great Yusufzai plain. Dming 
the next twenty years these three tribes made themselves masters of all the hill 
country along the Yusufzai, Hashtnaghar, and Bar Mohmand border, from the 
Indus to the range separating the Kunar and Bajaur valleys, the inhabitants 
of which, again the ancient Gandhjiri who had abeady suffered at the hands of 
the Bar INIohmand, they drove east and west across the Indus into Hazara and 
across the Kun'am into Kafiristan. This country also they divided, the 
Tarklam'i taking Bajaur, and the Utman Khel the valley of the Swat river up 

* A section of the Tarklan,'! remained in Lughman, where they still dwell. 



88 PANJAB CASTES. 

to Arang Barang and its junction with the Panjkora, while the Yusufzai held 
all the hills to the east as far as the Indus and bordering upon their plain 
country, including lower Swat^ Buner, and Chamlah. Some time later the 
Khatak obtained from Akbar, as has already been related in section 406, a 
grant of the plains in the south-east of the Peshawar district. Thus the 
Khakhai and their allies held all the country north of the Kabul river from the 
Indus to Kunar, including the hills north of the Peshawar border, but ex- 
cluding those lying west of Doaba which were occupied by the Bar Mohmand ; 
while all the pfain country south of the Kabul was held, in the east by the 
Khatak, and in the west by the Ghoria Khel. These last attempted to cross 
the river into Yusufzai, but were signally defeated by the Yusufzai, and have 
never extended their dominions. How the Khatak pushed across into the 
Yusufzai plain has already been told (section 406) . The Dilazak, thus expell- 
ed fi-om their territory, made incessant efforts to recover it ; until finally, as the 
cause of tumult and disorder, they were deported en masse by the Emperor 
Jahangir and scattered over the Indian peninsula. When the Yusufzai settled 
in their possessions they divided the hill and plain country equally between 
their tAVO great sections, the Mandanr and the Yusufzai proper. But feuds 
sprang up amongst them which were fomented by the Mughal rulers ; and 
early in the 17th century the Yusufzai expelled the Mandanr from Swat and 
Buner, while the Mandanr in their turn expelled the Yusufzai from the greater 
part of the Yusufzai plain. Thus the Yusufzai now hold Swat, Buner, and 
the Lundkhwar and Ranizai valleys in the north-west of Yusufzai ; while the 
INIandanr hold Chamlah and the remainder of the plain country. 

410. The Pathan tribes of Peshawar continued.— The plain Mohmand.— I now proceed to 
describe the tribes in detail. Passing from Kohat into Pesliawar throngli tlie country of the 
Khatak, who have ali-eady been described in section 407, and turning west, we first come to the 
lower or Plain Mohmand, who occupy the south-\\est corner of the district, south of the Bara 
stream. Tliey are divided into five main sections, the Mayarzai, Musazai, Dawezai, Matanni and 
Sarganni. Their headmen, in common with those of all the Ghoria Khel, are called Arhdb, a title 
meaning master, and conferred by the Mughal Emperors.* They are good and industrious culti- 
vators, and peacefully disposed except on tfie Afridi border. Theii' relation with the Bar Mohmand, 
from whom they are now quite separate, differing from them in both manners and customs, is des- 
cribed in section 409. 

The Khalil occupy the left bank of the Bara, and the country along the front of the 
Khaibar pass. They have four main clans, Matuzai, Barozai, Ishaqzai, and Tilarzai, of which the 
Barozai is the most powerful. They are not good cultivators. There are some of the tribe still to 
be found in Kandahar. 

The Daudzai occupy the left bank of the Kabul river as far down as the junction of the Bara. 
The Mohmand and Daudzai are descended from a common ancestor Daulatyar, son of Ghorai the 
progenitor of the Ghoria Khel. Daiid had three sons, Mandkai, Maunir, and Yusuf, from whom 
are descended the main sections of the tribe. Mandkai had three sons, Huseu, Nekai, and Balo, of 
whom only the first is represented in Peshawar. Nekai fled into Hindustan, while Bale's few 
descendants live in parts of Tirah. 

The Gugiani hold tlie Doaba or plain country in the angle between the Kabul and Swat rivers. 
They are descended from Mak, the son of Khakhai, by a hamsdyah shepherd who main-ied Mak's 
daughter Gugi, whence the name. They are divided into two great sections, Hotak and Zirak. 
Macgrcgor says that other Pathans do not recognise them as of pm-e Pathan blood. 

The Muhamraadzai- lidd llashtnaghar, a strip of territory some 13 miles broad running down 
the left bank of the Swat river from our border to Naushahra. Tliey are descended from Muham- 
mad, one of the sons of Zamand ; and with them are settled a few descendants of his brothers, from 
cue of whom, Kheshgi, one of their prinicipal villages is named. Their clans arc Prang, Charsadda, 
Bazar, Utmanzai, Turangzai, Umarzai, Sherpao, and Tangi with its two septs Barazai and Nasratzai. 

The Baizai. — The Yusufzai proper are divided into the Badi Khel (now extinct), Isazai, Iliaszai, 
Malizai, and Akozai. Tlie Akozai arc further divided into three clans, tlie Ranizai ^ who hold the 

1 Arbab is the plural of the Aralnc Rah or Lord ; a term often applied to the Deity. 
- The tribe is often called Molimaudzai or Mamauzai, and their ancestor, Mohmand or Maman. 
' The Haiydt-i- Afghani calls the Ranizai a sept of the Baizai. This seems improbable, as they 
descend from different wiveB of Ako. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AKJD ALLIED RACES. 



89 



westcru portion of the liills between Yiisufzai and Swat, the Khwajazai who occupy the country 
between the Swat and Panjkora rivers, and the Baizai. The last originally hold the Lundkhwar valley 
in the centre ol' tlie northernmost jjortion of the Peshawar district, and all the eastern hill country 
between tliat and tlie Swat river. Tlie hills tlicy still hold ; but tlie Khat:ik have,^ as already recounted 
[P. 214] in section 406, obtained all the western portion of the valley, while the Utman Kliel Karlanri, whoni the 
Baizai called in as allies in a fend with their neighbours and kinsmen the Ranizai, have obtained 
its north-east corner, and the Baizai now IxAd only a small tract to the south of these last. They 
are divided into six septs, Abba Khel, Aziz Khel.'Babozai, Matorczai, Miisa Khel, and Zangi Khel. 
The last lies south of tlie Hum range which divides Swat from Buner. The other five originally held 
the Baizai valley and tlie hills to the north ; but since the irruption of the Khatak and Utman Khel, 
only the first three hold laud in our territory. 

The Mandanr hold the remainder of the Peshawar district. They are divided into main clans 
as follows : — 



Mandanr 



Usmanzai 



Utminzai 



1 



Kamalzai 
Amazai 



( Mishranzai. 
■ } Kishranzai. 

( Daulatzai. 
■" ^^Ismailzai. 



■i 



r Alizai. 
< Kanazai. 
C Akazai. 



Saddozai. 



'Manezai. 

Malakzai. 

llazar ... -] Ako Khel. 

I Khidrzai. 

l^Mamuzai. 

The Saddozai are by origin a branch of the Utmanzai by a second wife of Utmau, but they are 
practically separated from them. The Usmanzai occupy all the northern and western port'ona of 
the Mandanr tract, the Kamalzai lying to the west immediately south of the Lundkhwar valley and 
stretching as far down as the border of the Bulaq Khatak, while the Amazai lie to the east and 
south-east of the same vaUey. Of the septs, the Kishranzai, who hold Hoti and Mardan, and the 
Daulatzai lie to the north, and the Mishranzai and the Ismailzai to the south of the respective tracts. 
South of the Amazai and between them and the Khatak territory come the Razar ; while the 
Utmanzai and Saddozai hold the extreme east of the district on the right bank of the Indus, the 
Saddozai lying to the west and the Utmanzai to the east. These latter also hold a small area in the 
south of the independent Gadun valley, and early in the ISth century were called across the Indus 
by the Gujars of Hazara as allies against the Tarin Afghans, and appropriated the Gandgarli tract 
from Torbela to the soiithcrn border of Hazara. In this tract all three of their main septs are 
represented, the Tarkheli section of the Ah'zai holding the southern half of the tract, and stretching 
across the border into Attak. The Khudu Khel, a Saddozai sept, occupy the valleys between 
Chamlah and the Gadun country. The valley of Chamlah on the Peshawar border and north of the 
Gadiin country is occupied by a mixture of Mandanr clans, in which the Amazai, whose Ismailzai 
sept hold the Mahaban country, largely preponderate. The Mandanr, living almost wholly within 
oiu- territory and long subject to the rulers of Peshawar, are perhaps more civilised and less im- 
patient of control than any other Pathan tribe. 

411. The Pathan tribes of the Peshawar border. The Afridi.— Dr. Bellew says that the 
Afridi, whom he identifies with the Aparytae of Herodotus, originally lield the whole of the Safed 
Koh system between the Kabul and the Kurram river, from the Indus to the headwaters of the 
Kurram and the Pewar ridge. But since the great Scythic invasions of the 5th and succeeding 
centuries, they have been successively encroached upon by tribes of very diverse origin ; first by the 
Orakzai and Bangash to the south, and later by the Waziri and Turi to the south-west, the 
Khatak to the east, and the Ghilzai, Khugiiini and Shinwari to the west. They now hold only the 
central fastnesses of the eastern extremity of the Safed Koh ; namely, the Khaibar mountains, the 
valley of the Bara and the range south of that valley which separates Kohat from Peshawar, and 
the northern parts of Ti'rah, which they recovered from the Orakzai in the time of Jahangir.^ The 
Pathan historians trace their descent from Buvhan, sou of Kakai, grandson of Karlanri, by his son 
Usman surnamed Afridi, and sav that in the 7th century the Khaibar tract was held by Rajputs of 
the Bhatti tribe and Yadubansi stock, subjects of the Raja of Lahore, who were constantly harassed 
by the Afghans of Ghor and the Sulemans ; and that about the end of the century the Afridi, then 
in alliance with the Gakkhars, obtained from the Lahore Government all the hill country west of the 
Indus and south of the Kabul river on condition of guarding the frontier against invasion. The 
Afridi are divided into five clans, of which the Ula Khel and in it the Zakha Khel sept is tho 

1 Some say that the Khatak, as well as the Utman Khel, were called in as allies agaiLSt the 
Rauizai. 



90 



PANJAB CASTES. 



largest, while the Mita Khel are no longer to be found in Afghanistan and the Mirl Khel have been 
amali-amated with the Malikdin and Aka Khel. Some of the principal divinons are showa 



below : — 



Mita Khel. 
Miri Khel. 



3. Aha Khel 



Ula Khel (Khaibar ■ 
Afn'di). ( 



5. Adam Khel 



■ Bassi Khel. 
Madda Khel. 
Sultan Khel. 
Miro Khel. 



Mainia7ia Khel 



Zalcha Khel. 
Hasan Khel. 
Jawaki. 
Galli. 
Ashu Khel. 



r 



J 



Fu'oz Khel 



Mi'r Ahmad Kliel 
I 
\^Sepah. 



( KiiTci Khel. 
(K'lmar Khel. 
^ MaliJcdtn Khel. 
\ Qambar Khel. 



But for practical pm-poses they are divided at present into eight clans, viz., Kilki Khel, Malik- 
din Khel, Qambar Khel, Kamar Khel, Zaldia Khel, Aka Khel, Sepah and Adam Khel, whoso 
names are printed in italics in the above table. 

The Adam Khel, Mdio include the Hasan Khel and Jawaki septs so well known on om* border, 
occupy the i-auge between Kohat and Peshawar, from Akor west of the Kohat pass to the Khatak 
boundary. The Hasan Khel hold the land along the southern border of the Peshawar and the 
north-eastern border of the Kohat district. Next to them come the Aka Khel who hold the low 
range of hills from Akor to the Bara river, the Bassi Khel sept lying nearest to British territory. 
These two clans occupy the south-eastern corner of the Afridi c untry, and lead a more settled life 
than their kinsmen, being largely engaged in the carriage of wood and salt between Independent 
Territory and British India. Tlie other tribes are in some degree migratory, wintering in the lower 
hiUs and vaUeys, while in the hot weather tliey retire to the cool recesses of tlie upper mountains. 
But their general distribution is as follows : Xorth of the Bira river is the Kaiiiri plain, 
which forms the winter quarters of the Slalikdfn Khel, Qambar Kliel, Sepah, and Kamar 
Khel. The Qambar Khel pass the summer in Ti'rah. The Sepah's summer quarters are in the Para 
valley ; while the Kamar Khel spend the hot mouths in the spurs of the Safed Koh between Maidau 
and Bara, and are better cultivators and graziers and less habitual robbers than their kinsmen. The 
Zakha Khel are tlie most wild and lawless of tlie Afridi clans. Their upper settlements are in tlie 
Maidan and Bara districts, and then- winter quarters lie in the Bazar valley north of Landi Kotal, 
and in the Khaibar from Ali Masjid to Landi Kotal. Their children are christened by being passed 
backwards and forwards through a hole made in a wall after the fashion of a burglar, while the parents 
repeat "Be a thief ; be a thief, " an exhortation which they comply with scrupulously when they arrive 
at years of discretion. They are notorious as liars and thieves, even among the lying and thieving 
Afridi. The Kiiki Khel hold the eastern mouth of the Khaibar, and the pass itself as far as Ali 
Masjid. In summer they retire to the glen of Kajgal, north of Maidau, in the Safed Koh. They 
trade in firewood, and offend rather by harbouring criminals than by overt acts of aggi-ession. The 
Afridi is the most barbarous of all the tribes of our border. All the Karlanri, with the single 
exception of the Khatak, are wild and uncontrollable ; but most of all the Afridi. '' Ruthless 
" cowardly robbery and coldblooded treacherous mm-der are to an Afridi the salt of life. Brouglit up 
"from earliest childhood amid scenes of appalling treachery and merciless revenge, nothing has yet 
"changed him : as he lives, a shameless cruel savage, so he dies, i' et he is reputed brave, and 
" that by men who have seen him fighting ; and he is on the whole the finest of the Pathan races of [P. 215] 
"our border. His physique is exceptionally fine, and he i; really braver, more open and more 
" treacherous than other Pathans. This much is certain, that he has the power of prejudicing 
" Englislimen in his favour ; and few are brought into contact with him who do not at least begin 
" with enthusiastic admiration for his manliness." * He is tall, spare, wiry, and athletic ; hardy 
and active, but impatient of heat. His women are notoriously unchaste. His is only nominally 
a Musaluian, being wholly ignorant and intensely superstitious. The Zakha Khel removed the 
odium under which tliey suifered of possessing no shrine at which to worship, by inducing a 
sainted man of the Kaka Khel to come and seltle among them, and then murdering him in order 
to bury liis corp e and thus acquire a holy place of their own. The Afridi are intensely demo- 
cratic, the nominal Chiefs having but little power. 

The MuIIagori. — North of the .ifridi come the MuUagori, a small and inofTensive tribe who 
are associate! with the hill lilohmand, but whose Pathan origin is doubtful. They hold 
the Tartarah country north of the Khaibar range. They are noted thieves, but confine them- 
selves to petty offences. 

* Macgregor's Gazetteer of the North-Western Frontier, verb. Afridi. 



BILOCH, PATTIAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 91 

The Shinwari arc tlic only brancli of the dcsccTidants of Ki'uisi, tliird son of Karsliabuii,- 
who still retain a corporate existence as a tri])c. Tlioy lie west of the ^fullagori, hold the hilb 
to the north of the western end of tlic Khaibav pass, and thence stretch along the northern slopes 
of the Safed Koh np to Ihe Khugiani territory. They are divided into four great clans, Sangu 
Khel, Ali Shcr Ivhel, Sepah, and Mandozai. The Kliaihar Shinwari belong to the Ali Sher Khel, 
and live in the Loargi valley at Landi Kotal. Their principal septs arc Pi'ro Khel, Mir Dad 
Khel, Khiiga Khel, Shekh Mai Khel, and Snleman Khol. They are largely engaged in the 
carrying trade Ijeweeu Peshawar and Kabul ; and are stal'.vart, hardworking and inoffensive, though 
much addicted to petty thieving. They probably came up to this part of the country with the 
Ghoria Khel (see section 409), 

The Bar Mohmand. — The history of the hill or Bar Molunand has been related in section 
409. They liold the hills to the west of the Doiiba between the Kabul river and Bajaur and the 
Utman Khel country, the southern portion of Kunar, and some of the northern hills of the 
Khaibar. They have also spread across our border along the Kabul river, between the two branches 
of which the Halimzai clan hold a small area lying between the Daudzai and the Gugiani. Their 
principal sections arc Baizai, Khwaczai, Tawczai, Utraanzai, Kukozai, and Tarakzai, the last of 
which is divided into Plalimzai, Isa Khel, Burbiin Khel, and Tarakzai prox)er. The Halimzai and 
the Tarakzai proper bold land on our border, the others living further west. The Khan of 
Lalpura, Chief of the Molimand, who belongs to the Tarakzai clan, probably enjoys more real 
power than any other tribal Chief among the Pathans of our immediate border. Tlie Mohmand 
is almo-;t as great a savage as the Afridi, while his venality is even greater. " You have only 
" got to put a rupee in your eye, and you may look at any Mohmand, man or woman. " They for- 
merly gave much i rouble on our border. 

The Utman Khel. — The history of the Utman Khel has al.-eady been sketched in sections 
408-9. They occupy both banks of the Swat river beyond our border as far up as Arang 
Barang, and have, as stated in section 41u, obtained a portion of the Baizai valley of Lundkhwar. 
The two chief clans are Umar Khel and Asfl Khel, the former of which liold the hills on the 
Peshawar frontier, while the latter who live on the Swat river are the more powerful. " They 

" are described as tall, stout, and fair, often going naked to the 
" waist. The women labour like the men^ and everything shows 
" the absence of civilization. They are a sober people, with 
" none of the vices of the Yusufzai. "- They give us but little 
trouble. 

The Yusufzai proper. — The hi tory of the Yusufzai has 
already been related in sections 40S-9. Their main divisions 
are shown in the margin. The holdings of the Akozai clans 
have already been described in section 410. The Isazai hold the 
north-cast slopes of Mahaban, and the mountainous country on 
both sides of the Indus in Hazara and the Gadun valley. The 
Malizai hold eastern and the Iliaszai western Buner. The Ranizai 
and Baizai septs of the Akozai hold all the hills beyond the 
northern border of 'u=ufzai, the former to the west and the 
latter to the east. Beyond them in Buner lie the Salarzai sept 
of the Iliaszai, and again between them and the Chamlah valley 
are the Niirazai of the Malizai clan, which includes the Abazai section. The Yusufzai are incredibly 
superstitions, proud, avaricious, turbulent, merciless, and revengeful. But tliey are of a lively, 
merry, sociable disposition, fond of music and poetry, and very jealous of the honour of their 
women. Their tribal constitution is distinctly democratic. 

The Jadun Country. —South of the Yusufzai territory come Chamlah and the Kliudu Khel 
territory already noticed. The southern parts of the country between Peshawar and Hnzara 
constitute the Jadun or Gadiin country. The holdings of other tribes in this valley have already 
been noticed. The Jadiin themselves occupy all the eastern portions of the valley and the 
southern slopes of Mahaban down to the Indus, as well a^, a considerable area in Hazai'a. They 
are described in section 417. 

412. The Pathan Tribes of Hazara. The Hazara mountains on this 
side of the Indus were from a very early date inhabited ])y a mixed population 
of Indian origin, the Galckhars occupying the portion to the south and having 
authority over the Rajputs of the eastern hills, while a Gujar population held 
most of the northern and central parts of the district. In 1399 A.D. a 
family of Karlagh Turks came into India with Taimur, settled in the Pakhli 

^ Dr. Bellews say-, they came from Persia in the time of Nadir Shah, and settled among the 
Pathans. 

^ Macgregor's Gazetteer, voce Utman Khel. 



B^df Khel 
Lsiizi 
Iliaszai. 
Malizai 


.. (atmost extinct). 

( Hasanzai. 
...i Madakhcl. 

C Akazai. 

f Daulatzai. 
... < Cliagharzai. 




CXurazai. 


Akozai 


■ Banizai. 

... - Khwajazai, 

.Baizai. 



9^ PANJAB CASTES. 

plain in the north and centre of the distrietj and established their rule over 
the whole of the district, then known as the kingdom of Pakhli.' I have 
already related how, about the middle of the 16th century, the Dilazak were 
driven out of Peshawar across the Indus, and were presently followed by the 
representatives of the old Gandhari, the present inhabitants of Swat and Buner 
<ind the mountains north and east of Peshawar. As the Afghans who had 
possessed themselves of the trans-Indus tract opposite the Hazara District 
increased in nu:nbers and extended their rule, successive bands of the old 
inhabitants crossed the river and settled in Hazara. About the end of the 
17th century 2 a Saiyad named Jalal Baba, ancestor of the famous Saiyads of 
Kagan, came with a heterogeneous following from Swat, drove out the 
Karlagh, and approjoriated the northern half of the district, including the 
valley of Kangar. About the same time the Tanaoli crossed the river and 
occupied the hill country between Abbottabad and the river, now known by 
their name as Tanawal ; while the Jadun came over from their original seat 
between Peshawar and Hazara and possessed themselves of the tract south of 
Abbottabad, the Tarin drove out or subjected the Gujar families of the Hazara 
plain, and the Utmanzai, called across the Indus by the Gujars as allies, 
appropriated the Gandgarh tract along the bank of the river from Torbela to 
the boundary of the district. During the first 20 years of the 19th century 
the Durrani lost their hold on the district, something like anarchy j^revailed, 
and the distribution of tribes gradually assumed its present form. This may 
be broadly described as follows. Afghans hold the country between the 
Gandgarh range and the Indus, and the plains for some little distance south- 
east of the junction of the Siran and Dor. Tribes of Indian origin hold the 
whole south and south-east of the district and the eastern hills as high up as 
Garhi Habibullah op2:)03ite jMuzaffarabad, the Gakkhars holding the south 
of the tract along both banks of the Haro river, while above them the 
Dhunds, Karrals, and Sarraras occupy the hills in the south-eastern corner of 
the district, and the adjoining Haripur plains are held by a mixed population 
of Awans and Gujars. The remainder of the district, that is the northern 
and central portion, is held by tribes which, whatever their origin, have by 
long association become assimilated with the Pathans in language and 
customs, the Jadun holding the Dor valley from Bagra upwards to Mangal, 
the Tanaoli holding the Tanawal tract in the west centre of the district be- 
tween Abbottabad and the Indus, much of which belongs to the semi- 
independent Nawab of Amb, while the Swatis hold the whole mountain 
country north of Mansahra and Garhi Habibullah. 

The Utmanzai have been already fully de.scribed in the discussion of the Peshawar tribes. 
The Tarkheli is one of the principal Utmanzai clans in Hazara, and occupies the Gandgarh 
coimtry. A few Tarin Afghans, fir,t cousins of the Abdalt, wrested a considerable portion of 
the Haiipur plains from the Gujars early in the 18th century, and still live ihere, hut are now 
few and unimportant. The Mishwani are descended from a Saiyad father by a Kakar woman, 
and are allied to the Kakar Pathans. A small number of them came across the Indus with the 
Utmanzai, to whom they were attached as retainer.-!, and now occupy the north-eastern end of the 
Gandgarh range, about Sn'kot. With the Utmanzai came also a few Panni, a Kakar sect, who 
are still settled among them. 

413. Non-Frontier Pathans. — During the Lodi and Sur dynasties 
many Pathans migrated to India, especially dm-ing the reign of Bahlol Lodi 

^ Major Wace says they were a clan of the Ila/.ara Turks. But the Turks who gave their 
name to (he district are supposed to have come wilh Cliangiz Klijin and not with Taimur. Per- 
haps tliey were the same men, and have confused tlic two invaders in their traditions. 

- This is tlie date given approximately by Major AVace. It should perhaps be put a century 
earlier. 



BILOCH, PATHAN, AND ALLIED RACES. 93 

and Slier Sbiili Siir. Those naliirally ])elonge(l to the Ghilzai section from 
which those kings sprang. But large numbers of Pathjins also accompanied 
the armies of Mahmud Ghaznavi^ Shahab-ul-din, and Babar, and many of 
them obtained grants of land in the Pan jab plains and founded Pathan 
colonies which si ill exist. Many more Pathans have been driven out of 
Afghanistan by internal fends or by famine, and have taken refuge in the 
plains east of the Indus. The tribes most commonly to be found in 
Hindustan are the Yu^;ufzai including the Mandanr, the Lodi^ Kakar, 
Sarwani; Orakzai, the Karlanri tribes and the Zamand Pathans. Of these 
the most widely distributed are the Yusufzai of whom a body of 1,200 
accompanied Babar in his final invasion of India, and settled in the plains of 
Hindustan and the Panjab. But as a rule the Patlians who have settled 
away from the frontier have lost all memory of their tribal divisions, and 
indeed almost all their national characteristics. 

The descendants of Zamand very early migrated in large numbers to 
Multan, to which Province they fm-nished rulers till the time of Aurangzeb ; 
when a number of the Abdali tribe under the leadership of Shah Huseu were 
driven from Kandahar by tribal feuds, took refuge in Multan, and being 
early supplemented by other of then- kinsmen who were expelled by Mir 
Wais, the great Ghilzai Chief, conquered Multan and founded the tribe well 
known in the Pan jab as Multani Pathans. Nawab Muzaffar Khan of jNIultan 
was fourth in descent from Shah Husen. When the Zamand section was 
broken up, the Khweshgi clan migrated to the Ghorband defile, and a large 
number marched thence with Babar and found great favour at his hands and 
those of Humayun. One section of them settled at Kasur, and are now 
known as Kasuria Pathans. The Pathans of Guriani and Gohana in Rohtak 
are Kakar. They are said to have settled in the time of Iljrahim Lodi. Those 
of Jhajjar in the same district are said to be Yusufzai. In the time of Bahlol 
Lodi, Sarhind was ruled by members of the Prangi tribe from which he 
sprang, and many of this tribe are still to be found in Ludhianah, Rupar, 
and the north of Ambala. The reigning family of Maler Kotla belong to 
the Saripal clan of the Sarwani Afghans, who, as already related, were driven 
out of Afghanistan by the Mian Khel and Bakhtiar in the time of Humayun, 
Jahangir, for what reason I do not know, deported the Mita Khel sept of the 
Afridi to Hindustan ; and some of the Afghans of Panipat and Ludhianah 
are said to be descended from this stock, 

RACES ALLIED TO THE PATHAN. 
414. The Tanaoli (Caste No. 54). — The Tanaoli are said to claim 
descent from Amir Khan, a Barlas Mughal, whose two sons Hind Khan and 
Pal Khan crossed the Indus some four centuries ago and settled in Tanawal 
of Hazara ; and they say that they are named after some other place of the 
same name in Afghanistan. But there can be little doubt that they are of 
Aryan and probably of Indian stock. We first find them in the trans-Indus 
basin of the Mahaban, from which they were driven across the Indus by the 
Yusufzai some two centuries ago. They now occupy Tanawal or the ex- 
tensive hill country between the river and the Urash plains. They are 
divided into two great tribes, the Hindwal and Pallal, of which the latter 
Occupy the northern portion of Tanawal, and their territory forms thejdfftr of 
the serai-independent Chief of Amb. Of the 4(1,000 Plazara Tanaolis,^ 8,737 
have returned themselves as Pallal, 1,964 as Dafral, a sept of the Pallal; and 



94 PANJAB CASTES. 

only 1,076 as Hinclwal. It is probable that clans were not recorded in the 
Amb territory where the Hindwal, and indeed the great mass of the Tanaolis 
dwell. They are an industrious and peaceful race of cultivators ; but their 
bad faith has given rise to the saying — Tandwali he-qauli, " the Tanaoli^s word 
'^ is naught. '''' 

415. The Dilazak and Tajik (Caste No. 145). — Acting upon the advice of an 
educated Extra Assistant Commissioner^ a native of Peshawar, I unfortunately 
took the figures for Tajik and Dilazak together under the head Tajik. In reality 
they are distinct. Of the S^O^S persons entered in my tables as Tajik, 1^519 
are really Dilazak, and so returned themselves. Besides these there are 1,546 
Dilazak who have returned themselves as Pathans, of whom 825 are in Rawal- 
pindi and 695 in Ilazara. The origin and early history of the Dilazak have 
already been noticed in sections 408 and 409. They were the inhabitants of 
the Peshawar valley before the Pathan invasion, and are apparently of Seythic 
origin and came into the Panjab with the Jats and Katti in the 5th and 6th 
centuries. They soon became powerful r.nd important and niled the whole 
valley as far as the Indus and the foot of the northern hills. In the first half 
of the 13th century the Yusufzai and JMohmand drove them across the Indus 
into Chach-Pakhli. But their efforts to regain their lost territories were such 
a perpetual source of disturbance, that at length Jahangir deported them 
en masse and distributed them over Hindustan and the Dakhan. Scattered 
families of them are still to be found along the leit bank of the Indus in 
Hazara and Rawalpindi. 

The Tajik are apparently the original inhabitants of Persia ; but now-a- 
days the word is used throughout Afghanistan to denote any Persian-speak- [P. 217] 
ing people who are not either Saiyad, Afghan, or Hazara ; much as Jat or 
Hindki is used on the upper Indus to denote the speakers of Panjabi or its 
dialects. They are described by Dr. Bellew as peaceable, industrious, faithful, 
and intelligent. In the villages they cultivate, and in the towns they are 
artisans and traders ; while almost all the clerkly classes of Afghanistan are 
Tajiks. 

416. The Hazaras (Caste No. 183).— Besides the 38 Hazaras shown 
for the Peshawar district in table VIII A., 44 others have returned themselves 
as Hazara Pathans, of whom 39 are in Kohat. But this certainly does not 
represent the whole number of Hazaras who were in the Panjab at the 
time of the Census, and it is j)robable that most of them have returned 
themselves as Pathans simply, without specifying any tribe. The Hazaras 
of Kabul have abeady been noticed in section 396. They hold the Parapo- 
misus of the ancients, extending from Kabul and Ghazni to Hirat, and from 
Kandahar to Balkh. They are almost certainly Mongol Tartars, and were 
settled in their present al^odes by Changiz Khan. They have now almost 
wholly lost their Mongol speech, but retain the physical and physiognomic 
characters of the race, and are '^ as pure Mongols as when they settled 600 
*■' years ago with their families, their flocks, and their worldly possessions.'"'' 
They intermarry only among themselves, and in the interior of their territory 
are almost wholly independent. They are des -ribed at length by Dr. Bellew 
in Chapter XIII of his Baoes of Afghani stein. General Cunningham says 
that in Babar's time the Karlulu (? Karlaghi) Hazaras held the country on 
both banks of the Sohan in Riiwalpindi ; and he refers to them the well- 
known coins of Sri Hasan Karluki of the bull and horseman type, which he 
as .'ribes to the beginning of the 13th century. But the descendants of these 



BILOCH, PATIIAN; AND ALLIED RACES. 95 

people are appavoiitly returned as Turks and not as Hazaras, and they will, 
be discussed later on under the former head. Their history in the Ilazara 
district has been sketched in section 412. Dr. Bellew describes the Hazaras 
as a — 

" very simple-uiiiiJcd people, and very much in the hands of their priest". They are for the 
" most part entirely illiterate, are governed by tribal and clan chiefs whose authority over their 
" people is absolute, and they arc generally very poor and hardy. Many thousands of them come 
•' down to the Panjab every cold season in search of lal)Our either on the roads, or as well-sinkers, 
'' wall-buildcrs, &c. In their own country they have the reputation of being a brave and hardy 
" race, and amongst the Afghans they are considei-ed a faithful, industrious and intelligent people 
" as servants. Many thousands of them find employment at Kabul and Ghazni and Kandahar 
'■' during the winter months as labourers — in the two former cities mainly in removing the snow from 
" the house-tops and streets. In consequence of their being heretics, the Sunui Afghans hold them 
'' in slavery, and in most of the larger towns the servant-maids arc purchased slaves of this people." 

They are all Shiahs. 

417. The Jadun. — The Jadun or Gadun, as they are called indiffer- 
ently/ have returned themselves as Pathans to the number of 17,256, of 
whom 16,962 are in Hazara and 279 in Rawalpindi. They claim descent 
from Sarhang, a great-grandson of Ghurghusht, two of whose sons fled, they 
say, because of a blood feud to the mountains of Chach and Hazjira. It is 
however almost certaili that the Jadun are of Indian origin ; and it has been 
suggested that in their name is preserved the name of Jadu or Yadu, the 
founder of the Rajput Yadul)ansi dynasty, many of whose descendants 
migrated from Gujarat some 1,100 years before Christ, and were afterwards 
found in the hills of Kabul and Kandahar. They occupy all the south- 
eastern portion of the territory between the Peshawar and Hazai'a borders, 
and the southern slopes of Mahaban ; and when Jahangir finally crushed the 
Dilazak, they spread u]) the Dor valley as high as Aljljottabjul, Early in the 
18th century, on the expulsion of the Karlagh Turks by Saiyad Jalal Baba 
(section 412) they appropriated the country about Dhamtaur ; and about a 
hundred years later they took the Bagra tract from the few remaining 
Dilazak who held it, while shortly before the Sikhs took the country their 
Hassazai clan deprived the Karral of a portion of the Nilan valley. They are 
divided into three main clans, Salar, ]\Iansur, and Hassazai, of which the last 
is not represented among the trans-Indus Jadun and has lost all connection 

with the parent tribe, having even forgotten its old 



Jadun clans. 



Hassazai . . . 6,421 

Salar ... 2,876 

Mansur ... 3,718 



Pashto lano'uao-e. Dr. Bellew makes them a 
Gakkhar clan, but this appears to be incorrect. The 
true Pathans of Hazara call them Mlatar or merce- 
naries, from the Pashto equivalent for lakhan or 
'' one who girds his loins."" The Jadun clans return- 
ed in our tables are shown in the margin. 

418. The Swati. — The Swatis have without exception returned them- 
selves as Pathans. They number 28,906 soids, of whom 28,429 are in Hazara 
and 392 in Rawalpindi. The original Swatis were a race of Hindu origin who 
ont-e ruled the whole country from the Jahlam to Jalalabad. But as has 
already been recorded in sections 408-9, the Dilazak first drove them out of 
the plain country into the northern hills of Swat and Buner, and later on the 
Yusufzai expelled them from those fastnesses and drove them east and west 
into Hazara and Kafii-istan. As now existing they are probably a very mixed 
people, as the name is commonly applied to all descendants of the miscellaneous 

* Trans- Indus they are always known as Gadun; Cis-Indus, as either Gadiin or Jadun. 



96 PANJAB CASTES. 

following of Saiyad Jalixl mentioned in section 412.^ They occupy the whole 
of the Mansalna tahsil of the Ilaziira district excepting the south-western 
corner which forms part of Tanawal, and extend into the hills beyond its 
western border. The Pakhli tract is their chief seat. But the population of 
his tract is very niixed^ Gujars forming by far the largest element, while 
Awans and Saiyads are numerous. The Gujars are chiefly graziers in the 
frontier glens of the northern mountains; the Awiins lie chiefly to the south, 
while the Saiyads of Kagan are well known to fame. The Swatis are coward- 
ly, deceptive, cruel, grasping, and laz}', and of miserable physique. Their 
bad faith is a proverb in the country ; and they are credited with even attempt- 
ino- to cheat the devil by the old device, famous in European folklore, of 
dividino- the crop above and below ground. They are all Musalmiins of the 
Sunni sect. They are divided into three great clans, Gheliari, Mamiali, and 
Mitrawi, of which the first claims Tajik, the Mamiali Yusufzai, and the 
Mitrawi Durrani origin ; but all three claims are almost certainly unfounded. 
At present the jNIamiali and Mitrawi, known as the sections of the Tarli or 
lower Pakhli, hold the southern and south-western portions of their tract, while 
the Ghebari, a section cf the Utli or upper Pakhli, occupy Kagan and the [P- 218] 
north-eastern portion. The Swati are often wrongly confused with the 
Degan, another branch of the original Hindu inhabitants of north-eastern 
Afghanistan, now only found in Kunar, Bajaur, Lughman, and Ningrahar. 

419. The Shilmani. — The Shilmani are probably of Indian origin, 
and had their homes in Shilman on the banks of the Kurram. Prom there 
they migrated to the Tatara mountains north of the Khaibar, whence a section 
of them moved on via Peshawar to Hashtnaghar. About tlie end of the 15th 
century the Yusufzai drove them out into Swat, where they found a refuge 
with Sultan Wais and presently became sub jects of the advancing Yusufzai. 
A few of them are scattered through the Hazara district, and they still hold a 
village in the Tatara range. But they are fast dying out of existence as a 
distinct people. They are often confounded with the Degan in the eai-ly 
Afghan histories. I am afraid that some who are not realy Shilmani have been 
included in our figures. The tribe is sometimes called Sulemani, a name also 
applied to Afghans proper, while there is a separate tribe called Sulemau 
Khel ; and it is not impossible that there has been some confusion. The 
Shilmani have all returned themselves as Pathans, and their numbers are 
1,557, of whom 969 are in Hazara, 174 in Rawalpindi, and 200 in Dehli. 

^ At the Hazava settlement genealogical trees were prepared for the Swatis only for the last 
four or tive generations ; and this at their own request, as to have gone back further would have 
exposed in too public a manner their miscellaneous origin. 



98-9 



JAT; RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. . 99 



PART III.— THE JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED 

CASTES. 



420. General and Indroductory. — Abstract No. 71 below* shows the dis- 
ti-ilnition of Jats, Rajputs, and certain castes which I have taken with the 
hitter, as the line separating them is almost impossible of definition. The 
origin and distribution of these castes is fully discussed in the following pages, 
and there is no need here to anticipate my remarks. Indeed the distinction 
between Jat and Rajput is in many parts of the Province so indefinite, that 
separate figures for these two castes can hardly be said to have any signifi- 
cance at all. 

The two together constitute nearly 28 per cent, of the total population of 
the Panjab, and include the great mass of the dominant land-owning tribes in 
the cis-Indus portion of the Province. Their political is even greater than 
their numerical importance; while they afford to the ethnologist infinite 
matter for inquiry and considerntion. Their customs are in the main Hindu, 
though in the Western Plains and the Salt-range Tract the restrictions upon 
intermarriage have in many cases come to be based upon considerations of 
social standing only. But even here the marriage ceremony and other social 
customs retain the clear impress of Indian origin. 

THE JAT (CASTE No. 1). 

421. Tha origin of the Jat. — Perhaps no question connected with the 
ethnology of the Panjab peoples has been so much discussed as the orignn of 
the Jat race. It is not my intention here to reproduce any of the arguments 
adduced. They will be found in detail in the Archaological Survey Reports, 
Vol. II, pages 51 to 61 ; in Tod's RdjastJidn, Vol. I, pages 52 to 75 and 96 
to 101 (Madras Reprint, 1880) ; in Elphin?tone's History of India, pages 250 to 
a53; and in Elliot's lUces of the N. W. P., Vol. I, pages 130 to 187. Suffice 
it to say that both General Cunningham and Major Tod agree in considering 
the Jats to be of Indo-Scythian stock. The former identifies them with the 
Zanthii of Strabo nnd the Jatii of Pliny and Ptolemy ; and holds that they 
probably entered the Panjab from their home on the Oxus very shortly after 
the Meds or IVIands, who also A\ere Indo-Scythians, and who moved into the 
Panjab about a century before Christ. The Jats seem to have first occupied 
the Indus valley as far down as Sindh, whither the Meds followed them about 
the beginning of the present tcra. But before the earliest Mahomedan inva- 
sion the Jats had spread into the Panjab proper, where they were firmly 
established in the beginning of the 11th century. By the time of Babar the 
Jats of the Salt-range Tract had been subdued by the Gakkhars, Awans, and 
Janjuas, while as early as the 7th century the Jats and Meds of Sindh were 
ruled over by a Brahman dynasty. Major Tod classes the Jats as one of the 
great Rajput tribes, and extends his idttntification with the Getse to both races ; 
but here General Cunningham differs, holding the Rajputs to belong to the 
original Aryan stock, and the Jats to belong to a later wave of immigrants 
from the North-west, probably of Scythian race. 

H 



96 



PANJAB CASTES. 



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JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 99 

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h2 



100 PANJAB CASTES. 

It may be tbat the original Eajput and the original Jat entered India at 
different periods in its history, tliongh to my mind the term Rajput is an 
occupational rather than an ethnological expression. But if they do originally 
represent two separate waves of immigration^ it is at least exceedingly pro- 
bable, both from their almost identical physique and facial character and from 
the close communion which has always existed between them, that they belong 
to one and the same ethnic stock ; while whether this be so or not, it is almost 
certain that they have been for many centuries and still are so intermingled 
and so blended into one people that It Is practically impossil^le to distinguish 
them as separate wholes. It is indeed more than probable that the process of 
fusion has not ended here, and that the people A\dio thus in the main resulted 
from the blending of the Jat and the Eajput, If tliese two ever were distinct, 
is by no means free from foreign elements. We have seen how the Pathiin 
people have assimilated Salyads, Turks, and Mughals, and how it was sufficient 
for a Jat tribe to retain Its political independence and organisation in order to 
be admitted into the Biloch nation ; we know how a character for sanctity and 
social excluslveness combined will in a few generations make a Quresh or a 
Saiyad ; and it is almost certain that the joint Jat-Rajput stock contains not 
a few tribes of aboriginal descent, though It Is probably in the main Aryo- 
Scythian, if Scythian be not Aryan. The Man, Her, and Bhular Jats (section 
435) are known as asl or original Jats because they claim no Rajput ancestry, 
but are supposed to be descended from the hair [jat] of the aboriginal god 
Siva; the Jats of the south-eastern districts divide themselves into two 
sections, Shivgotri or of the family of Siva, and Kasahgotri who claim connec- 
tion with the Rajputs ; and the names of the ancestor Bar of the Shivgotris 
and of his son Barbara are the very words which the ancient Brahmans give 
us as the marks of the barbarian aborigines. Many of the Jat tribes of the 
Panjab have customs which apparently point to non-Aryan origin, and a rich 
and almost virgin field for investigation Is here open to the ethnologist. 

422. Are the Jats and Rajputs distinct ? — But whether Jats and Rajputs 
were or were not originally distinct, and whatever aboriginal elements may 
have been affiliated to their society, I think that the two now form a common 
sto3k, the distinction between Jat and Rajput being social rather than ethnic. 
I believe that those families of that common stock whom the tide of fortune 
has raised to political importance have become Rajputs almost by mere virtue 
of their rise ; and that their descendants have retained the title and its priv- 
ileges on the condition, strictly enforced, of observing the rules by which the 
higher are distinguished from the lower castes in the Hindu scale of prece- 
dence ; of preserving their jDurity of blood by refusing to marry with families 
of inferior social rank, of rigidly abstaining from widow marriage, and of 
refraining from degrading occupations. Those who tr-ansgresscd these rules 
have fallen from their liigli position and ceased to be Rajputs ; while such 
families as, attaining a dominant position in their territory, began to affect 
social excluslveness and to observe the rules, have Ijccome not only Rajas, but 
also Rajputs or "sons of Rajas.'' ■* For the last seven centuries the process of 
elevation at least has been almost at a stand-still. Under the Dehli Emperors 
king-making was practically impossible. Under the Sikhs the Rajput was 
overshadowed by the Jat, who resented his assumption of superiority and his 
refusal to join him on equal terms in the ranks of the Khalsa, deliberately per- 
secuted him wherever and whenever he had tlie power, and prefeired his title 
of Jat Sikh to that of the j)roudest Rajput. On the frontier the dominance of 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. lOl 

Pathans and Bilochcs and the general prevalence of Maliomedan feelings and 
ideas placed recent Iiidian origin at a discount, and led the leading families 
who belonged to neither of these two races to claim connection, not with the 
Kshatriyas of the Sanskrit classics, but witli the Mughal conquerors of India 
or the aureslii cousins of the Prophet ; insomuch that even admittedly llajput 
tribes of famous ancestry, such as (lie Kliokhar, have begun to follow the 
example. ^ But in the hills, where llajput dynasties with genealogies perhaps 
more ancient antl unbroken than can be sliown Ijy any other royal families in 
[P. 221] the world retained their iudependenco till yesterday, and where many of them 
still enjoy as great social authority as ever, the twin in'ocesses of degradation 
from and elevation to Rajput rank are still to be seen in operation. The Raja 
is tliere tlie fountain not only of honour but also of caste, which is the same 
thing in India. Mr. Lyall writes : — 

" Till lately the limits of ca-^tc do not seem to have boon so immutably fixed in the hills as in 
" the plains. The Ilaja wa-s the fountain of honour, and could do mucli as he liked. I have lieard 
" old men quote instances within their memory in which a Raja promoted a (jirth to be a llathi, 
"and a Thakar to l)e a llajput, for service done or money given ; and at the present day the power 
" of admitting l)ack into caste fellowship persons put under a ban for some grave act of defilement, 
" is a source of income to the Jagirdar Kajas. 

" I believe that Mr. Campbell, the present Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, has asserted that 
" there is no such thing as a distinct Rajput stock; that in former times before caste distinctions 
" had become crystallized, any tribe or family whose ancestor or head rose to royal rank became 
" in time Rajput. Tliis is certainly the conclusion to whicli many facts point with regard to the 
" Rajputs of these hills. Two of the old royal and u.)w essentially Rajput families of this district, 
" viz., Kotlebr and Bangahal, are said to bo Brahmin by original stock. Mr. Barnes says that in 
" Kangra the son of a Rajput by a low-caste woman takes place as a Rathi : in Seortij and other 
" places in the interior of the hills I have met families calling themselves Rajputs, and growing 
" into general acceptance as Rajputs, in their own country at least, whose only claim to the title 
" was tliat their fatlier or grandfather was the offspring of a Kanetni by a foreign Brahmin, On 
"the border lino in the Himalayas, between Tliibct and India proper, any one can observe caste 
" growing before his eyes ; the noble is changing into a Rajput, the priest into a Brahmin, the 
" peasant into a Jat, and so on down to tlie bottom of tlie scale. The same xn-ocess was, I believe, 
" more or less in force in Kangra proper down to a period not very remote from to-day." 

423. The reverse process of degradation from Rajput to lower rank 
is too common to reqiiire proof of its existence, which will be found if needed, 
together with further instances of elevation, in the section which treats of the 
Rajputs and kindred castes. In the eastern districts, where Brahminism is 
stronger than in any other part of the Panjab and Dehli too near to allow of 
families rising to j)olitical independence, it is probable that no elevation to the 
rank of Rajput has taken place within recent times. But many Rajput 
families have ceased to be Rajputs. Setting aside the general tradition of the 
Panjab Jats to the effect that their ancestors were Rajputs who married Jats 
or began to practise widow-marriage, we have the Gaurwa Rajputs of Gur- 
gaon and Dehli, who have indeed retained the title of Rajput because the 
caste feeling is too strong in those parts and the change in their customs too 
recent for it yet to have died out, but who have, for all purposes of equality, 
communion, or intermarriage, ceased to be R;ijputs since they took to the 
practice of karewa ; we have the Sahnsars of Hushyarpur who were Rajputs 
within the last two or three generations, but have ceased to be so because they 
grow vegt.'tables like the Arain ; in Karnal we have Rajputs who within 
the living generation have ceased to be Rajputs and become Shekhs, 
because poverty and loss of land forced them to weaving as an occu- 
pation ; while the Dehli Chauhan, within the shadow of the city where their 
ancestors once ruled and led the Indian armies in theh* last struggle with the 
Musalman invaders, have lost their caste by yielding to the tem^jtations of 



102 PAiSTJAB CASTES. 

Jcarewa. lu the Sikh tract, as I have said, the Jat is content to be a Jat, and 
has never since the rise of Sikh power wished to be anything else. In the 
Western Plains the freedom of marriage allowed by Islam has superseded caste 
restrictions, and social rank is measured by the tribe rather than by the larger 
unit of caste. But even there, families who were a few generations ago reputed 
Jats have now risen by social exclusiveness to be recognised as Rajputs, and 
families who were lately known as Rajputs have sunk till they are now classed 
with Jats ; while the great ruling tribes, the Sial, the Gondal, the Tiwana are 
commonly spoken of as Rajputs, and their smaller brethren as Jats. The same 
tribe even is Rajput in one distnct and Jat in another, according to its position 
among the local tribes. In the Salt-range Tract the dominant tribes, the Janjua, 
Manhas and the like, are Rajputs when they are not Mughals or Arabs : w^hile 
all agricultural tribes of Indian origin who cannot establish their title to Rajput 
rank are Jats. Finally, on the frontier the Pathau and Biloch have oversha- 
dowed Jat and Rajput alike ; and Bhatti, Pnnwar, Tunwar, all the proudest 
tribes of Rajputana are included in the name and have sunk to the level of 
Jat, for there can be no Rajputs where there are no Rajas or traditions of 
Rajas. I know that the views herein set forth will be held heretical and 
profane by many, and that they ought to be supported by a greater wealth of 
instance than I have produced in the following pages. But I have no time to 
marshal my facts ; I have indeed no time to record more than a small propor- 
tion of them ; and all I can now attemj)t is to state the conclusion to which 
my enquiries have led me, and to hope to deal with the subject in more detail 
on some future occasion. 

424. The position of the Jat in the Punjab. — The Jat is in every respect 
the most important of the Panjab peoples. In point of numbers he sur- 
passes the Rajput who comes next to him in the proportion of nearly three to 
one ; while the two together constitute 27 per cent, of the whole population of 
the Province. Politically he ruled the Panjab till the Khalsa yielded to our 
arms. Ethnologically he is the peculiar and most prominent product of the 
plains of the five rivers. And from an a3Conomical and administrative point of 
view he is the husbandman, the peasant, the revenue-payer par excellence of 
the Province. His manners do not bear the impress of generations of wild 
freedom which marks the races of our frontier mountains. But he is more 
honest, more industrious, more sturdy, and no less manly than they. Sturdy 
independence indeed and patient vigorous labour are his strongest characteris- 
tics. The Jat is of all Panjab races the most impatient of tribal or communal 
control, and the one which asserts the freedom of the individual most strongly. 
In tracts where, as in Rohtak, the Jat tribes have the field to themselves, and 
are compelled, in default of rival castes as enemies, to fall back upon each 
other for somebody to quarrel with, the tribal ties are strong. But as a rule a 
Jat is a man who does what seems right in his own eyes and sometimes what 
seems wrong also, and will not be said nay by any man. I do not mean 
however that he is turbulent : as a rule he is very far from being so. He is 
independent and he is self-willed ; but he is reasonaldc, peaceably inclined if 
left alone, and not difficult to manage. He is usually content to cultivate his 
fields and pay his revenue in peace and quietness if people will let him do go ; 
though when he does go wrong he " takes to anything from gambling to 
" mui'der, with perhaps a preference for stealing other people's wives and cattle.^' 
As usual the proverbial wisdom of the villages describes him very fairly, 
though perhaps somewhat too severely : " The soil, fodder, clothes^ hemji, 



J AT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 103 

" ^rass fil)re, ami silk, those six are best beaten ; and the seventh is tiie Jat/^ 
^' A Jat, a Rhat, a caterpillar, and a widow woman ; these four are best 
{.P. 222] ff ]iunyry. If they eattlieir fill they do harm." " The Jat, like a wound, is better 
'' when bound/^ In agriculture the Jat is pre-eminent. The market-gardening 
castes, the Aram, the Mali, the Saini, are perhaps more skilful cultivators on 
a small scale ; but they cannot rival the Jat as landowners and yeoman cul- 
tivators. The Jat calls himself zaminddr or '^'^ husbandman " as often as Jat, 
and his women and children alike work with him in the fields : " The Jat's 
'' bal)y has a plough handle for a plaything.'" " The Jat stood on his corn 
" heap and said to the king's elephant-drivers — ' Will you sell those little 
'' ' donkeys V " Socially, the Jat occupies a position which is shared by the Ror, 
the Gujar, and the Ahir, all four eating and smoking together. He is of 
course far below the Rajput, from the simple fact that he jjractises widow- 
marriage. The Jat father is made to say, in the rhyming proverbs of the 
country side — " Come my daughter and be married ; if this husband dies there 
" are plenty more." But among the widow-marrying castes he stands first. 
The Banya with his sacred thread, his strict Hinduism, and his twice-born 
standing, looks down on the Jat as a Sudra. But the Jat looks down upon 
the Banya as a cowardly spiritless money-grubber, and society in general 
agrees with the Jat. The Khatri, who is far superior to the Banya in 
manliness and vigour, probably takes precedence of the Jat. But among the 
races or tribes of purely Hindu origin, I think that the Jat stands next after 
the Brahman, the Rajput, and the Khatri. 

There are, however, Jats and Jats. I shall briefly describe each class in 
the remarks prefixed to the various sections under which I discuss the Jat 
tribes ; and 1 shall here do nothing more than briefly indicate the broad 
distinctions. The Jat of the Sikh tracts is of course the typical Jat of the 
Panjab, and he it is whom I have described above. The Jat of the south- 
eastern districts differs little from him save in religion ; though on the Bikaner 
border the puny Bagri Jat, immigrant from his rainless jirairies where he has 
been held in bondage for centuries, and ignorant of cultivation save in its 
rudest form, contrasts strongly with the stalwart and independent husbandman 
of the Malwa. On the Lower Indus the word Jat is applied generically to a 
congeries of tribes, Jats proper, Rajputs, lower castes, and mongrels, who have 
no i^oints in common save their Mahomedan religion, their agricultural occu- 
pation, and their subordinate position. In the great western grazing grounds 
it is, as I have said, impossible to draw any sure line between Jat and Rajput, 
the latter term being commonly applied to those tribes who have attained 
political supremacy, while the people whom they have subdued or driven by 
dispossession of their territory to live a semi-noinad life in the central steppes 
are more often classed as Jats ; and the state of things in the Salt-range 
Tract is very similar. Indeed the word Jat is the Panjabi term for a 
grazier or herdsman ; though ]\lr. 0''Brien says that in Jatki, Jat the cultiva- 
tor is spelt with a hard, and Jat the herdsman or camel grazier with a soft f. 
Thus the word Jat in Rohtak or Amritsar means a great deal ; in Muzaffar- 
garh or Bannu it means nothing at all, or rather perhaps it means a great deal 
more than any single word can afford to mean if it is to be of any practical 
use; and the two classes respectively indicated by the term in these two parts 
of the Province must not be too readily confounded. 

425. The nature and m3aning of the flgures.— Such being the si ate of things, it may be 
imagined that our figures do not always convey any very definite meaning. The 160,000 Jats of 
Derah Ghazi Khan include 5,000 ilalis, 2,000 Julahas, 3,000 Tarkhiins, 4,500 Kutiinas, 4,'iOO 



i(u Panjab castes. 

Mallalis, 7,^)00 Moclii*, 2,700 Machbi<, and so forth. In no other district does this confusion 
prevail to anything like so great an extent ; but it does ijrcvail in a smaller degree throughout 
the south-western districts; and till the detailed clan tables are complete it will be impossible to 
separate these incongruous items, or to lind out with exactness wliat our figures do and what they 
do not include. Tiie coni'usion is not wholly due to the entries in the schedules. ( )n the LoAver 
Indus and Clianab tlie entries in the caste column were numbered liy thousands, tribe i)eing there 
the recognized unit rather than the more compreliensive caste ; and it was al)solutely necessary to 
allow the staff of the divisional otHees, all picl;ed men drawn from tlie very district with the 
figures of which they were dealing, sonic discretion in classifying these entries under larger heads. 
Thus in .Ihang the Sial will ha\e been rightly classed as liajputs, while in Derah Ghazithey will, 
with ei^ual correctness ^o far as local usage is concerned, have been very probably da-sed as Jats. 
Thus our tigures are far from complete j but I have douc my best to indicate in the following 
paragraphs the uncertainties and errors in classilication as far as I could detect them. 1 had 
indeed hoped to treat the subject more fully, and especially more systematically than I have done. 
I had intended to attempt some sort of grouping of the great J at tribes on the basis of their 
ethnic affinities, somewhat similar to that which 1 have attempted for the Pathans. But I was not 
allowed the time necessary for such an undertaking ; and I ha\e tlierei'ore roughly grouped tlio 
tribes by locality so far as my figures served to indicate it, and liurrieJly stated the leading facts 
of which 1 was in possession regarding each, leaving any more elaborate treatuunt for a future 
occasion. The tigures for tribes are, as already explained in section 369, nece-sarily imperfect, and 
must only be taken as approximations. 

426. Distribution of the Jats. — Beyond the Panjab, Jats are cliiefly found 
in Sindh where they form the mass of the ])opulationj in Bikaner, Jaisalmer, 
and Marwar, where they probably equal in numbers all the Rajput races jmt 
too'ether; and along the upper valleys of the Ganges and Jamna from Barelij 
Farrtikhabad; and Grwalior upwards. Within the Province their distribution 
is shown in Abstract No. 71 on page 219.'^ They are especially numerous in «p gy.g 
the central Sikh districts and States, in the south-eastern districts, and in the 
Derajat. Under and among the hills and in the Rawalpindi division Rajputs 
take their place, while on the frontier both upper and lower, they are almost 
wholly conhned to the cis-Indus tracts and the immediate Indus riverain on 
both sides of the stream. The Jats of the Indus are probably still in the 
country which they have occupied ever since their first entry into India, 
though they have been driven back from the foot of the SulcmAns on to the 
river by the advance of the Pathan and the Biloch. The Jats of the Western 
Plains have almost without exception come up the river valleys from Sindh 
or Western Riijputana. The Jats of the western and central sub-montane 
have also in part come by the same route ; but some of them retain a tradi- 
tional connection with Ghazni, which perhaps refers to the ancient Gajnipur, 
the site of the modern Rawalpindi, while many of them trace their origin 
from the Jammu Hills. 

The Jats of the Central and Eastern Panjiilj have also in many cases 
come up the Satluj valley ; but many of them have moved from Bikaner 
straight into the Alalwa, while the great central plains of the jMiilwa itself 
are probaljly the original home of many of the Jal. tribes of the Sikh tract. 
The Jats of the south-eastern districts and the Jamna zone have for the most 
part worked up the Jamna valley from the direction of Bhartpur, with which 
some of them still retain a . traditional connection; tliough some few have 
moved in eastwards from Bikancr and the JNIalwa. The Bliartpur Jats are 
themselves said to be immigrants who left the banks of the Indus in the time 
of Aurangzeb. Whether the Jats of the great plains are really as late immi- 
grants as they represent, or ^vhether their story is merely founded upon a wish 
to show recent connection with the country of the Rajputs, I cannot say. The [?• 2i23] 
whole question is one on which we are exceedingly ignorant, and which would 
richly repay detailed investigation. 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 105 

427. Jats of the Western Plains. — First of all then let us purge our 
tables of that nondescript class known as Jats on the Indus^ and, to a less 
extent, in the lower valleys of the Satluj, C'hanal), and Jahlam, and in 
the Salt-range Tract. Mv. 0''13rien writes as follows of the Jats of Muzaffar- 
garh : — 

" In tlii^ clI-;tTict the word Jat luchulcs that congeries of Muhanimadan tril)C3 which are 
" not Saiyads, Bilochcs, Piitliaus or Quroshis. According to tliis de(hiition .Jatti would include 
" Kajpiit^. This 1 believe is correct. The . I at>; have always been rocnutcd from the IJajinlts. 
" There is not a Jat in the dislrict who has any knowledge, real or fancied, of his ancestors that 
"would uot say that he wa-; once a Rajput. Certaiu Jat tribes have nances and traditions which 
" seem to connect thorn more closely with Hindustan. Some bear the Rajput title of llai, and 
" others, though Muhammadans, associate a Brahmin with the Mulla at marriage ceremonies, while 
" Piinwars, Parihars, Bhattis, .Toyas, and others bear the names of well-known tribes of KajiiLitana. 
"The fact is that it is impossible to define between Jats and Musalman Rajputs. And the 
"dilUcidty is rendered greater by the word .Tat also meaning an agriculturist irrespective of his 
"race, and Jataki agriculture. In conversation about agriculture I have been refei'redto a Saiyad 
" Zaildar with the remark— Ask Auwar Shah ; he is a better Jat than we are. 

" The Jat tribes arc exceedingly numerous. There arc 165 in the Sananwan tahsil alone. 
" They have no large divisions embracing several small divisions. Nor do they trace their 
" origin to common stock. No tribe is pre-eminent in birth or caste. Geucrally .Tats marry into 
" their own tribe, but they have no hesitation in marrying into other tribes. They give their 
" daughters freely to Rilochcs in marriage. But the liiloches say that they do not give their 
" daughters to Jats. This is, howcvei', a Biloch story ; many instances of Jats married to Bilochcs 
" could be named." ^ 

Besides this, the word Jat, spelt Avith a soft instead of a hard i, denotes 
a eamel grazier or camel driver. " The camel cannot lift its load ; the camel- 
" man (Jat) bites its tail.'''' The fact seems to be that the Bilochcs who came 
into the districts of the lower frontier as a dominant race, contemptuoulsy 
included all cultivating tribes who were not Biloch, or of some race such as 
Saiyad or Pathan Avhom they had been accustomed to look upon as their 
equals, under the generic name of Jat, until the people themselves have lost 
the very memory of their origim It is possible that our own officers may 
have emphasized the confusion by ado])ting too readily the simple classification 
of the population as the Biloch or peculiar people on the one hand and the 
Jat or (jrcntile on the other, and tliat the so-called Jat is not so ignorant of 
his real origin as is commonly su2)2JOsed. But the fact that in this part of the 
Pan jab tribe quite over-shadows and indeed almost supersedes caste, greatly 
increases the tlifficulty. As Mr. K-oe remarks — " If you ask a Jat his caste 
" he will generally name some sub-division or clan quite unknown to fame.'''' 
However caused, the result is that in the Derajat, JNIuzaffargarh, and much of 
Multan, if not indeed still further east and north, the word Jat means little 
more than the heading " others or unspecified " under which Census officers 
are so sorely tempted to class those about whom they know little or nothing. 
A curious instance of the manner in which the word is used in these joarts is 
afforded by the result of some inquiri( s I made about the Machhi or fisherman 
caste of Derail Ghtizi Klutn. The reply sent me was that there were two 
castes, IMachhis or fishermen, and Jat Miichhis who had taken to agriculture. 
It is probable that not long hence these latter will drop the Machhi, perhaps 
forget their ]\Iachhi origin, and become Jats pure and simple ; though they 
may not improbably retain as their elan name the old Machhi clan to which 
*r. 106-they belonged, or even the word Machhi itself. I give on the next page'^" a 
list of castes which, on a rough examination of the clan tables of the Jats 
of the Multan and Derajat divisions and Bahawalpur, I detected among the 

* Among the organised Biloch tribes of the frontier, however, Biloch girls arc not given to 
Jats. 



106 



PANJAl} CASTES. 

Abstract No. 72, showing other Castes [-p. 224] 



Caste. 


0' 
S 
'3 


i 

a 

2 


a 

a 



-a 
a 

sa 

N 




■5 
i 

a 
a 

is 




Arain 

Maliar 

MaH 


255 


3S9 


2 


3,125 


2,755 


Bhatyara 

Bdzigar 

Biloch 


2 
92 


96 


'"" 31 


137 

'"145 


69 


Paoh' 

Jiilaha 

Pungar 


] 112 


529 


41 


89 


1,252 
4 


Pathan 

Tell 

Jogi 


102 
5 
1 


65 
14 


226 


90 
6 


'"" 181 


Charhoa 

Chiihra 

Khojah 


24 
34 

7 


145 

374 

38 


... 


137 

21 

440 


375 

217 
453 


Parzi 
Dhobi 
Tarkban 


28 

6 

37 


12 
257 


11 


1 
""l90 


11 
2,935 


Dum 

Rajput 

Zargar 


""" 14 
6 


117 
2 


"153 


381 


247 
25 


Shekh 

Siqligar 

Faqir 


346 
""" 67 


34 

145 


250 
■" 72 


65 
""* 13 


390 
49 


Qassab 

Qazi 

Quresbi 


12 

G 

264 


92 
270 


.. . 

171 


94 
" 35 


1,281 
22 


Kabar 

Kutana 

Kumbar 


6 
99 


12 
343 


"'} 


'""259 
243 


"2,680 
2,700 


Kaniangar 

Kalal 

Giijar 


9 

14 
10 


... 

1 


'" 14 

7 


38 
5 


36 
9 


Labana 

Lohdr 

Mujiiwar 


"" 18 


117 




"" 46 


" 1,304 


Mugbal 
Mallah 
Mirasi 


17 

77 
80 


15 
216 
482 


8 
2 
5 


""840 
95 


"2,773 

1,778 


Mocbi 

Macbhi 

Nai 


58 

104 

65 


415 
332 

208 


17 
11 


178 

1,013 

95 


3,916 
3,465 

1,462 



JAT, IIAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 
returned as Jats in Multan and the Derajat. 



107 



a 


:3 
a 
a 


(3 . 

« 


OS 


H 


H 
R 

« 



Caste. 


5,008 


287 


11,821 


... 


11,821 


("A rain. 
i Maliilr. 
(.Mall. 




679 




885 

2 

364 




885 

2 

364 


Bbatyara. 

Bazigar. 

Biloch. 




1,947 


273 


4,243 




4,243 


f Paoll. 
.Jill aba. 




35 




89 




39 


Pungar. 




62 
68 


4 
3 


549 

277 

1 


4 

85 


549 

281 

86 


Patban. 

Tell. 

Jogf. 




1,4S4 

820 

1,755 


111 
67 
34 


2,276 
1,533 
2,727 


... 


2,276 
1,533 
2,727 


Charboa. 

Chubra. 

Kbojah. 




95 
3,062 


"238 


29 

124 
6,730 




29 

124 

6,730 


Darzi. 
Dbobi. 
Tarkbaii. 




13 


13 


260 

690 

21 




260 

690 

21 


Dum 

Eajput. 
Zargar. 




937 


205 


2,227 

49 

297 


"'242 


2,227 

49 

539 


Sbckb. 

Slqligar. 

Faqir, 




1,083 
106 


98 

14 


2,660 
6 

882 




2,660 
6 

882 


Qassab. 

Qazi. 

Qurcsbi. 




"4,539 

1,837 


"119 
125 


7,626 
5,354 


3 


3 

7,626 
5,354 


Kabar. 

Kiitaiia. 

Kumbar. 




40 
13 


... 


123 
55 

18 


... 


123 
55 
18 


Kaniaugar. 

Kalal. 

Gujar. 




""' 638 


""2O8 


"2,331 


4,317 
"401 


4,317 

2,331 

401 


Labana. 

Lobar. 

Mujawar. 




"4,451 
1,212 


"'627 
67 


40 
8,986 
3,219 


361 


401 
8,986 
3,219 


Miigbal. 
Mallah. 
Mirasi. 




7,389 
2,733 
1,431 


320 
180 
123 


12,293 

7,838 
3,384 


865 
241 


13,158 
8,079 
3,384 


Mochi. 

Macbbi. 

Nai. 





108 PAN JAB CASTES. 

sub-divisions of the .Tats of those parts. Jat being essentially a word used 
for agncultni'isls only, it is more probable that a man who returns himself as 
Jat by caste and Bhatyara by tribe or clan should be a Bhatyara who has 
taken to agricultui-e, than that he should be a Jat who has taken to keeping 
a cook-sliop ; and tlie men shown below would probably haye been more pro- 
perly returned under the rcspectiye castes opposite which their numbers are 
given, than as Jats. A more careful examination of the figures ^vould probably 
have increased the num])ers ; and tlie detailed clan tables will give us much 
information on the subject. 

428. Fm-ther to the north and east, away from the Biloch territory, the 
difficulty is of a somewhat different nature. There, as already explained, the 
tribes are commonly known by their tribal names rather than by the name 
of the caste to which they belong or belonged ; and the result is that claims to 
Rajput, or now-a-days not unseldom to Arab or Mughal origin, are generally 
set up. The tribes who claim to be Arab or Mughal will be discussed either 
under their proper head or under Shekhs and Mughals. But the line between 
Jats and Rajputs is a difficult one to draw, and I have been obliged to decide 
the question in a rough and arbitrary manner. Thus the Sial are admittedly 
of pure Rajput origin, and I have classed them as Rajputs as they are coni' 
monly recognized as such by their neighbours. The Sumra are probably of 
no less pure Rajput extraction, but they are commonly known as Jats, and 
I have discussed them under that head. But in either case I shall show the 
Sial or Sumra who have returned themselves as Jats side by side with those 
who have returned themselves as Rajputs, so that the figures may be as com- 
plete as possible. As a fact these people are generally known as Sial and 
Sumra rather than as Jats or Rajputs ; and the inclusion of them under either 
of the latter headings is a classification based upon generally reputed origin or 
standing, rather than upon any current and usual designation. Mr. Purser 
thus expresses the matter as he found it in Montgomery : — 

" There is a wonderful uniformity about the traditions of the different tribes. The ancestor of 
" each tribe was, as a rule, a Eajpiit of the Solar or Lunar race, and resided at Hastinapur or Dara- 
" nagar. He scornfully rejected t,hc proposals of tlie Dehli Emperor for a matrimonial alliance 
" between the two families, and had then to fly to Sirsa or Bhatiier, or some other plate in tliat 
" neighboui'hood. Xext he came to the Ravi and was converted to Islam by Makhddm Baha-ul- 
" Haqq, or Baba Farid. Then, being a stout-hearted man, he joined the Kharrals in their maraud- 
" ing expeditions, and so his descendants became Jats. In Kamar Singh's time tliey took to agricul- 
" ture and abandoned robbery a little; and now under the English Government they have quite given 
" up their evil ways, and are honest and well disposed." 

Mr. Steed man writing from J hang says : — 
" There are in this district a lot of tribes engaged in agriculture or cattle-grazing who have 
" no very clear idea of their origin but are certainly converted Hindus. Many are recognized 
" Jats, and more belong to an enormous variety of tribes, but are called by the one comprehensive 
" term Jat. Ethnologically I am not sure of my ground ; but for practical convenience in this 
" part of the world, 1 would class as Jats all Muhammadans whose ancestors were converted from 
" Hiudusim and who are now engaged in, or derive their maiTitenuuce from, tlic cultivation of land 
" or the pasturing of cattle." 

The last words of this sentence convey an important distinction. The 
Jat of the Indus and Lower Chauab is essentially a husbandman. But in the 
great central grazing grounds of the Western Plains he is often pastoral rather 
than agricultural, looking upon cultivation as an inferior occupation which 
ne leaves to Arains, Mahtams, and such like people. 

On the Upper Indus the word Jat, or Ilindki which is perhaps more 
often used, is applied in scarcely a less iudefinite sense than in the Desajat ; 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 109 

while in the Salt-range Tract the meaning is but little more precise. Beyond 
the Indus, Jat or Ilindki includes both Rajputs and Awjins, and indeed all 
who talk Panjabi rather than Paslito. In the Salt-range Tract, however, the 
higher Riijput trij)es, such as Janjua, are carefully excluded ; and Jat means 
any Mahoniedan cultivator of Hindu origin who is not an Awan, Gakkhar, 
Pathiin, Saiyad, Qureshi, or Rajput. Even there, however, most of the Jat 
clans are returned as Rji jputs also, and the figures for them will l;e found 
further on when I discuss the Jats of the sulj-montane tracts. Major Wace 
writes : — 

'' The veal Jat cUms of the Rawalpindi division have a prejudice against the name Jat, 
"because it is usually applied to camel-drivers, and to the graziers of the bar whom they look 
" down upon as low fellows. Rut there is, I think, no douht that the principal agricultural 
" tribes wliom we cannot class as Rajputs are really of the same race as the Jats of the Lower 
" Panjab." 

The Jat in these parts of the country is naturally looked upon as of 
inferior race, and the position he occupies is very different from that which 
he holds in the centre and east of the Panjab. Mr. O'Brien gives at page 
78 of his Multdni Glossary a collection of the most pungent proverbs on the 
subject, of which I can only quote one or two : — " Though the Jat grows 
'' refined, he will still use a mat for a pocket-handkerchief.^^ " An ordinary 
" man's ribs would break at the laugh of a Jat.'^ " When the Jat is pros- 
" perous he shuts up the path (by ploughing it up) : when the Kirar (money- 
" lender) is prosperous he shuts up the Jat.''' " A Jat like a wound is better 
"Avhen bound.'' " Though a Jat be made of gold, still his hinder parts are of 
" brass." '' The Jat is such a fool that only God can take care of him." 

The Pathjin proverbs are even less complimentary. '' If a Hindki 
" cannot do you any harm, he will leave a bad smell as he passes you." 
" Get round a Pathan by coaxing ; but heave a clod at a Hindki." " Though 
[P. 225] " a Hindki be your right arm, cut it off." '' Kill a black Jat ralher than 
a black snake." The Jat of Derah Ghazi is described as " lazy, dirty, and 
ignorant." 

<tp 1 ,p 429. Jat tribes of the Western Plains.— Abstract No. 73 on the next page* give.-, the principal 

,", Jat tribes of the Western Plains ; that is to say west of Lahore, excluding the trans-Salt-range 

and the sub-montane tracts. The tiibes may be divided into three groups; the Tahi'm Bhutta, 
Langah, Chbina, and Siimra lie chiefly westwards of the valley of the Jahlam-Cliauab ; the 
Chhadhar and Sipra lie to the east of that line ; while the Bhatti, Sial, Punwar, Joya, Dhiidhi, 
Khichi, and Wuttu are Rajputs rather than Jats, and will be discussed when I come to the 
Bajpiits of the Western Plains. It must be remembered that these figures are very imperfect, as 
they merely give the numbers who have returned their tribe as one of those shown in the abstract, 
and do not include those who have returned only sub-sections of those tribes. The complete 
figures cannot be obtained till the detailed clan tables are ready. The double columns under 
Bhutta, Langah, «umra, Chhadhar and Dhiidhi show the numbers who have returned themselves 
as belonging to these tribes, but as being by caste Jat and Rajput respectively. 

The Tallim (No. 1).— The Tahim claim Arab origin, and to be descended from an Au>ari 
Qui-esh called Tamim. They formerly held much property in the Chiniot taJisil of Jhang, and 
thei'e were Talu'm Govrrnors of those parts under the Dehli Emperors. It is said that the Awaus 
have a Tahi'm clan. The Tahim are not wholly agriculturists, and are Faid not unfrequently to 
work as butchers and cotton scutchers ; or it may be merely that the butchers and cotton 
scutchers have a Tahi'm clan called after the tribe. They are, as far as our figures go, almost 
confined to Bahawalpur and the lower Indus and Chenc4b in Multan, Muzaffargarh, and Derah 
Ghazi Khan. The Multan Tahi'm say that their more immediate ancestor Sambhal Shah came to 
that place some 700 years ago on a marauding expedition, and ruled at Multan for 40 years, after 
which he was killed and his followers scattered. In bis invasion of India during the latter part 
of the 14th century, Taimur encountered his old foes " the Gtta; (Jats), who inhabited the plains 
« of Tahim," and pursued them into the desert ; and Tod mentions au extinct Rajpiit tribe which 
be calls Dahima, 



110 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Astract No. 73, showing the J at [^- ^261 



Ladhiaiia 



Jalandbar 
HuBhydrpur 



Amritsar 

Gurdaspur 

Sialkot 



Lahore 

Gujranwala 

Firozpui' 



Eawalpiiidi 
Jhelam 
Gujrat 
Shahpur 



Multan 
Jhang 
Montgomery 
Muzafl'argarh 



Derail ISTiiiil Khan 
Derah Ghazi Khan 
Bannu 



British Terri- 
tory. 



Patiala 



Total East. Plains 



Bahawalpnr 



British Terri- 

tory. 
Native Staten.. 
Province 



JATS- WESTERN 



69 



98 

345 

38 



4 

321 

5 

93 



2,821 
640 
894 

1,696 



765 

2,229 

72 



9,598 



13,862 



9,598 

13,862 
23,460 



Bhutta. 



36 



20 

'655 



73 

311 

42 



6 

1,364 

233 

2,670 



1,612 

192 

4,366 



1,014 

3,162 

2 



20,431 



063 



757 



1,361 



20,431 

2,108 
22,539 



9 
691 



241 

' 08 



159 
" 57 



11 
'l62 



169 

3,231 

20 

3 



4,891 



194 



194 



4,891 

194 
5,085 



Langih. 



17 
'l69 



234 
6 



479 

31 

294 

401 



2,190 
341 
177 

1,144 



778 

2,305 

410 



9,083 



9,083 

69 
9,142 



91 

936 

1 



196 
' 25 



464 

284 

2 

20 



96 

41 

174 
1 



2,848 



2,348 

1 

2,849 



2,205 

82 

66 

207 



2,492 



2,310 



560 



4.411 



2,550 10,196 



2,650 
2,650 



10,196 
10il96 



Suinra. 



847 



1,633 
659 



1,249 
52 



205 
625 

882 



1 

'" 30 

2,214 
'i",509 



951 

887 



12,558 



12,558 
12,558 



218 

1,664 
2,101 

ai8 

2,101 
2,819 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 
Tribes of the Western Plains. 



Ill 



_ 

PLAINS. 




6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 




ChhSdhar. 


P. 


.a 

P5 


5 


ei 

1-5 


IS 


2 
2 







>-5 


'■3 




... 






1,004 


5 


10 




8 






Ludhiaiia. 


489 




345 
196 


367 
43 


31 
333 


87 




348 


'.'.. 


z 


Jalandhar. 
Hushyiirpur. 


1,646 
232 
720 




38 
"568 


205 

5 

3,677 


221 
137 
719 


653 

2,387 

117 


"205 


■■■99 


"*13 


... 


Amritsar, 

Gurdaspur. 

Sialkot. 


2,600 

5,537 

347 


4 
333 


14 

1,119 

131 


10,287 

7,722 

690 


1,243 
433 

285 


311 

538 
716 


390 
995 
782 


710 
561 
264 


518 

432 

36 


739 
312 
704 


Lahore. 

Gujranwala. 

Firo2pur. 


5 

1,805 

291 

1,672 


"'l31 

1^877 


5 

156 

1,388 

1,794 


2,056 

6,241 

9,926 

396 


141 

256 

1,091 

71 


814 

524 

145 

71 


49 

'"54 
616 


27 

733 

1,524 

426 


""74 
""57 


'" 7 
"43 


Eawalpiudi. 
Jhelam. 
Gujrat. 
Shahpur. 


1,287 
3,272 
3,076 
1,537 


638 

13,390 

61 


451 

6,185 

747 

11 


9,682 

2,874 
3,528 
6,988 


560 

437 

1,202 

2,453 


2,563 
284 
726 

1,561 


473 
1,533 
2,165 
1,333 


1,875 

1,578 

1,349 

505 


64 
483 
373 

44 


"107 
4S4 
110 


Multau. 
Jhang. 
Moiitgomcrj'. 
Muzaffargarh. 


1,359 

388 
110 


1 


73 
171 

70 


13,767 

12,971 

1,067 


4.648 

2,536 

189 


1,317 

1,919 

405 


1,788 

1,421 

479 


605 
66 
136 


877 
355 


167 

13 

283 


Derail Ism&il Khan 
Dcrah Ghazi Khan. 
Bannu. 


26,387 


16,435 


12,563 


94,665 

687 


17,093 


16,959 

864 


12,338 


12,315 

502 


8,837 


2,963 


British Terri. 
tory. 

Patiala. 


17 




6 


619 


273 


887 


... 


699 




241 


Total East.Plains. 




1,311 


... 


669 




... 




470 


254 


8 


Bahawalpur. 


26,887 


16,435 


12,663 


94,665 


17,093 


16,959 


12,338 


12,315 


8,837 


2,963 


British Terri- 
tory. 
Native States. 
Province. 


17 

28,404 


1,311 

17,746 


6 
12,569 


1,193 
96,858 


278 
17,366 


887 
17,846 


12^338 


1,087 
13,402 


254 
8,591 


244 
8,207 



112 PANJAB CASTES. 

The Bhatta (No. 2).— The Blmtta are said by Tsh: O'Brien to have traditious connecting them 
with Hiiulu-;taii. and thev chiim to le descended from Solar Rajputs. But since the rise to 
opulence and importance of Pirzadah ]\Iurad Bakhsh Bhutta, of Multan, many of tlicm have 
taken to calling themselves Fi'rzadahs. One account is that they are emigrant^ from Blmtan— 
a story I fear too ohvionsly suggested hy the name. They also often ijractise other crafts, such 
as r«aking potterv or weaving, instead of or in addition to agriculture. They are said to have held 
Uchh (in Bahawalpur) hefore the Saiyads came there. They are, according to our figures, 
chiefly found on the lower Indus, Chenah and Jahlam, in Shahpur, Jliang, INIultan, Muzaffargarh, 
and Derah Ghazi Khan. In Jhang most of them have returned themselves as Bajputs. The 
Bhutta shown scattered over the Eastern Plains are perhaps mcmhcrs of the small Bhutna or 
Bhutra clan of Malwa Jats. (See also Buttar, section 436, and Biita, section 438). 

The Langah (No. 3).— Mr. O'Brien thus describes the Langah : — " A tribe of agriculturists 
" in the Multvn and :Muzaffargarh districts. They were originally an Afghan tril-e who came to 
" Multan from Sivi and Dhiidhar for purposes of trade, and eventually settled at Rapri and the 
"neighbourhood. In the confusion that followed the invasion of Tamerlane Multan became 
" independent of the throne of Dchli, and the inhabitants chose Slieikh Yusaf, Kurcshi, head of 
"the shrine of Sheikh Bahauddin, as Governor. In 1445 A.D., Rai Sahra, Chief of the Langahs, 
" whose daughter had been married to Sheikh Yusaf, iutrrduced an armed band of his tribesmen 
*' into the city hy night, seized Sheikh Yusaf and sent him to Delhi, and proclaimed himself king 

" with the title Sultan Kutabuddin. The kings 
" of Multan belonging to the Langah tribe are 
" shown in the margin. 



Sultan Kutabaddin 1445 to 1460. 
Sultan Hussain ... 1460 (extent of reign not 
known ). 

c^'u'" St ^^^^ ] Diites not known. 
Sultan Mahmud > 

Sultan Husaiu ... 1518 to 1526. 



" The r ynasly terminated with the capture 
" of Multan, after a siege of more than a year 
" by Shah Hasan Arghnn, Governor of Sindh, in 
" 1526. For ten days the city was given up to 
''plunder and mas acre, and most of the Langahs were slain. Siiltan Husain was made prisoner 
''and died shortly after. The LangAh dynasty ruled Multan for eighty years, durii>g which time 
'' Biloches succeeded in establishing themselves along the Indus from Sitpur to Kot Karor. The 
•' Laugahi of Multan and Muzaffargarh are now very insignificant cultivators.'' 

Farishtah is apparently the authority for their Afghan origin, which is doubtful to say the 
least. Pirzadah Murad Bakhsh Bhutta of Multan says that the Bhutta, Langah, Khnrral, Harral, 
and Lak are all Punwar Rajputs by origin. But the Lansah are described by Tod as a clan of the 
Chaluk or Solani tribe of Agnikula Rajpiits, who inhabited Multan and Jaisalmer and were 
driven out of the latter by the Bhatti at least 700 years ago. According to our figures thr Panjab 
Langah are almost confined to the lower Indus and Chanab. Unfoitunately we dasstd 2,550 
Langah who had returned their caste as Langah, under Patluins. I have added the figures in 
Abstract No. 73. 

The Chhina (No. 4). — These I take to be distinct from the Chima Jat^ of Sialkot and Giij- 
ranwala, though the two have certainly been confused in our tables. That there are Chln'na in 
Sialkot appears from the fact that the town of Jamki in that di>trict was founded by a Chhiua 
J at who came from Sindh and retained the title of Jam, the Sindhi equivalent for Chaudhri. Yet 
if the Chhina spread up the Chanab into Sialkot and the neighbouring districts in suibh large 
numbers as are shown for Chima in those districts, it is curious that they should not be fouAd in the 
intermediate districts through which they must have passed. It is ]n'oi)nble tliat the Chliina here 
shown for Giu'daspur, and perhaps those for Firozpur also, should go with the Chima who are 
described in section 432 among the .Tat tribes of the sub-montane tract. These latter seem to trace 
their origin from Dehli. The Chhina of Derail Ismail Khan are chiefly found in the cis-Iudus 
portion of the district. 

430. Jat tribes of the Western Plains continued. The Sumra(No. 5.^— Mr. O'Brien 
describes the Siimra as originally Rajpiits : — " In A. D. 750 tlicy expelled tlie I'v.-l Arab invaders 
" from Sindh and Multan, and furnished the country with a dynasty wliich ruled in Mult.-in from 
" 1445 to 1526 A.D., when it was expelled by the Sanima, anoHier Rajput tribe;" and Tod 
describes them as ene of the two great clans Umra and Siinira of tic Soda tribe of Punwar Rajputs, 
who in remote limes held all the Rajputana deserts, and gave their names to Umrkot and Umra- 
sumra or the Bhakkar country on the Indus. He identifies the Soda \\ itli Alexander's Sogdi, the 
princes of Dhat. Here again the Sumra seem to have spread, accordiig to oui' figuns, far up the 
Satluj and Clianab into the central districts of the Province. Tl e figures for Derah Ismafl Khan 
are probably understated, as there Ihey hold a great portion of tlie l^iah ihal between the .Ihang 
border and the Indus. Some 2,000 of the Sumra have retm-ued themselves as Rajputs, chiefly in 
Patiala 

The Chhadhar (No. 6).— The Chhadhar are found along the whole length of the Chanab and 
Ravi valleys, but are far most numerous in Jhiiug, where they have for the most part retui-ned 
themselves as Rajputs. They claim to be descended from EajaTur, Tiiuwar. They say that they 



.TAT, PtAjrUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. U3 

left their lioinc in Rajputiiiia in iho time of ]\rn1ininmafl filiori aiitl settled in Baliawalpur, wliero 
tljey were converted by Slier Sliali oi' Uclili. Thence they came to .Jhaiip, wliere they founded an 
important cohniy and spre;\d in smaller nnmliers up tlie Clianab and Ravi. Mr. Stecdman doscrihcs 
them as good agriculturists, and less given to cattle-theft than their neighbours. 

The Sipra (No. 7)— appear to be a sub-division of the fiil tribe of .Tats, which gives its name 
to the famous battle-field of Sabraon. They too are found cliiefly ou the Jahlam and lower Chanab 
and arc most nmnerous in .Ihang. Tliey are not an important tribe. 

The Bhatti, Sial, Punwar, Joya, Dhudhl, Khichi, and Wattu will be described under Rajputs. 

The Langrial are not separately sliown ;)! the abstract. Tliey are however curious as being a 
nomad jjastoral tribe who form almost the sole inhabitants of the Multan steppes. They apjiear to 
be found also in Rawalpindi and Sialkot, and tlicre to claim Solar Rajput origin. But in Multan 
the Langriul say that their ancestor was a Hraliman Charan from Rikaner who was converted by 
Sultan Samran. They originally settled in Rawal])indi ; thence they moved to Jhang, took some 
country from the Sial, and settled at Kot Kamalia in Montgomery, whence they spread over the 
Multan lar. They derive their name from lanr/nr a " kitchen," because their ancestor used to 
keep open house to all the beggars and faqirs of the neighbourhood. 

The Nol and BhangU. — These appear to be among the earliest inhabitants of the Jhang 
district, and to be perhaps aboriginal. The Bhangu do not even claim Rajput origin ! The Nol 
held the ccmntry about Jhang and the Bhangu that about Shorkot when the Sial came to the 
district, but they eventually fell before the rising power of the new comers. The Sialkot Bhano'u 
say they came from Nepal. 

V. 227] The Kharral, Harral, and Marral.— The Kharral will be discussed separately with the smaller 

agricultural tribes. The Harral claim to be descended from the same ancestor, Rai Bhupa, as the 
Kharral, Init by another son ; and to be Punwar Rajputs who came from Jaisalmer to Uchh, and 
thence to Kamalia in the Montgomery district. Mr. Steedman says that in Jhang, where onlv thev 
are found on the left bank of the Upper Chanab, tradition makes them a branch of tlie Ahirs, and 
that they are almost the worst tliieves in the district, owning large flocks and herds which they 
pasture in tlie central steppes, and being bad cidtivators. The Marral seem to have been once of 
far greater importance than now in the Jhang district, which is their home. They claim to be 
Chauhan Rajputs by origin, and to have come to the Upper Chanab in the time of Akbar. They 
are a fine bold-looking set of men, but with a bad reputation for cattle-lifting, and are poor 
cultivators. 

The Hans, Khagga, Jhandir, &C. — These tribes will be found described under Shekli, as they 
claim Qureshi origit, though often classed as Jats. 

431. Jats of the western sub-montane. — The tribes which I shall next 
discuss arc those of the foot of the hills west of Lahore, that is, of the Gujrat, 
Gujranwala and Sijilkot districts. With them, however, I have included in 
the Abstract the so-called Jat tribes of the Salt-range Tract ; for all the 
tribes of sufficient importance to be discussed separately that have returned 
themselves from this tract as Jats, are really Rajputs rather than Jats, the 
greater number of their members have returned them.selves as such, arnd they 
will be discussed under Rajputs. Such are Dhanial, Bhakral, Janjua, and 
JNIanhas. After these came the Mekan, Gondal, and Ran j ha, who belong to 
the Salt-range sub-montane and will also bo treated as Rajputs. Then 
follow the true Jats, the Ttirar, Varaich, Chima, &c., whom I have endea- 
voured to arrange in order of locality from Avest to east. The Jats of the 
Salt-range and of the great plains below it I have already described sufficient- 
ly in the preceding sections 427-8. But directly we leave the Salt-range 
behind us and enter the Laliore and Amritsar divisions — directly, in fact, we 
come within the circle of Sikh influence as distinguished from mere j^olitical 
supremacy, we find the line between Jat and Rajput sufficiently clearly 
marked. The Jat indeed, here as elsewhere, claims for himself Rajput origin. 
But a Varaich does not say that he is now Rajput. He is a Jat and content 
to be so. The fact is that within the pale of Sikhism Rajputs were at a dis- 
count. The equality of all men preached by Guru Govind disgusted the 
haughty Rajputs, and they refused to join his standard. They soon paid the 
penalty of their pride. The Jats who composed the great mass of the Khulsa 



11* PANJAB CASTES. 

rose to absolute power, and the Rajput who had despised them was the 
peculiar object of their hatred. Their general policy led them to cut off such 
poppy heads as had not spning from their own seed ; and their personal feeling 
led them to treat the Rajput, who as a native-born leader of the people should 
have joined them, and who would if he had done so have been a very import- 
ant element of additional strength to the cause, with especial harshness. The 
old Settlement Reports are full of remarks upon the decadence if not the 
viitual disappearance of the Rajput gentry in those districts where Sikh sway 
was most absolute. Thus the Jats we are considering are far more clearly 
marked off from the Rajputs than are those of the Western Plains where 
everybody is a Jat, or of the Salt-range Tract where everybody who is not an 
Arab or a Mughal calls himself a Rajput ; indeed there is if anytliing a 
tendency here to call those Jats who are admitted to be Rajputs further west. 
Only on the edge of the group, on the common Ijorder line of the Sikh tract, 
the Salt-range, and the great plains, do the Mekan, Gondal, Ranjha, and Tarar 
claim some to be Jats and some to be Rajputs. The first two I have decided 
to describe under Rajputs, the last under Jats ; but this is more a matter of 
convenience than of ethnic classification. The Jat tribes now to be considered 
are, except perhaps on the confines of the Gujranwala bar, essentially agricul- 
tural, and occupy the same social position as do those of the Eastern Plains, 
whom indeed they resemble in all respects. 

The most extraordinary thing al)Out the group of Jat tribes found in 
Sialkot is the large numlier of customs still retained by them which are, so far 
as I know, not shared by any other people. They will be found described in 
Mr. Roe's translation of Arain Chand's Histori/ of Sidlkot, and I shall notice 
one or two of them in the following paragraphs. Nothing could be more 
instructive than an examination of the origin, practice, and limits of this 
group of customs. They would seem to point to aboriginal descent. Another 
point worthy of remark is the frequent recurrence of an ancestor Mai, which 
may perhaps connect this group of tribes with the ancient Malli of Multan. 
Some of their traditions point to Sindh ; while others are connected with the 
hills of Jammu. The whole group strikes me as being one of exceeding 
interest, and I much regret that I have no time to treat it more fully. 

432. Jat tribes of the western SUb-raontane.— The fis:ures for the tribe will be found in Ab- 
stract No. 74 on the next page.* I liavo already explaired that the first seven tribes, which belong *P. 116- 
to the Salt-range and it^ vicinity, wiU be treated as and dircussed with Rajputs. 17. 

The Tarar (No. 8). — This is the only one of the tribes to be here discussed of which any con- 
siderable number of the members have retiirned themselves as Rajpiits, about half the Gu.iranwala 
and nearly all the Shahpur Tarar having adopted tins course. The Tarar claim Solar Eajpiit origin, 
apparently from the Bliatti of Bhatner. They say that their ancestor Tarar took service with Mahmiid 
Ghaznavi and returned with him to Ghazni ; but that his son Lohi, from whom tliey are descended, 
moved from Mhatner to Gujriit whence the tribe spread. Another story dates their settlement from 
the time of Humjiyuu. Tlicy intermarry with Gondal, Varaich, Gil, Virk, and other leading Jat 
tribes of the neighbourliood ; and they have lately begun to intermarry within the tribe. Some of 
them are still Hindus. They hold laud on both sides of the Upper Clianab, about the junction and 
within the boundaries of the three districts of Gxijrat, Gujranwala, and Sliahpur. They are describ- 
ed as " i nvariably lazy, idle and troublesome," 

The Varaich (No. 9).— The Varaich is one of the largest Jat tribes in the Province. In 
ALbar's time they held two-thirds of the Giijrat district, though on less favourable terms than those 
allowed to the Gujars who held tlie remainder ; and they still hold 170 villages in that district. They 
have also crossed tlic Charial) into Gujranwala where tliey held a tract of 41 villages, and have 
spread along under tlie hills as far as Ludhiana and Maler Kotla. They do not always even 
pretend to be Rajputs, but say that their ancestor Dhiidi, was a Jat who "came into India with 
Mahmiid Ghaz)iavi and settled in Gujrat, wliere the tribe grew powerful and partly dispossessed the 
original Gujar lords of the soil. Another story is that their ancestor was a Surajbansi Rajput who 
came from Ghazni to Gujrat; while according to a third account their ancestor was a descendant of 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 115 

"Rija, Karan wlio went from tlio city of Kisrali to Dehli and wiis settlerl by Jalal-ul-clin Piroz Shah 
in His><ar, whence tlie tribe moved sonio five centuries ago to Gnjrauwdhi. Butthcro is little doubt 
that Giijrat was their first home, and that their movement lias l)een eastwards. The Wazirabad 
family of this tribe rose to imjwrtance under the Sikhs, and its history is narrated by Sir Lepel 
Griffin at pages 409 .;2^ of his Funj iL Chiefs, They are almost all Musalmans, but retain all 
their trilial and many of their Hindu customs. They marry with the best local tribes. They 
appear to be known as Chung or Varaich indifferently in the Lahore district. 

The Sahi (No. 10). — The Sahi also claim descent from a Solar Rajput who went to Ghazni 
with Mahmiid, and returned Ui found the tribe, settling on the llavi near Lahore. They are found 
in any numbers only in Giijrat and Sialkot. They have, in common with the Sindhu and Chima of 
these parts, some peculiar marrriage cutsoms, such as cutting a goat's ear and marking their fore- 
heads with the blood, making the bridegroom cut off a twig of the Jhand tree (Proiopis 
sf'icigera) and so forth ; and they, like most of the tribes discussed in this section, worship 
tlie Jhand tree. 
[P. 229] TheHinjra (No. 11). — The Hfnjra of the Gujranwala irtV are a pastoral tribe, perhaps 

ol aboriginal extraction. They own 37 vJlagos in Gujranwala which is their home, but have 
spread both east and west under the hills. They claim to be Saroha Rajputs, and that their 
ancestor Hinjrano came from the neighbourhood" of His^ar to Gdjranwala and lounded a city 
called Uskhab, the ruins of which still exist. Their immediate ancestors are Hal and Dhol, 
and they say that half their clans still live in the Hi^sar country. It would be interesting to 
know tlie names of these clan*, and to examine the alleged connection between the two sections 
of the tribe. In the Hissar Settlement Ri.'port it is «tatcd that " the Hinjraon Pachhadas trace 
'* their origin to a Saroha Rajput ance-tor called Hinjraon. They are all Muhammadans in this 
"district though in other places Hindu Hinjraon Pachhadas are to be found." Our figures 
show no Hinjra in Hissar, and only 30 in Sirsa ; but they may have been returned as Hinjraon. 

The Chima (No. 12).— The Chima are one of the largest Jat tribes in the Pun jab. Thev 
say that some 25 generations back their ancestor Chilma, a Chauhan Rajput, fled from Dehli 
after the defeat of Prithi Raj by Shahab-ul-din Ghori, first to Kangra and then to Amritsar, 
where his son founded a village on the Beds in the time of Ala-ul-din Ghoii. His grandson 
was called Rana Kang, and Dhol (the same name as among the Hinjra) was the ancestor of 
their present clans. The Chima have the pecnliar marriage customs described under the Sahi 
Jats, and they are said to be served by Jogis and not by Rrihmans, both which facts point 
strongly to aboriginal descent. They are a powerful and united tribe, but quarrelsome. They 
are said to marry within the tribe as" well as with their neighbours. Many of them are Musal- 
mans, but retain their old customs. The Nagara is one of their principal clans. They are most 
numerous in Sialkot, but hold 42 villages in Gujranwala, and have spread both eastwards and 
westwards along the foot of the hills. 

The Bajwa (No. 13). - The Bajwa or Bajju Jats and Rajputs have given their names to the 
Bajwat or country at the foot of tiie Jammu hills in the Sialkot District. They say that they 
are Solar Rajputs and that their ancestor Raja Shali'p was driven out of Multan in the time of 
Sikandar Lodi. His two sons Kals and Lis escaped in the disguise of falconers. Lis went to 
Jammu and there married a Rajput bride, while Kals married a Jat girl in Pasnir. The descen- 
dants of both live in the Bajwat, but are said to be distinguished as Bijwa Jats and Bajju 
Rajputs. Another story has it that their ancestor Rai Jaisan was driven from Dehli by Rai 
Pitora and settled at Karbala in Si5lkot. Tlio Bajju Rajputs admit their relationship with the 
Bajwa Jats. The Bajju Rajputs are said to have had till quite lately a custom by which a 
Musalman girl could be turned into a Hindu for purposes of marriage, by temporarily burying 
her in an underground chamber and ploughing the earth over her head. In the betrothals of 
this tribe dates are used, a custom perhaps brought with them from MultSn ; and they have 
several other singular customs resembling tht se of the Sahi Jats already described. They are 
almost confined to Sialkot, though they have spread in small numbers eastwards as far as 
Patiala. 

433. Jat tribes of the western sub-montane continued.— The Deo (No. 14).— The Deo 
aie practically confined to the Sialkot District. They claim a very ancient origin but not Rajput. 
Their ancestor's name is said to be Mahaj, who came from " the Saki jungle " in Hindustan, 
and two of his sons were Aulakh and Deo who gave their names to two Jat tribes. But anothei 
story refers them to Raja Jagdeo, a Surajl)ansi Rajput. They have the same marriage ceremony 
as the Sahi, and also u-e the goat's blood in a similar manner in honour of their ancestors, and 
have several very peculiar customs. They will not intermarry with the Mrin Jats, with whom 
they have some ancestral connection. 

The Ghumman (No. 15).— The Ghumman claim descent from R5ja Malkir, a Lunar Rdjput 
and gi-andson of 114 ja Dalip of Dehli, from whom are descended the Jaujda Rajputs of the Salt- 
range Tract. One of his descendants Sanpal married out of caste, and his son Ghumman, who camf 
from Mukiala or Malhiana in the time of Fi'roz Shah and took service in Jammu, founded the pre- 
sent tribe. This tribe worships an idol made of gi-ass and set within a square drawn in the cornpJ' 

1% 



116 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 74, showing Jat tribes [p. 228] 

















JAT TUIIBES 01;^ THE 




■ 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




5 








5 


"3 





p2 


Tabab. 




►? 


'"3 
.ft 


Auilmla 
LudUiiua 




'" 12 


2 
15 






8 






... 


JalaiiJhar 

Hushjarpiiv 




'" 60 


144 
1)0 






24 

203 








Anivitsar 

GarJaspur 

Sialkot 




11 

61U 

1.110 


524 

67 

1,1 M 


'" 21 


'" 67 


65 

443 

1,791 


'"230 


1 

76 

9(i0 


": 


Lahore 
Gajr.'.iiw4Ia 

Firozpur 




543 

1,648 

44 


669 

1,724 
158 




101 
12 
52 


859 
3,953 

161 


53 

1,166 

14 


191 

2,373 


'2is22 


Rawalpindi 
Jlulam 
Gu.jiat 
Shah|-iir 


6.540 

3,0811 
6 


92 

3'.) 


143 

1,711 

•t8 


i,r,76 

1,253 

1 ,965 

48 


T,125 
918 
160 


611 

6,354 

24,825 

305 


8 
1,601 
6,924 

258 


260 

712 

13,588 

56 


5 

"iil73 


Multiin 
Jliang 
Montgomery 
MuzaHavgaih ... 




253 
366 

r,7 
ijoi; 


74 




19 

220 

"'119 


196 
649 

122 
155 


143 

1()2 

1 

168 


2 
210 
203 


"" 70 

153 


British Terri- 
tory. 


10,026 


8,419 


6,570 


4,863 


3,157 


47,276 


10,903 


18.925 


4,228 


Patiila 

NMbli;i 
Kapurl hala 






15 


13 




2 


10 

■" 17 




... 


Maler Kotla ... 


















... 


Total Fast. Plains 






15 


13 


... 


80 


49 


19 


... 


British Terri- 

tory. 
Native States 
Province 


10,01.6 
10,026 


8,419 

15 

8,434 


6,570 

15 
6,585 


4,863 

13 

4,876 


3,«7 
3,157 


47,276 

825 
47,601 


10.908 

B3 
10,95C 


18,925 

19 

18,94^ 


4,22s 
4*,22a 



.lAT, UA.1PUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 
of the Western Sub-montane. 



117 



WESTERN SIIU-.AIONTANE. 



fififi 
1,344 



292 
470 



2,205 
1,476 
5,789 



1,202 

10,7S3 

252 



362 

504 

35,253 

443 



102 
59 

202 
33 



61,718 



041 
169 
603 

'lil61 



2,505 



61,718 

2,517 
64,285 



154 

5!784 



155 
611! 
409 



3 

57fi 

1,044 

149 



59 
110 
160 

22 



13,396 



13,396 



2,227 

366 

2,515 



1 ,405 

12,645 

267 



122 

20 

1,179 



64 

482 
600 
220 



25,200 



289 
3,008 



1,354 



1,119 

1,350 

35,722 



89 

19,839 

751 



502 

219 

3,429 

125 



40 



67,855 



1,003 
30 


1,523 
"'l32 


52 
609 





1,694 



25,200 67,855 



1 65 1,694 

13,402 25,265 69,549 



428 
207 



1,177 

1,851 

25,393 



1,772 
947 
238 



47 

52 
107 



10 
'" 39 

32,843 



1,678 



32,843 

1,678 
84,521 



14 15 16 17 



765 



615 

984 

4,873 



647 
502 
361 



9,284 



9,284 



570 
1,237 



94 
1,302 



1,022 

93 

14,228 



41 

2,1173 

109 



37 
1,413 



9,284 22,488 



7,819 
460 



8,931 



1,155 
7,376 
13,756 



1,772 



400 



1 ,943 
5,063 
4,669 



219 193 

313 51 

153 2,412 



1-14 
"345 



23,056 



215 



4,823 
6,385 



Aiijb.ila. 
Liuihii'iiia. 



•Talmi.lliar. 
Hiishyaipur. 



Atnritsar. 

Giuvlaspur. 

Siiilkot. 



421 Lahore. 
4,407 'Tujrdiiw.'ila. 
141 i'irozpur. 



91 
42 

417 
156 



5 
64 
183 



17,541 1 17,462 



124 

190 

1 



494 



Eawalpiiuli. 
Jhclani. 
Giijrat. 
Shahpur. 



Multaii. 
J hails'. 
Montgomery. 
Muzaftargarh. 



British Terri- 
tory. 



PaticUa. 
Nabha. 
Kapurlhala. 
.liud. 
Malcr Kotla. 



315 Total East. I'JaiiiK 



22,488 28,056 17,541 i 17,462 British Terri- 

i I tory. 

8,939 494 5 315 Native States. 

31,427 I 23,550 . 17,546 1 17,777 Province. 



118 PANJAB CASTES. 

of the house at weddings, and they cut the goat's ear and the Jhand twig- like the Sahi .Tats. 
Thev also propitiate their ancestors by pouring water over a goat's head so that he shakes it off. 
Tlicy are chiefly found in Sialkot, though they have spread somewhat, especially eastwards. 

The Kahlon (No. 16). — The Kalilon claim descent from Raja Vikramajit of the Lunar line 
through Raja Jagdeo of Daranagar. Under his descendant Soli or Sodi they left Daranagar and 
settled near Batala in Gurdaspur, whence they spread into Sialkot. Their marriage customs are 
very similar to those of the Sahi .Tats already described. They are almost confined to the southern 
portion of the districts of Gurdaspur and Sialkot. Tliey intermarry with Jat^", not with Rajputs. 

The Sarai (No. 17). — The Sarai .Tats arc, so far as our figures go, chiefly found in Gurdaspur 
and Sialkot, though there are a few on the upper and middle Satluj also. I cannot identify these 
people with certamty. There are said to he Sarai Rajputs in Sialkot, who are Bhattis descended 
from an ancestor called Sarai who settled in the Hafizabad t hsil. There can hardly be any 
connection between them and the Sarais of the Kalhora family of Derail Ghazi Khan, who arc 
discussed under the head Shekh and who claim to be Qureshi. The Sarai are raid to be a well- 
known Jat clan in .Talandhar and the neighbouring di>trict3. Tod makes Selirai the title of a 
race of Punwar Rajputs who founded a dynasty at Aror in Siudh on the eastern bank of the 
Indus, and " gave their name Sehl or Selir a'< a titular appellation to the country and its princes 
" and its inhabitants the Sehrais. ". (See further the Sara Jats of the central districts, section 436.) 
Of the Sarai of Gurdaspur 4,951 have entered themselves as tribe Sindhu, clan Sarai, and appear 
again in the Sindhu figures which will be discussed presently. 

The Goraya (No. 18). — The Goraya are said by one account to be descended from the Saroha 
family of Lunar Rajputs, and to have come to Gujranwala a^ a nomad and pastoral tribe from 
Sirsa. Another story is that they are descended from a Sombansi Rajput called Gm'aya whose 
grar^dson Mai came from the Lakki thai some 15 generations ago. A third tradition is that 
Rana their founder came from the Jammu liiUs in the time of the Emperors. The^ are now 
found in Gujranwala, Sialkot, and Gurdaspur. They own 31 villages in Gujranwala and are 
excellent cultivators, being one of the most prosperous tribes in the district. They have the 
same peculiar marriage customs as the Sihi Jats already described. The word guraya is said to 
be used for the Nilgai (Porcax picfa) in Central India. They are sometimes said to be a clan of 
the D billon tribe. 

The Dhotar and Lodike. — There are 1,454 Dhotar returned in our tables, of whom 1,428 are 
found in Giijrdnwala. They are mostly Hindus, and claim to be descended from a Solar Rajput 
who emigrated from Hindustan or, according to another story, from Ghazni some 20 generations 
back. The Lodike are considered to be a clan of the Kharrals of the Montgomery district, who 
are described separately. In Gujranwala they are said to be of Solar Rajput descent, and to 
have come from the Rivi, the Kharral head-quarters, to the Gujranwala bar some ten generations 
ago, and led a pastoral and marauding life till reverses at the hands of the Virk forced them to 
settle down and take to agriculture. They do not give their daughters to the local Jat tribes. 

The Chatta— Appear to be confined to Gujranwala, in which district they hold 81 villages 
and number 2,27 L souls. They claim to be descended from Chatta, a grandson of Prithi Rai, 
the Chauluin King of Dehli, and brother of the ancestor of the Chima. In the 10th generation 
from Chatta or, as otherwise stated, some 500 years ago, was Dahru who came from Sambhal in 
Moradabad, where the bards of the Karnal Chauhans still live, to the banks of the Chanab and 
married among the Jat tribes of the Gujranwala District. Tliej were converted to Islam aboi;t 
1,600 A.D. They rose to considerable political importance under the Sikhs ; and the hi=;tory of 
their leading family is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at pages 402^ of his Panjdb Chipfn. 

434. Jats of the Sikh tract. — The group of Jats we have now to con- 
sider are the typical Jats of the Panjab,, including all those great Sikh Jat 
tribes who have made the race so renowned in recent history. They occupy 
the central districts of the Panjabj the upper Satluj^ and the great Sikh 
States of the Eastern Plains. All that I have said in the preceding sec- 
tion (§ 481) regarding the absence of any wish on the part of the Jats of 
the Khalsa to be auglit but Jats^ api^lics here w^ith still greater force. A 
Sidhu claims indeed llajput origin; anil apparently with good reason. But 
he is now a Sidhu Jat^ and holds that to be a prouder title than Bhatti 
Rajput. The only tribe among this group of which any considerable 
numbers have returned themselves as Rajputs are the Virk ; and among 
them this has happened only in Gujranwala^ on the extreme outskirts of the 
tract. These men are the backbone of the Pan jab by character and physique 
as well as by locality. They are stalwart, sturdy yeomen of great indepen- 
deuce, industry, and agricultural skill, and collectively form perhaps the 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 119 

finest peasantry in India. Unfortunately the Settlement Reports of this 
part of the country are often poor or even aljsent altogether, while much of 
[P. 230] the tract consists of Native States. Thus except regarding such tribes as 
have risen to political importance, I can give but scanty information. The 
.Tats of the Sikh tract are essentially husbandmen, and the standard of 
agricultural practice among those at any rate of the more fertile northern 
districts is as high as is reached in any portion of the Province. I would call 
special attention to the curious traditions of the Bhular, Man, and Her tribes, 
an examination of which might produce interesting and valua]>le results. 

•P. 120- Abstract No. 75 on the opposite page* gives the distribution of the tribes 

21 so far as it is shown by our figures. I have an'anged them roughly in the 

order to which they appear to occur from west to east. 

435. The Jat tribes of the Sikh tract. The Dhillon (No. 1).— The Dhillon is one of the 
largest and most widely distributed Jat tribes in tlie Province. Their head-quarters would appear 
from our ligures to be Gujraiivvala and Amritsar ; but they are found in large numbers along the 
whole cour.-;e of the Satluj from Fi'rozpur upwards, and under the hills to the east of those two 
disti'icts. The numbers returned for the Deldi District are curiously large, and I doubt somevvliat 
whether they renUy refer to tlie same tribe. Like the Goraya tliey claim to be Saroha Rajputs 
by origin, and to have come from Sirsa. If this be true they liave probably moved up the Satluj, 
and then spread along westwards under the hills. But another story makes them descendants of a 
Siirajbansi Kajpiit named Lu who lived at Kharmor in the Malwa, and held some office at the 
Dehli court. They are said to be divided into three great sections, the Biij, Saj, and Sanda. 

The Virk (No. 2). — Tlie head-quarters of the Virk appear to be the Giijranwala and Lahore 
Districts, especially the former in which they own 132 villages. They claim origin from a Manh^s 
Rajput called Virak, who left Jammu and settled at Ghuchli in Amritsar ; and in Gujranwala 
nearly a third of them have returned themselves as Rajputs, but they marry freely witli the Jat 
ti'ibes of the neighbourhood. They say that tlieir ancestor Virak was descended from Malhan 
Nams (Mai again !) the founder of the Manhas tribe of Rajputs, and was connected with the 
Rajas of Jammii. Leaving Parghowal in Jammu, he settled in Amritsar and married a Gil .Jat 
girl. His de-cendants sliortly afterwards moved westwards into Gujranwala. There are three 
main sections of the tribe, the Jopur, Vachra, and Jau. The tribe rose to some political import- 
ance about the end of last century, ruling a considerable tract in Gujranwala and Lahore till 
subdued by Ranjit Singh. 

The Sindhu (No 3). — Tlie Siudhu is, so far as our tigures go, the second l*i gest Jat tribe, 
being sui'passed in numbers by the SidluT only. Their head-quarters are the Ami'itsnr and Lahore 
districts, but they a I'e found all along the upper Satluj, and under the hills fi-om Ambala in the 
east to Sialkot and Giijr inwala in the west. They claim descent from the Raghobansi branch of 
the Solar Rajputs through Ram Ghaudar of Ajudhia. They say that their ancestors were taken by 
or accompanied Mahmud to Ghazni, and returned during the thirteenth century or in the reign of 
Firoz Shall from Afghanistan to India. Sliortly afterwards they settled in the M.-injha near 
Lahore. Some of the Sindhu say that it was Ghazni in tlie Deccan, and not in Afglianistan, from 
which they came ; while others have it that it was Ghadni in Bikaner. The Jalandhar Sindhu 
say that they came from the south to the Manjha some two or three centuries ago when the 
Pathans dispossessed the Manj Rajputs, and shortly afterwards moved from Amritsar to Jalandhar 
at tlie invitation of the Gils to take the place of the ejected ilanj. Sir Lepel (iriffin is of opinion 
that the real origin of the tribe is from North-Western Rajpiitana. The political history of the 
tribe, which was of capital importance under tlie Sikhs, is given is great detail at pages 225 ff, 
360 jf, and 417 to 428 of the same writer's Panjdb Chiefs. Tlie Sindliu have the same peculiar 
marriage customs already described as practised by the Sahi Jats. The Sindhu of Karnal worship 
Kala Mahar or Kala Pir, their ancestor, whose chief shrine is said to be at Thana Satra in Sialkot, 
their alleged place of origin. 

The Bhular (No ^j. — Tlie Bluilar, Her, and Man tribes call themselves asl or " original " 
Jats, and are said to have sprung from the Jat or " Matted hair " of Mahadeo, whose title is 
Bhula Mahadeo. They say that the Malwa was tlieir original home, and are commonly reckoned 
as two and a half tribes, the Her only counting as a lialf. But the bards of the Man, among 
which tribe several families have risen to political importance, say that the whole of the Man and 
Bhular and half the Her tribe of Rajputs were the earliest Kslialriya immigrants from Rajputana 
to the Panjdb. The head-quarters of the Bhular appear to be Lahore and Fi'rozpur, and the 
confines of the Manjha and Malwa ; but they are returned in small numbers from every division 
in the Panjab except Dehli, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar, from almost every district, and from every 
Native State of the Eastern Plains e.i£ccpt Dujana, Loharu, and Pataudi. 



J 20 



PANJAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 75, showing the L^'- ^3i] 



















.lATS OF THE 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 




S 

IS 

Q 


ViBK. 


c5 


a 
3 









'■3 







>-7 


5 

■ft 


B 


Deliii 

(iurgaon 

lvani41 


r.,852 
■" 44 


116 




27 
4 

1,488 


2 

2 


1,902 

51 

1,135 


185 
"■ 23 


16 


'" 1 
6 


"31 


HiBsar 
Rohtak 
Sirsa 


94 
*"S33 


'"95 


2 

'" 4 


1 
476 


1,571 

5 

425 


401 
1,110 
2,277 


10 


23 

1 
32 


■■'2 




Aiubala 

Ludhiftua 

Jalandhar 


2,822 
0,317 
2,219 


438 
1,196 
1,125 




6,349 

4,2.58 
7,930 


343 

2,38:i 

676 


3,2 i 7 
4,296 
3,741 


2,744 
1,432 
2,004 


72 
939 
453 


■■■ 2 


433 

1,233 
4:il 


Ilusliyarpiir 

Kaiigra 

Aniritsar 


2,334 
16 

15,721 


680 

l','i62 




5,314 
54 

24,047 


551 
""433 


4,531 
2,289 


4,048 

120 

1,069 


"494 


2 


120 
5,353 


Gui'iUspiu' 

SiAlkDt 

Lahore 


1,1 3fi 
:i,72fi 
3,626 


1,687 
3,141 
6,164 


■■■ 3 


4,906 

7,333 

42,208 


192 
1 ,600 
9,711 


608 
634 
899 


966 

1,664 

391 


1,313 

704 

3,240 




776 

387 
144 


(tiijraiiwahi 

Firozpiir 

Jhelum 


18,031 
5,(502 


15,944 

1,380 

99 


6,871 


2,773 

8.979 

362 


80 
3,007 


499 

3,477 

1 


124 

1,0.58 

313 


931 
1,191 

58 


487 
8,722 


43 
233 


Gujrat 

Shahpiir 

JUuitaii 


7 


8.52 
346 
220 


'"rr 

28 


622 

19 

326 


"103 


29 
'"35 


1,588 
248 
676 


58 


390 


8 

1 


JliaiiK 

Montgomery 
JMuzail'argarh 




266 
243 
135 


n4 
79 


25 

726 

2 


"200 
250 


■■■ 2 


127 

90 

234 


"10 






Drrali Ismail Khan 
Derail Gliazi Kliaii 
liaiuiu 


3 


137 
"13 




5 
2 


245 


2 


590 
419 
948 


10 

282 






British Terri- 
tory. 


69,383 


35,527 


7,118 


118,944 


21,954 


31,210 


21,281 


9,847 


9,612 


9,248 


Pati41a 
NSbha 
Kajiurthala 


9,827 
3,717 


179 
2.55 




7,814 
1,791 
1,.585 


3,606 

1 ,634 

347 


16,397 
2,985 

192 


1,485 
147 
147 


241 

531 

8 


"824 


304 
5 


Jiml 
Karidkot 
Malcr Kotla 
Kalsia 


538 
2,122 

236 


423 
27 




1,138 

2,510 

],li70 

798 


1,111 

308 

249 

76 


1,777 
080 
2.59 

78 


""186 
"" .'55 


"183 

7 

16 


'"20 


47 
22 

'" 2 


Total East. Plans ... 


17,106 


889 




16,700 


7,331 


22,725 


2,000 


986 


8'M 


380 


British Terri- 
tory. 
Native States... 
Province 


69,383 


35,527 


7,118 


118,944 


21,954 


31,210 


21,281 


9,847 


9,612 


9,242 


17.180 
33,563 


889 
38,416 


7,113 


16,788 
135,732 


7,840 
29,294 


22,760 
53,970 


2,570 
23, 851 


986 
10,833 


844 
10,456 


479 
9,721 



JAT, KA.irUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 
Jat Tribes of the Sikh Tract. 



Ul 



SlKll TRACT. 



10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 




c 

el 


"3 


_C3 
•5 




2 


-a 
d 


s 




r-5 


3 


c- 


2 




8 
'"•13 


2 
"'56 


124 
'" 65 


54 


'il937 
195 


34 
523 
229 






'"16 




148 
1^629 




So 


25 
"513 


14 
2,378 

728 


916 

23 

8,037 


1 
296 


234 
58 
731 


I'.'isi 


'"26 


9 
'"12 




1,377 

1,881 

712 


138 

48U 


"I'lO 
2,406 


236 

804 

63 


3,475 
11,899 
5,188 


3,207 
13,194 
3,210 


245 
32 

7 


2,915 

12,145 

t 3,562 


2,062 


603 

3,724 

561 


1,770 
1 ,044 
1,833 


726 
4,964 


3,471 
5,452 
2,001 


5,298 


200 
2,381 


158 
8,053 


2,124 
969 

30,737 


388 

3 

5,424 


33 
'"702 


1,110 

62 

1,968 




"209 






1,664 
1,163 

4,558 


1,884 
"2-17 


318 


1,535 

927 

1,573 


3,593 

4,095 
7,740 


2,881 
l'oi459 


'"lOl 


2, '59 

1,854 
1,055 


l','465 
921 


"ioo 

146 


255 
848 


"52 


3,627 

1,031 

699 


806 


276 
"46 


1,399 

1,122 

12 


2,150 

26,102 

80 


1.022 
40,194 


104 
32,256 


633 

15,658 

11 


1,982 
814 


883 
193 
52 






1 ,056 

1,711 

20 




566 


20 

3 

31 


801 
49 
115 


1 
214 


129 
""171 


287 
13 
12 


'" 1 


1,106 

136 

3 


105 




23 
'"114 


'" 2 
63 


"'lO 


4 
20 
97 


298 

14S 

16 


184 

474 

2 


'" 13 

54 


"'121 
35 




29 
49 






1 
69 


22 


26 

50 


167 
13 
18 


167 

185 

4 


3 

1 
1 


8 


1 




5 

8 






••"• 


9,097 


6,598 


16,866 


103,684 


99,053 


36,283 


46,437 


8,389 


7,936 


5,901 


5,742 


32,490 


802 
20 


621 
229 


3,526 

1,100 
62 


10,877 
4,483 

670 


41,999 
12,115 
1,231 


4 


10.-56 
6,628 
1,904 


9,719 
1,404 


3,583 
7o 


7,710 

804 


5,495 
365 


21,674 
1,830 
1,459 




137 
26 


556 

504 

1,040 

28 


028 

2,375 

387 

760 


604 
"'303 


2,189 
14,821 

'" 47 


352 
1,326 
1,071 

196 


718 

1,220 

116 

260 


1 

42 
7 


313 

1 
152 


68 
"805 


2,175 
713 

2,631 
118 


822 


1,020 


6,816 


20,480 


56,252 


17,061 


31,123 


13,437 


3,725 


8,980 


6,733 


30,599 


9,097 


6,598 


16,866 


103,664 


99,053 


36,283 


46,437 


8,889 


7,936 


5,901 


B,742 


32,400 


822 
9,919 


1,032 
7,630 


1 6,823 
1 23,689 


20.508 
124,172 


56,279 
155,332 


17.061 
53,344 


31,223 

77,660 


13,437 
21,826 


3.725 
11,661 


8,980 
14,881 


6.733 
12,475 


30,666 
63,156 



122 PANJAB CASTES. 

The Man (No. 5).~Tlic Man. the second of tlie ad .Tat tribes, do sometimes claim, as has just 
liceii stated, Eajput ancestry ; and it is said that Thdkur Rajputs of the Man tribe are still to be 
found in .Jaipur (see further Dalai in section 440). Several of the leading Sikh families belong 
to this tribe, and their history will he found at pages 177 to 183 and 307 to 314 of Sir Lepel 
Griffin's Pa h/«6 Chiefs. That writer states that there is "a popular tradition in the Panjab 
"which makes all of the Man tribe brave and true." The home of the Man is in the northern 
Mabva, to the cast of that of the Bhiilar ; but they too are widely distributed, being found in every 
district and state of the Panjab oa^^t of Tjahore, especially in the northern districts and along the 
Satluj. From the fact that the JIan both of Jalandhar and of Karnal trace their origin to the 
iieighljom'hood of Bbatinda, it would appear probable that there was the original homo of the 
tribe. 

The Her (No. 6). — The Her is the third of this group ni tribes, and their home appears to 
lie north of the Satluj ; indeed had not it been that I wished to keep the three together, I should 
have taken the Her with the .Tats of the eastern sub-montane. They are found however in con- 
siderable numbers under the hills from Ambala in the east to Gujrat in the we.st, and throxighout 
the whole upper valley of the Satluj. Of (he number shown, 5,812 were entered in my tables 
as Aher, of ^vhom 2,786 were in Hushyarpur, but I am informed that this is merely another way 
of spelling Her. Of c mrse they returned themselves an Aher .Tats, not as Aher or Ahir liy caste. 
There is a very old village called Her in the Nakodar /a^^/Z of Jalandhar which is still held by 
Her Jats, who say that they have lived there for a thousand years, in other words for an indeflnite 
period. 

436. The Jat tribes of the Sikh tract continued. The Buttar (No. 7).— The BTittararea 
small tribe found, so far as om- figures go, chiefly on the Upper Satluj. I am not quite sure that 
they are distinct from the F.hutta Jat> of the Western Plains, which have been .already described 
in section 429, or from the Buta of Hushyarpur to be described in section 438. They are said to 
be descended from a Siirajbansi Eajput who came from the Lakki jungle and settled first in 
Gujranwala. 

The Odi (No. 8). — The Odi would appear from our figures to be confined to the Firozpur 
District. They appear to be a clan of the Dhariwal tribe, as 8,715 of the 8,722 Odi in Firozpur 
and 787 more in Nabha have returned them-elves as Dhariwal Odi. They are shown in the 
Abstract under both headings. On the other hand the 390 Odi of Gujrat have returned them- 
selves as Tiirar Odi, as have 417 in Gujranwala. 

The Bal (No. 9). — The Bal are another tribe of the Beas and Upper Satluj, and are said to 
be a clan of the Sekhu tribe with whom they do not intermarry. Their ancestor is also said to 
have been a Rajput of royal race who came from Malwa. The name Bal, which is derived from 
a root meaning " strength," is a famous one in ancient Indian History, and recurs in all sorts of 
forms and places. 

The Pannun (No. 10) — claim Solar Rdjput ancestry. They are chiefly found in Amritsar 
and Gm'daspur so far as onv figures show ; but they also own five villages in Sialkot. They s,ay 
that theu' ancestors came from Ghazni ; or according to another story, from Hindustan. 

The Mahal (No. 11) — is a small tribe which appear to be chiefly found in .Tiilaidhar and 
Amritsar. Tiieir ancestor is said to have been a Rajput from Modi in the Malwa, 

The Aulak (No. 12). — The head-quarters of the Aulak Jats would appear to be in the 
Amritsar District ; but they arc found in the northern Malwa, as well as in the Manjha and west 
of the Ravi. They are said to be of Solar descent, and their ancestor Aulak lived in the Manjha. 
But another stoi'y makes their .ancestor one Raja Lui Lak, a Lunar Rajput. They are related 
to the Sekhu and Deo tribes, with whom they will not intermarry. 

The Gil (No. 13). — The Gil is one of the largest and most important of the Jat tribes. So 
far as our figures show, their head-quarters are the Lahore and Firozpur Districts ; but they are 
found all along the Beas and Upper Satluj, and under the hills as far west as Sialkot. Gil, their 
ancestor, and father of Shergil, the founder of another Jat tribe, w.as a ,Iat of Raghobansi Rajput 
descent who lived in the Firozpur District ; he was a lineal descendant of I'irthi Pal, Raja of Garb 
Mithila and a Waria Rajput, by a Ehiilar .Tat wife. The tribe rose to some impjrtance under the 
Sikhs, and the history of its princip.al family is told at pages 352^ of Griffin's Panjab Chiefs. 

The SidhU and Barar tribes (Nos. 14— 15).— The Sidhu, with its branch the Banlr or 
Sidhu-Barar, is the largest and most nn])Ortant of the Jat trilics of the Panjab, for from it have U • 232J 
sprung the great Phulkian families of Patiala, Nabha, and Ji'nd, and the Barar family of Faridkot. 
The Sidhu trace their origin to Jaisal, a Bliatti Rajput and founder of Jaisalmer, who was driven 
from his kingdom by a successful rebellion and took refuge with Prithi Raj, Chauhan, the last 
Hindu King of Dehli. His descendants overran Hissiir and Sirsa and gave to the latter tract the 
name of Bliattiana. Among them was Klu'wa, who married a Jat wcjiuan of tlie (tbaggar, and 
had by her Sidhu, the ancestor of the tribe. Sidiiu had four sons, Devi, Bur, Siir, and Riipach, 
and from Dhiil, the descendant of Bur, is sprung tlie Barar tribe. The pure iJhatti Rajputs of 
Ebattiaua still admit theia- relationship with the Sidhu and Barar, The early history of the tribes 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES 123 

is toll in lullilctail at pages 1 to 10 and 546 to 518 of Griflfin'.^ Panjdh Rajas ; indeed the whole 
hook is a political history of the descendants of Sidhii ; wliile the leading minor families are noticed 
at pages 429 t<) 436 of lii^ Pdtijdh Chiefs. Some further details of their early ancestry will he 
found at page 8 of the His-ar Settlement Report. The original home of the trihe was the Malwa, 
and it is still there that they are found in largest numhers. Hut they have al-^o spread across the 
Satin j into Lahore, Amritsar, Jalandhar, and other districts. The liarar who arc shown in the 
Ahsfract have returned thcmselve-; a-; Sidhu Harar in the Native States and, to the number of 4,220, 
in Fi'ro/pur, and as Rai Barar in tturgaon, The rest are returned as Barar simply. Sidhu Barar 
and Barar are synonymous ; hut whether I have done righly iu including the Gurgaon Ral Barar I 
cannot say. Moreover, 26,915 persons in Firozpur and 2,358 iu Nahlia have returned their trihe 
as Sidhu and their clan as Barar, and are included in hoth columns, thiis appearing twice over in 
the Abstract. Mr. Brandreth thus descrihes the Barar of Firozpiu- -. ~ 

" The liarars are sai 1 to have heeii Bhatti Rajputs, of the same family as the Rajputs 
'' of Jai^almer, where their original home was. The name of their aiice3tf)r was Sidhu, whose 
" grandson was named Barar, whence they are called indifferently both Sidhu and Barar. 
" Either Barar or some descendant of his migrated to Bhatimla, whence his offspring 
" spread over the neighbouring lands, and are now in possession of a very large tract of 
" country. They occupy almost the whole of ilaquas Mari, 5ludki, Mokatsar, Bhuchon, Mehraj, 
" Sultan Khan, and Bhudaur in this district, the whole of Faridkot, a great part of Patiala, Nabha, 
" Jhumbha aid Mallaudh. The Chiefs of all these states belong to the same family. The Bhattis 
" of Sirsa who embraced Muhammadauism were also originally Bhatti Rajputs, and related to the 
" Barars, but their descent is traced to some common ancestor before the time of Si.lhu. 

" The Barars are not equal to the other tribes of Jats as cultivators. They wear finer clothes 
" and consider themselves a more illastrious race. Many of them were desperate dacoits in fonner 
" years, and all the most notorious criminals of this description that have been apprehended and 
'' JDrought to justice under our rule were Barars. Female infanticide is said to have been practised 
" among them to a great extent in former times. I am told that a few years ago there was scarcely 
" a young girl to be found in any of the Barar villages. This crime is said to have originated in a 
" deceit that was once practised upon one of the chiefs of Xabha by which his daughter was 
" betrothed to a man of an inferior ti'ibe ; and though he considered himself bound to complete the 
" marriage, sixbsequeutly entered into au agreement with all his tribe to put to death all the 
" daughters that should be born to them hereafter, in order to prevent the possibility of such a 
" disgrace occurring again. 

" From all accounts, however, this horrid practice has been almost entirely discontinued of late 
" years, and I can detect no difference now between the proportionate number of female children 
" in the Bai-ar villages and in villages inhabited by other castes." 

The Dhaiiwai (No. 16). — The Dharfwal, Dhaniwal, or Dhaliwal for the name is spelt in all 
three ways, ai'e also said to be Bhatti Rajputs, and to take their name from their place of origin 
Darauagar. They say that Akbar married the daughter of their Chief Mahr Mithra. They are 
found chiefly on the Upper Satluj and iu the fertile district to the west, their head-quarters being 
the north-western corner of the Malwa, or Ludhiana, Firozpur, and the adjoining parts of Patiala. 
Mr. Brandreth describes them as splendid cultivators, and the most peaceful and contented portion 
of the population of the ti'act. 

The Sara (No. 17). — The Sara Jats are, so far as our figures go, chiefly found in the Upper 
Malwa, in Ludhiana, Faridkot, and the intervening country ; but they also have crossed the Satluj 
into the fertile district to the north-west. They are said to he descended from a Bhatti Rajput 
who 13 generations ago left the Malwa and settled in Giijranwala. But another tradition traces 
them to Raja Salon (? Salvahan), a Lunar Rajput who lived in .Jammu, and whose two sons Sara 
and Basra were the eponymous ancestors of two Jat tribes. I presume that they are distinct from 
the Sarai noticed under .Tats of the western sub-montane. 

The Mangat (No. 18).— The Mangat would appear from our figures to be almost confined to 
Ludhiana and the adjoining portion of Patiala. I have no information to give about them, unless 
indeed they are the same as the Man, described under .Jats of eastern sub-montane. 

The Dhindsa (No. 19). — The Dhindsa would appear to be confined to Ambala, Ludhiana, and 
the adjoining portion of Patiala. They claim to be descended from Saroha Rajputs. 

The Gandhi (No. 20).— The Gandhi seem to be chiefly found in the same tract with the 
Mangat just mentioned. About them also I have no particulars to give. 

The Chahil (No. 21). — The Chahil appear to be one of the largest .Tat tribes in the Province . 
They are found in greatest numbers in Patiala, but are very numor nis in Ambala and Lulhiana, 
Amritsar, and Gurdaspur, and extend all along under the hills as far west as Gujraawala and Sialkot. 
It is said that Raja Agarsen Siirajhansi had four sons Chahil, Chhina. Chima, and Sahi, aJid that 
the four J.at tribes who bear these names are sprung from them. Their original liome was Malwa, 
whence they migrated to the Panjab. According to another story their ancestor was a Tiiuwar 
Rdjpiit called Raja Rikh, who came from the Deccau and settled at Kahlor. His son Birsi married 
a .Jat woman, settled at Matti in the Malwa about the time of Akbar, and founded the tribe. 



I:i4 PANJAB CASTES^ 

437. Jats of the eastern sub-montane.— The small group of Jats whkh 1 
shall next dosL-ribe lie to the north of the Sikh Jats just discussed, all along 
under the foot of the hills from Aniljula to Gurdaspur. There is no definite 
line of demarcation between them and the Sikh Jats to the south or the Jats 
of the western sulj-montanc to the west ; and perhaps the only real distinction 
is that, speaking broadly, the first are Hindus, the second Sikhs, and the 
third ]\Iusalmans, though of course followers of all three religions are to be 
found in almost every tribe. In character and position there is nothing to 
distinguish the tribes I am about to notice, save that they have never enjoyed 
the political importance which distinguished the Sikh Jats under the Khalsa. 
Abstract No. 76 on the opposite page gives the figures for these tribes roughly 
arranged in order from west to east. Here again there is no confusion 
between Jats and Eajputs, though the reason of the precision wuth which 
they are distinguished is exactly the opposite of that already discussed in the 
case of the western sub-montane and Sikh Jats. In the Sikh tract the 
political position of the Jat was so high that he had no wish to be called 
Rajput : under the hills the status of the Rajput is so superior that the Jat 
has no hope of being called Rajput. The only one of these tribes of which 
any considerable number have returned themselves as Jats as well as Rajputs 
is the Manj, and that only in Gurdaspur on the extreme confines of the tract. 
Then I shall consider wdth the Rajputs of the same name. In this tract the 
Settlement Reports are even more meagre than in the last ; and ray informa- 
tion is correspondingly imperfect, 

438. The Jat tribes of the Eastern Sub-montane. The Randhawa (No. 2).— The 
Raudliawa is a large and widely spread tribe whoso head-quarters appear to lie the Auiritsar and 
Gurdaspur disti'icts, l)ut who are also found iu considerable numbers in Lahore, Jalandliar, 
Hushyarpur, and Patiala. Their founder Randhawa, a Jadu or Bhatti Rajput, lived in Bikaner 
some seven centuries ago; and Kajjal, fifth in descent from him, migrated to Batala which had 
some time before been founded by Ram Deo another Bhatti. Here the tribe increased in numbers, 
possessed itself of a very considerable tract of country, and rose to some political importance. Tlic 
history of the Randhawa family is fully detailed at pages 200 to 218 of the Panjdb Chiefs. 
A few Randhawa have shown themselves also as Bhatti in Gujranwala and as Virk in Firozpur. 

The Kang (No. 3). — This tribe is found chiefly in the angle between the Bcas and Satluj, 
though tliey liave crossed the latter river into Ambala and Firozpiir, and are apparently found 
iu buiall numbers all along its banks and oven on the Lower Indus. Their tradition i^ tliat tlu^y 
came from (larh Ghazni. Tliey occupied a position of some considerable political importance iu 
their own tract during the early days of Sikli rule. Mr. Barkley writes of tlie Jiilaudhar Kang : — 
" Most of the Sikh Sardars of the Nakodar fnhsil either belong to this tribe, or were connected 
" with it Ijy marriage when tliey establislicd their authority there. Tara Singli ttheba {sic), who 
"was their leader at the time of the conquest, was himself of this race and a native of Kang on 
"the Satluj, where it is said that eighteen Sardars at one time resided ; but on the village being 
"swept away l)y the river they dispersed themselves in theii- separate j'^^/rs on both sides of the 
"river." The Kang are said to claim descent from the Solar Rajputs of Ajudhia through their 
ancestor Jogra, father ot Kaug. 

The Sohal i^No. 4). — The Sohal are said to be of Cliauluin Rajput origin, their ancestor Sohal 
belonging to the family of Mahag. They appear to lie to the nortli of the Kaug, close up under 
and even among the hills ; but they are also found along the Satluj, though in smaller nunibei's. 

The Bains (No. 5).— The head-quarters of the Baius appear to be in Hushyarpur and 
Jalandhar, tliough 1 hey have spread westwards even as far as Rawalpindi, and eastwards into 
Ambala and tlic ailjoining Native States. Tliey say lliat tliey are by origin Janjiia Rajpiita, 
and that tlieir anco-tor IJaiiis came eastwards in tlic time of Fi'roz Shah. Bains is one of the 36 
royal families of Rajputs, but 'J'od believes that it is merely a sub-division of the Siiryabansi 
section. They give their uamo to Baiswava, or tlie easternmost portion of the Ganges-.ramna 
doab. The Sardai-s of Alawalpur iu JahiTulhar are Bains, whose ancestor came from Hushyarpur 
to Jalla near Sarhind iii Niiblia soino twelve generations ago. 

The Buta (No. 6). — Tiie Buta are, as far as our figures go, confined to Hushyarpur. I have 
no information regarding tlicm, and am not at all certain that tliey arc distinct from the Hhutta 
of the Western Plaius (section '129) and the Buttar of the Sikh tract (section 430), 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 



125 



P. 2;'.3l 



in 



43 



•ivAuni 



•«nin 



"sintJU 



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00 »o OO CO 






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2 



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£ -a -= 



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O t^ -i .-I ;i 

CD GO CO Ci 

co'r-T co" 



I rH M rt rt 



,-. ^-^ 



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t^ CO f-H 



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CO O ■* CD f 

O CO 05 CD 1 

■omm t-^ 






4* a 



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sis 



"3 3 

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c3 2 S 



126 PANJAB CASTES. 

The Ithwal (No. 7).— The Jtlnval or Uthwal seem to be found chiefly in Ambala, Ludhianah, 
Jalaiidliar, and the adjoining territory of Patiala. But unless two distinct names have been 
confu-ed, they have a curiously large colony in Dehli, which appears to be completely separated 
from that of Ambala. They arc saiil to be descended from a Surajbansi Kajput called Maharaj 
who received tlie Tiickj'amc of Unthwal from bis love for camel-riding ! 

439. The Jats of the south-eastern districts. — The last group of Jat tribes 
that I have to discuss is fliat which occupies the Jamna districts, Jind, 
Rohtak, and Hissar. They call themselves Jat not Jat, and arc the same 
people in every respect as the Jat of the Jaiana-Ganges dodb and the lower 
Jamna vallev, differing however in little save religion from the great Sikh Jat 
tribes of the Mahva ; though perhaps the latter, inhabiting as they do the 
wide unirrigated plains of the central States, are of slightly finer physique 
than their neighbours of the damper riverain. The eastern Jats are almost 
without exception Hindu, the few among them who are Musalman being 
known as Mula or " unfortunate,'^ and dating their conversion almost without 
exception fi-om an ancestor who was taken as a hostage to Dehli and there 
forcibly circumcised. Indeed these men were not unfrequently received back 
into caste on their return from captivity, and their descendants are in this 
ease Hindus, though still known as Mula. Their traditions show them to 
have come up either from Bikaner and Rajputana, or northwards along the 
Jamna valley, and very few of them appear to have come from the Panjab to 
the Jamna. The Jats of Gurgaon indeed still look upon the Baja of Bhartpur 
as their natural leader, and the fall of Bhartpm- made such an impression on 
their minds that old men still refer to it as t he fera from which they date 
events. 

The Jat of these parts is, if anything, even a better cultivator than the 
Sikh Jat ; and that, chiefly because liis women assist him so largely in the 
field, performing all sorts of agricultural labour whether light or heavy, except 
ploughing for which they have not sufficient strength, and sowing which is 
under all circumstances a prerogative strictly confined to the made sex. 
Directly we leave the south-eastern districts and pass into the Sikh tract, 
women cease to perform the harder kinds of field-work, even among the Jats ; 
while in the Musalman districts they do not work at all in the fields. So 
essentially is the Jat a husbandman, and so especially is he the husbandman 
of these parts, that when asked his caste he will quite as often reply zaminddr [P. 234] 
as Jut, the two names being in that sense used as synonymous. The social 
standing of the Jat is that which the Gujar, Ahir, and Bor enjoy ; in fact 
these four castes eat and smoke together. They stand at the head of the castes 
who practise /f«;6?^« or widow-marriage, a good deal below the Rajput, l)ut 
far above the castes who grow vegetables, such as Arain and Mali. If the 
social scale is regulated by the rules of the Hindu religion they come below 
Banyas, who are admittedly better Hindus. But the manly Jat despises 
the money-grubbing Banya, and all other castes and tribes agree with him. 

In the extreme south-eastern corner of the Panjab the Jats who have 
come in from the north and west, from Rajputana and the Panjab, are known 
as Dhe, to distino;ni-;h them from the original Jat tribes of the neighbourhood 
who are collectively called J lele, the two sections abstaining from intermarriage 
and having in some respects different customs. In Sirsa again, that meeting 
place of races, where the Bagri Jat from the Bikaner prairies, the Sikh Jat 
from the ^Idlwa, and the Musalman Jat from the Satluj valley, meet the Jat 
of Hissar, the last are distinguished as Dese and the Musalman Jats as 
Pachhdde or western ; but these terms appear to be unknown to the people in 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 127 

tliei'r respective lionies. There the superiority of the Sikli and Dese .Tats over 
tlie stunted Bjtgri and the indolent enervated Jat of the Satluj is most 
strikingly apparent. 

There is an extraordinary division of the Jats of Dehli, Rohtak, and 
Karnal, and indeed of the other land-owning- castes who have for the most 
part taken the one side or the other, into two factions Imown as Dehia and 
Haulania. I quote the following- passage from my Settlement Report of 
Karnjil and Panipat : — 

" The Deliias are called after a .Tat tribe of that name, with its head-quarters about Bhatganw 
" in Sunpat, having originally come from Hawana near Dehli. The Haulania faction is headed by 
" the Ghatw.al or Malak .Tats, whose head-quarters are Dher-ka-Aliulana in Gohana, and who were, 
" owing to their successful opposition to the Rajputs, the accepted heads of the Jats in these parts. 
" Some one of the Emperors called them in to assist him in coercing the Mandah.ar Rajputs, and 
" thus the old enmity was strengthened. The Dehia Jats, growing powerful, became jealous of the 
" supremacy of the Ghatwals and joined the Mandahars against them. Thus the country side was 
" divided into two factions ; the Giijars and Tagas of the tract, the Jaglaii Jilts of thap'a Naultha, 
'•and the Latmar Jats of Rohtak joining the Dchias, and the Hiida Jats of Rohtak, and most of 
" the Jats of the tr.ict except the Jaglans, joining the Haulanias. In the mutiny, disturbances 
" took place in the Rohtak district between these two factions, and the ^fandahars of the Nardak 
" ravaged the Haulanias in the south of the tract. And in framing my zails I had to alter my 
" proposed division so as to separate a Dehia village which I had included with Haulanias, and 
'• which objected in consequence. The Dehia is also called the Jat, and occasionally the Mandahar 
" faction, Even Sir H. Elliott seems to have been unaware of the existence of these factions. The 
" Jats and Rajputs seem, independently of these divisions, to consider each other, tribally speaking, 
" as natural enemies ; and I have often been assured by Jats, though I do not believe it, that they 
" would not dare to go into a Rajput village at night." 

Mr. Maconachie quotes a Dehli tradition which makes two brothers from 
Rajputjina called Mom and ■''om the respective ancestors of the Haulania 
Rajputs of the tiodb and the Haulania Jats of Rohtak. 

Here again, in the south-eastern districts, the distinction between Jat and 
Rajput is definite and well-marked, the Jat always practising and the Rajput 
always abstaining from karewa ; though I do not think that here a family 
could raise itself from the former to the latter caste by discontinuing the 
custom, as would appear to be possible elsewhere. The figures for the tribes 
we are to consider are given in Abstract No. ? 7 on the opposite page,** the 
,g" ^'^'^' tribes being roughly arranged from north to south down the Jamna valley, 
and then westwards along the southern border of the Province. The last five 
tribes will be considered under Rajputs ; and they are shown in this abstract, 
not because they are retm-ned as Jats especially in this part of the Panjab, but 
because the Rajput tribes to which they belong will be discussed under the 
head of Rajputs of the Eastern Plains. The tril^es in this group are neither so 
large nor so important as those of the Sikh tracts, and in many cases t have 
little or no information to give concerning them. There seems a great 
tendency in these parts to split up into small clans, retaining the tradition of 
common tribal descent, but commonly using the name of the clan and not of 
the tril)e. 

440. The Jat tribes of the South-Eastern Districts. The Ghatwal (No. 1 \ —This is the 
only one of the ti-ibes now under consideration who trace theii" origin from Ghar Ghazni ; and even 
they place that city in the Decean and not in Afghanistan. They claim descent from Saroha 
Rajputs. Their head-quarters are at Ahulana in the Gohana tnhsfl of Rohtak, and they occupy 
the country between it and the Jamna, being numerous in the north of Delili and the south of 
Karnal. I suspect that our figures for Rohtak are considerably under the truth. Ahulana is said 
to have been founded 22 generations ago, and gives its name to the Haulania faction already 
mentioned. The Ghatwal are often called Malak, a title they are said to have obtained as 
follows : — 

" In the old days of Rajput .ascendancy the Rajputs would not allow Jdts to cover their heads 
"with a turban, nor to wear any red clothes, nor to put a crown (jwor) on the head of their 
" bridegroom, or a jewel ()ja^) in their women's noses. They also used to levy seiguorial rights 



*P. 128- 



128 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 77, showing the Jat Tribes [p. 235] 



.TATS OF THE 



Delili 

Guvpaon 

Kanial 

Hissar 
Rnhtak 
Sii-M 

Anibala 
Lnilliiaiia 

Jalniidlmv 

fiarJasinir ... 
Sialkot 

Ranali)iiuli ... 

British Territory ... 

Patiala 

•liiiil 

Total Eafiteni I'lniiif; ... 

Bahawalliiir 

T.jtaniill StatoP 

BritiRh Territory... 
Native States 
]'rovinco 



4,434 
109 

261 

2,392 

2,219 

1 

48 
20 

5.50 

29 
238 

138 

11,814 

77 
101 
315 
797 

11,814 

1,112 

12,926 



8,558 

4,815 

49 

61 

2,065 

13 



i-s I M 



122 4,20: 
5,116 j 2,485 
3 749 



617 
4,232 



2,709 



15,561 12,678 

i 
102 ' 108 

00 



6 6 



14,334 
37 



3,070 



441 I ... 
9,74U 1 10,800 
140 

03 
60 



12,409 

1,204 
635 



287 I 230 1,958 



15,561 

287 

15,848 



12,678 



12,409 



240 1,958 

! 

12,918 I 11,867 



24,698 

80 
8 

127 

1 

24,608 

123 

24,826 



1,470 

1,1.56 

718 

452 

6,410 



359 
2,930 



8 9 10 



11,098 



11 

1,951 

94 



133 



20,216 1 13,573 



93 



1,850 

249 

22 

1,531 

7,883 
14 



1,746 

2,763 

163 

6,869 

1 



lUS 


4-Ui 


20,216 


13,573 


108 


440 


20,324 


14,013 



13,228 

1 ,9:'.',) 

20 

1,9.")9 



13,228 
1,959 
16,187 



583 

•143 

12,581 

313 

1,,342 

1,794 

45 

12,581 
1,839 
14,420 



11,584 

705 

801 

1 

11,584 

803 

12,386 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES, 
of the South-Eastern Districts. 



129 



SOUTH -KASTERN DISTRICTS . 



11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


3 
ft 

a- 




Tc 

o 

s 


-5 

i ^ 


a 






1 

h 


5j 


-3 


1 


•5 


720 


! 


19G 


i -«^ 






928 


2,669 




257 




141 


1,408 


772 


1,222 


; 33 


157 






2,214 




1,580 




0,933 


2,045 


' 39 


5 


508 






351 


45 




635 




39 


62 




372 


2,2G3 


7,278 


3,726 


1,074 


51 


872 


677 




219 


4,009 


4,039 


2,386 


4,604 


2,163 


1,739 


111 


44 


- 2 


121 




205 






21 


45 


1,583 


1,846 


201 




32 


241 




53 


356 


9 




16 


3,083 


1,150 
146 


233 


23 


262 

125 


275 
616 

282 


1,570 
158 


176 


375 










637 




... 


930 
45 


254 
1,624 

1,037 


89 


50 
1,324 

P2 


9,055 


4,898 


4,202 


7,757 


14,812 


9,411 


3,074 


6,046 


8,519 


27,109 


1,827 


12,6?,^ 


... 




39 


268 


1,086 


1,864 


5,884 


83 


1,494 


2,902 


3,438 


... 


671 


38 


2,958 


7,(-'82 


1,U03 




1 




22 


C6 


2U9 


... 


720 


88 


3,081 


8 222 


3,316 


1 ,907 


5,895 


83 


2,250 
1 


3,504 
2 
44 


5,311 
1 


I 
••t 


9,055 


4,898 


4,202 


7,757 


14,812 


9,411 


3,074 


5,046 


8,519 


27.109 


1,827 


12,638 


720 


•6S 


3,081 


8,222 


8,316 


1,967 


5,895 


83 


2,251 


8,550 


6,312 


1| 


9,775 


4,936 


7,283 


15,979 


18,128 


11,878 


8,969 


5,129 


5,770 


30,C59 


7,189 


12,639 



ISO PANJAB CASTES. 

" froiTi virgin hrifles. Even to this day Rii^puts will not allow inferioi- castes to wear red clothes or 
" ample loin clothes in their villages. The Ghatwals ohtained some siiceesses over the Eii;iputs, 
" especially over the !Mandahars of the dodh near Deohan and Jlanglaur, and over those of the Bngar 
" near Kalanaiir and Dadri, and removed tlie ohnoxious prohihitions. They thus acquired the title 
" oi Malah (master) and a redturhan as their distinguishing mark ; and to this day a Jat with a 
" red pagi'i is most probahly a Ghatwal." 

Mr. Fanshawe says that the title is a mere nickname conferred by a Malik or chief called Rai 
Pal ; vet in Rohtak they appear generally to he called Malak rather than Ghatwal, and perhaps 
this is the cause of the smallness of the Rohtak figures, though I ordered the two names to be taken 
tosrcther. Who the Ghatwal of Bahawalpixr are, I cannot explain. I may notice that there are 
in" several parts of India, and especially in Monghyr and its neighbourhood, tribes of low-class 
R'\ipiits called Ghatwiib, who holder held assignments of revenue on condition of defending the 
gMts or passes in the hills by which the hill tribes were wont to make predatory incursions into 
the plains below. 

The Dagar (No. 2). — The D agar are numerous in Dehli and Giirgacn and there is a small 
colonv in Rohtak. I have no information concerning them. 

TheJakhar andSangwan (Nos. 3 and 14). — These tribes are said to be descended from a 
Chauhan Eii.iput only 20 generations back, who came from Rikaner, and whose four sons founded 
the Jakhar, Sangwan," Piru, and Kadian Jats, for the last two of which I do not show separate 
figure- as they are of but little importance. The Sangwan are most numerous in Jind and Hissar, 
till u£rh there is a small colony of them in Rohtak also ; while the Jakhar are almost confined to 
Gurgaon and the adjoining .Thajjar taJisU of Rohtak. 

The Sahrawat (No. 4). — The Sahrawat claim to be descended from Sahra, a son or grandson 
of Raia Anangpal Tunwar. They are almost confined to Dehli, Gurgaon, Rohtak, and the 
adioinino- Patiala territory. In Rohtak their settlement dates from some 25 generations back. 

The Dehia (No. 5). — This is the tribe which has given its name to the Dehia faction men- 
tioned in section 439. Tlicy are found on the north-eastern border of the Sampla and the adjoining 
portionof the Sunpat /a X«?Z of Rohtak and Dehli. They claim to be descended from a Chauhan 
R :'nput named Manik Rai by a Dhankar Jat woman. This is probably the Manik Rai Chauhan 
•who founded Hansi. Another account mnkes then- ancestor Dhadhij, son of Haria Harpal, son of 
Prithi Raja. The Dehia is one of the 36 royal tribes of Rajputs, whose original home was about 
the confluence of the Satluj with the Indus.' They are probably the Dahise of Alexander. 

The Golia (No. 6).— The Golia or Gawalia are a very curious tribe. They declare that they [p, 236] 
were originally Brahmans who lost caste by inadvertently drinking liquor placed outside a di?tiUer'8 
house in large vessels ignl). The Local Brahmans apparently admit the truth of thi.4 story. They 
now intermarry with Jat^, but not with the Dagar or Salanki; for while they were Brahmans the 
latter were their clients, while when they first lost caste the former alone of all Jat tribes 
would give them their daughters to wife, and so have been adopted as $H4.si-l)rethren. They came 
from Indor to Rohtak some 30 generations ago. They are only found in Rohtak and Karnal. 
Tlie scattered entries probably reier to a few Gwalas or Ahirs who have been returned as Jats. 

The Rathi (No. 7\— The word Rath is used in Sirsa as synonymous with Pachhada, to denote 
Musalman Jats or Rajpiits from the Satluj. It is said to mean " strong-handed " or zahardast. 
In Rohtak, however, there is a distinct Rathi tribe of Jats who claim to be by origin Tunwar 
Rajputs, and are among the oldest inhabitants of the ti'act. They are descended from a brother of 
the* ancestor of the Rohal and Dhankar Jats, and the three tribes do not intermarry. Tliey are 
found in Dehli and Gurgaon as well as in Rohtak, and apparently in Ludhiana, though it is 
perhaps doubtful whether these last are the same tribe. 

The Khatrl (No. 8). — Tliis tribe appears to be very numerous in Dehli, and to be found also 
in Rohtak and Patiala. I have no information regarding them. 

The Dalai (No. 9). — This is another of the great Rohtak tribes, and is found also in the 
adjoining territory of Dehli, Hissar and Ji'nd. They claim to be descended from a Rathor Rajpiit 
wlio settled in Rohtak and married a Bargiijar Jat woman some 30 generations back. By her he 
had four sons from whom the Dalai, Deswal, Man, and Sewiig (? Sewal) Jats have sprung, and 
these four tribes do not intermarry. But compare the account of the origin of the Man given in 
section 435. The same four tribes have a tradition of common descent and a prohibition against 
inter-marriago in Karndlalso. 

The Ahlawat (No. 10). — The Ahlawat are said to be descended from a Chauhan Riljput 
who came from Sambhar in Jai]nu- some 30 generations ago. From him sprang the AhLlwat, 
Olian, Biima, Mare, and Jun Jats who do not intei-marry. The tribe is found in Rohtak, Dehli 
and Karnal. Its members worship a common ancestor called Sadu Deb. 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 131 

TheDhankar(No. 12). — I have said that the Dhankar are of the same stock as the Rathi. 
They are almost confined to .Thajjar iu Rohtak, and are perhaps nothing more tlian a local clan of 
the Katlii tribe. 

The PhOgat (No. 13).— This tribe possesse! some importance in Jmd, and has spread into the 
neighbouring portions of Gurgaou and Rohtak. The only fact I liave concerning them is that they 
will not intermarry with the Deswal ; but the reason is not explained, 

The Sangwan (No. 14).— The Sangwana, re descended from the ancestor of the Jakhar already 
mentioned. Their head-quarters arc in Jind ; but they are also found in Rohtak and Hissar. 

The Pawania (No. 15). — The Pawania are a Hissar tribe who are also found in Rohtak, Sirsa, 
Jind, and the detaclied portion of Patiala and, curiously enough, in Ambala. I have no information 
to give regarding them. 

The Bahniwal (No. 16).— The Bahnfwal are found chiefly in the Hissar division and Patiala. 
They are also found on the Lower Satluj in Montgomery, where they have probably returned them- 
selves as Bhatti Rajpiits, which they claim to be by descent. Mr. Purser says of them :—" In 
" numbers they are weak ; but in love of robliery they yield to none of the tribes." They gave much 
trouble in 1857. In the 15th century tlic Bahniwklheld one of the six cantons into which Bikaner 
was then divided. 

The Nain (No. 17).— The Nain are chiefly found in the detached portions of Patiala, but 
have spread into Hissar and Dehli. I have no information regarding them. 

THE RAJPtlT (CASTE No. 2). 

441. The Rajputs of the Panjab.— The distribution of the Rajputs 
and allied races is shown in Abstract No. 71, page 219.^ I do not propose 
to enter into any detailed description or discussion of the Rajput. He is 
much the same all over Northern India, and more has been published about 
him than about any other Indian caste. The great authority is Tod's 
Rdjdsthdn, while both Elliott and Sherring give much useful information. 
I have already expressed in sections 422-3 my views as to the identity of the 
Jat and Rajput stock as it stands at present, and how the Rajputs merely 
consist of the royal families of that stock. I might indeed have gone further, 
and have said that a tribe of any caste whatever which had in ancient times 
possessed supreme power throughout any fairly extensive tract of country, 
would be classed as Rajput. It seems to me almost certain that some of the 
so-called Rajput royal families were aboriginal ; and notably the Chandel. 
How the aborigines of the Nepal Himalayas rose to be Kshatriya is well told 
by Hodgson in his Essay on the Military Tribes of Nepal. He points out 
that when the Brahmans were driven up'into the hills by the advancing tide 
of Mahomedan conquest, they wedded with the aboriginal women whom they 
found there. But to render this possible it was necessary to conciliate the 
people among whom they had come to dwell ; and they called their first 
converts among them Kshatriya, while to their own offspring by the hill 
women they gave not only Kshatriya rank and privileges, but Brahminical 

patronymics. 

" From these two roots mainly sprang the now numerous, predominant, aind extensively 
" ramified tribe of Khas — originally the name of a small clan of creedless barbarians, but now the 
" proud title of the Kshatriya or military order of Nepal. Thus too the key to the anomalous 
" nomenclature of so many stirpes of these military tribes is to be sought in the nomenclature of the 
" sacred order." And even now in spite of the yearly increasing sway of Hinduism, and of the 
efforts of Brahmans in high oflice to abolish the custom, the Khas stiU, insist that "the fruits of 
" commerce (for marriage is now out of the question) between their females and males of the 
"sacred order shall be ranked as Kshatriya, wear the thread, and assume the patronymic title." 
So again, when the Rajput immigi-ants from the plains took aboriginal women in concubinage 
(and concubinage among the hill people is for all purposes of legitimacy and inheritance the same as 
marriage), "they were permitted to give their children so begotten the patronymic title only, not 
" the rank of Kshatriya. But their childi-en again, if they married for two generations with the 
•' Khas, became pure Khas, or real Kshatriyas in point of privilege and rank though no longer so in 
"name. They were Khas, not Kshatriya, and yet they bore the proud title cognominal of the 
«' martial order of the Hindus, and were in the land of their nativity entitled to every prerogative 
" which Kshatriya birth confers in Hindustan." 



m PANJAB CASTES. 

A reference to my description of tlie Kanets of our hills will show that 
something of the same sort has gone on in the Panjiib Himalayas, though 
necessarily in a much lower degree, since here the Aryan and not the ahorigine 
was predominant ; and the description of the Hill Rajputs, and still more of the 
Thahars and Rat his, which Avill be found in this section under their respective 
headings, will show how, if the Turanian is not as in Nepal admitted to 
Kshatriya rank, it is at any rate impossible to draw any line among the Aryan 
races, all above which shall be Rajputs and all below it non-Rajputs. As the 
Kaugra proverb runs — " In the seventh generation the Ghirathni becomes a 
" queen/' 

The Rajputs of the Panjab are fine brave men, and retain the feudal C^' 237. 
instinct more strongly developed tlian perhaps any other non-menial caste, the 
tiibal heads wielding extraordinary authority. They are very tenacious of 
the integrity of their communal property in the village lands, seldom admit- 
ting strangers to share it with them. Pride of blood is their strongest 
characteristic, for pride of blood is the very essence of their Rajputhood. 
They are lazy and poor husbandmen and much prefer pastoral to agricultural 
pursuits, looking upon all manual labour as derogatory and upon the actual 
operation of ploughing as degrading ; and it is only the poorest class of 
Rajput who will himself follow the plough. They are, in most parts of the 
Panjfib plains, cattle-stealers by ancestral profession ; but they exercise their 
calling in a gentlemanly way, and there is certainly honour among Rajput 
thieves. 

442. The Rajput tribes of the Panjab. — The Rajputs of the Panjab may 
be broadly divided into four groups, each of which I shall discuss separately 
in the following paragraphs. First come the Rajputs of the Dehli Territory 
and Jamna valley, for the most part belonging to the two great tribes of 
Chauhan and Tunwar which gave Dehli its most famous dynasties. Next 
come the Rajputs of the river valleys of the Western Plains, many of them 
hardly or not at all to be distinguished fi-om Jats, and belonging for the most 
part to the Bhatti of Jaisalraer and Bikaner, and their predecessors the 
Punwar. The third group is the Rajputs of the western hills including the 
Salt-range Tract, coinprising both dominant tribes of proud position such as 
the Janjua and mongrel Rajputs from the Jaramu hills, and descendants either 
of the Yadubansi (Bhatti) dynasty of Kashmir and the mythical Raja Rasalu 
of Sialkot so famous in Panjab folklore, or of a group of tribes, apparently 
of Punwar origin, which now hold the hills on either bank of the Jahlam. 
Finally we have the Rajputs of the Kangra hills of whom the Katoch may 
be taken as the type, so ancient that their very origin and advent to their 
present abodes are lost in the past ; and the Rajputs of the lower hills which 
fringe the Panjab Himalayas. With the Rajputs I take the Thakar and 
Rathi who are lower grades of Rajputs rather than separate castes, and 
the Rawat whose position is still more difficult of definition. It will 
be noticed that I do not mention the Rajputs of the Sikh tract, of the 
central districts, and of the Phulkian States of the Eastern Plains. As a 
fact they are few, and the few there are are unimpoitant. Nor have I men- 
tioned the Rajputs of the frontier districts, for here again they are insignifi- 
cant both in numbers and importance. The reason why the Rajput disappears 
before the Sikh, the Pathan, and the Biloch I have already explained in 
section 4-22. Abstract No. 71, on page 219,* shows the distribution of ^. p^ 
Rajputs and allied castes. The small number in the Hill States is curious. 98.9[ 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES, 



133 



There only the ruling families are Rajput; the mass of the peasantry 
eonsisting of Kanets or Ghiraths, if indeed these last ean be separated at 
all from Ralhis and Rawats. In the Dehli division and Rohtak the Jat has 
largely taken the plaee of the Rajput ; but such Rajputs as there are are 
Rajputs in very deed. In the Multiln division the number of Rajputs re- 
turned is very large ; but I have already shown how large a proportion of 
them should more jiroperly be classed as Jats, if indeed any distinction can 
be drawn between the two. 

443. Tribal statistics for Rajputs. — The figures for tribes will bo given under the respective 
groups to which they belmig. They are more than usually inaccurate, partly because a Rajput is 
BO ditlicult of definition, but still more because the Rajputs are divided into a few gi'eat tribes or 
royal races as they are commonly called, the Jculs of the Rajput annals, and each of these tribes 
again into innumerable local clans or sachi or gots. Almost every Rajput will refer himself 
rightly or wrongly to some one of the great kills, as well as state the local clan to which he beyond 
all doubt belongs ; and thus we have members of the same clan and descendants of the same 
ancestor i-etm-ning themselves as belonging to different tribes, while multitudes of persons appear 
twice over in the Abstracts, first under tlioir tribe or Jcul, and again under their clan or got. 

It must be remembered that such of the figures as arc shown for Rajput tribes in the 
Abstracts of the following pages under the head Jat, refer to people who have retm-ned themselves 
as Jat by caste, and Bhatti, Cliauhan, and so forth by tribe. In the gi'cat majority of cases this 
latter entry represents mere traditional origin, ^rather than that the people in question actually 
claim that they are Bliatti or Chauhan at the present moment. In many cases they have returned 
their Jat tribe as well. Abstract No. 78 below gives the numbers entered for various tribes under 
Jat and Rajput, respectively, and shows how extensively this sort of entry has been made. 

Abstract No. 78, showing Tribes entered both as Jat and as Rajput. 



JOINT LIST OF JAT AND RAJPUT CLANS. 



Bagri 

Bhakial 

Bahuiwal 

Bhatti 
Bliutta 
Chhadhar 

Chauhan 

Dhanial 

Dhudhi 

Gondal 
J an j mi 
Joy a 

Kharral 

KIn'chi 

Khokliar 

Langah 

Mahal 

Mandaiiai 

Manilas 

Manj 

Mckan 



CLANS. 



British Tebbitoby. 


Native 


States. 


Jats. 


Rajputs. 


Jats. 


Rajputs. 


3,519 

4,863 
9,411 


11,141 

5,144 

43 


2,251 

13 

1,967 


908 
3,378 


94,6G5 
20,431 
20,387 


204,569 

4,891 

10,435 


1,193 

2,108 

17 


38,262 

194 

1,311 


27,109 
10,026 
12,315 


145,195 
4,388 
7,649 


3,550 
'" 1,087 


18,831 
"" 113 


47,276 

8,419 

12,338 


43,220 
38,552 
25,301 


325 
15 


10 
11 

5,262 


18,582 

3,337 

42,110 


14,242 
12,721 
45,731 


237 

254 
221 


2,042 

60S 

9,649 


9,083 
0,598 
1,827 


2,348 

118 

14,693 


59 

1,032 
|5,312 


1 

721 

2,637 


0,570 
2,054 
3,157 


49,424 

26,309 

5,968 


15 
1 


216 
2,676 



134; 



PAN.TAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 78, showing Tribes entered both as Jat and as Rajput- 

couehided. 
~ JOINT LIST OF JAT AND RAJPUT CLANS. 



Clans. 


Beitish Tebkitoet. 


Native 


States. 


Jats. 


Rajputs. 

53,151 

7,490 

30 

2,809 

76,957 

218 

35,919 

4,228 
7,118 

17,484 


Jats. 


Rajputs. 


Ptimvar 
Raniha 
Rathi 

Rawat 

Sial 

Sumra 

Tunwar 
Tarar 

Virk 

Wattu 


16,959 

10,903 
13,573 

5,046 
17,093 

12,558 

12,638 
18,925 
35,527 

2,963 


887 

53 

440 

83 
273 

1 
19 

889 

244 


7,853 

113 

256 
2,101 

3,299 
3,704 



444. Rajputs of the Eastern Plains. — The tribes which I shall first discuss [P. 
are divided into two groups. All but the last four are almost confined to the 
Dehli territory, at least as Rajputs proper, and are roughly arranged in order 
from north to south down the Jamna valley, and then westwards through 
Rohtak and Hissar. The last four tribes carry on the series through Patiala, 
Firozpur, and Gujranwala, and connect the Rajputs of the Eastern with those 
of the Western Plains. The first group belongs chiefly to the great royal 
families of the Rajputs who, occupying the Dehli territory, have not as a rule 
superseded their old tribal designation by a local name, as has been so often 
the case in the west of the Panjab. The great majority of them are descend- 
ants of the Tunwar and Chauhan dynasties of Dehli. Their local distribution 
is fairly well marked, the Tunwar lying to the north-west of the first group, 
and shutting off the Jat Tribes of the Central Plains from the Rajputs of the 
Dehli territory, their line being broken only, I believe, by the Chauhan colony 
on the Ghaggar of the Hissar border. Next to them come the Chauhan, 
Mandahar, and Pundir of the Kurukshetr, and the Rawat, Gaurwa, Bargujar, 
and Jadu of Dehli and Gurgfion, followed by the Jatu, themselves Tunwar, 
and the Bagri of Hissar. The Punwar colony of Rohtak will be discussed 
with the Rcljputs of the Western Plains. The Jats who are shown in the 
Abstract on the next page'^ are very largely if not wholly true Jats, who have # 
returned a real Jat tribe and have been shown under that tribe among Jats, 136 
but have also entered the Rajput tribe from which they claim to be descended, 
and are thus entered under that head also. The Rjijput of these parts is a 
true Rajput. Living in the shadow o£ Dehli, the capital of his ancestral 
dynasties, he clings to the traditions of his caste. He cultivates largely, for 
little other occupation is left him ; but he cultivates badly, for his women are 
more or less strictly secluded and never work in the fields, while he considers 
it degrading to actually follow the plough, and will always employ hired 
ploughmen if he can possibly afford it . He is a great cattle-grazier and as 
great a cattle-thief. His tribal feeling is strong, and the beads of the village 
or local group of villages have great iafluence. He is proud, lazy, sometimes 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 135 

turbulent, Init generally with something more of the gentleman about him 
# p than we find in the more rustic Jat. Al)stract No. 79 on the opposite page* 
136-37. gives the distribution of these tribes. 

445. The Rajput tribes of the Eastern Plains. The Tunwar (No. l).~Tho Tunwar, 
altliongli a su))-ilivisioii ol' the .I;iilul)aiiHi, in generally i'cckone<l as one of tlio 36 royal tribes of 
Rajputs. It fiirnislicd India with tlio dynasty of Vikraiiiaditya, the beacon of later Hindu 
chronology, and Dehli with its last Indian rulers, Anangpal, the last Tunwar llaja, abdicating in 
favour of his Chauhan grandchild Pirthi Raj, iu whose time the Musalmans conquered North- 
western India. An early Anangpal Tiiuwar founded in 792 A.D. the city of D<>hli on the 
ruins of the ancient Indrapat, and his dynasty ruled there for three and a half centuries. It is 
therefore natural tliat the Tunwar should bo found chiefly in the eastern districts of the Province. 
In Dehli itself, indeed, they are less numerous than might have been expected. But they are 
exceedingly numerous in Amhala, Hissar, and Sirsa. The name being a famous one, many Raj- 
piits of various tribes which have no real connection with the Tunwar have returned it. Thus 
1,200 men iu Karnal are returned as Chauhan Tvinwar, who arc probably Chauhans. So in 
Rawalpindi 1,939 men are shown as Bhatti Tunwar, though here the confusion is more excusable, 
being justiiied by origin though not by modern usage. The figures are of course shown twice over 
in each case. The figures for Tunwar Jats probably represent nothing more than traditional 
origin. Half the number are in Gurgaon, where there is a considerable settlement of Tiinwar 
Rajputs. 

The Tunwar are the westernmost of the great Rajput tribes of the Eastern Panjab. When 
ejected from Dehli they are said to have settled at Piiuchn in Karnal, on the Ambala border and 
once the seat of the Pundir, and thence to have spread both north and south. They now occupy 
Hariana or the greater part of the Hissar district, and stretch across Karnal and the south of 
Patiiila into the west of the Ambala district, separating the Chauhan and other Rajputs who hold 
the Jamna districts to the cast of them from the great Jat tribes of the Malwa which lie to their 
west. There is, however, a Chauhan colony to the north-west of them on the Lower Qhaggar in the 
Hissar district and Patiala. The Jatu of Hariana are a Tunwar clan. 

The Chauhan (No. 2). — The Chauhan is one of the Agnikula tribes and also one of the 36 
royal families. Tod calls them the most valiant of the whole Rajput race, aiid to them belonged 
the last Hindu ruler of Hindustan. Before the seat of their power was moved to Dehli, Ajmer 
and Sambhar in Jaipur seem to have been their home. After their ejectment from Dehli they are 
said to have crossed the Jamna to Sambhal in Muradiibad, and there still dwell the genealogists 
and bards of the Chauhan of the Nardak of Karnal and Ambala. This tract, the ancient Kuruk- 
shetr or battle-field of the Kauravas and Paudavas, is still occupied very largely by Rajputs ; 
in the west by the Tunwar, themselves descendants of the Pandavas, but for the most part by the 
Chauhan whose central village is Jundla in Karnal, and who occupy all the country lying im- 
mediately to the east of the Tiiuwar tract in Ambala and Karnal and the adjoining parts of Patiala, 
Nabha, and Jind, All this country was held by the Pundir Rajpivts till the Chauhan came over 
from Sambhal under Rana Har Rai some 20 generations ago, probably in the time of Bahlol Lodi, 
and drove the Pundir across the Jamna. The Chauhan appear from our figm-es to be numerous 
throughout the remaining districts of the Dehli and Hissar divisions and in Giijranwala, Firozpur, 
Rawalpindi, and Shahpur. But Chaululn being perhaps the most famous name in the Rajput 
annals, many people who have no title to it have shown themselves as Chauhan. In Karnal 1,520 
Pundir, 850 Punw.ir, 1,200 Tunwar, 6,300 Mandahar, and some 900 of other tribes have shown 
themselves as Chauhan also. In Shahpur 6,700 persons are returned as Gondal Chaulian, and this 
accounts for the so-called Chauhans of this district. The Jat Chauhans, too, are probably for the 
most part Jat tribes of alleged Chauhan origin. Thus among the Jats, in Gujranwala 2,200 Chima 
and nearly 1,000 persons of other Jat tribes, in Firozpur 600 Joya and 200 Sidhu, and in Jahlam 
2,000, and in Giljriit 650 Gondal, have returned themselves as Chauhan also, and so in many minor 
instances. All these figures are shown twice over. The Khichi and Varaich are also Chauhan 
clans numerous in the Panjab, and have perhaps sometimes returned themselves as Chauhan only. 
The Chauhan of the Dehli district have taken to wi>low-marriage, and are no longer recognised by 
their fellow Rajpiits. The Chauhan of Gurgaon have, however, retained their pre-eminent position, 
and are connected with the Chauluiu family of Nimrana, a small State now subject to Alwar. 

The Mandahar (No. 3).— The Mandaluir are almost confined to the Nardak of Karnal, 
Ambala and the neighbouriug portion of Patiala. They are said to have come from Ajudhia to 
.Jind, driving the Chandel and Bra Rajputs who occupied the tract into the Siwaliks and across 
the Ghaggar respectively. They then fixed their capital at Kalayit iu Patiala, with minor centres 
at Safidon in Jind and Asaiidh in Karnal. They lie more or less between the Tiinwar and 
Chauhan of the tract. But they have in more recent times spread down below the Chauhan into 
the Jamna riverain of the Karnal district, with Gharaunda as a local centre. They were settled 
in these parts before the advent of the Chauhan, and were chastised at Samana in Patiala by Firo;^ 
Shah. The Mandahar, Kandahar, Bargiijar, Sankarwal, and Panihjir Rajputs are said to be des- 
fiended from Lavva, a sou of Riim Chandi'a, and thercfoi-e to be Solar Rajputs ; and in Karnal aj 



136 



PANJAB^CAStES. 

Abstract No. 79, showing the Rajput [P. 239] 





RAJPUTS OP THE 




1 2 


3 


4 




6 






TCNW.VK. 


CHAinAy. 


JIakdahae. 


S 
S 


Eawat. 




-3 


tr; 


p. 


ts 


-3 
P. 


►-5 


.1 


>-s 


rt ma 


Dchli 

fiurgaou 

Kanial 


1,038 
1,754 
3,070 


141 

5,933 

39 


3,6.58 
9,287 
31,642 


257 

1,580 

635 


38 

138 

10,743 




19 

25 

1,753 


1,323 
15 

8 


2,669 

2,214 

45 


1,025 


Hissar 
Rohtali 
Sirsa 


6,102 
1,644 
4,042 


219 

205 
53 


6,910 

5,884 
4,120 


677 
121 
241 


243 

253 

19 




1 

50 
10 


10 
"'13 


51 
44 




Ambala 
Ludhiaua 


9,867 
527 


"so 


43,555 
1,835 


275 
616 


2,270 

101 


1,.570 

158 


2,106 
3 




23 


4,402 
1,807 


Jalaiulliar 
Husliyarpur ... 
Kaiigia 


928 

170 
33S 


176 


1,515 
3,402 
1,136 


282 
75 
12 






"'53 
173 


"495 
667 




2,438 
275 

1 


Amritsar 

(iiuflaspur 
Sialkot 


426 
477 

217 


30 

50 

1,324 


670 

1,632 

479 


768 

2.54 

1,524 


"ii6 


"'89 








.„ 


Lahore 

Gujr.'inwMa 

Firozpur 


707 

149 

1,223 


201 

724 

2,763 


2,239 
4,834 
4,785 


946 
7,604 
1,495 


"457 


"10 




"274 




""32 


Kawaliiiiuli ... 
Jliclum 
Gii.ir&t 
bhahpur 


2,187 

240 

50 

08 


62 
246 

203 
51 


3,629 
1,594 

88 
8,042 


1,037 

1,989 

1,866 

172 


60 

229 

10 

16 












Jlultun 
Jhaiig 

Montgomery ... 
Muzaffargarh... 


31 

157 

439 

1 


3 

27 
41 
27 


2,134 
226 

1,355 
222 


505 

165 

1,792 

1,163 


::: 




8 


1 
"' 2 


... 




British Territory ... 


85,919 


12,638 


145,195 


27,109 


11,693 


1,827 


4,296 


2,809 


5,046 


9,994 


I'atiila 

Xabha 

Kapurtliala ... 

Jiiul 

Faridkot 

Jlalor Kotla ... 

Kalbia 


1,221 
621 

23 
350 
108 
208 

49 




6,975 
2,983 
487 
1,248 
398 
570 
990 


2,902 

480 

5 

50 

25 

8 

20 


2,053 

68 

469 
3 
6 
36 


3,438 

21s 
102 
209 

45 
1,180 

59 


42 
5 

"' 5 

84 


"'41 

24 
2 


83 


3,242 
266 
609 

302 

23 

1,890 

701 


Total EaBt. Plains 


2,907 


1 


14,843 


3,504 


2,035 


5,311 


136 


67 


83 


7,033 


Uahnwalpur m> ... 






2,4;30 


2 


... 










... 


Total Hill SlatcB 


392 




1,5.19 


4-1 


2 


1 


469 


46 




173 


BritishTerritory ... 
Native Statee 
Province 

1 


35,919 

3,299 

39,218 


12,638 

1 

12,639 


145,195 

18,831 

164,026 


27,109 

3,550 

30,659 


14,693 

2,637 

17,330 


1,827 
5,312 
7,139 


4,296 

605 

4,901 


2,809 

113 

2,922 


6,046 

83 

5,129 


9,994 

7,206 

17,200 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 
Tribes of the Eastern Plains. 



187 



KASTKRN PLAINS. 



5 
"236 

68 

'"so 



6 

ino 

40 



162 
29 



5,983 



204 

49 

3 



25 

281 



176 

1,261 

102 



317 

350 

57 



5,983 

283 

6,266 



l,no5 



13 



141 
223 



2,515 



2,138 



2,296 
24 



20 
" 3 

108 I 2,345 



2,515 

198 

2,713 



175 

613 

1,428 



4,074 

2,289 

73 



2,138 
2,442 
4,580 



295 



10 



32 
1,020 

24 



5,647 
520 



3,712 



8,957 

199 

551 

2 

956 

2 
7 
8 

1,946 



8,957 

1,946 

10,903 



11,141 

32 
6 

"707 
908 



11,141 

908 

12,049 



262 

1:15 



1-0 

ir, 
"345 

45 
"246 



386 
25 



3,519 



1,494 
113 



572 
31 



2,250 



3,519 
2,251 
5,770 



613 



493 

271 
824 



1,121 
91 



979 

1,247 
106 



57 



5,916 



7,818 
4,144 



131 



■M-.r. 

106 



12,665 



5,916 
12,745 
18,661 



261 
1,354 

118 



68 



14 



16 


1,858 


6,550 






"'12 


6,550 


13 


16 
6,550 
6,566 


1,858 

12 

1,870 



49G 
138 
374 



93 

132 



440 



157 

1 ,580 

88 

810 



10 

835 

1 



37 
57 
705 
132 



6,355 



212 
'31 

175 

40 

3 



476 

120 

06 

6,355 



Dclili. 

(iurpion. 

Kunu'il. 



Ilissiif. 
RohUik. 
Sirsa. 



Anibala. 
LudliKUia. 



.lalandliar. 

lloshyarpLU'. 

Kuiigra, 



Anu-itsar. 

Guvdaspui". 

Sialkot. 



Lahore. 

GujraHW.'ila. 

I'irozpui'. 



Rawalpindi. 
Jlioluin. 
(ivi.ji'At. 
Shah pur. 



.Mult an. 
.Ihaiig. 
Mcnil joinery. 
Jluzallurgarh. 



Britisb. Territory. 



Pati;\Ia. 

Niibha. 

Kapurtliala. 

Jinil. 

Karidkot. 

Maler Kolla. 

Kalsia. 



Total East. Plains, 
r.ahawalpur. 
Total Hill States. 



British Tcrritcrv 
671 1' Native States. 
7,026 Province. 



138 PANJAB CASTES. 

least they do not intermarr}'. A few Mandabdr arc found cast of the Jamna in Saharanpur, bnt 
the tribe appears to be very local. 

The Pundir (No. 4). — The Pandi'r would appear to belong to the Dahima royal race of which 
Tod says : — ■" Seven centuries have swept away all recollection of a tribe who once afforded one 
of the proudest tliemes for the song of the barl." They were the most powerful vassals of the 
Chauhan of Dehli, and Pundir commanded the Lahore frontier under Pix-thi Raj. The original 
seat of the Panjah Pundir was Thiinesar and the Kurukshetr of Karnal and Amhala, with local 
capitals at Piindi'i, Ramha, Hahri, and Pundrak ; but they uere dispossessed by the Chauhan under 
Rana Har Rai, and for tlie most part fled beyond the Jamua. They are, however, still found in 
the Indi'i pargannah of Karnal and the adjoining portion of Ambala. 

The Rawat (No. 5). — The Rawat has been retui-ucd as a Jat tribe, as a Rajput tribe, and as a L" •240J 
separate caste. I have shown the three sets of figures side by side in Abstract No. 79. The 
Rawat is found in the sub-montane districts, and downi tlie whole length of the Jamna valley. It 
is very difficult to separate these people from the Rathis of the Kangra hills ; indeed they would 
appear to occupy much the same position in the submontane as the Rathis or even the Kanets do 
m the higher ranges. They are admittedly a clan of Chandel Riijputs ; but tliey are the lowest 
clan who are recognised as of Rajput stock, and barely if at all admitted to communion with tlic 
(jther Rajpi'its, while under no circumstances would even a Katlii marry a Rawat woman. They 
practise widow-marriage as a matter of course. There can, I think, be little doubt that the Chandel 
are of aboriginal stock, and probably the same as the Chandal of the hills of whom we hear so 
much ; and it is not impossible that these men became Chanals where they were conquered and 
despised outcasts, and Rajputs where they enjoyed political power. The Rawat is probably akin 
to the Rao sub-division of the Kanets, whom again it is most difficult to separate from the Rathis ; 
and the Chandel Rajput« also have a Rao section. In Dehli 1,075 persons have shown themselves 
as Rawat Gaure, and are included also under Gaurwa, the next heading. 

446. The Rajput tribes of the Eastern Plains continued. The Gaurwa (No. 6) and 
Gaur. — I am not at all sure that these figures do not include some Gaur as well as Gaurwa Rajputs 
(see the last sentence supra) for the name was often spelt Gaura in the papers. The Gaur are that 
one of the 36 royal families to which belonged the Rajput Kings of Bengal. They are found in 
the central Jamna-Gangcs dodh, and are fully described by Elliott and Sherring. In oui' tables 
we have 1,790 Rajputs retui'ned as Gaur, mostly in Dehli and Gurgaon, and they are not shown 
in the Abstract. Gaurwa would seem to be applied generally to any Rajputs who have lost rank 
by the practice of kareioa. In Dehli however they form a distinct clan, both they and the 
Chauhan practising widow-marriage, but the two being looked upon as separate tribes. They are 
described by Mr. Maconachie as '• especially noisy and quarrelsome, but stm'dy in build, and 
" clannish in disposition," while the Dehli Chauhan are said to be "the best Rajput cultivators in 
" the district, and otherwise decent and orderly." 

The BargUjar ( No. 7).— The Bargiijar are one of the 36 royal families, and the only one 
except the Gahlot which claims descent from Lawa son of Riim Chandra. The connection between 
the Mandahar and Bargdjar has already been noticed under the head Mandahar. They are of 
iourse of Solar race. Their old capital was Rajor, the ruins of which are still to be seen in the 
south of Alwar, and they held much of Alwar and the neighbouring parts of Jaipur till dispossess- 
ed by the Kachwaha. Their licad-quarters are now at Anupshahr on the Ganges, but there is still 
a colony of them in Gurgaoa on the Alwar border. Curiously enough, tlie Gurgaon Bargiijar say 
that they came from Jalandhar about the middle of the loth century ; and it is certain that they 
are not very old holders of their present capital of Solina, as the buildings of the Kambohs who 
held it before them are still to be seen there and are of comparatively recent date. Our figures 
for Gurgaon are certainly very far below the truth. 

The Jadu (No. 8).— The Jadu or Jadubansi are of Lunar race, and are called by Tod "the 
" most illustrious of all the tribes of Ind." But the name has been almost overshadowed by Bhatti, 
the title of their dominant branch in modern times. Only 4,580 persons have returned themselves 
as .Tadu, and those chiefly in Dehli and the south of Patiala. 

The Jatu (No. 9). — Tlie Jatu are said to be a Tiinwar clan who once lield almost the whole of 
His.sar, and arc still most numerous in tliat district and the neighbouring portions of Rolitak and 
Jiud. In fact the Tduwar of Hariana are said to have beeu divided into three clans named after 
and descended from three brothers, Jatu, Raghu aud Satraula, of which clans Jatu was by far the 
largest and most important, and once ruled from Bhiwaui to Agroha. They are the hereditary 
enemies of the Punwar of Rohtak, and at length the sandhills of Mahm were fixed upon as tlie 
boundary between them, and are still known as Jatu Punwar ka daula or the Jatu-Punwar 
boundary. Of the Karual Jatu 500 liave returucd themselves as Chauhdn also, and are included 
under botli lieads. 

The Bagri (No. 10). — The word Bagri is applied to any Hindu Rajput or Jat from the Bagar 
or prairies of l.i'kaner, which lie to the south and west of Sirsa and llissar. They are most numer- 
ous in the latter district, but are found also in some numbers under the heading of .Jat in Siiilkot 
and Patiala. The Gurdaspur Bagi'i are Salahria wlio liave sliown themselves also as Bagar or 
Bhagar by clan, and probaldy have no connection witli tlie Bagri of llissiir and its neiglihourhood. 
Or it may be that tlic word is a misreading for Nagri, who claim to be Chauhan Rajputs who 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 139 




igar. 

TheRangar.—Raugai- ia a term, soincwliat contemptuous, applied in the eastern and south- 
eastern districts to an>j Musalman Rajput; and I only notice it here hecause the Rangar are often, 
though wrongly, lull to be a Rajput tribe. I am told, however, that in Firozpur and Gurdaspur 




his Hindu brethren would also call him Rangar, which he would resent as only slightly less abusive 
than chotikat, a term of contempt applied to those who have, on conversion to Islam, cut off the 
choti or Hindu scalplock. The Rangar or Musalman Rajputs bear the worst possible reputation for 




is applied to any uncouth fellow.^ 

The Baria (No. 11).— The Baria of Jalandhar arc said to be Solar Rajputs, descended from 
R5ja Karan of the Mahahharat. Their ancestor Mai ( ! ) came from Jal Kahra in Patiala about 
500 years ago. Those of Sialkot, where they are found in small numbers, but considered to be .Tats, 
not Rajputs, say they arc of Lunar Rajput descent. The tribe is practically confined to Patiala 
and Nabha, and the name of the ancestor Mai, if common to the tribe, looks as if they were not 
Rajputs at all, though it is unusual in the Sikh States for Jats to claim the title of Rajput. I 
have no further information regarding the tribe. There are Barhaiya Rajputs in the Azimgarh 
and Ghazi'pur neighbourhood. 

The Atiras (No. 12).— This tribe is returned from Patiala only. I cannot find it mentioned in 
any of the authorities. 

The Naipal (No. 13).— The Naipdl are a clan of the great Bhatti tribe, who are found on the 
Satluj nbo\-e l-'irozpm-. They once held the river valley as far down as that town, but were di-iven 
higher up by the Uogars, and in their turn expelled the Giijars. Mr. Brandi-eth says of them :— 
" They resemble very much in their habits the Dogars and Giijars, and are probably greater 
" thieves than either. They appear almost independent under the Ahluwalia rulers and to have 
" paid a small rent in kind only when the Kardar was strong enough to compel them to it, which 
" was not often the case. They have lost more of their Hindu origin than either the Dogars or 
" Gujars, and in their marriage connections they follow the Muhammadau law, near blood relations 
" being permitted to enter into the marriage compact." All the Naipal have returned themselves 
as Bhatti as well, and it is possible that many of them have shown Bhatti only as their tribe, and 
are therefore not returned under the head Naipal. 

The Rathor (No. 14).— The Rathor are one of the 36 royal races, and Solar Rajputs. Their 
old seat was Kanauj, but their more modern dynasties are to be found in Marwar and Bikancr. 
They are retiu-ned from many districts in the Paujab, but are nowhere numerous. 

447. The Rajputs of (he Western Plains. — The next group of Kajput 
tribes that I shall discuss are those of the great Western Plains. I have 
already said much regarding the position of the Rajput in this part of 
[P. 241] t^c Panjab, and the difficulty of drawing any line between him and the Jat 
of the neighbourhood. Here the great Rajput tribes have spread up the river 
valleys as conquerors. Traditionally averse from manual labom* and looking 
upon the touch of the plough handle as especially degrading, they have been 
wont to content themselves with holding the country as dominant tribes, 
pastm-ing their great herds in the broad grazing grounds of the west, fighting 
a good deal and plundering more, and leaving agriculture to the Artiin, the 
Mahtam, the Kamboh, and such small folk. The old tradition is not for- 
gotten ; but the rale of the Sikh, if it afforded ample opportunity for fighting, 
destroyed much of their influence, and the order and equal justice which have 
accompanied British rule have compelled all but the most wealthy to turn 
then" attention, still in a half-hearted sort of way, to agriculture. 
i*i/^AQ Abstract No. 80 on the next page"'^ shows the distribution of these tribes. 

They are roughly arranged according to locality. First come the royal races 

^ Mr. Wilson notes that he has heard Rangar applied to Hindu Rajputs. This is, I think 
unusual. The word is often spelt and pronounced Ranghar. 



140-43 



140 



MNJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 80, showing the Rajput [p.242] 

~ ~ RAJPUTS OF THE 



Dehli 

Gurgaon ... 
Kainal 

Ilissar 

Rohtak ... 
Sirsa 

Anihala 
Ludhiaua ... 

.lalniidhar ... 
JIn<liyarpiir 
Kaiigra 

Amritsar ... 
Giivdaspur ... 
Sialkot 

Lahore 
Gujviuiwala 
Firozpur ... 

Rawalpindi 
Jlielam 
Gujrat 
Shahpur ... 

Multan 
.Iliaiig 
Mi)utgomci'y 
MuzafL'argarli 

Derail Ismail Khan 
Derail Gliazi Khan 
liaumi 

British Territory 

Patiftla 
Nablia 
Kapurtliala 
.liii.l 
Faridkot . . . 

Total Eastern Plains 

Bahftwalpur 

Total Hill States 

British Territory 
Native States 
Province- • • 



PUNWAU. 



BlIATTI. 



Watit. 



M 



566 
1,236 
1,795 

4,301 

11,789 

5,571 

829 
267 

2,043 
237 



71 

426 

137 

1,598 

94 

3,587 

7,174 

646 

125 
1,008 

4,995 

4'JU 

3,083 

363 

193 I 
262 I 

4 I 

53,151 

867 ! 
3 ! 
141 
1,065 
380 

2,836 

4,435 

582 

53,151 

7,B53 
61.00^ 



79 

862 

43 

362 
329 

122 

114 
10 

87 



653 

2,287 
117 

311 
538 
716 

814 
524 
145 

71 

2,563 

284 

72G 

1,561 

1,317 

1,919 

405 

16,959 

864 



19 

887 



16,959 

887 

17,846 



Pi 



5,935 

118 
'166 

3,775 

292 
7,2^2 

2,179 
2,038 

a,027 

3,767 

55 

10,610 

9,749 

12,375 

15,854 

9,477 

12,372 

aO,304 

10,430 

ii,022 

13,476 

14,890 
17,392 

12,600 

2,878 

76 
23 

780 

204,569 

3,035 

676 

10,632 

485 

1,282 

16,323 

21,657 

282 

204,569 

38,262 

242,831 



100 

" 107 

214 

14 

126 

649 
1,004 

367 
43 



205 

5 

3,677 

10,287 

7,722 
590 

2,056 

6,241 

9,926 

396 

9,682 

2,874 
3,528 
6,988 

13,767 

12,971 

1,057 

94,665 

587 
1 



619 
569 



94,665 

1,193 

95,858 



401 
"^786 



86 

6 

1,509 



134 

100 

24G 

11,190 

27 



17,484 

95 
1 

8 

*" 46 
155 

3,442 
107 

17,484 

3,704 

21,188 



24 



739 
312 

704 



7 
43 



107 
454 
110 

167 

13 

283 

2,963 



241 

241 

8 



2,963 

244 

3,207 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 
Tribes of the Western Plains. 



141 



WESTERN PLAINS. 












4> 


5 


6 


7 


Joy A. 


Khichi. 


Dhudhi. 




Oli 

1 


■i 




,*-3 

08 
<-> 


»o? 

P3 


rt 
*-3 


j5 




5,100 
3 




3 
3 


4 

145 

17 




1,533 
"5,439 


100 
55 


46 
2 

147 


3 

2 

16 


36 

'"" 450 


626 
162 
544 




142 








8 
9 

'" 308 


2 

8 

348 






'■* 205 


5 


13 


112 
129 


99 




1,284 

10 

4,1:4 


390 
995 

782 


489 

40 
421 


518 
432 

86 


1,063 
'" 299 


710 
561 
264 




43 

4 
2,195 


49 

54 

516 


2 

6 

514 


74 
57 


489 

3 
593 


27 
733 

] 524 
426 




5,059 
670 

4,397 
343 


473 
1.5[i3 
2,16r, 
1,:33 


2,573 

9S3 

2,363 

22 


54 
483 
873 

44 


1,356 

1,090 

1,507 

ISO 


1.875 

1,578 

1,349 

505 


3,885 

345 

28 


8 


1,788 

1,42 L 

479 


3 


877 
355 




605 

66 

136 


... 


25,301 


12,338 


12,724 


3,337 


7,649 


12,315 


4,258 


170 
38 

5 
346 


... 


2 




30 
35 


502 
89 


... 


r.G9 




2 




65 


599 




4,084 




606 


254 


4S 


479 




9 


... 




.., 


... 


9 


... 


25,301 

5,262 

30,563 


12,338 
12,338 


12,724 

608 

13,332 


3,337 

254 

3,591 


7,649 

113 

7,762 


12,315 

1,087 

13,492 


4.258 
4.'?53 



142 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 80, showing the Rajput 



HA.IPCTy OF THE 



Dehli 

Gurgaon ... 
Karnal 

Hissar 
Rohtak 
Sirsa 

Ainbala 
Ludlilana . . . 

.lalandbar ... 

Husliyarpiir 

Kangra 

Auiritsar . . . 

Gurdaspur 

Sialkot 

Lahore 
Gujramvala 
Firozpur . . . 

Eawalpindi 
Jhelam 
Gujrat 
Shahpur . . . 

Multan 
J hang 

Montgomery 
JSIuzalfargarh 

Derah Ismail Khan 
Derah Ghazi Khan 
Bannu 

British Territory 

Patiala 
Nabha 
Kapurthala 
Jind 

Faridkot . . . 

Total East. Plains 

Bahawalpur 

Total Hill States 

British Territory 
Native States 
Province ••• 



10 



SlAL. 



Ranjha. 



GONDAI,. 



5 
2 

51 

6 

246 

38 
35 



1,593 



5 

7 

193 
349 
367 

828 

576 

78 

2,403 

23,037 

36,374 

6,684 

2,520 

571 
706 
207 

76,957 



4 

10 

1 

i)l 

113 

133 
10 

76,957 

256 

77,213 



2 
1 

1 

4 

13 

76 
5 

31 
333 



221 
137 

719 

1,243 
433 
285 

141 

256 

1.091 

71 

560 

437 

1,202 

2,453 

4,648 

2,536 

189 

17,093 



269 



273 



1^093 

273 

17,366 



11 



16 
102 



14 
103 

'6,789 

152 

151 

115 

10 

21 



7,490 



7,490 
7^490 



230 



58 

1,166 

14 



1,601 
6,924 

258 

143 

162 

1 

168 

161 
9 
5 

10,903 

10 
"" 17 
'" 22 

49 



10,903 

53 

10,956 



5,301 
17,154 

82 

11 

IS 
6) 
51 

139 
69 

19,272 

26 

868 
lOi) 



6 

24 
13 

43,220 



43,220 

10 

43,230 



::3 

6 

1,437 

2,714 

3 



24 

203 

1,661 

65 

443 

1,791 

859 

3,953 

161 

611 

6,354 

24,825 

305 

196 
649 
122 
155 

388 
53 
48 

47,276 



46 

86 

107 

132 

47,276 

325 

47,601 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 



143 



Tribes of the Western Plains — concliulcd. 



WESTERN 


PLAINS— 


CON'CLUDED. 












11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


Meican. 


83 

a 




> 


1 


bo 

a 

1-5 




Rajput, 


4J' 

>-> 


1 


"" 30 


... 


8 

89 
1 




2 
4 


* 31 

7 

9 

691 


1 
'" 12 


11 
76 




'" 67 


9 




... 


241 
"" 98 


91 
936 

1 


6 


2 


101 

12 
52 


6 
'" 12 


4 
333 


2 

6,871 

2 


159 
■■■ 57 


196 
"" 25 


16 

7 

1 


24 
30 

'5,181 


"i*125 
918 
160 


1 

8 

3^202 


131 


"'" 66 


' 11 

"'"l62 


464 

284 

2 

20 


... 


352 
99 
62 
39 


19 

220 

""ll9 


45 
18 
23 


638 

13,390 

61 


28 
64 
79 


169 

3,231 

20 

3 


96 

41 

174 

1 


88 
1 
5 
5 


149 


65 
131 
168 


""' 37 


1 






4 


2 


5,968 


3,157 


3,598 

2 


16,435 


7,118 


4,891 

194 


2,348 
1 


218 

1,564 
199 

23 

301 


* !• 




9 


1,311 


... 


194 


1 


2,101 


5,968 


3,157 


3,598 

9 

3,607 


16,435 

1,311 

17,746 


7,118 


4,891 

194 

5,085 


2,348 
2,349 


218 
2,101 
2,316 


5,968 


3,157 


7,118 



144 PANJAB CASTES. 

of Punwar and Bliattij Avho have held between them from time immemorial 
the comitrv of tlie lower Satluj and the deserts of Western Eajputana. They 
are the parent stocks whence most of the other tribes have sprung^ though as 
they have moved up the river valleys into the Panjab plains they have taken 
local tribal names which have almost superseded those of the original race. 
Thus the figures for all these tribes are more or less imperfect^ some having 
retm-ned the local and some tlie original tribe only^ while others have shown 
both and are entered in both sets of figures. Next to these races follow the 
Wattu, Joya, Khichi, and Dhudhi^ who hold the Satluj valley somewhat in 
that order. They are followed by the Hiraj and Sial of the Chenab and 
Lower Jahlam, and these again by the tribes of tlie Upper Jahlam and the 
Shahpur bar. Of these last the Ranjhaj Gondal^ and Melcan would pro- 
bably not be recognised as Rajputs by their neighbours the Tiwana^ Janjua, 
and the like. Last of all come five tribes who have already been considered 
under Jats. From what has already been said as to the confusion between 
Jat and Rajput in these parts^ it might be expected that many of these 
people will have been retm-ned as Jats ; and in such cases the figures are 
shown side by side. But in the case of at any rate the Bhatti and Punwar^ 
it does not follow that these men are not Jats ; for in many instances they 
have given their Jat tribe, and added to it the Rajput tribe from which they 
have a tradition of origin. 

448. Rajput tribes of the Western Plains. The Punwar (No. 1).— The Pun-n-ar or Pramara 
was once the most important of nil the Agnikula Eajpiits. " The world is the Pramara's " is 
an ancient saying denoting' their extensive sway ; and the A^aw Kot Mdrihthali, extending along 
and below the Satluj from the Indus almost to the Jamna^ signified the indni asfhal or arid 
territory occupied by them, and the nine divisions of which it consisted. But many centuries 
have passed since they were driven from their possessions^ and in 1826 they held in independent 
Bway only the small State of Dhat in the desert. It will be seen from the Abstract that the 
Punwar are found in considerable numbers up the whole course of the Satluj and along the 
Lower Indus, though in the Dcrajat all and in the Multan division many of them are shown as 
Jats. They have also spread up the P>eas into Jalandhar and Gurdiispur. There is also a very 
large colony of them in Rohtak and Hissar and on lhe~ confines of those districts ; indeed they 
once held the whole of the Ilohtak, Dadri, and Gohana country, and their quarrels with the Jatu 
Trinwar of Hissar have been noticed under the head Jatu. 

The Bhatti (No. 2).— Bhatti, the Panjab form of the Rajputana word Bhati, is the title of 
the great modern representatives of the ancient Jadiibansi royal Rajput family, dcsceudants of 
Krishna and therefore of Lunar race. Their traditions tell that they wore in very early times 
driven across the Indus; but that returning, they disposFCsscd the Langah, Joya, and others of 
the country south of the Lower Satluj some seven centuries ago, and founded Jaijalmer. This 
State they still hold, though their territory has been greatly circum-cribed since the advent of 
the Rather; but they still form a large proportion of the Rajput subjects of the Rathor Rdjas 
of Bikaner. At one time their possessious in those \ arts included the whole of Sirsa and the 
adjoining portions of Hissar, and the tract is still known as Bhatliana 'I'he story current in 
Hissar is that Bhatti, the leader under whom the Bhattis recro^sed the Indus, had two sons Dusal 
and Jaisal, of whom the latter founded Jaisalmcr while the former settled in Bhaltiana. From 
Dusal sprang the Sidhu and Barar ,Jat triljes (see section 43f)), while his grandson Rajpal was 
the ancestor of the AVattu. (IJut see further, section 449 infra.) According to General Cun- 
ningliam the Bhatlis originally held the Salt-range Tract and Kashmir, tl eir capital being 
Gajnipur, or the site oi modern Rawalpindi ; but about the second century before Christ they 
were tb-iven across the Jahlam by the Indo-Scythians, and their leader, the Raja Rasalu of 
Panjab tradition, founded Sialkot. The invaders however followed them up and dispersed them, 
and drove them to take refuge in the country south of the Satluj, though their lule in the 
Kashmir valley remained unbroken till 1339 A.J). 

The Bhatti is still by far the largest aud most widely distributed of the Raput tribes of the 
Panjab. It is found in mimense numbers ail along the Lower Satluj aud Indus, though on the 
former often and on the hitter always classed as Jat. It is hardly less numerous on the Chenab, 
the Upper Satluj, and the Bcas, it is naturally strong in Bhattiana, there is a large colony in the 
Delili distwct, while it is jierhaps most numerous of all in the seats of its ancient power, in Sialkot, 
Gujrat and the Salt-range country. And if we reckon as Bhatti the Sidhu and Barar Jats of the 
Malwa, who arc admittedly of Bhatti origiu, we shall leave no ^jortiou of the Panjab proper in 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 145 

wliicli a largo "Rliatti population ig not to be found. Many of those returned as Bhatti are also 
returned an lielongiiig to otlicr trilies, hut tliese form a wholly insignificant fraction of the whole; 
and the only largo numherss appearing twice over appear to he tlie 1,100 Xaipal of Ffrozpur already 
alluded to," 2,000 "Bhatti Tun war (sic) in Rawalpindi, 2,400 Khokhar and 1,600 Kiiarral in 
Bahawalpur, 1,700 Kashmiri .Tats in Cnijranwtila. In this last caso the word is prohahly I5hat, 
a great Kashmir triho, and not Bhatti. But if the Bliatti formerly held Kashmir, it is not 
impossihle that the two words are really identical. Perhaps also Bhatti has in many cases been 
given as their tribe by .Tats or low-class R.ajputs, or even by men of inferior castes who returned 
themselves as .Tats or Rajputs for their own greater exaltation. But if this be so, it only shows 
how widespread is the fame of the Bhatti within the Panjab. Almost every menial or artisan 
caste has a Bhatti clan, and it is often the most numerous of all, ranking with or above the 
Khokhar in this respect. 

Yet it is strange, if the Bhatti did hold so hirgo a portion of the Panjab as General Cunningham 
alleges, how almost universally they trace their origin to Bhatner in Bhattiana or at least to its 
neighbourhood. Either they were expelled wholly from the Upper Panjab and have since returned 
to their ancient seats, or else the glory of their later has overshadowed that of their earlier 
dynasties, and Bhatner and Bhattiana have become the city and country of the Bhatti from which all 
good Bhatti trace their origin. The subject population of Bi'kaner is largely composed of Bhatti, 
while Jaisalmer is a Bhatti State ; and it seems impossible that if the Tftatti of the Higher Satluj 
are immigrants and not the descendants of the residue of the old Bhatti who escaped expulsion, 
they should not have come largely from both these States, and moreover should not have followed 
the river valleys in their advance. Yet the tradition almost always skips all intermediate steps, 
and carries us straight back to that ancient city of Bhatner on the banks of the long di-y Ghaggar, 
in the Bi'kaner territory bordering on Sirsa. The Wattu Bhatti of Montgomery, while tracing 
their origin from Raja Salvahan, the father of Raja RaSalu of Sialkot, say that their more 
immediate ancestors came from Bhatner ; the Nun Bhatti of Multan trace their origin to the 
Dehli country; while the Bhatti of MuzafPargarh, Jhang, Giijr^nwala, Sialkot, Jahlam, and 
Pindi, all look to Bhatner as the home of their ancestors. It is probable either that Bhatner is 
used merely as a traditional expression, or that when the Ghaggar dried up or the Rathor con- 
quered Bi'kaner, the Bhatti were driven to find new homes in the plains of the Panjab. Indeed 
Mr. Wilson tells me that in Sjrsa, or the old Bhattiana, the term Bhatti is commonly applied to 
any Musalman .Tat or Riijpiit from the direction of the Satluj, as a generic term almost 
synonymoiTS with Rath or Pachhada. 

2*^] In Multan the Nun, a Bhatti clan, are the dominant tribe in the Shtijabad tahsil, where they 

settled some four or five hundred years ago. The Mittru Bhatti of Multan came from Bi'kaner. 
The Bhatti of Montgomery are probably Wattu and Khichi who will be described presently. The 
Bhatti of Jhang hold a considerable tract called Bhattiora in the Chiniot uplands north of the 
Chanab. They came first from Bhatner to the right bank of the Jahlam near the Shahpur border, 
and thence to Bhattiora. They are described as " a fine race of men, industrious agriculturists, 
" hardly at all in debt, good horse-breeders, and very fond of sport. They do very little cattle- 
" lifting, but are much addicted to carrying off each other's wives." The Bhatti of the Gujranwala 
Idr, where they are the "natural enemies of the Virk," are descended from one Dhir who eighteen 
generations ago left Bhatner, and settled in the Nur Mahal jungles as a grazier and freebooter. His 
grandson went further on to the banks of the Ravi, and his son again moved up into the uplands 
of Gujranwala. The modern descendants of these men are described as " a muscular and noble- 
" looking race of men, agricxiltin-ists more by constraint than by natural inclination, who keep 
" numerous herds of cattle which graze over the pasture lands of the hdr, only plough just sufficient 
" to grow food for their own necessities, and arc famous as cattle-lifters and notorious thieves." 
The Bhatti of Gujranwala enjoyed considerable political importance in former times, and they 
still hold 86 villages in that district. In Sialkot the Bhatti claim descent from Bhoni seventh in 
descent from their eponymous ancestor Bhatti, who came to Gujranwala from Bikancr, and thence 
to Sialkot. None of these Bhatti of the hdr will give their daughters to the neighbouring Jat 
tribes, though they will take wives from among them without scruple. In the Salt-range Tract 
the Bhatti seem to hold a very subordinate position as Bhatti, though it may be that some of the 
innumerable Rajput tribes of those tracts may consider themselves Bhatti as well as whatever 
their local name may be. In Kapiirthala and Jalandhar they have lost position greatly in 
recent times. Till dispossessed by the Ahluwalia Sikhs, the Rais of Kapurthala were Bhatti 
Rajputs. 

449. Rajput Tribes of the Satluj.— The Wattu (No. 3).— The Wattu are a Bhatti clan, 
of whose origin the Hissar story has been given in section 448 above. The Sirsa tradition appears 
to be that one Raja Junhar, a descendant of the Bhatti Raja Salvahan of Siakot, was settled in 
Bhatner, where he had two sons Achal and Batcra. From the latter sprang the Sidhu and Barar 
Jats. The former again had two sons Jaipal and Rajpal, of whom Jaipal was the ancestor of the 
Bhatti proper, and Rajpilcf the Wattu. The Wattu date their conversion to Islam by Baba Farid, 
from the time of Khi'wa who ruled at Haveli in Montgomery, and was succeeded by the famous 
Wattu Chief Lakhe Khan. They hold both banks of the Satluj in the Sirsa district, and the 



UO PANJAB CASTES. 

adjoliiiiip: parts of Montgromcrv mid Balmwalpiir, from I'acrerolii 16 uiilos above Fazilka, to PhnlaLi 
T""' uiilo> below it. Above tliein lie tlic Docrars, below rbein tlic Joya. Tbey are said to bavc crossed 
from llie right bank of the river and spread into tlie tlien almost nninliab'.ted prairie^ of Sirsa 
only sjme five greiicrations ago, wlien Fazil Palel Raiia came from Jhang near Havcli and settled 
tlic iinoccupied riverain. There is also a small sect ioai of them on the llavi in the Montgomery 
district. It is not impossible that some of the Wattu have returned themselves a- Bhatti simply, 
for some few have returned themselves under both heals. The tribe was formerly almost purely 
pastoral, and as turbulent and as great marauders as other pastoral tribes of the neighbourhood ; 
and the habits of the Ravi 'Vat tu, who gave trouble in j 857, have hardly changed, Ikit the Satluj 
Wattu who possess but little jungle have taken very generally to agriculture, and Captain Elphiii- 
stone s.ays that "some of their estates are well cultivated, their herds have diminished, and many of 
"them cannot now be distirgnished in apjiearaiice from peaceful Arains or Khokhars. The change 
''in their habits has indeed been rumarkable, as they still speak with exultation of the Kardars they 
" used to kill during the Sikh rule, and the years in which they paid no revenue because the Sikhs 
" were unable or at; aid to collect it." Mr. Purser describes the Wattu as "priding themselves 
"upon their politeness and hospitality. They are of only moderate industry, profuse iu expenditure 
on special occasions, indifferent to education and exceedingly fond of cattle." He classes them 
however with the Katliia, Kharral, Sial, Tiahra'wal, Hiloch and Joya as "essentially robber tribes 
" and more or less addicted to cattle-stealing." This I suspec; simply means that these are the domi- 
nant tribes of the tract, who look upon a pastoral as higher than an agricultural life. 

The Joya (No. 4) and Mahar.— The Joya is one of the 36 royal races of liaiputs, and is des- 
cnhed in the ancient chronicles as " Lorils of tlie Jangal-des," a tract which comprehended Hariaua, 
Jjhaiti.M'a, I^hatner, and Xagor. They also held, in common with the Dehia with whom tl.eir name 
IS always coupled, the banks of the Indus and Satluj near their confluei'ce. Some seven ceutxu'ies 
ago they were apparently driven out of the Indus tract and partly subjugated in the Bagar country 
by the Bhatti; and in the middle of the 16th century they were expelled from the Joya canton 
of Bikiiiier by the Rathor rulers for attempting to regain their independence. Tod remarks that 
" the Rajputs carried fire and sword into this country, of which they made a desert. Ever since 
" it has remained desolate, and the very name of Joya is lost, though the vestiges of considerable 
" towns bear testimony to a remote antiquity." The Joya however have not disappeared. They 
still hold all the hanks of the Satluj from the Wattu border nearly as far down as its confluence 
with the Indus, though the Bhatti turned them out of Kahror, and they lost their semi-inde- 
pendence when their possessions formed a part of the Bahawalpur State / they hold a tract iu 
I'lkaiior on the bed of the old Ghaggar just below Bhatner, their ancient seat ; and they are found 
in no inconsiderable numbers on the middle Satliij of Lahore and Fi'rozpur and on the lower Indus 
of the Derajat and Muzaffargarh, about a third of their whole number being retiirncd as Jat-;. 
The Multan bar is known to this day as the Joya hdo-. General Cunningham says that they are to 
be found in some numbers in the Salt-range or mountains of Jud, and identifies them with tlie Jodia 
or^Yodia, the warrior class of India in Banini's time (45U B.C.), and indeed uur figiu'es show some 
2,700 Joya iu Shalqmr. But Panini's Jodia wciild perhaps more probably be the modern Gheba, 
whose original tribal name is said to he Jodra, and Gheba a mere title. The Joya of the Satluj 
and of Hissar trace their origin from Bhatner, and have a curious tradition current apparently from 
Hissar to Montgomery, to the effect that they cannot trace their Rajput descent in the main line. 
The Hissar Joya make themselves descendants in the female line of Sauieja, who accompanied the 
eponymous ancestor of the Bhatti from Mathra to Bhatner. The Montgomery Joya have it that 
a lineal descendant of Benjamin, Joseph's brother, came to Bikaner, married a Raja's daughter, begot 
their ancestor, and then disappeared as a /<)<?:>. The tradition is perhaps suggested by the word 
joi meaning "wife." The Montgomery Joya ^ay that they left P>ikaner in the middle of the 14th 
century and settled in Bahawalpur, where tliey became allies of the Lai:gah dvnasty of Multan, but 
were subjugated by the Umidpotra in the time of Xadir Shah. The Multan .Joya say that they went 
from Bikaner to Slndh and tlicnce to Multan. This is probably due to the f.act of their old posses- 
sions on the Indus having died out of the tribal memory, and been replaced by their later holdings 
in Bi'kaner. They are described by Captain Elphinstone as " of smaller staUuv than the great Ravi 
'' tribes, and considered inferior to them in regard of the qiialities iu which the latter especially 
" pride themselves, namely bravery and skill in cattle-stealing. They possess large herds of cattle 
" a id are bail cultivators." 

'i'he ]\Ialiar are a small tribe on the Satluj opposite Fazilka, and are said to be descended from 
Mahar, a "brother of the Joya. Thev r .-e said to be quarrelsome, sillv, thievish, fond of cattle, 
" and to care rtth' for agricultural pursuits." 

The Khichi (No. 5). — 'J'he Klifclii are a Chauhdn clan, and are said to have cnaie originally 
from A jmer, the old seat of the Chauh.-in power, thence to Dehli, and from Dehli to the Satluj 
during the Mughal rule This is probably a n)ere tradition of the movement of the Clauhaii centre 
from Ajmerto Dehli. They arc found along the lower and middle Satluj, and the Ravi from 
Multan to Lahore, there are a few of thtni on the Chanjib, and there are considerable numbers of 
them iu the Dehli district. In Montgomery they are found chiefly on the Ravi, where they used to 
be hand-in-glove with the KhaiiMl but mended tiieir wiiys under the later Sikli rule and are uow 
jieacefnf liusbandmen, 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 147 

The Dhudhi (No. 6). — I su-ipect th.'vt tlicre i.~; s^ome confusion in tlioH' fiptire-, and that some 
of the Dii'l or Duilliwul Rajput-; of tlio oastcru suh-niontaiie liavc heen included with the Dliudhi of 
tho Satluj. The former will be described ill their pr.i per jdace. The latter are a small Punvvar 
clan found with their kinsmen tho Rutlior scattered along the Satluj and Chaiiab. Their original 
seat is said to have been in the Mailsi lahsi'l of Multan, where they are mentioned as early a^ the 
first half of the 14th century. When tho Deldi empii'e wa^ breaking up thoy spread along the 
rivers. One of them, Haji Sher jMuhammnd, was a saint whose filirino in Multan 5s still 
renowned. They are said to be '• fair agriculturists and respectable members of society." 

450. Rajput tribes of the Chanab. The Hiraj (No. 7). — The Hiraj is a Sial clan whi^h 
holds a tract on the banks o\ the Ravi just aliove its junction with tlie Chanfib. It is possible that 
some of the dan ha\'e returned themselves as 8ial simply, and are therefore not represcnied in the 
figures. The Hirnj oi Multan have returned themselves as Sidl Hiraj to the number of 3,380, and 
are shown in both columns. 

The Sial (No. 8).— The Sial is politically one of the most important tribes of the Western 
244] Plains. As Mr. Steedman observes, the modern history of the Jhang district is the history of the 
Sial. They are a trilie of Punwar Rajpiits \\ho ro-e to promiiieiKC in the tirst-lialf of the 18th 
century.^ Mr. Steedman writes : " They were till then probably a pastoral tribe, but little given to 
" husbandry, dwelling on the hanks of river, and grazing their cattle during the end of the cold and 
" the iirst mouths of the hot weather in the low lands of the Chanab, and during the rainy season in 
" the uplands of the Jhang bar. The greater portion of the tract now occupied by them was prob- 
"ably acquired during the stormy century that preceded the conquest of Hindustan by the 
" Mughals. During this period the country was dominated from Bhera, and sometimes from 
" Multan. The colh ctlon of revenue from a nomad population inhabiting the fastnesses of the Idr 
" and the deserts of the ihal could never have been easy, and was probably seldom attempted. Left 
"alone, the Sidl applied themselves successfully to dispossessing those that dwelt in the land — the 
" Xols, Bhangus, Mangans, Marrals, and other old tribes — amusing themselves at the same time with 
" a good deal of internal strife and quarrelling, and now and then with stiffer fighting with the 
" Kharrals and Biloches. 

" Then for 200 years there was peace in the land, and the Sials remained quiet subjects of the 
" Lahore Subah, the seats of local government being Chiniot and Shorkot. Walidad Khan died in 
" 1747, one year before Ahmad Shah Abdali made his fir-t inroad and was defeated before Dehli. 
" It is not well known when he succeeded to the chieftainship, but it was probably early in the 
" century ; for a con.siderable time must have been taken up in the reduction of minor chiefs and 
" the introduction of all the improvements with which Walidad is credited. It was during 
" Walidad's time that the power of the Sials reached its zenith. The country subject to Walidad 
" extended fi-om Mankhera in the Thai eastwards to Kamalia on the Ravi, from the confluence of the 
" Ravi and Chanab to the ilaka of Pindi Bhattian beyond Chiniot. He was succeeded by his 
''nephew InayatuUa, who was little if at all inferior to his uncle in administrative and military 
" ability. He was engaged in constant warfare with the Bhangi Sikhs on the north, and the 
'' chiefs of Multan to the south. His near relations, the Sial chiefs of Rashidpur, gave him constant 
" trouble and annoyance. Once indeed a party of forty troopers raided Jhang, and carried off the 
" Khan prisoner. He was a captive for six months. The history of the three succeeding chieftains 
" is that of the growth of the jiower of the Bhangis and of their formidable rival the Sukarchakia 
" misl, destined to be soon the subjugator of both Bhangis and Sials. Chiniot was taken in 1803, 
" Jhang in 1806. Ahmad Khan, the last of the Sial Khans, regained his country shortly after in 
" 1S08, \mt in 1810 he was again captured by the Maharaja, who took him to Lahore and threw him 
" into prison. Thus ended whatever independence the Sial Khans of Jhang had ever enjoyed. 

" The Sials are descended from Rai Shankar, a Punwdr Rajput, a resident of Daranagar 
" between Allahabad and Fattahpur. A l)ranch of the Puuwars bad previously emigrated from their 
" native country to Jauupur, and it was there that Rai Shankar was born. One story has it that 
" Rai Shankar had three sons, Seo, Teo, and Gheo, from whom have descended the Sials of Jhang, 
" the Tiwanas of Shahpirr aud the Ghebas of Pindi Gheb. Another tradition states that Sial was 
" the only son of Rai Shankar, and that the ancestors of the Tiwanas and Ghebas were only 
" collateral relations of Shankar and Sidl. On the death of Rai Shankar we are told that great 
" dissensions arose among the members of the family, and his son Sidl emigrated during the reign 
" of Allauddin Ghori to the Panjdb. It was about "this time that many Rajput families emigrated 
"from the Provinces of Hindustan to the Panjdb, including the ancestors of the Kharrals, 
" Tiwanas, Ghebas, Chaddhars, and Punwar Sials. It was the fashion in those days to be converted 
"to the Muhammadan religion by the eloquent exhortations of the sainted Bawa Farid of 
" Pak Pattan ; and accordingly we tiiid that Sidl in his wanderings came to Pak Fattan, and there 
" renounced the religion of his ancestors. The Saint blessed him, aud prophesied that his son's 
" seed should reign over the tract between the Jhelam aud Chanab rivers. This prediction was not 

* General Cunningham states that the Sial an; supposed to be descended from Raja Hiidi, the 
Indo-Scytbian opponent of the Bbatti Raja Rasalu of Sialkot ; but I do not find this tiuditiou 
mentioned elsewhere. 

1.8 



148 PANJAB CASTES. 

" very accurate. Baba Farid died abont 1264-65. Sial and his followers appear to have wandered 
" to and fro in the Rechna and Jctch doahs for some time before they settled down with some 
"de^ee of permanency on the right bank of the .Tliolam. It was during this unsettled period that 
" Sial married one of the women of the country, Sohag daughter of Bhai Khan Mckhan, of Saiwal 
" in the Shahpur district, and is also said to have built a fort at Sialkot while a temporary resident 
" there. At their first settlement in this district, the Sials occupied the tract of country lying 
"between Mankhera in the /7(aZ and the river Jhelam, east and west, and from Khushab on" the 
" north to what is now the Garb Maharaja ilaka on the south." 

The political history of the Sial is very fully described in the Jhang Settlement Report from 
which I have made the above extract, while their family history is also discussed at pages 502 _^ 
and 520 of Griffin's Panjdb Chiefs. Tlie clans of the Sials are very numerous, and are fully 
described by Mr. Steedman in his Jhang Report, who remarks " that it is fairly safe to assume that 
" any tribe (in Jhang only I suppose) whose name ends in ana is of Sial extraction." 

Tlie head-quarters of the Sials are the whole southern portion of the Jhang district, along the 
left bank of the Chanab to its junction with the Riivi, and the riverain of the right bank of the 
Chanab between the confluences of the Jahlam and Ravi. They also hold both banks of the Ravi 
throughout its course in the Multan and for some little distance in the IMontgomery district, and are 
found in small numbers on the upper portion of the river. Tliey have spread up "the Jahlam into 
Shahpur and Gujrat, and are found in considerable numbers in the lower Indus of the Derajat and 
Muzaifargarh. ^ Who the Sials of Kangra may be I cannot conceive. There is a Sidl tribe of 
Ghiraths ; and it is just possible that some of these men may have returned their caste as Sial, and 
so have been included among Rajputs. Mr. Purser describes the Sial as "large in stature and of a 
"rough disposition, fond of cattle and caring little for agriculture. They observe Hindu ceremonies 
" like the Kharral and Kathia, and do not keep their women iu imrdah. They object to clothes of 
" a brown {lUJa) colour, and to the use of brass vessels." 

451. Rajput tribes of the Jahlam,— The Ranjha (No. 9).— The Ranjha are chiefly 
found in the eastern uplands of Shilhpur and Gujrat between the Jahlam and Chanab, though they 
have in small numbers crossed both rivers into the Jahlam and Giijranwala districts. They are for 
the most part returned as Jats except in Shahpur. They are however Eliatti Rajpvits ; and though 
they are said in Gujrat to have laid claim of late years to Qurcshi origin as descendants of Abii 
Jahil uncle of the Prophet, whose son died at Ghazni whence his lineage emigrated to the Kerana 
Idr, yet they still retain many of their Hindu customs. They are described by Colonel Davies as 
"a peaceable and well-disposed section of jwpulation, subsisting chiefly by agriculture. In physique 
" they resemble their neighbours the Gondals, with whom they intermarry freely." They would 
perhaps better have been classed as Jats. 

The Gondal (No. 10).— The Gondal hold the uplands known as the Gondal bar, running Tip the 
centre of the tract between the Jahlam and Chanab in the Shahpur and Gujrat districts. They are 
also numerous in the riverain of the right bank of the former river in the Jahlam district, and a few 
have spread eastwards as far as the Ravi. They are said to be Chauhan Riijputs, and 1,388 in 
Jahlam and 6,674 in Shahpur have shown themselves as Gondal Chauhan, and appear in both 
columns in consequence. But I do not think these men have any connection with the Gondal whom 
our figures show as so numerous in Kangra and Hushyarpur. I "have had the figures for these last 
districts examined, and there is no mistake about the name. Who the Gondal of the hills are I do 
not know, as I can find no mention of them ; but 3,451 of the Kangra Gondal have also returned 
themselves as Pathial.i The Gondal of the plains are probably as much Jats as Rajputs, as they 
appear to intermarry with the sui-rounding Jat tribes. Colonel Davies writes of tliem : " Physically 
" they are a fine race, owing doubtless to the free and active life they lead and the quantities of 
" animal food they consume ; and if we except their inordinate passion "for appropriating the cattle 
" of their neighboui's which in then- estimation carries with it no moral taint, they must be pro- 
« nounced free from vice." They say that their ancestor came from Naushahra in the south to Pak 
Pattan, and was there converted by Baba Earid j and if this be so they probably occupied their 
present abodes within the last six centuries. 

The IWekan (No. 11). — The Mekan are a small tribe said to be of Punwrfr origin and spring 
from the Kame ancestor as the Uhudhi already described. They occupy the Shahpur b<ir lying to the 
west of the Gondal territory, and are also found in smaller numbers in Jahlam and Gujrat. They 
are a pastoral and somewhat turblent tribe. 

The Tiwana (No. 12) — The Tiwina hold the country at the foot of the Shahpur 
Salt-range and liave ])laycd a far more prominent part in the Panjab history than their 
mere numbers would render probable. They are said to be Punwar Rajputs, and descended 
from the same ancestor as the Sial and Glieba (see Sial supra). They "probably entered the 

» Mr. Anderson suggests that Gondal may be the name of one of the Brahmiuical gotras. This 
would explain the extraordinarily large numbers returned under this heading; but I cannot find a 
^o^raof that name in any of the lists to which I have access. This much appears to be certain; 
that there is no Gondal tribe of Rajputs in Kangra which numbers over 17,0UU souls. 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 149 

Panjab together with tlio Sial, and certainly before the closo of the 15th century. They 
first settled at Jaliangi'r on the Indiw, hut eventually moved to their present abodes in the 
Sh^hpur thai, where they built their chief town of Mitha Tiwana. The subsequent history of 
the family is narrated at pa^'cs 519 to 531) of Griflin's Panjab Chiefs and at pages 40 _^ of 
Colonel Davies' Shahpur licport. The Tiwana resisted the advancing forces of the Sikhs long 
after the rest of the district had fallen before it. Tlicy are now " a half pastoral, half agricul- 
" tural tribe, and a fine hardy race of men who make good sold icrs, though their good qualities 
" are sadly marred by a remarkably quarrelsome disposition, which is a source of never-ending 
" trouble to them.selvcs and all with whom they arj brought in contact." 

452. The Rajputs of the Western Hills.— I have already described the 
position occupied by llajputs in the Salt-range Tract. The dominant tribes, 
such as the Janjua, have retained their pride of lineage and their Rajput title. 
But many of the minor tribes, although probably of Rajput descent, have 
almost ceased to be known as Rajputs, and are not nnfrequenlly classed as Jat. 
Especially the tribes of the Hazara, Murree, and Kahuta hills, though almost 
certainly Rajputs, are, like the tribes of the Chibhitl and Jammu hills, probably 
of very impure blood. The tribes of the Salt-range Tract are exceedingly 
interesting, partly because so little is known about them. The names of many 
of them end in lU, which almost always denotes that the name is taken from 
their place of origin^ ; and a little careful local enquiry would probably throw 
much light on their migrations. The great Janjua tribe appears to be Rathor ; 
and from the fact of the old Bhatti rale which lasted for so long in Kashmir, we 
should exj^ect the hill tribes, most of whom come from the banks of the Jahlam, 
to be Bhatti also. But there is perhaps some slight ground for believing that 
many of them may be Punwar (see Dhund infra). If these tribes are really 
descendants of the original Jadubansi Rajputs who fled to the Salt-range after 
the death of Krishna^ they are probably, among the Aiyan inhabitants of the 
Panjab proper, those who have retained their original territory for the longest 
period, unless we except the Rc'ijputs of the Kangra hills. The grades and 
social divisions of the Hill Rajputs are dwelt upon in the section treating of the 
tribes of the eastern hills. The same sort of classification prevails, though to a 
much less marked extent, among the western hills ; but the Janjua are probably 
the only one of the tribes now under consideration who can be ranked as Mian 
Sahu or first-class Rajputs. Abstract No. 81 on the next page* shows the 
distribution of these tribes. They are divisible into three groups, roughly 
arranged in order from north and west to south and east. First came the 
tribes of the hills on the right bank of the Jahlam, then the Salt-range tribes, 
then those of the cis-Jahlam sub-montane, and last of all the Tarars who have 
been already discussed as Jats. I had classed as separate castes those persons 
who returned themselves as Dhunds and Kahuts, under Nos. 74 and 103 in 
Table VIII A. But I have brought those figures into this Abstract alongside 
of the Dhunds and Kahuts who returned themselves as Rajputs. 

The ligures for these tribes are probably more imperfect than those for 
any other group of the same importance, at any rate so far as the tribes of the 
Salt-range are concerned. In that part of the Panjab it has become the 
fashion to be Qureshi or Mughal or Awan, rather even than Rajput ; and it is 
certain that very many of these men have retiu'ned themselves as such. Till 
the detailed clan tables are published the correct figures will not be ascertain- 
able. 

453. Rajput tribes of the Murree and Hazara Hills.— The Dhund and Satti (Nos. 1, 2).— 
The Dhundj Satti. and Kctwal occupy nearly the whole of the lower hills on the right bank of the 

^ This Is not so, indeed, iu the case of the Gakkhai's, whose clan names all end iu dl, and are 
pure patronymics. 



150 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 81, showing Rajput [p 210] 





KAJrUTS OP THE 




1 


2 


3 ' 

1 


4 


5 


6 


7 




Dhund. 






Dhantal, 


Bhakbal. 










d 

CD 

c9 

















S 
6 
>^ 




1 






1 


0. 


C5 


pi 


>-5 


"2 

US 




llisf-ar 

Anibala .■• 
HnshjArpur ... 








34 












KAngra 
Aniritsat 
GurdAspur ... 


... 




18 
37 


188 


109 




17 




2 




SiAlkot 
Lahore 
GujranwAla ... 






7 
38 


14 
4 
13 


'" 7 

... 


'.'.'. 


54 
20 


21 




"" 3 


Firo7.pur 
Rawalpindi ... 
Jhelam 


ll','729 
15 


"22.3 


41 

1,407 

31 


l',291 
3 


4,235 
31 


6,340 
3,680 


4,778 
207 


1,576 
1,^53 


3",'213 
191 


1 

62 

8,766 


Gujrat 

Shahpur 

Multan 


"■ 1 




40 
"* 5 


88 


6 


6 


"42 


1,965 

4s 


1,156 
35 
28 


"377 
32 


.Ihanp 

MiuafTargarh.^ 
Derah Ismail Kluin 




... 


1 


••• 


... 


... 


" 1 






25 
183 


Hannu ... ... 

Uuzara 


8 

17,548 


20',085 


45 
664 








3 
10 




2 


'.:: 


British Territory ... 


29,314 


20,315 


2,373 


1,642 


4,388 


10,026 


5,144 


4,863 


4,640 


9,468 


Total East. Plains 












... 


69 


13 




34 


Bahawalpur ... 














3,309 








Total Hill States 






28 


... 














British Territory ... 
Native States 
Province . . 


29,314 
29,'314 

1 


20,315 
20,315 


2,373 

28 

2,401 


1,642 
1,642 


4,388 
4,388 


10,026 
10,026 


5,144 
3,378 
8,522 

1 


4,863 

13 

4,876 


4,640 
4,640 


9,468 

84 

9,502 



.)AT, irVJl>nT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 
Tribes of the Western Hills. 



151 



WESTEim HILLS. 



JAIfJDA. HaNHAFI, 



19 
2,944 



128 
136 



520 
202 
133 



I'lO 
lfi,236 
9,964 



1,31)3 

3,727 

896 



1,078 

162 

3 



475 
1--8 



38.552 



55 

11 

610 



18 
3,877 

2,058 

516 

5,690 



1,110 4,835 

543 444 

1,618 l,9i2 



44 

92 

233 



732 

30 

263 



44 
12,519 
15,199 



1,110 

340 

6 



366 

966 24 

963 773 



255 21 

1 : 5 



8,419 49,424 



82 



134 



524 
67 



1,156 

6f>9 

1,724 



158 

143 

1,711 



74 



84 
20 
168 



295 
20 
84 



2 

614 



38,552 
11 
38,563 



8,419 ,49 

15 
8,434 49 



424 
216 
640 



6,570 



6,994 

66 

7 



9,245 



56r) 

53 
937 



5,937 
481 

7 



8,158 



029 



12 



42i 
7,611 



28,114 

1,883 

39 



2n5 
7rt 
19 



38,698 



6,570 9245 
6,585 , 9,245 



8.158 38,698 
1.147 t 5 

9,305 38,703 



2,645 



1,815 
890 
191 



154 
3,716 



1,058 

2'; 



2,832 



1,173 



2,645 



2,645 
2,645 



8,646 



577 



1,355 



8,646 

1,932 

10,578 



4,228 



4,228 
4,228 



Hiss.ir. 

Amb.il.i. 

Hushyarinir. 



Kangra. 

Amritsar. 

GurdAspur. 



Sialkot. 
Lahore. 
Giij rauwal.l. 



Pirozpur. 

RawfiJpiiitli 

■Jhelam. 



Qujrat. 

Shahpur. 

Alultan. 



.Jhaug. 

Muz;iffarj:raih. 
Derail Ismail Khan. 



Baniin. 
Hazar». 



British Territory. 



Total East. Pliius 



Bahawalpur. 



Total Hill States. 



British Territory. 
Native States. 
Province. 



15a PANJAB CASTES. 

Jatlatn in the Hazara and Rawalpindi districts. Of the three the Dhiind are the most northern, 
being found in the Ahhottahad tahsU of Hazara and in the nothern tracts of Rawalpindi, 
while below them come the Satti. In Hazara 1 have classed as Dhiind 2,776 persons who returned 
themselves as Andwal, which appears to he one of the Dhund clans. They claim to he descendants 
of Abbas, the paternal uncle of the Prophet ; while another tradition is that their ancestor Takht 
Khan came with Taimur to Dehli where he settled ; and that his descendant Zorah Khan went 
to Kahiita in the time of Shah .Tahan, and begat the ancestors of the Jadwal, Dhund, Sarrara 
and Tanaoli tribes. His son Khaliira or Kulu Rai was sent to Kashmir and married a Kashmiri 
woman from whom the Dhiind are sprung, and a Ketwal woman. From another illegitimate son 
of his the Satti, who arc the bitter enemies of the Dhiind, are said to have sprung ; but this the 
Satti deny and claim descent from no less a person than Nausherwan. These traditions are of 
com-se absurd. Kulu Rai is a Hindu name, and one tradition makes him brought up by a Brahman. 
Major Wace writes of the Dhiind and Karral : " Thirty years ago their acquaintance with the 
" Muhammadan faith was still slight, and though they now know more of it, and are more careful 
" to observe it, relics of their Hindu faith are still observable in their social habits." This much 
appears certain, that the Dhiind, Satti, Bib, Chibh, and many others, are all of Hindu origin, 
all originally occupants of the hills on this part of the Jahlam, and all probably more or less con- 
nected. I find among the Punwar clans mentioned by Tod, and supposed by him to be extinct, 
the Dhoonda, Soruteah, Bheeba, Dhiind, Jeebra, and Dhoonta ; and it is not impossible that 
these tribes may be Punwar clans. 

The history of these tribes is told at pages 592^ of Sir Lepel Griffin's Fanjdh Chiefs. They 
were almost exterminated by the Sikhs in 1837. Colonel Cracroft considers the Dhiind and Satti 
of Rawalpindi a " treacherous, feeble, and dangerous population," and rendered especially, 
dangerous by their close connection with the Karral and Dlnind of Hazara. He says that the 
Satti are a iiner and more vigorous race and less inconstant and volatile than the Dhiind, whose 
traditional enemies they are. Sir Lepel Griffin remarks that the Dlnind " have ever been a law- 
less untractable race, but their courage is not equal to their disposition to do evil." On the other 
hand Major ^Yace describes both the Dhiind and Karral as " attached to their homes and fields, 
" which they cultivate simply and industriously. For the rest their character is crafty and 
" cowardly." Both tribes broke into open rebellion in 1857, and the Dlnind were severely chastised 
in Rawalpindi, but left unpunished in Hazara. Mr. Stcedman says :" The hillmen of Rawalpindi 
are not of very tine physique. They have a good deal of pride of race, but are rather squalid in 
appearance. The rank and tile are poor, holding but little laud and depending chieily on their 
cattle for a livelihood. They have a great dislike to leaving the hills, especially in the hot weather, 
when they go up as high as they can, and descend into the valleys during the cold weather. They 
stand high in the social scale." 

The Ketwal (No. 3).— Tiie Ketwal belong to the same group of tribes as the Dhiind and Satti, 
and hold the hills to the south of the Satti country. They claim descent from Alexander the 
Great (!) and say that they are far older inhabitants of these hills tlian either the Dhiind or Satti ; 
but the tribe was apparently almost exterminated by the Dhiind at some time of which the date is 
uncertain, and they are now few and unimportant. 

The Dhanial (No. 4). — The Dhanial also appear to belong to the group of hill tribes of the 
Salt-range Tract and of probable Rajpiit blood which we arc now discussing. It is from them 
that the Dhani country in the Cbakwal tahsil of Jahlam takes its name ; and there appears still 
to be a colony of them in those parts, though they are now chiefly found in the lower western hills 
of the Murree range, being separated from the Satti l)y the Ketwal. They claim to be descended 
from All, son-in-law of the Prophet. Tliey are a fine martial set of men and furnish many 
recruits for the army, but were always a turbulent set, and most of the serious crime of tiie 
surrounding country used to be ascribed to them. Most of them have been returned as Jats. 

The Bhakral (No. 5) and Budhal.— These are two more members of the same group of tribes, i^^' '^*'^3 
who hold considerable areas in the south-cast portion of tlie Rawalpindi district. Tlie Bhakral are 
also found in some numbers in Jahlam and Giijrat. I had not taken out separate figures for the 
Budhal. Of the Rawalpindi Bliakral 5,099 show themselves as Punwar also, and are included in 
both figures. The P.udlitil, like the Dlianial, claim descent from Ali. Both these tribes probably 
came from tlic Jammu territory across the Jahlam. They do not approve of widow-marrlagc. 
^Vho tlie 3,000 odd Bhakral returned, for Bahawalpur may bo 1 do not know ; but it is improbal)Ie 
that tliey sliould be of the same tribe as those of the Salt-range Tract. Perhaps there has been 
some confusion of names. 

The Alpial. — Here again I did not take out separate figures. But I find that 8,085 of ihe Mawj 
I'ujputs of Rawalpindi (see Abstract No. 82, page 25U*) are Alpial of the Fatah Jhang talis/ (. *p. 158- 
Tlie Alpial hold tlic soutliern corner of the Fatah JJiang (ahsil of Rawalpindi. They are admit- 59. 
tedly a Rajpiit tribe, and tlielr marriage ceremonies still hear traces of their Hindu origin. They 
seem to liave wandered tlirough tlie Khusluib and Talagang country before settling in their 
present abodes, and if .so, probably came up from the soutli. They are " a bold lawless set of men 
" of fine physique and much given to violent crime." 



.TAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 153 

The Khafwal. — Tlic Kharwul, for whom I liavo no separate figures, claim to be a Janjua clan 
and descendants of Kaja Mai, and Mr. Rteedman sees no reason to doiii)t the tradition. They 
occupy the hills of the eastern half of the Kahiita tahsil m Rawalpindi, and are " a fine strong 
" race, decidedly superior to the ordinary Rajputs, and socially hold much the same position as 
" other Janjuas. " They do not approve of widow-marriage. 

The Kanial (No. 6). — The Kanial 1)elong, according to Mr. Steedman, to that miscellaneous 
body of men who call themselves Rajputs, and hold a largo portion of the south-eastern corner of 
the Rawalpindi district ; and arc of much the same class as the Budhal and Rhakral. They also 
appear to stretch along the suh-montano as far east as Giijrat. 

454. The Rajput tribes of the Salt -range.— The Kahut (No. 7) and Mair.— I have 
classed the Kahut as a separate caste under No. 103 of Table VIII A. But they probably belong 
to the group we arc now considering, and I therefore show them in Abstract No. 81 and discuss 
them here. With them I notice the Mair, for whom I have no separate figiu'es ; and with these 
two are commonly associated the Kasar, wlio will bo described under the head Mughal. These 
three tribes occupy the Dhaiii country in tahstl Chakwil of Jahlam j the Kahiita holding Kahutani 
or its southern portion, the Mair the centre, and the Kasar the north. All three state that 
they came from the Jammu hills, joined Babar's army, and were located by him in their 
present abodes which wci'e then almost uninhabited. They seem to have been ever violent and 
masterful, and to have retained their independence in a singular degree. A graphic description of 
their character by Sir. Thomson is quoted at length under the head Mughal, to which I must refer 
the reader. They most probably belong to the group of Rajpiit or yuasi-Rajpiit tribes who hold 
the hills on either hank of the Jahlam, and the Kahiita hills of Rawalpindi now held by the 
Ketwal and Dhanial, and the town of Kahiita now in the hands of the Janjua, still bear their 
name. They now belong to the Salt-range and not to the Jahlam hills, but I have put them in the 
Abstract among the tribes with whom they are probably connected by origin. They are sometimes 
said to be Awan, as indeed are the Dhiind also. Their bards claim for them Mughal origin, and 
it is quite possible that some of them may have returned themselves as either Awan or Mughal. Of 
the 8,766 Kahiit returned from Jahlam, all but 293 have shown Mughal as their clan. Besides the 
Kahiit shown under No. 103, Table VIIIA., 177 Rajpiits have returned their tribe as Kahiit. The 
more respectable Mair call themselves Minhas, probably the same word as the well-known Manhas 
tribe presently to be described ; and it may be that the Mair have been returned as Manhas 
Rajpiits. 

The Jodra and Gheba. — I have no separate figui'es for these tribes, the only Gheba who have 
returned themselves as such being apparently 105, of whom 89 are in the Peshawar division 
They may have returned themselves as Mughal or some caste other than Rajpiit, or as some 
other Rajpiit tribe, or as Rajput simply without specifying any tribe. The tradition which 
makes the Sial, Tiwana, and Gheba descendants of Saiuo, Tcno, and Gheo, the three sons 
of Rai Shankar Punwar, has already been noticed under the head of Sial. An amended 
genealogy is given at page 520 of GriHin's Punjab Chiefs. The Sial and Tiwana appear to admit 
the relationship, and, as already noticed under the head Dhiind, it is not at all impossible that this 
group of Rajput tribes may be of Punwar origin. The Gheba arc said to have come to the Pan jab 
some time after the Sial and Tiwana, and to have settled in the wild hilly country of Fateh Jhano- 
and Pindi Gheb in Rawalpindi. Here they held their own against the Awans, Gakkhars and 
neighboiu-ing tribes till Ran jit Singh subdued them. The Jodra are said to have come 'from 
Jammu, or according to another story from Hindustan, whence also Colonel Cracroft s.iys that the 
Gheba traditions trace that tribe, and to have held their present tract before the Gheba settled 
alongside of them. They now occupy the eastern half of the Pindi Gheb, and the Gheba the 
western half of the Fateh J hang ?;« A 5z7 in Rawalpindi, the two tracts marching with each other. 
I am informed, though unfortunately I cannot remember who was my authority, that the 
Gheba is really a branch of the original Jodra tribe that quarrelled with the others, and took the 
name of Glieba which till then had been simply a title used in the tribe ; and the fact that the 
town of Pindi Gheb was built and is still held by the Jocka, and not by the Gheba, lends some 
support to the statement. The hi.story of the Gheba family is told at pages 538 X/^' and of the 
Jodra family at pages 535 /yof Sir Lepel Griffin's Punjdb Chiefs. Colonel Cracroft describes 
the Jodra as "fine, spirited fellows who delight in Held sports, have horses and hawks, are often 
" brawlers, and are ever ready to turn out and fight out their grievances, formerly with swords, 
" and now with the more humble weapons of sticks and stones." The same writer says that the 
Gheba are " a fine, hardy race of men, full of fire and energy, not addicted to crime, thou^'h their 
" readiness to resent insult or injury, real or imagined, or to join in hand-to-hand fights fol- their 
" rights in land, and their factions with the Jodra and Alpiai, are notorious." 

The Januja (No. 8),— The head-quarters of the Janjiia are the eastern Salt-range, but they 
are foimd in small numbers throughout the Multiin and Derajat divisions, and in°Hushyarpar 
General Cunnhigham thinks that they are Aryan, and a branch of the Anuwan, Awan, or sons of 
Anil, and connects Janj the first syllable of their name, and Chach a tract in Rawalpindi, with the 
old kings of the Hund on the Indus who are said by Masaudi to have borne the name of Chach 
or Jaj. Six Lepel GrifHu is inclined to think that they are a branch of the Yadubansi 



l54 PANJAB CASTES. 

Rajputs, now diicfly represented by the Phatti, who held Kashmir iill tlie Mahoniniedaii 
conquest of the Panjah, and wliose liistory has been brieily sketched under the head I'hatti ; 
and Abu Fazl also make-; rheni a branch of the Yadu st<;ck. They themselves say they arc 
descemlmts of Ra.ia Mai Rathor, who migrated about 980 A. I), either from J jdhpuv or from 
Kanauj tolhe Jahlam and built Malot; and the Janjua genealogies show a striking unifor- 
mity iJi only giving from 18 to 23 generations since Raja Mai. One of his sons is said to have 
been called Jiid, the old name of the Salt-range ; and Mr. Rrandreth states that only the descend- 
ants of his brother Wi'r are now known as Janjua. If this be so, and if the identification 1)y 
General Cunningham of B:ibar's .Jud with the Awan l)c accepted, tlie connection of the two tribes 
by traditional de-cent from a common ancestor follows. The Janjua once held almost the whole 
of the Salt-range Tract, but were gradually dispossessed Ijy the Gakkhars in the north and by the 
Awans (if they be a separate people) in the west ; and they now bold only the central and eastern 
parts of the range as tribal territory, which is exactly what they held at the time of liabar's 
invasion. They still occupy a social position in the tract whicli is second only to that of the 
Gakkbars, and arc always addressed as Raja. They do not permit widow marriage. The 
history of the tribe is tola fully at paragraphs 50^ of Hrandreth's Jahlam Report, and that of 
its leading family at pages 002 fj of the Fanjdh Chiefs. The tribe is very fully described by 
Mr. Thomson in liis Jahlam Report. Ho too makes them Rathor Rajputs from Jodhpur, and says 
they are tiie only undoubtedly and admittedly Rajpiit tribe in Jahlam. lie describes them as 
physically well-luuking, with line hands and feet; mueb given to military service, especially in 
the cavalry ; poor agriculturists, bad men of business, and with great pride of race. 

455. Rajput tribes of the Jaramu border. — The Manhas (No. 9). — The Manhas or Jamwal 
claim tSolar origin by direct descent from Ram Chandra. They say that their ance-t^n' came from 
A judhia and conquered J ammu, and founded the city of that name. Some say that before this 
conquest they first settled in Sialkot; others, that they went tlrst to Kashmir, then to Sialkot, and 
then to Jammu. All seem agreed that they moved into Jammu from the plains. The name 
Jamwal appears to have been the old name of the whole tribe, but to be now confined to the royal 
branch who do not engage in agriculture, and look down upon their cultivating brethren who are 
commonly styled Manhas. The Manhas intermarry with the Salahria and oMier seeond-clav^ 
Rilj puts of the neighbourhood. They call their eldot ^ou Raja and the youngrr one? Jliau, and rp „ on 
use the salutation J'a I ! They are for the most parr, Hindus, at lea-t in the cis-Jahlam tract. ["-248] 
They pour water on a goat's head at mukldioa, and consider that his shaking his head in consequence 
is pleasing to their ancestors. The Manhas ai-e found in large numbers throughout the country 
below the Jammu border, in Rawalpindi, Jahlam, Sialkot, and Gurda-pur, bvit especially in the 
two first. In Sialkot 765 Manhas have returned themselves also as Bliatti, 7-11 as Salahria, and 
775 as Raghbansi j while in Gurdaspur 2,080 arc also houTi as Raghban>i f-o of the Jat ^Manhas 
of Giijrauwala, 1,325 arc Virk who have shown themselves as ^Manhas also. The Manluis are 
real hudjandmen, and therefore occupy a very inferior position in the local scale of Rajput 
precedence. 

The Chibh (No. 10). — The Cliibh claim to be descended from the Katoch Rajputs of Kaiigra, 
at lea 4 on the female side." If so, their position must once have been much higher than it now 
is ; but the -tory is prubal)ly untrue. I have suggested under the head Dhund that the Ciiibh may 
pei'hap^ be Puuwar. Their ancestor Chib Chand is said to have left Kangra some 1,400 years ago, 
and ha\e settled at Bhimbar in the Jammu hills. Tlie first Chibh to become a Musalman was one 
Sur Sadi of the time of Aurangzeb. He died a violent death and is still venerated as a martyr, 
and the Mahomedan Ciiibh ofi'er the scalploeks of their male children at his tomb, till which 
ceremony the child is not considered a true Chibh, nor is the mother allowed to eat meat. Within 
the Pan jab the Chibh are found almost entirely in the northern portion of Gujriit under the 
Jammu hills. Tl>e liills above this territory are their proper home, and are attached to the State 
of Kashmir. The tribe has also given its name to the Chibhal, or hill country of Kashmir on the 
left bank of the .laiilam along the Hazara border, though I believe that they do not now occupy 
those hill-. The Chibh is a tribe of good position ; they, like the Janjua, enjoy the title of 
Raja ; Saiyads and Gakkbars do not hesitate to marry their daughters ; and till" the Sikh rule 
they did not cultivate theui-elves. Now-a-days, however, they follow the plough. The 
history of the Chibh chiefs is related at page 583 of the Fanjdh Chiefs. The Chibh arc identilied 
by some with the Sib;c of the ancients. 

^ The Thakar (No. 11). — The Thakar Rajpiit: diown in the Abstract are almost all Salabrif 
Rajputs of Siiilkol, where 5,279 men returned them elves a- Rajput Salaria Thakar. They art 
shown again under the head Salahria. S> 921 of the Nabha Thakar are Cliauhan. The signiti- 
cauce of the expression Thakar is discussed under the head of Rajputs of the Eastern Hills ; but 

^ Mr. Brandi-etli says that Ma jor Tod comes to the same conclusion ; but I have been unable to 
find the passag''. 

" They have h-iwcvt-r a wonderful story about a son of une of tlie kings of Persia luarryleg the 
dan Jrer of a IMJa in the iJucai'. a-!;! laving !).> h( i de cendan^s, one of whom Nahm Cliaud(^i') bo- 
came king uf Kangi-a. His sou Chibb Chand became ruler of Bhimbar ; hence the Chibh. 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 155 

Tliakur is also sonu'tlmes ii<oil Iiy tlio liit-h Rajputs of tlio liill; as a title of digiiitv, ami the two 
words arc often confused. 

_ The Salahria (No. 12).— The t-alaln-ia are Sonibaiisi Rajputs who trace tlieir descent from one 
Raja Saigalof fahidou^ antiquity, and from liis descciidant 'Chandra Gupta. Tliey say that their 
eponymous aiu'cstor came from tlic Doccan in the time of Sultan Mamd;Ui a-; commander of a 
force sent to suppress the insurrection of Shuja the Kholdiar, and settled at Suilkot ; and that 
his descendants turned Musahn.in in the time of Haldol li )di. They are for the most part 
Mahomcdaii, hut still employ Rivilunaiw, an.l do not marry within the tribe. They mark the fore- 
heads of the bride and bridegroom with goat-' blood at their weddings. Their head-quarters are in 
thcea tern portion of Suilkot, hut they am .also found in Ourdaspur and Lahore. The Tliakar 
returned from Sialkot under No. 11 of the Abstract arc for the most part tt'alahria, and have been 
included in the figures for both tribes; while 741 of the Sidlkot Salahria show themselves as 
Maidias and 317 as IJbatti. lu all these cases the men are shown under both headings. In Ourdas- 
pur 3,712 of the Salahria are shown al.o as Ragar or Bhag.ir, and ha\e been included under both 
Salahria and H;igri. 

The Katil (No. 13). — The Katil .are a Rajput clan in Gurdaspur, regarding whom I have no 
iuforumtiiii save that they intei'marry with (he SaUdiria. 

The Raghbansi (No 14). — The Raghl)ansi Rajputs are perhaps most numerous in the eastern 
part (d the Norlh-Wetern I'rovineos. In the Paiijab they are chiedy found in the Hill States 
and the sub-montaue of Gurdaspur and Sialkot, (hough there are a few in the Jamna districts also, 
lint the name would appear to imply little more than traditional origin. Thus of the Gurdaspur 
Raghbansi 2,080, and 775 of those of Suilkot, have returned themselves as Mauhas also, and arc 
shown under both headings. 

456. The Rajputs of the Eastern Hills.— The last, and in many respects 
the motit interesting' group of Kajput tribes thai I have to discuss, are those of 
the Kangra and Simla Hills and the sub-montane tract at their foot between 
the Bcas and the Jamua. Not only are the Plill Rajputs probably those 
among all the peoples of thu Panjab who have occupied from the most remote 
date their present ai^odes, but they have also retained their independence long- 
est. Often invaded, often defeated, the Rajas of Kangra Hills never really 
became subjects of the Musalman ; and it was reserved to Ranjit Singh to 
annex to his dominions the most ancient principalities in Northern India. 
Thus the Kiingra Hills are that portion of the Panjab which is most wholly 
Hindu, not merely by the proportion which the number of real or nominal 
Hindus bears to the total population, but still more because there has never 
been any Musalman domination, which should either loosen the bonds of caste 
by introducing among the converted people the sibsolute freedom of Islam in 
its purity, or tighten them ])y throwing the still Hindu population, deprived of 
thi4r Rajput rulers, more wholly into the hands of their priests. It is here 
then that we may expect to find caste existing most nearly in the same state as 
that in which the first Musalman invaders found it when they entered the 
Panjab, It is certainly here that the Rrahman and Kshatriya occupy 
positions most nearly resembling those assigned them by Manu. 

The constitution of Rajput society in these hills will best be . explained 
by the following extract from Mr. Barnes^ Kangra Report, and by the 
further extracts which I shall make under the head Thakar and Rathi. The 
extracts are long ; l)ut the matter is so important as ]> earing upon the 
whole question of e.isle, that I do not hesitate to give them. Mr. Barnes 
writes : — 

" Any member of a royal house, whether belonging to the L'ogar circle of municipalities across 
" the Ravi, or to the .lalandhar circle on this side of the river, is es-entially R.ijpiit. Tho^e also 
" with whom they condescend to marry are included under this honourable category. The name 
" 1. as.sumed by many other races in the hills; I'ut by the general feeling of the country the 
" appellation of Riijpiit is the legitimate right of those oidy to whom I have here restricted 
" it. 

" The de-cendanis of all these noble houses aiv distinguished by the honorary title of ' Midn<.' 
" When accosted by their inferiors they receive the peculiar salutation of ' Jai Dya,' oii'ered to no 



156 PAN JAB CASTES. 

"other caste.* Among themselves the same salutation is interchanged ; and as there are endless 

" gradations even among the Mi'iins, the inferior lirst repeats the salutation and the courtesy is 

" usually retm'ued. In former days great importance was attached to the Jai Dya : uuautho- 

" rized assumption of the privilege was puni<hed as a misdemeanour hy heavy fine and imprison- 

" mcnt. The Rdja co\dd extend the honour to high-horn Rajputs not strictly belonging to a Royal 

" clan, such, for instance, as the Sonkla or the 5lanhas. Any deviation from the austere rules 

"of the caste was sufficient to deprive the offender of this salutation, and the loss was 

" tantamount to excommunication. The Rajputs delight to recount stories of the value of 

"this honour, and the vicissitudes endured to prevent its ahuse. The Raja Dhian Singh, the 

" Sikh Minister, himself a Jamwal Mian, desired to extort the Jai Dya from Raja Blur Singh, 

" the fallen chief of Niirpur. Ho held in his possession the grant of a jagi'r valued at Rs. 25,000, 

'' duly signed and sealed hy Ranji't Singh, and delayed presenting the deed until the Niirpur 

" chief should hail him with this coveted salutation. But Bhir Singh was a Raja by a long line 

"of ancestors, and Dhian Singh was a Raja oidy by favour of Ranjit Singh. The hereditary 

"chief refused to compromi-^e his honour, and preferred beggary to affluence rather than 

" accord the Jai Dya to one who by the rules of the brotherhood was his inferior. The derivation 

" of the phrase is supposed to be Jai, victory, and Del, king ; being synonymous, when used L"- '^^^-l 

" together, to the national expression of Vive le Roi, or ' the king for ever.' 

" A Miiin, to preserve his name and honour unsullied, must scmpulously observe four fundamental 
" maxims -.—first, he must never di'ive the plough ; secondly, he must never give his daughter in 
"marriage to an inferior, nor marry himself much below his rank ; thirdly, he must never accept money 
" in exchange for the betrothal of his daughter ; and lastly, his female household must observe strict 
" seclusion. The prejudice against the plough is perhaps the most inveterate of all ; that step can 
" never be recalled. The offender at once loses the privileged salutation ; he is reduced to the second 
" grade of Rajputs ; no Mian will marry his daugliter, and he must go a step lower in the social scale 
" to get a wife for himself. In every occupation of life he is made to feel his degraded position. In 
" meetings of the tribe and at marriages the Rajputs undetiled by the plough will refuse to sit at 
" meals with the Ral Bah, or plough driver, as he is contemptuously styled ; and many, to avoid the 
" indignity of exclusion, never appear at public assemblies. This prejudice against agriculture is as 
" old as the Hindu religion ; and I have heard various reasons given in explanation of it. Some 
" say it is sacrilegious to lacerate the bosom of mother-earth with an iron plough-share j others de- 
" clare that the offence consists in subjecting sacred oxen to labour. The probable reason is that the 
" legitimate weapon of the Kshatria, or military class, is the sword ; the plough is the insignia of a 
" lower walk in life, and the exchange of a noble for a ruder profession is tantamount to a renuncia- 
" lion of the privileges of caste. 

" The giving one's daughter to an Inferior in caste is scarcely a more pardonable offence than 
" agriculture. Even Ranji't Singh, in the height of his prosperity and power, felt the force of 
" this prejudice. The Raja of Kangra deserted his hereditary kingdom rather than ally his 
" sisters to Dhian Singh, himself a Mian of the Jammu stock, but not the equal of the Katoch 
" prince. The Rdjpiits of Katgarh, in the Xurpui' pargauah, voluntarily set lire to their houses 
" and immolated their female relatives to avoid the disgrace of Ranjit Singh's alliance ; and when 
" Mian Padma, a renegade Pathauia, married his daughter to the Sikh monarch, his brethren, un- 
" deterred by the menaces of Ranjit Singh, deprived him and his immediate connexions of the Jai 
" Dya, and to this day refuse to associate with his descendants. The seclusion of their women 
" is also maintained with severe strictness. Tlie dwellings of Rajputs can always be recognised by 
" one familiar with the country. The houses are placed in isolated positions, either on the crest of 
" a hill which commands approaches on all sides, or on the verge of a forest sedulously preserved 
" to form an impenetrable screen. AVheu natural defences do not exist, an artificial growth is promot- 
" cd to alford the necessary privacy. In front of their dwellings, removed about fifty paces from 
" the house, stands the ' maudi ' or vestibule, beyond whose precincts no one unconnected with the 
" household can venture to intrude. A privileged stranger who has business with the master of the 
" house may by favour occupy the vestibule. But even this concession is jealously guarded, and 
" only those of decent caste and respectable character are allowed to come even as far as the 
" ' mandi.' A remarkable instance of the extremes to which this seclusion is carried occtirred under 
" my own experience. A Katoch's house in the JMandi territory accidentally caught fire in broad 
" day. Tliere was no friendly wood to favour the escape of the women, and rather than brave 
" the public gaze they kept their apartments and were sacriliccd to a horrible death. Those who 
" wish to visit their parents must travel in covered palanquins, and those too poor to afford a cou- 
" veyance travel by night, taking unfrequented roads through thickets and ravines. 

" It is melancholy to see with what devoted tenacity the Rajput clings to these deep-rooted 
" prejudices. Their emaciated looks and coarse clothes attest the vicissitudes they have undergone to 
" maintain their fancied purity. In the quantity of waste land which abounds in the hills, a 
" ready livelihood is offered to those who will cultivate the soil for their daily bread; but this 
" alternative involves a forfeiture of their dearest rights, and they would rather follow any pre- 

* Hence the word Jaikari commonly used to denote fii'st-class Rajpiits in the hills. 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 157 

'* carious pursuit tlian submit to tlic disgrace. Some lounp^e n,wny tTinir time on ttic tops of the 
" mountains, spreading nets for the capture of liawks ; many a day tliey watcli in vain subsisting on 
"berries and on game accidentally entangled ini their nets; at last when fortxinc grants 
"them success they despatch' the prize to their friends below, who tame and instruct the bird 
" for the purpose of sale. Others will stay at home, and pass their time in spoi-ting either 
" with a hawk, or, if they can afford it, with a gun : one Rajput beats the bushes, and the 
" other carries the hawk ready to he sprung after any quarry that ri?es to the view. At the close 
" of the day, if tliey have been successful, they exchange the gnme for a liitle meal, and thus pro- 
" long existence over another spaTi. The marksman armed with a gixn will sit up for wild pigs 
" returning from the fields, and in the same manner barter their flesh for other necessaries of life. 
" However the prospect of starvation has already driven many to take the plough, and the number 
" of seceders daily increases. Our administration, though just and liberal, has a levelling ten- 
" dency ; service is no longer to he procured; and to many the stern alternative has arrived of tak- 
" ing to agriculture and securing comparative comfort, or enduring the pangs of hunger and death. 
" So long as any resource remains the fatal step will be postponed, but it is easy to foresee that 
" the struggle cannot be long pi'otracted ; necessity is a hard task-master, and sooner or later the 
" pressure of want will eventually overcome the scruples of the most bigoted. 

" Next to the royal clans in social importance are those races with whom they are connected 
" by marriage. The' honour of the alliance draws them also within the exclusive circle. It is not 
"easy to indicate the line which separates the Rajprits from the clans immediately below him, and 
" known in the hills by the appellation of Rathi; the Miiin would restrict the term (Ra.jpvit) 
" to those of royal descent ; the Rathi naturally seeks a broader definition, so as to include his own 
<' pretensions. "Altogether, I am inclined to think that the limit I have fixed will be admitted to 
" be just, and those only are legitimately entitled to rank as Rajpvits who are themselves the mem- 
"bera of a royal clan, or are connected in marriage with them. Among these (second-class) tribes 
" the most eniinent are the Manhas, Jurial, and Sonkla Rajputs. The two former are indeed 
" branches of the Jammuwal clan, to which they are considered but little inferior. They occasional- 
" ly receive the salutation of Jai Dya, and very few of them engage in agriculture. Another class 
" of Rajputs who enjoy gi-eat distinction in the hills are the descendants of ancient petty chiefs or 
" Ranas whose title and temire generally preceded even the Rajns themselves. These^ petty chiefs 
" have long since been dispossessed, and their holdings absorbed in the larger principalities which 
" I have eumerated. Still the name of Rina is retained, and their alliance is eagerly desired by 
" the Mians. All these tribes affect most of the customs of Ra jpiits. They select secluded spots 
" for their dwellings, immure their women, are very particular with whom they marry or betroth 
" in marriage, but have generally taken to agriculture. In this particular consists their chief dis- 
" tiuction from the Mians." 

On this Mr. Lyall notes that there are now-a-days not many even of 
the better Rajput families who do not themselves do every kind of field work 
other than ploughing. He also points out that ihe Rajputs of the second 
grade might more properly be called Thakars of the first grade. For the ab- 
sence of any definite line of demarcation between Rajput and Thakar, see the 
extracts quoted under the head Thakar (section 459) . Finally I may state 
that throughout the Hill States, the Rajputs of proximate descent from ruling 
chiefs entered themselves in the present Census as Kshatriyas, to distinguish 
themselves from mere Rajputs. I have taken two figures together. The Raj- 
puts of the sub-montane of Hushyarpur, Jalandhar, and Ambala differ little if 
at all from those of the Eastern Plains who have already been described. The 
following Kangra proverbs illustrate Mr. Barnes' description of the Hill Raj- 
puts : " It is bad to deal with a Rajput ; sometimes you get double value, 
" and sometimes nothing at all : " and " A Rajput's wedding is like a fire of 
" maize stalks ; great rolling of drums, and very little to eat." 
»P. 158- Abstract No. 82 on the next page* gives the figures for the several tribes 

S9- roughly grouped by locality, those of the higher hills coming first, then those 

of Hushyarpur, and then those of Jalandhar and Ambala. Many of these are 
mere local clans named after their principal seats. It is probable that all these 
royal families sprang from a common stock, but all traces of what that stock 
was seem to be lost in obscurity. Unfortunately the Settlement Reports give 
little or no information regarding these tribes or clans ; while Mr. Coldstream s 
report, from which I had hoped for much information, is wholly silent on the 



158 



Auibala 
Liidliiaiia 



Jalandliar 

Huslnarinir 

Kangra 



Ainr'itsar 

Gnrdaspuv 

Sialkot 



Laliore 
Firozpiiv 



Rawalpindi 
British Territory 



Patiala 

Nablia 
Kapurtliala 
Malor Kotla 
Kalsia 



Total East. Plains 

Maiidi 
Uiiaspur 

Total Hill States 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 82, showing the Rajput 

IIAJPITS OP THE 



6 


7 


oi 




vS 


^ 


^ 


cJ 








ee 


p- 





8,038 j 3,035 
1 



43 
3,121 



7,308 



133 



G32 



3,037 



7,368 



British Territory | 3,121 
Native States ... j 632 
Province . . . 3,753 



37 
37 



3,037 7,368 

37 
3,074 7,368 



29 

10 



292 

SI 
2G 



4 

17 



3 

42 



690 

148 



155 

3,6oC 
3,377 



690 
3,532 
4,22:i 



214 

291 

6,070 



7 
37 



302 

7,101 

4 



10 



6,601 
3,466 



412 
24 



440 



7,101 

444 

7,545 



17 

G19 
10,777 

1 



154 
67 



378 



10,777 

379 

11,156 



24 
10 



76G 
4,113 
2,280 



161 



25 



7,423 



1 
34 



51 
3 



58 



7,423 

105 

7,528 



190 
7,028 
L1G6 



12 

3S 

155 



35 

2 



8,706 



14 



14 



8,706 

14 

8.720 



J AT, RAJPUT, AM) ALLIED CASTES, 
tribes of the Eastern Hills. 



L59 



EASTI'IRN HILLS. 



SI 
20 



37 

G,596 
405 



7,144 



7,144 
7,144 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 











2 


c 


.-• 


OS 




'f- 


'C 


"^ 




g 




ee 


r^ 


/3 


V33 


^ 


►-5 


M 


w 


<^ 


O 



Manj. 



P5 



6,316 



314 



6,754 



6,754 
3 

6,757 



5,819 



945 

2,020 



2,351 
4,254 



5,819 



4,628 I 8,848 
8 787 i 2,716 
3 i 



805 ; 32 
1,565 I ... 
612 62 



1,269 
611 



311 
22,107 



362 
126 
930 



1,493 



1,443 

45 
45 



5,819 22,107 18,493 
1,562 1,488 
5,819 23,669 19,981 



J 46 

58 



18,493 



8S6 
265 



38 
5,680 



5.754 
l,'-45 



1,170 I 58 
1,151 i 1,599 

266 I 81 



12,982 



103 
1,488 



&&7 
43 



8,930 I ... 

\ 
26,309 I 2,654 

653 I 



1,628 
157 395 
86 



2,676 



Auibal.i. 
LiuUiiaiia. 



113 Jalandliar. 
03 Hnshyarpur. 
Kaiigra. 



Amvifsai'. 

Gnrdaspiu". 

Sialkot. 



35 



13,284 



6,092 
210 



1,001 



7,310 



26,309 I 2,654 | 13,284 

2,676 1 I 7,318 

28,985 2,655 | 20,602 



Lalioi'o. 
Firozpnr. 

Rawalpindi. 

British Territory, 



Patiala. 
Xablia. 
Kai)iirtli:il;i. 
Malcr Kotla. 
Kalsia, 



Total Ea^t. IMaitis. 

Jlaiidi. 
l!ila-;pnr. 

Total Hill States. 



British Territar 
Native State.' 
Province. 



160 PANJAB CASTES. 

subject. The figures for tribal divisions of tlio Eajputs of the Hill States 
appear to be exceedin2:ly imperfect. Indeed the divisions themselves do not 
seem fo be very clearly marked. Mr. Barnes writes : — 

" Each class comprises mmicrong sub-divisions. As the family increased, individuals left the rp 2501 
" court to settle on some estate in the country, and their descendants, thoiigh still retaininc: the '" ' -' 
" generic appellation of the race, arc further distinguished by the name of tlie estate with M-hich 
"they are more immediatily identified. Sometimes, though" not so frequently, the designation of 
I' the ancestor furnishes a surname for his posterity. Tlni^a among the Pathanias orNurpur IMians 
II Ihere are twenty-two recognised suh-divisions ; the Golerias are distributed into thirteen distinct 
II tribes ; the Katoch clan has four grand di\'isions, each of which includes other subordinate de- 
ll nominations. A Rajput interrogated by one who he thinks will understand these refined distinc- 
^1 tions, will give the name, not of his clan but of his patronymic. To a stranger he gives no 
" detail, but ranges himself under the general appellation of Kshafriya or Rajput." 

457. Rajput trifces of the Eastern Hills.— The Katoch, Goleria, and Dharwal (Nos.1,2, 

3). — The Katoch is the family of the Kangra dynasty, a dynasty which dates from certainly some 
centuries before Christ, whose tree shows nn unliroken lineof four hundred and seventv kings, and 
whose kingdom once included the whole of the Hoshvarpur and Jalandhar districts. " Tlie ancient 
name of the kingdom is said to have been Katoch. Sir Lepel Griffin writes thus of the Katoch of 
Kangra, and the neighbouring Hill Rajas : — 

" Antecedent to what are called historic times, con jecture must take the place of f ruth ; but 
" it is not difficult to imagine that those long genealogies, by the side of which fhe noblest names 
" of Europe seem but as of yesterday, contain some semblance of the truth. These quiet mountain 
II valleys, guarded by difficult passes, by ice and by snow, lay altogether out of the path of the 
" Invading ai-mies which, one after another, in quick succession, poured down upon tlie plains of 
I' Hindustan from the north-west. Here a peaceful race, with no ambition urging them to try 
II their strength against their neighbours, and with little wealth to tempt invasion, may have quietly 
lived for thousands of years, and their roval dynasties may have been already ancient when 
II Moses^was leading the Israelites out of Egypt, and" the Greeks were steering their swift ships to 

Their pride is expressed in the following proverb :- " In the house of the Katoch the M-ork- 
" man gets ^coarse flour, and the flatterer fine rice." The Katoch claim to form a third section of 
the great Rajput stock, Surajbansi and Chandrahaiisi being the other two. Thev sav they are de- 
scended from an ancestor called Bhumi who was formed from the sweat on Phagwati's forehead ; 
and as SAwwia means earth, it may be that their division completes the triplet of the Sun, the 
Moon, and the Earth-born races. 

The Goleria are the ruling family of Goler, and a branch of the Katoch stock ; the Dharwal 
I cannot identify. Some of the Kangra Rathor have returned their clan as Dharwal. 

The Chandel andPathial (Nos. 4, 5).— The Chandel are one of the 36 roval races, and are 
fully described in Ellioft's Races of the N.-W. Provinces. It is not impossible that they are 
the same stock as the Chandal, outcastes where subjects, Rajputs where dominant. They are returned 
chiefly from the Native State of Bilaspur. It would be interesting to know how this lowest of all 




, , properlv lie classed as first-class Tliakars. In Kaugn 

3,451 persons have entered themselves as Gondal Pathidl, and arc shown under both headings. 

The Pathania (No. 6).— This is the tribe to which the ruling family of Niirpur in Kangra 
belongiod^and is said to take its name from Pathankot in Gurdaspur, " the first possession which 
"the family occupied on their emigration to this neighbourhood from Hindustan ; " though in this 
case it would seem more probable that they gave their name to the town. I have, however, receiv- 
ed a tradition, though not from good authoritv. that the Pathania Rajputs only occupied Pathan- 
kot some five or six centuries ago. They are "chiefly found in ih& Hushydrpur and Kangra dis- 
tricts. They are said to bo of the same stock as the'Katoch. 



•11 '^J'^ ''^^^^' (No. 7).— The Jaswal arc the ancient ruling family of fhe .Taswiin diin in the low 
nils of Hushyarpur. They are nearly allied with the Katoch house of Kangra. 

The^ Dudwal (No. 8).— The Dudwal are ihe ancient ruling family of DufiirpiU', and are said 

er. The Riiuas of the Bit 
jputs, and the clan still holds 



,.,,,. ■„ . o ^- of Dufii-j ..-, „-- 

to take their name from Dada in Kangra on fhe Hushyar].ur border. The Riiuas of the Bit 
Manaswal or tableland of the Hu<hyarpur Siwiiliks were Dudwal Raj 
the tract. Tliey are chiefiy found i'n Hushyiirpur. 

The Laddu Kilchl and Khoja (Nos. 9, 10, 11),— The Kilchi is said to be a clan of the Mani 




to Hushyarpur, and are probably local clans 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 161 

The Nam (No. 12). — TIio Nam are with the exception perliap-t of tlio Manj, tlio most widely 
spread oi' tho Hill l^ajputn; but tlicir iH'ad-quartnrH are the dis< rict^ of Jalaiidiiar and Husliyar- 
pnr. Tlio Nam vvoulil appear to dilTer in tlieir accounts of tlieir own origin. Those of Hushyar- 
pur, many or most of whom are still Hindu, and those of the adjoining nortliern portions of 
Jiilandhar say that they arc Chandrahansi and eame from the hills j while those of the east of 
.Talandhar about Philaur, who are all Musalnuiuj, say their anccstoi- was a Raghhansi Rajput who 
came from Ajudhia, entered the service of Shalulb-ul-din Ghori, and eventually settled near 
Philaur. A third story makes the common ancestor a son of a Raja of Jaipur or .lodhpur, who was 
converted in the time of Mahmiid Ghaznavi, and settled at Rajwara in Hushyarpur. The Naru 
held the Hariana tract on the Jalandhar and Hushyarpur border till the Sikhs' dispossessed them. 
The original settlement of the Jalandhar Nam was Man, a name which, as Mr. Barklcy points 
out, suggests an origin from eastern irindiistan or Central India. Of the Hushyarpur Naru 
1,279 have also shown themselves as Kilchi, 556 as Manhas, and 903 as Gondal. 

The Ghorewaha (No. 13). —The head-quarters of the Ghorewaha are the Jalandhar district, 
of whiih they occupy the eastern corner, and are found in small numbers in all the 
adjoining districts. To the west of them are the Manj, and to the north of them the Naru. 
They are almost all Musalman. They are Kachwaha Rajpilts, descendants of Kash,the second son 
of Rama. They say that Raja Man, sixth in descent from Kash, had two sons Kachwalia and 
Hawaha, and that they are of the lineage of Hawaha. The two brothers met Shahab-ul-din Ghari ( !) 
with an offering of a horse, and received in return as large a territory as they could ride round in 
a day ; hence their name. The division of their country took place while they were yet Hindus, 
so that their settlement in their present tract was probably an early one. The Rahon Ghorewaha, 
who are still Hindus, would seem to have immigrated more lately than the rest of the tribe, as 
they trace their origin from Jaipur, and their genealogists still live in Kota and Bundi in 
Rajputana. Mr. Barkley is disposed to put the Ghorewaha conquest of their present territory at 
some five centuries ago. In the time of Akbar their possessions would seem to have been more 
extensive than they are now. 

The Manj (No. 14)^. — The Manj are the most widely distributed of all the sub-montane 
Rajpiits, if our figures are to be accepted as correct. They hold the south-western portion of the 
Jalandhar and the north-western portion of the Ludhiana district, and are to be found in all the 
adjoining districts and States. There are also some 9,000 of them shown in the Pindi district. 
These last are the Alpicil of that district who have returned themselves as Manj Alpial ; but 
whether they are of the same stock as the Manj of Ludhiana and Jalandhar, I cannot say. The 
Manj say that they are Rhatti Rajputs, and descended from Raja Salvahan, father of Raja 
Rasalu of Sialkot. Some 600 years ago Shekh Chachu and Shekh Kilchi, two Manj Rajpiits, are 
said to have settled at Hatvir in the south-west of Ludhiana, whence their descendants spread into 
the neighbouring country ; and the Jalandhar traditions refer their conquest of the tract to the 
time of Ala-ul-din Khilji. As however they state that Shekh Chachu was converted by Makhdum 
Shah Jahania of TJchh, who died in 1383 A.D., it would appear that if the tradition has any 
foundation, Ala-ul-diln Saiyad must be meant. After the dissolution of the Dehli Empire the 
Manj Rais of Talwandi and Raikot riiled over a very extensive territory south of the Satluj, till 
dispossessed of it by the Ahliiwalia Sikhs and Ranjit Singh ; and even earlier than this the Manj 
Nawabs of Kot Isa Khan had attained considerable importance under the Emperoi's. North of 
the Satluj the Jlanj never succeeded in establishing a principality ; but they held a large tract 
of country in the south-west of the Jalandhar district about Taiwan, Nakodar, and Malsian, and 
held much of it in ^'rfofr under the Mughals, but were dispossessed by Tara Singh Gheba and the 
Sindhanwala Sikhs. The Manj are now all Musalman, though many wci'e still Hindu after the 
time of Shekh Chachu. Their genealogists live in Patiala, as do those of the Rhatti of Jalandhai'. 
In the A i/in-i- J kbari the Manj are wrongly shown as Main, a title which is said to belong 
properly to the Ghorewaha of Lvidhiana. 

The Taon (No. 15). — The Taoni are also Bliatti and descendants of Raja Salvahan, whoso 
gi-andson Rai Tan is their eponymous ancestor One of his descendants, Rai Amba, is said to have 
built Ambala. They occupy the low hills and sub-montane in tho north of Ambala district 
including the Kalsia State, and some of the adjoining Patiala territory. They are said to have 
occupied their present abode for 1,800 years. 

CASTES ALLIED TO THE RAJPUTS. 

458. The Thakar, Rathi, and Rawat (Caste Nos. 60, 39, and 82).— The 

*P. 98-9. figures for tliese castes are given in Abstract No. 71 on page 219.*^ The Rawat 

has ah-eady been describcxl in section 445. The Thakar (or, as I believ^e it 

more properly should be, Thakkar) and Rathi, are the lower classes of Hill 

> For the greater part of the description of the Rajputs of the Jalandhar district, I am 
indebted to the kindness of Mr. Barkley, who has given me access to a most valuable collection of 
MS. notes made when he was Deputy Commissioner of that district. 

M 



162 PANJAB CASTES. 

Iiaji)u1s wlio, tliough tliey are admittedly Rajputs and give tlieir daughters to 
Rajputs, wlio are styled by that title, do not reach the standard defined in 
section 456 which would entitle them to be called Rajput, but arc on the 
other hand above the Rawat. The line Ijetween Rajput and Thakar is 
defined, so far as it is capable of definition, in the following section. The line 
l)etween Thakar and Rathi may be roughly said to consist in the fact that 
Riithis do and Thahars do not ordinarily practise widow-marriage ; though the 
term Rathi is commonly ai)plied by Rajputs of the ruling houses t) all below 
t!i!^m. Again tlie line between Rathi and Kanet is exceedingly difficult to 
draw : in fact in Chamba Rathi and Kanet are considered identical and are said 
to eat and marry together^ and it is said that Ratlii is in Chamba and Jammu 
only another name for the same people who are called Kanet in Kulu and 
Kangra. Thus no Kauets but numerous Riithis are retiu-ned fi-om Cliaraba. 
On the otlier hand, no other of the Hill States returns either Thalars or 
Rathip, liaving probably included the former with Rajputs and the latter with 
Kanets. Even Mr. Lyall says : " Our Kangra term Ratlii is a rough word to 
apply to any Ijut tlie lowest class ;" and speaking of Kulu, lie says : '' The 
" children of a Brahman or Rajput by a Kanet wife are called Brahmans and 
" Rajputs, the term Rathi being often added as a qualification by any one who 
" himself pretends to unmixed blood/^ 

459. Mr. Barnes writes thus of the distinction between Thakar and 
Rathi : — 

" The Ratliis are e-sentially an agricnltural class, and prevail tlirongliout tlie Niirpur and 
" Niidaon parganabs. TLe Rathis and the Ghiraths constitute the two great cultivating tribes in 
" these hills ; and it i^ a remarkable fact that in all level and irrigated tracts, wherever the soil 
" is fertile and produce exuberant, the Ghiraths abound ; while in the poorer uplands, where the 
" crops are scanty aud the soil demands severe labour to compensate the husbandmen, the Rathis 
" predominate. It is a- rare to find a Rathi in the valleys as to meet a Ghirath in the mors, 
"secluded hills. Each class holds possession of its peculiar domain, and the different habits and 
•' associations created by the different localities have impressed upon each caste a peculiar 
" physiognomy and character. The Rathis generally arc a robust and handsome race ; their 
" features are rrgular and well-defined ; the colour visually fair; and their limbs athletic, as if 
" exorcised and invigorated by the stubborn -oil upon which their lot is thrown. On the other 
" hand, the Ghirath is dark and coarse featured ; his body is stunted and sickly ; goitre is fearfully 
" prevalent among his race ; and the reflection occurs to the mind that, however teeming and 
" prolific the soil, however favourable to vegetable life, the air and climate are not equally adapted 
" to the development of the human frame. 

" The lUthis are attentive and careful agriculturists. Their women take little or no part iu [P. 252] 
" the labours of the field. In origin they belong neither to the Kshatriya nor to the Sudnx class, 
" but are apparently an amalgamation of lioth." Their ranks are being constantly increased by 
" defections from the Rajputs, and by illegitimate connections. The offspring of a Rajput father 
" by a Sudra mother would be styled'a Rathi, and acceptixl as such by the brotherhood.' The sects 
" of the Rathis are innumerable ;' no one could render a true and "^ faithful catalogue of them. 
" They are as numerous as the villages they inhabit, from which indeed their distinguishing names 
" are generally derived. A R.athi is cognizant only of the sects which immediately surround him. 
'■ They form a society quite sufficient for his few'wants, and he has little idea of the extent and 
" ramifications of his tribe. The higher sects of the Rathis are generally styled Thakars. They 
'' are affronted at being called Rathis, although they do not affect to be Rajputs. The best 
" families ainojig the Thakars give their daughters in marriage to the least eligible of the Rajputs, 
" and thus an affinity is established 1)etwecn these two great tril)es. The R.athis generally assume 
" the tln-ead of ca-te. They avoid wine, and are extremely temperate and Irugal in their habits. 
" T;iey take money for their daughters, or exchange them", — a practice reprobated by the Shastras 
II and not countei-anced by the highest castes. On the death of an elder brother tl'ie widow lives 
" with the next brother, or, if she leaves bis household, he is entitled to recover her value from 
" the husband she selects. Altogether, the R.athis are the best bill subjects we possess ; — their 
I' manners are simple, quiet, and unaffected ; they are devoted to agriculture, not unacquainted with 
" the use of arms ; honest, manly, industrious and loyal." 

Here lie makes Thakars first class Ratliis. Mr. Lyall on the other hand 
seems inclined to class Thakars as second ov third class Rajputs. Speaking of 



JAT, RAJPUT, AND ALLIED CASTES. 163 

the caste tables which he appends to his reports, in which he classes the Hindu 
])opiilation under the heads of first grade Bralmian ; second grade Brahman • 
ih-st grade Rajput ; second grade Rajput ; Khatris, Mahajans, Kirars, &c. ; 
first grade Sudras, Thakars, Rathis, &c. ; second grade Sudras ; lie writes : — 

" The Rajput clans of tlio second gmdo might more properly ho called lirst grade Thakars : 
"among the most distinguished and numerous of them are the Habrols, the Palhials, tlie Dhatwals, 
" the Indaiu'ias, the Nanglos, the Gumbaris, the Ranes, the Hanials, the Ranats, the Mailes. 
" They marry their daughters to the Mians, and take daughters in mai-riage from the Rathis. In 
" the statements most of the Thakars have been enter(Hl as second class Rajputs, and a few as 
" first class Sudras, Most of the Thakars entered in this last class might more properly have beeu 
" classed as Rathis. The Nurpur Thakars are all no better than Rathis. A Thakar, if asked iu 
" what way he is better than a Rathi, will say that his own maimers and social customs, 
" particularly in respect of selling daughters, marrying brother's widow, &c , are more like 
"those of the Mian class than those of the Rathis are. The best line of distinction however 
" is the marriage connection ; the Mian will marry a Thakar's daughter, but not a Rathi's. 
" The Rathi's daughter marries a Thakar, and her daughter can then marry a Mian. No 
" one calls himself a Rathi, or likes to be addressed as one. The term is understood to convey 
" some degree of slight or insult ; the distinction between Thakar and Rathi is however very loose, 
" A rich man of a Rathi family, like Shih Dial Chaudhri of Chetru, marries his daughter to an 
" impoverished Raja, and his whole clan gets a kind of step and becomes Thakar Rajput. So 
" agaiu a Raja out riding falls iu love with a Pathial girl herding cattle, and marries her 
" whereupon the whole clan begins to give its daughters to Mians. The whole thing reminds oue 
" of the struggles of families to rise in society iu England, except that the numbers iuterested 
" iu the struggle are greater here, as a man cannot separate himself entirely from his clan, and 
" must take it up with him or stay where he is, and except that the tactics or rules of the game 
" are here stricter and more formal, and the movement much slower." 

*P. 101, And the quotation from the same report given on page 221"^ may be referred to. 
The Rathi does not seem to be a favourite in Kangra. Here are two proverbs 
about him : ''The Rathi in the stocks, the barley in the mill /' and " A 
" Rathi, a goat, a devotee, and a widow woman ; all need to be kept weak, for 
" if strong they will do mischief.'' ■" 

Of the Thakars of Kangra 2,273 have shown their tribe as Phul, and 
4,304 as Jarautia. In Gurdaspur 1,007 are shown as Panglana and 294 as 
Balotra, Some 6,000 altogether show Kasib as their clan, which is probably 
only their Brahminieal gotra. Among the Rathis of Kangra there are 1,078 
Balotra, 1,716 Barhai, 3,029 Changra, 1,879 Dharwal, 1,632 Gurdwal, 1,113 
Goital, 1,101 Mangwal, 518 Phawiil, and 1,774 Rakor. In Chamba there are 
2,350 Chophal. Altogether 15,000 show themselves as Kasib. There is a 
local saying t liat there are as many clans of Rathis as there are different kinds 
of grass. 

459a. The Dhund and Kahut (Caste Nos. 74 and 103).— These have been 
already discussed together with the Rajputs of the Western Hills in sec- 
tions 453, 454. 



W2 



164. PANJAB CASTES. 



PART IV.— MINOR LAND-OWNING AND 
AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 

460. Introductory and General. — I liave roughly grouped the tribes and ^^- ^^^3 
castes wliich I propose to discuss in this part of the present chapter under three 
heads, INIiuor Dominant Tribes, Minor Agricultural and Pastoral Tril^es, and 
Foreign Races. The figures for each group will be found prefixed to the 
detailed discussion of the castes which compose it. No very definite line can 

be drawn between the several groups ; but the sreneral idea of the classification 
has been to include in the first such tribes or castes as, while not of suflicient 
magnitude or general importance to rank with the four great races which have 
been discussed in the two preceding parts of the chapter, yet occupy a social 
position somewhat similar to theirs, and cither are or have been within 
recent times politically dominant in their tribal territories. In the second 
group I have included those cultivating tribes who, while forming a very 
large and important element in the agricultural section of the population, 
occupy a subject or subordinate position, and have not, at least within recent 
times, risen to political prominence. The third group includes that miscella- 
neous assortment of persons who bear titles, such as Shekh or INIughal, which 
purport to denote foreign origin. Many, perhaps most of them, are really of 
Indian origin, and many of them are neither agriculturists nor land-owners. 
But no general grouping of castes in the Panjab can hope to be exact ; and 
this appeared to be the most convenient place in which to discuss them. The 
tribes discussed in this part of the chapter complete the essentially land-own- 
ing or agricultural triljcs of tlio Panjala. The Brahmans and Saiyads cultivate 
largely, while the mercantile classes own large areas ; but they will be more 
conveniently dealt with under a separate head in the next part of the chapter. 

MINOR DOMINANT TRIBES. 

461. Minor dominant tribes. — The tribes or castes which I have included 

in Abstract No. 83 on the next page* are those which are, like the Jats and *p.i66- 
Rajputs, dominant in parts of the Panjab, but are not so numerous or 67. 
so widely spread as to rank with those great races. Indeed many of them 
are probably tribes rather than castes or races ; though in some cases their 
origin has been forgotten, while in others an obviously false origin has 
been invented. They are divided into four groups, the Karral, Gakkhar, 
Awan, and Khattar of the Salt-range Tract, the Kliokhar, Kharral and 
Daudpotra of the Western Plains, and the Dogar, Ror, Taga, Meo and Khan- 
zadah of the Eastern Plains ; wliile the Gujar, who is more widely distributed 
than tlie rest, comes last l)y himself. With the Western Plains group are 
included the Kathia, Hans, and Khagga, for whom I have no separate figures : 
indeed it will be apparent from a pci-usal of the following paragraphs that 
the figures for all these minor castes in the western half of the Province are 
exceedingly imperfect. Not only are the lax use of the word Jat and tlie ill- 
defined nature of the line separating Jats from Rajputs already alluded to 
sources of great confusion, but many of these tribes have set up claims to an 
origin which shall connect them with the founder of the Mahomedan religion, 
or with some of the great Mahomedan conquerors. 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 165 

Thus we find many of them returned or classed as Shekh, Mughal, or what 
not ; and the figures of rhe Abstract alone are exceedingly misleading. I have 
in each case endeavoured to separate the numbers thus returned, and to include 
them under their proper caste headings ; and it is the figures thus given in the 
text, and not those of the tables, that should be referred to. Even these are 
not complete, for till we have the full detail of clans we cannot complete the 
classification. 

The ethnic grouping of the tribes discussed in this section is a subject 
which I had hoped to examine, but which lack of time compels me to pass by 
unnoticed. I will only note how the tendency on the frontier and throughout 
the Salt-range Tract is to claim Arab or Mughal, and in the rest of the 
Province to claim Rajput origin. The two groups of tribes which occupy the 
mountain country of the Salt-range and the great plateaus of the Western 
Plains are the most interesting sections of the Pan jab land-owning classes, 
need the most careful examination, and would reward it with the richest 
return. 

462. The Karral (Caste No. 101).— The Karrals are returned for Hazara 
only ; and I have no information concerning them save what Major Wace gives 
in his Settlement Report of that district. He WTites : '' The Karral country 
" consists of the Nara ihiqah in the Abbottabad tahsil. The Karrals were 
" formerly the subjects of the Gakkhars, from whom they emancipated them- 
" selves some two centuries ago. Originally Hindus, their conversion to Islam 
'' is of comparatively modern date. Thirty years ago their acquaintance with 
^' the Mahomedan faith was still slight ; and though they now know more of 
'^ it, and are more careful to observe it, relics of their former Hindu faith are 
" still observable in their social habits. They are attached to their homes and 
" their fields, which they cultivate simply and industriously. For the rest, 
" their character is crafty and cowardly/'' Major Wace fui'ther notes that the 
" Karrals are identical in origin and character with the Dhunds.^' This 
would make the Karrals one of the Rajput tribes of the hills lying along the 
left bank of the Jahlam ; and I have been informed by a native oflicer that 
they claim Rajput origin. They are said too to have recently set up a claim 
to Kayani Mughal origin, in common with the Gakkhars ; or, as a variety, 
that their ancestor came from Kayan, but was a descendant of Alexander the 
Great ! But the strangest story of all is that a queen of the great Raja 
Rasalu of Panjab folklore had by a paramour of the scavenger class four 
sons, Seo, Teo^ Gheo, and Kam, from whom are respectively descended the 
Sials, Tiwanas, Ghebas, and Karrals. They intermarry with Gakkhars, 
Saiyads, and Dhunds. 

[P 255] *^^- The Gakkhar (Caste No. 68) . — The Gakkhars are the ancient rulers 

of the northern portion of the cis-Indus Salt-range Tract, just as are the 
Awans and Janjuas of the southern portion of the same tract ; and it appears 
probable that they at one time overran Kashmir, even if they did not found a 
dynasty there. Their own story is that they are descended fi'om Kaigohar 
of the Kayani family then reigning in Ispahan ; that they conquered Kashmir 
and Tibet and ruled those countries for many generations, but were eventually 
driven back to Kabul, whence they entered the Panjab in company with 
Mahmud Ghaznavi early in the lUh century. This last is certainly untrue, 
for Ferishtah relates that in 1008 Mahmud was attacked by a Gakkhar army 
in the neighboiu'hood of Peshawar. Sir Lepel Gritfin thinks that they were 



l6o 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No 83, showing the Minor [P. 254] 



MINOR DOMINANT 



Dehli 

Gurgaon 

KainAl 

UisEar 
Eohtak 
Sirsa 

Ambala 

LudhiAna ... •« 

Jalandh.ir ... 

Hushyarpur 

Kangra 

Amritsar ... 
Gurdaspur ... ... 

Sialkot 

Lahore 

Gujrfnwala 

Firozpui ... ... 

Rawalpindi 

Jahlam ... -^ 

Gujrit 

Shahpur 

Maltan 
Jhang 

Montgomery 
Mnzafiargarh 

Derah Ismail Khan .., 
Derah Ghazi Khan 
Bannu 

Pcshiwar ... 

Hazara 

Kohiit 

British Territory 

PatiAla 

NAbha 

Kapnrthala 

Jind 

Faridkot ... 

Maler Kotla 

Kalsia 

Total East. Tlains ... 

Bah&walpuT 

Maudi 
Chamba 
N&han 
Bil&Bpur 
N&lagarh ... 

Total Hill States ... 

British Territory 
Native States 
Province 



101 



119 



10,283 
10,413 



10,418 
10,418 



FlGHBES. 



10,667 

9,920 

75 

114 



14 
65 

6 
6 

50 

U2 

4,613 

18 

25,789 



25,789 
26,789 



12 



3.312 

9,420 
9,771 



1,383 

153 

19,753 

2,470 

569 

60 

124,834 
92,856 
13,029 
48,485 

2,399 

1,106 

516 

626 

825 

286 

20,908 

07,445 
65,606 
16,163 

582,457 

14 

7 

412 



4 
1 

438 



162 



235 
'" 7 



399 

600 

4 

1,245 



68 



77 



79 



46 



438 

1,745 

393 

10,265 

7,696 

11,239 

2,866 

951 



191 
302 
24 

36,126 

11 



682,457 1,246 ;86,128 

488 I ... 11 

532,855 1,245 86,137 



70 



2,402 

489 

15,643 

112 



27 



18,839 



1,315 

1 

27 

108 



99 



1,551 



10,61a 



48 

i,'960 

4,723 
213 
236 

1,417 
2,214 

4,079 
4,073 



4,067 
1,853 
2,006 

6,733 

566 

14,443 



1 
358 



148 



49,338 

8,475 
18.5 

3,815 
189 

1,C09 

75 

347 

14,095 

4 



18,839 1,551 49,338 
6 16,612 14,099 
18,845 118,163 163,437 



65 



34,094 



1,861 
26 



9,954 

140 

4,162 



39,647 
36 



1,084 



114,305 



39,647 14,305 

1,084 I 
40,731 14,305 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AG RICULTUR AL CASTES. 1 P.7 
Dominant Tribes for Districts and States. 



TRIBES. 



PbOPOETION pee 1,000 OV TOTAL POPULATION. 



34 



0,567 

103,678 

351 

449 
234 
219 



115,899 

62 
374 

6 

336 

"" 25 
828 



123 



64 

3,671 

1 



8,755 

1 
1 



115999 

828 

116,226 



3,755 

2 

3,757 



25,836 
20,P55 
21.898 

8,426 

3,032 

750 

51,077 
30,759 

18,304 

68,3u2 

8,460 

4,168 
43,571 
11,642 

7,079 

1,986 

12,013 

25,403 
18,924 
93,442 



604 

238 

365 

63 

77 
37 
50 

13,514 

00,948 

206 

553,417 

35,359 
5,466 
5,805 
1,740 
645 
2,376 
4,491 

56,086 

456 

1,259 

907 

2,445 

3,083 



17,445 

553,317 

73,987 

627,304 



101 



12 162 



28 



30 



77 79 



QjH 



2 1 



46,5586 34 



Q M H a 



116 15 
161 
55; 7 1 



1 6 

I 

1 5 



123 



. I 31 
6 1167 
66 



12 



Ddili. 

Gurgaon. 

Karnal, 

Hissar. 
Eohtak. 
Sirsa. 

Anibala. 
Ludhiana. 

Jalaiidhar. 

Hushyarpiu-. 

Kaiigi-a. 

Amritsar. 

Gnrduspur. 

Si^'lkot. 

Lahore. 

Gujraiiwala. 

Firozpiu'. 

Rawalpindi. 

Jahlaiii. 
Gujral. 
Shahpur. 

Multan. 
Jhaiig. 
Montgomery, 
Muzaffargarli. 

Derail Ismail Khan. 
Derah Ghazi Khan. 
Bannu. 

Peshawar. 

Hazara. 

Koh5t. 

British Territory. 

PatiAla. 

Nabha. 

Kapurthala. 

Jind. 

Favidkot. 

Malor Kotb. 

Kalsia. 

Total East. Plains 

BahSwalpiu-. 

Mandi. 

Chamba. 

Nahan. 

Bilaspur. 

Naiagarh. 

Total Hill States. 



74 British Territory, 
27 Native States. 
67 Province. 



168 PANJAB CASTES. 

emigrauts from Khorasan who settled in the Panjab not later than 300 
A.D., and points out that, like the Persians and unlike the other tribes of 
the neighbourhood, they are still Shiahs. It is at any rate certain that they 
held their present possessions long before the Mabomedan invasion of India. 
Ferishtah writes of them during Muhammad Ghori^s invasion in 1206 
A.D. :— 

" Dui'ing the residence of Muhammad Ghori at Lahore on this occasion, the Ghakkars who 
" inhabit the country along the hanks of the Ni'lali up to the foot of the mountains of Siwalik, 
" exercised unheard of cruelties on the Muhammadans and cut oft' the couimimication between the 
" provinces of Peshawar and Multan. These Ghakkars were a race of wild barbarians, without 
" either religion or morality. It wa-; a custom among them as soon as a female child was born, to 
•' carry her to the door of the house and there proclaim aloud, holding the child in one hand and a 
'< knife in the other, that any person who wanted a wife might take her otherwise she was im- 
" mediately to be put to death. By this means they had more men than women which occasioned 
" the custom of having several husbands to one wife. When this wife was visited by one of her 
" husbands she left a mark at the door, whicli being observed by any of the other husbands, he with- 
" drew till the signal was taken away. This barbarous people continued to make incursions on the 
" Muhammadans till in the latter end of this king's reign their chieftain was converted to the true 
" faith while a captive. A great part of these mountaineers, having very little notion of any 
" religion, were easily induced to adopt tlie tenets of the true faith ; at the same time most of the 
" infidels who inhabited the mountains between Gliazni and the Indus were also converted, some 
" by force and others by persuasion, and at the present day (1609 A.D.) they continue to profess 
" tlie faith of Islam. " Briggs' Ferishtah, i, 183/ 

The Gakkhars however did not hesitate to assassinate Muhammad Ghori 
on his return from Lahore. 

General Cunningham identifies the Gakkhars with the Gargaridse of 
Dionysius, and holds them to be descendants of the great Yueti or Takhari 
Scythians of the Abar tribe, who moved from Hyrkania to Abryan on the 
Jahlam under either Darius Hystaspes (circa 500 B.C.), or still earlier under 
one of the Scytho-Parthian Kings. The whole origin and early history of 
the tribe will be found discussed at pages 22 to 33, Vol. II of the Archaeolo- 
gical Reports, and at pages 574 to 581 of Griflin's i'anjdh Chiefs; while 
much information as to their early history is given in Brandreth's Settle- 
ment Report of the Jahlam District. As Mr. Thomson says : " The 
" Turanian origin of the Gakkhars is highly probable ; but the rest of the 
" theory is merely a plausible surmise. On the whole there seems little use in 
" going beyond the sober narrative of Ferishtah, who represents the Gakkhars 
'' as a brave and savage race, living mostly in the hills, with little or no religion, 
*' and much given to polyandry and infanticide. " They have now, in 
apparent imitation of the Awans, set up a claim to Mughal origin ; and 
many of the Rawalpindi Gakkhars returned themselves as Mughals, while 
I am told that some of the Gakkhars of Chakwal entered themselves as 
Rajputs. 

464. At present the Gakkhars arc practically confined to the Rawal- 
pindi, Jahlam, and Hazara Districts, where they are found all aloug the 
plateaus at the foot of the lower Himalayas, from the Jahlam to Haripur 
in Hazara. To the figures given in Table VIII-A should be added 1,543 
persons who returned themselves in Rawalpindi as Mughal Gakkhar, and 
perhaps 4,549 others who returned themselves as Mughal Kayani, of whom 
3,861 were in Rjiwalpindi, 592 in Jahlam, and 93 in Kohat. This would 
raise the total number of Gakkhars to 31,881, of whom about half are in 
Rawalpindi. They are described by Mr. Thomson as compact, sinewy, and 
vigorous, but not large boned ; making capital soldiers and the best light 
cavalry in Upper India ; proud and self-respecting, but not first-class 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 169 



agriculturists ; with no contempt for labour, since many work as coolies on 
the railway ; but preferring" tervice in the army or police. Their raee feeling 
is strong, and a rule of inheritance disfavours Gakkhars of the half-blood. 
Colonel Craeroft notes tliat they refuse to give their daughters in marriage 
to any other elass except Saiyads, that they keep their women very strictly 
secluded, and marry only among the higher Rjijputs, and among them only 
when they eannot find a suitable match among themselves. " Some of their 
" principal men are very gentlemanly in their bearing, and show unmistake- 
'' ably their high origin and breeding. They still cling to their traditions 
" and, though the Sikhs reduced them to the most abject poverty, are looked 

'' up to in the district as men of high rank and 
" position, and in times of commotion they would 
" assuredly take the lead one way or the other. " 
Thus the character of the "savage Gargars""^ 
seems to have been softened and improved by 
time. The Gakkhars do not seem always to 
have returned their clans, which are very well 
marked. I give in the margin the figures for 
a few of the largest. Their local distribution 
in the Jaldam District is fully described in Mr. Thomson's Settlement Report. 
465. The Awan (Caste No. 12).- The Awans, with whom have been 
included all who returned themselves as Qutbshahi, are essentially a tribe of 
the Salt-rang;', where they once held independent possessions of very con- 
siderable extent, and in the western and central portions of which they 

are still the dominant race. 



Gakkhab CLAyS. 




Riig'ial 


7,117 


Iskandnil ... 


2,668 


Firozal 


1,822 


Admal 


1,801 


Surangal ... 


1,681 



AwAy Jats. 



Hushyarpur 

Lahore 

Gajraiiwala 

Jahlain 

Gujrat 

Miiltan 

Jhang 

Muzaffargarh 



2,400 
831 
611 
668 
715 

1,178 
559 

2,017 



Deriih 

Khan 
Derah 

Khan 
Bannn 
Other place: 

Total 



Ismail 



Ghazi 



8,444. 

1,015 
9,147 
2,015 



...30,015 



They extend along the whole 



length of the range from Jahlam 
to the Indus, and are found in 
great numbers throughout the 
whole country beyond it up to 
the foot of the Suleraans and 
the Safed Koh ; though in 
Trans-Indus Baunu they partly 
and in Dehra Ismail almost 
wholly disappear from our 
tables, being included in the 
term Jat which in those parts means not very much more than et catera. 
Thus we find among the Jats of our tables no fewer than 30,015 who retm-ned 
Awan as their tribe and who should probably be classed as Awan, of whom 
the details are given in the margin. 

The eastern limits of their position as a dominant tribe coincide approxi- 
mately with the ^vestern border of the Chakwal and Find Dadan Khan 
tahsiJs. They have also spread eastwards along the foot of the hills as far east 
as the Sutlej, and southwards down the river valley into Multan and Jhang. 
They formerly held all the plain country at foot of the western Salt-range, 
but have been gradually driven up into the hills by Pathans advancing from 
the Indus and Tiw.uias from the Jahalm. 

Their story is that they are descended from Qutb Shah of Ghazni, him- 
self a descendant of Ali, the son-in-law of Mahomet, but by a wife other 
than the Prophet's daughter, who came from Hirat about 1035 A.D. and 
settled in the neighbourhood of Peshawar. Thence they spread along the 



170 PAN JAB CASTES. 

Salt-range, forming independent clans by whom the Chief of Kalabagh was 
acknowledged as tlie head of the tribe. Mr. Brandreth is of opinion that 
they are more probably " descendants of the Bactrian Greeks driven soutli 
" from Balkli by Tartar liordes, and turning from Hirtit to India, " and that 
they entered the Panjab not more than some 250 years ago as a conquering 
army under leaders of their own, and dispossessed the Janjua llajputs of the 
Salt-range country. General Cunningham, on the other hand, is inclined to 
•deniify them with the Jud, whom Babar mentions as being descended from 
the same ancestor as the Janjuas and occupying the western Salt-range at 
the time of his invasion, and who were so called from the old name of Mount. 
Sakesar which is still tlie tribal centre of the Awan race. He would make 
both the Awans and the Janjuas Anuwan or descendants of Ann ; and think? 
it probable that they held the plateaus which lie north of the Salt-range at 
the time of the Indo-Scythian invasion which drove them southwards to take 
refuge in the mountains. [ArchcBological Reports, Vol. II, page 17^.) 
Babar describes the Jud and Janjuas as having been from of old the lords 
of the Salt-range and of tlie plain country at its foot between the Indus and 
the Jahlam, and mentions that their minor Chiefs were called Malik, a title 
still used by the headmen of those parts. The Jalandhar Awans state that 
they came into that district as followers of one of the early Emperors of Dehli 
who brought them with him from the Salt-range ; and it is not impossible 
that they may have accompanied the forces of Babar. Many of them 
were in former times in the imperial service at Dehli, keeping up at the same 
time their connection with their Jalandhar homes. It is almost certain thai 
Mr. Brandreth^s theory is incorrect. The Awans have been almost the sole 
occupants of the Mianwali Salt-range Tract for the last 600 years. Mr. 
Thomson considers the whole question in sections 73-74 of his Jahlam Settle- 
ment Report, and adduces many strong reasons in support of his conclusion 
that the Awans are a Jat race who came through the passes west of Derah 
Ismail Khan and spread northwards to the country near Sakesar, a conclusion 
towards which some of the traditions of Derah Ismail Khsm also are said to 
point. I may add that some of the Awans of Gujrat are said to trace their 
origin from Sindh. Major Wace also is inclined to give the Awans a Jat 
origin. In the genealogical tree of the Kalabagh family which used to be the 
chief family of the tribe, in which tree their descent is traced from .Glutb 
Shah, Sc'veral Hindu names, such as Rai Harkaran, occur immediately below 
the name of Qutb Shah. The Awans still employ Hindu Brahmans as 
family priests. 

466. Mr. Thomsoii describes the Awans as frank and pleasing in their 
manners, but vindictive, violent, and given to faction ; strong and broad 
shouldered, but not tall ; strenuous but slovenly cultivators ; and essentially 
a peasant race. Colonel Davies thinks scarcely more favourably of them. 
He writes : '' The Awans are a brave high-spirit^xl race but withal exceeding- 
'' ly indolent . In point of cliaracter there is little in them to admire ; headstrong 
'^ and irasciljle to an unusual degree, and prone to keeping alive old feuds, they 
" are constantly in hot water ; tlieir quarrels leading to affrays and their affrays 
" not unfrcquently ending in bloodslied. As a set-off against this it must 
" be allowed that their manners are frank and engaging, and although they 
" cannot boast of the truthfulness of other hill tribes, they are remarkably 
" free from crime. " Mr. Steedman says : " The Awans hold a high, but 
" not the highest place among the tribes of the Rawalpindi District. As a rule 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 17 1 



" (hey do not g"ive their daiii^hters in marriage to other tribes, and (lie 
'' ehiidren of a low-caste woman by an Awan are not considered true Awans. " 
In Jahhiin their position would scarcely seem to be so high as in Rawalpindi, 
as Mr. Thomson describes tliem as distinctly belonging to the zaminddr or 
peasant class, as opposed to the Gakkhars and .Tanjuas who are Sahu or gentry. 
The liistory of the Awans is sketched l)y Sir Lep«d Griffin at pages 570// of his 

Panjiib Chiefs. The Awans 







Awan claxs. 






1. 


Kliokhar 


... 18,388 


7. 


Babkal . 


. 6,118 


2. 


MaiUiwal 


... 11,903 


8. 


Khuraaa.. 


6,105 


3. 


Khattai' 


... 11,278 


9. 


Darhal . 


. 5,299 


4. 


Kalglnui 


... 11,166 


10. 


(lulshahi.. 


. 3,450 


5. 


Rchan 


... 8,394 


11. 


Kang 


. 2,979 


6. 


Jaiid 


... 6,288 


12. 


Cliahan . 


. 2,326 



have returned 
sub-divisions 
figures for some 
in the margin. 



few largo 
give the 



very 
I 

of the largest 
Of the Kho- 



khar 5,663 are in Rawalpindi, 
•2,362 in Jahlam, 3,949 in 
Shahpur, 2,438 in Bannu, and 
3,301 in Hazara ; while of the 
Khattar 10,916 are in Rawal- 
pindi. These men are probably really Khattars and Khokliars rather than 
Awans, but have returned themselves thus in pursuance of the tradition of all 
the three tribes ha\'ing a common origin. 

467. The Khattar (Caste No. 182).— The Khattars are a tribe which 
claims kinship with the Awans, and to be, like them and the western Khokhars, 
descended from one of the sons of Qutb Shah Qur^shi of Ghazni. But the 
Awans do not always admit the relationship, and the Khattars are said often 
to claim Rajput origin. Mr. Steodman however accepts their Awan origin, 
and says that an Awan admits it, but looks upon the Khattars as an inferior 
section of the tribe to whom he will not give his daughters in marriage. 
Sir Lcpol Griffin, who relates the history of the principal Khattar families 
at pages 561 to 569 of his Panjdh Chiefs, thinks that they were originally 
inhabitants of Khorasan who came to India with the early Mahomedan 
invaders. But Colonel Craeroft notes that the Khattars of Rawalpindi still 
retain marriage customs which point to an Indian origin ; and they them- 
selves have a tradition of having been driven out of their territory on the Indus 
near Attak into Afghanistan, and returning thence with the armies of 
Muhammad Ghori. General Cunningham, on the other hand, would identify 
them with a branch of the Kator, Cidarit:e, or little Yuchi, from whom the Gujars 
also are descended and whose early history is related in section 480. {Arck^oh- 
gical Reports, Vol. II, page 80) . They now hold the tract known by their 
name which extends on both sides of the Kala Chitta Pahar from the Indus to the 
boundary of the Rawalpindi tahsil, and from Usman Katar on the north to the 
Khair-i-Murat hills on the south, and which thoy are said to have taken from 
Gujars and Awans. The figures of Table Vlll-iV are very imperfect, as the 
Khattars of RaAvalpindi have returned themselves as Awans. Under the caste 
heading of Awan no fewer than 11,278 persons have shown their clan as 
Khattar, of whom all but 362 are in the Rawalpindi district, thus bringing 
up the total numbers for the Province to 12,523. Colonel Craeroft writes: 
" The Khattars enjoy an unenviable notoriety in regard to crime. Their 
" tract has always been one in which heavy crime has flourished ; they are bad 
" agriculturists, extravagant in their habits, keep hawks and horses, and are 
" often backward in paying their revenue. They do not allow their daughters 
" to inherit excepting in cases of intermarriage with members of the family 
" and even then only for some .special reason." On this Stecdman notes 



17a 



PAN JAB CASTES. 



KuOKHAES. 

(Small numbers omitted in the details but included 
in the totals.) 



District ob State. 



Bohtak ... 
Sirsa 

Jalandhar . . . 
Amritsar . . . 
Gurdaspur. . . 
Sialkot 
Lahore 
Gajrauwala 
Firozpur ... 
Rawalpindi 
Jahlam 
Gujrat 

Shahpur ... 

Multan 

Jhang 

Montgomery 

Muzaffargarh 

Derail Ismail Khan 

Derah Ghazi Khan 

Banuu 

Kapurthala 

Bahawalpur 

British Territory 

Native States 

Province . . . 

Add Awan Khokhar 

Geand Total 



Caste 
Khokhar, 



1,745 

393 

10,265 

7,696 

11,239 

2,866 

951 



3S,126 

11 

36,137 



Caste 
Rajput. 



27 

1,100 

3,682 

3,016 

1,785 

1,870 

8,349 

961 

2,404 

295 

2,208 

5,208 

4,524 

236 

6,605 

1,058 

18 

20 

12 

70 

2,375 

6,310 

45,731 

9,649 

55,380 



Caste 
Jat. 



1,675 
276 

134 

1,310 

1,243 

2,184 

3,767 

427 

161 

2,011 

1,745 

1,800 

963 

5,040 

2,157 

2,937 

8,013 

4,690 

1,115 

10 

42,110 

221 

42,331 



Total. 



1,702 
1,376 
3,6 S2 
3,159 
3,095 
3,113 

10,533 
4,728 
2,831 
894 
5,964 
7,346 

16,589 
8,895 

22,884 
6,081 
3,906 
8,033 
4,702 
1,185 
2,385 
6,310 

123,967 
9,881 

133,848 
18,388 



central 
return- 
Many 
of the 



" Since then they have become more civilised and less addicted to deeds of 
" violence. Socially the Khattars hold an intermediate place, ranking below 
" Gakkhars, Awans, Ghebas, Jodras, and other high class Rajputs.'' 

468. The Khokhar (Caste No. 58).— The figures of Table VIII A under 
the head Khokhar only represent a fraction of the Khokhars in the Panjab. 
The Khokhars are ordinarily considered a Rajput tribe, and most of the 

Khokhars of the 
districts have so 
ed themselves, 
of the Khokhars 
western districts again, 
and all those of the 
frontier, have been re- 
turned as Jats ; while 
only in the Rawalpindi 
and Multan divisions 
are separate figures 
shown for the Khokhar 
caste. How far this in- 
clusion is due to Kho- 
khars having actually 
returned themselves as 
Rajput or Jat by caste 
and Khokhar by tribe, 
and how far to the action 
of the divisional offices, 
I cannot say exactly till 
the detailed clan tables 
are ready. But from 
local enquiry it would 
appear that Khokhars 
did very generally return 
themselves as Jats or 
Rajputs, especially the 
latter, and Mr. Thomson 
tells me that in Pind 
Dadan Khan the Jat 

^ Khokhars are said to be 

entirely distinct from 
the Rajput Khokhars. The figures in the margin show those who are returned 
as Khokhar, Rajput Khokhar, and Jat Khokhar respectively. In the east of 
the Panjab Khokhars appear to be admittedly of Rajput origin, though in 
Jalandhar at least they are said to intermarry rather witli then' own clan, 
Shekhs, Awans, and the like, than with their Rajput neighbours. But in the 
Avest the Khokhars have set up a claim to be descended from Muhammad the 
eldest son of tlutb Shah of Ghaznl, the traditional ancestor of the Awans ; 
and the claim Is often admitted by the Awans themselves, though of com'se 
as mythical as the Awiin's own story. Thus no fewer than 18,388 men, of 
whom the detail has already been given in section 466_, liave returned them- 
selves as Awan by caste and Khokhar by clan, and should probably be counted 
as Khokhars and added to the figures given above. Mr. Barkley points out 



152,236 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 173 

that the annals of Jaisalmer given by Major Tod narrate the quarrels 
between the Khokhars and the Bhattis of Jaisalmer long before the time of 
Mahomot ; though I should add that Major Tod thinks Khokhar may be a 
misreading for Gakkhar. Major Tod gives Khokra as one of the clans of the 
R^thor Rajputs. In Bahjiwalpur I find that 2,4-12 of the Khokhar Rajputs 
have returned their main tribe as Bhatti. On the whole it would appear 
most probal)le that they are really Rajputs^ perliaps not of the purest descent ; 
while the low repute in which Rajputs are held on the frontier would account 
for the rise of tlie claim to Qureshi origin, which would quickly spread among 
a Musalman tribe. In Sirsa, where the prohibition against marriage out of 
the caste is very strictly observed, the Khokhars intermarry with the local 
Rajput tribes. Sir Lepel GrifRn indeed separates the Khokhar Rajputs from 
those Khokhars who claim kindred origin with the Awans; but it is doubtful 
whether this is allowable, for the Awan tradition is apparently spreading, 
even among those Khokhars who are still recognised as Rajputs throughout 
the country side. At the same time the Khokhars are so widely spread, and 
have been at one time or another so powerful that Khokhar is almost as 
favourite a name as Bhatti for the clans of the lower castes in the Panjab ; 
and it may be that there is a distinct Khokhar caste apart fi'om the Khokhar 
RajputSj just as both are certainly distinct from the Khokhar Chiihras. 
Colonel Davies notes .that many of the social customs of the Khokhars of 
Shahpur denote Hindu origin ; and this would be quite decisive against the 
Qutb Shahi myth. 

469. The Khokhars are most numerous along the valleys of the Jahlam 
and Chanab^ and especially in the Jhang and Shahpur districts ; but they are 
also found, though in smaller numbers, on the lower Indus and the Satluj, 
and especially in Lahore, and also all along the foot of the hills fi'om the 
Jahlam to the Sathij. Find Dadan Khan is said to have taken its name from 
a Khokhar Chief who founded it and was Raja of those parts in the time of 
Jahangir ; and the history of the family, which at one time possessed some 
importance, and of the struggles between the Janjuas and the Khokhars for 
the possession of the tract, is told at pages 589^ of Griffin''s Panjab Chiefs. 
In Jhang too they once ruled over an extensive tract lying east of the Jahlam, 
The Khokhars of Gujrat and Sialkot have a tradition that they were origin- 
ally settled at Garh Karanah, which they cannot identify,^ and were ejected 
by Tamerlane ; and that they then went to Jammu, whence they spread along 
the hills ; and the concentration of the Khokhars of the plains on the Jahlam 
and the Chanab, and 'the wide diffusion of those of the sub-niontane tract, 
lend some colour to the theory that they si^road downwards from the hills, 
and not upwards from the south. In Akbar''s time the Khokhars were shown 
as the principal tribe of the Dasuva parganah of Hushyarpur ; and the 
Mahomedan historians tell us that the Khokhars held Lahore and were power- 
ful in the Upper Bari Locih at the time of Tainmr's invasion. ^ 

The Khokhars of Shahpur are said to be split up into innumerable clans, 
among whom tbe Nissowana, notorious for their thieving propensities and 
generally lawless character, are alone important ; but in Jhang Mr. Steedman 
describes the Khokhars as among the best of the agricultural classes, hard- 
working, thrifty, and not given to crime. 

1 Mr. Steedman suggests Koh Kerana, lying south of Slmlipur, in the Jhang district. 
^ The English Editors generally suggest Gakkhar as an emendation : probably because they do 
not know the word Khokhar, 



174 



PANJAB CASTES. 





KnARR\LS. 






(Small uumbers omitted iu the details, 


hut included | 




n the totals.) 






Districts. 


KUAKRALS. 












Khanal. 


Jat. 


Rajput. 


Total. 
2,061 


Sirsa 




35 


2,026 


Amritgai- ... 




1,001 




1,001 


Lahore 


""70 


5,992 


35 


6,097 


Gujrauwala 




3,070 


4,470 


7,540 


Firozpur ... 




1,441 


278 


1,719 


Multan 


2,492 


364 


500 


3,356 


Jhaiig 


489 


673 


2,054 


3,216 


Montgomery 


15,643 1 2,361 


3,444 


21,448 


Derail Ismail Khau 


. .* 


1,300 




1,300 


Baliawalpur 




237 


2,042 


2,279 


British Territory 


18,839 


18,582 


14,242 


51,663 


Native States 


6 


237 


2,042 


2,285 


Province ... 


18,845 18,819 


16,284 


53,948 



470. The Kharral (Caste No. 77).— The Kharrals would appear to be 

a tnie Rajput tribe, 
though a very consider- 
able portion of them 
have been retui'ued as 
Jat. The figures iu the 
margin show the total 
number returned under 
the several headings of 
Jat, Hajput, and Khar- 
ral. Of the Rajput 
Kharrals of Bahawalpur 
1,613 have returned 
their main tribe as Bhatti. 
The few Kharrals of 
Jalandhar are there re- 
cognised as Rajputs, and 
the Khan-als of Mont- 
gomery claim descent 
from Raja Karan. They 
are found in large num- 
bers only along the 
valley of the Ravi, fi'Om 

its junction with the Chanab to the boundary between Lahore and Mont- 
gomery ; while a few have spread up the Deg river into the Lahore and 
Gujranwala ^«r, and smaller numbers are found all along the Satluj valley 
as high up as Firozpur. The tribes of this portion of the Ravi are divided 
into two classes, the Great Ravi tribes and the Little Rsivi tribes. The 
former are pastoral rather than agricultural, and include the Kharrals, 
Kathias, and many of the great tribes of Mahomedan Jats. They look down 
upon the little Ravi tribes who live within their limits, and who are agri- 
cultural rather than pastoral, consisting of Araius, Kamljohs, and similar 
tribes common in the Eastern Pan jab. The great Ravi tribes are notorious 
for their propensity to cattle- stealing, and among the in a young man is not 
allowed to wear a turban or to marry a wife till he shows by stealing a 
Ijuffalo that he is able to support her, while a headman who has not a number 
of dependants ready to steal for or with him is popularly known as " an 
" orphan.''' 

471. Among the tribes of the great Ravi the Khan-als are the most 
northernly and one of the most important. They are themselves divided into 
two factions, the upper Ravi and lower Ravi, the head-quarters of the latter 
being at Kot Kamalia. The two are at bitter feud, and the only tie between 
them is their hatred of their common enemy, the Sial Rajputs of Jhang. 
The Kamalia Khari-als rose to some prominence in the time of Alamgir, and 
still hold remains of grants then made them, l)ut the upper Kliarrals are now 
the more powerful l)ranch of the two. The Kharrals have ever been notorious 
for turl)ulence, and Mr. Purser's Montgomery Report contains details of 
their doings lief ore and under Sikh rule, while the history of the family is 
narrated in full at pages 509/ of Grilfin^s Panjdfj Chiefs. They trace their 
origin from one Bhupa a descendant of Raja Karan, who settled at Uchh and 
was there converted by Makhdjim Shah Jahania. From Uchh they moved 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 175 

up to their pivsont lorrllory. There are now very few in the Multan district ; 
Init the fact of their heinij,' found aloni^ the Satluj, thout^h in small nnmlters 
only^ lends some support to the story of their having come upwards from 
below. Captain Elphinstone thus describes the Kharrals in his Gugaira 
Report : — 

" Tlic ' Kbari-als ' are the most iiorthernly of the ' Great Ravi * tribes. They occupy ft great 
" portion of the land hetwcen Gugaira and the T.ali ire district, on both sid:s of the river, and 
" extend some distance into ttc GuiniTiwala district. In turbulence and courage tliey have been 
" always considered to excel nil the others except the Kathias ; but the tract occui/ied by them 
" has been gralually denuded by the rapid extension of cultivation, of what formerly constituted 
" their greatest strength, — heavy jungle. In ca^e of disturbances, therefore, they have had at more 
" recent periods tu evacuate their o^^'n lands on the approach of large military forces, thus 
" sustaining much damage by the destruction of their villages. Their most celebrated leader, 
" Ahmad Khan, who was killed in September 1857 by a detachment under Captain Ulack, headed 
" the combined tribes, however, in no less than five insurrections, which to a certain extent all 
" jiroved successful, their chief object — the plunder of the Khatris and llitidns — having usually 
" been accomplished at the expense of a moderate fine imposed on them under the name of 
" ' Nazarana,' after the conclusion of peace. This success had spread hi-; renown far and wide, 
" and had given him a groat influence over the whole of the ' Great Ravi,' as was proved by the 
" outbreak of 1857, which appears to have been mainly planned and organized l)y him. In 
" stature the Kharrals are generally above the average height, their features are very marked, and 
" their activity and endurance are remarkable. Like all the other .Tats they pretend to a descent 
'• fi'om the Rajputs, and like that class look down with some contempt upon men who handle the 
" plough. The cultivation in their villages is, therefore, almost exclusively left to the Vysiwans 
" and inferior castes, the Kharral proprietors contenting themselves with realizing their shai-e of 
" the produce. They only possess land in tracts inundated by the rivers, mere well-cultivation 
" being too laborious a task even for their dependants." 

INIr. Purser adds that they are wasteful in marriage expenditure^ hospi- 
table to travellers, thievish, and with little taste for agriculture ; and that they 
still follow many Hindu customs, especially on the occasion of marriage. In 
Lahore they appear to bear a no better character than in Montgomery ; and 
there is a Persian proverb : '' The Dogar, the Bhatti, the Wattu, and the 
" Kharral are all rebellious and ought to be slain. ""^ Sir Lepel GrifRn 
writes of them : *' Through all historic times tbe Kharrals have been a 
" turbulent, savage, and thievish tribe, ever impatient of control, and 
" delighting in strife and plunder. More fanatic than other Mahomedan 
" tribes, they submitted with the greatest reluctance to Hindu rule ; and 
" it was as much as Diwan Sawan Mai and the Sikhs could do to restrain them j 
'■' for wlienever an organised force was sent against them they retired into the 
" marshes and thick jungles, where it was almost impossible to follow them.'" 
In Gujranwala they are said to be " idle, troublesome, bad cultivators and 
" notorious thieves, their persons generally tall and handsome, and their habits 
" nomad and priedatory.^' 

4f72. The Kathia, Khagga, and Hans.— The Kathia is another of the 
Great Ravi tri])es, and comes next in importance among them to the Kharral. 
It is not shown in our tables as a separate caste, and nobody seems to have 
returned himself as Kathia. But there are 3,878 men in Montgomery and 
1,972 in Multan who have returned their caste as Punwar ; and as the Kathias 
claim to be Punwar Rajputs, and were so entered in the settlement, it is pro- 
bable that these are the Kathias. This is the explanation given by the Deputy 
Connnissioner of Montgomery after local inquiry. These men have been in- 
cluded under the head Rajput iu our tables. The Kathias are almost confined 
to the Ravi valley of the Multan and Montgomery districts ; but they hold a 
considerable area in the south of Jhang, which they arc said to have acquired 
from the Sial in return for aid afforded to the latter against the Nawab of 



ire PAN JAB CASTES. 

Multan. Thej are supposed to be the same people as the Kathsel, who In their 
stronghold of Sangala so stoutly resisted the victorious army of Alexander. 
The question is elaborately discussed by General Cunningham at pages 33 to 42 
of volume II of his Arch aological Reports, and in Volume I, pages 101^ of 
Tod''s Rdjasthun [Madras Bejrrint, 1880). Captain Elphinstone thus describes 
them in his Montgomery report : — 

" Tlie remarkable fact tLai a people called ' Katliaioi ' occupied a part of t1ie Gugaira district 
"when Alexander iuvaded the Paujab, iuvests the Katliia tribe with :i peculiar interest. After much 
" enquiry on (he subject, I have come to the conclusion that the Kathias of the present day have a 
" strong claim to be considered the descendants of the same ' Kathaioi ' who so gallantly resisted the 
" Macedonian conqueror. Their own account of their origin is, of course, far different. Like all 
" Jats they take a particular pride in tracing their descent Irom a Kajput prince aboiit the time of 
"their conversion to Muhammadanism under the Emperor Akbar. Ihit an examination of their 
"alleged pedigree shows that, like many other popular traditions of this kind, this account of their 
" origin mu^t be altogether fictitious. They state that a prince named * Khattya ' reigning in 
"Rajputana, was compelled to yield up one of his sisters in marriage to the Emperor of Dehli. 
"After brooding for some time over this great outrage tn Rajput honour, he contrived to assemble 
"a large army with which he attacked the imperial forces : he was, however, overcome by 
"superior numbers, and was made a prisoner after nearly all his adherents had been slain. He was 
"then conducted with great honour to the Court of Dehli, where the Emperor treated him with 
"kindness, and at last induced him to embrace the Muhammadan faith, and placed under his charge 
" an important post near tlie Court. Some time afterwards he was sent with a force to subdue a 
" portion of the Ravi tribes who had risen in insurrection, and after conquering them was so much 
" attracted by the beauty of the country, that lie remained and received a grant of the whole tract 
"for himself and his descendants. All the Kathias claim descent from this prince, but, luifortunate- 
"ly for the credibility of this story, the only way that his 8,000 descendants manage to arrange the 
" matter is by assuming that the prince had no less than 150 sons ; whilst in a pedigree prepared by 
"the chief mirasi of the tribe, in which the increase of oif spring in the different generations is 
"arranged with more accordance to probability, the line is only brought down to a few of the princi- 
" pal families of the tribe. 

" In their habits the Kathias differ little from the other Jat tribes. Before the accession of 
" Ranjit Singh they lived chiefly on cattle grazing and plunder. Like the Kharrals and Fattiauas 
"they still keep up Hindu ' Parohits,' who take a prominent part at all marriage festivities, an 
"undoubted sign of theii* conversion to Muhammadanism having been of recent date. They are 
"a handsome and sturdy race, and like nearly all Jats of the ' Great Ravi ' do not allow their children 
"of either sex to marry until they have attained the age of puberty, because, as they justly consider, 
" too earh-^ marriages would be detrimental to the ' physic|ue ' of the race. Their chief and favourite 
" article of food is buttermilk ; the consumption of wheat among them is very inconsiderable." 

Mr. Purser, however, gives a somewhat different account of their migra- 
tions. He says : — 

" The Kathias have been identified with the 'Kathaioi' of Alexander's time. According to 
" their account they are descended from Raja Karan, Siirajbausi. Originally they resided in Bikaner, 
" whence they emigrated and founded the State of Kathiawar. From there they went to Sirsa and 
"then to Bahawalpur. Xextthey crossed over to Kabula and went onto Daira Dinpanah. Here they 
"quarrelled with the llilochis and had to leave. They then settled at Mirah Sial in J hang. They 
" stole the cattle of Alawal Klu'in of Kaunilia, who was killed pursuing them. Saadat Yar Khan 
" obtained the release of their leaders (who were imprisoned on account of tliis affair) on condition of 
"their settling on the Ravi. Tlius the Kathias obtained a footing in this district. 'J'hey always held 
"by the Kamalia Kharrals, but plundered the others whenever they could get a chance. The 
" Kfitliias are Punwar Rajputs. There are two main divisions ; the Kathias proper, and the 
" Baglielas." 

This would make the Kathias of the Kavi immigrants from Kathiawar. 
But a Pandit of Gujarat who was sent Into the Panjab by the Kaja of Jazdan, 
one of the principal Kathiawar Stales, to make ciuiuiries on the subject, tells 
me that the Kathiawar Kiljputs, who also claim descent from Raja Karan, 
have a tradition that they came to their present territory from the Panjab via 
Sindh and Kach. The Kuthia tradition Is that they were driven out of Sarsa 
Ranla, or the valley of the lower Ghaggar, about the time of Tamerlane's 
invasion. 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 177 

The Khagga and Hans appear lo liave returned themselves as Qureshi^ 
and are described in section 50?) under the head Shekli. 

473. The Daudpotra (Caste No. 79).— The Daudpotra are the reigning 
family of Bahawalpur^ and usually claim to he Qureshi Arabs, though occasion- 
ally said to be Hajputs ; but all that is certain about tlieir origin is that their 
ancestor Daud Kluui was a Julaha by occupation, if not by caste. Besides the 
numbers shown in Table VIII A as Daudpotras, 1,421 persons have retui-ned 
themselves as Shekh Daudpotra, of whom 1,287 are in the Multan district. 
The tribe is practically confined to Eahawalpur and the neighbouring portions 
of Multan, part of which was once included in the Bahawalpur State. 

Their founder Daud Khan is said to have been the son of one Jam Junjar 
of Shikiirpur, and brother of Muhammad the ancestor of the Kalhora dynasty 
of Siudh ; while another story makes him a Wattu Rajput. Both accounts 
are very probably false. Cunningham relates their origin thus : " When 
'* Nadir Shah proceeded to establish his authority in Sindh, he found the an- 
*' cestor of the family a man of reputation in his native district of Shikarpur. 
" The Shiih made him deputy of the upper third of the province; but, becoming 
" suspicious of the whole clan, resolved on removing it to Ghazni. The tribe 
" then migrated up the Satluj and seized lands by force. They fabulously trace 
"their origin to the Caliph Abbas; but may be regarded as Biloches changed by 
'' long residence in Sindh. In establishing themselves on the Satluj, they 
" reduced the remains of the ancient Langahs and Joyas to still further insigni- 
" ficance.^' {History of the SikJis, — 11.3, note.) 

474. The Dogars (Caste No. 46).— The Dogars of the Panjab are found 
in the upper valleys of the Satluj and Beas above the lower border of the 
Lahore district, and have also spread westwards along the foot of the hills into 
Sialkot. There are also considerable colonies of them in Hissar and Karnal 

They are thus described by Mr. Brandreth in his Firozpur Report : — 

" In luy account of the Firozpur ilaqua I have already alluded to the Dogar:^, who are supposed 
" to be converted Chauhan Rajputs from the neighbourhood of Dehli. They migrated first to the 
"neighbourhood of Pak Pattan, whence they spread gradually along the banks of the f^atluj, and 
" entered the Firozpur district about 100 years ago. The Firozpur Dogars are all descended from 
"a common ancestor named Bahlol, but they are called Mahu Uogars, from Mahu the grandfather 
"of Bahlol. Eahlol had three sons, Bambu, Langar, and Sammu. The Dogai's of Firozpur and 
" Mullanwala are the descendants of Bambu ; those of Khai the descendants of Langar ; the descen- 
" dauts of Sammu live in the Kasiir territory. There are many other sub-castes of the Dogars in 
"other districts along the banks of the Satluj, as the Parchats, the Topuras, the Chopuras, &c. 
"The Chopura Dogars occupy Mandot. The Firozpur Dogars consider themselves superior in rank 
" and descent to the other sub-castes. They are very particular to whom they give their daughters 
"in marriage though they take wives from all the other families. At one time infanticide is said 
"to have prevailed among them, but I do not think there is much trace of it at the present day. 

" Sir H. Lawrence, who knew the Dogars well, writes of them that 'they arc tall, handsome, 
" ' and sinewy, and are remarkable for having, almost without exception, large acjuiline noses ; they 
" ' are fanciful and violent, and tenacious of what they consider their rights, though susceptible to 
" ' kindness, and not wanting in courage ; they appear to have been always troublesome subjects, and 
" ' too fond of their own f i-ee mode of life to willingly take service as soldiers.* The Jewish face 
"which is found among the Dogars, and in which they resemble the Afghans, is very remarkable, 
" and makes it probable that there is ^ ery little Chauhan blood in their veins, notwithstanding the 
"fondness with which they attempt to trace their connection with that ancient family of Rajputs. 
" Like the Gujars and Naipals they are great thieves, and prefer pasturing cattle to cultivating. 
" Their favourite crime is cattle-slealing. There are, however, some respectable persons among them, 
"especially in the Firozpur ilaqua. It is only within the last few years that the principal Dogars 
"have begun to wear any covering for the head; formerly the whole population, as is the case with 
" the poorer classes still, wore their long hair over their shoulders without any coveHng either of 
" sheet or turban. Notwithstanding the difference of physiognomy, however, the Dogars preserve 
"evident traces of some connection with the Hindus in most of their family customs, in which they 
" resemble the Hindus much more than the orthodox Muhammadans." 

N 



178 PAN.TAB CASTES. 

475. Mr. Purser notes that tbey are divided into two tribes^ one of which 
claim to be Chaulian and ihe other Punwar Rajputs^ and he notes their aUeged 
advent from Pak Pattan, hut not their previous migration from Dehli. If 
they ever did move from Dehli to the Montgomery district^ it can hardly 
have been since the Ghaggar ceased to fertilize the intervening country^ and 
the date of the migration must have been at least some centuries back ; and 
the Dogars of Hissar came to those parts from the Panjab, probably from the 
Satluj across the Sirsa district. The Dogars of Lahore and Firozpur are 
essentially a riverside tril)e, being found only on the river banks : they bear 
the very worst reputation, and appear from the passage quoted above to have 
retained till quite lately some at least of the habits of a wild tribe. I suspect 
that their origin was probably in the Satluj valley. They appeal- to have 
entered the Firozpur district about 1760 A.D.^, and during the next forty years 
to have jDOSsessed themselves of a very considerable portion of the district, 
while their turbulence rendered tliem almost independent of the Sikh Govern- 
ment. In 1808 we recognised the Dogar State of Firozpur, and took it under 
om- protection against Ran jit Singh ; but it lapsed in i835. 

The Rajput origin of the Dogars is probably very doubtful, and is 
strenously denied by their Rajput neighbours, though I believe that Dogar, or 
perhaps Doghar, is used in some parts of the Province to denote one of mixed 
fjlood. Another derivation of the name is doghgar or milkman. The Dogars 
seem to be originally a pastoral rather than an agricultural tribe, and still 
to retain a strong liking for cattle, ^^■hcther their own or other people's. 
They are often classed with Gujais, whom they much resemble in their 
habits. In Lahore and Firozpur they are notorious cattle-thieves, but 

further north they seem to have settled down 
and become peaceful husbandmen. They are not 
good cultivators. Their social standing seems 
to be al)Out that of a low-class Rajput ; they 
are praciically all Musalmans. The Dogars have 
returned hardly any large clans ; some of the 
largest are shown in the margin. 

476. The Ror (Caste No. 55).— The real scat of the Panjab Rors is in the 
great dhdk jungles south of Thancsar on the borders of the Karniil and 
Amjtala districts, where they hold a chaurasi nominally consisting of 84 
villages, of which the village of Amin, where the Pandavas arranged their forces 
before their last fight with the Kauravas, is the tika or head village. But the 
Rors have spread down the Western Jamna Caual into the lower parts of 
Karufil aud into Jind in considerable numbers. They are said also to hold 12 
villages beyond the Ganges. They are fine stalwart men, of very much the 
same type as the Jats, whom they almost equal as husbandmen, their women 
also working in the fields. They are more peaceful and less grasping in their 
habits than the Jats, and are consequently readily admitted as tenants where 
the latter would be kept at arm's length. 

Of their origin I can say nothing certain. They have the same story as 
the Aroras, of their having been Rajputs who escaped the fury of Paras Ram 
by staling that their caste was aur or "another.''' The Aroras are often 
calleil Roras in the east of the Punjab; yet I can hardly l)clieve that the frank 
and stalwart Ror is of the same origin as the Arora. The Amin men say that 
thev came from Sarabhal in Muradal)ad : l»ut this mav onlv be in order to 





DOGAR 


CLANS. 




Mattar 






5,325 


China 




• •* 


2.268 


Tagra 




... 


2,232 


Malm 






1,892 


Chokra 






1,627 





KOR ClANS. 




Sagwal 




1,848 


Maipla 




1,567 


Khi'chi 


>. . 


1,207 


Jogran 




1,193 



MINOR LAND-OWNTNG ANT) AGRICTTLTURAL CASTES. 17^^ 

connect themselves with their neighbours the Chauhan Rjijputs, who certainly 

came from there. But almost all the Rors alike 
seem to point to Badli in the Jhajjar tahsil of 
Rohtak as their immediate place of origin, though 
some of them say they caiv.e from R.ajputana. 
Their social status is identical with that of .Tats ; 
and they practise karewa or widow-marriage, 
though only, they say^ within the caste. Their 
sub-divisions seem to 1)6 exceedingly numerous. A 

few of the largest are given in the margin. The Ambala Rors would appear to 

be mostly Sagwal. 

477. The Taga (Caste No. 86).— The Tagas of the Jamna Khadir of Dehli 
and Karniil, the only part of the Province in which they are found, are said to 
be Gaur Brahmnns by origin, and to have acquired their present name because 
they " abandoned " {tag dena) priestly functions and took to agriculture. 
Their origin is discussed at great length in Vol. I of Elliott's Baces of the 
N ortJi-W est Trovinces, ^?i.£!^&^'[^'o to \}f) ; and they are there idi^ntified with 
the Takkas, a possilily Scythian race who had the snake for their totem, and 
whose destruction by Raja. Janamajaya is supposed to 1)e commemorated 

^ in the tradition of that monarch's lioloeaust of serpents. The difficulty felt 
by Sir H. Elliott in accounting for their tracing their origin to Hariana 
is perhaps explained by the fact that they give Safidon in Jind on the border 
of Hariana as the place where the holocaust took place ; and the name of tht3 
town is not impro1:)ably connected with sdvj.p or snake. The Tagas are probably 
the oldest inhalutants of the upper Jamna Khadir, holding villages which have 
been untouched hj changes in the course of the stream for a far longer period 
than most of their neighbours. They are of superior social standing and 
seclude their women, but are bad cultivators, especially the Mahomedans. 
About three-fourths of the total number have adopted Islam and ceased to 
wear the sacred thread. The Hindus still wear it, but Brahmans do not 
intermarry with them, and they employ Brahmans to officiate for them in the 
usual manner. They are poor agriculturists. They must be carefully distin- 
guished from the Tagns or criminal Brahmans of the same tract discussed in 
section .586. 

478. The Meo (Caste No. 34). — The Meos are the people who have given 
its name to Mewat or the hill country of Alwar, Gnrgaon, and Bhartpur. 
They are found within the Panjab chiefly in Gurgaon, though a considerable 
number have spread into the south of the Dehli district. They are all Maho- 
medan, though, as will be seen presently, their religion is of a very impure 
type. They are so excellently described by Captain Powlett in his Gazetteer 
of Alwar, that I cannot do better that quote the passage almost in full, adding 
to it Mr. Channing's remarks upon it. Captain Powlett writes as follows : — 

" Tlie Meos are numerically the first race in tlie State, and the agricultural portion of them is 
" con aider ably more than douhle any other class of cultivators except Chamars. They occiipy about 
"half the TJlwar territory, and the portion they dwell in lies to the north and east. 

" They are divided into fifty-two clans, of which the twelve largest are called ' Pals,' and the 
" smaller ' flots.' Many of these are not settled in Ulwar, but would be found in Mathra, Bhartpur, 
"and Gurgaon. Of the 44S villages belonging to the Meos the Ghisen'a clan holds 112, the 
"BMnqai 70, the Landdtoat 64, the Na> 63, the Singal 54, the Dvlot 53, and the Fundlot 22. 

" It ha« already been set forth in the historical sketch that the Meos — for they no doubt are 
" oft^n included under the term Mewatti — were, during the Muhammadan period of power, always 
"notorious for their turbulence and predatory habits: however, since their complete subjection by 

n2 



180 PANJAB CASTES. 

" Bakhtiiwar Singh and Banni Singli (during the first-half of this century), vho broke up the 
" large turbulent villages into a number of small hamlets, they have become generally well 
" behaved ; but they return to tlieir former habits when opportimity occurs. 

" In 1857 they assembl»»d, burnt state ricks, carried oflf cattlo, &e., but did not succeed in 
" plundering any town or village in Ulwav. In British territory they plundered Firozpur and 
" other villaees, and when a British force came to restore order many were hanged. 

" Tliough Meos claim to be of Rajput origin, there are grounds for believing that many spring 
"ffom the same stock as the Minns. The similarity between the words Meo and Mina suggest 
"that the former may be a contraction of the latter. Several of the respective clans are identical 
" in name (Singal, Xai, Dulot, Pundlot, Dingal, Balot) ; aud a story iold of one Daria ISIeo, and his 
"ladylove Sisbadani Mini seems to show that they formerly intermarried. lu Bulandshahra caste 
" called Meo Minas is spoken of in the Settlement Ke]iort, which would seem farther to connect the 
" two. However, it is probable enough that apostate Eajputs and bastard sons of Eajputs founded 
" many of the clans, as the Ipgendstell. 

" i'he Meos are now all Musalmans in name ; but tl eir village deities are the same as those of 
"Hinda zamindars. Tliey keep too several Hindu festivals. Thus the Holi is with Meos a season 
" of rough play, and is considerel as important a festival as the Moharram, Id, and Shabrat ; and 
" they likewise observe the Janamashfami, Dusehra and Diwali. They often keep Brahmin prie.-ts 
"to write the p;7t c^iV/^?', or note fixing the date of a marriage. They call themselves by Hindu 
" names, with the exception of * Ram j' and ' Singh ' is a frequent affix though not as common as 
" ' Khan.' 

" On the Amawas, or monthly conjunction of the sun and moon, Meos, in common with Hindu 
" Ahirs, Gujars, &c., cease from labour ; and when they make a well the fir.st proceeding is to 
" erect a ' Chabutra * to ' Bainijl' or ' Hanumaii. ' However, when plunder was to be obtained, 
" they have often shown little respect for Hindu shrines and temples ; and when the sanctity of a 
" threatened place has been urged, the retort has been ' Turn to JDeo, Ham Meo !' You may be a 
" Deo (God\ but I am a Meo ! 

" As regards their own religion Meos are very ignorant. Few know the Tcalima, and fev.^er 
" still the regular prayers, the seasons of which they entirely neglect. This, however, only applies 
" to Ulwar territory ; in British, the efEect of the schools is to make them more observant of religious 
" duties. Indeed, in Ulwar, at certain places where there are mosques, religious observances 
" are better maintained, and some know the Tcalima, say their prayers, and would like a school. 

" Meos do not marry in their Pal or clan, but they are lax about forming connections with 
" women of other castes, whose children they receive into the Meo community. As already stated 
" Brahmins take part in the formaliiies preceding a marriage, but the ceremony itself is performed 
" by the Kazi. 

" As agriculturists, Meos are inferior to their Hindu neighbours. The point in which they 
" chiefly fail is working their wells, for which they lack patience. Their women, whom they do 
" not confine, will, it is said, do more field work than the men ; indeed one often finds women at work 
" in the crops when the men are lying down. Like the women of low Hindu castes they tattoo 
" their bodies, a practice disapproved by Musalmans in general. Meos are generally poor and live 
" badly ; they have no scruples about getting drunk when opportunity oifcrs. The men wear the 
" dhoti and Tcnmri, and not paJijamds. Their dress is, in fact, Hindu. The men often wear 
" gold ornaments, hut I believe the women are seldom or never allowed to have them. " 

To this Mr. Charming' adds : — 

" My own enquiries on the subject were imperfect when they were interrupted by my transfer 
" from Gurgaon ; but they led me to a conclusion which I find has also been adopted by Major 
" Powlett, that the Minas and Meos are connected, and I should bo inclined to add that both are 
" probably representatives of the earlier non-Aryan inhabitants of the countrj'. In Tod's 
" RajasthSn, Vol. II, page 76, I find it stated that Mewas o is a name given to tlie fastnesses in 
"the Aravalli hills, to whi^h Minas, Kolis and others make their retreat. Palis, on the same 
" authority, the term for a community of any of the aborignial mountain races ; its import is a 
" defile or valley, fitted for cultivation and defence ; and Pal is the term given to the main Sub- 
'• Divisions of the Meos and also of the Mi'nas. These latter, who in Gurgaon are known only as a 
" body of professional criminals, were the original masters of the State of Amber or Jaipur, 
" the Rajput kingdom of which was founded by liliole Rao about A.D. 967 aftrr siabduiugthe Minas. 
" Tod also states that in Jaipur the Minas are still the most numerous tril)e, and possess large 
" immunities and privileges ; formerly the tika of sovereignty was marked by blood taken from 
" the groat toe of a Mfna of Kalikbo, another token, as I intejiret it, of the ancient sovereignty of 
" the tribe. Meos are often mentioned, although not in Gurgaon, as Mi'na Meos : and in the 
*' older Mnhammadan historians and in Tod, I find expeditions against their country spoken of as 
" expeditions against the Mawasat, and in later time as against the Mawas. These facts incline 
" me to the belief that the Meos are such of the aborginal Mi'na population of the Aravalli bills as 
" were convert m1 to Muhammadanism, and that their name is probably a corruption of Mewasati 
" or the men of the mountain passes. Perhaps other enquiries may be able to confirm or refute this 
" theory, which I only put forward tentatively. 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 181 




Yunglofc, 

Dahngal. 

Signal 

Kalcsa or Kalsakhi. 



1. Balant. 5. Cliirklot. 9. 

2. Ratawat. G. Dimrot. 10. 

3. Danval. 7. Dulot. 11. 

4. Landawat. 8. Niii. 12. 
262] " Be^iicles tlicsc there is a thirtociifch Palakhra or little Pill Paliat. The Pals which are strongest 

" in Gurgiion are the Dahngals in the north of Niih ; the Chirklots in the south-east of Niih and 
*'in the country round Punahana; the Landawats, Uimrots, and Dulots in the Firozpur 
" valley, and the Darvvals in the country south of Niih. These Meo sub-tribes still possess 
" a strong feeling of unity and the power of corporate action." 

The principal Meo sub- 
divisions returned in Gurgaon 
are shown in the margin. In 
Ambala and perhaps elsewhere 
the word Meo seems commonly 
to be used as equivalent to 
Men or fislierman ; and it may- 
be that some of the Meos re- 
turned from other districts 
than Gurgaon and those bor- 
dering upon it, are not true 
Meos. 







Meo 


CLANS 






1. 


Chirklot 


... 26,407 


8. 


Bsilot 


2,849 


2. 


Dhangal 


... 24,075 


9. 


Taniir or 




3. 


Dimrot 


.. 10,277 




Tunwar . . . 


2,432 


4. 


Gurwal 


... 5,511 


10. 


Nm 


2,0;35 


5. 


L andawat 


... 3,294 


11. 


Badgiijar ... 


2,003 


6. 


Uulot 


... 2,999 


12. 


Golwal 


2,003 


V. 


Dherwal 


.. 2,944 


13. 


Pahut 


1,639 








14. 


Bailana 


1,380 



479. The Khanzadah (Caste No. 123) .—The Khanzadahs are practically 
confined to Gurgaon so far as the Panjab is concerned. Captain Powlett 
describes them thus : — 

" They are the Mewati Chiefs of the Persian historinns, who were probably the representatives 
"of the ancient Lords of Mewat. Those Mewatis are called Khanzadahs, a race which, 
" though Musalmiiu like the Meo^, wa< and is socially far superior to the Meos, and has no love for 
" Ihem ; but who in times past have united with them in the raids and insurrections for which 
" Mewat .vas so famous, and whicli made it a thorn in the side of the Dehli Emperors. In fact, the 
" expression Mewati usually refers to the ruling class, while Meo designates the lower orders. The 
" latter term is evidently not of modern origin, though it is not, I believe, met with in history ; and 
" the former is, I think, now unusual, Khanzadah having taken its place. 

"The Khanzadahs are numerically insignificant, and they cannot now be reckoned among the 
" aiistocracy. In social rank they are far above the Meos, and though probably of more recent 
" Hindu extraction, they are better Musalmans. They observe no Hindu festivals, and will not 
" acknowledge that they pay any respect to Hindu shrines. Rut Brahmins take part in their 
" marriage contracts, and they observe some Hindu marriage ceremonies. Though generally as 
" poor and ignorant as the Meos, they unlike the latter say their prayers, and do not let their 
" women work in the fields. 

" They are not first rate agriculturists, the seclusion of their women giving them a disadvan- 
" tage beside most other castes. Some have emigrated and taken to trade in the Gangetic cities, 
" but these have no connection now with the original Khanzadah country. Those who have not 
" abandoned the traditions of their clan are often glad of military service, and about fifty are in 
" British regiments. In the service of the Ulwar State there are many. There are 26 Khanzadah 
" villages in the State, in most of which the [iroprietors themselves work in the field and follow the 
" plough. 

"The term Khanzadah is probably derived from Khanazad, for it appears that Bahadur Nahar 
" the first of the race mentioned in the Pei-siau histories, associated himself with the turbulent 
*' slaves of Firoz Shah after the death of the latter, and, being a pervert, would contemptuously 
" receive the name of Khanazad (slave) from bis brethren. The Ivhauzadahs themselves iudig- 
" nantly repudiate this derivation, and say the word is Khan Jadii (or Lord .ladii), and was intend- 
" ed to render still nobler the name of the princely Rajput race from which they came. Con- 
" verted Jadiis were called by the old Musalman historians Mewatis, a term Chand applies to a 
" Mewat chief of the Lunar race, of which race the Jadu Maharaja of Karauli Calls himself the 
" head." 



182 PANJAB CASTES. 

To this Mr. Channing adds : — 
" Khanzadas are a race who were fovmorly of much more importance tlan at present ; they 
" claim to have been formerly Jadu Rajpiits, and that their ancestors Lakhan Pal and Sumitr 
" Pal, who dwelt at Tahangarh in Bharatpur, were converted to Islam in the i-eign of Firoz Shah 
" (A.D. 1351 to 138S), who gave Lakhan Pal tlie name of Xahir Khan and Sumitr Pal the name of 
" Bahadur Khan, and in recognition of their high descent called them Khanzadahs and made them 
" bear rule in Mewat. At first they are said to have lived at Sarahta near Tijara, and afterwards 
" according to tradition, they possessed 1,484 village,-. However this m;iy be, there is no doubt 
" that they were the ruling race in Mewat duwn to the time of Rahnr ; since then tliey have 
" gradually declined in importance, and now in this district own only a few villages near Niih and 
" to the north of Firozpur. Trace> of their former importance exist at Sahna, Bund-i, and Kotila. 
'■' Kotila wa^ one of their chief fortresses ; the village i- situated in a small valley, wholly 
" surrounded by the hill, except where a small funnel-like pass give^ entrance to it. In front of 
" this pass is the Kotila iiul, and when this is filled with water the only road to the pass lies 
" along a narrow strip of land between the lake and the hill. The remains of a breastwork along 
" the face of the hill and across the mouth of the pass still exists while on tlic hill al)Ovc the 
" village is a small ruined fort. The village now belongs to Mcos. Some of the buildings bear 
" pritness to its former greater importance. I have a suspicion that they are more intimately 
" connected than they acknowledge with the Meos, whom they seem to me to resemble in personal 
" appearance. They do not ordinarily intermarry with Meos, but the Mco inhabitants of five 
" villages in.the Pirozpur tahsil professs to have been formerly Khanzadaln, and to have become Meos 
" by intermarriage. Their traditions also, which point to Sarahta as their ancient home, agree, I 
" tliink it will be found, with those of more than one clan of Mcos. If my supposition that the 
" Meos are converted Minas is correct, I am inclined to suspect that the Khanzadas are the repre- 
" sentatives of the noble class among the aboriginal population. Tod mentions an Asil or un- 
" mixed class among the Minas known as Mainas. " 

The Khanzadahs of Gurgaou have returned themselves as Jadubansi in 
the column for clan, and they commonly say that this is their only got. 
Khanzadah, or " the son of a Khan " is precisely the Musalman equivalent to 
the Hindu Rajput or " son of a Raja ; " and there can be little doubt that the 
Khanzadahs are to the Meos what the Rajputs are to the Jats. 

480. The Guj jar (Caste No. 8) . — The Gujars are the eighth largest caste 
in the Panjab, only the Jats, Rajputs, and Pathans among dominant castes, the 
mixed caste of Arains, and the Brahmans, Chamiirs, and Chuhras exceeding 
ihcm in point of number. They are identified by General Cunningham with the 
Kushan or Yuchi or Tochari, a tribe of Eastern Tartars. About a century before 
Christ their Chief conquered Kabul and the Peshawar country ; while his son 
Hima Kadphises, so well known to the Panjal) Numismatologist; extended his 
sway over the whole of Upper Pan jab and the banks of the Jamna as far down 
as Mathra and the Vindhyas, and his successor the no less familiar king 
Kanishka, the first Buddhist Indo-Seythian prince, annexed Kashmir to the 
kingdom of the Tochari. These Tochari or Kushan arc the Kaspeinei of Ptolemy ; 
and in the middle of the second century of our lera, Kaspeira, Kasyapapura, or 
Multan, was one of their chief cities. Probably about the beginning of the 
8rd century after Christ, the attacks of the White Huns recalled the last king 
of the united Yuchi to the west, and he left his son in charge of an independent 
province whose capital was fixed at Peshawar ; and from that tiine the Yuchi 
of Kabul are known as the Great Yuchi, and those of the Panjab as the Kator 
or Little Yuchi. Before the end of the 3rd century a portion of the Gujars 
had begun to move soutliwards down the Indus, and were shortly afterwards 
separated from their northern Ijrethren by Indo-Scylhian wave from the north. 
In the middle of the .5th eentury there war< a Gujar kingdom in south- 
western Rajputana, whence they were driven by the Balas into Gujarat of the 
Bombay Presidency ; and about the end of the 9th century, Ala Khana the 
Gujar king of Jammu, ceded the present Gujar-des, corresponding very nearly 
with the the Gujrat district, to the king of Kashmir. The town of Gujrat is [p, 263j 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 183 

said to have ])ven l)uilt or restored hy All Kluin Gujar in the time of Akbar. 
The grounds for Gcnieral Cunningham's identitication will I)c found in full 
detail at pages 61 to 82 of Vol. II. of the Arcltasological Reports. 

The present distribution of the Gujars in India is thus described by Gener- 
al Cunning-ham : — 

" At tlie present day tlio Gujars arc found ill groat number-; iu every jiart of the North- 
" West of [ndiaj from the ludus to the Ganges, and from tlie Hazara monntains to the Peninsula of 
" Gujrat. They are specially numerous along the bank-5 of the Upper Jamna, near Jagadri and 
" Ruriya, and in the Saharanpur district, which during the la<t century was actually called 
" Gujarat. To the east they occupy the petty State of Samptar in Bandelkhnnd, and one of the 
" northern districts of Gwalior, which is still called Gujargar. They arc found only in small bodies 
"and much scattered througlioul Kastern Kajputiiua and Gwalior; Init fliey aio more numerous in 
" the Western States, and specially towards Gujarat, where they form a large part of the 
" population. The Rajas of Rewilrl to the south of Dehli are Gujars. In the Southern Panjab 
" they are thinly scattered, but their number.-) increase rapidly towards tlio north, where they have 
"given their name to several imporianL places, such as Gujr,inwala in the Rcchna-Doab, Gujrat 
"in the Cliaj Doab, and Gujar Khan in the Sindh Sagar Doab. They are numerous about Jahlam 
" and Hassan Abdal, and throughout the Hazara districts ; and they are also found in considerable 
" numbers in the Dardu districts of Chilas, Kohli, and Palas, to the cast of the Indus, and in the 
" contiguous districts to the west of the river." 

In the Panjiib they essentially belong to the lower ranges and sub-montane 
tracts ; and though they have spread down the Jamna in considerable numbers, 
they are almost confined to the riverain lowlands. In the higher mountains 
they are almost unknown. The figiires showing their distribution are given 
166- in Abstract No. 83 at page 254*. Gujrat is still their stronghold, and in 
that district they form V6\ per cent, of the total population. There alone 
have they retained their dominant position. Tliroughout the Salt-range 
Tract, and probably under the eastern hills also, they are tlie oldest inhabitants 
among the tribes now settled there ; but in the west the Gakkhars, Janjiias, 
and Pathans, and in the east the Rajputs have always been too strong* for 
them, and long ago dejirived tliem of political importance. In the Peshawar 
district almost any herdsman is called a Gujar, and it may be that some of 
those who are thus returned are not true Gujars by race.^ But throughout 
the hill country of Jammu, Chibhal, and Hazara, and away in the Independent 
Territory lying to the north of Peshawar as far as the Swat river, true Gujar 
herdsmen are found in great numbers, all possessing a common speech, which 
is a Hindi dialect quite distinct from the Panjabi or Pashto current in those 
parts. Here they are a purely pastoral and almost nomad race, taking their 
herds up into the higher ranges in summer and descending with them into 
the valleys during the cold weather ; and it may be said tliat the Gujar is 
a cultivator only in the plains. Even there he is a bad cultivator, and more 
given to keeping cattle than to following the plough. 

It is Impossible without further investigation to fix the date of tlie Gujar 
colonization of the lower districts. They are almost exclusively Mnsaluuin 
except in the Jamn i districts and Ilushyarpur, and tli'y must therefore 
have entered those districts before the conversion of the great mass of the caste. 
The Jalandhar Gujars date their conversion from the time of Aurangzeb, a 
very probable date. The Firozpur Gujars say that they came from Daranagar 
in the south of India, that they moved thence to Riinia in Sirsa, and thence 
again to Firozixir via Kasur. The ]\Iusalman Gujars of all the eastern half 

^ On the other hand, Mr, Steedman is of opinion that the tigures for the Gujars of Eawal- 
pindi are very much under the mark, and that many of them must have been returned as Jats, 
Rajputs, or perhaps even Mughals. 



184 PANJAB CASTES. 

of the Province still retain more of their Hindu customs than do the majority 
of their converted neighhours, their women, for instance, wearing petticoats 
instead of drawers, and red instead of Ijlue. It is noticeable that Gujrat is 
to the Gujars what Bhatner and Bhattiiina are to the Bhatti, a place to which 
there is a traditional tendency to refer their origin. 

481. The Gujaris a fine stalwart fellow, of precisely the same pliysical 
type as the Jat ; and the theory of aboriginal descent which has sometimes 
been propounded, is to my mind conclusively negatived by his cast of counten- 
ance. He is of the same social standing as the Jat, or perhaps slightly in- 
ferior ; but the two eat and drink in common without any scrapie and the proverb 
says : " The Jat, Gujar, Ahir, and Gola are all four hail fellows well met.''' 
But he is far inferior in both personal character and repute to the Jat. He is lazy 
to a degree, and a wretched cultivator ; his women, tliough not secluded, will 
not do field-work save of the lightest kind ; while his foiulness for cattle ex- 
tends to those of other people. The diiference between a Gujar and a Rajput 
cattle-thief was once explained to me thus by a Jat : " The Rajput will steal 
" your buffalo. But he will not send his father to say he knows where it is 
" and will get it back for Rs. 20, and tlien keep the Rs. 2U and the buffalo too. 
The Gujar will.^' The Gujars have been turbulent throughout the history of 
the Panjab, they were a constant thorn in the side of the Dehli Emperors, 
and are still ever ready to take advantage of any loosening of the 
bonds of discipline to attack and plunder their neighbours. Their character 
as expressed in the proverbial wisdom of the countryside is not a high 
one : " A desert is better than a Gujar : wherever you see a Gujar, hit 
" him.'' Again : " The dog and the cat two, the Raugar and the Gujar 
" two ; if it were not for these four one might sleej) with one's door 
" open :" so ^' The dog, the monkey, and the Gujur change their minds 
" at every step ; " and " When all other castes are dead make friends with a 
" Gujar." As Mr. Maconachie remarks : '^ Though the Gujar possesses two 
'' qualifications of a highlander, a hilly home and a constant desire for 
*' other people's cattle, he never seems to have had the love of fighting and 
'' the character for manly independence which distinguishes this class elsewhere. 
'^ On the contrary he is generally a mean sneaking cowardy fellow ; and I 
" do not know that he improves much with the march of civilization, though 
" of course there are exceptions ; men who have given up the traditions of 
" the tribe so far as to recognize the advantage of being honest — 
" generally." 

Such is the Gujar of the Jamma districts.^ But further west his 
character would seem to be higher. Major Wace describes the Gujars of 
Hazara as " a simple all-enduring race, thrifty and industrious, with no 
'^ ambition Ijut to be left alone in peace with their cattle and fields ; " and 
" many of them are fine men in every way." Mr. Tliomson says that 
the Gujars of Jahlam are the best farmers in t he district (i)crliaps not exces- [P. 265] 
sive praise in a district held by Gakkhars, Awans, and Rajputs), though 
the Maliar or Arain is a better market gardener ; and that they are 
quiet and industrious, more likeable than (Salt-range) Jats, but with few 
attractive qualities. Mr. Steedman gives a similar account of the Gujars of 

^ Mr. Wilson, liowcvcr, writes : Tlie Giijar villages in Gurgaon have on the whole stood 
'< the lafc bad times better than those of almost otiier caste — better than the Jats, and almost as 
" well as tlie Aiiirs. Our Gurgaou Gujars are very little given to thieving, and I have rather 
" a high opinion of them." 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 185 

Rawalpindi, calling them " excellent cultivators.''' So the Giijars of Hushyar- 
pnr are said to l)e " a (piict and well-behaved set.'''' In Jalandhar Sir 
Richard Temple describes them as " here as elsewhere of pastoral habits, but 
" more industrious and less predatory than u.sual ;" and Mr. Barkley writes : 
" At present, after thirty years of British rule, they are probably as little 
" given to crime as any other large class in the agricultural population. It is 
" still generally true that they occupy themselves more with grazing than 
" with agriculture ; but this is by no means invarialjly the case.''' But in 
Firozpur again ]\Ir. Brandreth descriljes them as " unwilling cultivators, and 
" greatly addicted to tliieving,'' and gives instances of their criminal pro- 
pensities. Thus it would appear that the further the Gujar moves from his 
native hills, the more he deteriorates and the more unpleasant he makes him- 
self to his neighljours. The following description of the Gujars of Kangra 
by Mr. Barnes is both graphic and interesting : — 

" The Gujar-; of the liilU arc (luite unlike the caste of the same designation in the plain-;. 
" There they arc known as an idle, worthless and thieving race, rejoicing in waste, and enemies to 
" cultivation and improvement ; hut above and below they are both addicted to pastoral habits. In 
" the hills the Gujars are exclusively a pastoral tribe, — they cultivate scarcely at all. The Gadis keep 
"flocks of sheep and goats and the Gujar'a wealth consists of buffaloes. These people live in the 
" skirts of the forests, and maintain their existence exclusively by the sale of the milk, ghee, and 
" other produce of their herds. The men graze the cattle, and frequently lie out for weeks in the 
" woods tending their herds. The women repair to the markets every morning with baskets on their 
"heads, with little earthen pots filled with milk, butter-milk and ghee, each of these pots 
"containing the proportion required for a day's meal. During the hot weather the Gujars usually 
" drive their herds to the upper range, where the buffaloes rejoice in the rich gi-a-s which the 
" rains bring forth, and at the same time attain condition from the temperate climate and the 
"immunity from venomous flies which torment their existence in the plains. The Gujars are a fine, 
" manly race, with peculiar and handsome features. They are mild and inoffensive in manner, and 
" in these hills are not distinguislied by the bad pre-eminence which attaches to their race in the 
"plains. They are never known to thieve. Their women are supposed to be not very scrupulous. 
" Their habits of frequenting public markets and carrying about their stock for sale unaccompanied 
"by their husbands undoubtedly expose them to great temptations ; and I am afraid the imputa- 
" tions agahist their character are too well founded. They are tall, well-grown women, and may be 
" seen every morning entering the bazaars of the hill towns, returning home about the afternoon 
" with their baskets emptied of their treasures. The Gujars are found all over the district. They 
" abound particularly about Jowala Mukhi, Tira, and Nadaun. There are some Hindu Gujars 
"especially towards Mandi; but they are a small sect, compared to the Musalmans." 

It has been suggested, and is I believe held by many, that Jats and 
Gujars, and perhaps Ahirs also, are all of one ethnic stock ; and this because 
there is a close communion between them. It may be that they are the same 
in their far-distant origin. But I think that they must have either entered 
India at different times or settled in separate parts, and my reason for thinking 
so is precisely because they eat and smoke together. In the case of Jat and 
Rajput the reason for differentiation is obvious, the latter being of liigher rank 
than the former. But the social standing of Jats, Gujars, and Ahirs being 
practically identical, I do not see why they should ever have separated if they 
were once the same. It is, however, possible that the Jats were the camel 
graziers and perhaps husbandmen, the Gujars the cowherds of the hills, and 
the Ahirs the cowherds of the plains. If this be so, they afford a classifica- 
tion by occupatiou of the yeoman class, which fills up the gap between and 
is absolutely continuous with the similar classification of the castes above them 
as Brahmans, Banyas, and Rajputs, and of the castes below them as Tarkhans, 
Chamars, and so forth. But we must know more of the early distribution of 
the tribes before we can have any opinion on the subject. I have noticed in 
the early historians a connection between the migrations and location of Gujars 
and Rajpiits which has struck me as being more than accidental ; but the 



186 



PANJAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 84, showing C^. 264] 



Dehli 

Gurgaoii 

Kanial 



Hiesar 
Rohtak 



Ambala 
Lndhiana 



JSlandhar 

Hushyirpur 

KAngra 



Amritear 

GurdAspur 

Sialkot 



Lahore 

Gujranwala 

Firozpur 



Rawalpindi 

.lahlam 

Gujrat 



PeshAwar 
Hazara 



StatcB of East. 
Plaine, 



British Tcrri. 

tory. 
Native States- 
Province 



GrjAB 



2,655 
324 



116 



1,140 



134 



4,143 

134 
4,277 



7'W 

1 

2,325 



240 



336 
3 



280 

20 

269 



13 
195 



167 



4.624 

167 
4,691 



100 
4,417 



10 



10 



4,600 

67 
4,667 



1,627 
1,627 



336 

1,629 

21 



389 
101 



1,491 
749 



546 

646 

60 



153 
2,750 
1,020 



445 

125 

1,168 



5,646 

3,684 

21,449 



8,526 



2,782 



51,065 

3,080 
54,145 



676 

797 

92 



2,289 
695 



388 

2,299 

135 



134 

1,533 

439 



82 

25 

312 



612 



3,018 



15,126 

1,014 
16,140 



189 
4 



1,208 
1,175 



565 

1,111 

118 



60 
166 



1,318 
1,260 
3,560 



13 
1,314 



652 



12,194 

1,209 
13,403 



8 
422 



1,594 
3.163 



1,457 

3,301 

209 



180 
1,772 

277 



290 

38 

870 



1,232 

309 

3,312 



119 
319 



2,036 



19,279 

2,824 
22,103 



61 
274 
307 



42 



2,810 
3,285 



1,152 

3,171 

418 



645 

4,010 

692 



1,020 
206 
779 



3,207 
1,621 
8.092 



167 

7,156 



6,268 



89,662 

6,427 
45,989 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 187 
Gujar tribes for districts. 



Tbibeb. 



1,218 
1,139 



215 
167 



54 
338 



340 

451 

1,921 



809 



908 



7,055 

1,261 
8,319 



782 
208 



4,467 
1,690 



1,139 
6,910 

211 



197 

1,687 

541 



27 

389 



2,417 
1,319 
3,491 



31 
2,681 



1,095 



14 


15 i 16 


17 



18 i 19 



28,539 

1,441 
29,980 



554 
613 



173 
2,825 

851 



40 
'lU 



4 

36 

150 



416 



5,461 

1,268 
6,719 



33 



70 



3,504 
1,584 



683 

3,230 

190 



180 
710 
176 



178 
126 
215 



1,041 

907 

3,592 



230 
2,504 



1,664 



2,186 
21,845 



1,172 



19,159 1,172 
l,'i'72 



118 



602 
9 



409 



1 
:J,357 



47 



25 
l','389 



382 



4,968 

956 
5,924 



29 



1,200 
13 



975 

758 

3,5S1 



2,362 



183 



87 
155 
172 



52 



1,280 
518 



682 
4,530 



146 

1,151 

517 



194 
221 
332 



2,361 
1,287 
7,985 



6,132 



981 



30 



278 

2,585 

142 



69 

4,749 



91 
"l70 



344 
62 

382 



221 



403 



Dchli. 

Gargaon. 

Kavu^l. 



Hissar. 
Bohtak. 



Ambala. 
Ludhiaua. 



Jalandhar. 

Hushyarpur. 

Eangra. 



Amritsar. 

Gurdaspur. 

Sialkot. 



Lahore. 

Gujramvala. 

Firozpur. 



Rawa'pindi. 
36 Jahlam. 
2,189 Gujrat. 



Peshawar. 
21 I Hazara. 



328 



States of East. 
Plaius. 



9,770 I 27,554 , 9,123 4,937 | British Terri- 
tory. 

183 2,238 I 403 [ 370 Native States 
9,953 29,792 9,526 j 5,307 Province. 



188 PANJAB CASTES. 

subject needs an iuiLaense deal of work upon it Ijefore it ;au be said to be even 
ready for drawir.g conclusions. 

482. Gujar Tribes. —The Gujar tribes and clans appear to be very 
numerous, and apparently new local su))-divisions have sprung up in many 
places. Still the distribution of the main tribes for which I give figures on 

the opjwsite page* in iVbstract No. 84 is far more general than is tbe case with *P. 186- 
other castes of equal im2)ortance. The figures only include 47 per cent, of the ^'• 
Gujars of the Province; but tliey comprise G9 per cent, of those of Gujrat, and 
probably include most of the great original tribes. The Khatana and Chechi 
far surpass the others in number. 

MINOR AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL TRIBES. 

483. The minor agricultural and pastoral tribes. — The group of castes 

for which the figures are given in Abstract No. 85 on page 366t are not tP. 190- 
separated from the castes and tribes already discussed by any clearly defined • 
line. Indeed it is quite a matter of ojiinion whether some of these should not 
have been ranked with the major and some of those with the minor tribes. 
But the group now to be discussed very generally hold an inferior position 
among the agricultural community^ and seldom if ever occupy the position of 
the dominant tribe in any considerable tract of countrv. They may be divided 
into three classes, though here again the lines of the demarcation are indistinct. 
The first consists of the market gardeners proper or growers of vegetables, 
and includes the Mali, Saini, Arain, and Baghban, all four of whom 
are probably closely connected, and some of them almost undistinguish- 
able. The cultivation of vegetables is looked upon as degrading by the agri- 
cultural classes, why I know not, unless it be that nightsoil is generally used 
for tlieir fertilisation ; and a Rajput would say : " What 1 Do you take 
" me for an Arain ? " if anything was proposed which he considered derogatory. 
The second class comprises the Kanet and Ghirath, the low-class cultivators 
of the hills, and the Kamboh, Ahir, Mahtam, and other cultivators of inferior 
status. Some of these are closely allied to the vegetable-growers ; others 
again to the Ghosi and Gaddi which constitute the third class, and are 
pastoral rather than agricultural. The class as a whole is to be found 
in largest number in the fertile districts of the eastern plains and sub- 
montane tract, and in the hills where the proud Rajputs look upon labour 
at the plough as degrading. It is least numerous in the Derajat where 
the comprehensive name of Jat embraces all cultivators of this class. 

484. The Mali and Saini (Caste Nos. 45 and 31).— The Sainis would [ p. 267] 
appear to be only a sub-division of the Mollis. In Bijnor they are said to be 
identical, and I am informed that the two intermarry in many, but not in all, 

parts of the Nortli-West Provinces. It is probable that the Sainis are a Mali 
tribe, and that some of the higher tribes of the same caste will not marry with 
them. The Mali, tlie Mdlakdra or florist of the Purans, is generally a market 
or nursery gardener, and is most numerous In tlic vicinity of towns where 
manure is ])leiitiful and there is a demand for his produce. He is perliaps the 
most skilful and industrious cultivator we possess, and does wonders with his 
land, producing three or even four crops within the year from the same plot. 
He is found under the name of Mali only in the Jamna zone, including the 

' Mr. Wilson notes tliat the Gujars and the Bargujar tribe of Rajputs are often found 
together; and suggests that the latter may be to the Giijars what the Khanzadahs are to 
the Meos and what most Kajpilts are to the Jats. 



MINOU LAND-OWNING AND AGRTCULTURAL CASTES. 189 

eastern portions of Hissar, his place bein^ taken by the Saini in the eastern 
sub-montane distrietp, and l)y tlie Arain or Baglibun in the remainder of tlie 
Province. He is almost always a Hindu. Most of the few Malis shown for 
the western districts were retui-ned as Maliar, the Panjal)i form of Mali ; and 
some of them as Phulara or Phulwara (but see section 485 for the inclusion of 
Maliar under Arain) . 

The Sainis, who, as T have just explained, are probably a Mali tribe, are 
said to claim Rajput origin in Jalandhar ; l)ut Mr. Barkley writes of the Sainis 
of that district : " They consider themselves the same as tlie Malis of tlie 
" North-West Provinces, and to be connected with the Arains, though the 
" latter know nothing of the relationship. They are not found west of the 
" Chanab, but are numerous In some parts of the Ambala district." They 
appear from our figures to lie all along tlie foot of the hills between the 
valleys of the Jamna and Ravi ,but not to have reached the Chanab valley. 
Both they and the Mails are properly tribes of Hindustan rather than of the 
Panjali. About 10 per cent, of the Sainis are Sikhs, and the remainder 
Hindus. In Rawalpindi no fewer than 3,655 Mughals have returned their 
tribe or clan as Salnl ; but It Is probable that these have no connection with 
the caste under discussion, as It would not appear to have penetrated so far 
westwards. The Sainis of Rupar In Ambala are described •' an ill-conditioned 
set, first-rate cultivators, but refractory and Intriguing." 

The Mails and Sainis, like all vegetable growers, occupy a very Inferior 

position among the agricultural castes ; but of the two the Sainis are probably 

the higher, as they more often own land or even whole villages, and are less 
generally mere market gardeners than are the Malls. 

The largest of the Mali sub-dlvlslons are the Phul with 11,646, and the 

BhagartI with 15,658 persons. The 
Sainis do not appear to have returned any 
large clans except In Hushyarpur, of 
which district some of the largest clans 
are shown In the margin, and In Gurdas- 
pur where 1,541 Sainis showed their clans 
as Salahii. Mr. Barkley notes that some 
of the clans of Arains and of Sainis In 
Jalandhar bear the same names, and those 
not always merely names of other and dominant tribes. 

485. The Arain, Baghban, and Maliar (Caste Nos. 7 and 65). — The 
word Baghban Is the Persian equivalent of the Hindi word Mali, and means 
simply a gardener. But It Is commonly used for the Arain in the west of the 
Panjab ; and even as far east as Jalandhar there are two villages of the same 
name, of which the one which Is held by Arains Is often distinguished by the 
addition of BdgJihdndn to Its name. Unfortunately the Peshawar divisional 
officer has Included those who returned themselves as Arain or Maliar under 
Baghban, and I cannot give separate figures for them. The Baghbans of the 
Rawalpindi division are discussed below. 

The Arains, or as they are called on the Jamna Rains, are probably a 
true caste In the Satluj valley and throughout tlie Eastern Plains. But In the 
western half of the Panjal) excepting on the Satluj, the word seems to be used 
for any market-gardener. Mr. Steedman writes: ^'' Arain, Rain, Biighban, 
" Mali, and Maliar are in J hang and Rawalpindi a very mixed body of men, 



SAIia 


CLANS lU 


HUSHTAEPUR. 


Boli 


3,462 


Alagni .. 


2,182 


Pa wan 


2.980 


Maiigar .. 


1,R92 


Gaddi 


2,708 


Badyal .. 


1,142 


Hamarti . . 


2,506 


Barayat .. 


1,120 


Badwal . . . 


2,226 







190 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 85, showing Minor [p. 266] 



Dehli 

Gurgaon 

Karnal 

Hissar 
Rohtak 
Sirea 

Anibala 

Ludhiiina 

Simla 

Jalandhar ... 
Hushy&Tpur 

Amritsar ... 
Gurddspur ... 
Sialkot 

Lahore 
Gnjrinwila 
Firozpur ... 

ESwalpindi 
Jahlam 
Gujrat 
Shahpar 

Maltan 

Jhang ... .„ 

Montgomery 
Muzaffargarh 

Derail Ismail Khan 
DerahQhazi Khan 
Bannu 

Pcshiwar ... 

Hazara 

Kohat 

British Territory 

Patiila 

Nabha 

Kapurthala 

Jind 

Farfdkot .. 

MalcrKotla 

Kalsia 

Total Eastern Plains ... 

Bahiwalpur 

Mandi 

Chaniba 

NAhan 

Biliepur 

Bashahr 

Nilagarh ... 

Snket 

Total Hill Slates .. 

British Territory 
Native States .'. 
Province 



MINOR AGKICULTUEAL AND 



45 



12,714 
9,673 
10,124 

9,777 
7,940 



11 
195 
407 



122 
62 
106 

49 
13 

22 

52,102 

0,0.52 

269 

1 

3,104 

12 

"3,06ii 

13,180 



5 

354 



434 

52,102 
18,614 
65,716 



31 



1,672 
21 



63,051 
304 
50 

14,324 

43,790 

1,911 

B6.T 

13,842 

433 



53 



140,031 

7,854 
22 

2,061 
7 
73 



10,017 



436 
1 

58 

'"1,915 
169 

2,r>S4 

140,031 

12,601 

152,632 



1,585 

7,118 

1,907 

36 

•1,742 

30,881 

27,229 

24 

123,323 

38,801 

1,067 

44,708 
55,983 
65,241 

94.964 
21,740 
51,043 

2 

15,470 
20,386 

8,574 

23,981 
6,077 

22,889 
3,991 

1,068 

59 

3,941 



676,831 

41,500 
3,182 

39,095 
2,3.53 
2,294 
1,738 
2,879 

93,011 

29.031 

3S4 

"* 232 
29 

92 

37o 

1.133 

676,831 
123,210 
800,041 



65 



41.701 
11,114 



20 



21,240 
5,532 
1,151 

81,063 

153 



153 



20 



81,063 

153 

81,216 



2,602 

20 

9,090 

60 

1,639 

61,141 



74,553 

14,203 

33 

1 

14 

14,251 

08,681 

87,817 
2(»,693 
38,994 
13,013 
21,830 

250,971 

74,553 
271,222 
345,775 



29 



4 
101 

389 
41,793 
108,716 

210 

6,142 

14 

20 

4 



12 
9 

12 

157,740 

328 
'"* 314 



642 



719 
96 
180 
116 

" 680 
21 

1,870 

157,740 

2,512 

160,252 



Fig 



147 



1,993 



1,993 



1,993 
1,99?- 



MINOR LAND-OWNTNG AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. \9I 
Agricultural and Pastoral Tribes. 



PASTORAL TRIBES 












UBER. 




;o5 


142 


33 


27 


51 1 118 125 


81 




Lodha. 




ja 
o 

M 

46 
"9,082 


3 

"SI 


i 
1 


. 1 
t : 1 

■ri 1 -^ 


'■5 




3,82.5 

226 

1,659 


1,323 

1 

284 


14,514 

04,884 

1,007 


... 


i 876 
1 16 

j 490 


267 
2^729 


Delili. 

Qur^aou. 

Karual. 


7 

18 
1 


61 

1 
16 


11 


7,861 

15,821 

922 


"1^988 


:;■. 


390 

309 

07 




HiBsar. 
Rohtak. 
Sirsa. 


1.528 

48 
17 


55 

7 
8 


12,988 

951 

11 


1,561 

1 
536 


'.'.'. 


••• 


224 
201 


901 


Arabala. 

Liidliiiiua. 

Simla. 


!!! 


42 
10 
11 


7,120 
466 


259 
30 
26 


3,314 
230 

1 






5 
2,036 


Jalandhar. 

Hushyarpur, 

Kaugra. 


'.'.'. 


66 


13,654 

275 

10 


356 
53 

448 


1,873 
U052 




1 


"303 


Aniritsar. 

Qurdaspur. 

Sidlkot. 


152 

8 

174 


34 
1 


17,694 

604 
5,208 


1,213 

85 
1,100 


9,551 

17 

5,954 




99 
" 83 


..'. 


Lahore. 

Qnjrauwala. 

Firozpur. 


385 
2 


... 


8 
14 

'" 128 


941 

196 

58 

062 


'2[022 




235 


::: 


Rawalpindi. 
Jahlaiu, 
Gujiat. 
Shah pur. 


378 
3 




687 

3 

14,673 

11 


887 
45 

186 
73 


4,193 

29 

13,147 

2,943 


••'• 


332 
5 


... 


Multan. 
Jhang. 
Moutgomery. 
Muzaffargarh. 


11 
1 


1 


1 

7 


6 


"822 




••'• 


... 


Dcrah Ismail Khau, 
Derah Qhazi Khau. 
Banuu. 


92 
2 


5 
1 


3 
1 


436 
37 
62 


4 


4i426 


23 


1 


Peshawar. 

Hazara. 

Kohiit. 


8,537 


1,928 


83,656 


114,633 


47,140 


4,426 3,351 


6,242 


British Territory. 


27 
1 

2 
3 


27 

3 

9 

291 


23,417 

3,649 

12,937 

5J9 

4 

4,570 

749 


31,512 

14,711 

28 

5,023 

153 

24 

39 


■" 21 
2,347 

""l06 




181 
8 


3 


Patiala. 

NaLha. 

Kapurthala. 

Jind. 

Fan'dkot. 

Maler Kotla. 

Kalsia. 


•li 


330 


45,855 


58,946 


2,474 
5,766 


... 


189 


3 


Total Eastern Plains. 
Baliawalpur. 


'" 48 




4 
7 

49 

1 


33 
3 






3 


I'iiioi 

"" 16 


ilandi. 

Chauiba. 

Nahau. 

Bilaspur. 

Bashahr. 

Nalagarh. 

Suket. 


-18 




78 


61 




3 


11,177 


Tot.al Hill States. 


8,537 

90 

8,627 


1,928 
330 

2,258 


88.656 

45,983 

129,589 


114,638 

59,007 

173.640 


47,140 

8,240 

55,380 


4,426 3,851 

192 

4,426 1 3,543 

1 


6,242 
11,180 
17,422 


British Territory. 
Native States. 
Province. 



192 



PANJAB CASTES. 















Abstract No 


85, showing Minor 




MINOR AGRICULTURAL AND 




PbOPOETION FEB 1.00 




45 


31 


7 


1 65 


t9 


20 


29 ) 147 J 105 


142 











a 
.a 




1 




2 


'S 










.a 


•< 




es 


J3 


.a 









la 


be 


H 


s 




^ 


TS 







*«J 




K. 




U 


ci 


la 







<8 




1^ 


(R 


< 


s 


H 


M 





« 


1-^ 


M 


Dehli 


20 


3 


2 




25 






3 


6 


2 


GnigaoD 


16 








15 












farnai 


16 




11 




27 




... 




3 




Hipsar 


19 




4 




23 










... 


Eohtak 


14 








14 












Sirea 


3 


... 


"'l9 




22 






... 






Ambala 




69 


29 


... 


88 


3 






1 




Lndhiana 






44 




44 




... 








Simla 


... 


1 


1 




2 


"212 


2 








Jalandhar 




18 


166 




174 




^ 








Hushy.irpur 




49 


43 


... 


92 


2 


46 








Kangra 


1 


3 


1 




5 


84 


149 








Amritsar 




1 


50 




51 


... 










Gnrd&spuT 




17 


68 




85 


... 


'"' 7 


1 






Sialkot 






65 




66 












Lahore 






103 




103 








••• 




GajranwSla 






35 




35 




... 




... 


■•> 


Firozpur 




... 


78 




78 




... 








Bawalpirdi 






... 


51 


51 






... 


... 


'.t 


Jahlam 






35 


19 


64 








... 


... 


Qujrat 






30 




30 










... 


Shahpur 






20 




20 


... 


... 


... 






Multan 






43 




43 


... 






1 




Jhang 






15 


... 


15 








... 




Montgomery 






54 




54 












Muzaffargarh 






12 


... 


12 










... 


Derah Ismail Khan 






2 




2 








... 




Derail (ihazi Khan 


... 




... 








... 




... 




Baauu 






12 




"'l2 












Peshawar 








36 


3fi 




... 








Hazara 






... 


14 


14 




... 








Koha 








6 


6 






... 






British Terri- 


3 


7 


36 


4 


50 


4 


8 








tory. 






















Patiila 


4 


5 


28 


... 


37 


10 


... 








NMjha 


1 




12 


... 


13 












K:ipurthala 




8 


155 


... 


163 




■' 1 








lind 


* 12 




9 




21 




... 






I 


Faridkot 




1 


23 


... 


24 




... 


... 






Maler Kot!a 


... 




24 


... 


24 




... 






... 


Kalsia 


'" 45 




43 




88 




... 








Total Eastern 


6 


4 


37 




46 


6 










Plains. 






















Bahiwalpnr 






61 




51 


... 










Mandi 




3 


3 




6 


4(i7 


6 




*•* 


Ch^niba 




... 


... 








1 








N;.h:in 


3 




2 




" 5 


"338 


2 






... 


Bilai^imr 




1 






1 


238 


I 




... 




Hash ah r 












606 








... 


N.ilagarh 




'" 36 


" 2 




"38 


255 


"13 








Suket 




3 


7 




10 


416 










Total Hill States 


1 


3 


1 




B 


335 


2 








British Terri- 


8 


7 


86 


4 


50 


4 


8 








tory. 






















Native States 


4 


3 


82 




89 


70 


1 








Province 


3 


7 


86 


4 


50 


15 


7 


,.. 




■" 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 193 



Agricultural and Pastoral Tribes— concluded. 



PASTORAL TRIBES-coNCinDEB. 



OF Total Popuiatioit. 



33 



IB 



12 



27 



23 

101 

2 

16 
29 



16 


21 


14 


5B 


61 




2 


20 




2 


64 




11 


1 


18 


23 



118 



34 
101 

20 

16 

29 
12 

17 
2 

226 

13 
49 
234 

17 
8 
1 

30 

1 

19 



472 
1 
340 
239 
606 
269 
416 

337 

25 

100 
38 



126 



96 



60 
116 
52 

40 
44 
34 

106 
46 
228 

lf'7 
143 
242 

68 
93 



133 
36 
97 

52 
54 
33 
22 

56 

15 

119 

21 

2 
2 
12 

37 
25 



75 

84 
83 

224 
44 
27 
88 

100 

94 

54 

478 
97 
345 

241) 
606 
307 
426 

342 

75 

142 
89 



Dehli. 

Gurgaon. 

Karnal. 

Hissar. 
Rohtak. 

Sirsa. 

Anibala. 
Lndhi&ns, 

Simla. 

Jalandhar. 

Hushyarpur, 

Kangra. 

AraritBar. 
QurdaBpur. 

Sialkot. 

Lahore. 

Gajranwila. 

Firozpur, 

Rawalpindi. 
Jablam. 

Gu.irat. 
Shahpur. 

Mnltan. 
Jhang. 
Montgomery. 
Muzaffargaih. 

Derah Ismail Khan. 
Derah Qhazi Khao. 
Banuu, 

Peshawar. 

Hazara. 

Kohat. 

British Ter- 
ritory. 

Patiala. 

Nabha. 

Kapnrthala. 

Jind. 

Faridkot. 

Maler Kotla. 

Kalsia. 

Total Easter 

Plains. 
Bahiwalpur. 

Mandi. 

Chainba. 

N&han. 

BilAspur. 

Bashahr. 

Niilagarh. 

Suket. 

Total Hill States. 

British Ter- 
ritory. 
Native States. 
Province. 



194 PANJAB CASTES. 

" the names denoting occupation rather than caste, and are invariably held in 
" very low repute." The IMaliar of the Rawalpindi division for the most part 
returned their clan as Janjua, Qutbshahi (Awan), Khokhar, or Bhattl, though 
some of them give what are apparently true Arain clans, such as Wahand. 
Table VIII A gives no Arains or Baghbaus in the Rawalpindi district, but 
the fact is that by an unfortunate error, not detected till after the tables were 
in print, the Maliars of Rawalpindi and Jahlam were entered as Maniars 
under Caste No. 47. I have added them to the figures for Baghban in the 
Abstract, and it follows that all the Rawalpindi and Jahlam Baghbans of the 
Abstract were returned as Maliar, and not as Baghban. So too, the figures 
for Muzaffargarh and the two Derahs are very imperfect, as Abstract No. 72 
on page 224'* shows that some thousands of Arains or Maliars in those districts » P. 106- 
returned then caste as Jat. On the whole it would appear that ^Miiliand Arain 107. 
are time castes in the eastern half of the Province, but that in the Western 
Panjab, Arain, Maliar, and Baghban are commonly used as mere names of 
one and the same occupation. The detailed clan tables, when published, will 
throw much light upon the real affinities of these three castes. 

486. The Arains are found in great numbers throughout the northern, 
central; and western portions of the Eastern Plains and throughout the Ra- 
walpindi and Multan divisions ; but west of Lahore the name must be taken 
to refer, except on the Satluj, to an occupation rather than a caste. Their 
strongholds are the Jalandhar, Amritsar, and Lahore divisions, and moi-e 
especially the districts of Jalandhar and Lahore and the State of Kapurthala 
where they form respectively 17 "4, 10"3, and 16*3 per cent, of the total popu- 
lation. They are admirable cultivators, skilful and industrious, but like all 
vegetable growers of low standing among the cultivating classes. Where, 
however, they are found in very large numbers their position is higher, as there 
they are general cultivators rather than market gardeners. They are almost 
without exception Musalmans, and would appear to be a true Panjab tribe, to 
have come from the neighbourhood of JNIultan, and to have some affinity mth 
the Kamboh. Mr. Purser writes : ^' The Ariiins of Montgomery know nothing 
" of their origin. They claim to be Surajbansi Rajputs, and to have come 
'^ up to this district from the Dehli part of the country. They are usually 
" supposed to be Mahomedan Kambohs, and the latter undoubtedly came 
" from the west, so it is likely the Arains did too. This is rendered more pro- 
" bable by the fact that the Arains of Saharanpur arc said to have come from 
" Afghanistan. They do not seem to have got much below the Lahore border. [P. 268] 
" Their chief divisions are Gahlan, Chandor, Chachar, Sindhu, and Barar.''' I 
find that the Arains of Firozpur and Lahore also trace their origin from Uchh 
or Multan, and are supposed to be akin to the Kamboh. In Sirsa the Satluj 
Arains meet those of the Ghaggar. They two do not intermarry, but the 
Arains of the Ghaggar valley say they were Rjijputs living on the Panjnad 
near Multan, but Were ejected some four centuries ago by Saiyad Jalal-ud-din 
of Uchli. They claim some sort of connection with Jaisalmer Till the great 
famines of 1759 and 1788 A.D. they are said to have held all the lower valleys 
of the Choya and Ghaggar, but after the latter date the Bhattis harassed the 
Sumras, the country became disturl^ed, and many of the Arains emigrated 
across the Ganges and settled near Bareli and Ram])ur. They marry only with 
the Ghaggar and Bareli Arains. The Satluj Arains in Sirsa say that they are, 
like tlie Arains of Lahore ajid ]\Iontgomcry, connected l)y origin with the 
Hindu Kambohs. Mr. Wilson thinks it probable that both classes are really 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 195 

Kambohs who have become MusahniinSj and that the Ghaggar Arains 
emigrated in a body from Mnltan, while the others moved gradually 
up the Satluj into their present place. He describes the Arains of the 
Ghaggar as the most advanced and civilised tribe in the Sirsa district, 
even surpassing the Sikh Jats from Patiala ; and he considers them at 
least equal in social status with the Jats, over whom they themselves claim 
superiority. The Arains of Firozpur, Ludhiana, Ambala, and Hissar also 
trace their origin from Uchh or its neighbourhood, though the Hissar Arains 
are said to be merely Mahomedan Malis. 

Of the Artiins of Jalandhar Mr. Barkley says that they are commonly 
believed to be descended from Kambohs, and that even those who are ashamed 
of so commonplace an origin are not prepared altogether to disclaim the 
relationship, l)ut state that the Kambohs are the illegitimate and they the 
legitimate descendants of a com)non ancestor. He further states that they are 
settlers from the south, that none of their settlements are much older than 
250 years, and that their original country is said to extend from Hansi to 
Multan, while those of the Jalandhar Arains whose history he has traced have 
come from the direction of Hissar. The Jalandhar Arains themselves say 
they are descended from Rai Chajju of Ujjain who held the whole of the Sirsa 
district in y«^ir ; while the Karnal Rains also trace their origin from Sirsa. 
On the whole it would appear probable that the Arains originally came fi-om 
the lower Indus and spread up the five rivers of the Panjab ; and that at an 
early stage in their history a section of them moved up the Ghaggar, perhaps 
then a permanent river flowing into the Indus, and there gained for them- 
selves a position of some importance. As the Ghaggar dried up and the 
neighbouring country became more arid, they moved on into the Jamna dis- 
tricts and Cis-Satluj tract generally, and perhaps spread along the foot of the 
hills across the line of movement of their brethren who were moving up the 
valleys of the larger rivers. Their alleged connection with the Malis is pro- 
bably based only upon common occupation ; but there does seem some reason 
to think that they may perhaps be akin to the Kambohs, though the difference 
must be more than one of religion only, as many of the Kambohs are Musal- 
m^n. 

Abstract No. 86 on the opposite page^ shows some of the largest Arain 
clans. I have included under the head Arain 987 persons who have returned 
themselves as Bhohar, which I am informed is an Ai-ain clan. Of these 850 
were in Multan, 34^ in Montgomery, and 103 in Muzaffargarh. 

487. The Kanet (Caste No. 20) .—The Kanets are the low-caste cultivat- 
ing class of all the eastern Himalayas of the Panjab and the hills at their 
base, as far west as Kulu and the eastern portion of the Kangra district, 
throughout which tract they form a very large proportion of the total popula- 
tion. Beyond this tract, in Kangra proper, their place is filled by Ghiraths. 
The country they inhabit is held or governed by Hill Rajputs of prehistoric 
ancestry, the greater part of whom are far too proud to cultivate with their 
own hands, and who employ the Kanets as husbandmen. The Kanets claim 
to be of impure Rajput origin, but there is little doubt that they are really of 
aboriginal stock. At the same time it is most difficult to separate them from 
Rathis {q. v., page 251 1), and in Chamba both have been included under the 
latter head. The whole question of their origin is elaborately discussed by 
General Cunningham at pages 135 to 135 of Vol. XIV of his Archaeological 



196 



PANJAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 86, [P. 269] 



a 



Arobala ..• 

Lu'lhiana 

Jalandhar 
UubTiyurpuT 

AiriTitsar 

Qurdaspur 

Sialkot 

Lahore 

Qajrunwala 

Firozpur 

GajrAt 
SlialijiuT 

Maltaii 
Jhang 

Montpomery 
Mu7afraTgarh 



British Terri- 
tory. 



Native States 
Province 



6,424 
8 



ir>o 

10 



6,486 

130 

3 



47 
1,714 



1,821 



514 
127 



32 



9 10 



33 



862 

4,704 
1,951 

l-i2 
935 

382 

8'J 

18 

500 



13,286 |4,837 1,508 

I I 

607 i 26| 790 

13.898 4,863 2,298 

I 



3,912 
120 

123 
34 

1,804 

113 

305 

2 



423 



7,372 1 5,256 | ... 



2,809 



12 



253 
155 



9,668 

54 
9,712 



360 
75 

10 
58 
377 



86 



7,107 j 8,829 6,260 



13 



7,120 I 8,836 6,263 



... i 217 

1S3 

I 

... I 1,792 
4,485 1 1.116 



278 
251 
23 

697 



2,809 4,485 6,826 
424 
2,80914,485 6,250 



34 

.571 



1,619 



1,126 
895 
571 

8,081 

184 

4,862 

663 



21,622 

302 

21,924 



270 

1,037 

5,141 
973 

5,423 
1,167 
1,340 

6,113 

333 

3,867 



258 
70 

26.119 

1,387 

27,506 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 197 
showing Arain Clans. 



13 



139 
30 



377 
113 



5,784 
359 

815 
9d7 



520 

9,295 

956 

10,251 



65'. 
34 

33 J 

150 

l,28.i 
2,295 
1,988 

1,080 
1,210 
2,262 

495 
162 

830 

208 

772 

1,385 

15,684 
1,002 



3,131 



12 

352 

895 

7,646 

580 

2,580 



,711 

17 

4,014 

1,409 

24,477 
8,126 



16,686 32,603 



8,098 



8,106 



17 



88 
026 

1,215 
1,054 



3 

11 

1,487 
12 

26 
31 

801 



521 422 

1,541 

10 217 



980 
350 

668 

1,122 

185 

32 



463 

13,(104 
342 

3,272 

1,864 



2,630 
71 



208 
1,860 

7,213 

3,892 

504 
3,561 



8,628 

276 



2,704 3,856 



139 

l,5aG 

6,559 

69 

6,628 



24,355 
46 
24,401 



30,479 

2,708 

33,187 



329 



1,076 



814 
352 



2,815 



2,815 



16 
335 



22 



1,001 

1,537 

4,931 
1,031 

2,894 
3,927 
2,644 

5,099 

901 

3,243 



110 1,131 



23 



2,053 



987 



1,»29 

757 
7 

3,715 

9 

1,9^5 



10 



Ambala. 
Ludhi&na. 

Jalandhiir. 
Hushyarpar. 

Aniritsar. 

Gurdaspur. 

Sialkot. 

Lahore. 
Qujraow 'la. 
Firozpur. 

Gujr?!. 

Shall pnr, 

Multan. 
Jhaug. 
Montgomery. 
Muzaffargara. 



557 |32,153 10,233 British Ten i. 
tory. 



557 



1,114 
33,267 



383 Native Statoa. 
10,016 Province. 



198 PAN JAB CASTES. 

Keports. He identifies them with the Kunindas or Kulindas of the Sanskrit 
classics and of Ptolemy, and is of opinion that they belong to that great 
Khasa race which, before the Aryan invasion, occupied the whole Sub- 
Himalayan tract from the Indus to the Brahmaputra, and which, driven up 
into the hills by the advancing wave of immigration, now separates the 
Ai-yans of India from the Turanians of Tibet. But the Kanets are divided 
into two great tribes, the Khasia and the Rao, and it is probable that the 
Khasias are really descended fi-om intercom-se between the Aryan immigrants 
and the w^omen of the hills. The process by which the great ^ Khas tribe of 
Nepal thus grew up is admirably described by Mr. Hodgson in his Essay in 
the Military tribes of that country, which is quoted at some length by 
General Cunningham, and, less fully, by me at page 236* mpra. The *P. 131, 
distinction between Khasia and Rao is still sufficiently well marked. A 
Khasia observes the period of impurity after the death of a relation prescribed 
for a twice-born man ; the Rao that prescribed for an outcast. The Khasia 
wears the janeo or sacred thread, while the Rao does not. But the dis- 
tinction is apparently breaking down, at least in Kulu where the two 
tribes freely eat together and intermarry, though the Khasia, if asked, will 
deny the fact. 

488. Mr. Lyall thus describes the Kanets of Kulu : — 
"Tlie Kanets are often classed by other Hindus as on a par with the Rathis of Kangra. Just 
" as the fiat his claim to be Rajputs who have lost grade by taking to the plough, or the offspring 
'' of Rajputs by Sudra women, so the Kanets say that they are the children of women of the hills 
" by Rajputs who came up from the plains. By one story both Kanets and Dagis were originally 
'' of the same stock. Two sons of the demi-god, Bhim Sen F^ndab, had each a son by the 
" daughter of a Kulu rakhas or demon, One of these sons married a Bhotanti, or woman of Tibet, 
" who fed him with yak's flesh, so he and his children by her became Dagis. The other son was 
''ancestor of the Kanets. 

" Both of these stories perhaps point to the conclusion that the Kanets and Dagis are of mixed 
" Mughal and Hindu race. General Cunningham says as much of the Kanets of Kanawar, and 
" connects the caste name with the word Karana, wliich implies mixed blood. The Kanets are 
" divided into Kassiyas and Raos. The Raos say that the origin of this division was that a Raja 
" of Kulu ordered the Kanets to reform their loose practices, and conform altogether to Hinduism ; 
" those wlio obeyed were called Kassiyas, and those who stuck to their old ways Raos. It is a fact 
" that at the present day the former are more Hindu in all observances than the latter, and the story 
" is otherwise probable, as one can see that the foreign priests round the Rajas were always 
" striving to make the Kulu people more orthodox Hindus, greater respecters of Brahmins, and 
" less devoted to the worship of their local divinities. The Kassiyas wear the janeo, and pretend 
" to some superiority, which, however, is not admitted by the Raos. They intermarry and eat 
" and drink together out of the same cooking pot, but not oi^t of the same dish or plate." 

He adds that they are not tall,, but strong and active, and generally have [p. 270] 
handsome figures. Some are hardly darker than Spaniards in complexion, 
with a ruddy colour showing in their cheeks ; others are as dark as the ordi- 
nary Panjabi. Of the ^' so called Kanets of Lahul " he writes that they '' are 
" a mixed race, but the Mongolian element predominates over the Indian. 
" Many of those who live in the lower valley are no doubt descendants of 
" Kanet settlers from Kulu and Bangahal ; the rest are pure Tibetan, or nearly 
" so." In Lahul tlie Kanets, like all other classes of the peojile, will eat cows 
and bullocks which have died a natural death. They never wear the sacred 
thread. The social status of the Kanet appears to be very low. A Sunar 
will marry a Kanet woman, but he will not give his daughter to a Kanet, 
nor will he eat from the hand of a Kanet, tliough his Avife will do so. In 
Lahul even a Brahman or Thakar will take a Kanet woman as a second-class 
wife, and the offspring of the latter, who are known as Gam, will in a few 
generations rank as Thakar. Those of the former however can never rise to full 



Kanet tribes. 



1. Kasib ... 67,233 

2. Chauhan ... 38,685 

3. Rao ... 32,218 

4. Khasia ... 29,285 



5. Pangalaiia, . . 12,067 

6. Tbakar ... 7,356 

7. Punwiir .. 7,129 

8. Lasturi ... 3,859 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 199 

equality with the pure Brahman, though they are commonly known as 
Brahmans. The fathers will not eat from the hands of sons begotten in this 
manner, but will smoke with them. 

General Cunningham says tliat the Kanets liave three principal clans — 
Mangal, Chauhan, and Rao. Tlie Chauhan will almost certainly be Khasia. 
With respect to the Mangal I have no information, nor do I find it in my 

papers, unless Pangalana be a 
misreading for Mangalana 
or Mangal. The principal 
Kanet divisions returned in 
our papers are shown in the 
margin. More than half the 
Kasib are in Bashahr. The 
name belongs to a Brahmini- 
cal gotra, and is probably 
no tribe at all and only returned because the heading of the schedule was 
misunderstood. The Chauhan are principally returned from Mandi, Suket, 
Nahan, Keonthal, and Jubbal ; the Khasia from Bashahr and Kangra ; the 
Pangalana from Suket; and the Punwar from Nahan. General Cunning- 
ham assigns the upper valley of the Pabar to the Chauhan, the lower Pabar_, 
the Riipin, and the Tons valleys to the Rao and the tract west of the Pabar 
basin to the Mangal. Mr. Anderson notes that the Khasia are more common 
in Kulu proper, and the Rao in Seoraj. 

489. The Ghirath, Bahti, ana Chang (Caste No. 29) .—The Ghiraths fill 
much the same position in Kangra proper and the hills below it as do the 
Kanets in the part to the east. With them I have included the Bahti and 
the Chang, as it appears that one and the same people are known as Ghiratli 
in Kangra, and as Bahti in the eastern and Chang in the western portion of 
the lower ranges. All three intermarry freely, and are considered by Mr. Lyall 
as identical. In the Amritsar division all the Ghiraths except 128 were 
returned as Chang. The Jalandhar divisional office took the three names 
together. The Ghiraths of Kangra and Hushyarpur are thus described by 
Mr. Barnes : — 

" My previous remarks (quoted on page 251* uuder the head Rathi) will have introduced the 
" reader to the Girths. They form a considerable item in the population of these hills, and in 
" actual numbers exceed any other individual caste. With the Girths I have associated the few 
" Jats that reside in this district, and the Changs, which is only another name for Girths, prevalent 
" about Haripur and Nurpur. They amount altogether to 111,507 souls. The Girths are sub- 
" divided into numerous sects. There is a common saying that there are 360 varietie- of rice, and 
" that the sub-divisions of the Girths are equally extensive, the analogy arising from the Girthn 
" being the usual cultivators of rice. The Girths predominate in the valleys of Palum, Kangra, and 
" Rihlo. They are bound again in the ' Hul Doon,' or Haripur valley. These localities are the 
" strongholds of the caste, although they are scattered elsewhere in every portion of the district, and 
" generally possess the richest lands and the most open spots in the hills. The Girths lielong to the 
" Sudra division of Hindus, and this fact apparently accounts for the localities wherein they are 
" found. The open valleys, although containing the finest lauds, are also the only accessible 
" portions of the hills. The more refined castes preferred the advantages of privacy and seclusion, 
" although accompanied by a sterner soil and diminished returns. They abandoned the fertile 
" valleys to less fastidious classes, whose women were not ashamed to be seen nor to work in the 
" fields, and the men were not degraded by being pressed as porters. 

" The Girths are a most indefatigable and hard-working race. Their fertile lands yield 
" double crops, and they are incessantly employed during the whole year in the various processes 
" of agricultui'c. In addition to the cultivation of their fields, the Girth women carry wood, 
" vegetables, mangoes, milk and other products to the markets for sale ; many sit half the day 
" wrangling with customers until their store is disposed of . The men are constantly seized for 
" begar, or forced labour, to carry travellers' loads, or to assist in the various public buildings in 



200 PANJAB CASTES. 

" course of loiistruction. F/oin these details it will be perceived that the Girths have uo easy 
" time of it, and their ener^es aud powers of endurance must be most clastic to boar np against 
" this incessant toil. 

" To look at their frames, they appear incapable of sustaining such fatigue. The men arc 
'• short ill stature, frequently disfigured by goitre (which equally affects both scxoO, dark and sickly 
" in complexion, and witli little or no hair on their faces. I'oth mcJi and wonn'n have coarse 
'• features, more resembling the Tartar physiognomy than any other type, and it is rare to see a 
" handsome face, though sometimes the younger women may be called pretty. Both sexes are 
" extremely addicted to spirituous di'lnks. Although industrious cultivators, they are very litigious 
" and quarrelsome j but their disputes seldom lead to blows ; aud though intemperate, they are still 
" thrifty, — a Girth seldom wastes his substance in drink. In their dealings with one anotiier they 
" are honest and truthful, and altogether their character, though not so peaceable and manly as the 
'* Kathi, has many valuable and endearing traits. The Girths being Sudrasdo not wear t]\cJai>eo or 
" thread of caste. They take money for theii daughters, but seldom exchange them. Tlic younger 
" brother takes his brother's widow; if she leave his protection, he was entitled by the law of 
" the country to her re-titutiou aud under us he should at all events receive money com- 
"pensation." 

The Ghiraths ai'e said to be of Rfijput origin by mixed marriages or 
illegitimate intercourse, but I have no trustwortiiy information on the subject. 
They are essentially agricultural, and the proverb says : — " As the rice bends 
'* in the ear the Ghirath lifts his head.'" Their social position is low. " You 
" can no more make a saint of a Ghirath than expect chastity of a buffalo/'' 
and they practise widow-marriage, for " You can't make a Ghirathni a widow, 
" any more than you can turn a hill buffalo into a barren cow.'"' 

The Ghii-aths have returned few large sub-divisions. The eight largest 

are given in the margin. Bluird- 
wa] is another Brahminieal gotra, 
and probably returned through 
misapprehension. Chhabru is 
found only in Hushyarpur, and 
Chhora and Bhattu only in 
Kangra. The others occur in 
both districts. 

490. The Reya (Caste No. 147).— Having thus disposed of the two 
great inferior cultivating caytes of the hills; I shall take the others as far 
as possible in order of locality from east to west. The Reyas are a small 
Hindu caste found only in the Dehli district. They say they were Rajputs 
but were excluded from the caste because they took to practising /^arc 2^ <? or rp ^yn 
>vidow-marriage. They are now quite separate. They eat and smoke with 
Jats and agricultural castes of similar standing", jjut will not marry them 
except by karewa. They own nine villages in l)ehli, and the names of their 
clans are soinetinies Rajput and sometimes not. They trace their origin from 
Mahrauli where the Qutb pillar stands. 

491. The Lodha and Kachhi (Caste Nos. 105 and 142).— These are two 
well-known cultivating castes of Hindustan, and are found in the Panjub 
chiefly in the Jamna districts, though a few of them have moved on westwards 
to the great cantonments. They are almost without exception Hindus. The 
Lodhas are said to be numerous In Hushangabad, and to be distinct from the 
Lodhi outcasts of Central India; but the LodhaS of Dehli would appear to 
be 'A very low social standing. It is said that there are two distinct castes of 
Lodiias, one spelled with the hard and the other with the soft d, and Tierhaps 
this may account for f he apparent confusion. The Amijala Lodhas cultivate 
hemp largely, and work it up into rope. The Kachhis are said to be the 
market gardeners of Hindustan^ aud of low standing. In the Paujab 1 







Ghikath Tuibes. 




1. 


Kandal 


.. 24,392 1 5. Reru 


.. 2,532 


2. 


Bhardwaj 


.. 8,33U 


6. Badial 


. . 2,058 


3. 


Pat bar i . 


.. 3,091 


7. Chhora 


.. 1,695 


4. 


Chhabru . 


.. 2,717 S. Battu 


.. 1,623 



MINOll LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 201 

believe they are generally engaged in the cultivation of water-nuts and similar 
produce ; indeed in many parts they are called Sing-hiiri (from Singhcira, a 
water-nut) as commonly as Kachhi. 

492. The Kamboh (Caste No 33.)— The Kambohs are one of the finest 
cultivating cas?tes in the Panjub. TJiey seldom engage in market-gardening, 
but they are no less industrious and skilful than the Arains. They are found 
in the upper Satluj valley as low down as Montgomery, throughout the 
northern portion of the Eastern Plains, and as low down the Janma valley as 
Karnal. They arc especially numerous in Kapurthala. The Jamna Kambohs 
seem to have come into the valley from the west, and there has quite lately 
been a very large influx of Kambohs from the northern tracts of Patiala into 
the great dhdk jungles between Thanesar and the river. The Satluj Kambohs 
of Montgomery are divided into two branches, one of which came up the 
river from the Multan country and the other down the valley from the 
neighboui-hood of Kapui-thala^ both movements having taken place under the 
Sikh rule. They claim descent from Raja Karan, and say that their ancestor 
fled to Kashmir. The Kambohs of Bijuor also trace their origin to the trans- 
Indus country, and Mr. Purser accepts this tradition as evidently true. They 
ai-e said by some to be ancient inhabitants of Persia^ and the Karnal Kambohs 
trace their origin from Garh Ghazni ; but the fact that 4U per cent, of them 
are Hindus and 23 per cent. Sikhs is conclusive against their having had any 
extra-Indian origin, unless at a very remote period. I have in section 486 
noted the fact that Arains and Kambohs arc commonly supposed to be closely 
related. Indeed in Montgomery a man appears to be called Arain if he is 
Musalman and Kamboh if Hindu. But that this is not always the case is 
evident from the fact of a very considerable proportion of the Kambohs of 
Amritsar, Lahore, Firozpur, Patiala, Nabha, and Maler Kotla having returned 
themselves as Musalmans^ although Musalman Arains are also numerous in 
those tracts. In Jalaudhar the village of Bhalowal is owned partly by 
Kambohs and partly by Arains, both being Musalman. It is perhaps doubtful 
whether the supposed relationship has any further basis than the fact that they 
both came from the west, and ar'i both of much the same social standing and 
agricultural repute. The detailed clan tables will probablv throw light on 
the question, though in Kapurthala, the stronghold of the Kambohs, their 
clans were not recorded. It is said by some that the chief distinction is that 
the Kambohs take money for their daughters, while the Arains do not. 
But the social standing of the Kamboh is on the whole superior to that of the 
Arain, and very markedly so where the latter is a vegetable-grower. The 
Kamboh, moreover, is not a meie agriculturist. He not unfrequently engages 
in trade, and even takes service in the army or in offices or even as a private 
servant, while his wife not unfrequently lends money even where he Is a mere 
husbandman ; and under Akbar a Kamboh General called Shahljaz Khan com- 
manded 5,001) men and distinguished himself greatly in Bengal, Musalman 
Kambohs held Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago ; and the tombs and 
mosques that they have left show that they must have enjoyed a consIderal)le 
position. The military, mercantile, and clerkly Kambohs are said to be dis- 
tinguished as Qalmi or '' men of the pen,^^ and not to intermarry with the 
agricultural section of the caste. But this is probably a mere social custom and 
not a caste rule. The Kambohs do not seem to beai" as high a character for 
honesty as they do for skill. There is a Persian proverb current in the North- 
West Provinces : " The Afghans, the Kambohs, and the Kashmiris ; all three 



202 



PANJAB CASTES. 



rogues {badzdt)," and Mr. Benton of Karnal describes them as "notoriously 
deceitful and treacherous. " On the other hand Sardar Gurdial Singh states_, 
I know not on what authority^ that '^ during t he reign of terror in India, it 
" was the Kambohs who were trusted by the rich bankers for onrrying- 
'' theu' cash in the disguise oiyaqtrs." The Kambohs are said to be exeeption- 
ally numerous in ]Mirat. Their loca- 
tion under the hills lends some slight 
support to their tradition of origin 
from Kashmir. 







Kamboh 


CLANS. 




1. 


Thind .. 


. 10,394 


6. Sande ... 


4,321 


2. 


Jausan .. 


6,635 


7. Jammun 


2,515 


3. 


Jaura , . 


5,420 


8. Jhande .. 


2,028 


4. 


Dahut .. 


4,963 


9. Unmal ,. 


2.001 


5. 


Mahrok.. 


. 4,880 







The Kamliohs seem to have return- 
ed very few large sub -divisions. The 
figui'es for the nine largest are given in 
the margin. 

493, The Ahir (Caste No. 27).— The Ahirs are properly a pastoral caste, 
their name being derived fi-om the Sanskrit Abhira, or " milkman. ^^ But in 
the Panjab they are now almost exclusively agricultural, and stand in quite the 
first rank as huslmndmen, being as good as the Kamboh and somewhat 
superior to the Jat. They are of the same social standing as the Jat and 
Gujar, who will cat and smoke with them ; but they do not seem ever to have 
been, at any rate within recent times, tho dominant race in any considerable 
tract. Perhaps their nearest approach to such a j)Osition was in Rewari and 
the country to the west of it still locally known as Hirwati, where they held 
nearly three quarters of the jparganah in 18.38. A very full description of 
them will be found in Elliott^s Races of the North-lFest Provinces, and also 
in Sherring, I^ 332^. The west coast of India and Gujarat would appear to be 
their ancient homes, but they are numerous in Behar and Gorakhpur, and at 
one time there was an Ahir dynasty in Nepal. In the Panjab they are chiefly 
found in the south of Dehli, Gurgaon, and Rohtak and the Native States 
bordering upon these districts, and in this limited tract they form a consider- 
able proportion of the whole population. They are almost all Hindus, and [^p 272 ] 
are said to trace their origin from Mathra. They are industrious, patient, 
and orderly ; and though they are ill spoken of in the proverbs of the country- 
side, yet that is probably only because the Jat is jealous of them as l)eing 
even better cultivators than himself. Thus they say in Rohtak : " Kosli (the 
head village of the Ahirs) has fifty brick houses and several thousand swag- 
gerers.'" So in Dehli : " Rather be kicked by a Rajput or stumble uphill, 
'* than hoj^e anything from a jackal, spear grass, or an Ahir ;" and again : 
" All castes are God^s creatures, but three castes are ruthless. "When they 
" get a chance they have no shame ; tho whore, the Banya, and the Ahir. '"' 
But these stigmas are now-a-days at least wholly undeserved. 

The Ahirs of the North-West Provinces have three great sections, the 

Nandbans of the central dodb, the Jadubans 
Ahie tbibes. ^^ ^^^^ upper dodb and the Mathra country, 

and the Gwalbans of the lower dodb at 
Benares. The Ahirs of the Pan j jib have 
returned themselves as shown in the margin. 
Of the Gwalbans more than 16,000 are 
found in Patiala. Within these tribes they 
clans, among which the Kosali of Rohtak and Gurgaon 



Jadubans 

Nandhans 
Gwalbans 



43,961 
24,998 
25,187 



have numerous 
number 7,322. 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 203 

494. Tho Mahtain (Caste No. 51). — There has been a confusion in the 
fig-ures of Table VIIIA oAving to tlie fact that the Mahtams are also called 
Bahrupias. The Mahtams of Gujrat and Siallcot returned themselves under 
that name, and were included under Bahrupia in Table VIIIA. I have 
restored them to their proper place in Abstract No. 85, page 266.^ The Mah- 
tams, or as they are called in the Jalandhar division Mahton (nasal n), are 
found chiefly in the Satluj valley, and along the foot of the hills between 
Jalandhar and Gujrat. They are of exceedingly low caste, being almost out- 
casts ; by origin they are vagrants, and in some parts they apparently retain 
their wandering habits, while everywhere they are still great hunters, using 
nooses like those of the Bawarias described in section 575. But in many 
districts, and especially on the middle Satluj, they have devoted themselves to 
husbandry and are skilful and laborious cultivators. The great majority of 
them are classed as Hindus, but about one-fifth are Musalman, and as many 
again Sikh. But the Musalman section, even in the Multan division, eat 
wild pig and retain most of their Hindu customs, and are consequently not 
admitted to religious equality by the other Musalman?. They appear, how- 
ever, to bury their dead. They live, in Muzaffargarh, in grass huts on the 
river banks, whence the saying — " Only two Mahtam huts and calls itself 
Khairpur.^'' Mr. Purser thus describes the Mahtams of Montgomery : — 

" They are a low Hindu caste, and are looked down on by their neighbours. Their story is 
" that they were Rajputs, and one of their ancestors was a kanungo. Akbar was then on the 
"throne. Kanuugos were called ma^/a, and thus they got their name. The first malita was dis- 
" missed, and tlieu Fettled at Mahtpur in Jalandhar. His descendants emigrated aud settled along 
" the banks of the rivers as they found quantities of Siirr in such situations, and working in sarr 
" was their chief occupation. It was not till the Nakkai chiefs held sway that they settled down 
" permanently in this district. They adopted the custom of marriage with widows according to the 
"iovm oi chaddnr diilna, and so heciime Undvas. They are also called ' Bahrupias/ which name 
" is a corruption of ' Bho-rAp-ias' and means people of many modes of life, because they turned 
" their hands to any business they could find (yet c/. Select Glossary, I, 17 & 54). Cunningham 
" (History of the Sikhs, page 17) says, ' the hardworking Hindu Mahtams are still moving family 
'' ' by family and village by village eastward away from the Ravi and Chanab.' This would seem 
" to give the Mahtams a western instead of eastern origin as claimed by them. They own a good 
" many villages (19), most of which are in good condition. Where they are not proprietors of the 
" whole village, they reside in a separate group of huts at some distance from the main dbddi. 
" They are great hands at catching wild pigs ; but it is in cutting down the jungle on inundated 
" lands that they excel. Though industrious tbey do not care much for working wells, and prefer 
" cultivating lands flooded by the rivers. They are quarrelsome and addicted to petty thieving. 
" They are of medium stature and stoutly made. " 

495. There is a Bahrup tribe of Banjaras or, as they are called in the 
Panjab. Labanas • and the Labanas and Mahtams of the Satluj appear closely 
to resemble each other. Elliott's description of the Bahrup Banjaras at page 
54, Volume I of his Races of the North- JFest Provinces, tallies curiously in 
some respects with that of the Bahrupia Mahtams of Gujrat given by Captain 
Mackenzie at section 71 of his settlement report of that district ; and on the 
whole it seems probable that the Mahtams are Banjaras or Labanas, in which 
case it is possible that the Satluj group have come u]) from Rajputana, while 
the sub-montane group are merely a western continuation of the Banjaras of 
the lower hills. This is the more probable as I find that the Jalandhar 
Mahtams trace their origin from Jammu, conquered Rahon from the Gujars, 
and were in turn deprived of it by the Ghorewaha Rajputs probably not less 
than five centuries ago. At the same time I should note that the Mahton of 
Hushyarpur and the neighbourhood appear to hold a much higher social 
position than the Mahtams of the Satluj ; and it may l)e that the two are 
really distinct. Sardar Gurdial Singh indeed goes so far as to say that the 



204. PANJAB CASTES. 

Mabtou of Husliyjirpur are of good Rajput blood, though they have lost caste 
by taking to ploughing and practising widow-marriage, and that their social 
standiug°is not much below that of llajputs. lie thinks that the name may 
be derived from Malta, wliieh lie says is a title of honour current among the 
Rajputs of the hills ; and this agrees with the Montgomery tradition quoted 
above. Mr. Anderson also gives the Hushyarpur ]\Iahtons high S()cial stand- 
ino". On the other hand, Mr. Wilson says that the Labanas of Sirsa would 
scout tlie idea of connection with the ]\Iahtams of the Satluj, whom they con- 
sider utterly inferior to themselves. The point needs to be cleared up by 
further enquiry, especially in the districts where the classes come into contact. 
Our detailed tables of clans will doubtless throw light on the question. 

496. The Sarrara (Caste No. 118). — It is perhaps probable that these men 
are the same as those discussed under the head " Sarera ''■' in the section on 
Hill ]\Ienials. But I have separated them, as their identity is not at all 
cei-tain. The Sarraras which are found in Hazara belong to a race inhabiting 
Chibhal, or the hill country of Kashmir on the Hazara border, and according 
to Major Waco belong to the same ethnic group as the Dhund, Satti, and 
Kharral of the same tract. It might perhaps have been better to take them 
with the Kharrals. They are chiefly found in the Abbottabad tahsil, where 
they are purely agricultural. They are all IMusalman. 

497. The Ghosi (Caste No. 125).— The Ghosi is I believe an Ahir tribe; 
but in the Panjab the name is only used for Musalmans, and is often applied 
to any cowherd or milkman of that religion, whether Gujar, Ahir, or of any 
other caste, just as Gwala is used for a Hindu cowherd. The Ghosi proper 
is only f 'AUuI in the eastern districts, though a few have strayed into the large 
cantonments to the west. But the 235 persons shown as Ghosi in the Rawal- [ i>. 2/3] 
pindi division are, according to my papers, entered as Ghasiara or '* grass-cutter,^' 

while the 337 of the jNlultan division are shown as Her, probably for Ahir. How 
these came to be classed as Ghosi I cannot explain. It was not done by my 
orders. It is said that Hindus will buy pure milk from the ^Nlusalman 
Ghosi, but will reject it if there is any suspicion of its having been 
watered by the latter, as they must not drink water at his hands ! The 
Ghosis are a purely pastoral caste, at any rate in the Panjab. They are 
however sometimes butchers. 

498. The Gaddi (Caste No. 81).— These figures appear to include two 
entirely distinct classes of people. The Musalnian Gaddis of Dehli, Karnal., 
and Ambala are apparently a tribe found in the upper dodb of the Jamna 
and Ganges, closely resembling the Ghosi, and perhaps like them a sub- 
division of the Ahirs. They are called Giidi almost as often as Gaddi. 
They are by hereditary occupation milkmen ; but in Karnal, where they 
are most numerous, they have settled down as cultivators and own several vil- 
lages. They are poor husbandmen. And a further confusion ma}' possibly 
have taken place from the fact that a descendant of a Rfijput father 
by a widow of another caste married by kareioa is called Garra with 
the hard r. Indeed it is not quite impossible that here we may have the con- 
necting link between the two classes. At any rate the word Gaddi, as used 
in the Panjab proper, is applied to the inhabitants of the mountain range bet- 
ween Kangra and Chamba and of its continuation in the latter State. 
The term is commonly applied to almost any inhabitant of thai region ; 
but the true Gaddis, whom General Cunningham is inclined to identify with 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AC, RI CULTURAL CASTES. 205 

the ancient Gandavidio, or Gangaridco, are apparently of Khatri origin. Mr. 

Barnes tlius describes them : — 

" The GadH .are tlic mn<t remarkable race in the hilh. In featnre-j, manners, dross, and dialect 

"they differ essentially from all the rest of the population. The Gadis reside exclusively n))on the 

' snowy range which divides Chamba from Ivangra. A few of them have wandered down into 

"the valleys which skirt the Itase of this mighty chain, but the great majority live on the 

■'heights above; they arc found from an elevation of 3,500 or 4,000 foot up to 7,000 feet. 

■' Above this altitude' there is little or no cultivation, the increasing acclivity of the range 

"opposing insurmountable obstacles. They preserve a tradition among themselves that their 

"ancestors originally came from the Panjab, and that during the horrors of the Maliomedan 

" invasions the population of the cities fled from the open country before their invaders and 

"took refuge in these ranges, iit that period almost uninhabited. The term 'Gadi' is a 

" generic name, and under this appellation are included Brahmins, Khatris, and a few Rajputs and 

" Rathis. The majority, however, are Khatris, aid the sub-divisions of the caste correspond 

"exactly with the triiies among the Khatris existing in the plains of the Panjab at the 

" present day. Impure castes are not styled Gadis, but are known by the names of Badi, 

" Sipi, Hali,' &c. They are a semi-pastoral, semi-agricultural race. The greater portion of 

"their wealth consists of flocks of sheep and goats, which they feed half the year (the 

" winter months) in the valleys of Kangra, and for the other half drive across the range 

"into the territories of Chamba. They hold lands on this side and also in Chamba, and in 

" former days were considered subject to Ijoth States. At present our rule has materially 

"weakened the te .ure of the Chamba Chief, and many continue all the year round on this 

" side of the range acknowledging no allegiance whatever to Chamba. It was a rule with 

" these simple people, whenever fined by the Kangra authorities, to pay a similar penalty 

*' into the Chamba treasury. I am afraid our institutions have taught them greater independence, 

" and the infraction of this custom is now more frequent than the observance. Many Gadis 

"cultivate the winter crops or wheat in Kangra, and returning with their flocks grow the 

" summer or rain crop at ' Barmor,' as the province on the other side of the snow is designated. 

" They all wear woollen clothes, which they make up at homo out of the wool from their own 

"flocks. The men don a remarkable high-peaked cap, with flaps to pull down over the ears 

" in case of severe weather. The front is usually adorned with a garland of di'ied flowers, 

"or with tufts of the Impeyau pheasant, or red beads, the seeds of parasitical plants growing 

*' in the forests. The rest of their dress is a frock, made very capacious and loose, secured 

"round the waist, with a black woollen cord. In the body of this frock the Gadi stores 

" the most miscellaneous articles ; his own meal, tied up in an untanned leather pouch, with 

" two or three young lambs just born, and perhaps a present of walnuts or potatoes for his 

" master are the usual contents. His legs are generally bare, but occasionally he wears woollen 

''trowsers very loose at the knee, to allow free motion in walking, and fitting tight at the ankle 

"over which it lies in folds so as not to restrict the action of the limbs. The women 

" wear the same frock, only reaching to their ankles, secured with the same woollen cord. 

"Their garment fits rather tighter about the body, and is both modest and becoming. The 

"head-dress is a ' chaddur,' or sheet, thrown loosely over the upper portion of the body, 

"and sometimes fastened in the shape of a turban, with a loose streamer behind by way 

"of ornament. The Gadis are a very simple and virtuous race; they are remarkable, even 

"among the hill population, for their eminent regard for truth; crime is almost unknown 

" among them ; their women are chaste and modest, seldom deserting their husbands. Like 

" all the inhabitants of mountainous regions they are frank and merry in their manners,— they 

" constantly meet together, singing and dancing in a style quite peculiar to themselves. 

" They are grear tipplers, and at these festive meetings the natural hilarity is considerably 

" enhanced by deep iDotations. In person they are a comely race- The women frequently are 

" very faif and beautiful,— their featiires are regular, and the expression almost^ always mild 

" and engaging. The Gadis wear the thread of caste, and are much stricter in Hindu customs 

"and observances than most of the inhabitautf of the higher ranges of the Himalaya. They 

"are not a very widely-diffused race. They extend over the greater part of Chamba, 

"inhabit the skirts of the Kangra snowy range, and are found also on the southern face 

" of the Badrawar hills across the Ravi. Their peculiar caste, ' Khatri,' and their posi- 

" tion in the ranges immediately above Lahore favour the tradition that originally they were 

" fugitives from the cities of the plains before the Mahomedan inroads." 

Tliey are ahnost all shepherds, and do not in any way resemble the Khatris of 
the i^Iains. They are all Hindus, but locally distinguished from the jdndre or 
cotton-clad Hindus. The Khatri and Rajput Gaddis intermarry ; and in 
some places the Brahman Gaddi will marry the Khatri Gaddi. The Khatri or 
tnie Gaddis are the best of tlie classes, and " number among them the best 
-shepherds, and tlie richest and most influential men.^'' It is not improbable 
that iu Chamba, their true home, the Riijput and Brahman Gaddis are less 



206 PANJAB CASTES. 

numerous than in Kangra. The Gaddi are a simple and rustic people. The 
proverb says : " The Gaddi is a good natui'ed fool ; ask for his cap and he gives 
" vou his coat.'" And asrain : " In no-man's-land one makes fi-iends with 
'' Gujars and Gaddis.'^ 

FOREIGN RACES. 

409. Foreign Races. — I have called the groups of which the figures are 
given On the next page* in Abstract No. 87 Foreign Races, because they bear *P- 207. 
titles properly foreign to India and for the most part lay claim to foreign 
origin. It will presently be seen how little real right many of them have to 
the names they bear. The Saiyads might have been included in the group, but 
they have been classed with the priestly castes. The present group is divisible 
into three sections, the Ai-ab and Shekh, the Turk and Mughal, and the 
Ghulam and Qizilbash. The last two and probable many of the Ai-abs and 
Turks are tme foreigners, and have a good claim to the names they bear ; but 
the Shekhs and jNIughals are for the most part mere pretenders. What Rajput 
is to the Hindu, Sheikh, Saivad, and in the west of the Pauj^ib Mughal, are 
to the ]\Iusalmau ; and every convert of low caste wlio wishes to glorify himself 
assumes one of these titles, while tribes whose origin is lowly or has been for- [P. 274] 
gotten, trace their descent fi-om the people of the Prophet or of one of the 
Mahomedan conquerors of India. As Mr. Thompson puts it : " Pride of race 
" leads to the invention of some royal progenitor, and pride of religion is a 
" perpetual inducement to escape fi'om the admission of an idolatrous ancestry.'' 

500, The Arab (Caste No. 140). — Arabs are returned in the Panjab 
chiefly from the Multan and Peshawar divisions. They are probably Ai'ab 
merchants from Bombay, where I believe men of true Arab extraction are 
somewhat numerous. That they have not come direct from Arabia is shown 
by the language table, in which Arabic is returned as the mother-tongue of 
only 63 persons. More than half the Arabs in the Panjab are to be found in 
Peshawar itself. This is hardly to be wondered at, for Peshawar is a 
city in which may be found representatives of almost every Eastern nation, 
and is the half-way house between India and Asia. It is possible that some of 
our Shekhs, whether truly or falsely so called, may have returned themselves as 
Arab.s, but I do not think it likely. The true Shekhs are of course of Arab [p. 275] 
origin ; but I believe that such men when their settlement in the Pan j fib is of 

any long standing, always call themselves Shekh or Qureshi, and not Arab. 

501. The Shekh (Caste No, 17) . — S/ieM is an Arabic word meaning an 
elder or Chief, and proliably corresponds very closely among the tribes of 
Ai-abia with Chaiidhri among those of the Panjab. Thus the title should 
properly be confined to, and is very generally assumed by tribes of true Arab 
descent. But it has been degraded to a much more vulgar use. If a Rajput 
or Jat turn IMahomedan he retains his caste name, and is still a Rajput or 
Jat ; though I have known Musalman Rajputs who had fallen in life and 
taken to weaving call themselves Shekhs, though still recognized as relations 
by their brethren of the village whence they came. So if an outcast or 
man of impure calling becomes ]\Iusalm^n and retains his occupation, or at 
least substitutes for it another only slightly less degrading, he also retains 
his caste name or is known by an entirely new one, such as Dinddr or 
IMusalli. But tlic class which lie l)etween these two extremes, and are 
neither so proud of their origin as to wish, nor so degraded by their occupa- 
tion as to be compelled to retain their original caste name, very generally 
abandon that name on their conversion to Islam and adopt the title of Shekh, 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 207 
Abstract No. 87, showing Foreign Races. 



Uehli 

Gargaoii 

Karntil 

Hissar 
Rohtak 
Sirsa 

Ambala 

Ludhiana 

Simla 

Jullundur 
Hoshiirpur ... 
Eangra 

Amritsar 

Gurddspnr 

Si^lkot 

Lahore 

GujianwiiJa ... 
Ferozepore 

R<iwalpindi ... 
Jhelam ,„ 

Gujrat 
Shahpur 

Mooltan 
Jhang 

Montgomery ... 
Muzaffargarh... 

D. I. Khan ... 
D. G. Khan ... 
Banna 

PeshSwar 

Hazara 

Kohat 

British Territory. 

Patiala 
N&bha 

Eaparthala ... 
Jind 

Total East. Plains 

Bahiwalpur .► 

Chaniba 

Total Hill States 

British Territory 

Native States 
Province ... 



FlOtTBES. 



Pbopoetioit pee 1,000 OF 
Total PoPUtATioN. 



UO 



475 



35 
297 



1,418 
23 



2,342 



2,842 
2,842 



126 



60,195 
10,157 
13,789 

3,983 
8,334 
2,733 

28,920 
6,129 
3,676 

9,720 
6,839 
1,702 

f-,280 
10,'168 
11,636 

17,853 
6,557 



25,524 
8,412 
7,906 
7,499 

12,649 
5,337 
4,740 
5,046 

5,713 
4,680 
11,391 

9,576 
6,098 

4,428 

327,928 



14,603 
2,229 
2,447 
3,150 

£6,214 

14,248 

2,169 

3,945 

327,928 

44,407 
372,335 



37 



130 181 14 17 126 37 130 181 



95 
188 

1 
"l 



83 

,996 

1 

3,635 



8,535 
3,585 



5,806 

1,317 

697 



414 
694 

855 
677 
160 

1,662 
1,400 



2,546 
2,450 
4,537 

3,676 

827 

1,103 

25,169 

11,222 

5,290 

2,335 

4,601 

3,122 

1,620 

576 

676 

495 



4,538 

5,297 

153 

95,861 



341 

eo6 

926 

4,617 

2,523 

119 

678 

95,361 

7.618 
102,979 



33 



3,347 
8.446 



8,446 
8.446 



10 



889 



441 



441 



441 



•5 a 

a 5 



23 




14 


... 


11 




15 




13 




13 




34 




16 




13 


7 


24 




17 




10 




8 




10 




13 




10 




25 




19 


... 


6 




17 




12 




16 





87 
18 
23 

9 
16 
14 

28 
11 
90 

14 

10 

2 

12 
16 
16 

23 
15 
12 

62 
33 
19 
24 

32 
22 
15 

18 

15 
14 
36 



208 



PANJAB CASTES. 



There Is a Persian provcrl) : '' The first year I was a weaver (Jiilaha) ; the 
" next year a Shekh. This year if prices rise I shall be a Saiyad." Moreover 
many of the inferior agricultural Musalmiin tribes of Indian descent have, 
especially in the west of the Province, set up a claim to Arab orig-in ; and 
though they are still known by their tribal name, have probably or almost 
certainly returned themselves as Shekhs in the present Census. In these 
last cases they will in all probalullty have often shown then- tribal name as 
the sub-division of the Shekhs to which they belong, and it is to be hoped 
that the detailed clan tvlhcs will, when published, throw much light upon 
the tme composition of our figures for Shekhs. Meanwhile only a few of 
the largest sub-divisions can be examined. In one respect I myself am res- 
ponsible for the unceiiainty of meaning which attaches to these figures. 
There are certain agricultural tribes whose claims lo Qureshi origin appear to 
be valid, such as the Khagga and Hans of Montgomery ; and these men I 
included under the head Shekh. It was most certainly a mistake to do so, 
and I shall give separate figures for them below. With them I shall discuss 
some of the larger sub-divisions of Shekhs which have been returned in our 
papers. In manv cases the titles here given are no less misleading than the 
original title of Shekh. The Shekhs who have returned themselves as Jats 
in the Multan and Derajat division are shown in Abstract No. 72, page 29A* *^-J^^' 

Shekhs do not bear the best of characters in some parts. In Rohtak 
they are said to " supply recruits to our armies and jails with praiseworthy 
indifference," and in Derail Ismail Khan the Naumuslim Shekhs are described 
as " a lazy thriftless set of cultivators." The true Qureshis of the south- 
western districts, how^ever, are often possessed of great influence, and hold a 
high character for sanctity. Such arc the descendants of Baha-ul-haqq the 
renowned saint of Multan, who are known as Hashmi Qureshis, and whose 
family is described at pages 490jf of Griffin''s Punjab Cliicfs. They are chiefly 
found in the Llultan, Jhang. and INIuzaffargarh districts. 

502. Tribes and castes included under Shekh— Qureshi. — The figures be- 
low show^ the number of people who liave returned themselves as Qureshi : — 

QURESHI SHEKHS. 



District and State. 


Number. 


DiBTEioi AND State, 


Number. 


Dieteict and State. 


Number. 


Dehli 


19,355 


Sialkot 


2,103 


MuzaflFargarh 


3,265 


GuTgaon ... 


3,977 


Lahore 


13,330 


Derah Ismail Khan ... 


2.436 


Rohtak 


1,212 


GnjrSnw&la 


2,343 


Derah Ghazi Khun ... 


1,730 


Sirea 


1,701 


Firozpur ... 


3,461 


Banuu 


8,666 


Amb41a 


16,629 


Riwalpindi 


12,420 


PeshdwaT ... 


3,601 


Ludhiina ... 


1,076 


Jahlau) 


3,634 


Hazi'ira 


2,433 


Simla 


1,322 


Gujrut 


4,000 


Kohut 


2,342 


Jalandhar ... 


3,616 


Shiihpur ... 


4,270 


Patiiila ... 


6.874 


Hnshydrpur... 


1,977 


Multun 


6,100 


Bahawalpur 


3,901 


AmritBar ... 


12,;W9 
2,013 


Jhang 
Montgomery 


3,987 
2,199 


Other Districts aud 
States. 


4,636 


GnrdaBptiT ... 


161,854 



The Qureshi is the Aral) trilte to wliich the Prophet belonged. Conse- 
quently it is the favourite tribe from whicli lo claim descent, and it is to be 
feared that comparatively few of those who have returned themselves as 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 209 



Qureshi have anv real title to the name. Among those who so style themselves 
many claim to belono- to the Faruqii^ or descendants of Umar the second Caliph, 
or to the Sadiqis or descendants of Abul Bakar the first Caliph, both of whom were 
Qureshi by tribe. But the term Sadiqi is often confused with Sidqi, a title 
derived from tlie same root and meaning " the true ;" but which, in tlie east of 
the Panjab at any rate, is commonly used as an equivalent to Naumuslim to 
distinguish converts of Indian descent from original Mahomedan immigrants. 

Naumuslim— means nothing more than a new Musalman ; and only 3,491 
of our Shekhs have, by returning themselves as Shekh Naumuslim, admitted 
their true origin. These men are scattered in small numbers about the Pro- 
vince, but 1,437 of them arc in Bahawalpui'. 

Ansari.— Ansari or " auxiliaries " was the title given to the believers of 
Medina who welcomed Mahomet after his flight from ^ Mecca ; and those who 
claim descent from these men style themselves Ansari. As many as 7,21 5 of 
our Shekhs have so returned themselves, of whom 1,501 are in Ambala, 1,539 
in Multan, and the rest scattered about the Province. One large section of 
the Shekhs of Panipat commonly style themselves Ansari ; but they would 
appear to have now returned themselves as Muhajarin. 

Muhajarin. — The faithful who accompanied Mahomet in his Hajirah or 
flight from Mecca were called Muhajarin or " the fugitives or emigrants," and 
their descendants still retain the title. In the Karnal district 8,560 persons have 
so returned themselves, and are doubtless the men of Panipat just alluded to. 
503. The Hans and Khagga. — The Hans is one of the tribes which I 
regret having included among the Shekhs.^ The 
numbers according to our returns are given in the 
margin ; but it is very probable that many of the 
Hans have returned themselves as Shekh or Qureshi 
and not as Hans, since they claim Qureshi origin. 
They say they emigrated from' Arabia to Afghanistan 
and "thence to the Panjab, where they settled at Pakka 
Sidhar in the Montgomery district. _ In the time of 
Alamgir the Hans tribe, under their chief Shekh Qutb, 
attained independent rule over a portion of that dis- 
trict and retained their independence till the time of 
the Sikhs, when about the middle of the 18th century 
the streams which fertilized their country dried up and they lost their home. 
At present they do not own a single entire village, and have preserved none of 
their former influence. 

Khaggas.— The Khaggas are another tribe which I have classed as Shekh, 
but had better have kept separate. The numbers 
returned are shown in the margin. But here again 
many of them have probably returned themselves as 
Shekhs or Qureshi. Mr. Purser thus describes them : 
"The Khaggas came to the Montgomery district 
"after the conquest of Multan by Ran jit Singh. 
" Tliey claim to be Qureshi, and name as the first 
'' Khagga, Jalal-ul-din, disciple of Muhammaxl Irak. 
" Khagga is said to mean a peculiar kind of fish ; and 
'' the name was given to Jalal-ud-din by his spiritual 
" teacher on the occasion of his rescuing a boat over- 
" taken by a storm." 



The Hans. 


District. 


Numbers. 


Multan 
Jhang 
Montgomery ... 

Total ... 


622 

7 
268 

897 



The Khaggas, 


District, 


Numbers. 

1 


Multan 
Jhang 

Montgomery ... 
Muzaffargarh... 

Total ,.. 


672 

5 

172 

54 

903 



210 



PANJAB CASTES. 



504. The Nekokara and Jhandir. — The Kokara or Nekokara, who are 
chiefly found in the Jhang district,, claim to be Hashmi Qureshis, who came 
from Bahawalpur some 450 years ago. They hold land iu Gujrtinwala also, 
but are not a very important tribe. In Gujranwala many of them are faqirs, 
and they g'enerally bear a semi-religious character. 

The Jhandir — are also said to be of Qureshi origin, and though they do 
not openly profess to be religious directors, there is a certain odour of sanc- 
tity about the tribe. ]\Iost of them can read and write, and they are 
" particularly fi*ee from ill deeds of every description.'^ They own land in the 
extreme south of the Jhang district. They are said to have been the standard- 
bearers of one of the great saints, whence their name. 

505. The Sarai, Miana, and others.— Sarai. — The Sarai family are the 
descendants of the Kalhora Kings of Sindh who have settled at Hajipur in 
Derah Ghazi Khan. Some account of their history will be found in 
Mr. Fryer's repoii: on that district, and in Mr. O'Brien's Glossary. They 
were included with Shekh in the divisional office, and I have no separate 
figures for them as yet. Tod makes the Sarai descendants, or perhaps only 
namesakes, of Sehl, a Kaurava Rajput and in ancient times prince of Sindh 
and founder of Aror on the Indus. He says : " Sehl or Sehr became a titular 
" appellation of the country, its princes, and its inhabitants the Sehrai." 
(See further Sarai under Jats of the western sub-montane, section 433). 

Miana. — Mian is used in the west of the Panjab to denote any holy man 
and his descendants will often style themselves Miana. 
Thus the head of the Sarai family just described is 
known as the Mian Sahib Sarai. But in Hazara at 
least and probably in other parts of the frontier, any 
newconvei-t to Mahomedanism is often called a Miana, 
and most of them are cultivators. I have with some 
hesitation classed them as Shekh rather than with 
Ulama. There are 3,282 in the Rawalpindi and 188 
in the Derajat division. 

Besides the classes discussed above, the castes shown 
in the margin appear from a rough examination of the 
Shekh sub-divisions to have returned themselves as 
Shekhs in the numbers shown against each. They 
are described in their proper places. Of the Bodlas 
returned as Shekhs 144 are in Hissar, 749 in Sirsa, 
339 in Firozpur, 349 in Montgomery, and 254 in 
Bahawalpur. Of the Daudpotras 1,287 are in Multan. 
Besides these, men returning themselves under the 
following names have been classed as Shekh : Shekhra, a contemptuous 
diminutive of Shekh ; Pirzadah, or descendants of ap«^y or Musalman spiritual 
guide ; Shekhzadah, or son of a Shekh. There appear to have been only 383 
of the first, 19 of the second, and 17 of the third. In the Lahore division 
the Bharais (caste No. 48) have been most erroneously classed as Shekh, to 
the number of 1,444 in Lahore, 2,256 in Gujranwala, and 1,646 in Firozpur. 

506. The Turk (Caste No. 126).— I shall not attempt to touch upon the 
much debated question of tlie distinction between Turks and Mughals. It 
will be sufficient to say tliat a Turk in the Panjdb means, probably invariably, 
a Turkoman native of Turkistfin and of Mongolian race. In the Dehli terri- 



RETTTEyED AS ShEKHS. 




Number 


Name of Castes. 


returned 
as 




Shekhs. 


Bodla 


2,435 


Daiidpotrn 


1,421 


Kalal 


270 


Aw^n 


449 


Maliar 


221 


Tarkhan 


118 


Alochi 


107 


Rajput 


106 


29 other castes, 


1 685 


mostly low. 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 211 

tory indeed the villagers, accustomed to describe the Mughals of the Empire 
as Turks; use the word as synonymous with '^ official " ; and I have heard my 
Hindu clerks of Kayath caste described as Turks merely because thev were 
in Government employ. On the Biloch frontier also the word Turk is com- 
monly used as synonymous with Mughal. The Turks of the Panjab are prac- 
tically confined to tlu' Hazara district, and arc doubtless tlie representatives 
of the colony of Ktirlagli Turks who came into the Panjalj with Tamarlane 
(1399 A.D.) and possessed themselves of the Pakhli tract in the Hazara 
district, which apparently included the Tanawal, Dhamtaur, and Swati coun- 
try, and was politically attached to Kashmir, l^hese men were dispossessed 
of their territory by Swatis and Tanaolis from across the Indus about the 
beginning of the 18th century ; and the Turks now returned are doubtless 
their descendants. The word Turk is a Tartar word meaning a " wanderer '^ ; 
thus in poetry the Sun is called " the Turk of China, '^ that is of the East, 
or " the Turk of the Sky.'^ The Turks of Gurdaspur are said to be rope- 
makers by occupation (see further sections 412 and 416). 

507. The Mughal (Caste No 37).— The Mughals proper or Mongols, 
for the two words are only different forms of the same name, probably either 
entered the Panjab with Babar, or were attracted thither under the dynasty 
of his descendants. They are probably to be found in greatest number in the 
neighbourhood of Dehli, the capital of that dynasty ; and I believe that the 
great majority of those who have returned themselves as Mughals in the 
Eastern Punjab really belong to that race. They are also numerous in the 
Rawalpindi division and on the upper frontier, along the route of the Mughal 
armies, and where they find a more kindred people than in the great Panjab 
plains. But as will be presently explained, the number of true Mughals in 
these parts is certainly much smaller than would appear from our figures. 
The Mughals of Gujrat are described by Mr. Monckton as " an unhappy 
'' race. Puffed up with pride of birth, they account themselves above all 
" other classes except Saiyads, and even among themselves each house reckons 
" itself higher than its neighbour. Among the clans, though of high descent, 
"they are now at a discount. Those that might be admitted their equals, 
'^ such as Chibs or Gakkhars, despise them ; while to lower classes they 
" themselves will not stoop ; and the consequence is that social relations are 
" sometimes at a dead-lock.^^ The description applies with equal tnith to the 
Mughals of the Dehli territory. Even on the frontier the Mughals do not 
bear a good name. " The Mughals tyrannize over the cultivator, and the 
" cultivator over the earth " ; and again : '' Trust not the MughaPs letters. 
" Of the Mughals, first letters, then armies."" 

The Mughals are distributed very widely over the Province ; but are, 
excepting Dehli, most numerous in the western districts, and more especially 
in Rawalpindi, Jahlam, and Hazara. It is certain that a very large number 
of these men are not Mughals at all. Some, probably a considerable number 
of them, belong to agricultural tribes locally known by tribal names, such 
as Gakkhars, Sattis, Ghebas, and the like, who have set up an almost certain- 
ly groundless claim to Mughal origin. Many of these have already been 
noticed. But more than this, there is a tendency, apparently confined to 
Dehli and the Rawalpindi and Peshawar divisions, for men of low caste to 
call themselves Mughals just as throughout the Province they call themselves 
Shekhs. Thus we find among the sub-divisions of those returned as Mughals 
l,f>12 Kahdrs in Hazara, and in Rawalpindi 3,655 Saiuis and 1,263 Rawdls ; 

p2 



212 



PANJAB CASTES. 



amsm 



DiSTKICT. 


MrGHAL TRIBES. 


Chaghatta. 


1 
Barlas. 


Dehli 

Amritsar 

Sialkot 

Eawalpindi ... 

Jalilam 

Gujrat 

Shahpur 

Multau 

Jhang 

Hazdra 

Bahawalpur ... 


1,618 
1,140 

"i",613 
2,735 
590 
1,143 
3,083 
2,471 
1,014 
1,488 


'i",554 

1,661 

2,304 

3,633 

179 

34 

4 

141 



while in the eiglit districts just specified no fewer than 2,724 other members 
of 41 separate castes, for the most part of low standing, have been detected 
among the IMughals by a rough examination of the detailed clan tables, 
and this is doubtless only a specimen of what has taken place on a very ex- 
tensive scale. ^Major Wace is of opinion that recent Jat converts to Mahomed- 
often take the title of IMuo^hal. On tlie other hand no fewer than 

2,510 persons have returned them- 
selves as Pathan by caste and 
Mughal by tribe, of whom ],169 
ai'ein the Peshawar district, 746 
in the Derajat, and 401 in Ra- 
walpindi and Jalilam. Further 
light will doubtless be thrown 
upon the composition of the 
so-called Mughals when the de- 
tailed tables are jjublished. Of 
the trae Mughal tribes, only the 
Chughatta and the Barlas seem 
to be numerously represented in 
the Pan jab, the former number- 
ing 23,593 and the latter 12,137. Men so returned are probably 
true Mughals. Their numbers for the districts in which they are shown as 
numerous are given in the margin. Besides these 1,543 of the Rawalpindi 
Mughals return themselves as Gakkhar and 3,861 as Kayaui, the latter also 
of which names perhaps refer to the Gakkhars, who sometimes claim to be 
Kayani. ^ In 1864, Colonel Cracroft gave the number of trae Mughals in 
the Rawalpindi district at 2,767 souls. At last Census there were 
8,205. 

508. The Kasars of Jahlam. — The Gakkhars, Sainis, and other castes 
mentioned above are descril)ed in their proper places. But the Kasars of 
Jahlam have apparently returned themselves in a body as Mughals, for no 
fewer than 8,527 of the Jahlam Mughals show Kasar as their clan. These 
Kasars occupy the north of the Dhani country about Bubial and Chaupeda. 
They say that their old home was in JammU; and that they joined the armies 
of Babar and so obtained possession of their territory which was then almost 
uninhabited. Their present claim to 31ughal origin is evidently suggested by 
their association with the JMughal power, and is apparently a new idea ; for 
up to the time of the Census itself they seem to have enjoyed the rare dis- 
tinction of being one of the few Salt-range tribes who claimed neither Rajput, 
Awan, nor Mughal descent. They are described by Mr. Thomson as a pas- 
sionate and revengeful race, careless of human life, but good citKivators though 
somewhat exacting landlords. " Envy is llieir most odious quality; every 
'' family is distracted with mean jealousies wicli are sometinu^s prosecuted with 
" astonishing rancour, and not imseldom degenerate into criminal greed. It 
" is fair to add that their vices seem to be gradually losing strength. Many 

' 1 have Dothecn ahlc to ohtain satisfactovy iiiforniatiou regarding this word. The city of 
Ka,van was the capital of'Kai Kayiis, Kai Knhad, niid Kai Kliasru ; and souio pay tliat tJic {Jakkliars 
call fhemselves Kayani hecausc they claim descent fn.ni tliese tlirce Kings. Others ea.v that tiie 
Mughahs proper, and CHpecially the Chngliattas and Qizilhashes, are Kaytinis; and tliat the 
Gakkhars call themselves Kanani or Canaanites hecausc they claim descent from Jacob aud .Joseph 
who lived in Canaan ; and that it is this word which has beeu misread Kayani. 



MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. 213 

" of the headmen are personally very engaging, good horsemen, keen sportsmen, 
" with frank manners and a good j)resenee ; and it is sometimes difficult to 
" understand how they should have such a mean side to their character/' 

509. Ghulam (Caste No 130). — These men are returned from the 
Peshawar district to the number of 3,347 under the name of Ghulam 
Khanazad, and from ]Multan to the number of 99 to the name of Khanazad 
simply. The latter may be an error for Khauzadah. The Peshawar men show 
their clans as Turlvhel Ghulam and Malekhel. They are said to be descendants 
of captives in war who were made slaves {ghulam), whence their name. They 
are still chiefly employed in domestic service, and are generally attached to 
their hereditary masters, though some of them have taken to shop-keeping 
and other occupations*. 
[P. 278] Since writing the above, which is based upon the information of a highly 

educated gentleman in our political service, himself a Native of Peshawar, I 
find that Muhammad Ilaivat Khan states in his Haiydt-i- Afghani that the 
Qizilbash of Kabul described below are collectively known as Ghulam- 
khanah. If so, our Ghulam Khanazads are probably nothing more than 
Qizilbtishes. But the class described above does exist in Peshawar in consider- 
able numbers. 

509a. The Qizilbash (Caste No. 181).— The Qizilbash ^ are a tribe of 
Tartar horsemen from the eastern Caucasus, who formed the backbone of 
the old Persian army and of the force with which Nadir Shah invaded India. 
Many of the great Mughal ministers have been Qizilbash, and notably Mir 
Jumlah the famous minister of Aurangzeb. They are said to take their 
name from a red cap of peculiar shape which they wear, which was invented 
by the founder of the Sophi dynasty of Persia, an intolerant Shiah, as the dis- 
tinguishing mark of that sect, and which his son Shah Tumasp compelled Hu- 
mayun to wear when a refugee at the Persian Court. There are some 1,200 
families of Qizilbash in the city of Kabul alone, where they were located by 
Nadir Shah, and still form an important military colony and exercise considera- 
ble influence in local f)olitics. They are not uncommon throughout Afghanis- 
tan. Besides the number of Qizilbash returned as such, 66 were entered as 
Pathans, of whom 48 were in Derah Ismail Khan. See also the preceding 
paragraph under the head Ghulam. 

^ In the caste table the word is spelt Kizal, but 1 believe Qizil is correct. 



214 PANJAB CASTES. 



PART v.— RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL, MERCANTILE, [P.279] 
AND MISCELLANEOUS CASTES. 

510. General and Introductory.— The classes discussed in this part of the 
chapter form an exceedingly heterogeneous collection. They are in fact all 
those that are left after separating the landowning and agricultural castes on 
the one hand, and the vagrant, artisan, and menial classes on the other. They 
include some of the highest and some of the lowest castes in the Province, yet 
there is a connection between the priestly Brahman and the serai-priestly Nai, 
between the merchant Khatri and the pedlar ]Maniar. I have divided the castes 
now to be considered into six groups. The first includes the priestly castes 
such as the Brahman and Saiyad ; the second the various ascetic, religious, and 
mendicant orders oi faqirs ; the third the minor professional castes such as the 
Nai, the Mirasi, and the Bhat ; the fourth the great mercantile castes such as 
the Khatri and Arora ; the fifth the earners and pedlars such as the Banjara 
and Maniar ; while in the sixth are included those miscellaneous castes, such as 
the Kashmiri and Kayath, for whom I have been unable to find a place else- 
v/here. The line between the merchants and shop-keepers on the one hand 
and the carriers and pedlars on the other is exceedingly ill-defined, both in the 
figures and in the facts. The groups are too diverse in their character for any 
general discussion of them to be profitable ; and I shall consider each under 
its separate heading, where also will be found the figures showing their distri- 
bution throughout the Panjab. 

PKIESTLY CLASSES. 

511. Priestly castes.— The group of castes which I am about to discuss, 

and of which the figui'es are given in Abstract No. 88 on the next page,'^ may *P. 216" 
be divided into three classes, Hindu priests, Muhammadan priests, sind /aqirs. ^■'^• 
The last I give in this al^stract so as to complete the group ; but they will be 
discussed further on, and I shall confine my remarks at present to the priestly 
and religious castes, as distinct from orders. The Brahmaus are of course the 
very type of a Hindu caste, while the pujiiris of our tables probably belong for 
the most part to what is now a real caste, though the word itself is merely the 
name for an occupation. But the Muhammadan group is not so homogeneous. 
The title of a Saiyad should be, but notoriously is not, confined to the descen- 
dants of a common ancestor ; while the LJlama are professedly a miscellaneous 
collection of persons returned under entries most of which should never have 
appeared at all in the caste column. 'J^he Chishtis again probably include both 
spiritual and carnal descendants of their Chief, as is the case with so many of 
the religious orders next to be discussed ; while the Bodlas are almost 
certainly a clan of Rajputs who have acquired a character for sanctity. Theore- 
tically, the two groups should occupy very different positions among the fol- 
lowers of their respective faiths. The Brahman is a priest, and entitled as such 
to reverence and support by the ordinances of the Hindu religion : the Saiyad 
merely claims respect in virtue of his descent from the son-in-law of the Pro- 
phet, and the Muhammadan religion as such has no organised priesthood. But 
it has already been pointed out in the Chapter on Religion that there is really 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 215 

little to choose between the Hindu and the Musalm^n as regards the spiritual 
bondage in which their superstition enfolds them ; and indeed that if either 
has the advantage, it is the former rather than the latter. The classes includ- 
ed under the present group are by no means purely priestly ; they are also 
large owners and cultivators of land. But their most distinctive characteristic 
is their saintly character, and I have therefore separated them from the land- 
owning and agricultural classes. At the same time the distinction between 
the Saiyad and the Qui-eshi Shekh as regards the spiritual reverence paid them 
is probably, at least in the south-western districts, exceedingly small. 

512. The Brahman (Caste No. 3).— The Brahman or Levite of the Hindu 
caste system is the third most numerous caste in the Panjab, outnumbering 
all but Jats and Rajputs. I shall not attempt to discuss his origin and 
theoretical position ; much has been written and published concerning him, the 
first hundred pages of Sherring''s first volume and the whole of the second 
volume of Wilson^s Indian Caste are devoted to him alone, and Cole- 
brooke''s Essays contain much valuable information on the subject. The 
figures of Abstract No. 88 showing the distribution of the caste in the Panjab 
are very striking. The proportion of Brahmans to total population reaches its 
maximum in the hills of Kangra and Simla, the most Hindu portion of 
the Province, where it rises as high as from 13 to 15 per cent. Throughout 
the remainder of the Panjab the proportion steadily changes with the prevailing 
religion. It is highest in the sub-montane and Jamna tracts where the people 
are essentially Hindus ; it gradually decreases from east to west, being 
markedly smaller in the central and Sikh districts ; it is still smaller in the cis- 
Indus Salt-range Tract ; while in the Western Plains and beyond the Indus 
the Brahmans may be said comparatively speaking to disappear. The 
Brahmans have no territorial organisation. They accompany their clients in 
their migrations, settle with them in their new homes, and receive grants of 
land to hold or cultivate 

The function and position of the Brahman in his sacerdotal character have 
been already described in the Chapter on Religion, section 236. He concerns 
himself but little with the spiritual guidance of the people, but he is consulted 
as to omens and auspicious names, dates, and events, and he officiates at all 
ceremonial functions. These duties however employ, except perhaps in the 
west of the Province, but a small proportion of the total number ; and the 
remainder are pure Levites, ready to be fed or receive offerings in the name of 
God, but their sacerdotal functions being pm'cly passive. These men supple- 
ment the offerings of their clients by jiractising agriculture very extensively ; 
and it may be said that wherever the Brahmaris are numerous they are, ex- 
cepting only the educated Pandits or Padhas, land-owners and cultivators. 
They are poor husbandmen, for their pride of caste and the fact that a large 
part of their subsistence comes to Ihem without the necessity of toil render 
them impatient of manual labour ; and like the Rajputs they look upon the 
actual operation of ploughing as degrading, insomuch that in the hills a 
Brahman who ploughs is scarcely recognised as a brother by the higher classes 
of the caste. In social position the Brahman is of course pre-eminently first in 
the Hindu portion of the Panjab, though he is thought but meanly of on the 
frontier. Yet even where his position is most readily admitted he has failed to 
make himself beloved. He is grasping, quarrelsome, and overbearing, inflated 
with pride in his own descent and contempt for that of others, while he holds 
himself aloof from the clients whose pockets he preys upon, and declines to 



216 



PAN.TAB: CASTES. 



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^18 PANJAB CASTES. 

associate himself with the community i;pou which he lives. '' A Diim, a 
" Brahman, and a goat are of no avail in time of necd/^ Whore Brahmans 
hold any considerable share of a village trouble and disputes are sure to fol- 
low ; and the villages have a proverb : "As famine from the desert, so comes 
'^ evil from a Brahman." So their avarice is expressed in the saying — '' The 
" ]\Iulla, the Bhat, the Brahman, and the Dum ; these four castes were not 
" born on giving day," and their love of good living by the proverb : " Dine 
" with a Brahman and jog along the road with a Kirar " (the Kirars being 
great talkers) . On the whole the Bnvhman has but little real influence over 
the Hindu peasant, and the reverence paid him is largely traditional or due 
to the conservative tendency of the women. The Brahmans of the hills have 
a social and tribal organisation almost exactly corresponding with that of 
the hill Rajputs. The quotations from Mr. Barnes given at pages 175* and ♦?. 6 
179t bear upon the subject. They too are divided into grades, each grade fP- 16 
marrying from the one below and giving their daughters to the one above, 
while the lower classes will marry Kayath or Banya, and in Kulu even Kanet 
women. The mixed class of Pahari Mahajans is described below under mer- 
cantile castes. In the hills of Hazara on the banks of the Jahlam these 
]\Iahajaus, who are also called Dhakochi, seem to include the whole Brahman 
caste. In the Peshawar division 185 persons are returned as Brahman- Maha- 
jans, and these I have classed as Brahmans. It is probable that some of the 
Pahari Mahajans also are really Brahmans. The Hill Brahmans universally 
eat meat, from which the Brahmans of the plains, except perhaps in the ex- 
treme west, scrupulously abstain. Of the total number of Brahmans only 
about 7,000 are returned as Sikh, the denial of the superiority claimed by the 
higher castes which distinguished the teaching of Guru Govind not being 
acceptable to the Brahman. The Sikhs employ Hindu Brahmans as their 
parohits or family priests in exactly the same way as do the Hindus and Jains. 
There are also 3,5U0 Musalmiin Brahmans, chiefly in the Dehli district. 
These men are known as Huseni Brahmans, and are said to receive oblations 
in the name of the Hindu gods from Hindus and in the name of Allah from 
Musalmans. 

513. The divisions of the Brahmans. — The Ikahminicial gotras have already been df^scribed 
in section 353. The Brahman caste or class is divided into ten great sections, all based upon 
geographical distribution, which differs in customs and standing and do not intermarry. They 
again are divided into two groups each containing live sections, as follows ; — 

A. — The Jive Dravidas (south of the Vindhyas). 

1. The Maharashtra (of the Mahratta country). 

2. The Tailanga or Audhra (of the Telugu country) . 

3. The Dravida (of the Tamil or Dravida country). 

4. The Karnata (of the Caruatic). 

5. The Gurjara or Gujarati (of Gujarat in Siudb) 

B. — The Jive Gaurs {north of the Vindhyas). 

6. Tlie Gaur (of Gaur, probably not Bengal, see below). 

7. The Saraswat or Sarsiit (of the Banjab, beyond the Saruswati). 

8. The Kanyakubja (of Kanauj). 

9. The Maithila (of the Mitliila country). 
10. The Utkala (of Orissa). 

Of these great divisions tlie Banjab Brahmans belong for the most part to the Gaur in the 
Janina and south-eastern districts and the eastern hills, and to the Sarsiit in the remainder of the 
Brovince. The figures are given below in Abstr.ict No. 89, a few districts in which only Sirall 
numbers are shown being omitted. It may be -^aid that a lino drawn north-east and south-west 
through Simla and Batiala roughly divides the Gaur from the Sarsiit. I append a description of 
some of the principal divisions of the Brahmans to be met with in the Banjab, and must refer 
the reader for fuller details to the authorities quoted in the beginning of section 512. 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 219 



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^20 PANJAB CASTES. 

The Gaur Brahman.— There ha< been much dispute about tbc position of the Gaur fr6m 
wliicli this section is nameil. Tlieir traditional place of origin is Hariana, and their present 
home is the portion of the ^'o^th-^Vesfc Provimts lying west of Ah'garb and Mathra. and the part 
of the Panjab defined above ; aud they are separated from Bengal by other sections of the caste. 
General Cunningbam suggests that Gaur is the old name of Gonda, while Sir George Campbell 
would make it another foim of the word Ghaggar. The Gaur Brahmans arc far more strict in all 
caste observances than the Sarsiit Brabmaus, fi"om wboae hands they will not eat broad, aud upon 
whom they look down. 

The Sarsut Brahman is the Brahman of the Panjab Proper, and takes his name from the 
Saruswati whicli lies near his eastern boundary. He is said to be less grasping and quarrelsome 
tiian the Gaur, and he is certainly much less rigid in his observance of caste rules, eating and smok- 
jng with mobt of the stricter Hiudu castes, such as Bauyas, Khatris, Suds, and Kayatbs. He 
gats flesh in the hills, and perhaps in some parts of the plains also. 

The Gujarati and Dakaut Brahmans.— These men are scattered in small numbers all over 
the Province. Tb.e Gujarati lirahmans probably })elong 1o the Gurjara section already mentioned. 
The Dakaut or Dakotra Brahmans are fortune-tellers and astrologers, and came from Northern 
Rajpiitaua. They belong to the Panj Gaur group, of which they are sometimes, in Rajpiitana 
wliich is their home, reckoned as a separate section. The following description is taken I'rom my 
Karnal Report : — 

" Offerings to Brahmans are divided into hdr a,r\di graha for the days of the week, and two 
" gvahin for Rahu and Ket, the two demons who cause eclipses by attacking the sun and moon. 
" Tiicse tTO are parts of a jin (Raksbas), who, when sitting at dinner with the gods and jins, 
" drank of the nectar of the gods instead of the wine of the jins. The sun and moon told of him 
" aul Bliagwau cut him into two parts, of which Rahu, including the stomach and therefore the 
" nectar, is the more worthy. When anybody wishes to offer to Brahmans from llness or other 
" cause, he consults a Brahman who casts his horoscope and directs which offering of the seven 
" yraA'is should be made. The gi-ahins Ave most commonly offered during an eclipse, that to 
" Rabu being given at the begiuning, and that to Ket at the end of the transit. The Gaur 
" Brahmans will not take any black offerings, such as a buffalo or goat, iron, sesame {til) or urad, 
" black blankets or clothes, salt, &c., nor oil, second-hand clothes, green clothes, nov gatnaja, 
" which is seven grains mixed with a piece of iron in them ; these belonging to the grahe whose 
" offerings are forbidden to them. An exception, however, is made in favour of a black cow. 

" The Gujarati or Bias Brahmans who came from Gujarat in Sindh are in some respects rp 2S21 
" the highest class of all Brahmans ; thej^ are always fed first ; and they bless a Gaur when they 
'' meet him, while they will not eat ordinary bread from his hands. They arc fed on the 12th 
" day after death, and the Gaurs will not eat on the 13th day if this has not been done. But 
" they take inauspicious offerings. To them appertain especially the Rahu offerings made at an 
" eclipse. They will not take oil, sesame, goats, or green or dirty clothes ; but will take old clothes 
" if washed, buffaloes, and satndja. They also take a special offering to Rahu made by a sick 
" person, who puts gold in glii, looks at his face in it, and gives it to a Gujrati, or who weighs 
" himself against satndja and makes an off'ering of the grain. A butfalo which has been possessed 
'• by a devil to that degree that he has got on to the top of a house (no difficult feat in a village) 
" or a foal dropped in the month of Sawan, or buff'alo calf in Mag, are given to the Gujarati as 
" being unlucky. No Gaur would take them. At every harvest the Gujarati takes a small allow- 
" ance {seori) of grain from the thrashing floor, just as does the Gaur. - 

'' The Dakaiits came from Agroha in tlie Dakhau. Riija Jasrat, father of Ramchandar, 
" bad excited the anger of Saturday by worshipping all the other ^r^Aa but him. Saturday 
" accordingly rained tire on Jasrat's city of Ajudhia. Jasrat wished to propitiate him, but the 
" Brahmans feared to take the oiTeriug for dread of the consequences ; so Jasrat made from the 
<' dirt of his body one Daka Rishi who took the offerings, and was the ancestor of Dakauts by a 
" Siidi'a woman. The other Brahmans, however, disowned him ; so Jasrat consoled him by pro- 
" mising that all Brahmans should in future consult his cbiUlren. The promise has been fulfilled. 
" The Dakauts arc pre-eminent as astrologers and soothsayers, and are consulted by every class 
"on all subjects but the dates of weddings and tlie names of children, on wliich the Gaurs advise. 
'' They arc the scape-goats of the Hindu religion; aud their fate is to receive all the unlucky 
" off'erings which no other Brahman will take, such as black things and dirty clothes. Especially 
" they take the offerings of Wednesday, Saturday, aud Ivet. Tliey are so unlucky that no Brah- 
" man will accept their offerings ; and if they wish to make them they have to give them to their 
«' own sister's sons. No Hindu of any caste will eat any sort of food at their bands, aud at 
■' weddings they sit with tho lower castes ; though of course they only eat food cooked by a 
'' Brahman. In old days they possessed the power of prophecy up to 10-30 A.M.; but this has 
'' now failed them. They aud tlic Giijaratis arc always at enmity, because, as they take many 
«' of the same offerings, their interests clash." 

The Pushkarna Brahmans take their name from the sacred lake of Pushkar or Pokhar 
near Ajmer. One section of them is said to have been origmally Beldars or Ods who were raised 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 221 

(o Brahminical rank as a reward frr excavating Hie tank. Tliey still worehip the pickaxe. 
They nro the hereditary Brahinars of the Rajputara Ehatlas, and are mere strict in caste matters 
than the Sarsi'it. They are fomul in some rmiiihers in the western districts of the Panjab. 

The Mahabrahman or Acharj. — This is the Brahman who performs the funeral ceremonies. 
After the cremation he is seated on the dead man's bedstead and the soth lift him up, hedstead 
and all, and make obeisance to him. He then receives the hedstead and r 11 the wearing apparel 
of the dead man. He rides on a dinkey, and is considered so imjure thai in many villages he is 
not allowed to come inside the gate. 

The Muhial, Moyal or Mial Brahmans.—This is a suh-seetion of the Sdrsut section, who are 
said to be so named from the seven Mnhi'ns or clans of which they c( nsist. They are almost 
confined to the sub-montane Salt-range Tract. They say that certain of their ancestors rose to 
high position under the Mughals, since when they have abandoned all performance of priestly 
functions or claim to a sacerdotal character, and cultivate laud, hut especially take service in the 
army or as clerks. They object to be called I'rahn ans, as the enlistment of Erahmans is said to 
be forbidden in our army. This is their own account ; but in Haziira proper the Muhials perform 
priestly functions and receive alms and oblations just like other Brahnmns. Another story derives 
their name from a place called Mava, ' now deserted.' 

Dharukra Brahraans are Gaur Brahmans of the Dehli Territory wh ) have taken to widow- 
marriage, and with whom other Brahmans will not intermarry. They are much the same as the 
Dasa or Doghla Brahmans." 

Chamarwa and Gurra Brahmans.— These .ire the Brahmans who minister to the Chamars, 

P, 283] Aheris, and other outcastes. They are not recognized as Brahmans by the other classes ; and 

though they wear the sacred thread it is perhaps possible that their claim to Brahman origin is 

unfounded. Yet on the whole it seems most probable that they are true Brahmans by descent, but 

have fallen from their high position. Tliey are often called Chamarwa Sddhs. 

514. The Pujaris and Bhojkis (Caste No. 120).— Pujarl means really no- 
thing but an officiating priest at a temple or shrine, and in the majority of 
cases would be a Brahman or fapr. But the Pnjarls of the shrines in the 

Kangra and Simla hills have grown into a 

distinct caste, composed originally, it is said, of 

a mixed collection of Nais, Brahmans, Rajputs, 

and Jogis, who all intermarried. Those of the 

great shrines, such as Jawalamukhi and Bawan, 

are called Bhojkis ; and I have included under 

the head Pujari 1,274 persons returned as 

Bhojkis, of whom the distribution is shown in 

the margin. They are all priests of Devi, and 

their name is said to be a corruption of Pujki. 

The Bhojkis are said by Mr. Barnes to be " not 

" Brahmans, though they are the hereditary priests 

" of these celebrated temples. They all w^ear the 

" sacred thread ; they intermarry among themselves alone, eat flesh, drink wine 

*' and are a debauched and profligate set ; the men are constantly in the 

'' Courts involved in litigation, and the women are notorious for their loose 

"^ morality.'-' Colonel Jenkins of Kangra writes of them as follows : — 

" The Bhojkis are perhaps a unique feature of this district. They are attached to the great 
•' temples at Kangra and Jaft-alamukhi and are supported by the income. They claim to be 
'' Sarsnt Brahmins ; but if so, have certainly sunk in the social scale, as no ordinary Brahmins 
«« would eat ' kachi rasoi ' with them. They appear to occupy much the same position as the 
«' Ganga Putras of Benares, and the probability is that they arc' mere ' Jogis ' who have obtained 
<• a retlccted sai.ctity from the goddesses whose service they have entered The word is evidently 
<' connected with the Sanskrit root 'bhoj ' to feed, and is'taken from the nature of their duties. 
<■ They intermarry among themselves and with a class of Jogis called ' Bodha Pandits.' They are 
<< very quarrelsome, litigious, an^d profligate, and may be well characterized by the famous epithet 
" of)dpo(f>OLTO(TOKO(povTOCtKoraciaTr(jjp()^, which, if I remember right, was translated * Early 
" rising, base informing, sad litigious, plaguy fellows' " 

Of the 3,9?.l Pujaris and Bhojkis shown in Table VIII A, 394 Pnjaris 
are Mabomedan. These are almost certainly Bukhari? '^x people, or perhaps 



Bhojeis. 




Jalandhar 


45 


Hushyarpur 


15 


Kangra 


729 


Amritsar 


203 


Lahore 


135 


J hang 


1 


Kapurthala 


10 


Bilaspur 


136 




1,274 



222 PANJAB CASTES. 

Saiyads, of Bukhara, the words Puj^ri and Bukh.iri being identical if wi'itten 
without dots. They are found only in Jalandhar, Lahore, and Amrltsar, the 
thi'ee groat commercial towns. 

515. The Saiyads (Caste No. 24).- The true Saiyads are the descendants 
of All, the son-in-law of Mahomet, and I believe that the word properly in- 
cludes only those descended from him by Fatima, Mahomet^s daughter. But 
there are LFlavi Saiyads who are said to be descended through other wives. 
Our tables show 248,102 Saiyads in the Pan jab, but it is impossible to say 
how manv of these are of true Saiyad stock. Certainly an immense number 
of those returned as such have no real claim to the title. The saying is 
" Last year I was a Julaha ; this year I am a Shekh ; next year if prices 
rise I shall be a Saiyad ; ''■' and if " generation " be substituted for '' year /' 
the process is sufficiently common. The Saiyads are found scattered through- 
out the Province. In the eastern half of the Panjal) they form a compara- 
tively small element in the population, except in Dehli itself. These men 
for the most part came in with the Mahomedan conquerors or under their 
dynasties, and were granted lands or revenue which their descendants still 
hold and enjoy. The Bara Saidat of the Jamna-Ganges Bodb, with whom 
many of these Eastern Saiyads are connected, enjoyed considerable political 
importance during the latter days of the Mughal empire. But dii-ectly the 
meridian of Lahore is passed the Saiyads form a markedly larger portion of 
the population, being largest of all on the Pathan frontier and in the Salt- 
range Tract, and only slightly smaller on the lower Indus. Many of the 
Pathan tribes, such as the Bangash of Kohat and the Mishwani, claim Saiyad 
origin, and it may be that some of these have returned themselves as Saiyads 
instead of as Pathans. The Apostles who completed the conversion of the 
Pathans to Islam were called Saiyads if they came from the west and Shekhs 
if fi'om the east, and it is probably to the descendants of the former, and to 
false claims to Saiyad origin set up most commonly in a wholly Musalman 
tract; that the large number of Saiyads in the north-west of the Panjab is 
due. At the same time the Biloches, who were originally Shiahs and were 
called '' the friends of Ali,'' reverence and respect Saiyads far more than do 
those bigoted Sunnis the Pathans ; and I am surprised to find Saiyads more 
numerous among the latter than among the former. The Saiyads of Kag^n 
who came into Hazara with Saiyad Jalal Baba hold the whole of the Kiigaii 
valley, and the Saiyads of the Multan district occupy a prominent position, 
and will be found described at length in Mi. Eoe^s Settlement Report. The 
abject state of bondage in which the Saiyads and other holy men hold the 
frontier races has been described in the Chapter on Religion, section 277. 
The Saiyad is, no less than the Brahman, a land-owner and cultivator on a 
large scale. Indeed, while the Brahman is by birth a priest, or at the least a 
Levite, the Saiyad as such is neither ; though lie makes use of his supposed 
saintliness, at any rate in the west of the Panjab, to compel offerings to which 
the ordinances of his religion give him no sort of claim. The Saiyad of 
Karnal is thus described in my Settlement Report. *' The Saiyad is emphati- 
" cally the worst cultivator I know. Lazy, thriftless, and intensely ignorant 
**and conceited, he will not dig till driven to it l)y the fear of starvation, and 
"thinks that his holy descent should save his brow from the need of sweat- 
" ing. At the best he has no cattle, he has no capital, and he grinds down 
" his tenants to the utmost. At the worst he is equally poor, dirty, and holy. 
" He is the worst revenue payer in the district ; for to him a lighter assess- 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 223 



" ment only means greater sloth." Mr. Thorburn thus describes the Saiyads 
of Bannu : — 

" As a rule the Saiyads are land-owners not tenants, and bad, lazy, land-owners they make 
"too. In learning, general intelligence, and even in speech and appearance, they are hardly dis- 
" tiugnishable from the Pathans or Jats amongst whom they live. Here and there certainly 
" honourable exceptions are to be found. The way the lands now held by them were originally 
" acquired was in most cases by gift. Though many of them still exercise considerable influence, 
"their hold as a class on the people at large is much weaker than it was thirty years ago. The 
" struggle for existence caused by the increase of population since annexation has knocked much 
" of the awful reverence the Pathan zamindar used to feel towards holy men in general out of 
"him. He LOW views most matters from rather a hard worldly than a superstitious standiwint. 
'' Many a family or community would now cancel the ancestral deed of gift under which some 
" Saiyad's brood enjoys a fat inheritance. But for the criminal consequences which would ensue 
" from turning them out neck and crop, the spiritual consequences would be risked willingly 
" enough." 

In Afghanistan the Saiyads have much of the commerce in their hands, 
as their holy character allows them to pass unharmed where other Pathans 
[P. 284] would infallibly be murdered. Even the Biloches do not love the Saiyad : 
they say, '' May God not give kingship to Saiyads and Mullas." The Saiyads 
as a rule follow the IMahomedan law of inheritance, and do not give their 
daughters to other than Saiyads. But in the villages of the east many of them 
have adopted the tribal customs of their neighbours, while in the west the 
Hindu prejudice against widow-marriage has in many cases extended to them. 

516. Divisions of the Saiyads. — The Panjab Saiyads are primarily divided into Hasani 
descended fn m Hasan and Husaini descended fi'om Husain the sons of Ali, Hasan-Husaini the 
descendants of Abdul Qadir Gilani who sprang from an intermarriage between the two branches, 
Ulavi descended from Ali by other wives than Fatima, and Zaidi who are descended from Zaid 
Shahid, a grandson of Husain. But they also have a second set of divisions named after the 
places whence their ancestors came. Thus the descendants of Abdul Qadir are often known as 

Gilani : so the Gardezi or Baghdadi Saiyads 
are an important branch of the Husainis, 
and once owned a large portion of the Sarai 
Sidhu iahsil of Multan, while the Zaidis 
are said to be a branch of the Gardezis. The 
Bukhari Saiyads seem to be of the Husaiui 
section. The numbers returned are given 
in the margin. The Saiyads of the Western 
Plains are chiefly Bukhari and Husaini ; 
the Gilani Saiyads are found chiefly in the 
centre of the Panjab and the Salt-range and 
western sub-montane, the Shirazi in Jahlam and Shahpur, the Jafiri in Gujrat, the Husaini 
in Jahlam, the Bakhari in Rawalpindi, and the Mashaidi in the Salt-range Tract. 

517. The Ulama (Caste No. 70).— This is a perfectly miscellaneous as- 
sortment of people, many of whom cannot claim to have any priestly charac- 
ter. Any divine learnecl in the faith of Islam claims the title of Alim, the 
plural of which is Ulama or " the learned men." But on the frontier any 
person who can read and wi-ite and possesses sufficient religious kno\vledge to 
enable him to conduct the devotions in a mosque claims the title. Besides 
the people who have returned themselves as Ulama, I have included under 

this heading a large number of 
persons who have denoted their 
caste by some word which ex- 
presses nothing more than a certain 
degree of religious knowledge or 
standing among the Mahomedans. 
The terms so included and the 
numbers returned under each are 
shown in the margin. The mean- 







SaITAD SECTIOJfS. 




1. 


Hasani 


.. 11,746 6. Bakhari.. 


13,324 


2. 


Husaini 


.. 86,831 


7. Mashaidi 


24,271 


3. 


Zaidi 


... 4,089 


8. Gilani .. 


18,967 


4. 


Jafiri 


.. 6,386 


9. Shirazi .. 


7,933 


5. 


Bukhari 


... 96,378 


10. Gardezi .. 


1,902 





Ulama. 




Ulama 


7,396 Mulana 


1,053 


Mujawir 


3,480 


Makhdiimana 


301 


Qazi 


2,623 


Mian 


714 


Mulla 


2,479 


Mullazadah ... 


158 


Mulla-Mulwana 


2,879 


Others 


197 



224 PANJAB CASTES. 

inff of Ulama bas just been described. Those who returned themselves as 
such are ahiiost wholly in the Lahore and Rawalpindi divisions, and 4^129 are 
in Gurdaspur and l^TOl in Gujrat. Mujawir is the hereditary guardian of a 
shrine. Of those returned as such 2,479 are in Derah Ghazi, and are very 
possibly the attendants of the celelirated shrine of Sakhi Sarwar at Nigaha. 
Qazi is the Mahomedan law-doctor who gives opinions on all religions and 
legal questions. But the descendants of a famous Qazi often retain the title, 
and there are several well-known Qazi families. Of our Qfizis 1,725 are iu 
Sialkot, 542 in Amritsarj and 241 in Gurdaspur. In Derah Ghazi the Qazis 
are said all to be Awans, and to call themselves Ulama. The Mulla or 
Maulvi is a doctor of divinity who teaches the precepts of tlie faith. Mulwa- 
na or Mulana appear to be merely other forms of Mulla ; all these people 
are returned from the Derajat, Peshawar, and Multan divisions. Makhdum 
means the head of a shrine, generally a descendant of the saint who presides 
over the management ; and the title used to be almost confined to the heads 
of the more celelu-ated shrines ; but it is now used by those of smaller shrines 
also, and by any who claim descent from any saint. Makhdumana is another 
form of the same word, or perhaps rather denotes the descendants of a 
Makhdum. In the Dcrajat Mian means any saint or holy man or teacher, 
but is now often used \)j the descendants of such persons. Miana has been 
discussed under Shekh. Mullazadah is of course nothing more than the de- 
scendant of a Mulla. Under this head of Ulama should probably be included 
the Akhundzadah and Akhund Khel. Akhiind is a title given to any spiritual 
chief of i-cnown, and the descendants of these men are known by the above 
names. Indeed Major Wace says that among the Hazara Pathans any one 
who has studied the religious books is called Akhundzadah or Mulla indiffer- 
ently. Under the head Pathans 3,665 men have shown their tribe as 
Akhund Khcl ; 2,128 in Peshawar, 946 in Hazara, 354 in Rawali)indi, and 
166 in Bannu. But ]\Ir. Beckett points out that many of these are men 
who cannot show any claim to the title. " They are mostly Gujars and 
" Awans, but are slow to admit this, and very often pretend that they are 
" Saiyads. They should not be classed as Mullas or priests, as they perform 
■"^ no priestly functions. They cultivate land or graze cattle like any other 
" Pathans, but cling to the title, as it carries with it a certain amount of 
" consideration. '•' I suspect there are very many of those classed in our tables 
as Ulama who have no better claim to the title. The popular opinion of the 
Ulama is expressed in the proverbs quoted at pages 143-4 iu the Chapter on 
Religion. 

518. The Chishti (Caste No. 116).— This heading includes two different 
classes of people. The Chishti or Chislitia is an order of ISIaliomedan faqirs 
founded by Banda Nawaz who is jjuried at Kalbargah They arc much given 
to singing, and are generally Shialis. The Indian Chishtis are also said to be 
followers of Khwajah jMufn-ul-din of Chisht, who died in 471 Hij and was 
perhaps the same man as or a disciple of Banda Nawj'w. At any rate there 
are members of the Chlshtia order in the Pan jab, and these arc Chishtia /a^/y^ 
by reason of their belonging to that order. But the celebrated Baba Farid of 
Pak Pattan was a Chishtia faqir ; and the descendants of his relations and 
children, whether carnal or spiritual, have developed into a caste which is 
found In the lower Satluj and ehielly In the Montgomery district, though they 
would appear to be found in other parts of the Panjab also, and which in 
niany respects much resembles tlie Bodlas next to be described. Of the 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 225 

Chishtis of our tabic the whole 887 of the Dehli division and 140 of those of 
the Lahore division returned themselves as Chishtia faqirs, nnd are probably 
mere members of the order. The other figures I cannot separate. Mr. Purser 
savs that the ancestors of the Montgomery Chishtis are supposed to have come 
from Kabul to Lahore 600 years ago, and then moved to Montgomery where 
Baba Farid settled at Pak Pattan. Like the Bodlas they were till lately 
wholly nomad, and like them they claim Qureshi origin ; and it is not impossi- 
ble that some of them have returned themselves as Shekh. They take Rajput 
girls to wife. There is a saying — " You can tell a Chishti by his squint-eye "; 
but what the origin of it may be I know not. 

519. The Bodla (Caste No, 172).— The Bodlas are a small section of the 
Wattu Rajputs of the lower and middle Satluj, who have for some generations 
enjoyed a character for peculiar sanctity, and who now claim Qureshi origin from 
Abu Bakr Sadiq ; and 2,435 of them have entered themselves as Qureshi and 
not as Bodla, and are included under the head Shekh. Of these 144 are 
in Hissar, 749 in Sirsa, 889 in Eirozpnr, 349 in Montgomery, and 254 in 
Bahawalpur. They still marry Wattu girls, though they give their 
daughters only to Bodlas. They were till lately a wholly pastoral tribe, 
and still hold a jdgir, the proceeds of which they now supplement by 
cultivation. They came up from Multan through Bahawalpur to Mont- 
gomery, where they are described by ]\Ir. Purser as " lazy, silly, and 
conceited." From Montgomery they spread into Sirsa, where they occupied 
the Bahak parganah which they still hold. They are credited with the 
power of curing disease by exorcism, and especially snake-bite and hydro- 
phobia; they are recognised saints, and can curse with great efficacy. 
They have no relations with the other Qujeshis of the neighbourhood, and 
their Wattu origin is undoubted. 

ASCETIC AND MENDICANT ORDERS. 
520. The ascetic and mendicant orders. — I now turn to the 

consideration of that section of the community which is commonly 
included under the generic term of Faqir. I must first point out that our 
figui'es, though representing with fair accuracy the total numbers of this 
class, are wholly imperfect so far as the details are concerned. The divisional 
offices included the various orders under the general term, but that was easily 
remedied. I have had them picked out again, and have given the numbers 
to be added on this account to the figures of Table VIIIA in each case in 
the following paragraphs. But the real reason of the failure of our figures 
to show details is, that the great mass of these faqirs entered the name 
of their order not under " tribe " but under " sect "; and as we were 
forbidden to tabulate any sects except Shiah, Sunni, Wahabi, and Farazi, 
the details were not worked out at all. If I had known how largely this 
had been the case, I should not have tabulated separately even the few 
orders that are shown in Table VIIIA, as the figures are utterly misleading ; 
and for this reason I do not give details of Faqirs in my Absti'act on 
, page 280.^ 

The figures for Faqirs comprehend at least three if not four very 
different classes of people. First come the religious orders pure and 
simple. Many of these are of the highest respectability ; the members 
are generally collected in monasteries or shrines where they live quiet 
peaceful lives, keeping open house to travellers, training their neophytes 



2-26 PANJAB CASTES. 

and exercising a wholesome influence upon the people of the neighboui'hood. 
Such are many at least of the Bairagis and Gosains. Some of the orders 
do not keep up regular monasteries, liut travel about begging and visiting 
their disciples ; though even here they generally have permanent head- 
quarters in some village, or at some shrine or temple where one of their 
order officiates. So too the monasterial orders travel about among their 
disciples and collect the offerings upon which they partly subsist. There is 
an immense number of these men whose influence is almost wholly for 
good. Some few of the orders are professedly celibate, though even among 
them the mle is seldom strictly observed ; but most of the Hindu orders 
are divided into the Sanyogi and Viyogi sections of which the latter only 
takes vows of celibacy, while among the Musalman orders celibacy is 
seldom even professed. Such however as live in monasteries are generally 
if not allways celibate. The professed ascetics are called Sadhs if Hindu 
and Pirs if Musalman. The Hindus at any rate have their neophytes who 
are undergoing probation before admission into the order, and these men are 
called Chela. But besides these both Hindu and Musalman ascetics have their 
disciples, known respectively as Scwak and Mnrtd, and these latter belong to the 
order as much as do their spiritual guides ; that is to say a Kayath clerk may 
be a Bairagi or Pathan soldier a Chishti, if they have committed their 
spiritual direction respectively to a Bairagi and Chishti ffnru and pir. Now 
it is not probable that such men have returned the name of the order as 
their caste, though this may occasionally have happened ; and it is certain 
that none of them have returned themselves as Faqir. Thus so far the 
orders are made up of men who have voluntarily entered them, renouncing 
caste and worldly pursuits. But these men marry and have bindi or carnal 
children ; while their nadi or spiritual children, the chela s just mentioned, 
may after admission to the order return to their homes. And it often 
happens that the descendants whether carnal or spiritual of a Bairagi, for 
instance, will grow into a separate caste known by the name of Bairagi, 
but having no connection whatever save by origin with the order of that 
name. Such men would return their caste as Bairagi, and will have been 
included under J^aqir. How far this custom is general I cannot say ; but 
we have just discussed one instance of it in the case of the Chisliti of 
Montgomery, and I know of villages held by Bairagis under precisely similar 
circumstances in Karnal. 

I have said that many of the members of these orders are pious, 
respectable men whose influence is wholly for good. But this is far from 
being the case with all the orders. Many of them are notoriously pro- 
fligate debauchers, who wander about the country seducing women, extorting 
alms by the threat of curses, and relying on their saintly character for 
protection. Still even these men are members of an order which they have 
deliberately entered, and have some right to the title which they bear. But 
a very large portion of the class who are included under the name Faqir 
are ignorant men of low caste, without any acquaintance with even the 
general outlines of the religion they profess, still less with the special tenets 
of any particular sect, who borrow the garb of the regular orders and 
wander about the country living on the alms of the credulous, often hardly 
knowing the names of the orders to which the external signs they wear 
would show them to belong. Such men are mere beggars, not ascetics ; 
and though their numbers are unfortunately large, we have no means of 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 227 

separating them. Besides the occupations described above, the Faqir class 

generally have in their hands the custody of petty shrines, the menial service 

of village temples and mosques, the guardianship of cemeteries, and similar 

semi-religious offices. For these services they often receive small grants of 

land from tlie village, by cultivating which they supplement the alms and 

offerings they receive. 

The subject of the religious orders of the Hindus is one of the greatest 

^^^1 complexity ; the cross divisions between and the different meanings of such 

words as Jogi, Sany^si, and Sadh are endless ; and no one who was not 

deeply versed in the sectarian system of Hinduism could hope to deal with 

the subject fully. I shall therefore not attempt to do more than jot down 

a few rough notes on some of the most important orders. The student 

will find a mass of information on the subject in "Wilson's Sects 0/ the Hindus s 

while Trumpp in his introduction to his Adi Granth, and Cunningham in an 

Appendix to his History of the Sikhs give many particulars about the Sikh 

sects and orders. 

521, The Hindu orders of ascetics.— The Bairagl (Caste No. 53).— I?airagi, or as it is more 
correctly spelled Vairagi, signifies any one devoid of passion. But the word is usually applied 
in the Panjab to a regular order of Vaishnava devotees, said f o have been founded by Sri Anand, 
the 12th disciple of Ramanand. They are divided into several sections, among which may be 
mentioned the Ramanandi who worship Ram Chandra, the Radhahalabhi who especially affect 
the worship of Radha the wife of Krishna, the Nimanandi whose chief object of reverence is 
Salig Ram, and the Rdmaniiji who adore Mahadeo ; though these last two would appear to be 
Saiva rather than Vai5hnava. They are for the most part collected in monasteries and are 
an exceedingly respectable class of faqirs, but many of the wandering mendicants also call 
themselves Bairagis. Thoir distinctive mark is a string of brown crinkled beads. They are most 
numerous in the Jamna districts, though to the figures of Table VIII A must be added 2,238 males 
and 1,621 females who returned themselves as /nj^V^, and who are to be found in almost equal 
numbers in the Amritsar, Lahore, and Firozpur districts . The Bairagis of the monasteries are 
often but not always celibate. But there are in Karnal, and perhaps in other parts of the 
Province, villages held by descendants of both the children and the disciples of the Bairagi 
monks, who have dropped their original castes and are now known as Bairagis, though they 
have no longer any connection with the order. 

The SanyasI Caste (No. 95). — The word Sany^si really means nothing more than the ascetic 
stage through which every Brahman should properly pass. But as commonly used it corresponds 
among the followers of Siva with Bairagi among the followers of Vishnu, and is as indefinite 
in its meaning. It is indeed specially applied to the Tridandi Rdmaniijas, a Vaishnava sect ; 
but it is also used to include all Saiva classes of ascetics except perhaps the Jogi. In the 
Panjab the word is commonly used to denote the followers of Shankar Acharj, and would 
include the Gosdins, The Sanyasis are said to be ordinarily buried in a sitting posture, and 
not burnt. To the figures of Table VIII A must be added 1,824 males and 727 females, about 
half of whom are in the Amritsar and another quarter in the Lahore division. The Sanyasis, 
so far as our figures go, seem specially to affect the districts of the eastern sub-montane. 

The Gosain (Caste No. 102). — The Gosain is a Saiva order corresponding in many ways with 
the Bairagis among Vaishnavas. Like them the Gosains are often collected in monasteries, 
while many of them officiate as priests in the temple of Siva. They are also like the Bairagis 
one of the most respectable of the Hindu orders. ITiey are very commonly but not at all 
necessarily celibate. To the figures of the table must be added 1,368 males and 594 females, 
almost all in the Hiss^r district. The Gosain appears to be almost confined to the South-eastern 
districts. 

The Sadh (Caste No. 165). — Sadh is properly nothing more than the Hindu equivalent of 
the Musalmdn word F(r ; or rather Sadh applies only to a Hindu devotee, while Pir includes 
any Mahomedan holy man. But the word is especially applied to a set of Hindu Unitarians who 
are chiefly found in the Upper Ganges-Jamna doah, from Farnikhabad upwards, The sect was 
founded by one Birbhan some 200 years ago. The Sadhs do not smoke, and affect great personal 
cleanliness, and their religious ceremonies consist in eating together. It is a sect rather than an 
order and the Jats of a large village in Karnal are Sadhs by sect, though Jats by caste, {See AVilson's 
Hindu Sects, pages 227^). To the figures of the tables must be added 100 men and 13 women, 
mostly in the HissSr district. Our figures show Sadhs chiefly for the Dehli district and Rohtak, 
which would appear to connect them with the Sadh sect ; yet the paucity of females show that 
the figures refer to a religious order. The priests of the menial classes are often called Sadh, %» 

Q2 



228 PANJAB CASTES. 

the Chamarwa Sadhs of the Chamfirs, or the Charandasi S^dhs and the Kabfrbansi Sadlis of the 
JaUhas. 

The Jogi. — The Jogi will presently be discussed under the head of Minor Professional 
Castes. It will there be explained that the word orig:inally means nothing more than one who 
has by the practice of mental abstraction acquired the power of clairvoyance and similar 
faculties. T?ut besides the low-class Jogi Rawal there described there are two sets of exceedingly 
respectable Jogi Faqivs, the Kanphatta who pierce their ears and the Augar who do not. The 
former are priests of Siva and are generally to be found in Shivalas. The latter too are Saiva, 
but are more secular. Tlie Kanphatta is also called Darshana. The figures for Jogi given in 
Table VIII A include 3,658 males and 1,750 females of the Kanphatta, and 1,720 males and 1,273 
females of the Augar clan, but these figures are of course exceedingly incomplete. The .logis bury 
their dead in a sitting posture. 

The Aghori or Aghorpanthi — Is an order which has happily almost died out. My figures 
show 816 only ; but I have been told by an intelligent native that he can remember that in 
his yoiith they were common objects, wandering about the streets stark naked leading a jackal 
by a string, smeared with blood and human ordure, and carrying the same substances in a skull 
with which to bespatter him who refused them alms. Not two years ago one of these wretches 
was caught at Rohtak in the ;act of devonring the body of a newly buried child which he had 
dug out.' 

522, The Sikh orders of ascetics.— The Suthra Shahi (Caste No 163\— This order was 
founded by a Brahman called Sucba under the auspices of Guru Har Rai." They are now numerous 
and vjdely distributed, though our figures, to which nnist be added 112 males and 15 females, show 
only a small number scattered through the Sikh tract. They are notorious for gambling, 
thieving, drunkenness, and debauchery, and lead a vagabond life, begging and singing songs of a 
mystic nature. They wear ropes of black wool on the head and neck, and beat two small black 
sticks together as they beg. Although a Sikh order, they are all entered as Hindus, use the 
Hindu Hlak or sectarian mark, and follow the Hindu rites throughout. They were founded 
before the time of Guru Govind, which probably accounts for their calling themselves Hindus. 
They gCLerally add Shah to their names, Trumpp says of them " there is no order or regular 
discipline among them, and profligates and vagabonds join thv'^'n. _^ They are a public nuisance 
and disavowed bv the Sikhs." kj-^„ 

The Udasi (Caste No. 84).— The Udasi or Nanakputra \ .j!^ ^loundcd by Sri Chand, the 
eldest son of Baba Nanak, and excommunicated by the seclnd Guru, Amr Das. They again, 
being founded before the time of Guru Govind, h^\-e for the most part returned themselves as 
Hindus. To the figures of Tabic VIII A must be added 7,127 males and 1,944 females. They 
are almost confined to the Sikh tract. They are for the most part celibate, and the naked section 
or Udasi Nanga are always so. They practise Hindu rites, wear the filalc or sect mark, and 
reject the Granth of Guru Govind but revere the Adi Granth of Baba Nacak. They are hardly 
recognised as Sikhs. They are said to bear a high character, and are sometimes collected in 
monasteries, though not usually so. Many live at home, engage in worldly pursuits, and differ 
little from their neighbours. So at least says Trumpp. 

The Nirmala (Caste No. 152). — The Nirmalas or ' without stain ' were originally strict Sikhs 
and followers of Guru Govind. They wore white clothes, lived chiefly at the centres of Sikhism, 
and had considerable influence in the Sikh councils. But they have of late years relapsed into 
Hinduism, and have taken to wearing red clothes and practising Hindu rites, and tbey are now 
hardly true Sikhs. The greater part of them, however, have returned themselves as Sikhs. They 
live almost entirely in monsateries and are almost always celibate. They do not beg, but live 
on the offerings of the faithful. They have a high reputation for morality, and used to be 
much respected at Amritsar, where there is a considerable Nirmala community, for purity of 
morals, though it is said that they are now degenerating. Tliey arc governed by a Council 
known as the Akhara which makes periodical visitations of the Nirmala Societies thoughout the 
Panjab, and is controlled by a head abbot or Mahant. To the figures of the table must be added 
1,587 males and BOO females, of whom 500 are in Amritsar and 300 in Jalandbar. They are con- 
fined to the Sikh tract. It is said that tiie Nirmalas and the Udasis are not unfrequently 
confused. 

The Akali or Nihang. — These famous soldier fanatics, who were the Ghazis of the Sikhs, are 
represented in my tables by a total of .^)47 which is of cour>c absurd. They were nihavg or 'reckless' 
soldiers of the a^rfi or 'Immortal;' and Bhula Singh Akali was Ranji't Singh's great leader. 
The order was founded by Guru Govind in person, and it was they who withstood the attempted 
innovations of Banda. They wear blue chequered clothes, bangles of steel on the wrist, and quoits i p_ 287] 
of steel on their conical blue turbans, together with miniature daggers, knives, and an iron chain, 

' Query. What is the derivation of ogre ? 

2 Wilson says they look up to Teg Bahddur, the father of Guru Govind, as their founder; 
but Trumpp, who is quoted in the text, is more probably right. 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 229 

Their head-quartors used to bo at Amritsar, where they assumed the direction of religious ceremonies 
and the duty of convoking the council of the Khdlsa. They were dreaded even by the Sikh Chiefs 
for their fanaticism and turbidencc, and often levied offcringg by force. They were warrior- 
priests, and political rather than religious, and the order is now fast dwindling away. Their 




- glory 

Sikhs, and an Akali who wishes to imply that he is alone will say that ho is ' with 125,000 Khalsa.' 

The Diwana Sadh or " ma I saints " wear uncut hair, a necklace of shells, and a very large 

feather in their turbans. They are chiefly recruited from low casles, and are for the most part 

married. In their habits they resemble Sikhs, but they revere the Adi Grauth only. My 
figures show 495 males and 346 females, most of whom are in the Kangra district. 

523. The Musalman order of ascetics— The Bharai (Caste No. 48).— The Bhardia, or Pirhais 
or Pirahis as they are often called, are the priests of Sakhi Sarwar Sultan, and have been already 
alluded to in section 221 in the chapter on Religion. Too Bharais of the Lahore division were 
included under Shekh iu the divisional office; they number 1,444 in Lahore, 2,256 in Gujranwala 
and 1,646 in Firozpur. The Bhardis are almost confined to the central and sub-montane districts 
and states, where the Sultani belief is most prevalent. There arc however a few in the districts of 
the Western Plains. They go about beating a drum and begging in the name of Sakhi Sarwar, 
and conduct parties of pilgrims to the shrine at Nigdha. They also receive the offerings of the 
local shrines. They circumcise boys in the western districts, and often act as Mirasis with whom 
they are sometimes confused. Indeed on the lower Indus they supersede the Nai as circumcisors, 
and are said to take their name from the fact that the Prophet gave his coat {pairdhan) to one of 
their ancestors as a reward for circumcising a convert after a barber had refused to do so ! The 
real origin of the name is probably to be found in the fact that the pilgrims to Nigdha call each 
other Fir bhra or " Saint-brothers." 

The Madari caste No. 63).— The Madaris are followers of Zindah Shah Madar, the cele- 
brated saint of Makanpur in Oudh. His name was Bazi-ul-din Shah, and he was a converted Jew 
who was born at Aleppo in A. D. 1050, and is said to have died at Makanpur at the mature age 
of 383 years after expelling a demon called Makan Deo from the place. He is supposed by some 
to be still alive '(whence his name), Mahomet having given him the power of living without 
breath. His devotees are said never to be scorched by fire, and to be secure against venomous 
snakes and scorpions, the bites of which they have power to cure. Women who enter his shrine 
are said to be seized by violent pain as though they were being burnt alive. To the figures of 
Table VIII A must be added 20,968 males and I7,476_females, of whom some 5,700 are in Arabala, 
5,400 in Ludhiana, 6,600 in Jdlandhav, 2 000 in Hushyarpur, 3,200 in Amritsar, 2,300 in Sialkot, 
and 1,500 in Firozpur. Thus they are very generally distributed throughout thj eastern half of 
the Panjdb. In the four western divisions they seem to be almost unknown. They wear their 
hair matted and tied in a knot, and belong to the be shara section of Mahomedan orders who regard 
no religion, creed, or rules of life, though they call themselves Musalman. 

The Malang are said to be a branch of the Madari. My tables show only 851 males and 
659 females under that head, mostly in Patiala, Maler Kotla, Jalandhar and Firozpur. 

The Benawa (Caste No. 111). — The Benawa faqirs are the followers of Khwajah Hasan 
Basri; but who he is I cannot say unless he be the same asi Hasan Basri of Basra near Baghdad, the 
founder of the Sarwardia order. To the figures of the table must be added 2,483 males and 2,153 
females. The Benawa are almost entirely confined to the Jumna districts and Rohtak. 

The Darvesh (Caste No. £36). — Uarvesh is simply another word for faqi'r, and means one 
who begs from door to door {dai- " door "). But the Darvesh of our tables, to the figures of which 
84 males and 106 females, chiefly from Si'dlkot must be added, are a peculiar class found only in 
Batala and Pathankot and in Amritsar and Kapiirthala. There seems to be a colony of these 
men who are distinguished by the title of Darvesh. They cultivate a little land, play musical 
instruments, beg, make ropes, go to a house where there has been a death and chaunt the praises 
of the deceased, hang about mosques, and so forth. They are hardly ascetics, yet the small 
number of women seem to show that they have not yet formed into a separate caste, and are still 
recruited from outside. 

The Jalali (Caste No. 143).— The Jaldli order was founded by Saiyad Jalal-ul-din of 
Bukhara, though the Panjdb Jalalis are sometimes said to be followers of Sher Shah Saiyad Jalal 
of Uchh, himself a JaXiVifaqir. To the figures of the table must bo added 2,322 males and 1,928 
females, mostly from the Jdlaudliar, Amritsar, and Lahore divisions. Candidates for admission to 
the orders shave completely, burn their clothes, and are branded on the right shoulder. The Jalalis 
are common iu Central Asia. 

The Husalni (Caste No. 160).— The Husainis are confined to Gurgaon, and present the 
peculiarity of having more females than males among their numbers. I have no information re' 
garding them. They may perhaps be Husaini Swyads. 



S30 PANJAB CASTES. 

The Qadlrl (Caste No. 175).— The Qadiri are the followers of the celebrated Saiynd Abdul 
Q^dir Pfr Diistagfr, whose shrine i- at Baghdad; most of the Sxmni divines of the North-West 
Frontier are Qadri, aud the Akhund of Swat belonga to the order. To the numbers shown in 
Table VIII A must be added 2,710 males aud 2,181 females, for the most part in the Ambdla, 
Amritsar, and Lahore divisions. They sit for hours repeating the foUowiug declaration : '' Thou 
" art the guide, thou art the truth, there is uone but thee !" 

The NaqShbandia are followers of Khw^jah Pi'r Muhammad Xaqshhaud. My figures only 
thow 287 males and 219 females, chiefly in the Amritsar Division. They worship by sitting per- 
f«ctly silent and motionless, with bowed head and eyes fixed on the ground. 

The Sarwardia. — {See above under " Benawa"). — " They are the followers of Hasan Basri 
of Basra near Baghdad. They worship seated, chaunting at short intervals and in measured tones 
the word Alldhu, which is articulated with a suppressed breath and as if ejaculated by a powerful 
effort. The devotee often faints with the exertion. 

The Chishti. — (See Section 518 nhove). — Beside> those clashed under Cliishti.. my figures give 
2,329 males and 2,014 females, almost all in the eastern half of the Province. The Chishti /ay/'r* 
are the followers of Banda Nawaz whose shrine is at Kalbargah. They worship by leaping up 
and gesticulating, and repeating ' Alldh Yd-alld-hn' till they work themselves into a frenzy and 
»t last sink down exhausted. 

MINOR PROFESSIONAL CASTES. 

524. The minor professional castes. — I have felt great doubfe as to how 
I should class and where I should place the castes which I have included in 
this group, and the distribution of which is shown in Abstract No. 90 on the 
next page.* Many of them are in some measure allied to the priestly classesj « p. 288- 
they have f unctic»ns t o perform in connection with weddings and similar 33. 
ceremonies, they receive customary fees for the pef ormance of those functions, 
and they are invested with a sort of ^?ms«.'-sacred character. On the other 
hand, they have many points in common with the menials ; their social 
status is very low, and many of them are retained by the villagers on 
the same footing as the ordinary village servants, their rights and duties being 
regulated by custom. The castes of the group may be divided into three 
classes, the Nai, Bbtit, and Mirasi who are real village servants though of a 
very special character ; the Jogis and RaAvals who are for the most part 
astrologers and semi-religious ; and the Bahrupias and Bhands who are actors 
and story-tellers, and purely professional. 

525. The Nai (Caste No. 21). —The Nai is the barber of the country, and [P. 288] 
when a Musalman, and in the cities, is often called Hajjam. In respect of 
his being a barber he is a true village menial, and he shaves and shampooes 
the villagers, prepares tobacco for the village rest-house, and attends upon 
the village guests. But he is much more than a barber. He is the heredi- 
tary bearer of formal messages from one village to another, such as news of 
auspicious events, formal congratulations, letters fixing the dates of weddings, 
and the like. News of a death is never carried by him, however, but always 
by a Chuhra. He forms moreover, in company with a Brahman, the 
embassy sent to conclude a betrothal, and he is generally the agency through 
which the preliminaries of match-making are conducted. At wedding cere- 
monies too he plays an important part, next indeed lo that of the Brahman 
himself, and on all these occasions receives suitable gratuities. He is also the 
leech of the country, the Jarvah or surgeon is usually a Nai by caste, and circum- 
cision is commonly performed l)y a Nai. Notwithstanding all this he is one of 
the impure castes, standing much on the same level as the washerman, far above 
the Cham6j, and somewhat below the Loh^r, for his occupation as a barber [P. 289] 
proper is considered degrading. At the same time every N6i is not prepared 



1. Gola ... 10,981 

2. Bhanbheru ... 14^816 
3 Basi .. 1,605 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 231 

to handle everyl)ody's jioll. The outcast tribes have their own Nais, for a 
Nai who had shaved a Chuhra would not be permitted to toucdi a Jat. I 
believe that all our own barljers are Musalraiins because a Hindu Ntii who shav- 
ed a Christian would be considered as polluted. The Nais are po^mlarly known 
as a class of great astuteness, and the proverb says : " the jackal is the sharpest 
'' among beasts, the crow among birds, and the Nai among men/' The Nais 
are very uniformly distributed over the Province, being least common in the 
Derajat, where however some of them appear to have returned themselves as 
.Tats (see Abstract No. 73, page 224*). They are apparently Hindu among 
Hindus and Musalman among Musalmans, and in a less degree Sikh among 
Sikhs. On the whole about 55 per cent, are Musalmans, 6 per cent. Sikhs, and 
the remainder Hindus. A Sikh barber would appear a contradiction in terras ; 
but besides the functions enumerated above, he shampooes, cuts the nails, and 
cleans the ears of his patients. He appears to be known as Jajak in the west 
of the Province, and as Kangera or " comb-man " in the Hills. In Gurgaon 
Musalman barbers are sometimes called Ustan, as well as by the more common 
term Hajjam. 

The Nai tribes and clans are very numerous. I show a few of the largest 
. in the margin. The first two 

^'\^''^,^,' ""f ^^^l o «J are most numerous in the Dehli 

4. Baligu ... 2,555 ., ^^. ^ ,. . . 

5. Bhatti ... 16,221 and Hissar divisions, the next 

6. Khokhar ... 12,026 two in the central districts, and 
~ the last two in the west of the 
Province. The Musalman Nais of Karnal are said to be divided into two 
sections, the Turkia who came in with the Mahomedan conquerors and the 
Gagrel or converts from Hinduism, so called because their women wear or 
once wore the Hindu petticoat or gdgra. 

526. The Bhat (Caste No. 62) . -The Bhat or Bhat as he is ofcen called in 
the Panjab is, like the Mirasi, a bard and genealogist, or as some people call 
him panegyrist. But he is a bard of a very superior sort, and far removed 
above the level of the Mirasi. He is par excellence genealogist of the Rajputs 
and Brahmans, though he performs the same office for some Jat tribes ; he is 
himself of admitted Brahman origin ; and he is found in largest numbers in 
the eastern and sub-montane districts where Hindu Rajputs form the largest 
proportion of the population. The Hill State of Nahan indeed retm-ns Bhats 
as forming 11 "4 per cent, of its total population, but this seems hardly possible, 
though the entry in the original table is clear enough. 

I have included under the head of Bhat the following entries— Charan, 
13 in the Hissar division; Madho, 217 in the Ambala division; Jaga, 13 in 
the J alandhar division ; Rai, 202 in the Rawalpindi, Multan, and Peshawar 
divisions. Rai is a mere honorific title for a Bhat. The other three entries 
are names of great Bhiit tribes ; and it appears that while the .laga or Bhat 
proper is the genealogist and historian, the Charan and Birm Bhats are bards 
and heralds and compose verses in honour of the ancestors of great men — so at 
least say Sherring and Elliott, both of whom give a good deal of information 
concerning the caste. The Jaga or Bhat genealogist, to which class the great 
mass of our Bhats belong, is a hereditary servant, each local clan having its 
own Bhat who pays them periodical visits, writes up its genealogies to date, 
and receives his fees. At great weddings he attends and recites the history 
and praises of ancestors, and the genealogy of the bridegroom. But as he 
often lives too far off to be summoned to ordinary weddings, a Mirasi or Dum 



S32 



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RELIGIOUS, PROPESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 233 



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234 PANJAB CASTES. 

is often retaiued in addition, who takes the place of the Bh^t on such occa- 
sions. The status of the Bhat is high ; and in Riijputana thev are said to 
possess great influence. The Bhat is ahnost always Hindu, even M^here his 
clients have become Mahomedans. A few are Sikhs, and still fewer Musalnnius ; 
and it is doubtful whether these last are not really Mirasis. There are said to 
be Musalman bhats in Sialkot who have migrated from the Jhaug uplands 
and are much addicted to thieving ; but I much doubt whether they belong to 
the Bhat caste. I have said that the Bhats are of undoubted Br;ihman origin, 
and this is tnie of the Jiiga and Ch.iran, who are ordinarily called Bhats. 
Whether it is true of the Madho Bhats also I am not so certain. The Mtidhos 
would appear to be named after Madho, the founder of the ]Madhavi sect of 
minstrel mendicants ; and the Bhatra, who however claims Brahman origin, is 
called ^Madho in Rawalpindi. Besides the 217 persons mentioned above who 
returned their caste as Madho, a very considerable number of those who have 
given their caste as Bhats show Madho as their tribe. 

527. The Dum and Mirasi (Caste No. 25). — Under this head have been 
included both Dum and Mirasi, the former being the Hindu and Indian and 
the latter the Musalman and Arabic name, and the whole class being commonly 
called Dum-Minisi by the people. It fact no one of my divisional offices 
separated the two entries, and the two words are used throughout the Province 
as absolutely synonymous. The Dums, however, must be carefully distinguish- 
ed from the Dom or Domra, the executioner and corpseburner of Hindustan, 
and the type of all uncleanliness to a Hindu ; as also from the Dum of the 
Hill States, whom I have classed as Dumna and not as Mirasi, as I understand 
that the word Dum is there applied to workers in bamboo. The class is 
distributed throughout the Province, but is most numerous in the Amritsar, 
Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Multan divisions, and in Bahawalpur and the other 
States which march with them. On the lower Indus mauy of them would 
seem to have returned themselves as Jats — see Abstract No. 72,* page 224. *P. 106- 
The word Mirasi is derived from the Arabic mirds or inheritance ; and the 
Mirasi is to the inferior agricultui-al cases and the outcast tribes what the 
Bhat is to the Rajputs. Even Jats employ Mirasis, though the hereditary 
genealogist of many of the Jat tribes is the Sansi ; and, as just stated, 
Rajputs often employ Mirasis in addition to Bhats. But the Mirasi is more 
than a genealogist ; he is also a musician and minstrel ; and most of the men 
who play the musical instruments of the Panjab are either ]Mirasis, Jogis, or 
faqirs. " The Dum does not make a good servant, nor a fiddle-bow a good 
weapon.^' 

The social position of the Mirasi, as of all the minstrel castes, is exceed- 
ingly low, but he attends at weddings and on similar occasions to recite 
genealogies. Moreover there are grades even among Mirasis. The outcast 
tribes have their Mirasis who, though they do not eat with their clients and 
merely render them professional service, are considered impure by the Mirasis 
of the higher castes. The Mirasi is generally a hereditary servant like the 
Bhiit ; and is notorious for his exactions, which he makes under the threat 
of lamj)Ooning the ancestors of him from whom he demands fees. " These 
" four were not born on giving day ; the Mulla, the Bhat, the Brdhman, andL^* ^90] 
"the Dum.'" The Mirasi is almost always a Musalman. The few Hindus 
returned fi'om the hilly aiul sub-montane districts are very possibly Dumnas 
returned as Dums. I have included uuder the head of Mirasi the following 
schedule entries j Dhadhi, 37 in Ambala, 478 in MuMu, and 77 in the 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 235 

Derajdt ; Kbarialaj 37 1, and Sarnai, 3 in Jalandhar ; Rababi, 109 in 
Labore. Besides tbcse numbersj tbe above terms, as well as Naqiircbi, bave 
all been included witb Mirasi in the offices of one or more divisions. The 
last three are simply words meaning players upon the flageolet, the flute, and 
the kettle drum. The Dhadhi appears only to sing and not to play any 
instrument, and in tlie Derajat at least is said not to intermarry with the Dum, 
so probably he should not have been included. The Khariiila is said to be a 
sort of Mirasi, but I have no further information concerning him. The two 
largest tribes returned for Mirasis seem to be the Chunhar with 13,4)93, and 
the Kalet with 4,897 persons. The detailed tables of clans will, when publish- 
ed, give complete information on the subject. 

528. The Jogi, Rawal and Nath (Caste Nos. 40 and 80). — The figures 
■^under the head Jogi include two very distinct classes of persons. First are the 
Jogis proper, a regular religious order of Hindus, which includes both the 
Augar Jogis and the Kanphatta Jogi ascetics, who are followers of Gorakhnath 
and priests and worshippers of Siva. These men are fully as respectable as 
the Bairagis, Gosains, and other religious orders. So far as the sub-divisional 
tables help us, the present figures include 9,143 of this class, of whom 5,769 are 
males, but the real number is probably greater. They are all Hindus. They 
228 have been discussed in the earlier portion of this section, at page 286.* The 
second class is that miscellaneous assortment of low-caste faqirs and fortune- 
tellers, both Hindu and Musalraan but chiefly Musalmau, who are commonly 
known as Jogis. The word Jogi or Yogi means a student of the Joga school of 
philosophy, which teachs how, by suppression of the breath, mental abstrac- 
tion, and the like, to obtain supernatural powers of divination, second sight, 
and so forth ;' and the result is that every rascally beggar who pretends to be 
able to tell fortunes, or to practise astrological and necromantic arts in however 
small a degree, buys himself a druiu and calls himself and is called by others 
a Jogi. These men include all the Musalmans, and probably a part of the 
Hindus of the eastern districts who have been returned as Jogis. They are a 
thoroughly vagabond set, and wander about the country beating a drum and 
begging, practising surgery and physic in a small way, writing charms, telling 
fortunes, and practising exorcism and divination ; or, settling in the villages, 
eke out their earnings from these occupations by the offerings made at the 
local shrines of the malevolent godlings or of the Saiyads and other Musalraan 
saints (see sections 216 and 226) ; for the Jogi is so impure that he will eat 
the offerings made at any shrine. These people, or at least the Musalraan 
section of them, are called in the centre of the Paujab Rawals, or sometimes 
Jogi-Rawals, from the Arabic BaniMal a diviner, which again is derived from 
ramal " sand " with which the Ai-ab magicians divine ; and the two sets of 
figures must be taken together, always remembering that those for Jogis 
include respectable Jogis, while those for Rjiwals, who are all Musalmans, do 
not. The Jogi-Rawals of Kathiawar are said to be exorcisers of evil spirits, 
and to worship a deity called Korial. In Sialkot the Jogis pretend to avert 
storms from the ripening crops by plunging a d^awn sword into the field or 
a knife into a mound, sacrificing goats, and accepting suitable offerings. 
Mr. Benton writes: — "The Jogi is a favourite character in Hindustani 
" fiction. He there appears as a jolly playful character of a simple disposition, 

* See Wilson's Sects of the Hindus, pages 130^ for a very interesting account of both classes 
*fl Jogis, and for references to further authorities. 



236 1PANJAB CASTES. 

who enjoTS the fullest liberty and conducts himself in the most eccentric 
fashion under the cloak of religion without being called in question." 

The Rawals of the Panjab are notorious cheats. One of theii' favourite 
devices is to personate a long lost relative. In the Province itself they seldom 
venture upon open crime ; but they travel about the Central Provinces and the 
Deccan and even visit Boml)ay and Calcutta^ and there pilfer and rob. They 
are often absent for long periods on these expeditions ; and meanwhile the 
Banyas of their villages support their families on credit, to be repaid with 
interest on the return of the father. Some interesting information regarding 
them will be found in Selected Papers, No. XMII of lb69 of the 
Panjab Police Department. The town of Rawalpindi is named after 
the Rawals ; but the Rawals of the district appear to have retui'ned 
themselves either as Jogis or more probably as Mughals, as 1,263 of 
the Mughals of Rawalpindi give Rawal as their clan. There they are said, 
in addition to their usual pursuits, to recite at the Muharram stories of the 
doings of Mahomet, accounts of his miracles, and hymns in his praise. 

The Naths of the higher hills, where the worship of Siva is prevalent, 
correspond very closely with the Jogis of the plains, though they make little 
pretence to an ascetic character and live chiefly by growing vegetables ; but 
they also perform certain semi-sacerdotal function, taking the place of the 
Acharj of the plains in the funeral ceremonies of the Kanets, and receiving 
like him the clothes of the deceased. They also consecrate new houses, and 
purify them when they have been defiled. They now form a true caste, 
and are not recruited from without. One or more in almost every Natb 
household has his ears pierced in honour of Siva, and is called a Kanphatta 
Nath. They occupy much the same social position as the Jogi-Rawal of the 
plains. They are understood to have returned themselves as Jogis and to be 
included in the figures now under discussion. 

Of the figures given in Table 
VIII A, all the Hindus are men 
returned as Jogis. Of the JNIusalmans 
the numbers shown in the margin 
were returned as Rawals, the remain- 
der being: Jogis. 



Kawals classed as Jogis. 



Jalandhar ... 2,842 

Hushyarpur ... 2,781 

Kangra ... 764 

Amritsar ... 2,325 

Gurdaspur ... 3,337 



Sidlkot ,. 1,244 

Lahore ... 1,508 

Gujranwala ... 2,048 

Kapurthala ... 530 

Other places ... 434 



17,853 



529. The Bahrupia (Caste No. 128) , — The Bahrupia is in its origin a 
purely occupational term ; it is derived from the Sanskrit hahu " many " and 
rupa, "form," and denotes an actor, a mimic, or one who assumes many forms 
or characters. One of their favourite devices is to ask for money, and when it 
is refused, to ask that it may be given on condition of the Bahrupia succceeding 
in deceiving the person who refuses it. Some days later the Bahrupia 
will again visit the house in the disguise of a pedlar, a milkman, or 
what not, sell his goods without being detected, throw off his disguise, and [P. 291] 
claim the stipulated reward. They may be drawn from any caste, and in 
Rohtak there are Chuhra Bahrupias. But in some districts a family or colony 
of Bahrupias has obtained land and settled down on it, and so become a caste 
as much as any other. Thus there is a Bahrupia family in Panipat who hold 
a village revenue-free, though these men have apparently returned themselves 
as Shekhs. It is probable that the figures do not include all who follow the 
profession of acting in the Panjab, many of them having returned their time 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 237 

caste and not their occupation. On the other hand, it is certain that the 
retui-ns for Bahrupias in Sialkot and Gujrat do not refc r at all to what I here 
call Bahrupias, but are Mahtams, who are commonly known as Bahrupias 
in tho?e districts — see section 494 on Mahtams. Tlie exclusion of these 
figures reduces the total number of Bahrupias in the Province to 386, and I 
have altered the fio-nres of Abstract No. 90 accordingly. The Bahrupias of 
Gurdaspur are said to work in cane and bamboo. 

530. The Bhand (Caste No 141). — The Bhiind or Nnqqal Is the story-teller, 
joker, and bu-ffioon, and is often also called Basha. The name comes from the 
Hindi Bhdnda " Inii^ooning." He is separate from and of a lower pro- 
fessional status than the Bahrupia. Both are commonl}' kept by Rdjas and 
other wealthy men like the jester of the early English noble, but both also 
wander about the country and perform to street audii nces. The Bhand is 
not a true caste any more than the Bahrupia, and I understand that they are 
often Mirasis by caste and probably have'in many case?i~o returned themselves. 
Elliott seems to imply that Bahrupia is a caste and Bhjiad an occupation ; but 
the former statement is certainly not true in the Panjrib. The entries under 
this head include both Basha and Naqqal. 

MERCANTILE AND SHOP-KEEPING CASTES. 

531. Merchants and Shop-keepers. — The group of mercantile castes for 
which the figures will be found in Abstract No. 91 on the next page"^ practi- 
cally hold the whole commerce of the Panjab In their hands. They do not 
engage in the carrying trade, nor do they traffic in cattlo ; being for the most 
part Hindus they will not sell liquor or meat ; and being of fair social 
standing they do not sell vegetables ; but with these exceptions almost the 
whole of the mercantile and commercial transactions of the Province, 
excepting as a general rule petty hawking and pedling, are conducted by one 
or other of the castes which I have included In this abstract. They may be 
divided Into five groups, the first consisting of Banyas, Dhiinsars, Bohras, 
and Pahari Mahajans ; the second of Suds and Bhabras ; the third of Khatris, 
Khakhas, and Bhatlas ; the fourth of Aroras ; and the fifth of Khojahs and 
Parachas. 

The territorial distribution of these groups Is very well marked. The first 
or Banya group Is almost confined to the eastern and south-eastern divisions of 
Dehli, HIssar, and Ambala, and to the central Native States, though a few of 
them have spread along the north of the Eastern Plains and into the Hill 
States. West of Lahore they are practically unknown. The second or Sud 
andBhabra group Is found only in the districts that lie under the hills on the 
northern border of the Province from Ambala to Rawalpindi. The third or 
Khatri group constitutes a large proportion of the mercantile classes of all the 
centre and, excluding the frontier, of the north-west of the Province, being 
most numerous In the Jalandhar, Amrltsar, Lahore, and Rawalpindi divisions. 
The fourth or Ai'ora group have the IMultan and Derajat divisions and Baha- 
walpur almost to themselves, extending also Into Peshawar and Kohat, and 
crossing the Satluj In Sirsa to meet the Banya group of the east. Finally, the 
fifth or Mahomeflan group Is confined to the central and western districts and 
the Salt-range Tract. 

On the whole this class constitutes 7 per cent, of the population of the 
Province. But in the districts of the Multan and Derajat divisions and in 
Bahawalpui- the proportion rises to from II to 17 percent. This however is 



238 



PANJAB CASTES. 



Abstract No. 91, showing the [p 292] 



Dehli 

fiurgaon 

Karnal 

HiBsar 
Rohtak 
Sirea 

Ambala 

Ladhiana 

Simla 

Jdlandhar .., 
Hoshyarpur ... 
Kdugra 

Amritsar 

Gardaspur 

Sialkot 

Lahore 

Gujranwala 

Firozpur 

Bawalpindi 
Jahlam .., 

Gujrat 
Shahpur 

Maltan 
J bang 

Montgomery ... 
Muzaffargarh ... 

Derah Ismail Khan 
Derah Ghazi Ehan 
Bannu 

Peshawar 

Hazara 

Kohat 

British Territory 

Patiala 

Nabha 

Eapurthala 

Jind 

Faridkot 

Maler Kotla ... 

Kaleia 

T«tal East. Plains 

BahAwftlpur 

Mandi 

Chamba 

K4han 

Bildspnr 

Bashahr 

Ndlagarh 

Suket 

Total Hill States 

British Territory 
Native States 
Province 



MERCAN 



Fi 



14 



42.4U 
86,801 
40,699 

43,309 
41,470 
10,496 

40,069 
8,722 
1,042 

3,126 

1,591 

89 

2,686 
14,804 
10,795 

2,093 

160 

11,451 

2,597 

219 

288 

9 

562 
20 

122 
24 

37 
98 
116 

889 
475 
121 

816,828 

75,238 
13,693 
481 
16,801 
1,604 
3,215 
3,274 

118.554 

486 

4 

498 

1,336 

3 

33 

32 

14 

2,081 

816,828 
121,121 
487,944 



173 



57 

484 

4 



711 

138 
40 
6 
17 



210 



711 
219 
980 



245 

75 

240 



112 



cgCU 



837 

76 

4,120 



610 

1 



926 



333 
129 
171 
018 

3,064 

610 
8,055 
8,665 



6,088 



6,088 
6,088 



1,637 

2,076 

401 

1,756 
1,602 
5,775 



118 
1 



479 

6 

617 



65 



16,669 

2,743 
177 
708 
2 
7 
132 
36 

3,806 



41 
2 

98 

11 
3 

11 
3 

421 

16,669 

4,226 

19,896 



414 
6 



676 

1.385 

47 

687 

1,119 

133 

1,309 

134 

1,773 

940 
677 
721 

1,015 

12 



248 

« 
3 

4 
38 
OS 

S 

41 

11,800 

1,329 

225 

31 

345 

124 

6 

2,069 

368 



826 



327 

11,800 

1,764 

14,064 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 



239 



Mercantile and Shop-keeping Castes. 



TILE. 



16 



4,657 

179 

1,170 

187 
62 
295 

8,164 

16,944 

331 

22,868 
19,780 
7,760 

31,411 
15,778 
18,440 

32,970 

21,301 

9,174 

41,135 
35,941 
17,794 
16,015 



15,196 
4,492 
l.POS 

3,077 
2,863 
1,746 

9,578 
10,267 
1,383 

880,399 

17,693 

3,998 

5,613 

236 

1,162 

638 

501 

29,883 

1,069 

2,960 

1,378 

231 

1,487 

46 

570 

466 

7,788 

380,899 
88,740 
419,189 



179 



1 

603 



664 



664 

664 



780 

6 

5,784 

29B 

748 

23 

213 

1,100 

5,318 

734 

1,995 

461 

1 

202 

1,478 

266 

2,034 

241 
62 
67 

21,790 

7 



7 
1,068 



21,790 

1,081 

22,871 



210 

8 

1,358 

17 

6,664 

102 
364 



762 
316 
110 

20,613 

1,216 

15,793 

33,136 
30,079 
13,306 

12,181 
12,345 
23,964 
35,017 

76,842 
45,041 
51,260 
33,827 

44.146 
37,041 
24,286 

13,333 
2,455 
6.233 

639,967 

1,692 
176 
799 
35 
2,163 
99 
12 

4,976 

66,483 



689,957 

61,483 

601,440 



44 



91 

6 

149 

190 



61,297 

285 
3 

820 
2 
40 

296 



1,446 
3,138 



61,297 

4,686 

66,882 



104 



1,068 ' 




922 




67 




6,934 




2.312 


... 


5,550 




12,313 


177 


3,458 { 




2,486 ' 




1,220 i 


1,944 


2,672 ! 


318 


2.216 i 


T 


1,551 


424 


5.640 i 


7 


3,352 i 


2 


4,440 




714 




904 ' 




204 




996 




1,780 


2,903 


9 


1,569 


40 


878 



8,223 

221 

■"' 215 

2 

438 



8,223 

438 

8,661 



Dehli. 

Gnrgaon. 

Earnal. 

Hiesar. 
Kohtak. 
Sirsa. 

Ambala. 

Ludhi4na. 

Simla. 

Jalandhar. 

Hoshyirpnr. 

Kangra. 

Amritsar. 

GuTdispur. 

Sialkot 

Lahore. 

Gnjrinwala, 

Fiiozpur. 

Eawalpindi. 
Jahlam. 
Gujrat. 
Shah pur. 

Multan. 
Jhang. 
Montgomery. 
Mazaffargarh. 

Derah Ismail Ehan. 
Derah Ghazi Khan. 
Banna. 

Peshawar. 

Hazara. 

Kohat. 

British Territory. 

Patiala. 

Nabha. 

Kapnrthala. 

Jind. 

Faridkot. 

Maler Kotla. 

Ealeia. 

Total EaBt. Plaint. 

Bahawalpnr. 

Mandi. 

Chamba. 

Nahan. 

BilJspur. 

Bashahr. 

Nalagarh. 

Snket. 

Total Hill States. 

British Territory. 
Native States. 
Province. 



2 40 



PANJAB CASTES. 

Abstract No. 91, showing the Mercantile 



MEBCAN 



Pbopobtiow psb 1,000 



Dehll 

GargaoD 

Hissar 
Bohtak 
Sirsa 

Ambala 

Ludhiana 

Simla 

Jalandhar 

Hushyarpur 

Kangra 

Amritsar 

Qutdaspur 

Sialkot 

Lahore 

Gujranwala 
FiTOzpur 

Rawalpindi ... 
Jahlam 

Shahpur 

Multan 
Jhang 

Montgomery 
MazaSargarh ... 

rerah Ismail Khan 
Derah Qhazi Khan 
Bannu 

Peehawar 

Hazara 

Kohat 

British. Territory 

Patiala 

Nabha 

Kapurthala 

Jind 

Faridkot 

Maler Kotla 

Kaleia 

Total East. Plains 

Bah^walpuT 

Mandi 

Chamba 

Nahan 

Bilaspur 

BaBliahr 

Nalaparh 

Saket 

Total Hill States 

British Territory 
Native States 
Province 



14 



173 



112 



75 



4 




2 


... 


S 




12 




4 




1 





1 
1 

1 

17 

51 
62 
2 
67 
17 
46 
49 

47 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 24.1 
and Shop-keeping Castes — conchuled. 



Tile. 



OP TOTAL PoPtTLATION. 



16 



35 
14 

60 
61 
26 
36 

18 
33 
11 
5 

7 

8 
5 

5 

25 

8 

20 

12 
15 
22 

1 
12 

9 

7 

12 



179 



44 



23 

1 

16 

36 
49 
20 

15 
21 
35 
83 

139 
114 
120 
100 

100 
102 
73 

22 
6 

29 

29 

1 

] 

3 

' 22 
1 



104 



92 

58 

72 

90 

72 

126 

172 
164 
141 
108 

112 
112 

87 

36 
37 
43 

72 

67 

70 
34 
68 
55 
64 
57 

65 

109 



Dehli. 

Qnrgaon. 

Karnal. 

Hissar. 
Rohtak. 
Sirsa. 

Ambala. 

Lndhidna. 

Simla. 

Jalandhar. 

Hushydrpnr. 

Kiingra, 

Amritsar. 

Gurddspnr. 

Siiilkot. 

Lahore. 

Gnjrunwiila. 

Firozpur. 

Rawalpindi. 
Jahlam. 
GuJTat. 
Shahpur, 

Maltan. 
Jhanj. 
Montgomery. 
Miizaffargarh. 

Derah Ismail Khan. 
Derah Ghazi Khan, 
Bannu. 

Peshilwar. 

Hazara. 

Kohilt. 

British Territory. 

Pat i Ala. 

Nabha. 

Kapurthala. 

.Tind. 

Faridkot. 

Maler Kotla. 

Kalsia. 

Total East. Plains. 

BahdwalpuT, 

Mandi. 

Chamba, 

Niihan. 

Bihispar. 

Bashahr. 

Nalagarh. 

Saket. 

Total Hill States. 

British Territory. 
Native States. 
Province. 



242 PANJAB CASTES. 

due, not to the fact that a larg-er proportion of the population of these parts is 
eng-agcJ in commerce, but to the peculiar versatility of the Arora of the south- 
western Panjab, who is a trader first indeed, but aFter that anything and every- 
thing*. Throughout the Eastern Plains the proportion is very uniform, 
naturally risino^ highest in the districts which include large cities. Through- 
out the hills and submontane districts the proportion is singularly low, for 
these tracts include none of the commercial centres of the Panjab, and tte 
needs of the people are simple and easily supplied. In the central districts 
and the Salt-range Tract the proportion is large, probably because the Khatris 
like the Aroras by no means confine themselves to commerce as an occu- 
pation. 

532. The Banya (Caste No. 14) .—The word Banya is derived from the 
Sanskrit hdnijya or trade ; and the Banya, as the name implies, lives solely 
for and by commerce. He holds a considerable area of land in the east of 
the Province ; but it is very rarely indeed that he follows any other than 
mercantile pursuits. The commercial enterprises and intelligence of the class 
is great, and the dealings of some of the great Banya houses of Dehli, Bikaner, 
and ]\Iarwar are of the most extensive nature. But the Banya of the village, 
who represents the great mass of the caste, is a poor creature, notwithstanding 
the title of Mahajan or " great folk,^' which is confined by usage to the caste 
to which he belongs. He spends his life in his shop, and the results are 
apparent in his inferior physique and utter want of manliness. He is 
looked down upon by the peasantry as a cowardly monev grubljer ; but at the 
same time his social standing is from one point of view curiously higher than 
theirs, for he is, what they are not, a strict Hindu, he is generally admitted 
to be of pure Vaisya descent, he wears \hQ janeo or sacred thread, his periods 
of purification are longer than theirs, he does not practise widow-marriage, 
and he will not eat or drink at their hands ; and religious ceremonial and the 
degrees of caste proper are so interwoven Avith tlie social fabric that the 
result ing position of the Banya in tlie grades of rustic society is of a curiously 
mixed nature. The Banya is hardly used by the proverbial wisdom of the 
countryside S " He who has a Banya for a friend is not in want of an 
'' enemy; " and, " First beat a Banya, then a thief. '^ And indeed the Banya 
has too strong a hold over the husbandman for there to be much love lost 
between them. Yet the money-lenders of the villages at least have been 
branded with a far worse name than they deserve. They perform functions 
of the most cardinal importance in the village oBConomy, and it is su.rprising 
how much reasonableness and honesty there is in their dealings with the 
people so long as they can keep their business transactions out of a court of 
justice. 

The Banya class forms the main commercial element of the population [P. 293] 
of Noi-thern and North-Western India up to the nu'ridiau of Laliore, and 
of Kajputana. Indeed the origin and strongliold of at any rate those sections 
of the caste which are most numerously repi'csented in the Panjab is North- 
Western Rajputuna, and it is curious that while spreading so far to the east 
of Bikaner, they sliould have obtained so little hold to the west of that 
country. In the Panjul) they are practically found in any great numbers 
only in the Dehli and llissar divisions, .Vmljula, and in the Central States 
of the Eastern Plains, and Firozjmr ; though curiously enough there appearg 
to be a considerable colony of them in Gurdaspur and Sialkot. But thg 
word Banya is generically used for " shop-keeper " all over the Paujtib, Uq^ 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHP]R CASTES. 243 

excepting even the frontier where Kirar is tlie more usual term ; and it is just 
possible that in some eases other mereantile eastes have been included in the 
figures. This Iiowever cannot have happened to any considerable extent 
or the figures for the sub-divisions oE each caste would at once show what 
had happened. Of the Banyas of the Panjab about 92 per cent, are Hindus. 
Only 0-84 per cent, are Sikhs, most of whom are to he found in Patiala, 
Nabha and Rawalpindi. The Jains constitute 7 per cent, of the whole, 
and are confined to the Deldi division, Hissar, and Rohtak, or the tract 
bordering upon Rajputana, the great stronghold of Western Jainism. It is 
curious that the proportion of Jain Banyas should not be larger in Sirsa. 
Only some 500 souls are returned as Musalmans, and these may perhaps be 
Banyas by occupation rather than by caste. 

It is sometimes said that Banya is no true caste at all, but merely an 
occupational term equivalent to " shop-keeper,'' and that the great divisions 
of the Banyas, the Aggarwjils, Oswals, and the like, really occupy the position 
of castes ; and this is in a sense true. The great sections do not interman-y 
and very possibly represent stocks of different origin ; and if caste is used in 
the same sense as tribe, these sections are doubtless separate castes. But if 
the word is used in its purely Brahminical sense, I do not think the Ao-garwal 
and Oswal Banyas are separate castes any more than are the Gaur and Sarsut 
Brahmans. The two cases seem to me analagous. In all the non-agricultural 
castes who are found distributed widely among the poj^ulation, anvthing 
con-esponding with compact tri})al divisions, such as we find among Rajputs, 
Pathans, or Jats, is impossible. They do not move into and occupy a large 
tract of country ; they rather spread from centres of origin, diffusing them- 
selves among and accompanying the agricultural tribes in their movements. 
But the great divisions of the Banya caste occupy identical social and 
religious positions, and recognise each other, whether rightly or wrongly, as 
of common origin distinct from that of the Khatris and other castes whose 
avocations are the same as their own ; and, save in the sense in which such 
caste names as Chamar and Chuhra are only occupational terms, I think 
that the term Banya must be taken to describe| a true caste of supposed 
common blood, and not a collection of tribes of distinct descent united only bv 
identity of occupation (see further section .351 supra). 

533. The divisions of tlie Banya Caste.— The divisions of the Banya caste with which 
we are coucerned in the Panjab are shown in the margin. 
The Aggarwals or north-eastern division of Banyas include 
the immense majority of the caste in every district throughout 
the Province. They have, according to siierring, a tradition of 
of a far distant origin on the banks of Godavery. Buc the 
place to which all Aggarwals refer the origin of the sectioc, 
and from which they take their name, is Agroha in tfte Hissar 
district, once the capital of a Vaisya Raja of the name of 
Agar Sen, and whence they are said to have spread over 
Hindiistiln after the taking of that place by Shahab-ul-din 
Ghori in 1195; and Elliott points out that the fact that 
throughout the North-Western Provinces the Aggarwal Banyas 
are supposed to be specially bound to make offerings to Giiga 
Pi'r, the great saint from the neighbourhood of Agrolia, bears 
testimony to the truth of the tradition. The eighteen sous of 
Agar Sen are said to have married the eighteen snake-daughters of Raja Basak, and Guga Pfr is 
the greatest of the snake-gods. The Aggarwals are often Jain, especially in Dehli and among 
the more wealthy classes of the cities; and when .Tains, are generally of the Digauibara sects (see 
section 259, Chapter IV). But the great mass of them are Hindus, and almost invariably of the 
Vaisbnava sect. 



Banya 

Aggarwal 
Oswal 
Mahcsri . . . 
Saralia , . . 
Dasa 


SECTIOl 

secificd 


364,355 

3,863 

5,755 

11,899 

2,473 


TOTAT. 
Others and uns 


388,345 
49,599 


Total 


437,944 



244. 



PAN.TAB CASTES. 



OSWAL. 



Delili ... 
Gurgaou 
Karnal... 
Hissar ... 
KoLtak 



Delili ... 
Gurgaon 
Hissar ... 
Rohtak 

Sirsa . , . 
Amritsar 



Ambala 
Simla 
P.atiala 
Kalsia 
Hill States 



467 

51 

1,088 

527 

20 



Sirsa ... 
Patiala 
Other place: 

TOTAI. 



Mahesei. 



Tlie Oswals or south -western section of the caste trace their origin from Osia or Osnagar, a 

town in !M:irwar. Their distrihntion in the 

1 Panjab is shown in the margin; their real. 

home is in Gujarat and South-Western 
P.ijputi'uia, where they are exceedingly 
numerous. They are very generally Jains, 
and when Jains, almost .always of the Swe- 
tiimlmra sect. 

The third or north-western section is 
Mahesri who arc most numerous in Bikaner. 
Mr. Wilson says that those of Sirsa claim 
Rajpiit origin, and still have suh-divisious 
bearing Rajput names. They say that 
their ancestor was turned into stone for 
an outrage upon a faqtr, but was restored 
to life by IMahesh or Mahadcoj hence their 
name. Their distribution in the Panjab 
is shown in the margin. Tliey are for the 
most part Vaishnava Hindus, though 
occasionally .Tains. Their relations with the 
Aggarwals are much closer than are those of 
the Oswtls. 

The Saralia Banyas arc returned in the 
localities shown in the margin. They are a 
branch of the Aggarwals, but owing to 
some dispute left Agroha and settled in 
Sarala, a town not far from Agroha, from 
which they take their name. They arc as 
strict as other Aggarwals, and not in any 
way data or impure. They do not inter- 
TOTAL 11,899 marry with other Aggarwals. I have been 

I able to discover nothing regarding their 

origin or the distinction lietween them and 



525 
490 
530 
285 
920 
2,485 



Firozpur 
Multan 
Other places 

Total 



Saraua. 



1,378 

262 

70 

3,863 



145 
177 
198 

5,755 



9,841 

28 

971 

868 

191 



the other sections of the caste. 

The Dasa Banyas are not properly a distinct section of the caste. The word means < hybrid,' 
and is used for memljcrs of other castes wlio have departed from the custom of the caste or 
whose descent is not pure. The D.asa llany.as are said to be descendants of an illegitimate son of 
an Aggarwal. To the figures given for them above should be added 1,664 in Ambala who have 
returned themselves as Gata, which is a synonym for Dasa. 

Little appears to be known of the minor sub-divisions. It is to be hoped that the detailed 
tables of sub-divisions of castes now in course of preparation from the papers of the Panjab 
Census will tell us something about them. The three great sections, Agsarwivl, Oswal and 
Mahesri, are said not to intermarry. The 15a)iyas possess the Brahminical cjotras, but it appears 
that they also have other sub-divisions of the main sections of the caste. 

534-. The Dhunsar (Caste No. 173). — The head-quarter.s of the Dhunsar 
are at Rewari in Gurg-aon. The total number in tlie Panjab is under 1,000^ 
and all but tliroe are Hindus. They take their name from Dhosi^ a flat- 
topped hill near Niirnaulj where their ancestor Chimand performed his 
devotions. They are of Braliminieal origin, as is admitted by the Brahmans [P. 294] 
themselves, and it is possible that some of t hem may liave recorded themselves 
as Brahmans in the schedules. Indeed, I find 1,G08 Dhusar Brahmans 
returned, of whom 1,5G0 are in Gurdaspur ; but whether these are the same 
men as the Dhunsars of Ilewari I eannot say. The detailed tables when 
ready will clear up this point. In any case, they are no longer Brahmans, 
any more than are the agncultural Tngas ; and like the latter they employ 
Brahmans to minister to them. They are almost exclusively clerks or 
merchants, though, like the Khatris, some of them have risen to eminence in 
the army and the Court. The great Ilemu, the leader of the Indian army at 
the second battle of Panipat, wns a Dhunsar of liewari. Sherring states 
that the Dhunsars have a traditioji of origin in the neighljourhood of Benares 
before migmting to Dehli, that they excel as minstrels, and are exceedingly 



UELIGIOUS, PEOFESSIONAL.AND OTHEll CASTES. 245 

strict Hindus of the Vaisliuava sect. They seein to be numerous in the North- 
West Provinces. 

535. The Bohra (Caste No. 124).— Tiie ligures unJer tlie heading of 
Bohra include two very distinct chisses of men. Of the ^3,665 Bohras shown 
in our tables^ 56(3 are found in the Dehli division, and 3,105 in the Hill States 
of Kungra. The first are Brahman money-lenders from Marwar, who have of 
late years begun to settle in the districts on the Jamna, and have already 
acquired a most une viable notoriety for unscrupulous raj^acity. There is a 
rustic proverb : '^ A Bohra's 'good morning V is like a message from the angel 
" of death ; " and another : '' A Jat to guard crops, a Brahman as a money- 
" lender, and a Banya as a ruler :— God's curse be on you .'■'■' 

In the hills any money-lender or shop-keeper is apparently called a Bohra 
(from the same root as beohdr or '^ trade, -''^) and the word is used in the same 
general sense in the south of Rajputana and in Bombay, taking the place of 
the " Banya " of Hindustan, though in Gujrat it is specially applied to a 
class of Shiah traders who were converted to Islam some 600 years ao-o. 
In the Panjab all the Bohras are Hindus. It will be noticed that in those 
Hill States in which Bohras are numerous, Banyas are hardly represented 
in the returns, and vice versa j and there can be little doubt that both the 
Banyas and the Bohras shown for the Hill States are the same as the Pahari 
Mahajans next to be discussed. The Hill Bohras are said to be exceedingly 
strict Hindus, and to be admitted to intermarriage with the lower classes of 
Rajputs, such as Rjithis and Rawats. In Gurdaspur I am told that there 
is a Small class of traders called Bohras who claim Jat origin, and who are 
notorious for making money by marrying their daughters, securing the dower, 
and then running away with both, to begin again da capo. 

536. The Pahari Mahajans (Caste No. 112).— As I have just remarked, 
the Banyas and Bohras returned for the Hill States should proljably be 
included with these people. They appear to be a mixed caste sprung from 
the intermarriage of immigrants from the plains belonging to the Banya 
and Kiiyath castes and are generally either traders or clerks. But the term 
is in the hills really occupational rather than tlie name of any caste ; and it 
appears that a Brahman shop-keeper would be called a Mahajan, while a 
Mahajau clerk would be called a Kayath. Thus Mr. Barnes says that " the 
" Kayath of the hills, unlike his namesake of the plains, belongs to the 
'* Vaisya or connnercial class and wears the janeo or sacred thread,^' and 
Major Wace writes of Hazara : " The Hill Brahmans or Mahajans keep 
'' shops, cultivate, or take service, as well as act as priests.''^ The true Banya 
of Hindustan, who is found in the hills only as a foreigner, will not intermarry 
with these Pahari Mahajans. 

537. The Sud (Caste No. 75)2.— The Suds are gii^^ost entirely confined 
to the lower hills, and the districts that lie immediately under them as far 
west as Amritsar. Their head -quarters are at Ludhiana and the neighbom-ing 
town of Machhiwara, and they are, I believe, unknown outside the Panjab. 
They are almost wholly mercantile in their pursuits though occasionally 
taking service as clerks, and occupy a social position markedly inferior to that 
of either the Banya or the Khatri, They wear a. Janeo or sacred thread made 

' Mr. Bcamcs gives Wuhora as the true form of the wo^d. 

2 I am indebted to tlic kindness of Mr. Gordon Walker, Settlement Officer of Ludhiiiua, tov 
much of the iiii'ormatiou recorded below. 



^46 PANJAB CASTES. 

of three instead of six strands, and many of them practise widow-marriage. 
With the exception of a few who are Sikhs they are ahnost all Hindu, 
hut are, in comparison with the other mercantile castes, very lax in the 
observance of their religion. They indulge freely in meat and wine, 
and in habits, customs, and social position resemble very closely the Kiiyaths. 
The tribe is apparently an ancient one, but I can obtain no delinite informa- 
tion as to its origin. Various fanciful derivations of the tribal name are 
current, for the most part of an opprobrious nature. I attempted to make 
inquiries from so^ne leading Siiils; but the result was the asseml)ling of a 
Panchayat, the ransacking of the Sanskrit classics for proof of their Kshatriya 
origin, and a he;ited discussion in the journal of the Anjuman. 

They are divided into two main sections, the Uchilndia or Sud of the 
hills and the Newandia or Sud of the plains. I find however that some of 
the Siids of Hushyarpur trace their origin from Sarhind. They also dis- 
tinguish the Suds who not do practise widow-marriage from those who do, 
calling the former hhara, and the latter and their offspring gola, doglda 
(hybrid) or chichdn- These two sections, of which the latter corrcsjoonds 
exactly with the Basa and Gata Banyas already described, do not intermarry. 
The Suds forbid marriage in all four gots, and here again show how much less 
their tribal customs have been affected by their religion than have those of the 
Banyas and Khatris. They are of good physicpie, and are an intelligent and 
enterprising caste with great power of combination and self-restraint ; and 
they have lately made what appears to be a really successful effort to reduce 
their marriage exjDenses by general agreement. The extensive sugar trade of 
Ludhiana, and generally the agricultural money-lending of the richest part 
of that district, are almost entirely in their hands. They are proverbially 
acute and prosperous men of business, and there is a saying : " If a Sud is 
'^across the river, leave your bundle on this side.^^ The husbandman of the 
villages is a mere child in their hands. 

538. The Bhabra (Caste No. 88). — The Bhabras appear to be a purely 
Panjiib caste, and have their iiead -quarters in the towns of Hushyarpur and 
Sialkot. They occupy very much the same territorial position as do the Suds, 
except that they do not penetrate so far into the hills, and extend as far 
west as R;iwali)Indi instead of stopping short at Amritsar. Indeed there 
seems to be some doubt whether the word Bhabra is not as much a [P. 295] 
religious as a caste term, and whether it signifies anything more than 
a Sud, or perhaps a Banya also, of the Jain religion. No Suds have 
returned themselves as Jains ; and though some 11 per cent, of the 
Bhabras have returned themselves as Hindus, yet, as already explained 
in Part IV of the Chapter on Religion, they belong almost exclusively 
to the Swetambara or more lax sect of the Jains, and consider themselves 
Hindus first and Jains afterwards. A precisely similar difficulty with re- 
gard to the significance of the term Oswal is discussed in section 259. As 
a fact I believe that all Bhabras are Jains. vSome of them are said to be 
Oswiils ; but whether this means that they are Oswal Banyas by caste or 
Swetambara Jains by religion I cannot say. They are all traders. Further 
information regarding this caste is greatly needed. I have only come across 
two facts which seem to throw light on their origin. The Bhabras of Hush- 
yarpur make annual pilgrimages to a village called Fattahpur in the hills, 
some 20 miles from Hushyarpur, where there are remains of a very ancient 
and extensive town, and there worship at an ancestral shrine. The Bhabras 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 247 

of Jalandhar attribute their name to their refusal to wear the janeo or sacred 
thread at the solicitation of one J3ir Swami, who thereupon said that their 
faith (bhu) was great. This woukl se^jarate them from the Banyas. On the 
other hand many of the Gnrdiispnr Bhahras are said to be Osvval and Kan- 
delwal Banyas ; and Mr. Wilson says that in Sirsa the Sikh immigrants 
from Patiiila call the Oswiil Banyas Bhabra. The Bh;tl)ras have a curious rule 
ag-ainst one man marrying- two wives under any circumstances whatever. 

539. The Khatri (Caste No. 16).— The Khatri occupies a very diffe- 
rent position among the people of the Panjab from that of the castes 
which we have just discussed. Superior to them in physique, in manliness, 
and in energy, he is not, like them, a mere shop-keeper. He claims, indeed, 
to be a direct representative of the Kshatriya of Manu, but the validity of 
the claim is as doubtful as are most other matters connected with the four- 
fold caste system. The following extract from Sir George Campbeirs Eth- 
nology of India describes the position of the Khatri so admirably that I 
shall not venture to spoil it by condensation. The Aroras whom he classes 
with the Khatris I shall describe presently : — 

'• Trade is their niaiu occupation ; but in fact tliey Iiave broader and more distinguishing 
" features. Besides monoiiolisiiig the trade of the Paiijal) and the greater part of Afghanistan, 
" and doing a good deal beyond tliose limits, they are in the Paujal) the chief civil admmistjators, 
" and have almost all literate work in their hands. So far as the Sikhs have a priesthood, they 
" are, moreover, the priesti or gurus of the Sikhs. Both Nanak and Goviud were, and the 
" Sodis and Bedis of the present day are, Khatris. Thus then they are in fact in the Panjab, 
" so far as a more energetic race will permit them, all that jMahratta Brahmins are in the Mah- 
" ratta country, besides engrosuiug the trade which the Mahratta Brahmins have not. They are 
" not usually military in their character, but are quite capable of using the sword when nccessaiy. 
" Diwau Sawan Mai, Governor of Multan, and his notorious siiccessor Mulraj, and very many 
" of Ranjit Singh's chief functionaries, were Khatris. Even under Mahomedan rulers in the 
'' west, they have risen to high administrative posts. There is a record of a Khatri l>ewan of 
'' Badakshan or Kuuduz ; and, I believe, of a Khatri Governor of Peshawar under the Afghans. 
'• The Emperor Akbar's famous minister, Todur Mai, was a Khatri ; and a relative of that man 
" of undoubted energy, the great Commissariat Contractor of Agra, Joti Par<had, lately in- 
" formed me that he also is a Khatri. Altogether there can be no doubt that these Khatris are 
" one of the most acute, euergetic, and remarkable races in India, though in fact, except locally 
" hi the Panjab, they are not much known to Europeans. The Khatris are staunch Hindus ; 
" and it is samewhat singular that, while giving a religion and priests to the Sikhs, they them- 
" selves are comparatively seldom Sikhs. The Khatris are a very fine, fair, handsome race. 
'' And, as may be gathered from what I have already said, they are very generally educated. 

" There is a large subordinate class of Khatris, somewhat lower, but of equal mercantile 
" enei-gy, called Rors, or Roras. The proper Khatris of higher grade will often deny all con- 
" nexion with them, or at least only admit that they have some sort of ba>tard kindred with 
" Khatris ; l)ut I think there can be no doubt that they are cthnologically the same, and they 
" are certainly mixed up with Khatris in their avocations. I shall treat the whole kindred as 
" generically Khatris. 

" Speaking of the Khatris then thus broadly, they have, as 1 have said, the whole trade of 
" the Panjab and of most of Afghanistan. No village can get on Avithout (he Khatri who keeps 
" the accounts, doe< the banking business and buys and sells the grain. Thoy seem, too, to get 
" on with the people better than most traders and usurers of this kind. In Afghanistan, amouj 
" a rough and alien people, the Khatris are as a rule confined to the position of humble dealers, 
" shop-keepers, and money-lenders ; but in that capacity the Pathans seem to look at them as a 
" kind of valuable animal ; and a Pathan will steal another man's Khatri. not only for the sake 
" of ransom, as is frequently done on the Peshawar and Hazara frontier, but also as he might 
" steal a milchcow, or as Je\vs might, 1 dare say, be carried off in the middle ages with a view to 
" render them profitable. 

" 1 do not know the exact limits of Khatri occupation to the west, but certainly in all 
" Eastern Afghanistan they seem to be just as much a part of the established community as they 
'' are in the Panjab. They find their way far into Central Asia, Imt the further they got the 
" more depressed and humiliating is their position. In Turki-ian, Vambery speaks of them with 
" great contempt, as yellow-faced Hindus of a cowardly and sneaking character. Under Tur- 
" coman rule they could hardly be otherwise. They are the only Hindus known in Central 



248 PANJAB CASTES. 

" Asia. In the Panpib tlicy arc '^o uamerous that they cannot all be rich and mercantile j and 
«' many of them bold land, cultivate, take service, and follow various avocations, i 

" The Khatris arc altogether excluded from Brahmin Kashmir. In the hills however the 
" 'Kaika-/ on the ca4 bank of the Jahlam, are paid to have been originally Khatrls (they are 
'' a curiously handsome race), and in the interior of the Kangra hills there is an interesting 
" race of fine partiarchal-looking shepherds called Gaddis, most of whom are Khatris. Khatri 
" traders are numerous in Dchli; arc found in Agra, Lucknow, and Patna ; and are well known 
" in the Bara Bazaar of Calcutta, though there they are principally connected with Panjab 
" firms. 

" The Khatris do not seem, as a rule, to reach the western coast : in the Bombay market I 
" cannot find that they have any considerable place. In Sindh, however, I find in Captain 
" Burton's book au account of a race of pretended Kshatriyas who are really Banias of the 
" Nanak-Shahi (Sikh) faith and who trade, and have a large share of public offices. These are 
" evidently Khatris. Ludhiana is a large and thriving town of mercantile Khatris, with a 
" numerous colony of Kashmiri shawl-weavers." 

Witliin the Panjab the distribution of the Khatri clement is very well 
marked. It hardly appears east of Ludhiana, the eastern boundary of the 
Sikh religion, nor does it penetrate into the eastern hills. It is strongest in 
the central districts where Sikhism is most prevalent, and in the Rawalpindi 
division and Hazara, and occupies an important position in the western Hill 
States. Although the Khatris are said to trace their origin to Multan, they 
are far less prominent in the southern districts of the Western Plains, and 
least of all on the actual frontier ; but this would be explained if the Aroras be 
considered a branch of the Khatris. 

As Sir George Campbell remarked, it is curious that, intimately connected 
as the Khatris always have been and still are with the Sikh religion, only 9 
per cent, of them should belong to it. Nor do I understand why the pro- 
portion of Sikhs r^hould double and treble in the Jahlam and Rawalpindi 
districts. Some •2,()00 are Musalman, chiefly in Multan and Jhang where 
they are commonly known as Khojahs ; and these men are said to belong 
chiefly to the Kapur section. The rest are Hindus. 

540. The divisions of the Khatri Caste. Tbc question of the sub-divisions of the Khatris is 
exceedingly complicated. Within recent times there has sprung up a system of social gradua- [p. 296] 
tiou in accordance with which certain Khatri tribes refuse to intermarry with any save a certain 
specified number of their fellow tribes, and the distinctions thus cieated have been formulated iu a set 
of names such as Dhaighar, " he who only marries into two and a half houses ; " Chdrzati, " ho who 
marries into four tribes ;" Chhezdti, " lie who marries into six ti'ihes ;" and so on. This purely arti- 
ficial and social classification has obscured the original tribal divisions of the caste ; for Khatris of 
the same tribe may be in one part of the Province Charziitis, and in another Barazatis and so forth. 
It has also terrildy confused the entries in the schedules, assisted by an unfortunate mistake iu 
the sample schcdulos issued with the instructions to enumerators, in which, owing to my own 
ignorance of the matter, one of the /lawcAffj/a^i or artificial divisions was shown as a tribe. The 
distribution of the main sections is shown in Abstract No. 92 below*. It will be noticed that i«p 249 
they include more than three-quarters of the total Khatris of the Province, but that the percent- 
age unclassified is very large in some districts. In others again the number classified is larger 
than the total Khatri population. This is due to the same figures being in some cases repeated 
twice over. Thus in Giijranwala 963 Khatris have returned themselves as Kapur Charzati, and 
80 appear under both heads ; and so in other cases also. 

The headings of the Abstract include three different kinds of divisions, first the four real 
tribal sections, then the four most important of the artificial divisions alluded to above, and finally 
six of the most important clans. The origin of the division into the four sections called Bunjahi, 
Sarin, Bahi-i, and Khokhriiu, is said to be that Ala-ul-diu Khilji attempted to impose widow-mar- 
riage upon the Khatris. The Western Khatris resolved to resist the innovation, and sent a 
deputation of 52 {bdwan) of their members to represent their case at court ; but the Eastern 
Khatris were afraid to sign the memorial. They were therefore called followers of Sham Ayin 
or the Mabomedan customs — hence Sarin — while memorialists were called Bdwanjai from the 
number of the deputation or of the clans respectively reprcscnled by the members of the deputa- 
tion ; hence Biinjahi. Tiie Khokliran section is said to consist of the descendants of certain 
Khatris who joined the Khokhars in rebellion, and with whom the other Khatri families were 
afraid to intermarry ; and the Bahri section, of the lineage of Mahr Chand, Khan Chaud, and 



BELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 249 






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250 PANJAB CASTES. 

Kapur Chand, three Khatris who went to Dchli in attenrlnuce upon one of Akbar's Rajput wives, 
and who, thus separated from the rest of the caste, marrica only within each other's families. 
But these arc fahlcs, for the same division into F>ahri an<l Buiijahi appears amongr the Brahmans 
of the Western Plain>. The number of dans is eTiornious. The most impm-tant in point of 
social ranl^ are the Marhotra or Mahra, the Khnnna, the Kapur, and the Seth, the fir-t three of 
which are said to he called after the names of the three men just mentioned, while Seth is a ttrm new 
used for anv rich hanker. Tliese four clan^ belong to the ' IVvhri section of the caste, and con- 
stitute the i)haighar and Charzati divisions which stand highest of all in the social scale. The 
origin of the term Dhai^har lies in the fact that the families of that division exclude, not only 
the father's clan, hut al-o such families of the mother's clan as arc closely connected witli her ; 
and thus reduce the clans available for intermarriage to two and a half. I should say that each 
division will take wives from the one below it, iliiugh it will not give its daughters to it in 
marriage. The Bedi and Sodhi clans belong to the Bunjahi tribe, and owe most of their in- 
fluence and importance to the fact that Baba Nanak belonged to the former and Guru Ram Diis 
and Guru Har-rovind to the hit tor. Tlfey afe commonly said to be the de-^ceudants of these 
men, but thi< appears to be a mistake, the two clans dating from long before Baba Nanak. The 
Sodhis plaved an important part during the Sikh rule. They claim descent from Sodlii Rai, 
sou of Kal Rai King of Lahore, and tlie Bedis from Ksilpat Rai, brother of Kal Rai and King of 
Ka^ur, who being deprived of liis kingdom by his nephew, studied the Vedas at Benares and 
was known as Vedi. The modern head-quarters of the Bedis is at Dera Nanak iu Gurdas- ["• 297] 
pui- where Baba Nanak settled and died, and of the Sodliis at Anandpur in Hu4iyarpur, which 
is also the great centre of the Nihang devotees. 

541. The Khakha (Caste No. 179). — Klialcha is said to he a not un- 
common epithet to apply to any petty Kbatri trader. But the people to whom 
our figures refer are now sufficiently distinct, though their Khatri origin is, I 
believe, undoubted. Tliey are in fact coiiverted Khatris, and arc found in 
greatest numbers in the Kashmir hills lying along the left ]>ank of the 
Jahlam ; whence a few have made their way into Hazara and Rawalpindi. 
Sir George Campbell calls them ''a curiously handsome people." 

542. The Bhatia (Caste No. 69).— Tlie Bhatias are a class of Rajputs, 
orio-inally coming from Bhatner, Jaisalmer, and the Rajputana desert, who 
have taken to commercial piu'suits. The name would seem to show that they 
were Bliatis (called Bhatti in the Panjab) ; l)ut 1)0 that as it may, their Rajput 
origin appears to be unquestioned. They are numerous in Sindh and Gujarat 
where they appear to form the leading mercantile element, and to hold the 
place which the Aroras occupy higher up the Indus. They have spread into 
the Panjab along the lower valleys of the Indus and Satbij, and up the whole 
length of the Chenab as high as its dcltouchure into tlie plains, being indeed 
most numerous in Sialkot and Gujnit. In this Province however they 
occupy an inferior position, both in a social and in a mercantile sense. They 
stand distinctly below the Khatri and perhaps below the Arora, and are for 
the most part engaged in petty shoi)-kceping, though tlie Bhatias of Derah 
Ismail Khan are dcscril)cd as belonging to a " widely spread and enterprising 
mercantile community.'' They are often supposed to be Khatris, and in 
Jahlam they are said to follow the Khatri divisions of Bahri, Bunjahi, Dhai- 
ghar, Charzati, &c. They are very strict Hindus ; far more so than the other 
trading classes of the Western Panjalj ; and eschew meat and liquor. They 
do not practise widow-marriage. 

543. The Arora (Caste No. 10). — The Arora, or Rora as he is often called, 
is the trader par excellence of the Jatl<i-s])caking or south-western portion of 
Panjab, that is to say of the lower vaUcys of our iive rivers ; while higher up 
their courses he shares that position with the Khatri. East of the upper 
Satluj he is only found in the immediate neighbourhood of the river. More 
than half the Aroras of the Panjab dwell in the Multan and Derajjit divisions. 
Like the Khatri, and unlike the Banya, he is no mere trader ; but his social 



Religious, professional and other castes. 251 

position is far inferior to theirs, partly no (loul)t because ht is looked down 
upon simply as being a Hindu in the portions of the Province which are his 
special habitat. He is commonly known as a Kinir, a word almost synony- 
mous with coward, and even more contemptuous than is the name Banya in 
the east of the Province. The word Kirar, indeed, appears t" ]n' applied to all 
the Western or Panjubi traders, as distinct from the J3inyas of Hindustan, and 
is so used even in the Kaugra Hills. But the Arora is the person to whom 
the term is most eommonly applied, and Khatris repudiate the name altogether 
as derogatory. The Arora is active and enterprising, industrious and thrifty. 
" When an Arora girds up his loins, he makes it only two jniles (from Jhang) 
to Lahore/'' He will turn his hand to any work, he makes a most admiral )le 
cultivator, and a large proportion of the Aroras of the lower Chenab are purely 
agricultural in their avocations. He is found throughout Afghanistan and 
even Turkistan, and is the Hindu trader of those countries ; while in the 
Western Panjab he will sew clothes, weave matting and baskets, make vessels 
of brass and copper, and do goldsmith's work. But he is a terrible coward 
and is so branded in the proverbs of the countryside : " The thieves were four 
" and we eighty-four ; the thieves came on and we ran away. Damn the thieves ! 
" Well done us ! " And again : " To meet a Rathi armed with a hoe makes a 
"company of nine Kirars feel alone.'' Yet the peasant has a wholesome dread 
of the Kirar when in his proper place. '^ Vex not the Jat in his jungle, or the 
" Kirar at his shop, or the boatman at his ferry ; for if you do they Avill break 
'' your head/' Again : " Trust not a crow, a dog, or a Kirar, even Avhen asleep." 
So again : " You can't make a friend of a Kirar any mow. than a Satii of a 
" prostitute." The Arora is of inferior physique, and his character is thus 
summed up by Mr. Thorburn : " A cowardly, secreti\'e, acquisitive race, very 
" necessary and useful it may be in their places, but possessed of few manly 
" qualities, and both despised and envied by the great Musalman tribes of 
Bannu." A few of the Aroras are returned as INIusalman, some 7 per cent, as 
Sikh, and the rest as Hindu. But many of the so-called Hindus, especially on 
the lower Chanab and Satluj, are really Munna (shaven) Sikhs, or followers of 
Baba Nanak, while the Hindu Aroras of the Indus worship the river. Further 
details will be found in sections 34U and 264 of Chapter IV on the Religions 
of the people. 

544. Origin and divisions of tlie Aroras.— The Aroras claim to be of 
Khatri origin, and it will presently be seen that they follow some of the 
Khatri sub-divisions. ' The Khatris however reject the claim. Sir George 
Campbell (see section 539) is of opinion that the two belono* to the same 
ethuic stock. They say that they became outcasts from the Kshatriva stock 
during the persecution of that people by Paras Ram, to avoid which thev 
denied their caste and described it as /lur or another, hence their name. Some 
of them fled northwards and some southwards, and hence the names of the two 
g-reat sections of the caste, Uttaradhi and Dakhana. But it has been suggest- 
ed with greater probability that, as the Multan and Lahore Khatris are 
Khatris of Multan and Lahore, so the Aroras are Khatris of Aror the ancient 
capital of Sindh, now represented by the modern Rori. The number of clans 
is enormous, and many of them are found in both sections. The Uttaradhi and 
Dakhana do not intermarry, the section being endogamous and the clan, as 
usual, exogamous. All Aroras are said to be of the Kasib ffoim. The 

- The detailed figures, when published, will show how far the identity of divisions extends. 



252 



PANJAB CASTES. 



women of the northern or Uttariidlii section wear red ivorv bracelets antl the 
section is divided into two sub-sections called Bahri and Buniiihi (see Khatri 
diA-isionSj section 54lJ). The women of the southern or Dakhana section wear 
white ivory l>racelets, and the section is divided into two sul)-sections, the 
Dahra and the Dakhanadhiiin ; but the Dahra sub-section is so important that 
it is often counted as a third section, and the term Dakhana api^lied to the 
Dakhanadhains alone. So it is said that in some places the Dahra women 
alone wear white, and the Dakhana women spotted bracelets of both colours. 
The Bahri and the Dakhanadhain claim social superiority, and will take wives 
from, but not give daughters to, tlie other sub-section of their respective 
sections. The figures are given in Abstract No. 93 on the next page.* It will *Below. 
be noticed that the Dakhauas are far strongest in the southern and south- 
western districts. 



Abstract No. 93, showing the Divisions of the Aroras. 



[r. 296] 





Abobas. 




Aeoeas. 




1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 




'4 
1 


a 

a 

« 
3,875 


a 

.a 


Muzaffargarh 


2 
-a 


a 
.a 

CS 

P 


.a 

o 


Sirsa 


1.522 


120 


999 


20,1GG 


2,241 


Amiitsar ... 
Sialkot 


5,716 
7,604 


142 


8 

5,787 


D. I. Kh?iu 
D. G. Khan 
Banuu 


10,434 
10.611 
11,275 


3,165 
22,587 
10,580 


3 

1,016 

57 


Lahore 
GujrSnwila... 
Firozi)ur ... 


12,141 
21,872 
5,079 


4,422 

5 

3,432 


4,982 

6,753 

46 


Peshawar .. 

HazAra 

Kohat 


4,1. -,2 
1,787 
3,703 


33 

12 

212 


3,818 

297 

27 


Rawalpindi... 
Jahlam 
Gajr&t 
Shabpur ... 


2,966 

5,335 

9,^93 

20,193 


72 
15 
63 

5,348 


4,896 
5,608 
11,771 
9,482 


BahSwalpur 


4,397 


44,975 


6,702 


JInltin 

Jhang 

Montgomery 


8,793 
18,004 
3,108 


34,388 
2,185 
13,101 


0,455 
2:i,511 
16,283 


British Territory 
Native States ... 
Province 


166,036 

6,397 

172,433 


123,940 

45,507 

169,447 


102,241 

6,707 

108,948 



545. The Khojah and Paracha (Castes Nos. 44 and 104) .—The word 
Khojah is really nothing more than our old friend tlie Khwajah of the Arabian 
Nirjhfs, and means simply a man of wealth and respectalnlity. In the Panjiib 
it is used in three different senses : for a eunuch, for a scavenger converted to 
Islam, and for a Mahomedan trader.^ It is in the last sense that it is used in 
our tables. There does not appear to be any true caste of Khojahs, any 
Hindu trader converted to Mahomedanism being known Ity that name. Thus 
the Khojahs of Sliahpur are almost entirely Khatris, and a Khatri now becom- 
ing a Musaliniin in that district would be called a Khojah. The Khojahs of 
Jhang, on the oilier hand, are said to be converted Aroras ; while some at least 
of the Lahore Kliojahs claim Bliiitia origin, and one section of the Arabala 



The Kliojalis of Bombay are well known for their wcaltli aud commercial enterprise. 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 253 

Khojalis are Kiiyaths. Now the Pariichas also arc Maliomcdan tvndcrs ; and 
there is at least a very definite section of them with head-([iTarters at Mukhad 
on the Indus in Rawal])indi who are a true caste, being converted Kli;itriSj and 
marrying only among tliemselves. But unfortunately the word Par;bhais also 
used in the central districts for any petty Mahomedan trader. The fact seems 
to be tliat in the Rawalpindi and Peshawar divisions, where Para -has ai'e a 
recognised and Avealthy caste, Khojah is used for miscellaneous ]\Jahomedan 
traders, chiefly hawkers and i)edlars, or at least petty traders ; while in the 
eastern districts and in the Derajat, where Khojahs are commercially import- 
ant, Paracha is used for the Mahomedan pedlar. Thus in our tables the 
divisional offices have in many cases included Paracha under Khojah and 
Khojah under Paracha, and the figures cannot safely be taken separately. 

These Mahomedan traders, whether called Khojah or Paracha, are found 
all along the northern portion of the Province under the hills from Amritsar 
to Peshawar, and have spread southwards into the central and eastern districts 
of the Western Plains, but have not entered the Derajat or Muzaffargarh in 
any numbers ; though to the figures of Abstract No. 91 must be added those 
of Abstract No. 72 (page 224*) for these last districts. Their eastern boundary 
is the Satluj valley, their western the Jahlam-Chanab, and they are found 
throughout the whole of the Salt-range Tract. Probably it is hardly correct 
to say of them that they have " spread " or " entered ;" for they apparently 
include many distinct classes who will have sprung fi'om different centres of 
conversion. They appear to be most numerous in Lahore. A very interesting 
account of a recent development of trade by the Khojahs of Gujrat and Sialkot 
is given in Panjab Government Home Proceedings No. 10 of March 1879. 
It appears that these men buy cotton piece-goods in Dehli and hawk them 
about the villages of their own districts, selling on credit till harvest time^ and 
the business has now assumed very large proportions. The Khojahs of the 
Jhang district are thus described by Mr. Monckton : " They do not cultivate 
'' with their own hands, but own a great many wells and carry on trade to a 
" considerable extent. They are supjiosed to have been converted from 
" Hinduism. They do not practise cattle-stealing, but are a litigious race, 
" and addicted to fraud and forgery in the prosecution of their claims." 

The Parachas of the Salt-range Tract require a word of separate notice. 
Their head-quarters are at Mukhad in Pindi, and there are also large colonies 
at Attak and Peshawar, whence they carry on an extensive trade with the 
cities of Central Asia, chiefly in cloth, silk, indigo, and tea. They say that 
their place of origin is the village of Dangot in the Bannu district, and that 
they moved to Mukhad in Shahjfehan^s time ; but another account is that they 
were Khatris of Lahore, deported by Zaman Shah. They have seven clans 
and give their daughters only to Parachas, though they will occasionally take 
wives of foreign origin. They still retain the Hindu title of Raja. They will 
not marry with Khojahs and have dropped the Hindu ceremonial at their 
weddings, which they say the Khojahs of those parts still retain. They 
account for their name by deriving it from pdrcJia " cloth " one of the princi- 
pal staples of their trade. Some of the Parachas of Ambala seem to have 
returned themselves as Paracha Khel, and to have been not unnaturally classed 
as Pathans by the tabulators. I cannot give separate figures for these. 
CARRIER AND PEDLAR CASTES. 

546. Carriers, Cattle-merchants, Pedlars, &c. — I have said that tlie 
commerce of the Panjab was in the hands of the group just discussed, with 
the exception of the trade in meat, liquor, and vegetables, the traffic in cattle, 



254 PANJAB CASTES. 

the canying trade, and petty pedling and hawking'. The sellers of meat 
and liqnor will be discussed tinder the head of miscellaneous artisans ; and 
the group which I am now ahout to describe consists of the traA.lers in cattle, 
the carriers, and the pedlars and Imclcsters of the Province. I have divided 
it into three sections, tliough I shall presently show that the first two overlap 
considerably, and that the third is incomplete. The first section includes 
the Banjaras, the Labanas, the Rahbaris, and the Untwals ; and these castes 
include most of the professional carriers and cattle-dealers, and some of the 
pedlars of the Panjab. The second class consists of the Maniars, the Bhatras, 
and the Kangars, and includes the rest of the pedlars of the Province save 
only such as belong to the Khoja and Paracha castes just discus-ed. The 
third class includes the Kunjras and the Tambolis, both Greengrocers. 

But it must be understood that, though there are no castes in the 
Panjab besides those above mentioned whose hereditary occupation it is to 
trade in cattle and carry merchandise, yet an immense deal of traffic in cattle 
goes on quietly among the villagers without the iiitervention of any outsider ; 
while in the early months of the hot weather, when the spring harvest has 
been cut, and before the early rains of autumn have softened the ground 
sufficiently for ploughing to be possible, the plough oxen of the unin-igated 
Eastern Plains find employment in carrying the produce of their villages to 
the line of rail or to the great city marts, and in bringing back salt and other 
products not indigenous to the tract. 

547. The Banjara (Caste No. 94).— This and the following or Labana 
caste are generally said to be identical, being called Banjara in the eastern 
districts and Labana in the whole of the Panjab proper. But Banjara, 
derived from banij " a trader ^' or perhaps from banfi '' a pedlar's pack " is 
used in the west of the Panjab as a generic term for " pedlar,^' and I have 
therefore kept the figures distinct. Indeed it is to be feared that in that part 
of the Province many persons have been shown as Banjara in consequence of 
their occupation only. 

The Banjaras of the eastern districts are a well-marked class, of whom a 
long and very complete description will be found in Elliotts 7?flc<?5 <?/ ^/^y? 
A //'. P., Vol. I, pages .")5l-56. They are the great travelling traders and 
carriers of Central India, the Deccan and Rajputana ; and under the Afghan 
and ]\I\ighal Empires were the commissariat of the imperial forces. There is 
a simile ajjplied to a dying person ; " The Banjara goes into the jungle with 
'' his stick in his hand. He is ready for the journey, and there is no body 
" with him. " From Sir II. ElliotJ/s description they seem to be a very 
composite class, including sections of various origin. But the original Ban- 
jara caste is said to have its habitat in the sub-montane tract from Gorakhpur 
to Hardwjir. The Banjiiras of the North-West Provinces come annually into 
the Jamna districts and Eastern States in the cold weather Avith letters of 
credit on the local merchants, and Iniy up large numbers of cattle which they 
take back again for sale as the summer approaches ; and it is principally these 
men and the Banjara carriers fi-om Rajputana to whom our figures for Hindu 
Banjaras refer. The Musalman Banjaras are probably almost all ]")edlars. 
The headmen of the Banjara parties are called Naik (Sanskrit Nayaka 
'* chief ") and Banjaras in general are not uncommonly known by this name. 
The Railway is fast destroying the carrying trade of these people except in the 
mountain tracts. The word Banjara is apparently sometimes used for an 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 255 

oculist, so at least JNIr. Baden-Powell states. (See further under Mahtam, 
section 49;> niprn.) 

548, The Labana (Caste No. 52).— These men are generally associated with 

the caste just discussed. With the exception of Muzaffargarh and Bahawal- 

pur, which will he discussed presently, they are almost wholly confined to the 

hill and suh-montane districts. They are the carriers and hawkers of tlie hills, 

and are merely the Panjahi representatives of that class of Banjaras already 

alluded to who inhabit the sub-montane tracts east of the Ganges. The 

Labanas of Gujrat are thus descri))ed Ijy Captain Mackenzie : — 

" The lialifinas are also a peculiar people. Tlielr status anioiigst SikLs is iiiucli the same as 
" that of the ]\Iahtams. Tliev lorrespoiid to the Banjaras of Hindustan, carrying ou an extensive 
" trade hy means of large herds of laden bullocks. Latterly they have taken to agriculture, hut 
" as an additional means of livelihood, not as a sulistitnte for trade. As a section of tlie com- 
" munity they deserve e^ery consideration and eni'ouragement. They are generally fine substan- 
" tially iniilt people. They also possess much spirit. In anarchical times when the freaks or 
'' feuds of petty Govei'iiors would drive the Jat< or Gujars to seek a temporary abiding place away 
" from their a nccstr.al village, the Labanas would stand their ground, and peihaps improve the 
" opportunity by extending their grasp over the best lauds in the village, in which their shoiter- 
" ;ighted and less provident lords of the Manor had, in some former period, permitted them to 
" take up their ahode for purposes ol commerce. Several cases of this nature came to light during 
" settlement, and in most of them the strength and spirit of progress were as apparent in the 
'■ Labanas as were the opposite qualities conspicuous in their Gujar opponents Their principal 
" village is Tanda (which means a large caravan of laden bullocks) and is an instance of what I 
" have above alluded to. Allowed to reside by the Gujar proprietoi'S of Mota, they got possession 
'' of the soil, built a kasba, and in every point of importance swamped the original proprietors. 
" They have been recognized as pr.'prietors, but feudal ory to their former landlords the Gujars of 
" Mota, paying to them annually iu recognition thereof, a svim equal to one-tenth of the Govern- 
" ment demand." 

There is a curious colony of Labanas on the lower Indus who are said to 
have settled there under the Sikh rtile, and who are almost all Mnnna Sikhs 
or followers of Biiba Nanak, though many of them are returned in the Baha- 
walpur tallies as Hindus. These men have almost entirely given up traffic 
and trade, and settled on the banks of the river where they lead a sort of semi- 
savage life, hunting and making roj)es and grass mats for sale. They hardly 
cultivate at all. Their numl)ers are much under-stated in Aljstract No. 94,* as 
Abstract No. 7~ (page 224t) shows that 4,.317 of the Bahawalpur Labanas 
were returned as Jats. The Labanas of Jhang are said to have come from 
Jaipur and Jodhpur, and to be the same as the Mahtams of Montgomery. 
On the whole the Labanas appear to be by origin closely allied with, if not 
actually l)elonging to, the vugrant and probably aljoriginal triljes whom we 
shall discuss in the next part of this chapter ; and it may be that at least some 
sections of the Labanas are of the same stock as they. (See further under 
Mahtam, section 495 svpro.) About 30 per cent, of the Lal)anas are retui'ned 
as Sikhs and almost all the rest as Hindus, there being only some 1,500 
Musalmans among them. Little is known of the sub-divisions of the caste. 
The largest seems to be the Ajrawat with 4,100 souls, chiefly in Gujrat and 
Lahore; the Diitla with 4,173 souls, chiefly in Lahore ; the Maliaua with 
2,537 and the Bhagiana with 2,015 persons, both in the Amritsar and Lahore 
divisions ; and the Gahri with 1,925 persons along the whole foot of the hills. 
But the greater part of the caste have returned no large divisions. 

549. The Rahbari (Caste No. 122).— This is a camel-breeding caste found 
only in the eastern and south-eastern districts of the Panjab and in the ad- 
joining Native States. In the extensive jungles of these tracts they pasture 
large herds of camels, while they also carry merchandise from place to place 



256 



PANJAB CASTES. 






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258 PANJAB CASTES. 

for hire. Their proper home nppears to be Bikiiner and the "RajpntAna 
desert. 

550. Untwal (Caste No. 144). — This is a purely occupational term and 
means nothing more tlian a cnmel-man. Under this head have heen included 
ShutarLiin and Sarl)an, l^oth words having the same meaning. But ^Malik 
has heen classed as Biloch, as the title is chiefly confined to the Bilocli 
camelman. Indeed many of the persons returned as Biloches in the Central 
Pan jab would proba])lT have been more properly described as TJntwal, since 
the term Biloch tliroughout the central districts is used of any Musalman 
camelman. It will be noticed that the Untwals are returned only from 
those pai-ts of the Province where the real meaning of Biloch is properly 
understood. In those parts they are said to be all Jats ; Imt Jat means very 
little, or rather almost anything, on the Indus. 

551. The Maniar (Caste No. 47). — Here again we meet with an occu- 
pational term, and with resulting confusion in the figures. The Maniar of 
the eastern districts is a man who works in glass and sells glass l)angles, 
generallv hawking them about the villages. But throughout the rest of 
the Paiijab Maniar is any pedlar, m.nni&ri hechhna being the common term 
for the occupation of carrying petty hardware aljout for sale. Thus we 
have Khojah, Paracha, Banjara, and Maniar, all used in different ])arts and 
some of them in the same part of the Province for a pedlar ; and the result 
is that the figures have probably been mixed up. The extraordinary number 
of Maniars returned for the Jahlam and Rawalpindi disti-icts in Table VIII A 
is due to an unfortunate error, not detected till after the table was printed, by 
which Maliar was read Maniar. These people are really vegetable-growers, 
and have been classed in their proper place in the Abstracts of this chapter. 

552. The Bhatra (Caste No. 174). — The Bhjitra is also a pedlar ; but 
he belongs to a true caste. H(; claims Brahman origin, and his claim 
would appear to be good, for he wears the sacred thread, applies the tilak 
or forehead mark, and receives offerings at eclipses in that capacity. He 
is probably a low class of Gujarati or Dakaut Brahman, and like them 
practises as an astrologer in a small way. The Bhatras of Gujr^t are 
said to trace their origin to the south beyond Multan. The Bhatras hawk 
small hardware for sale, tell fortunes, and play on the native guitar, but 
do not beg for alms. It is their function to pierce the noses and ears of 
children to receive rings. Mr. Baden-Powell descril^es the instruments used 
at page 268 of his Panjdb Manufactures. The Ramaiya of the east of 
the Panjab appears to correspond exactly with the Bhatra and to b(> the same 

person under a different name, Ramaiya being 
used in Dehli and Hissiir, Bhatra in Lahore 
and Pindi, and ])oth in the Ambala division ; 
and I directed that both sets of figures should Ite in- 
cluded under the head Bhatra. Unfortunately the 
order was not carried out. The number of 
Ramaiyas I'eturned is shown in the margin. But 



DcliVi division ... 419 

HissSr division ... 19 

AmbSla division ... 16 

454 



in any case th(! figures are incomplete. l''he Bh^itra is essentially a pedlar 
and has pi-obably been returned by one of the names for pedlars just re- 
fern^d to more often than by his caste name. He is said to be called Madho 
in Rawalpindi, but this is probably due to some confusion of BluUra with 
Bhat. 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES ^.59 

553. The Kangar (Caste No. 180). — Tlio Kan^ar is also a travelling 
hawker, but he contiuch; liis tialiic to small articles of earthenware such as 
pipe-]>owls, and especially to tliose earthen images in which native children 
deh'o-ht. These he makes himself and hawks about for sale. He is returned 
in the tables from the Amritsar division only. But Baden-Powell gives at 
pao-e 267 of Panjdl) Manufactvres a long account of an operation for a new 
nose sai<l to be succossfnlly performed by the Kangars of Kangra 

554. The Kunjra (Caste No. 114). — Here again is a purely occupational 
term, and again confusion as the consequence. Kunjra is nothing more or 
less than the Hindustani, as Snbzi far ash is the Persian for greengrocer. 
The big men generally use the latter term, the small costermongers the 
former. But in no case is it a caste. The Kunjra belongs as a rule to one 
of the castes of market gardeners wliich have been described under minor 
agricultural tribes. I do not know M'hy Kunjra should liave lieen returned 
under that name only in the east. It may be that in other parts of the 
Province it is more usual to call the seller of vegetables an Arain or Biigban 
as the case may be, and that the word Kunjra is little used. This pro- 
bnbly is the true explanation, as the figures for Native States show the 
same peculiarity. 

555. The Tamholi (Caste No. 165).— A Tamboli is a man who sells p^n 
and betel-nut ; but whether the sale of those commodities is confined to 
a real caste of that name I cannot say. It is probable thit the term is 
only occupational. If Tamboli were a, real caste we should have it returned 
from every district, as the word seems to be in use throughout the Pro- 
vince. Sherring, however, gives it as a separate caste in the neighbourhood 
of Benares. Tamhiili is the Sanskrit name of the betel plant. 

MISCELLANEOUS CASTES. 

556. Miscellaneous Castes.— The castes which I have included in Abstract 
260- No. 9.5 on the next page* are of a miscellaneous nature, and would not con- 
veniently fall under any of the main divisions under which I have grouped 
my castes. I have divided them into two classes. The first, which includes 
Kashmiris, Dogras, Gurkhas, and Parsis, are Indian castes who live on the 
borders of the Panjab but are only present in the Province as immigrants ; 
though indeed some of the Kashmiri colonies are now permanent and con- 
tain large numbers of people. The second, which includes Kayatlis, Bishnois, 
Chahzangs, and Kanchans are inhabitants of the Panjab, though no one of 
them except the Ksiyath of the plains can be said to be a true caste. 

302] ^^1'. J^® Kashmiri and Dogra (Castes Nos. 26 and 182). -The word 

Kashmiri is perhaps applicable to the menil)ers of any of the races of 
Kashmir; but it is commonly used in Kashmir itself to denote the people 
of the valley of Srinagar. Our figures however probably include some 
Chibhalis, or the race who inhabit the Kashmir hills and the borders of 
Gujrat, Rawalpindi, and Hazara. Bnt they do not include either Dogras 
or the Paharis of Kishtwar and Bad:irwc4h, as these last are Hindus, 
while our Kashmiris arc Mtisalmans. In any case the term is a geo- 
graphical one, and probably includes many of what we should in the 
Panjab call separate castes. The cultivating class who form the great 
mass of the Kashmiris proper are probably of Aryan descent, though per- 
haps with an intermixture of Khas blood, and possess marked characters. 



260 



PANJAB CASTES. 



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26'2 PANJAB CASTES. 

Drew describes them as " large made antl robust and of a really fine cast 
" of feature/^ and ranks them as '^ the finest race on the whole Continent 
" of India." But their history is, at any rate in recent times, one of the 
most grievous suffering and oppression ; and they are cowards, liars, and 
withal quarrelsome, though at the same time keen-witted, cheerful and 
humorous. A good aecount of them will be found in Drew's Jummoo and 
Kashmir. The Chibhalis are for the most part Musalman Bajpats, and 
differ from the Dogras only in religion, and perhaps in clan. 

The Kashmiris of the Panjab may i)e broadly divided into three classes. 
First the great Kashmiri colonies of Ludhiana and Amritsar, where there 
are nearly o5,U0i> Kashmiris permanently settled and engaged for the most 
part in weaving shawls and similar fine fabrics. These men are chiefiy 
true Kashmiris. Secondly, the recent immigrants driven from Kashmir by 
the late famine into our sub-montane districts, or attracted by the sjjecial 
demand for labour in the Salt-range Tract and upper frontier which was 
created by works in connection with the Kabul campaign. It is impossi- 
ble to say how many of these men are Chibhalis and how many Kash- [P- 303] 
rairis. Thirdly, the Chibhalis who have crossed the border and settled 
in our territories in the ordinary course of affairs. These men are pro- 
bably confined to Gujrat and the trans-Salt range Tract. Besides those 
who are returned as Kashmiris, I find no fewer than 7,515 persons returned 
as Kashmiri Jats, of whom 1,152 are in Lahore and 5,081 in Giijranwala. 
Those are proljably Kashimris who have settled and taken to cultivation. 
The Kashmiri weavers of Amritsar are described as "litigious, deceitful, 
**and cowardly, while their habits are so unclean that the quarter of tlie 
" city which they inhabit is a constant source of danger from its liability to 

"epidemic disease.'^ The Kashmiris 
have returned numerous sub-divi- 
sions, of which the few largest are 
shown in the margin. Their dis- 
tribution does not appear to follow 
any rule ; and it is hardly worth 
while giving detailed figures in this 
place. The Kashmiris of our cities 
are as a rule miserably jjoor. 

558. The Dogra (Caste No. 181). — The Dogras are Ktijputs who inhabit 
Jaminu, and liave returiicil themselves as such to the number of 1,415 seattered 
about the Province, the largest numl^'r in one district being 091 in Rawalpindi. 
Thus our separate figures mean little, and might well have been included with 
Kajputs. The word Dogra, however, is commonly used for any inhabitant 
of Jammu whatever bo his caste, Dogar being another word for the Jammu 
territory. Dogras are jn'obably present in the Panjab as settlers from across 
the Ijorder, as famine fugitives, ;ind in the Dogra regiments of oui- army. I 
believe their Rajpi\t origin is undoubted ; but that it is equally certain that 
they are not pure llajpiits. 

559. The Guikha, Parsi, and Bangali (Caste Nos. 148, 184, and 168).— 
The Gurkhas are the ruling aud military race of Nepal, and are only found in 
the Panjab as members of our (iiirkli;! regiments. They are of mixed Aryan 
and Turanian blood, and an admiral )lc and interesting account of them will be 
found in that one of Hodgson's E$saj/s which deals ^vith the military tribes 







Kashmiri Thibes. 




1. 


Bat 


... 24,463 6. Shckh . 


.. 14,90 iJ 


2. 


Lun 


... 4,848 ' 7. I'.atti . 


.. 14,725 


3. 


Dar 


... 16,215 8. Mahar . 


.. y,0S3 


4. 


Waiu 


... 7,419 • 9. Warde . 


.. 4,863 


5. 


Mil- 


.. 19,855 1 10. Man 


.. 2,656 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. 263 

of Nepal. The Paisis are the Zoroastrian class of that name who have come 
from the Bombay Presidency into the Panjab as merchants and shop-keepers. 
The Bangalls are the Bengali Baboos of our offices. They are I believe for 
the most part eilher Brahmans or Kiiyaths, Bengali Ijeing of course a 
purely g-eographical term. They are only found in ofiices and countiog- 
houses. 

560. The Kayaths (Caste No. 90).— The Kjiyath is the well-known writer 
class of Hiudiist.ui. He does not appear to be indigenous in the Panjab, and 
is found in decreasing numbers as we go westwards. Pie is only lo be found 
in the administrative or commercial centres and is being rapidly displaced, so 
far as Government service is concerned, by Paujabi clerks. His origin is 
discussed in Colebrook^s Essoi/s- 

But in the Panjab hills Kayath is the term of an occupation rather than 
of a caste, and is applied to members of a mixed caste formed l>y the inter- 
marriage of Brahmans and Kayaths proper, and even of Banyas who follow 
clerkly pursuits. Their caste would be Mahajan (Pahari) and their occupation 
Kayath. Mr. Barnes says : " The Kayath of the hills is not identical with 
the Kayath of the plains. He belongs to the Vaisya or commercial class, and 
is entitled to wear the janeo or sacred thread. The Kayath of the plains is 
a Sudra, and is not entitled to assume the janeo} " (See also Pahari 
Mahajan, page 291'.*) 

561. The Bishnoi (Caste No. 106).— The BIshnois are really a religious 
sect and not a true caste. Their tenets and practice have been briefly sketch- 
ed at page 123 in the Chapter on Religion. Almost all the followers of this 
sect are either Jats or Tarkhans by caste, and come from the Bagar or 
Bikaner prairies j but on becoming Bishnois they very commonly give up their 
caste name and call themselves alter their new creed. This is, however, not 
always so ; and many of the Bishnois will doubtless have returned themselves 
under their caste names. I do not know whether the Jat and Tarkhan 
Bishnois intermarry or not. But a Bishnoi will only marry a Bishnoi. They 
are only found in Hariana, and are all Hindus. 

562. The Chazang (Caste No. 138).— This again Is not a true caste, for it 
is conlined to the Buddhists of Spiti, among whom caste is said to be unknown. 
The word Chahzang means nothing more or less than " land-owner, " from 
chdh " owner " and zang " land, " and includes all the land-owning classes of 
Spiti, where everybody owns land except Hesis and Lobars. These people are 
by nationality Tibetan, or as they call themselves Bhoti, and should perhaps 
have Ijeen returned as such. Mr. Anderson says : '' Chiihzang means the 
"land-holding class, and the people towards Tibet, Ladakli, and Zanskar are 
" known as Chahzang. It appears to be used in a very wide sense to mean 
'' all that speak Bhoti, just as Monpa means ' the people that do not know,' 
*' that is; the Hindus. " 

563. The Kanchan (Caste No. 96).— This again is hardly a caste, 
Kanchan simply meaning a Musalman pimp or prostitute, and being the 
Hindustani equivalent for the Panjabi Kaujar. The figures for Kanjar, ex- 
cept in the Dehli, Hissar, and Ambala divisions, have been included under this 
heading (see section 590). The word kanchan is said to mean '^pure and 
" illustrious. " The Hindu prostitute is commonly known as Ramjani and 

^This laat assei-tiou is contested iu a pamphlet called Ka^astha Ethnologi/ {Lxx&kMovf, 1877). 



264, PANJAB CASTES. 

it appears that tliey have generally returned themselves under their proper 
castes.^ Such few as have not shown themselves as Ramjani have lieeu 
included with Kauuhan. llaudi is also used for a prostitute in the east of the 
Province, but it means a " widow '' throughout the Paujiib proper. It will 
be observed that two-fifths of the Kanchans are males. These people form a 
distinct class, though not only their ofEsjiring, but also girls bought in 
Infancy or joining the community in later life and devoting themselves to 
prostinfcion, are known as Kanchans. 

563a. Miscellaneous Castes of Table VIII B.— In Table VIII B I have given the figures 
for a number of mi^celhiuious c.i-tes wliich I did not think it worth while to Show in detail in 
Table VIII A. Many of the.-;e I cannot identify, and cannot even be sure that I have got the 
names right. And many more would properly fall under some one of the various groups into 
which I have divided my castes for the purposes of this i-hapter. But the numbers are so small and 
time so pressing tliat I shall take them a? they come in Table VIII B. and give briefly the infor- [p. 304j 
mation I possess regarding such of thom as I know anything about. Many of them are not castes 
at all, but either occupational or geographical terms, i'oja {Caste No. 186) — literally means a 
diver, but is used for the men who dig and clean wells, in which process diving is necessary. 
They generally belong to the Jhi'uwar and Machhi caste, and are often fishermen a- well as well- 
sinkers. Patwd {Caste No. 1S7). — From pat silk, and means any worker in silk, but is general- 
ly used only for those who make silken cord and waistbands, thread beads and silk, and so forth. 
They are called Patoi in the west. They are said often to be Khatris. Bdgri {Caste No. ISS) — 
means any one from the Bagar or prairies of Bikaner, but is usually confined to Jats from those 
parts. Giodlpa {Caste No. 189). — These men are apparently Tibetans, but I cannot define the 
meaning of the word. Khardsia {Caste No. 190). — The men who work the water mills so com- 
mon in the hills. They are said often to be Daolis. Fachhdda {Caste No. 192) — used in 
Bhattiana and Mariana for Musahnau Jat and Rajput immigrants from the Satlu.i country to 
the west {pachhain), just as Bagri is used for similar Hindu immigrants from the South. Tard 
ora {Caste No. 193). — These people came to Hazaia from Amb and the Buncr and Chagharza 
hills. They trace their descent from a Kalir convert to Islam called Dumau. They all are 
agricultrual by occupation. Palleddr {Caste No. 194) — A porter, generally found in the bazaars 
and markets. Kamdchi {Caste No. 196). — A class of vagrant minstrels who hcg and play at 
weddings. Kiichband {Caste No, 197). — Makers of Jcucli, or weaver's bruslies. Tiicy belong to the 
outcast and vagrant classes. Ddrtlgar { Caste No. 198). — A man who makes gunpowder. Under 
this head is included Atishbdz, a man who makes fireworks. Pali {Caste No. 199). — Pali is the 
ordinary village word for cowherd in the east of the Panjab, But in Multiin there is a separate 
Pali caste who have lately been converted from Hinduism and still retain many of their Hindu 
customs. They follow all sorts of handicrafts, and especially that of oil-pressing, and engage in 
trade in a small way. Jarrah {Caste No. 200). — The Xativc Surgeon who applies plasters, draws 
teeth, sets fractures, and so on. He is almost always a Nai. Kdpri {Caste No. 201).— 'A. ca-;te 
who claim Brahman origin, and whose occupation is that of making the ornaments worn by the 
bridegroom at weddings, artificiid ilowers, and similar article made of talc, tinsel, and the like. 
They are apparently connected, in Dehli at least, with the Jain temples, where they officiate as 
priests and receive offerings. They also act as Bhat-; at weddings. They are said to come from 
llajputana. Pdnda {Caste No. 202). — A name commonly given to any educated Brahman who 
teaches or ofliciates at religious functions. Prol)ably of the same origin as Pandit. In the hills 
it Ls said to be used for Dakaut Bralimans. Sapela {Caste No. 203).— -A snake-catcher and 
charmer, generally belonging to one of the vagrant tribes. Mardtha {Caste No. 204).— Ku 
inhabitant of Maharasthra or the Mahratta (Jouutry. Alchundzadah {Caste No. 205). — Sec 
Ulama, section 517. Sapdndi {Caste No. 206). — Probably the same as Sapela No. 203 q. v. Dt'wdn. 
{Caste No. 207). — This is the title of the revenue minister at a Native Coiirt. There is also a 
Sikh order called Diwana. Hesi {Caste No. 203) — should have been included with No. 167 des- 
cribed under Gip-y tribes in the next part of this chapter. Ari/a {Caste No. 209). — Probably 
followers of the Arya Suniaj. Attar {Caste No. 210). — A dispensing druggist, as distinct from the 
Pansdri f r an whom the drugs are bought, nni\\.\\(i Gdndi, a distiller of essences and perfumes. 
The Attar however makes arracks and sherbets. Qarol {Caste No. 211). — These are the descen- 
dants of the hunters and menagerie keepers of the old Mughal Court at Uehli. They arc of 
several caite-;, but prob;ib]y for tlie most part Pathan ; but they have now formed a separate caste, 
marry oidy among theniMjlves, and liavc taken to agrifmlture. They are called after their weapon, 
the Imnting-knife or qarol. Afarejha {Casta No. 212). — A class of wandering beggars who come 
from ll.ljputana and Sindh. Mdrivdri {Caste No. 21.3). — Inhabitants of Mtirwar, but generally 
applied in the Panjab to Hrahman money-lenders or Bohra,^ from that tract. Ldhori {Casta No, 
214). — Residents of Lahore ; but perhaps Khatris, of whom there is a great Lahori aectiou, Liinia 

' But see Shcrring, Vol. I,, p. 274. 



RELIGIOUS, PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. :!(;5 

(Ca.^to No. 215) — I'ro'ialjly salt-makers, aud should have l)ccu hicliulcil with Ndugar No. 176. 
Oargajje {Casfe No 216). —The samo as Oai'zmdr, a class of faqin who thurst iruu spikes into 
Oieir llosh. Bodhi {Cnsie No. 217). — As it stand-; the word would mean a Buddhi~t. But it is perliaps 
a misreading i'^r Blioti, an iuhn!)itaut of Bliot or Thibet, wlio also wouM be .i liuddhlst. Nnithai 
{Caste No. 218). — A baker. Ja'ioJ'ia {Casle No. 21'J). — A Piirbi easte who keep miloli kinc. 
Mdiihbiind (Caste No. 220). — The Jaiu a-cctic who hand's a cloth over his mouth {mdn/t). Bisdti 
(Ca-itff N>. 221). — A dealer in petty hard wai'e who spreads (Jasa/) his mat (bisdt) lu front of 
liim and displays his wares upon it. Pahdri {Caste No. 222).— \ goiwrlc term for a hill man. 
Rijra {Caste No. 2-6). — A eunuch, distinct from the Hinjra wliich is a large Jat tribe and 
separately described in it, proper place. Siihiisar (Caite No. 227). — A small caste in Uusliyar- 
pur who were only a few generations ago Puawar Rajputs, but have been driven by p'>verty to 
growing vegetable-; and working in grass, and arc now a scp.irato caste ranking with the Araina. 
Qhanimi {Caste No. 229). — Thatdiers, generally Jhmwar.s. Chhatarsdz {Caste No. 231). — 
UmbreUa makers. Sxngfaydsh {Caste No. 233). — Stoiu;-cutters. Ctiirimdr {Caste No. 234). — 
Bird catchers, who almost always belong to the vagrant tribes. Chuiigar (Caste No 239). — 
Sugar refiners. Sitfhdr (Caste No. 259). — The Bombay word for carpenters, of, Tarkhau 
No. 11. Dhai Sirkiband (Caste No. 263). — The men wlio make sirki or roof-ridges of grasi 
to protect carts and tlie like. Almost always of the vagrant classes. Hindki {Caste Nu- 271). — 
A generic term on the U'pi>er Indus for all j\Iusalmins of Iudiande< cent who speak Panjabi 
dialects. Knmera (Caste No. 2S0). — An agricultural labourer hired by the day, nioulh, or yep,r 
on ii.\ed pay, not receiving a share of the produce. Guru (Caste No 297). — A Hindu spiritual 
preceptor. Kardr (Caste No. HOO). — More properly Klrar. Any Hindu trader in the west or iu 
the hills. Uzbak (Caste No, 801). — A Turk tribe, and should have beou included with Tiirk 
No. lUii. Owdla (Caate No. 300). — The term for a Hindu cowherd and shepherd, generally an 
Alu'r. Tahdkhia (Caste No SOS). — A man who kccpi a cook-shop and hawks cooked food 
about the strccla. Kharol (Caste No 317). — Probably the same as Qarol, No. 211, describod 
above. 



266 PANJAB CASTES. 



PART VI.— THE VAGRANT, MENIAL AND 
ARTISAN CASTES. 



564. Division of the subject. — Having disciissed the land-owniug and [P. 305 j 
agiieiiltn.ral^ and the pile>tly, mercantile, and professional castes, I now 

turn to the lowest strata of Paujiib society, the vagrant and criminal tribes, 
the gipsies, the menials,, and the artisans. These classes form in many respects 
one of the most interesting sections of the community. Politically they are 
unimportant ; but they include the great mass of such aboriginal element as is 
still to be found in the Panjab, their customs are not only exceedingly peculiar 
but also exceedingly interesting as affording us a clue to the separation of the 
non- Aryan clement in the customs of other tribes, and while the industries of 
the Province are almost entirely in their hands an immense deal of the hardest 
part of the field-work is performed by them. At the same time they are precise- 
ly the classes regarding whom it is most difficult to obtain reliable informa- 
tion. They are not pleasant people to deal with and we are thrown but little 
into contact with them, while the better class of native groups most of 
them under one or two generic terms, such as Chuhra, Dum, or Nat, 
and thinks it would degrade him to show any closer acquaintance with 
their habits. I have roughly divided these castes into eleven groups. First 
I have taken the vagrant, hunting, and criminal tribes, then the gipsy 
tribes, then the scavenger classes, the leather-workers and weavers, the 
water-carriers, fishermen and boatmen, the carpenters, blacksmiths, stone- 
masons and ])otters, the goldsmiths and saltinakers, the washermen, dyers, 
and tailors, the oilmen, butchers, cotton scutchers, wine distillers, and 
other miscellaneous artisans, the menials peculiar to the hills, and finally 
the Purbi menials of our cantonments. 

These classes may be grouped in two different ways, according as 
the classification is based upon their ethnic and occupational affinities, or 
upon their position in the industrial oeconomy of the country. I shall first 
consider them from the former point of view. 

565. Origin and evolution of the lower menials.— It appears to me that 
starting with an aboriginal and vagrant stock, there are two continuous 
series of gradations leading from that stock to the weavers at least on 
the one hand and probably to the water-carriers on the other, and t,hat 
no line can be drawn anywhere in either series which shall distinctly 
mark off those above from those below it. For specific instances of the 
manner in which these occupations shade off one into another I must refer 
the reader to the following pages. But I will endeavour to exemplify 
wliat I mean by an imaginary series. Suppose an aboriginal tribe of 
vagrant habits, wandering about from jungle to jungle and from village 
to village, catching for (he sake of food the vermin which abound such 
as jackals, foxes, and lizards, and eating such dead bodies as may fall 
in their way, plaiting for themselves rude shelter and utensils from the 
grasses which fringe the ponds, living with their women very much in 



VAGEANT, MENIAL, AND ARTISAN CASTES. '267 

common and ready to prostitute them for money when occasion offers, 
and always on the watch for op|)ortunities of pilfcri)ig, and you iiave 
the lowest type of gipsy and vagrant tribes as we now find them in 
the Panjab. Now imagine sujh a tribe abandoning- its vagrant habits 
and settling- as menials in a village. Being no longer nomads they would 
cease to hunt and eat vermin; but Ihey would still eat carrion, they 
would still plait grass, and being what they were, the filthiest work to 
be performed, namely that of scavengering-, would fall to their share. 
They would then be the Chiihra or scavenger caste as they exist in every 
village. Suppose again that a section of them, desirous of rising in life, 
abandoned plaiting giass and scavengering and took to tanning and work- 
ing in leather, the next less filthy work available, as their occupation, 
and modified their primitive creed so as to render it somewhat more like 
that of their Hindu neighbours, but being still specially concerned with 
dead animals, continued to eat carrion : we sliould tlien have the Chamar 
or tanner and leather-worker. And finally if, desiring to live cleanly, 
they gave up eating carrion and working in leather and took to weav- 
ing, which is (I know not why, unless it be that weavers' implements 
are made from grass by the outcast classes of grass-workers) considered 
only less degrading, they would become the Julaha of our towns and 
villages and be admitted under semi-protest within the pale of Hindu- 
ism. Or they might skip the leather-working stage and pass tlircct from 
scavengering to weaving. Now if all this were merely speculation upon 
what is possible, it would mean little or nothing. But when we see that 
changes of this sort are actually in progress^ it seems to me that the 
suggestion may mean a good deal. We see the vagrant classes such 
as the Bawaria and Aheri tending to settle down in the villages and 
perform low menial offices; we see the Dhanak converted from the hunter 
of the jungles into a scavenger and weaver ; we see the Chiihra refuse 
to touch night-soil and become a Musalli, or substitute leather-working 
and tanning for scavengering and become a Raugreta ; we see the Khatik 
who is a scavenger in the east turn into a tanner in the west; we see 
the Koli Chamar abandon leather-working and take to weaving, and turn 
into a Chamar- Julaha or Bunia; we sec that in some districts most of 
the Mocliis are weavers rather than leather-workers ; and we find that it 
is impassible to draw a hard and fast line anywhere between vagrancy 
and scavengering- at the bottom and weaving at the top or to say that 
such a caste is above and such a caste is below the line, but that each 
caste throws out ofC-shoots into the grade above that which is occupied 
by the greater number of its members. 

566. Origin of tlie water-carrying classes. — In the second series of changes 
we have not so mauy examples of the intermediate steps. But it is natural 
that the upward movement in the social scale which every tribe is fain 
to make if possible should not be confined to one definite direction only. 
Some of the vagrant castes have like the Bawaria abandoned the eat- 
ing of carrion and become hunters of higher game, though not perhaps 
quite relinquishing their taste for vermin ; some while retaining their nomad 
habits have taken to specified forms of labour like the Od or Changar ; 
otliers have settled down to cultivation like the Mahtam or to crime 
like the Mina ; while others again have taken to the carrying trade like 
some sections of the Baujaras, or to the pedlar's business. But there is 



268 PANJAB CASTES. 

a group of these tribes who are distinctly water- hunters ; who catch, not 
deer and jackals, but water fowl, fish, and crocodiles or tortoises, who [P. 306] 
live in the fens or on the river-banks, weave huts for themselves from 
the pliant withies of the water-loving- shrubs, and make twine and rope 
for their nets from the riverside gra^^ses. Such are the Kehal, the Mor, 
the Jhabel. And on giving up eating crocodiles and tortoises and con- 
fining themselves to fish, these men are as it were received into society, 
as is the case with the Kelials. The Jhaljels again have advanced a 
step further, and are a respectable class of boatmen and fishermen. Now 
the Jhinwar, Kahilr, and 3Iachhi caste are the basket-makers, boatmen, 
fishermen, and water-carriers, and among the Musalmaus the cooks of 
country. Is it not possible that they may be but a step, a long one 
jx'rhaj^s, in advance of the Jhabel? I find that in the hills, where Hindu 
customs hsLxe probably preserved their primitive integrity most completely, 
Brahmans will drink from the hands of very many people from whose 
hands they will not eat ; and the Sanskrit Scriptures make the fisher- 
man the descendant of a Sudra woman ])y a Brahman father. It is 
stated that the Ramdasia or Sikh Chamars have taken largely to the 
occupation of " Kahars or bearers,^' though this may not and probably 
does not include water-canying. The series of steps is not so close as 
in the former case ; but I think that the suggestion is worthy of further 
examination. 

567. Effect of religion upon occupation.— I have pointed out that with 
the rise in the sojial scale, the original religion would be gradually modi- 
fied so as to bring It more Into accord with the religion of the respect- 
able classes. As a fact it is curious how generally the observances, if 
not the actual religion of these lower menials, follow those of the villagers 
to whom they are attached. Chiihras and the like will bury their dead 
in a Musalman and burn them in a Hindu village, though not recog- 
nised by their masters as either Hindu or Musalman. But it Is not un- 
commonly the case that the open adoi:ition of a definite faith, the sub- 
stitution of Islam or SIkhism for that half-Hindu half-aboriginal religion 
which distinguishes most of these outcast classes, Is the first step made 
in their upward struggle ; and It Is very commonly accompanied by the 
abandonment of the old occupation for that which stands next higher In 
the scale. The scavenger on becoming a Musalman will refuse to remove 
night soil, and on becoming a Sikh will take to tanning and leather- 
Avorking. The tanner and leather-worker on becoming a Musalman will give 
up tanning, and on taking the Sikh pd/i/d will turn his hand to the loom, 
and so forth. I quote a very Interesting note on this subject by Sardar 
Gurdial Singh, one of our Native Civilians : — 

" Of the Hhagats enumeratccl iu Bhagatmal several were of low castes. Tlioy were all 
" reformer-! of the dark ages of Hiuiliistaii, Tlicy addressed tlie people iu their veriuiculari 
"and did away with the secrecy observed by the Brahmanleal teaehiiigs and removed the 
" ])arricr in the way of reform presented by the diflicuUy of the language (Sanskrit) through 
''which the Brahmins taught their system of religion. Amonrj other-; wa>; Kabir a Julaha, 
" Sadhna a Kasai, Nam Deo a Clihimba, and llavi Das a Cliauuvr. Their writings have 
"been quoted in tlie Adi Granth, the Sikh scriptures. Que of the reforms coutcmplatcd and 
"]iartially carried out by Slkhi.'nn was the abt)litiou of caste system and opening the si uly 
" of Theology and the scripturoi (Uimhi) tu every class, even the Chuhras and Chamars who were 
" mentioned in Dharm Shastras as having no adhikar.i Taking advantage of this, some of the 

'The word adliikar means "fitncs.s"j and those castes were said to tiavo no adhikar who 
wore not fit to listen to the Hindu Scriptures. 



VAGRANT, MENIAL, AND ARTISAN CASTES. 269 

" lowpst clftsPes received Sikh bnptsim (paJiul) aud became Siklis. They gjive up llieir mean 
" occupation and took to otlicr means of livelihood. They also changed their name and gave 
" np as much social intercourse with the unconverted menil)CV3 of their tribe a-; Uiey pos- 
" s'.My could. Thus the Chamiirs on their conversion to Sikhism took the naujc of Kavi 
'Tiis, (he first Thagat of their tribe, to show that they followed his example. Kavdasia is 
"the correct form of the word. But it was «;oon confounded with the name of ll'ivn Das, 
''the 4th Sikh Guiu, and pronminced Ramdasia.' The word is still prouoi;nced a liavdasia 
"by most of the Sikh?. Similarly Chhimba Sikhs call themselves Namabansis from Nam 
<' Deo. 

"The Chuhras on becoming Sikhs took the names of Mazhabi ((just as that of Dindar 
"on conversion to Islam) and Rangreta. No one of the Rangretas follows the occupation of a 
"Chnhra, but they have been rightly classed with Chuhras. Similarly if the 1!: nidasias do 
" not follow the oociipation of Chamars, it is no reason to separate them from that caste, 
"So if a Ramdasia is .Tnlaha, that is a weaver, and if he is a ' Razzaz ' that i.; a draper, 
■~ his casfe remains unchanged. If a Chamar, a leather-worker becomes a Sikh and receives 
"the ' pahnl' to-day, he at once joins the Ramdasia=. The Ramda-^ias do rci civc the 
''daughters .'n marriage of ordinary Cliamars, Init give them ';prt7i?(/ ' before associating witli 
"Ihem. A Ramdasia would not drink water from the hands of an ordinary Cliamar :un- 
"less be becomes a Sikh. The Mazbi Sikhs also keep themselvc=! aloof from the Chiibras, 
" in exactly the same manner as Ramdasia- do from Chamars." 

It is quite true, as the Sardar points out, that the Ramdusi is still 
a Chamar and the Rangreta still a Chuhra. The change has J^een re- 
cent and is still in progress. But how long will they remain so ? Their 
orighi is already hotly disputed and often indignantly denied, though 
the fact of new admissions still taking place puts it beyond the possihilitv 
of doubt. But there can be little doubt that they will in time grow 
into separate castes of a standing superior to those from which they 
sprang ; or more probably perhaps, that they will grow to be included 
under the generic name of the caste whose hereditary occupation they 
have adopted, but will form distinct sections of those castes and be 
known by separate sectional names, even after the tradition of thoir origin 
has faded from the memory of the caste. And there can, I think, be 
as little doubt that some of the sections which now form integral parts 
of tliese lower occupational castes would, if we could trace back their history, 
be found to have been formed in a precisely similar manner. The tradi- 
tion of inferior origin and status has survived, and the other sections, 
perhaps themselves derived from the same stock but at a more remote 
date, will hold no communion with them ; but the precise reason for 
the distinction has been forgotten. The absence of the hereditary theory 
of occupation among the people of the frontier and its effect by ex- 
ample upon those of the Western Plains, have already been discussed in 
sections 343 and 348. 

568. Growth of sections among the menial castes. — But if these occu- 
pational castes are recruited by new sections coming up from below, 
they also receive additions from above. The weavers especially may be 
said to form a sort of debateable land between the higher and the lower 
artisan castes, for a man of decent caste who from poverty or other 
circnmstances sinks in the scale often takes to weaving, though he per- 
haps rarely falls lower than this. The Ijarber, carpenter, and blacksmith 
classes have in Sirsa been recruited from the agricultural castes within 

il do not think thi; i-< qnife correct. The Piabd;!si or Raida^i Chama;s are Hindus 
and the Rnmdasi are Sikh,-!. But it may be that the Ravdasi are analogous with the Nanak- 
panthi Sikhs who are commonly reckoned as Hindus, while the RamdaSi correspond with 
the Singhi or Govindi Sikhs proper. As the Sardar points out presently, the Ramd.Isis re- 
ceive i\ic pdhul, an institution of Guru Govind ; while the Rabdasis du not. (See further 
BCCtion 606 infra.) 



270 PANJAB CASTES. 

the momoi'Y of the present generation, and it is hardly pos'^iljle that what has 

so lately happened there should not haye earlier happened elsewhere. When 

a hitherto uninhabited tract is settled by immigrants of all classes pouring- in 

from all directions, as lias been the case with Sirsa during the last fifty years, [P. 307] 

the conditions are probably especially favourable to social change. People who 

have hitherto been separated by distance but who haye the same caste name or 

the same occupation, meet together liringing with them the varying customs 

and distinctions of the several neighbourhoods whence they came. They do not 

as a rule fuse together, but remain distinct sections included under a common 

caste-name, though often reluctant to admit that there is any community of 

origin or even of caste, and refusing to associate or to intermarry with each 

other. There is a great demand for agricultural laliour and the artisan tends 

to become a cultivator ; old distinctions are sometimes forgotten, and new 

sections are continually formed. To use technical language, society is more 

colloid than in older settled tracts where the process of crystallisation, for 

which rest and quiet are necesssary, is more advanced ; and diffusion and osmose 

are correspondingly more easy and more active. But what is now taking place 

in Sirsa must have taken place elsewhere at some time or other. Almost all 

the menial and artisan castes are divided into sections which are separate from 

each other in custom and status ; and though in many cases these distinctions 

are probably based upon geographical distribution and consequent variation 

of customs, yet in other cases they probably result from the fact that one 

section has risen and another fallen to its present position. 

569. The higher and hill menials.— The higher meninl classes present, 
so far as I see, no such continuity of gradation as we find among the outcasts. 
The Kumhrir or potter with his donkey is perhaps the lowest of them, and 
may not improl>ably belong by origin and affinity to the classes just discussed. 
The blacksmith, carpenter, and stonemason class form a very distinct group, 
as also do the washermen and dyers. The oibnan and l)utcher is perhnps 
lower than any of them, and it appears that he should rank witli the weavers, 
though I do not know that there is at present any connection between the 
two classes. I'he goldsmiths seem to stand alone, and to have descended 
from above into the artisan classes, probably being by origin akin to the 
mercantile castes. Among the menials of the hills, on the contrary', the 
continuity of the whole class now under consideration is almost unbroken. 
The outcast classes are indeed separate from the higher arti^.;ans in the lower 
hills ; l)ut as we penetrate further into the Himalayas we find the scavenger 
class working as carpenters and l^lacksmiths, and the whole forming one body 
which it is almost impossible to se^jarate into sections on any other l)asl-! than 
the present calling of the individual. 

570. The oeconomical divisions of the menial classes. — The second or 
ceconomical basis upon which these menial and artisan castes may be classified 
will be dismissed with a very fcAV words. The whole group may be broadly 
divided into three sections, the vagrant classes, the village menials, and the 
indc])endent artisans. The vagrant classes serve no man and follow no settled 
calling. The independent artisans work, like the artisans of Europe, by the 
piece or for daily hire ; and in urban communities, as distinct from the 
village community which is often found living in a towji the lands attached 
to which they hold and cultivate, include all industrial classes and orders. 
But in the villages there is a very wide distinction between the village 
menial and the independent artisan. The carpenter, the blacksmith, the 



VAC, RANT, MENIAL, AND AETISAN CASTES. 271 

potter, the scavenger, tho leath or- worker, the wnter-earrier, and in villages 
where the women are secluded the washermnn, — all classes in fact whose 
services arc required in hus1>andrv or daily domestic life — are paid not by the 
job, but by customary dues usually consisting of a fixed share of the produce 
of the fields ; and the service they are bound to perform is often measured 
by kind and not by quantity. Thus the potter has to supply all the earthen 
vessels, and the leather-worker all the lenthcrn articles thnt are required bv 
his clients. Those artisans, however, whose services are only occasionally 
required, such as the wenver, the oilman, and the dyer, are paid by the job ; 
not usually indeed in cnsh, but either in o-rain, or l)y being allowed to retain 
a fixed proportion of the raw material which their employers provided for 
them to work upon. The goldsmith occupies in the village a semi-mercantile 
position, and is a pawnbroker as much as an artisan; while the other crafts 
are scarcely represented among the rural communities. 

571. The internal organization of the menial classes.— The elaborate orga- 
nisation of the menial nnd artisan classes, whether based upon the tribal orf>-anisa- 
tion of the agricultural communities whom they serve, or following the type of 
the trades-guilds proper of the towns, has already been alluded to in sections .S52 
and :^56. The subject is one of which we know little, vet a more accurate 
knowledge of the details of these two types of organisation could hardly fail to 
throw much light upon the evolution of caste. Especially would it be in- 
teresting to trace the points of similarity and of difPerence between the 
respective systems where the occupation is hereditary and partakes of the 
nature of other castes, and where it is individual and the guild is little more 
than a voluntary association. The question of how caste and guild rules are 
reconciled in cases where the guild includes men of many castes, and what 
happens when they conflict, is also one of considerable Interest. That the 
organisation is singularly complete and the authority wielded by it exceed- 
ingly great, is beyond the possibility of doubt ; and it is a common observa- 
tion that disputes between members of these classes rarely come before our 
courts for adjudication, being almost invariably settled by the administrative 
body of the caste or guild. This may be a survival from old times, when 
such coui-ts or officers of justice as existed would probablv have declined to be 
troubled with the disputes of low caste men. 

VAGRANT AND CRIMINAL TRIBES. 

572. The Wandering and crimmal tribes.— The figures for the wander- 
ing and criminal tribes are given in Abstract No. 9G on page 309.'^ This 
group and that of the gipsy tribes which I shall discuss next are so much akin 
that it is impossible to draw any definite line of demarcation. I have attempt- 
ed to include in the former the vagrant, criminal, and huntino- tribes, and 
in the latter those who earn their living by singing, dancing, tuniblino-, and 
various kinds of performances. The two togel^her form an exceedingly 
interesting section of the population, but one regarding which I have been 
able to obtain singularly little information. They are specially interestino*, 
not only because almost every tribe included in these two groups is probably 
aboriginal in its ultimate origin, for so much co