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600022269R 







THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

HISTORICAL 

AND 

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES 

OF THE 

PRINCIPAL FAMILIES 

IN THE TERRITORIES 

UJVDER THE PANJAB GOVERNMENT. 

BY 

LEPEL H. GRIFFIN, 

Bengal Civil Service, AssistatU Commismner^ Lahore, 



** The good old rule, the simple plan, 
That thej should take who have the poweTj 
And they bhould keep who can." 



LAHORE: \ 

T. C. McCABTnY,--CUBOZIICLB PXSN. 

1865. 







1\0 r. 550 



PREFACE. 

The hi^ories of the Panjaib Chiefs have been written by 
desire t>f Sir Eobert Montgomery, Lieutenant .Governor of thiB 
Panjab. 

The first portion of the work includes all the Chiefs and 
Sirdars of the plain country of the Panjab proper, from the 
Beas to the Indus. The second. portion, which will be shortly 
published, treats of the outlying districts and dependencies 
of the province ; the (Jis-Sutlej States ; the Jalandhar Doab ; the 
Eajput Hill States ; the Derajat and Peshawar; Bahawalpur 
and Kashmir, and the Dehli territory. 

The intention of the work has been to give a picture of 
the Panjab aristocracy as it exists at the present day. No 
mention has accordingly been made of many families, Hindu 
and Muhamraadan, once powerful and wealthy, which fell 
before the Sikhs. Ko mention has been made of many old 
Sikh families, whose jagirs were seized by Maharaja Eanjit 
Singh, and whose descendants are now plain husbandmen. A 
few notices of tribes and families of no present importance,* 
have, for special reasons, been given; but, as a general rule, 
only tlie histories of those men have been written who pos- 
sess,, at the present time, rank, wealtb, or local influence. 

It has not been foimd practicable lo give, in the body of 
the work, the authorities for every statement advanced ; and 
it may therefore be well to mention here the sources from 
which the information has been derived. 

In the first place each Chief has sent a history of his family, 
sometimes meagre and fragmentary, sometimes full and con- 
nected, in many cases exaggerated and false. 



ii 

Secondlj, the whole records of the Panjab Government 
firom annexation to the present year ; the letters of the British 
Agents at Dehli and Ludiana from 1809 to 1845, and the 
records of the old Sikh Govemmeut, haye been largely made 
nseoC 

Thirdly, almost all histories, travels and memoirs, relating 
to the Panjab^ in English, Persian and Urdu, have been 
consnlted« 

Fourthly, the actors in, and eye-witnesses of the events 
described have been questioned j a large number of the Chiefs 
and Sirdars, with their bards and family priests have been ex- 
amined personally, and &om their statements much new and 
interesting information has been gained. 

Among those to whom acknowledgments are due for assis- 
tance in the preparation of the work, aie Pandit Manphool, 
Extra Assistant Commissioner, attached to the Secretariat, whose 
learning and great local knowledge have been invaluable ; Syad 
Hadi Hasain Khan, Extra Assistant Commissioner, GKijrat ; 
and Mulvi Bujjib Ali Khan, Khan Buhadar of Ludianab. 

Lepel H. Griffin. 



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The photograph on the opposite page is reduced from the 
original document signed by the chief Ministers of the Lahore 
State, on the 16fch Maghar 1897, Sambat, (27th November 
JS40.) It was intended to regulate the succession to the 
throne, and is interesting as bearing the signatures of the 
leading men of the day. Eaja Dhyan Singh, Eaja Gulab 
Singh, Bhai Ram Singh, Sirdar Attar Singh Sindhanwalia, 
Sirdar Lehna Singh Majithia, Bhai Gurmukh Singh, Jamadar 
Khushhal Singh, Sirdar Fatah Singh Man, Sirdar Mangal 
Singh Sindhu, Sirdar (afterwards Raja) Tej Singh, Sirdar Sham 
Singh Attariwala, Diwan (afterwards Raja) Dinanath and 
Ghiilam Mohiuddin. 

The following is a literal translation. 

' At this time we all, with one heart and one tongue, swear 

* to abide by the stipulations agreed upon amongst us, viz., 

* that Singh Sahib, Sher Singhji, shall remain on his own jagir, 
' and that Partab Singhji, son of the Singh Sahib, shall sit for 

* eight months in the Council of State, If Singh Sahib Sher 
^ Singhji shall agree to this, it is well ; if not we, taking joint 

* action, will compel him to agree. Likewise we will make the 

* Bibi Sahib (Rani Chand Kour) consent. What has been 
' above arranged will hold good until the birth of a son, or 
' otherwise, when we will make other arrangements.* 



ERRATA. 



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LAHORE AND AMRITSAR DIVISIONS. 



THE FAMILY OF MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH. 



MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH. 



M.R.Khar- 


IsharSiogh 


M. B. Sher 


Tara Singh Peahora 


Eashmira Multjma M. B. 


rak Singh 


reputed. 


Singh 


reputed. 


Singh 


Singh Singh Dalip 


B. 1802 


B. 1804. 


reputed. 


B. 1807. 


reputed. 


reputed. reputed. Singh 


D. 1840. 


D. 1805. 


B. 1807. 


». 1859. 


D. 1845. 


D. 1844b B. 1819. repntei. 






D. 1843. 






©. ^846. B. 1837- 


Nao Nihal 










Jagjot 


Fatah 


Singh. 










Singh. 


Singh. 




B. 1821. 










B.1843. 


B.1844. 




D. 1840. 






hder 










Partah 


Dewa 


Shi 


Kishan 


Kem Singh. - Aijan Singh 


Singh. 


Singh. 


Singh. 




Singh, 


B. 1842. (hj a oon- 


B. 1831. 


B. 1842 


B.1843. 




B.1840. 


cubine.) 


D. 1843. 




LiyiDg at 






B. 1840. 






Ben 


Area. 






■ ' 





THE FAMILIES OF MAHARAJAS RANJIT 8INGH| KHARRAK SINGH, 
SHER SINGHi AND KONWAR NAO NIHAL SINGH. 

In the Biographies of the Fanjab Chiefs, frequent mention will be made 
of members^ real or reputed^ of the royal family of Lahore. A short notice 
of them is accordingly given here. The history of many of them is the 
history of the Fanjab itself, daring many eventful years^ and has been 
already written by yarioos himda ; but no work, hitherto published^ gives 
any correct account of the wives and children of the great Maharaja. 

Sirdar Mahan Singh, father of Maharaja Eanjit Singh, killed, with 
his own hands, his mother Mai Desan, who had been detected in an in- 
trigue with a Brahman, Misr Jai Bam. Following his father's example, 
Hanjit 3ingh put to death, with his own hands, bis mother Mai 



2 HBTOST OF TEE 

Mahrai, for idnltoy with one Luk Misr. BoUSi tine UEet, how- 
ever, liad mone tlian one loTer, ud it it donbtfiil wfaetticr Mahan 
Singli was tiie sooi of Charrat Singb, ox Basjit &d^ the son of 
ICafaan Singk With sodi anteoedentSy it is not smposing that Banjit 
Siagk fiiioald have had, hat ragne ideu of duttdty, ddicaqr or hooor. 
Fediapt no court in the world was ever more delwdiwl tliam tliat of 
Mahanga Banjit Singli, and eertainlj no one oi Hm erartieis wu moie 
immoial or dehanched than he. When he had aecared the Ifgithnate 
BQCcesBon, in the persons of hiB 90Q Kharcak Sng^ and his gnnjsoQ 
Kao Sfifaal Singh, the Tntrignf« of his wires aflbrded Ida man sbiqk- 
ment than dkgost. fie was not nnwillix^ to be the npoted Mba of 
their chSdren, thon^ he was nerer deodTed as to their paraBtage, and 
en the Urth of another and jet another son, woold csy, '^ Wah Gum ji 
I gii£ii gdiMldxotk mjM?^ (Whence this mptterioos stroke of fijctiine ?) 
Hie aeoret histofj d his haxem, though both instndzpe and amasing^y 
is too acsidaloss to be related hevcL The adTentom of Ban Bhmij of 
Bani Ghand Koor, «nd ochen^ were at one time the <twon talk of the 
Lahoce hnaazsw Sochwaathe delieacj offlie Mahangatibat he sent 
one of his Banis, laar Koar, wlio had been detected in anintrigoei to his 
son Eharrak Singh, on whose deadi she became ' SatL' To his grandson 
he abo sent aereral women of indiffBrent charaeter, from his haRm, but 
Nao Nihal Singh did not appreciate the honor and retomed the 
hdies. Soch was SiUi monlitr and good taste, as disj^red at the Conrt 
of Maharaja Banjit Singh. 



THE WIVES or SSAMA«AJA tUkMUTT 
Maharaja Baojit Sing^ aaanied sixteen wives^ nine with the nsnal 
rites and oeiemonics of orthodox marxiage ; (ahadi or phera) and serea 
with the kss orthodox of d«addar-dalna, or tir-patka, common enough 
among the Sikhs. lie/oUatnwg art tii mime ^rticdajr wivet. 

I.— MxETiLa Eoui, manied in 1796. She was the daqghter of Sirdar 
Gurbaksh Singh, and grand^-daoghter of Siidar Jai Sing Kanheya. She 



panjab chiefs. 3 

was the reputed mother of Maharaja Sher Singh and Tara Singh, but, in 
reality, never bore any children to the Maharaja. She died in 1813. 

II. — Eaj Kouran, married in 1798. She was the daughter of Sirdar 
Kan Singh Nakai, a Sindhu Jat, [and was the mother of Maharaja 
Kharrak Singh. She died in 1818. This lady was commonly known by 
the name of Mai Nakayan. The Maharaja's aunt, daughter of Sirdar 
Charrat Singh, was also named Eaj Kouran, and to distinguish between 
them, Mai Nakayan had the name Datar Kour given to her. 

III. — EupKoue wasthe daughter of Jai Singh, Lumberdar of Kotsaid 
Mehmud, in the Amritsar district. She was married to the Maharaja 
in 1815, and is still alive, in receipt of a cash pension of 1980 Es. per 
annum. 

IV. — Lachmi was married to the Maharaja in 1820. She was 
the daughter of Desa Singh Vadpagga, a Sindhu Jat of Jogki Khan^ in 
the Goojranwala district. She was presented to . the Maharaja on his 
visit to Khai, by her father. 

Sani Lachmi is still living, and is in receipt of a cash pension of 
11^200 Es. per annum. 

v., VI. — Mehtab Devi and Rajbanso were illegitimate daughters of 
Eaja Sansar Chand, Eatoch, of Kangra. When Anmdh Chand, son of 
Sansar Chand, refused to give a sister in marriage to Eaja Hira Singh 
and fled across the Sutlej to avoid the proposed alliance, the Maharaja 
himself, in revenge for the slight to his favourite, married two of the sis- 
ters, who had been detained at Lahore. This was in 1839. 

Rani Rajbanso died before the Maharaja, about the year. 1835. 
Eani Mehtab Devi became ' Sati/ and was burnt with the Maharaja's 
body, in 1839. 

VII.— GuL Begum wasan ' Ahl Nishat' (literally filU dejoie) in the 
city of Amritsar. The Maharaja took a fancy to her^ and in the year 
1833, married her, with great splendour. 



AJTiaf -? TSZ 



Sflis t&ed jc Lkuses ui lafiS, auiwK icoHp of a peaaon of 12^80 

Ei. -Li M 



TUL— ILj Dm wm^at oagnterof Knr SisgliorCUiMliiiwiLi 
in tae Guramrwma, <ac3S. T&e jsof of W wmage » w* knowiL 
Hig 'ttacL nok Mce bribrg tfcatof tne Vihmjo, 



n. — ^A iauriref of Ksm Smgii Chzna^ a Cluna Jot of the Amrit- 
srcEacscr. Ke iaoe of aer nsKraee is not ! 



71^ i^n/ji^w- f^ Sjxa riff? married h^ He riiet </ daddar-dalna 

L — Run Derr. <faiTCT3Pr cf Wzzxr Sakndda of Jaswio^ in the Hoshiar. 

pur listrsrc 

IL« UL — Rjtct Kmr jnd iVa £o«r, iridows of Sirdar Sahib Singh, 
Baa^hi. of G^nrss. These h&s wvre taken into the Maharaja's harem, in 
ISIL 90oii stter tae deacit of their hnshand. Bani Ratan Eour is the 
rvpoted mctOder of Muliaaa Sin^h. She is still alive, and in receipt of a 
pension of l^OOO Ka^ per aoAOK. Baai Dja Koor was the reputed mother 
of Kashmira Sts^ and Peshon Siagb. She died in 1843. 

IV. — CktrnJ Kjt w;0 tbe dao^ter of Jai SiQgh) Jat, of Chainpur^ 
in the Amritsar district. She vas aurried to the Mahantja in 1815, and 
died in the year 1840. 

Y.—3reA!a6 Kour was the daughter of ^Chowdri Snjan, an Uthwal 
Jatof Malla, in the Gunlaspur district. She was married to the Maharaja 
about the year 1822, and is still alive, in receipt of an annual pension 
of 1,930 Rs. 

VI. — Saman Kour was the daughter of Suba Singh, a Jat of Malwa, 
in the Cis-Sutlej States. She was married to theMaharaja in the year 
1S32, and is still living, in receipt of an annual pension of 1,44^ B&i 

\II.-^ Golab Kour was the daughter of a Jat Zamindar of Jagdeo, in 
the Amritsar district. She died about the vear 1838. 



FANJAB OHIEFB.' & 

The only one of the Maharaja's wives who became * Sati ' waa MeAtab 
Devi, but three other ladies (besides slave girls) of the rank ci Bani, were 
burnt on the Maharaja's funeral pile. 

These were : Ear Devi^ daughter of Chowdri Bam^ a Saleria Bajput of 
Atalghar^ in the Gurdaspur district. 

Ilaj Devi. Daughter of Fadma Bajput. 

Devno. Daughter of Sand Bhari, a Bhari Chib of DeyapYatala^ now in 

the Jammu territory. 

The Real and Eeputed Children of Maharaja Banjit Singh*. 

I. — Kharrak Sm^^ was the only child legitimatei or illegitimate, l)y a 
wife or a slave girl, ever bom to Maharaja Banjit Singh. He was the 
son of Rani Raj Kour^ and was bom in the year 1802. His hutory is 
well known. He succeeded his father in 1889| and died on the 5th No- 
vember I840| by poison, administered under the orders of his son Nao 
Nihal Singh and Raja Dhyan Singh. 

II.— III.— Si^ Singh and 2brd Singh. When Bani Mehtab Eour had 
been married more than ten years to the Maharaja with6ut bearing him 
any children, it was given out soon after Banjit Singh's departure firom 
Lahore, on his Cis-Sutlej Campaign of 1807^ that the Bani was pregnant^ 
On the Maharaja's return, his wife presented him with Sher Singh and 
Tara Singh, as her twin-aons. 

Bhet Singh was the son of a chintz weaver, named Nihala, native of 
Mokerian (in the Hoshiarpur district), then in the jagir estates of Mai 
Sada Kour, mother of Mehtab Eour. 

Tara Singh was the son of a Muhammadan womani daughter, of 
Mankd, a slave girl of Mai Sada Kour. 

Sada Kour^ an able and unscmpnlons woman, was aware that shoold 
her daughter bear sons to the Maharajai her influence would be moA 
increased, and acoordmgly purchased these ehildrsii of their parmtoi and 
proclaimed them as the offin[»ringof Mehteb Konr. 



flAJbmiiiliJb«w9|Mil.tfi9 w^ff nIiNiam txQ«to4 «» bis mm. Thigr 
bore the title of Shahzadah. 

^i<r i5/]i[|^A succeeded ^lUhar^ja Kharrak SingU in 1841, and was 
assassinated by Sirdar Ajit Singh Sindhanwaliai on the ISth Septonber 
1863. 

Tara Singh was an imbecile. He lived, fbr the iM»t part, with bis 
IprotfMr Sbflff 9i««biL wli9> mopwtfd bi« «ii4 Km wiire«. 

He married Dharam Konr Randhavi, daughter of Jo& Su^^ % Bav* 
dhawa Jat of Tara» in the Axnritsar district, and Nand Eour, known is 
Bhittiyidwali of Bhittivid (in the Amritsar district) where her father 
Chanda Shigb reside 

Tisrm Singh died m SBpteaiber I8S9^ at Basoha, in the Hosbiarpur 
district 

IV. — hikar Singh. Bami Metab Soar widely resolved to fSMfter twins 
npon the Maharaja in 180T, as she had already experimented with one 
son, without success. About the year ISM, she had presented the 
]|absn^ ^1^ iisoii^ipte- W9S nimsd labsr Siagby. ki4 wbo^ dM^«. jiear 
wd » \M 4ftw. bJia^hktiH ik i« Hofc luM^iin. fin>xQi whsisa ^it dhJU: wm 
ymfi^bitf it is oeirtapi tbaihi^ vptbur ws wA Mahitab Kms^mc bk 

y^ ^\--n9t^m^ SmK 9iQiiJmir(k SUn/^ Bai» I}ya S«QMr» sasiBg* 
the plot of Bani Mehtab Eour so successful^ dfitermined^ ta. AUmk bsi 
^ample, and.oa difiCsrent occasions procured two boys, whom she g[ave 
Qut tp be children of her own. These were Peshor^ Siugb and Kash-^ 
mira Singh. The first was sud to be the son of a shop-keej^r ia 
Lahore ; and the second, the son of a Jamma Bajput. Both were treated 
as the semK>f ti^M abaraja^ asid betd the Baka of SiaUkot, wovth 50,000^ Bs. 
injagir. 

4^AsH^# ^mlhs taQ)c i»&]0i,i«itb( Bftbi^fiijr Single a fiuaoos^kilkCNini, 
wfaMiBiV9 l^Jup^^^iiM^lnmiqA nowAtWi.apd, be wa%luUeiwitii,tbarBite 
«A 4tUfi 9iRg}i, %ad}MM!wrsliA. kf tbs, SiJ^b arag^ iA.Jals^l84& f^iv^ 
Statement Sirdar ShamdMK ^mih^ Sin^bMWdter). 



Pniarm Stngh was murdareil bj Safadi Kbin ThraMi nd Sirdn 
Ghittar Singh AttariwalOi at Attack^ tt Avguolr 1844^ hf tin •iders. o£ 
Sirdar Jowahir Slngfa, the miairtac. . (VidfiStatenuent ofil^ritJih Sbar Kloifci 
Tiwana). Kashmira Singh\Qiior\e ^0x1, Fatah Singh^ now about 20 jmnkflfi 
age. Pechora Singfi le£t one son^ Jagjot Singh, now ^bout 21 yem^s of age. 

YIL — MuUcma SinfA wa* tiM Bqputed sen of Rani Battan. HaaXf. 
Sisithe wife of Mul S&a^ of Duboijfi i then of Sirdar Sahib Singh of < 
Giijrat, and Uat ef Mahari^ BaBJi4 Sisgb. Sha yrocared Miahainr 
Singh from a Muhammadaa akye gklin ISIS, and dedaredhim. ber aeii* 
He was acknowledged by the Maharaja, who gave him a, small jagir at 
Vanyeki Ajnala^Parganah^^ Amritsar District, worth 2,000 Ba. He died 
in 1846, leaving three sons,^ Kisban Singh and Eesra Singbi &ged J24 
and 22 respectively, by his wife ChandEour ; and Arjan Singh, aged 24| 
by his concubine Man Eoun 

VIII, — Dalip Singh was bom in Feb. 1887. Hiirmot&erwafr«rmthii> 
daughter of Manna Singh, an Onlakh Jat, of Char, near GttjranwriW/ 9 
trooper in the MahBrajys- seryiee; 

Dalip Singh was proclaimed Maharaja, on tbe death of Sher Singhj^ 
in September 1843, and on the 29th of March 1849, and after the second 
Sikh war was deposed, an^ sent tir Patahgh ar, whence, in 1851, he 
was sent to Englaad^ where be atiUi reaideik. 

He married as. AbyaainiKi lukj-m. t884. Hi» motbrnr, Eani &iian| 
died in England, in 1863, aged 46 years. 

WIVES OF NIAHARAM KHARRAIC SINGH. 

^labaraja Eharrak Singb married four wives. 

I. — Chand Kour, daughter of Sirdac Jaimal Singh Eanheya|^of FataE- 
ghar, near Gurdaspur. The marriage took place in 1812. It was celebrated 
with greflft spleztdbur, aod SFr Bavid! Ochteriony attend^ fi*om' Ludiana. 
In 1821, tbe Rani gave birth to* a son, I^ha NiHal Singb. On tfiedeatfr of 
lierhuabsiad and; aon^ oa. tts dtbi NovaSmber lAtf^^idte yuA iadik daiaou tl the 
Crown. She was supported bj jbft. SiiftabAMliaili^. wd. beth«iairb{r tiM 



ft HnrroRT of the 

Dogrlui^ and was eompelled to lenoanoe her claim in favour of Sher Singh. 
She wai murdered in 1842, bj the order of Baja Dhyan Singh and Sher 
£Kngh| who wiahed to marry her, but whose proposals she had rejected with 
disdain. 

II. KAem Kour^ daughter of Sirdar Jodh Singh, Knlalwala, and grand- 
daughter of Sirdar Sahib Singh of Gxijrat, was married in 1816, and is still 
livingi in receipt of a pension of 2,400 Bs. per annum. She had a jagir of 
12|000 Rs. per annum, which was confiscated by the Lahore Darbar, in 
1848, in consequence of her complicity in the rebellion. 

III. — Kiihen Koufy daughter of Ghowdri Raja Singh, Jat of Samra, in 
the Amritsar district. She was married in 18 1 8, and is still living at 
Lahore. She receives an annual pension of 2|324| Bs. 

IV.— 7#ar Kour was the sbter of Sirdar Mangal Singh, Sindh, of 
Soranwali, in the Sialkot district. She was married by eiaddar-dalna to 
Kharrak Singh, in 1815, having been sent to him firom his father's 
zanana. This lady became ' Sati ' on the death of Kharrak Singh. It 
is said that she was unwilling to burn with her husband, and that Raja 
Dhyan Singh compelled her to do so. 



WIVES OP KONWAR NAO NIHAL SINGH. 

Like his &ther, Nao Nihal Singh married four wives. 

I.—Nanii, daughter of Sirdar Sham Singh Attariwala. To the 
marriage were invited the Governor General, the Lieutenant Governor of 
the North West, and other Dignitaries ; but Sir Henry Fane alone was 
able to attend. It took place in March 1837. The Rani died in No- 
vember 1856, when her cash pension of 4,600 Rs. lapsed to Government. 

11.— SoAii Kour, a daughter of Sirdar Gurdit Singh, Gilwaliwala 
in the Amritsar district. She died in 1841. 

llL—BAadaurM, daughter of a Sirdar of Bhadaur, Cis-Sutlej States. 
She became* Sati'on her husband's death. 



PANJAB 0HIB18. ^ 

IW.^Kaiaeian^ daughter of Bai Singh, illegitimate iMm of Fatah 
Singh of Lambagraon, a Katoch Eajput This lady also became Sati. 



THE WIVES AND CHILDREN OF MAHARAJA SH^R 9INGH. 

Maharaja Sher Singh married four wivei. 

]..-^Z)<?«a> daughter of Sli^^ Mohr SipghNakai. She was married 
in 1819, and died two years later, leaving no iasue. 

ll.^Prem Kaur, daughter of Hwi guAghj a Varaioh Jat^lanihardar 
of Ladhewala in the Gujranwal^ diitrict Sht waa married to Sher 
Singh in 1822. In 1831, she gave birth tP Partab 8ingh| whowaa brutally 
murdered by Sirdar Lehua Siugh, Siudh^walia,, on tha 16th September 
1843. Rani Prem Kour^ now 9i^d fifty^five yeaJ3l» is living at JiahoWi 
and receives an annual pension of 7^200 ^ She has adopted a bqv^ 
Narayan Singh, son of Atar Siugh« of Bhano Bhiudi^i iu tb^ Siftlkot 
district, from whom she purchased him for fifty rupees, 

III. -^Partab Kanr, daughter of Sirdar laggat Singh of EotEa^mra, 
was married to Sher Singh in 1825. She died on the 23rd of August 
1857, leaving an adopted son, Thakar Singh, aged 14 years, Thakar 
Siugh was the son of Rani Partab Kour^s cousin, Oajja Singh. She 
adopted him in 1847, and, on her death, he was granted a pension of 1,800 
Ks. per annum, which he still enjoys. 

IV, — Dak no, was the daughter of a Chang zamindar of Jhujian^ near 
Lamba<:^raon^ in the Kangra district. She was married to Maharaja 
Sher Singh in 1842, being a present from the Kardar of the Kangra 
district. In 1843 she gave birth to Shahdeo Singh. Both mother and 
son accompanied Maharaja Dalip Singh to Fatahghar in November 
1 S49, and are now living at Benares under surveillance. Shahdeo Singh, 
now twenty-one years of age, is a young man of considerable ability, 
and of pleasing manners. In April I860 he married the daughter of 
Fatah Siugh, a small Sirdar and Jagirdar of Suga, in the Thanesar dis« 
trict. He has recently been granted a Talukdari in Oude. 



10 HISTOBY. OP THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

Besides these wives, Maharaja Sher SIngli lived with Dharam Kour and 
Chand Kour ^i)it wives of his reputed twin-brother Tara Singh. On Sher 
Singh's accession to the throne, in 1841, Tara Singh went to his new 
Jagir of Dasuha, in the Hoshiarpor district, and his two wives came to 
Lahore, and lived with Sher Singh till his death. Previous to 1841, 
Tara Singh had lived with his brother, and in 1838 Bani Chand Kour had 
given birth to a son, Dewa Singh, of whom Sher Singh was the father. 

Both the ladies were called 'Sirkars' ; like the other wives of Maharaja 
Sher Singh; they were considered as his wives, and had separate provi- 
sions in cash and land assigned to them. 

Bani Chand Kour died in 1843. Dewa Singh was. always consi- 
dered the son of Maharaja Sher Singh, and is still living in receipt of an 
annuial pension of J^ZOO Rs. He resides at Lahore. Bani Dharam Kour 
also receives a pension of 7,200 Rs. She adopted in 1838, Karam Singh, 
son of a Zamindarof Mokerian, in Hoshiarpor, whom Sher Singh had 
purchased from his parents. This young man, now 26 years of age, 
was prosecuted in 1869 by Bani Dharam Kour for the theft of property 
worth 40,000 Bs. and was sentenced to nine months^ imprisonment. 



SIRDAR SHAMSHER SINGH SINDHANWALIA. 



BUDHA SINGH. 



Chanda Singh. 



Sirdar Didar 
Siogh. 



Golab Singh. 



Nodh Singh 

Sirdar Charrat Siogh. 

Sirdar Mahan Sinirh. 

I ^ I ^ 

\ j i I Maharaja Ranjit Singh. 

Gurbaksh Singh. Sirdar Amir Rattan Singh. Qormnkh Singh. | 

Singh. I Maharaja Kharrak Singh. 

D. 1827. I 

INidhan Singh. Ehaaan Singh. 
I I - 

Dasonda Singh. | 



Nao Niiial Singh. 



Jaggat Singh. Bhaggat Singh. Gopal Singh. 



S. Attar Singh. 
M. D. 8. Jai 
SSingh Man. 
D. 1844. 

I 
j 

I 
S. Kehr 
Singh. 
L». 1863. 



S. Jaimal Singh. S. Bndh Singh. 

D. 1810. L M. D. 8. Hukm 

Singh Attariwala. 

ii. D. of Asa 

Singh, PoTmi 

Bajpnt Jasrota. 

D. 1827. 

I 
S. Sbamshcr 

Singh. M. D. 



S. Waaawa 
Singh, K. D« 
of Riga Sansar 
Chand Katoch 
D. 



8. Lebna Singh. 

Im. D. 
ofS.Sodh 
Singh Chinah, 
ii. daughter of a 
Hill Chief. 



"I 



8. Ajit Singh S. Ranjodh 

S. Sndh Singh d. 1843. Singh. 

Chmah. d. 1864. 

B. 1816. I 

I I 

Bakshish Randhir 

Singh, son. Singh. 

ofThakar b. 1856. 
Singh adopted. 



Partah Singh. 
D. 1856. 



Thakar Singh. 
B. 1837. 



Gnrbaksh 
Singh. 
B. 1855. 



.1 



Bakshish 
Singh. 
B. 1862. B. 1863. 



J 



Narindar 
Singh. 



12 HISTORY OF THE 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The two principal families in the Panjab proper, highest in rank and 
possessing the widest influence, are the Ahluwalia and the Sindhanwalia. 
The poeieBsions of the Ahluwalta Chief are almoat entirely situated in the 
Jalandhar Doab ; whilst of all Sikh familiea^ between the Beas and the 
Indus, the Sindhanwalia Chief is the i^uowledged head* Nearly related 
to this family was the great Maharaja himself, aad it wa^ in a great 
measure owing to their connection with him, that the Sindhanwalia Sirdars 
obtained so large a share of wealth aod power. 

The Siadhaixw^Ut^ are of the Jat Sansi tribe, and like most Jats 
claipi a Bajput oirigin, find state that their ancestor, a Bhattl Rajput, 
by name Shal^ c^me from Ujain to the Fai\jab> where he founded Sialkot. 
The Bhattis do not appear however to have settled so far South as Ujain, 
and t}ie Shal alluded to is, doubtless^^ S^aja Shal, or Salvahan, son of 
Raja Gaj of Jassalmir, who, after his father's death in battle with the 
Kii\g Qf Kboraaan, came to the Pai^ab, where he destroyed Lahore and 
rebuilt the town of Sialkpt^ ^ which place be ipade his capital. 

S^lvaib^ ipitroduced a new era oalled thei ^ Shaka/ according to some in 
memorial of a victory which he gained over Vikramaditya, near Sialkot ; 
but Salvahan was not a contemporary of Vikramaditya, who never ci^(ne 
to the Punjab at all. The * Shaka* era was founded in the 146th yeaf 
of the era of Vikramaditya. 

Eaja Salvahan had sixteen sons, all of whom became independent, 

1 " ■ ■' ■ » ' !■ . '■ ■ M , 

♦Note.— Sialkot is one of the most anci^ti towi^ in the Panjab. It is said to have 
been founded about 3400 B. C, by Raja Sb^\, ^iMemal uncle of tlic Pandus, whose 
descendants reigned there for many hundred years. It then was abandoned, until Salvahan 
rebuilt it, aocording to Panjab chroniclers, about 90 A. D., according to the Bhatti chroni- 
clers of Rf^utana, 16 A. D., supposiqg tlia^ l^ialkot is the original Salvohana. the capital 
of Salvahan, and the identity of the two places seems probable. Sialkot has been also known 
as Shalkot, Salkunt^ Sakalpur and Risalkot (fron^ Risalu the son of Salvahan.) The Sia! 
Rajputs, who now inhabit the country about Jhang, claim to have founded Sialkot, and to 
have given to the town their name. That they once settled tlierc and built a fort, seems 
certain, but the town was founded many years" before their arrival in the Panjub. 



MKJAB CHIBFS. "" 13 

and from whom many of the hill Princes baye descended. The chief of 
them were Baland^ Forani Bisaln, Dharamgadh^ Bupa and Sundar. 

The houses of Fattiala^ Nabha, Jheend, Malod, Bhador^ Faridkotj 
Kythal and Attari have descended from the eldest sonof Jondhar^the fifth 
from Raja Salvahan or Shal^ while the Sindhanwalias piretend that they 
and the Muhammadan Bhattis have descended from the second son. 

The origin of the family name of Sansi^ is thns related by the 
Sindhanwalias. Sohanda^ sixth in descent from Joudhar^ saw all his 
children die^ one after another^ within a few days of their birth. He, 
accordingly^ consulted the Brahmans and astrologers^ who told hun that 
he must give his next child to the first person who should come to the 
house after its birth. In due time a son was bom, and the first periBon to 
stop at Sohanda's house^ after the events was a beggar of the Sansi tribe ; 
and to him, in spite of the mother^s entreaties, the new-bom child wais 
given. The old beggar would have preferred money or food, but he took 
the child away with him. However, by the next day, he had had quite 
enough of it, and brought it back to Sohanda^ who, after a second consuU 
tation with the Brahmans, took the child, who was from this adventure 
called Sansarpal or Sainhsarpal (cherished-by-the-Sansi,) and ihe name 
has belonged to the family ever since. Another story states that the wife 
of Sohanda was taken in labour st a considerable distance from h^r home, 
and was compelled to take refuge in a Sansi village, where she received 
every attention and remained till she had recovered. 1 he son born under 
these circumstances was called Sansi. But from a comparison of the 
Sindhanwalia genealogy with thttt of the Bhattis, it appears probable 
that Sans was the name of a son of Bhoni, fourth in descent from Joudbar, 
and that from Sansi the Sindhanwalias and the San'sis have a common 
descent. The Sansia are a thievish and degraded tribe, and the house 
of Sindbanwala naturally feeling ashamed of its Sansi name has invented 
a romantic story to account for it ; but the , relationship between the 
nobles and the beggars does not seem the less certain, and if the hisiory 



'^ HItTOET OF THI 

of Maharaja Banjit Singh be attentively congidered, it wUl appear that 
much of hia policy, and many of his actions had the true Sansi com. 
plexion. 

Kaja Sansi, the present residence of the Sindhanwalias, was founded 
about the year 1570, by Raja and Kirtu ; and KiokAar the great grand- 
son o£Kirim, setUed in the Taran Taran waste, and founded thero seFeral 
villages. From Wigai, grandson of KioHar, have descended, on one 
side the Sunily of Sindhanwala, and on the other that of Lidwa, The 
grandson of Wlgai, by name TakAi Mai, received from the Emperor 
Alamgir a firman^ still in possession of the family, making him Chowdri, 
with pow«r to ooUect revenue in the Ilaka of Tnsa%ur. This firman, 
liowever» is unaUeated and may be a modern ibigaj. BUrm Mai, son 
of fsUl Jls^ seems to have been a Sikh of the unortlMidox sect called 
' Sahiy Dhari/ and although he never took the pahal (initiatory rite) 
he wandered through the villages preaching the doctrines of Ooviud. 
His son AmGU Sfi^i, an orthodox Sikh, was celebrated as a bold 
And suooessfkil robber* In his days cattle-lifting was as honourable a 
profession as it was on the Scottish border three hundred years ago, and 
BiHUa Singi, on his fSunous piebald mare Desi> was the terror of the 
surrounding country. He was wounded some forty times by spear, 
matchlock or sword, and died at last in his bed, like an honest man, in 
the year 1718. His two sons, OAaada Singh and Nodk Singh, were as 
f iilerprixing and iuooessful as their father. About the year 1730 they 
rebuilt the village of Sukar ohak, which had been founded some time 
previously by the Gil Jats, but had fallen into ruin, and collecting round 
them a band of hard-riding Sikhs, seized several villages in its neighbour- 
hoodi and oven made marauding expeditions across the Bavi, into the 
Uujranwala district. NodA Singk was killed in 1763, in a fight with 
the Afghans at Majithai where he had gone to celebrate his marriage in 
tlie family of Qulab Singh Gil. 

Uis son Ckarrai Singh, who was only five years old at the time of his 
father's deatbi became a very powerful Sirdar^ and rose to the command 



. PANJAB CHIXP8. IS 

of the Sukarchakia misl. Under him, fought his cousin Didar Singh, 
at Gujranwala, Find Dadan Khan, and elsewhere. After Sirdar Mahan 
Singh had succeeded his father, and had taken Rasulnagar and Gujran- 
wala, Sirdar Didar Singh obtained, as his share of the spoil, Find Sawa- 
kha, Dallot and Sindhanwala, which last village has given its name to 
the family. He was killed in a skirmish on the banks of the Chenab, 
in 1784, and his tomb is still to be seen in the village of Dowlat Nagar. 

Sirdar Amir Singh, with his brothers, Gurbuksh Singh and Rattan 
Singh, succeeded to all the estates of his father, and soon contrived to 
enlarge them. He continued to follow the fortunes of his cousins, the 
Sukarcbakia chie&, and as they, Mahan Singh and Banjit Singh, rose 
to power he seized, with impunity, Bal Sehchandar and other villages in 
the neighbourhood of Raja Sansi« 

In 1803, however. Amir Singh fell into deep disgrace at court. The 
story is that one morning as Banjit Singh came out of the Samman 
Burj, and was preparing to mount his horse. Amir Singh was seen to 
unsling his gun, prime it and blow the match. The bystanders accused 
him of seeking the life of his Chief, and Ranjit Singh, who believed the 
charge^ dismissed him from court. He took refuge with Baba Sahib 
Singh Bedi of Unah, at whose intercession, after some time, Banjit 
Singh again took him into favour, and placed him specially under the 
protection and in the force of Sirdar Fatah Singh ELalianwala. 

Amir Singh accompanied the Maharaja in the Kastur campaign of 
1 807, and in the expedition against the Muhammadan tribes between 
the Chenab and the Indus in 1810. In this expedition Jaimal Singh, his 
second son, was killed in a skirmish before Kila Ehairabad. In 1809, when 
on the death of Raja Jai Singh of Jsmmu, Banjit Singh seized that 
country, he made over to Amir Singh the Ilskas of Harniah, Naunar and 
Ratta Abdal. Two years later Amir Singh introduced into the Maharaja's 
service, his son Budh Singh^ who soon became a great favourite at 
court. 



16 HUTORT OF THE 

The first independent command of Budh Sinfi was at Baliawalpur^ 
whither he had been sent to enforce the payment of the stipulated tribate. 
In 1821^ with his father^ and brother AUar Singk^ he captured the forts 
of Mojghar and Jamghar. For these seryices Jmr Singh receiyed 
Shakarghar in jagir, and Budk Singh^ Kalar and Nirali^ worth about a 
]akh of rupees. Previous to this the family jagirs in Chhach and Attock^ 
had been exchanged^ at their request, for the Ilakas of Sarrohj Taiwan, 
KhoUr and Kathunangal, worth 1,80,000 Ss. 

Sirdar Budh Singh was, after thl^i sent to the Jammu hills in com- 
mand of two regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, and afterwards 
reduced the Thainawala country. He was in command of a portion of the 
Sikh army at the battle of Theri in 1823. Two battles were indeed fought 
at Theri. The Maharaja commanded, in person, on the left bank of the 
Kabul river, and he defeated the Yusufzye fanatics, losing, however, Phula 
Singh Akali, and some good officers. On the right bank of the river waa 
the main body of the Sikh army, commanded by Hari Singh Nalwa, 
Jamadar Khushhal Singh, Sirdar Budh Singh and others, and the oppos- 
ing force of Afghans, commanded by Muhammad Azim Elhan, who was 
defeated with loss, and died within the year, of chagrin. 

In 1825 the Maharaja was in the Rambagh at Amritsar, dangerous- 
ly ill. His life was despaired of, and he had become wholly unconscious. 
Sirdar Budh Singh, who saw that on the death of Banjit Singh the 
country would again be divided into separate chiefships, and supposing 
the Maharaja to be dying, determined to make provision for himself. 
He went at night with a force to the fort of Oovindghar and 
demanded admittance in the name of the Maharaja. The Jamadar 
of. the gate, Dya Bam, would not admit him without orders. Budk 
Singh accordingly went back and induced by large bribes, the keeper 
of the seal to draw out an order for the fort to be given up to 
him, and to this the seal was affixed. Budh Singh returned to the 
fort, but the Jamadar was not to be deceived. He would not look at the 



PiNJlB CHIBFS. 17 

order, and declared that so late at nighfc he would not open, the . gatea. to 
the Maharaja himself. The Sirdar had to retire discomfited^ and in the. 
morning Imamaddio, the Kiladar, told the Maharaja^ who had iii mtiXfi^ 
measure recovered^ the whole affair. The result was that Biudk Singh 
was given the Feshawur command, and sent into the Yusu&ai country. 
against Khalifa Sjad Ahmad, a fanatic who was preachmg a Jihad^ or 
holy war, against the Sikhs, the Maharaja hoping that he would leave 
his bones in the Yusufzai hills, and never return to disturb him. 

Budh Singh crossed the Kabul river in advance of the.main body^ and en- 
camped at Akora, where he threw up entrenchments ; but during the night 
he was attacked by the enemy, and only succeeded in beating them Off with 
a loss of five hundred killed and wounded. Siirdar Aiiar Singh SindhanwaUa 
was present on this occasion^ and displayed much gallantry. The next day 
the Sikh army moved on nine miles to Jagirah^ where it was joined l^ the 
Dogra Chiefs^ and the Attari Sirdais^ with their troops^ which, together 
with those of Sirdar Budh Singhy amoanted to scmie ten - thousand- men, 
with twelve guns. Their entrenchments were soon surrounded by r the 
large but undisciplined army of the Syad, composed of Kabulis, Yusufzaisj, 
and Afghans. For some days the Sikhs remained in their entrenchments, 
exposed to the incessant assaulta of the enemy, till, at length, the sup- 
plies and the patience of BudA Singh being exhausted, he led his men 
against tlie enemy, and, after a severe £ght, defeated them with great 
slaughter. The Syad took refugfe in the Yusufzai hills, and it was two 
years before he recovered his strength sufficiently to again take the field. 
After this success Sirdar Budh Singh returned to Lahore, where he was 
received with all honor ; but a few months later, at the close of 1827, he 
died of cholera. The Maharaja wrote a letter to his family, expressing 
his grief at the Sirdar's death, and his regriet that so brave a man should 
have died in his bed, like common mortals. Sirdar Budh Singh was one 
of the bravest and most skilful of the Sikh Generals. At the time of his 
death there was a rumour that the Dogras had poisoned him^ but there is 
not the smallest foundation for the story. 



IS uncosr or the 

Amist 8m§h dM Wore his son, in the auae year, ¥«t iJl tke j^pi% 
iMoiuitisg to upwards of six kd(b% V0ie cMtinaed to Siidaxa JUimr 
Smfk, LekM Bmgk, Waaama Smgl, mi Skamshir Simfl. Alfitrai»gk 
fOSQcedsd his brother in the Durbar^ aod his strength and eonraje^ wore 
80 greats thai after the death of Sirdar Hari Siagh Nahra, in 1&37, he 
tras eoAsider^d the ehanpion of ^e Khalsaji. 

In the same year, AUar Singh was sent to Peshawar^ with his Con- 
tingent, and Lehna Singh io Shabkadr. They did good service, and 
were engaged in constant warfare with the wild tribes in the neighbour- 
hood.. JUt(»t j^>i^ obtained the title^ as long aa eomplimentary, of <' ^U^l 
didaXj NiroiaJL badh> Sirdar be wabur^ Kaair-ul-iktadair^ Sansar-i-giioha^ 
AWBdaK} AU tabbai tjh^aad-dowlah. Sirdar Attar Singh, Bhaiefther-^t^ 
J$»g buheder;'' and Sirdar iidaa Bi^gh, the title of <'Uj}ak Didar.Niimak 
bttdh^ Sirdar ba wakar. Sirdar Iiehna Singh^ Siadbanwalia, bohadnr.^ 
The jftgtrs aed power of the family continually inoreased tUI ihe death 
of Mahanva Kharrak Singh ; when^ though nominally in possessioa^ of 
seven lakhs of country, diey really possessed between niae and ten. 

At this time Attar Singh was the head of the family, both by age and 
ability ; Lehna Singh was a man of energy^ but illiterate and debauched ; 
Ajii Singhy his nephew, was brave enough, but headstrong and rash ; 
whilst Shamiher Singh was averse to politics^ and was absent at Pesha- 
war, with his troops. 

When Prince Nao Nihal Singh was killed, by accident or design^ the 
same day that his father died^ two claimants appeared for the vacant thron^i. 
The first was Hani Cbaud Kour, widow of Maharsfta Kharrak Siogb j 
the second^ Prince Sher Singh, a reputed son of Mahar^ Baiyit Singh, a 
brave soldier and possessing some influence with tiie army. The claima 
of Chand Kour were supported by the Sindhanwalia parly, includiog 
Bhai Bam Singb^ Sirdar T^ Singb^ and hi» uncle Jamadsr KbQ3hhali 
Singh. Sher Singh was favoured by the Dogra party at the head of 
wluch was Raia Bbyau Singh, and his brothers, Bajaa Gulab Sinch and 
Suchet Singh, with Misr (afterward* Rs^) Ul Singh and o%h^ik. Be- 



n^jAB cmsYs. 19 

tween tbe Siadhanwalia tM the I>ogra jMurties the great^it Mimitjr ex- 
isted. Both had poasessed great power aad ii^uAnce diiriog Iha 
latter years of Ranjit's reigUi and each looked with jealomj md auspieMHt 
npou its rival. But the ambitioa of the SindhaairaUafl h»l been unilaA 
with attacbmeixt to the reigning Fanuty, and dovotiou to the Stal^; that 
of the Dogra brothers had ever beea sal&ah. TherQ are perhapa no ohft* 
racters in history more repaUive than Bajas GiUah Siagb aod Dhyan 
Singh. Their sploadid talents and their uadouhted bravery cooai ai 
Dothiog^ in the prese&ce of their atrocious cruelty^ their avarke^ theic 
treachery^ and their uiusorupulous ambition. 

At the time of Prince Nao Ntha) Singh's death, Aiiar Singh was at 
Hardwar^ and Lekna Singh and Ajit Singh in Knln. On the news reach- 
ing them^ Attar Singh and Ajit Singh both hastened to Lahore. 

Rani Sahib Kour, widow of Prince Nao Nihal Singh, was pregnant at 
the time of her husband's death, and Raja Dhyan Singh, seeing that in 
the temper of the Sikh people, it would be well to wait, agreed that 
Sher Singh should retire to his estatcQ, leaving hifl son Partab Singh in 
the Parbar, professedly for eight months, till it waa seen whether a aoa 
would be born to Sahib Kour or to any other of the Rania ; in. reality^ 
till he, Dhyan Singh, should gain over the troops to the side of Sh^r 
Singh. A fac-simile of a very ourioua state p^er^ containing this agree- 
ment, and signed by Rajas Qulab Singh and Dhyan Singh ; the thraa 
Sindhanwalia chiefs ; Sirdar Lahna Singh Majithia 3 Sirdar Te^ Singh ; 
BUai Ram Singh ; Bhai Goviud Bam ; Bhai Nidhan Singh \ Bhai 
Qurmukh Singh, Jamadar Khuahhal Singh and Sheikh Mohiuddin, — is 
given at the commenoement of this volume. Thia deed was executed on 
the 27 th of November^ three weeka after the death of Prince Nao Nihal 
Singh, and in accordanee with its provisions, Sher Single left for Battaby^ 
and Raja Dhyan Singh retired to Jammu, leaving Ms agents, in Lahor^ji 
to win over the soldiery. ^0 deaigim of the Jammn^ brothers' worn 
Qvidoutly distcuated by tho othef Chiefe, who,, on. the 4th of December^ 
signed another papef^ deolaring their td^ty to tbt 9tate and their i»fla- 
lution to stand or fall t(^he^ 



20 HISIOET OF TBB 

£iri7 tt Jinwffy, Shtx Singh, heuing tlut die ny ww ««ll dis- 
pawd towvds fain, and hoping to gmin Lahore withooi die aid of Dbjaa 
Singh, whom he both hated and feared, appeared vilh hii troopa before 
At dtj. Baja Gulab Singh, howvTcr, determined that ShflrSin^ahoBU 
not sacoeed vitboot his brother's aid, j<Mned the SiDOaBwaKaBy and pre- 
pared to defend the foru The histxKy of the siege cf Lahore ia too wdl 
knovn to be repeated here. For seren days the gamaon hdd on^ bnsTO- 
It, againstthe whole Sikh araiT, which k«t in the aHanll a great nam- 
her of aaea: and it was not till Bs{}aDhTan Sii^relanMdfeoaiJaninia 
tkt: negomdjos wen opened, hj which Sher Sin^ Mgf drd the throne, 
and Rani Chand Cdcr resigned her daias. Gnhd» Singh, TrTi*T**g in his 
skeTe at the sacceai of Lis and ha brother's pijg%MMrhrd off to Januna, 
aBiistthecKrseaof tlfee Sikh arssj, cuTria^ with him a grea pari of the 
trensorev pcinapaHj jswels^ w hich Maharaja Baspt Singh had stored in the 
Art, and which pfazaiier. Ere jeazs later^ hcbed tn fi ii hrnr Eash- 



Sirdar AfUr Sim^ &en went, as an sts^nt ci Bani Chanl Kbor, to 
the (SoTemor GeneraTs ag«it at LraffrBina r> trr awl ind-iee him to sap- 
port their partr, bat he was b*?4 sacosasfb! : sB>i JJii Sis ft Acn tried 
his persnasTe powers with e^TTiikl bad soocess. He tlwai trarelled to Calcutta, 
hot was not able to obtJin sTidiesce cf the GoTerrwr GeneraL The object 
of their absence was we" xsjiderszccd it Lai-'r»», ^d Sher Sin A confiscated 
all the jagirs of the umHy. witri the except: :n of th ?se of Siidar Siam^ 
aler Sim^y wha haJ no: JoLaed in tL? nitr^es of his relatiTes. He 
sent Budh Sincli M^lirah, x2lJ Hafcn Siri^ ITalwai, to Knlu, irhere 
Lekm^ S'*\:\ was in ccin3ian\L to brii^ iim to Lahore, with his nephew 
AVir ^/r.-i : anl ca their arrtn!. threw ttec into priscn. The other 
members of the fewnilT, except SirftM^r- 5ef»y<, then a osn ed the Satkj 
and took refuse a: Thaxsesar* in British territcrML Bat the exile of 
the Slndhanwaiiw ccca^k^ced MafcanJA Sfcer Singh » mnch anxiety 
as their presence^ Tber carried on their intrigiKS at Lahore, and the- 
armr, which ther had often WJ to battle^ marmored at the aerariif 
with which ther were treated. Sher Siagh wnt aeeordinglj ready to 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 31 

listen to the sinister adviee of Bhai Bam Singh, who ni^ tbeif leeali 
and in October 1842, Sirdars Ajit Singh and £M«a Singhj who had 
been, some time before, released from confinement, returned to Lahoroi 
and all their jagirs were restored to them. Attar Singh remained at 
Unah in the Hoshiarpor district, in sanctuary with Bedi Bikrama Sin^. 
fie had no faith in Maharaja Sher Singh or in the Jammu Bajas. ^or, 
to tell the truth, was it any love for Aese latter that induced AjU Singh 
and Lehna Singh to return. They had, doubtless, a longing for their £at 
jagirs; but they had heard of the murder of Bani Chand Konr| the head 
of their party and the reputed mistress of AjU Singh, by Sher Singh and 
Dhyan Singh ; they heard that Bani Sahib Kour had beto ^litexh 
ed of a still-born 8on| and the Lahore bazars were whispering that it 
was not the interest of Sher Singh and Dhyan Singh that the child 
should be born alive. ... ., 

All at first went on smoothly. Vainly did Dhyan Singh try' to per- 
suade the Sindhanwalias that his interest had procured their recal; they 
knew his hatred for them, and determined upon his fiiil. The plotof tlie 
Sindhanwalias was a bold one. They were for no half measures. -Maha- 
raja Sher Singh and his miniBter Dhyan Singh were to fidl together, And 
the Sindhanwalias, having gratified theur revenge, would wield the whole 
power of the state as guardians of the young Dalip Singh. Raja DbyaU 
Singh had also a policy which was noiess energetic. He desired to 
destroy Sher Singh and the Sindhanwalias, and secure for himself 
the regency, and in the event of any accident happening Dalip Singh, a 
probable throne for his son Hira Singh. 

The Sindhanwalias persuaded the Maharaja that Dhyan Singh had 
determined to destroy him, and that his safety could only be secured by 
the death of the Minister. That they, the Sindhanwalias, his relations and 
friends, were the only persons he could trust, and that they were ready to 
make away with the obnoxious Minister. Sher Singh believed this storyi 
which was one half true, and signed a paper exonerating them iroin the 
guilt of Dhyan Singh's murder, and arranged themanner of itsezecntion. 




or TBI 

ImUI 
i Ab aiaihaBwaiai ««Mtolritt tUs 
todaO. ThBaMB^EbfctkittlHin^eA 
wilk «W MtfcMiji, ttimk Swyi ad 4^ ffwji fiiil m^wUkU »q» Pfcy— 
8b^ TktftMImm ttit 81*r Hii^kJ I III ' J, iat ■■ M» 
iliiliiHi; ■idtka«i«Wis,aaiedei«alMteaMtiB ¥ 
dkov. WlMii1)lqpn8iiig|liHJkracpifertihii8h«8n^kai 
ki«i«ltofihe8iiiaUa«ilki'9capoal,«iia ifc«it 

,tfciit — tte4qrofth»impBrt-<thawclmteftB«kwM Wtli» 
iaotdieliablK, 

It thai appeu* tltst tlie Sinaiiaaw^Dw wen As wipn i hwif of tU 
coa ^i g y agibfe Shet Singh. Htqr tlwlwi aanrt dbf lAjtf 
anghviiitod AjU^Mfk and Xeiaa&tfl, aadtelfing diam Ibil th^ 
lff«h«> h«d dwMramiid to it*mj thea, ittgri tlKtt^ ioift'iB«.plot 
iCiiiMCfaMfife;lMtdua«te7 am sowByprabiUtL ShriP Shi^ d». 
■ndtoaondfiatetlw |indlMi«raliM» afti to dartfoy «hM>' Qb- lutd 
biitMeead|]rnitoCBda«r j«gia «ad knoviay'nd k» lookri totiMT, 
Md to them alone, M his delenM ^fSaaA tia Jaaan B^M^ VlbipA 
Siagh and Qidab Singh, iriraa ho fand •• aaA •• fan hatai.- Tho 
fliadhan^ndia knew tUa wdl, and they woold never hmii beBsvod 
- that the Ifafian^ ww (dotting againai thMu 

l!he I5th Septemlia', IMS, the day for the infection <tf the 8ia> 
dhanwaIi«tR>o|ie,*t length anived. The Mahan)a had gone to spend 
the day at a anmmer hooae, at 9idt BUawal, half way between Lahore 
and Bhaliinar, and thither Sirdwa 4^ SuvA and XAtoa fftyi froeeeded. 
They entered the p re an a fully anned, bat this wa not nnminil. Shop 
Singh wa in the email room of the hona^ with bat one or two 1 
dante, and Diwan Dina Nath wa readii^ atate p^^era akmd to ! 
4iii Siagi paid hii reapeota, and, ooaiag £Brvatd,prcMaiad finr the linff 
haraja*« iaepeetion a doable-bartellod gon, which, he aatd, he had joafc 
purobaetid. 8bor Siqgb, who was food of fiie>«MM, itreli^ on* lua 



Mttd to' teke^Ati wh^n^^^ ISitt^, whi^ bad^ kept the .jainzzh ditected to- 
wacds the Prinoe, fired both barreUi which had bee^ I^ed. wUh a deuUp 
Gharge, fall in his breast. 

TkeMdMimjakad only time tociy, ^Ikyadaggahai ?^' ( what treachi- 
ciy is dus 7) when Jhe ftU back and expired. His attendants attacked the 
■iMJiiiij' botithsj -were few in nnmbev and wer^ soon overpowered* 
Siidar Bodh: Singh^. Mokerian, was killed on the Bpoft, his cousin severely 
^iAad. seiveial others were cut down by the Sindfaanwalias. 



Not fiur from Shah Bilawal, was the garden of Sirdar Joala Singh 
Pbdhania, Here Prince Partab Singh^ eldest son of the Maharaja, a 
handsome and intelligent boy, was peforming his devotions, and distri- 
ImtiBg alms to Brahmans, for it was the 1st day of Asoj, and the month- 
ly festival of Shankrant. To this garden ZeAna Singh hurried) with 
some troops. The Prince saw him approach with a drawn sword, and 
cried oat ^' Babaji, I will remain your servant/' (tumhara naukar main 
lahnnga). Lehna Singh answeried, '^ Your father is killed/' and ran the 
bej through with his sword. At the same time were killed Attar Singh, 
Pkrohit, In attendance on the Prince, and several Brahmans. 

* While this tragfdy was. being ^nacted in Jqala Singh's garden^ 
JfitSiagi had. cut off the Mahar»ja's head, and, mounting hia horse, bad 
galloped off towards Lahore^ with 300 fpUowers. At theqpot wherQ 
isnow the Badami .Bagh| he met Baja Dhyan Singhj^ rid^ig slowly 
towards Shah BUawalj with Fatah Khan Tirana, and a few attendants. 
He told the Bija tha|b all had gon^ off wellj. and requested him to ride 
back witjh him to Lahore. The Baja may have had suspicionsi but it 

\ useles0 then to^howthem; so he turned his horse's hea4 towards thfi 



* KoTB»— The ftory of the aasatiination of 8her Singh and Partab Singh has been 
tola in vaifooi way*.' II li beUered tiiat the aboTe Terrfon is the connect one. Eye-wii- 
wtmm U the tragiBd/^ who haive been qnestioiied, are unanimoas as . to its tnithfohiesSi and 
amoag theae msj be meotiooed Diwan Ajodhia Parshad, who was with Mahanga Sher Singh 
altbetfaneorhls death, and Bam Milawar Mai, waUlofthe Bi^aof Kaponhalla, who Was 
>alhscaito.of Jo4a Singh whea Fdace IVtab fivigh wsf mvderel 



24 HlffTORT OF TfiB 

t;ity. By the Boshnai gate they entered the city^ and on passing int6 
the fort the gates were shut. 

As they rode up the aseent| AJU Singh asked the Minister what arrange- 
ments he intended to make. He answered ^^ Dalip Singh shall be Maha- 
raja; I, Wazir ; and the Sindhanwalias shall enjoy power/' Again Ajil 
Singh asked tho question^^ bat the same answer was returned. In his 
extremity Dhyan Singh would not promise the ' Wizarat ' to ono of the 
hated Sindhanwalias. But he now saw from Ajit Singes demeanour 
that his death was determined on, and he turned to address the Sirdar, 
but he cried out, ^^ You are the murderer of the Rani Sahib/' and fired at 
the Raja, with his pistol.. The attendants of AjH Singh then cut him 
down with their swords, and threw his body into the pit (tf the gun foun- 
dery in the fort. Ahmad Khan Ghebai who was in attendance on Dhyan 
Singh, was killed with him. ZeAna Singh soon afterwards arrived, and 
the Sirdars then wrote to Raja Suchet Singh, the brotbeiy and Raja Hira 
Singh the son of the murdered Minister, requesting their presence at a 
consultation in the fort. The Rajas however. were not to be entrapped, 
and soon the news of the murder got abroad. Raja Hira Singh, who has 
been himself accused of conspiracy against his father's life, now determined 
to avenge his death, and addressed the troops, and by extravagant pro- 
mises gained them over to his side, and, by evening, the army of forty 
thousand men had surrounded the fort, which the Sindhanwalias had 
determined to defend to the last. These Cbieis had proclaimed Dalip 
Singh king, and Lehna Singh wazir, but they felt that their chance was 
lost, 'and bub feebly defended the fort against the first attack of Hira 
Singh. When, however, the walls had been breached, and the enemy 
advanced to the assault, the Sindhanwalias fought with desperation, but 
.they had but a few hundred men, and the works were carried, though, 
with great loss. AJiC Singh tried to escape, by letting himself over the 
walls by a rope, but he was seen by a soldier, and in spite of his lavish 
promises of reward, if his life was spared, was shot dead. His head was cut 
off and taken to Hira Singh, who ordered his body to be quartered and 



exposed in difEereat parts of the city. The soldier who slew him wa$[ 
made a sobhadar. Zeina Singh, whose thigh had beea broken .by a shot 
from a zamburah, early in the day^ was discovered hiding in a.vault^ and 
was also ruthlessly murdered. Dalip Singh was then proclaimed kingi 
and Hira Singh wazir. Thus ended the tragedy. 

Raja Hira Singh, on obtaining power, oonfiacated air the jtgirs p£ th($ 
Sindhanwalia family, except |th0Be of Sirdar Shamsher Singh, who waet at 
Peshawar, and had not joined in the conspiraqr. He destroyed Baja Sansi) 
the family seat^ plonghed np the ground on which their palace had stood, and 
hunted down all their friends and adherents. The sorviving members of the 
family, with Sirdar AUar Sinffh^fM across the Sutlej.- It doesnot appear 
ihe^t Altar &n^^ was aware of the lengths to which his bibtjier and nephew 
were prepared to go, yet Hira Singh believed him to be privy to the whole 
conpiracy and determined on his destruction. • With this object be forged 
letters from many of the chiefs and leaders ot the army, and sent them, to 
Atlar Singh, urging him to return to the Panjab^.where he might recover hiil 
influence and destroy ' the Waasir. ' He also sent forged letters to Baba 
Vir Singh, a Quru much respected by the Sikhs, begging him to use .his 
influence to induce the Sirdar to return. The .Princes Kashmira Singh 
and Feshora Singh were with Baba Vir Singh, at this time, and Hira 
Singh hoped to destroy hia three enemies at one Uow. BoUx Attar Singh 
and the Baba were deceived ; and the former crossed the Satkrjwith his 
followers, and joined the camp of the Baba. The Sikh army would not 
hear of attacking the holy Guru, and Hira Singh had to use still further 
deceit. He assured the troops that Attar Singh had allied himself with 
the^British, who were even now ready to cross the Satlej and seize the 
Panjab. That if the army marched against him, he would probably return 
to the Cis-Sutlej States without offering any resistance. The troopS| 
thus cajoled, marched from Lahore, and all turned out as Hira Singh had 
hoped. By trickery, a tumult was ezcitedy and before the Sikh soldiemi 
knew what they were about, they were engaged in a regular fight with 
the Sindhanwalia force ; the camp of the Baba was stormed, and he waa 



curvA. j£j» usocx sni paoEr ii. Mar 1^^ 



S^'VBL mifiniH' iine::. 2zsfc SnigL nmHwH inft vbeuiscdb^,. xu£ 
«liifriiuir Sxuri- '11^ umuttSL irricusr ic Sul J juqbi^ -v^ui suaseOBC Ha, 
» 'Wisc'^ sesaEtet 'sui: Smflminwing inm cnii;. shE ■ jii imiwin ttp iMiage 

^Mimv. «Bfliiia!]eC3iitniiii]iimiA^a%BiBae<]EiqpBir 

ouuvmbobo tunoipiuni SMT Sc^ twiffieii «f IJ»iS iS Wbt vnnap* 

^imflBC » »»biKr if cu!: CmaoMtf BoeBBBrwn OtasaBttai;. 1M&. la 

«na»a-ii! thitXmirMMdlfMu: '^ri^cs. ITjim Dnm Malraj of 
If-ahazi unisrr! j^ fwig«fiivc^ ue ^sa «f 3ksiaa, v GOTcnor, was 
oftspti Vj Sh:m.tie* S'.m^L H.e iJi ztA. Mvwfr. umii willing to 
motJtu^ it. Jal ic v-a» fisA^r ;b:««b 13 SfdK- E»a Sbbs^ Haa. SImijiv 

in oaannd of one jmr'.-?!^ t'sit Sul^ mt. H« wt J Major 
fidwdoi o< *Jk <im£9!Sftii ra:^ of u.e £p>kmv je^ ^ k«i heft to 
keep tkem {a:t&fa!. llbe-jr auriAT &: ^eatruk laok ^a W aarpnae. and be 
was carried o^ff bf Ba:.% S««r S^a^ AuahwAa, into Mahan, whem^ 
before tb^s wih^ Usnm, be lefnaai u> >xa tbe aebd eaase, meA dcdamd 
dux b? ooij -v^ obaikrtee ^> tbe Mibaca;!. The next nMming^» tba 
IStli Septenbfr. l<^% be tocoeeitti in ankiadr bi? mem^ on loot, Imm 
8hcr Singh's camp, leaving behind bim ad bk tents and elephanls ; on the 
road he wa« interceptei bj tv> ot the rebels, bat be ahot one, nod 
the other to k to dight. After hif return fir:)«n >l^>9han, he rendered good 



PANIAB CHIEFS. 27 

assisUuce to General Wheeler^ ia famishing infbrmatdon of the m<nr§moat<< 
of Ram Singb^ son of Shapaa^ Wazir of Norpur^ who waci in opon ra* 

bellion. 

After annexation, the personal jagirs of Sirdar Sharjuher SingK ^xriount- 
ing to 40,250 R», per annami were upheld far life \ one. qi^arterdoBO^adi^g 
to his male issue in perpetuity. His aeryico jagir of 30,2^0 B^t 
was resumed. 

In 1857^ during the mutiny^ Shamsher Singh raised a troop 
of 125 horsemen, which formed part of Hodson's Horse, now the 
9 th and lOth Bengal Cavalry. In February, 1862, he was made 
Magistrate, in his own jagir, and, a month later, his jurisdiction 
was extended to cases of dacoity. About the same time the portion 
of his jagir to descend, in perpetuity, was raised from one quarter to two 
thirds. Sirdar Slutmsher Singh has no children of his own, but has 
adopted Bakshish Singh^ the second son of his first cousin Thakar Singh. 

On the death of Sirdar Attar Singh, his son Kehr Singh 
became the head of the family. But this Sirdar was a man of no 
energy or ability. Most extravagant in his habits, he was surrounded 
by men who grew rich upon his follies. At Multan, where he served 
with his cousin, he remained faithful to Government, following his 
cousiii\s example, for he had no will of his own. On annexation, bis 
personal jagir of 26,000 R^. was maintained to him, one-third of it to 
descend to his male issue. This jagir has now lapsed to Government, 
on the death of Kehr Singh^ which took place in February, 1861. His 
life had been much shortened by his intemperate habits. His jagir 
had been for some time in the hands of his creditors, and he himself had 
to pass through the insolvent court. 

The two sons of Lehaa Singh, Sirdars Partab Singh and Thakar Singh, 
also were conlirmed in their personal jigirs. They were too young to 
be concerned in the rebellion of ISiS-dO. Parfab Singh died in 1856, 
without issue, and his jagir of 10,565 Rs., has lapsed to Government. 
T/iakiW Slmjh possesses an estate of 5,565 Rs., of which one-fourth is in 



2S HlffTOKT or THS PANJAB CHIEFS. 

peip c tuitj . Siidir Ramfodi Simgk^ son of SMbr Wmmwa ^mgh, was a 
naa of no diaracter. He bad a j^ir of 15^840 Ba., of vUdi oBe-third 
5^S0 Ra. is in perpeinitj. He died in Jane, 1864, leaving one aoD. 

Sirdar Skamsier Sit^i rendea at Baja Saoai, about fito miles nortb 
of Amritaar. Hie village of Sindbanwala la mm hdd by die descend- 
ants of Gwrmmki Siagi, brocber of Siidar Amir Simfi. 



RAJA TEJ SINGH. 
JAMADAR KHUSHHAL SINGH. 



HAB OOBDID. 



I I ^1 

Niddha. Jamadar Khashhal Bam LaL 



Singh. D. 1844. 



S. Ram Singh S. Kishan Singh S. fihagwan Singh 
s. 1839. D. 1846. B. 1888. 



Raja Tej Singh ITarbans Singh 

D. 1862. B. 1846. 



Narindar Singh Dgyi gingh. Shir Ram. 

B. 1859. 



Deri Singh. 
Fatah Singh. 



Jowahir Singh. Sham Singh Brahmanand 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The father of Khushhal Singh was a Brahman shop-keeper of the Gout 
class^ and resided at Ikri^ in the Sirdhanah pargannah of the Mee rat 
district. The family was poor^ and in the year 1807| Khrnhhal^ a 
young man of seventeen^ came to Lahore to seek his fortune^ and was 
taken into the Dhonkal Singhwala Regiment^ then newly raised, on five 
rupees a month. He soon made friends with Jatri and Ganga Singh, 
the Maharaja's chamberlains^ and was placed on the personal guard 
of Ranjit Singh. Here^ by his vigilance, aided by good looks^ 
and soldierly bearing, he attracted the favourable notice of the Ma- 
haraja. The story told by the family is that, one nighty Ba&)it 
Singh went out, in disguise, and on his return to the palace was stopped 
by Khushhal^ who was on guard, and who kept bis master in the watch- 



M 



taitfaeBnnmg,aadtkitthia¥igiIaBK pIriMril tte Mahmia so 
&atheke^XtM4Wbj!ixiB,aia peaood atmiaL* HoweTcr 
tiiMiMybe^itiicgrtamtiMtt nmiiktfmmimLj mhs mmni'i ^voor, 
tillia l^llyhe mm ippiwifriHnifciwiIi^ ■ tfMHTiiiTiin, with tlie title 

katwm master oc dks certxaxuoA, rc^ilatal pcoeeaoiocHi and super- 
iateiukd the Dttrfaar. It was Ihnai^ hiai alfxie tbat ai^ individiud, 
hovetcr lugb ia tank, eooU ataaia • fdvate iateriev with As Ma- 
banga, altbo^ dK 4ailj Barbar vaa opan to aS oaea of famSij or 
ottial mportaaee. 



Tbe etiqiiettc at LalioR, when dfee MJahwaji went oat, waa m fbl- 
lows. FixBt went ooe hundred tioopeo» t«o iliaaiiL Then the Maha- 
n^S) with foot ordeffics at hk stirmpSy and an nznhedh bsacar ; the 
pixneea unoiediatd j behind ; then the Srdais and Barons^ ssoaBted, each 
with his ombreDa hearer; and lasllf, the dephanta and led honss. Ifthe 
lHabanga rode OQ aa elephant, the Sirdais most d^ the aaasa; if he was 
carried ina palsnfpiin^ ths Sirdara followed on horseback. 



The same year that KhuUml obtained the char^ of die Deorhi, he 
summoned {ro3i 31eecat his nephew TeJ Rtm, then a boj oC tweWe. 
In IbU, he took the pahal (the Sikh baptism) and became a Singh. Tej 
Bam did not take the pUial, till IS 16, and then onlj bj the Mahiraja's 
express orders. He channel his nams to Tef SU^ij thoogh he was 
almost as often ciUed Tejm Simgk, Tej Sinjh is, h^werer, the correct name. 

KJkMtUal SUgi sjoa grew h)Ui rich aaJ p^wertoL Most of the house- 
hold appoiatauats wecegivea bj hioi, with ih^ Maharaja's sanction ; and 
y ftyina^ widhiog A private aadiencfi of the Maharajai would git e the dum- 
beriaio large suxns to adtnit them. Qe osei to read the daily rtporta of 
the armj to Rinjit SLogh, who aoon bagan to etnploj him on actiTc aer- 



•XofB.-*Tbtfopalw •t0ff7ie^aiiiBsnMkhalSuisk'% rin to fc¥ — . itOw thai] 
Siifk w«f (km >ttr»rt»1 bj Um uoffn^ U the joug iBaa» wiio wtf ksepc^S S^Mrd orw the 
UbC at nisht. la tbt BURuag, he caDad iar the sngw, aad, seeing thit hit &ct was as 
( M Wi vafee kapi hin dbaol hit pama. 



PAKJ4B CHISFi* 31 

vice. The young Tej Singh wa8 his deputjr during his abieuce from 
court. Iq 1816, the Jamadar was sent to occupy the country of certain 
BamgliariaSirdam, Bir Singh, Dinran Singh, and Khushhal ^gh, and 
afterwards to 0ei%3 the Ram^ha\ria eatatea at and around Amritsar. After 
thia he proceeded to Maadi and Kulu, which States had become tributaries 
of Lahore, and remained, for four months, in the hills. He accompanied 
the Maharaja in the first Kashmir campaign^ in 1814. Aaja Agar Khan 
of Rajaor proved a very treacherous ally. He misled Ranjit Singh as to the 
number of the enemy^ and advised a division of the army ; one detachment 
to pass into Kashmir by the Bhara Galla routCi and the main body to pro- 
ceed by Punch. This advice was followed, to the ruin of the expedition. 
Both divisions of the army were surrounded, their supplies cut off, and 
they finally were compelled to retire, in all haste, to Lahore. The re- 
treat was a disastrous one. The Jamadar commanded the advance, to 
clear the road of the enemy ; while Hari Singh Nalwa, Nihal Singh 
Attariwala, and Mit Singh Padhania, cove red the rear. Many men were 
lost, and Sirdar Mit Singh himself mortally wounded. Tty Singh, who 
had been created a Sirdar, was, in this campaign, in close attendance 
on the Maharaja. The next military service in which the Jamadar was 
concerned^ was the third and last siege of Multan, in 1818. Prince Khar- 
rak Singh, nominally, commanded the army, but it was the military genius 
of Misr Diwan Chand that seeured success. The Jamadar was in com- 
mand at the Tomb of Shamash Tabrez. 

Soon after the capture of Multan, the Jamadar fell somewhat 
into disfavour. His brother Ram Lai had arrived at Lahore, in 1816, 
and had received an appointment in the body-guard. The Maharaja 
wished him to become a Sikh, but to tUus neither of the brothers wonld 
consent ; and aa the Maharaja became very urgent on the point, Ram 
Lalf with the connivaaoe of the Jamadar, left the Panjab and returned 
to Hindostan. Uan^U Singh was mudh displeased, and Misr Diwaa 
Ohand, with whom tlie Jamadar had quarralled about the Moitan booty, 
advised that he should be removed feom <be charge of tlie Deorhi. To 



31 mmnm or m 

tte Smft Sa«k 1— ■ml, tm Maa M7M Siagh. a j«ag Bigint 

eftinBdaIlliijagks,aimafaBCtod to Ike 
CMacO, oMnuBgBOfCifdpowvthnfcekaihaiWm. Heiccebed 
i—inna1 of ibc tin— wt iiRgvkn, wUe Ty Sm§k wis a ade Gciierml 
mikt icgvkr farce. 

Sinlar Tef Sm^ iceompamMd Miv IKvn Chmd to Kidimir, in 
1S19, and in 1S31. BoCk he and tlie /omAd^ eofmnded diriwHis in 
Ae campaign against Maakerali, Leiali, and Den lanafl Khan ; and 
ako in the Pcahawar campaign, of IS:^. At the battk of Tehn they 
were with the Maharaja, opposed to the Ttwnfiriti sb the right bank of 
the I.nndah rirer ; wkile the main bodj of the amy vBder Sodan Hari 
Singh Xalwa, and Bodh Singh Sindhanwafia, were engaged with 
the Barakxai iirdan on the left bank. After the batde tke Sikk army 
adTanoed opon i'eahawnr, after having taken Jakangia from Firoa 
KkaD, Khattak, of Akora. Pediawar was plandcred, andtke troops posh- 
ed on to the Khjbar, bnt littk was to be done diere ; thewHd Khyharis 
cat the embankmentB of the Bara riTcr, and flooded the Maharaja's 
camp, carrying off in the conftsion horses and other spoil, and, after a 
short sUj, Ranjit Singh returned to Lahore. 

In 1S28 the Jwmadmr and his nephew, with tks Nalwa, Bidhania, and 
Majithia Sirdars, reduced the Katoch oonntry, and the forts of Chowki, 
Aimahghar, Tira and Biah. The last mentioned plaee akme oflRsred 
mnck resistance ; bat Ifj Simgk broaght op some gnns firom Sujanpnr, 
on elephants, aad, after three days^ the garrison sorrenderaL In 18S2, 
the Jamadmr was sent to Kashmir to assist prince 9ier Sngh, the go- 
Tcmor, ander whose administratioa the rerenne had mnch fidkn, and the 
people becooie disoonlented. The adfent of the Jmmmimr did not mend 
matters. He knew notking of finaBcs> and onlr cared aboot pleasing 
the Maharaja, The season of 1832 kad been a bad one in Kashmir, snd 
the Jmmmdar converted scarcity into fitxnine, b; kis opprtasion. The few 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 88 

lakhs which he managed to screw out of the people did not count for 
much^ when the annual revenue was diminished by two-thirds^ and the 
inhabitants forced to leave the country in search of bread ; and Kanjit 
Singh was for a time much displeased^ but the Jamadar soon recover- 
ed his influence. Oeneral Mian Singh was sent to succeed him, in 
Kashmir, with fifty thousand maunds of grain for distribution to the 
poor, but it was many years before Kashmir recovered its former prosperity. 
Ram Lai J brother of KhuBhhal Singh, had returned to the Panjab/and he 
took command of the Jamadar' s forces in the Peshawar campaign of 
1834 under Sirdar Hari Singh and Prince Nao Nihal Singh. Jamadar 
Khushhal Singh and Raja Dhyan Singh were in command of the forces, 
which marched to relieve the Sikh army, blockaded at Jamrud^ in April, 
1837. Although the Jamadar reached Peshawar two daya before Dhyan 
Singh, he made no effort to relieve the Sikh army, which was in the 
greatest straits, till the arrival of the Baja. After the retreat of the 
Afghans, the Jamadar remained at Peshawar, while Tej Singh was 
ordered to the Chaj Doab, to preserve order. 

Ram Singh, the eldest son of the Jamadar, was, about this time, made 
a General in the army, although a mere boy. He had, however, the 
passions of a man, and after having returned, in 1837, to Amritsar, with 
the Maharaja, murdered brutally, with his own hand, Bishan Singh, 
brother-in-law of Colonel Chet Singh, a fine young man, who had offend- 
ed him by a boyish jest. Such was the influence of the Jamadar^ that 
Ram Singh remained unpunished, with the exception of a fine, although 
his victim had been a favourite at court. 

In 1838, Tej Singh was sent to Hazara, and built there the fort of 
Manakghar, near Darband. In 1839, he proceeded to Peshawar, with the 
Jamadar f Prince Nao Nihal Singh, Baja Oulab Singh, and other Chiefii, 
to co-operate with the British army invading Kabal ; but the Sikh co-ope- 
ration, as is notorious, was more damaging than serviceable, as the ex- 
pedition was regarded by the Sikhs with distrust and dislike. 



34 HISTOBY OP THB 

General Rtm Slf^h died in this year. Although of a cruel disposi- 
tion, he was a good officer, and seems to have been the cleyerest ot Ihd 
familj. After the accession of Maharaja Ehairrak Singh, both the JmM'^ 
Air and 7k; /S%ft joined ita the conspiracy against Sirdar Chet Singh, 
Ciyoatite bt the new Monarch, who had shown ill-feeling towards them> 
tad bad deprived the jTamJadar of a portion of his commands On the 
tS^\ of the morderj PHnoe Nfeu) Nihil Si^gh, with Ttf Singh and 
KMukhdl Siiijh^ remained at the gate of the palace to guard against a 
resliike ; While the other conspimtors, the Rajas Onlab Singh and Dbjan 
Sii^, and the Sirdan iPatah Singh Man, Attar Singh Sindhanwaliai 
and Mian Labh Singh, entered the palace and murdered the favourite^ 
in the very presence of the Maharaja. 

WhOe niilute Nao Nihal Singh held power, the family of the Jamaiar 
was treated with great fiivour ; and on hia deaths on Ae 5th Novemb^i 
1840, botii Kkutkhal Singh and T^ i9m^A signed, with the other Chiefii^ 
a paper, by which it was agreed that no action should be nude in appoint- 
ing a successor to the throne, till it was seen whether the wives of the 
Pnnce or the Malyairaja wontd bear a eon. The snieideeding events are 
WMI known. Th^ SindhanWalia Sirdars and Raja Gnlab Singh defended 
the fort against Prince Sber Singh $ while tej Slnfh and Kkuskhal Singh 
Ibpt Wisely at home, joining neither party, but waiting to see what 
turn mftkiim wocdd take. Sheir Singh was much irritated by their con- 
4uet, and, ^on his iacceBsion, had serious intentions of putting them botb to 
death, but they Were at length forgiven, on the intei^oeedion of Bhai Gur- 
mukh Singh. But Sher Singh entertaii^ed a grudge against the Jama^ 
doTj and is said on one occasion to have tried to make away with him, in 
a manner that should appear accidental. Certain it is that soon i^er Sher 
8ingh^s accesiBiony he Was in ia pleasure boat on the Ravi with the Jsmiid^ 
fifhd Anistr Singh, AMuwalia, ufncle of the present Raja of Kapurthalla. 
Tbt boat Was oviertur ned ) the Maharaja sprang into another boat along 
side ; Amar Singh Was droWned, and his body never recovered, while the 
Jamadar, who 'mainaged to el^Kjape, Swallowed more water than he bad 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 35 

done for many years. It was generally believed in Lahore that Sher 
Singh capsized the boat intentionally, bnt this can never be proved. 

The c/amai/ar had been in bad health ever since 1840. In Joly 1814 
he diedj having mixed but little in politics during the three last 
years of his life. In June^ 1843, he had, with Kajas Gulab Singh and 
Suchet Singh, attended Prince Partab Singh in his visit to Lord Ellen- 
borough, at Firoepur. 

Jamadar Khushhal Singh was not a man of any particular ability* 
The Mahariya took him into favour, not so much for his courage, genius or 
learning, as for his broad shoulders, and good looks ; though from the pic- 
tures taken of him, late in life, he seems to have been an unusuallj coarse 
and vulgar-looking man. He was not, however, inferior to many other 
Sirdars of the Maharaja's court ; and if, in the many campaigns in which 
he served, he displayed no particular bravery, yet it is not anywhere stated 
that he ever ran away. Of his severity and oppression in Kashmir, 
mention has been made ; and on all occasions, trusting to the Maharaja's 
favour, he showed himself something of a tyrant. At Amritsar, to obtain 
ground for his own houses, he pulled down, without offering any compen- 
sation, many dwellings of the poorer classes, but Banjit Singh would not 
listen to any complaints against him, and would tell any one who oame to 
appeal against the Jamadar^ to go and obtain justice from Quru Bam Das. 

Sirdar Tq Singh, at the time of the Jumaim^t death, was at Pasha- 
war, of which place he had, in 184$, obtained die command ; and Raja Hira 
Singh, who was then Minister, and who had an old grievance with the 
/ofsnaJar about the Chamberlainship, confiscated 1,60,000 Bs. out of the 
jagirs of 3,40,000 Rs. which had been all granted in the nam« of Khu»hknl 
Singh, the family making the distribution among themselves. Kiihan Simgk, 
son of the Jamadar ^ a wild young man, spent in the ten days succeeding 
his father's death, about a lakh of rupees upon the dancing girk of Lahore. 
Hira Singh made this the excuse for ooafisoation. '' If you have so mnch 
cash to throw away/' said he, <' you can* of coonnb W ^P ^^^^ ^'^^ ^^' 



36 HI8T0KY OF THB 

the good of the state." He also wanted to get a lakh out of Bai Mul 
Singh, the confidential agent of the family. Kishan Singh declared that he 
could not pay a rupeO) and the jagirs were accordingly confiscated. 

Tej Singh wrote from Peshawar to protest against the confiscation, 
and Pandit Jalla said that when the Sirdar returned to Lahore/the matter 
should be considered, but before this took place the ministry both of Hira 
Singh and of Jowahir Singh had fallen/ and the Maharani, with her 
favourite, Lai Singh, had assumed the supreme power. 

The government of Tej Singh at Peshawar was marked by almost the 
only piece of energy, he ever displayed. When the troops under his 
command heard of the death of Baja Suchet Singh at Lahore, and of 
the large sums that had been given to the Lahore army, they rose 
in mutiny, and threatened that if all the money in the treasury was not 
given to them, they would treat Tej Singh as General Mian Singh had 
been treated, three years before, in Kashmir. The Sirdar amused the 
troops by promises of rewards, and called in all the Afghan Chiefs of the 
valley, to his help ; and the next morning had so strong a force at his 
command, that the mutinous regiments thought it best to recede from their 
demands. Raja Lai Singh recalled Tej Singh from Peshawar, in October, 
1845, appointing Sirdar Sher Singh, Attariwala, to succeed him. On his 
arrival at Lahore, Tej Singh found that war with the English was every- 
where talked of as probable, and the project was favoured by the Wazir, Raja 
Lai Singhj and by the Maharani, who feared and hated the army that 
had recently murdered her brother Jowahir Singh. Tej Singh was wealthy 
and influential, and although he was looked down upon by the old Sikh 
Sirdars, yet the position of the Jamadar and himself under Ranjit 
Singh, gave him much power at court, and when war with the English 
was finally determined, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the 
Khalsa army. 

On the 17th of November, the plan of the campaign was decided upon ; 
and on the 28rd, the army set out, in divisions, for Firozpur. But the 
Commander-in-Chief had little stomach for the fight, and it was not till 



PANJIB CHICXB. 37 

the 15th of December^ whea mil excuses for remaining behind were 
exhausted, that he set out to join the annj, which, four days preTiouslj, 
had crossed the Satlej. 

After the defeat of Baja Lai Singh at the battle of Madki, he sent to 
T!ej Singh to urge him to advance to his support. Accordingly the Sirdar 
inarched, with his division, and some fifteen thousand irregular caTalry^ 
and reached Firushahr on the morning of the 22nd Decemberi when the 
force of Lai Singh had been again defeated. Ttj Singh advanced against 
the British army, wUch was completely exhausted, and almost without 
ammunition. He drove in the British eavalry parties, and endeavoured 
to regain the lost position of Firushahr. He then attacked the left flank 
of the British army, and made such a demonstration against the cap- 
tared village, as compelled tiieEnglish General to change his whole firont 
to the right, the Sikh guns keeping up an incessant and heavy fire during 
this manoeuvre. At last, when the English cavalry, advancing, threatened 
both flanks of the Sikh army, and the infantry prepared to advance in 
line, for its support, Tej Singk ceased his fire, and, retiring firom the 
field, crossed the Satlej and encamped at Sobraon, about twenty-five 
miles north-east of Firozpur, on the right bank of the river. Here 
the army was soon joined by Raja Lai Singh, who had fled to Amritsar 
after the defeat of Firushahr, and the troops demanded to be led across 
the liver against the British. The only two Chiefs who opposed this 
movement were Sirdars Tej Singh, and Sham Singh, Attariwala, who had 
joined the camp on the 28th December, most unwillingly. Their pacific 
intentions were, however, ridiculed by the Panchayats of the army, and 
it was determined to cross the Satlej. A bridge of boats was thrown, 
across the river, and a strong iete de panl constructed in front of it, and 
entrenchments, as strong as the sandy soil would allow, were thrown up. 
Sirdar Tej Singh commanded in this entrenchment, and, for his own personal 
security, had a small shot proof tower erected, into which he might retire 
in the hour of danger, and here the Sikh army waited, week after week, 
while the British army was drawing, from every side, men and guns and 



3.S Mnao&T or 



r«v. Oi&eiig^SirdtfAttvSfaigh, 
£be iTR^vhr troops ; « &e left voe tibe g»II»l Skm Sngk cf Afkun, 
aai dke brigade of G«aecil Mevm Sc^ii, ¥»|Miia^ bock of whom were 
kiSed in tbe bottle of Solxioii. In the ctmtie were dK troops of Kalm 
Si&gk lisn, and the bri^aies of Genoai ATitabk, GcB«l M^U^ 
Martha, and Generil Gakb Sii^ IHmndk. In the centre, too, was the 
bf%nde and towa of Srdar Trf StjyI. 

On the lOthFebnuT, ISIfi, the hsttk of Sobnon ww ib^t, \mt 
Tef Sm§k hnd so httle to do with it, ^nt n drarriptinn of it wrndd be 
hefe oQt of phee. Daring the cnrh- port of the nelion he remnined in 
his tower, and wms onl j indneed to coae ont hf dacnts of pfiniMl yno^ 
knoe. Bot eien then, insleod of h i pniing t|ie tvoops, and cneonaging 
them when thej b^an to wmcr, he ooond &e bridge, at which he had 
stationed a guard of his own men, and was oae of die fiiit to iy from the 
field. Af^er the battle what iimiinidof the defeated ai^y MiemMed 
at Fatti, and afterwards marched to Bhaxrand^ where it waa otdeied to 
remain till after the tzenty of the 9& Uaich, ISiS; when it wan paid op; 
manj of the soUieis being re-enlisted, and others being diachaigod. Be- 
fore this, howeter, Siidar I49 Simfk had been snmaaoned to Lahore, 
and, nnder the new anangements, be was eonfinned in hb ^pointment 
of Commandef-ia-Chief of the Stkh annr^ nhile Baja Lai Singh was eon- 
finned as Wazir. 

The condnct of Siidar Ttr Si»fi, bothbefixe and dnring the Sailej 
campaign, has been much mbiepreseated. He has been nccosed of 
treason to his coantrr br manj writers, aai, in all pcobabilitT, will be so 
aecQsed by more ; bat there isnoeridence whaterer to siqiport the charge. 
In the fiist place, the Sirdar was STerse to the war. Tlliile the Mahn* 
raniy Raja Lai Siugb, and Diwan Dinanath were nrging the troops to 
inrade British territorry in the hope that ther wo^ never reinm to dis*' 
tnrb the peace of Lahore, Tff Sim^i spoke so constandr gainst the war, 
that his life was ia imminent danger, and, in the middk of Norember^ 
1845, the troops were debating whether they shonU pnt both him and 



PANJAB CHIEFS. < 39 

Lai Siiighiadea«b/atlditi8i6ty)n:R^GtiIiAl Sifigh leading th^m to battte. 
When he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, much against his will^fiie 
delayed joining the army as long as he could ; conduct which may proTe 
cowardice or disinclination for the war, but which certainly^did not savour 
of treason. But it is said that his conduct at Firushahr was inconsistent 
with any other supposition than that he was a traitor, and desired the 
success of the Britifih. That bad he attacked the British army vigor- 
ously, and with all his force, when it was exhausted with its conflict with 
Baja Lai Singh and almost without ammunition, it must, in all proba- 
bility, have been annihilated. The result would certainly have been 
disastrous ; but Tej Singh was not aware of the state of extreme exhaus- 
tion of the British army. All that he saw were the routed troops of 
Lai Singh flying to the fords of the Satlej ; a sight from which he might 
argue the stren^h, but not the weakness of the British. But he did not 
retire fh>m the field' without makitig an tSoti to retrieve the disasters o( 
the preceding day. According to the despatch of Sir Btigh Oough, (though 
the accuracy of despatches may be fairly questioned}, ''he made ^trehuotis 
efforts to regaiii the position at Firushuhr ;'' he certainly kept up a heitvy 
and damaging fire of artillery, and only retired when the British BXtAf 
advanced in force against him. But even supposing that - he had done 
less than he certainly did> Sirdar Tej Siwgh cannot be fairly blamed; 
He had no influence whatever with the army, whbse Fanches decided 
when they should fight and when they shduld retire. It is absurd to assert 
that, in opposition to the will of the Fanches and the army, Tej Siugh 
could have refused' to make a general attack on the British. Any 
negotiations which he may have wished to open with the Governor Ge- 
neral, after Firtisfaahr, w^re only intended to bring About peace, Hiid wete 
of such a ohaaacter as a Commander-in-Chief would have a discretionary 
power to carry on. 

At Sobraon the voice of Tej Singh was again raised for peace, but the 
troops only threw stones at his tent, pulled it down^ and tlireatened to 
murder him unless he crossed to the left bank of the river. Who can 



40 Hiarro&T of the 

wonder that with such a savage, unrulj armjj he ahoold have fledi 
the field, feeling that there was more danger from his own men than from 
the enemj. 

Te; Singh was a weak, timid^ vacillating creature^ bat he was no 
traitor. He had neither courage nor ability sufficient to influence an 
insane Sikh army, but he did not, like Baja Lai Singh, first exdte the 
troops to madness, and then betray them to destruction. The stories of 
his sinking a boat in the bridge, at Sobraon, to cut off the retreat of the 
Sikh army, and of his turning a battery of guns upon his own men, have 
never been supported by a fragment of evidence ; though proof of their 
truth has been sought in every direction, and are evidently calumnies 
invented by some of his many enemies. 

After the conclusion of peace. Sirdar Tej Singh had plenty to do in dis- 
banding the old army and enlisting new troops, and bis conduct was 
approved by the Agent of the British Government at Lahore. In Septem- 
ber, 1864, very much to his disgust, he was ordered to proceed to Kashmir, 
with Sirdars Sher Singh, and Mangal Singh, and Generals Kanh Singh, 
Han, and Lai Singh, Moraria, to reduce the rebellion of Sheikh 
Imamuddin Eban. He pleaded illness, but at last set out with the 
troops. He was not alone in his disinclination for the campaign. With 
almost all the other Sirdars he was unwilling to act under the orders of 
Baja Lai Singh, whose rapacity tod meanness had disgusted them, and 
whose honesty they thoroughly doubted. When, however, Tej Singh 
had at last set out on the expedition, he acted with energy and promptitude. 
His force left Lahore on the Ist of October, and reached Naoshera on the 
16th, having, in this time, crossed the Bavi and the Chenab, and marched 
over one hundred and twenty-five miles of country, the last twenty-five 
miles being an execrable hill road. Imamuddin Khan did not attempt 
open resistance, and came in to the camp of the Resident, on the 1st 
of November, and the Sikh troops, having no more to do, returned to 
Lahore. The trial and deposition of Ilaja Lai Singh was the result of 
thi sexpeditlon, and, as a temporary arrangement, Sirdars Tej Singh and 



PANJAB CHIBVS. 41 

Sher Singh Attariwalai with Diwan Dina Naih and Fakir Nuraddin, 
were nominated a coancil to carry on the business of the Oovemment, 
pending other arrangements. On the 16th December, a council of 
Regency was appointed, consisting of Sirdar Ty Singh as President ; 
Sirdars Shamsher Singh, Sindhanwalia ; Ranjodh Singh, Majithia; Sher 
Singh, Attariwala; Attar Singh^Kalianwaia; Diwan Dina Nath; Fakir 
Nuruddin, and Bhai Kidhan Singh. 

The members of the council had distinct duties assigned to them. 
Sirdar Tej Singh was chief in the council^ and held supreme military 
command ; Diwan Dina Nath was finance minister, and Sirdar Sher 
Singh superintended the royal household. The task botli of Sirdar Tej 
Singh and of Diwan Dina Nath was an invidious one. They certainly threw 
all possible blame on Major Lawrence, the British Besident, and represent* 
ed that they were but instruments in cariying out his measures ; but it 
was pretty well known that most of tlie redress that was obtained 
came^ directly or indirectly, from the Residency, and that, but for the Re- 
sident, no arrears would be paid up, and 6onsequently the two heads of 
the council came in for more obloquy than they probably expected. 

On the 7th August, 1847, Sirdar Tej ^Sin^A was created Raja of 
Sialkot, with its fort and adjacent villages, worth ^,000 Rs. per annum. 
The Maharani, who entertained a bitter hatred, both against the British 
Resident who destroyed her influence, and Tej Singh^ who supported his 
policy, prepared an insult for the latter, on the day of his installation. 
The young Maharaja had been schooled by her as to the part he was to play, 
and when Tej Singh came forward for the Maharaja to make the saffron 
tika (a sign of Rajaship) on his forehead, the boy-king drew back, and 
folded his arms, refusing to perform the ceremony. The Resident then 
called upon Bhai Nidhan Singh, the head of the Sikh religion ; who officiat- 
ed for the Maharaja ; but the insult was much felt by Tej Sing^i, and so 
strongly showed the resolute hatred of the Maharani to the administra« 
tion, that it hastened her removal from Lahore to the fort of Sheikho- 
purah, where she remained, under surveillance, until her final removal 



42 HISTO&T or TEE 

firom the Fanjab. Early in the year^ she liad been eognieaat of, if not the 
instigator of, a oou8piracy«lo murder the Beeident and Bqa Tij SimgiL 
This design, Icnown as the ' Prema conspiracy/ was not joined in by any 
Sirdar, and was nerer attempted to be carried into execution. On the 26th 
November, 1842, Baja Tej Singh reoeiyed the honorary title of Ujjal 
didar, Nirmal budh, mubazir, uUmulki Samsam ud-doulah. Raja Te) 
Singh salar safdar jang, Baja Sialkot, 

Thronghout the rebellion of 1848-49, the Raja remained loyal to 
Government. That he, as well as Sirdar Lebna Bingh^ Majithia, knew of 
or anticipated a revolt, is certain, and shortly before it broke out, he 
wished to leave the Panjab for a time ; bat this idea was given up. The Baja 
had nothin;^ in common with the rebels. He was not on good terms 
with Raja Sher Singh, Attariwala, or his father Sirdar Chattar Singh, 
whose avowed object was to restore to power the Maharani, the deadly 
enemy of Tej Singh. Should the Maharani regain power, the death of 
the Raja, or the confiscation of his property, was certain. Besides this, 
Tej Singh was almost the only man in the country who was tolerably 
contented. He was very wealthy; he had been created Raja and 
President of the council, and was raised high above the whole Sikh aris- 
tocracy, and a revolution could only injure him. He was obnoxious to 
most of the Sikh Sirdars, who looked upon him as an upstart and an 
imposter ; feeble in council, and ridiculous in the field ; and bis ascendancy 
in the Darbar irritated them beyoud expression. Thos Raja Tej Singh 
is entitled to no credit for loyilty, when disloyalty, whichever side con- 
qaered, must have been his ruin. But in times of danger, motives do 
not count for much, and the Rajahs actions were loyal, and bis assistance 
valuable to the Government. 

On the annexation of the Panjab, the personal jagirs of Riy'a T 
Singh^ and Sirdar Bhagwan Singh, the only surviving son of the Jam 
JUr (Kishan Singh having been drowned at Sobraon, after the batt) 
amounting to \fii,119 lie* were confirmed £or life. To the Raja 92J79 



PA]KJAB CHIBFXL 41^ 

and to Bhagwm Singi^ 60,000. Be. Of their lespeetiTe flhareB> 20,000 Bfl. 
were to descend in perpetuity to the heirs of Baja T^ Singk, and 7,500 to 
those of Bkagwan Singh. After annesatioBj tlie Baja was vmy useful ia 
the disbandment of the Sikh army, and in the formatioa of a new native 
force. In 1837, he was of much assistance in raising faonemfn, and 
for his loyalty at that time, he received a khillat of 1,000 Rs. In l661y 
liis scattered jagirs were consolidated, and the Ilaka of Battala granted 
him in exchange for them ; and bis title was also changed to Baja of 
Battala. He was also made a jagirdar magistrate, with the powers of a 
Deputy Commissioner. In 1862, at the recommendation of the Go- 
vernment of the Panjab, the Supreme Government granted two-thirds of 
his jagir in perpetuity, and to Bhagwan Singh one-sixth. 

A son had been born to the Baja, in 1859, by Karam Kour, widow 
of his cousin Kishan Singh, whom he had married by chaddar-dalna, in 
1857. Previous to this, however, he had adopted a younger brother, by 
a different mother, Harbana Singh, now about 17 years of age. 

Baja Tej Singh died, of an affection of the chest, on the 2nd of De- 
cember, 1862, at Lahore. His character will have been plainly seen 
from the above sketch of his life. He might have filled a subordinate 
position with credit, for he had no glaring vices, and perhaps as much 
virtue as the majority of the world. But he was unfitted for times of 
revolution. He had neither courage nor ability ; and although he rose 
to be the first person in the state, next to the Maharaja, it was only 
because his fortune was greater than his desert. 

llarhans Singh is under the protection of the Court of Wards : he is 
a young man of engaging manners, and is a student in the Government 
College at Lahore. 

The estate of Sirdar Bhagwan Singh had never been separated from 
that of Baja Tej Singh, and there had been a long dispute between them 
regarding it. After the death of the Baja, a committeee, consisting of 
Baja Sahib Dyal, Sirdar Shamsher Singh, Sindhanwalia, Diwan Ajodhia 



JSZS. 



RAJA SAHIB DYAL 



SUOHU R4IC . 

Eawal Nain, 

Chhaia MaL d. 18SS. 

t 



Raja Ballia Ram« 
D. 1864, at Benarei . 



JhandaHaL 
Amin 6liand* 



Ajodhia Parshad. 
D. 1832. 



BiOa Sahib 
B. 1801. 



ib byal. 



Qjan Chand. 
B. 1816. 



rNa 



Shftnkar Nath. 
B. 1808. 



" — — r 

Sirdar Harohtran 
Das. B. 1815. 



Jai Qopal. { 

B. 1822. Baiui Lai, Balram. 
I B. 1888. B. 1888. 



I I 

Dina Nath. BUhambar Sant 



I 

Madho Ram 



Waaheabar iDyaL 



— r 

Tbakir 
Daa. 



Nath. 



Laohmi 
SahaL 
B. 1883. 



BhagatRaoi. 
B. 1839. 



I 



Defl Sahal Joala Sahal 



llohkam Chimd. 
B. 1854. 



Paahori r 
Chaqd. 
B. 1858. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Raja Sahib Dyal is of a respectable Brahman family, whose anoestors 
were ia the service of the Emperors of Dehli. Sufiiia Bam ibulU to 
have defended the life of Muhammad Shah^ at the risk of h^s own^ for a 
Rajput assassin, coming one day into the royal Darbar^ was about to 
attack the Emperor, when Sughia Ram threw himself upoi> him^ and des- 
patched him, though not without himself receiving a severe wound. His 
son Kawal JVain emigrated to Lidiofe, which was^ in bis ttmci m no very de- 
sirable place of resideneci from Uie invAmons of Ntclhr Shah aiiid Ahmad 



46 HI8T0BT OF THE 

Shah, and the ever increaiing depredations of the Sikhs, who were rapidlj 
gaining strength and boldness. In a fight with the Afghans no less than 
26 of his reUtiyes feU, and Kawal Nain himself escaped with difficulty. He 
died joung, leaving an onlj sod« Ciiqfu Mai, then a boj of about ten 
years of age. 

When Ohhaju Mai grew up, he entered the service of Sirdar Jai 
Singh Kanheya, chief of the moit powerful of the Sikh confederacies. 
He received a command in the Sirdar's force, and accompanied most of the 
expeditions against the neighbouring Chiefs. He was present at the battle of 
Achal, in 1788| when Gurbaksh Singh, son of Sirdar Jai Singh, was killed, 
fighting against Xasia Sbgh, Bamgharia, and Mahan Singh, Sokarchakia. 
After this he was iaade Chowdri of the Eanheya Kitra, or garter, in 
the towki of Amritsar, then rising into importance ; and on the death 
of Jai Singh, he stiU held the post under that Chiefs daughter-in-law, Mai 
Sadda Kour. The neighbouring Sirdars thought that the principality, ruled 
by a womaoi must be an easy prey ; but the lady^ well backed by CMqfu Mai, 
held out bravely. Several times had the latter to defend his Katra against 
assault, and, on one ncoasion, in repulsing the Bamgharias he received two 
spear wounds. He fedoeed the customs duties by more than a hatf* «nd 
thus attracted many merchants, who settled in the Kanheya Katra. The 
young Ranjit Singbi who, after his marriage with the daughter of Sadda 
Eour, used to viiiit Amritsar cautiously, for fear of his enemies the 
Bhangis, was accustomed to put up with Chkaju Mai, and received much 
assistance from him in obtaining possession of the city, in 1803. With Ba- 
manand, he directed the collection of the customs at Amritsar, till 1813, 
when h6 was sent to Eangra, where he remained three years, and then ob- 
tnned permission to make a pilgrimage to Hardwar snd Benares. On 
his rctum, in 1830, he did not again tegage in public business, for the 
Maharaja had oonfiscated all the poesesslons of Sadda Kour, on whose ao* 
ooutit CUi^u lib? had flrtt entered Banjit Singfa'ssenioe. He died in 1831. 

Hia ridest aoik BMia Mtm Ud reeei^ an unusually good education* 
8i Wife i<eU acquibMdirtth S«tt«Dfit| PevttAB,nd Hindee ; mndhad beaidea 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 47 

H fair knowledge of mattiematicfir Afid physical science. In 1811, he was 
placed ia charge of the Amtitsar districti and showed great energy in the 
suppression of dacoity and highway robbery. Ranjit Singh was so 
pleased with his zeal^ that he made ^10)9 in 1812^ Chief of the Department 
of Customs. At this time neithe^r Kashmir, Mooltan^ nor the Derajat 
had been conquered ; but as each was acquired, it was placed under the 
numagemeaty as £u* aa refiurred to th^ customs^ of Rallia Bam. Before 
his appointment there had been no regular system of collecting the 
eustoms, but each chief got as much out of merchants passing through 
his territories as he possibly could. Rallia £am largely increased the reve- 
nue from the salt mines of Find Dadan Khan, and introduced the 
rawana or passport system. 

In 1821, when the Sikh army was engaged in the Mankerah cam- 
paign, Sirdar Jai Singh, Attariwala, rose in rebellion, and MUr Rallia 
Sam with other Sirdars, wad despatched against him. With a considerable 
force, he attacked Kahr Kahar, thestrooghold of the rebel Sirdar, reduced it 
and forced Jai Singh to fly to Dost Mnhammad Khan of Kabul fox pror 
tection. In 1830, Rallia Aiai, whose energy and probity had made him 
enemies at court, fell xnlio disgvao^ ; chiefly, it is said^ through the in* 
fluence of Kirpa Bam, Chopvah> tod was ordered to pay a fine of a lakh (tf 
rupees. He was,, in 1888^ made keeper of the records. In 1841, he 
discovered; at Makhad, in the Bawal Pindi district^ a sulphur mine, which 
so pleased Maharaja Sher Singh thabho granted him a.jagir of 11,000 
Bs. in the Jandiala Ikka, with a Persian title of honour. 

Sahib Dyal^ the second son of JtUr RaUia Itamj had first entered the 
flikh service as a Munshi inihe Ctistbma department, under his father:; 
and, in 1882, he was transferred id the Payinaster^s oflBoe of the regular 
army. In 18S9, he was made chief of the Customs of ialandhar, and 
held this appointment till the^ close xX theSatiej campaign. After 
the separation of the large dbtriol of Jkang from the province df 
Multan, of which it foUmed neat ly a i^kd, in 1846, Mkr Rallia Ana wtt 
appointed its Kardar, and bdth heaod SdM Dysl wwe appointed to leme 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 49 

dues were abolished ; three frontier lines were established ; one along 
the Beas and the Satlej ; one along the Indus ; and the third on the 
north-east frontier for the commerce of Kashmir. The new customs 
were limited to twenty-two articles, which were estimated to jield 
13,04,82:^ Rs. at a cost of collection of 87,000 Rs. or less than 3 per cent. 

The new revenue was to be raised by Abkari Licenses ; a light toll 
on ferries, estimated to yield a lakh, and by better and more economical 
management of the salt mines. This immense relief to commerce was 
effected at a loss of only one-eighth of the customs revenue. After 
annexation, the customs duties were abolished throughout the Fanjab; 
but six years later the excise yielded six lakhs, and the salt revenue 
19 J lakhs ; and from the removal of restrictions to commerce, the coun- 
try had increased in material prosperity to an unprecedented extent. 

In November 1847, MUr Sahib Byal received the title of "Muh- 
sin-ud -doulah berber." In June, 1848, three months after the outbreak 
at Multan, Bhai Maharaj Singh, a disciple of the celebrated Baba Vir 
Singh, having collected a large number of disaffected men, set out from 
the Manjha to join the rebel Mulraj, at Multan. Nbne of the Sikh troops 
would attempt his arrest ; but Mur Sahib Dydl^ then Eardar of Jhang, 
where the population is Muhammadan, engaged that if Maharaj Singh 
could be driven in the Jhang direction, he would answer that he proceed- 
ed no further. This was fortunately effected ; some irregulars, with part 
of the 14tli Dragoons, pursued the force of the Bhai : Langar Khan of 
Sahiwal, Malik Sahib Khan, Tiwana, and other Muhammadan Chiefs 
hung on its rear ; and by the time that the Bhai reached Jhang, his force 
had diminished to 1,200 exhausted men, who were attacked vigorously 
by Baba Mali Singh, Tehsildar, with the forces of Misr Sahib DyaU and 
driven into the swollen Ghenab, where more than half the number were 
drowned, and those who escaped the sword and the river, were taken as 
prisoners to Lahore* 

Throughout the war the services of Sahih £^a/andhis father, were im- 
portant and numerous. They preserved order in the Becbna and in part 



so HISTORY OF THB 

of the Chhaj Doab^ and furnished large supplies of grain to the Britiah 
army on its march. Sakib Dyal^ when the rebel Sher Singh was march- 
ing up from Multan, seized upwards of 2^000 head of mules, camels, and 
bullocks belonging to the Raja, and thus materially checked the advance 
of the rebel army, if it did not alter the direction of its march. In 
November, MUr Sahib Dyal was selected bj the Resident, to accompa- 
ny the head-quarters camp of the British army, on the part of the Dar- 
ban In the performance of this duty the Miar showed the greatest in- 
telligence and zeal. He procured excellent information of the move- 
ments of the enemy, and kapt the army well supplied with provisions. He 
afterwards, with N'awib Imamuddin Khan, Sikandar Khan, Banda 
Khan and others, proceeded to join the force of Colonel Taylor, and on the 
submission of the principal rebals, was useful in disarming the country. 

On annexation, the jagir of 1,100 R9. of RMin Ram^ with a cash 
allowance of 6,900 Rs., was maintained to him for life ; 3,200 Rs. of the 
cash to descend to his son Shankar Nath, 

To Sahib Dt/al was confirmed his jaglr of 5,180 Rs., with a cash 
allowance of 2,800 Rs. for life. Of the jagir, 985 Rs. was to descend for 
three generations, and 1,200 Ra. was granted in perpetuity. Both 
IlalUa Ram and Sahib Di/al were rich men. No one who ever held the 
farm of the salt mines failed to grow rich; for the contractor paid 
a certain sum to Government annually, and might sell as he pleas- 
ed, at his own place and time. In the hands of so able a man 
M Rallia Ran the salt contract was a great source of wealth ; though 
he, in no way, forgot his duty to the state, in regard for his personal in- 
terest. The Lahore Government had few servants so able as Rallia 
flan and Sahib Dyal^ and it had nona as honest. They were, in the last 
corrupt days of the administration, almost the only men who, manfully 
and faithfully, did their duty, and who had the wisdom to understand and 
support the enlightened policy of the British Resident, the only policy 
which could have saved the country from the evils tha^ afterwards ca ..3 
upon it. 



PANJAJI CHIE?fl. 61 

III 1849, both Rallia Ram and SaAib Dyal left the Panjab on a pilgrim- 
age to the holy cities. Bailia Rctm, who had beea made Diwan by the 
Sikh Government of 1847, was, in 1851, created a Baja ; and Saiib Dyal 
also received the same title. Never were honors better merited. R(ya 
Rallia Ram never returned to the Panjab, and died at Benares, in April, 
1864. Riija Sihib Z>yj/ cam ^^ back in 1851, and has since resided at 
Kishankoty in the Amritsar district, a town of which he may be said to 
be the founder, and where he had, at his own expense, built a serai, three 
temples, a tank, and five wells. During the mutinies of 1857, Raja Sahib 
Dyal^ by his advice and actions showed his loyalty to Government, and 
received a khillat of 1,000 Rs. In 1860, he received an additional grant, in 
perpetuity, of a jagir of 2,000 Rs. In February, 1864,. he was appointed 
a member of the Legislative Council of India, and took his seat in. 
Calcutta, returning to the Panjab at the close of the session* 

The other sons of Rillia Ram may be briefly noticed. Ajodhia Par* 
shad, the eldest, was of a retiring disposition, and employed himself in 
devotion. He died young, and his son was employed under Rallia Ram' 
in the Customs department. 

Gyan Chand was, in the Maharaja's time, at the head of the office of Salt 
revenue, at Find Dadan Khan, under Raja Gulab Singh. Under the 
British Government he was appointed Tehsildar of Pind Dadan Khan, 
but retired in 1854, and settled at Amritsar, where he now resides, and 
where, in 1862, he was appointed an Honorary Magistrate. This office 
he has filled with credit to himself, and to the satisfaction of the 
people. 

ShinJcar Na^k first received an appointment in the Amritsar mint, 
and was then made Assistant in the Chhach and Hazarah districts. During 
the rebellion of 1848-49, he, like all his brothers, did good service, and 
preserved a semblance of order about Batfcala, Diuanagar, and Patliankot* 
He is now living at Benares. 

SirJar Harckaran Das began public life, as an Assistant in the 
Cu't^uis dopartmcnt ; but during the Wizarat of Raja Hira Singh, 



5£ niSTORT OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

he was made Commandant of seven hundred horse in the Mnhrajia 
Derah. In 1848, he was appointed by the Darbar, Adalati or Jadge 
of Lahore, with the honorary title of ' Ruku-ad-dofilah/ '^On an- 
nexation, he held 10,000 Rs., which was confirmed to him, while 
holding the office of Extra Assistant Commissioner, which had been con- 
ferred on him in place of the judgeship. The Sirdar resigned in 1852, 
and his jagir was reduced to 3,998 Bs. He resides at Amiitsar, be- 
tween which city and Lahore, he has, at his own expense, built a 
handsome serai. The family has always been known for benevolence 
and liberality, which is testified to by the many works of public utility 
and convenience which have been constructed at its expense in many 
parts of the Panjab. Besides those ahready mentioned, the serai near 
the Rambagh gate of Amritsar was built by Baja Rallia Ram ; also a 
aerai and temple by the Nagrahwal Ferry on the Beas, and a masonry 
tank in the eity of Amritsar. ' 



'w'i^»<AA» <^ >^^^^^A^^ 



THE NAWAB OF MAMDOT. 



Sultan Khan. 



Maujuddin Khan. Mohammad Khan. 



Nizamuadin Khan. Kutbuddin Khan. 



Khan,* ^^'«' tti _„ 



Fatahdin Khan. Kali Khan, Jamaluddin Khan, Jalaladdm Khan. 

D. 1868. I 

INizamuddin Khan. 
B. 1862. 

I ^" I 

Khan Bahadar Khan. Muhammad Khan. ' 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The ancient city of Kassur, situated some twenty miles to the aouth 
of Lahore, was, in 1570, by permission of the Emperor Akbar, settled 
by a colony of Pathans, numbering about 8,600 souls. Among these 
came from Kandahar, the ancestors of the Mamdot Chiefs of tbe Halk 
sanzye tribe, and till the fall of the Mogal empire, they lived at Kassuri 
sometimes traders, sometimes soldiers, as suited their inclinatioti or th^ 
means. When the Sikhs rose to power, they experienced great opposi- 
tion from the Pathan colony, but in the end, the Bhangi confederacy 
overran and subdued the whole of the Kassur territory, under Sirdar 
Gulab Singh ; and the two brothers, Nizamuddin Khan and Kuibuddi'm. 
Khan entered the service of the Conqueror. These young men, however^ 
were energetic and brave, and in 1794, with the aid of their Afghan coun^ 
trymen, expelled the Sikhs entirely from Kassur, and established % chiefship 
of their own. They were not left unmolested. Sirdar Qulab Singb 



54 HISTOBY OF THE 

made frequent attempts to recover his lost territory, and later the young 
Banjit Siogh attacked the brothers several times without success. 

Nizamuddm Khan joined vigorously in the cabal against Ranjit Sin^b^ 
in 1800, when that Chief obtained possession of Lahore, and the next yasr 
Elassur was more vigorously attacked, but Nizamuddin held out^ though he 
Hgreed to pay tribute to Banjit Singh. In 1802, Nizamuddin Khan was 
assassinated by bis three brothers-in-law Wasil Khan, Haji Khan, and 
Najib Kkany whom he had ousted from their jagirs. Kutbuddin Khan has 
generally been accused of having been privy to the murder, but he 
appears to have been absent from Kassur, at the time, and on his return, he 
stormed and took the fort of Azam Khan, whither the murderers had 
retired, and put Wasil Khan and NajiA Khan to death, Bc^i Kkm escap- 
ing to the Deccan, 

Banjit Singh at the olose of the year again invaded Eaasuri 
but was not able to make much impression, and, till 1807, Kuibuddin 
held his own, when the Maharaja again appeared with a strong army, 
and after a month's fighting, Ki;tbuddin gave in, and agreed to retire 
to his territory of Mamdot, on the other side of the Satlej, holding 
it in jagir, subject to the service of 100 horsemen, Kuibuddin and his 
brother had conquered Mamdot from the Bai of Baikot, in the yes^r 1800, 
with the assistance of the Dogars, a turbulent Mohammadan tribe 
inhabiting the district. Banjit Singh gave to Fatah Din Khan a jagir 
at Marup, in the Gogaira district, subject to the supply of the same 
jiumber of horsemen, as Mamdot* But Fatah Din Khan was not satisfied, 
and was always appealing to the Maharaja for the grant of Mamdot, which 
}xe considered his right. 

At last, with the connivanoe of the Maharaja, in 1881, he crossed the 
river, when his uncle's contingent was absent on service, and attacked 
him. The Dogars, ready for any change, joined him, and Kuibuddin 
was defeated, severely wounded and driven out of the country^ and soon 
after he died at Amritsar. Banjit Singh now thought fitto interfere 
pn the other side. He recalled Fatah Din, and confirmed Jamal- 



PANJAB CBiirs. 55 

nddin Khan in hiB father's possessions. Once again Fatai IHn tried 
his fortune, bat vthe British Agent interfered^ and the Maharaja ordered 
him back to Lahore. 

The Mamdot Chiefs were^ at no time, invested with sovereign 
power, but were merely Jagirdars ; feudatories of the Lahore 
Government. Lahore was the high court of appeal, and there are 
many instances on record of fines imposed by the Lahore Government 
upon these Chiefs. In 1824^ Kutbuddin Khan was fined 12,567 Ba. 
for conniving at, and sharing in, the plunder of catUe from the Lahore 
territories. In 1844, Jamaluddin Khan was fined 11,100 Rs. for the 
murder of Soba Bae, the Lahore news-writer at his court, who had 
rendered himself obnoxious to the Chief by giving information of the 
disorders committed in the district. 

In 1845, before the Satlej campaign, Jamaluddin Khan was told 
that if he stood on our side, his possessions would be confirmed to 
him ; yet at Mudki and Firmhahr be fought against us, and in the latter 
battle his nephew, Fatah Din Khan, was killed. Only towards the end 
of the campaign, when he perceived where the victory would even- 
tually be, did he turn round and render some trifling assistance to Sir John 
Littler, when that General was threatened by the Sikh army at Firozpur,v 
which induced the Gh)vernmeut to g^rant him sovereign powers and to 
confirm him in his possessions. In 1848, his contingent, under his brother 
Jalaiuddin^ behaved well at Multan, and Jamaluddin was granted the title 
of Nawab, and the contingent of 100 horsemen, was reduced to 60 in time of 
peace, and 70 in war. 

Jamaluddin Khan was an example of the danger of entrusting irre- 
sponsible power ta a wioked and sensual man. During the Sikh times 
his tyranny had been notoriou8| but, under the British Bule, his 
power was increased and his tyranny grew in the same proportion. There 
was no crime or vice which degrades our nature that this wretched man 
hesitated to commit. His revenue system was but robbery, extortion 
and violence. The Dogars were the especial objects of his hatred, for 



56 HISTO&T OF THE 

by their aid hb father had been driven firom the country ; but all 
Hindus and Muhammadans, felt his heavy hand. Bobbery flonriabed 
under his protection, and even the property of British subjects was not 
secure from his gangs of thieves, who shared the booty with their 
master. Nor was this all. The sensuality of the Nawab was stiD more 
monstrous than his cruelty and violence. He and his sons app^ired to 
think that women were only created to gratify their unbridled passions. 
No woman in the territory of Mamdot was secure against Aeir InsL 
Ifamanwas willing to prostitute his wife or his daughter^ he nught 
hope to stand well with the Nawab, but if he opposed or thwarted his 
desires, he would be thrown into prison, where he would languish per- 
haps for years. At length all men of consideration or wealth left HamdoL 
It had once been fertile and populous, with many wells and irrigation canals, 
but these were all falling to ruin, the towns were deserted, and the corn- 
fields were again becoming jungle. 

Retribution at length came. The British Government had, with 
its known policy, for long refused to interfere with £he internal arrange- 
ment of a native state ; but affdira at length came to sndi a pass, 
and the voice of the people was so unanimous against their oppressor, 
that an investigation was, in 1835, made into the charges against 
the Nawab, and on their truth being established, he was deprived 
of his powers and his territory was annexed to the Firozpur district. 
The Nawab was penaioned and, till 1861, resided at Lahore. He then 
settled at Machbewarah, in the Firozpur district, where he died, in 
March 1863, of apoplexy. 

The question of succession is still pending before Gt>vemment 
between the sons of Jamaluddin Khan^ and his brother Jalaluddia. The 
latter was in no way concerned in his brother's misgovern ment. He is 
a brave and intelligent man, who has fought well in many battles. He 
was against us in 1845, but, at Multan in 1848, he did good service, 
under Lieutenant Lake, and, later in the war, under Lieutenant Lumsden. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 57 

HU fidelity was at that time fully proved. He also behaved very well in 
1857, and laid a camel dak from Firozpor^to Bahawalpur, and his 
conduct was, at the time, highly spoken of by Ijhe authorities. 

On his brother's deposition^ it was proposed to appoint Jalaluddin his 
successor, but he preferred sharing his brother's: etile/ and did not even 
accept the separate maintenance assigned to him. 



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53 



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HISTO&T OT THB PlKJAB CHIBFS. 59 

HltTOHY OP THE FAMILY. 

The family of Attari, like that of Siadhanwala^ is of Rajput origioi 
and emigrated to the Panjah from the neighbourhood of Jessalmir. 
Bat although of the same tribe of Bhatti Rajputs, the families are not, 
at this dsij, of equal rank. Their Rajput characteristics have long been 
lost^ and both are now Jats. The Sindhanwalias, from their near 
relationship to Maharaja Ranjit Singh^ and their large possessions^ 
were most powerful, and possessed greater influence at court, but their 
easts is Sansi Jat, far inferior to the Attariwalas, who stand at the 
head of the Sidhu Jats, the best blood of the Manjha. This pride of 
birth was so strong in the familj, that Sirdar Sicm Sin^h, AttariWala, 
with the greatest reluctance and onlf after numerous delays, allowed 
his daughter, Naniki, to be betrothed to Eonwar Nao Nihal Singh, 
grandson of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He considered the alliance as 
a disgrace! 

DAira, son of JagmaL^ was the first of the family to leave Jessalmir^ 
for Mehraj Phul, ia Pattiala, about the year 1580. Vhiia was a great 
musician, and his name is still well known to Indian performers. About 
1735, the family broke up, some members settling at Indghar, in Jugraon, 
and the two brothers Gour and Eour coming to the Mai^ha, with twenty- 
five horsemen, to seek their fortune. Soon afterwards they yrent to 
Amritsar and took the 'Fahal' becoming Singhs, and entered the service 
of Gurbaksh Singh, Roranwalai then Chief of the Bhangi misl. The two 
branches of the feimily soon quarrelled ; and their after history is so dis* 
tinct, that it will be best to treat of them separately. 

THE ELOM BRANCH OF THE ATTAIUWALA PAiflLY. 

Gout Sinpi became a disciple of Baba Muldas, an ascetic of great 
sanctity, who directed him to settle at Tiblla, or Earewa, where Oour 
/9M^i accordingly built an ' Attari/ or thalched house, which gave itSi 
name to the family, atnd to the village> which rose around it. After the 
death of Gurbaksh Singh, Bhangi, G<mr Singk served undcfr Sirdar aujar 



60 HIBTORT OF THE 

Singh and Lehna Singh. In 1737, he took pOMession of the villages 
around Attari, to the value of 7^000 Bs. per annum, and^ two yean 
afterwards^ received from Sirdar Oujar Siogh, a jagir wortibi 18|600 Ra* 
He died in 1763, and his son Nihal Singh continued to hold the jsguTj 
under Sirdar Sahib Singh, Bhangi, son of Sirdar Gujar Singh. 

Sahib Singh was chief of Oujrat, and here Nihal Sin^h weAt .with 
his contingent and several of his cousinS| sons atKauf Singh. He. soon 
became distinguished for courage and ability, and, in the battle which 
took place between the Sikh Chiefs and the Afghans, under Shahancfai 
Bashi, oflScer ofZaman Shah, in 1798, the exertions of JMhal Singh 
contributed very much to the victory. In 1800, soon after Ranjit Singh 
had obtained possession of Lahore, the Bhangi Chiefs and their allies 
met at Bassin, to consider what steps they should take agaifist him. 
Hither came Nihal Singh, with his superior Sahib Singh, and Banjit 
Singh, happening to see him, was struck with his bold appearance and 
his excellent horsemanship. He sent for him, and tried to induce him to 
change sides aud take service with him. Sirdar Nihal Singhj however,* 
declined. He was not going to desert his old master and told Sahib 
Singh of the offer, who was much pleased at his lefbsal, and increased 
his jagirs and allowances. 

This promotion excited much jealousy in the minds of his cousins, Teh 
Binghj Jodh Singh and Wazir Singh, who w^re all in the service of the 
Bhangi Chief, and it was through their representations that Sahib Singh, * 
who was a weak and changeable man, confiscated 15,000 Rs. of his jagir. 
Nihal Singh threw up the Bhangi service in disgust, and retured to Attari, 
where he took to cattle-lifling and robbery as a means of livelihood. 
One day he seized a number^ of camels belonging to Ranjit Singh, and 
bad sold some of them before Ranjit Singh's messengers arrived to demand 
restitution. After some time, he consented to give back those which he 
be still had by him, and Ranjit Singh was so pleased at thfs concession, 
that be again urged the Sirdar to enter his service, to which Nihal Singh, 



&ANJAB CHIBFif. 61 

after some hesitation, consented. He was placed in command of 416( 
horsemen, one gun, and seven camel swiVels. 

In 1803 he was granted the jagir of Sukhu, worth 54,500 Rs., and 
three years later, the Ilaka of Pasrur, worth a lakh. In 1807, he accom« 
panied the Maharaja on his Kassar expedition, which ended in the defeat 
aud expulsion of Kutb-ud-din Khan, Kassoria, and Itihal Singh was put 
in possession of the whole Ilaka of Kassur, worth 1,07,000 Rs. On the 
south side of the Satlej, the Dogars, a wild and turbulent tribe, who 
were at enmity with Dhanna Singh, son of Gurbaksh Singh, the ruler of 
Firozpur, invited Nihal Singh to attack it, and promised their assbt- 
ance. He was ready enough to comply, and, crossing the river, dislodged 
the garrison of Dhanna Singh, Firozpurwala, from the fort of Dulchi. 
At this time> another branch of the Dogar tribe^ settled at Baraki, who. 
t^ere also hostile to their chief, Dhanna Singh, sent to Lahore to beg 
Mora, a celebrated courtesan, then high in favour with the Maharaja, to 
take their part. She asked for a grant of Firozpur, and obtained it ; and 
sending troops to enforce her daim, seized Baraki. Nihal Singi no^ 
offered to assist Dhanna Singh, who, in spite of his fears^ was too weak to 
refuse. The two Chiefs then drove Mora's troops out of Baraki, and Ni- 
hal Singh attacked Firozpur, without success. The next year, 1808^ 
Nihal Singh seized, by stratagem, the fortof Khai, and Dhanna Singh, who 
saw his dangerous ally growing more and more powerful every day, was 
glad enough, in 1809, to place himself under British protection. 

The territory which Nihal Singh thus seized south of the Satlej was 
worth 1 8,000 Rs. per annum ; and soon after he obtained the grant of 
villages round Attarito the value ot 3,000 Rs. His jagirs amounted to 
3,06,800 Rs., of which 1,50,000 Rs. was personal, and 1,56,800 subject to 
service. 

Excepting the Sindhanwalias, no Sikh Sirdar stood so high in the 
Maharaja's favour as Nihal Singh. His services were numerous and im- 
portant, indeed there was hardly any campaign, from I80I to 1817^ m 
which he did not take a distinguished p^t He accompanied the^ first 



6S VfftQN 07 fiOP 

|^«$h|iiilr ai^p^tioA; Ke vm »t the a&in oC Find ]>Adan ¥^imi VMo 
Dallor, Nila, Hola, Chalwal, Sai^par^ Nan^wgliar wA MotoWit At 
thialatti^r place, in 1810, he was severely barnt by the explosion of a 
mine. Attar Singh, Dhari, who was standing beside him, was killed, 
and many officers were much bnrt. Niial Singh had to be sent to Lahore 
for treatment. 

In 181.7 IUi(iit Kqgh feU si^k at Waiukis and Ifihol $imA is wd t9 
liave given hi^ U(e for t;he Maharaja by walking ^U| certain cai^iPQ^^ 
fonad bis bedj and thiiB taking upon hiqiself, the disorder, Thfl smperati- 
tiopk ia QQt an unqammon one \n ludia, and accident or NiHal Sing^'a imv 
giaation aeooied tq give it gQme show of tputh, for he retired i^ Attffij wliaiv 
he faU ill and died a f^w mpaths afterward^. His ^n Sham SUfn^ )ie kad 
jnak hafoie introduced ipto the Maharaja's serviqe, iuq4 bviftrati eam- 
paijga WM i^aipat Multan, in 1818, where be commanded i^ batteiy to 
tke. aoi^tb pf tka fort, With him, in command of ba|tterie% were Sir- 
Afyea Dal Si^h, Nabarna, Amir Singh, Sindhawalia, and Deaa^ingh, Mar 
jitbi^ 'The g^cAt ^Bbansi gqn waa l^rpnght fifoin iMxve %nd ^ba fired 
fooE times, doing con^depable damage to the walkk The Sort was at 
length taken, Sit da? Sh^m Sifigh being one of the ftial on the hieach 
wbeoe he was wonnded in (he ahonldeir by a ewerd Qai 

After this he eierved in many battles, and gained as great a name 
for courage as his father. He accompanied the success Ail expedition 
against Kashmir, in 1819, and fought at Gandghar, Theri, Narri* 
Nari^ Duthaif, Jahangirah^ and Yusufeai. In 1834, he went to Banna 
with Diwan Tare Cl^and) and, in the campaign, had hia horse shot under 
him. 

The marriage of his daughter Naniki, to Prince Nao Nihal Sing^ 
to whom aha had heen betrothedi in ISSl, took pli^ce at Amritsar on the 
Ttik Mareh, 1837^ 8k Henry Fane, Cpmmandeivia-Chiefj wap pjeaenW 
anA tlv? earemwy waa conducted with the great^at aplwdo^r. Tb? 
Bride terongbfc a dowry to the Piince, pf eleven elepl^lif^ onebivftdiied 



BiKJJlB cmMfs^ 63 

and one bor^es^ one handled and one camel^j, vnii^ i^ Yttj liM'ge woi;a^ 
lK>tiii p{ iA<^P97 ^^ jeweki. The redding is said to hfkre cq^t the Att«n 
Sirdai: Qfte^iQ UVhs of rupees. Twa months afterwurdt the i^ewp camn 
fif ^ir^ Pari Siingh Na}wa'f defeat and d^ath^ a^d ^^m JSmjfh had ta 
nuirch to. Feahawsir with his troap^ and be remun^d f^t th^^l^ 9^tipn f^ 
two yeiuK, till the death of Ba^jit Singh. After thi^ evept^ ^Imm ^hgk,, 
although ^^natantly engaged m military duties^ did iH>t meddle ^}Jkk 
pditi^. Kp wai ifi chaige of the tfoopp, which, in May I94I9 escorted 
the family of 3tvah Shiya to Fesh^wmr ; afterwards he was sent to dez^T^ 
to coUept the reyenue. He compelled that tu^htdept Chiefj Payindal) 
jj^an^^ to deUvf 1: up his son i^p a hq^t^^ge, and hrot^ht him to fjahore, 
where he was soon afterwards h^iiorahly dismissed. Throughont th^ 
reignsi qf Kharra)^ Singh apd ^h^?^ ^^ngh, Sirdar S^Offn Singh r^tai;ied 
his Jf^m i^tact, Aft^ the assassination of Jowahir $ingh> he crqsae^ 
the Satl^j to l^ahralabj) with the; esonse of ^el^hratipg the m^rriag^ of 
Jiis son K^hn Singh. Whent how^yer, the 3ihh f^n^y invaded the Gj^ 
Satlf j. territory^ ho felt that he CQidd not, ip hpnoi^^j remfti^i pi^t of the 
Panjah, end returned to. Attayi, whew he lived i^ yelfiyemeiit. JIp qpf 
could doubt hi^br^vqyy, h^t he s^w, with d^sg^»t apd Wrov» the ^ij^ 
frmy bent upop a war qf which h^ entirely dis^pproY^di ?nd lo^chii^g 
to destructiop^ ynder the guidan ce of falpe apd incctfapet^t ^epj^ a^d 
he resolved to stand himself aloof. Bat on the 25th of Decei|iherj ji}^ 
after the news of Lai Singh's defeat at Firoshahr had reached Lahore, the 
M^liarmni beard tbat &h(m Sii^gi waa at Attari, and se^t theve ten h<^rse* 
m^n, who were tp he q^rt^ced on the ^rdar, till he joined the army* 
8h%m Bmsik sent^ agftin aiid again, ta the Mahfurani» deuouacii^ the 
m%t and the poUey |hat waff des^oymg the eonntry^ bi^t in vfum ai^d 
at last, wbei^ tpld hfl Wap a qowaod and ^^fnaid tpdie,.hedei^srmined-t9 
joip the eampf hu;^ swore not tp aarviw the defeaiti wbioh he knew 
wf^iOfDMiia. }t is said th^t ^ n^ghti befoi^ 3oh?ao]^» 3u^daf T4 Singh 
(Knns^led him to fly, with hiin, on the ifnk att^k of th^ 6f|tii|||i 
Shm 9iMgk mfc^ed, wiih eopvi^i w wMah Tej S^igh rngBtf mif 
** If you are. so hrave yea hud better tiUjie ypuj 9|ilth •boiit it, fw I 



64 StttWYormt 

believe yon will come with me after all/' Sirdar Sham Sin}A cBXUAtoir 
a Granth (the Sikh scriptares), and solemnlj swore that should the Sikhtf 
be defeated, he would never leave the trenches alive. On the morning 
of the battle^ the 10th of February, he dressed himself in white, and 
having mounted his white mare, addressed his men, begging them, as true 
sons of the Khalsa, to die rather than turn their backs on the enemy. 
During the first part of the battle, he was every where present, urging 
the Sikhs to fight bravely ; and it was not till he saw that all was lost, 
that he spurred forward against the 50th Regiment^ waving his sword, 
and calling on his men to follow him. Some fifty of them obeyed the 
call, but were driven back into the river, and Sham Singh fell dead from 
his horse, pierced with seven balls. After the battle, his servants swam 
over the river, and begged permission to search his body. The per- 
mission was granted, and the body of the old Sirdar, conspicuous by Lis 
white dress and long white beard, was discovered, where the dead lay 
thickest. His servants placed the body on a raft and swam with it 
across the river, but it was not till the third day that it reached Attari^ and 
his widow, who knew his resolution not to survive defeat, had already 
burnt herself with the clothes which the Sirdar had worn on his mar- 
riage day. This was the last ' Sati ' in the Fanjab, and the pillar, which 
marks the spot where it took place, is still standings without the walls 
of Attari. 

Sirdar Sham Singh was one of the best representatives of the Jat race, 
which, for manliness, honesty, strength and courage, is second to no 
race in the world. His death wais a great loss, for there was no one to 
-take his place. There were, it is true, many of humble rank, in the 
villages round Gujranwala, Lahore and Amritsar, of equal courage, sim- 
plicity and devotion to the interests of the country ; but not among the 
intriguing Sirdars at the court. Had there been more Chiefs like him, 
the Satlej campaign would never have been undertaken, and the Sikh 
nation would have preserved the independence which it madly threw 
away. Thakar Singh, the eldest son of Sirdar Sham Singh, died before 



PAKJAB CS1EF8. 65 

his fkther : he was a man of no ability, but served ia Banna and Pesha- 
war as Commandant of artillery under his father. He left three sons, to 
whom the jagir of Sheikoran, worth 7,500 Bs., was assignedi which they 
still hold^ and which ia maiutained to their heirs in equal shares, in per- 
petuity* These three Sirdars, Jiun Singk, Hari Singh, and AjU Singh, 
reside at Attari. On the close of the Satlej campaign, Raja Lai Singh 
confiscated 1,59,300 Bs. of the Jagir. 12,000 Bs. was lost by the aboli- 
tion of the customs duty, and the balance, 74.000 Bs., was continued 
to Sirdar Kahn Singk, subject to the service of ninety-seven horsemen, 
twenty-five foot, and ten zamburahs. At Multan, in 1848, the con- 
tingent of KoAn SingA was in the force of Raja Sher Bimgh. After his 
rebellion, twenty-five sowars remained with the Baja, the rest came 
away with Shamsher Singh Sindhanwalia. Narayan Singh alsoj Kahn 
SingVM Oiwan, exerted himself to supply, the British army, both at 
Ganda Singhwala and Kassur, with provisions and carriage. For this 
loyalty, the personal jagir of Kahn Singi, being 32,000 Bs. was main- 
tained at annexation ; 7^00 Bs. to descend in perpetuity. 

Sirdar Kahn Singk is of weak intellect, and is a confirmed invalid. 
He has no male issue ; he resides at Attari with his nephews, and 
Diwan Narayan Singh manages his estates. 

THE YOUNGER BRANCH OF THE ATTARI FAMILY. 

As has been before stated, it was not till the year 1800, when Nihal 
Singh, Attariwala, left the service of Sirdar Sahib Singh, Bhangi, that 
a feud arose between the two branches of the family. Up to that time 
they had lived together, and served the same masters, the Bhangi Chiefii 
at Lahore and Gujrat. 

Of the sons of Kowr Singh, Tei Singh and Jodh Singh were the most 
distinguished, and under Sirdar Sahib Singh enjoyed the greatest power 
and distinction. It was by their influence that Nihal Singh was com- 
pelled to leave the Bhangi service, and it was thus that the enmity, still 
strong at the present day^ arose between the Attariwalas. Wagir Simgh 
and Charrat Singh were not men of any note. After the death of Sirdar 



.6^ HiSTomY OP THE 

Tei SingAj his^on jabandoned the serrioa: of Sahib Singb, and : came 
over to the Maharaja^ who waa then carrying aa operationa afpdnat Kot 
Bari Khaa. Without paying their, respects to the Prince^ they joined 
the battery of Mian Qhoai Khan, and served tbroagfaout the siege, 
Hukm Singh receiving a wound in tlie forehead. After the capture of the 
forty BanjitSiugh| pleased with their bold conduct, gave to the young 
men jagirs at Awan» Meani^ and Bahn Chinah. Hukm Singh was present 
at^the attack on Multan^ in 1810,and in 1812^ accompafnied the Maha- 
raja to Jbelanxi where he met Fatah Khan the Kabul Waair. The neti 
year he died, and his sons being minors^ • his brother Jaggat Singh suc-> 
ceeded to. the jagirs; but when e/ai Singh grew upi he received the Ilakas 
of.Miani and Tebnah. 

Apetber Jai Singh j son. of Sirdar JToMir Singh in the year I82I5 
rebelled: against the Maharaja; the story is,, that he ^ with hia cousin /o^- 
gai Singh and Sirdar Budh Singh, 8iadhanwalia| hadiConspired against 
the life of the Prince^ and the two Attariwalas bad entwed the Summan 
Burj, intending to carry out their design, when the Maharaja suddenly 
appeared^ and on enquiring otJai Singh what was the matter, that Sirdar 
was 80 confused and terrified, that he allowed Banjit Singh to guess at 
the plot against hia life. At any rate, Jai Singh thought himself suspect- 
ed, and retired to his fort of Kalar Eahar, which he hastily strengthened 
and garrisoned. A force was sent against him under Misr Rallia Ram and 
other chiefs, and being defeated, Jai Singh tLed across the Indus and took 
refuge with Dost Muhammad Khan, who w^ then rising into notice. 
Jai Singh hhd been, sent a short time before this on a mission to Pesha- 
war, where he had become very intimate with the Barakzai Chief, and 
many a debauch they had had together in the Bagh Nura Khaka, at Pe- 
shawar. Ranjit Singh was very jealous of any intimacy between his 
Cbiefi and persons of another nation, and on Jai SingK$ return to Lahore 
treated him with much reserve and suspicion. Now that the Shxlar 
had fallen into trouble, he naturally fled to his Afghan friend, by whom 
he was well received. 



PANJAB CHIBF8. 67 

He accompanied Dost Mohammad and Muhammad Azim Khan, 
in 1823, to Peshawar, when the Barakzai Chiefs had determined to attack 
Banjit Singh, who had taken Attodc, sad was advancing towards Pe- 
shawar. One day, after a skirmish between the armies, the heads of 
thirty Sikhs were placed on the house of Jai 8ingi^ who had excited 
the enmity of many of the Afghans, and he, taking the hint, left Pesha- 
war, and came in to Banjit Singh, at Akora, after the battle of Theri. 
He was not rery cordially received, and though nominally forgiveUi was 
never taken back into favour. He was one of the agents employed to 
bring about the meeting of the Maharaja, with Yar Muhammad Khan, 
and Dost Muhammad Khan, at Peshawar, aftanr the retreat of Muham- 
mad Azim Khan to Daka, when the Sikh Chief rewarded their treason 
to their brother by dividing between them the Province of Peshawar, 
which he was himself unable to hold. 

Jai Singh died soon after this. Hie cousin, Jai Singif son of Hmkm 
Singhy was killed at Dilassah, in Bannu, 1834, when Diwan Tara Chand 
received a severe repulse from theDilassah Chief; and his brother, N&r 
Singhj succeeded to the Tehna and Awan estates, subject to the service of 
70 horsemen. At the time of the Multan rebellion, Nar Singh was in 
the enjoyment of an estate of 26,550 Bs., of which 17,500 was subject 
to service. On the 17th of September, 1849, after Bqa Sher Singk had 
joined the rebels, Nar &ingi was placed under arrest in the Lahore fort. 
He does not appear to have been directly concerned in the rebellioUi but 
his 70 Sowars, with the exception of eight or ten, went over to the enemy, 
and his jagira were consequently resumed. At the close of the war, an 
allowance of 3000 Bs., per annum, was granted to him, which he still 
enjoys. He is a great invalid, and resides at Attari with his cousins. 

Sirdar JoM Singh entered the service of Banjit Singh in 
1805, atter a brave but vain attempt to hold the fort of Kalar 
against that Chief, in the interest of his master, Sahib Singh Kiaogi. 
He was received with great favour, and obtained a grant of a large 
tract of country valued at two lakhs of rupees, in Pothawar, 



68 HISTORY OP THB 

Gonsisting of the tappas of BarBali, Bishandar^ Saidpar, &c. subject to 
the aemce of two hundred horsemen. Joik Singh soon after this died, 
and his two sons, Fariah Singh and Chattar Singh^ succeeded to the 
jagira. Partab Singh fought in the battle of Theri^ in 1823| when he was 
wounded in the hand. In the battle of Balakot, where Khalifa Ahmeil 
Ali was defeated and slain, Partab Singh was badly wounded, and, return** 
ing to his jagir, died, some months later, from the efibots of his wound. 
His son, Karam Singh^ died soon after, when still a child, and his share 
of the jagir fell to his first cousm Sher Singh. Sirdar ChaUar Singh was 
a good farmer, and his estates were much increased in value by his skill 
and<^€are. He took no great share in politics during the reign of Banjit 
Singh, but the family possessed great influence at court, and, in 1843| 
his daughter, TeJ Kour^ was betrothed to the young Maharaja Dalip 
Singh. Sirdar Chattar Singh was however entirely in the interests 
of Raja Gdab Singh of Jummu, and when a dispute, excited by Pandit 
Jalla, arose between that Prince and his nephew Hira Singh, the minis- 
ter at Lahore, in December, 1844, Chattar Singh took up arms in his own 
part of the country, which he held in the name of Raja Oulab Singh, 
Six months later, Oulab Singh, who was afraid of the influence and hos<p 
tilily of Prince Peshora Singh, persuaded Jowahir Singh, who had risen 
to power in I^ahore, to send Sirdar Chattar Singh and Fatah Khan 
Tiwanah against him. This task was notafall liked by Chattar Singh, for 
to a Sikh there was something sacred about even a reputed son of the old 
Maharaja, but he t^as unable to refuse, and, with the Tiwanah Chief, pro- 
ceeded against Attock, whither Peshora Singh had retired with a small force. 
After some days spent in negotiation, the Prince surrendered ; the Sirdars 
solemnly promising his safety ^nd the full consideration of his claims at 
Lahore. But the next day, while on the march to the capital, the Prince 
was taken off his guard, seized, placed in irons, and carried back to 
Attook, where he is believed to have been murdered the same night, and 
his body thrown into the Indus, which, dark and swift, flows by the fort. 
The army of the Khalsa were much incensed against Chattar Singh for 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 69 

this cruel and treacheroBs murdery bat ke took care to avoid Labore till 
the troops^ ocmteut with the blood of Jowahir Singh, had forgotten his 
share in the crime. Sirdar SAer Singh^ the eldest aon of Ciatiar Sinfi, 
had, in 18^4^ been appoioted Governor of Peahavvar> in the room of Sirdar 
Tej Singh^ who had been sammoned to Lahore. Ue was an able and 
spirited young man^ and ruled that difficult district to the satisfaction of 
the Lahore Government. He successfullj put down an insurrection in 
Tusufzai, in 1846; but his administration^ though vigorous^ was unusu- 
ally corrupt. Raja Lai Singh, the Minister at Lahore; was his bitter 
enemy, and, in August, 1846, Chattar Singh was appointed to succeed his 
son at Peshawar, while Sher Singh returned to Lahore. This appoint- 
ment was held by CW^ar iS/^i^A till April, 1847> but his rule was no 
purer than that of his son. The corrupt practices, which both indulg- 
ed in, seem to have astonished even the Lahore officials, and the 
annual embezzlements from the State revenue were estimated at from 
one and a half to two lakhs of rupees. It was impossible for this 
to be allowed i but the family was too powerful to be lightly offend* 
ed, and too nearly connected with the Maharaja to oe passed over, 
and accordingly Chaltar Singh was made Governor of the country be- 
tween the Jhelam and the Indus, where he possessed great authority/ 
and Sher Singh received a seat in the council. The latter was, however, 
by no means satisfied. He thought that on the fall of his enemy, 
Raja Lai Singh, he had a right to succeed him in his office, as he had 
succeeded him in the affection of the Maharani, and was angry at the 
failure of his hopes. Shcr Singh would, perhaps, have been the best 
selection for Minister, but his claims were hardly as great as those of' 
his father; and Chattar Singh was so completely in the hands of Maha« 
raja Gulab Singh, that he would have been a dangerous Minister at 
Lahore. But the Attariwalas at length appeared content. It was direct- 
ed that the numerous claims in Peshawar against Sher Singh^ amount- 
ing to upwards of half a lakh of rupees, should not be taken up, the 
Sirdar paying 8,000 Rs. to some of the poorest claimants, who seemed 
to have the best grounds for complaint. This arrangement was eoasidered 



70 HISTORY OF THE 

very satis&ctory by Sker Sinqh ; and his brothers Gulab Singk mA Uisr 
Singh being provided for, the one in Hazara, theother in Lahore, he forgot 
his grievance about the * Wizarat* 

On the 7th August, 1847, Sirdar Cia/tor &*»yA received a Peisian 
title of honour, at the recommendation of the Resident, at the same 
time that Sirdar Tej Singh was created a Raja. 

On the 26fch November, in the same year, Sher Singh received the 
title of Raja. This honour had been recommended for ChaUar Singh, 
hnt, at the last moment, the Sirdar requested that his son Sher Singh 
might be promoted instead, and the request was accordingly granted. 

On the 18th April, 184^, the outbreak occurred at Multan. Two 
British officers were treacherously attacked and slain, and Diwan 
Mulraj stood forth as a rebel against the authority of the Lahore Oovem- 
ment. The news of this outbreak reached Lahore on the 21st April, 
and the Resident immediately pat in motion, for Multan, seven battalions 
of infantry, two of regular cavalry, and twelve hundred irregular horse 
under Sirdar Attar Singh, Kalianwala. This force, which was accom- 
panied by Ri^a Sher Singh, was recalled on the 26th, to Lahore, as 
the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army was unwilling to send 
European troops to support it, during the hot season, to a part of the 
country with so bad a name for unhealthiaess as Multan. However it 
was necessary that something should be done, and the Resident was 
compelled to send against Multan a Sikh force, under the command 
of Raja Sher Singh and Sirdars Shamsher Singh, Sindhanwalia, and 
Attar Singh, Kalianwala. The force consisted of one regular regiment 
and half an irregular infantry regiment, three thousand cavalry, ten 
guns and two mortars, Raja Sher Singh was Commander-in-Chief, but 
his more special command was the infantry, while the two other 
Sirdars led the cavalry. 

On the 12 th of June, the force was at Chichawatni, and ready to 
proceed, but it \ias not thought expedient to hasten its march until 



TANMB*CHIBF6. 71 

some decided advantage had been gained over Molraj, by Lieut. Ed^ardea 
and the Bahawalpur troops. Sker Singk and his colleagues had no 
thought of treason, but their tfoops sympathized with the rebels^ and 
would have been only too glad to have joined them. On the 22nd June, 
Sier Singh reached Tolama. He was ordered to stop here^ but either his 
troops were no longer under command, or^ fancjring that he could trust 
to their fidelity, he wished to join in the successes of the British (for the 
battle of Kineyri had now been fought) he advanced to Gogran, 
nine miles from the city of Multan. Lieutenant Edwardes then direct- 
ed SAer Singh to join him, which he did, pitching his* camp at Soraj 
Khund, three miles from Tibbi^ where Lieutenant Edwardes was encamp- 
ed. He arrived at this place on the 6th of July. 

Although the Sikh army was disposed to mutiny^ the principal Sirdars 
had sufficient influence to keep it tolerably steady^ although many men 
deserted to Mulraj, and, on the 20th of July, Sher Singh co-operated 
with the force under the English officers, with energy and success. 
Thus matters remained until the arrival of General Whish, before Multan, 
with a European force, on the 18th of August. 

Sirdar Chattar Singh was at this time governor of Hazarah. Hia 
troops were notoriously mutinous, but he gave no notice to the British 
authorities of the disaffection^ which he shared and which he himself 
encouraged. Afiairs were brought to a crisis, on the 6th August, by 
the murder of Colonel Canora, an American commandant of artillery, in 
the Sikh service. He was ordered by Chaiiar Singh to bring the 
guns out of the fort of Harripnr, and to encamp on the open ground 
outside the city. This^ Colonel Canora, who suspected the treasonable 
intentions of Chattar Singh, refused to do, unless with the sanction of 
Capt. Abbott, Boundary Commissioner and Assistant to the Resident, in 
Hazara. He placed himself between the guns, which he had loaded with 
grape, and threatened to fire on the first man who should approaeh. 
Chattar Singh persisted, and as the Colonel would not surrender his 
charge, a body of Sikh soldiers crept up behind and shot him dead. 



72 HiftromT op the 

On the news of this murdei reaching Lthore, the Setideat despatdied 
Sirdar Jhanda Singh, Babalia, with a confidential agent fiom CtoHttr 
8ingh'9 son, Gulab Singh, to try and induce the Sirdar to snmnder 
himself and permit his conduct to be investigated at Lahore. Bat 
ChcUtar Singh had decided on his course. The mission of Jhanda Singh 
fiuled, and that of Rnja Dina Nath, sent to Hazarah, with a like object, 
was equalljr unsuccessful. ChaUar Singh's force did not, at the time 
of his rebellion, exceed 2,000 men, but it rapidly increased in nnmbera. 
He wrote for aid to his son at Multan, to Maharaja Gulab Singh, andto 
Dost Muhammad Khan ; raised levies in his own district of Pothawar, 
and used all means in his power to render his rebellion as formidable 
as possible. 

On the 19th of August, news of the outbreak in Uazarah reached the 
camp of Raja Sher Singhy before Multan. This Chief had, in the midst 
of mutiny and ill-feeling, striven to do his duty to the Government. By 
severe punishments and by promises of rewards he had kept his troops 
firm, and even when his father's letters reached hinii in Augnst| he did 
not waver in his fidelity. He did not believe that his Either was deeply 
compromised in the rebellion, and hoped that, by the mediation of Sirdar 
Jhanda Singh and Raja Dina Nath, every thing would be satisfactorily 
arranged. On the first of September, when the force of Lieut. Edwardes 
had to change ground, and was attacked by the enemy, tiie Raja 
voluntarily brought out his guns and aided the movement. Again, on 
the 8rd ot September, he cannonaded and threw into great confusion the 
troops of Mulraj, at the bridge, chiefly to destroy sympathy between hb 
own men and the rebels. But, early in September, still more urgent 
letterM came from Ilizirah, stitiri^ that Sirdar Chattar Singh had rebel* 
led l>eyond all torgiveness, and calling on Sher Singhy and all true Sikhs, 
to join him. Messengers from Hazarah, and chief among them. Sirdar 
Sarat Singh, Biajithia, excited the soldiery, saying that now was the 
time to expel the Feringhis from the country, and that any Surdar who 
opposed the movement was an enemy to the Ehalsa. The Sikh fi>ree 



PANJAB OHisrs. 73 

became so dangerous that, on the I3th of September, It was resolved to 
remove it from Maltan and from temptation. The Attariwala, Kalian* 
wala, and Sindhanwalia divisions were to march in diflferent directions j 
that of Sher Singh to the ferry, nominally to protect the passage of the 
river. The morning of the I4th was appointed for the march; but the 
soldiers would not move. The whole camp rose in mutinyi excited by 
Surat Singh and others ; the Sirdars were abused and threatened, till 
their lives were no longer safe, and, at last, Riga Sher Singh^ in des- 
peration, went over to the side of the rebels, and with his whole force 
marched to Multan, where he encamped in the Hazuri Bagh, as the Di- 
wan distrusted him and refused him admittance into the fort. 

The defection of the foroe of Shir gingi compelled General Whish to 
raise the siege of Multan ; but he only retired to the suburbs of the city^ 
where he waited for reinforcements and siege guns. Sher Singh now 
did all in his power (o extend £ke rebeUion aj(id make it a national one, 
and distributed inflammatory letters over the whole oountry, calling on 
the Sikh nation to rise. But Mnlriy still thought him on the side of the 
British ; or if against them, deaifuns of obtaining the fort of Multan for 
the Khalsa, and put no trust in his professions. He made Bher Binyk 
with all his officers, swear, 0n the Sikh Scriptures, that they had no evil 
designs, but in spite of their oaths, no one of them was adnutted within 
the city. 

At length Sher Singh determined to join his father in Hazarah. 
Mulraj was delighted at his resolution, and lent him money to hasten 
his march, and, on the 9th of October, the Raja, with his force of 5,300 
men left Mult^p, en route for Hazarah^ On the 11th, hia crossed the Ravi, 
with his whole camp, and marched in the direction of Jhang. Here his 
troops behaved very ill, defiling the mosques, and plundering the Muham- 
madan inhabitants. Sh^ Sfngh was here joned by the Bannu troops, 
who had mutinied, taken the fort of Dalipghur, and slain the brave Fatah 
Khan, Tiwana, and continued his march along the Cfaenab in the direc* 
tion of Wasirabad, which bad been Qocupied by Lai Singh Moraria, Chief 



74s HISTORY OF THE 

Justice of the Sind' Sagar Doi&by who had joined the rebels/ with 2,000 
irregulars. 

Sirdar Chaitar Singh had, during the mouth of October, been intri- 
guing on all sides. To the Barakzai Sirdars he promised the Province of 
Peshawar, in return for their assistance ; and he had succeeded in indu- 
cing the whole of the Sikh troops at Peshawar to join him. In spite of 
the efforts of some of their officers, who remained firm to their duty, they 
revolted on the 24th of August, and marched to join Chaitar Singh. 
Captain Abbott held out gallantly, in Hazara ; and Lieutenant Herbert 
defended the fort of Attock till the 2ud of January, when, being with- 
out hope of succour, and his troops deserting to the enemy, he was com- 
pelled to fly. After the fall of Attock, Chattar Singh marched to join 
his son Sher Singh. 

The army under the Baja had, on the 2nd November, received a 
severe check at Ram Nagar from the British, under Lord Gough. The 
afEair was entirely fought by the cavalry and artillery, and can hardly 
be called a battle. On the 1st of December, Sir Joseph Thackwell, with 
the advanced part of the army^ crossed the Chenab, and advanced 
against the Rajahs position. Some sharp fighting took place, in front of 
the entrenchment, but no attack was made upon the position, and, on the 
night of the 3rd December, Sher Singh retreated by the Jhelam, Jalal- 
pur, and Pind Dadan Khan roads, and took up a position at Chilianwala, 
where, on the ISth^of January, the British army advanced to attack him. 
The accounts of this battle, little creditable to the British arrrs, has 
been often written. It has been called a victory ; but neither the Sikh 
generals, nor the soldiery, considered that they had been defeated. All 
fought well, but the hero of the day was Jowahir Singh Nalwa, son 
of Hari Singh, the great Sikh General, who led the cavalry charge 
which had so great an influence on the result of the battle. 

Two or three days after the battle, Sirdar Chattar Singh joined his 
8on*s camp, being received with a royal salute, and bringing with him, as 



PAN JAB CHIEFS. : 75' 

prisoners, Major George Lawrencei and Lieutenants Herbert and Bowie. 
He had been successful in inducing Amir Dost Muhammad Khan to join 
him, having paid that Prince, as the price of his assistance, 80,000 Rs. 
in cash, 15,000 Rs. in shawls, and 15,000 Rs. he engaged to pay atRawal 
Pindi. For this consideration the Amir seized the Province of Peshawar, 
cooperated in the siege of Attock, and sent a thousand cavahy, under 
his son, Akram Khan, to join the army of ChaUar Singh. 

On the 21st of February, the battle of Gujrat was fought, when the 
united Sikh and Afghan army was ^mpletely defeated, with the loss of 
53 guns. This was virtually the end of the war. The victory was fol- 
lowed up with vigour, and at Rawal Pindi, on the 14th March, Chattar 
^iiujh and Sher ShAgh^ with what remained together of the Sikh army, 
some 16^000 men, laid down their arms. 

As far as regards the Attariwala Sirdars, these were the chiei 
incidents of the war. A connected history of that war, so important 
to both England and the Panjab, has yet to be iihitten ; but it wiil not 
be here out of place to say a few words on the causes thai led to it. 

At the close of the Satlej campaign, the Sikh army, which had, 
since the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, been ever increasing in num- 
bers, was, in a great measure, disbanded. The Panjab village were 
filled with a discontented soldiery, averse to peaceful occupations, and 
firmly believing that their late reverses were alone owing to the treachery 
and incapacity of their leaders. These men were anxious to try their 
fortune once more on the field of battle. At the capital, Riya Lai 
Singh, the Minister, whom* it was necessary for the English Govern- 
ment to support, was highly unpopular. By the troops he was hated 
for his share in the Satlej disaster, and for his intrigues with the 
Maharani ; by the Sirdars for his avarice, which cost many of theiii 
their jagirs. Even after his fall from power, the new administration 
was hardly more popular. Raja Tej Singh was an incompetent xnan^ 
and an upstart. His rise had been owing more to his fortune than hia 
abilities, and he was supposed to be entirely under the orders of the British 



76 ^ HlgTDRY OF THB 

Besidfiht, Major H. Lawrence. There were many miiiot CjUiaeB for 
disapntenfc t3ow»»killing was no longer allowed to be aerime^and the 
hated MabamnM^danS| who had always^ under Sikh rule| heen a perse- 
euted T^c»j wpr^ allowed to practise their religious riteSj publicly and 
pste^tatia^slf• The people at large, too, believed that the English 
?ieyer intended to leave the Panjab ; i^tbough the truth was that the 
British troops only remained at the earnest request of the prinoipaj 
Sirdars, who dreaded a return of the anarchy which had preceded 
the Satlej oampaign, Thus there was plenty of material f<v rebel* 
lion, ready at hand, but the genius and political s^acity of Major 
Iiawrencaj and tl^ eonfidence which the natives placed i^ him, might 
have preserved peace, bad he not been compelled, by bad health, to 
leave the country at a most critical time. 

The rebelUen of 1848 began with the outbreak at Mul^n, This 
was entirely unpremeditatedt There is i^o reason to believe that the 
attack on ihB British Officers was made by the orders or with the 
connivance of J)iwan Mulraj, but when l^e had been compromised 
by that attack, he remembered that he had at his disposal immense 
wealth, devoted troops, and the stroqgest fortress in upper India, 
while the power which coqld punish and avenge was far off, and 
to him Inmost unknown. Of two evils he considered rebellion the 
lesser, Had a British force marched against Mulian, on the first 
news of the outbreak reaching Lahore ; had the pi^nishment followed 
the offence, swiftly and decisively, the Sikhs would not have rebelled. 
But the delay in the punishment of one traitor, allowed them to 
believe that treason might remain altogether i;npunished. 

Tl^e defection of B^a SAer Singh before Multan was also unpre* 
meditat^df Till the night of the 18th of September, he remained 
firmly loyal in the presence of temptation, such as few men have 
ever been exposed to. His influence over his troops was great, and 
it is possible that he might have kept them to their duty, till the dose 
pf the sieg^, had not the entreaties of his fi^ther induce4 him, m^ch 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 77 

against his will, to join the rebel si^. It was the rebellion of Sirdar 
CkaUar Singh whieh caused that of his eon. There had been several 
insignificant outbreaks in outljing Districts of the Fanjab before that 
oC CkaUar Singh^ but it was be who made the rebellion a national 
one and brought ruin upon the country. 

What then were the reasons for Chattar Singh^$ conduct? Whjr 
was he thus disaffected while his son was actively loyal ? It is difficult 
to believe that he was ambitious for himself. He was an old, broken- 
down man, and a confirmed invalid. His intellect, never brilliant, 
had become weakened by ill health and advancing age. He had long 
talked of abandoning worjdiy affairs, and going on a pilgrimage to 
the Ganges, and he had declined a Rajaship in favor of his son. 
Nor could he have hoped to benefit his son by the expulsion of the 
English from the Panjab. Sier Bingh had been placed at the head of 
the Sikh Aristocracy by the British, and he might reasonaUy hope, 
in time, to obtain the Ministership at Lahore, and the Guardian- 
ship of the young Prince to whom bis sister waa betrothed* This^ 
engagement, too, gave the family more importance in the eyes oi the 
English than of the Sikhs, for, as the young Mahara)a grew up, he 
would probably marry many other wives, and in the Panjab the influ- 
ence of a wife is little felt outside the walla of the ^anana. Shir 
Singh was well content with his own prospects ; there was no reason 
that Chaitar Singh should be dissatisfied. It was at one time assert- 
ed that the suspicions of Captain Abbott drove Ciaiiar Singh into 
treason, but that able Officer only! suspected where there was good 
reason for suspicion, and the correctness of his judgment has been 
fully proYcd. 

Sirdar Ckatiar Singh wmn weak and a timid sian, and was ever 
accustomed to depend upon the advice of men wiser and more detemrin- 
ed than himself. There waa one man upon whom, more than upon 
all others, he was accustomed to rely, and this was Mahartljis 
Gulab Singh. There had not been an intrigue in the Panjub, for 



70 HISTORY OF THE 

very satisfiictory by Sker Singh ; and his brothers Oulab Singh and UUsr 
Singh being provided for, the one in Hazara, theother in Lahore, he forgot 
his grievance abont the * WizaratJ 

On the 7th August, 1847, Sirdar Chattar Singh received a Persian 
title of honour, at the recommendation of the Resident, at the same 
time that Sirdar Tej Singh was created a Raja. 

On the 26th November, in the same year, Sher Singh received the 
title of Raja. This honour had been recommended for Chattar Singh, 
but, at the last moment, the Sirdar requested that his son Sher Singh 
might be promoted instead, and the request was accordingly granted. 

On the 18th April, 184^, the outbreak occurred at Multan. Two 
British officers were treacherously attacked and slain, and Diwan 
Mulraj stood forth as a rebel against the authority of the Lahore Govern- 
ment. The news of this outbreak reached Lahore on the 21st April, 
and the Resident immediately put in motion, for Multan, seven battalions 
of infantry, two of regular cavalry, and twelve hundred irregular horse 
under Sirdar Attar Singh, Kalianwala. This force, which was accom- 
panied by Raja Sher Singh , was recalled on the 26th, to Lahore, as 
the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army was unwilling to send 
European troops to support it, during the hot season, to a part of the 
country with so bad a name for uahealthiness as Multan. However it 
was necessary that something should be done, and the Resident was 
compelled to send against Multan a Sikh force, under the command 
of Raja Sher Singh and Sirdars Shamsher Singh, Sindhanwalia, and 
Attar Singh, Kalianwala. The force consisted of one regular regiment 
and half an irregular infantry regiment, three thousand cavalry, ten 
guns and two mortars. Raja Sher Singh was Commander-in-Chief, but 
his more special command was the infantry, while the two other 
Sirdars led the cavalry. 

On the 12th of June, the force was at Chichawatni, and ready to 
proceed, but it \ias not thought expedient to hasten its march until 



PANJAB CH1B?6. 

some decided advantage had been gained over Molraj, by lieTit Li^onL-ft 
and the Bahawalpur troops. Sitr Singk and hia colleagiwi )ib^^ ^.^ 
thought of treason, but their troops sympathized with the reboa. ««. 
would have been only too glad to have joined them. On the 22r..i ;-mn. 
SAer Singh reached Tolama. He was ordered to stop here, but eruus iȤ, 
troops were no longer under command, or, fancying that he vs^Ji vi« 
to their fidelity, he wished to join in the successes of the BritbL iv? -:u» 
battle of Kineyri had now been fought) he advanced to U'-^gsna 
nine miles from the city of Multan. Lieutenant Edwardea then L.z*fT^ 
cd Sher Singh to join him, which he did, pitching hir camp at .Svr* 
Khund, three miles from Tibbi, where Lieutenant Edwardes waa encus}^ 
ed. He arrived at this place on the 6th of July. 

Although the Sikh army was disposed to mutiny, the principal Sirdart 
had sufHoient influence to keep it tolerably steady, although many men 
deserted to Mulraj, and, on the 20th of July, Sher Singh co-operated 
with the force under the English officers, with energy and success. 
Thus matters remained until the arrival of General Whish, before Multan, 
with a European force, on the 18th of August. 

Sirdar Chattar Singh was at this time governor of Hazarah« Hia 
troops were notoriously mutinous, but he gave no notice to the British 
authorities of the disaffection, which he shared and which he himself 
encouraged. Aftairs were brought to a crisis, on the 6th Augtut, by 
the murder of Colonel Canora, an American commandant of artillery, ia 
the Sikh service. He was ordered by ChaUar Singh to bring the 
guns out of the fort of Harripur, and to encamp on the open ground 
outside the city. Thia, Colonel Canora, who suspected the treasonable 
intentions of ChaUar Siagh, refused to do, unless with the sanction of 
Capt. Abbott, Boundary Commissioner and Assistant to the Resident, ia 
Hazara. He placed himself between the guns, which be had loaded with 
grape, and threatened to fire on the first man who should approaeh* 
ChaUar Singh persisted, and as the Colonel would not surrender his 
charge, a body of Sikh soldiers crept up behind and shot him dead* 



70 HISTORY OF THE 

very satis&ctory by SAer Singh ; and his brothers Qulab Smgh and Uiar 
Singh being provided for, the one in Hazara^ theofcher in Lahore^ he forgot 
his grievance abont the * WizaraiJ 

On the 7th Augost, 1847, Sirdar Chattar Singh received a Persian 
title of honour, at the recommendation of the Resident, at the same 
time that Sirdar Tej Singh was created a Raja. 

On the 26th November, in the same year, Sher Singh received the 
title of Raja. This honour had been recommended for Chattar Singh, 
but, at the last nK>ment, the Sirdar requested that his son Sher Singh 
might be promoted instead, and the request was accordingly granted. 

On the ISth April, 184^, the outbreak occurred at Multan. Two 
British officers were treacherously attacked and slain, and Diwan 
Mulraj stood forth as a rebel against the authority of the Lahore Govern- 
ment. The news of this outbreak reached Lahore on the 21st April, 
and the Resident immediately pat in motion, for Multan, seven battalions 
of infantry, two of regular cavalry, and twelve hundred irregular horse 
under Sirdar Attar Singh, Kalianwala. This force, which was accom- 
panied by Raja SAer Singh, was recalled on the 26th, to Lahore, as 
the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army was unwilling to send 
European troops to support it, during the hot season, to a part of the 
country with so bad a name for uahealthiuess as Multan. However it 
was necessary that something should be done, and the Resident was 
compelled to send against Multan a Sikh force, under the command 
of Raja Sher Singh and Sirdars Shamsher Singh, Sindhanwalia, and 
Attar Singh, Kalianwala. The force consisted of one regular regiment 
and half an irregular infantry regiment, three thousand cavalry, ten 
guns and two mortars. Raja Sher Singh was Commander-in-Chief, but 
his more special command was the infantry, while the two other 
Sirdars led the cavalry. 

On the 12th of June, the force was at Chichawatni, and ready to 
proceed, but it \ias not thought expedient to hasten its march until 



panmb'cbibfs. 71 

some decided advantage had been gained over lif ulraj, by Lieut. Ed^ardes 
and the Bahawalpur troops. Sker Singh and his eolleagues had no 
thought of treason, but their ti^oops sympathized with the rebelS| and 
would have been only too glad to have joined them. On the 22nd June, 
SherSmgh reached Tolama. He was ordered to stop here, but either his 
tnx^ were no longer under command, or, fancjring that he could trust 
to their fidelity, he wished to join in the successes of the British (for the 
battle of Kineyri had now been fought) he advanced to Gogran, 
nine miles from the city of Mult an. Lieutenant Ed wardes then direct- 
ed Sher Singh to join him| which he did, pitching his* camp at Siiraj 
Khund, three miles from Tibbi, where Lieutenant Edwardes was encamp- 
ed. He arrived at this place on the 6th of July. 

Although the Sikh army was disposed to mutiny, the principal Sirdars 
had sufficient influence to keep it tolerably steady, although many men 
deserted to Mulraj, and, on the 20th of July, Sher Singh co-operated 
with the force under the English officers, with energy and success. 
Thus matters remained until the arrival of General Whish, before Multan, 
with a European force, on the 18th of August. 

Sirdar Chattar Singh was at this time governor of Hazarah. Hia 
troops were notoriously mutinous, but he gave no notice to the British 
authorities of the disaffection, which he shared and which he himself 
encouraged. Afiairs were brougUt to a crisis, on the 6tb August, by 
the murder of Colonel Canora, an American commandant of artillery, in 
the Sikh service. He was ordered by Chattar Singh to bring the 
guns out of the fort of Harripur, and to encamp on the open ground 
outside the city. This^ Colonel Canora, who suspected the treasonable 
intentions of Chattar Singh, refused to do, unless with the sanction of 
Capt. Abbott, Boundary Commissioner and Assistant to the Resident, in 
Hazara. He placed himself between the guns, which be had loaded with 
grape, and threatened to fire on the first man who should approadi. 
Chattar Singh persistedi and as the Colonel would not surrender his 
charge, a body of Sikh soldiers crept up behind and shot him dead. 



70 HISTORY OF THE 

very satisfiftctoryby SAer Smgh; and his brothers Oulab Singh and Utar 
Singh being provided for, the one in Hazara^ theother in Lahore^ he forgot 
his grievance about the * WizaratJ 

On the 7th August, 1847, Sirdar Chattar Singh received a Persian 
title of honour, at the recommendation of the Resident, at the same 
time that Sirdar Tej Singh was created a Raja. 

On the 26th November, in the same year, Sher Singh received the 
title of Raja. This honour had been recommended for Chattar Singh, 
but, at the last nK>ment, the Sirdar requested that his son Sher Singh 
might be promoted instead, and the request was accordingly granted. 

On the ISth April, 184^, the outbreak occurred at Multan. Two 
British officers were treacherously attacked and slain, and Diwan 
Mulraj stood forth as a rebel against the authority of the Lahore Govern- 
ment. The news of this outbreak reached Lahore on the 21st April, 
and the Resident immediately put in motion, for Multan, seven battalions 
of infantry, two of regular cavalry, and twelve hundred irregular horse 
under Sirdar Attar Singh, Kalianwala. This force, which was accom- 
panied by Raja Sher Singh, was recalled on the 26th, to Lahore, as 
the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army was unwilling to send 
European troops to support it, during the hot season, to a part of the 
country with so bad a name for uahealthiness as Multan. However it 
was necessary that something should be done, and the Resident was 
compelled to send against Multan a Sikh force, under the command 
of Raja Sher Singh and Sirdars Shamsher Singh, Sindhanwalia, and 
Attar Singh, Kalianwala. The force consisted of one regular regiment 
and half an irregular infantry regiment, three thousand cavalry, ten 
guns and two mortars. Raja Sher Singh was Commander-in-Chief, but 
his more special command was the infantry, while the two other 
Sirdars led the cavalry. 

On the 12th of June, the force was at Chichawatni, and ready to 
proceed, but it \ias not thought expedient to hasten its march until 



?ANJAB~GBIB76. 71 

some decided advantage had been gained over Malraj, by Lieut. Ed^ardes 
and the Bahawalpur troops. SAer Sirigh and his colleagues had no 
thought of treason/ but their tfoops sympathized with the rebels, and 
would have been only too glad to have joined them. On the 22nd June, 
Sher Singh reached Tolama. He was ordered to stop here, but either his 
troc^ were no longer under command, or, fancying that he could trust 
to their fidelity, he wished to join in the successes of the British (for the 
battle of Kineyri had now been fought) he advanced to Gogran, 
nine miles from the city of Multan. Lieutenant Edwardes then direct- 
ed Sher Singh to join him, which he did, pitching his* camp at Siiraj 
Khund, three miles from Tibbi^ where Lieutenant Edwardes was encamp- 
ed. He arrived at this place on the 6th of July. 

Although the Sikh army was disposed to mutiny, the principal Sirdars 
had sufficient influence to keep it tolerably steady, although many men 
deserted to Mulraj, and, on the 20th of July, Sher Singh co-operated 
with the force under the English officers, with energy and success. 
Thus matters remained until the arrival of General Whish, before Multan, 
with a European force, on the 18th of August* 

Sirdar Chattar Singh was at this time governor of Hazarah. His 
troops were notoriously mutinous, but he gave no notice to the British 
authorities of the disaffection, which he shared and which he himself 
encouraged. Afiairs were brougUt to a crisis, on the 6th August, by 
the murder of Colonel Canora, an American commandant of artillery, in 
the Sikh service. He was ordered by Chattar Singh to bring the 
guns out of the fort of Harripur, and to encamp on the open ground 
outside the city. This^ Colonel Canora, who suspected the treasonable 
intentions of Chattar Singh, refused to do, unless with the sanction of 
Capt. Abbott, Boundary Commissioner and Assistant to the Resident, in 
Hazara. He placed himself between the guns, which he had loaded with 
grape, and threatened to fire on the first man who should approadi* 
Chattar Singh persisted, and as the Colonel would not surrender his 
charge, a body of Sikh soldiers crept up behind and shot him dead. 



78 HinORY Of THK 

maQJr yiMurvptttj in whicIiGalab.Sit^ Iiadiiot'beeti.'eiigagedi wd-, 
fma which ha had not reapadf advanUge. The moat aceompUahad • 
of courtiers, the moat anbtlie of diplomatiata, the moat unacrupnlofBa - 
bt intrignafBi OkaUar Singh found him the moat dangerooa of friendeu' 
The friendship between these men waa of ^ the cloaeat deacriptioii. 
When the brother of Ckattar Singh died, it waa the influence of 
O^ll^ Singh that procured for the Sirdar the grant of half his 
estates, ta the prejudice of the son of the deceased. In thetrouble^ 
under Kaja Hira Singh, ChaUar Singh had stood boldlj bj his friend, 
and| for his sake, became an accomplice in the murder of Prineef 
Peshora £ingh. The Sirdar would never have determined on rebellion 
without consulting Qulab Singb> biit, even had be so determinedi Oulab 
Singh could, without dijBlculty, have dissuaded him from it. 

Although the proofs of Oulab Singb^s complicity in the rebellion 
might fail to satisfy a court of laW| yet there is sufficient Evidence fdr 
histoiry to decide against him. In the first place there is the universal 
belief, shared ' by {he late Dost Muhammad Khan, that Onlab Singh 
Was the instigatbr of the rebellion, and that, iagainst his will, Chattar 
Singh would not have rabed his hand. The evidence of Hira Nand, 
the agent sent by Chattar Singh to the Maharaja^ recorded in Ootoberi 
I84d, though in many parts ci^aggers^ted and contradictory; bears the 
general stamp of truths If his evidence is received, there can be no 
doubt of the Maharaja's connection with the rebels. Hira Nand does 
not appeiar to have had any reason for accusiag the Maharaja unjustly, 
and his evidence is confirmed, in many important particulars, by other 
witnesses, whose depositions were subsequently taken. No dooumentary 
evidence of any importance was discovered, but the most wily of men 
was not likely to commit himself by writing what might be verbally 
e](plained| or empreased by a aigq, or by the pressure of a finger, ThiliT' 
much at least is certain, that rebels^and the ^unilies of rebelSi took 
shelter in the Maharaja'a territories ; that rebel troops marched tlirough- 
them unmolested, and drew from thence their supplies; and that^' 



PANJAB oaiBfs. 79 

tkotiglikii pMfessious ir^» l^tgo^ th^ aid he rendered to the Lahore 
Qoveramrat^ waf trifling in the extreme. 

But with all this, It id impoftsible to believe that Maharaja Galab 
Sia^ desired the defeat of the British. Gratitude for the graut of 
Kashmir any other man than Gulab Singh might be expected to feel ; 
but putting this aside, he was Well aware that his existence as a 
sovereign prince depended upon the presence of British troops in the 
Panjab. He induced Cfidttar Singh to i^bel, because he desired his 
destruction and that of his son ; because he hoped fdr the subversion of 
the Lahore monarchy, and the establishment of British supremacy 
in the Panjab. He perceived tbat| if the country remained tranqdl^ 
the British would, lis agreed, leave it, and Raja 8her Singh obtain 
power, and he also knew diat| in that case, the Sikh arms would t>e 
first turned against him. He had been more surprised than any one 
else at finding himself soverei^ of Kashmir, and he knew that 
the loss of this Province was looked upon by the whole Sikh nation 
with shame and rage, for it had been won with difBculty by Ae old 
Maharaja, and with the blood of many brave Sirdars. Nor were' the 
Sikhs his only fear. Dost JHuhammad Khan remembered that ^^^^^ 
had once belonged to Kabul, and was ready to attack it at the first 
opportunity* It was for this that he made an alliance with the Bikhs 
whom he hated, and intrigued with the wild Muhammadan trihas of 
Hazarah. Between the Sikhs* and the A^hans, Gulab Singh was 
well aware, that, without British aid, he must inevitably fall. 

His policy being thus in favor of the English, the reasons that cans* 
ed him to refrain firom giving active assistance to them are plain* Ha 
could noti being himself the instigator of the rebellioni directly oppose it^ 
without exciting great hatred against himself. Sikhs and A^faaoa would 
have united against him, and wonld have ovemin Kashmir, whife Hat 
British troops wave barely abk to hold their own in tiie plains. He 
waited until some decided saccass of the British army should ooaUe 
him to declare himself| heart and 80ul| on its ude ; but, after GMlkii^ 



80 HmORT OF THE 

wala, lie began to donbt whether the Boglish could really hold the 
country. The decisiye overthrow of the Sikhff, in 184^, had made 
him believe that, with a larger force, and with far greater advantnges 
of position^ possessing as they did Lahore and Amritsar^ the English 
would again obtain an easy victory. Even their temporary retiremenl 
would be fatal to him^ and thus, when he saw the first portion of the 
campaign undecisive and unsatisfactory, he trembled for the result^ 
and did not dare to break with the Sikhs. Had Oulab Singh joined 
the English openly and boldly^ the campaign might have been more 
quickly decided ; but this was not possible to him. His caution and 
hesitation in deciding on a plan were equal to his boldness and vigour in 
its execution. Every -course presented to his keen kkellect so many 
dangers, that he ever forbore to act until circumstances forced him into 
action. ^Though penonally brave and fond of war, it was by fraud, not 
by forcCj, that Us policy was distinguished. Throughout hii whole life 
be had never joined a losing party, or ev^n a winning one until its 
succesa was undoubted and a8S^red. 

^ The pdioy of Maharaja Gulsb Singh was thus compietdy suec e ssfti f. 
The' Sikhs were conquered ; the Afghans driven, ignomimou8ly» from 
the Panjab, and the astute contriver of their downfal ruledy in peace, 
mider the strong pioteetion of the only nation he had ever learnt to 
irust. 

The evidence against Maharaja Gulab Singh, however convincing it 
may appear to those who have studied the history of the times, must still 
-be admitted to be incomplete and indecisive. No evidence in his favour 
iras ever heard, and if Diwan Joala Sahai, and other of his confidential 
agents were examined, they might be able to explain many points which 
now appear most suspicious. Whatever band Gulab Sngh may have 
had in the rebellion of Chattar Singh j be was not the sole cause of the 
seeond Sikh war. The old Ehalsa army, and the whole Sikh nation, 
rwhicb was, by constitution and creed, military, would never have sefttled 
>down peaceably under British rule, without another trial of stref^gth ; 



PANJAB CHIRPS. 81 

without a defeat which, like that of Oujrat, left them no option but that 
of submitting to the stronger. Even the troops of Sirdar Chattar Singh 
were thoroughly disaffected, and without any aid or instigation from Gulab 
Singh, they would, in all probability, have sooner or later, rebelled. 

The Maharaja was, at all events, not hostile to the British. If he de- 
sired and plotted for the downfal of the Sikh empire^ it is impossible to 
blame him, for the Sikhs hated him fully as much as he did them, and 
would have seen his ruin with the utmost satisfaction. 

Sirdar Ohaiter Singhy Raja SA^ Singh^ and Sirdar Utar Singh, who 
had also joined the rebels, were placed under surveillance at Attari, but 
being discovered still carrying on a treasonable correspondence, they were, 
in January, 1850, sent as prisoners, first to Allahabad and then to Calcutta. 
Their csjbatea were all confiscated. ChcUiar Singh before the war possessed 
jagirs of the value of 1,22,000 Rs., 57,000 being personal, and '65,000 
lis. subject to service. Raja Sher Singh and his brother, had personal 
jagirs worth 42,220 Rs. An allowance was granted them of 7,200 Rs., being 
2,400 Rs. each to Chaiiar Singh^ Sher Singh and UUir Singh. Gulab Singh 
did not join the rebels, being under suveillance at Lahore. He had been 
placed, with his brother Sher Singh, in charge of the young Maharaja 
and the household arrangements of the palace ; and he was evidently pre- 
paring to leave Lahore and join his father, when he was arrested on the 
17th September, and detained, in safe custody, till the close of the war. 
Nothing was, however, proved against him, and his pension of 8,000 Rs. 
was equal in amount to what he had received, in land, previous to the 
war. 

Bibi Tej Kourwtks never married to Maharaja Dalip Singh. After the 
war the match was broken off, and she eventually married Janmeja Singh, 
son of Sirdar Ishar^ingh, Gil, Mariwala, by whom she had two sons. She 
died in 1663. In January, 1854, Chattar Singh^ Sher Singh and Utar Singh, 
whose conduct since annexation had been irreproachable, were released 
from confinement, and allowed to choose their own place of residence, 



offend Ui 

ia dun, 

Gulai Simgi 

"iitt 'vac -vitib distinguislied 

muL in23 hk brothers T^ 

jLOsde, worth 28,800 

aS& peDSKA of 7,200 Bs. 

imm. d. 3bw Aer&yi iriiich took jiMce^ 




zzr-ar Sboc jien, obUtented all the fiuilts 
c -j^ if* ^ *2e :9B=sxrT ± '2» aamiL Vln he Celt his end approich- 

:*£^ -^ — *•■" 2^ !^2aiaiBiit ^ S£ Icii lifr, lad asked of them how he 
•fw.; aoc^ iw *uM ^r- <Miwi. -SK- gHiaul and liTe-IoDg terror of Hindoa. 

'^•- - .- .::= 3ai. ar T»r«t ira, he must lie, fasting, by the Ganges, 
?cs'-.'^ . -^ 7?;3,£M3K.-ntt BioBt sacred of all the eighteen Pbranas. So, 

^ «j ^ -^ ^.r^i::;:: ^*^Hbwr Baja was canied to the river-side, and, 

^^.^;^ ;. ^- «^^ :^ 2^aB^K. M wen as Ids bding sense would allow, 



.X "= 



.^ . ic *-rac!i Of, Ik s»tb 2,000 Bs to the Brah. 



Tiuai. ar.-w:i. ^ r:at a*3BairT.aidi8SBiarfcityofBeDAro», 
,^ ui i=.-r^ ' :!!= ^-^ irna; 5«- «« ^ ^ane. Raja /Sier 



-ji^ <->-i:- /.i^r-L- :ntfy/i. 



iied tsfldy in the same 



SIRDAR DYAL SINGH MAJITHIA. 



NOBK BiHflH. 

P. 1788. 

Sirdar DeM Singli. 
u D. of Karam Mogfa Hanjrah. 

I 

a SiDgb. Sirdar Qajar Singh. Sirdar Rai^odh Singh 

i. u. o. of a. Tkima SoltavM. w. ».•( 8. WmIt Siagh. i. ■.».•{ 8. Oilaha., OhiMl/arf. 
ii. jf. D. ofS. Nar S., Aimehwala. Rangan>«ngal| iL m. r, of Samant Singh, Sanhiwal. 

s. 18M. o. 1897. B. 1820. 

Sirdar Dyal Singh. 

B. 1848. 

M. o. of S. iSher Singh, Amballa. 

HtSTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The village of Majitha, sifcaated tea miles to the north of the city 
of Amritsar, has given its name to one of the most distinguished families 
of the Panjab. The great Majithia familj is divided into three branches j 
represented by Sirdars D^al Singh, Sura' Singh, and Mehtab Bingh. The 
relationship between these Sirdars is distant^ and the history of their 
families is quit^ distinct, Sirdar Dj/al Singh and Qirdar Mehtah Singh 
are fifth cousins j but Surai Singh is a very remote kinsman, und it }$ 
necessary to go back fourteen generations tp find a common ancestor for 
the three Majithia Sirdars. 

Pint in rank and iafiaaiioe ia the family of Sirdar DyaJ Singh^ 
His great grandfather, Noih Simgh, was a Eespeetable Zamindar of the 
Shergtl Jat tribe, an aocount of the origin of which will be fonnd on 
referring to the Hietorj of CoMaaadant Dewm Siagh, Sirdar Bobadan 
tMh Singh married the sister of Sirdiur Amar Singh, Baggikh, tfie jMwetfpl 
Chief of Dharamkot-Begg«h, and became 'Zaildar/ or feadal retaiaer, of 
his brother-in-law, who was of the Kaaheya misl^ aod pesusetd a large 



84 HISTORY OF THE 

territory in the Gnrdaspar district. Sodh Singh acquired a jagir of 
2,500 Rs. including two wells, at Majitha, and died in 1788, leaving one 
son, Dewa Singh, then twenty years of age. The young man succeeded to his 
father's estate, and till the year 1809, remained in the service of the Bag- 
gah Sirdars. But when Maharaja Banjit Singh, in that year, marched 
to Majitha and Dharamkot^ determined to seize tke estate of Sirdar Budh 
Singh^ Baggah, who hact failed to give the supplies demanded of him for 
the Kaugra expedition, Desa Singh, who was very wise in his generatbui 
saw that resistance was hopeless, and having besides no love for Budh 
Singh, went over to the side of the Maharaja, who received him with open 
arms, and, when Budh Singh was vanquished, bestowed upon him the jagirs 
of Sukalghar and Bhagowal, which had, for many years, been a portion 
of the Baggah estate. 

Sirdar Desa Singh then accompanied lianjit Singh inhia expedition 
to Eangra, where Baja Sansar Chand of Katoch had begged bis aatif- 
tance to expel the Gurkhas, under Amar Singh, Thapa. Sansar Chaad 
must have found it difficult to distinguish his friends from his enemies, for 
Ranjit Singh, driving out the Gurkhas, seized his fort, the key to the 
Kangra Valley, and appointed Desa Singh its Commandant. He was 
also made Nazim, or Governor, of the Hill States, Eangra, Chamba, 
Nurpur, Kotlah, Shahpur, Jasrota, Bassowli, Mankot, Jaswan, Sibah, 
Goler, Kolhor, Mandi, Suket, Kulu, and Datarpur. In 1811, Sirdar 
Desa Singh marched against the fort of Kotlah, half way between Eangra 
and Nurpur, held by Dhyan Singh, who had been wazir of the Baja Goler, 
and who, trusting to the strength of his position, had given himself the airs 
of an independent Chief. The Maharaja promised Desa Singh half the 
Ilaka of Tiloknath, in which the fort was situated, in jagir, if he succeeded 
in reducing it in a week, and the energetic Sirdar did the work in the 
appointed time, and obtained the jagir, worth 7,000 Bs. Two years 
later, he was sent to annex the territory of the Baja of Haripur, who 
had been shamelessly arrested at Lahore. 



PAKJAll OfitBTB. 85 

Sirdair De9A Sinfk wAb appointed Qovefttor of the city of Amritsar, 
and in 1818, he serred In the Maltan campaign, with diatiactiOD, in 
the force of Prince Kharmk Singh. Afbef this he returned to his HUt 
Governorship, atid collected, as'usual, the revenue, and the tribute due 
from the diflTerent states. Bilaspur alone ^aa refractory, and Dem Sinfi 
marched against the Raja and seised hia territory, both on the Sikh side of 
the river, and that under British protection. This was in violation of the 
Treaty of the 26th August, 1809, and the British troops were, without 
delay, put in movement to resist it. Ranjit Singh repudiated the action of 
his lieutenant, and obliged />«Ai iSiifi^A to visit Captain Koss, the offiesr 
in charge of the Hill frontier^ to offer apologies, Wbioh were acespted 
readily, and indeed th6 civilities which paesed between them touted the 
Maharaja's jcolousy, atld, for some time, ke forbade Desa Singh to have 
any intercourse with any British officer. Mr. Moorcroft, passing tbrough 
Araritsar, in 1820, found that Deia Sii^h was unable to visit him on 
account of this prohibition. About this time the Sirdar received a grant 
of Ilaka Bagguwala, in the Pirozpur district, where he built a fort, ^nd 
seized^ by violence, some villages belonging to the Alhuwalia Sirdar, in the 
Malanwala Ilaka. His jagirs were very extensive. During the reign of 
Ranjit Siogb, he, with his son, Lehna Singh, received grants to the value 
of 1,24,250 Rs. per annum. These included Majitha, Tiloknath, Baggu- 
wala, a large portion of the old Baggah estate, of which he had been made 
governor, BhaowaI| Harriki, Khudpur, Naoshera-Nangli, and 2amanabad, 
in the Kangra district. 

Sirdar De»a Singh died in 1832, and was sueceededy in all his estates 
and honours, by his eldest son Sirdar Ltkna Singh. His life bad lyeen 
uniformly prosperous, and the favour of his Sovereign who had given him 
the fHle of Kasir-nMktidar (chief of exalted dignity) never lessened. He 
was a brave and eoMMsfnl aoldter, Md k Wise and Uberkl administrator, 
■fnd bis naese ifs stitt remenAerod with afibctioti by the peopte wk<fm h^ 
never oppresBed. 



86 HISTORY OF TH£ 

Sirdar Lehna Singh served, with credit, in the Maltan campaign of 
ISIS, and soon became known for ability and learning. When Banjit 
Singh determined to seize the possessions of his raother-in-laW| Mai Sadda 
Kour, Leina Singh was selected to superintend the unpleasant work. 
The intriguing ladj was seized and carried prisoner to Amritsar. All 
her estates were confiscated, and the great Klanheya misl, of which she 
was head^ made no attempt to save her. Banjit Singh had not expected ao 
easy a success, and said, in full Darbar, ^' All these Kanheyas are cowards 
and traitors.^' Among those who heard this speech was Jodh Singh, 
Harchandar. He set off at once, threw himself, with a few men, into the 
Nanga fort, and defended it for some time, bravely. The fort of Atal- 
ghar also held out for three weeks, defended by one of Mai Sadda Kour's 
slave girls, who seemed to have acquired some of the spirit of her 
mistress. 

After the death of Desa Singh, his son received charge of the Hill terri- 
tory between the Ravi and the Satlej, and held the appointment till the be- 
ginning of 1844. Lehna Singh did not reside in the hills, but at Amritsar 
or Majitha. At the former place, he was in charge of the Darbar 
Sahib, the Sikh temple, as his father had been, a post of importance, 
requiring great tact and judgment. Once a year he made a tour in the 
hills, to inquire into the state of the country, to redress grievances, and 
to examine the accounts. He was a mild and benevolent man, and, like 
Desa Singh, bears the character of being one of the best Governors that 
the Sikh rule (famous for rapacity and corruption) ever produced. Lehna 
Singh possessed the greatest influence with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 
and his counsel was always listened to with respect. His title was, 
'^ Hasam ud Doulah '^ (the sword of the state). 

In 183i, Oujar Singh, Majithia, brother of Lehna Singh, was se- 
lected to take charge of a mission to Calcutta to convey presents for 
the King of England, and to endeavour, if possible, to ascertain the 
intentions of the British Government with regard to iShikarpnr. The 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 87 

seleelion was not a happy one. Sirdar G^ar Singh waa a youBg 
man of ordinary ability, considerable conceit| and debauched habits. 
He took with him 100 men, splendidly appointed, the finest that oonld 
be picked out of the Sikh army. With him| too, to keep him in orderi 
were sent Bai Govind Jas, brother to Rai Kishan Chand, Oolab Singh, 
commandant, called afterwards Calcuttiai and Dewa Singh commandant ; 
and plenty of difficulty they had with their charge, who fell desperately 
in love with a European woman, in Calcutta, and wanted to marry her, 
to the horror of Govind Jas, and the annoyance of Banjit Singh, who 
exduded him for some time, after his return, from Darbaf • . He brought 
back no information about Shikarpur, but plenty of English airs and 
graces, which created great amusement at the Lahore court. Among 
other English tastes acquired by Gujar Singi, was a love for champagne, 
from the effects of which, one evening, about two years after his returu 
from Calcutta, he walked over the parapet of the roof of his house at 
Amritsar, and, falling some 40 feet, was killed on the spot. 

In 1840, after the death of Banjit, Prince Nao Nihal Singh sent a 
finroe under Sirdar Ajit Singh, Sindhanwalia, and General Ventura, against 
Mandi. Baja Balbir Sen was taken prisoner and brought to Amritsar, im<< 
prisoned in Govindghar, and his territory annexed. But Zehna Singiia-' 
terested himself, very warmly, for his old friend, and when Maharaja Sher 
Siogh ascended the throne, procured his release and the restoration of his 
country. He signed, with the Sindhanwalias and other Chieft, the 
agreement which was to exclude Sher Singh from the throne, for at least 
a time ; and when that Prince marched to Lahore and besieged the fort, 
Lekna Singh was in great alarm and hid himself in Jamadar Khushhal 
SinghV house till the end of the siege. 

When Baja Hira Singh rose to power, Sirdar Lehna Singh, who was 
hated by Pandit Jalta, the minister's confidant, fearing to lose his 
estates or hit life, and filled with sudden religious aspirations, left the 
Panjab ea a pilgriidage. He first visited Hardwar, and then proi^ 
eeaded to Benares, Allahabad, Jagganath and Calcutta, where be. was 



88 HlMOfit Of THIS 

iMldiog wb«titk0 Batlaj ekai^igti commetiei^d, in NotediBftri 1845^ 
BefM iMtrlttg tBe ^Aiijab, h^ inade over the mtHiigemeEkt of Mb eetateii 
id IAb hil{-hf6i\Mit ti&hjodh Sit^h^ the ydtuim^t sbti of Sirdttt D^M 
Sti^h, by tt hill iromail. 

iSirdar AdnjoSh Sin^i was, at tliia time, a general in the Sikh army. 
He had lately returned trbtn tbe expedition sent by the Wazir Jowahir 
Sibgh against ^ja Qutab Smgb of Jammu, and was quite ready for 
a war with tbe Ehgtiish, for wKom he had no great love. He moved 
his Brigade, Consisting oiF 10,000 infantry, 60 g^ins, and some irregu- 
lar cavalry to ^hilor, and on the 17th January, 1846, crossed the 
Satlej, intending to move on Ludlanab, and capture, if possible, the 
siege train wbioh was on its way to tbe head-quarters of tbe army* 
At daddowalj on the ^Ist Jantlary, he intercepted the force of Sir Harry 
Smith, who was marehing to Ludianah, and, more from the exhaustion 
of the firitish troops, than from any display of generalship on his part, 
captured almost all the baggage oJT the army. Dhis affair so much 
enJQMWagdl the ti!<yopa of Ranfodi Sin^kj who had been jmtied by 9ii^ar 
AJit Singh ^f Iiadwm^ thit^ at Aliwil> on the 28lh JahiMy, they left a 
strong positidfl) cdnttttty to the ordere of the Gkneral, t^ attack the Bti- 
tish loreew Tbe defcat which they es]»erieneed k matter of hislolry, iriid 
th^ie ii ne decasio^ tb dwell vpon it here. Iiafifi}dh Sinyh, was, if any thing, 
Sttperiov td the other leadSMrs of the Bikh army ; if leaders Aey can 
k* called, Who #ere ever tb^ last to enter the fight and the Crat to nm 
iway, Hia generalakip was ais oontefi^ptibto as that of Raja Lai Siogii, 
atod hiB oowiMBce as conspicuous Ae that of Raj^ Tej Singfa^ bat he #a9 
B0O tfcnitot. tte had n6 eonfidleutial agents in the British cam{> as lUjia 
Lai Singh had, nor did he, like the Rqa) pray for aftd Ikbour for fbe 
triumph ofthaDngUsh. 

Soon after tiie dose eC the oaiaapaign, Sinfar £i*Ha JiNyA retuMMI 
firoui CalMltii, a* Ae lAviJIMlion oJP Ae (X>i]ttioit Mi tl^ ReiMetat. H^ 
dMinad tb be fonmtty adknitted into the Council, bat WM rtadjf to g$ve> 
i^ateljv My advice he eonldy imd seeepM the chai^ el AmIitiMir, 



FUNJAB .CHIBFS^ 89 

G4?k4sbarj tad the MaDJha, in its widest aeoepte^ the wholer 

trait of eonntiy between the BMn and the Bias, ^m the Mille to 
Kaiiiir* A great diepnte now aroee between LeHna Singi and Rat^k 
Simfk. The ktter had preeenred the eetatee entroated to him, for two 
yeaiB and a half^ in very diffieolt tunes, and elaimedi on XeAna Sktgh^i 
return, a half share of them. Ithna Sifigh only wished to aUow him a 
pittance, amounting to about a twentieth of the whole; Both proposals 
were unjust, and it required all the influence of Sir H* Lawrence to 
settle the dispute, and to induce Zekna Singh to allow his hfdf-broth^ 
»ji^ of 12,000 Be. perannum* 

In August^ 1844,Xeiaa Singi consented to join the Counett. His admi-* 
nistration of the Mflnjah had been successful.' Although he had an objec**' 
tion to capital punishment, he contrived to free the country of rbbbers and 
dacoits, who bad overrun it, after the dose of ihe wftr-; and there was no 
Sirdar whose rule was so generally popular. But bis practised eye saw 
the signs of coming disturbances and be determined to leave the Panjab. 
In January, 1848, he left for Benares, His personal jagirs, and religious 
grants amounting to 42,000 Be., and service jagirs of 15,000 IB^B., were 
continued to him. All the other jagirs were resumed, but the Darbar 
prwnised to restore them on his return to the eountiy. 

At the close of the Satlej campaign, Sirdar Ramjodh Singh^ who had 
been most averse to peace, was sent with an English ofiBcer to induce 
the Governor of the Kangra fort to submit. His exertions to effect 
this object were not great, and there is every reason to believe tfaat» 
through his instigation, the garrison held out longer than it would other- 
wise have done. He was then appointed Judge of Lahore, but in thia 
post ha did not g^ve any satisfaction. YHien the dispute with his brother 
was fioally adjusted, some guns, which should have been returned to Zeina 
tmgk, were concealed by jRan/tM^A iSifii^A in a house at Amritsar. Ha 
denied their concealment, but a forcible search being made, a large 
aorlar,^ two 24-pound howitzers and a 6«pounder were found. His coo? 
duet on this occasion induced the Darbar, on the recomm^dation of the 



90 HIiTORT OP THE 

Residenti to remoye hioi from tlu Jadgeahqp, in whtek he was taooecdod 
by Sirdar Kanh Singh^ Maa. The nest year, 1848, sooq after theonft* 
break at Multaiit he was detected in « treaaoDable correapondenee with 
MalraJ, and was plaeed in coafiaement, only betiig released at the eloae 
of the war. 

When RanjodA SingA was arrested and earned pnsoner to the fort, 
10|000 * budkisi were left in his Lahorebouse, locked np in a chest YHien 
the Sirdar was released, the money was gone. The theft was attributed 
to common thieves ; but it is believed that some SirdarSi who are now 
wealthy and honoured, could tell what became of the money. The Darbar 
confiscated his jagir, but, after annexation^ he was allowed by his brodier 
an annuuity of 2,500 Us. On the death of Leiia Stnifk, the allowance 
ceased ; and the Government granted him a cash pension ' of 3,000 Bs. 
per annum, which he still holds. 

Sirdar Lehna Singh returned to the Punjab, in 1851, bnt, after two 
years, went back to Benares where he died on the 25th July^ 1854. He 
left one son. Sirdar Dyal- Singh, who is now about 16 years of agCi and 
who is in the Court of Wards. He has received a good education in 
English, Persian and Hindu He holds a perpetual jagiri of 6,000 R8.| 
and owns large landed property at Benares, purchased by hit father 
some years ago. 

Sirdar Lehna Singh was a man of considerable ability. He was a 
skilful mechanist, and an original inventor. He much improved the Sikh 
ordnance, and some very beautiful guns, of his manufactnrei were taken 
at Aliwal and elsewhere. Among otber things he invented a clock, which 
showed the hour, the day of the month and the changes of the moon. He 
was fond of astronomy and mathematics, and was master of several lan- 
guages. As an administrator, Lehna Singh was very popular. The poor 
were never oppressed by him ; his assessments were moderate^ and his 
decisions essentially just. As a stateman, he may be said to have been 



* Bndki, a gold coin, worth 6 B«. 



?ANJAB CHIlff. 91 

aliAiMi the poly honest man in Lahore. Fraud and corruption were en- 
peeaiey bat the hands of Leina SUgh were always clean ; surrounded by 
the moft greedy and ansorupulous of scheaners^ he preserved his honesty 
vnsiilUed. Bat he had ont failing, which made shipwreck of all his vir- 
tarn. * He was a coward. Timid and superstitious,] he was ever ready, 
mt the appro^h of danger, to run off to Hardwar to bathe, or to Benares 
to Csed A erowd of hungry Brahmans. 

Had a man of the reputation, and administrative talent, ot Lehna 
^i«^i taken the lead, in 1 81*5, in the Panjabi the great troubles which 
oama upon the country might have been averted. Bat he was no true 
patriot. He did not understand that the religion of a statesman, and 
indeed of every brave man, is to stand by his country in times of 
danger, sharing her griefii, and, if need be, falling with her fall. 



* Then is a •ajing, well knowa in the eoonfry, to the effect that three families in the 
Piigab, Attttiwala, Hao, and Migithia, hare posNBied the greatest nnmber of lemarkable 

Tha Attariwala Sirdara are brare aad fiiithlesi. The Alan Sirdars, handsoae, gallant and 
; tlM Mijilhiai/wiae aad timid. 



I r 



SIRDAR SURAT SINGH MAJITHIA. 



GVJAB. 

> ' 1 

Dtigih 8iii|^» ' Inat Singh. idkij 8in^ 

• • 1 ■ ■■ '-, f ■ 

BmdmAmumai^ F«Uh«Qab. • JdmalSinkh. SMar UUmb Siagh. 

pflioendanti liTing 
engaged in agrienltnre. 



Birdar Kalui Omda Singh. WaMwa Singh. Sirdar Putab 8. Haim S. 
Singh. M.». 8.Giilaha Attar 8. Zamindar. Zminfiasr. 

PvrSndiak | 

Sirdar Sorat Singh, 
i. M. D. S. Ban S., Waefa<diar. 
iL]C.»-8ahibS.orAttari. 

NiSTOIiy OF THE FAMILY. 

Like the rest of the Majithia clan, the brothers, Izgai Simgk and 
Sahaj Singhf followed the fortunes of the Sukarchalda Sirdars. Itzai 
Singh was able to acquire a strip of the Dhaoni country on his own 
aeooanti and held it, with much difficulty, and by dint of constant 
flghtiDgi till his death| in 1772. His sous, Falak Singh and Jotmol 
Singh^ were mere boys at the thneof his death, so his brother Sakaj Singk 
t<M>k possession of the esUte. In 1781, 5aAa; Singk died, and Utiam 
Singh^ bis eldest son, succeeded to the whole property, without any op- 
position Arom FaUth Singh and Joimal Singi^ who might have been 
reasonably expected to have cUimed their father's share. The cousint 
lived together in harmony, and when Ranjit Singh rose to power, sub- 
mitted to him, and having paid tribute, were confirmed in the estate. 
HpweTeriSOon after this in 1803«4| the Maharaja marched in the 



niSTOET OF THE PA1I9AB CHIEFS. 9S 

Rawalpindi direction and demanded the snrrender of Nila and Rotas, 
ala^;eand strong fort about six miles from the river Jhelam, which 
liad been captured from the Afghans by Sirdar Charrat Singh. Sirdar 
UUmm Simgk refased, but before hostilities commenced thought better 
of it, and gave np both to the Maharaja, who placed the fort in the charge 
of Mohr Singh Lamba and Saja Nut Khan, and the Maharaja then tooic 
possession of the whole Dhanni country, then famous for its breed of 
hones. AUar Singh, the adopted son of Utiam Singh, was^ in 1809, made 
governor of the district about Rawalpindi. Uttam Singh died in 1827 and 
all his iagirs were resumed. But the family were not left destitute. Aiiar 
Singh received an esUte of 28,000 EU. at Synd Easra and Qanja Mahal, 
and Kokn Singhy his ooosin^ whose father Sirdar Amar Singh had £allen 
in Hsaara, one oS the same value at Kot Bhai and Syadpur. Amar Singh, 
the fitther of Knhn Simgi, was a very distinguished soldier. He was 
known aa Amar Singh, Kalam (great), while the father of Sirdar Mehlah 
Simgh, Majithia, was known as Amar Singh, Khurd (small). 

When D wan Ram Dyal was killed in Hazara, Amar Singh^ Kalan^ 
was appointed governor of that country. At first he held it in tolerable 
quiet ; but finally quarrelled with Muhammad Khan, Tarin, a chief of note^ 
and at Taraghar gave a severe defeat to the tribes Dhund, Tarin, Tanol 
and Karral, who had taken up aims in his favour. The battle was over ; 
the enemy had taken to flighti and the Sikh force had retired from the 
fieldj when Amar Singh, thirsty and fatigued^ went down to the little 
stream Samandar to bathe and drink. He had only a few horsemen 
with him, and a number of the enemy returning and seeing the *weak- 
nest of the little party, came down, and killed Amar Singh and his fol- 
lowers, after a desperate defence. For a month the body of the Sirdar 
WM left on the ground where he fell ; but at last the Sikhs recovered it, 
and it was burnt with due honours. 

To this day in Yusafsai the name of Amar Singh is well remembered, 
and the people still show a large tree, pierced through and through with 
ao arrow, which they say was shot from the bow af Amar Singh. 



M ■itroBT Of rai 



Aitmr Sim^i was aoine time afbr sUowed to hate the management of 
the old fa-nilj Ilaka of Dhaiini, though not to hold it in jagir. He was 
killed in Haaara in 1S43, and his only son S^nU Siitffi aucoeeded him* 
This jToan; man was stationed at Peshawar with his aowarsi and dnring 
the first Fmjab war in 1S15-46 had to keep order abont Naoehera which 
was in a rery unsettled state. When Raja Lai Singh was minister, he 
tried to induce Smral Sim^i to exchange his jagir in Jhelam for one iti 
the Ban IXnb, and when the Sirdar woald not consent, he sent his 
brother Amir Chand to seiae, by fbroe, the jagir and the fort ofSjrad 
Kaisra. Smrai Simgi resisted this violence, bat he would have been ofor* 
powered had^not Lil Singh*^ Kashmir intrigues worked his downfal, 
at the close ofl&M. As it was a lar;^ portion of his jagirs were 
resumed, bat were restored early in 1847. When the rebellion of 1848 
broke oaty Siidar Kakm Siit^i was at Peshawar, where he was in com- 
mand of the Orderly regiment He remained failhfnl to the last, more 
from timidity than fiooi loyalty, and, when the n>shawar troops mutinied, 
did his best to induce them to return to their duty. But when Sirdar 
Chattar Singh, Attariwala, arrired at Peshawar, Kakn SingA joined 
him, though unwillirigly, and served with the rebel army till the end of 
the campaign. 

But Sinlar Surai Siit^i in no war shared his counn's misgivings or 
fears. IIo joined the rebellion from the first, and indeed was one of its 
exciters. It seems that so early as July, 1S47, he had talked treason 
with Sirdar Chattar Singh, igad when he was summoned from Peshawar, 
in July 184S, to join Raja Sher Singh, with 500 horse, he had another 
nit>oting on the road with Chattar Singh, and brought to Raja Sher 
Singh his father's injunctions to rebel. The defection of Raja Sher 
Singh apjH^ars to have been in a great measure owing to Sur<U 8ingV9 
evil inlluonoo. The evidence of Sheikh Imamuddin Khan is to thfe 
olToot ilmt at the meeting of Raja Sher Singh's officers at Multan, on the 
night of the I4lh Si*pt*mber, Raja Sher Singh tried to persuade his men 
to ronmin faithful, hut that Snrai Singk harangued the soldiery, and by 



fAkjab CHitM. 95 

his ftfi^mente to inflamed their pasuoos that the Raja could only Beenre 
his safety by adopting the popular side and going over to Mulraj. When 
Sher Singh left Multan^ Surat Singh was placed in command of one 
dtvitton of his army ; 2,000 men and two guns. On the march to JalaU 
pnr in the Oujranwala districf, this detachment committed many 
excesses. At Churiiot, especially, where the population is Muhammadan 
and at Jhang, the mosques were defiled, and many of the inhabitants 
riumeftdly treated. Surat Singh also plundered two lakhs of Govern- 
ment money on its way to Multan. After the battle of Gujrat retribution 
came. The jagirs of Surat Singh, worth 22,500 Bs. were confiscated, and 
hd WM removed to Benares, where he remained, under surveillance, on 
a pension of 720 Rs. per annum. 

Kahn SingVa conduct was regarded with some pity. He had tried to 
remain faithful, but had not at last strength to resist the persuasions 
and example of others, but his criminality did not approach that of 
SHrai Singh. His jagirs were confiscated^ to the value of 40,000 Rs., but 
he was allowed a pension of 3.600 Rs. per annum, which he enjoyed till 
his death, in 1853. 

When Kahn Singh lost his jagirs, he was the owner of two elephants, 
which had been used on all gccasions of state. But the Sirdar consider* 
ed that both he and his elephants could not live, in idleness, upon his 
pension, and determined to make them of use. He accordingly had a 
frame work constructed, to the under side of which some twenty ploughs 
were fastened, in a long line. To this he yoked his elephants, and the 
sagacious animals ploughed the Majitha fields, as if they had been born 
to the work ; and people used to come from all quarters to see the 
wonderful sight. He also had a very large well and Persian wheel 
constructed, and made the elephants irrigate the fields which they had 
ploughed. 

The mutiny of 1857 found Sirdar Sural Singh still in exile, at 
Benares. Adversity had taught him wisdom, and he was now as warm 
in his loyalty as he had before been active in rebellion. 



96 JHSTOBl^OF TO8 

On the 4tli Jon^ 1857^ the 87th N. I. were broken np at Bennree, and 
Homci si^^pioiooA moYement \mng obeer?ed in a oorpaof Lndianah 
9ikH present on the gronn4> the gnna whkh wexe being served againat 
the S7th, were turac4 against the Sikhs. The whole affiur seems to haTt» 
been a miserable miatakey and there is no reasoa to believe that the corps 
was any thing hut loyal; but it were not prepared for so severe a test of ita 
lojralty ; and accordingly charged the gnns, bnt was repulsed with great 
loss and driven from the field. It happened that the Benarea treaaorj, 
which contained several lakhs of rupees and the jewels of the Jlaharani 
Jindan, valued at twenty lakhs, waa guarded by a detachment of the 
Sikh regiment which had been eutup. Hard by the treasury waa the 
Collector's court, a strong masonry buildinflr, on the roof of whioli some 
twelve civilians had taken their stand, to defend the treasure and their 
own lives in the event of an outbreak^ When the Sikh guard heard of 
the fate of their oomrades, their agitation and rage was extreme, and they 
would certainly have mutinied, seized the treasure, and attacked the 
Europeans, had not Sirdar Sural Singh gone in among them, and by his 
personal influence and expostulations kept them to a sense of thw duty. 
Through that long June night, the Sirdar, ably seconded by Pandit 
Gokal Chand, argued and entreated, till towards morning, the little 
party were escorted to the mint by a European force. At Jaunpur, an- 
other detachment of the Ludianah regiment was stationed. When these 
men heard of the destruction of their regiment, they rose in fury, shot 
their Commanding officer, murdered the Joint Maigstrate, and marched 
to Lucknow with the treasure. But for the gallantry and loyalty of 
Surai Singi, the same tragedy might have taken place at Benares. Some 
time later, the Sirdar commanded the force sent to bring in the Sultan- 
pur fugitives, and on several other occasions showed conspicuous gallantry 
in the field. 

On the 6th July, when engaged with a body of Rajputs, who had 
attacked Benares, he was severely wounded by a sabre cut on the thigh, 
which confined him to bis bed for some months, and from the effeeta of 
which he is still lame. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 



97 



For his senrices during 1857| the Sapreme Government granted 
Sirdar Surai Singh a pension of 4,800 Rs. per annunii and a valuable 
jagir, in perpetuity, at Dumri, in the Oorakhpur district, N. W. Provinoes. 
He also rsDiivvd peraiBiioQ to retpen Id the Fhi^ab. la I80t> he came 
baek to his old home, at Blajitha, where he now generally resides. 



) '.;. 



SIRDAR MEHTAB SINGH, MAJITHIA- 

Mavha 8iiiob« 
D. 180S. 

DaiioiidA Biogh. Jigji 8iii|^ Sirdar Anuir Singh* 

D. 1806. i>. 1848. 

1 r 

mrdarMJuahmmffk, S. Gardit Mith Singh. Kshn Singh. Hardit Singh. 

L If. D. of Bhi« S. fila Chmida. Singh. ]>. 1887. b. 1898. m 1888. 

il ic D. of Oghar S. Lohianwala. d. 1853. 
UL IL D. of Oolab S. Bhangi* 
s. 1811. 



Bafhattg Biija Singh. Biahan Singh« Partab Singh. Bhop Singh. 
Singh. B. 1844. B. 1858. b. 1855. m 1898. 

B.1858. 

NltTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Manna Singh was « follower of Sirdar Charrat Singh, Sakarchakia, 
grandfather of Maharaja Baiqit Singh. He fought with hia lord against 
the Chattahs, and received a aer? ice jagir o^ 4,000 Rs. Under Sirdar 
Mahan Singh he also servedi and received the jagir of Jadah, iu the 
Jhelam district When Raajit Singh took Lahore in 1799^ Manna Singi 
was an old mani bat he was still active, and fought in the campaign of 
1802. He was killed in that year^ before the fort of Chnniot, which 
Kanjit Singh was endeatonring to capture from Jassa Singh, Bhangi. 
Dassonda Singh, the eldest son, had died in his Other's life-time^ and 
the whole jagir was resumed. 

As soon as Amor Singh was old enough to bear arms, the Maharaja 
gave him the villages of Thallanwala and Sheikhopur, worth 1,500 Rs., and 
placed him in the Derah Khas, a regiment of irregular cavalry compoeed 



HISTOKT Of THE PAKJAlft CHIEPS. §9 

of the sons of the Sikh nobility. At the siege of Multan, in 1818, the 
young Amor Singh displayed great gliUantry, and for hid services in 
this campaign received the Uaka of Majrah. The next year, after the 
Kashmir campaign; he obtained a grant of Jadah, which had beenr 
held by his father, Manna Singh. Be was sent to rednce the Rokhri 
insurgents in the Shahpnr district, who had refused to pay the revenue, 
and his expedition was quite successful. In 1884, he accompanied the 
army under Prince Nao Nihai Singh, and Sirdar Hari Singh, Nalwa, 
to Peshawar, when that province was formally annexed to the Sikh em* 
pire. He was employed, in this campaign, on outpost duty, and many H 
severe fight he had with the Afghans. At Shabkadr he was wounded by a 
musket ball in a night attack made by the Afghans, in force, (mt although 
taken by surprise he rallied his men and drove back the enemy. 

At the battle of Jamrud, on th^ 30th April, 18S7, Sirdar Amar Singh 
commanded the centre ' miyana ' of the Sikh army, consisting of the 
Maharaja's Orderly troops, called the Jamadarwala Derab, and a thousand 
irregular cavalry, and distinguished hiknself by his conspicuous bravery ; 
but the Afghans were very numefous^-and the Sikh army was defeated 
with the loss of the General. The last expedition of Sirdar Amar Singh 
was, in 1843. in Kachhi, where an insurrection had broken out, which he 
quickly suppressed. He did not serve ip the Satlej • campaign^ and on 
its close, being a celebrated, marksman, was chosen to. instruct the young 
Maharaja Dalip Singh, in shooting, Th^ n«t,y?|tr he left the Pangab 
on a pilgrimage to Hard war, wliere he soon after died. . 

Mehtab 3»fi^A WoStbom in the year 1811, and when quite a boy was 
placed in the irregular cavalry as Subahdar. . ln.:1831, just before the 
visit of the Maharaja, to Rupar, he waa made a Golonel,^ and stationed 
at Amritsar in charge' of two regiments. In 1834, he accompanied his 
father Anuur Singh to Peshawar, and served, with distinction, throughout' 
the campaign. In the slune year his second brother Ourdit Singh enter- 
ed the Maharaja's aertrice. In 1839, Mehiab Singh served under Sirdar 
Tej Singh in the Afridi expedition. He was made a General by Maharaja 



lOe ufWEt 09 tn 

SUier Sii|gii» m 1841, and was tteti^med «t Pethawv; ia i»fliiB«idl dt 
4 butuBwp, wd 28gmMb wilh ma Akal regiment, Hi> eonfacttotheBei^ 
tWi^fMiee^vkich wiivad ftt Peebawv^ aerly in 1842, m &• 
Kabidespejiltion* witm<MKtaiifiriandly andharti^ After ^; 
tiM of Mdhnn«a Slier Siagli and Rijt Dhyai^ Siagls the Gcnmli v1mi> 
had retamed toIjJiore^ gaye hie assietance to Bija Hum Sbighy 
the yiodhanwaltas, and^ after tifae .leetoiadaa o£ paaee, hi 
rememibered with gretitiftdia hy Hirm Singh, wfaa bealcivnl npon hiaa 
valaable prannta. Thia did not^ hofftrer, pfamot Mekimk Sti^k fivm 
tnming against the Miniater whanhoheeaaeonpopnlai:. HnwaapriT^to 
the oonapimj j^akiat the Uvea of Raga Bin Singh mnd hndit Jai^ 
Ine vereaoMng the teoepe who pntened and pot ttea to death, 
ed with him in thia eonapiFaej was Oieral itmm Sim§k Migithii^ ^ 
leal name was Saltan Singh, n diafcant leUlive of Jfeilei iSuyt^ and an 
i^iplacaUe enemy of the Waib. 

The oondnet of Meimk Su^ in thns pbitthg thn datmetiaB of a 
man for whom he pioleeeed devoted friendehip, does not eeem amiable ; 
hot his motifoa were perfeedy elenr. He, mth the amy anCtlle whole 
Sikh nation, was wemy of the rale of the armgant and dehaneheJ yooth 
lAo owned all the Dogra vioea, witboat their ability, their etrengthi or 
their ooonge. The iaflnenoe of Pandit JaUa was still more ofions ; and 
aa Hire Slo^ wonld not give him op. il was neeeenry that they should 
fidl together. There were beaideeprivategronnda of hatred. Sirdhr iteor 
Singkj father of MeMimt Simfi^ had, in the Kachhi expedition, given aome 
four or five thonsanl rnpeea to his soldiers, who had bdiavedadmiimUy, 
enpedaog to he retmbnteedby the Chyvernment ; but Pandit MOm, koow^ 
ii|g that when the tnaenry waefidl, there waemoin for him to plan- 
der, mfascd to repay any portion of the sum, wUeh eo disgnsted Awuar 
Simgk that he lesigoed the eerviee. Again, MkkM Smgk had himself 
been tndced by Bim Singh in the aSur of Bahn Bir Sbgh the great SiUl* 
Gnra. By soft words^ and presenlaand piomiaes, he had been indaced to 
Icpd his troops aeMnstSiidar Attar Singh| Sindhnnwalia ; bytreaohefy 



PANJAB CHIEFS. Ml 

ma action had been forced on, and, at its close, the holy Baba was found 
dying on the groaud, and MehtoA Singh could not but feel himself, in Bosie 
measure, the cause of his death. But even if his own conscience was 
clear, he did not escape the reproaches of the Sikh army and people, and 
kis brigade, with that of General Court, commanded by Gulab Singh, 
Galcuttia, and the Derah Oharyari commanded by Jowahir Mai Datt^ 
was long known by the name of Gurumar (slayers 0f the Guru)* 

Mehtab Singh served throughout the Satlej campaign. Be^ like 
many others of the Sikhs, thought only of victory, and promised the 
Treasury moonshis to bring them silver pen-holders from the spoil of 
D^lhi. 

After the campaign, he was made a Sirdar by Baja Lai Singh, and 
both he and his brother Ourdil Singh, who had risen to the rank of Gene- 
ral, were stationed at Peshawar ; but in May, 1847, he was transferred to 
Find Dadau Khan. He was, at this time, no favourite in the Darbar, and 
there was but one man, Sirdar Sher Singh, Attariwala, who had a word 
to say in bis favour ; but the inflaence of Major Lawrence the Resident 
prevented his dismissal. When the rebellion broke out, in 1848, in the 
North of the Paiijab, Sirdar Mehtah Singh was stationed at Bawal Findi| 
with 500 horse, under Major Nicholson. His conduct was spoken of in 
the highest terms by that officer. His troops with his brother Mith Singh 
remained faithful to the Lahore Government, throughout the war, and 
fought on the side of the British at the battle of Gnjrat. On the annex- 
ation of the Panjab) all the personal jagirs of the Sirdar, amounting to 
9,485 Vis.^ were released for two lives, and, in 1862, one half of this jagir 
was maintained to his lineal descendant, in perpetuity* 

In 1857, Sirdar Mehtab Singh raised some horsemen for service in 
Hindostan, where they were sent under the command of his nephew 
BBohaltar Singh. This force served with credit in Oade, and was en- 
gaged several times with the mutineers. Buchattar Singh died of cholera. 



102 HISTORY OF THB PANJAB CHIEFS. 

at Cairiipnr in 1838. His bvotber Bijja Singh succeeded him in the force 
asJamadar. 

General Ourdii Singh died in 1833^ without issue. 

Miii Singh^ who was a Colonel in the Sikh array in 1844> died in 
1857* Kah% Singh and iTarcii^ ^^'^^A are both living an4 enjoy jagirs 
of 1,740 tta. and 720 JEU», reapectiTely. The former succeeded bis failiei in 
command of the contingent, in 1843, and the latter was General of Maha- 
raja Dalip Singh's juvenile force. 

Sirdar Mehtah Singh resides at Majitha ; but he has houses both at 
Lahore and Amritsar, at which latter place, he was, in 1862, created an 
Honorary Magistrate. He is a great sportsman, and spends a large part 
of bia time at Kapurtballa^ with the Alhawalia Raja, with whom he is 
very intimate. 






SIRDAB LAL SINGH, KALIANWALA- 

SaLABI. JaIMAL SllCQU. 

I I 

S&liib Singh. Jasia Singh. Jai Singh. 

Hnkuouit Siogb. Sirdar Fatah Singh, Kalianwala. 

I D. 1807. 

I I 

Koar Singh. Saddan. 

H. Sirdar Ranjit Singh, Sowrianwala. 

I 
Sirdar Isar Singh, Sowrianwala. 

I I 

Sirdar Dal Singh, Nahama. Icbhar Siagh. B. Icbhar 

D. 1823. Devi. 

I 

i i ' • i 

Sirdar Attar ChatUr Singh. Joalt Singh, Chet Bam Singh, 

Singh. D. 1845. died yoDng. Singh. died joang. 

D. 1851. 

Sirdar Lai Singli. 
B. 1822. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Sirdar Lul Singh docs not belong to the old Kalianwala stock, nor 
is lie related to the great Sirdar Fatah a^iVi^^, through whom the present 
family attained wealth and honours. The story of Fatah. Singh's family 
must be briefly told. Jaimul Singh, grandfather of Sirdar -Kz^aA S'ingh, was 
a Sindhu Jat, and the first of his family to adopt the Sikh faith. He was a 
resident of Kali Lakhu, near Amritsar. He was a follower of the Sukar- 
chakia chiefs, Charrat Singh and Mahan Singh, and with them was en- 
i;aged in constant quarrels with the Chattah tribe^ inhabiting the northern 
part of the Gujranwala district, and in one skirmish with some Chattah 
marauders, both his sons, Jai Singh and Jassa Singhj were slain. Fatah 
JMn^ entered the service of Sanjit Singh about 1798> and very rapidly 
rose in the fiavour of his master. He was a bravo and skilful: soldier, and: 



104 HISTORY OF THE 

proved himself as such in almost every campaiga undertaken by the Ma- 
hafttja till 1807. He fought against Ghulam Muhammad Khan, Chattah, 
against Jodh Singh of Wazirabad^ and Nidhan Singh^ Attu. He was 
with the Maharsya when he captured the city of Lahore, and when he 
took Amritsar from the Bhangis and the Ramgharias with the aid of the 
Alhuwalia and Kanheya Sirdars. Ho fought in the Jhang and the Pindi- 
Bhattian campaigns, and it was in a great measure owing to his advice, 
that Banjit Singh did not espouse the cause of Rai Jaswant Rao Holkar 
against the British Government in 1805. Much assisted by Fatah Singh's 
good offices, peace was concluded between the English and Holkar, who 
gave to the Sirdar many valuable gifts in recognition of his services. 
Fatah Singh distinguished himself at the capture of Chuniot/ from Jassa 
Singh Bhangi, and when Jhang was taken, in 1806, from Ahmad Khan, 
Sial, the district was leased to FaUih Singh for 60,000 rupees per an- 
num. Ahmad Ehan, however, soon after made a compromise with Fatah 
Singhy who returned to Lahore. 

Towards the close of 1806, the Sirdar was sent against Kassur, where 
Kutbuddin Khan was giving trouble. The Pathan chief held out brave- 
ly, but was glad to buy oflF the Sikh by the payment of a lakh of rupees. 
At the beginning of 1807, a Sikh army, under Ranjit Singh in person, 
again marched against Kassur, and after a long fight reduced it. Faiak 
Singh promised to Kutbuddin the quiet possession of his estate at Mam- 
dot, if he would give up the Kassur fort ; and although Ranjit Singh 
did not approve of the promise, yet he considered himself bound to con- 
firm it. 

Beneath the banner of Falah Singl, many of the chief Sikh barons 
were proud to fight. Among others was Amir Singh, Sindhanwalia, 
Dal Singhf Naharnah, Dhannah Singh, Malwai, Fatah Singh, Mattu, 
and Uttam Singh, Chhachhi. 

In 1807, Ranjit Singh, returning from Pattiala, besieged the fort of 
Narayanghar, held by Sirdar Kishan Singh, For fifteen days it held out. 



PANIAB CBXm. ' 105 

and die MMimi^ became veiy impatient afc the dday/ and tdUL JPo/ai 
SKmgk^ who was in immediate command^ that he waa fonder of remaining 
by him (the Maharaja) than of leading the troops in the field. Fatah 
Bmgk piqued at this, aaaanlted the fort ; bnt waa rqpulBed, and mortally 
wonnded. Kanjit Singh came to visit him in his tent, and Fakth Singh is 
said to have advised the Maharaja never to rai^e another Jat to the 
highest offices in the state. Whether such advice was ever given is 
donbtliil| but the Maharaja appeared to act upon some such principle for, 
while his bravest officers and generals were Jat Sikhs, in the council 
he rather gave his confidence to Brahmans, Bajputs, and even Muham- 



Faiah Simgh left no sooi and Banjit Singh might have resumed all 
his jagirs; but feeling some r^norse for the Sirdar'a death, he sent 
Ifith Singh| Padhania, on his arrival at Amritsar,'with a valuable khillat, 
to liid Sewan the widow ; and bid him tell her that any one whom she 
should nominate as her husband's heir and successor would be recognised. 
There were several Chiefs well loved by Fatak Singhy and none more so 
than Dhanna Singh, Malwai, and I)al Singi, Nahama. The latter was 
his ' potrela ' (godson) and a great favourite. But for the sucoessbn to 
Fatah Singh's estates, Dal Singi is said neither to have trusted to for- 
tune or to favour. On the night of Mith Singh^s arrival at Kali, Dal 
Bimgh paid him a private visit, and for S^OOO Bs. Mith Singh told Mai 
Se?ran, that, although she might nominate whom she pleased| Banjit 
Singh would be only pleased with Dal Singh, and he was accordingly 
selected. 

Notwithstanding the generosity of Banjit Singh on this occasion, 
ibece were- not wanting many who aaid that the jagirs had been given to 
Dal Singh as a thank-o£fering for the death of Fatah Singh ; that Banjit 
8iiq;h had long feared the Chief, and that be dared him to assault Nara- 
TanghaVy thrdugh an impracticable breach, in the hope of his death. On one 
oocaaioD, at Wasirabad, Banjit ISingh had told Fatah Smgh to draw his 



lOd HISTORY OW tHB 

forces on one side that bo might seo how humerons they were. When 
the order was girdti, the whole army went o^er to the great KalianwaU 
Chiefs and Banjic Singh, to his rage and chagrin, found himself almost 
deserted. He never forgot the incidentj or forgave the Chief who bad 
too much influence with the army. 

Dal SinghNahamafs family originally resided at Karial, in Sheiko- 
purahi and is of the Naharna or barber (or, more properly nail-cutter) caste. 
It is stated that an ancestor, a Wirk J at fell in love and eloped with one 
Rami, the daughter of Duni Chand of the Jandi Naharna tribe, and 
that the name Naharna has been ever since attached to the family ; but 
this is a fiction, and has only been invented since the family rose to 
importance. Dal Singh was not of Jat descent. Sahib 8Uigh^ Naharna, 
was the associate, of Bhagwan Singh, and became known as a bold and sue- 
cessfol robber. When Charrat Singh became powerful, both Sakii Singh 
and Bhagwan Singh joined him ; and when he had conquered the country 
about Find Dadan Khan, Bhagwan Singh claimed a third share. This 
Charrat Singh did not fancy giving, and believing that he could trust 
Sahib Sijigh he resolved to get rid of his troublesome ally. Soon after 
the three men went on a hunting ezpeditioO| and a wild boar happeningi 
to run past, Charrat Singh cried aloud, *^ Don't let the beast escape." Sahib 
Singh^ who well understood the meaning of these words, shot Bhagwan 
Singh dead. For this service he was rewarded with a jagir. Both his son, 
Hukumat Singh^ and his grandson, Kour Singh, were in the service of the 
Sukarohakia Chiefs, but they were not men of any note. 

Sirdar Dal Singh was a bold and able man, and was a great favourite 
with Sirdar Fatah Singh, Kaliauwalla, under \vhose orders he used to 
fight. At the time of Fatah Singh's death Dal Singh had a jagir of 
about 68,000 Bs., but when the Kalianwala jagirs, with the exception of 
70,000 Rs., settled on Mai Sewan and the children of FaUh Singh's 
daughter, were made over to him, his estates were worth about 8,50,000 
Bs. Most of the Sirdars who had fought under Fatah Singh, .now were^ 
led by Dal Singh ; and the barber showed himself as brava in battle as 



PAR/AB CHIEFS. 107 

tiie best of the Jat aristocracy. He serveil with honour in the Kasanri 
Maltan, Kashmir and Derah Ismail Khan campaigns. 

In 1814| he was sent, with Earn Dyal, grandson of Diwan Mokham 
Chand} in command of a detachment of ten thousand men, to force their 
way into Kashmir, by way of Nandan Sar, while Sanjit Singh' himself 
proceeded by way of Punch. This detachment was surrounded and out- 
nnmberedj and it was only on account of the friendship entertained 
for Diwan Mokham Chand, by Azim Khan, that he was allowed to 
retnm unmolested. In the spring of 1815, again in company with 
Bam Dyal, he ravaged the Multan and Bhawalpur territories, exacting 
fines and contributions from every town ; and, later in the year, he was 
sent against the Bhimbar and Rajaori Chiefs. He reduced them to sub* 
nussion, and burnt a large portion of the city of Uajaor. He died in 
1823, aooording to his familyi of cholera ; but the commonly received 
alDiy is that he took poison, after having been severely rdl)uked by the 
Kaharaja for the inefficient state of his contingent. He was sncceeded 
in^his jagir by his eldest son Aitar Singh. 

In 1834, AUar Singh was sent to Peshawar, under the command of 
Prinee Nao Nihal Singh. While there, Diwan Hakim Bai, who was the 
chamberlain of the Prince and a great favourite, induced some of the 
Sirdars who had been accustomed to fight under the command of AUar 
Smgh^ to go over to him, with their troops. On this Attar Singh left 
the army, without leave, and came to Lahore to complain to the Maharaja. 
He was not well received, and was ordered to rejoin the army, then in 
BannUy without delay. Attar Singh refused ; and the Maharaja confis- 
eatad all his jagirs^ with the exception of the family estate of Kalah, 
worth 3,500 Rs., and Hamidpur, 750 Bs. 

nmsit remained till the death of Ranjit Singh* His successor 
thnnk Sing^ restored 12,750 Bs., free of services, and ALaharaja Sher 
Singh, OQ the return of Attar Singh from the Ganges, where he had con- 
Tvycd the ashes of Maharaja Kharrak Singh, and Prince Nao Nihal 



108 HI8T0ET OV THB 

Singh, gave him, at Pindi Gheb aod Mirowal, jagin valoed at 1,02,000 
Ss., this was snbject.to the service of two htuidfed horse, and included 
a grant of 2,000 Bs. to his son Lai Singi. Altar Singi was made Adalati 
(chief justice) of Lahore and the snironnding districts, and received 
command of the Findiwala irregalar cavalry which had been first raised 
by Milka Singh, Pindiwala. No change took place in his jagir till 
Jowahir Singh became Wazir, when Atlar Bingh represented that Pindi 
Gheb, though nominally worth 65,000 Bs., only yielded 50,000 Bs., and 
obtained^ in exchange, the Xlakas of Chunian, Dhundianwali, and 
Khudian, worth 60,000 Bs. 

After the murder of Prince Peshora Singh by Jowahir Singh's or- 
. ders, the army, enraged at the conduct of the Wazir, determined upon 
his death and threw off their allegiance to the Lahore Oovemment. 
Sirda AUar Singh was, on the 19th September, sent by the Bani 
Jindan, with Diwan Dina Nath and Fakir Nor-ud-din, to the camp 
at Mian Mir, to induce the mutinous troops to return to their duty. 
No attention was, however, paid to their advice ; the Takir was dis- 
missed, but the Diwan and AUar Singh were insulted, abused and 
confined in camp till after the murder of the Wazir, on the 22nd Septem- 
ber, when the army, always afiraid of the Bani, sent them to Lahore to 
try and make their peace. 

Sirdar Attar Singh served throughout the Satlej campaign of 
1845-46, and at the battle of Firushahr, his brother, Chattar Singh, 
was killed. 

In September, 1846, Attar Singh was ordered to join the Sikh' 
army proceeding to Kashmir to suppress the rebellion there, but he took 
no notice of repeated injunctions, remaining at his house, near Amritsar, 
on pretence of celebrating the marriage of his niece. For this conduct 
his jagir was confiscated. Shortly afterwards, however, it was restored 
to him, and made up to 1,11,800 Bs. He received a seat in the oooneil 



PAKJAB GH1EV8. 4Q9 

of Vegencji appointed ia* December, 1846, and held this post till tbe 
anhezation of the Paojab. 

On the first hews olF the bdtbreak at Mnltan, in April, 1848, he was 
ordered to proceed thither, ia command of all the available irreghia r troops. 
He was recalled, with the other Sirdars, when the Essident at Lahore 
found that it was considered inexpedient to send a European force to 
Moit^i at that time of year ; but later he accompanied Baja Sher Singh 
to Mnltaoi ia command of. the cavalry. 

The Sirdar had little influence over the troops whieh he commanded. 
He was of a weak and vacillating character, and although his own intentions 
were good, he was quite unable to keep his men to their duty. Day by day 
they grew more and more mutinous, and deserted in numbers to the rebel 
Mulny, in Multan. At lengt h it was agreed by the three Sikh generals Ba- 
ja Sher Singh, Sirdar Shamsher Singh, and Sirdar Attar Singh^ in concert 
with Major Edwardes, and with the concurrence of the English General, 
ihat the only thing to do was to move the troops out of temptation, away 
from Multan. Sirdar Attar Singh's division was to be posted at Tulambah, 
under pretence of keeping open the road ; but before the movement could 
be executed, the whole Sikh army rebelled, and being joined by Raja Sher 
Singh, marched to Multan. Sirdar Attar Singh mounted his horse and 
fled to the camp of Major Edwardes, with a few horsemen. His son, Lai 
Singh, was carried off by the troops, but soon afterwards contrived to make 
hi^ escape and joined Major Edwardes also. 

Ijil Singi had, in June, 1847, been sent, in command of 500 sowars, to 
Hassan Abdal, and had remained there till the 3rd of May, 1848, when 
he received an order to join the force of Raja Sher Singh, on its way to 
Multan. When Diwan Eishen Kour, Adalati of Battala, joined the rebels. 
Sirdar Xo/ Simgi was appointed to succeed bim and held the appoint- 
ment for aboat three months, till the close of the Sikh administration. 

On annexation, all the personal jagirs of Sirdar Attar Singij amount- 
ing to 47,750 Rs. were maintained for life ; one quarter to descend to his 



110 HIglORT OF THE PAKIAB CHII?S. 

BOA Zal Sinffk and \m mole hein, in perpetmty. The jagir of Sirdar Lml 
Singh, worth 3^600 Bs. bdng a recent grant of 1848j w^w verainad; Imt lie 
was assigned a cash allowance of 4^800 Bs. from the jagir of his &tlicr^ 
with whom he was at fend. 

Sirdar Attar Singh died in December, 1851, and three-fonrths of his 
jagir was resumed. The share of bis son Lai Singh was, in Febmaiy^ 
1862, raised to ISyOOt) Rs.^ which is continued in perpetiuty. Lml Singh 
is forty-two years of age, and resides at Ealah in the Amritsnr cBstrict. 
He has been fonr times pMrriedj but has no children. 



All KAZA KHAN, KIZILBASH. 



Sirdar Nauroz Ali Khan« 

I 
Sirdar Ali Khan. 



Sirdar Gul Muhammad Hidajrat Sirdar Ali Muham^ 

Khan. Khan. mad Khan Sirdar. 

J 



Ali Akbar Khan. Ali Jan Khan. 



Muham- Mahamif- Haji Ali JELasa Muhani. MultMN 

mad Hassain mad Hassain Muhammad Khan. mad Baza mad Takki 

Khan* Khan. Khan. 



I 



Khan. Khan. 



1 



Nawaziflh Ali Nasir Afi I^Taaar Ali 
Khaa. Khan. Kiban. 

Fatah Ali Khan. 
NISTORY OF TW FAMILY. 

Sirdar Ali Kkan, the grandfiAthar of Mi Saaa XJUm, was the fix9t te 
leave the province of Sherwan^ on the west coaet of the Caspian (now 
part of the Russian territories) wherQ, Cor many generadeos^ his fiunilyi 
Turks of the Kizilbash tribe, liad resided and exereiaed authority. When 
Nadir Shah| having driven out the 6hi\]is and taken possession of 
KhorasaQi prepared to march to India, in 1738/ he took with him Ali 
KAan, and other KL^ilbash nobles, who, he feared, in his absence, might 
excite disturbances. 

AU Khan served throughout the oao^paign, and on his return from 
India, he was appointed, by Nadir Shah, Governor of Kandahar, and other 
Kizilbash Nobles received commands 4n Kabul and Peshawar, mucb 



112 HISTORY 0? THB 

to the advantage of the kingdom of Fenia, which, freed from these 
turbulent Chiefs, enjoyed peace for eight years, till the assassination of 
Nadir Shah, ^Hd the. rise tQ power of Ahmad ^Shah, purani. The new 
Prince was crowned at Kandahar, in 1747, and, although he thoroughly dis« 
trusted the Kizilbash faction, yet he was not strong enough to oppose it^ 
and was compelled to give, to its principal Chiefs, jagirs and military 
commands. 

Ali Khan obtained the district of Hazarah North of Kandahar, 
and with a strong force reduced the country around, to the neighbour<» 
hood of Flirat itself. He accompanied Ahmad Shah on his last invasion 
of India, in 1760, and shared in the great victory of Panipat, which broke 
the Mahratta power. The bravery and influence' of Ali Khan during 
•this campaign excited the jealousy of Ahmad Shah, who, on his return 
to Afghanistan, tidied to deprive him of his estates and command \ but 
Ali Khan held his own sucoessfully against open force, and Ahmad 
Shah was at lengthr compelled to bribe some of hia attendants who assas^ 
sinated him, in 1770. The. eldest of the sons, Gul Muhammad Kkan, was 
but six years of age at his father's death, and the district fell into great 
confusion. The widow of ^/i iTAan contrived to maintain her authority 
for some years, but at. last the. district, was divided into several in- 
dependent and hostile Chiefships, only united in their hatred of Timur 
Shah, who had succeeded Ahmad Shah on the throne of Kabul. When 
the sons of Alt Khan grew up, they recovered, by force of arms, a large 
portion of their family estate, and Timur Shah, thinking it well to con- 
ciliate them, summoned Gul Muhammad Khan to Kandahar, where he 
received him with honor and conferred on him the title of Sirdar. 

Sadayat Khan, father of AU Rata Khan, accompanied Shah Zaman 
to Lahore, in 1797, where he remained for some months. On his 
return to Kabul he exchanged estates with Asad Khan, brother of 
Amir Dost Muhammad Khan. In 1813, Ali Muhammad Khan, the 
youngest brother, with 4,000 troops, accompanied Wazir Fatah Khan 
-and his brother Muhammad Azim Khan in their successful expedition 



PAVJAB OHIBTS. 113 

mgainit Kashmir, and received there a high military eommaiid whidh 
he held for i^bout eight yearSj when, returning to Slabul be, obtained 
joint possession^ with Hidagai Khan^ of the family estate, and died in 
1835^ leaving two sons, ilft Ahhar Khati and AliJan Khan. The elder 
son soon after died, and AH Jan Khan succeeded to his father's share 
of the estate^ which he still holds in Kabul. 

Hidayat Khan died in 1836, leaving six sons, of whom the eldest Jfu- 
hafnmad Hassan Khan served under the order of Wazir Fatah Muhammad 
Khan^ at Hirat-khan, and when his master's eyes had been put out by Prince 
Kamran^he escorted Khandal Khan and 8herdil Khan to Kandahar^ 
where he remained for some years, and later went with his uncleto Kashmir. 
On his return to Kabul he resided with his brother Ali Sata Khan, 
and did good service to the British Government during the AfghAui^taii 
campaign. Muhammid Hoisain Khan, the second brotheri was in gte«t 
favour with Muhammad Azim Khan, and held a high appointment under 
him in Kashmir. After Azim Khan's death, Hassain iiTiian returned to 
Kabul, and took service with Dost Muhammad Khan. In 1844 he went ou 
pilgrimage to the holy places in Arabia, where he lived for . some years. 
He is now living in Kabul. The tiiird brother is Haji Muhammad Khan^ 
who was Minister of Habib- ullah-Khan the Uuler of Kabul, between the 
death of Azim Khan and the accession of Dost Muhammad. On the ac- 
cession of that Prince he retired to Mecca^ and on his return took up his 
abode with Ali Raza Khan^ with whom he still resides. 

Ali Raza Khan had always lived on his hereditary estate^ which was 
of the description called in Afghanistan, ^ Zar-kharid^ hereditary, but sub* 
ject to military service. When the British Army, with Shah Shnja, first 
entered Kabul in 1839, Ali Rata Khan, b^ing possessed of great influ- 
ence in the city, was appointed Chief Agent of the Commissariat Depart- 
ment. His conduct in this office was unexceptionable, and he never failed 
in any engagement to supply grain or carriage. When the British Can- 
tonment was besieged by the insurgents, he remained firm to English 
interests, and kept the troops supplied with food and clothing. When 



114 mnoKT Of thb 

the Britiah Qflioen and Ladies were taken priaonera. Mi Raia Am made 
ihe gieateat ezertiona to alleviate their safferiags and obtain their libera- 
tion. He paid to their keeper Mohammad Shah Khan, Ghilaai, fife 
hondiedmpeea a month, betides bribing the subordinate oflfeera, to in« 
dnoe them to treat the prisoners well, and to allow his servants to con- 
vey to them dodies, money and provisions. Nor did his humanity end 
here. He ransomed and saved from slaveij nearly one handed Hindos- 
tani aepoys, and kept them aecretly in his own house till the second 
British Army entered Kabul. 

When Muhammad Akbar Khan had sent off the prisoners to 
Khulum by way of Hazarah and BarmiaUi AU Baza Khan, who possessed 
great hereditary influence in' that oountryi persuaded and bribed the 
Haaarah Chiefs not to allow the captives to be conveyed to the hillt| 
and he also sent his agent Murtaza Shah, with a large sum of money, to 
attempt to win over Salah Muhammad Khan, who was in command of 
the escort. It was by his inflaence, and by a lavish expenditure of his 
money, that the captives were enabled to make their escape and join the 
relieving army of General Pollock. When Akbar Khan advanced to 
attack that Gteneral, AH Baza KAan won over the Kizilbash Chiefs to the 
side of the British, and they accordingly deserted Akbar Khan before the 
battle, and after his defeat their hostility made him fear to return to Ka- 
bul, and accordingly he fled through the hill country to Turkistan. On 
theretreat of the British forces to India, AU Baza KAan accompanied 
them. His conduct had excited the bitter hatred of Muhammad Akbar 
Khan and the Barakzais, and his life was no longer safe in Kabul. 

His estates (worth three lakhs of rupees) were confiscated, his houses 
razed to the ground, and with their materials Akbar Khan built two 
houses for himself. 

Such is the dry detail of services the most disinterested, noble and 
chivalrous, performed by AU Baza Khan, At the greatest personal risk, 
with the loss of his wealth, position, and hereditary estates, AU Baza 



f AN JAB OHXBFi. 116 

Kian stood bravely and alone in defence of the side to wbich he had pro- 
mised allegiance. 

Bat he and his family have done good service to the English Goyem- 
ment, in India, as well as in Afghanistan. During the Satlej campaign 
be joined the British camp with bis brothers, and sixty horsemen of his 
tribe, many members of which had shared his exile, and fought in the 
battles of Mudki, Fimshahr and Sobraon, where four of his sowars were 
killed. He accompanied Major H. Lawrence to Eangra and Kashmir in 
1846, and during the rebellion of 1843-49 furnished one hundred horse- 
men under the command of his sister's son, 8ier MuAammady for actiye 
serrice. In June, 1857, when our need was greatest, AH Rata Khan 
Tolunteered to raise a troop of horse for service before Delhi. This he 
did, and his own presence being desired at Lahore, he sent them under 
the command of his brothers Muhammad Baza Kkan and Mulammad 
Takki Khan. In raising this force he did not, at a time when the 
Goyernment was in want of every procurable rupee, apply for any pe- 
cuniary assistance. At his own expense, and by the mortga^. of his 
house and property in Lahore, he equipped the troop and sent with 
it, besides his brotheri his nephews AbduUa Khan; Mnhammad Hastan 
Khan, Muhammad Zaman Khan^ Ohulam Hassan Khan, and 8her Muhawh' 
mad Khan. Forming part of the celebrated '^ Hodson's Horse'' the troop 
raised by Alt Raaa Khan served throughout the campaign, wherever that 
gallant corps was sent, and its gallantry was ever conspicuous. 

At Khaspiganj Muhammad TaJcH Khan was slain, fighting bravely, 
after several mutineers had fallen by his hand. Muhammad Raza Kham^ 
the second brother of All Raza Khan^ was among the bravest in his fearless 
regiment. He was twice wounded at Mallu and Shamsabad, and had 
two horses shot under him; and in every place where blows were 
thickest, there was the gallant Muhammad Rasa Khan to be found. After 
the campaign he received the first-class Order of Merit, the title of Sirdar 
Bahadoor, and the grant of his pension of 200 Bs. in perpetuity. Ht 
died at Lucknow, whither he had gone on leave shortly afterwards, and 
his son Raza Alt Khan is now living with his uncle at Lahore. 



lis BiavoiT or m 

AK BoMm KhoM is an Hononirj Hagittrale of Lahore, and justly 
possettes great influence in the city ; influence which he baa always used 
for good. After his retirement from Kabul he received a pension of 800 Rs. 
per mensem, and his brother Mukammad Raia Kkan 200 Rs. per mensepu 
After the mutinies he received a gra^t of a Talukdari of 147 villages in 
Beraich^ m Oude, worth 15^000 Be. per annum. He has also received the 
title of Khan Bubadar, and his nephews above mentioned^ who served so 
well during the mutinies^ the title of Sirdar Buhadar. 

Ali Rata Kkan has three sons« the eldest of whom, Nowazuh AH KAan, 
was with Major G. Lawrence, at Peshawar^ when the Sikh troops muti- 
nied, in 1848. He remained with that officer to the last, and his fidelity 
eopt him his house and property at Peshawar. The third son, Nasar Ali 
Kkan^ is in charge of the Oude estate. He has tliere been created an 
Honorary Assistant Commissioner, and his conduet has given complete 
satisfaction to the authorities. 

Thus for five-and-twenty years Ali Baza Khan and his family have 
served the British Government with a devotion which has been as perfect 
as it has been disinterested. He was not by birth a British subject, but 
it would be difficult, throughout Hindostan, to find a family, however 
bound to the English Government by gratitude or duty, which has, for its 
sake, risked so nobly and disinterestedly, life and every thing that can make 
life desirable. As long as the Kabul campaign, with the greatest disaster 
that ever befel the British ^rms, is remembered -^ss long as the sorrows 
and the glories of 1857 are household words amongst us ; so long should 
the name of Ali Raza Kkan and his gallant family, be remembered by all 
true Englishmen with gratitude and esteem. 



Note. —The Kizilbaihef still pottess great bflaeoce in K«bal, where they nomber 
some 8.000 or 10,000. They inhibit a teptrale qasiter to the iouth-wcst of the citj, 
strongly fortified, known bj the OMne of Chtndol. The present Miniftfr in Ksbal 
(Mostaofi) is a Kisilbash ; the chief offices are filled by members of the tribe, and the 
mother of Dost Mohsmrosd himself was a lady of this tribe. The Sliah of Persia is said 
to be now intrigaing with the Kisilbash faetioD, to weaken the Kabal Gorernment. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 117 

EizilbiiBh ^J^^Jy or ' red-hetd' is of Turki deriTation, tnd by tome it Mid 
to have arisen from tlie red caps worn by the captives given to Sheikh Haidar by 
Tamarlane. D'Herbelot, however, in his Bibliotheque Orieotale, pnblished in 1777, states 
that the name originated with Ismail, founder of a line of kings who reigned in Persia 
from 907 A. U., who commanded his soldiers to wear a red cap, around which a turban 
of twelve folds was bound in honor and in remembrance of the twelve Imams, the 
Buccesftors of AU, from whom he professed to have descended. 



Ki^>^^>^v>^^M<»v>'» 



SIRDAB KANH SINGII, NAKKAI. 



Cbowdhbi Himbaj. 

« r 

8. Hira Singh. DMundhl Natha Singh. Galla. 

I ' [ 

S. Dal Singh. 8. Nar Singh. Sirdar Ran Singh. Gurbakih Singh. 

|- i T"" i ^ 

8. Bhagwan Singh. S. Gyan Singh. Khaaan Singh. B. Raj Koiir, 

M. Bi. R. Ranjit Singh. 



Bihi Ratan Koar, Sirdar Khaa B. Dja Konr, Pai^ii &uig\i. 

K. Sirdar R«m Singh, Singh. x! Sirdar Amar 

Xkragharia. | Singh, Veglia. 



Hakm' Singh, D. Atar Singh. Chattar Singh, d. Jmut Singh. 



J— i [ I 

B. Partab Koor, I^ahh B. Mehtab Lehna 

X. son of Fatah Singh, Singh. Konr, Singh. 

Taragharia. x. 8. Ganda Singh, 

Kolbiywa. 



I 1 i i 1 

B.IsaKonr, B. Tbakar Konr, Thakar Partab Rax^jodh 

X. Nihal Singh, son of m. Amar Singh, son of Singh, 8ingh« Singh. 

8. Jaggat Singh, Man. Diwan Singh, CommandiMit* 



I 



I 1 

Udho Singh. Narajan Singh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY, 

About the year 1595, the Sikh Guru Aijan, travelling with a few 
followers in the Lahore district, reached the little town of Bahrwal, 
which had been founded some years before by a man of the Arora caste, 
named Bahr. He was not received with hospitality, and passed on to 
the neighbouring village of Jambar, where^ tired and foot-sore, he begged 
for the loan of a charpai^ (native bedstead), and lying down in the shade 



HIBTORTXHP THE PAMlAfi CHIEFS. IIB 

of !» t^ee^ went to sleep. By this time Hmitr^, a Siodhu Jat^ cfaowdhri or 
headman of Bahrwal^ who waa abaant when tha Ooru pMiad through 
his village, heard of what had occurred, and^ ashamed of his towuso^n's 
iahospitality^ set off to Jambar to try and induce the holy man to return^ 
On his arrival at the village he found the Guru asleep. What was to 
be done ? He dared not wake the saint^ for be was uncertain of bis 
temper, nor could he suffer him to remain longer at Jambar ; so being 
a man of resource and some physical strength, be lifted the charpai and 
the Quru together on his he^d and carried him away to BahrwaL 

When Aijan woke be was much pleased with Eemrc^n attention, and 
called for water to drink. He wag told that the water of their only well 
was brackish. The Ouru then directed Hemraj to throw some sweet 
cakes down the well, This being done, the water immediately became 
sweet and pure. The Guru also blessed Hemraj^ and prophesied that he 
would have a son^ by name J^ra Singh^ who would be a grei^t and power- 
ful Chief. 

So runs the legend, believed to this day at Bahrwal ; for, is not the 
water of the well, known as Bnddbewala, still sweet and clear ? 

The legend would have been told with more propriety^ of Alam the 
father, or of Mahmana the grandfather of Hemraj, for Bira Singi who 
was certainly the first man of qote in the family was not bom till nearly 
a hundred yeais after the death of Gun^ Arjan^ which took place in 1606. 

Hira Singh^ at the time that the Sikhs grew powerful, about the 
middle of the last century, took possession of the Nakka country, lying 
between Llihore and Oogaira, and which has given its name to the family 
of Hira Singh^ and to the misl which he commanded. He took Chunian 
from the Afghans, and joined the Kanheyas and Bhangis in their attacks 
upon the falling Mogal power. 

When Sbdar Hira Singh was killed fighting with Shaikh Snjan Chiati 
of Pak Fattan, his son Dal Singk waa a minor, and his nephew Nor Singh 



120 



HirrOET OF THE 



succeeded to the command of the misl. Nat Singh was killed in a fight 
at Eot Kumaliahi in 1768^ and his son /Za^t Siiigh succeeded him. 

Under this Chief the mial rose to some strength and importance. 
It was never powerful compared with some of the other Sikh confedera- 
cies, but it could bring into the field nearly two thousand horsemen^ 
with camel swivels and a few guns. But the Jats of the Nakka country 
are strong and bold, and the little misl did good battle with the Afghans 
and other neighbours, till at last a tract of country worth nine lakhs of 
rupees was in the hands of Sirdar Ran Singh and his misldars (feudal 
retainers). They held Chudian, part of the Knssur, Sharakpuf and 
Oogaira pargannahs, and at one time Kot Kumaliah, the head-quarters 
of the Kharral tribe. 

The Chief of Syadwala, Kamar Singh, was the rival of Ran 'Singi, and 
they fought with varying success for some years, till at length Rnn Singh 
obtained a decided advantage and took possession of Syadwala. Sirdar ha^i 
Singh died in 1781, and his eldest son Bhagwan Singhj who succeeded to 
the command of the misl, was not able to hold the territory his father 
had acquired. Syadwala was recovered by Wazir Singh, brother of Kamar 
Singh, who also took some of the Nukkai villages, but these he eventually 
gave up. Bhagwan Singh now perceived that unless he made powerful 
friends, he would probably lose his territory altogether, so he betrothed 
his sister Nahayan^ generally known as Raj Kouran, to Ranjit Singh, son 
of Mahan Singh, Sukarchakia, who was then one of the most powerful 
Chiefs in the Panjab. Wazir Singh tried hard to break off this match, 
which boded no good to hira, but was unable to do so. Shortly after this, in 
1785, Maha Singh summoned both Bhagwan Singh and W^zir Singh 
to Amritsar, to aid him in his struggle with Jai Singh, Kanheya. The rival 
Chiefs went accordingly, but when Jai Singh was defeated, they soon began 
to quarrel, for Mahan Singh treated Wazir Singh with more consideration 
than Bhagwan Singh, which roused the jealousy of the latter. Mahan 
Singh, with some diflSculty, brought about a reconciliation, but the peace 
was not of long duration, and the quarrel broke out with greater violence 



PANJAB CHIIFS. 121 

than ever^ and in the fight which eusned^ Bhagwan Singh was slain. 
His brother Gyan Singh succeeded him, in 1789. The old enemy of 
their family^ Wazir Singh, was murdered soon after by Lai Sing Ay son 
of Sirdar Hira Sikgh who took refuge at Bahrwal, but he was followed 
and assassinated by a servant of Wazir Singh, who had resolved to avenge 
his master's death. Mahan Singh died in 1792, and in 1798 Oyan Singh 
married his sister to Banjit Singh, to whom she had been some time be- 
trothed. In 1802, a son, the issue of this marriagei Wl^s bom, who after- 
wards ascended the throne as Maharaja Kharrak Singh. The Nakkai 
family did not find the alliance with Ranjit Singh productive of much 
advantage. That ambitious Chief hungered after his kinsman's posses- 
sioQS, and tried hard to iodu<!e Sirdar JKaiU Singh^ who became the 
head of the family on the death of Gyan Singh, in 1807, to come and reside 
at court. This the Sirdar steadily denied to do, and in 181 0, the Maharaja 
seized all the possessions of the family, without any resistance on their 
part^ for retistanoe was unavailing. He (j;ava to K^nh Singh estates in 
the neighbourhood of Baiirwal of the valoe of ISjOOO Ba.f and to 
Khazan Singh he alio gave a jagir at Nankot* 

Sirdar Kahn Singh is still alive, and in 1860 was made a jagirdar Ma* 
gistrate, which office he now holds. He has always lived at Bahrwal^ a little 
town far away from any high road, and has mixed very little in politics 
since the death of Maharaja Banjib Singh* lu 18i8| his troops and his 
second son AUar Singh, who were with the army nt Multan, joined the 
rebels, but Kahn Singh, who was then an old man, was not suspoctod of 
being a party to his son's disaffection. His eldest son, Chatlar Singh, who 
remained faithful, died in 1857, leaving three sons and two daughters* 



DIWAN AJODIIIA PARSHAD. 



* ^a t' t ':»»*- 





Pakdit Kishah Das. 
1 




Fandit Eewal Ram. Diwan Qaoga Ram. 

D; 1826. 

1 




Thakar Parshad. Diwan Ajodhia Parshad. 
B. 1799. 

Bhawani Paraiud. Baij Nath, 
B. 1812. B. 1822. 


A daughter. 

Utfcam Kath. 
B. 1850. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The family of Diwan ^jWAia Parshad is of tbe Brahman caate^ and 
originally came from Kashmir. It claims to belong to the family known 
as ' Swaman Gotam/ descended from the famous ' rikhi' or sage, GFotama, 
who was bom about 620 B. C. on the lower Ganges. It is also known 
as Cbhachballiy from the mohallaj or district^ in Kashmir^ which was 
its residence. 



The Mnhammadan religion was established into Kashmir in the 
year 1326 A. D., by Shamshuddin Shah. For nearly a hundred 
years no severe measures were taken against the Hindus^ but when 
Sikandar^ named Bhut-shikan or the Iconoclast^ became Kiugi the 
Brahman pandits had much difficulty in preserving their religion and 
their lives. The ancestors of Ajodhia Parshad studied Persian as a 
sort of compromise, and contrived to live in tolerable security till the 
conquest of Kashmir by Ahmad Shah, Abdali, in 1752. The Hindus 
were now exposed to constant persecution, and many emigrated 
to Ilindostan and the Panjab. Among the emigrants was Pandit KMan 
Das, grandfather of Ajodhia Parshad, He was a good scholar, and, 



HISTORY OF THE PAMJAB CHIEFS. 123 

without difficultyi obtained a situation under the Delhi Emperors^ 
which he held till his death. 

His son Ganga Bam^ who was born at Bampur^ near Benares^ entered 
the service of the Maharaja of Gwalior^ and was placed with Colonel 
Louis Burquien, one of the French oflScers in Sindia's service, under Gen- 
eral Perron. Here the young man distinguished himself by his honesty 
and ability^ and became entrusted with many important political affairs. 
When the Mahrattas, towards the close of the last century, overran Central 
India, Malwa, and the Delhi territories, Ganga Bam was employed under 
Colonel Burqui6a in collecting tribute^ and in drawing up treaties with 
subject or allied states. 

After the defeat of Burquien, at Patparganj on the Jamna, by Lord 
Lake, in September, 1803^ Oanga Bam retired to Delhi, where he lived 
for the ten succeeding years. He was of great assistance to General 
Ochterlony when, in 1809, that oiRcer was arranging the relations between 
the Cis-Satlej States and the British Government^ from his knowledge 
of their past political history^ their treaties and their relations with other 
States. 

In March, 1813, Maharaja Banjit Singh, who had heard Ganga Ram 
spoken of as a man of ability, invited him to Lahore on the recommen- 
dation of Bhai Lai Singh and Sirdar Himmat Singh, Jallawassia. He 
accepted the invitation, and taking with bim a vessel of Ganges water 
for presentation to the Maharaja, was well received at Lahore, where ho 
was placed at the head of the military office, and made keeper of the 
seal. He was made one of the paymasters in chief of the irregular forces ; 
Bhawani Das being the head of the department, and rose rapidly in 
the favour of the Maharaja, who saw the great improvements made in 
the system of military account. Ganga Bam brought from Hindostan 
numbers of bis relatives and friends, for whom he obtained good places 
about court. Most of them, however, were not piere adventurers, but 
men of business and literary attainment. Among them may be noticed^ 



Mi HISTORY OF t«B 

BajaDina Nath; Pandit Dya Ram^ who administered auooessiveiyy 
the Ramgharia country, Jhang, Dingah. &a. ; Pandit Hari Rami fAihtat 
of S hanker Nath, Honorary Magistrate of Lahore; Pandit Qopi Nath; 
Pandit Bam Kishan ; Pandit Ganga Bishan, and Pandit Lachman 
Parshad. 

Diwan Oan^a Ram, Laohman Parahad'd father^ and Bakht Mai, 
had married three sisters. Ganga Ram had no son bom to him, so he 
adopted his wife's nephew Ajodkta Parikad^ brother of Lachman Parshad ; 
Dina Nath (afterwaixis Raja) was son of Bakht Nfal, and consequently first 
oousin of Ajodkia Pantad. Ganga Ram had, later, a daughter by a seoond 
wife, whose son, Utiam Nath, is now a student in Lahore. 

Thus by his personal ability, and by the family Interest which he 
established in Lahore, Ganga Ram obtained considerable power, and 
the administration of the country about G-ajrat v^as, in 1821, entrusted 
to him. In this District, Which he held two years, he reoeired a grant 
of Khemi, Ealaichpur, &c., in the Karriali llaka. He first OPganiaed the 
Abkari system, which was afterwards so much improved by Misr 
Rallia Ram. 

Diwan Qanga R%m died in IS26. He was succeeded as keeper of 
the seal, and in the military office of account, by Lala Dina Nath, 
whom he had brought up most carefully, and whose splendid abilities 
soon made him distiQgui3hed in the political world. 

Ajodkia Panhad ( or Ajodhia Nath ) had been summoned to Lahore 
by his father, in 1814. He was then 1 5 years of age, but he was not 
suffered to enter, at once, the Government service. For two years he 
continued his studies, and was then sent to his native country, Kashmir, 
where he was placed in the military office, on a salary of 1,000 Rs. per 
annum. Six months later he was recalled to Lahore. In 1819, Generals 
Ventura and Allard arrived in the Panjab from Europe, by way of 
Persia and Khorasan, and entered the Maharaja's service. They received 



PANJABCHISFS; 125 

command of the 'Fouj Khas' or special brigade, the first in rank in the 
Sikh army, and Ajodhia ParsAad was placed under them^ as paymaster 
of the troops and as the medium of communication between the command- 
ing officers and the Maharaja. The ^ Fouj Khas' was at one time raised to 
five battalions of infantry and three cavalry regiments ; but at the request 
of General Ventura it was again reduced to four infantry battalions and 
two regiments of cavalry. 

On the death of his father^ the Maharaja directed him to assume charge 
of the office for regular troops and artillery, but he was on the best of 

i 

terms with the French Generals, and begged to be allowed to keep his 
own appointment. The vacant post was accordingly given to Tej Singh. 
Ajodhia Parshad received the title of Diwan, and the village of Nain 
Siikh was continued to him from his father's jagir« He continued to, 
serve with the ' Fouj Khas,' and when General Ventura was absent on 
leave, he commanded the whole force.. So ably did he do this, that Gen- 
eral Ventura wrote of him iu these terms : '^ On the two occasions that 
I have been absent on leave in France^ Ajodhia Panhad has held the com- 
mand of the life guards of the Maharaja ; I have never had cause to 
repent appointing him my Deputy, for on my return from France, I 
have found the troops in as good a condition as if I had been present 
myself/' In 1831, he was sent to the frontier of the Panjab to meet 
Lieutenant Burnes, who was on his way from Bombay, by way of Sind, 
with a present of a team of cart horses, a stallion and four mares, and a 
carriage, for Maharaja Ranjit Singh, from the King of England. Ajodhia 
Parshad met the mission a little way below Multan, and remained attached 
to it till its arrival in Lahore on the 17th of July. 

• At the time of the Maharaja's death, Ajodhia Panhad was with the 
brigade at Peshawar, where it had been stationed for two years, but 
was now summoned to Lahore by Maharaja Kharrak Singh. The Diwan 
was, with Sirdar Lehna Singh, Majithia, at the close of 1839, directed to 
accompany the army of the Indus, under Sir John Keane, from Attock to 
Ferozpur, which was reached on the Slst of December, 1839, and his atten- 



136 H18T0BT.0F THB 

tion and anxiety to meet the wishes of the General were warmly acknow* 
ledged by that officer. 

In April and May, 1S40, the brigade, with General Ventura and 
Ajodhia ParsAad, was sent against Kahn Singh, Bedi, who had murdered 
his nephew, seized his fort of Malsian, and imprisoned his family. Nao 
Nihal Singh did not much care for the sanctity of a Bedi, and^ to the 
indignation of many, sent the troops against bis fort of Dakhni, which 
they captured. £ventually this was given up to him again, on hia 
restoring Malsian to hia nephew's family, and paying a fine of 20,000 
Bs. to the State. 

Later in the year the brigade was sent against the Mandi Chief, who 
had omitted to pay in his tribute since the death of Ranjit Singh, or to 
acknowledge, in any way, the new Maharaja. Mandi was covered with 
little forts, said to be 123 in number, besides the strong fort of Eamlaghar, 
but the Baja was frightened by the force sent against him, and gave in 
his submission, and was directed to proceed to Lahore. The town of 
Mandi was occupied, and most of the forts dismantled. Kamlaghar, how- 
ever, held out, and while its siege was in progress, news arrived of the 
death of Maharaja Kharrak Singh and Konwar Nao Nihal Singh. Thia 
news in some measure raised the courage of the garrison ; but the siege 
was vigorously pressed, and, at length, the fort surrendered on the £9th 
November, and the General, leaving a Sikh garrison in it, marched to re- 
press disturbances which had broken out in Kulu. Sirdar Ajit Singh, Sin- 
dhanwalia, who had been sent to Mandi, had left for Lahore before th^ 
capture of Kamlaghar. General Ventura left for Lahore on the begin- 
ning of January, recalled by Raja Dhyan Singh who wished for his sup- 
port to the claims of Prince Sher Singh, and Ajodhia Parsiad was left in 
charge of the brigade. 

,. Reinforcements had been despatched from Lahore to Kulu, and when 
these arrived, the 'Fouj Khas^ heard that the troops in Lahore had receive^ 



PANJAB cHiirs. 127 

large gratuities from Sher 8ingh with four mouths* pay. Only two 
months^ pay had been brought for them^ so they rose in mutiny^ seized the 
treasure in their camp^ and killed several of their officers.. Ajodhia 
Far shad ^ who had considerable influence with the men, restored order| 
and promised to obtain for the men whatever the Lahore troops had 
received. , .*. 

General Ventura left; the Panjab on leave in March^ 1840^ and 
on the arrival of the brigade at Lahore^ Ajodhia Paraiad retained the 
command, though it was placed nominally under the little Prince- Partab 
Singh. The first business in which it was engaged was against Joala 
Singh,"*^ the agent of the Maharaja. This man had hoped to be wazir when, 
his master became king ; and the pffice had been promised to him by Shsr 
Singh. Raja Dhyan Singh had, however, no intention of vacating the post } 
to the Maharaja he insinuated suspicions of Joala Singh's loyalty ; and 
he warned Joala Singh of the Maharaja's intentions against him ; till| 
at last^ the wretched man was driven into treason^ and being encamped 
with five thousand irregulars at the Dera Gharyari near Shalabagh^ refused 
to obey the Maharaja's order to come in to Lahore. Sher Singh 
moved out against him, and Ajodhia Parshad with the * Fotlj Khas/ ibid 
supported by artillery, was directed to go in advance. Seeing the 
approach of this formidable brigade, Joala Singh surrendered^f and 
he afterwards died i^ prison in the fort of Shaikhopuorah, from iU 
treatment and starvation, one of Raja Dhyan Singh's many victims. ; 



* NoTB.— Joala Singh, though having no designs against 8her Singh, had plotted against 
tho Minister. He had been sent to resame the Sindhanwalia jagirs, and retumiDg from 
that expcditioQ with the Sindhanwalia Chiefs, thej conspired together to eject Dhyan Singk 
from the ministry, and oa the way to Lahore, they visited the sacred shrine at AmritMu; 
where they swore to persevere till their design was accomplished*. Dhyan Singh must haTS 
heard of this confederacy, and he never forgot to revenge himself on a rival. 

t It is a remarkable proof of the lawlessneas and power of the army at this time, thtt tlw 
veryCharyari Horse and Akalis, who had, on the 1st of May, supported Joala Singh in 
mutiny and treason, on the 2nd, demanded and obtained a donation of 30,000 Ri. from Mahilr 
ruga Sher Singh, for having not eomfkHtd^ Joala Singh to igbi aga^inst him. ' ^ > 



128 filBTORT OF THB 

The Maharaja paid to the ^ Foaj Khas ^ the gratuity promised to them/ 
in Kulu; by Ajodhia Parahad, and to the Diwan himself he made valuable 
presents. The Raja of Mandi was allowed to return to his hills, taking 
with him the image of the goddess Devi, in solid silver, of great 
value and sanctity, which the Sikh soldiers had taken from Kamlaghar. 
General Ventura returned from Europe in 1840, and took command of the 
brigade. He, after Sher Singh's assassination, was sent secretly by Raja 
Hira Singh, the Minister, to Ludhiana to' try and strengthen the English 
alliance, by negotiation with Colonel Richmond, the British Resident ; 
but at the end of 1843, disgusted with the insubordination of the troops^ 
and clearly foreseeing the troubles coming on the country, he finally left 
the Panjab, where he had served for upwards of twenty-four years. 
Diwan Ajodhia Parshad now took command of the brigade, and held it till 
the close of the Satlej campaign. 

The brigade was composed, in 1815, before the war, of 3,176 regular 
infantry, 1,667 regular cavalry, and 855 artillery men. Total 5,693 men, 
luid 34 guns. 

The infantry force included the Khas battalion, strength 820 men ; a 
Gurkha battalion, 707 men ; Dewa Singh's battalion, 839 men j and 
Sham Singh^s battalion, 810 men. 

The cavalry force was composed of a grenadier regiment, strength 
730 men ; a dragoon regiment, 750 men ; and a troop of orderly khas, 
187 men. 

The artillery was the corps known as that of Uahi Baksh, and was 
commanded by General Ilahi Baksh, the best artillery oflScer in the Sikh 
army. The pay of the whole brigade was 96,067 Rs. per mensem. 

The composition of the other brigades may be, in a great measure, 
seen from this statement regarding the crack brigade of the Sikh army. 
A great change had taken place since the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. 
His strong hand kept down mutiny and complaint, though even he was 
once compelled to take refuge in Qovindghar from the fury of his Gur- 



PANiAl CHiva. 139 

kha regiment which could not obtain ita arreara of paj ; but hii aacceaaora, 
fearing for their Uvea and power^ were compelled to increaaa the ntimbera 
and the paj of the armj, till it at length became aninaupportable burihea 
to the State^ and a atanding menace to other powera. 

At the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death, the regular army, 
infantry^ cavalry and artillery, was composed of 29^168 men, with 192 
guns, at a monthly coat of 3,82^088 Ba. 

Under Maharaja Sher Singh, tho regalar amy waa composed of 
50,065 men, with 232 gana, at a monthly cost of 5,48,603 Ba. 

Under Raja Hira Singh, the regular army consisted o^ 50,8d5 men, 
with 282 guns, at a monthly cost of 6,82,984 Bs. 

Under Sirdar Jowabir Singh, the regular army consisted of 72,370 
men, with S81 guns, at a monthly cost of 8,52,696 Bs. 

The inqre^e in the number of guns under Sirdar Jowahir Singh was, 
in a great measure, nominal. Few new guna were cast, but many old ones 
were taken out of forts, furbished up, and placed on field carriages. 

The irregular cavaky does not appear to hate increased in the 
same proportion as the regular army. At the commencement of hostili* 
ties, its numbers were 16,292. 

When the Satlej war of 1845 broke out, the Sikh army throughout 
the whole Panjab was thus composed ; — 

Regular Infiintry, ... 43,756 

Regular CSavalry, 6,235 

Irregular Cavalry, ... .-. 16,298 

Artillery, 10,968 

Camel Swivels, v. 584 

Miscellaneous, • ••• 827 



Total ... 88,662 men. 
Guns. Field : 381. Garrison : 104. Total. 484. Camel Swivels : SOS, 



180 HISTORY OF THK 

The Irregular Levies^ and Jtfgirdari contingents of horse, not include 
ed in the above, cannot be accurately determined, but they maj be fair- 
ly estimated at 30,000 men. 

During the troubled administration of Raja Hira Singh, the brigade 
of A)odhia Parshad^ which had been accustomed to discipline under the 
skilful Ventura, did not become so completely mutinous and disorganized 
as the rest of the army. When Hira Singh fled from Lahore, and was 
pursued by Sirdar Jowahir Singh and the Sikh army, the * Fouj Khas ' 
remained on the plain below the citadel, to guard the person of the young 
Maharaja. Jowahir Singh added 3^000 Rs., per mensem, to Jjodhia 
TaraAad^s pay, and gave him the villages of Mouza Khan, Gang, Shadian^ 
Muradi and Kathianwala, in the Hafizabad district. 

After the murder of Sirdar Jowahir Singh, Tej Singh, who was hated 
by the army, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the regular forces ; 
Raja Lai Singh of the irregular, and when ihe ' Fouj Khas ' was ordered to 
Peshawar, it distinctly refused to obey. 

The Satlej campaign followed. At its close, Diwan Ajodkia Parsiad 
tendered his resignation, which was accepted, and he left the corps 
with which he had served for twenty-six years. 

After the treaty of the 16th March, 1 856, making over the hill country 
between the Ravi and the Indus to Maharaja Gulab Singh, Ajodhia 
Panhad was appointed Commissioner, in conjunction with Captain Ab» 
bott, to lay down the boundary line of the Lahore and Jammu territories. 
This work, which was by.no means an easy one, occupied two years, and 
it was not till May, 1848, that tjbe Diwan returned to Lahore. During 
all this time his conduct had given the greatest satisfaction to the autho- 
rities, and without in any way sacrificing the interests of his own Govern- 
ment, he. had shown the.. greatest courtesy and attention to Captain 
Abbott, the British representative. On November 26th, 1847, he had 
received the honorary title of '^ Mumtaz ud dowlah," (eminent in the 
State), besides substantial addition to his pay. 



?ANJAB CHIEFS. 131 

At annexation, he was in possession of 5;000 Rs. per annum, cash 
allowance, besides the villages of Nainsukh, Bala Salu, Chhogian, Kot Nao, 
Khanpar, Khatianwala, Shadman, Gang and Muradi, worth 19,000 Bs.' 
per annum. In April, 1849, immediately after the annexation of the 
Panjab, the Diwan was appointed to take charge of the joung Maharaja 
Dalip Singh, in conjunction with Dr. Login, and in 1849, he accompanied 
the Prince to Fatahgarh, where he remained in attendance upon him, 
until September, 1851. He then, the Maharaja being about to leave for 
England, returned to the^Panjab, and gave up public life. Dr. Login 
has borne the highest testimony to the Diwan's upright and honourable 
conduct, while with the Maharaja at Fatahgarh. 

The jagirs of the Diwan had lapsed to Government at annexation, 
but he was granted a pension of 7,500 Rs., and the Supreme Government, 
in 1862, sanctioned 1,000 Ba. of this pension being upheld in perpetuity. 

In 1862, The Diwan was appointed an Honorary Magistrate of the 
city of Lahore, where he has resided since 1851. In this position he 
has given satisfaction. His probity is well known ; his learning is consi- 
derable, and he has ever been ready to assist in the improvement or 
embellishment of the city. During the past year he has not been able to 
give any constant attention to public duties, for his health has been 
indifferent and his eyesight is failing. , 

The Diwan has one son, Baijnath, now forty-two years of age. In 
1858, he was appointed Tehsildar of Sharakpur, in the Lahore district, 
and in July, 1859, he was transferred to Lahore. In July, 1862, he was 
made an Extra Assistant Commissioner, which office he still holds in 
Lahore. Baijnath is a man of education and ability. So early as 1853 
he commenced training for official life in the office of Major Abbott, Deputy 
Commissioner of Hoshiarpur. He took every advantage of his opportuni- 
ties, and is now one of the best native officials in the province. His 
exertions in the cause of educatipn have been great, and, in 1861, he was 
appointed President of the Committee of Public Instruction of Lahore. 



SIRDAR NIHAL SINGH. CHHACHHI. 

Rambaj. 

I 

Sirdar Nihal Singh. 
I 

I \ i i I 

Amrik Singh. Gopal Singh. Charrat Singh. Ram Singh. Udam Singh 

B. 1836. B. 1850. B. 1852. b. 1855. b. 1853. 

HISTORY OP THE FAMILY, 

The familj of Sirdar Nikal Singh is of the Sani Katri caste, and haa^ 
for seven geaerations, been resident at Rawal Piiidi, His father was a 
trader^ by name Rambaj. 

Nihal Singh, in 1830^ married the only daughter of Sirdar Gormokh 
Singl]^ Chhachhi. Thia Chief was the aon of Sirdar Fatih Singh, who, 
with his brother Sher Singh, was killed in the Kashmir campaign. 
Sirdar Qurmukh Singh succeeded to his father's jagir, but died in 1829, 
soon after which Nihal Singh married his daughter, and was allowed to 
take the name of Chhachhi and succeed to his father-in-law'a jagir at 
Chakori worth 2,000 Rs, 

In 1846, after the Satlej campaign, Nihal Singh received the title of 
Sirdar, and was appointed, on the part of the Darhar, to attend on ihm 
Agent of the Qovemor General at Lahore, as a kind of aide»de-camp, 
with a contingent of eight sowars. His services in this post were vaioablei 
and, without in any way compromising the interests of hisown Government, 
he rendered prompt and friendly assistance to the Sngliah authorities. 
When the rebellion of 1848 broke out^ Sirdar Nihal Singh remaned loyal, 
though surrounded by strong temptations. From his clotw conneotioii 
with the Engliah Besident, he could have supplied the rebels with infer- 



HUTORT Of THE VJLVJAB CHIZT6. 13S 

mation most important to them, bat on no occasion did he Yiolate the 
confidence placed in him. His exertions to complete the supply of 
carriage for the siege train of Multan were great| and have been aoknow* 
ledged by Sir Bobert Napier. His condact irritated the rebels, who 
burnt his house and plundered his property at Rawal Pindi^ and treated 
with severity those members of his family who fell into their hands. 

On the annexation of the Panjab, the jagir of 5^978 Be., which he had 
received from Raja Lai Singh, in 1846^ was maintained to him for lifci 
and the old Chakori jagir of 1,200 Bs. was upheld in perpetuity. Instead 
of his contingent of eight horsemen being dispensed with, and the jagir 
which he had held for its maintenance being resumed, it was continued to 
him as a special favour, with a cash allowance of 2,000 Bs. a year. In 
1853 the Sirdar became involved in some pecuniary difficulties, and the 
Government was pleased to reduce the contingent from eight to four horse- 
men. In this same year there occurred a petty insurrection in the RaWal 
Pindi district. Sirdar NiAal Singh was at home, at the time, and imme- 
diately offered his services to the Commissioner, who sent him to the 
insurgents to endeavour to induce them to surrender. They, however^ 
seized him^ treated him with some indignity, and kept him a prisoner for 
several days. 

During the critical days of 1857, Sirdar Nihal Singly who felt that 
active and zealous loyalty was better than mere abstinence from rebellioni 
remained in close attendance on the Chief Commissioner. His advice and 
the information he at this time supplied were particularly valuable. It 
was mainly through his assistance that the Chief Commissioner raised the 
1st Sikh cavalry, and selected for service so many of the old Sikh officers 
who had, in former days, fought gallantly against us. 

When the wild Muhammadan tribes of Qogaira rebelled, Sirdar MAal 
Singh W2i3 sent to the scene of action. He was engaged in several skirmishes 
with the insurgents, and in one of them received a severe wound in the 
knee* 



134 HISTORY OF THE FANJAB CHIEFS. 

For his services^ NiAal Singh received in October, 1858, a present of 
10,000 Re., and an additional jagir of 6,000 Rs., to descend to his lineal 
male heirs in perpetuity, on condition of active loyalty. The remaining 
'four horsemen of his contingent were, also, dispensed with. 

In 1862, Sirdar Nihal Singh was made a Jagirdar Magistrate, and, in 
1862, 10,000 Rs. of his jagir, was, on the recommendation of the Lieute- 
nant Governor, re-leased in perpetuity. At the present time the Sirdar 
holds, 

Jagir in perpetuity, 10,000 

Jagir in life tenure, 3,175 

Cash pension, ^ .»• 2,000 



15,175 



For eighteen years Sirdar Nihal Singh has served the British Govern- 
ment well and faithfully. He has not cared, in times of political difficulty, 
to count the cost of his loyalty. He has never hesitated or wavered when 
the sky has been dark, uncertain on which side his personal interests 
would be most secure, but has ever been most zealous in his loyalty, and 
most unremitting in his exertions, when men of less courage and honesty 
have stood aloof. 

Amrik Singhj the eldest son of Sirdar Nihal Singh, is Tehsildar of 
Wazirabad. In 1857, he raised a Risala of mounted police in the Panjab, 
and took them down to Oude, where they did excellent service. He 
holds a jagir of 650 Rs., for life, left to him, in 1810, by a deed of gift^ 
by his grandmother Mai Devi, widow of Sirdar Gurmukh Singh, 
Chhachhi. 



KAJA DINA NATH. 





Bakht MaU 
1 




1 

R»ja Dina Nath. 
D. 1867. 

1 




"1 
Nath. 


1 
Diwan Kidar Nath. 

D. 1869. 

1 


1 

Diwan Amar Natb. 

B. 1822. 

1 
Kara Nath. 
B. 1844. 


Narajan 


1 1 
Badri Nath. Fran Nath. 



HISTORY OF THE TAIfllLY. 

Among the men who rose to power during the latter days of the 
Sikh empire, the most remarkable was Kaja Dina Naih. He has been 
well and happily styled ^ The Talleyrand of the Punjab/ and his life and 
character bear a strong resemblance to those of the European Statesman. 
Revolutions, in which his friends and patrons perished, passed him bj ; 
dynasties rose and fell, but never involved him in their ruin ; in the 
midst of bloodshed and assassination, his life was never endangered ; 
while confiscation and judicial robbery were the rale of the State, his 
wealth and power continually increased. 

His sagacity and far-sightedness were such, that when, to other eyes, 
the political sky was clear, he could perceive the signs of a coming 
storm, which warned him to desert a losing party or a falling friend. 
Honest men do not survive manj revolutions, and the Baja's falseness 
was the measure of his success. He was patriotic, but his love of coun- 
try was subordinate to his love of self. He hated the English with a 



136 HWrOBT OF THE 

bitter hatred^ for they were stronger than he, or his oountry ; bnt his in* 
terests compelled him to senre, like Samson, the Phillistines he hated. 
He was not withont his own notions of fidelity^ and woold stand by a 
friend as long as he oonid do so with safety to himself. Even when he 
deserted him, it was more from fear of danger to his wealth and influ* 
ence than from personal fear^ for Raja Dina Naih was physically bravCi 
and also possessed, in an eminent degree, moral courage^ though it did 
not lead him to do rights regardless of con8e<]^nences. As a Financier, the 
policy of the Raja was intelligent and liberal, and he readily appreciated 
the advantages of the new system of taxation introduced by the English. 
He possessed immense local knowledge, and as vast a capacity for work ; 
though, from his desire of keeping power in his own hands» he sometimes 
retarded instead of advancing business. He was an acccomplished man 
of the world, courteous and considerate ; well educated, though nothing 
of a scholar ; and in conversation with Europeans, he would express him^ 
self with a boldness and apparent candour^ that were as pleasant as they 
are unusual in Asiatics* 

Raja Dina NaiA should not be judged harshly. His fiiults would be 
still considered, in some European countries, as diplomatic virtues. 
Among the Sikh barons who stood around the throne of the young 
Maharaja Dalip Singh, there was not one who honestly laboured for his 
country, or who would have made the smallest sacrifice to save her. If 
Raja Dina Nalh was not more honest than his contemporaries, he was, 
at least, more patriotic. 

The family of Raja Dina Nath came originally from Kashmir, where, 
in the reign of Shah Jahan, some members of it held office about the 
oourt. It was not till the reign of Muhammad Shah that LaehH Rem, 
the eldest son of Bishen NcUA, left Kashmir for Lahore, where he ob- 
tainod employment. Soon after he went to Delhi, whither he summoned 
his younger brother Har Dm, and later to Lucknow, where he chiefly 
ftsidod. His son DUla Ram entered the service of the Nawab of Oudfj 



PINJIB CHIBFd. 137 

but was compelled to leave from some court intrigae. He then went hiio 
the English service, and was proceeding with the army to^ Mysord, in 
1791, when he was taken ill and died. Lala Dind Natk^ whose fkther 
Bakht Mai had held a sabordinate civil appointment at Delhi, was ihvi* 
ted to the Panjab in 1815, by Diwan Oanga Ramy* a near connectioD^i 
who was then head of the State office at Lahore. On his arrival he was 
placed in the same office, and very soon distinguished himself by his 
intelligence and business-like habits. He first attracted the notice of 
Ranjit Siogh, after the capture of Mnltan, in 1818, when he made out 
the lists of those entitled to rewards with great rapidity and deamesSi 
He shortly afterwards adjusted the accounts of the province of MultaUi 
which the first Nazim Sukh Dyal had thrown intcp great confusion. la 
1826, when Ganga Ram died, he received charge of the Royal seal, and 
in 1834, on the death of Bhawani Das, he was made head of the Civil 
and Finance office, and in 1888, he received the honorary title of Diwan. 
Ranjit Singh had the greatest confidence in Dina NaiVi judgment, and 
his influence during the latter years of the Maharaja's reign was very 
great. He was consulted on every occasion of importance, and received 
jagirs in the Amritsar, Dinanagar, and Kasur districts, to the value of 
9,900 Rs. During the time of Maharaja Eharrak Singh and Nao NSial 
Singh, Diwan Dina liaik retained his office, and received new jagirs, and 
Maharaja Sher Singh treated him with the same consideration. He was 
one of those in immediate attendance on the Maharaja, f when he was 
assassinated by the Sindhanwalias, and when Raja Hira Singh rose to 
power, he had no more zealous adherent than the Diwan. When Hiri^ 
Singh had quarrelled, or had pretended to quarrel, with his uncle. Raja 
Gulab Singh, the Diwan was sent in company with Bhai Ram Singh and 

• Vide Statement Diwan AjodhiA Pttfthad. 

t NoTS— Diwan Dina Nath was ftanding immediaieljr behind Sher Singh when (he 
8indhanwnlia8 entered the apartment He would in all probabilitj have been wounded or killed 
by the shot which killed the Maharaja, bad not Mehr Khasitah, a Sindhanwalia Wakil, who was 
in the plot, drawn him aside, pretending to bate sometUng iiiportaiit to oonmoiiicaifer to Uik 



Vt38 miTOiiT Qf vn 

Sblukli Imao^iiddlni to Jaqumu to arrange matterg with the Ri^jand 
A)ieif miMioa wag oompletely gacoegafuU They returned bringing wkh 
•tiiexQL aa a hoatage Mian Sohan Singhi die son of Baja Galab Singhi who 
JlFaa nofdered with hia eonein Hira Singh, not long afterwarda. On 
;B;ira Singh's death, Jowabir 9iQgh, the debanehed and 09ntem{>tible 
tmtl^v q( Mabaraoi Jindan, obtained the chief power, but Diwan JHna 
JViiaptm held office. 

After the mnrder of Priiiee Feshora Singh, the troops rose in matiiiy) 
iind decided to kill Sirdar Jowahir Singh, who had been the instigator of it. 
The Sirdar was much alarmed, prepared the fort for defenoe, and on the 
'19th September, sent Diwan Dinm NtUk^ Attar Singh Kalianwala, and 
EVikir Namddin, to conciliate the troops. The mission was only received 
with scorn, and Attar Singh and Dina Nath were kept prisoner in eamp. 
Here they were detained tiQ the 22nd, the day after the mnrder of 
Jowahir Singh, when the soldiery over whom the Rani had still mnch 
influence, released them, that they might soothe her violent grief, and they 
accompanied her back to the fort Jowahir Singh was bnmt with his fbur 
wives the same evening, and Diwan Dina Naik was present on the part 
of the Maharani. The unfortunate women who were to bnrn with the 
body were shamefally treated by the soldiery, who stripped them of their 
Jewels and tore their nose-rings away. A ' Sati ' is a sacred object among 
Itindas, and her last words are considered prophetic. At the feet of 
these women, Dina Nath and others fell down, asking for their blessings. 
The ' Satis ' blessed him, the Maharani, and her son, bat cursed the 8ikh 
\ irmy. When asked the fate of the Panjab, they answered that during 
Chat year this country would lose its independence, and the Khalsa be over- 
thrown, that the wives of the Sikh soldiers would be widows* but that 
the Maharaja and his mother would live long and happily. The words 
were remarkable ; though, in truth, it did not require a prophet to teP 
jths^he Sikh army was rushing on its destruction. 

After this, Diwan DitM Nath clearly perceived that while the army 
samainedas powerful and Uwless agit then was, there was no aafety 



9AIIJAB CBUfSr 138 

for him or for ftoy m«u who filled a conapicaoufl position, and with Baja 
Xial Smghi whose motives were similar to his owa, and the Maharani 
who loQged to avenge her brother's death, he begaa to encourage in the 
army a desire for a war with the English^ from whioh the conspirators 
hoped it would never return. Reports were iudustriously circulated 
tending to inflame the minds of the soldiers. The Englishj it was said, 
were determined to take advantage of the disordered state of the Panjab 
to overrun the country. The red coats were pouring up from Bengal, 
regiment after regiment| and some were even then preparing to cross the 
8atlej. When the passions of th^ troops were sufficiently inflamed, a 
great council was called at Shalimar| early in November, and here the 
Piwan made an address so eloquent, artful, and impassioned, that all 
present unanimously declared for war. The result of that war is well 
known, and Diwan JHna Nath is next seen signing the treaty of the 9th of 
March, 1846, by which the fairest province of the Fai^jab was ceded to 
the English. Although the sentiments of Oiwau Dina Nath with regard 
to the presence of the English at liahore, were well known, he was too 
wise to show much outward dissatisfaction ; indeed he was anxious for 
the English to remain till the Qovernment was atrong enough to stand 
without external assistance. When in May, 1846, the fort of Kangra 
held out, and the Agent of the Governor General had gone there in person 
to superintend operations, DiMa Nath was ordered to follow him, to induce 
the garrison, if possible, to listen to reason. In old days, Ranjib Singh 
^d ordered the garrison never to open the gates to any one except to 
himself in person. Dim N§ih^ Fakir Asdzuddin or Misr BeU Bam ; but on 
the present occasion the Diwan's influence, or desire to use it, was not 
very strong, and it was not till a fortnight after he came, that the fort 
surrendered. The arrival of heavy siege guns from the pluns had 
perhaps more to do with the surrender, than the persuasions of Diwan 
Dina Nath, 

When Baja Lai Singh waxii was tried for treason in December, 1846, 
Piwan Dim Nath defended him on the part of the Parbar with skill and 



140 H18T0BT OF THB 

energy, tfaoagh in the fS^ce of most criminating facts. On his depodiaon 
the powers of Government were vested, as a temporary measure, in Sirdar 
Tej Singh, Sinlar Sher Singh, Fakir Nnruddin, and Diwan Ditta NaiM, and 
soon after four other influential Chie& were added to the number, consti- 
tuting, under the authority of the Governor General, a Council of R^ency^. 
The most able member of the Council was undoubtedly Diwan Dina Nait, 
and although his position as head of the Financial Department gave him 
great opportunities of enriching himself at the public expense, which 
there is every reason to believe he availed himself of, he still worked more 
disinterestedly than others, and was of very great service to the Resident 
at Lahore. Without his clear head and business-like habits it would have 
been almost impossible to disentangle the Durbar accounts ; and after the 
annexation of the Panjab the Diwan^s aid in Revenue and Jagir matters was 
almost as valuable as before. The Diwan was not a popular man at 
this time. The retrenchments which the lavish expenditure of the late 
ministries had rendered imperative were very distasteful to the Sikh 
Sirdars and soldiery, and the Diwan with Sirdar Tej Singh, came in for 
his full share of odium. In November, 1847, the Diwan was raised to 
the digpiity of Raja of Kalanour. The following is the honorary title he 
received on the occasion : '* Imarat wa ayalat, dastgah ; Khair andesh-i- 
daulat-i-alia, dyanatdar, mushir-i-khas, madar ul muham.^' He received 
at the same time a jagir of 20,000 Rs. from the Ilaka of Ealanour. In 
April, 1848, the MultanNazim, Diwan Malraj, rebelled. In September, 
1846, Diwan Dina Nath had been sent by the Durbar to bring Mulraj to 
Lahore, and it was principally by his means that a satisfactory arrange* 
ment was made with the Nazim who did not however cease to intrigue 
with the Ministry, and especially with Raja Dina Natli for a modification id 
the terms of his agreement, up to the commencement of 1848. On the first 
news of the outbreak reaching Lahore, Raja Dina Nath was ordered, on 
the part of the Durbar, with Sirdar* Attar Singh, Kalian wala, the com- 
mander of the irregular troops, to Multan, but was soon afterwards recalled. 
When Sirdar Chattar Singh, Atariwala, had turned traitor, and the mis- 
sion of Sirdar Jhanda Smgb, Butalia, to reclaim him had failed, the 



PANJAB CHIEfS. 141 

Resident s^nt Raja Dina Naik to endeavour to influence him. TiA 
miiaiQfn fedled as signally as the former one, tor Sirdar Chattar Singhj 
backed by the Sikh naibn, had determined to try onoe more the fortune 
of war. Some there were who said that Raja Dina Naih was a traitor at 
heart, that be had himself encouraged the rising, and that had he not 
been a wealthy man with bouses and gardens and many lakhs of. mpees 
in Lahore, convenient for confiscatioui he would have joined the rebels 
without hesitation; bat these stories were perhaps invented by his 
enemies. Certain it is that on his being recalled to Lahore, be zealously 
carried out the wishes of the authoritieS| in confiscating the property of 
the rebels, and in counteracting their schemes. 

After the auMzationof ike Panjab, Baja ZVm lta& was confirmed 
in aU hU jagirs, worth 46,460 Ra^ irhieh he hdd till hia death, in 1867. 
His eldest son, Ammt NaUf reeeived|' daring his bther's life, a cadi 
pension of L,»00 Rs. On the Rifa'a death this was laised to 4,000 Rs., 
and on Amar NaiiU death his pension will be msamed, and his aoa wiii 
receive a jagir of 4000 Rs., to descend in perpetuityi according to the 
rales of primogeniture. Jmar Na(h was not on good terms with hii 
father, who, daring the Satlej campaign, had caused him to be removed 
from the Paymastership of the irregolar forces. After thenR^'s death 
Amar Natk refused to take any portion of his property, which accordingly 
went to the younger son, Narcg^an Naik. The Raja had, however, 
made a wiU, leaving all his personal property to Narayan, his &vou- 
rite son. 

Amar Nath is a man of conaideraUe ability. He is perhaps the most 
classical poet in the Panjab, and some of lus sonnets are of great beaa^. 
In 1358 he published a history of the reign of Raiyit Singh. This work, 
though too elaborate in style for European taste, is undoubtedly the most 
valuable and interesting that any native author has produced since the 
annexation of the Panjab. 

Diwan Ridar Naih, the Raja's brother, was for many years a servant 
of the Lahore State. He received the title of Diwan fiK>m Maharaja 



142 HISTO&Y OF THB PANIAB CHIBPS. 

« 

Dalip Sisighf and on annexation received li life pensioii of 6|0O0 lUJ ' He 
died in I859j leaving two sons^ the elder oS whom Badri Nati, is Adalsti 
or Judge at Jamma, in the service of Maharaja Banbir Singh. 

Pran iTaU, the second son| was Tehsildar of Sowrian, and when'th^ 
Telisil establishment was moved to Ajnala, he was transferred there. 
He was at Ajnala id 1857^ and on the 31tt of July, about 500 disanned 
tiepoyis of the 26th N. I. which had mutinied at Lahore thcr day Befor^ 
and had committed four murders, arrived on the left bank of the Ravi 
near Balghat, and ]^epared to cross the river. Fran NatA collected 
the- villagers and the police, and attacked the mutineers with vigoufi 
and killed some 160 of them. The Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar, 
with Sirdar Jodh Singh, arrived abon afterwards, and the remaining 
iHutiliedni, who bad retired to an island in the mrtt^ #ere captured and 
fixeottted» an act of vigour which saved the country from a great danger* * 
* jPnm iVatf'died in 1860, leaving two sons^ who are now under the 
iiareof their uncle at Jammu. * ^ 

fiaja2>»M JVa/Abuiltj at his own expense, a Shivala (temple ta 

Shiva) near the Police Court in the city of Lahore, and alienated for 

* . . . . • 

its support a jagir of 600 Bs.^ which is still maintained in perpetuity.. 

Another Shivala he built near the Wazir Khan Mosque. 

He constructed a large tank at great cost^ near the temple of Achintr 
bhawani Devi, in the Kangra district, and another tank at DevipiuTi neas 
Shalimar, with a large building for priests and travellers. He also rebuilt 
and endowed with the two villages Kotla and Ghuhanal, worth 
2|200 Bs., the shrine of ' Munsa Bam, Bazdan, (knower of secrets) hi3 
spiritual teacher, and a great Hindu Saint much yenerated by Kash« 
kniris, who died about 40 years ago. The grant is maintained ia 
perpetuity. 



BHAI CHARRANJIT SINGH, 



Bhai Bulaka Bixgh. 
I 

Bhai Basti Ram. Bhai SahaL Bhai Molak Barn. 

I 



Bhai Harnam. Bhai Harbhaj Rm. 

I 



Bhai Eabn Sing, Bhai Bam Singh, Bhai Gtorind Ram, 

D. 1837. D. 1846. D. 1845. 



J I I 

I 



L Nidhan Bhai Eesra Bhai Charranjit 



BhaiNidhan Bhai Eesra Bhai Charranjit Bhai Har Gopal, Bhai Nand Gopal, 
Singh, Singh, Singh, o. 1849. b. 1841. 

D. 1856. B. 1881. B. 1841. 



I 



I I 

Bhai Mian Bhai Tarn Bhai Partab Singh, 

Singh, Singh, B. 1857. 

B. 1841. B. 1855. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

In the Sikh polity there is a close union between the Charch and 
the State^ and from the time that the Sikh sect grew into a nation^ the 
voice of Fakirs, Babas and Bbais has ever been lond in its cooncila. 
One of the most inflaential of the religious families at the Court of 
Lahore, was that of Bhai Charranjit Singh. 

The first of the family to acquire the title of ' Bhai/ was Bulaka 
Singh, a follower of Garu Govind Singh. When the Guru retired to 
Abchallanagar in the Deccan^ in 1707j he directed Buiaka to go to 
Lahore, where he would be married. Bulaka was upwards of fifty, 
and did not consider himself a good match, bat he did ast he had 
been ordered; and at Lahore a Sikh offered him his daughter in 
marriage^ saying that the Guru had instructed him to do so in a 



144i HISTORY OF THB 

dream. Btdaha Singh could not refase, and three sons were the issue of 
the marriage^ Bhai Baati Baniy Bhai Sahai, and Bhai Molak Ram. 

Baiti Ram was born in 1708^ and from an early age devoted him- 
self to the study of medicine. He soon became known for his skill, 
and for the sandtity of his ttfe. Be -was much consulted by the Bhangi 
Chiefs, who held Lahore during the latter half of the eighteenth century, 
and Banjit Singh^ who conquered that eity three years before the death 
of the Bhai J in 1802^ had the greater respect for him. His prophecies 
were said to be always fulfilled, and his prayers answered^ and he was 
the fortunate possessor of a purse which rieplenished itself, and which it 
was impossible to empty. But without crediting the fables * related of 
the Bhai, he undoubtedly had. great .influence at (Lahore, and, like priests 
in other countries, probably used his knowledge of natural science to in- 
crease his religious reputation. Siai Moluk Ram^ the youngest brother 
of Boiii Ranij died when a child. BAai Saiai lived to a great age, bat he 
was a recluse, entirely devoted to religion^ and did not marry. He died 
in 1793. 

BAai IlarhAaj Rai used, during his father'*s life-time, to come to court, 
where he was received by the Maharaja with the greatest respect. He 
had, like his father, studied medicine, and was reputed to be a very 
iskilful docito^. basti Ram had never accepted any jagir, but Barbhaj 
was nbt so sctupiilouB, and in I80:l*, he received the village of Monawan, 
•^orth 400 Rs. ;and,iti 1805, estates in the vicinity df Lahore to the 
^lue of 5,740 'Rs. Three years later, he received Sundarghar and 
Hokha; and, at the time of his death, in 1824, he was 4n pOHsesBlon of 
jagirs to the value of 9,000 Bs« in the Amritsar and 'Lahore diistricts. 
• ■ ■ ■ ■ ^ ■ ■ . . . ■■■---_•• 

* NoTB. — Bhai Baati Ram lived outside the walls of the city, below the Samman Baij, 
A large branch of the riiTer Ravi then 'flotved beneath the walls, and every year did great 
datntge to the city, till tke Bhai detennhied to stoptfee riv«r, and builtlxis btbitation (dtvllf) 
jast outside the^alls. From that day the waters never invaded the city or passed the derah of 
the Bhai. When he died, his tomb was built of wliito marble on the site of the derah, and the 
river 'Still respe<its the spot, thoagh a deep oat to carr> off the Surplas waiter, Aild a'C«ttidenA|e 
change in the course of the Ravi may ado >Ant for the safely of the city. 



PAXJiB CSIBFfiL 145 

These gramtB were sll in peipetaitj, and are still ia pOMonkin of tte 
fkxmly« > 

HofVhaj and his brothers had not become Sikhs, and When Kahn 
Singh took the * pahal ' liis father was very angry. Ram Singh also allowed 
bis hair to grow, and became a Sikh, though he never took the ^ pahal* or 
became a true Singh. 

Bhai Ram Singh, at Ranjit Singh's request, attended Darbar in 1802, 
and soon gained great influence over tbe superstitious Maharaja. His 
opinion was always asked in questions of difficulty, and during a cam- 
paign, the tent of the Bhai was pitched next to that of the Maharaja. 

During the last years of «Ranjit Singh's life, Bhai Ram Sinffh^a m^ 
fluence continually increased^; and when the Mabariga died, ^ao Nibal 
Singh, who had received the ^ pahal' from the fihai^ entrusted him witk 
still greater power, for he was himself veigr averse toiconducting the de- 
tails of business, fie was one of the chief coBspiratoxfl, with JSU\)a 
Gulab Singh, Dhyan Siqgh, and otherS; in the murder o-f Sirdar ChfA 
Singh, the minister of Kharrak Singh, and it was at his house that ^ 
conspirators assembled before proceeding to tihe palace rto^c^uunit Jtbo 
murder. Neither Nao Nihal Singh nor the Bhai were popular with the 
Chiefs. The former compelled all Sirdars and sFagirdars *to fdlfll their 
service, and to keep their contingents in good order, T^hich was most 
irksome to the men, who, during the last years of Ranjit Singh's lifoj had 
done much as they liked, and liad been responsible to no one. 

* When Nao Nihal Singh died on BthNovembei;, 1840|.and hi«.iB0thflr 
Mai Chand Eour claimed tbe vacant throxie> Sim Mam &'»^i.anppori(id 
her with all his power. His great rival and enemy Bhai Gurmukh Singh 
as vehemently espoused the cause of Konwar 9her Singh ; but they were 
almost alone in their enthusi«m| «nd there were none, with the-exceptioii 
of Raja Dhyan Singfaj Bhais Ram Singh and Ourmukh fliDghj Dtwan 

* rifie BtateiMntof8irdsrJftiimdBiiigfa,Saidieja^fstliflrof 'Biid^X^^ 



146 . HISTORY OF TUE 

Saviran Mai, Attar Singh, Sindhanwalia, and the French Generals, who 
cared whether the Konwar or the Mai succeeded to the throne. Bhai Bam 
Singh was not altogether averse to a coalition between the two parties, 
and he foresaw that without the support of Raja Dhyan Singh, the 
Mai could not possibly stand ; and so convinced was he of the incompe« 
tencj of her supporters, that he does not appear to have seen the triumph 
of Sher Singh with any great regret. 

The new Prince treated Bam Singh with ^ respect, notwithstanding 
the part the Bhai had taken against him ; and at the investiture, on the 
27th January, 1841, he was allowed a chair, the only others who were 
permitted this honor, being his brother Oovind Ram, Bhai Gurmukh 
Singh, Babas Vikrama Singh and Kahn Singh, and the Prince Partab 
Singh. The Maharaja even began to consult Ram Singh, and Raja Dhyan 
Singh fearing that he might regain his influence, tried to make the 
Bhai proceed to Mnltan, on the pretext of recovering arrears of revenue 
from Diwan Sawan Mai. This project the Bhai vehemently opposed. 
He did not wish to be banished from court, he was a friend of Sawan 
Mai, and his religious character should have disqualified him from the 
duties to which he had been nominated by the minister. 

Both Bhai Bam Singh and his brother ' Bhai Govind Bam were 
thoroughly discontented. Although treated with consideration, they were 
allowed no share of power, and saw their enemy Bhai Gurmukh Singh 
wealthy and influential. But their turn at length came. Sher Sin^ 
and his Minister fell by the hands of the Sindhanwalias, and Bhai 
Gurmukh Singh, who had been the constant opponent of Raja Dhyan 
Singh, was imprisoned and murdered. 

After the death of Raja Hira Singh, Bhhi Bam Singh recovered 
much of his influence with the army. He had ever been associated with 
Fakir Azizuddin in his English policy ; these two were almost the only 
men in Lahore who understood the relations of that State to the British 
Government under the Treaty of 1809, and they were most desirous of 



PAKJAB CHIIT8. 147 

keeping on good terms with it. . It was on this account that^ in March 
1845^ the Bhai warmly supported Baja Gulab Singh of Jammu as a 
candidate for the wazirship ; for he knew that he was the only man 
who could, in any way, restrain the army, and whose vast private meanat 
could avert the bankruptcy of the State. The intentions of the Bhai 
towards the British Government were good, and early in May, 1845, 
he informed Major Broadfoot^ Agent of the Governor General, that Sirdar 
Jowahir Singh intended, for his own safety, to incite the Sikh army to 
an invasion of British territory. 

Jowahir Singh, though by no means without intellect, was drankeQ 
find debauched ; and even in public durbars, he was often seen under the 
influence of brandy, and he would then abuse Ram Singh in the most 
indecent terms, though in the worst of times the sanctity of the Bhai's char^ 
acter had saved him from insult. On the 12th September, 1845, the 
Bhai boldly remonstrated in opea Darbar against the conduct of the 
Wazir towards the British Government. He asserted that the 
conduct of the English authorities had been distinguished by moderation 
and forbearance, and that the Darbar was entirely in tlxe wrong in 
the dispute. Jowahir Singh is believed to have promised to retrace his 
steps, and to write an apology to the British Agent, but on that very night 
iiews came of the murder of Prince Peshora Singh, penetrated by his 
ordei-s, and he knew that an English war could alone preserve his power. 
Bhai Ram Singh had also heard the fatal news, and had reported it to 
the troops, and the party hostile to the Minister gained strength every 
hour. The marder of the obnoxious Minister and the SatleJ campaign 
followed. To the last Bhai jSa;» 5}'n^i opposed that insane war, but in 
vain. To Raja Lai Singh he tiiaid, " Beware what you do, and do not 
march to Hariki with the troops. . The English blive always behaved as 
friends and well-wishers, and have DJever interfered in the affairs of the 
Khalsa." Raja Lai Singh atiswered '^ Bhai Sahib, what can I do ? the 
.soldiers have got me by the throlit.^ However he took the Bhai's advice 
as far as he could, and, like a ooward as he was^ made the other G^n^mls 



14^ HIBTOBT OF THB 

go on before him to the soene of danger. After Sobraon^ Bhai JZoit 
Singh wuB sent with Raja Gulab Skigh^ and Diwan Diha Nath, to meet 
the Oovernor Chner al at Luliani, on the road to Lahore^ to ttj and obtain 
fieivonrable terms. 

After the treaty of the 9fch March, 1846, Bhai Sam Singh remained 
one of the Coancil ; and although, on account of bad health, he was 
unable to attend the Darbar very regularly, his opinion was always taken 
before any important measure was adopted. He was opposed generally 
to Baja Lai Singh, the Minister, and took the part of Mulraj, in the dis- 
pute regarding the Governorship of Multan. It was by hit advice that 
Raja Lai Singh oalled upon all the Sirdars to sign a rasinama, a deed 
expressive of their contentment under the existing Government ; though 
it was notorious that the majority was opposed to it« 

Bhai Ram Singh died in November, 1846, and was succeeded in the 
Council by his nephew Bhai ^idhan Singh, son of Bhai Kahn Singh, who 
had died in 1837* Bhai Oovind Ram did not much meddle with politics 
after the death of Raojit Singh. He was for some years a great invalid^ 
and died in 1845. 

Nidhan Singh was a very silent member of the Darbar. On the 16th 
Pecember, 1846^ he was appointed a member of the Council of Regency, 
which office ho held till the annexation of the Fanjab. In 1848^ the 
Zamindars of Kot-pindi Das, one of the jagira of the Bhai family, failed 
to give supplies to the British army when marching through, and the 
village was consequently confiscated^ but was subsequently releasedj) on 
payment of a fine of 800 Rs. On annexation^ however, it was resumed 
with other personal grants of Ram Singh. 

The jagirs of the family amounted, at annexation, to 49,000 Bs. Of 
these, jagirs to the value of 22,447 Rs. were released, 9,729 in perpetuity, 
in three equal shares to the descendants of the three sons of HardhaJ Bcn^ 
and 12,718 for the lives otNidhan Singh, Ketra Singh, ChafranjU Singhj 
and Nand Oqpai. A grant of 8,000 Rs, by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, for tin 



PAKJAB CHIEFS. 149 

support of the Sikh Temple at Taran Taran was also released daring good 
behaviour^ and the administration is in the hands of the three families, 
who each select one representative. Bhai Nidhan Singh^s council allow- 
ance of 6,000 Bs. was also oontinued for life. Be died in 1866. 

, The personal property lefb by Bhai Sam Singh was very large, and 
a suit is at present in progress instituted by Mian Bingij Kesra Singh, and 
Nand Ct^a^ against Bhai Charranjit Singh, for seven lakha of rupeeS| being 
a moiety of the property. 

Charranjit Singh was educated at the Lahore Government College, 
and is a good English and Persian scholar. The family resides at Lahore. 



SIRDAR JHANDA SINGH, BOTAIIA. 



Dhaha Suioh. 



Hiba Singhy Diwan Singh. 

descendants still living. | 

' ' t ' - ■ . ■ . 

Bhagwan Singh. S. Dharam Singh. Karam Singh. S. Sham Singh. Bam Sin^ 
B. yonng. | ^» 1818» 

S. Ganda Singh. Hari Singh. 
D. 1.845. I 

I Ladha Singh. 

8. Eirpal Singh, Dyal Singh. Fartab Singh. Joala Singh. 

Eonjahia. b. 1830. b. 1827. b. 1822. 

B. 1832. I I i 

( ^1 I I I 

Wasakha Wariam Ghodam Sardal Garbaksh 

Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. 

B. 1849. B. 1860. B. 1861. B. 1856. B. 1860. 



Sirdar Jhanda Singh, Daughter m. S. Sher Snigb^ 
H. D. of S. Gonnnkh Singh, Lamba. Giuranwala. 

Nihal Singh. Mehtab Singh. Mai Singh. 
D. 1864. B. 1824. B. 1859. 

M. n, of S. Attar Singh, | 

Dhariwala. Arjan Singh. 

I B. 1859. 

Balwant Singh. 
B. 1850. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

In the old days of the Mahammadan power, long before the Sikhs 
obtained possession of the Panjab, an ancestor of Sirdar J^n^ &'i^^| 
went to Fak Pattan, to visit a celebrated mendicant, probably Baba Farid^ 
who resided there^ hoping to obtain an heir by the blessing of the holy 
man. For long he waited upon himj and prepared his food^ and at length 



HISTORY OF THB PANJAB CHIEFS. 151 

obtained the blessing he sought. Prom this religions service he obtained 
the name of ^Bhandari* or steward, which still belongs to the Botalia family. 

Dham Singh was an associate of Sirdar Nodh Singh and after his death 
served under his son Sirdar Charrat Singh. He died in 1765, leaving 
two sons, Diwan Singh and Hiba Singh, who followed the fortunes of the 
Sukarchakia chief, and when he obtained possession of a great part of the 
Gajranwala district, they came in for a fair share of the spoil, receiving 
Botalah, Fahladpur, Eabian, and other villages. When Sirdar Mohan 
Singh obtained possession of Kamnagar, he assigned to Diwan Singh an 
allowanoe of 1,000 Bs. per annum, from the salt duties, which was held hy 
him and his descendants till 1818. 

Diwan Singh was murdered by his nephew Rattan Singh, son of Hi6a 
Singh, and his young son Sham Singh, (generally called Shamo Singh) 
was summoned to Court by the Maharaja, and was confirmed in the posses- 
sion of a part of his father ^s estates. He rapidly rose to power, and received 
li^rge jagirS| which at one time amounted to 50,000 Rs« He was called 
Kunjahia, from Kunjah in the Gujrat district, one of his jagirs, and the 
name is still held by his cousin Sirdar Kirpal Singh, Kunjahia. 

Sham Singh was killed at the battle of Baisah, in 1813, being then 
27 years of age. The Maharaja treated his young son Jhanda Singh with 
great kindness, but, in 1819, resumed the jagir of Kunjah, giving him in 
exchange, Sihari in the Sialkot district. Jhanda S%ngK$ first mili- 
tary service was in Punch, where Diwan Dhanpat Bai and Mir Baz 
Khan had been giving trouble, and shortly afterwards he was ordered to 
Hazara. He accompanied the Maharaja in the campaign of 1821-22, when 
Mankera and Dera Ismail Khan were taken, and received for his gallantry 
valuable presents. 

About this time, Jhanda Singh married his sister to Sher Singh, son 
of Sirdar Hukm Singh, and a lakh of rupees was spent on the occasion by 
either party. Never since has so splendid a marriage taken place in the 
Gujranwala district. Banjit Singh, who had heard of the festivities, and 



15£ HISTORT OF 

that the mother of Sirdar Jhanda Singh had boasted of possessiog two 
^ parolahs'^ of rupees^ sent to Hukm Singh and Jhanda Singh^ saying that 
as they could afford to spend so much on a marriage^ they must each find 
it convenient to pay 50^000 Rs. for the good of the State. 

Sirdar Jhanda Singh's chief services were on the frontier, in Chachhj 
Ehattaky Peshawar, Yusafzai, and Hazara. He was a man of energy and 
ability^ and the Maharaja showed his appreciation of his character by 
giving him charge, tinder Sirdar Hari Singh, Nalwa, of the most unruly 
part of the country. His services here were numerous and importan€| 
and are detailed in a Sanad of 1834, under the seal of Nao Nihal 
Singh, by which the villages of Botalah and Pahladpur are granted to 
Jhanda Singh, and his heirs in perpetuity. In 1836, Jhanda Singh accom- 
panied Prince Nao Nihal Singh in his Derajat expedition. During part 
of the Kabul campaign, he was Governor of the fort Attock, and was able 
to give assistance to the British Army, in the way of supplies and carriage. 

The fortunes of Sirdar Jhanda Singh were not much disturbed by the 
many revolutions which occurred after the great Maharaja's death. When 
Sher Singh ascended thethrone» his /affection for Oanda Singh, cousin of 
Jhawla Singh, caused the latter to become influential at court, though 
Hher Singli only added 600 Rs., which he soon afterwards resumed, to his 
ja^^irn. By Sirdar Jowahir Singh he was made ' Adalati,' or chief justice, 
of Lahore, in conjunction with Diwan Hakim Rai, and held office till the 
close of the Satl^j campaign. 

In 1S47, he was sent to Hazara as Naib Narim, or Deputy Qa- 
vcmor under Sirdar Chattar Singh, Attariwala, and Captain Abbott, 
and in November of the same year, he received, at the suggestion of 
the Reiident, the honorary title of Buhadar, with the affix, ''Ujjd 
Didar, nirmal budh,'' meaning ' open countenance and pure mind.' 
In May, 1 848, soon after the outbreak at Multan, it was determined 

• Parolah.-^k Punjabi word for a large Imsket of clay and wicker-work generally used for 
%\^tt'Uy^ grain. 



PANJAB CffllFS. 153 

to send a Sikh force down the Sind Saogarboab, to aid in draw* 
ing a cordon round the city, to prevent the spread of rebellion, and 
Jhanda Singh was selected to command the force. His conduct on 
this occasion was admirable^ and Cap tain Abbott wrote in high terms of 
him. Not very long after this, part of the Charranjit regiment of horse 
under the Sirdar's command joined the rebels^ and Captain Abbott 
began to entertain doubts of his loyalty. He had been^ at his urgent 
desire, sent with his force to Multan, but when within a few miles of 
the eity^ he was recalled by the Resident, much to his own disappointmentj 
as his inclination ever carried him where blows were thickest. The 
influence which Jhanda Singh possessed over Sirdar Chattar Singh, 
Governor of Hazara^ was very great ; and in August^ when that Chief was 
fast throwing off all pretence of loyalty, Jhanda Singh was sent with 
a confidential Agent from Gulab Singh, son of the Governor, to endea- 
vour to recal him to a sense of his duty. He was totally unsuccessful, 
and, at the time, most thought that he was willingly sOj and that he had 
done his utmost to widen and not to close the breaqh ; but in those days 
the best men were suspected, and no one knew whom to trust. The Sir- 
dar was ordered back to Lahore, and placed in arrest ; but he was soon 
after released, and during the last four or five months of the war, he and 
his sowars kept the road open between Lahore and Ramnagar, and thus 
performed most valuable service. No proofs of duplicity or disaffection 
on Jhanda Singh's part have ever been forthcoming, and he was unsuccess- 
ful with Sirdar Chattar Singh, because another and a stronger influence 
was urging that Chief to rebel. 

On annexation, all the personal estates of Sirdar Jhanda Singhy amount- 
ing to 15,560 Rs., were confirmed to him for life. 

To his eldest son Nihal Singh, 3,550 Rs. of the above estate was to de- 
scend for life ; but Nihal Singh died in January, 1864f, and his younger 
brother Mehtab Singh will only receive 500 Rs. per annum, with the excep- 
tion of the jagirs of Botalah and Paliladpur, worth 1,500 Rs. which have 
been upheld in perpetuity. 



154 HlffTORY OP THB 

Sirdar Jhanda Singi resides at Botalah^ GajranwtLEU He was appoint- 
ed a Jagirdar Magistrate, in 1862, aad possesses considerable infloenoe 
in the district. 

Ntial Singh had been commandant of a thousand horse, under 
Prince Nao Nihal Singh, in the Charyari Derah, with a jagir of 3,550 
Bs., in Chahal and Kot-Shab-M.uhammad. This jagir, included in his 
lather's estate, lapsed at his death. He left one son, Balwant Singhy a 
boy of 14 years of age. 



» " ^^*^^M^^MMM^MN 



SIRDAU KIRPAL SINGH, KUNJAHIA. 

Sirdar Kirpal Singh^ KunjaAia, is a cousin of Sirdar Jhanda Singh, 
Botalia. His grandfather Diwan Singh, with Karam Singh and Ram 
Singh, Were assassinated by a son of Elba Singh^ and the two surviving 
sons of Diwan Singhy Dharam Singh and Sham Singh, entered the service 
of the Maharaja, 

After the death of Sham Singh, in 1813, Dharam Singh received a 
nortion of his jagirs. He served at Multan, Kashmir, Peshawar, and in 
other campaigns j and when he grew old, the Maharaja, resuming his 
jagirs, gave him a cash pension of 2,000 Rs., and placed his son Ganda 
Singh with Prince Sher Singh, who gave him a jagir of 3,000 Rs. from 
his own estate. He was a great favorite with the Prince, whom he ac- 
companied to Yusafzai, where he was wounded, and afterwards to Kulu. 
When the Prince was Nazim of Kashmir, Ganda Singh held both civil 
and military appointments under him, and was employed to reduce the 
llaJRs of Bhaniba and Khakha to obedience. He afterwards served 
at Naoshcra and Bannu. 

When Sher Singh ascended the throne he gave to Ganda Singh ad- 
ditional jagirs worth 30,000 Rs. about Battala, and appointed him to 
the command of the orderly Derah. He was with the Maharaja when 
he was assassinated, and was severely wounded in the endeavour to de- 
fend him. He was killed in December, 1845, at the battle of Firushahr, 
^vhere Kirpal Singh was also wounded. A short time previousl/ he had 
introduced his sons Kirpal Singh and Dyal Singh to the young Maharaja 
Dalip Singh, and had obtained for them a jagir of 1,200 Rs. Shortly after- 
wards, however, the jagirs were reduced to 6,000 Rs. by Raja Lai Singh. 



'A z'Ti^iTivs i.Ti'Ti -zt jj T f iiuK gc KSiie miier the ordeis of CapUiQ 
.331= ULL -7#^ £■*.« ^laK c ^.jiifiTP in. jcsendancs m the ^Liharaja. 

Jizzsr . ii'Tt-'ir ; aL ~ae wne _■ imii ;aens 'jf Sirdar Rrpal Singh 
^l^is rssZesL .MMBssaszMiz ~% ISLVP 3&^ ^vor <g n ni i inffi » and ize enjoyed 

^■,^p > ;T -j^ .jiiB»r*aies x Tinrrr*, aiiniE ax ndliis firom the 



NAWAB IMAMUDDIN KHAN. 











Shaikh Ujala. 
1 




Shaikh GhuUm MohiuddhL 






D. 1844. 

I 




Nawab Imamuddin Khan. 




Shaikh Firozaddio. 


D. 1859. 
1 




B. 1836. 
1 


Shaikh Qholam Mahbub SoUumi. 




Nauraddio. 


B. 1842. 
1 




B. 1853. 


1 

Saadat Mant Khan. 






H. 1864. 







HtSTORY or THE FAMILY. 

Shaikh IJjala of the Kalal tribe, was a Munshi in the service of Sirdar 
Blmp Singh, of Hoshiarpur. Hia son Ghulam MoAiudditt, when very 
young, attracted the attention of Diwan Moti Bam, son of the celebrated 
general Mohkam Chand, who placed him in attendance on his second son^ 
Shivdyal. Here he soon became a man of importance, and managed 
all the affairs of Shivdyal, whose two brothers, Ram Dyal and Kirpa 
Ram, also favoured the youog man and advanced his interests. 

In 1823, when Muhammad Azim Khan of Kabul had marched 
to Peshawar to attack the Sikhs, Ranjit Singh wished, if possible, to 
induce the Afghans to retire without fighting. Kirpa Ram put OAn^ 
lajn MoMuddin forward as well suited to carry on the negotiation, 
and he accordingly bought • over the ' pir/ or spiritual adviser of 
Muhammad Azim Khan, who persuaded the Sirdar to retire, to protect 
his family and treasure at Minchini; which the Sikhs intended to seize. 



Tar X:ua!xixiLid ^^«=«i^ bric&ar of Mobamnud Azim Khan, was ^l<m 
irader Sikk m;f.iffniTe, and clks rssolt w^ diat the Af ghan annj was 
IiasdiT bnfcsxL zp, and redzed in etH&fiuaxi upon Minchini aod Jaklabad. 
Mahanra Sanjic SixLia took podBesioa of Peshawar, and not thinking it 
wise c*> rexaain tinoe loag, dmlsd the terntocj between Mohammad 
Tar Khan and IX^st Mifiammfci Khan, and recomed to Lahore. Before 
he I^ fsi*LiM JfiAiMdli* was sent on a mimoQ to Mohammad Azim 
Khan, on the part of the Maharaja. ELe told the Sirdar of the captoie 
of I^dhawar, and its deKrerr to Ae brothers who had betrayed him, 
and the nevrs so aifected the ChidT with m<»tinGation and anger, that he 
feD ill and died twenty-two days later. 

In lSi7, Shaikh Gimhm MciimdJim accompanied his patron Kirpa 
Bam to Kashmir, where the latter had been a^^inted Governor. The 
Shaikh became sole a^nt for Kirpa Bam, and he exercised his power 
with great cruelty and tyranny. In InSI, when, throogh the enmity 
of Raja Dhyan Singfa^ Kirpa Bam was recalled, Gialam Mokiuddiu was 
also summoned to Lahore, fined and imprisoned. Bat, later in the same 
year, he agtiin proceeded to Kashmir as agent and lieotenant of Prince 
Shor Singh, who hai been nominated to socceed Kirpa Ram. The Prince 
knew little of biisiuess, and the Shaikh acquired more power than ever, 
which he usevl more ruthlessly than before. The people cried out bitter- 
ly ao^aitist his oppression : and to add to their distress, Kashmir was, 
in 1S3:?, visitovl by famine. The Shaikh was again recalled to Lahore 
and fined. He protested against the amount of the fine, which he said 
\v$ could never pay, and the Maharaja directed Misr Rap Lil to con* 
fi>cate his proi>crty at lloshiarpur. There was found concealed no less 
than nine and a half lakhs of rupees. Vainly the Shaikh swore that this 
wsis uu>noy aooumulated by his father in the service of Sirdar Bhup 
Sinixh ; but Uaiijit Sinjrh well knew that the little Sirdar had never seen 
a lakh of rujH»os in his life, and that the treasure had been wruug from 
tho starvini;: Kashmiris, lie confiscated the whole, and fined the Shaikh 
L*:>,iHM) Kji, beside*. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 1S9 

Ohuldm MoUuddin remained for some time out of employment, till 
Bhai Bam Singh^ wishing to have a friend about the person of Nao 
Nihal Singh, with ability anfficient to coonteract the influence of his 
enemyi Diwan Hakim Rai, plaoed him in the service of the Prince. 
Here he rapidly became a great favourite, and he accompanied the 
Priace to Peshawar and became his chief fiscal Minister. In 1839, 
he was madeQovemor of the Jalandhar Doabj and in the hot season 
of the next year was sent with General Ventura to subdue the Rajputs 
of Mandi. The progress of the troops was slow, and in September, 1840| 
Sirdar Ajit Singh, Sindhanwaliai was sent to their assistance with an 
additional force. 

When Nao Nihal Singh was killed on the 5th November, the Shaikh 
was still in the hills, but he quickly returned to Lahore, and espoused 
the cause of Mai Ghand Kour, mother of the deceased Prince. When 
Sher Singh ascended the throne, the Shaikh excused his opposition to 
him on the ground of fidelity to his late master, and so convinced Sher 
Singh of his sincerity, that on the arrival of the news of the murder of 
General Mian Singh, Governor of Kashmir, by his own men, on the 
17th April, 1841, the Shaikh was appointed to succeed him. He 
immediately left for Kashmir, and his son Imamuddin Kkan was summoned 
from Mandi to take charge of the Jalandhar Doab. 

Raja Gulab Singh was sent with Ohuhm Mohiuddin to restore order 
in Kashmir. The former had his hill troops, the latter the Jalandhar 
levies, chiefly Muhammadan. The Hazara troops and the Afghans of 
Pakhli and Dhamtour, who had revolted, were after some fighting reduced 
to submission, and lastly the Kashmir mutineers were defeated and 
disbanded. The Shaikh, who was Governor more on the part of Raja 
Gulab Singh than of the Lahore State, raised new regiments, consisting 
partly of hill Rajputs, subjects of Gulab Singh, and partly of Muhamma- 
dans. Being himself a Muhammadan, the Sikh authority in Kashmir 
depended thenceforward very much on the fidelity of Baja. Gulab 
Singh. 



160 HltrOIT OTTHK 



The leading ■»& in the kill ctmmtry wm Mtn Telwiket Khui, 
BejarfMaxaftmbed, His capital, at wkidi aeaatlSikii gaimenwaa 
sUtionedj waa on the road from Hazara infca KaAaar. Ha waa a bmh 
well di^oaed to the Lahore OoTemnnBl> in faeoar wiA Sher Smghi aad 
had dime good aenrioe in patting ionra Aa mlinj in 



This Chief, aboat two months after Sher Sin^'a death, waa treacher- 
oosl J teixed whik at pfayera in a moaqoe, b J ffia£m Jlbl»8iA^ 
and his jagirs eonfiscated. 

At dm ame tinm disputes arose bet w e e n Oolnb Singh and his 
nephew Hira Singh, and the farmer need ere^ meana to attadi the 
people of Kaahaur and the hiila to hiamdi: In dw he partiaUj saeoeed. 
ed, and at all eventa he ahowed the hill Chi^ and Mnhammndan popala- 
tion their own strength and the Sikh waakneaii ao daariy, that they 
detemunedtomakaaatandontheirownaoeannt. AecOidini^ji in Angnst, 
1844, Habibnllah Khan of PakhU attacked the Sikh gartiaon of Khori, bat 
GAaAm JfaiMtfaaentdM men to iu relief who defeated thei^^ 
and skw their leader. Soon after thia^Bi^a Saltan Khan of Kteri|jmned 
by a aon of Habiballah Khan, and other hiU Chieb, attacked and 
redneed Khori, awi, in October, mardied to liaaaffinbad and attacked 
the forts. Gkmlam IfoiMUmsentnsailyaU hiaSikk tioopa to the reUef 
of the garrison, bat the/ were attM^kcd and defeated bj the insargentS| 
who bamt the towo, and kitted such of their Sikh prisoners who would 
not adopt the Mahammadan fSuth. The son of Raja Zabaidast Khan 
and the Biyas of Dobheta and On now joined the insurgents, who 
became so strong that, in Norember, thej seized BaramuUa, and occu- 
pied the Fargannah of Shoopar, within a short march of the capital. 

OAmtam XoJtimUU now first infbrmed the eoort of Lahore of the in* 
•urrection. General Gulab Singh, F9via£a, then on his way to Peahap 
war, was ordered to adTanoe into Kashmir, with his troops. Beinfofco- 
monts were also sent by way of Puaeh and Jammu, bat those sent by 
Uaja Uulab Siugh soon halted, the depth of the snow being thet 



but the real reason wu that thd Raja did not wi^h to c6^operat« heaMIly 
till ho had secured aome advantages for himself ; a retention of the salt 
mine leases ; the repossession of Hazara, and the restoration to favor of 
Chiefs, like Ghattar Singh, Attariwala, who, in the late quarrel, had es* 
poused his cause. 

The troops that marched by way of Punch were commanded by 
Tmamuddin KAan, son of Ohulam Mohiuddin. This young man, though he 
had served in the Derajat under Prince Nao Nihal Singh^ had never been 
in action, and had no military reputation. He joined the Kashmir ex- 
pedition with the gpreatest reluctance, and only consented to go, on the 
understanding that no Sikh troops were to accompany him, for he was 
hated by them as the murderer ^ of Bhai Gurmukh Singh and Misr Beli 
Bam. 

In the meantime Kashmir had been entirely over*run by the inaulp* 
gents, and Ohulam Mohiuddin was shut up in the fort of Hari Parbat. 
The Muhammadan troops had revolted, the hill Bajas were all up in 
arms, and the Sikhs found they had their most difficult conquest to make 
over again. 

Among the Yusafzais of Pakhli and Dhamtour, an^ the tfibes of 
Khakka and Bhambapf the inaarrection was a religious onei and a man came 

I ■ ■ . ■ ... ■■ I n M ■■>■■■■■■■■■ ■ ,mtm,mm f^ i t i wm i ■ ■■ i* i iimM i iil.iM— M^^l ii K ti 

* KoTB.-^Aft«r th« ckftmclloti ol ihi SiBdhMnralia^ lUjs Bitk Singh ttMstecl Bb4i 
Oonaukh Singh, Miff BeU BAtt^ and hit W«Uier Ran KiiliMi, and ma4a Iban over to 
Imamuddin Khan, who ooafintd them in the atahlef a^ioii^^ ^ bouae, and here a few daja 
later they were all three murdered. 

Bhai Gurmtikh Singh waf as hivei«ale enen^ ol Raja Dhjati Singh, and no forpria 
can be felt at Raja Hiri Singh detirfaig hU death ; but Miir B«Ii Ram tnd bts brother, 
though oppoied in policy to Dbyan Smgh, were harmleei men, and Tery generaUy beloved. 
Their death waa barbaroaa and nnneeeaaary* Miar Bop Jjl\ who had been employed, in 1632, 
to confiicate the property of Qhukm Mokmidk^ Wm brother of Ukt B#li R«m. By fhe 
awder el th» latter It waa septwied that th« rfv«ige of tk0 0haiki) rattier thn thtl #f Raja 
Hira Siogb, waf aatiafied. 



162 BlVrOBT OF THS 

forward calling himself the Khalifa or vioar of the Sjad^^ and was joined 
by all the fierce population in the attack upon Hazara and Kashmir. . 

The force of Gulab Singh, Povindia, and Diwan Mulraj^f at length 
advanced to Muza£Parabad and relieved the garrison. It then marched 
into the valley^ and after some severe fighting the insurgents were 
defeated. Raja Zabardast Khan was reinstated at Muzuffarabad and 
the neighbouring Bajas were made subordinate to him. In February^ 1845| 
Shaikh Ghulam Mohiuddin tried to open negotiations with the English 
Government, to which he tendered his allegiance^ and that of Raja Rahim- 
uUa Khan of Rajaori. His proposals were rejected^ and soon afterwards 
he diedj it is believedi from poison^ and his son Imamuddin Khan, who 
was in Kashmir at the time, succeeded him as Oovemor. 

The Shaikhs (as the father and son were called) had neither family 
nor influence^ and were useful to the Lahore State chiefly as being unscru- 
pulous collectors of revenue. 

Their names are not remembered with any afiectiouj either in Kashmir 
or in the Jalandhar Doab. They were hated by the SikhSj and this 
was considered as a guarantee for their fidelity^ but both father and son 
had a natural genius for treason and intrigue^ which no considerations of 
prudence could overcome. 

Imamuddin Khan was Governor of Kashmir when that province was 
made over to Maharaja Gulab Singh, by the treaty of Jthe 16th March, 
1846. This transfer was not popular at Lahore, and to Raja Lai Singh 
the Minister, it was especially distasteful^ for Gulab Singh had always 
been his rival and enemy. He, accordingly, sent instructions to Imam* 
uddin Khan to oppose the Maharaja, and directed the troops to obey the 
Shaikh implicitly, Imamuddin Khan was willing enough to comply. He 



* Syad Ahmad, who was defeated and slain hy Sher Singh and General Ventura in 1831. 
His folbwers (who are nnmerous all oyer India) asserted that the river shrank hack to aid 
his escape and dosed upon his pursaers, and that he wonid re-appear and lead them to yictory. 
His last stand was made in Pakhli and Dhamtoor. 

t Diwan Molraj was Qoyemor of Hazara, and must not he oonfonnded with Diwan Hnlfaj, 
GoTemor of Multan. 



. ^ PAKJAB CHI£FS. 163^ 

WM very ricby and lie uaderstood iUat the snccesB of the Maharaja 8tgnified|^ 
not only the end of his exactionS| but also the rigid scrutiny of hifl 
accounts by his declared enemies^ It was popularly reported at this 
time that the family possessed from seventy lakhs to two crores of rupeeSj- 
and although this was doubtless an exaggeration, yet it is <^ertain that the 
father and sun had amassed an immense fortune during their occupation, 
of Kashmir and Jalandhar. 

It is possible t\mt Imamuddin JTiait, misapprehending the motives of the 
British Government, imagined that by the payment of a large sum of ready 
money, he might be allowed to retain Kashmir, as Viceroy, and with this' 
object was ready to carry out the instructions of Raja Lai Singh, and make 
a prolonged resistance to show his own power and resources. But whatever 
were the reasons for his conduct, he disregarded the peremptory orders^of 
tbe Darbar to evacuate the province ; he induced| by bribes, many of the 
Maharnja^s troops to join his standard, and with the assistance of Fakir- 
uUah Khan, son of Raja RahirouUah Khan of Rajaori, and other hill 
chiefsj he retained possession of the greater part of the country until a 
large force was sent from Lahore against him* 

It was not until the army had reached the border of the Kashmir 
valley, that the Shaikh, seeing further opposition to be useless, came in to: 
Colonel Lawrence's camp at Thannah and surrendered himself. He thea 
gave up two letters and an address to the troops serving under him, which^ > 
he stated, contained the instructions of Raja Lai Singh, and in obedience 
to which he had acted. Although the sentiments of the Minister towards 
Gulab Singh were notorious, it was thought hardly conceivable that he 
should have been foolish enough to put his signature to these treasonable 
documents ; but on the return of the force to Lahore, he was brought to 
trial. The authenticity of both the letters and the address to the troops 
was fully proved, and Lai Singh, convicted of deliberate treason, was 
deposed from the ^ Wizarat' and banished to Agra. Shaikh Imamuddin 
Khan, though a willing party to the treasoUi was pardoned, and his Lahore 



Ifii HI8T0BT or THX FANJAB ChUFS. 

estatesj whiclis with his other property in that city, had been confiscatedi 
vere restored to him. 

The generoxia treatment he received seems to have made a favorable 
impression upon Imamuddioi and, in 1848, when almost all were traitors 
to their Qovernment, he remained faithful, though great efforts were 
xnade by the leaders of the rebellion to gain him to their side. In June^ 
1848, with 2,000 newly-raised troops, he marched to Multan, to co-oper- 
ate with the force of Lieutenant (now Sir Herbert) Edwardes. Both he 
and his men behaved weil| and distinguished themselves in several actions 
with the rebels. 

When peace was restored, he received, as a reward for his services, 
the tide of Nawab, and a life cash pension of 11,600 Rupees, and his jagir 
of 8,400 Rupees was confirmed to him* 

In 1857, he raised, under the orders of Government, two troops of 
Cavahry for service at Delhi. 

He died in March, 1859, aged 40, leaving one son, Sh^h Gkulam 
Mahbub Sobhanu now 22 years of age. 

In 1862j at the recommendation of the Panjab Government, the 
Supreme Government sanctioned 5,600 Rs. of jagirs of Ghulam Mair 
bub Sobhani being upheld in perpetuity ; 2,800 Its. to li^pse at }^ 
death. 

He has one son, an infant of 10 months old. 



BHAI PARDOMAN SINGH. 



Bhai Ram Sihqh. 

BfaAiBoratSiogli. 
I 



Bhai Oardai Singh.^ Bb«i Sanfc Singh. 

D. 1804. 



Bhai Sher Singh, \ j i 

BhtiJodh Singh. Bhai Chnrmiikh Bhigh. B.DeWftS. 

D. 1843. 

. j I 

Sbai Fardoman Sfngl^ B. Madhaudan 8. B.LehnaS. B. Aijan a 



B. Jowahhr Shtth. 
B. 1859. 



Phai Hardeo Singh. Bhai Ganaham Siqgji. 

B« 1849. p. 1868. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The ancestors of Bhu Pardoman Singh resided at Choniot in tlio 
Jhang district^ and several of them, at different timeSj entered the 8er« 
vice of the Mahammadan chiefs of Multan, but the earljr history of tha 
family is in no way important. Ram Singh became a SiJ^h and a 
follower of Gum Govind Singh. He was a eealous preacher of the Sikh 
faith^ in his own part of the country, so much so that the Multan autho« 
rities grew alarmed and ordered his arrest, but he received timely inform 
mation, and was able to escape to Amritsar. The Multan Governor took 
Surat Singh, the only son of Aim Singh, into his service^ and the 
father thinking all danger to be past, returned home, where he died shorti- 
ly afterwards. Surat Singh then left Multan^ and wandered about the 
country, as his father had ixm^, preachiog the Sikh faith* sod hia pOft* 



166 BISTORT OF THE 

duct excited the same sitspiciotia. He contrived to get awaj to Amrit* 
aar^ with most of his propertj^ and was soon patronized by the Chiefs 
who were at that time becoming powerful, and was placed in charge 
of the building of the Darbar Sahib, the Sikh temple at Amritsar. In 
the Jalandhar Doab he acquired a small jagir, where be built a fort^ and 
then returned to Amritsar, where he died. 

In 1806, Maharaja Banjit Singh conquered the plain portion of the 
Jalandhar Doab, but he allowed Sant Singh to retain his jagir, and he 
appointed him to succeed his father in the superintendence of repairs 
and decoration of the Darbar Sahib. Bhai Sunt Singh was no contempt!^ 
ble soldieri and on several occasions he served with credit. During 
the campaign of 1821 the Mahamrfa was engaged in the siege of a small 
fort on the way to Mankerah. Suddenly the sky grew dark and a 
violent storm came on. Banjit Singh was caught by a furious blast 
of wind, and thrown into the ditch, from which the earth for the batteries 
had been ezcayated. Sant Singh saw his fall, aqd knowing that it is an 
ill wind that blows nobody any good, sprang inta the ditch, and Fifting 
the Maharaja in his arms carried him in triumph to his tent. For this 
service he received jagirs in the Amritsar and Sialkot districts to the 
value of 6,800 Rupees. Whether this story be false or true, it is cer- 
tain that Sant SxngKs jagirs were numerous, and that he stood high io 
the favour of the Maharaja. 

About tliis time Bliai Gurdas Singh who had been a reader of the 
Granth, in the Darbar Sahib, died, and Sant Singhy in grief for his 
loss determined to give up worldly affairs and devote himself to read* 
ing and expounding the scriptures. In the room of his father came 
to court Qurmukh Singh, who soon became as great a favourite as Sant 
Singh had been. Bhai Sant Singh was called Gyani (one who meditates on) 
divine things and was held in much respect till his death. He wrote 
a. commentary on the Ramayana and a txeatise on the rite of the Pahal, 
0^ Sikh bapti3m» 



PANJAB CHisn. 167 

When Pardoman Singh yruA thirteen^ the Mabaraja took him into his 
service and gave him the jagir of SLaliwal, worth 1100 Bupees. Bhai 
Gurmukh Singh had not enjoyed much influence duiing the life time 
of Ranjit Singh, forhis enemy, Bhai Bam Singh, was high in the favour of 
the Maharaja. With Nao Nihal Singh he had stiUlcss influence, and 
when the prince was killed, he took up the cause of Prince Sher Singh 
warmly, for the principal reason that Ram Singh was leader of the rival 
party of Mai Chand Kour. 

When Sher Singh became Maharaja, he did not forget the services of 
Gurmukh Singh^ whom he treated with great consideration, and to whom 
he gave large jagirs. But the real power was kept by Baja Dhyan Siogh^ 
the minister, in his own hands. The Maharaja, though he hated Dhyan 
Singh and knew his unpopularity with the nation^ could not get rid of 
him. He, however, played off Qurmukh Singh against him, and the Bhai, 
from his religious character and long friendship with the Maharaja, could 
not be excluded from the presence. But otherwise the contest between 
the statesman and the priest was most unequal. Gurmukh Singh was 
supported by no powerful party, he was without character or Ability^ 
while Raja Dhyan Singh was the ablest man of his day, subtle, plausiblci 
cautious, though bold even to audacity in attacking and destroying hia 
declared enemies. 

Throughout the reign of Sher Singh, the Bhai intrigued against Baja 
Dhyan Singh, and joined in the Sindhanwalia conspiracy against his life. 
When Raja Hira Singh, son of the murdered minister, rose to power, he, 
at the instigation of Bhai Ram Singh and Misr Lai Singh, arrested 
Gurmukh Singh with his friend Misr Beli Ram, the Toshakhania, and 
made them over for custody to Shaikh Imamuddin Khan, by whom they 
were put to death. Bhai Ram Singh was a far abler man than his rival 
Gurmukh Singh^ but of no higher character. Both were unscmpulous and 
scheming men, and both made religion a cloak for their amUtion and 
intrigue. 



168 HWlOn OP THB 

After tixedts& of Gurmnii Simfi, di\ tie etUteaartbafkmilf were 
oonfiscated and tlieir honsos andpecsonal p^peily seised. Bhai Artb^ 
matt Siu§h and Us brotheia trare impriaened at Amrilaar, {dacad ia irooa^ 
and treated with die greatest aeirarity» The reH^QS Inklies of tbe city^ 
made great efforts t» oUain dieir releaee, and, at last, FatthmoM SingJt 
contrivad to cicape, and with hia youngest brother Airjan^ Sit^i, fed to 
Ladiaaahy where he remained under prateetion of the British Go^mment, 
till the murder of Hira Singh allowed him to retnm to Lahore. The (bur 
brothers obtained the release of a portion of their jagirs in the Amritsar 
District^ amounting to Rs. 5489. Bbat Bxrckman Singh then set out to 
Hardwar to perform his father^s funeral rites^ and was promised that on 
his return the other jagirs of Gurmuhh Sinffh should be released. On his 
retam his houses at Amritsar were made over to him, and he would have 
probably recovered the rest of the property, had not the war with the 
English commenced, while his case was still pending, followed by the 
annexation of the country in 1849. The jagir of 5488 Bs. at Mochal and 
Knleir Ghuma was released for the lives of the brothers, subject to pay- 
ment of one quarter revenue. The British Government could do not more 
foe the family. Bhai Gurmukh Singh bad acquired bis large possessions 
as much by his intrigues as his sanctity. He played for a high stake, 
WeaHh and political power, and! lost ; and although the Sikh Government 
and especially the army, filled with remorse for the murder of the 
Bhai, which their own evil passions had allowed, would probably have 
again placed his family in an influential position, yet the British Govern- 
ment could not be expected to feel either sympathy or remorse. 

Bhai Pariomam Singh accompanied Sirdar Lehna Singh ]^lajitlua to 
Benares, in 1853. He is no^r superintendent of the repairs of the Darbac 
Sahib at Amritsar, and has charge of jagirs to the amount of 4000 Bupeea 
per annum^ released in perpetuity for the support of the temple. 

Afjan Singh died some years ago, leaving one son Jowahif Singh* 
Madhiudan Bingh entered the service of Government, in 1857} as Jama- 
dar of ten sowars raised by his brother. He was present at the capture 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 169 

of mutineers at Ajnala in the same year, and having been made a Bi- 
Baldari was sent to Thanesar, where he died. His family, and that of 
Arjan SiUgi^ have a pention of dOO Bopc ea> their ahace ia the jafir baying 
been resumed. 

Lehna Singh^ the remaining bcother^ is Naib Tehsildar at Jalan- 
dhar. 



SIRDAR MANGAL SINGH, RAMGHARIA. 



Has Das. 

Baghwan Singh. 
D. 1787. 

I 



Ju Binghy Jassa Singh, Khtuhhal Singh, Mali Singh, Tara Singb^ 
D. 1756. D. 1803. D. 1812. D. 1792. i>. 1797. 
I 1 

Sirdar Jodh S. Wir Mehtah Sahib Qnlab Wariam 8. Diwan 

Singh, Singh, Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. Smgh, 
D.1816. D. 1828. D. 1834. 
I 



Jaimal Singh, Sobha S., Sirdar Manga! Singh, 
D.1848. D. 1845. B. 1800. 
' I I 

UtamS. Fatah S. Joalla S. Achhar Singh, Qurdit Mitt Singh, Sher Smgh, 

B. 1807. B. 1819. B. 1834. B. 1814. Singh, B. 1842. a 1846. 



Dharta Singh. Maghar Singh, 

B. 1859. 



B. 1837. 
I 
Barbara Singh. 



Ganga Singh. Tarkha Singh. Taringa Singh. Eadar Singh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Bamgharia misi, from which the family of Sirdar Manual Singh 
takes its name^ was one of the most powerful of the Sikh confederacies, 
and towards the close of the eighteenth century could bring into the field 
about eight thousand fighting men. Of its leaders, Jassa Singh was the 
most distinguished, although he can hardly be called its founder, for, 
through many unquiet years it had existed, as an organized body, under 
Khushhal Singh and Nand Singh. But it was only when Jassa Singh 
succeeded to the command, in 1758^ that it became powerful and renowned. 

Ear Das, the grandfather of Jassa Singhj was a Hindu of the Najjar or 
carpenter caste, resident at Sarsang in the Lahore district. He was con- 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 171 

tent to follow his humble trade in his native village^ but his son Bhagwtm^ 
of a more adventurous disposition, took the * pahal/ the Sikh baptismi 
and with the addition of Singh to his name, wandered about the country, 
making coiiverts to his new faith. He at length settled at Ichugil, where, 
there were born to him five sons, Jai Singh, JaBsa Singh, Khushhal Singh, 
Mali Singh and Tara Sinqh, the four last of whom became noted men and 
leaders of the Eamgharia misl. There was no great difference in the 
ages of the brothers, and, in 1752, on their reaching manhood, they 
entered the service of the celebrated Nawab Adina Beg Khan. This 
able man, then Imperial Governor of the Jalandhar Doab, encouraged 
the Sikhs in their resistance to Ahmad Shah Durani, hoping to rise, by 
their assistance, to supreme power in the province ; and in this he would 
probably have been successful, but for his premature death, in 1758* 

When Prince Timur, son of Ahmad Shah, marched against him, deter- 
mined to punish his opposition, Adina Beg retreated to the hills, and 
Jassa Singh and his brothers left bim and went to Amritsar, where they 
joined the force of Nand Singh, Sanghani. Jai Singh was about this time 
killed in action with the Afghans near Majitha. 

Amritsar was at this time no more than a large village, and on the 
retreat of the Afghans, Nand Singh and Jassa Singh partially fortified it, 
surrounding a portion with a high mud wall, which they called Bam 
Kouni. When Adina Beg returned, thinking the Sikhs were becoming 
too powerful, he sent Mirza Aziz Bakshi to reduce the new fort, which 
was, in truth, no difficult matter. Jassa Singh and his friends fought 
gallantly, and made more than one sally from the fort, but they were over- 
matched and at length abandoned it at night, and, with considerable loss, 
cut their way through the enemy. The Ram Rouni was dismantled, 
but Adina Beg died shortly afterwards, and Jassa Singh, taking command 
of the confederacy, named the fort he had defended so bravely, Ramghar; 
and his misl, the Ramgharia. He aeized at this time, aided by the 
Kanhcya misl, Dinanagar, Battala, Kalanur, Sri Hargovindpur, Kadian, 
Ghumman, and many other towns in the Amritsar and Gurdaspur Districts 



178 HISTORY Of THE 

the revenuie of which i^as estiniated at from six to ten lakhs of nipeed. 
Besides this, Jaim Sin^hj who was sole lord of the terHtory, acquired many 
Tillages in the Jalandhar Doab. To his brothers he gave separate jagirs, 
uhder him. It was their imprudence which brought great trouble on the 
family, for as Jassa Singh, Ahluwalia, was passing near Gtirdaspur on his 
friay to Achal, a pliace of pilgrimage, he was attacked by Khttshhal Sin^k, 
Mali Singh and Tara Singh ; his troops were dispersed and himself 
taken prisoner. Jassa Singh Ramgharia> who would have been glad enough 
had his brothers slain his rival, could only release him with rich gifts, when 
he was brought in as prisoner, for the old Sikh barons had much of the spi- 
rit of chivalry. But the Ahluwalia chieftain was not to be appeased. He 
was looked up to as the head of the Ehalsa, and indeed its founder ; his 
followers and flatterers called him King (Sultan-ul-Kaum) and yet he 
had been insulted by these Kamgharia youths, whose beards had but 
just begun to grow, and he swore a mighty oath that he would never 
loose his turban till he had seized all the Ramgharia estates. Many 
chiefs came to aid him, thinking not much of the insult, but having 
an eye to plunder and new jagirs. There was Ganda Singh and 
Jhanda Singh Bhangi ; the Kanheyas, Jai Singh and Hakikat Singh, 
old friends of the Ramgharias ; Charrat Singh Sukarchakia; Nar Singh, 
<3hamyariwala, and many others. They attacked Jassa Singh on all 
stdes, and after a severe struggle, took possession of all the Ramgharia 
territory. Khushhal Singh was badly wounded at Wegowal fighting 
with Jai Singh, Kanheya ; Tara Singh lost Kalanur, and Jassa Singh 
fled across the Satlej to Sirsa with a large body of irregular horse, 
having sent his two sons to the Pattiala chief Amar Singh, to beg assis- 
tance. 

In the Sirsa district he remained till 1783* He overran the country 
with his horsemen, and plundered up to the walls of Delhi ; on one occa- 
sion he penetrated into Delhi itself, and carried off" four guns from the 
Mogal quarter. The Nawab of Meerat paid him tribute of 1 0,000 Rs. 
a year, to save hia district from plunder. One day a Brahman com- 



TANJAB CBIEF8. 173 

plained to him that the Qovernor of Hissar had carried off his two 
daughters by force. Jassa Singh collected his forces and inarched against 
Hissar, which he plundered, and restored the girls to their father. Some- 
times he was reduced to gre^t straits, and there is a story, which may 
be true, that at Sirsa, a servant of the Sirdar happerting to drop his 
vessel down a well, a diver was sent to fetch it, who discovered at the bot- 
tom four boxes full of gold-mohurs, to the value of five lakhs of rupees, 
enabling Jassa Singh to pay his troops, and enlist new followers* 

A great famine desolated Sirsa, in 1 783, and the Sirdar returned to 
the Panjab. At Ludianah he met messengers from Sirdar Mahan Singh, 
Sukarchakia, and Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra, offering to reinstate 
him in his possessions if he would join them against Sirdar Jai Singh, 
Kanheya. Jassa Singh consented readily enough, and having joined 
forces, the allies marched to Battala, Ourbaksh Singh, son of Jai Singh, 
advanced against them, with 8,000 men, but he was defeated and slain, 
and the Kanheya chief was compelled to give up the Ramgharia estates to 
their old owner, and the fort of Kangra, which he had held for four years, 
to Sansar Ghand. But. Jasna Singh was not destined to enjoy peace, 
and for many years he was engaged in disputes with the Kanheya misl, 
in which he was sometimes successful, sometimes defeated. 

In 1796, his last and most severe struggle with the Kanheyas took 
place. Mai Sadda Kour, widow of Sirdar Gurbaksh Singh, was then 
head of the misl, and with all her own forces and those of her young 
son-in-law Ranjit Singh, she besieged Jagsa Singh, in Miani, a fort in 
the Hosliiarpur district, near the Beas. Jassa Singh defended himself 
for some time, but his provisions ran very low, and he sent a messenger 
to Sahib Singh, Bedi, at Amritsar, to beg him to interpose between him 
and his enemies. Jodh Singh, Wazirabadia, and Dal Singh, Gil, were 
with the Bedi, on the part of Ranjit Singh^ when the Ramgharia 
messenger arrived, and Sahib Singh gave them a message to Sadda 
Kour and Ranjit Singh, bidding them raise the si^^ of Miani« But 
Sadda Kour would not retire without her revenge for her huiband's death 



174 HISTOBYOFTHB 

and her enemy was now in her hands^ so no notice was taken of die 
Bedims order. Again Jassa Singh sent a messenger, and Bed! Sahib Singh 
said — ^' They will not mind me ; but God himself will aid you." The 
messenger returned to Miani^ and that very night the river Beaa came 
down in flood, and swept away a large portion of the Kanheya camp, 
men and horses and camels. Sadda Kour and Banjit Singh escaped with 
difficulty, and retired to Gujranwala. 

Jassa Singh died in 1 803, and was succeeded by his eldest son Jodk 
Singh. The new Sirdar was not a man of any ability, and his cousin 
Diwan Singh seized a large portion of the jagir. At length Ranjit 
Singh began to lust after the Ramgharia territory, and feigned 
the greatest affection for Sirdar Jodh Singh. He had a contract of eternal 
friendship between himself and the Ramgharia family drawn out, and 
before the Granth, in the holy Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, he stamped the 
paper in his royal and illiterate way, with his open palm, dyed with saffron. 
The better to cajole Jodh Singh j he went over the Ramghar fort almost un- 
attended, and ordered his new fort of Govindghar to be built in the same 
fashion. Ranjit Singh cared little about keeping oaths, however solemn, 
but Jodh Singh had been won over, and became so devoted a follower, that 
there was no excuse to annex his territory. He accompanied the Maharaja 

to Kassur, with all his force, in the last successful expedition against 

Kutbuddin Khan. 

On the death of Jodh Singh in 1816, the family began to quarrel; 
Diwan Sijigh^ JFir Singh, and the widow of Jodh Singh all claiming the 
estate. The Maharaja hearing of this, called the three cousins, fFir 
Singhy Mehtab Singh^ and Diwan Singh to him at Nadon, promising to 
settle the dispute by arbitration. On their arrival they were received 
with courtesy by the Maharaja, but he soon took occasion to leave the 
reception tent, which was straightway surrounded with troops, and the 
three Ramgharias made prisoners. Then Ranjit Singh marched on Amrit- 
sar, and after some severe fighting took the Fort of Ramghar. Again 
marching northward, he seized all the vast Ramgharia jagirs, and in a 



PAN JAB CHIEFS. 175 

short time reduced all their fortSi upwards of a hundred in number. And 
thus was cancelled the saffron bond. 

Wir Singh and Mehlab Singh were soon released, and were placed 
under Sirdar Lehna Singh, Majithia, and at the intercession of Sirdar 
Nihal Singhy Attariwala, a jagir of 35,000 Rs. was settled on the family. 
Diioan Singh for some time refused to accept his share of 6,000 Rs. at 
Dharamkot, and remained a prisoner, but at length pretended to acquiese. 
On regaining his freedom, however, he fled to Pattiala, where he was 
at first well received, but afker a year was compelled to leave, and he 
then wandered about for some time, till he thought it best to submit, and 
returning to Lahore, he accepted a command of 700 men, in the expedition 
then fitting out for Kashmir. After iliis we hear little of him beyond 
that he remained in charge of BaramuUi a diflScuIt hill post, on the road 
to Srinagar, till his death, in 1831?. JTir Singh had died six years before, 
in 1828, when two-thirds of his Jagir were resumed. 

Sirdar Mangal SiugA, though of the younger branch, is the present 
representative of the family. He served during his younger days about the 
person of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who gave him jagirsin Dharamkot, 
Kalowala,Tibrah and Kundilah, worth 9,000 Rs. of which 3,600 Rs., were 
personal, and 5,100 Rs. for service. After his father's death, Sirdar Man* 
gal Singh was sent to Peshawar in command of 400 foot and 110 sowars 
of the old Ramgharia clan. Here, under Sirdar Tej Singh and Sirdar 
Ilari Singh Nalwa, he did good service, and fought in the famous battle 
of Jamrud, in April, 1837, where the gallant Han Singh was killed. In 
1839, he was recalled, and sent to the hill country between the Beas and 
the Satlej, under the orders of Sirdar Lehna Singh, Majithia and during the 
absence of that chief at Peshawar he was placed in charge of the hill forts, 
and was active in the suppression of the insurrection of 1840. 

During the reign of Maharaja Sher Singh he was chiefly employed, 
under Lehna Singh, in Suket, Mandi and Kulu, and he remained there till 
the close of the Satlej war in 1846. The Rajput Chiefs, with Raja Balcrsen 



176 HI9TDBT or TBI PA3UAli CHIEFS. 

of Maodi, ftt tbetrlicacl^ weienot slow to take ftdTanttgeof the tmr with 
the English^ and gave the Sirdar plenty of work^ but he held hid ground 
till the treaty of the 9th jlarch, I8i6, enabled him to give up his truat 
with honor. 

Daring the tecoad Sikh wary IKrdar Mongol Sinfh remained loyal^ and 
did exceUent serrioe, in guacding the toads and maintaining order in the 
Amritsar and Gntdaspor dittricta. His great exploit howercr at this time 
was the eaptore of the notorioui rebel and robber Hari Singh^ who had 
for some time kept the eoontiy abont AmritSar in a state of alarm* This 
he efiected at Sagarpurah, near Bangar Naagal, a grant of which jagir 
worth 3^700 was made to him by the Dart>ar) and confirmed after annex- 
ation. 

In 1862, on the retirement of Sirdar Jodh Singh, Sirdar Mangal Singh 
was appointed manager of the affairs of the Sikh Temple at Amritsar, This 
appointment, which is one of some diflSculty, has been filled by the 
Sirdar with tact and ability. In the same year he was appointed Honorary 
Magistrate of the city of Amrit8a;r. 

Sirdar Mangal Singh is a man of education and liberal ideas. It has 
been in a great measure owing to his influence and examplei that the cause 
of female education has been so widely and systematically taken up in the 
city of Amritsar. 

Gurdit Singh, eldest son of the Sirdar Mangal Singh, in Februajy, 
1858, joined Colonel Abbott, at Hoshiarpur, when that oflBicer was raising 
a force of cavalry for service in Oade. Onrdtt Singh was made Eesld- 
dar, and served in theOude Mounted Police to the complete satisfaction of 
his superior officers, until October> 1859, xvhen, on the reduction of the 
force, he returned to Amritsar, where he was made 1st class Inspector of 
Police. He was transferred to Lahore in September, 1864. 

Aiitl SingJi, the second son of Sirdar Mongol Singh is in Government 
civil employ at Amritsar* 



SIRDAR SARDUL SINGH MAN, OP MANANWALA. 



TARA StKOH. 



I I I 

Sirdar Ram Singh. Sirdar Sham Singh. Danghter, 



M. $. Lakha Siogh, Awan. 



Bibi Sadda Kotir Sirdar Fatah Singh, 

M. 8. Sobha Siogh, U. Biftor of S. Nor Singh, 

Hulluwalla. Aimahwala, 

D. 1S45. 



Bibi kakob, S. Sardol Siigh. 8. Jowalk Singh. 

M. S. Ajit Singh, Sindhanwalia. b. 1810. D. 1860. 

D. 1843. 1 I 

Bibi Partab Kour, Bibi Nibal Konr, Partab Bibi Gakb Koh^ Jiiw fiaja Hira 

M. S. Isar Singh, M. S. Riahan Singh. m. son of S. Singh. Singh. Singh. 

Kakkai. Singh, Chlnah. ft. 1834. Kharrak Sixkgfa, B. 1852. B. 1886. B. 1838. 

I Jalaodhar. I 

MohtabSii^h. Son, 

B. 1860. B. 1868. 



histohy of the family. 

Sirdar Sardul Singh Man is of the same descent as the Man Sirdars of 
Mogalchak in the Gujranwala district. Some account of the Man Jat 
tribe will be found in the history of the Mogalchak family (V. Sirdar 
Fatah Singh Man). 

The branch of the Man tribe to whidh Sardul Singi belongs, had for 
many generations been resident at MaiMuiwiJa in the Amritsar distdct^ 
when, the village having been plundered and destroyed about the year 
1720, Tara Sin^k abandoitfed it, with his whok family^ and settled at Narii 
with his brothers-in-law. The Sikhs were at this tkae beoomini^ powe^- 
folj and Tara SingA witk a iband ot borsemen^ composed chiefly of mem« 



178 HISTORY OP THE 

bers of his own clan, seized and held, till his death, several villages in the 
Amritsar district. 

Karam Singk, his son, was an enterprizing man, and was far more 
snccessfal than his father in the art of plunder and annexation. He 
joined the Bhangi confederacy, and acquired jagirs in the Lahore, Sialkot 
and Amritsar districts. He rebuilt Mananwala and took up his 
residence there. 

Karam Singh was succeeded by his two sons, Ram Singh and Sham 
Singh. These young men, about 1780, left the Bhangi misl aijd went over 
to Sirdar Mahan Singh, Sukarchakia, by whom they were very well treat- 
ed, and allowed a share both in his fighting and his plunder. Ram Singh 
does not seem to have had any enmity against his old associates, for he 
married his only child Bibi Sadda Kour to a Bhangi chief. Sirdar Sobha 
Singh, Halluwalia, builder of Eila Sobha Singh in the Sialkot district, and 
son of Sirdar Bhag Singh, Halluwalia. In 1788, Ram Singh died, and his 
younger brother Sfiam Singh was allowed to succeed to the whole estate. 
In 1790, however, Sirdar Mahan Singh confiscated all but Mananwala, 
and Ralliabadho worth 20,000 Rs. per annum, which Sham Singh enjoyed 
till his death, giving no service during the life of Mahan Singh, but under 
Ranjit Singh furnishing a contingent of fifteen horsemen. 

Sirdar Fatah Singh had been early introduced to lianjit Singh by his 
father, and when Prince Kharrak Singh was a few years old, Fatah Singh 
was appointed especially for his service. The Sirdar served in the Eangra 
campaign of 1809 ; at Daskah, where he was wounded in the shoulder ; at 
Chunian, where he was again wounded in his hand, and at Sahiwal, where 
after the capture of the town from Fatah Khan, he was appointed com- 
mandant and where he remained for a year. In 18 11, he received from 
Kharrak Singh, from his pergonal estates, a jagir worth 1,00,000 Rs. sub- 
ject to the service of three hundred horse. Other Jagirdars, amounting 
with their contingents to 700 men, were also placed under his command, 
and he was sent to Jammu to reduce some insurgents there toorder ; and 
after thia he was sent, with other Sirdars, to Kulu and Kangra. He 



fought at tlie battle of Attock^ and in the misetable Kaahmir expedition 
of 1814, he, with Dewan Jiwan Mai, accompanied the detachment of 
Kam Dyal, on the part of Prince Kharrak Singh. 

Soon after this Sirdar FataA Sing A was again sent to Jammu to put 
down an insurrection. In this he was successful, and brought in all the 
ringleaders to Lahore. But Bhaiya Ram Singh, the mukhtar or confiden- 
tial agent of Prince Kharrak Singh, who hated FataA Singh on account 
of his power and influence, concocted a plot to destroy his reputation. 

He induced Gulab: Singh and Dhyan Singh (afterwards Rajas) 
to murder the two chief ringleaderiii^ by name Trehdu and Suthja^ who 
had been concerned in the murder of their uncle Mian Mota^ and to release 
the other insurgents, who fled to their native hills, and again raised disturb^ 
ances. At this, as Bhaiya Ram' Singh antioipated, the Prince was very 
au^y, and resumed the jagic which h€ had giveu to FataA SiitgA. The 
Maharaja, however, took pity upon; the disgraced favourite, and gave 
him a jagir of 35,000 Rs. and a cash allowance of 15,000 Rs.y subject tp 
the service of 123 horsemen. 

At Multan, in 1818, the reduction of the fort of Kot Bajai Khan 
was entrusted to the Sirdar, and he was successful in taking it. He 
accompanied the Kashmir expedition of 1819, and the next year cross^ 
the Satlej on a visit to his estate at Mahlan^ The Mahari^a, who was 
marphing towards Bawal Pindi, summoned him, but he only sent hia son 
Sardul Singh with the . contingent. » This conduct irritated Ranjit Singb^' 
who, suspecting that the Sirdar was intriguing with the English, resume4 
all his jagirs, with the exception of Mauanwala. 

It was not till the capture of Mankera, in December, 1821, whetl 
FataA Singh behaved gallantly, that he was taken again into favour, 
received new jagirs, and Was made commandant of the captured fort. He 
went with the Maharaja to Peshawar, in 1838, and afterwards accompani* 
ed the two Bannu expeditions of Prince Sher. Singh and Kharrak Singli; 
while his son acted for llini at Ma'nkerah; ^ - • .» . . . wi 



180 HISTORY OF THE 

In 1829j the Sirdar was again placed in the suite of 
Prince Kbarrak Singh, and two years later his sou wa9 recalled 
from Mankerah, and placed in command of a troop of cavalry. In 1831| 
he accompanied Prince Sher Singh and General Ventura against the 
cdebrated Syad Ahmad, who Had lost his influence with the Afghans^ 
Trans-Indus, and had taken up his head- quarters at Balakot in Hazara, 
where he trusted for support to the tribes of Bhamtour and Pakhli and 
to his Hindustani followers. Here he was attacked by the Sikhs, the fort 
of Balakot was taken, and the Syad himself with most of his followers 
slain, though it was afterwards declared that he escaped, the rirer open- 
ing to receive him. In 1834, the Sirdar went to Peshawar in the suite of 
Prince Nao Nihal Singh, and afterwards remained on duty at Banna, 
Tank and Peshawar, till the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. When 
that event took place, Fatah Singh was at Peshawar with Nao Nihal Singh, 
and Sardul Singh was at Tank. From the new Maharaja, the Sirdar 
received additional jagirs at Kotbari Khan, Gujranwala, worth 30,000 
Rs., which made his estates amount to 83,000 Bs. subject to the service 
of 100 horse. 

Sardul Singh served under General Ventura in 1840-41, in the 
Mandi campaign, and at the siege and capture of Kamlaghar. In April,- 
1841, Falah Singh with 700 horse was appointed to escort ten lakhs of 
treasure from Eirozpur to Peshawar, en route for Kabul. 

In February, 1845, when Raja Lai Singh, after long altercations with 
his rival Sirdar Jowabir Singh, whom he feared to leave behind at Lahore, 
consented to head the aimy proceeding against Raja Gulab Singh at Jammu, 
Fatah Singh Man was one of the Chiefs whom he insisted upon taking 
with him. Soon after joining the army, Lai Singh sent Fatah Singh 
with some others to negotiate. The envoys were received by Gulab Singh 
with all honour, and were amused for some days with the alternate promises 
of submission and threats of defiance which the Raja had always in store 
for such occasions. At length the envoys returned with the declaration 
of Gulab Singh that he would abide by the terms of the treaty, conclud- 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 181 

ed by his Agents In Lahore. He denied the amount of the Lahore 
claims^ but said that be would pay them if proved ; and for this pur- 
pose requested that Wazir Bachna,* Hira Nand and Gunpat Rai| 
confidential servants of his nephew Hira Singh, and npon whose autho- 
rity the claims had been made, should be sent to him. The envoys, 
accordingly^ with these three men^ returned to Jammu. 

Besides Faiai Singh Man, the deputation to Jammu consisted of 
Baba Mian Singh, an old Bedi of great sanctity. Battan Chand Dogal, 
one of the most influential of the mutsaddi or munshi party, and Sirdar 
Sher Singh Attariwala. They remained at Jammu for some days, but 
could not come to any definite terms, for Gulab Singh was carrying on 
separate negotiations with the Sikh army, whose panchayats were also 
in Jammu. 

At last on the 28th February, after a violent altercation between 
Wazir Bachna and the Raja, the latter gave four lakhs of rupees, as an 
earnest of the full discharge of the just claims against him, and the depu- 
tation took its leave. Passing through a hedge of thorns, which had 
been thrown round the town of Jammu, the envoys were fired at by a 
body of the Raja's troops. Sirdar Fatah Singh and Wazir Bachna were 
killed on the spot^ and Diwan Ganpat Rai^ who was on the same elephant 
with them^ was mortally wounded and died the next day. Raja Gulab 
Singh protested his innocence and his grief, and that the catastrophe bad 
happened contrary to his wishes and his orders. The Baba, Sher Singh, 
and Rattan Chand he detained at Jammu as hostages, and as negotiators. 



* Until Um death of Maharaja Sher Singh, Bachna, a Jat of Jandialah in the Shaikhopors 
Ptfganah, was Manager of Baja Hira Singh's hill eitatea under Pandit Jalla. When the Pan- 
dit #ont to Lahore, on Hira Smgh beoomtng Miniiier, Bachna lucceeded him in the hiUi, with 
the title of Wasir. When Baja Qolab Singh gare OTer Jairota to the Darbar in Janoarj, 1845, 
Bachna remained to gire over the treasure, and was then summoned to Lahore. T|iere be took 
adrantage of the discontent excited bj the news of Sikh es cesses in the hills to get himself 
reappointed QoTernor of Jasrota, under the Darbar, and was on his waj to take up 14a 
QoTeroment, when Yummoned to Jammu. He wuan able man, much lored by the hiU people 
for his milduess and honesty. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 183 

ii>g ]^S}^^) ^^th the exception of MaaaawaUi worth 3^000 Rg. Sardul 
Singh went to Simla to appeal to Major H. Lawrence, and accompanied 
that officer back to Lahore. After Lai Singh's deposition and banish- 
ment^ the creditors of Sirdar Fatah Singh pressed Sardul Singh for pay- 
ment of his father's debts, amounting to 1,23,000 Rs., and Major Law- 
rence induced the Darbar to allow him jagirs of 21,000 &s. subject to 
the service of 30 sowars. Twenty of these sowars, however, were to be 
excused, for five years ; the sum allowed for their service 6,000 Ba. being 
applied to the liquidation of the debt. 

On annexation the personal estates of the family amounting to 10,500j 
were upheld for life, and 3,000 Bs. in perpetuity ; 2,147 Bs. to the 
male issue of Sardul Singh^ and 853 Bs. to the male isaue of Jtnoala 
Singh, 

Sirdar Jowala Singh who was not on good terms with Sardul Singh^ 
died in 1860. Bibi Kakoh^ their sister, who married Sirdar Ajit Singh. 
Sindhanwalia, on hearing the news of the death of her husband in the fort 
of Lahore, in September, 1843, burnt herself with his clotheS| at Nao« 
rangabad. During the rebellion of 1843, Sirdar Sardul Singh remained 
faithful to Government ; and, in 1857, did as much as his embarrassed 
circumstances would idlow in raising horsemen for service in Hindostan* 

lie resides at Mananwala, 6 miles from the city of Amritsar. 



SIRDAR JOWHAfllR SINaH, NALWA. 



D. 1752, 

I 

D. 1798. 

Sirdar Hari Singh, 
p. 1837, 



S. Gordit 

Singh, 

B. 1807, 

F$t«lv:«ngli, 

«dQpM« 



S. Jowahir 
Singh, 
B. 1809« 



I i I 

S. Panjab Daughter, Daughter, 

Singh, X. Ganda Singh of m. S. Kaoeja 

D. 1854. Pakir Chandl^otlL Singh, Garjak. 



I 
S. Aijaa 

Singh, 

D. 184a. 

J 



Achhara Singh. 



I 



Sampiuran 

Sin^h. 



Pan^hter, 

HIVTORY or THE PAMILY). 

SofdoB Siufi and his aoa Gunfyal Singh were followers of the Sakav 
chakia chiefs. The farmer was killed in action, 1762^ and the latter 
aceompained CSharrat Singh and Mahan Singh on all their expeditions^ 
and roceived in jaglc the village of Balloke near Shabdora, 

Hari . Singhj like Ranjit Singh himself 5 was born at the town of 
Gujranwalaj and was only seven years old^ when his father 
died. Hoj however, earlj distinguished himself, and at the seige of 
Kassur, in 1807, behaved with such gallantry that Ranjit Sing made 
him a Sirdar and gave him a jagir. Daring the ^eige of Multan, in Marchj 
1810, Hari Singh was much burnt by a firepot thrown from the walls 
of the fort and it was some months before he was again fit for service. 
He then reduced ihe Mitha Tiwana oountry, which he was allowed to hold 
as a service jagir. In 1818, he accompanied Prince Kharrak Singh in 
the last and successful expedition against Multau, and the next year 



HISTOEY OP THE ?ANJAB CHIEFS. 185 

commancled one division of the army inyading Kashmir. In 1820, he 
was appointed governor of the oonquered province, in the room of Diwan 
Mou Ram, who was thought too gentle a ruler for the rude and unset- 
tled population* Sari Singi did not err on the side of leniencj. He 
ruled with a strong hand, and the Kashmiris hated him so much that 
the Maharaja was compelled to recal him^ in 1821, and reappoint Moti 
Bam to the governorship^ 

Sari Singh was ordered to join the army, then on it way to Mankera, 
and Misr Diwan Chand, who was a rival of the Sirdar, tried to persuade 
the Mahar^a that he would not obey the order. Ol>edience was not 
easy to Hari Singh for the wild mountaineers to the number of 20,000» 
opposed his passage, and at Pakli he was oompelled to halt with his force 
of 7,000 men. Pakli had long been a spot dreaded by merchants, for 
the bill men of that place were aooustomed to demand a toll on shawl 
wood and other Kashmir merchandise. Bari Singk^ after vain efforts to 
induce the enemy to yield him a passage, attacked them with vigour, and 
storming their stockades defeated them with great slaughter. After 
this he imposed a fine of S\ Rs. on each house in the district, and pro-r 
ceeded southwards to join the Maharaja, who was much pleased with his 
exploit and forgave him the unpaid balance of the Kashmir revenue. 

Ilarl Shigh was now appointed Governor of Hazara, at this time the 
most turbulent province under Sikh rule. He was not a man suited to 
conciliate the Hazara tribes, for he hated all Muhammadans fiercely and 
was never so happy as when fighting against them, but he was brave 
even to reoklessnessj fertile in resoorce and prompt in action. At Theri^ 
in 1823, be was oommanding a portion of the Sikh army watching tho 
movements of Mohammad AjimKhan, while the Maharaja was engaged 
with the Yasafzai Pathana on the other side of the Kabul river. In 



* Hari Singh Nalwa is well remembered in Eaibmir to the present day, and a mpet 
known aa the Hari Sisc^ rnpct, whidi h» Krvck at Srmagar, la iCiU currast in aQ piiti of 

the Pai^ah. 



186 HISTORY OP TftE 

1824, his harshness excited an insurrection in Draband and he wasi 
attacked by the insurgents in great force^ and could only maintaitf 
his position with diflSculty, till the arrival of reinforcements. On 
another occasion his force, in which were Sirdars Chattar Singh and 
Sham Singh Attariwala and some of the bravest of the Sikh chiefs, was> 
attacked by a force of Yusafzais five times as numerous. Disdaining 
flight or surrender^ the little band charged the enemy and gallantly cu4 
their way through with but little loss. 

In the begining of 1827^ Syad Ahmad Shah roused all the fanatic pOJ 
pulatiou of Yusafzai for a holy war against Sikhs and infidels, and was join- 
ed by the Barakzai chiefs of Peshawar. Sirdar Han Singh with 25,000 men 
was ordered to prevent the Syad from crossing the Indus till the Maharaja 
should arrive with reinforcements. But prudence was not part of Eari 
Singh's nature, and half his force, under Sirdar Budh Singh Sindhanwala, 
crossed the river and entrenched at Saidu, where it was surrounded by over- 
whelming numbers of the enemy. Budh Singh, however, induced the 
Peshawar Sirdars to desert the Syad, and sallying from his entrenchments 
defeated the enemy so completely that it was long before the Syad was 
able again to appear in the field. When Ranjit Singh and Hart Singh 
arrived the army marched to Peshawar, which was pillaged by the Sikha^ 
The palace of the Bala Hissar and many of the chief buildings were des- 
troyed ; the mosques were defiled and the trees cut down for fuel. The 
tribute of Peshawar was increased, and the Maharaja carried away with 
him, as a hostage, the son of Yar Muhammad Khan. 

By the treaty of the 12th March, 1833, with Shah Shuja, the Maha- 
raja obtained a cession of Peshawar, the Derajat and Multan. The 
Shah's power to bestow anything whatever was purely nominal, but soon 
afterwards Sirdar Hari SingA, with Prince Nao Nihal Singh, was sent to 
Peshawar, on pretence of demanding an increased tribute, but in reality 
to seize the city. One morning he sent a polite message to the 
Barakzai Sirdars informing them that the prince wished to view the city 
and that it would be well for them to retire to Bagh Ali Mardan Khan, 



PAN JAB CHIEPS, 187 

while he went round the walls. Accordingly the whole Sikh force was 
put in motion^ and^ accompanied hy the young prince mounted on an 
elephant^ moved towards the city. Some of the Afghan troops made 
a spirited resistance, but the Barakzai Sirdars fled and Hari Singh with 
his small force of 8000 men took possession of Peshawar. 

After this success, Sirdar Hari Singh remained as Commander in 
Chief on the frontier. In 1835, Dost Muhammad Khan determined to 
retake Peshawar, if possible, and sent a force under Muhammad Khan to 
endeavour to dislodge the Sikhs. No serious attack was, however, then 
made, although the rival forces were engaged in perpetual skirmishes 
with varying success. 

In 1836, Hari Singh was directed to build a fort at Jamrud, at the 
entrance of the Khaibar Pass, from the walls of which the Maharaja 
might see Jalalabad. Accordingly the fort was built, of small strength 
or size, but impregnable to the Khaibar tribes who possessed no ar- 
tillery. But the suspicions of Amir Dost Muhammad were aroused, 
and he determined to destroy the fort which commanded the road 
to Kabul. He collected a force of 7,000 horse, 2,000 matchlock 
men, and 18 guns ; and placed them under his son, Muhammad Akbar 
Khan, and Mirza Sami Khan, his minister. With the army were 
three other of the Amir's sons ; Muhammad Afzal Khan, Muham- 
mad Azim Khan, and Muhammad HaiSar Khan, the last still a boy. 
The Afghans marched through the pass, and being joined by some 
12,000 or 15,000 Khaibaris, encamped before Jamrud. The fort was 
not, at this time, prepared against attack. It was garrisoned by 
only 800 Sikhs, and Hari Singh was ill with fever in Peshawar. The 
Afghans surrounded the fort, and commenced a heavy fire on its 
southern face. On the 6th day the defences were almost entirely 
destroyed, and so large a breach made in the wall that a troop of 
cavalry could have charged up it. Mahan Singh Mirpuria, who was in 
command, sent message after message to Hari Singh, and the last was to 
the effect that the ganison could hold out but one other day. On 



188 HrCTOEY OF THE 

hearing this, the General^ ill as he was^ turned out his whole force, 
6,000- foot, 1,000 regular cavalry and 3,000 irregular, and marched 
toward Jamrud ; but the first day he advanced only two miles. But the 
news of his approach gave fresh life to the garrison, and they repulsed 
an assault of the Afghans with desperate courage, the assailants losing 
300 men. The next day was fortunately a Friday, and the enemy 
made no attack, being engaged in burying their dead. Early on 
Saturday morning Hari Singh arrived before the fort. For seven 
days the hostile armies lay opposite each other, neither wishing to 
commence, till Hari Slnghy impatient of inaction, gave the signal 
for battle. 

The Sikh attack was directed against that portion of tlie Afghan 
position where Zerin Khan and Momind Khan were in command an^ 
was completely successful. The Afghan troops were driven back, 
and both their leaders wounded, and Uie whole army, seeing the fate of 
the advanced division, wavered, turned and fled. The Sikhs thought the 
day was their own, and eagerly pressed on capturing six guns, but their 
desire for revenge and plunder parried them too far, and at this moment 
Shnmshuddin Khan swept down with a large body of Afghan horse, 
and driving the Sikhs back in confusion an4 with great loss, completely 
changed the aspect of affairs. Hari Singh now saw that his presence 
alone could retrieve the day, and in spite of the entreaties of his officers, 
Khan Singh Majithia, Sarmukh Singh Botalia, and Diwan Devi Sahai, 
he rode to the front and urged his men to stand their ground and repulse 
the enemy. The victory might still have been to the Sikhs, but Hari 
Singh who alone could ensure it, was struck by two balls, one in the side, 
and the other in the stomach. He knew he was mortally wounded, but 
fearing to discourage his men, he turned his horse^s head, and managed to 
ride as far as his tent. He swooned as he was taken from his horse, and 
half an hour later the bravest of the Sikh generals, the man, with the 
terror of whose name Afghan mothers used to quiet their fretful children, 
was dead. The army was kept in ignorance of his death, but all knew he 



^ANJAB CHIEFS. * 180 

was grievously wounded^ and fell* back beneath the walls of Jamrud^ 
where they threw up entrenchments and waited for reinforcements. For 
two whole days Mahan Singh Mirpuria and his other o£5cers concealed the 
death of the general ; but at last it could bs no longer a secret^ and the dis- 
may of the army was extreme. To add to their distress they could obtain 
no water^ and if it had not been for a fall of rain^ most unusual at that time 
of year^ the Sikhs would have been compelled to abandon their entrench- 
ments, and cut their way through the enemy to Peshawar. At lepgth 
help came. R»ja Dhyan Singh, Princes Kharrak Singh and Nao Nihal 
Singh^ Jamadar Khushhal Singh^ General Ventura and all the flower of 
the Sikh chivalry, hastened up from Lahore by forced marches, and twelve 
days after the battle arrived- before Jamrud, and the Afghan army broke 
up their camp and hastily retreated through the Khaibar upon Jala- 
labad. 

The results of this battle were not important. The Sikhs had in* 
deed lost their most dashing General, but the Afghans had retired with- 
out attempting to improve the victory. Each army lost three guns, 
and among those taken from the Afghaps, was one of immense size, tho 
fellow of the Zabar Zang of Ghazni. 

No sooner was the great Chief dead than his family began to 
quarrel about his property andjagirs. At the time of his death Zfari 
Singk possessed larger estates than any other man in the Panjab pro- 
per. He was lord of Gujranvala, Kachhi, Nurpur, Mitha Tiwana, 
Sheikhowal, Kalarghar^ Hazara, Ehanpur^ Dhanna^ Khattak, and other 
places, worth 8,52,608 Es. per annum ; but with these jagirs he was 
bound to furnish two regiments of cavalry, a battery of artillery, and 
a camel swivel battery. His wealth in money and jewels was also 
very great, and his family thought that its possession was well worth 
a liglit. JowaAir Singh and Gurdit SingA, were sons of the Sirdar's 
first wife ; Arja7i Singh and Panjab Singh of his second wife ; and the 
half brothers had never been on good terms. Arjan Singh and Panjab 
Singh took possession of the late Sirdar's fortified house at Gujranwala 
(now the residence of the Deputy Commissioner) while Jotcahir Singh 



190 HISTORY OF THE 

and his brother held the town. So fierce was the dispute between 
them^ that the Maharaja^ always glad of an opportunity to fill his own 
treasury^ confiscated all Hari Singh* 9 property and estates, with the excep- 
tion of 19,600 Rs. assigned to the brothers in the following proportion ; 
Fan)ab Shigk, 5,400 ; Arjan Singh^ 6,500 ; Jowahir SingA, 5,500 ; 
Ourdit SifigAj 2,200 Rs. Gujranwala was given, in jagir, to Misr 
Beli Ram, and Ilazara to Sirdar Tej Singh, in 1838* 

Sirdar Jbira^tV iS^/'^i^A had, in 1832, been appointed to command at 
Jahangira, and two years later he was sent on duty to Peshawar, and 
was engaged in many of the actions with the Afghans up to the time of 
his father's death, in April 1837. 

In October, 1848, Sirdar Arjan Singh joined the rebels. He 
shut himself up in the fortified house at Gujranwala, with 100 or 
150 men, and openly defied the Government. A small detach- 
ment sent by the Darbar to bring him in to Lahore, was unsuccessful ; 
but when a body of troops sent by Brigadier Campbell, and a squadron 
of Skinner's horse marched against him, be fled. The defences of the 
house were destroyed and the property found in it confiscated. 

Sirdar Jowahir Singh, whose sympathies were with the rebels, and who 
was at any rate an enemy of Raja Tej Singh, had been arrested and kept 
a close prisoner in the house of Golab Singh Kalal, in Lahore. He, 
however, managed to win over his guards to the popular side, and he 
and the six soldiers escaped together to Gujranwala. Misr Rallia Ram 
who was then in authority, at that place, tried to seize him, but Jowahir 
Singh was not to be caught a second time, and escaping from the town 
he joined the army of Raja Sher Singh. He fought against the British 
with great gallantry at Chillianwala and Gujrat, and he was the man 
who led the dashing charge of Irregular Cavalry at Chillianwala, which 
so nearly ruined the fortune of the day. 

Fanjab Singh was the only one of the brothers who remained faithful 
to his government, and his jagir alone was exempted from confiscation. 
lie died in 1854. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 191 

Arjan Sin§H diid ifi ISl^^ sboht aA»r hta' e^a^ from ^jranwala. 
His two sons, who are still living, have each a small allowance of 
96 Rs. 

In 1857, Sirdar Jowahir S\n§h was one of the first of the Panjab 
Sirdars selected by the Chief ComniiBdiOiicr for semce' in Hindostan. 
Prond of the confidence r^osed ih iSm, Jowahir Sing A served thronp:hout 
the war with' a gallantry and devotion Which none stii^asscidl He was 
Bisaldar and Senior Native OflBcerof t^e Ist Sikh Cavaby. AtLukhnow, 
Bithur, Cawnpnr, Kalpi, and wherever that noble regiment was engaged, 
Jowahir Singh was present. He was 18 times engaged wiiti'ttie enemy 
and, at the close of 1859, he received, as a reward for his service^^ a jagir 
of 12,000 Rs. per annum. He had previously received the 1st class order of 
British India, for distinguished services in the field. rn'18d2, he was 
made an Honorary Magistrate of Gnjranwalla, where l>oth he and his 
elder brother Ourdii Singh reside.' 

Sirdami Desan^ mother of PahjUB Singh aiiS' ArjUn l^ingh, and 
Sirdami Rajkouran mother of' JtndMt Biiigh mi^C^rdii Siiigk' ar^ both 
still living, and holdjagirsof 800 Rs. aftd 700 ' Rs.' ris^tively. 

The Nalwafattlily came from Majitha, in the Amritsar district. 

The origin of the name Nalwa is uncertaitf, and several stWic's'aife're^ ' 
lated regarding it, one of them more curious than' polite. Most probiilkly 'it ' 
was bat an amplification of Nal, a famous Raja and hero of pre-hbionici' 
times, and was given to Hart Singh on account of his uxnturpa^ecl braverjri 



SIRDAR SARUP SINGH, MALWAI. 





Mal Sinoh. 
1 


. 




Sirdar Dhanna Singh, 






D. 1843. 

1 




. S. Bachattar Singh, 


Sirdar Hnkm Singh, Daughter, 


Daughter, 


D. 1840. 


M. D. 8. Fatah Singh, M. 8. Ehazan 


M. 8. Naxayan 


M. D. of 8. Sher 


Mattn, Singh, Bhadonr, 


Singh, Bhakhna, 


Singh, Jagdeo. 
8. Kirptl Singh, 


p. 1846. C. S. 8. 


Amritsar. 






M. D. of 8. Waiir Singh, 






Liddhran, C. 8. 8., 






p. 1859. 
1 






' 8. Sarap Singh, 






B. 1850. 






M. D. of 8. Kehr Singh, 






Sindhanwalia. 







HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Sirdar Sarup Bingh is descended from a respectable Man Jat family, 
formerly resident at Mowran Kalan in the Nabha territory. Mal Singh ^ 
the first of the family to become a Sikh, is stated to have lefl Nabha, 
about 1760, for the Fanjab, where he entered the service of Sirdar 
Gharrat Singh Sukarchakia, as a sowar, and was killed after some years 
in the Dhanni campaign. His son Dhanna Singhy about the year 1800, 
enlisted in the force of Sirdar Fatah Singh Kalianwala, as a trooper, and 
soon rose in the favour of that chief, obtaining an independent command. 
He fought, in the Kalianwala contingent, in the Bhatti and Kassur cam- 
paigns. On the death of Sirdar Fatah Singh, at Narayanghar, in 1807, 
Dhanna Singh entered the service of the Maharaja, who gave him a jagir, 
at Bilasor, near Taran vTaran, worth 2000 Rs. He was one of the 
agents sent by Ranjit Singh to Wazir Fatah Khan of Kabul, to arrange 
the interview which took place between them, at Jhelam, on the 1st De- 
cember, 1812. About this time, Dhanna Singh iQQtvfQ(i the jagir of Talah 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 193 

Gang in the Jhelam Digtrict, worth 83,000 Rs. In the campaign of 
1810, against Fatah Khan of Sahiwal, he received a wound in the face ; 
and in July, 1813, he fought in the battle of Attock when Fatah Khan 
Barakzai was defeated by Diwan Mokam Chand. He accompanied the 
detachment of Ram Djal and Dal Singh Naharna in the first unsuccess- 
ful expedition against Kashmir, and received in a skirmish a sword cut 
•on the arm. The Sirdar fought gallantly at the seige of Multan, in 1818^ 
and was one of the foremost in the assault. The jeweled sword and 
shield of Nawab Muzaffar Khan fell into his hands, and were brought by 
him to the Maharaja, who gave him a jagir worth 5,000 Rs., which 
was, however, soon exchanged for another near Talah Gang. 

In 1819, he served in the second Kashmir expedition, and, in 1821, 
at the siege of Mankerah, where he was again wounded. At this time 
Dhanna Singh was much favoured by the Maharaja, and there were few 
Sirdars whose influence was greater, or whose advice was more regarded. 
He was present at the capture of Jahangira, and at the battle of Theri, 
in 1823, and continued for some time in the Peshawar District, under 
the command of Sirdar Budh Singh Sindhanwalia and prince Kharrak 
Singh. Buckattar Singh, eldest son of Sirdar Dhanna Singh, entered 
the army about 1827, and his first service was at Bahawalpur where he 
was sent to receive tho tribute. lu 1823, Dhanna Singh accompanied 
the force sent to seize Kangra, when Raja Anrudh Chand fled across the 
Satlcj to avoid an alliance with Raja Dhyan Singh, Minister at Lahore. 
When Peshawar was occupied by the Sikhs in force, Buchaitar Singh 
was sent to Shabkadr, where a new cantonment had been laid out and a 
fort built by Sirdar Chattar Singh Attariwala. He was stationed there 
when the Afghan army attacked that post and the fort of Jamrud, in Apill 
1837. Dhanna Singh heard of the defeat of the Sikh army and the death of 
Hari Singh Nalwa as he was marching to Peshawar. He was ordered to 
join the relieving force of Raja Dhyan Singh, which advanced with all 
haste to the assistance of the army which was surrounded by the Afghans 
and reduced to the last extremity. 



IM msnoBT of tec 

In Jaaury, 1839, Sirdars Buekuitar Singh and Huhn Singh n-ere sent 
with the Sikk force etcortmg Shahzada Timar, son of SLah Sbuja, to 
Peshawar ; and a fiew moaths later Hulm Singh returned to Lahore 
widi PiiBoe Nao Nihal Singh, who started for the capital immediately 
he lecetTed narws of the drath of his grand father Ranjit Singh. 

In 1S4I, after Maharaja Sher Singh had ascended the throne, < 
Hnhm Simgi was sent with Budh Singh Mahrah, to Kula,to bring in* to 
Lahore Sbrdars Lehna Sin^ and Kehr Singh, Sindhanwaliaj as prison- 
eit. This duty he performed and received an increase to his ja- 
girs of SOOO Rs^ and a i^rant of 2000 Bs. from the Kashmir cnstbms; 
BucAmiUr SIm^ died in IS40, and his father Manna Singi in Maj 
ISia. The death of the latter was the caaae of some ill ftelbg on the 
pari of the Sikk GoTemment towards the British, in' the fbllowing 
manner. The naure Tillage of Dkgmma Smgi wasy as hsw been alMidy 
stated* Moviaa ialheNabha territory. After theMtiltan campaigD, 
when he was in high poww with Banjit Singh be begged tUat Itowtan 
might be obtaiwiri for Um in jagir. The Maharaja* aeeoidingfj' applied' 
to the Raja ol Kabki^wheviallaj, 181&, made horn a grant of this viflage, 
in exchange for certain TtUagee whidi the Maharaja gave* to th^e sister of 
the Kubha chiof^ t>r her Ufe« Ranjit Singh on obtaming Mbwran gave it 
in jagir tv^ Sirvlai /Utiaju «5aVA» who held it tUi his death', and although 
resiiUnf hviuneU at Courts kept there his fomily and much' of liis property. 
The Raja o( Nabha had fv>r dome time before DAanna BingVi death 
desireil to resume the Yilla;;^^ for the Sirdar never obeyed his orders or 
teudonnl him any aUegianee^ but the British authoritieSy who had a regard 
for iht Hne old chiofi interposed iu his behalf. But when Dlanna Singh 
di(Hl, Raju DeviudiU Siugh of Nabha> armed with a letter admitting his 
right from Sir (George CIerk> and a letter from Maharaja Eharrak Singh 
permit! ing him to resume the village^ marched troops against it, and 
took jHMWi>ssiou by fv^roe, killing and ivounding some of the Malvrai re- . 
taiiiors ami seising the proi)ert j of 7/«a/# Singh, the son of the deceased 
SiriUr. Jluim Singh loudly protested against this treatment, but before 



PANJAB dHriM. 195 

any action had been taken, by eithet Government, in tie matter, MaharaJA 
Sher Singh was assassrinated, and every one at Lahore was< too budy in 
looking after his own interests to remember the village of Mowtan. 

When, however, tranquility had been restored, the Lahore Government 
made a demand for the restoration of Mowran, an estate given by Raja 
Jaswant Singh of Nabha to Ranjit Singh. To the British authorities 
this was a new view of the matter. General Ochterlony, Sir George Clerk 
and Colonel Richmond had never known that the village had been given 
to the Maharaja> but imaginecl that it bad been- a jagir graot from Nabha 
to Dkanna 8in^A. The grant to Lahore was in itaelf invalid, f$r a depen-^ 
ent state had no pew«r to* transfer a viHage tc^ AA independ^ivt one witbout 
the consent of the paramount powBr. The letter, too^ Which the Raja o£ 
Ifabha stated he had received ttwxi Mah«rttj» Khttirvak Si»gb, allowing 
him to resume the village, turned out to be uo more than a copy of a copy. 
The weak nainded Maharaja may have drafted such a letter^ and the Kaja 
may have obtained,, thoough secret influence^ a copy of it, but Raja Dhyan 
Singh, the minister at Lahore, had never sanctioned it, and its authenticity 
was doubtful iathe extreme. The result was that Mowran waa restored, 
neither to the Lahore 9tate nor to Hukm Singh, and the Raja oC Nabha 
received the sharpest reprimand for bia unatraigbtforward eonduct* 
This incident would have been unworthy of so much notice in this plaee^. 
had not the decision of the British Government irritated, in no small 
degree, the Sikh nation* There can be no possible doubt but that the 
conduct of the British Government was just and necessary, but the Sikhs 
were, at this time in a feverish and excited. state. Every precaution 
which the lawlessness of the Sikh Army forced upon the British, they 
considered as hostile to themselves, and the refusal to make over the 
village of Mowran to Lahore, although its first transfer was clandestine 
and invalid, they considered as a deliberate insult. 

To the other jagirs of his father Hukm Singh succeeded, and with the 
grants of Maharaja Sher Singh, personal to himself, his estates amounted 



196 HISTOBT OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

to 75,000 Bs. per anDom. He was present in the garden of Shah 
Bilawal when the Maharaja was assassinated hy the Sindhanwalias, and 
in the subsequent struggle was severely wounded in the shoulder. 

Little is known of Huim Singh during the two following yean when 
he appears to have lived a retired life. He was killed at the battle of 
Sobraon^ in Febniary^ 1846^ and soon after his death^ Baja Lai Singh 
reduced the jagirs from 67,000 Bs. to 25,000 Bs. which were continued 
to Sirdar Kirpal Singh, subject to the service of sixty horse. 

Kirpal Singh was with Baja Sher Singh at Multan, in 1848. When the 
Baja's force rebelled, Kirpal Singh separated himself from it, and with a few 
of his sowars came into the camp of Major Edwardes, with whom he 
had previously served in Bannu. His personal jagir, of 11,000 Bs. was, 
on annexation, confirmed to him for life ; and a new jagir of 5,000 Bs. 
for loyalty at Multan, granted in perpetuity. 

The jagir was subject to the payment of a pension of 1,500 Bs. per 
annum, to CAand Kour, widow of Sirdar EuJcm Singh. This lady died 
in 1863. Sirdsa Kirpal Singh enlisted sepoys and showed himself well 
affected to Government in 1857, and received a khillat of 500 Bs. and 
a sanad of approbation. He died in 1859. His only son. Sirdar 
Sirup Singh, is fourteen years of age, and attends the Government School 
at Lahore. 

Gurdit Singh Malwa ; son of Sirdar Sahib Singh Malwai, and deputy 
of Sirdar Lai Singh Moraria who was convicted of treasonable correspon- 
dence with the rebels in 1848, was not in any way connected with the 
family of Sirdar Eukm Singh. 



SIBDAE GUBDiT SINGH CBHACHBI. 



SiBDAB TSHIL SiH GB, 
D.1785. 

I 



Jassa Singh, 
D. 1815. 

I r- 

Sadbu Bhnm 
Singh. Singh. 



Joala 
Singh. 



Jowahir 
Singh. 



Kihal 
Singh. 



8. Fatah Singh, 

D. 18U. 
I 

8.Giiniiikh 

Singh, 

D. 1829. 

Daughter, M. 
Sirdar Nihal 

Singh, 
Chhaehhi 



I 
Sher Singh, 

P. 18U. 



Utam Singh, 
D. 1826. 

Jinn 
Singh, 
p. 1852. 



Attar Singh, 
2). 1887. 



Jit 
Singh* 



Bewa Singh. 



Gnrdit Singh, 
B. 1834. 



QaadaSingh* 



irbnkBh J 



OnrbnkBh Singh, 

D. 1846, 

atSobraoiL 



Mehr Singh, 
B. 1857. 



Dyal Singh, 
B.1868. 



Jaggat Singh, 
B. 1860. 



Son, 
B.1868. 



*lCohr Mehtab 

Singh, Singh, 

D. 1897. B.1810. 

Hit Singh.* 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The original home of the Chhaehhi family is not certainly known^ though 
being of the Eohli Khatri tribe^ its anceator^ in all probabilityi emigrated 
from Bhatnir to the l^anjab^ whefe he settled at Salargah in Chhachhj 
whence the title Chhaehhi of the family is taken. 

Sirdar Tehil &ngh first entered the service of the Khatar Sirdars, 
but the later joined Sirdar Charrat Singh, Snkarchakia, when that 
Chief was becoming powerfnl, and received from him jagirs to the 
amount of 36,700 Be. at Mial Daud Ebel, Lawa and Dallnr. This 
was in the year 1741. Tehil Singh made conquests on his own account, 
and captured the fort of Dewar^ and Mjtpal from the Ffethins of Makhad, 



1^ HI0TOBT OF THS 

both of which places he held till 1786. Oa the death of Tehil Sinph 
his three sons sacceeded to all his jagirs. Jafsa Singh died soon after his 
father, bat Sirdars Sher Singh and Fatah Singh throughout the early 
years o{ BMJ.i& Sioch-ji / reign^ did exoeQeat sexyice, and received large 
additions to their estates at Bharatpuri Sahiwalj Kunjah and elsewhere 
to the value of 53^000 Rs. The brothers served at Kask^ in the Find 
Dadan Khan district, against the Janjoahs ; at Pindi Gheb ; Jhang, and 
joined the first unfortunate eocpedition against Kashmir, in 1814, in which 
both were slain. On their death the Pidd padan Khan jagirs and that of 
Abdal in Gujranwala wera resumed. Ourmukh Singh and Sadhu Singh 
were taken into the OhoirAaiudi KaknH, in'^lneb the former remained till 
his death In lB29. He left one daughter who married Nihal Singh, 
who took the name of Chhachhi, and was allowed to hold his father-in- 
law's jagir Qf bhakori in Gnjranwala. 

Uiam Singh eldest son of Sher Singh suoceaded to the family estate in 
Qujpat and Oujr a nwftl ai and the same year the Maharaja gave to the second 
•cii^JftorMij^theLawaeBtato^hich had fbtmerly been in^possession of 
tb^ianiil}^ Vlflfi^ SingkBQSY^, with his contingent, at the seige of Mul- 
tan in 18]L8|'au4 afterward retired to I^awai.where he was kflled, in 1825| in 
a revenue affray with the zamiadars; The Maharaja resnmeil all his jagira^ 
with the exception of m^ HtmiisbtA fod Ibaif a, worth 2 1 ,200, which de« 
aoended ta bis son Jiua Sinjihi The new Sirdas was not perhaps so fond of 
%btiAg as some qC his fian^ily> bat he had his fair share nevectheless. Hia 
cositiivg{eot consisted of 65 hoifsei 5 zamburahsj^or camelawivelS) and a ket- 
tle dmmi the sound of which was well known all along the frontier. He 
serred at Bannu, Tank, Mitha Tiwaua, where he was wounded } and at 
Piduivar, whaM ia the fatal b^iie oi Jamtud his unolb AUait Sirngk was 
Bhm^ JPonsoma eight years he Was stationed at Seea Ismail Khao, and 
bad; there plMty of work tm do, m the bordet trib^ were fierce haten of 
tbl^ Sikhs MiAgMa Uol mncA; tooiiUe. A&er the SaHej. war be mm 
ppited wiidaiiietK>a at Kaiddii^ under ^ ordere of Qeoeral Yam Cort- 
)wdlvlnitM)a.afiw.retBrttoihejqvl»vi^ SurdU Simgi with ik% eoo- 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 199 

tingent. He returned to his post, however^ soon after Lieutenant H. B. 
Edwardes arrived in Bannu, and, with his son, who was at this time a 
mere boy, served under that officer to the close of the second Sikh war. 
Sirdar Jiun Singh was one of the few Sikh chiefs who remained loyal 
to the end, and of his fifty-five horsemen^ only two, during the whole 
siege of Multao, deserted to the enemy. 

On the annexation of thePanjab, his service jagirs were resumed, but 
his personal jagirs, amounting to 7000 Rs. at Mial, Daudkhel and 
Salargah, the last of which had been in the family ever since 1741, 
were released to him for life, one half to descend in perpetuity. Sirdar 
Jiun Singh died on the 22nd September 1852. 

^ixAss Ourdit Singh dXd good service in 1857, raising a force of 25 
sowars and guarding the ferry at Waasirabad. He also raised 5 sowars 
for service in Oude, and received in recognition of his loyalty a Khillat of 
300 Rs. 

Of the three sons of Jit Singh Chhachhi, Ourbaish Singh the eldest was 
killed in 1845, at Firushahr. The second son, Mohr Singh, who had served 
in the same regiment as his brother, was, in 1848, in the Gkorcharab 
Kalan under Ganpat Rai. He went over with Sirdar Sher Singh to 
Mulraj at Multan, and obtaining from the Attariwala chief a grant of the 
whole of the Lawa jagir in which he was legally a third sharer, he 
went off to take possession ; but Amir Devi and Hukm Devi, the widows of 
Attar Singh and Ourbukah Singh^ held out gallantly in the Lawa fort, 
for the Chhachhi women can fight as bravely as the men, and Sher 
Muhammad Khan Tiwanah coming to the rescue of the ladies, Mohr 
Singh was compelled to return to Sher Singh, completely disappointed, 
and his rightful share of the jagir was confiscated for his rebellion. He 
entered the service of the English Government, in 1857, and marching 
down into Hindustan, died in harness like most of his family. 



THE RANDHAWAH FAMILY. 



I. SIEDAR JAIMAL SINGH KHUNDAH. 

JDyanat Bai 

iMSkhl Bun, 

I 

r— ~—nr, ~~i 



tf ajja Svigh • Qftjja Singh. Tegh Sin£^ 

Paojab Sin^ 
M. D. Sirdar 
Kodh 8ingh. 
Hfijidna. 

Sirdar Prem'Sing^. 

Sirdar Jowahir Singh Hira Singh Sirdar Jaimal Singh JaswMt Sii^^ 

X. D. Sher Singh Saddorah b. 1825. b. .1823. d. 1844. 

B. 1828 iLS.Cooidt Fatah SiJDigh, 

Chahal. 

1 I 

Tara f^ing. Kirpal Singh. 

3. IWO. B. 1«50. 

IL s. Su Gopai Smglh, 

Maaowli. 

HISTOAY or THE FAMILY, 

Tbe Vamdluwali tdJ^ ii oi Rajput origw, and its fvimcler iras nsi^ 
dent in Bikuiir seven limndred years ago. Ffom ium have descendedi 
wtrea &milie8 nme or ieas diatuigoifilMl iu ti^lixitQiyofthe Fanjafe^ 
namelj^ Dkaraanknt^ Oitaniaoki, Ckamjrari, i>odaih, Doraaghah, or 'Talr 
modi, ZjnQbu-Naitgal and Kbandidi. fiomeaeconixt of tht&wthat^ 
Uieae ftunilicB mil be ^ifbu keie. Khasda, nowtakes the highest rank) 
while Katha-^aihga], Dhazmmkot and Ghanianki are of no preaent 
consideration ^iduitever. 



HI8T0RT OP TBB lANXAB CHIEFS. 201 

Little 11 known of Randiutwah^ a Jadn Rajput, tfae ancestor fiwin whom: 
ihb tribe has deriyed ito name. He wae taid to have been a great warrior 
and hii name Am, war^ and Dkama a loeal form of dsmma to ran, 
■ignifiee iiis prowess, bat whether be waa wont to rim into the batUe or 
away from it ia nowhere recorded. Neither he nor hie immediate 
descendants left Bikanir, but Eajjal, fifth in deseent from Bandhawah, 
emigrated to the Panjab and settled near Battala^* whioh had been 
founded some time before bj Bam Deo a Bhatti Rajput* 

The brothers took possession of a ¥duabW tract of eonnby in tbo 
Gurdaspur district; incloiing Naoeberabf Zafarwil, Khnndah, Shaispnr, 
and adjacent villager, and the other branches of Uie Eaodhasrah faffiily^ 
about th^ some rime, loee to importance. The Kbindahwalaa belonged to 
the Kanheya mwl^aikd till the death of Sindar Jai Singh Kanhejra, in 17dB, 
they kept posaoesion of ail their eBt4te0, worth menrlj two laUsi of mpeea; 
but Sadda Kour, widow of Jai Singh/ and otio of the aUeat and moat 
unscrupulous of her sex, taking adv^tage of some dissentions in the 
family, seized Naosherah and Hyatnagar Kalair. Still later^ in the tame 
of Sirdar Prem Sing A, Maharaja Ranjit Singh seized the whole of the 
estate, leaving only ten villages to* the family, worth 6,000 Rs. 
Panjab Singk^ father of Prem Singh had married a daughter of Nodb 
Singh Majithia, whoae son Sirdar Desa Singh possessed at this time great 
influence with the Maharaja. He procured Prem Singk to be placed^ 
with his ten sowars^ under bim| and the young Sirdar accordingly served 
with the Maharaja's forces in many campaigns, including those of MultaA 



• BittabM ttiMlied W b«v«bMm f<mad«i So I4tl^ A. !>., tot ki reali<|rite i«e falkr «M«ter. 

Ram Deo first dug the foundations 9f the new town abont two miles frum the praaeot siAe : bjg| 
every night the ejccavatioa which he bad dug daring the daj was filled np by sapematural 
aeoDoy i and itam Deo vas at last caM^Ued te dMage the site of <iM town, which beeallei 
Battala or change. 

Battala was, however, a pkce of no importance till XbV^ when 6hamaher Khan* who, from 
being a eamich in Al^bar^ Zanana, roee to the govei-u orA ip of the Maqjha and the Jalandliar 
Di»b,beaatifiad tiie iowa with ftoe buUdinge and a anpenb tank. Fia4iBf the Hinisi 
averse to bathing in the tank he sent 300 joamels to Hardwar to fietch Ganges water with whioh 
to pai ify it, and the story is that frosn that day the tank has been always fiill, and the water 
hai been always clear. 



202 HTBTOEY OF THE 

and Peshawar. He was drowned on the 2nd November, 1824; when 
attempting, with the Alaharaja's army to ford the InduSy then mnch 
swollen by the rains, in porsait of the Gandghar insurgents who had at* 
tacked and defeated Hari Singh Nalwa. The jagir was continued to 
Prem Singh^s four sons on the same terms^ namely, service of 10 sowars 
in the Majithia contingent. 

In 1886, Sirdar Jaimal Singh entered the service of the Maharaja 
with his brother Jowahvr Singi. He received a command in the Ram- 
gharia brigade from Sirdar Lehna Singh Majithia, in the place of his 
father-in-law, Fatah Singh Chahal, who had lately died. The brothers 
accompanied Lehna Singh to Peshawar, when he marched to relieve the 
Sikh army after its defeat by the Afghans at Jamrud, in 1837. 
JofoaAir Singh served with Lehna Singh in the hill country of Mandi 
and the Khundah Sirdars were, till the annexation of the Panjab, heredi- 
tary jagirdars of the Majithia chiefs. Jaswani Singh died in 1844. 

Sirdars Jotoaiir Singh 9ini Hira Singh are sons of one mother; 
Sirdars Jaimal Singh and Jaswant Singh of another, and no love has 
ever been lost between the half brothers. Sirdar Lehna Singh, their 
immediate superior, on their disputing about the jagir, divided it between 
them, thus: Jaimal Singh to hold Khundah, Khundi, Sojanpur, 
Buddhipur, Shahpur, Mali Samrar, and half of Harsian, Jafowal and 
Bandiwal, value 4000 Rs. with an allowance of 2000 Rs. cash, and to 
furnish six sowars. Jowahir Singh to hold Zafarwal, Mallian and half 
Harsian, worth 260O Rs. with a cash allowance of 1200 Rs. and to 
furnish four sowars. But just before Lehna Singh left the second time 
for Benares, another dispute arose about the proprietary right of the 
brothers. A panchayat or committee was appointed by Lehna Singh, 
which decided that Sirdar Jaimal Singh should hold the proprietary 
rights of Khundah and Shahpur, the ancestral villages, and Sirdar 
Jowahir Singh^ the proprietary rights of Naoshera and Jhattupattu. 
But the proprietors of the last two villages, also of the Randhawah 
clan, disputed the right, and a decision was given in their favour in 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 203 

the Settlement Court ia 1S54, Jowahir Singh then sued for half of 
Khandah and Shahpor^ hut the Settlement Officer decided against 
him. 

Sirdar Jbwakir Singh has not served under the British Government. 
Id 1850^ he visited tiirdar Lehna Siugh at Benares, but soon afterwards 
returned to the Panjab. Sirdar /atnia/ Singh was, in 1 84 7, appointed 
Naib Adalati or Deputy Judge of Amritsar, under Sirdar Lehna Singh 
Majithia. When the rebellion of 1848 broke out> he stood manfully and 
without hesitation on the side of the Government. He took an active 
part against the insurgents of the Manjha, whose houses he was directed 
to confiscate, and by his loyalty, intelligence and zeal won the highest 
praise from the nuthorities. After annexation, he accepted service as 
Tehsildar of Battala, and did his best to render the new administration 
popular in the country. Although ignorant of the English system of 
procedure, he conducted his duties with so much ability that he was made 
an Extra Assistant Commissioner and placed in the Thuggi Department. 
There Colonel Sleeman^ Major McAndzew and Mr. Brereton testified to 
the value of his services. He was employed in collecting information in 
the villages, in arresting Thugs, and in conducting prosecutions against 
them ; and later made himself very useful in taking charge of the Jail 
and school of Industry. He resigned the office of Extra Assistant in 
I860. In 1857 he did excellent service, and received^ in acknowledgement 
of his loyalty, a Khillat of 1000 Rs. 

He holds in jagir and cash, 4560 Rs. per annum, of which a jagir of 
2000 Rs. descends, on half revenue rates, to his male issue, in perpetuity. 



THE RANDHAWAH FAMILY. 

II. SIRDAR LAL SINGH TALWANDI. 

Pabdhan Chand. 







Santokh Singh, 
D. 1802. 

1 


Singh. 


Sahib Singh, 
D. 1804. 

ingh. 






S. Dal Singh. 


Ran Singh. 


Gajja 




Galab S 


ingh. Kahn 
D. 1 

Ajjab 

Singh, 

D. 1837. 


Singh, S. 
826. B 
i 1 


1 
Lai Singh, 

. 1798. 

1 


Nihal S 






Harsukh 
Singh. 


1 
Hari 

Singh, 

B. 1852. 


Gopal 
Singh, 
D 1858. 

1 


1 ■ 
Hakm Siagh. 

resident in 

Jammu. 


Hakim I 
Singh. Sin 




1 










1 ■" 
Gurdit 

Singh, 

B. 1855. 


Kharta 
Singh, 
B. 1857. 


1 
Bhogwan 

Singh, 

B, 1855. 


Thakar 

Singh. 

B. 1843. 

Harb 


1 
Kanda 

Singh, 

B. 1859. 


Ram 

Singh. 

B. 1862. 


Kehr 
Singh. 

Dhyan Singh. 




1 
aksh Singh. 


Gurbaksh Singh. 



T 
Him 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY 

The Talwandi, Khundah and Chamyari houses are all nearly connect- 
eiy their immediate and common ancestor being Dhir or Randhlr Chand, 
foorteenth in descent from Bandhawah the founder of the tribe. 
He came to the Panjab about the year 1540, and near Battala, where 
others of his tribe had previously settled, he built a village which he called 
Jhanda after his eldest son.* 

* There is a story which, however, the dates will not in any way support, that Randhir 
Chand or Dhir wai a feUow emigrant of Ram Deo Bhatti, the founder of Battala ; and that 
the name of Battala was given to his new town because he had exchanged its original site 
with Randhir Chand for that of Jhanda. Vide ante p. 201. 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHtBFS. 205 

Tiirga the grandson of Randhir Ohand laft his fatber'a village and Cound- 
ed Tahyandiy the present residence of the family. About 1640, during 
the reign of Shah Jahan^ Bahar Chand^ the great grandson of Turga, tt^ 
ceived the office of chowdri of Tappa Dabha, which was held in the family 
until the time of Pardhan Okand. 

Santokh Singh and Sahib Singh^ the two sons of Pardhan Chand became 
Sikhs and joining the Eanheya miilj with Sirdar Jai Singh as their chief, 
they took possession of Talwandi and Dorangla. Little is known of the 
brothers who were not men of any importance. Santokh Singi ^\ei in 
180^, and Sahib Singh two years later. Of the three sons of Santokh 
Singh, Dal Singh was the only one to obtain a share of his father's jagir. 
Talwandi and some neighbouring villages were left him ; Dorangla and 
the Sialkot estate were seized by Ranjit Singh who also took possession of 
the estate of Sahib Singh. 

Sirdar Dil Singh fought in most of the Maharaja's campaigns. 
During his life time he divided a portion of his estate between his sons ; 
Ka/m Singh receiving Rui Chak and Chainiwala, and Lai Singh, Talwandi. 
The Sirdar was killed in the Satlej campaign in 1845, and his jagirs were 

resumed. 

Kahn Singh had died long before his tather. He fell in the battle of 
Saidhu, in March, 1827, fighting against Syad Ahmad Shah. His 
only son was killed ten years later, in April 1837, in the battle of 
Jamrud. 

Sirdar Lai Singh was bom in 1798, and has seen a good deal of service. 
He fought in the Multan and Kashmir expeditions of 1818-19 and at 
Jamrud, where his nephew was slain. 

In 184S, he was appointed to co-operate with Gurmani Lai, the 
* adalati ' or chief justice of the Manjha, holding the command of fifty 
horse. 

In 1857, at the requisition of Government, he furnished ten horse- 
men for service in Hindostan and sent with them his two sons 



206 HISTORY OF THE PANJA6 CHIEFS. 

Hira Singh and Oopal Singh^ Both fought gallantly throughont the 
campaign : Sira Singh was made a Bisaldar, and in 1859, on his retire- 
ment^ received a present of 1800 Rs. and a grant of 50 acres of land, 
near Norpur in the Kangra district* Gopal Singh ^^2^ a Daffadar in 
* Hodson's Horse.' He was killed in a skirmish with the rebels near Cawn- 
pore, in 1858. 

Sirdar Lai Singh owns half Talwandi in proprietary right, as also 
Shaikh Bahlol. The proprietary right of the other half of Talwandi ia 
held by the descendants of Sahib Singh 



TOE RANDHAWAH FAMILY. 



III.— SIBDAR GURDIT SINGH CHAMYARI. 



Nab Sihgh. 
D. 1805. 



Raram Koar, 
X. Sirdar Amar 
Singh, Bhangi. 



Jai 



Saaa Koar, 
i£. S.Budh Singh 
Singh. D. 1841. 



I I 

Hari Ram Singh, 

Singh. D. 1804, 



Qormukh Singh. Ranhai Singh. 



Ita' 
Singh. 



Gurdit 
Singh. 



Hardit Singh, 
D. 18S4, 



Nanyan 
Smgh, 
B. 1847. 



I 



Partab 
Singh, 
B. 1823. 



Nihal 
Singh, 
B. 1831. 

I 



I 
Bajkoor. 



Jowahir 
Singh, 
B. isas. 



Bhagwan Singh, 
B. 1857. 



Sham Singh, 
B. 1858. 



Gopal Lehna Narayan 

Singh, Singh, Singh, 

B. 1843. B. 1852. B. 1838. 

Sochet 
Singh, 
B. 1859. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY 

The founder of the Chamyari family was not Nat Singhy the true 
ancestor of the family, bat Sawal Singh a distant connectioni who, about 
the year 1750, adopted the Sikh faith and became a member of the 
Bhangi misl. He fought for his chief Hari Singh in many battles but 
does not appear to have neglected his personal interests as a few years 
later we find him the possessor of a larg^ tract of country on the left 
bank of the Ravi, including Ajnala and Chamyari, or Chambyari^ from 
which place the family took its name. Sawal Singh was killed 



208 HIITORY OF THI 

in battle^ leaving no issue ; bat his widow Mai Malkian made over the estate 
to Nat Singhy a cousin of her deceased husband and his devoted follower, 
a brave and enterprising man. This arrangement was confirmed bj the 
* Garmatta* or Sikh National Council and Nat Singhy the acknowledged 
heir of all Sawal Singh's estates, went forth conquering and to conquer. 
Not content with the Amritaar side of the river, he invaded the Sialkot 
district and took possession of Pasrur and many villages in its vicinity. 
He then transferred hi|^ services to the rising Kauheya misl and at Nu- 
nar in the Sialkot district, had a sharp fight with his old allies. The 
young Sukarchakia chief, Mahan Singhy was on his side, and opposed to 
him were Jhanda Singh and all the bravest of the Bhangi Chiefs. The 
origin of the quarrel was trivial enough. Nar Singh, passing through on« 
Jhanda Singh's villages, had turned his horses into a field of young corn 
to graze. The Bhangi Chief came down in great wrath and insist- 
ed on their removal. A«f Singi refused to interrupt his horses at their 
meal. This insult Jhanda Singh was unable to endure, and collecting 
all his men and making as many allies as he was able, he marched against 
Nar Sitigh, who was prepared to meet him. The fight was not decisive 
and soon afterwards Nar Singh disgusted his Sukarchakia friends by giving 
his daughter Karam Kour in marriage to Amar Singh, nephew of Sirdar 
Jhanda Singh. He did not, however, openly break with the Sukar 
chakias, and, in 1799, we find him assisting the son of Mahan Singh to 
capture Lahore. 

Nar Singh died in 1806. His eldest son Bam Singh died some 
months before him, of cholera, in the camp of Jaswant Rao Holkar the 
Mahratta Chi^f. On his death Ranjit Singh took possession of the greater 
portion of the family estates, including the Sialkot villages and the Talu- 
kas of Saddowal, Ghaniwala and Chamyari. The town of Chamyari 
was left in the possession of the family who still hold it in proprietary 
right. 

Chamyari is a very ancient town and there are several legends re* 
garding its origin which may be given here. 



FANJAB^ CHIEFS. 209 

One of these relates that Raja Salvahaa of Sialkot, who reigned 
about 90 A. D., passing with his retinae near the spot where Chamya- 
ri now stands saw a young girl drawing water at a well. Struck by 
her marvellous beauty he enquired her name, and found that it was 
Chamba, and that she was the daughter of the Rajput Chief of the dis- 
trict. Salvahan asked the girl in marriage, but her father declined aa 
the Raja's name was a terror throughout the Panjab to both parents 
and danghters, as he was accustomed to take a new wife every day and 
maidens were becoming scarce in the land. But the Raja was not to be 
denied. He swore that if Chamba was only given to him, he would not 
marry again for eight days, and to these reasonable terms the father 
consented. But by the eighth day, Raja Salvahan had grown so deeply 
enamoured of the beautiful Chamba, tliat he was content to divorce all 
his other wives, and to keep her only for life, and to glorify his love and 
render it immortal, he built around the weli, where he had first seen her 
drawing water^ the town of Chamyari, which he called after her name. 

Another story asserts that Chambyari or Chamyari was named after 
the caste of Raja Salvahan's favourite wife, whose name was Luna, the 
daughter of Raja Pipa of Papnakhah, a Champal Rajput. She was the 
mother of Risalu, from whom Sialkot was formerly called Risalkot. 
Luna was remarkable for her beauty, though not for her virtue, as the 
following story will show. Ichhran, another of Raja Salvahan's many 
wives became the mother of a beautiful boy, who was named Puran. 
The astrologers, who had assembled at the palace to draw the horoscope 
of the new-born infant, declared that the greatest calamities would 
befal him should he be seen by his father before his twelfth birthday. .In 
those days astrologers were believed, and a high tower was accordingly 
built, in which the boy was carefully guarded till the twelve years had 
come, as the attendants thought, to an end, when they brought him to 
his delighted father. But one day had been omitted from the calculatiou ; 
the twelve years had not expired. 



210 HISTORY OP THE 

When Luna saw the lovelj boy she fell in love with him at once. 
This was less her fault than that of the stars, and at last^ unable to con- 
trol herself she caught Puran in her arms and told him all her lore. 
He had not been taught the art of love in his solitary tower, and only 
laughed at Luna's distress and ran away, while she, enraged at the repulse, 
and her love turning to hatred, tore her hair and clothes, and when the 
Eaja came in, told him, with weeping eyes, that Puran had attempted 
her virtue. The Raja made no enquiries, but straightway ordered that 
the boy should be taken into the jungle and there put to death. As the 
poor little fellow was being carried off by the executioners he begged hard 
for his life ; but for long begged in vain. At length the men promised 
not to kill him ; but they cut off both his hand? and threw him down a 
well, * where they left him to die. But the life of Puran was miracu- 
lously preserved, and about two years afterwards the great magician 
Ghorakh Nath came to the place with his twelve thousand disciples. 
One of these, drawing water from the well, saw the boy and having taken 
him out, carried him to the magician, who by enchantments replaced 
his hands. Ohorakh Nath then brought Puran to the palace, and restor- 
ed to sight Ichhran, who had become blind with weeping for the untime- 
ly fate of her son. Raja Salvahan, confounded by these prodigies, wished 
to resign the crown to his son, but Puran would not accept the offer, 
and renouncing the world became a disciple of Ghorakh Nath with whom 
he remained until his death, t 

Such are the legends regarding the founding of Chamyari, which is 
undoubtedly ol great antiquity. It was almost entirely destroyed in the 
great inundation, about a thousand years ago, when the five rivers of the 
Panjab united, but was rebuilt under the Emperors. In 1722, it was 
burnt down by the Sikhs, and was still in ruins when it came into the 
possession of Nar Singh who restored and enlarged it. 

* This well is still to be seen Dear SialkoL 

t Both these legends have somewhat an Arabian Nights* complexion. Bat they have 
been current in the Pan jab for many hundred years, and it if probable that lome of the stories 

of the Arabian Nights had an Indian derlyation. 



pjLNJiB (mm. 211 

On the death' of the miow of Nar Singh and oiHafi SinghhiB second 
son, the little estate left to the family was again reduced, and the whole 
was resumed by Maharaja Sher Singh^ on the death of Jai Singh, 
in 1841. 

Sirdar Oi^rdit Singh, who was Commandant of Maharaja Dalip Singh's 
body guard, holds a jagir at Dhariwal near Ajnala, worth 1200 Rs. per 
annum^ half of which lapses at his death. His two sons Partab Singh 
and Nihal Singh joined the rebels in iSiS^ and lost their jagirs. Khem 
Koury widow of Sirdar Jai Singh, receives a pension of 500 Bs, per 
annum. 



ID liXDHl¥A f AMILL 



i 




Dlijia Singh. 
D. 1837. 



V SQ 



B. Oiaiid Konr 
x. Bam Singh 






1^ x:^ 



Itoor. 






W ^ta^^"^ x Av.5* ^ $ii>t;ti:ud :xi :m SiuJurghar Fargaoah of the 
V^^^NikC .^>;l^^v^^ ukI ito :aiik x^ Xj^iaIa w^m foaaJed by Dhir Ran- 
>;tVi«w«i^ J' uwi^•iil %.;sN 240- ^*:t^!Wiii wixtr, ud Doda was populated from 
i^ Ck^ *Av-^ .vttity AiM^^iri^ jKul »*t4 Aeir fields, as simple hua- 
>,l^tvi^>A> o< >^M»gh ^^MhXiifiMfV t&U <i»t*.-}4a£»i SiM^i, in the earlj days of 
)^4 N^%v\.« %^k^KV«^^ ^jfcv^ «Hr »^lkik 4aii ^Si^ pcofetsioQ of arms. He, with 
W \vsj*Vx vSiKxl vw ^>iw^ H^«&sl«acr, aai soon became a chief of 
«khik Kiv^ Hs^ ^^ ^»<(p^s<4 ^ ^*vsv^mI waxfue with his neighbours 



HI8T0ET 09 THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 21S 

and in one of his ezpeditiona against Imami of the Paddah trlbCj his 
elder brother }^athu was slain. Ourbahh Singh acquired a large tract of 
country in the neighbourhood of Doda, including Sadbanwal, Banjrur, 
Jassar and Bhopalwala^ and also took possession of part of the Jammu 
territory, building a fort only a few miles from the city of Jamn^u itself. 
He died about 1795^ and was succeeded by his son Sudh Singh^ who also 
became a man of some in^portancej and added largely to the family 
possessions. 

Both Sudh Singh and his father were bitter enemies of the Jammu 
Baja, and this enmity nearly cost Sudh Singh his life^ for on one occasioUi 
as he was riding to Lala Chak, about fiv:e mil^e^ from Jammu, he fell into 
an ambush laid iot him by Banjit Deo, aixd was fired at by a party of the 
Baja's troopa. His horse was wounded in the neck : one ball lodged in 
Sudh Singh's saddle, another struck the handle of his sword, and it was 
with difficulty that he made his escape. He died in 1813, and his family 
knowing that they could not successfully oppose Ranjit Singh, sent Ga;Ja 
Singh, coxxain of Budh SingA, who had left no maleissue^ to Lahore, with 
presents of two lakhs of rupees^ an elephant and valuable horses 
and offers of submission. Banjit Singh^ however, hearing of Sudh Singh's 
death, had already sent a force under Qanda Singh, Safi^ to seize the 
fort of Jassar situated about five miles from Doda. The family repre- 
sented how matters stood and begged for dela^, till the pleasure of the 
Maharaja should be known, but Ganda Singh was not to be stayed 
and directed an immediate assault upon the fort, from which he 
was repulsed with loss. When Ranjit Singh heard of this failure he 
laughed and said that " the ' safi' had lost his ^ safa*.'* The joke 
requires explanation. Ganda Singh, before he was raised to the command 
of a regiment was a ' safi' or man employed to brush away flies, and 
^ safa' is a cloth used as« turban, the loss of which among all orientals 
is considered disgraceful Banjit Singh made but few jokes and the 
success of this one pleased him so much that Gajja Singh was well re- 
ceived, and twenty five villages were released in his favour, subject totho 



S14 HT8T0ET OP THB PANJAB CHIEFS. 

service of eighteen sowars. He accompanied the Maharaja on his 
expeditions against Maltan and Kashmir, and fought under Divran 
Mokham Chand in the battle of Attock, in 1813, and was also present at 
the siege of Mankera. He died the year after this last expeditiouj in 
1822j when all his jagirs were resumed bj the Maharaja. 

Sari Singh his eldest son was thus almost reduced to poverty, and 
took service with the Sindhanwalia chiefS| Lehna Singh and Shamsher 
Singh, from whom he eventually received the command of -50 sowars. 
He fought gallantly at Jamrud, where Hari Singh Nalwa was slain, and 
his conduct on this occasion was rewarded by Banjit Singh. 

During the Satlej campaign he served under Sirdar Shamsher Singh 
Sindhanwalia, and after the occupation of Lahore, he accompanied that 
chief and Lieut. Edwardes to Bannu, on a Salary of 600 Bs. a year. 
When the rebellion broke out at Multan, Hart Singh marched there with 
his superior and joined the rebels with Raja Sher Singh. He asserts, 
indeed, that he attempted, with Commandant Karam*Baksh of Batala, 
to escape from the rebel camp, and that they had even commenced their 
flight, when they were seen by the enemy : Karam Baksh, who was 
riding first, was shot dead, and Hari Singh himself was taken prisoner. 
Whatever may be the truth of this story, it is certain 'that Hari Singh 
fought on the rebel side at Bamuagar and Qujrat, and accordingly his 
village of Fatowal, worth 600 Rs., and a portion of Doda'were resumed. 
His cash pension of 300 Bs., was also confiscated, but in 1852 he received 
a cash pension of 100 Rs. which he still enjoys. 

The share in the village of Doda possessed by Ind Kour the last 
surviving widow of Sirdar Sadh Singh^ was not resumed, till the death 
of that lady some years afterwards. 

Joala Singhf son of Eari Singh, entered the corps known as the 
' Suraj Mukhi' at Amballa. He is now in the Police. 

iSfl;^/ 5/«^//, another son, entered * Hodson's Horse,' in 1857, and did 
good service in Hindoostan, In 1860 he was compelled to retire on 
account of ill health. 



THE BANDHAWA FAMILY. 



v.— Nahd Singh Kathu-Nanoax 

Sahib 8i|fOB. 

' D. 1800. 

I 



I 
Jit Singb. Bndii Siogh. 

J I 

I II 

Gulab Singh. Sakha Singh. FarUb Singh. 

I I D. 184 4. 

I r I 

Nuid Singh. Budlui Biagh. Kahn Siog 

I 
Daughter betrothed 
to Mai Singh, Paralia. 

HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

Chowdhri Dalak, tenth in descent from Randhawa, founded the village 
of Chavinda in the Amritsar district. His four sonsi Oaggu^ Jabhu^ Bam 
KiiiiLaJchan founded respectivelj the villages ofKathu-NangaI| Sahniwalii 
Wariam-Nangal and Rupowali. Sahib Singh, who took the ' pahal ' and 
became a Sikh about the year 1770^ was the great grandson of Gaggu, He 
joined Sirdar Jai Singh Eanheya, and took possession of about thirty 
villages in the neighbourhood of Kathu-Nfangal^ Dharamkotand Chakowal. 
Sahib Singh was a gallant man and bore the scars of fourteen wounds. 
He fought on the side of the Eanheyas in all their quarrels^ and fell at 
last before the fort of Atalghar^ in a skirmish with the Bamgharia troops. 
His two sons JiC Sing A and Budh Sing A succeeded to his estate, but the 
eldt>r of these was killed soon afterwards at Lodha-Mandowala, fighting 
against the Ramghariaswho had slain his father. 

Budh Singh was one of the last of the Kanheya Sirdars to tender his 
allegiance to Ranjit Singh^ by whom he and the sons o( Jit Singh were 
allowed to retain their estates. He served in the army, in Hazara, 
Yusafzai^ and Kashmir, till 1823, when he was obliged to retire through 



216 HISTOn OF THE PANJAB CHIBFfl. 

ill healthj and the Maharaja resamed all his villages except Ladha-Manda 
worth 3000 Ba. aud a portion of Kathn-Nangal. He died three years 
laterj and his only son Partah Singh was placed in the ' Ghorchara Kalan' 
Begiment| and was afterward transferred as Adjutant to the Pohvindia Re* 
gimenti of which he became Commandant^ in 1840. In 1842, he was made 
Colonel and received a grant of the jagir of Ehialii worth 1000 Bs. He 
died without issuer in 1844. 

None others of the family were in any way distinguished. Nmnd 
Singh, the present representativCj resigned the service and lost his jogir 
in 1848. He resides at Kathu-Nangal where he possesses a well and half 
the proprietary rights of the village. 



THE RANDHAWA FAMILY. 

YI.— Sirdar Sahib Sinqh Isapuria. 

Sirdar Duonda Singh. 

I 
Sirdar Bhaggat Singb. 

I 

Sirdar Ram Singh. 

]>. 1686. 

I 

Sirdar Sahib Singh. 

B. 1605. 

I 

Akwak Singh. 

B. 1894. 

HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

The last family of the Kandhawa clan of sufficient importance to be 
mentioned here is that of Isapur. Its founder Basonda Sin^i having 
become a Sikh in 1730^ entered the service of Adina Beg with whom he 
remained till 1758. 



He then joined the Bhangi confederacy, and through the influence of 
Chowdri Baman^ a Bandhawa Bajput anda distant relativCi he obtained a 
jagir worth about 20^000 Bs. including the village of IsapuTi which has 
ever since remained in the family, and from which Dasonda Singi took his 
family name. His son Bhaggai Singh preserved the old estate and acquired 
new jagirs; and Sirdar Ram Singhj about the year 18049 joinedl 
Banjit Singh^ who confirmed to him the villages of Isapur, Bolah, Suran, 
and others in the Amritsar District. He did good service on several occa- 
sionsj and in 181 8, received the grant of jagirs to the value of five lakhs 
of rupeesi subject to the service of 700 horsemen and 2,000 infantry. This 
was a special grant for the Kashmir oampaigUi and was resumed in 1821 
after the fall of Manketa. 

In 1822, Bam Singi was placed under the orders of Prince ELharrak 
Singh, with whom he remiuned till 1824; he wm transferred to Rigs 



218 HISTORY OF THI PAN JAB CHIEFS. 

Sachet SingVs divisioa. He served in Eulu, Eangra, and in most of 
the Maharaja's numeroos campaigns, and died in 1836. His son Sahid 
Singh had been for some time in Government employ at the time of his 
father's deaths at which time he was serving with Baja Suchet Singh, on 
a salary of 2000 Rs. per annum. This was raised to 7,923 Rs. including 
Isapur and some other villages of the original estate. 

SahU Singh was present at the second seige of Multan in 1818, and 
in Kashmir, in the following year. He also served under Prince 
Kharrak Singh and Baja Sachet Singh, at Munkera, Bannu, Yasafzai, 
Syduki, and the Derajat. Afber the Satlej campaign his estate was cut 
down to 5231 Rs. subject to the service of 10 sowars, and also charged 
with pensions to his father's widows. 

In 1847, he was sent in command of 100 horsemen to the Manjha to 
assist Lala Mangalsen, brother of Diwan Rattan Chand Darhiwala, in 
the collection of the revenue, and afterwards he proceeded to Hazara 
under Captain Abbott. He remained faithful to Government during the 
disturbances of 1818-49, and has been spoken of in the highest terms by 
many English Officers. 

In 1851, a portion of his jagirs, consisting of Isapur, Bolah, Saggal and 
Saran, worth 2597 Rs., exclusive of some subordinate rent-free holdings 
in the name of other members of his family, was confirmed to him for life. 
The villages of Isapur, Saggal, and Suran, worth 1386 Rs. descend to his 
legitimate male heirs in perpetuity. 

His only son Akwak Singh was first employed under the English Go- 
vernment as a Jemadar of Police. In 1857, he was made Risaldar 
and sent to Bannu. He behaved very well during the disturbances and 
received an extra Buhadari allowance for his gallant conduct. He ia 
now a Risaldar at Kohat in receipt of 280 Rs. a month. 

Sirdar Sahib Singh resides at Isapur, in the Amritsar District. 



OENEHAL HABSUKH MI. 



Laoki Bak. 
8IuuiaiB«BL 

JiJmmL ^ 

GandalCaL 

± 



Sadda Singh. Hoshnak Bm. Qardit Sioglu Bam Bakha ICaL Bam 



Gknflral Bamkh Bai, Baa Dati 

B. 1810. 

Ji«iiDaf, 
B. 1869. 

NISTOIIY OP THE FAMILY. 

Lacii Ram^ t respectable Katri of the Eapur tribe, left Lahore about 
the year 1740 for Hafizabad, where he married and settled, and where 
his descendants hare since resided. The first of the family to take servioe 
under the Sikh GoYemmeut was OurdU Singh, who entered the cavalry^ 
under Prince Eharrak Singh, on a sahuy of 2000 Bs. per annum. 
He married a daughter of Lala Nanak Chand^ elder brother of Diwan 
Sawan Mai, Nazim of Multan, and had two sons^ one of whom waa 
Hunuii Rai. His brothers were not men of any note. 

Ram Bang married the daughter of Lala Gurmnkh Bai, another 
brother of Diwan Sawan Mai, and ieryed under his kinsman at 
Kardar, and afterwards as Commandant at Dera Ghazi KhaOj on a salary 
of 1800 Rs. per annum. 

Ram Rakha Mall, who is still liYing, was also a kardar under Sawan 
Mall. 

Hariuih Rai went to Moltau inl833, and was made < adalati' or judge 
by the Diwan, and soon Ifterwarda received « militaiy appointment. But 



t 



220 HISTOBT 01 THB 

he only remwied there for two years^ when fkiling to obtain leave of ab« 
sence, he threw up his appointment in disgust and came to Lahore^ wherei 
in 1836, through the favour of Baja Dhyan Singh, he obtained a lucrative 
post about court, which he held till 1839, when he was sent to Multan in 
charge of the Salt customs : but this appointment he only held four 
months. Maharaja Sher Singh made him E!ardar of Sheikhapurah, on a 
salary of 1800 Ks. per annum ; but he fell into disgrace with his patron 
Baja Dhyan Singh, whose influence was used to procure his dismissal, in 
1841. He was then appointed Kardar of Haweli, near Pak Pattan, but his 
administration was very unpopular. He made Sirdar Jowahir Singh, the 
minister^ his enemy, by his intrigues with Prince Feshora Singh, who 
after the death of his brother in July, 1843, had fled to Ludhiana ; and 
Harsuhh Rai was not only dismissed from his employment, but his jagirs 
and property were confiscated. 

When Saja Lai Singh rOse to power, Harsukh Sai again came into 
favour ; he was created General and received command of the brigade 
which Lai Singh had begun to form in the hope that it^ being his own 
creation, would stand by him in any new revolution. He was also made 
Kardar at Patti, at the south western extremity of the Lahore District, 
in spite of the opposition of his enemies at court^ who asserted that if 
the ruin of any place was desired, it was sufficient to send Harsukh Bai 
there. But the general, though by no means scrupulous, was energetic, 
and a good officer. His brother Ram Das conducted most of the civil 
work at Patti, while Harsukh Rai remained at Lahore, till, at the dose 
of the year, Raja Lai Singh fell from power, and his protege fell with 
him. The new brigade, of which only one regiment, the Bam Paltan, 
had been formed, was broken up, and at the same time the General 
lost the Kardarship of Patti. 

Soon after the outbreak at Multan, in 1848, Harsukh Rai was 
again sent, by the desire of Colonel H. Lawrence, to the Manjha, as 
Kardar, on 4310 Rs. per annum. It was a time when energy, resolution 
and fidelity were invaluable, and the Resident thought that Harsukh 



FAMJlB CHIEFS. 221 

Bai coald be depended upon for their exercise. The selection was fully 
justified by the result. With every temptation to disloyalty, for the rebel 
governor of Multan was his connection^ and his own brother was in the 
hostile ranks, Harsukh Bai performed his duty to the Government faithful*, 
ly, and through all these troublous days did good and zealous service. 
On the annexation of the Panjab, his jagir, worth 1790 Rs. was main- 
tained for life, and he was made Tehsildarj receiving an exceptional 
allowance of 428 Bs. 

In 1857, he was stationed at Amritsar^ where he was very active^ 
pursuing the mutineers of the 26th Native Infantry and raising the coun- 
try against them. For this he received from Government a grant of 1000 
Bs. and an increase to his allowances. In 1859| Harsuli Rai was raised 
to the rank of Extra Assistant Commissioner, and posted to the Shahpur 
district. He has been since successively at Mianwali, Gurdaspur and 
Gujranwala, at which last place he was stationed in 1861. He now 
fears that he will be compelled to resign the public service, as his sightj 
which has long been bad, is altogether failing him. Hia ooly son living 
is a boy of two years of age. 



224 HISTORY 0? THE PAXJIB CHIEFS. 

On the annexation of the Panjab, the personal jagir of Fatai Singh, 
worth 3000 Rs. was confirmed to him for lifoj one quarter to descend to 
his sons* 

5^100 Rs. were also confirmed to the two widows of Anand Singh 
and the widows of Ourmuhh Singh and Jiun Singh. Mai Sadda Kour, 
step mother of Fatah Singh, has since diedj and her pension of 2175 Rs. 
has lapsed to Government. 

Sirdar Fatah Singh resides at Thepor^ in the Lahore District. 



SIBDAll SADHO SINGH PADHANIA. 



Sioglu 



B. Rap Koor. B. RatUn Eonr. 
U. Kai Siogh. U. Sirdar 
Kahlon. Jowahir 

Singh. 
Bandhawa, 



■ iiiCX'STgWilii 

Hiiu. 

Talok. 

I 
Sakha Singh* 

D. 1803. 

I 



Chanda Sirdar Mit 



Singh. 
D. 1813. 



Sahib 
Singh. 



S. Joala 
Singh. 
D. 1835. 

I 

S. HardJt 
Singh. 
D. 1860. 

8. Sadho 
Singh. 
B. 1851. 



Ganda 

Singh. 

I 
I 
Bam Singh. 

I 



Kahn 



Singh. 



B. Anap Ronr. 

II. Dal Singh. 

Bandhawa. 



I \ I ] 

Atma Singh. Eirpa Singh. Badal Singh. B. Kishan Roar. 

B. 1834. B 1827. B. 1823. u. Sahib Singh. 

I I Ealbajwa. 

Lakha Singh . Garbakih Singh. 
B. 1851. B. 1850. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY- 

One of the principal Jat families of the Manjha is the Sindha, and 
to this family Sirdar SadAo Singh belongs. Its founder Sindha appears 
to have been of Rajput origin^ but during the 13th century emigrated 
from Ohazni in Afghanistan to the Manjha where he settled with his 
family. How his ancestors became first resident in Afghanistan is on- 
certain^ but in all probability they were among the numerous Hindu 
captives that Sultan Mahmud carried away with him after his Indian 
expeditions^ and a large colony of whom he planted in his new and beauti- 
ful capital of Ohazni, Some of the Sindha Jats assert that it was 



226 HISTORY OF THE 

Ghazni, in Southern India, from which their ancestor emigrated, but this 
story is improbable and is entirely unsupported by proof. 

Changa, the thirteenth in descent from Sindhu^ was an influential 
Chowdriy and founded^ some fifteen miles south east of Lahore, the village 
of Padhana, where the family still resides. He was the chief of the thirty 
Jat chowdris and headmen, who went on a mission to the Emperor 
Akbar, to arrange the marriage of that monarch with a daughter of 
Mir Mitta Dhariwal, a Zamindar of Dowla Kangra, near Wadni, in the 
Furozpur district. The Emperor first saw the girl, who was very beauti- 
ful, at her village well. She had a pitcher of water on her head, yet 
contrived to place her foot upon the rope of a refractory and runaway 
heifer, and hold it captive till its owner came up. Akbar was so delighted 
with this feat of strength and skill that he wished to marry her, but her 
father declined the honour, without the consent of his caste. He assem- 
bled a committee of seventy one lambardars and chowdris ; thirty five 
Jats and thirty six Rajputs, to decide the question. The Bajputs con- 
sidered the alliance disgraceful ; but the Jats, with Changa at their head, 
approved of it, and the marriage took place accordingly. Akbar reward- 
ed the thirty five with lands and honours ; and these were the ancestors 
of all the Jat families in the Panjab, of any consideration ; so much so, 
that the chief Jat families are called * painti,' i. e. thirty five ; and the chief 
Rajput families ' chhati/ i. e. thirty six, at the present day. Changa, who 
from his antecedents might be expected to have been among the ' chhati,* 
was on the contrary found in the ranks of the Jats. His family had been 
so long Jat cultivators, that their Rajput prejudices had died away. He 
was a man of considerable influence and his son succeeded to his power j 
but his grandson Dibba was, during the reign of Jahangir, degraded from 
the ofiice of chowdri for murder. 

When the Sikhs rose to power, StcHa SUgiij who was then the re- 
presentative of the family, with his two sons ilU Sinjh and Sahib Singh, 
joined the popular faith. Mil Singh entered the service of Sirdar Mahan 
SiagU Sukarchakia, and SaMb Singh that of Sirdar Gujar Singh of 



PANiAB CHIEFS. 287 

Lahore. From tbe Sukardiakia letder Mil &Mgh ledeived an estate 
worth 18,000 Hsu, and on Mahaa Singh's death he followed the fortonee 
of the joung Baajit Smgh| and was with hioa ai the capture of Xiahoxe, 
in 1799. He later aocompamed the Kaesor expedition and rose high in 
favour with his master, who gave him manj Taiaable estate. In 1814, 
he was in command of tbe rear guard of the army during its retreat from 
Kashmir. The tribes came down in force and handled Hit Singh's divi- 
6Lon very severely, and wounded the Sirdar himself mortally. Ran jit 
Singh was mnch grieved at his loss, and swore to befriend his son 
Joetla Singh^ to whom, acoordinglv, all his father's posscssiowi were ce«- 
firmed; and in addition he leceiTed a newjagir, worth 1,85,000 Rs., at 
Haripur Golehr in Kangra. 

Sirdar JaaZdP Smgk was a brave and an able man. He wa^ present 
at the capture of Multan, in 1818, and distinguished himself at Macikera, 
Tirahi Kotkapura and Kashmir ; and on one oceasion^ being in charge of 
the Attock fint, he gallantly held out| with a few hundred horsemen, 
^amst the whole Afghan aimy. 

In 1S29, he was struck ly paralysis, and though he lived till 1835, 
he was no longer able to serve in the field or to attend at darbar. 
His illness is said to have been brought on in the following manner. 
The troops occupying the Kangra £ort had mutinied; and the Maharaja 
sent Joala Singh^ who was very popular with the army, to ioduce them 
to return to their duty. The furt was too strong to reduce, and Joala 
Singh was compelled to confine himself to arguments ; and^ at length, on 
solemn promises of full pardon^ persuaded the mutineers to submit. But 
the Maharaja cared nothing for the pledged word of Joala Singh, He put 
the ringleaders to death, and fined and degraded the other mutineers. 
This conduct so mortified Joala Singh, who considered his honor lost, that 
it brou;;,Iit on the illness from which he never recovered. 



-O*' 



There is no osnt of the 8ikh Sirdaia whoae name is more veniNmed 
for generosity and munificence than Joala Shigk. The jKca^ davgliter 



228 HI8T0UT OF THB 

of his consiii Kahn Singh, who had died in very embarrassed circoms- 
tanceS| Joala Singh adopted as his own. He gaye her a large dowry, and 
is said to have spent upwards of a kkh of rupees upon her marriage. At 
the commencement of his last illness, he distributed an equally large sum 
of money among the fakirs and Brahmans. 

Nor was he less liberal to strangers than to his own family as the 
following story will show. 

When Prince Sher Singh had failed so signally in his admi- 
nistration of Kashmiri the Maharaja looked about for victims upon 
whom to avenge the failure. Among others^ the principal agent of the 
Prince^ Diwan Baisakha Singh Chamyariwala, was ordered to Lahore ; 
his accounts were declared fraudulent^ and he was fined 1^25,000 Ks. 
Without enquiry into the proo& against him^ there is no doubt the fine 
was deserved^ for at that time Kashmir was conndered by the Sikh 
officials as a sheep fold under the protection of the wolves. But the 
Diwan proclaimed that he was unable to pay the fine. The Maharaja 
ordered him to be flogged until he should discover where his wealth was 
concealed. The unhappy wretch was dragged out of the presence, past 
the ^ deorhi/ or antechamber^ where were seated Baja Dhian Singh, 
Joala Singh and many other chieCs. When Diwan Baisakha Singh 
saw them, he implored their intercession with the Maharaja, and threw 
himself before them, crying out ^' I am your cow. Save me!'' But no 
one took the slightest notice of him^ except Sirdar Joala Singh. He 
listened to the whole story, and then had the courage to go before the 
Maharaja, and beg for the remission of the punishment, offering himself 
to pay the whole fine. Banjit Singh consented, and being utterly with- 
out the power of appreciating a noble and magnanimous action^ recovered 
the fine, to the last rupee, from Joala Singh, whom, as might have been 
supposed, the Diwan forgot ever to pay. 

As another instance of his generosity, it may be mentioned that in 
his ancestral village of Padhaoa, he never took rent or revenue from any 
of his own, the Sindhu tribe. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 229 

On the death of Joala Singhj the Maharaja resumed the larger 
portion of his jagir^ for Hardii Singh^ the Sirdar's only son^ was of weak 
intellect; and although he used to attend at court, yet he was unable 
to hold any independent command. He, however, retained estates 
worth 27/l25Ks., subject to the service of one hundred horsemen. 

In 1848, this contingent was in Hazara, with Sirdar Ghattar Singh 
Attariwala, when he rebelled. Most of the men remained true to Govern- 
ment, and on the annexation of the Panjab, Hardit Singh and his 
mother were allowed to retain an estate worth 9,000 Rs,, per annum. 

In 1860, Hardit Singh died, leaving one son, Sadho Singh, a boy of 
thirteen years, now a student in the Government College at Lahore. 
He holds Padhana, worth 2,000 Bs., in perpetuity, and represents one 
of the best of the Jat families, a family wealthy and respected more 
than three hundred years ago, 



—7 '♦^p 




t-^ 



n -« 



rr sa 






r-^-C* 






HISTORY OF TH£ PAKIAB CHIEFI. 231 

villages of Bhoghar, Barialah and Eohalahi worth 2^000 Bs. When 
Banj it Singh seized the possessions of the Eanheya misl| Kahn Singh 
lost the last named village i iHit he was mude fa oj^^r m th^ firregnlar 
Cavalry, and fought with his regijQilJ^t 9X J^assar and in the Kangra 
expedition of 1809. 

When Sirdar Desa Singh Majithia was made Governor of all the 
hill districts between the Beas and th^ Satlej, Kahn Singh was pIaCQ4 
nnder his orders, and from that time both he and his son Jaam Singh 
remained in the service of the Majithia chiefs. They accompanied them 
in the field ; filled civil offices under them ; ^d their history di£fera 
in no impc^tant respect from that of their feudal lords. 

Sirdar Jassa Singh had for twp jears charge of the Sikh Temple 
at Amritsar^ under Sirdar Lehna Singh Majithia. After Lehna Singh'a 
departure for Benares, Jassa Singh remained in the employ of the Lahore 
Darbar ; but on the annexation of the Panjab was thrown out of employ 
and his cash pension of 770 Bs. was resumed. 

He now holds ^agirt to the value of 2^800 Rs. chiefly in the Qordaa- 
pur district, at Malkauah ; Hyati, Salowal ; Behrao^^r, JMfajikfihwfdab ; 
Battangarh and Sherghar^ jbesiidea two wells at Naosheh]?<k NiM^g^^ wh^iet 
he usually resides. These jagirs are upheld in perpe^uilEtyi.f7a#ia SiPfk 
paying one quarter imd bis h^s half r^vepue, rates. 

Hamam Singh, the only son of Sirdar Jassa Singh, is a Deputy In- 
spector of Police. 

JiC Singh, th^ brother of^a4ii Singh^ W9!B pev^r imder ihe Maji- 
thia chiefs. He was, «oon after the death of his father^ mi^de a conwMPir 
dant of cavaby InBiga Hkii ^ingh'/i brigade^ iqberltipg^ hi^f |i|ifiiL^ ;of 
his father's estate. He iMocved pi MnltMii Baimv, Piei^war m^ sinwk^ 
but was not a ma;a of anyjiiate. 

He was killed in 1846, leaving one son Wm^M iSmgh, 4ikuk a obiM 
six months old. 



DIWAN EATTAN CHAND DARHIWALA. 

LaL4 JOAL4 KaZK. 

Ijthk Kanm Ouuid. 
I 

Diwaa Tm Ghtad. IaIa Mamgdmm Diwui Battaii Ouuid LaU Har Nam Dm. 

B.1858L D.18f4 S. 1806. B. 1886. 

I 

I 



UkBiidhalU | j | 

B.18ff8. FdvnDw BopOiaiid Barkat Banu 
B. 18381 & 1844. B. 1855. 

I 
B^Koor. 

B.18S8. 
HISTORY OF THE FiUmLY. 

The family of Ratian Ckand Darkiwala, came originally from Payal, 
a village situated between Ludkianah and Patdalah^ and held varioos 
revenue appointments under the Muhammadan Emperors. When the 
Sikhs rose to power Jaala Nati entered the service of Sirdar Charrat Singh 
Sukarchakia^ as a munshi^ and remained with him and his son Mahan 
Singh till his death. Karam Ckand was first employed by Sirdar 
Bishan Singh Ealal, the confidential agent of Maharaja Banjit Singh, 
who retired, in the year 18 13, to Benares^ where he died. Karam Chamd 
in course of time was promoted to offices of trust under the Maharaja. 
He acccvnpanied him, in 1805| on his secret visit to Hardwar, and the 
following year was employed as an agent in the arrangements concluded 
between the Lahore State aod the Sikh chiefs south of the Satlej. He 
also assisted in drawing up the Treaty the 25th April 1809, with the 
British Government. Sometime before he had been placed at the head of 
the Lahore oflSce, if that can be called an office where no accounts were re- 
gularly kept. Pawani Dass first introduced a system of accounts, in 1809, 
from which time Karam Ckand worked aader himj and remained in the 
office till his death in 1836. 



HISTORY 07 THB PANJAB CHnEFS. 883 

His eldest son Tara Chand had entered the service of Goyemment 
when very young, and his first employment was in Peshawar^ onder, 
Diwan Eirpa Bam, in 1822. He was sent, in the following year, to 
Eangra, with civil and military authorityi to collect the revenue^ and^ 
in 1832^ was posted at Firozpnr to reduce the turbulent inhabitants of 
that district to order, and to suppress dacoityi which had become very 
common. Tara Chand was afterwards made Diivan and placed in charge 
of Bannu, Tank, and Derah Ismail Khan. His administration here was 
not very successful. Of all the frontier chiefS| no one was more hostile to 
the Sikhs than Dilassah Khan of Bannu. Diwan Tara Ciand^ who had 
with him the flower of the Sikh chivalry; the chiefs of Attari, Majitha, 
Nakka and Botalai led his force of eight thousand men and twelve guns 
against the little fort of Dilassah Khan, but was ignominiously repulsed with 
a loss oftbree hundred killed, including the younger Jai Singh Attariwala, 
and five hundred wounded. TV hen the Maharaja heard of this repulse, 
he was veiy indignant, and fined the Diwan 7000 £s. Tara Ckand had also 
quarreled with R«ja Suchet Singh, who was in authority in the Derajat^ 
and who could not endure the Diwan's independent spirit; so TaraCkand, 
makiog a virtue of necessityi and pleading ill health and his desire to 
make his peace with heaven, left the Fanjab, in 1838, for BenareS| 
where he died in 1858. 

MangaUen^ the second son of Karam Ckand, was commandant in a 
cavalry regiment under the Darbar. After annexation he received a 
pension of 480 Bs. a year. He died in Novemberi 1864, leaving one 
ton Lala Budha MaL 

Rattan Chand was a great favourite of Maharaja Banjit Singh, and 
when quite a boy used to be in constant attendance at court. When 
the first down began to grow upon his lip and chin, Banjit Smgh gave 
him the nickname* of DarhiuuUa or ' He bearded^ to distinguish him firom 

* Diwan Rattan Ckand beiog now lh« fortunate po M wor of a Jo^g whit* bMrd, aaof 
hATo emmeonily fuppoeed that hia Diokname of Darkiwala aroM from tho liBstii of liii 
beard, which waa not the eate. 



BtttlflSi Chana Dogftli irlwwM Ibsr 7«ara yxmngor EXkd who Sttdooue- 
qtxetitlj no l«ai*fl At tail. He «vw, in IB29^ ap^oitftea t» the poatd De|wrt* 
meat; cm 200 Rs.'a nooth^ iritii sextain aamgameKits ftam ib^ x&femm 
of l^eafaawar and Itazara. He remuoed la^^ department, 4aiin{f ilia 
reign xit Ranjit Singh and bis anocessora, Mid under the Darbar was in the 
enjoyment of cash allowances to tho anonnt of HfiW Ra. and jagirs, qi 
Dinanagar/Ehanowal, Ydfaianagar, Tiwan, Blrindan, Haaara and Peaka- 
war, worth 1 3,600 Rs. tiattan Cliand happened to be in the Lahore foil 
when the l^ndbanwalia chtefa aeized it, and (Iftaja Eira Singh believing 
him their accoiiiplice "fined him 30,000 Rs. This moaey was gtwm 
badkby Sirdar Jo wafbhr Singh, after Hira fiingh^ death. After jidm 
8ath?j campaign TtoHctn €kanSvmB appoinled Post Piaster Gen^sidiH 
(be Panjab, and did ^xcdllent service iihronghont the rdbelHon of lB4fr49. 
His department had, at this iime, to^contend with great difficultieSi bat 
flie IPodt Master GencndPs energy and ability enabled him to anrmonnt 
ihem. On the annexatbn of the Faifjab, certain of bis ja^rs, amount- 
itig*to^6,'800 Rs. wererdkased to him'for Ufe/free ofallservioe, andA 
garden woif th1!00 Rs. near the 'Shahahtmi gate of (Lahore, was released to 
Bis male beirs in perpetuity. BaUan iJkand was^ppointed an fionoxarj 
Magistrate of the city of ^LiAore in '186& and member Df the Municipal 
Committee. 

Bels one df the mostactire tmd intelligent df the Honorary Magis- 
trates, and through his liberality the eity of Lahore has been mudi 
embellished. The mostt striking of the public works constructed hf 
him is the fine Sarai and tank near the Shabalami gate. He also had^a 
laif^e.ahacean the fonaation^of the ^Public Gardens round the ci(y> and 
whanevcr money 1ms been required .for any work of public utilityj 
MaUM'€hotdlh9a sh^wnfhunaelf ^liberal .in tjie extreme. 

He waa created a 'Diwan Tby the Supreme Cteremment in J^annaiy 
18S5, 



FAKIR AZIZUDDIN, BUKHARL 



Ohulax SfliJs. 

I 
Ghulam Mahinddin. 



Fakir Azizuddin. 
D. 184^. 



Fakir Imamuddio, 
s. 18A4. 

I 
FaUr Taiaddin. 
D. 1846. 

I 
Marig'iiddin. 
B. 1842. 

I 

Mohammad Jamaluddin. 
B. 1863. 



Fakir Nuruddin. 
D. 1852. 



r 



Zahuraddio. 
B. 1834. 
I 
Nobaharuddin. 



B. 1885. 



Kammddin. 
B. 1827. 



r 

Hafizuddio. 
B. 1829.* 

I 
Hahammad Ikbaladdin; 
B. 1860. 



Burhanuddin. 
B. 1842. 



Zelnalabaddin. 
B. 1845. 



Mazaflkruddio. 
B. 185L 

I 

Shahabaddin. 
B. 1850. 



I I 

Nadiruddin. Fazluddia. 



D. 1814. 
I 



5^1642. 



I I ^ r 

ShahdiB. GlUnglmddiB. Jamaladdin. Boknuddln. 

D. 1842. D. 1851. B. 1833. b. 1840. 

I 



i i i I 

Sirajaddin. Shahawaruddin. Shah Nawazaddin, Ni^jibaddin, HtuaaiQuddln. 
D. 1850. 2>. 1848. 2>. 1868. B. 1840. d. 1850. 

I 
Ferozuddia. 

B. 1842. 

I 
SulUnuddiQ. 

B. 1862. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY* 

Sf/ad Ohuhm Mohiuddin^ the father of Azizuddin^ Imamuddin and 
Nuruddin, v^as the son of OAukm SAai^ who held a suliMMrdinate office 



236 HISTORY OF THE 

under Nawab Abdusamad Khan and Zakria Khan governors of Lahore. 
The family of Ghulam Shah was respectable, and had from about the 
year 1550 resided at Chnnian in the Lahore district, and before that 
time at Uchh in the Bahawalpur territory. The founder of it was 
Jalaluddin, a native of Arabia^ who, at the close of the 7th century of 
the Muhammadan era^ came to the court of Halaku Khan of Bukhara. 
He had served for some years as a priest at Mecca, Medina, and the 
shrine at Najib Sharif ; and had made pilgrimages to the tomb of Sulai- 
man, and Ghosal Azam at Baghdad, and had gained a great reputation 
for sanctity. In Bukhara he gained many disciples, but incurred the 
hatred of flalaku Khan, who was an idolater and a tyrant, by bold 
denunciation of his cruelty and oppression, and was seized by the royal 
order and thrown into a blazing furnace. But like the three Jewish 
saints, his body was proof against fire, and he came forth unscorched 
and unharmed ; and Halaku Khan, not proof against such arguments, 
became a convert to Muhammadanism with many of his subjects, and 
gave his own daughter in marriage to Jalaluddin, who lived for some 
years in Bukhara, where there are still many of his descendants. From 
the residence of Jalaluddin at Bukhara, the family has obtained the 
name of Bukhari. At length he again set out upon his travels, taking 
with him his little grandson . Bahauddin. On the journey when 
the child was thirsty, does came and fed him with their milk, and after 
enduring many hardships they reached the Panjab. There Jalaluddiiji 
made many converts, and finally settled at Uchh, formerly known as Deo- 
ghar. He died in 1293, in the reign of Jalaluddin Feroze Khiji.* 

* This account of the family, claiming descent from the Bukhari Syads, is possibly true. 
There are, however, many who assert that it was only when Fakir Azlzuddin became rich 
and powerful that he discovered himself to be a Syad, and an amusing story is told of the 
manner in which the genealogy was manufactured and promulgated. Ccrttiin it is that until 
the time of Maharaja Sher Singh the Fakirs styled themselves and were styled in all official 
documents, * Ansari,* after 1840, they styled themselves * Bukhari.' Bat on the other hand. 
Fakir Azizuddin was so trvitbful a man, that it is impossible to believe that lie would 
become a principal to such a fraud ; and he was too careless of nominal distinctions to 
value the title of Syad, * Ansari * or * Bukhari.' lU knew that the dress and style 
of Fakir were his greatest protection in the intriguing and unscrupulous court of Lahore, and 
he would never accept the titles and honours which the Maharrja desired to confer on him. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 237 

Ohnlam Mohiuddin was born at Bahila on the lirer Beas. When he 
was three months old his father Ghulam Shah died, and his widowed 
mother^ left in great poverty, came to Lahore to seek help from her hus- 
band's friends. Abdullah Ansari, a well known physician of Lahore^ 
who had been judge in Kashmir early in the reign of Ahmad Shah, and 
whose father had written a medical work, * Tazkira ishakiya/ which is 
still an authority, took pity upon her and supported both her and her 
son. He gave to Ghulam Mohiuddin a good education, and when the 
boy had grown up, married him to his niece, the daughter of his brother 
Khuda Baksh. 

Ghulam Mohiuddin became a physician and a bookseller, and in pur- 
suit of his trade, travelled over a large portion of the Panjab. He 
became a disciple of Fakir Imanat Shah Kadri, and himself assumed 
the title of Fakir, and his * murids ' or disciples arc still to be found 
in Lahore and Bahawalpur. 

Ghulam Mohiuddin left three sons, Azizuddin^ ImamudJin and Nur- 
vdilln; of these A2i::uddin\he eldest was a pupil of Lala Hakim Eai, the 
cliief Lahore physician, who placed him in attendance on Ranjit Singh, 
when that chief, soon after his capture of Lahore in 1799, was suffering 
from a severe affection of the eyes. The skill and attention of the^young 
doctor won the chiefs regard, and Azizuddin received a grant of- the 
villages of Baddu and Sharakpur, and a cash assignment on Diwan 
Ilukraau Singh Pathban, who at that time farmed the customs of Lahore 
as Ramanand did those of Amritsar. Ranjit Singh made him his own 
physician, and as he extended his territories the jagirs oi Azizuddin 
were also increased. 

In the year 1808, when Mr. Metcalfe was sent to Lahore to draw up 
ail agreement by which Ranjit Singh should be ccnfmed to the north 
of the Satlej, and in 1809, when the British troops were moved up to that 
river, the Sikh chief, supported by his Sirdars, had almost determined 
on war with the English ; but Azizuddin strongly dissuaded him from such 
a course, and his wiser counsels at last prevailed. Ranjit Singh, appre- 



238 HISTORY OF THE 

ciatiog the far-sightedacss and wisdom of Azizuddin^ consulted him on all 
occasions^ and irom this time to the end of his reign never undertook any 
important operation against his advice. In all matters connected with Eu- 
ropeans and the English Government^ Azizuddin was specially employed ; 
and to the Fakir's enlightened and liberal counsels it may be attributed * 
that throughout his long reign the Maharaja maintained such close 
friendship with the English Government. Trusting implicitly to its 
good faith he would set out with his whole army on distant expeditions, 
leaving only the Fakir with a few orderlies for the protection of Lahore. 

Azizuddin was employed on several occasions on military service. In 
1810 he was sent to annex the Gujrat country of Sahib Singh Bhangi, 
and^ in 1813^ when Jahan Dad Khan had given up Attock to the Maharaja 
he was sent with Diwan Din Das, Sukhdyal and Sirdar Mohta Singh to 
reinforce the garrison and to settle the district. In 1819, he was sent 
as envoy to the Bahawalpur court, and was received there with great 
honour. He accompanied the expedition against Kangra ; and, in 1826^ 
when Diwan Kirpa Ram fell into disgrace^ Fahir Azizuddin was sent to 
receive from hiin the. fort of Philor, of which he took charge till it waa 
placed under Sirdar Desa Singh Majithia ; and shortly before this he had 
assumed charge of Kapurthalla, Jandiala, Hoshiarpur, and the Trans 
Satlej- estates of Fatah Singh Ahluwalia, who had fled across the Satlej, 
for British protection. In April, 1831, Azizuddin^ in company with Sirdar 
Hari Singh Nalwa, and Diwan Moti Ram, was sent to Simla, on a com- 
plimentary visit to Lord William Bentinck.^ The envoys were received 
with great honour and arrangements were made for a meeting between 
the Maharaja and the Governor General, which took place at Rupar, in 
October of the same year. 

In May, 1835, he was 'present in the Peshawar valley, when Amir 
Dost Muhammad Khan, with a large army arrived from Kabul with the 

* It was daring thia visit to Simla that aa English Officer asked Fakir Azizuddin^oi 
which eye the Maharaja was blind ? He replied, ** The splendour of his face is such that I hare 
neTcr been able to look close enough todiscoTer.'' 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 239 

ititei>tion of recover ing Pe8ba#at frotn the Sikha. AzUuddin was sent as 
the principal envoy to the Afghan eamp^ and contrived to delude the 
Amir to completely that the Afghan army whB almost surrounded by the 
Sikhs, during the progress of the negotiations^ and had to retire to 
Kabul, with all speed. The Maharaja was so pleased with the adioltness 
of the Fakir on this occasion that on his returu to camp, a general salute 
was ordered in his honour. 

In November, 1638, when the British forces Were being assembled for 
the Kabul campaign, the Maharaja visited Lord Auckland, the Oovernot 
General, at Flro2pur^ where the splendour of the scene even surpassed 
that of (he meeting at Rupar in 1831, which had been called the ' Meet- 
ing of the field of cloth of gold/ Shottly afterwards Lord Auckland paid 
the Maharaja a return visit at Lahore and Amritsar^ and on both these 
occasions the Fakir had been foremost in his attentions, doing the honours 
in the most graceful manner for his mastei*! whose health was fast 
giving way. 

On the 27th June, 1839, Ranjit Singh died, f o the last AztzuddiH, 
the most faithful of his servants, the most devoted of his friends, had 
remained by him ; administering the medicine with his own hand, and 
telling him news from various quarters, which the Maharaja was Anxious 
to hear. On the accession of Maharaja Kharrak Singh, Azizuddin and 
Sirdar Lehna Singh Majithia were sent to Simla to renew the engage- 
ments which had been entered into by Kanjit Singh with the British 
Government. While at Simla, news arrived of the murder of Sirdar Chet 
Singh, the minister and favourite of Kharrak Singh, and the assumption 
of power by Prince Nao Nihal Singh. This ne^s caused some hesitation 
at Simla, but the treaty was eventually renewed and the envoys returned 
to Lahore. 

The influenee of the Fakir At ooart cHd not perceptibly decline during 
the reign of Kharrak Singfi^ In May, 1810, he was deputed b]fiiihe 
Darbar to viatt Mr. Cleirk«t Firozpur, and ke made tbe . arrann^QiMBta 



£40 HISTORY OF THE 

for the visit which that officer paid the Maharaja at Lahore, in the same 
month. In September of the same year in company with Rai Grovind Jas 
he was again sent on a confidential mission to Mr. Clerk, to discuss the 
treatment of the Ghiizi and Barakzai chiefs, and the interpretation of 
the first article of the Tripartite Treaty of 1838, which had been some- 
what infringed by the action taken by the Sikhs in Yusafzai and Swat. . 

In the intrigues which succeeded the deaths of Kharrak Singh and 
Nao Kihal Singh^ the Fakir did not take an active part. Baja Dhyan 
Singh indeed used always to consult him^ and they both were parties to 
the arrangement by which Mai Chand Eour was appointed Regent during 
the pregnancy of Sahib Kour, widow of Prince Nao Nihal Singh. 
Azizuddin was well aware that this arrangement could not be a suc- 
cessful one, and his sympathies were all with Prince Sher Singh, but his 
great influence was in ihe foreign department, and regarding home poli- 
tics, he at this time rarely ventured an opinion in Darbar. 

When Sher Singh obtained the throne he treated Azizuddin with 
the greatest kindness, and in March, 1841, sent him to Ludhiana, to 
sound Mr. Clerk the agent of the Governor General as to the willingness 
of the British Government to aid him in reducing his troops to obe- 
dience. Mr. Clerk was not averse to the idea. The Sikhs, before the 
experience of the Satlej campaign, were not considered formidable in 
the field, and Mr. Clerk thought that with 12,000 troops, it was possible 
to reduce the Khalsa army to obedience throughout the plain country of 
the Panjab ; in case of resistance to disperse it, and to establish Sher 
Singh firmly on the throne. The terms on which such assistance 
would be rendered were the cession to the British Government of the 
Lahore Territory south of the Satlej, and the payment of forty lakhs of 
rupees, for the expenses of the expedition. The Fakir, with his colleague, 
Munshi Din Muhammad, had no authority to conclude so important a 
transaction as this ; and asked permission, as the matter could not be 
trusted to paper, to go to Lahore to consult the Maharaja, promising to 
return in eight days. He never returned and perhaps never intended 



PANJAB CHIBF8. 241 

to do SO. The Maharaja was more afraid of the British Army than 
of his own, and in spite of the revolt of the troops in Mandi, wrote to 
the Agent to say that he had suppressed all mutiny, and that 
the Sikh Army^ obedient and loyal^ was ready to march against the 
enemies of the English.^ 

Sher Singh feared that the British Army, once having occupied Lahore 
would never again leave it. Fakir Azizuddin, who knew better the policy 
of the English Government^ professed himself still anxious^ for its interfe- 
rence^ and directed his son Shahdin^ the Lahore agent at Ludhiana, to 
urge Mr. Clerk to renew the overtures made, and to send for Baba Mahan 
Singh, a confidential servant of the Maharaja, to conduct the negotiations. 
But Mr. Clerk did not find it politic again to take the initiative, and 
the scheme was wisely abandoned. 

About this time an accident befel Azizuddin, which it was feared would 
end fatally. He was seated in Darbar, at Shah Bilawal, next to Diwan 
Bishan Singh whose sword, as he rose from his seat, wounded the Fakir 
severely in the leg. He fainted from loss of blood, and it was 
thought that lock-jaw would come on. Gradually, however, he reco- 
vered, and this accident afforded him an excuse to attend the .Darbar 
less frequently, for he, with the other ministers, feared the abuse and 
excesses of the soldiery. 

In February, 1842, Azizuddin was sent by the Maharaja to Makhu, 
on the south side of the Satlej, to meet Mr. Clerk who was proceeding 
to Lahore on a mission of congratulation on the Maharaja's accession, 
and condolence on the death of Kharrak Singh. 

In December, 1842, Surdar Lehna Singh Majithia, was deputed by 
the Lahore Court to wait on Lord EUenborough, who was present with the 
British Army at Firozpur. Through some misunderstanding, the Sirdar, 
expecting the Agent of the Governor General to conduct him to the British 

* The Sapreme Government did not adopt the extreme riewe of Mr. Clerk, and deprecated 
armed interference, unless the course of events in the Panjab should render it absolutely 
necessarj. 



242 HI8T0RT Of THB 

ounp, remained in his tent, and the interview failed altogether to oome aS. 
Lord Ellenborongb, thinking the slight intentional, demanded expUuuH 
tions. Fakir Azizuddinj accordin^j, with Prince Partab Singh, B^aHim 
Singh and other Sirdars proceeded to f^roepnr, where a grand darbar 
and review of hoth the Sikh and British armies were held. Azisuddim 
explained away the apparent discourtesy, and ao pleased the Ck>¥ernor 
General that he called him, in fnll darbar, '^ the protector of the friendship 
of both states/' and taking from his pocket a gold watch, presented it to 
him. This gift, valued beyond other khillats, is now in the possession 
of Fakir Jamalnddin. 

During the last year of Sher Singh's reign, Fakir Azmidim Ml 
out of favour. He was suspected of attachment to the Jamsin Kajas, 
whom Sher Singh hated, though he was unable to resist them* The 
truth was that Baja Dbyan Singh found the abilities of Azizuddin 
necessary to him ; and indeed no ministry at Laliore could have dispens- 
ed with the services of the Fakir. It was not without difficulty that 
Azizuidin forgave Raja Dhyan Singh for the murder of Sirdar Chet 
Singh, his particular friend ; but at length he seemed to believe that 
the Dogra Bajas alone could save the slate from disruption, and it was 
this belief which induced him to join their party. 

After the death of Maharaja Sher Singh, the Fakir took little part 
in politics. His health was bad, his eyesight failing, and his influence day 
by day grew less, as the army became more powerful and reckless. He 
saw well whither the evil passions of the troops were hurrying them, and 
he raised his voipe, unfortunately in vain, against tlie suicidal policy of 
Jowahir Singh and Lai Singh. His last act was to urge the recall of 
the invading army which had marched to the Satlej against the 
British, and he died, on the 3rd December, 1843, before ruin had faDen 
on the state he had served so long and so faithfully. 

Fakir Azitnddin was one of the ablest and certainly the most honest 
of all Ranj it Singh's advisers. That monarch knew how to choose his 
ministers, and throughout his long reign his confidence in and affection 



PANJAB CHIKF8. 243 

for Azizuddin never lessened^ as they were never betrayed or abused. 
There were few questions^ either in home or foreign politicSj on which 
the Maharaja did not ask his advice^ while the conduct of negotiations 
with the English Government was left almost entirely in his hands, and 
it was undoubtedly owing in no small degree to the tact and wisdom 
of the Fakir that the two states remained till the close of Banjit Singh's 
reign on terms of the most cordial friendship. 

Fakir Azizuddin was of so engaging a disposition^ and so perfect a 
courtier in his mannerSi that he made few declared enemies^ though 
many were doubtless jealous of his influence. One reason of his popula- 
rity^ as a Muhammadan minister at a Hindu courts was the liberality of 
his belief. He was a Sufi^* a sect held^ indeed^ as infidel^ by orthodox 
MuhammadanSi but to which the best thinkers and poets of the East have 
belonged. He had no attachment for the barren dogmata of the Euran, 
but looked on all religions as equally to be respected and disregarded. On 
one occasion Ranjit Singh asked him whether he preferred the Hindu or 
the Muhammadan religion. ^' I am/' he replied| <' a man floating in the 
midst of a mighty river. I turn my eyes towards the land^ but can 
distinguish no difference in either bank.'' 

Fakir Azizuddin was celebrated as the most eloquent man of his day, 
and he was as able with his pen as with his tongue. The state paperf 
drawn up by him and his brother Nuruddin are models of elegance and 
good taste/ according to the oriental standard. He was himself a ripe 
scholar in all branches of Eastern learning, and also was a generous and 
discriminating patron of learning. At Lahore^ he founded| at his own 
expense, a college for the study of Persian and Arabici and to this 

* iVo^.— The Sufi aeot reprewntf the mjntical Moetidim of MnhammadMiifm. AU oTer 
the East it« memben are matt or le« munexou % Penia bis for many oentoriei been ito bead 
quarten, while in the Peiyab, a declared Sofi is rarelj to be found. Yet the mjslioal dootrinM 
of the Safi are common erery where. The Hindu Vedanti achool of deistical philoiophj 
hardly diflen from Snfiftn except in name ; and the principles upon which Quia Kanak fovnd- 
ed the Sikh faith, are almost identical with those whidi may be found in the partly Snfi 
wntings of Mahmnd, Hafiz or Fakir Agisuddin himself. 



244 HI8T0&T OF TUB 

iostitation very many of the Arabic scholara of the Fanjab owe their 
education. 

AMk^t^AMUtMin must be allowed a high- place. Hia Fersian 
poem«>of the tnystical character which the Safia atfS^ct, are often rety 
beautiftilj and are diatinguiehed by eimplicity and great elegance of style. 
A few Btanaaa) literally translated^ are inserted here, to show^ in some 
measure, the character of Sufi religions poetry :— 

If you aUttitively regard the world 

Toa will ftlid it fagitive as a shadow : 

Why shottld ytm Yet yourself with vain desires 

When yoo have no power to perform ? 

Forget yoorself, and leave year work with Qod, 

Truit yooxeelf with all tonadenoe to Bim ;] 

Wait with patienoe nntil He shall hless jou. 

And thank Him for what He has already given. 

Stop yonr ears from the sound of earthly care ; 

Bejoiee in Qod, and be hopeful of His mercj. 



The wise would eonsider me u an idolater 
Shoald I thoughtlessly speak of myself as '/' ;. 
To the vrise and to those who most nearly know, 
II is a felly for any mortal to assert^ / «».* 
Although ahle to vanquish Sahrab» ZaX and Buitam. 
Tet at the last your stability is but as water ; 
It is a vain thought that your reseon may spin 
Her imaginings, as a spider spins her web. 
It k weU that I Should btea^e tha air of freedom, 
For I know that every thing is dependent upon God. 

Only tvfo of Fakir AeizuddmU aix loiia are now linag. Skchtki^ who 
died in 1842, wa«, ia 1836| appointed agent with the Bntiah 
poUtioal officer at Ludimuia ; and two yearn later waa ^>poiated 
wakil at f irdbBpun Fakir CUrugifuddm wbb. In 1838^ made goremor 
of Jaarotft^ and ahoctly afterwarda was plaoad in attendance on Prince 
Kharrak Singh. He succeeded his brother as wakil^ at Firozpor^ in 
184d, and was afterwarda attached to the Council of Regency in the 
same capacity. 

JamahSclin, entered the service of the English Government as 
Tehiildar of Hafizabad. He was then tcansferred to GDJranwalai andj 



PANJAB CH1£IS. 245 

in 1864, was appointed Mir Munshi of the Panjab Secretariat. He 
and his brother Buknuddin receive each a pension of 1000 Kb. per 
annum, fur life. 

Nasimddifi the eldest son of Fakir Azizuddin was murdered when 
quite a youth, in 1814. A Purbeah sepoy who had been dismissed by 
Fakir Imamuddin for some fault, determined upon revenge and 
came to Lahore to the shop of Giulam Mohiuddin^ and asked to be 
treated for some alleged disorder. Toung Naziruddin^ who used to 
assist his grandfather, took the sepoy into an inner room, wheL he 
drew his sword and cut the boy down, Ohulam Mohiuddin ran up, 
hearing the cries of his grandson, but the room was locked. He, 
however, broke the door down with an axe, and rushed upon the 
murderer, whom he disarmed, not without receiving severe wounds 
himself, and threw from the window into the street, where he was 
torn to pieces by the infuriated mob. Noiiruddin lingered a few days 
and tlien died. 

Ckiraghuddin was the only one of Azizuddin^s sons to leave any 
family, and the fate of Sirajuddinj his eldest son, was as tragical as 
that of UMiruddin. 

This young man was in the employ of Bahawal Khan^ the Nawab 
of Bahawalpur, who was succeeded by his favorite son Sadik Muham- 
mad Khan. The new prince wished to put to death his brother Haji 
Khan, whom he found in prison, but Sirajuddiu aiid the Daudputras 
took his part^ and raising an insurrection in his favour placed him 
upon the throne. In gratitude for this, Haji Khan made Sirajuddin 
his minister, and his brother Shai Nawaz Khan^ commander- in-chiei 
No long time afterwards, however, Sirajuddin quarreled with Azad 
Khan, the maternal uncle ef the Nawab^ who took his relative's part, 
and Sirajuddin prepared to leave Bahawalpur. But the Nawab sent 
several Syads to him, who swore on the Kuran that no injury was 
intended him, and he then resolved to remain. Bnt two or three days 



246 HI8T0ET OF THB 

later the house was surronnded by troops, and Sirajoildin was informed 
that he was a prisoner and moat consent to be placed in irons. He 
refused to submit except to force, and the house was at last stormed. 
The brothers defended themselves gallantly, but they were almost on* 
armed. The principal officer Sirajuddin killed with his own hand and 
was then shot dead himself. Shah Nawaz Khan was captured, severely 
wounded, and was thrown into prison, where he remained eight months, 
until ransomed by his father for 80,000 fis. 

During the life of Fakir Azizuddin^ h:s brothers played subordinate 
parts, but some account must be given of Hkern here, as both were men 
of some importance. Fakir Imamuddin was, during a great portion of 
Ranjit Singh's reign, custodian of the celebrated fort of GoTindghar*' 
at Amritsar, and governor of the country immediately surrounding it. 
With this he had charge of the magazine, arsenals and royal stables. 
His occupations at Amritsar did not allow him to perform much service 
in the field, but he was one of the force sent to reduce the forts of Mai 
Sadda Kour and the Eanheyas, and also served in one or two other 
minor campaigns. He died in 18^, leaving one son Tajuddin, who 
had shared with him the charge of Govindghar, and who survived him 
only two years. 3furajuddin, the only son of Tajuddin, enjoys a cash 
pension of 500 Rs. per annum. 

Fakir Nuruddin neither possessed the ability or the courage of his 

brother Azizuddin, whom in many points he much resembled. His 

early life was passed in devotion, till, in 1810, Ranjit Singh, who had 

taken a great fancy to Azizuddin sent for Nuruddin to his darbar, and 

gave him the district of Dbanni to superintend. He acquitted himself 

• The first Thannadar or OoYernor of GoTindghar was Sirdar Shamir Singh of The- 
thar, Lahore. He rebuilt the fort, in a great meai ore, under BaLJit Singh's orders. After 
Shamir Singh, Fakir ImamuddtM was appointed, who with his son Tajuddin held flie fort 
tiU the reign of Maharaja Sber Singh. Snbha Singh of Baghrian wia then nominated, and 
remained goremor till 1842, when Sarmukh Singh a Brahman of Botala was appointed. 
This man aUowed Dheria Khan, a state prisoner, to escape, and he was conseqocnUj super- 
seded bj Skamtkuddin son of Fakir Numddin, in 1847. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 247 

well, and was then sent to Gujrat^ where he had some difficulty in 
reducing the Chibs to obedience. In 1812, Jalandhar was placed under 
him^ and the next year Sialkot^ Daska, Halowal and Wazirabad. Inl8l8 
he was summoned to Lahore^ and henceforward his duties were generally 
about court. These duties were multifarious and responsible. He was 
in charge of the arsenal at the fort, of the royal gardens and palaces. 
He was almoner to the Maharaja, and dispensed the royal bounty to 
deserving applicants. He kept one key of the royal treasury, the 
Moti Mandar ; the two other keys being in charge of Misr Beli Bam 
and Diwan Hukman Singh. 

In 1826, Nuruddin was sent to reduce the country around Find 
Dadan Khan, and in 1831, he proceeded to Syadpur and Makhad to 
assist Raja Gulab Singh in his administration of that part of the 

country. 

Nuruddin was closely associated with his brother Aeizuddin 
in the conduct of negotiations with the British Government. Both 
were lovers of the English and earnestly desirous that the two 
states of India and Lahore should always remain on the most friendly 
terms. 

On the 19th Septemberj 1846, when the Ehalsa army had mutinied, 
and required the Rani to give up her brother and the murderers of Prince 
Peshora Singh to their vengeancCi Fakir Nuruddin was sent with Diwan 
Dina Nath and Sirdar Attar Singh Kalianwala to endeavour to soothe 
them. The mission was without result, and Nuruddin alone of the envoys 
was allowed to return to Lahore without insults and threats. After the 
Satlej war, Nuruddin was one of the subscribing witnesses to the treaty of 
the 9th March, on^ the part of the] Lahore State ; and in Deoemberi 
1846, when Raja Lai Singh, the wasir, was deposed for treason, Nuruddin 
was appointed one of the Council of Regency to carry on the Government 
until Maharaja Dalip Singh should arrive at his majority. 



248 HIITORT OF THB PAN JAB CHIEFS. 

Nuruidin was not an active member of the Council^ bat he was one 
of the most disinterestedi and his advice was generally sonnd and well 
considered. He at all times was ready to facilitate matters for the Bri- 
tish Resident^ while remaining faithfhl to the interests of his own Govern- 
ment. In 1850, the Supreme Government confirmed to him for life all 
his jagirs and allowances, amounting to Bs. 20,885 per annum. To his 
two elder sons, Zahuruddin and ShatMhuddin^ were granted cash 
pensions of 1000 Bs. and 720 Bs. respectively ; to the younger 540 Ra. 
each. On the death of their father Nuruddin, in 1852, these allowances 
were increased to 1,200 Bs., 2,400 Bs., and 1,080 Bs. respectively. 

Fakir Zaiuruddin was placed with the young Maharaja Dalip Singh 
as a tutor. He accompanied the prince to Fatahghar, and the way ia 
which he fulfilled the duties of the office gave every satisfaction. At the 
end of 1851, he returned to the Fanjab, and was, in 1855, appointed Teh- 
sildar of Chunian, and was subsequently transferred to Moga and Lahore. 
In 1863, he was promoted to the rank of Extra Assistant Commissioner^ 
at Sialkot, where he is still stationed. 

Fakir SiavuAuddin, second son of Nuruddin^ was Thannadar of the 
Govindghar Fort during the second Sikh war. In this position he be- 
haved with great fidelity, and made over the fort to European troops at 
a tinle when any hesitation on his part might have produced serious 
results. In 1850, he was appointed Tehsildar of Shahdera, but was com- 
pelled to resign the next year through ill health. In 1862, Shamhuddin 
was appointed an Honorary Magistrate of the city of Lahore, and a mem- 
ber of the Municipal Committee. He is a man of great energy and liber- 
ality. A finished scholar himself he is ever foremost in any schemes 
for the advancement of learning generally among his countrymen. 
It ia very much owing to his exertions that Female Education has been 
io generally taken up in Lahore. He bas also taken an active part in 
the establishment of a literary Society, the ' Anjaman-i-Panjab,' which 
is still young, but which promises most interesting and valuable results. 



SIRDAR RICHPAL SINGH SINDHU OF 
SIRANWALI. 



Daboah SntOH. 



Lai Singh. Tegh Chaud. 

I I 



I i r GhaziU. 

B. Isar Koar, Sirdar Mangal b. Desan, | 

H. M. R. Kharrak Singh. Singh. D. 1864. U. Jamiyat Singh^ Hakm Siogb. 

D. 1840. ! Randhawa. 

j ^^1 I 

Richpal Singh. b. Attar Kour, b, Prem Konr, 

B. 1850. M. 1885. M. 1864. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The ancestor of this family is said to have been one Hassan a Sindhu 
Jat, whO| about the year 1500 A. D., founded the village of Hassan- 
wala in the Gujranwala district. The village of Siranwali, (the place 
of heads) in the Fasrur pergannah of the Sialkot district, is also said 
to have been founded by him at the place where he overcame the power- 
ful Karayah tribe^ and having cut off the heads of the slain, collected 
them in a heap^ and took his bath over them. But this blood-thirsty 
exploit was probably invented later to account for the name of the 
village. Siranwali at any rate passed out of the hands of the family, 
and Dargah^ who first became a Sikh, had through poverty t« leave 
the Sialkot district for Gurdaspurf where he became a sowar in the 
troop of Jaimal Singh Fatahgharia. His son Lai Singh succeeded 
him, but being a man of some ability he rose to the command of 100 
horsemen. 

The beauty of Isar Kour, the daughter of Lai Singh, was celebrated 
in the Sialkot district, and, in 1815, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh 
was travelling in that direction, Lai Singh brought the girl to hlmj 
and she was sent to the royal zanana at Lahore* Two months later. 



250 HISTORY OP THE 

however, Ranjit Singh sent her to his son Prince Kharrak Singh, who 
married her by chaddar-dola, at Amritsar. Lai Singh died soon after 
this, but the young Mangal Singh, his son, profited by the royal con- 
nection. When he first came to court he was but a rude Jat peasant, 
and it is said that the Maharaja told the attendants to change his 
country garments for those fashionable at couft. Mangal Singh had 
never worn paejamas (the tight Sikh trousers) and to the great amuse- 
ment of the courtiers attempted to put both legs into that portion of the 
garment which nature and the tailor bad intended for but one. But 
Mangal Singhj though no courtier, was a clever young man, and rapidly 
rose to favour at court. Prince Kharrak Singh gave to him the jagirs 
of Thallur and Ehita, worth 5,000 Rs. and the charge of the Uaka 
of Chunian, in the Lahore district. The Prince was so pleased with 
the adroitness of Mangal Singh in this appointment that in 1820, with 
the Maharaja's approbation, he made him manager of all his afiairs, 
civil and military, and conferred upon him a jagir of 19,000 Rs. with 
the title of Sirdar. Mangal Singh recovered the old family village of Siran- 
wali which had till this time been in possession of Sirdar Sham Singh 
Attariwala. For some years Mangal Singh remained in high favour, 
receiving large additions to his jagirs and attending Prince Kharrak 
Singh in all his expeditions and campaigns. But in the year 1834^ 
Sirdar Chet Singh Bajwa, who had married Chand Kour^ the niece of 
Sirdar Mangal Singh, and whom he himself had introduced to the notice 
of Kharrak Singh, was appointed to the management of the Prince's 
afiairs in the room of Mangal Singh. The latter, however, did not 
suffer in fortune by the change, as Kharrak Singh gave him new jagirs, 
which with those already in his possession, amounted in value to ^,61,250 
Bs. of which 62,760 Bs. were personal and the balance for service of 780 
sowars, SO zamburahs and 2 guns. 

Chet Singh's elevation was the cause of his destruction. During 
Banjit Singh's reign he remained chief favourite of the Prince, and his 
power was very great, for Kharrak Singh was a weak man and a 



PAKJAB CHlEFa. 251 

favourite could iDfluence bim as he chose ; bat after the death of Banjit 
Singh, and the accession of Kharrak Singh, the Sirdars whose jealousy 
Chet Singh had aroused determined to destroy him. KajaDhyan Singh 
and Prince Nao Nihal Singh were the leaders of the conspiracy ; and 
the unfortunate favourite was murdered openly in the palace and almost 
in the presence of his royal master. 

In 1834, when Chet Singh was first taken into favour, Sirdar 
Mangal Singh was sent to the Multan district to keep the wild Muzari 
tribe in order; but although he was as energetic as any of his predecessorSi 
he was unable to restore the frontier to any degree of quiet. 

In November, 1840, Maharaja Kharrak Singh died, and Rani Isar 
Kour was burnt as a ' Sati ' upon the funeral pile. It was asserted at the 
time, and there is every reason to believe truly, that this lady was not a 
voluntary victim. That she was urgjed and indeed compelled to hxxm, 
and that it was Raja Dhyan Singh who was the contriver of the tragedy. 
Great jealousy had always existed between Isar Kovar and Chand Kour 
the principal wife of Kharrak Singh, and the influence of this Rani was 
also used to induce her rival to become a ' Sati.^ 

Mangal Singh hoped that he might obtain some share of power 
at this time. His position as brother-in-law of the late Maharaja and 
tlie great wealth which he had amassed during many years of servicCi 
^ave him some reason to believe that he might, with Prince Sher Singh, 
be able to form some stable government ; but Raja Dhyan Singh, 
having got rid of Sirdar Chet Singh, had no intention of permitting 
another rival to obtain power, and Mangal SingA fell gradually into the 
back ground. Some time later Maharaja Sher Singh resumed all Mangal 
Singh' » original jagirs, except 37,000 Rs., but granted him new ones to 
the value of 1,24,500 Rs. at Sahiwal and Bankal Chiroi. He held these up 
to 1846, when Raja Lai Singh seized them leaving the Sirdar only 86,000 
Rb. of the old jagirs, and granting 36,000 Rs. new, subject to the service of 
120 sowars. This reduction was the more unjust as Sirdar -Miifi^a/ 



252 HICTOKT Off THB PAii/AB CH1EP8. 

fiMyi, after the death of Kharrak Singli^ had not meddled with politics 
and the reaaon of the confiacatioii was etrident as the jagirs were 
givea hj Lai Singh to his brother Miar Amir Chand. In some 
measure to make up finr his loss. Major Lawrence the Besident caused him 
to be appcnnted ' Adalati ' or chief jnstice of the Rechna Doab. In 
this appointment he gave little salia&ction. Be waa a plain aoldier 
and jodicial work in no way soited him. When the rebellion broke 
oat, in 1848, he was at Waadrabad, and was placed in charge of the 
ferries. According to his own account he was taken prisoner by Raja 
Sher Singh, when opposing the passage of the rebel force, and kept under 
restraint until just before the battle of Bamnagari when he effected his 
escape and joined Major Nicholson, under whose orders he remained 
till the dose of the campaign. The conduct of Sirdar Mongol Sin^i 
appeared snspidous to the auUiorities, and, after annexation, only a 
cash pension of 12,000 Bs. was allowed to him for life. But it must 
in fSumess be remembered that no treason was erer prored sgainst the 
Sirdar ; that he joined the British at a critical tioM : and that he was 
employed in procuring supplies, and on other service for the British army, 
up to the very end of the war. Sirdar Mangal Singh died in June^ 1864. 

Bis only son, Bichpal Singk^ holds a life pension of 2,000 Rs., and 
resides at Siranwali, Sialkot district. 



DIWAN SHANKAR NATE. 



VAvmt Eaokath Koul. 

I 
Faodii Hari Ram. 

Diwan Bhankar Nath. 
I B. 180g. 

I : ^ 

Pram Nath. Shir Nath. 
! 

DwarkaKath. Kaahi Naih. Waifaaihar Nath. 6opi Nath. 

B. 1847. B. 185& B. 1859. . B. 1862. 

HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

The ancestors of Diwan Shankar Naih wera inhabitants'of Kashmir. 
The first to leave his native country was Lai Chand Koul who emigrated 
to Dehli during the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan^ and entered the 
service of Ali Mardan Khan^ the accomplished minister of the Mogal 
prince. There he acquired considerable wealthy and afielr some years 
returned to Kashmir. His success induced several others of the family 
to follow his examplci and among the emigrants was Ragnaih Kaul^ 
who settled at Faizabad^ where a son Hari Ram was bom to him. He 
then took service with the Maharaja of Gwaliofi^ Md became Uir 
Munshi of Colonel Louis Burqien^ one of the French officers in the Main 
ratta army. His son Hari Ram worked under him till the overthrow of the 
!Mahratta power threw both father and son on the world. Hari Ram 
soon after this was invited to Lahore by a relative^ Diwan Ganga Bam, 
who had taken service with Banjit Singh^ in 181 S, and had risen to 
offices of trust and profit^ fie accepted the invitation^ and being a ready 
writer^ was placed in charge of the Diwan's office. In 1817, he was 
attached as munshi to the person of the Maharaja, and in 1818, held the 
same office with Kharrak Singh the heir^apparentj whose jagir accounts 
he kept. 

Shankar Nathj born at Dehli in 1605, was brought to Lahore by 
his father in 1820| and placed in Prince Kharrak Singh's treasury 



254 HItTOlT 0? THK PANJAB CHIEFS. 

office. He was afterwardi traoBferred to the Central Record office, in 
which he remained till the anoezatbn of the Panjab. His connec- 
tioo with Baja Dina Nath, whose sister he had married, gave Pandit 
Bkankar Naik much inflnencej and he was besides known for abilitj 
and nnimpeachable honesty. Daring the time of the residency from 1846 
to 1849, Shankar Naih was largely and confidentially employed by British 
officers, Messrs Bowring, Cocks, Wedderbarni and Major Macgregor« 
and all ha?e borne witness to the value of his services and to his high 
character. Being chief monshi of Baja Dina Nath's officOi a large 
amount of revenue work was made over to him, and he himself dis- 
posed of upwards of eight thousand cases. Till 1849, Shankar NatA 
held jagirs to (he value of 6,500 Bs., besides cash allowances 1^360 
Bs. and £^412 Bs. for his establishment The jagirs, situated in 
Sheikhupura and Oujrat were resumed, and a pension of 2,620 Rs. was 
assigned to him for life. In 1862, Shankar Naih was appointed Ho- 
norary Magistrate of Lahore. In this office he has given great satis- 
faction by his impartiality and activity. He possesses great- knowledge 
of Hindu law, and in intricate cases of custom, inheritance and religion 
his opinion ^ sought with confidence by the English magistrates of 
Lahore. In January, 1865, he was created a Diwan by the Supreme 
Government. 



BAKSHI BHAGGAT RAM. 



Baisakhi Rax. 



Mihr Chmnd, Bhaggat Ram, Har Dyal, 

B. 1795. D. 1866. D. 1858. 

Jamiyat Rai, 
B. 1830. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Baisaihi Ratn^ father of Bakshi BkaggaiBami was a money-changer, 
in a very small way of businessi in the city of Lahore. In 1818^ 
Bhaggat Ram, then nineteen years of age, was taken into the Treasury 
Office, as a writer on 60 Bs. a month, by Misr Beli Ram, the Chief Tosha- 
kbania or Keeper of the State Treasury. In 1824, he received the post 
of assistant writer of the accounts of the Privy Purse, with 50 Rs. per 
mensem additional pay. He waS| in 1831| deputed to accompany 
Prince Sher Singh to the hill country of the Jalandhar Doab, to collect 
the revenue from Tirah and Sujanpur, and the tribute from Mfindi, 
Sokct and Eulu. The next year Bhaggat Ram returned to Lahore and wa9 
appointed ^Bakshi' or Paymaster of 50 battalions of infantry, 8 Regi- 
ments of cavalry, and 20 batteries of artillery, on a cash salary of 2,520 Bs. 
a year. He held this appointment throughout the reigns of Maharajas 
Banjit Singh and Kharrak Singh, and, in 1S41, Maharaja Sher Singh 
granted to him, in addition to his cash allowance, jagirs at Ajnala 
and Surapur, worth 3,000 Rs. 

Bakshi Blaggat Ram was exceedingly popular with the armyi and 
after the assassination of Sher Singh his influence became very great. He 
was at the head of one division of the ^ Mutsaddi ' or Munshi party, while 
Diwan Dina Nath was all powerful in another, composed of the clever and 
unscrupulous Kashmiri Brahmans. After the murder of Raja Hira Singh, 
and Pandit Jella on the 21st December, 1844, it was decided in Darbar 



256 msion of thb 



that iie f,iiiniMBi Amid he carried imbj a council composed of Sirdar 
Siaefc; ■«j» I^Sbgfc ; DiwaoDina Nath ; Sirdars Attar Singh, 
K»fK Mteival^adl IMMif i^o^iZafli, but it was 
llaaBhcCmtkedKf povtt Ml inia the hands of Jowahir Singh 
d ]jd Si^^abDe. 

The BakaU woKt ta Jaaasa vtth Oe GqpeStiim against Saja Oolab 
» ISIS, aad Ibb ^mft Jaftwrr with the teoopa indaced 
the Sjga ta h ato w apam h«» taanwB jtmeuts; bat these Bhaggat 
Ram waa Taiy acar kai^g, km arhea tte wokj had brought Gnlab Singh 
toIdboi^^kapnofiefRrffaaadhiiwni^gMailDgiiaran^ a 

higher rata rf paf , p w f i i ul ttaft al tte diefii cootriboted according to 
tte Bdkahi he |«t dbva ftr a donalicm of fiv« Ukhs of 
\ hi laaB^ ks dkaa ha had laeetvad at Janunn. 



la JaM^ 181^ the anaj, veaiy of teiaeafacttj of the Minister Jow*. 
UrSimk^deMMMthal hashovUh^fiauMdCroai oSe^wdthatin 
hiisleal IX«aia0iaaNatK ttqgatf Amor Kjija Lai Singlii or the three 
<0iVQindf»dMaldhaa]pyQ|a|eitD ttia Waaii^^ Tbe Bwi, howev^, 
eoatnTod to hring aboal % nooaeOialioft httweea her brother Jowahk 
ISngh and her loiar Lai Sii^^ and the ineooipetnit Wazir xemained at 
the head of a&iia until hk aaiMsusatkA three ssontha bter^ 

A new jagirwovth 8,000 Ba.^ atDstarpnr in the Jalandbar Doab, waa 
gvfated 10 tho Bafc^i bj Maharaja Dalip Sui(h. 

WhM this Doab wis oedad l» the Biitiib Gofommont, bj the 
tfti^ oC th^ 91b MmoIw ISifb J?4«f«i Am IM hM jagw 
of the same raloe was granted to him in the Talnwdi FaxgMnib eiC 
the Amritsar distrkt His cash allowanee was redacod to l|30OBs., 
and the next jear, he receiT^d an additional jagir at Dharamkot worth 
^000 Rs. Bis ^Qsolumsnts at this time amooi^ted ia cs$b aud land to 
14,3t>0 Ha. 

Whan at the akm of 1&47> Mr. John Lawreaoa the OflSeiating 
JRasijltit waa allMiptitff to introduce some order and system into the 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 257 

Sikh administration^ Bakshi Bhaggat Bam was directed to render the 
army accoantsj which he had not done for several years. TV hen he would 
do this by no inducement whateveri he was suspended from office, and 
four paymasters were appointed in bis room, and a regular system of 
audit and account was introduced. 

Still failing to render the accounts, the jagirs of Bakshi Bhaggat 
Ram were resumed. At length the accounts were produced^ About 
five and a half lakbs of rupees appeared against him ; but a large portion 
of this was allowed to be written off; part was due from various officers 
of the army ; and on payment of the balance, the accoupts were passed 
by tbe Darbar. Several months later Sir F, Currie refused ta accede 
to th^ wish of the Darbar, and restore to the Bakshi his resumed jagirs, 
and accordingly, at the annexation of the Fanjab, he had no claims on 
the new Government. A pension of 1,200 Bs. per annum was, how- 
ever, granted to him, in 1853, on the recommendation of the Chief 
Commissioner. 

Bhaggat Bam was nevex aecnaed of embezslemeat of the public 
money, and bis poverty^ vbea he possessed such ample opportonkies 
of enriching himself at the expense of the state, is the pioof of bis 
personal hones^« But although be did not bimsdf pbudder the atatOi 
he was in no way careful to cheek the depredatione of oikcvt. His sitb« 
ordinates in the Military Pay Department were the oost greedy and 
unscnqpuloua of men. They gcew rich on tbo plondei <tf the avaiy and 
were tbe objects of uBt?ersal hatred. If Bhaggai Bam had been less 
amiable and more energetic ho woaU have been a talttiU>le pnUio 
servant* 

He died at Lahore in Mareb, 1865, leaving one son Jamiyat Rai, 
employed in tbe Bevenue Department of the Jalandbar District. 



MALIK KBAIRUDDIN KHAN, KASSURTA, 



Mansub Khan. 



Khewft Khan, 
D. 1856. 
i 
I 



Jiwa Khan, Nasera Khan, 



! 



I 

Jahangira 
Khan, 



Daughter K. Katub- 
nddin Khan of Ham- 
dot. 



Haujnddin Khan, Khairnddin 
B. 1806. Khan, 

I B. 1810. 

Kamalttddin Khao, 
B. 1836. 



Amira, 



Wazira. Bela Khan. 



Sahib Khan, 
B. 1861. 



B. 1804. 

Fir Baksh, 
B. 1828. 



Khan, 



JaUJnddin Khan, Shadi 

D. 1848. 

I 



Kaku Khan, 
B. 1807. 



Buland Khan, 
B.1829. 



Fatah Din. 



Fatah Din Khan, 
B. 1844. 



Itmail Khan, 
B. 1851. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The ancestors of Malik Khairnddin Khan were Bhatti Bajpats, resi- 
dent in the Sirsa District. About the year 1520, Qagqu and Hoiu^ two 
members of the family, obtained from Ibrahim, the last of the Lodi 
dynasty, a grant of thirty thousand acres of waste land in the Kassur 
Diskict Thither the brothers proceeded with their families, and 
founded several villages, Hariki, Beytu and the two Nowls. About this 
time also, whether from conviction or influenced by the grant of land, 
they became converts to Muhammadanism. When the Sikhs became 
powerful, about the middle of the 18th century, KassuTi with its large 
Muhammadan population, consisting partly of Pathan colonists and partly 
of Hindu convertS| fell into the hands of the Bhangi cbiefS| who held it 
till 1794;, when Nizamuddin Khan, the Pathan leader, drove out the 
Sikhs, and contrived for some years to bold his own against all opposition. 
Nizamuddin Khan was assassinated by some of his relations, in 1802, 
and his brother Kutbuddin Khan became chief in Kaasur. He 



BI8T0BT OV THE ?ANJAB CHISVCk 359 

married a daughter of Kkewa Khan, and bestowed upon Lis fatber^in-Iaw 
an estate worth lO^OOO Bs, in addition to his ancestral villages. In 1807 
Kassur was conquered by Banjit Singh, • and Kntbuddin Khan was 
permitted to retain Mamdot^ to the south of the Satlej, Whither he retired, 
accompanied by Khewa Khan, who received a jagir, in Mamdot, of the 
same valae as that he had lost in Kassur/ subject to the service of a 
contingent of horse. For many years, under Kutbuddin Khan and 
his successor Jamaluddin Khan, Malik Khewa performed military ser« 
vice, and when he grew old Us son Kiairuddin headed the contingent, 
on active service. £%airuddin Khan during the first Afghan war was 
stationed at Peshawar with the 100 horsemetiof the Mamdot contingent ; 
and after its disastrous termination he accompanied the second army 
under General Pollock to Kabul, with the Mamdot horse and 100 men 
from the Mokal and Attariwala contingents. His services, at a time 
when the Sikh Brigade was notoriously hostile and refused to advance, 
were very valuable, and on his return to the Panjab both Oeneral Pollock 
and Major Mackeson recommended him to the kindness of Maharaja 
Sher Singh, who promised to increase his jagir, but was assassinated 
before he was able to carry out his intention^ At this time Jamaluddin 
Khan, chief of Mamdot, confiscated the jagir of Khewa Khan, who 
retired to the village of Beytu, an ancestral possession, where he died^ at 
a very advranced age, in 1856. Maharaja Dalip Singh, in compensation 
for thi i loss of the Mamdot jagir, gave to Khairuddin Khan, in 1844, six 
villages near Kassur, worth 6,000 Bs. During the latter part of theSat- 
lej war he fought on the side of the British, crossing the river with his 
whole family and joining the camp, soon after the battle of Firushahr. 
During the retrenchments thai follovred the deposition of Uaja Lai Singh 
his j »gir was reduced to 4,000 Rs., and shortly afterwards two more vil- 
lages were taken away, the Kardars affirming that the revenue of the two 
romaining ones, Beytu and Matran, was fully 4,000 Rs. At the time 
of the Multan outbreak Khairuddin was at Dcra Ismail Khan^ 
under the orders of Captain Taylor. He was sent to Bannu to relieve 



260: BISTORT OF THB FAKJ^AB CHIIF0: 

Fatikh KhKn Ti^taXL, who wbH besieged in IMpghar ; but Fatah Ehian ▼as' 
slain and the fort leduced before he reached it. He was afterwards 
sent from Isakhel With 20ahoMe and fiOO foot into the Findi Gheb 
country to harrasi Gohar Singh, the rebel Kardar of Sirdar Chattar 
Singh, and to encourage the Attock garrison. He performed the duty 
most satisfactorily. Gohar Singh waff routed in two or three encounters, 
and was forced to fly the oountry, and while the Sikh army re- 
mained on the left bank of the Jhelam Khairuddin held his ground 
to the north of the Salt range. In 1857, at the requisition of the Chief 
Commissioner, he raised 100 horsemeui and with bis nephews proceeded 
to Hisdar under General Van-Cortlandt. 

In this expedition KosMi/tMififi JTA^iii his nephew and adopted son, 
was made risaldar, and distinguished himself highly. Khairuddin Kkan 
also did good service at Gogaira, against the rebel Ahmad Xhan chief 
of the Eharrals. 

He has served the Britifli Government well in five campaigns, and is 
a man upon whom reliance may be confidently placed. He holds a jagir 
worth 2,500 Bs. for lifci which descends, after his death, io Kfunaluddin 
Khan and his heirs male for one generation. 



PANDIT RADHA liSHAN. 



8u Brijbaj, 
D. 1833. 

Pandit Madhosndan, 

D. 1863. 

I 

Pandit Btdha Kiihtn, Bal KiAhan, Ear KUhan, Derdatt Panhaid, 
B. 1806. B. 1808. D. 1861. B. 1840. 

RiahiKeah. Mohan Lai. AmarNath. Doi^Datt 

Kiflhori Lai. Sohan Lai, Bam Lai. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The traditions of this firabman family go back to the year IMi 
when AUah-ad-dio Mosaud was king of Pelhi. Jn this year, on ac- 
count of the persecutions juflfered at the bands of the Muhammadans, 
the whole &mily emigrated| with other Hindus, from the sacred city 
of Mattra^ to Uch near Multan. This new home was singularly chosei^ 
and could hardly have been a pleasanter residence than Mattra, as at 
this very time, according to Ferishtai it was oTerrun by an army of 
Mogals from Elandahar. Some time afterwards the family settled at 
Lahore, but when happier times came round, returned to its old hom^ 
at Mattra. One ancestor of Radha Kuhan, by name Narayan JDas^ was 
celebrated for hisJearning and piety, and is mentioned in the 'Bhagat- 
mal' or 'Fakir's Necklace' of Nabhaji. A firman of the Emperor 
Jahangir, granting to KUAan Lai, great grandson of Narayan Dai, 
21 bigahs of land at Mattra for tiie purpose of growing the flowers 
used in Hindu worship, is still extant. This document has every mafk 
of being genuine and bears the date 1610 A. D. 

Brij BhtiiaH, aon of Kishori Lal^ was the veiy Diogenes of Brah- 
mans. The Emperor Shahjahan, hearing of his piety, paid him a visit^ 
and was so pleased at his derivation of the word Hindu from ^Ain,' an 



262 HISTORY OF THK 

abbreviation of 'Uinsa' Sansc. sin^ and ^ (/» ^ abbreviation of ^dnr/ 
Sansc. and Pers. far^ ^far from sin/ tbat he desired the Brahman to ask 
any favour of him and it shoald he granted. " Do me then the favour," 
said JSri; Bhukan^ ^' of never paying me another visit.'^ 

Daring the reign of Aurangzeb, Kawa Nam, the youngest son of 
Brif Bhuian, went to Jaipur, at the invitation of Raja Jai Singh I. 
Here he obtained the charge of a temple, with a jagir for its support, 
which is still held by his descendants. Bansidkar, his grandson 
was a man of great piety, and numbered among his disciples Suraj Mai 
the famous Raja of Bhartpur. 

Bri/raj, or as he was generally called Brijlal, settled in Lahore 
about the middle of the last century. He was very much respected 
l>y the Bhangi chiefs, who were then rulers of the city, and when 
Ranjit Singh rose to power he was made Pandit, and appointed to read 
and explain the sacred Sanscrit books. He held this o£Sce, remaining 
in high favour with the Maharaja, till his death, in 1833. Like his 
father. Pandit Madhosudm was a great scholar, and there was no other 
Jandit in Lahore who had so extensive an acquaintance with Sanscrit , 
literature. In 1808, he was appointed ' Dana Dhaksh,' or Almoner to 
the Maharaja, and chief Darbar Pandit, both which offices he held 
till the annexation. Madhosudan manied the daughter of Misr Battalia, 
the great Amritsar banker. He was a great favourite of the Maharaja, 
who, in 1824, appointed his son Radha Kishan tutor to the young 
Baja Hira Singh, whose after-life, mean, sensual and untrue, did not 
certainly say much for his education. 

Badha KisAan, who was like his father a Darbar Pandit, wa^ in 
31846, appointed to superintend the education of the young Maharaja 
Dalip Singh. 

Pandit Madhomdan held, under the Sikh Government, jagirs of the 
value of 9,935 Bs. One vHIage, Kila Gujar Singh, had been granted 
by Baojit Singh, as a ^ Dharamarth' to Brijlal and his heiis for ever. 



PANJAB CHII^TS* 263 

The other villages included in the ertate ymte grants to Pandit Madho* 
Sudan himself. These were, in 1851, released for life, and two gardens, 
one at Lahore and another at Dinanagar^granted in perpetuity. 

Pandit Madhosudan died in 1863. With his three elder sons he had 
violently quarreled, and he consequently left his entire property, wiQi 
the perpetual jagir, to DevdaU ParsAadj hia ibartb son by a second wife. 
A law suit regarding the property is still poadfaig in the courls. 

Har KUhan died before his fat]ier, in 166I| leaving one son 
Amar Nath. His jagir of 900 Bs. lapsed at his death. 

Of the jagir of Pandit Kadha KisJian, amounting to 5,270 Bs., 4,700 
Rs. were released for life, and a garden worth 100 Bs. in perpetuity. 

RadAa KUha nresides at Lahore, 'wbere he is mudi respected. Hia 
exertions in the cause of education have been great. He was one of the 
first to advocate female education, and when the American Mission open- 
ed an English School at Lahore, the sons of Pandit Madha Kishan were 
among the first scholars. Li the same way he sent one of his sons to 
study at the Lahore Medical College, when it was first opened, and when 
the prejudices of thel^Tativea against it were very strong. The Pandit 
is a distinguished Sanscrit scholar, and is well versed in Hindu Law. 



MISR RUP LAL. 



DiwAN Chand. 



, Miir Rup Lftl, 
D. 1884. 



Misr Beli Bam* 

B. 1843. 

I 



^1 

Hifr Meghraj, 

B. 1864, 



Bam 
B. 1843 



kiihan, 



Sakhraj, 
D. 1842. 



r 



MiarRam 

Daf, 

B. 1814. 



T 



Thakar 
Dai, 
B. 1884. 
1 



I 



I 



KiahanDaa, 
D. 1856. 



Kanm Sheo Daa, Snndar 

Bai, B. 1826. Daf, 

J>. 1855. I B. 1828. 

I 1 1 1 I 

Lachman A daughter. Bangfater, Daughter, Daughter, 

Dat, B. 1861. B. 1864. B. 1861. 

B. 1854. 



T 



Mahash Dai, 
B. 1825. 



Sawan Hal, 
B. f828. 



BlahanDaf, 



iBt 



I 
OoTind Bam, 

B. 1888. 

L 



I 



KirpaHtm, 
p. 1861. 



Mathra Das, 
B. 1856. 



•Nai 



I 



Ear Narain, A daugbtei:, 
B. 1860. B. 1861. 



Biihambar Das. 



HISTORY OF THE FliMILY. 

The family of Misr Buj) Lai is of the Brahman caste, and came origi- 
nally from liousui Dilwal, in the Jhelam District. Diwan Chand came 
with his sons to Lahore aboat the year 1809| and through the interest 
of his uncle Bcuti Ram, who was the Treasurer of Banjit and held 
by him in great esteem, obtained a jagir of l^OOO Rs. for himself, at 
Eahun, Jhelam ; and places at court for his two eldest sons Rup Lai 
and Beli Bam, who were made assistants to their great uncle in the 
Treasury. Beli Ram soon became a great favourite with the Maha- 
raja, and on the death of Baati Ramj in 1816, was appointed his successor 
in spite of the opposition and ill-will of the minister Baja Dhyan Singh, 
who wished Jessa Misr,'^ a protege of his own, and father of Lai 



• Jena MUr was firit employed by Boiti Earn aa a writer en five rupeea a moatli in the 
Traaanry. He gradoally roee in the department, and the poet of cot toditn of the Kaahmir 
tceatare, which Dhyan Singh procwed for him, attached him to the Dogra par^. 



HISTORt OF THE PAKJAB CHIEFS. 266 

SiQgh (afterwards Raja) to obtain the vacant post of Toshakhania, or 
Treasurer. Misr Meghraj received about the same time charge of the 
treasure in the Govindghar Fort at Amritsar, and he held this office 
during the remainder of the Maharaja's reign. In 1826| Bam Kiihan 
entered the Government Service, and was made chamberlain to Ranjit 
Singh^ who always treated him with special kindness. 

In 1832, Misr Rup Lai was appointed Nazim or Governor of the 
Jalandhar Doab. This rich district had been ever since its first 
conquest by Ranjit Singh| entrusted to Diwan Mokham Chand^ Moti Ram 
his son^ and Kirpa Ram his grandson. In I831j when Diwan Moti 
Ram was recalled. Shaikh Ghulam Mohiuddini a follower of Diwan 
Kirpa Ram, and a tyrannical and grasping man^ was sent as Governor of 
Hoshiarpur and the neighbouring districts. The people of the Doab 
complained so bitterly of his oppression that, in 1832, he was recalled, 
and Misr Rnj) L»l sent in his place. The new Governor was of a very 
different character from his predecessor. Possessing considerable wealth 
himself he had no inducement to oppress the people, and being connect- 
ed with a Jalandhar family, he had an interest in the prosperity of the 
district. His assessment was se light and equitable, that even in the 
famine year of ISSS, there were very few unpaid balances. He would 
never acccept the smallest present, and kept a dose watch upon the con- 
duct of his subordinates. It is refreshing, among the many Sikh Gover- 
nors who have considered the people under them as created for their private 
profit, to meet with a man like Misr Rup LcU, upright and j ust, whose 
jiame is remembered to this day by the people with respect and affection. 
Rup Lai held the Jalandhar Governorship till ISSQ, when, some months 
after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, he was recalled, and the old 
oppressor of the Doab, Ghulam Mohiuddin, restored. Prince Nao Nihal 
Singh, indignant with Misr Beli Ram for having supported his father's 
favourite Chet Singh, threw him and his brothers into prison where they 
remained six months, till at the intercession of Maharaja £^anmk 
Singh, they were released. JBcli Bam was a ^ealoos ittppbrter of Sriaoe 



^S6 UmWQMl or 1KB 



Si^gl, wfcoj vkm ht meaiei ife ^am% tutored Oe Misr to Bb 
•** p«i«f TfiAAliMii Ay l^htmmiit Gomnor of Ealannr and 
tfekadiortbeLak*eS«^Mfhiif tfeSaOej, ir^ oritts to rewme 
*«**^— '*"^rf Bfartpw fiwiJuaittKlittUd Singh. Hisr 
m^fim^ iKimmgdU Gmma^mmTiemmm. BeU Bmm wus mnek ia 
ttf wmfiafflinp of VilHnji Swr Sagh, nd ia conjuetioii with hig 
xwid Shu GixnDi^ Sn^ imd to ftm m pwij at Lahore against Eaja 
Iftraa Sfa^ Af fdttinasB Oogia Houster. Hii intrigaes cost him 
1b Bfe. fir ^iea Ka ia Bn Sn^ itmiM Idi mmJ ere J •fitthfer as 
juiitf l iju qrrfteftai aesa^nsta atiat Bki €vraitikh Singh, Beli 
•■*- •■* *■» liUfii"! MiM- Miy iiii aail Il y Jaf were placf d in charge 
itfKirlaiSBelu ftBTfU cHBtr; aalBki Ovnnikh Singh, Urfi 
Jhaa «b£ 2Ha JCmIhi wsr mia wifr %a Skftk Imamnddfai Khan, 
wfeiwaHiHdiA0Kiai^faaftinaStadbBlfta lis hooae. Fot a long 

/h«i k ari( leaglk tnuMphvd that all three 
Baja JBira Sfaigh's 




f rmuixsffiia confinement 

r, IW*, whe© Aey were re- 

r^Wihir Singh, Governor 

nttaaaajf Aii Aa^wte < k>imJ 1» InriBuaaa at the lime 



r> acMa ^SHUMi WBier Bnsafc frolaetion till 1845 when 



& JbsTTQv ir l>^ wwB dal coontrj was made over 
«l^ 1^ G^i^ Sis^ )^ diK tre«T af i^ 16di March. The Raja 
^mArtatomd^r al^:«9^£ ^oia ^f t»«Rna ia nee jieUiag vp the hill forts in 
ai!ie«cte!^^«^i^)KW «f l^is^eatr* Hewia aeoordinglj removed 
|«r t^ «%:4ac ^Mi J^anca aal jiaoedl ia ckatge of Bhotas and Jhelam, 
aasi "Vift :&M(r wtea di( istVEiaa Wote oaL He joined Sirdar Chattar 
$Ui^^ ^wi^ dcMg^ ^ w yatetoa^ ke Uasdf asserts ; bat his sjmpa- 
^kdM ^a^K^ ^^ fM iK wUi Aa iaiuuLgeals aad there is every reason to 
MKir«^ tkM te fq^f&fii ^Ma widi aaMcr. His schis also left Lahore 
M tM^cttitMdl tma aoiijfataai HMtr fiillKr. For this conduct his jagin 
Mifti^tm^ Ma Ubm waia aaalMtel. He died in September 19S4, 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 267 

upwards of 80 years ofagCi at Dilwali in the Jhelam district. His son 
Sawan Mai is Risaldar in the 1st Sikh Cavalry. He served with great 
credit in Oade and Cbina^ and, in 1861^ received a jagir of 400 £s., 200 
Rs. of which descend to his heirs^ for one generation. 

Misr Meghraj was^ after the Satlej campaign, appointed Treasurer to 
the Darbar, and on the occasion of the visit of the Governor Oeneral to 
Lahore he received the title of Bai Buhadar.' In 1849^ he was ap« 
pointed Treasurer of the Lahore Division, a post which he held till his 
death on the 1st August 1864. Misr Meghraj had been appointed an 
Honorary MagistratCi in 1862, and there were few in Lahore more 
deservedly respected by both the European and Native community. At 
the of his death lie was in enjoyment of jagirsix) the value of 9,825 Bs.^ 
of which 405 Us. descend to his male heirs in perpetuity. 

Sukkrajf the youngest of Diwan ChancPs sons, died in 1842. He was 
made a General by Maharaja Banjit Singh in 1836, with command of 4 
infantry regiments, a cavaby regiment and 2 troops of artillery. 

TAaiar JDas, seeond son of £eli Bam^ is Treasurer of the Rawal 
Findi Division. He holds a jagir of 1^387 Es. which descends for one 

generation. 

Kam Das, his elder brother, ^oys a cash pension of 2,000 BB.'Oulat 
Devi and Begam the widows of JUisr Beli Bam each enjoy a pension of 
a,387 Bs. 

Misr Sundar Das, who Was for two years Keeper of the Privy Purse to 
Maharaja Dalip Singh, received, after annexation, a donation of 1,000 
Rs., his jagir of 1,500 Bs. which was a recent grant of Baja Lai Singh^ 
being resumed. 



RAI KISHAN CfiAND. 



Rax AiYAiTD Singh. 
I 



I 1^ ■ \ ^1 

Rai GoTind Jas. Lala Bai Singh. fiai Ram Dyal . Rai Kishan Chand. 
B. 1858. D. X863. 

Lala DeTi Ditto MaL 



Sbarranpat Rai. Rai Bhag Singh. 
Ram Naravan. 



f 1 

Lala Khasita MalL Bishamba Singh. 

I Rattan Lai. 

I i -| 

Bishamba Daa. ShiT Saran. Bali Ram. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Bhandhari caste and family^ to th& Cliamyari Patni branch o^ 
which Rai Kishan Chand belongS} were founded by Bai Bhag Mal^ an 
adventurer, who, in the year 1256, went from Multan to Gbazni to seek 
his fortune and having in course of time obtained every thing fortune 
liad to bestow^ except a son^ returned to India, and hearing of a famous 
ascetic named Baba Farid at Fak Pattan, went there to obtain his 
blessing. When he arriyed he found the saint hangmg head downwqards 
in a well, where he bad already remained so long that his foUoners,' wh» 
were dependent upon his miracles for their food, were reduced t# 
great straits* Hai Bhag Mai, who was very rich, built them houses 
and fed them for nine years, till Baba Farid, growing tired of the weU| 
returned to the upper air. He was surprized to see the new village, and 
asked by whose liberality it had been built. The people pointed out 
Bai Bhag Mai, who, they said, had fed them during the Baba's absence* 
The saint said that he must indeed be a good steward or ' hhandkarV 
and this name has remained with the family ever since. Bhag Mai 
then begged the saint to pray for a son for him. Baba Farid told him 
that he should have three sons, and asked that one might be given to 



HISTO&t OF TBI PANJAB CHIEFS. '269 

hinii which Bbag Mai promised. When threo sone had been boni| the 
saint sent to Bhag Mai to remind him of his promise ; but the ftfher did 
not like to part with his sons, and accordingly sent one of them to his 
sister's house ; another he hid in a ceDar^ and met the fiaba with his 
youngest son in his armiSi and told him that he had but one son^ which 
he could take or leave as he Hked. The swit replied '' You hare three 
sons, yet this, the youngest, shall be my follower/^ and aceordbgly he 
took the child with him to Fak Fatten^ Whence the branch of the ^ Bhan- 
dharis ' descended from him is named FatnL The othet two branches, 
descended from the elder soAs, are ealled ^ Bhoriah/ from ^ bhorah' a cellar, 
and ' Birpalia ' meaning * brought op by a sister/ 

Little is known of the family of Bai KMan Oiand till 1809, when, 
through the interest of Diwan Mokham Chand, his father Anand Singh 
was appointed vakil or agent of the Lahore court at Ludhiana, wliich had 
recently been occupied as a military station. Anand Singh afterwards 
was sent as agent to Dehli, while his eldest son Govind Jas occupied 
his place at Ludhiana, and his youngest son Kishan Chand was agent at 
Karnal and Amballa. Anand Singh accompanied Sir Charles Metcalfe 
on the successful expedition against Bhartpur, undertaken hy Lord 
Combermere, in December, 1826, and on his return received from the 
Maharaja the title of ^ Bai ' with a dress of honour. He died in 1827, 
and his jagirs were divided among his four sons. Bai Govind Im 
obtained Lakhowal, Fawadat and Lagrian ; Bai Singh took Kotlah and 
Sunarah ; Rai Kishan Chand, Sehli, Bupowal, and Bajpurah ; and Loh« 
ghar fell to the share of Bam Dyal, Bai Govind Jas succeeded his 
father at Dehli, and Bam Dyal was sent to Ludhiana, hut shortly after- 
wards he quarreled with Colonel Wade the Folitlcal Agent, and was re- 
called to Lahore. Bai Kishan Chand took his place, receiving a jagir 
of 15^000 Rs. in the Jalandhar District, and an allowance of 1 B. per 
annum, on each village belonging to the Lahore State on the left bank 
of the Satlej. Bam Dgal was, in 1832, sent to Anamdpur to settle the 
disagreements that had arisen among the Sodhis of that place. He 



270 HISTORY OF THE 

remained there five years^ and on his return to Lahore received a jagir of 
4^000 Rs. in the Ludhiana District. He was, lateri when Ri^a Hira 
Singh recalled Fakir Chiraghaddin from Firozpuri appointed to 
that place as agent. Bai Kiskan Chand was an able and an upright 
man. Hesaw that the interests of the Maharaja required peace with 
the British^ and he did his best to maintain a good understanding 
between the Governments. At the beginning of 1839^ he accompanied 
Colonel Wade on his political mission to Feshawar, and during his 
absence whieh lasted the greater part of the year, his son Bhag Singh 
acted for him at Ludhiana. The title of ' Rai ' was granted to Kuhan 
Chand by Prince Nao Nihal Singh in 1840. 

After tiie death of Mahafaja Sher Singh the position of the agents 
^f Lahpre on the British frontier underwent a considerable charge, la 
the days of Mr. Clerk and his predecessors the wakils were little more 
than newswriters ; they conducted all current business, but important 
affairs were arranged by the Agent «f the Governor General with the 
Maharaja by deputation or letter. But the changes whieh took place on 
Sher Singh's death gave to Rai Ehhan Ckand and his brother and son, 
who held the agencies at Firocpur and Ludhiana, great influence and 
power, which the Lahore ministry was ever trying to reduce and the 
wakils to retain. Bai Kishan Chand exercised certain civil and cri- 
minal powers in the Lahore protected states^ and drew from them consi- 
derable wealth. This jurisdiction the ministry of Hira Singh took 
away, and in November, lS41| the proportion to be paid to the state 
from the wakil's farm and jagirs was raised to that of neighbour- 
ing districts. Bai Kishan Chand and his family however retained conai- 
derable influence at Lahore. Jealous of Fakir Azizuddin and somewhat 
opposed to his policy, they were supported in Darbar by powerful friends^ 
chief of whom were Bhai Ram Singh, and Diwan Dina Nath, the leader 
of the Mutsaddi party. 

Although in 1844, Rai Kishan Chand had perhaps encouraged, in 
aomc measure, the belief at Lahore that the British were hostile to the 



PlRJiB CBftn. 271 

Sikh Qovemment, yet when war became really imminent^ he protested 
against it earnestly ; but it was then too late. When the Sikh army 
was preparing to cross the Satlej he was ordered by the Political 
Agent to leave the camp and retire into the Iiahore territorieS| which 
he did. After the close of the campttgn and the cession to the British 
Government of the Jalandbar Doab, the fiunily lost its jagirs on the left 
bank ol Che. Beas^ bat Rai Kuhtm Ohml was directed to attend on the 
Agent of the Oovemor General at Lahore^ and this appointment he held 
till 1844| when he received permission to retire to Battala. 

Bhag Singh had^ oii the return of peace, been appointed agent of the 
Darbar with the Commissioner Trans-Satlej States^ aoidi in 1848| he receiv- 
ed the title of '^ B*ai '' and a dress of honour. Rai Kiaktm Ciand also received 
the title of Buhadar and a grant of nine villi^es in the Dinanagar District, 
wortii 6,il00 Sa. and a cash pension of 4000 Bs. was assigned to him in 
recognition of his faitliful services, and as compensation fot the jagir he had 
lost in Ludhiana. Ramdgal received at the same time a jagir of 8/)60 
Es. and a cash pension of the same valoaL Rai Bhag Sinhg obtained 
2,500 Rs. in jagir, and 2,500 Bs. cash« and Sharanpat 1,800 Ba. jagir and 
1,800 Rs. cash. The two latter did not hold their jagirs or pensions long. 
At the annexation of the Panjab they were resumed, as were the caih 
allowances of Rai Kiahan Chand and Rai Bhag Singh. The ji^irs of the 
two latter were confirmed to them, and at Rai Kishan ChamPs deatk« 
his two sons will each receive a pension of lOOO Rs. Ramdyal died in 
1863, and his jagir has been resumed. In 1856, Rai Bhag Singh was 
appointed Ibhsildat and has been stationed at Pathankot and Zaffarwal. 
He resigned his appdntment in 1861 in order to accompany his father to 
Benares, wher6 Rai JSMhan Singh still resides. Rai Shag Singh returned 
to the Panjab, in 1864, and is now resident at Battala. 



DIWAN MULBAJ. 



HOSBVAK RaI. 



I 



Nanak Chand, 
D. 1831. 



Qurmukh Bit 

I 



IMwan Sawao Malt 
D. 1844. 



Daughter h. 

Gordit Singby 

Hafizabad. 



Battan Chand, 
D. 1830. 



Bam Giiand, 
B. 1820. 



DeTidyal, 
B. 1811. 



Bam Samp, 
B. 1827. 



I Da 



Bam Das, DiwanMulraj, Earam Nan^ao, Sham Singh, Bam Singh, ISforayan Singh, 
D. 1831. D. 1850. B. 1817. B. 1837. b. 1840. B.1844. 

Wasir Chand, Hari Singh, Lachmi Narayan. 
b. 1829. B. 1848. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 
HosHnai Rai, a Khatri of the Chopra caste^ was a servant of Sbdar 
Dal Singh of Akalghaii with whom he took service about the year 1768. 
He was not himself a man of any note, and his name is only remember- 
ed through the genius of Satoan Mai his third son^ and the rebellion of 
Mulrcff his grandson. 

Nanah Chand, the eldest son of Hoshnah Eai, entered the ser- 
vice of Dal Singh in 1788, and there remained until the death of 
the chief in 1804, when Akalghar, which was held as a depen- 
dency of the Sukarchakia misl, fell, by escheat, into the hands of Ranjit 
Singh. He then left his native town, and entered the force of Diwan 
Mohkam Chand, under whom he rose to posts of considerable trust, and 
after the death of that General he was employed in collecting the 
revenues of Multan and Kashmir. His only son Eattan Chand, died one 
year before him, in 1830; and Bam Chand, his grandson, succeeded 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 273 

to his appointment. Bam Okand was at this time but twelve years of 
age^ bnt Maharaja Ranjit Singh took a fancy to him^ and made him 
chancellor, giving him charge of his private seal. Since the death of the 
Maharaja he has taken no part in the public life. He resides at 
Akalghar^ and is in receipt of a pension of 2^400 Bs. The esteem in 
which Ram Chand is held for his liberality and integrity is very great. 
He has built large tanks at Ichhri^ near Lahore, and at'Nankana, a place 
of pilgrimage sacred to Guru Nanak. At Lahore he maintains a native 
doctor and a dispensary for the gratuitous distribution of medicine 
to the poor ; he has founded a Sanskrit school at Amritsar^ and a 
Sadabart or poor-house at Benares. 

Gurmuih Rai, brother of Nanak Chandy was an officer of irregular 
cavalry under Diwan Mohkam Chand. He died in 1830^ leaving two 
sons, of whom Devi Dyal, the elder, was Multan agent at Lahore 
during the rule of his uncle Satoan Mai. In 1849^ Iiq was appointed 
Magistrate of the whole of the Jech Doab, and held this appointment un« 
til annexation. In 1853^ he was made Tehsildar of Bamnagar^ but 
resigned the next year.* He was created Honorary Magistrate of 
Akalghar andBamnagar in 1862, and is in the enjoyment of a pension of 
2,300 Bs. Ram Samp the second son has become a Muhammadan, 
and is disowned by his family. He has taken the name of Ghulam 
Mohiuddin^ and lives in Lahore^ where he supports himself by copying 
manuscripts. 

The third son of Hoshnak Rai was the celebrated Satoan Mal^ who 
was born in the year 1788. He commenced public life in the office 
of his brother Nanak Chand^ and, in 1820, was sent to Multan on 
250 Bs. a month, as head of the account office under Bhaiya Badan 

* In 1857, some enemies of Devi Dtfdl gaye information to the effect that he was 
in poseetsion of a large portion of Diwan Mnlraft property, which had been forfeited to 
government on his oontiction. The house of Devi Djfol was accordingly searched and 
property worth more than a Ukh of mpees was attached. A few monUis later he prored 
the falseness of the accusation and the property was restored to him. 



274 HISTOBT OF THE 

Hacari* the governor. The next yeer whea Badan Haaari wee d^gr*- 
ded, 8m0An Mai, whoee abaities were well ktown to the Mabarala, 
was appointed governor or viecroy of half the pioYince cfif MaltHii| mi, 
in 1829, he waa.made governor ^ the whole^ The trad of eountiy 
which thne came itndei the role of Sawdn Mai waa very extenalfe^ «iii 
eottprised the diatriets of Multan, L^, Derah Qhazi Khan, Khanghmv, 
and part of Jhaiig. It was at thia timealmoBt a deeert* Forttiaojyean 
it had been the scene of rapine tad war. life and proper^ were iase* 
eoca, and the population which had bnee been nnmeroue and Wealthy had 
beoome scanty and impovecished* But Under the new adminiBtralien a 
great change was wrought. Diwan Sawan Malf by Offers of fand and 
protectioui induced many of the inhabitants of neighbouring districts to 
settle in the province ; he excavated canals (in the Multan district alone 
of the length of three hundred miles) ; he favoured commerce and acted 
in every way as a wise and beneficent ruler. It has been often asserted 
that he regarded the Pathans, the late rulers of Multan^ with no favour. 
That^ himself a trader, he had no sympathy with the old aristocracy of the 
country ; himself a Hindu^ he. neither trusted nor loved the Muhammadan 
portion of his subjects, and that with these feelings he ousted most of the 
Pathan proprietors from their holdings and supplied their plaoes with 
Jat zamindars.f But there is little truth in these statements. The 
sympathies of Sawan Mai were, it is true, with the Hindus, but ho 

* Bhaija Badaa Hazari, once the goternor of the proTince of Multafi, BOvr Uvet St 
Lahore, at the shop of hU bod, a cotton spinner, on a pension of 20 Ri. a month. It is 
difiotlb lo ondertiand bow the Maharaja selected for bo dlificalt a post as Multan, a go- 
▼eroor as imbaeile ai Badan HasarL la a very short time he threw the Maltan flnaMw 
into ahnost inextricable confusion, and so irritated Ranjit Singh that on the Bhaiya'a reoaU 
aad first appearaoce lit Darbar, it is uid the Mahantja was about to kQI him with his 
owo hand, and w^i oaly pre?ented from so doiqg by the intetcesskoo of Fakir AsSand^n. 

t It is true that a great number of Pathan proprietors lost their estates between tha 
years 1818 knd 1822, but the eric^ions were chiefly made by the predeoessori of Divan 
Sawan Mai ; and it was hardly to be expected that the claims of the yanquisbed woold 
be much regarded in the early days of the conquest. Many Pathans Toluntarily left 
Multan on its capture by Ranjit Singh, and only returned where Sawan Mai becama 
governor. These, no doubt, found difficulty in recovering their estates which bad fallen into 
Jat hands. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 275 

appreciated the fine qualities of the PathanSj and tbede supplied hia iimy 
with ita moat distinguished and dashing officers. 

During the reign of the great Maharaja, Sawan Mai was little 
disturbed. Banjit Sbgh saw the gradual increase of the Diwan's power, 
but he knew that during his reign he would not rebel ; and as the 
tribute was paid with the greatest regularity, there was no cause of com- 
plaint. But no sooner was Banjit Singh dead than the enemies of the 
Diwan attempted to destroy him. Chief of these were the Jammu Bajas, 
Oulab Singh and Dhyan Singh, between whom and the Diwan had 
always existed jealousy and the most bitter hatred* It was proposed 
to demand from the Diwan half a million sterling, and he was summoned to 
Lahore to render his accounts. Had he refused to obey, it was the inten- 
tion of the Darbar to send troops to compel him ; but Sawan Mai 
knowing his power, and believing that the Court would not dare to proceed 
to extremities, came to Lahore in September, 1840, when amicable ar- 
rangements were made, and be returned to Multan. 

In March, 1841, when Maharaja Sher Singh had just obtained the 
supreme power, he directed both Sawan Mai and Baja Dhyan Singh to 
raise fresh troops, intending to replace with them some of the turbulent 
Khalsa regiments. In compliance with this order the Diwan began to 
raise Muhammadan troops, with the greatest activity, with the real object 
of defending himself against Dhyan Singh ; while the Baja was not less 
energetic, hoping with his new troops not only to overwhelm Sawan Mai, 
but to defend Jammu both against the Sikhs and the British. 

In January, 1842, the Mazari tribe, which had always given, trouble 
to Sikh governors, rebelled, and made a descent upon Bojhan, hoping to 
plunder it before the arrival of help. But Sawan Mai marched against 
them, in force, and they were- compelled to retire. 

When Baja Dhyan Singh was assassinated by the Sindhanwalias, Diwav 
Sawan Mai was freed from the moat able of his enemies. But all the 
members of the Dograiiumly hated him ; BajaXJulab Singh as an able 



276 SXSTOftIr OF TB& 

and inflae&tiia rirali tti ft tetter Hmut of thd itttd tbtt hiMfliilf, ud 
Baja Hira Singh becanse Pandit Jella^ hil minfetet and master, b*Md hitti^ 
The Pandit was a man of no limited ambition. ]EIe hoped to be able firat 
to destroy Baja Gulab Singh, hy inciting the Khalsa army to march 
against Jammu, and then to crush Diwan Sawan Mai. Were these rivals 
removed he would wield the whole power of the state. But the Pandit 
was unable to control the army from which be hoped so much, and was 
murdered by the troops in Deoember^ ISl'k 

Through these years Diwan 8awaii Mulhsii been strengthening biiBidf 
M Mttltan. There is every reason to believe that he int^nded^ at aonat 
favourable opportunity^ to throw off his allegiance to Lahore and deelafe 
his independence. It wad with this intention that he expended so mtloh 
money and labour upon his fort at MultaU) that it was Itll but itnpregna* 
ble to a native force^ It was against the Sikh army that the defenoea 
were prepared^ and though Skwa% Mai would have held them as a rebel, 
there will be found few to condemn him. The empire whieh the genioa 
of one man had founded, was failing asunder ; no efforts of the Diwan 
could avail to save it, and he had as much right as others to a share of 
the spoil. Loyalty was not in question. To Maharaja Ranjit Singh he 
had ever been a faithful servant ; but an hereditary claim to devotion on 
the part of Maharaja Dalip Singh, was, to all who knew the history of 
the zananai ridiculous. 

But whatever were the intentions of the Diwan, he was not deetined to 
see them realized. On the 16th September, 1844, at bis motning DarW, 
a soldieri who had been caught thieyingi was brought before the Diwan 
for trial. After investigation the prisoner was remanded and placed 
in the ' deorhi ' or ante-chamber with a guard over him. The Diwan 
transacted all his business, and towards evening went out through the 
' deorhi' to take the air. The prisoner, who had hidden a pistol in hiis 
waist cloth, drew it, and fired at the Diwan at a distance of fire paces. 
The ball etruok Bawm Mai on the left breast^ and passbg round the fiba 
came out at bin back and wounded an officer of the Mme of Didar Suigk, 



TAKJAB CBIfirS. 877 

who trA6 ttnttding iiM^f, bn the tight httn. Stihib Singh and SArbuUnd 
Kfata cut th6 iMfiaiiti ddWtt) Itnd thd Diwan severely bat not dang6N 
imsly wbtoded, wiid cftfried into the pAl&c«. For ftome days all w*nt on. 
well, and to all appearapce the wound was healing, when a change for 
the worse took place ; the w;ound re*-opened, and Sc^wan Mai gradually 
sank and died on the 29th of September, 1844. * 

Diwan Sawan Mali was the best of all the Sikh governors. Daring 
the latter years of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's life andy during the reigns of 
his snocessors, the Diwan was practically irresponsible ; yet his great 
power was in no way abused. He amassed great wealth, it is true, and 
upwards of a million sterling was di?ided by his family after his death ; 
but this was not wrong from the people by cruelty and oppression. The 
Government demand, under both Sawan Mai and his son, never exceeded 
one-third of the gross produce of the laud, and was generally only one- 
fifth or one-sixth. Bat it was his impartiality which caused the people 
to regard Sawan Mai with such love. It is said that one day a peasant 
complained to him that some chief had destroyed his crop, by turning his 
horses loose to graze in the field. Sawan Mai asked the man if he could 
point out the offender in Darbar. The peasant pointed to Bam J)a8, the 
Diwan's eldest s(hi. He admitted the complaint to be just, and Sawan Mai 

* Sir fi. B. fidwurdet b hii * f etr ou the Paijab Frontier,' hat giren a difleftot aMduflt 
of ths anftfliMt Sti whteh til« Diwaa tt^t 1^ dMK He ilSIM ilkat llM aMiirts Was a gDlafisf, 
who had lenred Sawan Mai laithfallj, and whe eame to Darbar to atk for hii pa/ and dk. 
charge. That Sawan Mai refaied to grant thest jasi dftmandfl, and canaeid tha petitioner to 
he atrfl^ped Of iirord aikl ahieM and liuMd oitt ef Dttrhaf . that la tef etige for ttiii griefese 
iaanli the aoldier ahot him. 

This yereion it ineorreet. Among the aathoritiea tor the acoonnt given in the text may he 
mentioaed itdfom NoMjfO^, ion of the 0i#ao, aSd Bnhhdyat, feh^tiihtadat in the oiH^ Of 
the JndlcUa CemmiiiioflNirt #bo wai eUndfaig b«Me ««i»as ifW When he was ahot attd who 
wat preaent in Darbar while the kifeaUgalioii Into the theft caee waa being condneted. 

t The Sihh ^ir«mor^ whdie names are most r«tered b^ the p^le, sle Diwaa SawM JVaf 
of ttnltan, Ifihan dingh of Kaahmir, and ttisr Rap Ul of Jakndhar. Of ihM SawtM Mai 
WW ikr the wisest iad tlis belt Mhff Rep Lal^ aiimn ents wtfs ftt^ht, and ths eonatiy ion- 
rished nnder his mle ; bnt the people fended him too fond of their wttsfl and their dS SgUlili . 
B^etrried te IM grsfre erilli y Si a !«« istt en the Isit sliheMir, where he wii wewiiid b j 
the sword of a jealous Khatri, who canghthiftia hii iMwSt^hMilaiglft.. . . . ^ 



278 HISTORY OP THE 

ordered him to bd imprisoned. The injured nun begged for his pardon, 
bat for several days Ram Das remiuaed in confinementy and his spirit was 
80 broken by this punishment that he fell ill and died shortly after his 
release. 

Diwan Sawan Mai was succeeded as governor of Mnltan by his son 
Mulraj. Raja Hira Singh and the Court of Lahore would have prefer- 
red some nominee of their own, but the Multan family was too strong, 
both in fact and reputation, to be put aside. Mulraj was at this time 
about 30 years of age. He had served under his father, first as Kardar 
or manager of Shujaabad, and then as Kardar of the district of Jhang. 
In both these places he was hated for hii oppression and avarice,* and 
although when he succeeded to the governorship of Multan he much im- 
proved in disposition, yet he was always unpopular with the people. 
• Scarcely had Mulrnj established himself than the Lahore Darbar, having 
heard reports of the vast wealth left by Sawan Mai, demanded a ' nazrana' 
or tribute of one miUion sterling. The state of his army was also a source 
of great anxiety to Mulraj. Nominally part of the Lahore army, the 
force at Multan was raised by the governor, who promoted or discharged 
men and officers at his pleasure. He was only bound to keep up a cer- 
tain force. At this time, of the ten battalions at Multan, eight were 
composed of Muhammadans and two of Sikhs. The latter, instigated, it was 
believed, by the Darbar, rose in mutiny on the 24th of November, 1844, 
demanding higher pay. They were jealous of the Lahore army, in which, 
.at this time, the pay of an infantry soldier was eleven rupees, eight 
annas, a month, while they only obtained seven rupees, eight 
annas. Diwan Mulraj and his brother Karam Narayan immediately 
on the outbreak attacked the mutineers, and entirely dispersed them ; 
and this victory so much baffled the Darbar and strengthened the Diwan 

* It WM a common tajiog in the coantry that Maltaa wai blesie4 with Sawan, (tht 
month of rain) ; Leia with Karam, (kindnast) i whila Jhang was deiolated bj Mala, (an iamet 
which dattrojs the com.) 

The allusion of coorse Wat to Sawan Mai, goraraor of HolUn ; Karam Narajfan, hit thM 
ton Kardar of L^ and Jfii/r^', Kanlarof Jbaof. 



PA!? JAB CHIBW. 279 

that he sent to Lahore to offer a very much smaller 'nazrana* than 
that demanded. Negotiations, however, went on for some time longer; 
till Mulraj, believing that the Sikh army on its return from Jammu would 
be marched against him, agreed to pay eighteen lakhs of rupees. But it 
the very month that this arrangement was made, Sirdar Jowahir Singh 
the minister was murdered ; the country became the scene of anarchy 
and confusion, and the Khalsa army marched to the Satlej against the 
British. 

During the war, Mulraj made no effort to pay his tribute, and on the 
return of peace the Darbar determined to press its claims. The eighteen 
lakhs agreed upon were demanded, with seven lakhs of arrears. Raja Lai 
Singh, the old enemy of Mulraj^ was now minister at Lahore. He eagerly 
desired the ruin of the governor, and hoped to install his Own brother, 
Bhagwan Singh, in his place. With this object he insisted upon sending 
troops to enforce the claim of the Darbar. Mulraj bad at this time no wish 
to oppose the Government, and withdrew most of his troops towards Mttl« 
tan, as the Lahore force, under Misr Rallia Bam, advanced. However, 
three miles from Leia a collision took place between some irregulars of 
the Diwan and the advanced body of the Lahore force. The latter, after 
a sharp skirmish, was worsted, and its leader Eha2an Singh, Chabalia, 
taken prisoner. 

But Mulraj was now anxious to make his peace with the Darbar, and 
knowing that no mercy was to be expected from Raja Lai Siogh, he 
appealed to Major H. Lawrence, the English Resident at Lahore, through 
whose influence a safe cooduct was granted to the govemorj who arrived 
at Lahore on the 9th October, 1846, accompanied by Diwan Dina Nath,^ 
who had escorted him from Multan. Mulrcy tried hard to obtaia more 
easy terms than had been previously granted, and at the end of Novem- 
ber, an agreement was concluded by which he was to pay eight lakhs of 
what was due, at once, and the remainder by instalments. The districts, 
including portions of Leia and Jhang, which had been recently occupied 
by the Sikh troops were to be retained by the DarW^ and for the 



•60 flIiTOET Of TBI 

nmakuBg portion of the proTince he was to pay 19^68^000 Bs. per 



Both parties appeared nitisfied with this arrangement^ and in NoTem- 
ber^ 1846| MmtraJ returned to Multan^ where for some months all went 
OA well. The eighteen lakhs were paid up, and the Darbar had no just 
erase of oomplaint. Bat the goremor was not long content. He had 
lest a portion of his proTince ; and the new cnstom dnties^ thongh not as 
yet enforced in Multan, were beginning to diminish his revenue. His 
power was also less absolute, for there was now a strong GoTemment in 
Lahore^ whieh held that justice was the first virtue of an administration ; 
-->and petitionersi bankerS| merchants and cultivators had discovered thai 
the road to redress lay through Lahore. This was more than the Diwan 
could endure. His father had been a king in all but the name^ and had 
bequeathed his pride and his ambition to his son. So the Diwan return- 
ed in November^ 1847» to Lahore^ to endeavour to obtain some modifi- 
cation of the terms of his agreement, and a promise thai no complaints 
i^gainst him diould be received. Should these requests not be granted, 
he had resolved to resign his charge. Mr J. Lawrence was then Acting 
Besident at Lahore. To him the Diwan unfolded his troubles and his 
wish to resign. Mr. Lawrence endeavoured to dissuade him from doing 
sOj but told him he was at liberty to act as he thought fit^ so long as his 
resignation was given in at a time convenient to the Government be 
served. The Diwan still insisted on resigning as he saw that the objects 
for which he had come to Lahore could never be attained ; and it was 
arranged, that he should resign at the end of April, 1848 ; that for the 
presenti the Darbar should not be informed of his intentionS| and that 
two or three months before his resignation two English officers should be 
sent to Multan to be instructed by the Diwan in the state of affairs^ and 
ultimately to be placed in charge of the province. 

A few days after this arrangement, the Diwan left for llultaa. 
When Sir F. Currie, appointed Besident at Lahore, arrived tbexv at the 
Wimung of Apiil| he considerod it right that the Darbar should be 



piioriB carau Hi 

informed of the intention of Mnlraj to reiigpi. This was aeeordtDj^jr 
done, and the Diwan was addressed on the subject both by the Darbar and 
the Resident. He was told that he was still at liberty to retain his charge ; 
bat he reiterated his desire to resign, on account of ill health and dis- 
sentions in his family and his resignation was accordingly accepted by 
the Darbar. The appointment of goremor of Mnltan was offered to 
Sirdar Shamsher Singh, Sindhanwalm, but he was disinclined to accept 
it, and it was oonseqnently given to Sirdar Ehan Singh Man, an intelli- 
gent man, who was to act in concert with Hr. Vans Agnew, of the 
Bengal Giril Service, who was appointed Political Agent, with Lieata- 
nant Anderson of the Bombay Army as his Assistant These officers 
proceeded to Multan, which they reached on the 17th April, and the next 
day joined their escort, under Sirdar Ehan Singh. They were received bj 
the Diwan with great civility, and it was arranged that he should aoooia* 
pany them over the fort the next morning. Accordingly on the mommg 
of the 19lb, they proceeded, with the Diwan and two Companies 6fQDor« 
khas to make the inspeotion. Mr. Vans Agnew left the Gtoorkhu at ob0 
of the gates, and made the round of the fortress, with the Diwaa, 
who gave over charge. As they passed out of the gats, a soldier of 
the Diwan struck Mr. Vans Agoew with his spear and knocked him off 
his horse, and then attacked Um with his sword and wotmded him severely. 
Lieutenant Anderson was also cut down, andleft for dead on the ground^ 
till found by some of the Goorkha troops, who carried him to the 
Idgah, a strong building near the fort in ishich the Engtiiii officers hai 
taken i:^ their quarters and where Mr. Vans Agnew liad arrived be- 
fore him. When the assault on the officers took plaoe, at the gate of 
the fort, the Diwan rode off to his own house ; and althoiigh Istar 
in the day Mr. Vans Agnew sent to him, desiring him to attend 
and prove his innocence by his acts, he neve? oaae> alleging that hi« 
soldiers would not allow him to do ao. On tiM morning of the 29th the 
fort opened fire upon the Idgah, which was returned by the Sikh 
artillery of the escort^ but at night Ciotonel Esra Singh, commanding tha 
artillery^ went over to the CMmy with all bar men; The Idgah 




«Thef mMj kMrntmoThtmaL 
Itm c£ kuna aid, «-' &ef mij kiU s tm^ bii «• 
•ftfeEog&k. Tfc ii—iih rf PaftfakBiB wOLtamtw 
Md wffl MBiUkte JfidbdLflia kknUien Ml kift&KC' 



Aad w ^diewat cMt. The DfariB kwv Osl k co«U m4 mw 

H« g Jwglfc M nl Us Cart ni UdiB OTppSes im atidp>tiM of a 
m§$i hm caUed to Us aide al Aa diaaffected » Aa pmriiiee, and 
addRMcdAe^icr Sndaa Idfiag Aeaa tiaitMnr waa Ike of^ortmity 
Hmj iMd aa loag daabed af fraeng tWr liibIij fias tiM hated 
yakaoftheEB^Uah. 



It ia impoanUe in a Kogriphkal dLetch to foUow the conrae of the 
war tiiat enaoed, reanldng in die annezatira of the Panjab. 

Vor aodM time the rebda at MnlUn remiiaed oapanished. The 
aHMoa waa nanaoaDy hot, and Italian had a bad repataibn for nnhealthi- 
aaai^ and fha English Commander in Chief did not fed jostified in 
aaoding a Eoiopean fores against it till later in the year. The Resident 
waa thoa eompelled to aead a Sikh anny, whose disa ff ection was 
adnutted by the chiefs who commanded it^ and whoae snbaeqnent deser- 
tioB to the enemy, with its general Raja Sher Singh, Attariwala, did not 
aeeaaion mnch snrprise. Bat the rebel Diwan wo not left nnmolested. 
Throngh the summer months Lientenant EL B. EdwardeS| with a amall 
aatiTa forae had kept Mulraj in check and had gained important rictoriea 
orer kim| atded^y the foroa of Bahawal Kkao^ Nawab of Bahawalpar, 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 



283 



which was directed and virtually commanded by Lieutenant E. Lake. 
Shaikh Imamuddin Khan, one of the Sikh generals, who had re- 
mained loyal in the midst of disaffection, did also admirable service ; 
and when the British Army arrived before Multan in August, 1848, 
Muhaj had little upon which he could depend beyond the walls of 
his fort. 

The siege train arrived before Multan on the 4th September, and on the 
6th opened fire upon the fort. But Sawan Mai had not laboured in vain 
at the defences, and the reduction of the fort was a matter of no small diflS- 
culty. The besieging force was small, and a large proportion of it consisted 
of irregular troops, brave indeed in the field but almost useless for the 
operations of a siege. The defection of Raja Sher Singh with his whole force^ 
on the 14th of September, compelled General Whish to raise the siege, and 
wait for reinforcements. The suspicious nature of Mulraj 4id not allow 
him to profit by the desertion of the Sikhs. He thoroughly distrusted 
the motives which induced them to join him ; and was much relieved 
when the Raja, disgusted at the suspicions of which he was the object, 
marched from Multan to join his father, Sirdar Chattar Singh, who was 
in open rebellion in the North West of the Panjab. 

The fate of Mulraj was not long delayed. Reinforcements at length 
reached the British army, and on the 27th of December the siege was 
resumed. During the interval Jftf/ra; bad sought for help and allies in all 
directions. Dost Muhammad Khan was ready enough with promises, 
but Multan was too distant for active aid. The Sikhs, whom the Diwan 
had distrusted and insulted, would now have nothing to do with him. 
They had too their own work before them. From every quarter the 
heroes of Sobraon and Aliwal, the men who had fought under the great 
Maharaja and under Hari Singh Nalwa, were assemblings to try once more 
the fortune of battle, to be present at the approaching straggle, in which, 
at Chillianwala and Oujrat, the Ehalsa for ever fell and the empire of the 
Sikhs was lost. 

After some severe fighting before Multan, the exertions of the British 
troops were successful. On the 2nd January, 1849, the city was carried 



284 HISTORY OF THE 

by assault, and^ on the 22ndy Mulraj^ who had shut himself up in the cita- 
delj seeing further resistance to be hopeless^ surrendered at discretion. 

He was conveyed to Lahore and brought to trial, in the month of 
June, for the murder of Mr. Vans Agnew and Lieutenant Anderson. He 
was ably defended by Captain Hamilton ; but was found guilty and con- 
demned to death. The Governor General, Lord Dalhousie, with whom 
the confirmation of the sentence rested, accepted the judges' recommen- 
dation to mercy and commuted the sentence to transportation for life. 
Mulrqf waS| accordingly, sent as a prisoner to Calcutta, where he died the 
following year. 

It is not for history to praise an nnsucce ssful rebel, but a careful re- 
view of the Diwan's history will show him to have been more unfortunate 
than criminal. It is certain that when Mr. Vans Agnew finit arrived at 
Multan, the Diwan had no intention of rebelling. Had such been his 
design, he would not have resigned his charge or have given over the fort. 
It is equally certain that the first attack on the British oBEioers was with- 
out the Diwan's privity or consent. That attack was either an outburst of 
fanatical hatred on the part of the Muhammadan soldiery, who saw the 
fort in which they took so much pride passing into the hands of strangers, 
or it was instigated by some of the Diwan^s oflScers, who wished to com- 
promise him and compel him to rebel. It is probable that he was under 
restraint and unable to command the obedience of his soldiers when the 
Idgah was assaulted and the English officers slain. At no time, from that 
fatal day, till the arrival of the British army before Multan, could che Di- 
wan, with any safety to himself, have proposed terms of submission or 
have sued for pardon. He was surrounded by relatives, friends and troops 
who depended upon him for place and wealth and power, and who saw in 
a new governor nothmg but ruin to themselves. They determined to 
force Mulraj to rebel, for his victory would enrich them, and his defeat 
oould not be more injurious to them th^n bis resignation. Diwan Mulraj 
was not an amiable character. He was mean, grasping, suspicious and 
vacillating. But the crimes of cold-blooded murder and of premeditated 
rebellion cannot, with any juetice, be laid to his charge. 



PANJAB CIIIKFS. 285 

The Diwun left one son Hari Singh, born in 1818 ; who is now a stu- 
dent in the Qovernment C allege at Lahore, and is in receipt of a pension 
of 360 Rs. 

Karam Ndf^ayaiiy the third son of Saioafi Mal^ served as his Lieutenant 
in the Leia district, carrying on its civil duties^ and at the same time hold- 
ing military command in the celebrated fort of Mankera. He was much 
beloved by the people for his kindness and impartiality. After Sawan 
MaVs death Karam Narayan did not get on at all well with his brother 
Mulraj, who, in 181*7| imprisoned him in his own house* For two months 
he remained in confinement, and was then allowed to leave Multan with 
liis share of the property left by Sawan Mai, amounting to more than 
ten lakhs of rupees. He settled at Akalghar, where he still resides, and 
was in no way party to his brother's rebellion. * He holds a pension of 
400 Rs. 

Bam Singh and Narayan Sinjh were children at the time of their 
father's death. They each enjoy a pension of 400 Rs. a year. 

* It wa9 said at the time that Bam Narayan spent a large sum in getting up caiea againft 
bis brother and bribing parties to go to Lahore and appeal against him. 



DIWAN HUKM CHAND, 



MiHB Chakd. 

Diwan Gurbaktb Rai. 

' Diwan Thakar Dm. 
I 



DIraa Kishan Diwan Bha- Lala Xa- Rajkoar Rankour. 
Devi Dai, Dai, wani Das, rain Das, 
D. 1830. D. 1817. D. 1824. D. 1842. 



Shanker Har Sahai, 

Daa, i>. 1851. 
D. 185S. 



I 
Hakim Rai, 

B. 1834. 



Sukha 
Hand. 



Lala Ram Ifaagtl 
Dai, Sen. 

B. 1784. 



Lala Ramji, Natha Qoviad 

Daf. Bial, Saliai, 

I B. 1824. B. 1839. 

Gopai Das 
B. 1834. 



Tagga 

oath. 

B 1332 



I 



Jowahir Hira 
Mal» Maud. 
D. 1851. B. 1804. 

Naoak Chaod, 
B. 1834. 



Diiraa Ifukm 
OhanJ, 
B. 1807. 

Biabambar 

Daa, 

B. 1824. 

Badrinatb, 
B, 1804. 



Sbinkar Dn, 
B. ISlti. 



Tara Cband, 
B. 1837. 



Arjan Du. 



Gaiig.i Blsbao, 
B. 18 

Tikta Sahai, 
B. 1846. 



M/a 0x9, 
B. 1833. 



I 
NaadLal, 

B. 1839. 



I 
RaUaa 

CbaQd, 
B. 184^ 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Garbiikih Rii was the first of this family to rise to any eminence. 
He waff the Diwan or miniffter of Nawab Nasir Khan, the ruler of Kabul 
and Peshawar, and possessed great influence. His son Tkakar Da$ was 
Diwan to Haji Atta Khan, son-in-law of Shah Wali Khan, chief min- 
ister of Ahmad Shah, the celebrated Durani chief. On the death of the 
Haji, Thakar Dm entered the service of Ahmad Shah^ who made him 
Diwan Khas or privy counsellor, and gave him charge of the seal of 
4tatc. His wealth and power were considerable, and his style of living 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEP8. 287 

was princely. He accompanied Ahmad Shah on his first expedition to 
India, in 1747^ and after the capture and sack of Mat bra received the 
grant of a valuable jagir in the Jalandhar Doab. Timur Shah succeed- 
ed his father in 1773, and during his reign of twenty years TAakar Doi 
continued to fill the office of Diwan. He served Shah Zaman during 
the first year of his troublous reign, and died at an advanced age^ 
in 1794. 

Bhawani Das, the second son of Thakar LaSj was a revenue officer of 
high standing under Shah Shuja. He was chiefly employed in collect- 
ing the customs of Multan and the Derajat^ and^ in 1808^ disgusted at 
the manner in which he was treated by the Kabul courts he determined 
to try and obtain service with Banjit Singh, and accordingly set o£f for 
Lahore, forgetting^ it is asserted, to pay into the treasury the revenue 
that he had collected. He was well received by the Lahore chief, who, 
surrounded by illiterate soldiers, was much in want of some able man 
with a reputation as a financier^ to keep his accounts. At this time 
there was no state Treasury, or regular system of accounts at Lahore. 
The revenue^ which amounted to about thirty lakhs of rupees, was ma- 
naged by the Amritsar banker Bamanand, who held the octroi of Amritsar 
and farmed the salt mines of Find Dadan Khan. Bhawani Dob soon 
effected a great improvement. He established a pay office for the troops^ 
and a finance office, of both of which he was made the head. 

Devi Daa, his elder brother, joined him at Lahore towards the end 
of 1809. He had been in the service of Wazir Sher Muhammad, 
the son of Wazir Shah Wall Khan, minister of Ahmad Shah. After 
the assassination of bis master he remained for some time in concealment 
as he feared the same fate, but at length effecting his escape he set out for 
Lukhnow, where his family had been promised an asylum. But his 
route lay through Lahore^ and on his arrival there the persuasions of 
Banjit Singh and the high position of his brother induced him to remain. 
He was associated with Bhawani Das in the Finance Department, neithej: 



288 HISTORY OF THE 

being sabordinaie to the other^ and they always got on well together. 
Devi Das was a man of as great ability and of far greater integrity than 
his brother, bat he never became so prominent, as he was of a retiring 
disposition. 

After the cession of the fort of Eangra to Ranjit Singh by Sansar 
Chandj in IS 10^ and the redaction of the hill chiefs, Bhawani Das was 
sent to collect the tribate from the Rajas of Mandi and Sak^t. In 1816, 
he was made chief Diwan to prince Kharrak Singh, and was employed to 
redace the country of the Bamgharia Sirdars about Amritsar and Gor-' 
daspnr. The next year he was sent to Jammu to bring the district into 
order and to make it over to Gulab Singh, who had jnst received the 
title of Raja. He was present at the siege of Mnltan and shared the 
Peshawar and Yosafzai campaigns. But although the appointments filled 
by Bhawani Das were many and lucrative, his chief work was as head of 
the Finance Department. On one occasion he fell into deep disgrace. 
He had quarreled with Misr Beli Ram, the treasurer, who aoeused him to 
the Maharaja of embezzlement. The charge was considered proved, and 
Banjit Singh, in his passion, struck Bhawani Das^ in open Darbar with his 
■heathed sword and fined him a lakh of rupees.* The Diwan was then 
banished to a hill appointment ; but his services were too valuable to be 
lost and he was recalled after a few months. He remained Minister of 
Finance till his death in 1834, when he was succeeded by Lala Dina 
Nath. Devi Das died four years earlier, in 1830. 

Huim Chand was appointed a * Daftari,' or oflSice keeper, on the estab- 
lishment of prince Kharrak Singh in 1836, and the next year was made 
Kardar of Satgharrah, on 100 Bs. per mensem, and he managed his 
district with tolerable ability. In 1840, he was sent to Bannu, under the 
orders of Raja Sachet Singh, in one of the many expeditions to collect 
the revenue by force of arms. He received the title of Diwan from 

* It is commonly believed that this fine was paid by the generotu Sirdar Joala Singh, 
fOhania, who was « great frisad of iM«KMNii Dw, bot Diwaa Btikm Chaitd d«Diss ths afeoqr. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 289 

Maharaja Sher Singh. In 1847-43, he was ordered to accompany Lieut. 
Edwardes to Banna. He remiined under that officer till the Multan 
war broke out, and his assistance in the settlement of the Trans-Indus dis- 
tricts was moit valuable. He accompanied the British army to 
Multan, where lie bshaved very well. Before annexation he was in 
receipt of 6,703 R^. per annun, and in 1850 was allowed to retain a jagir 
of 2,300 Rs. in the Pak Pattan District, and a pension of 1,300 Rs. a 
year. In 1S55, he was made Tehsildar of Pasrur, in the Sialkot district, 
but he did not give satisfaction to the authorities, and, in 1853, was per- 
mitted to resign. 

S.ianiar Das, brother of Diwan n^km Ckand^ was a munahi in his father's 
office. He and his brother Oanga Bishati each enjoy a pension of 240 Rs. 
Lula Naram Dcu, fourth son of TAaiar Das, was successively Eardar 
of Umritsar, Kangra, Jammu and Jaswan. In 1825, he was made office 
keeper of the Moti Mandar Treasury, under Misr Beli Ram, and later 
obtained the Eardarship of Lahore, which he held till 1833. In 183S, 
he retired to Eabul, where he obtained a military command, and soon 
after died. His son and grandson are still resident in Afghanistan ; 
Gopal Das being munahi of the forces stationed at Eandahar. 

Raj Kour came to Lahore with his brother Devi Das, and after the 
capture of Mankera was made Eardar of the district, Sirdar Fatah 
Singh Man holding the military command. He acted for his brother 
Bhawani Das^ when that officer was on duty in Eaahmir, in 1819. 



SIRDAR JODH SINGH, UMRITSUR. 

Bhaogat Sdtgh. 

± 



I I 

Sewm Siagh. Dews Singh. 

I 



III 
S Jai Sirdar Jodh daoghler. Kahn Singh. Qtnda Singh. 



in 



Singh. Singh, | l I Singh. 

». 18«. I I J 

7 r ! i I I I 

Hnkm Gormakh Hira Wacir 6her Karam Sharam 

Singh. Singh. Singh. Sin^. Singh. Singh. Siog^ 



I 

JoaU Singh. 



MehUb Ilirsa ParUb Dal Ghikb Ifal Bhagwan Fi/ara Qifiih Jowahir 

Singh, Singh. Singh. Singh, Singh, ffing^ Singh. Singh. Si^^ Sin^. 
D. 1838. B. 1835. B. 1810. b. 1837. 
I 
Sant Singh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The village of Ruriala in the Gujranirala district is stated to have 
been founded by Chowdri Taj an ancestor of Sirdar Jodk Singh. It i% 
certain that the familj had long lived in the village and had for some 
time held the ' chowdrayat.' About the year 1759, Bhaggai Singk 
became a Sikh, and having married his daughter Devi to the powerful 
chief Gujur Singh Bhangi, obtained a grant of the village of Ruriala, free 
of service, from him. Gujai Singh also took the young Sewa Singh 
and Dewa Singh into his service, and gave them the jagir of Naoshera, 
in the Gujrat District, which was held by the brothers in joint posses- 
sion till the death of Sewa Singhy who was killed in battle, and the jagir 
was resumed by Sahib Singh, son of Gujar Singh, who had succeeded his 
father in the command of the Bhangi misl. Two villages of the jagir 
were, however, left to Dewa Singh, and the ancestral village of Rurialm. 
Jodh Singh entered the force of Sirdar Jodh Singh, Sowrianwala, who 
had married his cousin, in the year 1813, when a boy of fifteen. He served 
with the Sirdar^s Ghorcharahs till 1825, when, on the death of Sirdar 
Amir Singh, the jagir was resumed by the Maharaja and the irregular 
troops placed under the command of Prince Sher Singh. 



HISTOBT OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 291 

In 1831^ Jodh Bingh accompwied the Prince in hid silccessful cam- 
paign against Syud Ahmad Ali Khan, In 1834, he was placed aa a 
trooper in Raja Hira Singh's Derah, in which he remained till 1848| 
having been, in 1836, promoted to the rank of commandant. The jagir 
of Ruriala, with \2fi\& Rs., subject to the service of 2 sowars, had always 
remained in his possessioni with the exception of the year 1835, when it 
had been temporarily resumed, and, in 1848, he received an additional 
grant of the village Kotli, in the Gujranwala district. During these 
years Sirdar Jodh Singh had performed good service to the state. He 
had served under Diwan Hakim Rai, who was in charge of Mamdot and 
Mokatsar, and was afterwards sent to the Manjha, where he was most ener- 
getic, and speedily cleared the country of robbers. During the reign of Sher 
Singh he was again sent to the Manjha, in command of 800 sowars, and 
remained there for six monthsi restoring order and administering justice. 
After the Satlej campaign Jodh Singh was appointed ' adalati/ or Judicial 
officer at Amritsar| on 3,000 Rs. inclusive of his jagir, and in 1849| after 
annexation, he was appointed Extra Assistant Commissioner at the 
same place, where he remained till his retirement from the Government 
service in December, 1862. 

During the disturbances of 184^8-49^ Sirdar Jodh Singh remained 
faithful and did excellent service in preserving the peace of the city 
of Amritsar and in furnishing supplies to the British forces. In 1857, he 
accompanied Mr. F. Cooper, C. B.^ in pursuit of the Meean Meer mutineers, 
and rendered such zealous and prompt assistance that he received 
from Government a present of 1000 Bs. and a valuable watch. From 
annexation up to the beginning of 1862 he was in charge of the Darbar 
fSahib, the great Sikh temple at Amritsar, chosen by the Sikh aristocracy 
and priests themselves. This was an important duty, requiring great 
tact, honesty and powers of conciliation. These qualities the Sirdar 
possessed in an eminent degree. There have been special circumstances 
gravely affecting the good management of the temple of late years, 
but Jodh Singh's influence there was only for good. He guided its 



292 MIlEOKf V THE 

coameb tksaog^ tke difiolt ooeHj j«0 «C liie adflunistntioii and 
tfawo^ the ential poiod of 18&7, wbcn Ui kfahj snd devotion to 
ate Gcfcnuaeiii were numy tinm notused ; wiSm as m JndicMl oflSeer^ ho 
Kcnrod hy hia joatifie and uaaveBviBg; boneatf die naped of the inha« 
hilanta of Amntiam, withoot ragaad to eaata or oeed. 

£i loci^nitbn of Jodh Sngh's aerfices^ the GoTenunent^ on his re« 
tizement in 1S6S» aDowfHi him to draw his &II paj ol 4^300 Bs. for 
fife. Sariala and Katii were released ient--firee Ibr life, and the 
latter village^ with twg weQs at Runala^ ws» Wdeaoand to his heira for 
two generations. He also rcecrred a grant of 50 acna of land in 
Bakh Shakarghar. Sirdar Jodi Smg^ died at Anadtaar in AMgm^ 1864. 

SirdHr MJm Snf 4^ y o iingcat brother of JaJl Simgi^ w one of the most 
diBtiagnished nathe officers in the arnij. He entered Baja Sachet 
Suigh^r force when aboot twoitj-Eve reus of age^and was present at the 
eqptnre of Peshawar and in the IVans^Indns eaappatgn* He then entered 
Saja Hira Sngh's brigade, where he was made an ^jotant of caval- 
ly. He fenght against the Britc^ at Madki, Firushahr and Sobraon ; and 
after the compaign was stationed at Lahore in command of a troop of 
50 horsa. In 184S, he was sent to Amritsar and remained with his 
farother dming the war^ dDing e«elknl serrieo ; and on the re- 
tarn of peace his troop was disbanded and he retired on a pen- 
don. Bat Mtirn &afi had no Ioto kt a qmei life at home. In 
1852^ he enteied the Police mder Olond & Lawienee, and re- 
mained in iha fooree till ISiT. At the irsi enlbreak of the mntiny 
he was despatched to Dehti Is join Ma|or Hodwo, with three troops 
of cavalry ; one raued by Nawab lauMsaddhn Khan, ene by R^a Tbj 
Singh, and the third in a great msamure by Mam Si^ hiameU This 
force, first known as ^ Montgomery Sahib ha Bisala ' hrrame the nndeos 
of the £unous < Hodson"^ HorseJ Mm SisfA served throngheni the 
siege and capture of Dehli» He assisted in the captare of Iha king 
of Dehli and ibe capture wd execation of the thiee Princes, and on 



PANJAB CHIEFS* 293 

that day the coolness knd gallantry of lUdn Sinpk were as conspicUbttS 
as thoee of his dashing commander. He then wds sent with Col. 
Showers' column into the Bey#ari district, and retnming to Dehlf, 
about the end of Oetoberi was despatched to Lahore by Majoif JtoioQti 
to raise 600 recruits. This he effected in about four monthSi tudng the 
utmost exertionsj and borrowing a considerable amount of the oeoesSarjr 
funds on his personal security. He then hurried to Lukhnow. He 
arrived ju8t in time to take part in the capture of the city, but too late 
to receive the thanks of his commandant, Major Hodson, who was killed 
the day before his arrival. 

Mdfv Singh fought throughout the hot weather campaign of 1858, 
and was honorably mentioned in despatches for his gallantry at the 
battle of Nawabganj, on the 13th /mte, in dashing to the rescue of 
Lieut. Buller of his regiment, who was stirrounded by the enemy. Mdit 
Sifigl was, on this occasion, severely wounded in two places and his 
horse covered with sword cuts* He received &r his conduct in this 
action the 2nd class order of Merit. He served tkrooghont the Otide 
campaign of 1858-59| and was present at most of the important aetions. 
At Nandgan], after capturing 3 guns, he was very badly injured by the 
blowing up of the tumbrils by a desperado from the enemy's ranks* 
From the injuries he received there he suffered for several months. 
The Government have rewarded the services of Mdn Singh by the grant 
of jagirs in Oude and in Panjab of tlie value of 600 Bs., and 400 Bs., 
per annum, respectively. He still commands the same troop to which 
he was originally posted at Lahore, in 1857, and which has been in- 
corporated with the 9th Regiment Bengal Cavalry. 

Mehtab Singh, the eldest son of Sirdar Jodh Singh, was killed 
in suppressing a disturbance at Chakowal, in 1838. 

Hina SingA, the second son, like his uncle Man Singh^ is a Bisaldar 
in the 9th Bengal Cavalry. He was appointed to command one of the 
troops of cavalry raised by Man Singh, in November, 1857. Li the 



291 HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

middle of 1858 he went with his detachment to Oade« and joined 
the head-quarters of < Hodson's Horse' then commanded by Col. Daly, c. b. 
He fought with distinction in all the chief battles of the latter Oude 
campaign ; Sultanpur^ Fyzabad, &c. 

Partab Singh^ in April| 1861, joined the Police Force as Subhadar. 
He is now Deputy Inspector in the Municipal Police of Amritsar. 

Many others of the family have done good service under the British 
Government . 

Dal Singh is Jamadar in the 1 8th Bengal Cavalry: Joala Singi, 
son o£Jai Singi^ is Subhabar of the 2l8t Native Infantry. Hira Singh, 
son of Khan 8ingh^ is Subhadar of the 24th Native Infantry. 

In the Police are Karam Singh, stationed at Fatahghar ; Gurmuih 
Singh| son of 3idn Singh, Deputy Inspector at Sitapur, and Gurmuih 
Bingh^ son of a sister of Mdn Singh, who is Inspector at Soy Bareilly. 

• Euhm Singh, brother of the Gurmuih Singh last named^ is Naib 
Bisaldar in the 9th Bengal Cavalry. 

Most of these officers served throughout the mutiny with credit. 



DIWAN HAKIM RAI. 



Mahan Sxkos. 

Kabul! MaL 

1 




Diwan Dhanpat Rai. 
Matra Das. 


HarBajRai. 
Kaahi Ram. 




MoMddi Mai. 
SuiianMal. 


1 
Diwan Hakim Rai, 

B. 1803. 

1 


Nand Gopal 


Diwan Kiahan Kow, 
B.1825. 


Aijankiagfa, Tan 

B. 1831. B. 

FarUb Singh, 
B. 1865. 


dhand, 
1837. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The ancestors of Diwan Hakim Rai were in the service of the Kan« 
heya chiefs. Mahan Singh and Kabuli Mat undertook whatever civil 
administration was attempted by so rude and warlike a Sirdar as Haki* 
kat Singh ; collecting his revenae and keeping his accounts : and Diwan 
Dhanpat Rai and Har Baj Rai served Jaimal Singh^ son of Hakikat 
Singh^ in the same capacity. Manpat Rai was a man of considerable 
ability, and held the office and title of Diwanj and was engaged ex- 
clusively in civil work, while the duties of Har Baj Rai were of a very 
varied description. When in 1812| on the death of Jaimal Singh| his 
estates were seized by Ranjit Singh, Har Baj Rai, with his nephew 
Matra Das^ entered the service of the Maharaja. He obtained a good ap- 
pointment in the Judicial office* and his son KoiM Ram was placed under 
him. In 1824, Haiim Rai received an appointment in the Charyart Corps. 
He was an able man, and rose so rapidly to fiivour, that^ in 1826, he was 
put in charge of the estates and person of the young Prince Nao Nihd 
Singh| and recchred an allowance of 1 per cent on all collecttons from thef 
districts under him. At the same time he was honoured with- the title of 
Diwan. In 1834, he accompanied the Prince and Han Sbgh Nalwa 



296 HI8T0BY OP THB 

across the Indos^ and at the close of the successful Peshawar campaign, 
against Sultfta Muhammad l^han, he was made governor of the con-* ; 
quered district^ with Banna and TusafeaL The Maharaja also granted 
himajagirof 3,000 B8.ia Pothiar. The Prince then proceeded down 
the frontier, which he found in a fearful state of misgovemment| and 
the Diwan was made gavemor of Dera Ismail Khan, Tak^ Bannu and 
Isakheyl. 

When Nao Nihal Singh, on the death of Banjit Singh, obtained su- 
preme power, he gave to the Diwan who had served him so well, a jagir 
worth 10,000 Ba. in the Sialkot district, and Bakim Bai relinquished his 
uncomfortable firontier ddties for attendance at Coort During the reign 
of Maharaja Sher Singh he retamed his honours ; and in the next reign 
was appointed Chief Justice of the city of Lahore. He was averse to the 
war with the English in 1815, but more from his knowledge of its cer- 
tain danger than from any love to the British Government, for in 1814-45, 
he w^as the man, who at the head of 200 sowars, under the orders first of 
Riga iSira Singh and then of Sirdar Jowahir Singh, crossed the Satlej, and 
violated the provisions of the treaty, with the excuse of suppressing dacoi- 
ty and punishing refractory zamindars. In 1846, he was sent, on the 
part of the Darbar, to Kashmir, to endeavour to bring to reason Shaikh 
Imamuddin Khan^ then in active rebellion. He went there slowly enough, 
By the long road of Bhimbar, and although there is no certain evidence 
of treasonable acts on his part, yet it seems probable from his own state- 
ment at the time, and those of l^azir Batnu and Colonel Matra Das, that 
his sympathiea were mth the traitor Lai Singh, though he did not ven- 
ture to.render any active assistance^ 

In April, 1847, the Diwan was sentratthe recommendation of the 
iReaident, to iPeshawari aaChi^^ Justice and Civil Governor in the room 
of Sirdar Ohattar Singh, Attariwala* The entire administration of justice 
and oolleotioiirof [the revenue was made aver to hiniisubj^t to the advice 
of Mi^r Qt. Lawrenoci Political Agent ;.but tho command of the troops 
WHS lefb witl^ Qeneral Golali aingh^ Povindia. This appointment be did 



PUNJAB CHIE?8. 297 

not hold for long. He had many enemies in Darbar, who ^ere anxious 
to ruin him, and chief of them Sirdar Tej Singh, President of the Council, 
Ilaiim Rai was a nominee of Dlwan Dina Nath, and this wag in itself suffi- 
cient to make the Raja hostile. In a month and a half the administration 
of Peshawar was made over to Gulab Singh ; while Hakim Rai was to 
remain contentr with the judicial portion of the work alone. This loss of 
power very much irritated the Diwan ; he began to neglect his judicial 
duties,* and the Resident recommended his recall, in August, 1847. 

On his return to Lahore, Hakim Rai obtained no other appointment| 
and the next year saw him one of the most conspicuous among the rebels. 
The reasons for his disa£fection may be briefly related. 

It has before been stated that Sirdar Tej Singh was an enemy of the 
Diwan. In the same month that Hakim Rai was reoalled from Pesha- 
war Tej Singh was created a Baja and given a jagir of 28»000 Rs. at 
Sialkot. At this town Diwan Hakim Rai resided, and here was the jagir 
of 10,000 Rs. granted to him, in perpetuity, by Nao Nihal Singh.t 
Tej Singh first confiscated two gardens and five wells which had been 
in the family for many years. The gairdens Were released on the repre- 
sentation of Diwan Dina Nath ; and then the Raja caused the jagir to be 
resumed. The pensions of the l!>iwan and of his second son werie also 
stopped, and the rebellion found him, not unnaturallyi a disappoiated and 
imbittered man. Some believe that RfijaTej Singh, who had certain 
knowledge of the storm which was preparing to break on the Panjab, 
desired to drive Hakim Rai into rclbellion> that he might add the Diwan'a 



* Major a. Lawrence, who wasthebett judgeof iheDiwan^sworkfhadaliisli opinion ofhim. 
In an Urdu letter to Riga Tej Singh, dated ISth Angnsl, 1847, he wHtea " a parwana regard- 
ing the recaU of Diwan Hakim Bai waa reeeired lome time ago, but owing to the good ma. 
nagcment of the Diwan, I conai^ered it niore for the interesti of the Darbar to detain him. 
A second parwana to the wme effect hat now arrl?ed. Sinoe the Diwah'a arriyal at Pesha- 
war he has paid constant attentien to his datiea and has giren me erery satlsfaotion bj his 
good management." 

t At the time of Prince Nao Nihal's death, Diwan Hakim Rai held jagirs and cash allow- 
ances amounting to 73,000 Ri; a year .* Kithm Km ww fai receipt of 39,000 Ra. jagira and 
caah. 



298 HISTORY OF THE 

Siaikot jagirs to his own. If this was his intention it was emiaentljr 
successful. In September, 1848, t^o regiments of the rebels were sent 
by Sirdar Utar Singh, AttariwaU, to attack the fort of Bhopalwala, 
a few miles from Siaikot, belonging to Raja Tej Singh. They londly 
proclaimed that when they bad taken it they would destroy the houses 
of Diwan Hakim Eai, whose son KisAan Kour had destroyed and confis- 
cated their houses in Gurdaspur. Hakim Bai sent to the Siaikot fort^ 
asking for protection ; but the officers of the Eaja would not give admit- 
tance to him or his family. Shortly after this he wrote to Ki^han Kour 
to throw up his appointment and join him ; and father and son went over 
to Raja Sher Singh, Attariwala, 

Diwan Haiim Bai was a great addition to the rebel strength. Though 
he brought with him neither men nor money, yet he was an exceedingly 
able man, and the document sent to the Resident, detailing the grievan- 
ces felt by the Sirdars and the reasons for their rebellion, was drawn np 
by his hand. 

But his cleverness could not avert the fate which fell upon him at the 
close of the war, when his jagirs, allowances and personal property were 
all confiscated, and he, with his sons, was sent a prisoner to the fort of 
Chunar. His ability made him dangerous and his removal necessary ; 
and he had also been detected in treasonable correspondence with some 
of the rebel leaders after the close of the war, but many, more criminal 
than Diwan Hakim Bai, remained in the Panjab. 

Kisian Kour had been, from his childhood, the play-fellow and 
associate of Prince Nao Nihal Singh who entertained for him the greatest 
regard and affection. He received the title of Diwan, and favours of all 
kinds were heaped upon him. In 1837, when the Prince was at Pesha- 
war, he gave to Kishan Kour command of four infantry and one cavalry 
regiments, with the customary proportion of artillery, on a salary of 1,500 
Us. a month. 

In 1841, he was appointed Kardar of Rawalpindi, which office he 
held till after the Firozpur campaign. He rendered all assistance in his 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 299 

power to the Britisli officers and troops in the way of procuring supplies 
at the time of the A%han war. When, in 1848^ Sirdar Lehna Singh 
Majithia; who had been the administrator of the country between the 
Ravi and the Satlej, left for Benares, Kiahan Kour was appointed to the 
charge of the Battala, Dinanagar, and Kalanour Districts. He gave 
satisfaction by the manner in which he discharged his duties, and when 
the disturbances broke out^ was at first very zealous in attaching and 
confiscating the property of rebels. He was not, however, able to resist 
his father's persuasions, and, as before related, they rebelled together. 

Arjan Singh^ the second son, was too young to be deeply implicated 
in the rebellion. He was, however, sent to Chunar with his father ; but 
was. released in 1853, and allowed to return to the Panjab, where a por- 
tion of the Sialkot property, owned by the family before the rebellion, 
was restored to him, 

Diwan HaJcim Bai, with hb sons, was for four years confined in the 
Fort of Chunar, where Lai Singh Moraria and Mehtab Singh were also 
prisoners. In July, 1853, he was released, and permitted to retire to 
Benares. His pension was raised to 1,200 Bs. a year, and that of 
Kishan Kour to 600 Rs. In 1857, he did good service, and received a 
grant of some Zamindari rights and a house at Lakhnow where he and 
his son Kishan Kour reside. Both father and son, by their amiable 
disposition and irreproachable conduct through sixteen years of exile, have 
won the good opinion and esteem of the authorities of the North West. 

Tara Chand^ the youngest son of Diwan Hakim Rai, has been for 
several years in Government employ. He was first Peshkar of Daaka 
in the Sialkot district : he was then made Naib Sherishtadar at Sialkot ; 
and, in 1862, Judicial Sherishtadar at Gurdaspur, where he is highly 
spoken of. 



mWAN KARAM CHAND OFIMANABAD, 



KiRomi Mal. 

I 
JiwauMaL 

I 



I I I I 

Diwan Karam Chand. Garmakh Bai. Dhnnj MaL . Hamam Das. 



I 



I i I 

Sast Ram. Hohan LaL Oanga BiBhan. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Nanda Khatri family, of which Diwan Karam Chand is the 
present representative, is of some antiquity. TJjjar Sain, the first of whom 
any mention is made, lived in the reign of Babar Shah, and by a 
marriage with the daughter of a wealthy official of Imanabad in Guj- 
ranwala, whither he had gone in the train of the Emperor, established 
the fortmies of the family. His son LukAu was adopted by his father-in- 
law Daviditta, and, on his death, succeeded to his office of Kanungo, and 
for several generations the office, which was, in those days, of some con- 
sideration, remained with the family. The Sikhs under Sirdar Charrat 
Singh oveiran this part of the country, and the family lost most of their 
wealth; but the conqueror gave them a share in three villages, Kotli Dya- 
nat, Raipur and Ilaffipur ; and on the accession of Banjit Singh, several 
members of the family were taken in his service. The only one who be- 
came of any importance was Karam Chand, He first went to Gujranwala, 
where he took a small contract for the revenue of Imanabad, and later 
he was sent as Tehsildar to Sri Har Govindpur, which was then admi- 
nistered by Tek Chand. For his services here he received a grant of 
th:ee villages, Sulaiman, Kotli Mazbian and Kot Karam Chand, in the 
Gujranwala district. 

When Slier Singh ascended the' throne Tek Chand, an oflBcial of Nao 
Nihal Singh, was turned adrift. His subordinate Karam Chand was 
dismissed with him, but Raja Dhyan Singh took him into his service, and 



. HI8T0BT OF THB FARJAB CHIEFS. ^01 

sent him to Bbimbar to manage hia estates. Aftei^ Dhyan Singh's deaths 
Karam Chand served Raja Galab Singh in Hazara ; and when that coon* 
try was exchanged bj the Saja for Manawar, he retired to Peshawar. 
Two of hia villages^ Mazbian and Sniaiman, had been resumed in 1846 bn 
his refusal to come to Lahore, and in 1850, Karam Chand had only three 
wells at Imauabad^ worth200 Rs., which were released for hia life. 

Karam Chand did not get on well in ELashmir, as he had an enemy at 
court in the person of Joala Sahai^'i^ the Maharaja's chief agent. The 
mothers of Karam Chand and Joala Sahai were sisters, and there was 
between them a quarrel of long standing. Joala Sahai adopted his mo- 
therms quarrel^ and making out that Karam Chand had embezzled very 
largely^ caused him to be thrown into prison. The rights of the question 
cannot at this lapse of time be ascertained, but it is certain that Raja 
Jowahir Singh, nephew of the Maharaja, indignant at such treatment of 
his father's faithful servant, procured, with much difficulty, his release^ 
and took him into his own service, in spite of the Maharaja's oppo« 
sition. When Raja Jowahir Singh proceeded to Lahore, the Maharaja 
attacked his fort of Mangla on the Jammu road. It was most gallantly 
defended for some months by Sant Ram^^ son of Diwan Karam Chand^ 
but was at last taken. Gulab Singh tried, it is said, to induce Sant Ram, 
to enter his service, but he refused, and the Maharaja threw him into 
prison. When the mutiny of 1857 broke out Karam Chand was at 
Lahore, in command of some troops belonging to Baja Jowahir Singh. 
He was directed to join General Van-Cortlandt, which he did, and was 
present as commandant of Raja Jowahir Singh's contingent at all the 
actions fought by the General between Firozpur and Rohtak. He then 
remained at Hissar till the Raja's contingent was amalgamated with the 
Police, when he was appointed commandant of the 10th Police Battalion, 
on his former pay of 500 Rs. per mensem. In 1861, when the Polioe were 
reorganised, Karam Chand^s services were no longer required, but for his 

* Diwan Joala Sahai ia Prime Miniater of the pretent Maharaja of Jammu. 



302 HTSTOBT OP THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

loyalty and gallantry^ he received a jagir of 3^000 Rs. at and near Imana- 
bad/ 1^200 Rs. of which were, to descend to his son. 

The services of Karam CAand were such that the influence of the 
(Government was used to obtain the release of SarU Ram, from prison. 
In 1858| he was appointed Bisaldar in the Hissar FolicCi in which he 
remained for three years* 



SIRDAR MIAN SINGH BHAGOWALA. 



Dhtan Singh. 
Ram Singh 

Anokh Siogh. Sirdar Mian Singh. Ehazan Singh. Eahn Singh. 

Sirdar Oulab Singh. Jai Singh. Hira Singh. 

Klrpal Singh. Richpal Singh. Bishan Singh. 
Kaka Singh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Tlie family of Bhagowala^ of the Eahilon Jat caste, claims to have 
descended from the Powar Rajputs of Ujam. An ancestor of the name 
of Kahilon was the founder of the Jat family of that name^ and Bhago 
the eleventh from Eahilon emigrated to the Fanjab and built the village 
of Bhagowala, in the Batala Fargaanah of the Amritsar District, from 
which the present family takes its name. Ram Singh, the father of Sirdar 
Mian Sing A, was a follower of Sirdar Bhag Singh Bhagga, who, in 1795, 
gave him the two villages Bhugadh and Ehattab. After the death of 
Bhag Singh, Bam Singh served with his brother Sirdar Budh Singh 
Bhagga. In 1809, Ranjit Singh took possession of the greater part of 
tlie Bhagga territory, and, among other places, of Bhagowala, which he 
granted to Sirdar Desa Singh Majithia. Bam Singh accompanied the 
Maharaja to Kangra in 1809, in the force of Sirdar Desa Singh, and in 
the first battle with the Goorkhas he was killed. His son Afian Singh 
was then a minor, but Desa Singh did not forget him, and, when he was 
able to bear arms, released in his favour some wells at Bhagowala, and 
placed him under his son Sirdar Lehna Singh. When this chief was made 
Governor of the hill districts, an assignment of 2,200 Rs. per annum 
was made to Mian Singh from the tribute of Mandi, Kulu, Sukef^ 
Kangra, Bilaspur, and Nadon. He accompanied Lehna Singh and Jamadar 



304 HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

Khushhal Singh on the expedition against Chowki Kotlehr^ in 1825^ and 
his old friendship with the Baja of that state had its e£fect in inducing 
him to surrender the fort, which was a strong one^ and to accept a jagir^ 
which the Jamadar pledged himself to obtain for him. After the death 
of Desa Singh Majithia^ in 1832, his son confirmed Mian Singh in his 
jagir, and left him as Thannadar at Amrifaar during his own absence in 
the Peshawar campaign. He also granted him an additional cash pen- 
sion of 1,200 Es. and jagirs of 1,550 Bs. 

Gulab Singh^ son of Mian Singh, entered the force of Lebna Singh 
Majithia, as a gunner in 1828| and was made a commandant in 1833. 
Up to the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh^ the Bhagowala chiefe had 
been merely feudal retainers of the Majithia Sirdars, but on the accession 
of Maharaja Sher Singh, Gulab Singh entered the regular army, and was 
made a Colonel of Artillery, with command of 11 guns, with a cash 
salary and jagirs of 2^116, Bs. Under Baja Hira Singh lie was made a 
Gonerali and his pay was raised to 3,458 Bs., being 1,000 Ra. in cash and 
the villages of Eharabad and Luhaika yielding 2,458^ Eb., per annum. 
Under Jowahir Singh^ his pay remained the same ; but he was in command 
of 12 guns. When Sirdar Lehna Singh Majithia retired from the Panjab 
before the second Sikh war, Oulab Singh wished to aoeompany him| but 
be was not permitted, and was appointed Magistrate of Gogaira where he 
was stationed when the Multan war broke out. At that crisis be remained . 
faithful to Government. 

In 1853 Oulab Singh left the Panjab with Sirdar Lehna Majithia, 
to make a pilgrimage to Benares and other holy cities. He returned 
home the next year, and now holds a jagir of 2,500 Bs. per annum. 
Sirdar Mian Singh holds a jagir of 3,000 Bs. 



SIRDAR BHUP SINGH BHAGGA. 



Akal, 
\ 



Sirdar Amar Siogb| Daughter, 

B.1805I. iLlCodh Singh, IfijilAiiu 



Sirdar Bhag Singh, Sirdar Budh Su^h, 

D. 1808. D. 1846. 



Hari Singh, Daughter. Daaghtor* Fartab GunNikh Eakft Danghiar, 

D. 1852. Singh, Siagh. Singh, x. Sirdar ThalMr 

I D. 1847. Singh, AttariwaU 



BhQp Singh, liar S!ngfa» ^fiwis Stngh. 

B. 1836. B. 1844. I 

Danghter, Earam Singh. Sant Singh* 
X. 80D of Nihal 



I 

Sfa 

>D 

Singh, BhakowaL 



HfiTORT OF THC FAMILY. 

The Bhagga hmlj, though at the present time of smalt consider- 
ation, formerly possessed both trealth and power* Its founder Was Amar 
Sinffh^ son of a Man Jat zamindar of the village of Bhagga in the 
Amritsar district, who, about the year 1759, left his village to seek 
his fortune. He adopted the Sikh fkith, joined the Kanheya misl and set 
np as a robber. He was so snoeessfbl in hia new pmfessioii that he was 
joined by a considerable nomber of blloweni| the chief of whom wat a 
man named Karam Singh. He ovemn and took possession ef a large 
part of the Ghirdaspur District, inckding Scyanpm^Sukalghar, Dharmkot^ 
and Behrampur. He built a fort at Sidtafghar, where he claefly resided 
and where, in 1806, after a life spent in fighting, he quietly died in his bed^ 
leaving his possessions, which he heldi intact till his deaths te his eldest 
son Biag Singh. This diief was not, like his fatherj of a warlike dispo* 
sition^ and made no attempts to extend his territory^ bM he was net the 



SOS EltTO&T OF THE 

othfft haTC descended are tbe tribes ♦ Man, Her and Bhullar. It is 
not known, wxtk waj certaiotji when the ancestors of the Man Jats 
ewpafad to Hkt BujA. They weie origmilly Rajpute, and inhabited 
the eanatrj abowt Delhi ; and to this daj,near Jaipur^ Thaknr Man Saj- 
pots an to be toond. 

Of diia tribe and caste are many £unilies distingoished in Panjab his- 
tmj. Thmm m the Amitav baaHj of Mananwala ; the Oigiaiiwala 
hmltr 9i Mogakhak ; whik to another branch Khan Singh Man, of MuU 
am cricbd^,aiidhkgaIknft;eoQBinBhag Singh, beloDfed* Chief of the 
Saaua^^ btaadk w» Sodar Desa %igh Man, Eardar of the Ranmagar 
Acgann^ wksse gmt giandaom Ganda Singh, the onlj representatiFO of 
the hauijy is Siing, in gieat poTertj, at Amritsnr. Of the Manblood, 
ahos. SN ^SMt pewfffid booses oC Bhagga and Malwa, now repre- 
seated bj Sodsr Bkip Si^ Dabbanwals and Sirdar Samp Singh 
MibnL 



of the Mogakhak fiunily, left Delhi in the year of 
agrMtdcQught and fiBEbse^sad settled in flie waste Gantry near Goj- 
ranwab^ whR>cebefo«»fcd^Ettlevilligeofllaa, and was nade head- 
man ov^r a oirde of 29 t31^^ Tbis offiee of chowdhri remuned 
in ihie fiiOHLly £>r many generations till the dscliao of the Moham- 
SEUK^in pow«r. ^tibfet, the foorth in descent from Ladda, founded the 
village of yikka MaD« bot this soon passed out of his hands on account of a 
fMkrs to SMet the GoTemment demand, and Mir Hamzai Oovemor of 
Isaanabad, gave it to hk brother Mina KiUh, who destroyed it and built 
hard by a new Tillage which he called Mogalchak. This village the Man 
Ihmih* porchssed later from tiie descendants of Mirza Kilah, and here 
they now reside. Ssrfm Sit^ is said to have been a follower of Sir- 
dar Charrat Singh Snkarchakia, bat little is known about him. He 

• TW * imz«m* cv b«ni* lUtetha St B^pnt tiibM cum fiitt to the Panjab : the entire 
Mm »».i lUr tnb<» and \aM tK« BkoIUur. The hsi lumcd is not nnmerons at the pieeent daj. 
ll« TiUa^^ «w looiKi chkif abMt ABriUar and Ijnala. Hie Man tribe ii naioeroai about 
Kai^ur. Am)ti»ar. GtfjrmewaU, and indeed throoghoal the Maojha ; while the chief settlcsient 
erth<^ lltr J^U ^ ia ibt l^mr« ^strict 



PANJAB CHIKPg. 309 

died ml763, leaviDg four soimi Jai Singh^ Mana Singh^ Nar Singh and 
Pakar Singh. 

I. Pahar Singh, though the youngest of the brothers^ will be more 
conveniently treated of first; as he was the most distinguished^ and it was 
in'a great measure through his asiistance Uiat his brothers rose in the world. 
He entered Charrat Singh's service asa trooper ; but soon'distinguished him- 
self for energy and courage ; obtained a grant of the four villages Jokian, 
Kalerh, Sal andTakuan^ worth S^277 Rs. and assumed the title of Sirdar. 
Under Sirdar Mahan Singh Sukarehakia his influence steadily increasedi 
aud he obtained 11,000 Rs. of additional jagira near Bamnagar. He 
showed great gallantry in the m^ny campaigns against the Chattahs ; and 
under Banjit Singh he served at Attock, Baisa and elsewhere. At the 
time of his death, in ISIS, fail jagira amounted to upwards of two lakhs 
of rupees^ subject to the service of 500 horse, 2 guns and 7 zamburahs 
or camel swivels. 

Pahar Singh left one son Hari Singh a minor, and Sirdar Hukma 
Sitigh Chimmi was appointed his guardian. 47j000 Bs. of his father's 
jagirs were released to him, subject to the service of 125 horse ; and when 
he become old enough to enter the army he was placed under Misr Diwan 
Chand, with whom he served at Bannu and Multan. He died of paralysis 
in 1821, being only twenty-two years of age. His two sons Jaggat 
Singh and Partah Singh were, at their father's death, infants^ and the 
jagirs were consequently resumed ; with the exception of 6,200 Bs. sub- 
ject to the service of 13 horsemen. In 1843^ Jaggat Singh was appointed 
orderly officer of Baja Hira Singh, and Partab Singh was made comman- 
dant in the Miwiwala regiment. Under the Darbar, Jaggat Singh was 
colonel of a cavalry regiment which formed part of Maharaja Dalip 
Singh's body-guard, and during the disturbances of 1848-49, he, with 
his troops, remained faithful to Government. 

Jaggal Singh died in 1880, leaving two sons, Niial Singh and 
Narain Singh aged respectively twenty-two and thirteen years at the time 



•310 HISTORY OF THE 

of his death. Jaggat Singh was in the enjoyment of jagirs worth 4^000 Bs. 
Of these a portion have been resumed, and his sons hold, iu perpetuity, 
1,637, Bs. being the mouza of Kalerh, and a share of Moghal Chak in the 
Gujranwala district. 

II. Nar Singh was a misldar of the Sukarehakia confederacy, and 
fought under Mahan Singh at Manchar and Akalghar* He died young, 
and his three sons received allowances to the amount of 8,500 Bs. out of his 
jagirs. When Rattan Singh grew up, he was made adjutant in the Miwi- 
wala regiment} and received estates in Gujranwala and Gurdaspur to thd 
value of 1,200 Bs. Be accompanied Sirdar Hari Singh Nalwa to Kashmir, 
and was, in 1820, very severely wounded at Mangli in the Kashmir hills 
where Hari Singh was reducing a strong fort defended by the moxmtain- 
eers. For his services on this occasion he received a grant of Kharak in 
Gujranwala and the command of a regiment. His brother Baghal Singh, 
about this time, was made adjutant in Dhonkal Singh's regiment. Un- 
der Maharaja Kharrak Singh, Rattan Singh was sent in the force of 
Sirdar Sham Singh to Kulu and Mandi, where he was engaged for nearly 
two years in reducing the hill tribes to obedience. He was created a 
General by Sirdar Jowahir Singh, and Kila Desa Singh and Naoshera were 
given him injagir. Baghel Singh was, in 1845, madd commandant in 
his old regiment. Rattan Singh fought throughout the Satlej campaign^ 
and soon after its close he was reduced to the rank of Colonel, and his 
jagirs were reduced to 5,000 Bs. with 1,000 Bs. free of service. He was 
serving at Peshawar in October, 1848, when the troops there mutinied. 
Major G. Lawrence spoke well of him, and he appears to have done his 
best to bring the mutineers to a sense of their duty, till the tide of rebel- 
lion became so strong that he was himself carried away by it. His son 
Sant Singh, then thirty years old, also joined the rebels and fought 
throughout the campaign of 1848-49. Baghel Singh, who accompanied 
Major H. B. Edwardes to Multan, stood firm; but died early in 1849 at 
Hanad in the Dera Ismail Khan district. After annexation, the jagirs of 
Rattan Singh were resumed ; but he received a pension of 1,080 Bs, which 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 311 

lapsed at his death in 1857. San^ Singh is in receipt of a pension of 72 Rs.| 
and also holds a share in Mouza Moghalchak. Oulab Singh, third son of 
Rattan Singh, is a convert to Muhammadanism^ and is not acknowledged 
by his family. 

III. ^i Singh married his daughter Mai Man to Maban Singh 
Sakarchakia, and although this lady bore no children^ yet the alliance 
very materially helped to build up the family fortunes. Cnder Ranjit 
Singh the family was very powerful) and at one time there were no less 
than twenty two members of it holding military appointments of trust 
and honour. Sirdar Jai Singh died youngy but his sons were confirmed 
in possession of their father's estates. Diwan Singh did not long survive 
his father, and Mihr Singh the second son was killed in Kashmir in 
1814. Jodh Singh accompanied the Maharaja on many of his cam- 
paigns. At the rebellion of 1848-49 Jodh Singh^ who was a Colonel 
with jagirs worth 7^550 Rs, joined the rebels with his nephew Jamiyat 
Singh, but returned to Lahore before the end of the campaign. The 
jagirs of this branch of the family were resumed after annexation. Jodh 
Singh was allowed a pension of 720 Ks. which he still holds. 

FatcA Singh, son of Sirdar Diwan Singh, was originally one of 
Banjit Singh's orderlies. He was made adjutant of artilleryi and under 
Sirdar Jowahir Singh commandant. After the Satlej campaign^ Raja 
Lai Singh appointed him commandant in his cousin Budh Singh's regi- 
ment on 1,800 Rs. a month. He was with his cousin during the distur- 
bances of 1848, and joined Captain Kicholson at the same time with 
him. One third of his salary of 1,800 Rs. was granted to him for life. 
In 1862, he was appointed Honorary Magi3trate at Oujranwala. 

Anup Singh the eldest ton of Jodh Singh entered the 1st Sikh Irregu- 
lar cavalry, afterwards better known as ' Probyn's Horse/ when it was first 
raised in August 1857, under the orders of Sir John Lawrence. After 
the fall of Delhi, Anup 5fii$pi accompanied the regiment to Gude and was 
present at the capture of Lukhnow in March, 185S. He served through 



S12 HISTORY OF THE 

tko wboto of the BaUwarra campaigo, io the hot weather of 1858 ^ tnd m 
the spring of 1859 ia the Trana Gogra campaign. Where the fightii]^ was 
the aharpeai the 1st Bikha were always to he found; and among many 
brave men Anup Singh distinguished himself for his cool and determined 
courage. During the Hindostan campaign he was fonr times wounded, 
and had three horses wounded under him. 

In JanujEiry 1860, he volunteeied for China with his regiment and 
served with great credit throughout the campaign. He was again wound- 
edj and his horse was again wounded under him. 

The regiment was present with the force, daring the lake distorbances 
on the North West frontier ; and, on one oecaaioDy whentt was engaged 
with the Bonairs, at AmheyUt Atmnp 8in§h particularly distrnguished 
himttslf and was very aevcucely wounded in aingle combat with one of the 
enemy. He has twice received the Order of Valour Ua bravery in the field 
and has been granted a jagir of 600 Rs« p« annum. The services of 
Annp Singh deserve especial notioe. He is one of tie finest natire officers 
in the army ; of undoubted loyally, of conspiouoos bravery, and a worthy 
representative of the old and gallant fiimily to which he belongs. 
Gurlahh Singly his younger brother, was allowed by the Commander-in- 
Chief, in compliment to Jnup Simfi, to enter bis brother^a regiment^ 
when a child only ten years of age. Oanda SingJl, s(m of Sier Singh^ also 
enlisted in the regiment in 1857, and served with the corps fill its return 
from China in 1861. He then took his dischai^, and is at presentin civil 
employ at Qujranwala. Joetla Singh, son of Fatah Singh entered the 
regiment with Annp Singh. He waa a very promising sokEer, and was 
killed in action at Nawabganj. 

IV» Ikana Singh, like hia other brothora^ waa a subordinate chief in 
thefoUowing of Sirdar Mahan Singh Snkarobakia, from whom he received 
the estates of Pindori Eahm, Pindoii Ehurd and others. On his death in 
1807 bis elder son Sadda Singh succeeded to all hie jagirs, and to tiie com* 
mand of the*contingent. This yoaog^ man distinguished himself in the 



Kashmir campaign where be wat fo«r limes wounded^aad reccdted for Us 
services a share in the Manawarllaki worth 12>(K)0>IU. &HkhSin^AM 
childless, and Manawar^ wiidi other o£ his ja^ra^ was resamed i btti hia bio- 
ther Amir S^/^ the haadsomeet itian m the Khalaa armj, waaiaade a 
General and large estate were granted to him. The third son &U« 
Siugh was crsated a coloneli oo 5^(MM> Ba« per aaoLttm> asMl Hukm Si^ a 
oommandaut la 184iO, Jmir Siu^l died without, issuo ; and hie jagtr of 
lljOOa Ba. was assigned ta hia brother BuH Singi with the rank of 
GeneraL Amir SingVa hattaUoQj conaisUs^ of four influitry regimontS) 
one cavalry r^meiit and two troops of artiUevy» was also placed under his 
command. Budi SingA hadatthis time beentwenty^iWTeaisiii the Sikh 
army. He had first entered it in 1816, aa am orderly of the Maharsjai 
on 3»800 B£. per annum, and this peak he had held Cor five years. Be 
had then, on bis brother Sadda SitifiVs deathj received cocnnumd of thirty 
honemeii» with a jagir of 17,000 Be« and after this bad beea cemmandant 
and colonel, in General Court's bri^^ on Afiii Bs, Under Maharaja 
Sher Singh his emoluments were reduced, for he was brother-in-law of 
Sirdar Attar Singh Sidhanwalia and Sher Singh's policy, at the com- 
mencement of hia reign, was to destroy the power of the Sindhanwalia 
house. 

BudA Singh served throughout the Satlej campaign, and shortly after its 
close he was reduced to the rank of a colonel in the Man battalion and sent 
with the Sher Singh brigade to assist Maharaia Gulab Singh in subduing 
the rebellion in that province. He behaved admirably on this occasion, 
and, in 1847; was of great service to Major Nicholson at Gandghar, and 
later in the year to Major Abbott, in the Dhoond mountains, where he and 
his men encamped in the snow for many days without a murmur. When 
the Multan rebellion broke out, BudA SingA was stetioned at Hassan Abdal 
with his corps. Every effort was made by the insurgents to seduce him, 
by false accounts of the confiscation of his jagirs, by promises and by threaU; 
but he stood firm, and when his men, in spite of all efforts, went over to 
Sirdar Chatter Singh, he left them and joined Major Nicholson with 



8U HISTORT OP THE PAKJAB CHIEFS. 

only hii horse and his sword. He fought gallantly^ under that officer^ 
against therebekin the Margalla Pass, where he was severely wounded 
in the head, and it was found necessary fo send him to Peshawar, where 
he was afterwards captured by the Sikhs and kept under arrest until the 
Jiattle of Gujrat, when he regained his freedom. Budi Singh was almost 
the only Sikh leader who remained sincerely on the side of the British at 
that critical time. There were some able men who stood by the British 
liecause they saw that they would eventually win; there were others 
who were faithful through hatred to the house of Attari. But BudA Sinffh^s 
honesty did not depend upon political calculations. The Fanjab proverb 
says, '^ The Man Sirdars are gallant, handsome and true ;" and Budi 
Singh upheld the fame of his house.' He was idolized by the army, and 
the estimation in which he was held is seen by the efforts made by the 
rebels to induce him to join them. But though his friends and relations 
were in the rebel ranks ; though by loyalty he risked his life, his fortune 
and his reputation ; yet he remained faithful to the end. 

On the return of peace, his jagirs, amounting to 6,340 Rs. were con- 
firmed to him for life, and 1,040 Bs. were released to his male heirs in 
perpetuity. This gallant officer died in October, 1856, leaving three sons, 
who reside at Mananwala in the Amritsar districtj where a portion of their 
jagir lies. 

Sham Singh J brother of Budh Singh, died in 1843, leaving one son 
Zehna Singh, who succeeded to the command of his father's regiment. 
He joined the rebels in 1848| and his jagirs were consequently resumed. 
He receives from Government a pension of 60 Bs. a month. 



THE KANHETA FAMILY. 

I. — JiT? Singh. 

KUSHAXJ, 



I 

Jai Sngh, 
D. 1789. 

I 



I 
Jhanda Singh. 
D. 1759. 



Singha. 



I 



Gurbaksh Singh, 
D. 1785. 

B. Mebtab Kour, 
M. M.R. Ranjit Singh, 
D. 1813. 



Bhaggat Singh. Nidhaa Singh. Bhag Singh. 



Hem Singh, 

Mohr Singh. 
I 



Aniip Singh. 



Sarnp Singh. 



AUar Smghy 



I 
Jit Singh, 

B. 18U. 



Qnrdit Singh, 
B. 1827. 



r 



Mehtab Singh. Megh Singh, 



Jaggat 
B. 1838. 



Singh, 



I I 

Sham Smgh, Bam Singh, Karain Singh, 

B. 1845. B. 1846. B. 1847. 



HISTORY OF THE F/^MILY. 

The Kanheya misl was at one time the most powerful of the Sikh 
confederacies, north of the Satlej. Its first leader was Jai Singi, the son 
of a Sindhu Jat cultivator named Kushali who lived at the village of 
Kanah, which had been founded by one of his tribe^ some fifteen miles 
from Lahore. From the native village of its leader the confederacy 
took its name.* 



* Somo of the oountiy barda tell a romantic storj, to the effect that when the yonng 
Jai Singh wont to Ainritsar to be baptized as a Sikh, the aseembled chiefs were so struck with 
his beauty that they asked him from what village he had come. *' I am of Kanah " ho said. 
" Well is your village named Kanah '' was the reply *' for you reeemble Kanheya himself.'' 

Ki>nheya| or Kanhia, is one of the names of the boauiiful Kriihan, an incarnation of Vishnu. 



316 HISTORY OP THE 

Jai Singh and his brother Jkanda Singh joined the confederacy of 
Kapor Singh, known ai the FaiznUapuriai Faiaasadporia or Singporia^ 
abont the year 1749. On the death of this chief the brothers retired to 
Sohian, the villege of Jai Singh's father-in-law, about nine miles from 
Amritsar ; collected a troop of aboffc 400 horse, and took possession of 
the surrounding country. Jhanda jSingh was killed five years later in a 
fight with Nidhan Singh Randhawa, at Rawalkotli| and his brother suc- 
ceeded to his share in the estate, marrying the widow by die rite of 'chad- 
dar dalna/ Jed Singh soon became a powerful chief, and seized Nag ; 
Mokerian ; Haji ; Kenot ; Uthiaa and other Awan villages, while his 
subordinates and associates all won jagirs for themselves. Among the 
following of Jai Singh were many well known names : Amar Singh 
and Jhanda Singh Bhagga ; Lakha Singh Kanhowala ; Amax Singh 
Kankra ; Budh Singh of Dharamkot ; Jhanda Singh Eeroh and others. 

In 1759, Desan^ the widow of Jhanda Singh and wife of Jai Singh 
gave birth to a son, Gurbaish Singh^ who was married^ when nine years 
of age, to S^da Kaur^ daughter of Daaonda Singh of Alkolwala. 

The leader of one great sectk>n of the Kanheya misl was Hakikat 
Singh Sangatpuria; a rival of Jai Singh j but neverthekas his friend and 
aeaoctate in many expeditions. In 1763, after Ahmed Shah had retired 
from the Panjab, having totally defeated the Sikhs near Ludhiana and 
destroyed the holy temples at Amritsar, these chiefs, allied with Jassa 
SfBgb Ahlnwalia, Hari Singh Bbangi^ and Jassa Singh B a m g li ar ia, attack- 
ed the Fia&an town of EasBur which they captured and sacked after 
a month's siege. Soon after this Jai Singh quarreled with Hari Singh 
Bhangi, and fought him near Imanabad. Nether party could claim the 
victory, and Jai Singh then marched to Sirhind, ravaging the cormtry as 
he passed and was present in the great battle where Zcin Khan was 
defeated and slain, and from which the Sikhs date their existence as a 



In 1773, ILya Sanjii Deo of Jammu, a Uibutaiy oC Sirdar Jhaoda 
Sisgh Bhangi, quarreMI with hie eldest son Brrj Eaj Dto, whom he 



PA^CJAB GHIZFS. 31? 

desired to exclude from fhe sneeestkm in ik?oiir of his joongeat boh Mian 
Dain Singh. Brr| Ra} Deo eilled toUsasaaUnee Jai Singk and Hakikat 
Singh Kanheja and Chamt Singh Snksrcliakia ; while the Kaja sam- 
moned Jhanda Singh and all tba Bhangi ohi^a. The nval forcea took up 
their position on either aide of the Baianti, and for some months fought 
with varying soeceaa. Tl|e death o£ Charrat Singh from the bursting of 
his gun gave the adrastage at length to the Bhangis^ and the Kanheya 
chiefs then determined to aaiBsain»t.e Jhanda Singh. Thej heavily bribed 
a Haabi sweeper, who shot him dead ^aa he was riding) attended by only 
three horsemeOj through the camp. The death of Jhanda Singh ended 
the quarrel. The rival foroes zitired fkom Jammni, wlui^ became tributary 
to Hakikat Singh, 

The next year Jai Singh and Hakikat Singh built the quarter at Ams 
ritsar, still known as the Kanheya Eatrah \ and aoon after this Jtri Singih^ 
with a large forcc^ escorted the young Mahan Singh, son of Cbamt Sngb, 
to Badrukh, where he was married to the daughter of Gajpat %igfa of 
Jbeend. 

On the death oC Nawab Sef All Khan, the Muhammadan governor 
of Kangra, in 177^, KajaSansar Chaod of Kalocb laid aiegie to the cele- 
brated fort, bat was unable to rtdoce iL He then invited Sirdar Jed Singi 
to assist him ; and Gurbaksi Singh was aecoidingly sent^ with Sirdar Baghel 
Singh and a eonsideiaUe force. It was not long, howeveri before Gur^ 
haksh Singh saw that he who posaessed the Kangra fort must be master of 
all the hiU conntryj and determined to win it for himself. He persuaded 
the Ri^ to offer the g^rison very farourable terms ; free pardon^ money 
and lands ; and by hints o£ the Baja's treacherous intentions he induced 
the besieged to allow his troops to take possessiouj that their obtaining 
what was promiaed might be assured. Both parties were thus duped; 
GMrbaisA Smgh occupied and held the fort» and Senear Chand had to retire* 
Previous to this some of the hiU states had been tributary to Sirdar 
Hakikat Singh, but Jai Singh now became paramount and all the hill 
chiefs sought his aDtance. 



318 HISTOUt OF THB 

The Ramgharias and Kanheyas had been fast friends in old days^ bat 
Jai Singh and Jassa Singh had quarreled about the Kassnr prize money, 
and the former joined the Ahldwalia and Bhangi chiefs in expelling 
Jassa Singh from the Fanjab.^ Baja Ranjit Deo died in 1780^ and his 
son Brij Raj Deo succeeded him. The new prince wished to win back 
some of his territory from the BhangiS| and asked Hakikat Singh to assist 
him. Neither Jai Singh nor Hakikat Singh much liked the busi- 
ness^ for the Bhangis ^ere their friends^ and/ai Singh had recently mar- 
ried the daughter of Bhag Singh Hallowalia a Bhangi chief| but they 
marched to Karianwala^ which after some fighting was taken posses- 
sion of by the Raja. The Eanheya chiefs soon left their new ally, 
and went over to the Bhangis, and Hakikat Singh^ with Gujar 
Singh and Bhag Singh Hallowalia^ retook Karianwala and invaded Jam- 
mu. Sirdar Mahan Singh Sukarchakiai who professed the greatest affec- 
tion for Brij Raj Deo, with whom he had exchanged turbans^ hurried up 
from Ramnagar^ where he had been engaged with the Chattahs^ and 
attacked the cantp of Hakikat Singh^ but was repulsed with loss. He 
then^ with the Raja, called Jai Singh and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia to 
his help^ These chiefs came and tried to arrange terms^ but finding this 
hopeless, returned to Amritsar. Mahan Singh was now obliged to submit ; 
and the Raja agreed to pay a tribute of 30,000 Rs. to Hakikat Singh ; 
who, six months later, finding that the payment of the tribute was evaded, 
proposed to Mahan Singh to join him in an attack on Jammu, dividing 
the booty between them. To this the Sukarchakia chief, forgetting his 
friendship with the Raja and the exchanged turbans, readily consented. 
He marched to Chapral, while Hakikat Singh took the road to ZaSarwal. 
But Mahan Singh kept faith with none of his allies. Finding that the 
Raja had fled and that he was strong enough to act alone, he plunder- 
ed and burnt the city and palace of Jammu, and retired to the plains 
with great spoil. Hakikat Singh thought of revenge for this treachery, 
but was taken ill and died shortly afterwards. 



♦ Vide Siiilar Mangal Singh RamgUaria. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 819 

When Jai Sing A heard of the sack of Jamma and the death of Haki- 
kat Singh he was very indignant. He prevented Jaimal Singh^ son of 
Hakikat Singh^ from going to Gujranwala, whither Mahan Singh had 
invited him^ and threatened the Snkarchakia chief with his vengeance^ 
and in 1 783^ he marched against Jandiala, and plundered Rassulpur and 
Mandiala, and then attached the possessions of Wazir Singh and Bhag- 
wan Singh theNakkai chiefs^ connections of Mahan Singh, and compelled 
them to submit. At the Diwali of 1784 Mahan Singh went to Amritsar 
and tried hard to make peace with Jai Singh^ but in vain. He was 
threatened with imprisonment if he did not restore the Jammu spoil, 
and was treated with so much rudcQess that he fled from Amritsar, de* 
termined on revenge. There were many ready to join him in an attack 
on the Kanheya chief. Chief of these were Sansar Chand of Katoch 
and Jassa Singh Bamgharia who had been wandering for years an exile 
in the wastes of Harriana. The allies marched to Battala and about 
eight miles from that town were met by Gurbahi Singi who offered them 
battle. For six hours the fight was continued, till an arrow, shot by 
one of Guru Sundar Das' men, struck Gurbahi Singh in the breast and 
wounded him mortally, and the Kanheya troops, having lost their leader, 
were completely routed. 

Jai Singh was so distressed at the loss of his son that he made no 
further resistance. Eangra he gave up to Sansar Chand, and restored 
to Jassa Singh Bamgharia his old possessions ; while to cement friend- 
ship with Mahan Singh he betrothed Mehtab Kour, daughter of his dead 
son, to the youthful Banjit Singh afterwards Maharaja of the Panjab. 
The betrothal took place in 1785, and the marriage at the close of the 
next year. 

Jai $ingh never recovered his former power, and died in 1789, when 
his daughter-in-law Sada Kour became head of the Kanheya misl. Men- 
tion has been made elsewhere of the ability^ the uuscrupulousnesa and the 
intrigues of this woman. It was through her assistance mainly that 
Banjit Siogh became master of the Panjab, and she retained a large por- 



320 HISTOET OF THE PANJTAB CHIEFS. 

tion of the Kanbeya estates till 1820, when her greedy son-iQ-law made 
an excuse for seizing them all. 

Hem Singh^ the nephew of Sirdar Jai Singh, had received the grant 
of the Ilaka of Rukhanwala, worth 40,000 Rs. after the capture of Kassur, 
and this he retained under Banjit Singh. He fought, with that chief, 
against Kassur^ during the last campaign of 1807, and received another 
estate at Ehodian, worth 10,000 Us. He died in 1820. His son Mohr 
Singh fotight at Multan and in Kashmir, and in 1821, he was stationed 
at tul Kanjri and Waniki to watch the ferries. He died at the last named 
plac6 in 1823. To his sons, who were employed on the same service^ 
dO^OOOBs. of their father's estate was assigned. Sarup Singh died in 1832, 
and the jagir was given by the Maharaja to Kahn Singh Banka. The 
village of Bukhanwala alone was left to the family, but the next year the 
village of Kali was granted to AUar SingVs seven widows, and this they 
still hold. The sons of Attar Singh made many applications to Maharaia 
Sher Singh for the release of the estate, but in vain. Both, with their 
cousin Jlfd^^^ Singh, served in the Ohorcharahs till 1846^ when the general 
redactions were made after the Satlej campaign. 

The village of Bukhanwala is confirmed to the family in perpetuity ; 
and here they now reside. The village of Kali will be resumed as the 
shares fall in. 



THE KANHEYA FAMILY. 

II. SiBDAR Kesra Singh. 

Baguel Sxnqh. 
1. 



Hakikat Singh, 

D. 1782. 

I 
Jaimal Singh, 

D. 1812. 

I 



lb Sin 



Mehtab Singh. 



H usada Siogh. 



Fatah Singh. 



Cfaanda Singh, 
D. 1861. 



Ranjit Singh, 
0. 1808. 



B. Chand Konr, 

M. M. R. Eharak Singh, 

D. 1842. 



I 



Kenra 


Isra Singh, 


Daughter, 


Daughter, 


Smgh, 


B. 1850. 


M. Kahn Singh, 


M. Hatng Singh, 


B. 1836. 


M. D. of Amar 


Behlolpur. 


BandaU. 


1 


Singh, Bhagga. 






Jamal Singh, 








B.1856. 









HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

A considerable portion of the history both of the Eanheya misl and of 
Sirdar Hakikat Singh has been given at some length in the preceding 
statement; (Jit Singh Kanheya), and does not require repetition here. 
Hakikat Singh was the son of a Sindha Jat cultivator of the village of 
Jiilka, only a few miles from Kanah where Jai Singh Kanheya was born. 
Both Jai Singh and Hakikat Singh were in the service of Kapur Singh 
Singpuria, and both^ on his doathj set up as independent chiefs. To the 
latter fell Kalanur^ Burahj Dalboh^ Kahnghar^ Adalatghar^ Pathankot| 
Mattu and many other villages. Undet him fought the Sangatporia 
Sirdars; Sahib Singh Naniki; Dial Singh and Sant Singh Dadu« 
piiria ; Dcsa Singh Mohal ; Chet Singh Bannod ; Sahib Singh Tart* 



322 nisTOBY OF the 

gharia^and many others. la 1760^ Hahikat Sinffh, having destrojed 
Churianwala^ built on the rain8 the village of Sangatpuria and the fort 
of Fatahghar^ which he named afber his nephew. Mehtdb 8%ngh^ who 
possessed a large share of his brother's estates^ built a fort hard bj^ which 
be named Chittorghar. 

Sirdar IZa^i^a^ Singh died in 1782| and his only son JatmoZ^^^, 
a boy eleven years of age, succeeded to his estates. This chief did not 
do much to extend the Kanheya possessions^ bat he held his own and 
did not lose any of them. In 1812 he died^ leaving no son^ and £anjit 
Singh determined to seize the wealth supposed to be stored in Fatah- 
ghur. He sent thither one Bam Singh on a pretended mission of condo- 
lence to the widow^ but no sooner was the officer admitted than he took 
possession in the name of the Maharaja. 

Three months later the widow of Jaimal Singh gave birth to a son, 
and in favour of this infant, named Chanda Singh^ the Maharaja released 
a portion of the estate, of the value of 15,000 Bs. 

A few mouths before his death Jaimal Singh had married his only 
daughter Chand Kour^ a girl of ten years of age, to Eharrak Singh, soa 
of the Maharaja, and heir to the throne of the Panjab. The marriage 
was celebrated with the greatest splendour, at Fatahghar, on the 6th 
February, 1812. It was attended by the chiefs of Kythal, Nabha and 
Jheend, and by Colonel Ochterlony, Agent of the Governor Gbeneral. 

In February, 1821, Chand Kour gave birth to a son, who was named 
Nao Nihal Singh ; and on the death of the great Maharaja, in June, 
1839, her husband Kharrak Singh ascended the throne. 

Kharrak Singh was a man of strong passions and weak intellect. 
Superstitious and regular in the discharge of his religious duties, he wa& 
yet addicted to many degrading vices; unforgiving and vindictive, he 
was entirely in the hands of the favourite of the hour. His peaceful 
succession was in a great measure owing to Baja Dbyan Singh, who gave 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 323 

out that RaDJit Singh, on his death-bed, had named Kharrak Singh to 
succeed him, and had chosen him, Dhyan Singh, aa Minister. 

Dhyan Singh had been almost absolute during the last years of 
llanjit Singh's life, and he was determined that his power should not 
now decline. It was thus essential for him to have on the throne a 
prince who would consent to be led by his minister and who- would not 
himself aspire to rule, Dhyan Singh had a still dearer ambition than 
this. His eldest son Hira Singh had been the darling of the old 
Maharaja. He was allowed a chair in the presence, when all others, 
except two or three of the most holy Bhais, were compelled to 
stand ; without him the Maharaja could not go to sleep ; without 
him he never went out to take the air. Hira Singh had thus been 
brought up like the Maharaja's own child, and as such he was regard- 
ed by the Khalsa army. Was it then too bold an ambition to hope that 
some day he might rule the Tanjab aa king ; with Dhyan Singh, his 
father, as his chief adviser, holding all real power in the state ; with one 
uncle, the gallant and debauched Raja Suchet Singh, commander-in-chief, 
and the other, Gulab Singh, ruling all the hill country. Then, in firm 
alliance with the Kabul Amir and the court of Nepal, the Dogra family 
of Jammu might become the most powerful in all India, and found a 
dynasty for itself. 

Maharaja Kharrak Singh was found more difficult to lead than the 
minister had imagined. He hated Dhyan Singh and gave to Sirdar Chet 
Singh Bajwa all his confidence. This favourite well knew that so long 
as Dhyan Singh lived his position was an unsafe one, and conspired 
with the French Generals, who were bitterly opposed to the Dogra 
family, against his life. But Dhyan Singh was not to be defeated on his 
own ground of intrigue. He induced Rani Chand Kour and Nao Nihal 
Singh to admit the necessity for Chet Singh's removal, by urging upon 
them that should his conspiracy succeed all power would fall into the 
hands of Chet Singh and the French ; and it was determined to assassinate 
the obnoxious favourite that very night. The Raja won the palace guards 



324 HISTORY OF THE 

over to his side, and entering the fort by the Bhaija DyalwaU gate, one 
hour before dawn, with Prince Nao Nibal Singh, Galab Singh^ Suchct 
Singh^ Attar Singh, Sindhanwalia, Fatah Singh Man and some others, slew 
Chet Singh in the, sleeping apartments of the Maharaja himself. 

After this murder, committed on the 9th October, 1839, Kharrak 
Singh's reign was virtually over. It continued the fashion for his son to 
ask hb directions and orders, which were carried out if the minister and 
the Prince concurred ; and if not, they were disregarded : he was allow- 
ed to retain the form and pomp of kingship, and received Mr. Clerk 
Agent Governor General, in May, 1810, with great state, covered with 
jewels and wearing the famous Koh-i-nur diamond, but all power was gone 
irom him, and during the last four months of his life he was never con- 
sulted on any matter of state and remained in the fort a prisoner in all 
but the name, 

' R^ja Dhyan Singh now found a new danger to his power in Prince 
Nao Nihal Singh. This young min was high spirited and bold, and 
though disliked by the Sirdars was loved by the army, which hoped to see 
him rival ihe military exploits of his grandfather. This too was the 
Prince's own ambition. He does not appear to have shown any particular 
ability, but he was headstrong and impatient of control, and Dhyan Singh's 
influence over him decreased day by day ; and the Raja began to fear 
that when he succeeded to the throne he might choose some new minister, 
whose removal might prove more difficult than that of Chet Singh had been. 
From the beginning of September the life of Kharrak Singh, who had 
always been of a weakly constitution, had been -despaired of by the 
physicians. Daring October he rapidly sank, and on the 4th Novem- 
ber, he died, aged thirty-eight. His end was accelerated, according to 
the general belief, by poison administered by the orders of Dhyan 
Singh and with the knowledge of his son. But even if Nao Nihal Singh 
had no such share as this in his father's death, he had certainly hastened 
it by his undutiful and cruel conduct To the last the dying monarch 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 325 

Iiad thought of his son with love^ and had sent message after message 
calling him to his side. But Nao Nihal Singh never went. He was 
eager for the time when the death of the father he despised would leave 
him uncontrolled master of the state, and when the news reached him, 
when hunting at Shahbilor, that the Maharaja was dead, he had not the 
decency to conceal his satisfaction. 

The next day, tlie 5th November, the body of Kliarrak Singh 
was burnt on the plain beyond the Roshnai gate of the Fort. With 
it were also burnt the baautifal Ritii Isar Kour, sister of Sirdar 
Mangal Singh Sindhu and three slave girls. Nao Nihal Singh attended 
the caremony, but before the bjdy was entirely consumed, faiut with the 
lieat of the sun, retired to perform his ablutions in the branch of the 
river Ravi that flowed by the fort. He returned on foot towards the 
palace, followed by the whole court, holding the hand of Mian Udham 
Singh his inseparable companion, eldest son of Raja Gulab Singh. As he 
approachel the gateway he cdleJ for water to drink. None was at 
hand, and all the bottles of sacrel Ganges water which had been 
brought to sprinkle on the funeral pile were empty. The superstitious 
Sirdars whispered that this was au evil omen, but the Prince laughed 
and passed on. As he stepped beneath the archway, down fell the battle- 
ments, beams, stone and brick work, with a tremendous crash. It was 
all over in a moment. Mian Udham Singh was extricated from the 
rubbish witli his nock broken, quite deal ; Nao Nihal Singh's left arm 
was broken and his skull fractured. He breathed heavily, but neither 
moved nor spoke. Raja Dhyan Singh who had been close bi'hind when 
the catastrophe occurred, and who was himsjlf grazed by the falling 
ma?js, called up a palanquin, of which there wore many waiting, and 
placing the Prince in it had him carried into the marble garden-house 
where Ranjit Sini^h had b^en used to hold his morning darbar, and the 
great gates of the Hazuri Bigh were shut and locked. No one but Fakirs 
AzizudJin and Nuruddin, and Bhais Ram Singh and Govind Ram were 
allowed to enter; and within an hour Nao Nihal Singh had breathed his last. 



326 HISTORY OP THE 

Raja Dhjan Singh was not^ however, at a loss. He sent a message 
to summon Prince Sber Singh who was shooting at Eanhwan, some 
eighty miles from Lahore ; and placed relays of blood horses along the 
road to bring him in with all possible speed. He sent information to 
Multan, Peshawar^ Mandi and elsewhere, that the Prince was but slightly 
hurt ; and he wrote a letter to the Agent of the Governor General in the 
name of the Prince and as if dictated by him^ saying that he was much 
hurt but hoped that he might recover, and on the 6th the Eaja sent a 
chief to Amritsar to spread the report that the Prince was much better. 
For some time the corpse lay in a tent of shawls within the garden 
house, but was removed into the fort at night, and placed in one of 
the inner apartments. Dhyan Singh made all arrangements for seeming 
the forts of Lahore and Govindgarh, till, at noon on the 7th, Prince 
Sher Singh arrived ; concealment was no longer necessary, and the death 
of Nao Nihal Singh was proclaimed. 

The death of the Prince* left two claimants for the vacant throne. 
The first of these, was Prince Sher Singh, reputed son of Maharaja Ranjit 



♦ The account of the death of Nao Nihal Singh given in the text has been taken from the 
statements of Rai Mul Singh, Col. Chet Singh, Bhai Fatah Singh, Diwan Rattan Chand 
and other e^rewitncsses, and from the oflacial reports submitted to Government. Colonel Chet 
Singh was on guard at the spot where the accident occurred ; Bhai Fatah Singh, the chief 
priest of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's tomb, was seated with Fakir Nuruddin on the roof imme- 
diately overlooking the gateway. Ho saw the parapet fall ; the Prince and the Mian strack 
down ; and he al^o saw Raja Dhyan Singh, who was only two paces behind, strack bj the 
falling bricks on the arm. Diwan Rattan Chand Darhiwala was walking in the procession 
but a few yards behind the Prince. Ue came up immediately the accident had happened, and 
saw the Prince's liead smashed in and the brain oozing from the wound and from his ear. He 
was then insensible and dying. 

There are some well informed and able men, intimately acquainted with the intrigues of 
the time, who have openly accused Raja Dhyan Singh as the murderer of the Prince. It is 
asserted by them that the parapet was thrown down by his orders ; that Udham Singh, his 
nephew, was sacrificed to give a greater appearance of accident to the catastrophe ; that 
the palanquin was in waiting to carry away tiie wounded or dead Prince, and even that Raja 
Hira Singh, seated on the top of the opposite gateway, must have given the signal for the 
parapet to be thrown down. It is also said that the Prince was only slightly wounded by the 
fall of the parapet and that he was afterwards heard to 9sk for water ; that he WM hurried 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 327 

Singh^ but in reality the son of one Nihala^ a chintz weaver of Mokerian» 
from whom he was purchased by Mai Sada Kour^ to palm off upon Banjit 
Singh as the son of her barren daughter Rani Mehtab Kour. Sher 
Singh had, however, been always acknowledged by the Maharaja as his 
son^ and a large party were ready to support his claims to the throne* 
He was at this time a man of thirty-three years of age, handsome and 
well made, a brave and dashing leader in the field and popular with the 
army ; but of debauched habits^ irresolute and infirm of purposCi and 
without the ability and energy needed to govern a people excitable as the 
Sikhs. 

The second candidate for power was Mai Chand Kour, widow of 
Maharaja Kharrak Singh. 

into the palanqaio, cariied into the fort and looked op in an inner room, where only the 
physician and the Raja were admitted ; and that here the Prince wai reaUj murdered. 

This story is nnsnpported by a shadow of proof, and the moreattentirely it is considered the 
more impossible it will appear. Tt was natural of coarse to attribute so sudden a death of one so 
high in station to intrigue and conspiracy. Princes do not die often by accident in natire 
states. Bat there is no evidence to couTict Riija Dhyan Singh of the crime. He has enough 
blood on his hands without false accusations being added. It may be admitted that the Kaja 
had few scruples when his ambitious schemes were in question ; and the fact of hie nephew 
sharing the fate of his victim woald have given him but little concern. But it is incredible 
that so great a master of intrigue should have resorted to so clumsy and brutal an expedient 
as throwing a parapet wall upon the Prince, before the whole court, when the subordinatt 
actors in the conspiracy mast have been detected, ( for search was instantly made ) and the 
share of the Raja discovered. Were there not a thousand opportunities of making away with 
the Prince, by poison or dagger ; when there would be no danger of deteotion, and when the 
Baja would not be compromised by the help and knowledge of others f These methods would 
be sare ; the fall of a parapet was uncertain. The signal given a momA&t too soon or too 
Ute ; a step of the Prince backwards or forwards and the plot would have failed. With 
reference to the presence of the palanquin, it may be mentioned that, in a royal procession, 
elephants, led horses, and palanquins were always in attendance ; that it was one of theee the 
Raja summoned, that the Prince called for water immediately before the accident and this 
may have given rise, in a time of excitement and distrust^ to the stoiy that he wu hatr4 
to ask for water after he had been struck down. 

Those who assert that the Prinoe was at first but slightly wounded and that he was mur- 
dered afterwards within the fort, most be aware that they thus aoense Fakir Knniddia o£ 
being a sharer in the crime. He never left the Prinoe firom the time that the waH fell tiU his 
death. But to tboee who know the Fakir'e gentle and amiable dispoeition ; his loyalty to the 
house of the great Maharaja ; hif deroted lore to the yoaog Prince, suoh a lupporitkm appean 



328 HISTORY OF THE 

When the death of her son took place she was at her ancestral village 
of Fatahgarh. She returned to Lahore on the 6th November^ only to find 
that Raja Dbyan Singh had outwitted her, and bad won oversome of the 
chiefs to agree to the succession of Prince Sher Singh. OAand Kouf^ finding 
affkirs thus unfavourable, attempted a compromise. The first plan that 
she and her counsellor Bhai Bam Singh proposed was that she shotild 
adopt Baja Hira Singh^ son of Dhjan Mingh^ and place him on the throne. 



moiiBtroas. Fakir Karoddin, too, at this time waa on bad teraiB with the Raja. Cbet Singh, 
Whom the Raja had murdered, wai the friend of Fakirs Namddin and Asisnddin, and thejr 
never forgave Dhyan Singh or trusted him afterwards. Whj then should Nuruddia murder 
the Prince he loved, to gratify the Rnja he hated ? The onlj others who were admitted into 
the Hazari Bagh were Bhai Ram Siogh, Bbai Qovind Ram and Fakir Aiisaddin, The two 
former were brothers, and Ram Singh was the confidential minittet of the Prince with whose 
life his power would cease. He was entirely opposed in policy to Dbysa Singh as was hui 
brother Qovind Ram. Yet if the Prince was murdered in the fort these most have been the 
mnrderers, these the accomplices of the Riga. 

The only reason for the mystery which shrooded the death-bed of the Prince was the 
necessity which Dbyan Singh felt for keeping the fatal news from being generally known 
until the arrival of Sher Singh. If there had been an organised plot the Raja would have 
taken care that Sher Singh should have been present in Lahore aithe time of the catastrophe. 
The absence of Sher Singh proves the innocence of the Rsja. 

The story of the conspiracy has originated in a belief that the death of Nao Nihal Singh 
was necessary to the development of the Dogra policy. Bat, although Hira Singh could 
sever hope for the throne whUe Nao Nihal Singh was alive, yet the death of the Prince, at 
thU time, was in no way desired by the Rsja. The time for Hira Singh to be brought forward 
had not arrived ; and during the intrigues of the three succeeding months, his name was onlj 
mentioned by the party opposed to the Raja as a possible candidate for the throne. The 
Rttfa had some infiuence over Nao Nihal Singh ; but at this Ume he had none with Sher 
3iiigh, who was a miliUry leader, popular with the troops, and who might be expected to be 
abletosUnd without his aid. Besides it was an equal chance whether the party of Rani 
C*«id^pur might not obtsln power, in which case the Raja would have been ruined. To 
say that the Raja raised Sher Singh to the throne in order to destroy him later is a mere 
asserUon. Dhyan Singh did not create difficulties to have the pleasure of conquering them 
and Sher Singh was eventually assassinated by the Sindhanwalias, the deadly enemietof 
Dhyan Singh. The death of Nao Nihal Singh was the greatest calamity that could hav 
befaUen the Raja. He extricated himself by the strength o! hi. genius, but it was nererthe- 
leu a calamitjr. 

There are some who belisve thai a Nemuis pnnaes ud ptmishes great crime. Theee 
wai not forget that it wu when retnming from the fnnerml pUe of the father he had treated 
With*, much uukiDdne«. and whose death he h«lha«leiied and longed for, tUt KaoNih.1 
Bingh wa. etnick down, when weJth, power and the fOTcitigntr of the Panjab wert within 
tu very graip. 



PAKJAB CHiirs. 329 

Tliis was declined by the opposite party Who proposed instead that she 
should many Sher Singh. This she rejected with disdain and offered 
to acknowledge Sirdar Attar Singh Sindhanwalia as her heir. This 
proposal was received, as might have been imagined, with gpreater cold* 
ness than even the former ones ; and the Rani then declared that Sahib 
Eour, Gilwalii widow of her son Nao Nihal Singh, was three months 
gone with child. This announcement changed the aspect of sBdrs. The 
question was now not of a sovereign but a regent, and it was doubt* 
ful whether the Rani or the Prince would win the day. 

On the side of the Mai ( as Rani CAand Kour was called) were Bhais 
Ram Singh and Qovind Ram ; Sirdars Attar Singh, Lehna Singh and 
Ajit Singh Slndhanwalia ; Fatah Singh Man; General Golab Singh 
Poviudia ; Shaikh Qhulam Mohiuddin ; Tamadar Khushhal Singh and Ge- 
neral Tej Singh. With the Prince were Sirdars Fatah Singh Ahluwalia ; 
Dhanna Singh \f alwai ; Sham Singh Attariwala ; the three Jammu RajaSj 
Dhyan Singh, Golab Singh, Suchet Singh ; BhaiQurmukh Singh; Fakir 
Azizaddin and the French Generals Ventura and Court. Among the 
neutrals were the crafty Dina Nath and the timid Sirdar Lehna Singh 
Majithia. Nor was the policy of the chiefs above named or their ad* 
herence to their party at all constant, or unwavering. The Jammu Rajas^ 
though their policy and their interests were really the same^ appeared 
now to adopt one side, now the other ; while Khushhal Singh and T^ 
Singh were ever ready to change to that party which seemed most able 
to enrich them. Few of the Sirdars had much interest in either candi- 
date. Mai Ciand Kour was not popular, as her chief adviser was Bhai 
Ram Singh, who in the days of Nao Nihal Singh had been so obnoxious 
to the chiefs by reducing their jagirs and increasing their contingents. 
Those who supported her did so in the hope that with a feeble sanana 
government they might retain that independenca of authority, the lova 
and boast of a Sikh, which they had enjoyed during the last year til 
Ranjit Singh's life. The Sindhaawalia chiefs who were her firmest alltes^ 
were, at the beginning of Noyember, abseot from Lahore : Al^tSiikgli, 



330 HItTOn OF TRS 

who was »Edd to be her loyer^ being engaged in the Kida and 
campaign and Attar Singh being at Hardwar. Thektter^ JBhortly followed 
by his nephew/arriyed at Lahore about the 12th November, joat after 
the Mai had proposed another scheme for unitmg the parties. This was 
that she should adopt Partab Singh| eldest son of Sher Singfay thus 
attaching the Prince to her gOTemment» while it would remove the ob- 
jection felt to him on account of his spurious birth ; but tiuSy like 
every other plan, failed, and the feeling in Lahore grew strong fliat a 
co-regency of the Prince and' the Mai, during the prq;nancy of the 
young widow, was the only way of obtaining union, the ads of the r^;ent8 
being controlled by a national council of chiefii. 

This arrangement was in some measure modified, and on the 20th 
it was agreed that Mai CAaml Kour should be the chief authority in the 
state ; that Sher Singh should be President of the council of chiefii and 
have command of the army, while Dhyan Singh should be minister. 
This clumsy machinery could only break down; and every one 
expected that it would. But Dhyan Singh wanted to gain time^ and 
made all swear to maintain this form of government. A week, howeverj 
saw its abandonment. It was found impossible to be carried out in 
practice, and every day brought with it the danger of a collision. Both 
parties occupied the fort ; the Mai| the inner apartments ; the Prince, the 
Hazuri Bagh and the outer portion. He occasionally went out in state, 
and Ciand Kour more than once thought of closing the gates against his 
return. The mode of conducting business was equally anomalouB. The 
early Darbar was held in Sher Singl/s presence, in the marble garden 
house in the Hazuri Bagh ; then the ministers retired to a conference in 
the Shish Mahal ; and^ lastly, waited on the Mai in the Samman Buij. 

Baja Dhyan Singh now appeared to be won over to the side of 
Chand Kour, it was said through the advocacy of Raja Gulab Singh 
to whom the Mai had promised the restoration of Manawar, but the 
minister intended to show both parties how idle it was for th^n 



PAHJAB CHIIFS. 381 

to hope to stand witUoat his assistance. A final agreement was accord- 
ingly drawn npi on the 27th November, by which Sher Singh was to 
retire to his jagir at Battala for eight months, leaving his son Partab 
Singh a member of the conncil. Mai Oiand Kour was to remain regent 
nntil the birth of Sahib Konr's child, when other arrangements were 
to be made. This agreement was signed by Bajas Dhyan Singh and 
Gulab Singh; Sirdar Lehna Singh Majithia; Attar Singh ^ndhan- 
walia; Fatah Singh Man; Mangal Singh, Siiidhu; Tej Singh; Sham 
Singh Attariwala ; Dhanna Singh Malwai ; Jamadar Khushhal Smgh ; 
Bhais Ram Singh and Onrmnkh Singh ; Fakir Azizuddin ; DiwaH 
Dina Nath, and Shaikh Ghnlam Mohinddin. Both parties, cajoled by 
Baja Dhyan Singh, were fnlly represented in the deed, and Prince Sher 
Singh, seeing resistance hopeless, and not understanding the policy of 
the Raja, retired to Battala, where he waited his opportunity for 
action. 

The counsellors of the Mai were not long in discovering their weakness. 
The Raja scarcely ever attended Darbar, bat spent his time in hunting 
and shooting ; while day by day the country grew more unquiet ; tbe 
roads became insecure, crime largely increased and the outlying frontier 
districts were preparing to rebel. Dhyan Singh had now convinced 
himself that the Government could not be carried on without him, but 
he wished to convince the counsellors of the Mai of the same fact, and 
accordingly on the 2nd January, 1841, he left for Jammu. Rain now 
fast came on the Government. The army began to mutiny ; the gene- 
rals would not obey orders, and one week after the Raja's departure, 
expresses were sent off by Mai Chand Kour and Bhai Ram Singh, by 
the hand of Misr Lai Singh, Fatah Singh Man and others, urging him 
to return without delay. On the 13th January, Ajit Singh Sindhanwalia 
left Lahore under pretence of retiring to his village of Raja Sansi before 
the arrival of Dhyan Singh, but he instead travelled to £udhiana with 
a message from Chand Kour to the Agent of the Governor General, 
bat failed to obtain an interview. 



852 KI8T0RT OF THE 

Oa Um 14tli, Lahofe wts takea by •ar)^rui& by thd utival of Shet 
Singh at Shtlimafj d& mik^ from the oit^. The Pnnee had bMa 
sMmdihg the nmff ahd fcmnd it generally Well dkpotM tovTArda him.; 
the French Qenerak hnd promiied him their gappott^ and he otnordfai^ 
peered to try his fortiine daring ihe abeenoe of Baja Dhyut Stagh in 
Jammn^. Oa hk arriral al ShaUmai an officer behkiging to one tf 
XSestral Gtdab SuigVs baltaliona waited npon him^ and begged Ua to 
prot^ to their lines. The Prinee aceepted the intitation and maicbed to 
theBegamptur Itnesj where ho eneamped amid Omiab Singh Peviadia^a 
battalionci^ under a genaeal aahite* 

Theganiaoa of the fort hadnot been idle^ With theMaiiathe 
&tt were Bajaa Golab Singh and Hira Bio^ and Sirdara Attar Singh 
SindhaMwalia, Mangel Singh Sindha and Ghukm Mohiaddin. Bo- 
iaforoeainnta were called ia; three battalioM of Amir Singh Ma% aad 
the artillery of Lehna Singh Majithia. Guns were posted at alt the 
city gates, and the troops of Baja Sachet Singh and the Charyari 
horse were marched from Shahdera and drawn up in front of the fort. 
Camel messengers were also sent off to sammoa Ba|a Dhyan Singh 
with all speed. 

Daring the 1 5th a large proportion of the army went over to the Prince^ 
and on the morning of the 16th be had with him 26,000 £aet| 8^000 
horse and 45 gona. He then marched in. great 8tate». aocompanied by 
Generals Yentara^ Coart^ and many Sikh Sirdars to Lahore, aod eateied 
by the Taxali gate withoat ej^^tioa. At the Padahahi Mos%a6^ Golonei 
Dhonkal Singh delivered up to him the magazine stored therej and ia a 
short time he was ia possessioa of the whole city» He theasoamiaaed 
the fort to surrender. Bat Gulab Singh had resolved to defend it Tfaa 
garrisoa now consisted of about 3J0QO meui principally hill troopa of the 
Baja, and upon them the treasure of Chand Kour was lavishly spentt 
Gulab Singh •went round to every post and inspected the da&nea^ 
encouraging the men by preseniaand promiaei. The attack begaa by 
' the discharge of fourteen double shotted gana against :the Haanii Bagh 



xnoboffAuticiaAJbaiiiohargedthiOaghibeop^ with ahoHte of Ui^ 
^Unph. BattlMbesUg0dtedtwOgtiiisloAdddwithgr»p«jii8tbe^ 
pA^ atid th6M were now &od with sack tdrriUe eSbct t]l»t iho Miamy 
wen ddten back in eodflisioii Md with gwM iom. Tho gmto wm thoii 
barricaded, and the fort'opteled fire upon the Hastri Bagb. Tho DbgM 
soldiers were first-rale marksmen, and Sher Singh lost so many men that, 
on the morning of the 17th, he withdrew from the Hazou Bagh to the 
Fadshahi Mos^ae. Daring the night of the 16A^ the assailants had 
kept up a heaTj fire from 50 pieees of cannon and howitzers, and bad 
brought down a oonsiderable portion of the sonthern walL The party of 
the Mai now began to think of tbeif own safstj, ^hai Sam Singjb 
waited on the Prince and was well received; and the n^t dajr^ Jamadav 
Khushhal Sing^ and his nephew Tej Singh, who had been nost psef ose 
in their professions of devotion to tbe Mai, tendered their all^puuiee to 
Sher S*ngh. 

Raja Golab Singh was again summoned to sorrender. He asked Cm 
a truce till the arrival of his brother, who was hastening back to Lahore* 
This was refused, and he then swore that, as a Rajput, he would defend the 
fort to the last. Firing was then resumed, and was continued thronghont 
the day. In the evening Raja Dhyan Singh and Suchet Singh arrived 
from Jammu and encamped outaide the city. The latter visited Sher 
Singh and reported that Dhyan Singh would attend the next daj. 
Accordingly on the morning of the 18th the Raja and the Prince met. 
The former expressed his regret at the haety conduct of Sher Singh^ and 
recommended immediate negotiation being opened with the defenders 
of the fort. Raja Oulab Singh was glad enough to treat and his brother 
obtained for hna farrotmMs terfle. Tlie garrison were aflowed to retire 
with their arms and all thehonetrs ef war ;Mti CJlaiMf JTovr lenoundAgBfer 
pretentiene to^ As t9gemf tnd le eriff itfg the gnmtef aBtfge jegirat tMl«» 
aKMtr Jemaniir Haw teimebeiBgarfeiiged, Rajn6tiltlr£Rflgbm«ilM 
ed ottt of the fort St nMniglil en tie 19th, i&d escufped m lif^ pititt in 



334 HmOir OF THK 

front of it : Sirdtf AUar Singh Sindhanwalin followed and eneamped «( 
Shah Bilawal. The next morning the Prince with an inunenae prooaa* 
lion went to reriew the artillery and thank them for their aenrioea, and 
then proceeded to the fort where be took his aeaton the throne while all 
the artillery aaluted. Mai Ciand K<mr was at this time in the Samman 
Boi], in charge of the high priest Bikrama Singh. 

The city of Lahore now became a prey to an anarchy andlicense. The 
aoldiery coold not be restrained and plundered the houses of friends and 
foes alike. Jamadar Ehnshhal Sing^ very nearly fell a victim to their fniyi 
and others peculiarly obnoxious were Baja Gulab Singh, General Court, 
Sirdar Muhammad Sultan Khan and Lehna Singh Majithia. The camp of 
the last named chief was plundered, and the army proposed to attack that 
of Gulab Singh^ but he had been reinforced ; and set off for Jammu, with an 
immense amount of treasurci and accompanied by Jamadar ESiushhalSingfa^ 
who found Lahore no longer safe. The house of (General Court was attack- 
ed by three regiments of his own battalion^ and he fled for protection to Ge- 
neral Ventura who had to use his artillery to protect himself and his friend. 
The munsUis and writers were hated by the army for their extortion and 
fraud, and were hunted down in all directions and killed. The life of no 
man was safe who admitted that he could write, or whose fingers 
showed that he was used to hold the pen. In these terrible days every 
man gratified bis private revenge ; officers were killed by their men ; 
shopkeepers by their debtors ; and all the horrors of a storm had fiillen 
upon the unhappy city. It was many days before the troops were pacified, 
and the license which they then enjoyed they never forgot ; from that 
time they grew more and more mutinous and reckless, till neither king 
nor minister could restrain them. 

The state installation of Sher Singh as Maharaja did not take place till 
the 27tb. The ' tika^ ' or mark of Bajaship, was imprinted on his fore- 
head by Baba Bikrama Singh| who also presented the khillats of inves- 
titure to the Maharaja, to Prince Fartab Singh as heir- apparent, and to 
Baja Dhyan Singh as minister. All the Chiefs and Sirdars were present 



PAKJAB CHIEl^: 335 

ftnd tendered their allegiance to the new Sovereign, and for Bani Ciani 
Kour the game was played ont. 

During these events Raja Dhyan Singh and Baja Golab Singh 
appeared to take different sides, but there is every reason to believe thai 
they always maintained the closest alliance between themselves. One 
brother adopted the cause of Sher Singh and the other that of the Bani, in 
order that whichever was successful their own power and wealth might 
be secured. Raja Dhyan Singh's conduct was such that his most devoted 
adherents were sometimes doubtful which party he really favoured, butj 
although prepared for any emergency, he had a definite policy. He leffc 
Lahore for Jammu, hoping that Prince Sher Singh would, in his absence, 
make an effort to win the throne. He desired his success, but wished to be 
absent from Lahore, as he should have been compromised by the failure of 
the Prince ; and it would have been indecent to have openly joined him, 
while the minister of Chand Kour. But supposing Sher Singh too timid 
or too wanting in energy for the effort, Dhyan Singh's absence from 
Lahore would still be advantageous to him. It would finally convince 
the weak government of Bani Chand Kour that the Raja's help was 
necessary to their existence ; and he would have been recalled with 
full powers^ and would have been able to put Sher Singh aside, as 
no longer necessary to his personal ambition. The army was also 
devoted to the Baja, without whose aid Sher Singh could never hope to 
reign. But this project almost failed through the precipitance of Sher Singh. 
He knew Dhyan Singh sufficiently to fear and distrust him, and hoped 
to gain power without his assistance at all. For this reason he attacked 
the fort immediately the army had come over to his side. Baja Dhyan Singh 
at Jammu and Baja Qulab Singh in the fort had never anticipated this. 
Both knew that if the Prince should succeed without their help, their 
influence would be destroyed ; and for this reason Oulab Singh tried to ob- 
tain a respite from hostilities till his brother should arrive ; and when this 
was refused determined to defend the fort to the last. He was, too, in 
the presence of danger^ brave as a lion ; and though he always preferred 



3S« BISTORT OF THE 

iotrigoa io videfioe^ ytt^ when intrigoe had failed^ there was no more 
skilfal or gallant warrior than he ; and he conudered that in honour be 
could not yield the fort without a struggle. There was another reason 
which induced him to defend the fort. This was the immense wealth 
which it eontaii^ed, and a great portion ol which^ in money and jewels,^ 
he carried away with him to Jammu. But putting Gulab Singh, his 
policy, his bravery s^nd his avarice aside^ that the fort was defended in the 
interest of Dhyan Singh and not of Chand Kaur is clear from Saja Hira 
Singh being present within it, and one of its ablest defenders bdng 
Sultan Muhammad Khan Barakzai^ a devoted follower of the Raja. 

There is little more to tell (tf Rani CAand Eour. Bqm Golab Singh 
proposed to take both her and Bani Sz^hib Eour with him. to laxumui 
but this Sher Singh would not allow. He did not wish to pufc weapons 
into the bands of his enemy. She was ordered to leave tbe Samman Bmj 
and retire to her house in the city, and here she carried on her intrigues 
with the chiefs and the army. Sirdar Ajit Singh Sindhanwalia she s^tt to 
Calcutta to plead her cause with the Governor Geaeral^ aa>d her emiaaa- 
ries were busily employed all over the country. In Oetobec, 1841^ Sirdar 
Attar Singh proceeded at her luvitatioii from Thanesar to Firozpur, where 
be waited for a favourable opportitnity to enter the Panjah. In tbe idOktereat 
of the Mai were at this time about twelve thousand of the army and sone 
powerfdl chiefs ; but as Sher Singh grew unpopular from hia iaalnlity to 
ecMnply with the demands of the troops^ the influence of the Mai increaied, 
wmI in April, 1842^, the army generally was favourable to her cause. 

Maharaja Shier Singh now perceived that so long as this ambi* 
tious and scheming woman lived he could not be secure, and .re<* 

^ It 1U» UoB stated that whoa 8b«v Singh entered Um ftrt Qolab Stagh pvMBnM to Lim 
the Kokl-Noc diamond^ wiiicb he asserted he had preseryed. This ia not correct. The 
Maharfya, on gaining the fort, was in great alarm at not finding the ftmoui diamond, and 
betii heaod his ministers believed that Gulab Singh had carried it off,, as no doid)t be wonld 
have done had he been able. But about a fortnight later Misr Beli Ram discoTered i^at 
Fatahghar, the ancestral yillage of Rani Chand JT^Hr, wbith(;r that lady had sent it with many 
•thtr crown jewdi* 



PAKJAB CHIEFS. 337 

solved on her dertnictiAn. Baja Dhjaa Siagb equally desired her 
death. It is true that she was at the head of a party which bis coaate- 
sante ooald at any time render fozmidabley should Sher Singh desire to 
get rid of him ; bat he saw thai this was an improbable eontingeney, 
and that th« Maharaja was eonvinced that^ however much be disliked 
his lainister ha was nnsbla to catry ou th« Government without him. 
fie thas agreed to the death of the Bani, which he believed would free 
him from the fear of the hated Sindhanwalias. 

Early in Juue, 1842, Sher Singh, with most of the chie& and a large 
force, marched fo Wazirabad, Raja Bhyan Singh remaining behind in La- 
hore. ChandKour had been ordered to take up her quarters again in the 
fort, of which Mian Singh Was rn charge ; and on the 1 2th of June, her 
slave girls, who had received their orders, attempted to kill her by mixing 
poison in a beverage which they offered her. She tasted it and threw it 
away ; and the girls, then, fearing their design was discovered, fell upon her 
with stones, fractured her skull and left her for dead. Raja Dhyan Singh 
attended his victim immediately and had her wounds dressed ; Fakir 
Nuruddin thought at one time there was some hope of her life, but she 
never recovered her senses and died within two days. The assassins were 
heavily ironed, and it is said that when threatened with mutilation they 
accused Dhyan Singh openly of having instigated the murder, and of 
having promised them great rewards for effecting it. Their fate is un- 
known, but it is supposed they were made away with by order of the Raja. 

Chanda Singh^ the brother of Rani Chatid Kour^ held the Kanheya 
estates until the 'accession of Sher Singh. They had been much improved 
by Nao Nibal Singh who had sent to Fatahghar much of his treasure, 
which, with that accumulated by Chand Kour, was seized by Sher Singh 
in February, 1841. Kesra Singh and his mother were taken to Lahore 
and were only released on the intercession of Chand Kour, whom Sher 
Singh at that time hoped to marry. Jagirs of the value of 60,000 Rs. 
were left to Chanda Singi, 45,000 Rs. of which were resumed after the 



338 HISTOBT OF THE PAKJiB CHIEFS. 

murder of the Bani, when her large estates near Jamma fell into the 
hands of Baja Gulab Srngh* 

The misfortunes of the family were not yet ended. When Hira 
Singh rose to power he confiscated the whole of the remaining estates of 
Chanda Singh ; the reason given being that he had illuminated his house 
on hearing of the death of Baja Dhyan Singh. Whether the story was 
true or false it is certain that in the Baja's death Chanda Singh had 
every reason for joy. 

When Sirdar Jowahur Singh became Minister^ he restored to the 
family a jagu: worth 3^060 Bs.^ which is now enjoyed hy Kesra Singh at 
Talwandiand Kotli. 

Sirdar Chanda Singh died in 1861| leaving two ions, the elder of 
.whom is now twenty-nine years of age. 



THE KANHEYA FAMILY. 



Hi. Abbbl Singh SANaATPURUH. 

Jabia SnroH. 
Chimt Singh. 



Sardal Singh. Kar ttngh. DicUr Singh, 

I .ic. D. of 8. 8a4ho Singh, KotlL d. 1851. 

1. ^-..h T~J~ ~Z7^ 



lUn Singh, Gnrmukh R*m Singhf Sham Singh, Kahn Singh, 

D. 1861. fiingh. D. 1850, b. 19Q9. . B. IgU. 

I I v. D. of S.BhiunSingh]U&. 

Sahib Singh, Nihia Sing^, ) 

B. 1851. B. XSU. \ 

Arbd Singh. . Ian Singh. 

-< 1 — ^^ 1 

Sant Singh, Utam Singh, Bnlant Singh. I 

B. 1854. B. 1880. . . AparSingh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Sang^tpuriah branch of the Kanheya familj does not require 
much notice here. Joisa Singi was brother of Baghal Singh and uncle of 
Hakikat Singh. He and his son Ckarrai Singh fought with the Kanheya 
misl, and shared its good fortune and reyerses. Ckarrai Singh obtained 
some twenty-eight villages in the Amritsar and Gurdaspur districtS| 
valued at 40,000 Rs., which he held till his death and bequeathed to his 
three sons, who were not equally fortunate, for soon after Banjit Singh's 
conquest of Amritsarj in 1802, their estatw were seized. Banjit Singh, 
however, gave them other jagirs ; to Sardul Singh, Damndar ; to Nar SingM 
Kotlah, Sheikhanwala and Kotla Majaka, with a cask allowance of 1000 
Ks. per annum, while IHdar Singh was placed in the orderly guard! on 
60 Bfl. a month. The brothers fought in most of the Maharajah cam- 
paigns, till 1816, when Nar Bingh died, but bis estates were coufirmed to 



340 HISTO&T 09 THE PAN7AB CHIEFS. 

his 8onfl, who were at the time of his death all minors^ and three years 
later Bam Singh was taken into the Eanheya Ghorcharahs. Afterwards 
he was made comnaadaDt in the Frencb SegUneat Both his younger 
brothers served in the Irregular Cavalry, 

Daring U>e, troobloua times of Bija Sim Singh) when small Sirdan 
were in no way safe from spoliation^ JSam Singh attached himself to the 
powerful Attari Chiefs Sham Siagh^ who looked after his fortunes, and 
gave him an estate, iijk ItaluohalL Xtwas this, perhaps that made Ram 
Siftgh^ in 1848, think that he miist ofoave to the Attavi fiunilj, for good 
or evilj for at that time he was commandant of a newly raised Mnham- 
nuidw regiment^ and dciserted to tiidr enemy. Befocethis he had been 
employed in the revenue work at Peshawar, under Golab Singh Fovin- 
dia. After annexatiouj the jagirs of Bam Singk^ to the value of 8,520 Bs* 
were confiscated, and a life pension was. granted him of 360 Bs. per 
annum, but the very ngoit year he died, and his sont were allowed 15 Bs. 
per mensem, which pension they stijl hold. 

Sham Singh was madejaoadar in 1857 ; but was discharged on the 
reduction of the corps, receiwig a goant of 40 s^uimaos of land at KariaL 



Ifl£ HOSA FAMILY. 



I. Attar Singh. 
Tbajum Smew. 

I 



Lakhmir Singh, Jodh' ISinf Ii; 



Bym Diwui BUagwvr Mtigh' T«gh Khnai: BCMdn 

Singh, Singh* Singh, Singh^ Singh 8ingh» Singh. 

]>. 1845. D. 1845. D. 184e. o. 1891. D. 11B56. B. 1796. D. 1845. 

I 



I I 



Jowahiir Siqgh. 8h«c Singh; Bi«hel Sing|i|. Kmt IfahUb Singh« 

D. 1854. Singh. 



Atttr Shighi Sant Singh^, MjOB&t Singly 

B. 1796. n, 1884k B, 1844. 

t 

-^-, , 

h« B3iaihhml Singh, 

B* 1839. B. 1884. ISM^ 



Gnrdit Singh, Htrdit Sbgh, 
B. 1852. B. 1869. 

NISTOII* OF THE nmiLY. 

There is a faradition thatRoBAor Rasahi a Sidhtr Jat atid'an ancestor 
of this family^ emigrated from Debli, gome htmdind years ago^ and 
finmded, near Chunian in tha Ls&ore dintrict^ a village^ to which He gave 
his own name. Tkalar Simgi was a risaldar in the* servioe of the famotts 
Dina Beg Khan^ Cfa v er nor first of tho JUandfaar Doab andt then of tke 
Fanjab. On the death of bis ' masteri in 1768^ he set np {brhimsd^aod 
contrived to possess himselFof a^largetraet of bonntiy intfaeGbgfwrm 
and Gujranwalli districts^ In 17^j ha joined HhriBinj^Bfanghi and Jai 
Singh Kanbeja in their expedition against ^Kassnri where he wa» UIM 



342 HmOBT 07 THC 

by A miiaket ahot. His eldert aoo LaUmir Singh only somved him a 
year, and /odft Simgk raceeeded to the entire estate. Some time after 
this Jodk Singh qnaneled with Sirdar Sobhs Singh of Lahore, and to 
mvoid his enmity went to Gnjranwak, where Sirdar Charrat Singh made 
him Thannadar. He reboilt the old village of Rosa, in the Chnnian 
Pargannah^ and foonded a second in Sheikhapnrah, both of which are still 
held in proprietary right by the fiunily. On the death of Charrat Singh, 
Sirdar Sobha Singh, who had daimed to be the heir of Thakar Singh, 
seized half die Rosa estates, withoot any resistance on the part of Jodh 
Singh, who retained his appointment at Gajranwaln under Mahan Singh 
f and Ranjil Singh, and, in 1799, he had the gratification of accompanying 
the latter to Lahore, when the dtf was taken and the son of lus old 
enemy made prisoner. 

Joih Singh ser?ed under Ranjit Sngh in the Kassor, Pindi Bhattian 
and Jhaiig campaigns, in the last of which he obtained, for his bravery, the 
jagir of Mohaland Draj in the Jhaag district. He was shortly afterwards 
severely wounded at the uege of ChmnHoi. Li the second Kashmir 
expedition, at Rajaori, he was killed in a skirmith. His three sons 
Bkagwan Singhj Megh Singh and Tegh Singh had some time before this 
entered the Maharaja's service, bat the Kashmir campaign was the first 
in which Dga Singh had been engaged. He waa confirmed in his father's 
estates, but after the Maharaja's retnm to Lahore, these were all resumed, 
and othere were granted worth about 10,000 Rs., subject to the service 
of thirty horse ; Bhagwm Singh receiving a separate jagir. Megh Singh 
waa killed 4t Mangli in 1821, when serving under Sirdar fieri Singh 
Nalwa. In 1832, Attar Singh waa made adjutant in the Dhonkal Singh 
Brigade and afterwards in the Sher Singhwala, on its return from 
Kashmir. Li 1834^ the jagir of i>fa Siagh was resumed with that of his 
diief. Sirdar Attar Sin^ Kalianwala, who had incurred the Aiahareja's 
displeasure by his refusal to proceed to Bannu. He was, however, left 
4 vilkges, worth 3,000 Rs., but the family never recovered its former 
position. 



PANJAB CHIIF9. 343 

Aitar Singh accompanied Sirdar Ajit Singh Sindhanwalia to EaIU| 
in the Dasowala Derah nnder Bnhadar Singh, and reniained there 
through all the Lahore revolntions, in which his general Ajit Singh 
perished. The Satlej compaign was fatal to the family of Sosa, for> in 
one day, at Firushahar, Dya Singh^ Diwan Singh and Mardan Singh^ 
were killed. Attar Singh was placed xmder the orders of Sirdar Chattar 
Singh Attariwala, when that chief was sent as Governor to Hazara, 
andhe joined him in rebellion in 1848. On crossing the Indus, on his 
march from Peshawar, Sirdar Chattar Singh made over Major G. Law- 
rence and family, whom he had taken prisoners, to Attar Singly for safe 
custody, with directions to convey them to Pothiar. Thither they were 
escorted by Attar Singh, and subsequently to Mamhyala and Bawalpindi, 
where, after the battle of Giq*rat, they were given up to the British 
authorities. Attar Singh treated the prisoners with all kindness and 
consideration, and on the annexation of the Panjab received a pension 
of 600 Bs. per annum, which he still enjoys. His half brothers Sant 
Singh and Amir Singh^ with their mother, receive a pension of 300Bs. 
The village of Rosa in the Sheikhapnra Perganna is held by the family 
accordmg to the ancestral shares. The present holders are JawMr 
Singhf Mehtab Stngh, Attar Singh, Kesr Singh, and Sher Sntgh. 



THE ROSA FAMILY. 

11. Haadit Singh. 
Tn fixsox. 

E . 

Sokha Singb. Sahib Singb. 

Kabn Singb, 

sJnX BaiMkba PbalU Htfi Ha<addi Har^HI Ovxdit 
Singb. Singh. Singh. Siqgb. Singh. Siofl^ Singh. 

Hira Singh. 

HI9T0RY OF THE FAMILY. 

Tek Si»fk wto ia the servicd of the Bhaag^ Slrdara of Lahorej from 
whom be r^?ed a grant of tho then deserted village of Nodhpnr. In 
1794| when NizamaddUn Khandrore the Sikhs oatof Kaasor^ SMa Bingk 
becamo officer of 28 horse under him^ and was killed, in 1806j in battle* 
&iii6 Si»gh his brother was killed, about the same ^ime, in a qosrvel with 
the zamindars of Bablair. 

In 1822, Monsieur AUard came to the Panjab and entered the seryioe 
of the Maharaja. He was directed to raise a corps of Dragoons, and 
Kakn Singh Bosa was appointed Jamadar, on 30 Bs. a month, under 
him. The next year Kahn Singh was made Bisaldar in the same re^- 
ment, in which he remained for seven years. He did such good service^ 
in 1829, on the frontier, that at General Ventura's recommendation he 
was appointed Commandant in the Khas Paltan, or Life Guards, on 1000 
Bs. a year ; being 280 Bs. cash, and the jagir of Bilandi, worth 720 Bs. 
He served with his regiment in Eulu, Mandi and elsewhere ; and Ma- 
haraja Sher Singh raised his cash allowance to 800. Bs. and gave himt 
in addition to Bilandi, the village of Jodhpur and some wells in BampuTi 
worth 1000 Bs. a year. Kahn Singh was severely wounded in the breast 
by a musUet shot, in the attack on Baja Suchet Singh, in March 1844, 



UISTORT OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 815 

and Hira Singh, who was then minister, made him a colonel and raised 
his emoluments to 6jlS0 Bs. 

When Hira Singh was killed by the army, the colonel, who was con- 
sidered a prot^g6 of the Biga, was tamed out of the regiment by his own 
men, and he then entered the force of Sirdar Sham Singh Attariwala. 
When the regiment was in front of the enemy at Sobraooi the men, 
finding that they could not fight without their old colonel, insisted upon 
his returning to command them ; which he did, with distinguished gal- 
lantry, throughout the battle. After Firushahar he had been sent with 
a deputation from the Panchaylits of the army to Baja Gulab Singh to 
implore him to join them without delay. But the Raja had other designs. 
He professed most earnestly to desire the success of the Sikhs ; he pre- 
tended to send large convoys of provisions to the army ; while he waited 
to see whether British or Silchs would win. He longed, with his whole 
heart, for the destruction of the latter, and when he could no longer remain 
inactive, he moved from Tammu with the pretence of joining them ; but 
at Shahdera, some three miles from Lahore, he waited for the news of 
the great battle ; and when it arrived, he took possession of Lahore and 
the person of the Maharaja, and then marched to Kassur as the friend 
and ally of the British, tp receive, as the reward for being the most 
astute man of his day, the kingdom of Kashmir. In 1846, Baja Lai 
Singh resumed the new jagirs of Kain Singh ; but, under the Begency, 
his pay was again raised to 2,880 fis., at which it stood when the war 
of 1848 broke out. 

At this time Kain Stngk was colonel of the Dragoons at Peshawar, 
and was one of the first to join the national parfy. He was a man of 
great bravery and an admirable cavalry officer, and his influence with 
the army was great Through the whole campaign of 1848-49 he fought 
with the greatest gallantry, and he and Sirdar Jowahir Singh Nalwa 
were perhaps the most dashing officers among the Sikhs. After Chillian- 
wala, a great council of chiefs was called and Kahn Bngh proposed to 
attack the British Camp by night, with the entire Sikh force. This was 
negatived by the other chiefs, and Kahn Singh then advocated an attack 



346 HI8T0KY OF THS 

early on the following mornmg. Sirdar Chattar Singh opposed thisj and 
thought it better to march to Oi]yrat and from thence to Lahore^ and the 
Colonel then told him that the only reason that he would not attack was 
that he was afraid. Swords were out in a moment, but other Sirdars 
interposed ; and Kain Singh, calling Chattar Singh a bastard and a coward, 
left the tent followed by Jowahir Singh Nalwa who alone hadsipported 
him. 

After annexation the Colonel lost his jagirs but lecdved a cash 
pension of 600 Bs. His eldest son entered the Guide Cofps as a Jamadar, 
and was a young man of promise ; but died, in 1856, (rfa fever contracted 
at Peshawar. 

When the mutinies of 1857 broke out, Kain Singh was one of the 
first chiefs selected by the Chief Commissioner' for service before Dehli. 
At this time he was in very bad health, and the old wound which he had 
received in the days of Hira Singh had reopened, but he was eager to dis- 
tinguish himself in fighting for the English against whom he had once 
fought so bravely. He started immediately for Dehli with fifteen horse 
and eighteen foot, and joined the Ouides with whom he served till the 
fall of the city. In a sally of the enemy he received a severe wound in 
the shoulder and from the effects of this he never entirely recovered. 

It was with his whole heart that Kahn Singh served in 1867. When 
disabled by his wound from actual fighting, he employed himself in pro- 
curing information, and on winning over to the side of the English such 
of his countrymen as were in the ranks of the enemyi and more than 
forty of them he induced to desert. In 1858| the Government conferred 
on him, in addition to his pension of 60O Bs., his old village of Balandij 
worth 720 Bs. for his life; Todapur, worth 700, for his life and to 
descend for one generation, and the estate of Maloki-Prem in perpetuity. 
He also received a grant of the confiscated house of Mahbub Ali Khan, at 
Dehli, worth 4,000 Bs. Su-dar ZaA» Singh died in June, 1864, leaving 
two sons Hardit Singh and Qnrdit Singh, the eldest of whom is eighteen 
years of age. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 347 



THE ROSA FAMILY. 



III. Tegh Singh. 

Tegh Singly son of Karam Bingh^ was for four years Bisaldar in the 
second troop of the North Western Provinces Military Police. He did 
admirable service daring the mntinieSi and in April, 1859, was severely 
wounded in a fight with the rebels in the Mirzapnr jungle. In October, 
1861^ when the new system of Police was introduced, Tegi Bingh received 
his discharge. He was not only distinguished for gallantry in the field, but 
was also a first-rate officeri respected and obeyed by his men. Though 
of the Rosa family^ he is very distantly connected with the branches of it 
represented by Hardit Singh and Attar Singh. 



FATAH SINGH SIRDAR BUHADAft OF MARAKA. 



' *aQiii'Aririfteri ' 

Bub SuroH* 

Jassa Singh. 

Iffidhan Singh. 
i 



Gurbakhah Singh, Fatah Singh, Jodh Singh, 

D. 1853. B. 1804. D. 1855. 

I I I 

Daughter iL Lai Singh, | | Sardnl Singh. 

brother of S. Chet Singh, Gurdifc Singh, Hardit Singh, 

1>. 186a. B. 1836. B, 1861. 

Sher Singh, 
B. 1862. 

HISTORY OF THB FAMILY. 

The little village of Maraka^ situated a few miles beloir Lahore oa 
the Bavi^ was founded by an ancestor of Faiah Singh, whose descend- 
ants resided there for many generations. When Ahmad Shah Durani 
invaded the Panjab for the third time, in 1752, Bur Singh was chowdhri 
of Maraka and the surrounding villages. But reports reached Lahore 
that Maraka was little better than a nest of robbers^ and the monarch 
sent a force to destroy the village. The work was well done : Maraka 
was burned to the ground ; men, women and children were put to the 
sword, and Bur Singh and his son Jassa Singh, who were absent from 
the village, were almost the only ones that escaped. Whether the 
reputation of Bur Singh's village was deserved or not, it is certain 
that, after its destruction, he joined a band of robbers, and in one of 
their marauding expeditions was killed. Jassa Singh followed his 
father's profession, and became of some importance at the head of an 
organized body of horse. He obtained possession of Daska in the 
Sialkot district, and took up his residence there. He was engaged 
in constant conflicts with Sirdar Charrat Singh, Sukarchakia, and 
with the residents of the neighbouring town of Iminj^bad, On one 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 319 

occasion the latter had assembled ia force^ and taking the town of 
Daska by surprise^ carried off a large quantity of booty. Jassa Singh 
pursued them with his horsemen, and after a severe fight the booty 
was recovered, but the chief fell mortally wounded. His son 
NMan Sitigh was of a bold and enterprising disposition, and acquired 
a large increase of territory. The surrounding chiefs, Mahan Singh of 
Giijranwala, Sahib Singh of Gujrat, Panjab Singh of Sialkot, and 
Jodh Singh of Wazirabad, became jealous of his power, and were so 
continually engaged in hostilities with him that Nidhan Singh used 
to say that there was not a rood of ground in his territories on which 
men and horses had not fallen. 

In 1797, when Shah Zaman invaded the Panjab, one of the fet^ 
Sikh chiefs who welcomed him was Sirdar Nidhan Singh, who much 
felt the need of a powerful ally. He met the Kabul monarch on tho 
banks of the Chenab, and was most graciously received, being con- 
firmed in all his estates and appointed to keep open communications 
between Lahore and Wazirabad. Soon after this Banjit Singh, rising 
to power, summoned Nidhan Singh to attend him, but the high spirited 
chief refused, and it was not till 1810 that he, with 250 horsemen, 
consented to accompany tho Maharaja on his Multan expedition. At the 
close of the campaign, Nidhan Singh returned to Daska, contrary to the 
orders of Ranjit Singh, who determined to punish the contumacious chief. 
He laid siege to the fort of Daska, bringing against it the great Bhangi 
gun which was only used on important occasions. After a month's siege 
Nidhan Singh was forced to surrender, and on the promise of protection 
given to him by the Maharaja, through Baba Mulak llaj and Bedi Jamiyat 
Singh, he came into camp, where, in violation of the promise, he was arrest- 
ed and put in irons. The priests wore very indignant at this breacli of 
faith, and, it is said, sat ^ Dharna* on Ranjit Singh until he released iV^w/- 
han Singh, who forthwith fled to Kashmir and took service with Atta Mu- 
hammad Khan. lie was however soon recalled, and a great portion of 
his estate was restored to him, subject to the service of 100 horsemen. In* 



• 



350 HISTOBY OF THE 

1822, after the fall of Mankera, he received the grant of BaharpuFi near 
Dera Ismail Khan, worth 80,000 Rs., but this was shortly after restored 
to the Nawab^ and Nidhan Singh received, in exchange, a large jagir in 
Hazara, where he remained for some time. After an engagement with 
Fayinda Khan, in which he was severely wounded| he begged to be re- 
lieved of his troublesome charge, and was accordingly, in 1824, placed 
under the orders of Prince Kharrak Singh, and, in 1827, was transferred to 
the Ohorcharahs on 1,700 Rs. per mensem. He remained in this force 
till 1845, when he retired to Maraka where he died five years afterwards. 

He was generally known as Nidhan Singh Hatta or Attn, and two 
derivations of the name are given. The first is that Hattu is derived from 
tlie Panjabi ^ Hat ' meaning ' courage.' The second derives Attn from 
the Panjabi ^ Ath ' eight| from a tradition regarding a lady of the family 
who was so fortunate as to secure eight husbands. But there does not 
appear any good authority for the latter derivation. 

Sirdar Fattah Singh commenced his military career in his father's con- 
tingent in which he remained till 1827, when he was placed in the 
Ghorcharah Kalan Regiment, and two years later in the Dhanni Brigade 
under Misr Sukhraj, on 90 Ks. a month. In 1835| he accompanied 
the Maharaja to Peshawar when Dost Muhammad Khan was oo 
cleverly out-manoBuvred by Ranjit Singh, and in 1840 he was sent, 
under Arjau Singh Rangar Nanglia, to Kulu, which was in a dis- 
turbed state. He accompanied Imamuddin Khan to Kashmir, and 
after the death of Raja Hira Singh was ordered to Rajaori and Panch 
to put down an insurrection there. During the Satlej campaign Fatah 
Singh remained, under Sirdar Gulab Smgh Povindia, to protect the 
Maharaja and the capital, and on the restoration of peace he was 
appointed commandant of the new corps Suraj Mukhi. In 1847, he 
accompanied Lieutenant (now Sir H. B.) Edwardes, to Bannu, and 
served throughout the Multan campaign. He was engaged with his corps 
at the battles of Kineri and Saddusam, and at })oth sieges of Multan his 



# 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 351 

conduct and that of his men was exceedingly good. In 1857^ he was in 
command of the Police Battalion at Ambala, and did admirable service 
both there and at Dehli. In 1862^ he received his discharge^ with 
a pension of 250 Rs. and a grant of 600 acres of waste land at Lak- 
huwal. He possesses, in addition^ 300 Rs. of jagir at Maraka, where he 
resides^ and has also proprietary rights in the village. 

Gurdit Singh son of Fatah Singh was first employed as jamadar in 
the Suraj Mukhi on 30 Rs. a month. He was successively promoted 
to the Subadarship, and adjutantcy in the 5th Police Battalion^ on 150 
Rs., but in 1862, ot the time of the general police reductions, he was 
discharged, with a gratuity of 1,500 Rs. and is not at present in Govern- 
ment employ. 

Jodh Singh, half brother of Fatah Singh, changed his religion from 
inability to pay a bill. He took from a merchant at Rawdpindi a 
beautiful and valuable hoffSCi -the price of which he was unable to pay. 
He applied to his father^ but Nidhan Singh had no money to spare. 
At length, seeing no way of paying for the horse which he could not bring 
himself to give up, he rode off to Kabul where he turned Muhammadan, 
and where he died in 1855, leaving one son^ Sardul Singh^ who is now 
a Subadar in the frontier force. 






I)£WA SINGH SISDAfi BUHiDAE, 



SamM3 SomL 



! I 

Sapha Sing^. Dttl Singh. 



I 
FaUh 



DcvmS^gh, ScvmSiBgk^ ffe^ji* Sn(^ TtrSiglL Wmit Singb. 



B. 1803: B. 18S4. B. 18M. 

I 



* ?L ISOl ». MM^ IL 1888. 

1 :~rT — ~T, 



Siigh. brSi^ 
B.186S. B.1861. K 1860. 

Btlrottti te a grsnd Jn^kter 

fmroKT or the f/uhly* 

AlcratSOOyeanigoiliereliYcdintliellrozpar&tEirt aJatZamin- 
jhr named 60, of Bajput Bagbuiai descent. He mut baye been a 
man of some wealtbi for he was the happy owner of two wives and 
seren eoncahines, but althongh of mature years, he bad no children. At 
length one of his wives became pregnant, to the vexation of the other 
women who fancied the affection of their lord wonid be all given 
to her who should bring him a child, perhaps a son and heir. They, 
accordingly, when a son was bom, stole it away and carried it far 
into the jangle where they left it to perish, placing in the mother's bed a 
large stone, of which they ssserted she had been delivered. The next 
iaj the family bard, wandering in the jungle, saw, with astonishment, 
a lion, common in those days to the soath of the Satlej, licking and fond- 
ling a new-bom child, fle ran home to tell the strange news, and retmm- 
ing with assistance, drove away the beast and brought the child to Gil, 
bj whom the conspiracy was discovered, and the boy, to whom the name 
of Shergil (or Lion-Gil) was given, acknowledged to be the rightful heir. 
After this, by his slave girls, Gil had eleven other sons^ whose descend- 



# 



RISTOftT OF THE PANJAB CUIBF8. 353 

ants are still nnmerous in many parts of the Panjab. Shergil had four 
sons. The two yottngeat died without issue, but from the eldest Bana 
Dhar has descended the great house ot Majitha^ and from Jubal the 
second, Dewa Singh, in the twentieth generation, and the founders of the 
Nishanwala misL Such is the traditional origin of die Jat tribes, Oil 
and ShergiL 

Satcan Singh^ the great grandfather of Bewa Singh, was third cousiA 
of Sangat Singh the leader of the Nishanwala confederacy of which he 
himself was a member, although he doea not seem to have been of a very 
warlike disposition. Sapha Singh was one of the Sirdars who held Sonti 
so gallantly against Jaswant Singh Raja of Nabha, and subsequently hi» 
own fort of Jhangir against Maharaja Banjit Singh who had besieged it^ in 
1 806. The fort would have fallen but for the remonstrances of Bedi Sahib 
Singh, to whom Sapha Singh had given a tenth of his jagir, and who 
persuaded Ranjit Singh to raise the siege. Sapha Singh would not en- 
ter the Maharaja's service, but hia son Faiah Singh did so, and under 
Diwan Mohkam Chand became a very ^stinguished soldien He receiv- 
ed Jhangir Burj and Brampur in jagir, besides large cash allowances* 
He accompanied Diwan Eirparam to Kashmir, and remained high in his 
favour till his recall and disgrace, when the jagirs of Sirdar Fatah Singh 
north of the Satlej were resumed, and he retired to the Cis-Satlej estate 
of Sonti, where he remained till hia death, although the Maharaja more 
than once tried to induce him to return to Lahore. 

Dewa Singh entered the service of the Maharqa in 1816, at a very 
early age. He went to Kashmir with hia father, and when the latter 
retired across the Satlej he received the command of 250 of his sowars, 
and the charge of the Ilaka of Durpanah. After a year and a half he 
was placed under the orders of Sirdar Iiehna Singh Majithia^ who made 
him commandant of the regiment of his brother Oujar Singh, the black 
sheep of the Majithia family. In 18S4, he accompanied the young Sir* 
dar to Calcutta on a mission half complimentary, half political. On his 
return he was transferred to the Dhonkalwala Regiment as Comman* 



354 HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

dant. He did not however join his new corps, but remained with Sirdar 
Lehna Singh. In 1842, he was transferred to the Garkha Regiment, 
with which he did service in Hazara. Under the Darbar he was post- 
ed at Dera Ismail Khan in command of the Soraj Makhi Regiment^ and 
when the outbreak at Maltan took pkce^ he proceeded with his regi- 
ment to join Lieutenant Edwardes and General Van Cortlandt| with whom 
he served throughout the campaign. He was present at the battle of 
Kineyri, on the 18th June^ 1848 ; the battle of Sadosam on the 1st July, 
and during the first siege of Multan, When the Kattar Mttkhi Regiment 
was disaffected and ready to join the rebels, Dewa Singh was transferred 
to it that he might repress its disposition to mutiny, and improve its 
discipline. After the fall of Multan, he marched with his regiment to 
Isakhel, and had there several skirmishes with the Waziris, in which he 
showed his known courage and energy. 

When the Panjab Military Police was formed ia 1853^ Dewa Singh 
was selected to raise and command the 7th Police Battalion at Amritsar. 
After the native corps had been disarmed at Amritsar^ on the outbreak 
of the mutinies of 1857, this Battalion was the only armed force at that 
important station, to watch the two disarmed regiments of Hindus- 
tanis ; to preserve order in the city ; to guard the treasury, and to up- 
hold the Civil authority ; and that this work was so well and successfully 
performed must be in a great measure attributed to the energy, ability and 
unswerving loyalty of Dewa Singh, He also rendered great assistance 
in raising levies for service at Dehli, and during 1857-58, a very large 
number of recruits were enlisted and sent down country by him. For 
his services, Dewa Singh was granted the Star of British India with 
the title of Sirdar Buhadar, and a personal allowance of 1,200 Rs. a year. 

On the re-organization of the Panjab Police, and the disbandment of 
the old force, on the 1st January, 1861, Dewa Singh retired from Gov- 
ernment service, after a long and honorable military career. He received 
a special retiring pension of 3,000 Rs. per annum, and a grant of 600 acres 
of waste land, the proprietary rights in which his family will hold in 
perpetuity. 



COMMANDANT MOTA SINGH SIRDAR BUHADAR. 



KA5HBTA LaL, 
D. 1802. 

Lachmaa Das, 
D.1820. 

I 

Muln^, 

D. 1819. 

MoU Singh, 
B. 1814. 



I I I 

Sukh Djal, Ear Djal, Sir Djal, 

B. 1855. B. 1858. B. 1864. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Kanheya Lai, the great grandfather of Mola Singh, was ia the ser- 
vice of Sirdar Sobha Singh Kanheya, one of the three Sikh chiefs who 
captured Lahore from the Muhammadan governor. He was in a hum- 
ble position^ and gave up active service after Ranjit Singh had obtained 
possession of the city, and soon afterwards died. His son Lachman Das 
finding no employment in the Fanjab^ retired to Kabul^ where he set 
up as a schoolmaster ; but three years before his death he returned to 
his native country, where, at Teja, he died of paralysis in 1820. His 
son Mulraj had died the preceding year. 

Moia Singh entered the service of the Maharaja in 1832, and waa 
placed in the battalion of Colonel Van Cortlandt. In 1837 he received 
a command in the Calcuttawala Battalion, but, in 1842, was replaced 
under Colonel Van Cortlandt. He was made Adjutant in 1814. After 
the Satlej campaign he was transferred to the Suraj Mukhi Regiment ; 
and on the outbreak of Maltan, he was Adjutant of that corps, stationed 
at Derah Ismail Khan. He served throughout the war and at the two 
sieges of Multan with credit, and on the annexation of the Fanjab he 



356 HISTOItY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

was appointed Adjatant of the 7th Police Battalion^ which he assisted 
to raise and organize. 

K^tbe death -of Ike brave ColoMlSaUiaQ K!ha», coMkiaiiAi*|; tkt 
1st Panjab Police Battalion^ statiened at Lahore, Mota Singh was ap* 
pointed io sacceed him. This was ia September^ 1837, before the fall of 
Dehli^ and the lojaltj and iafluence of Mota Singh must have been 
highly estimated, as he was thus selected io command the only corps 
of armed native troops at the capital; while at the neighbonring can- 
tonment of Mian Mir, there were four thousand disarmed and muti- 
nous sepoys. Mota Singh performed his difficult duties to the entire 
satisfaction of the authorities and his regiment guarded the jails^ treasuries 
and civil offices^ and preserved the peace In Ihe city of Lahore. A 
detachment from his corps did good service in the disturbed district of 
Gogaira. The Military Police were bruken up on the 1st July, 1861^ 
and the men of Mota Singh's force were transferred to the civil oonsta- 
bulary. fThe services of the Commandant were^ accordinglyi no longer 
required, and being an elderly man he wished to retire from active em- 
ploy, and took his discharge. 

Mola Singh has received the Star of British India, and the title of 
Sirdar Buhadar; and by an order of the Supreme Government of the 
26th December, 1861, he was granted a life penmon of 3,000 Bs. per an- 
iilim, inclusive of the allawance of the cnrder of BEridsh India, together 
with a grant of 600 acres of waste land in the Lahore district The pro- 
{irietary right of the land will continue, in perpetuity, in hia iamily, sub- 
ject to assessment after has death. He ^also owns a well outside the Masti 
^te of Lahore which had been pieviovsly gnmted to him by the British 
Gh)vemmei]t. 



SHAMSHUDDIN KHAN KASSUUIA. 



MuHAUUAO Haitat Khan. 

, 1 . 

MadatKhtn. Abdul Bahman Khan. Salaimao Khan. 

i 

Bartian ^mb. 9abten Kb«i. daltan Kfian. 

I 



Shamtlmddui Khan. Kadir Bakah. 

Dtqghter, Oanan Khan. 



M. Oiman Khan. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 



J 

Sirdar Khan. 



▲bout 150 yoKn t^ Jfukmmmad Omyai Kkm, of fihatti I^pnt 
descent, settled at Thathi Kotna^ a now deserted vilkf!;B near Kassas, 
and set up in trade. Eassor some two hundsed years bafore this liad 
been settled by a ooloi^ of Pathaas^ and into the service of their chief 
KUamaddia Kban the three sons of Muhammad Saiyat entered. They 
ibugbt in many engagements mnder tbe ohief, and at Cbnnian, in the 
great battle between the Imperial £Mr€e8 and tbs Kassor Pathans, who 
had Infused to pay tribnte, JSuihan KJUm was dain. 

Alter the assassination of Nizamuddin Khan, Sultan Khan re- 
mained in the service of bis brother Kutbnddin, and retired with him to 
Mamdot, when Kassur was conquered and taken possession of by Banjii 
Singh in 1807. Shanuhuddin Am was ako for many years a servant 
of the Mamdot obief J»d attancted the Lahore oonrt as his vakil, till, for 
tome faoh, he -wKssumnaa^ily dismined and became the GOMfidaatial agetft 
of RajalAlSii^h. TUa posilwm he faeldat thetime of tfaeSfltleg cam- 



35S HISTORY OF THE 

paign, and was the mediam of commuaication between the Raja ^and the 
British officers. 

As the conduct of the Sikh leaders in 1843 has been variously repre- 
sented^ it may be interesting to state what amount of information was 
really given by Raja Lai Singhj and how far he was a traitor to the Sikh 
Government. 

On the 13th December, I845j when the Sikh army was crossing the 
Satlej, the Raja sent Shanuhuddin JTAan to Captain Nicholson at Firozpnr 
to assure him that both he and the Maharani were the friends of the 
British, and desired nothing more than that the Sikh jumy might be 
destroyed. That he would keep his force back two days from joining the 
regulars ; that he had marched that day back to Assal and the next day 
would march to Ilarriki. To this Captain Nicholson replied that he 
would report the matter, but that whether Lai Singh's horse joined the 
regular army or not was a matter of indifference, as the British eould 
thrash one or both with equal ease. The next day Raja Lai Singh pro- 
posed delaying the army under pretence of making a bridge at Harriki and 
discovering fords. 

On the 16th December, Captain Nicholson hearing that the Gover- 
nor General and Commander in Chief were approaching by Way of Mud- 
ki, sent for Shamskuddin Khan, who stated as before that his master was 
well disposed towards the British, that he had influence with certidn 
Brigades which he would march, with all his own cavalry, to attack the 
Governor General, if the British force at Firozpnr would attack the re- 
mainder. Captain Nicholson said that if the Raja had the influence he 
asserted he would act and not talk, and that his good intentions would b^ 
seen by his marching as he proposed. 

On the ISth Shamhudditi Khan came and reported that the Raja 
had marched to Firushahr, and Captain Nicholson gave him a letter to 
Major Broadfoot, which it is believed was delivered to that officer as lie 
•troops were going into action at Firushahr on the afternoon . of . the 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 



359 



2 1 ^t, as it was found in his pocket when his body was brought in on 
'the 22nd* 

On the 19th of December, the day after the battle of Mudki, Raja Lai 
Singh sent a messenger to Major Broadfoot to express his desire to be of 
any service, but the Major considered that the only object of the Raja 
was to ascertain the effect of the action of the previous day and sent him 
with a guard beyond the pickets. Nothing more was heard of the Raja 
till two days before the battle of Sobraon. He had been hidden in a dry 
ditch during the battle of Firushahr, but gave out that he was wounded 
and retired to Amritsar ; where, according to popular report, he concealed 
himself in an oven from the fury of the soldiers who swore to murder 

• The namb«r ot the Sikh Iroope engaged at Mudki hat boea VAriousiy estimated. Liord 
Gou^h, in hit despatch of the 19th December, eiUmatea them at from 15,000 to 20,000- 
infantry, about the same force of caralrj, and 40 guns. Bat the numbers engaged did not 
exceed, regulars and irreguUrs, 16,000 men. The force which marched from Firozpur with 
Lai Siqgb, a portion of which foughka^ Modki and the whole at Firushahr, was thus com* 
posed : — 

Secular. French Brigade. 4 

Bohadar Singh's Brigade, 4 

Mehtab Singh's Brigade, 4 



Irieguhr Cavalry, 



ToUl. ... 12 

Charjari, Naolakhas, &c., 

Orderlief, 

Ri^a Lai Singh, 

K«ja Hira Singh, 

Pindiwala, 

Malr^j, 

AtUr Singh, * 

Bela Singh Mokal, 

Rattan Singh, 

Dogars, 

Nihangs, 

Qanda Singh, 

HeaTj guns, 

Zambnrahs or Camel Swivels, 

ThiB is exclusiTe of the force of Sirdar Tej Singh who commanded the reserre. 

Singh left behind him at Firotpor 5,600 men, infantry and cavalry. 



Cavalry, 


Gun a. 


2 


26 


1 


16 


1 


IS 






4 


• 60 






•*. 


4,5(10 


... 


3,500 


... 


1,800 


... 


3,350 


... 


90O 


>•• 


^5(. 




1,700 


..• 


200 


., 


50 


>.. 


100 


... 


1,000 


... 


162 




I7.8I2"* 


... 


28 


• • 


250 


;he reserve. Raja Lai 



860 HISTORY OP THE PAN JAB CHIEFS. 

him. But through the remonstrances of the Maharani he joined the 
army about the middle of January ; and on the 8th February he sent 
Shamahuddin Khan to Major H, Lawrence with a plan of the entrench- 
ments and a detailed account of the number and disposition of the Sikh 
troops. This information was correct, though it came too late to be of 
any use beyond confirming the information which had been already 
acquired. It will thus be seen that Raja Lai Siogh^ though at heart a 
traitor, did little to serve the British. He may have prevented an attack 
by the Sikh army on Firozpur ; but beyond this, which is not certain, he 
was of no service whatever. 

When Major Lawrence was appointed Brcsident at Lahore, Sham-- 
shuddin Khan was made agent of the Darbar^ to communicate its wishes 
and sentiments to the Resident. In 1848 he did good service, and was 
present at the battle of Gujrauwala. 

In July, 1 846, a donation of 5,000 Rs. had been granted to him and 
after annexation, when his jagirs were resumed, he received a life pen- 
sion of 2,500 Rs. He resides at Kassur, where also lives his great friend 
Malik Ehairuddin Khan. Both had been servants of the Mamdot family ; 
both had been deprived of their estates by Nawab Jamakddin Khan, and 
they have ever since remained bitter enemies of the family. When Jamal- 
uddin Khan was alive, they did all they could to injure him, and joined 
the party of his sons, who had openly quarreled with him. 

Osman Khan, the nephew and son-in-law of Shamhuddin Khan^ \s a 
brave man and a good soldier. In 1857 he distinguished himself in com- 
mand of a troop of cavalry which his uncle had raised. He subse- 
quently served in the Police, as Risaldar under the old^^arrangcments, 
and as Inspector under the new. He received his discharge, in 1863, 
on the reduction of the force, with the highest character for energy and 
integrity. 



SIRDAR SURJAN SINGH MOKAL. 



SUNDHA SiNOU. 
^1 



Tbaktr Singh, 
P. 1788. 




I 

1 \ I . 

Godar Sawao Gnrdit, 

SinKh, Singh, Singh 

B. 1826. B. 1832 B. 1885 



Our Singh, Ji«tt Singh. Jawanc Singh, 

V 1839. I i>. 18*1. Singh. Singh. 

J I . ! ^ 

Khlsan G/an Kahn 8Ugh« fieU Singh. Qormokh Singh, HukaddAm Singh. 

Singh. Singh. D. 1841. D. 184«. D. 1844. _l_ 

I I Hnkm Kiahaa 

Soijan Singh, Danghier, Singh. Singb. 

D. 186i, ic. Sirdar Ajii Siogfai 

I Sindhanwalia* 

I I "~l i i ^ « V 

Teja Singh. Mana Bhodha Chattar Singh, Foujdar Singh, Narinda Singh, 

SiQgh. Singh. B. 1848. b. 1854. b. 1858. 

, — i-H I 

Narayan Partab Lml Sundar 

Singb, Singb, Singh, Singh, ' 

B. 1849. B. 1852. B. 1855. B. 1881. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Mokal family, of the Sindhu Jat caate^ 'rose to considerable 
power daring the reign of Maharaja Banjit Singh. Even among 
the Sikh nobilitj the fiEunily is considered a new one, and it was more by 
their strength and prowess in battle than by their deyexness that its 
members gained lands and wealth. 

Sundha Singi was a Jat villager^ father of aev^n sons, of whom only 
the genealogy of two is here given as the descendants of these alona 
became distinguished, flis only daaghter jEanm he married to Sirdar Lai 
Singh, a jagirdar in the vicinity of Pak Pattan, who took his brothenk 
m-law into his service, and they rode behind him in all his maraading 



362 UISTORT OF THE 

expeditions, till their sister, jealous for the influence of her husband, 
iuduced him to tarn them adrift. Jawant Singk with his cousins came 
to Lahore and entered the service of Ranjit Singh. For some time they 
remained unnoticed, but at the bloody battle of Baisah, fought near At- 
tock, in July 1813, by Diwan Mokham Chand against the Afghan Wazir, 
the cousins, six of whom were engaged in the fight, were so conspicuous 
for bravery and strength that the Maharaja gave them the jagir ot 
Bangilpur, worth 2,500 Ra., and to Jawant Singk, who had specially diatin- 
guished himself, five villages in the Gnjrat diatrict, valued at 30,000 Rs. 
subject to the service of 150 Sowars, and his brothers were placed under 
his command. In 1818 he served at Hultan, and the next year in 
Kashmir where he was severely wounded in the side by a spear. For this 
wound he received an assignment of 2,500 Rs. per annum, out of the 
Ejishmir revenue. The family jagirs at one time reached 1,35,000 Rs. 
including 2,000 Rs. firom the estate of their inhospitable connection Sirdar 
Lai Singh. 

After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839| and ot Jawant Singh 
in 1840, the jagirs of the Mokal family remained intact ; those which 
had been specially assigned to Jawant Singh descending to his two soas 
Bda Singh and Gurmukh Singh, for the estate had been divided in 1836. 
Their contingent of 250 horsemen was, however, raised to 300, and the 
brothers were placed under the command of Prince Nao Nihal Singh. 
They did not get on well together ; the elder suspecting the younger of 
a desire to obtain not only the larger portion of the jagir but the Sirdar- 
ship itself. Raja Hira Singh was minister at the time, and on a nazrana 
of 20,000 Rs. being paid by Sirdar Beta Singhy he confirmed him in the 
cbiefship and jagir, which GumiuTck Singh took so much to heart that he 
died of vexation shortly afterwards, in 1845. When the first Panjab war 
broke out. Sirdars Bela Singh and Surjan Singh with 200 horsemen joined 
the army, and formed part of the detachment which advanced to Hudki 
and Firushahr. They were both present at Sobraon, and Bela Singh, 
severely wounded in the battle, was drowned in the Satlej in the vain 



PANUB CHIEFS. 363 

attempt to ford the river after the bridge of boatfl had been broken down. 
For several days his servants searched for his body, but it was never 
found. When Raja Lai Singh was confirmed as minister at Lahore, 
nearly half of Sirdar Beta Singk*^ jagirs were resumed, but there was still 
left to Surjan Singh estates worth 63,800 Bs., of which 49,800 ELs. were 
subject to the service of 163 sowars. Surjan Singh enjoyed this estate 
up to 1849} when having with his cousin Khazan Singh joined the national 
party, it was resumed, with the exception of Rangilpur, worth 1000 Bs. 
which had been assigned on the death of Sirdar Gurmukh Singh as a 
provision for his widow and daughter. This was upheld to the widow 
Ind Kour. Khazan Singh received a pension of 450 Rs., and Mukaddam 
Sifigh one of .7.2 Rs. which they still hold. Sirdar Surjan Singh's pension 
of 1,200 Rs.nlapsed at his death in March 1864. There is considerable 
ill will between the two branches ofJaioant SingV$ family, as it is believ- 
ed that Sirdar Ourmuhh Singh lost his life by the witchcraft and incanta- 
tions of his elder brother. 

In 1858, Mana Singh was made a RisakUr in the 5th Banda Military 
Police, in which he remained till 1861. In September, 1859, he dis- 
tinguished himself by the manner in which he led his troop against very 
superior numbers of the enemy, and on this occasion hewas wounded in 
the head, and his horse was wounded under him, but he mounted a 
fresh horse and was again foremost in the fight and the pursuit. In 
ISGl, when he was discharged on the reduction of the Police force, he 
was made Zaildar or honorary Police Magistrate of twenty-eight villages 
in the neighbourhood of Mokal ; and, in 1863, he received a grant of 
720 acres of waste land in Rakh Modki, near Chunian. Godar Singh 
was Risaldar of the 4th troop of Hodson's Horse and served for more 
than two years in the regiment with credit. He was discharged when 
his troop was disbanded in March, 1860. When the Chinese war broke 
out Godar Singh volunteered his services, but tJiere was no vacancy in 
Fanc'a Horse at the time, and they were declined. He received a grant 
oi 50 acres of land in Rakh Modki at the same time as his cousin Matia 



3l»4 BIS101T OF THI IfXSJAM CHXETS. 

ak^im MnkadiamSmgi was also Sisaddar in the serrice of the Britiidi 
Gofemiiieiit in 1858^ and on his letirement leeeired a giant of 
100 acres of land. Bmdia Simgi,' the bfothcr of ifoM Simgi, was ] 
dar in the Bands Fofice, which he kft in 1861^ when the iocoe 
ledoced. The fiunily reside at Mokal in the Lahore diatrict. Thej 
hidd half the village in proprietary ri^^ besides three sharca (pattis) in. 
Kila Jaswant Singh and 300 acresof land in SnlUanki. 



SIEDAR NAR SINGH AIMAHWALA, 



Natha Singh. 
8i\jan Singlw 



Kar Singh, Gulab- Sarmiikh 

M. daughter of Singh. Siogh. 



S. Dharam Singh. 



I L 



Sher Singh, Sant Singh, Am Singh, Hakm Singh. Attar B. Chand Kour, 
B, 1814. B; 1888. D. 18ft(K Singh. K. S. CSiattar S.»^ 

I I Attariwala. 

I r^ 1 

Lehna Harnam B. Raji, 

Singh, Singh, X. Sirdar Bajindar 

B. 1852. B. 1854. S. Katgharia. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILT. 

About the year 1738| NalAa Singh^ an Upal Jat| left hia home at 
Lakrkiy in the Oordaspur diatrict, and coming to Amritsar| rebuilt a 
ruined village, to which| in defiance of the rights of the late inhabitants 
he gave the name of Aimah, signifying land held in proprietary right* 
His son Siijan Singh inherited not only this village but the jagirs of hia 
uncle Dal Singi^ who had been slain in a quarrel with Sirdar Sawa Singh 
Oulakhwala. These estates were of considerable aicej comprising many 
Tillages in the Daska, Fasrur and Ajnak Pargannahs. 

In the fanune year of 1783^* Stffan Singh eontrived to seize 
Chaharbajwa in the Sialkot district^ from Brij Baj Deo son of Baja 
Ranjit Deo. He was associated with the Bhaogi mislj and fought 
under Sirdar Karam Singh. He died in 1799» and his eldest son^ 

• The famine of 1783, was the most ienrible of any mnembered in the Flujab. It was 
the last of three bad jean ; manj thonsanda died of ftarrationy and manj emigrated to 
Kaihmir and Hindofitan. The year ia known by the peeple as the * San Chali,' beiqg tiie 
Sambat year 1840. 



cbiefortke uMi a fc n cj bned agBMl Bafit 
ciftee of I^AoR. Aa cxpeAin m fitai m 

ttke effects ofm praloKed aefanck at 



Sooa after As, ia ISiB, &r Si^ joiaed Ba^ Siagk. s 
hiaiatk Piaifi F^*^>^~ cmpuga, aad hfter ia Ae ( 

Ae BkngB Ml&e fanof Kalbr wUA ns Wmly 
Aff-wU^ bj Jodh Si^ Attadaah. Ia 1901 he veat witk Bujit 
Sugh aguart B^a Sauar Ckniof Ealock, wi» 1m1 tnel to poaaes 
UsKlf oTaportioaarAe Jabalkar Daal^ Vat vko vaa ddeitcd aear 
HodUarpor aad dmca ba^ to the UBl The aezi cxpeffitiaa akared 
ia hj Nmr Su^k vas Oat aganait Hafiz Ahnd Ebaa, of Jhaag, le- 
aoltiag ia the impnsoaflaeat of tikat diie£^ aad tike aune of hia ostaaes. 
Ho aerred ia die finl aaaaoceB&l ra»pajga of Mottaa, aad in both 
Ae Kariiiair expeditioas^ aader Diwaa Baa Dpi ia the Berah of 
Pkiaoe Kliarfak Sii^ ; aad oa the eoDqaest of KaAaiii' reoeiTed a 
jagir of 14,00<) Rs. at Samba in the Jammn tenitoc]^ He (oaghtin 
file battle of Tehri, ia 1323, aad serred under Siidar Hari Singh Nalwa, 
in Narah. In 1S35-36 be aeeompanicd the Skh fbroe, under PriDce 
Khazrak Singh^ ^S^"^ ^^ 3tLuaris of Mi:hankot> 



When Jowahir Singh becaaae auaister, Smr Sim^ was treated irith 
great broor^ for he had mamed, aa his second vife, an aant of Maharani 
Jindan the sister of Jowahir Singh. Ho reeved the present of an 
el eph a n t with gold hoosiAgs, was placed in fommanJ of the Mulrajia 
B^iment^ and was sent with the Sio&ba Sirdar against the insnrgents 
who had ravaged the coontry in the neigfaboorhood of Phalian, Gujrat, 
and had looted the shrine of Ker Sahib, a place of some sanctity where 
Gnm Nanak had slept oa the ^ Ker ' or heaps of earth thrown np by 
the rats. The iusurgeuts were sp^^dily reiaced to order, auJ the plun- 
dered property, in a great measore, jwovered. 



PANJAB CHIEPS. 367 

During the Satlej campaign Nar Singh served under Sirdar Banjodh 
Singh Majithia. He remained faithful to Government during the Mul- 
tan rebellion^ as did his contingent ofsowarSi and was sent to Find Dadan 
Khan under the orders of Misr Rallia Ram, Superintendent of the salt 
mines. lie returned to Lahore with Raja Dina Nath, after the ktter'a 
unsuccessful mission to Sirdar Chattar Singh. From the year 1825, 
when Sirdar Nar SingVs principal jagirs were resumed, he had onlj 
held jagirs worth 2,200 Rs. and cash allowances of 3,761. Total 5,961 
Rs. Uis jagir was, in 1849, confirmed to him for life. He is now 
about 80 years of age, and resides at Aimah his ancestral village. 

Gulab Singh^ brother of Nar Singh, served m the Mulrajia Regiment 
on 500 Rs. per annum. His daughter married Sirdar Lehna Singh 
Majithia, but died within six months of her marriage. The third brother 
Surmukh Singh died young. 



CHANDA SINGH KALALWALA. 



DIWAVSUOH. 

I 



I 
Cbarntt 

Singb. 



JodhSingb, 
. dMchtar of Siite* SMh 



ITidkMiSlBKh, 



Sii«k. 



V. M. a. Khtmk Si^. 



SiD^. 



r 

Gurdii Singh, 
».18Sa. 



I 
ChajidA Sing^ 

I 



M. SinUr 
Tej Singh 



Arar Singh. 

I 

I 
KUuuiSaBgh. 



DhnBa Singh, 



Bhngwm Singh, 

v. daughter of 

Sirdnr Hardit 
Singh Padhania. Attariwala. 

HISTORY Of THE FAMILY. 

Hari Singh, the great leader of the Bhangi confederacy, having no 
Bon, adopted Diwan Singh and made him heir to half his large posseasion^, 
about the year 1760. The estates consisted of Kalalwala, AUar, Panwana, 
Chak Ram Das, Chobara, and others in the Sialkot and Amritsar dis- 
tricts. Diwan Singh also died without children^ having enjoyed the 
Sirdarship some twenty-five years^ and the Gurmata, the Supreme 
Council of the Khalsa, appointed Dhawna Singh a distant kinsman to suc- 
ceed him. Dhanna Singh remained in possession until 1793, when, on 
his death, his son Sirdar Jodh Singh succeeded to the estate. Jodh Singh 
had married the daughter of Sahib Singh Gujratia, the rival and enemy 
of Banjit Singh, and it was this connection, as much as the desire to in- 
crease his territories, that induced the Maharaja to make war upon him 
and to annex a portion of his estate, worth a lakh and a half of rupees, in- 
cludbg Behrah, Chak Bam Das and Kila Bajo Singh. Sirdar Sahib Singh, 



HISTORY or THE PANJAB CHIEFS* 369 

to console his son-in-law for his losses, gave him the Ilaka of Earianwala 
in the Gujrat district^ but in 18064807| BanjSt Singh again attacked 
Kalalwala, and after a short resistance on the part of JodA Singhj compel- 
led him to sue for terras and present a nazrana of 5,000 Rs. With this act 
of homage the Maharaja was satisfied, and left him jagirs to the value 
of 60,000 Rs. 

In 1816^ he married his son Prince Eharrak Singh to KAem Kour, Jodh 
Singh'* only child, in spite of the remonstrance of Sahib Singh Gujratia 
who contended that the marriage would be contrary to Jat oastovi as hfj 
Sahib Singh, had married the sister of Mahan Singh, father of the Ma- 
haraja. JodA SingA died the same year* and his widow tried to induce 
liis brother Nidhan Singh to marry her by ' chaddar dalna,' a common Jat 
form of marriage; but he declined, and she, in pique^ contrived by her 
influence at court, to get her husband's cousin, Amar SingA^ appoiQtei) 
agent with full powers for managing the estate. 

Amar Singh Iiad been a Subadar in the Sham Sontah lUgimiint aad 
was succeeded in the management of Kh^m Koui$ jpigiraby hi$ son Oitrm 
dU Sinjk, who thus beeame the virtual jagirdar. When the rtbelUo^ 9i 
1848 broke out, Chanda SingA was serving U. Dera Isimil Khanj ond^r 
General Van Cortlandt, as naib adalati, or deputy judg^. He imi^f* 
diately left for Kalalwala, where, with hia brot-b»r OnrdU SingA, be plaofd 
the fort, whioh was a very strong om, in a stat# of d^leoAe. It wm ne* 
cessary to more the Jahindhar field fofoe,co«Knafkdad by Geoerid Whederj 
against it, and on the 23fd Noveoabor il was radiieod, the sebtb hmmg 
upwards of 300 men. No pension was granted to eitber Gurdii Stinffh or 
Chanda Singh. Eani Kh$m Kour, although daeply implioated in tiie rebit- 
lion, was entitled to consideralion bom her rank and aez. Her jagira iwen 
resumed^ but she received a pension of 2y4O0 Ss., which die atiU eajofra. 
H&c QstabliahaMnt of women also eeceiv»d an allowance of 1,200 Rs. per 
annum, for their lives. 

Gurdit Singh died in 1832 ; but CAanda SitigA ic ttiU living at Kalal- 
waia, four miles south of Pasror ia tbe Si$UlOt dJctelit. 



SIRDAR GULAB SINGH POVINDIA. 



KUUM SlNQH. 
I 

Gulab Singh, 

D. 1854. 

I 



Ala tiingh, Lehna Singh, 
D. 1854. i> 1856. 
I • 



n Singh 
Sachet Singh 



"1 



Kishan Singh. Hardit Singh. Qopal Singh, laa Singh. 

u. D. of S. Joala S. Man. 



HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

Karam Singh and his three brothers were among the Sikhs who over- 
ran and took possession of the Jalandhar Doab^ in the latter half of the 
18th century. They secured an estate at Saranpur, worth 8,000 Rs. 
which they held during their lifetime. All the brothers^ with the excep- 
tion oi Karam Singh, died without issue, and, in 1806^ soon after Oulab 
Singh had succeeded to the estate, Ranjit Singh conquered the plain 
country of the Doab, and Oulab Singh retired to his native village of 
Povind. He then entered Eanjit Singh's service, and received this village 
in jagir, with the rank of adjutant. He served with distinction under 
Misr Diwan Chand, at Nurpur and in Kashmir, and on the termination 
of the latter campaign was made commandant and received the village 
of Sidhu in jagir. After the capture of Multan in 1818, h^ was promoted 
io the rank of colonel, and did such good service the next year at Man- 
kcra that he received the grant of Akbarpur, near Gogaira, worth 500 
Ei., with an elephant and valuable khillats. Gulab Singh was stationed 
at Peshawar for some years, and fought in most of the battles against AH 
Akbar Khan and Dost Muhammad Khan. In the first Peshawar cam- 
paign he discovered a ford in the Indus, and led his troops over in the 
Tan of the army to Kanjit SingVs great satisfaction. 

In 1826, he received command of 3 Infantry and 2 Cavalry regiments, 
with a troop of Horse Artillery, and the same year his son Ah Singh 



HMTOEY OP THE PAN JAB CH1EF0. 871 

entered the service and was made commandant under his father^ with an 
independent jagir* In 1839, when the regular army was first formed inta 
brigades, Gulab Singh was made general, and held his rank and brigade 
throughout the following reiga of Kharrak Singh. 

In 1837, Gbtlah Singh was sent to Qujranwala with orders to confis- 
cate the property of Sirdar Hari Singh Nalwa, who had been killed at 
Peshawar, and whose four sons were fighting about the succession. He 
drove Arjan Singh and Panjab Singh out of their fortified house ; threa- 
tened to hang the former, and took possession of all the property and 
estates. Arjan Singh determined on revenge, and when Sher Singh be* 
came king, and every one had license to avenge his real or fancied 
wrongs, he attacked and burnt Povind where Gulab Singh resided. The 
General, fearing for his life, fled to Jammu, where he remained for some 
time under the protection of Raja Gulab Singh, till the Maharaja, by^ 
advice of Dhyan Singh, recalled him, and placed him in command of th& 
contingent which was to support the British army during the Kabul 
campaign. He accompanied Colonel Lawrence to Kabul^ and his servi* 
ces and knowledge of the country were of considerable value. Baja Hira 
Singh, whose family had always befriended Gulab Singh, gave him, on 
the death of Maharaja Sher Singh, new jagirs to the value of 7,625 Rs., 
and Colonel Ala Singh received new allowances^ in jagirs and cash, to 
the value of 2,000 Rs. 

Gulab Singh took no part in the Satlej campaign, his troops remain^ 
ing in Lahore to protect the Maharaja; and in April, 1847, he was, at the 
recommendation of the Resident, appointed Governor of Peshawar, and 
being at this time the senior General he was placed in command of all 
the troops at that station. The elevation of Oulab Singh to this impor- 
tant post was a great source of gratification to the Khalsa army, for the 
brave old man was much loved and respected by the troops. He was 
created a Sirdar, and in a Darbar held at Lahore on the 26th November^ 
1847, received the honorary title of Buhadar. Sirdar Gulab /Singh fuL 



372 ^ HISTORY OF THE PANJTAB CHIEFS. 

filled the duties of his new appointment with ability and jud^ent, and 
when the Multan rebellion broke out he gave his most cordial assistano& 
to Major 6. Lawrence^ then in charge at Peshawar^ to preserve the peace* 
of the district. For six months, while the insurrectionary movement wa» 
spreading more and more widely over the country, the influence of Gulai 
9kt§h and his son and Deputy, Colonel Ala Singh, kept the excited Sikh 
soldiery to their allegiance ; but when Sirdar Chattar Singh approached 
Peshawar, the troops could no longer be restrained and broke into open 
mutiny. Major Lawrence held bis post tHl all was hopelessly lost, and then 
retired to Kohat. Oulab Singh and Ala Singh would have accompanied 
him, but the General was too in&rm to move quickly^ and it was finalljr 
decided thiit be Should retire to the fort of Shahmit Ghar, whore he might 
make terms with the rebehr. But this gallant officer refused any terms 
that would compromise his honour. Both he and his son remained loyal, 
and the Sikh army, findii^ that they could not be seduced by bribes or 
terrified by throats, kept them under restraint till the close of the 
campaign^ when the victory of the British restored them to liberty. 

On the aimexation of the Panjab the whole of Sirdar Gulab 8ingh*9 
personal jagirs to the value of 17,500 Rs. were confirmed to him for life, 
as were those of his two sons Ala Singh and Lehna Singh worth 3,000 and 
1,050 Rs. respectively. The father and his sons are now all dead. (?«- 
lab Singh BXid Ala Singh died in 1854, and Lehna Singh in 1856. The 
sons of Ala Singh, three in number, do not hold either jagirs or pensions. 

In 1857, Hari Singh, a servant of the late Sirdar, gave information 
to Government that 55,000 Bs. would be found buried in a house which 
had belonged to Gulab Singh, and, on search being made, the money 
was found and placed in the Treasury. It was claimed by Aand Kour 
the widow of Gulab Singh and the widows of Lehna Singh, who obtained 
a decree for the interest of the money in equal shares. This money wiH 
be inherited by Kishan Si?igh on the death of its present holders. 



JAI SINGH OHINAH. 



MiLKHU. 
t 



Hira Singh. Gordit Singh. aKanmBiligh. UlUMSiogh, BhIlpSiligb* 



I I 

Bvkh Budh Singh, 

Singh. D. 1827. 



Jai Singh. Hari Singh. Badan Singh* • Bahaa Aitt^ Hcrdtt 
J ^ I I . , - Singh. Singh. Singh. 



Kirpal Gopal Natha Kehr Bant. Parta|) 

Singh. Singh. Shigh. Singh. Ollgh. SlUgb. 

HISTORY or THE FAMILY. 

An ancestor of this familjj Mirti^ a Jat of the Gil tribej founded the 
village of Chinah^ some five miles from Raja Sansi in the Amritoar 
district, about the year 1600. His eldest son Dadu founded a second 
Tillage of the same name near Jastarwal, and here his descendants have 
resided to the present day. The family were simple peasants till the time 
of MUkhu, who joined the confederacy of Tara Singh Shahid. Of 
MiliAu's five sons the most distinguished was Karam Singh, whom Tara 
Singh^ who had no children of his own^ adopted. After Tara Singh's 
death, Zara;» Stn^A joined the Bhangi misl and took possession of Firozkij 
Kaleki^ Rurki and Bajra in the Sialkot district ; besides holding Chinah 
and the neighbouring villages. All the Bhangi Sirdars fell| one by one, 
before Ranjit Singh, and Jai Singh shared the common fate and lost all 
his estates ; but no long time afterwards he received back in jagir Chinahj 
Nagran and Firozki, worth 50^000 Rs. and subject to the service of 70 
horsemen. With his two sons Suhh Singh and Budh Singh^ he served in 
many campaigns ; Multan, Kashmir, and Peshawari and on his deatb^ 
the jagir descended to his sons, in equal shares. 



374 RisrroET of the panjab chiefs. 

Through all the changes which ensaed on the death of Banjit Singh^ 
the jagir remained ondiminiahed^ tilli in 1846| Baja Lai Singh reduced 
it to 2U60O Bs. subject to the service of 25 horsemen. Tveo years 
later most of the mem'bers of tjie family joined the rebels under Sher 
Singhi and fought in their ranks throughout the war. Accordingly, 
on annexationi the shares of Jd Singi^ Mohr Singh, Sari Singij Hardit 
Bkgi^ Amar Singh, Attar Singh, and Fatah Singh, were resumed; and 
an allowance of HO Ks was granted to each of them for. life. The 
confiscated shares amounted to 15,725 Bs. per mensemi and only Badan 
Singh and Mahan Singh, who had renudned loyal, were allowed to retain 
their shares, amounting to 5,875 Rs.j of which 1,750 Bs., were personal, 
«nd 4|125 Bs. subject to service. 

During the mutiny of 1857, Jai Bimgh, Hardii Singh and Amar Singh 
entered Hodson's Horse ; Jdi Singh as Bisaldar, Hardii Singh as Jamadai;, 
and served with that distinguished corps till February 1359^ when, on the 
general reduction, Jai Singh and Amuut Singh obtained their discharge. The 
former received a grant of a life jagir of 300 Bs., and the latter forty 
gliumaos of land free of revenue. Sardii Singh is still in the same 
-regiment, now the 10th Bengal Cavalry, as Bisaldar. 



DIDAR SINGH VEGLIA, 



Sahib Si50H. 



Jodh Singh, 

Jowahir Singh. 

Didar Singh« 

Snndar Singh, 



Vir Singh. 



Kan Singh. 



Amir Singh, 



Jamiyat Singh. 



KahnSiogh« 



Sangat S'lOg^ 



Nibal Singh, 
K rpal Singh, 



Isar Singh. 



Dal Singh. Fatah Singb, Asa Singh. 



I, 



Sant .Singh. Baksh Singh, 
narnam Singh. Haliim Singh 



Mihr Singh* 



I 
Partab 

Singh. 



Ganda 
Singh. 

Joab Smgh, 



Aror 
Singh. 

Abtar Singh. 



Jaggat 
Singh. 



Ala Singh. 



I 
Qancflha 

Singh. 



Jaimal 
Singh. 



HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

Sahib Sm^A joined the Eanheya coafederacy about 1760^ and fought 
under both Jai Singh and Hakikat Singh. He took possession of Tara- 
ghar^ in the Fathankot parganna of the Gurdaspur district, and after 
Sirdar Mahan Singh's successful expedition against Jammu> 8aMb Singh, 
who had accompanied it| received a grant of Sjadghar, worth 30^000 Rs. 
He founded the village of Wachhoya, where he resided till his death in 
1S03, His estates in Taraghar^ Syadghar and Wachhoya were of the 
value of 90^000 Rs. and were held intact by his four sons till 1812| 
when Maharaja Ranjit Singh marched against Taraghar^ and after a 
short siege reduced the fort and confiscated a great portion of the estate. 
Twelve villages, including Wachhoya worth 10,000 Rs., were still leftj 
free of service, but in the ten-years succeeding the confiscation, the four 
brothers all died, and Surdar jQicahir Singh succeeded to the estate with 



376 HI8T0BY OP THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

his cousins Jamiyat Singh^ Sangat Singh and Ban Singh. They fought in 
many of the Maharaja*» campaigns, though their jagir was a subsistence 
one, and they had no obligatioa to supply a contingent, till Beaa Singh 
Majithia, who was Governor of the Jalandhar Doab, told lotoahir Sinffh, 
that a Sirdar should give a contingent for the service of the state if he 
wished hw name to endure, and fixed fifteen horsemen as the saitable 
number. 

The Veglia jagirs were not interfered with tUl 1846, wheo R^ Lai 
Singly who had no love for Sirdar Dasa Singh, the family pttnm, took 
advauitage of his departure to Benares to confiscate the whole estate ; but 
a year afterwards the Datbar, with the sanction of the Resident, restored 
the jagir with an increased assessment of 21,000 Rs. and service of 30 
sowars. During the disturbances of 1849-49, the Veglia funily remained 
faithful. Didar Singh joined Captain. Hodson, with his oontingt nt, and 
did good service at Bangar NangaT, Farmanand and elsewhere. At annex- 
ation, the whole personal estate of the family, amounting to 8,608 Rs. 
was released, one-third of the share of each descending to the lineal male 
heirs in perpetuity. Didar Singh because a Risaldar'in the Military Police, 
and took his discharge at the time of the general reductions. 

Sanl Singhj son of Ban Singh, was sent down to Dehli as Jamadar in 
the Risala raised by Major R. Lawrence, in July 1837, to serve with the 
Guide Cavalry at the siege. A portion of the Risala was permancntry 
transferred to the Guide Corps » the remainder formed the nucleus of the 
Dehli mounted police, in which San^ Singh was promoted to Be Risaldar. 
He served with zeal and ability till the reduction of the MilTtary Police, 
when he received his discharge. 



LEHNA SINGH CHIMNI. 



Rax Snran. 
Bnkxila Singh. 

Sher Amar Mihr Kiiiiaii Daughter, 

Singh, Singh, Singh, Singh, X. Sirdar Attar Singh , 

D. 1815. B. 1819. D. 1858. B. 1821. Ilndl Lala. 



I J, 



Lchna Thakar Saodagar Cbanna Bnhadar 

Sin^h, Singh, Singh. Sin;h. Singh. 

B. 1835. B. 1837. 

Jai Singh, 
B. 1856. 

mSTORT OP THE FAMILY. 

Sam Sinffhj a Khatri of the Oandi Bonjai caste, was the first of the 
family to become a Sikb. Jle left Bchrah in the Shahpar district for 
Gajranwala, where be entered the service of Sirdar Charrat Singh Sakar- 
chakia as a trooper^ and from wliom he receired the grant of a well at 
Gajranwala» wbieh is still held hj the Cumily. He was killed at BhoIIa 
Kariala, in a skirmishi and left one son Huima Singh, a minor, who^ 
when able to bear arnis^ entered Ranjit Singh's armj. He soon after- 
wards distingnished himself in the Kassnr expedition in 1807, in which he 
was severely wonnded* He was created a Sirdar at the same time with 
Hari Singh Nalwa and received civil charge of the Raamnagar district 
and control of the coatoms and salt duties, on a salary of 1^4,000 B0. 
with the military command of the contingents of the Darrap jagirdars. 
He accompanied the Lahore chief against Pathankot and Sialkot^ and 1^ 
the latter place showed himself so brave aAd energetic that Ranjit Singh 
embraced him and expressed his surprise that such a ' Chimna ' of a man 
should be more courageous than men twice his size«^ J Ckimt$a,' in the 
Panjab dialect, s'^ifies Iboth a man of small statursi and a little bird) swift 






Fxr la aarrjass &iaBc fiepi xesiaw . JRps inra. «6X:-^> K& is 
r'sAz sal Krosw mJL Ht '^is icarn&rt u: F=zxis& Ejxhsk Sbbct-,. a 
ISUL ler mv^Tii noE^imiL p^s^ as Soibi^ixK' wnrrst ^ItflJO Ss. sbI 
aib» a pardaot sc loisr SahTcTC JKx, uTi'mirirffff iSam Sbrttr Gcsiiii Swgr, 

ds9i^^Sck^«ac d^Ar&n. £ slaw Si*^ v^ SkiB Sn^ Bttu- 

4n aaii 2.>10 arr^irxiies. aftySr*i kam aad mvie ism visk las aoos 
tk Lxiisi. resTTsris:; zs& poa&fr wiasa ^r Ai^ka mmf hid eoOected. 



Acock A=ii ?^»-^i-» ij&i fe 3£cnei Kiaf Hirfagr Si^ k kk deputy. 
T^ casts wms c-c ntiier a r«r!si3t«;rj ctowtjixi- «bJ ib iniuleiit ktter 
wKica L» vTvytc : - Mikizm^ IQ;aaL. toe pc««ifid Tanm duef, order- 
inz LLa to par il:»» rf-r^rvTe viri«:ir: ^^s^^? k^ aS Ebmm m a blaze, for 
MobaaisLiJ K2^* tsiljeif :<:i iS§ tri*» az&i .iSBsksd tke Skh force, which 
waa orerpyireT*:! arjil .:ct tt-. llifcfcM Scx^ kKBg aaoog the slain. 
The few who «..apai br^«£L: tie erl aifwa to HtimM Sim^i, who 
marcLeii oa!i to ar^n^^ aii trJe-^L Ai Sikaar^r be net Mahammad 
Khan, and a s^^arp a^t e&s^ii : a^iiLsr par^ coold £urij claim the vie* 
torr, bat it so tar r^malsied with ti* Taria chirf that Hutma Singh 
retnnud to Attoek withe::: seeking to brin? oo a second engagement. 
Hie Maharaja was mach dispLeaaei hy the conduct of HmJtmta Simgi on 
this oocaiion, acd there was l<sides another canae of cfience in his having 
han^, to gratifj hia private revenge, one Sjad Khan of Kot Hassan Ali, 
a aealthj and well disposed chief. He was fined 1^^000 Ss^ and 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 379 

removed from Ilazara^ where Diwan Bam Dijal was 'sent aa hia succesaori 
in 1819. 

Huhma Singh was a good soldier, and there were few of the 
Maharaja's campaigns in which he did not serve^ and his skill and 
bravery were so well recompensed that at one time he held jagirs amounting 
to upwards of three lakhs of rupees. On his death, owing to disputes in 
the family the whole jagirs were resumed. His eldest son who had mar- 
ried the sister of Surdar Jhanda Singh Botalia received command of 100 
sowars on 500 £s. per mensem. Amar Singh and Mihr Singh were made 
commandants^ on 773 Bs. and 1^440 Bs. per annum respectively. 

Sher Singh was killed at Sobraon and his son Lehna Singh received 
a situation about the person of the young Maharaja Dalip Singh^ and 
received a jagir of 1,149 Bs. in the Sialkot district^ which was afterwards 
resumed. Lehna Singh^ with his unclesi was at Lahore during the 
Gujrat campaign and did not join the rebels. In 1857, Amar Singh 
was appointed to Colonel Voyle's Horse, and served with credit in Oude. 
He received a grant of a well worth 77 Bs. per annum. His son 
Buhadar Singh also served throughout the mutiny as Daflhdar. He died on 
the voyage to Chinas whither he was proceeding with his regiment during 
the late war. 



MIRU GHULAM MUBTAZA. 



FaIZ MUHllUfAD, 

Gal Mabammadi 
D. .1800. 



Aia Mahammad. Ghulam Mohiuddiiu 

I 



Ghaiam Haldacr. 'Ghalam Mdbammad. ^ Ghulam Mohiaddin. GJuibm Murtaza. 
Qhulam Qoflsain, Ghal^^ Eiadir, 

HISTORY PF THE. Fij^Mipr. 
In 1530^ the last year of the Eoiperor Babar's reign^ Ba£ Beg, a 
Hogul of Samavkand^ emigrated <to the rPanjab and settled in the Gordas- 
par district. He was aman of some learningi and was appointed Kaasi 
4>v Magistrate over seventy villages in the neighbourhood ofvE^dian^ 
which town he is said -to have founded^ naming it Islampar *Kazi, 
from which Kadian has by a natural change arisen.'^ For several gene* 
rations the fa^mily held offices of respectability under the Imperial Govern* 
ment, and it was only when the Sikhs became powerful that it fell into 
poverty and insignificance. Gul Muhammad and his son Ata Muhammad 
were engaged in perpetual quarrels with the Bamgharia and Kanheya 
misls who held the country in the neighbourhood of Kadian and^ at 
last^ having lost all his estates^ Ata Muhammad retired to Begowal^ 
where, under the protection of Sirdar Fatah Singh Ahluwalia, he lived 
quietly for twelve years. On his death, Ranjit Singh, who had taken 
possession of all the lands of the Ramgharia misl, invited Ghulam 
Murtaza to return to Kadian and restored to him a large portion of his 
ancestral estates. He then, with his brothers, entered the army of the 

* The Pan jab dialect has no z, nod the Arabic z, and d, are often iatcrchanged ; as 
Giimhaz, Gumbad^ Ustad, Ustaz, 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 381 

Maharaja and performed efficient service on the Kashmir frontier and at 
other places. 

Daring the time of Nao Nihal Singh, Sher Singh and the Darbafj 
GAulam Mtirfaza was continuallj .employed on active^senrice. !In 1841^ he 
was sent with General Ventura to Mandi and Kulu, and in 1843, to 
Peshawar, in command of an infantry regiment. He distinguished him- 
self in Hazara at the time of the insurrection there^ and when the rebel- 
lion of 1848 broke out, he remained faithful to his Qovemmeut^ and 
fought on its side. His brother, Oiulam MoMuddiu^ also did good service 
at this time. When Bhai Maharaj Singh was marching with his 
force to Multan to the assistance of Diwan Hdlraj, Ohulam Mohivd* 
din, with other jagirdara, Langar £han Sabiwal and Sahib Khan Tiwana 
raised the Muhammadan population, and wi^i the force of Misr Sathib 
Dyal, attacked the irebels and conipletdly defeated themj driving them 
into the Chenab where upwards of six hundred perished. Ghulam 
Kadir son of Xr^ulam Muiammaf was serving in the force under General 
Nicholson, when that officer destroyed the mutineers of the 46th N. I.^ 
who had fled from Sialkot, at Trimmu (}hat. .Mirga Qhulam Murtaza 
resides at Kadian, District 0\irdaapur. He p(M»esse8 considerable looal 
influence^ although his family jagirs were resumed at annexation. He, with 
his brothers, enjoys a peQsion^of 700 Bs., imd proprietary rights in seven 
villages. He is also l^nown as a skilful physician. 



SIEDAB JODH SINGH GHHAPA¥ALA. 



Sadda SncH. 
I>yalSnflL 



Kidm Singlu Baa SiiigB, 

I D. 1H9. 



'- ■ - 1. 



DewaSiagli. Kmpar Singh. 

1 i — i i 1 

Maigal RSohMb.. B. Kabi,K.m 1L T^lm, B. Hi 

Siogli, of Ftttib Singh M. too of X. Hihnl 

B.1843. Moon. Mia Singh. Singh, Bottak. 



JodhSiagh, Him Singh, SohaaSiagfa, 

B. I88S. a. 18S4. B. lS<a 



Hardit Singh, Bhag Singh, ]far Singh, 

B. 1846. B. 1855. B. 1860. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Dyal Singh, son of a poor coltivator of Dadubajrah in the Sialkot 
district^ entered the force of Tara Singh Eanheya as a trooper. He 
served his master in manj expeditions and received from him a jagir 
worth 5,000 Rs. in the Pathankot district. On the death of Tara 
Singh great disputes regarding the snccesaion arose between his sons, 
and in one of the fights which ensned Dyal SingA was killed and his 
jagic seized by the conqueror. His two sons K'uhan Singh and Bam 
Singh were thus thrown upon the world as poor as their father when 
he commenced his career. They went into the Amritsar district to 
the village of Chhapa where^ their father had first settled on leayin<; 
hia homcj and where, on a riding ground^ he had built a ' chhapa ' or 



HI8T0BT0F THB PAKJAB CHIEFS. 383 

wooden fence round his hoosci which gave its name to the family and 
the village. 

Maharaja Ranjit Singh took the brothers into his servicej and gave 
them the command of 500 sowarSj under the orders of Prince Kharrak 
Singh. Kisian Singh was killed in battle in 1827, and his brother, 
w ho had distinguished himself on the same occasion, received a grant 
of seven villages in the Amritsar district. When Chet Singh, the 
favourite of Kharrak Singh, was murdered, the Prince, who had always 
been fond of Ram Singh, gave him charge of his private seal, and ja- 
girs in the Amritsar and Shahpur district. Nao Nihal Singh, son of Khar- 
rak Singh, had no love for his father's friends, and threatened to imprison 
Ham SingAj which he would probably have done, had he himself not 
been killed on the day of his father's incremation. Under Sher Singh, 
Ram Singh received various military commands, and his personal jagir 
was raised to 15,000 Rs. per annum, through the interest of Raja 
Dbyan Singh, whom he had been accustomed to supply with private 
information regarding Maharajah Kharrak Singh. 

In 1847, Sirdar Ram Singh -vbls sent in command of some irregular 
horse to Bannu, under Sirdar Shamsher Singh Sindhanwalia, who was in 
command of the Sikh force sent by the Darbar to assist Lieutenant 
H. B, Edwardes in the settlement and pacification of the district. He 
was the chief instigator of the rebellion of the Sikh force at Dalipghar, in 
ISIS. Fatah Khan Tiwana, an enemy of Ham Singh, was in charge 
of the fort which the Sikhs besieged. It was gallantly defended, but 
the garrison had no water and were unable to hold out ; Fatah Khan 
was killed and the fort captured. There was a Malik of one of the 
Tappns of Mudan, by name Mir Alim Khan, with vrhomRam Singh had 
struck up a great friendship, and to whom he had advanced money to 
enable him to pay his arrears of revenue. Very much through the 
ass'istance of this man the fort was reduced, and it was left in his charge, 
when Ram Singh, with the Sikh force^ marched to join Raja Sher Singh. 



S81 HISTOBT OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

Sirdar Ram Singh was one of the bravest officers in the Sikh Army. 
He fought with great gallantry at Ramnagar and ChilHaawala^ and was 
one of the few men of note killed in the battle of Gujrat. 

The whole jagirs of the family were confiscated for rebalUon ; but in 
1857^ Dfiwa Singh entered the seriirice of Government as a Risaldar, and 
bis houses and those otJodh Singh, his CQusm^ were released. 



THE BUANGI SIUDAliS. 



I. GujAR Singh Bhangi. 

Natha. 

^1 



Garja Singh. 



Chet 
Singh. 



Gujar Singh, 
D. 1788. 



L 



lUm Singh. 



Sakha Singh, 

H. D,S.Bhag 

Singh HaUowiU 



Partah 
Singh. 



Mehtob 
Singh. 



Hira Jhanda 
Singh. Singh. 



I 

Sahib Singh, 
M. D., S. Charrat 
Singh Sukarchakia, 
D. 1811. 

I 

Gnlab Singh, 

M. D. S. Bhag 

Singh Bhagga, 

D. 1832. 



I 



Mian Singh. 
II. LeHNA SlNGU BUANGI. 
Damha. 

Lehna Singh, 

D. 1797. 

l_ 



FaUh 

Singh, 

D. 1832. 



Jaimal Singh. 
Joala Singh. 

Uira Singh. 



Chet Singh, 
D. 1815. 

Attar Singh, 
B. 1815. 



Bhagat Singh. 



HISTORY OP THE CONFEDERACY. 

Bhamma SiDgh, an inhabitant of Kassor, may be considered the 
founder of the powerful Bhangi confederacy. He was, however, little 
more than a robber, and his followers did not exceed three hundred. 
He was succeeded by his nephew Hari Singh, son of Bhup Singh, a 
Zamindar of Fattoh near Wadni, who was a man of great ability. He 
developed a band of robbers into an army and overran a large portion of 
the Panjab. It was his addiction to ^ bhang ' (an intoxicating preparation 
of hemp) that gave the name ^ Bhangi^ to the misl. Some indeed say that 
this name originated with Bhamma Siogh, who was of so arrogant a 



nflViniiiaL 'hoc i&'was ^uled if^ie iikau 

V^iig ft TirxinuuL "srie,. mnnyqd HhamniB. ^ftim » 

nwNiHt jis *ainrnOT n .*?iTgff ic iir sbk .ioet. JLizanmigiv^ ae 

aoDunxsiis ^rien. in. ictszaioius jc :&e Zmnar Suih it \.m i«u :& 

aeesnxzir ia "=11* me nnmuiiuj i#iiiif":^L 

Hm 5ino- "riiwe jisaiL-iiiarBrs ttsr ic :ai; 7-.3m5 if GSLwmS. ai 

EjraL 3CnwiiL 3d^ Tmi^l Chanui: aui Jjod^ Sai, mmi jf - ^ - ii** ? 
Jjaunn* ^aun le ynifrtigd Trniirjrv. sua IFiitwi viaimc sbbe^ £z 
IT'lI. le inackpd 'iie TjLie^ if d^raim Snc kt Kjc dpi sues SnoL 

"trr^i x-mij -rr^ lim sack 'ztzcrr. urns uuL aiiinnnrouii- Ik im ]» 

j-xn^i z'\& SLLTritTj^w xoii TCj-ttx i^irraa in loisr icadk ai Fiiiiii . shi I3ib 
9«*Tr j-*9ur ^Jif kilu!?£ a 1 iirV: ▼irn. ^iiig' Sznrx ^xsalaL. wai Jiiiaca 
S:%!ri xn<t ^rvzx'jjL S'oLri* ^^^ inci^s van jdil iBLwet vufiBr !t£iir« fo^:- 
fss^Zt^l "1 rt-i v'Ti.TLiaii ic ja*? iLxiiiiiHt if lie BdaimsBflL TitT w»r; 



L* 



a:: T-r za\z Tiran. Tin;!- ia»i X3iii?r A«bl the c*.:»i:"e»i-»* 



ri. 7 v^'ji-^ r^'-j - -vir'i . ia-iiiia.*!-! T-j:ii lieai ▼«« axaaj iici; 1* 
t-r:»I;^*rr. 1.. ..:;*, '>* »r ^irri lii lyJ'A Sail- wic^e kiirrrr is 



Pi.cvi-*-i i-.^^il ■>» Tie 'i-:^- iiry b^tw^sa -/« S.kh at J At^kfta states. 
AfVr •*-! * J:**r ia Srnja r^'x-^ei to Amrltsar, w!>fr« '::e eapkr^ kiauielf 
;:; ^j*^.:/j:V.- 2 ?i»e BLar,^ fo.t, wL-ch Hari :^iB^b Lad l^gun, and tbe 
fe:r*ari» 0: wr.':ri xn ft ill ro b* seen K. hind the Lustcj^di Bazar. Il 



PANJAB CHIBft. 387 

was not long before Jhanda Singh Jbroke the provisions of the treaty with 
the Multan chief, and invaded his country in 1771. He besieged the 
fort unsuccessfully for a month and a half^ till the near approach of an 
Afghan force under Jahan Ehan compelled him to raise the siege. 

The next year, 1772, he was more successful. The successive go- 
vernors of Multan, Shuja Khan, Sharif Khan Saddozai and Sharif Khan 
(or Sharif Beg) Taklu, had quarreledi and Sharif Khan Taklu invited 
Jhanda Singh and Gauda Singh to his assistance. They were ready enough 
to accept the invitation, and marching south with a large force, defeated 
Shuja Khan and his allies, the Daudputras of Bahawalpur, and seized 
Multan for themselves. Sharif Beg, thus fatally deceived, took refuge at 
Talamba and then at Ehairpur Tanwain, where he soon after died. 

Jhanda Sinjjh then marched northwards, leaving in charge of Multan 
Diwan Singh Chhachowalia, with a strong garrison. He first went to 
Ramnngnr where he recovered the Zamzama or Bhangi gun * from the 
Chattahs, and thence to Jammu, where his ally and tributary Baja 
Ranjit Deo was defending himself against his son Brij Raj Deo and the 
Kanheya and Sukarchakia chiefs. 

• The hiatorj of thif gun if somewhat remarkable. It was east at Lahore, with another 
gan of the same sixe, io 1761, by Shah Naur, under the directions of Shah Wall Khan, Prime 
minister of Ahmad Shah. The date of its founding (A. H. 1174) may be derired from the 
last of the twenty Persian verses engraved npon it, each letter having a numerical valoe. 

Paikari Azhdakae Atishbar. J ^ 1 i^^Aj\ iSj^ 

The material of which the gnns were made was a mixture of copper and brass obtained by 
the * Jizya '; (a tribute levied by Muhammadans from the infidels) a metal vessel being taken 
from each hoase in Lahore. Ahmad Shah on his returning to Kabul after his victory over 
the Afghans at Panipat in 1761 left the Zamztma gun, the carriage of which was not ready, 
at Lahore, in the charge of Khw^a Abid whom he had appointed Qovemor. The other gnn 
he took with him, and it was lost in the passage of the Chenab. The Zamsama had a longer 
life. Hari Singh Bhangi is said to have captured it when he plundered Khwaja Abid's arsenal 
and to have taken it to Amritsar, but this is not correct, for it is certain that daring the 
whole Governorships of Khwaja Abid, 1761-1762, the gun was lying unmounted in the Shah 
Burj at Lahore. In 1764, when Lehna Singh and Oojar Singh Bhangi captured Lahore thej 
obtained possession of it. Two days later Sirdar Cbarrat Singh Sukarchakia came to coiigr»- 
tulatc the Bbangis, and hinted that he should hav^ aome share of the spoil. The JSh^pgi^^ 



388 fiteoat op thk 

From some time the rival forces engfiged with varying sticcess, till 
Sirdar Charrat Singh Snkarchakia was accidentally killed and the 
Bhangis seemed about to gain the victory. This the Kanheyas averted 
by the assassination of Jhanda Singh^ causing him to be shot as he was 
riding through the camp.^ This was in 1774. 

Ganda Singh succeeded to the command of the misl, and^ finding 
that no success could now be gained at Jammu^ he retired to Amritsar 
where he engaged himself in enlarging and strengthening the Bhangi 
quarter and in plotting against the Kanheyas who had cauised his bro- 
ther's death. An opportunity for showing his enmity almost immediate- 
ly occured. Jhanda Singh bad bestowed Fathankot on one of his misl- 
liars, Nand Singh, otherwise known as Mansa Singh. This man died 
about tiie same time as his chief, and his widow gave her daughter and 

ivho knew that Charrat Singh haH come, uot for congratalation, but only ai a Taltmre who has 
scented a carcase, thoDght to outwit him, and unwilling to make so powerful a chief their 
euemy offered him, with the greatest politeness, the Zamzama gun ; they best part, tkey assent- 
ed, of the spoil, hoping and belicTing that he would bo unable to carry it away. But Charrat 
Singh, seeing he could get nothing more, called his men together, and with great labour car- 
ried it off to his camp, and then to his fort at Gajranwala. Here it was captured by Ahmad 
Kban Cbattah, who took it to his new fort of Ahmadnagar, much to the disgust of hia brother 
Fir Muhammad who thought he had also a claim to ifc, and the two quarreled about its 
possession, and in the fights^ which ensued a son of Pir Muhammad and two sons of Ahmad 
Khan were slain. Fir Muhammad at length called in Qi:gar Singh Bhangi to his asnalancey 
who cn^ ' pped Ahmad Khan and kept tm a day and a night without water till he promised 
to give up the gun, which Qujar Singh, cheating his ally, carried to Qnjrat and kept himself. 
Here it remained two years till, in an evil hour, the Bhangis took it with them on an expedi- 
tion agamst Sirdar Charrat Singh Sukarohakla. The Bhangis were worsted, and the gnn, too 
heavy to remove quickly, fell again into the hands of the Sukarchakia chief. In 1 772, the 
Chattahs, who were always fighting with Charrat Singh, recovered the gun, and placed it in the 
fort of Manchar, and a short time afterwards removed it to Rasulnagar, now Bamnagar. Here, 
the next year, it was captured by Sirdar Jhanda Singh Bhangi on his retmn from Multan, 
and by him sent to Amritsar where it remained in the Bhangi fort, till 1802, when Ranjit 
Singh, who had the greatest desire to possess it, drove the Bhangis out of Amritsar and adzed 
it. During the reis^n of Banjit Singh, the gun was taken, with great pomp, on five diffisrent 
campaigns, viz., Daska, Eassnr, Scganpur, Wazirabad and Multan. At the siege of the last 
named place, in 1818, it was seriously injured, and being considered unfit for further service it 
was brought to Lahore and placed at the Dehli gate of the city, where it remained ttU 1860, 
when it was placed in ■ out of the L ore museum, where it now stands. 

* Vide Statement «Ht Singh Eaflheya. 



tbe jagir of FatbftAkot to tara Singh, a neair relation of Hakikat Bitagh 
Eanheya. Oanda Singh was exceedingly indignant at this^ aiid insisted 
that Tara Singh shonld give Mp the jagir ; but the Kanheyaa tefdsedi ahd 
Ganda Singh^ collecting a large force, taking with him the fihiangi gutti 
and with many of the Eamgfaaria chiefs as alliesi marched against Fa- 
thankot. Hakikat Singh, Tara Singh and Gurbaksh Singh Kanheya and 
Amar Singh Bhagga mardied to Dinanagar to oppose his progress, and 
here an indecisive engagement took place ; bat while encamped at Dina^ 
nagar Ganda Singh fell ill, and died after ten days. His son Desu Singh 
was a mere child, so Charrat Singh a nephew was selected by the troops 
to succeed him ; but, in the very first fight with the Eanheyas, Charrat 
Singh was killed, and the Bhangi force, left without a leader^ returned 
to Amritsar. 

Desu Singh now became head of the eonfederacy, aild one Gujar Singh 
acted as his minister* But the days of the great Bhangi misl ware 
numbered, and the power and intellect of a boy were unable to oontrd 
the many unruly chiefs who had been proud to fight under Hari Singh and 
Jhanda Singh. Bhag Singh Halluwalia first declared himself indepen- 
dent ; then Jhang ceased to pay tribute, and in 1779^ Holtan iha IwL 

It will be remembered that Sirdar Jhanda Singh had left Diwta 
Singh in charge of Multan. He held his own forsomd years succesdftdly, 
and in 1777, repulsed^ though only with great loss, aft attaisk of th^ 
Bahflwalpur chief and Muzafikr Khw son of Shuja Khfltl. But iii 1779, 
Timur Shah, son of Ahmad Shab^ marched against Moltan With a large 
army ; and Diwan Singh, having held out for more than a months trie 
compelled to capitulate, and was idlowed to retire unmolested. Dean 
Singh had also a great enemy in the person of Sirdar Maban Singh| heKd 
of the Sukarchakia misl, which was now beeomii^ very powerful, aiid 
in 1782, after holding the chiefahip eight yetrs he was killed hi aebnm, 
but whether before Chuniot, which ke had marched to i^eduee, of in a 
skirmish with Mahan Singh, ia tmeertmi. He was Boeeeeded by Ms 
son Gulab Smgb, and of tM# chief theire is Utile to teeord. He WM • 



3te HXKOKT OF las 

^^liii.liiHl^ weak ouBL ami oad xut ^sierq^ msSideat tti keep togetfaor the 
poflesiaiia whii^ his ^*^»^t bad. UA hiwwt. Tor Iiv ven A^a^ dinEL— 
iMi**^, ^^^ ac Iit^ tbc tDWH of Axidcssk aid. nmiid vflLigB in. the ^^m ^« 



l2L l^Qu ft ranil ws aif inwi, i^iintHi JLnnxti ^ngfi^ wno nad cspturcd 
I ia JiiIt at t&e pEBBBfin^ J^*^ Mui wbatt SBoeaaes was ixsiuEDV 
ID fiS aO. die Rmpb du^ witk ilaniL. Cluef in. tfas cdU rate SoAds 
JJHM S111S& I L mifT^iiria ii ^^■fc*^ jSnugfc sod GiiUb ?*"»gfc Bhaici »**^ 
riliMHmiinn Khan <it KaBur^ and ic was prapoRs to nuite BaBLjic Sa^a 
tD a coiifiseDfse at BaaBn, aod tbexe mkkbbxuos }unim. Ib( tne joong 
ddef waa too wily to aCBid wft&oiit a fiiroe lar^ enoagk to aeimic ki» 
safisLVy and after two w ^^■tififf paBaed in. figti f Iti ea ha recnnied Id Lakorc. 
Bat aitbongb. ILui jic Sngb. eaea^ wxtk his lid^ GaUi So^ waa lesa 
iut&» Bthadmewws aifn a nf in nnrm i ti iinfT fbrdriBkilipbaniy and. 



on thii oceaoaa, woea ei«cT ai^ cadied in a ii* hmmrh, he drank ao detp 
that hekiUiid himaelf. Some km aaaatad tbt ha w» posooed, hat 
thee JBBO ahadjw a£ firnndatina fig die sagTy aad he waa ao incapahk a 
san diat no one coaid poaBhlT diink it wactk ha wUe to destnqr him. 
Gtdab Sin^ Left one soa Gtirdit Sia:^ a hor ten jears of age, marned 
to die cLiiz^&tecs cc Sirdars Ssihib SiiL^ Bhan^ and Fatah Singh 
Kanheja. Bat no powerfiil alliaoirea were ct mse agahut Eanjic Singh, 
who waa detSEminied to gain poaBesAoa of Amritaar. He^ ia 1S02, 
with die intendoo of picking a ^^aarrel widi the Bhangis^ sent to demand 
firooa Gnzdit Singh the cunooa y.itmgama gnn. Bat the gtorj and firestige 
af the confederacy waa deriTed in great part &jm the poaesaion of thL», 
and althoogh her ^W^ adrisecs urged Sokhan^ the mother id Gardit 
Singh to give it ap, she refused to part widi it and prepared to fight 
But anch preparadoos were worae than useless. Banjit Singh widi Fatah 
Singh Ahlnwalia marehei to Amritaar, attacked the Bhangi fort, and in 
£Te hoars rednoed iL Sakhin and her aon took refuge with Sirdar Jodh 
Singh Kamgharia, and Banjlt Singh seized all the Bhangi poaaesaioiis;. 
little more ia known of Gardit Singh. He died at hia ancestral Tillage 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 391 

of Panjwar, in the Taran Taran Pargaana of the Amritaar distridii 
where his descendaots are still living as simple peasants. 

Notice mast now be taken of two other powerful chiefs of the Bhangi 
misl^ Sirdars Lehna Singh and Oujar Singh, who, though joining Jhanda 
Singh and Ganda Singh in some of their expeditions^ have a history for 
the most part distinct. Lehna Singh's grandfather was a zamindar of 
the Eahilon Jat caste, who in a time of scarcity left his native village of 
Saddahwala in the Amritsar district for Mastapur near Eartarpur in the 
Jalandhar Doab. Here he was adopted by .a man who joined the trades 
of carpentering and collecting taxes, and here his son Dargaha was bom. 
Lehna Singh, the son of Dargaha, was a high spirited boy, and having been, 
on one occasion, beaten by his father for allowing cattle to stray into 
his field, ran away from home, and after wandering aboat for some 
time, at length reached the village of Roranwala, one mile from Attari, 
where Gurbaksh Singh Bhangi lived. This man was one of the best 
fighters under Sirdar Hari Singh. He owned about forty villages and 
used to scour the country with a band of horsemen and collect plunder 
from far and near. He took a fancy to young Lehna Singh and put 
him into his troop, and later, having no son of his own, adopted him. 
Qurbaksh Singh died in 1763, and dissentions straightway arose 
between Lehna Singh the adopted son and Gujar Singh the son of 
Gurbaksh Singh's daughter, each claiming the property. Jhanda Singh 
and Ganda Singh Bhangi came to Waniki to try and settle the dispute, but 
Gujar Singh would not listen to terms and set out with hia followers 
for Roranwala. Lehna Singh pursued and came up with him, and a fight 
was the result, in which a few men were killed on either side. At 
length an arrangement was made, by which Lehna Singh and Gujar 
Singh divided the estate. The former kept Koranwala and the latter 
founded a new village between Bharwal and Banni, which he called 
Ranghar, in remembrance of his fight with Lehna Singh, of whom he 
now became the fast friend. 

The two Sirdars then planned the capture of Lahore, which Kabuli 
Mai held in the interest of Ahmad Shah. The Governor was a timid 



302 HI8T0KY OF THE 

Md at the same time a tyrannical man, and as the Sikh horsei becomiDg 
every day more bold^ plondered the country up to the very walls of tbe 
cityi be grew alarmed for his safety and^ when he obtained secret 
intelligence of the Bhangi plot, he fled from Lahore leaving it in charge 
of his nephew Amir Singh. He took tbe road to Jammu, but some of 
the refugees, who had left Lahore through his tyranny, handled him so 
roughly that he would probably have been killed had not some troops, sent 
by Raja Ranjit Deo as his escort, rescued him. The Baja sent him to 
Bawal Pindi, where the rearguard of Ahmad Shah's army had halted 
and here he died shortly afterwards. 

One dark night Lehna Singh and Gujur Singh with two hundred 
men determined to surprise Lahore. They found all the gates closed, bat 
one Dyal Singh showed them a drain by which it was possible to enter 
with some squeezing. Gujur Singh led the way, Lehna Singh followed 
and the other Sikhs. The fort was taken by surprise ; Amir Singh 
the^Deputy Governor captured at a nautch, and put in irons ; and before 
morning the whole city was in possession of the confederates, fiarlj 
the next day Sobha Singh Kankeya, nephew of Jai Singh, arrived. 
He had, since the last Afghan invasion, been in hiding at his native 
village of Eanah. He was one of the confederates, and although too 
late to aid in the capture, was allowed a share of the prize. Then came 
the other Bhangi and Kanheya Sirdars, and lastly Charrat Singh 
Sukarchakia, who was very hard to please, and would not go away 
till the Bhangis had given him the Zamzama gan, which he carried 
to Gujranwala. The three Sirdars then divided Lahore among them ; 
Lehna Singh taking the citadel, with the Masti, Khizri, Kashmiri and 
Roshani gates. Gujur Singh built for himself a fort without the walls, 
which he called Kila Gujar Singh, and, in 1765, marched northwards 
to conquer new territory. 

Lehna Singh and Sobha Singh remained in Lahore, in peace, till 
Ahmad Shah made his final descent upon the Paojab in 1767, when 
they retired to Panjwan But the great Durani leader felt age and 



PANJAB c&un. S9S 

infirmitj creeping upon him^ and having no man of genius like Adina 
Beg Khan to leave in charge of the province, he resolved to conciliate 
the Sikh chiefs. To Lehna Singh he sent a present of fruit, but ha 
returned it saying that grain was the food for peasants like him, not 
fruit which was a luxury for kings. Pleased with this humble reply, 
Ahmad Shah confirmed Lehna Singh in his possession of Lahore, and re- 
turned to Kabul, where he died in 1773. For thirty years after this 
the Lahore Sirdars ruled in tolerable quiet, till 1797, when Shah Zaman 
who had succeeded to the throne of Kabul, invaded the Panjab, and 
Lehna Singh again retired from Lahore, find returned after the departure 
of the Shah, but died the same year. Sobha Singh died about the same 
time, and waa succeeded by his son Mohr Singh, while Chet Singh suc- 
ceeded Lehna Singh. 

Shah Zaman again appeared in 1798, but only rem^ed a few 
months in Lahore, as news from Persia rendered his return necessary. 
Sirdar Ranjit Singh Sukarchakia obtained from the Shah a grant of 
the city in return for services which he rendered, the principal of which 
was the raising and forwarding to the Shah eight guns which had sunk 
in the river Ravi. But the gift was only nominal, and Ranjit Singh 
was left to gain possession for himself. This was not difficult. The 
only man of any energy among the joint rulers of Lahore was Sahib 
Singh, son of Gujar Singh, and he was absent at Gujrat Chet Singh 
was an imbecile, and Mohr Singh possessed neither character nor 
influence. Their rule was hated by the people^ and their own adherents 
Bhai Gurbaksh Singh, Haktm H&kim Bai and Mian Ashak Muhammad 
were in favour of Ranjit Singh and wrote him word that he could easily 
make himself master of the place. Banjit Singh with a large force 
entered Anarkalli, ani Chet Singh, who thought of marching to oppose 
him, was dissuaded from so doing by his agent Mokham Din Chowdhri 
of Kotnao, who was in charge of the Lohari gate, which ha opened to 
the enemy. Ranjit Siugh took possession without difficulty, and Chet 
Singh and Mohr Singh fled. 



3M HlftTORT Of THE 

Some time later £aojit Singh granted to Chet Singh a j^gir of 
60,000 Be. in Waniki, which he held till his death in 1813. He left 
no son hy any of his eight wivesj bat foar months after his death, Bibi 
Hnkm Konr gave birth to a son, named Attar Singb, in favour of 
whom Banjit Singh released an estate of 6^000 Bs. at Waniaki. Thia 
was afterwards much reduced and exchanged for Laddi, which again, 
in 1819j was exchanged for Chak Didu, part of Lehna Singh's old 
estate. On annexation this village was released to Attar Singh and hia 
mother for their lives. On the death of the latter, half will lapse to 
Government, and the remainder will descend to the legitimate male 
issne of Attar Singh in perpetuity. Attar Singh resides at Chak Dido. 
He is fifty years of sge, and though he has three daughters, sll of whom 
are married, has, as yet, no son. 

Sirdar Gujar Singh's expedition to conquer the country to the north 
of Lahore was successful enough, and he soon became a far more power- 
ful chief than Lehna Singh or Sobha Singh. Be first attached Gujrat, 
which was then held by Sultan Mukarrab, a Ghakkar chief, and defeat- 
ing him in an engagement just beyond the walls, took possession of both 
the city and the neighbouring country. Gujrat he now made his head- 
quarters, and the next year, 1766, marched to Jammu, which he overran 
and held tributary with Jhanda Singh Bhangi : and then successively 
reduced P^nchh, Islamghar and Dewa Botala. In 1767, Ahmad 
Shah made his last invasion of India, driving before him all the new 
Sikh chiefs, for in those days the dread of an Afghan army was such 
that there was no thought of opposing it in the open field, and leaving 
behind him the proverb, '^ E^ada pida lada rahnda Aimad Siahda •" 
Meaning that Ahmad Shah left nothing that men could call their own 
but what they had actually in their mouths. 

Among those who fled was Gujar Singh. He went to Lahore, and 
thence, as Ahmad Shah advanced, to Firozpur ; and when the Durani 
chief had finally turned his back on the Panjab, he recovered his 



FAirJAB CHIBF8. 395 

share of the city of Lahore and left itm charge of Takht Singh, a 
near relation. He then Went to Amritsar, and for the defence of the 
holy city laid the foundations of fort Qojar Singh, where now stands 
the newer fort of Govindghar. Charrat Singh Sukarchakia also built a 
fort to the north of the Darbar Sahib; (the Golden Temple), while 
that of Jassa Singh Ramgharia lay to the east, and that of the fihangia 
to the south. Then, at his village of Ranghar, he married his eldest 
son to the daughter of Bhag Singh Hallowalia; and as soon as the 
festivities were over marched with his whole force to Gujrat, recovering 
all his old conquests with but with little trouble. Then, in conjunction 
with Sirdar Charrat Singh Sukarchakia, he besieged the famous fort of 
Rhotas> held by the Ghakkars. After a siege of several months it was 
reduced and the whole of the neighbouring country as far as Rawal 
Pindi| with its splendid fighting tribes, Janjoahs, Ghakkars, AwanS| 
submitted to the allies. He then married his second son Sahib Singh 
to a daughter of Sirdar Charrat Singh, and some time later to a daugh- 
ter of Hamir Singh of Jheend. 

Gujar Singh had divided his territories between his two eldest sons, 
Sukha Singh and Sahib Singh. These quarreled, and the younger, at the 
instigation of Sirdar Mahan Singh Sukarchakia, who was always seeking 
to benefit by the mistakes of others, attacked his brother who was killed 
during the action. Gujar Singh was very indignant when he heard of 
this, and determined to dispossess Sahib Singh of all the country nnder 
his charge. He marched upon Gujrat, and was admitted without question, 
and Sahib Singh, now in open revolt, shut himself up in Islamghar. But 
Gujar Singh did not wish to proceed to extremities, and forgave his son 
the moment he showed a dbposition to sue for pardon ; and, confirming 
him in his old possessions, made over those which had been held by Sukha 
Singh to his youngest son Fatah Singh. But another cause of disunion 
soon arose. Sirdar Mahan Singh was besieging Rasulnagar, the capital 
of his enemies the Chattas, and a principal officer, escaping from the 
town, took refuge in Sirdar Onjar Singh's camp. Mahan Singh desumd- 



396 HlSTOftT OF'THR 

ed hia sUrrendery which was refused. Sahib Siogb^ howerer, willing t6 
oblige his brother«in-law, made the refugee over to him^ and ho was pot 
to death. Oajar Singh was indignant at this disobedience of his son : he 
eorsed hinii and prayed that as he had insulted and dbhonoured his Cither^ 
SO his son might insuit and dishonour him. This conduct of Sahib Singh 
so preyed upon the old Sirdar's mind that he fell ill, and learing aU his 
possessions to his youngest son Fatah Singh, he retired to Lahore, where 
he died in 1788. His tomb is situated near the Samman Buij. 

However much Gujar Singh may have wished to exclude his eldest son 
^om the succession, the Sirdars of the Ebalsa would not admit his right 
to do so, and Sahib Singh took possession of his father's estates without 
active opposition from Fatah Singh, who went to live with Mahan Singh 
at Gujranwala. For some time there was peace between the brothers- 
in-law, Mahan Singh and Sahib Singh, but in 1789 they openly quar- 
reled and for two years remained in constant hostility. At length in 1791, 
Mahan Singh shut^up Sahib Singh in the fort of Sodhra and reduced him 
to great straits. The Bhangi chief called to his assistance Lehna Singh 
of Lahore and Earam Singh Dulu. The former would not move, but 
Earam Singh came with a large force to raise tlie siege, and an engage- 
ment took place between him and Mahau Smgh. The Sukarcbakia chief 
was at this time very ill, and during the fight fainted away on his elephant, 
the mahaut of which turned and carried his master from the field. His 
forces, missing their leader, fied : the siege was raised, and Mahan Singh 
retired to Gujranwala where he died three days afterwards, the desertion of 
his old friend Jodh Singh Wasirabadia * hastening hia death. In 1797 
Shah Zaman invaded the Paujab, and Sahib Singh retired to the hills. The 
Shah only remained a few dsya in Lahore and then returned to Afgbanit-* 
tan. He left behind him, at Find Dadan Ehan, an officer known as the 
Shahanchi, with 7000 Afghan troops, who, on Sahib Singh's return to 
Gujrat, marched against him with allies from among the Muharamadaa 
tribes of the Jhelam district. Sahib Singh, with Nihal Singh and 

• ride Uira Singii WisiniMia. 



PAKJAB CHI£ri. 397 

Wazir Singh Attariwala^ Jodh Singh Wazirabadia, and Karam Singh 
Dulu, gave him battle and completely defeated him. This was in 1798| 
and was the first time that the Sikhs had fairly beaten the Afghans in 
the open field. A few months after this defeat of the Shahanchi^ Shah 
Zaman again invaded the Panjab| but his stay was short and he retired 
making Ranjit Singh a grant.of Lahore, which he captured as has been 
already related. Fatah Singh ^hangi now joined Ranjit Singh who 
promised to give him half of his brother's possessions, and with this 
assistance he seized Fatahghar, now called Kot Bari Khan, and Sodhra. 
When Sahib Singh heard of the JFall of Lahore, he moved with a large 
force against Ranjit Singh ; the Ramgharia and Eassnr troops marching 
from the east and south to the same point ; but the meeting at Bhasin 
passed off peaceably. Hostilities commenced later in the year, and eon* 
tinned for some time/ Fatah Singh becoming reconciled to his brother ; 
but this friendship did not last long, for on Fatah Singh favouring Mai 
Sahib Kour wife of Sahib Singh, who, disgusted at her husband's third 
marriage/ held the fort of Jalalpur against him, his property and newly 
granted estates were all seized. Fatah Sin^h went back to Ranjit Singh, 
who, remembering that he had deserted him in the middle of the cam* 
paign, would do nothing for him, and after remaining in Lahore^ in great 
poverty, for a yearj he was compelled to return to his brother at Gujrat| 
who gave him Doulatnagar and other estates. 

Sahib Singh now began to lose the energy which had so much dis* 
tinguished him, and gave himself up to drunkenness and debauchery. He 
quarreled with Sirdar Nihal Singh Attariwala, and with Mokham Chand, 
his Diwan, afterwards so celebrated, who both went over to Ranjit Singh. 
In 1806, he accompanied the Lahore chief on the Patliala campaign, and* 
at its close returned to Oujrat. In 1810, Ranjit Singh determined to take 
possession of Sabib Singh's country, and sent for that purpose Hukm 
Singh Attariwala and Sewa Singh. Sahib Singh, seeing resistance hope- 
less, fled from Gujrat with 30 horsemen and took refuge in the fort of Dewa 
Botala, and his whole jagirs were seized, an estate of 25,000 Rs. being 



396 mnoiT .m ram fax/ab CHicys. 

goaitadtoOfilabSiaghwliohidiBlrigMdi^uiittbisfiaber. lalSlO^wIieii 
flieMihinja was engaged im the nege of MqIuh, Mai Lachmi, mother of 
Sahib Singh* proceeded thitherand interceded far her aon with aoch »flyti 
tiiaft the naka of Bajwant, worth a lakh of mpeea, waa releaaed in hia 
favour. Thia he hdd till hia death, which took place the next jear, 
iriien Baojit Sin^ ioA two of hia widows, Dja Eonr and Battan Konr, 
into hia Zanana, manjing theaa hj chaddar dole. Dya Konr, danghter of 
IXwan Singh Wirk; waa the repated mother of Peahora Singh and Eaah- 
mira Singh ; Battan Konr the reputed mother of Mnltana Singh.* Siidar 
Fatah Singh Gujrada, on the death of his brother, and the reaamption 
of the jagir, went to Kapnrthalla, where he remained in the aenrice of 
the Ahlnwalia chief for two jears, tiU, on the death of hia mother Mai 
Tiachmi, be received a grant of Bangfaar and some other TiDagea in the 
Amritsar district, and entered the aenrice of Sirdar Sham Singh Attari- 
wala» in whose contingent he aerred for man j jeara. He waa killed in 
BaonVi at the aiege of the fort of Malik Dilaaah Khan. Abont the aame 
tiou, in 1832, Oolab Singh died and lua jagira were aU reanmed. 

Jaimal Singh, only son of Fatah Singh, was for some time in Sirdar 
Sham Singh's force, and served on the frontier and at Peahawar. He 
however qoarrded with hb chief, and this bronght on Jaimal Singh more 
troubles than there it space to record here. Through the enmity of Sham 
Singh his jagir was resumed, and when the British occupied the country 
he was in great poverty. He still resides at Banghar, without penaion 
or eatate, the representative of the great Bhangi house which possessed 
more power and ruled over a larger territory than any otherfiunily be- 
tween the SaUfj and the Indus. 



SIRDAR B.ILWANT SINGH RANGAR NANGLIA. 



Raitdio. 
Natba Singh. 



Karam Sio^ Dbaram Singh. Charrat Singh. 

I — ^— — 1 r^— — I I 

J^niyat Waair Bam Sardol Dal Singh. 

Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. 

A^'an Dsti^hter, M. Jowala Chanda Sawan Bhnta Sher 

Singh, De? Indra 8|ngh. Singh. Singh* ' Singh. Singh. ' 
D. 1859. Singh, Raja 
I ofNabha. 



I I 

Balwant Uter 

Singh. Singh. 



HWTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

This family came originally from Bikanir in Bajputana/and settled in 
the fertile district of Ourdaspar, where^ near the dty of Batala, they 
founded the village of Bangar NangaL ^Bangar'is the name of the 
Rajput ' got ' or clan to which Raja Jaggat^ the founder of the familji 
belongedi and Nangal is a euphonic corruption of the Sanscrit word 
* Mangal/ 'pleasing/ signifying that the emigrants were satisfied that 
after their many wanderiags their lines h|id fallen in pleasant places. 

Many years later NaUa^^heBoacS Bandeo^ became a Sikh, and join- 
ing the Kanheya: confederacy, under Jai Singh| ravaged all the counter 
around Rangar Nangal, where he buUt a strong fort. His son Karam 
Singh succeeded him, and very much increased both the power and posses- 
iBions of the family. He rebuilt and strengtheniBd the Bangar Niingal 
fort and took up his residence in Amritaar, where he built the ' Eatra 
Karam Singh/ otherwise known as ' Katra Rangar Nangalia/ When 



400 msmn (^ the 



Jiaojfit SsMffk iKf Jifr powenu and iriifJ T^hnfC md ^ 

&'s^i gire in his alkgiaiiee and erer after iraimrd a Sntkid juiant oC 

the MabarqaL On one or mnnnj indcrf, they yaraded, Wmmm Siiyi 

wn captain of Banpt Snigli'a lucgulani and as m iheae cany di^a tna 

diief had not inacii money to spare, the pay of the tniopa idl inlD ancan* 

Karam Simgl took dieir ade and demanded their pay of Banpft Sngb, 

who, fiearinganoatfarcak, was compelled to pawn the jewda of hit wife 

MehtabKoor. The Mahaiy afla n ai d a pinushcd JEarwigififcrthna 

taking part ^nnat him by phindmng and destroying Ua honae in 

Amcitaar. Bat a fewmriKation took plae^ and the Sirdar i 

Banjit Sin^ on most of his fipeilitiiins, and in the Pcafaawsr 

where he was seTcrdy wonndedy he spedally distingnidhad hHaadf* and 

reeetTedfbrhiaaerrieesanewjagirin&e Jalandhar Dbak HepQaaeaaed^ 

at one time, t ai it o t y to the amoont of aerecal bkhs of lapaaj pcxnci- 

paUy sitoaled in the Gudaspor district He was succeeded by his son 

Jmmij^mi Simjkj who had been Cor long with the anny andwhowasfr- 

Tourably known to Banjit Singh £ar his braTeiy. His yoimger bcothcr 

IFoztr Sm^i reodTed a jagir in Bhimbar^ in 1821. Jamiymi 8m§h was, 

with hiscoasiQ Ram Simgi, killed in Hazara, at the battle of Darband, in 

ISiO, and on his death the jagirs were reduced by more than one balf. 

Jrjam Sin^i was still, howereTi a powerfnl Sirdar^ and remained in 
favour so long as Maharaja Banjit Singh and Nao Nihal Singh were aliFe ; 
but on the accession of Sber Singh, his jagirs were again reduced, and 
there was only left to him 28,000 Bs., of which 15,000 Bs. were peisond 
and 13,000 Bs. subject to the service of 30 honemen. ArfamSimgK's 
mother was maternal aunt of Bani Chand Kour, the widow of Kharrak 
Singh and mother of Nao Nihal Smgh, and in this relationship will 
be found the cause of Hahaiaja Sher Singh's enmity. 

In 1845, previous to the Satkj campaign, Arfan Bimgk recdved firom 
Raja Lai Singh conmiand of 4 infantry r^imenis, one regiment of cavalry 
auit a troop of horse artillery, and with this force he served at the battle 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 401 

of Sobraon. In 1846 he served with credit in the Kaahmir expe- 
dition, and in Augosti ]847| received a Persian title of honour on the 
recommendation of Major Lawrence, the Besident at Lahore. In 1848, he 
accompanied Baja Sher Singh Attariwala to Maltan and joined in his 
rebellion. His adherents, hearing of the Sirdar's disafiiection, proceeded 
to follow his example, and defended the fort of Bangar Nangal success- 
fullj against two companies of the Darbar troops which had been sent 
to attach the property ; but Brigadier Wheeler marched against it on 
the 15th October and speedily redaced it. On the termination of the 
war the whole estates of Arjan Singh were confiscated| and the Bangar 
Nangal jagir conferred on Sirdar Mongol Singh Bamghariai who had 
displayed much energy in the capture of Hari Singh a notorious freeboo- 
ter, who had, during the war^ kept the neighbourhood of Battala in a 
state of alarm. 

Arjan Singh received from Gknremment a pension of 1,600 Bs* ; but it 
was personal, and ceased at his death in 1859. At the request of the Baja 
of Nabha, the British Oovemment gave a pension of 120 Bs. a year to 
each of the two widows of Arjan Singh, and the fiimily also recdves 
help from Nabha, but it is in very reduced circumstanoeSr 

The Baja of Nabha is second cousin of Sirdar Balwont Singh. The 
daughter of Jamiyat Singh married Baja Der-Indhi Singh, a match 
made up by Maharaja Banjit Singh and never much liked hjJamigaC 
Singh. By this wife Dev-Indra Singh had two sons, Baja Bharpur 
Singh, who died in 1868, and fihagwan Sihgh, the reigning chief. 

Mehtab Kour, widow of Ar/an Singh, was murdered in the court- 
yard of her own house at Bangar Nangal, early in 1864. One of the mur- 
derers, a resident of Nabha, has been convicted and sentenced to transpor- 
tation for life, and Sirdar Gurbaksh Singh, prime minister of Nabha, is 
now under trial on suspicion of having been concerned in the crime. 



THE CHATTAHS OF GUJEANWALA. 



I. Nub Muhammad. 
: L_ 



Fir Moluuniuad. Ah m^<^ iriiyn. 

t I 

Fatah Mnhammad. Ghnlam Muhammad. Kadar Bakah. Bahram Khaa. 
Jan Muhammad. 
Ghulam Kadar. 

<42faiiUm Haaan. QhnUm Huiniii. QfanlamNafL ehdlam AIL QfadlimBaatflL 



Haijat ^^^"t MuhamnM^ Khan. 
IL Jam BAzaB. 



Khuda Bakah. Sultan Uahammad. 

I 



r i ■ I. \ I 

Khan. BakhiBtiknd^Khan. CHiidamKadir. Syad Mohammad. Doat MaUomad. 

Shamash Din. Qkafaun Haidar. Shahbas Khan. Fazl Dad Khan. ^Bahmat Khan. 

HISTORY OF THE TRIBE. 

I. The ChattahB are a namerous Mahammadan tribe 'chiefly inha- 

hiUng the Hafizabad and Wasirabad pargannaha ef the Gujnuiwala 

4]fltrict| where they hold' aeventy-eight villages. They claim to be by 

origin Chofaaa Bajpata and to have emigrated to the Fanjab from the 

Dehli district. The date of the emigration is not exactly known^ bat it 

was probably about three hundred years ago. They rapidly increased in 

numbers^ spreading along the banks of the Chenabj and founded Nadalah, 

Manchar^ Bangali^ Pandorian and other villages. One Gaggu seems to 

have been the first to adopt the Mahammadan faith, about the yicar 1 600, 

and his example was followed by the remainder of the tribe. Nur Mu^ 

hammad was bom in 1704. When he grew np his friendship was sought 

by Raja Banjit Deo of Jammu and by the chiefs of Multan, for the Chat- 



HISTORY OP THB PANJAB CHIBF8. 40S 

tabs had now grown powerful and Nur Muhammad was their acknow- 
ledged chief. When Nur Muhammad ^^97 old^ Ahmad KAan^ his younger 
son, a brave and skilful soldier^ led the Chattahs to battle. The great 
enemies of the tribe were the Sukarchakia chiefs of Gujranwala, who 
were ever striving to extend their possessions. In the time of Sirdai 
Charrat Singh the Chattahs held their own, and Ahmad Khan, in 1765^ 
6aptured the celebrated Bhangi gun which Charrat Singh had placed 
in Gujranwala. Soon after this Ahmad Khan and his brother Pir 
Muhammad quarreled, and fought for some time with varying success^ 
and among the killed were Bahram Khan and Kadar BaJc$h^ sons of 
Ahmad Khan^ and Fatah Muhammad his nephew. At last Pir Muham^ 
mad sought help from Gujar Singh and Sahib Singh Bhangi^ who invited 
Ahmad Khan to a conferencei captured him and shut him up without 
water till he agreed to resign the great gun which was carried to the 
fort of Gujrat.* 

Mir Manuj the viceroy of Ahmad Shah Duranii laid siege 
to the fort of Manchar for some months without success^ but 
when the Emperor himself invaded the Panjab, he seems to have treated 
the Chattah chiefs with consideration and to have confirmed them in 
their possessions. Sirdar Charrat Singh, the Chattah enemyi died in 
1774^ closely followed by Nur Muhammad and his son Pir Muhammad. 

The towns founded in the Gujranwala district by these chiefs are 
neither few nor unimportant. Among those founded by Nur 
Muhammad were Ahmadnagar, Ghadhi Gul Muhammad and Rasul- 
nagar, renamed by the Sikhs Ramnagar^ while Pir Muhammad built 
three difibrent forts called after his own name, also Kot Mian Khan^ 
Alipur, renamed by the Sikhs Akalghar, Naiwala^ Kot Salim^ Kot Ali 
Muhammad and Fatahpur. Qhulam Muhammad^ who succeeded to the 
estate succeeded also to the hatred of the Sukarchakias. Both Sirdar 
Mahan Singh son of Charrat Singh and Ohulam Mukammai were able 
and brave men^ and it was clear that peace could only result from the 

• Vidt Note to Sirdar aojur Singh Bhangi'i itaittnieiil. 



404 HISTORY OP THE 

death of one or the other. For a long time the advantage lay with the 
Chattahs and Mahan Singh was defeated on several occasions. Once he 
besieged Jhokian, held by Mian KAan, uncle of Ohulam Muhammad^ who 
came down in haste to reUeve it. After some hard fighting, peace was 
agreed upon, but in an unguarded moment the treacherous Sikh seized 
Mian Khan carried him off prisoner and blew him from a gun. At 
length, in 1790, Mahan Singh, having become very powerful, assembled 
his forces and besieged Manchar. The siege lasted for more than six 
months, and the Sikhs lost a large number of men. The young Banjlt 
Singh himself was in great danger, for Hanhmat Khany uncle of Ghulam 
Muhammad^ charged bis escort with a few sowars and climbing upon 
bis elephant, was about to kill the child, when he was stiack down by 
the attendants. Ghulam Muhammad^ seeing that he could no longer hold 
the fort, offered to surrender if he were allowed to leave for Mecca in 
safety. This Mahan Singh promised solemnly, but he had hardly sworn 
his truth, than one of his men, by his orders or with his connivance, shot 
the brave Chattah chief through the head. Mahan Singh then gave up 
Manchar to plunder, and seized the greater part of the Chattah territory. 

Jan MuAammady son of Ohulam MuAammadj escaped to Kabul, from 
whence he returned in 1797, with Shah Zaman, and by the aid of the 
Afghans recovered his possessions on the Chenab ; but when his protec- 
tor had returned to Afghanistan, Ranjit Singh attacked Rusulnagar, 
determined to destroy for ever the Chattah power. The besieged made 
a gallant resistance, bat day by day tlicir numbers and their strength 
diminished. Unlike the divine twin brothers who fought so well for 
Bome by Lake Begillus, the Muhammadan saints abandoned their 
followers, for the story is that the Chattahs asked a famous fakir who 
lived at Basolnagar to aid them. '^ How can I help you,'' wis his 
reply, *^ when I see the holy ^ Mahbub Subhani, dressed in green, fighting 
on the side of Ranjit Singh." At length Jan Muhummad was killed by 
a cannon shot and the fort surrendered. 



* The saint oUoded to is Abd-al-Kadar Qilani, whose shiine is situated in Baghdad. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 405 

The history of the family contains little worthy of notice after the 
fall of Rasulnagar. The sons of Jan Muhammad received a small jagir 
from Kanjit Singh and were employed hy him in the irregular cavalry. 
Several members of the family have served under the English Govem- 
mcut both in 1849 and 1857. 

The only Chattah jagirdars, at the present time^ are the descendants 
of Jan Bahij a petty chief famous for his cattle lifting exploits. He was 
killed in 1791 in a fight with the enemy of his tribe, Sirdar Mahan Singh, 
who marched upon his village Gajar Golah and plundered it of consider- 
able wealth, the family of Jan Baksh escaping to Pindi Bhattian. When 
Ranjit Singh had succeeded his father, Khutla Baksk and his brothers 
waited upon him, and were taken into the Ghorcharahs, receiving jagira 
to the amount of 12,000 Rs. Khuda Bakah served, under the Maharaja, 
in all his chief campaigns^ Eassur, Multan, Mankera^ Kashmir and Pe-^ 
shawar, and was distinguished for his gallantry. He was several times 
wounded, and at the battle of Tehri, badly hurt himself| he cut off the 
head of an Afghan with a single blow. The family bad a quarrel with Wa- 
sakha Singh, the Kardar of Kadianbad, and their jagirs with the excep- 
tion of Kot Jan Baksh, Gajar Golah and two other villages, worth 2,500 
Rs. were resumed. The cash pension of 2,500 Bs. was left to them. 

During the disturbances of 1848-49, Khuda Bahh remained loyal. 
His two grandsons Ghulam Baidar and Shamashdin were made Than- 
nadar and Deputy Thannadar at Kadianbad. On annexation, Gajar 
Golah, worth 1,500 Rs., was released for the life of Khuda Baksh. He 
died in lvS56, and two-thirds of the jagir have been resumed. The 
remaining one-third descends to his heirs in perpetuity. 



SHER SINGH KAMLA SIRDAR BUHADAR, 

1 "iii^'iS^C'lO^ . 



BUULKI. 



UUm Singh, Godh Singh. 

D. 1803. 

I 



Sainii Singh. Mahma Singh. Jai Singh KamUi, 

D. 1827. 
I I 

Mangal Siogh, Joimal Singh, Amar 

D, 1821. M. D. Mohr Singh, Man, Singh. 

D. 1852. 



i 



Nihal Singh, Khuahhal Lai Ranjodh Ojaghar 

B. 1847. Singh. Singh. Singh, Singh, 

X. D. Ram Singh, b. 1836. B. 1835. 

Chhapa. 



Wir Singh, Chngatra Singh, Khem Singh, Sher Singh, 
D. 1838. D. 1830. B. 1812. B. 1816. 

I I 

Buia Singh, Ajaib Singh, Snchet Singh, Baj Singh. Tara Singh, 

B. 1825. B. 1835. B. 1836. B. 1847. B. 1852. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Oodh Sinffh^ son of a chowdhri of Manihalab^ became a follower of 
Sirdar Hari Singh Bhangi and became possessed of estates worth 
40|000 Bs. On one occasion he and his brother UCam Singi were besieg- 
ed in a small fort near Sialkot by some 300 irregulars of Raja Kanjit Deo 
of Jamma. The horses belonging to the besieged were stabled without 
the walls, and Oodh Singh, fearing that they might fall into the 
hands of the enemy, made a sally and hamstringed them all. The Baj- 
puts, thinking they were aboat to be attacked and frightened by the 
apparent audacity of the besieged, fled, and Surdar Hari Singh when he 
heard of this needless destruction of the horses said, *^ This Godi Singk 



B18T0BY 07T HE FANMB CHIBF8* 407 

is a perfect ' Eamla'' (idiot) ; and this uncomplimentary agnomen has 
since remained attached to him and the family. 

Oodh Bingh and his brother fought under the Bhangi chiefs against 
Banjit Deo, Sansar Chand of Katoch and the Sukarchakias^ and on the 
death of Oodh Singh, without issue, Utam Singh succeeded to the estate, 
but both he and his two elder sons died soon afterwards, and Vai Singh 
became the head of the family. His jagirs were increased by Sirdar 
Gulab Singh Bhangi to 50,000 Rs., and when that chief died in 1800, 
Jai Singh joined Ranjit Singh, then lately master of Lahore. He was 
a good soldier and fought bravely in many campaigns and received 
additional jagirs worth 40,000 Bs. in Shaikhopura, Sidhni and Bhao* 
wal. 

In 1817, becoming too old for active service, the Maharaja appointed 
him judge at Amritsar, resuming aU but 16|000 R9. of his jagir, and 
granting him a cash allowance of 8,000 Bs. Jai Singh died in 1827. 
Of his sons Mangal Singh had been killed at Mankera in 1821| and 
his jagirs of 9,000 Bs. had been continued to his son VFir Singh. Jaimal 
Singh, the second son, had also acquired a separate estate of 8,000 Rs., 
but on his father's death both this and the jagirs of his nephew were 
resumed, and in their stead the Maharaja granted Jai SingX'i estate, less 
the village of Basulpur in the Cis-Satlej States, which was worth 8,000 
Bs. Amar Singh the third sen olJai Singh, received an annuity of 800 Rs.. 
while the three younger sons of Mangal Singh were provided for ; Chugor 
tra Singh being made risaldar in General Ventura's brigade ; and Khem 
Singh and Sher Singh receiving the village of Patti in Sialkot, with a 
cash allowance. When Wir Singh died in 1839 half his estate was resum- 
ed and the remainder divided between his brother and his son Buta Singh. 
Jaimal Singh was commandant in the Charyari Horse, and served 
under Raja Suchet Singh on the frontier and elsewhere. At annexation 
2,000 Bs. of his jagir were maintained for his life. Sher Singh and Buta 
Singh ]oinei the rebels in 1818 and lost every thing ; and the 4,000 Rs. 
jagir of Khem Singh, whose conduct was suspicious, was reduced to 



408 BISTOn OP THB PANJAB CHIEFS. 

1,060 B8« On the deatli of Jaimal 8wgh his sons received a pension of 
666 Bs. which they still hold. 

In 1857j Sher Bingi entered the service of Oovernment as naib 
riaaldar under Colonel Voyle. He behaved with great gallantry through- 
out the disturbances in Onde, and was created risaldar and Sirdar Buba- 
dar. He ako received a jagir of d|000 Bs. in the district of Bahraich. 
On the return of peace he resigned the service and paid a visit to Esg» 
tend. He is now resident in the Amritsar district* 



HIRA SINGH WAZIEABADIA. 



Dtala. 



Gagna. lUun Singh/ 



I 



I 



AinoMit Singlv D«Ba Singlu GorbAksh Singh 

I — ' 



SiwanSix^b. Wir Jodh B. Deiwi, 

8mgh» Singh. X. 8. Cbamt Sisgb^ 
Boiutrduikift. 



I I -' 1 

Amrikh Singh. Qtnda Singh, B. QoUb Koor, 

D. 1855. K. S. Nar Singh, 



Chamyaii* 



Hm Singh. Prtm Singh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY* 

Eira Singh Wazirabadia is tbe head of the Wandeh tribe which is 
numerous in the Gujrat and Grnjranwak districts. Originally Hindn, 
the Waraich Jats were converted to Muhammadanism about four hundred 
years ago, and there are now but few of the tribe of the ancient faith. 
The origin of the name Waraidi is thus explained by the Gujrat portion of 
the tribe. Baja Jaipal of liahore, when hunting ia the neighbourhood 
of Thanesar saw a new bom infant elinging to the dead body of its 
mother. On enquiry it was found that the husband of the woman had 
been killed in a skirmishi and that she had died of grief and hunger. 
The Raja, moved with pity^ took the child and brought him up as his 
own, giving him the name of Baraehhi as it was beneath the shade of 
a Bar tree that he had discovered him. When Baraehh or Waraich grew 
up, he was married to his protector's daughter^ and on the Baja's death 
without issuci Waraich succeeded to the throne, which his descendants 
filled for three generations* It was not for many years later that the 



410 HiaTORT OF THI 

dan of which Waraich was the foonder emigrated to the Panjab^ where 
it became Mahammadan aad settled in the Gujrat district.* 

The village bards (ndrasis) of the Waraich Jats of Gqranwala gire a 
different and a more probable account They state that their ances- 
tor was Barlas, a Hindu Jat who founded, near Ghazni, about the 
middle of the 10th centurj, the viUage of Bahowali. Shah, a descendant 
of Barlas, was a soldier in the army of Sultan Mahmud and came with 
that prince to India in 1001 a. d* Jypal the Raja of Lahore was 
defeated and the invading army withdrew ; but Shah, struck with the 
fertility of the country about Gajrat, remained therey and settled in Kalar- 
chor, a Gajar village, whereytill 1335, his family lived as husbandmen. 
Waraich, son of Matu, became wealthy and choudhri of the ndghbouring 
villages. He turned the Gnjars out of Kalarchor and was the father 
of five sons, Teju, Eela, Saijru, Leli and Wada, who, as the tribe be- 
came numerous and powerful, founded many villages in Gujrat and 
elsewhere. Teju founded Kala Katai and four other villages, still held 
by Waraich Jats, in Amritsar ; Kela's descendants went as far south as 
Saharanpur where there are now five Waraich villages. Ladda was 
the first village founded in Gujranwala, where there are still 45 villages 
held by the tribe : while in Gujrat, out of 300 villages founded by 
Waraich Jats, there are still 132 inhabited by them. 

The first member of the Wazirabad family about whom any thing is 
known was Giigna, who held a small office at Botala, under the Empire, 



*ThU account of the origia of the tribe is purely fabaloos. Riga Jjpal was the mler ef the 
Paojab proper from the Satlej to Multan and theladas, bat Thanesar, where he is said to have 
jfoand the infant, was noder R%ja Gnlehanda Rai of BCaharan and DehIL Raja Jypal 
feigned from a. d. 970 to ▲; d. 1001, when, having been defeated by Sobakhtagtn and 
Saltan Mahmad, he barst himself on a foneral pile, in accordance with a cnstom then pie* 
Tailing among the Hindos that a prince twice defeated by a foreign army was incompetent 
to reign. Ke was sncceeded, not by Waraich, bat by his own son Anandpal. 

Anandpal died in 1012 and was sncceeded by his son Jypal the second. Bat this is not 
the Jypal to whom the Waraich tribe refers, nor did he foand a dynasty, for he fled to the 
bilb on the hivasion of Mahmad, in 1013, and nine years later Lahore became a province 
s'lbjec^ to theJBangi of Qhisni. 



PANJAB CHIBFi. 411 

and is said to have been a man of aome wealth* His soa Desa Singh and 
his nephew Owrbakih Singh joined the force of Sicdar Charrat Singh 
Sukarchakia who was then rising to power and were present at the 
attack on Amritsar, when the Bhangi tower between the Rambagh and 
Chatawind gates was eaptnred and named Mahan Singhwala after the 
young son of Charrat Singh. 

When Charrat Singh conquered the northern portion of the Gujran- 
wala district, }Yazirabad fell to the share of Desa Singh and Ourbaksi 
Singh. The jagir was soon afterwards divided ; Ourbakth Singh retain* 
ing Wazirabady and Deta Singh taking Eunjah and Kalra Budha. Gnr' 
hahh Singh gave his daughter Desan in marriage to his leader Charrat 
Singh, and by this connection his iofluence was much increased. 
During the invasions of Ahmad Shah Durani the Wazirabad chiefs were 
compelled to retire before the enemj^ bat when the storm had blown 
over they returned to their home. 

Garbaksh Singh died in 1776^ and his son Jodh Singh snccotdad to the 
estate which was worth about a lakh and a half. Jodh Singh and Sirdar 
Mahan Singh were great friends^ and both were always fighting with Sahib 
Singh Biiaagi of Qujrat^ w;ho had married the sister of the Sukarchakia 
chief. The peace which raignedi after the death of Sirdar Gujar Singh, 
between Ouj{-at and Giy ranwala, was broken by Sahib Singh in the follow- 
ing manner. Mahan Singh and Jodh Singh paid a complimentary visit to 
Sirdar Sahib Singh, who receiired them with much politeness, but when 
he had got them safe inside his fort he arrestod them both, and, rejoic- 
ing in his good luck^ sat down to dinner. But the young Sirdars did not 
care to wait till Sahib Singh had dined, and, making a rush, cut down 
the guards and escaped to their own camp^ after which the fighting went 
on briskly. Mahan Singh had the best of it on the whole, and took a 
large slice of his brother-in-law's territory. 

At the siege of Sodhra it is said that Jodh Singh betrayed his 
friend. Sahib Singh, who was besieged in the fort, was short of 



412 HisroBT or Tn 




, sad Us wammder wws cotam; \mi JoH Sia^ 
Oat IblHa Smgh mold bccot too povcrfyi were SoUb 
Sn^k dutiojedi ssppfied the latter wiA 9 
kadbeadai^aowlfiatibniiskmt the 
teMd yBdeaA^wUektsokpheeafrv dsjs after. Tks adm of JUi 
AHyiisflaidtoIiaTebeentiKcaiaeofBaBJh8Beli'8hflrtmtyloki& Bol 
notboDg is itquixcd to aeoooBt for tlie MsbaE^i's conduct bat Us SBbi- 
tion. He fiaiiid, for sone ycsis, thsi tibs Wniiabai ddrfamtoo 
slioiig to sItsdLy sad be cadc a fo ni ad om oae nrrMin» ta gaia bj stnfte- 
gm wbat be wm naaUe ta lake bf iBrce. He iarilBd /WA &i^ to 
Lahore^ bat be, so^eetiBg the Msbanga's do^ broqgbt a hige force 
wiflibim fitonn Wasiiabad. This Kaapt Sn^ deaired bim to aead bade, 
iriiidiytoo prondlodiGwfearybedidyaad amted wiL Labon with only 
aOOpid^mea. He atteaded Dttbar the aezt day wi& 25 Ma, whom 
be kft oQtnde, aod was leeetTod by the Ifabaiaia with tike giaatest Goar- 
tesy and bindm>« Saddealy Raajit Siagb loae^ aad nade a sign to bis 
attendants to aeise the Siidar. JS0A Snyft saw bis da^er and draw- 
ing bis swoid caDed on tiiem to attack bim as be £d not know bow 
to fly. BsDJit Singb k>Ted sbrsTe msn^ and Joii StsfiV gaUsntrj pnnred 
bis safety, for be was dismissed witb bonoor and licb gifts, and a grant 
of the Mehdianbsd lUka. After this Sirdar JoJi Sa^i lired at Wazira- 
bad in great stjle, looked up to by sU the neighbonring chie&. There is 
a notice, in the annals of the Etmily, of a European trareDer, owning a 
silTer leg, who Tisited Jodi Simgl aboat the year 1807. The name of the 
gentleman who travelled with a limb so hesvy snd so likely to excite the 
cnrio^ty of robbers b onfortonately not giren* 

Jodk Sim^l died in 1309, and as his sons were minors the Maharaja 
thought the time had come to seize the property. He marched to Wazi- 
rabad with a large force, bat the yoong Sirdar presenting him with a 
very large sum of money, he deferred his plan for the time, and granted 
to Oanda Simgk the cnstomary khQats of investitore. Very shortly after- 
wards, however, be sent a force to Wazirabad and confiscated the estates. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 413 

He indeed promised that when Amrik Sinffi and Ganda Singh shonid 
come to manhoody Wazirabad should be restored/ but this promise 
he never intended to perform. A jagir worth 10^000 Rs. was^ however, 
left for the support of the brothers, in Thib. A few years afterwards 
Amrik Singh died, and his share of the jagir was resumed. Oanda Singh 
received an appointment in the Ghorcharah]Kalani but soon after lost the 
remainder of the Thib jagir^ through the hostility of Baja Dhyan Singh. 
The Maharaja granted him soon afterwards Sangrian, Waddah Find and 
six other villages, worth 5,000 Bs. This was afterwards still further 
redaced| and in the reign of Sher Singh the Sirdar only possessed Adam- 
daraz and Kathor worth 2^000 Bs. 

At annexation this jagir was upheld for life, on payment of one-sixth 
nazrana, and on the death of Sirdar Ganda Singh, on the 22nd of August 
1855| it was continued to Hira Singh and his lineal descendants in per- 
petuity at half revenue rates. The settlement however much reduced 
the value of the property, and Hira Singh does not at present enjoy more 
than 600 Rs. per annum. 



SIRDAR NIDHAN SINGH, PANJHATHAH. 



BiTXdCHAB SlMOH. 

Ramdatt Siagh. 



Sahib Singk. Ban Singh. 

Kidhan Singh. Stgan Singh. Mai Singh. Mith Singh. Jamd Siogh. 

Jowala Alia Singh, Foojdar Singh, Hehtab Bin Wanr 

Singh. B. 1824. b. 1818. Singh. I^ogh. Singh. 

Udam 8in^, Sant Bingh, G«]ab Singh, Ajrjan Sinfi^ Siyan Singh, 

B. 1857. B. 1859. B. 1862. b. 1852. B. 1855. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The FftDJhAthah fkmily^ of Tour Rajput origiiii daioi to have descend- 
ed from Raja Dalip or Dehla^ the wise and just prince who» before 
Alexander had invaded India or Vikramajit had ascended the throne of 
Malwa, founded and ruled over the city of Dehli.* In the reign of 
Aurangzib, Kai Sehjran, an ancestor of Sirdar Nidhan Singh, emigrated 
to the Panjab and settled at Chawah Chhadah in the Jhelam district, 
where he lived for some 15 years and then removed to Amritsar, where 
his son Rai Than Wada founded the village Tvhich is still known by his 
name. 

Dulchah Singh was the first of the family to become a Sikh, and 
entered the service of Raja Ranjit Deo of Jammu, who gave him a jagir, 
and posted him \vith some troops to guard the frontier, where he was 

* Indraprasta, which is supposed to hare stood on the site of the present city of 
Dehli, was the capital of the Pandas, made over, according to the Mahabharat, to Yndishtira 
by his Kara coosin Dhnryodhan. Debia, who is said to have founded the modem Dehli and 
to have reigned there four year?, from 344 b. c. to 340 b. c, was defeated aad taken prisoner 
by Fhur, Baja of EumaoD, whom Hinda tradition identifies with Foras the opponent of 
Alexander. 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 113 

killed in an -engagement with the Sikhs. His son Rawidat Si«^/l joined 
the Sukarchakia confederacy under Sirdar Mahan Singh^ who gave him 
the command of 200 horsemen. He was killed in the battle of Manchar 
near BAmnagar, when Mahan Singh was defeated bj the Chattahs under 
Ghulam Muhammad Khan. His eldest son Sahib Singh was killed a few 
years later fighting against the same tribe. Ran Singh joined Banjit 
Singh about 1798^ and received the jagir of Cbapparwal in the Sialkot 
district. In 1807 he was one of the first in the storming of Narayangharj 
and was wounded in four places. He shortly afterwards fell into disgrace^ 
and hisjagirsi with the exception of the hereditary possession of Than 
Wada, were resumed. 

Sirdar Nidhan Singh ' entered the Ghorcharahs on 4 Rs. a day, and 
served in several campaigns. In the fiercely contested battle of Tehri| 
1823^ he greatly distinguished himself ; he was. several times wounded 
and his horse was killed under him, and the Maharaja rewarded him 
with a grant of fourteen villages in the Gurdaspur district^ worth about 
14^000 Rs. Gujar Singh and Mui Singh also received appointments in 
General Courtis brigade. Nidhan Singh accompanied the mission sent by 
the Lahore Government to Lord William Bentinck at Simla^ in 1831| 
and three years later he joined Sirdar Hari Singh Nalwa and Prince 
Nao Nihal Singh in the Peshawar expedition. He served throughout 
the campaign till 1837| when the death of Hari Singh and retreat of 
the Afghan army brought it to a close, and two years later he himself 
died, worn out before his time. Nidhan Singh won the name ' Panjhathah' 
meaning ' five handed ' by his valour. In every battle he was among the 
first to advance and the last to retreat, and his body was so covered with 
the marks of his courage that it was said that there was left no place which 
the hand could cover without a wound. 

Maharaja Ranjit Singh died the same year as Nidhan Singh, and the 
estates were confirmed to his son Jowala Singh by the new monarch 
Kharrak Singh ; Ala Singh being made commandant in the artillery. 



4U mmmn m m vjaois 




Vmjiar SMfl wis ia 1S5S qppjinted T lmmjiiii of Kakawaa, but 
watdbelBrgQiatde fias of tfce geoenl lednctioiis in ihe poGoe fi>ree. 
Hehtt latdy becomfcatei wilktiheZiiiaafuhip of 2^3Till«ge» in tteGar> 
6mpax dMdeL In ISj9 bs gmre eotdun infbnn:&U<m to tibe GommnBoner 
of Amritnr, wUdi kd to the discoferr of a ciimuial eocra^oadence 
lietwe e n Mahanmi Jindan^ thai raidcnt in Nepsl, and tone ft^point* 
edfenoosinltfhofennd Aantaaryaodfsr thif netofkipkf he received 
n preaentof MOBs. fiooi Gofamment 

St^ Simgl died in 1860. Daring the detention of Hijor George 
Lawrence and familj bj Sirdar Chattar Sin^h in 1849 he did his best 
to aanat theaii and on flie retom of peace recdved a small penaoo of 144 
Be. as an acknowledgment cH hisserrice. The indaw ot Jawala Singi 
receives a pennon from Government of 120 Bs, and the family hold the 
village of Fanja Chohan in proprietary right. 



THE SINBHU TRIBE. 



L JoALA Singh of Sindhu Wadalau. 

DiWAn Singh. 

HebUb Singh. 

Bhtm Singh. 

Tag Singh« 



JotU Singh. Nihal Singh* 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 
The SiiicHia tribe; of which the Etnheya Sirdars and thefamilj of 
Sirdar Sadho Singh Padhania are the chief representativeSyisof Rajput 
origin, and although there is a tradition that Sindhn its founder oame 
from Ghazni in AfghaniataBi the original home of the trilm was undonbb- 
edlj in the north west of Bajputana. Their chief settlements at the present 
day are in the Manjha. Lahore and Amritsar have numerous Sindhu vil- 
lages. There are many in Gurdaspur ; 90 in Gujranwala ; 50 in Sialkot y and 
a few in Gujrat. Further north the tribe is not found.^ Sindhu first settled 
in the Taran Taran parganna of the Amritsar district. Many years after 
Lis death; his descendant Mokal emigrated to Sialkotj where^ ten miles 
south of Daska, he founded a village to wliich he gave his own name* 
Several generations later Gajju founded| three miles to the east of Mokal^ 
another village^ which; as he was the eldest of the family, he named 

• The •pecuUtioni of Colonel Tod,I>e Golgnei snd otherf r^gerding Ihe Qetic ori|^ of 
the Jtts are weU known. Theti«ditfons«fllieP«iuSbjr»tiSa slmoetftnoMiiitivtoiBi^* 
pat descent and emigration to the Faigah from Central India. Ersn the Sindhu and Wsraidi 
JaU who claim a trana-Indoi origin are bj no meant nnanimooi, and portiona of both tribes 
refer to Rigpntanaae their sncieot home. And to no Imhrnes Si there a reeoid of aaf tribe 
emigration from the wett of the India : the fonndm of both Siadhnf and Waraieha htbm 
■poken of as eoUtary emigrante. There eeemi| tOO« nothing in the huigaage of the ftnjib 
JaU to laroar the theoty of Ofii0 ( 



418 HISTOBT OF THB 

Wadalah (Panjabi ; Wada, great). Diwan Singh in the latter days of 
the empire was made choudhri over the neighbouring villages and held 
three^ Kotli Kewal Ram, Chakri and Paharipurj in proprietary right. 
His son Mehtab Singh was a follower of the Bhangi chiefs and obtained 
from them several villages about Daska. After the death of Sirdar Gujar 
Singh Bhangi in 1788, Mehtab Singh was invited to Gujranwala by Sirdar 
Mahan Singh Sakarchakia. On his arrival there he was arrested, and 
a body of troops sent to seize the fort of Wadalah. The sons of Mehiab 
Singh contrived to beat off the assailants and their father was eventually 
released, promising to pay a heavy fine, for the performance of which 
promise Sultan Singh was kept as a hostage. Before it was paid^ however, 
Mahan Singh died, and Sultan Singh escaped from Gujranwala. On 
3f(P^^& &'M^i'« death his two eldest Bona Sham Singh Kni Nidkan Singh 
quarreled about the estate which they eventually divided. The brothers 
had no need to fight among themselves for there were man} neighbouring 
chiefe ready to fight them and eager to seize the estate. Of these Nidhan 
Singh Hattu of Daska, and Bhag Singh Hallowalia of Zaffarwal, who 
were always great allies, were the most determined. In 18l0« Maharaja 
Banjit Singh seized the greater part of the Sialkot district. Nidhan 
Singh Hattu, driven out of Daska, and Teg Singh, eldest son of Sham 
Singh took refuge in Kashmir and entered the service of the governor 
Atta Muhammad Khan, where they renewed their old quarrels. In 1813, 
when Wazir Fatah Khan and Diwan Mokham Chand drove Atta 
Muhammad out of Kashmir, Teg Singh joined the Sikhs, and returned 
with the Diwan to Lahore, where the Maharaja made him a commandant 
and gave him three villages in the Hoshiarpur district. At the battle of 
Attock, in July of the same year, Teg Singh fought under Mokham 
Chand and he accompanied the Kashmir expedition of 1819, when his 
local knowledge was of great value. He fought under Hari Singh Nalwa 
against Ghulam Ali Khakka and Zulfkar Ali Bamba ; in Hazara ; 
Peshawar and elsewhere, and died in 1843 at Dopatta in the Kashmir 
territory, Joala SiJigh^ when still a boy was provided for by General 



PAN JAB CHIEFS. 419 

Mian Singh the governor of Kashmir, who was murdered in April, 1841, 
by his mutinous troops, and at this time Joala Singh had a narrow 
escape with his life. He joined Ohulam Mohiuddin when he arrived 
to restore order, and held a command in the battle^ in August, 1844, 
when the insurgent«« were defeated and Raja Habibullah Khan of Pakhli 
slain. He retained the estate of his father till the second Panjab war, 
when it was confiscated for his rebellion. 



THE SINDHU TRIBE. 



II. KiRPAL Singh Chichabwala. 



Ladba. 



Sewft Siogh. 




Kodh Singh. . 


Hali Singh. 


Bhag Singh. 


Akha Singh. 


Gurbakih Singh. 
Jhanda Singh. 


MohrSing^. 
Amar Singh. 
Attar Singlu 


JoaU Singh, iLD. of 


Dewa 


Bhagwan Singh. 


Karindar Singh. 


Sirdar AtUr Singh 


Singh. 






Sindhanwalia. 
1 








Kirpal Singh, M. d. of 


Sant Singh. 






Sirdar Badan Singh 








Chinah, 








B. 1840. 









HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

LadAa was a lamberdar of the village of Chichah which bad beeu 
founded by an ancestor of that name, a Sindhu Jat^ many generations 
before. Sewa, son of LadAa, about the year 1720| adopted the Sikh faith. 
It was a time trying to the zeal of new converts. Banda the blood-thirsty 
follower of Guru Govind had been recently executed at Dehli| and a bit*, 
ter penecation was raging against the Sikhs who were put to death where* 
ever they were found. Sewa Singh fled with some companions to the 
wild region of the upper Ravi, and it was not for many years afterwards 
that he was able to return to his native village. He tamed robber, 
like most oi the Sikhs at that time, and fell at length in a foray in tho 



HISTORY OT TUB PANJAB CRIfcrs. 421 

direct! on of Lahore. Hisi brother Nodh Singk joined the force of Sirdar 
Gujar Singh Bhangi, and managed^ in the year 1767, to take and hold 
six villages in the Daaka pargannah, two named Balkawala ; Jalaf, 

Sahibran, Gilwala^ and Kalarwala. After Gajar Singh obtained posses- 
sion of Gojraty Nodh Singh received six other villages in the neighbourhood 
of that citjy but was killed shortly afterwards in a skirmish with Sultan 
Mukarrab, an officer of Ahmad Shah Durani. His son Ahha Singh suc- 
ceeded to the estate, but was killed in the year 1780 attempting to re- 
cover some cattle^ whicli Ghulam Muhammad the inveterate foe of the 
Bhangi misl had carried off. 

Akha Singh left no son^ and his brother Bagh Singh, who was a brave 
soldier, very largely increased the family possessions. He beoame a 
Sirdar, and held, under Gujar Singh, a jagir worth 40,000 Rs. After 
his death, without issue, his nephew Jhanda Singh remained in the service 
of Sahib Singh son of Gujar Singh, till Ranjit Singh having taken pos- 
session of Amritsar, and the power of the Bhangi misl being on the de- 
cline, he joined the young chief and obtained from him a grant of eleven 
villages in the Amritsar district, though he lost all the old jagirs in Guj- 
rat and Sialkot. Jhanda Singh fought in many of Ranjit Singh's cam- 
paigns, including those of Kashmir and Kangra. In 1833, he was killed 
in a private quarrel with one Jit Singh commandant, who also died of the 
wounds he received. Jhanda Singh appears to have been the aggressor 
in this affair, for on Jit Singh's family complaining to the Maharaja, all 
the jagirs of Jhanda Singh were resumed, with the exception of 
Chichah. Joala Singh his son was two years afterwards taken into 
favour and received back a portion of the jagir, subject to the service 
of 10 horsemen. He served for some time on the frontier, at Bannu and 
Kohat 

Joala Singh had married the daughter of Sirdar Attar Singh Sindhan- 
walia and this alliance brought great trouble upon him, for all his jagirs 
were confiscated by Maharaja Sher Singh when he ascended the throne. 



422 HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

When the Sindhanwalias came into favour the jagirs were released, bat 
were again resumed by Raja Hira Singh whoso father the Sindhanwalias 
had assassinated. 

Joala Sin^h died in 1844. His son Kirpal SiriffAwss then only 
seven years old, and Maharaja Dalip Singh confirmed to him Harrah, 
worth 700 Rs., a share in Taju, 300 Ks., and five wells in Chichah worth 
500 Rs. per annum. This jagir is still held by Kirpal Singh for life ; the 
wells at Chiehah being alone granted in perpetuity. 



THE SINDHU TRIBR. 



III. WaCHAN SfNGH OF TeHTAR. 

Chub Sivoh. 
Prem Singh. 



Lftklia Singh, 
D. 1807. 



Shamir Singh. 
D. 1822. 



I 
Mohr 

Singh. 



I 



Amar Singh, 
D. 1807. 



I 



Kew 
Singh, 
D. 1863. 



I 
llari 

Singh, 

B. 1852. 



Wachan 
Singh, 
B. 1804. 

I 

I 
Jaswant 

Singh, 
B. 1853. 



Balant 
Singh, 
D. 1842. 



Qulab 
Singh. 

I 
Gardit 

Singh, 

B. 1840. 



Surdul 
giugh. 



I 

Tej 

Singh. 



I 
Jiun 

Singh, 

D. 1844. 



I 
Joala 

Singh, 

B. 1830. 



I 
Rajindar 

Singh, 

B. 1836. 

I 



Sahib Singh, 
©. 1807. 

Sher Singh, 
D. 1861. 



Malkya Kamar Singh, 
Singh. B. 1839. 



I 
Lai 




Khushhal Bakahiah Teja 
Singh. Singh, Singh, Singh, 
B. 1860. B. 1862. B. 1853. b. 1859. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Chur Singh, a Sindhu Jat and choudhri of the village Telit&r near 
Lahore, was the first of the family to adopt the Sikh faith about 1 740. 
His grandson ZraHa 5t»^i joined Sirdar Charrat Singh Sukarchakia as 
a Sowar, and obtained Ilaka Ranjitghar^ in jagir, also four villages in the 
Gujranwala district. He with his three brothers, fought for his master 
in his long struggle with the Bhangi misl. Ue also distinguished himself 



424 HISTORY OF THS 

against Dharam SiQgh, better known as Fritasha^ whOj on Charraf 
Singh's death, trusting to the youth and weakness of his successor 
attempted to seize the chief power in the misl. Shamir Singh first came 
into notice in a battle against the warlike ChattahS| who had been ex- 
pelled from Bamnagar hf Ma&an Sbgh, afnd wHo nearly defeated Banjit 
Singh at Manchar in the ^ieinity of the city. The Maharaja had a 
fancy that swords weM move e&ctiive thaa five-arms, and directed his 
soldiers only to use the former in the battle. Shamir Singh retained his 
musket, and at a critical time, when tl^e Maharaja's troops were wavering, 
shot the leader of the Chattahs dead* Shamir Singh was a celebrated 
shot, but he preferred the bow to the musket, and in his hand* the bow 
was a deadly weapon. In 1808, by direction of the Maharajft} he built 
the fort of Govindghar at Amritsar. There had before been a fort on 
the same spot, built by Sirdar Gujar Singh Bhangi, but it was of no 
great strength. Shamir Singh wad appointed Tbannadar of the new fort, 
and held the post some years. He was succeeded by Fakir Imamuddin. 
He served in many campaigns, and at Kot Budhi Khan, during the 
war against the Fathans of Kassur, was almost killed by a spearman of the 
enemy who rushed upon him from behind when he was engaged with his 
favourite bow, which he did not find of much use at close quarters. 
In this Kassur campaign Lakia Singh was killed, and in the same year 
too were killed the two other brothers Amir Singh and Sahib Singh, the 
former in the Kangra hills, the latter before Sujanpur. In 1819 Shamir 
Singh was transferred as Thannadar to Nurpur. He died in 1822 and 
was succeeded in his jagir by his eldest son. JFachan Singh served at 
Peshawar, Kashmir, Tehri, and at many other places with credit. In 
1S48 be was sent, with his sowars, to Multan^ under the command of 
Sirdar Lai Singh Kalianwala, but joined the rebels and fought against 
the British, at Ramnagar and Gujrat. After annexation his jagir was 
resumed, and he received a cash pension of 100 Bs. which he still holds. 
He is also proprietor of half the village of Tehtar, in the Lahore district. 
His brother Kesr Singhy who enjoyed a pension of 120 Rs., died in 



1863. Several members of the family took service in 1857. Rajindar 
Singh as duffadar in Hodflon's Horse, and Indar Singh his brotherj now 
orderly to the Lieotenattt Governor. JTumar Singh and Maliya 
Singh entered the Guide corp9> tike knmfit as jamadar and the latter 
as daffadar. Bishan Singhy aom of QmdU Singh, a member of the 
family not included ia this Btatementjt served with credit inChioa* A 
younger brother of Owdit Singh, bg same Sam Singih^ has lately 
entered the same regiment (10th Bengal Cavaby) as his oouain Sajmdap 
Singh^ 



^JS HirrOBY OF THE 



THE SINDHU TRIBE. 



IV, Bhag Singh Kontal. 

Desa Singh, the grandfather of Bhoff Singh of Eontal| was a relative 
of Sirdar Jai Singh the great Eanheya chief. His Iiistory is that of Jai 
Singh, for he was his subordinate and accompanied him in his many 
expeditions. He built the fort known as Desa Singhwala in the 
Amritsar district, and Eontalpur near Pathankot. His son Tei Singh 
succeeded to the estate and fought under Mai Sada Kour, the head of 
the Kanheya misl, against the Ramgharias. The estate, on the death 
of Tek Singh^ was reduced to 10,000 Rs., and on the death of Sher Singh, 
his eldest son, to SjOOO Bs., at Kontal, Ban, Eandarwari and Mangalian. 
Thus it remained till annexation, when the village of Kontalpnr worth 
1, 1 00 Bs. was released to the three brothers Mag Singh^ Bndh Singh and 
Nihal Singh, on payment of quarter revenue. Their respective shares in 
this village descend to their male heirs in perpetuity. 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 427 



THE SINDflU TRIBE. 



V. Rattan Singh op Kot Diwan Singh. 

Diwan Singh was a follower of Sirdar Charrat Siagh Sukarchakia, 
and fought under him against the Chattahs. He built tho Tillage Kila 
Di^van Singh in the Gurdaspar district, and his holding consisted of the 
villages Badangily Chak Chattah and Kotghar, worth about 3,000 Rs. 
He was killed in a fight witli Nar Muhammad Chattah at Akalghar. 
His only son Ilukn Sinji entered the foroe of Sirdar Mahan Singh and 
on his death that of Ranjit Singh, and served in the Kassur, Kangra^ 
Jacb, Multan and Yusafzai campaigns. He wis killed on the banks of 
the Lunda or Landai River in an afifair with the Yusafzais. On the death 
of Hubn Sififfh, the village of Kila Diwan Singh and Kotghar were 
confirmed to his son Sobah Singh who had served under Misr Diwan Chand 
and Bhawani Sahai in Kashmir. He was engaged in all the battles on 
the North West frontier ; Khakka, Bambaj Saidu, Tehri and Peshawar. 
In 1848 he remained loyal, and, with Sirdar Bur Singh Mokerian, fur- 
nished the British army with supplies. After annexation his two villages 
were maintained to him on payment of one quarter revenue. His eldest 
son Rattan Singh holds Kotjodh worth 100 Rs. Sarup Singh, his second 
son, was killed in the battle of Sobraon. 



42S HISTORY OP THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 



THE SINDflU TRIBE. 



VI. Jhanda Singh Philuwasiah. 

This Sindha family does not require any particular notice. Amir 
SififfA, a good soldier^ was killed at Manchar, and his brother Karam 
Singh at Daska, in 1810, The four sons of Karam Singh served in the 
Orderlies^ and in Baja Uura Singh's brigade. Three of the &mily. Amir 
Singh, Dal Singh and Ganda Singh joined the rebels at Peshawar 
in 1848, and their jagirs were confiscated. The sons olHari Singh, who 
died in 1857-58 and whose jagir was maintained for his loyalty in 1848^ 
hold a jagir nominally worth 500 Bs« though its value has been reduced 
in the late settlement. 



THE SIDHU TRIBE. 

I. Kabah Singh^ UtHIA19WALA. 

Kafub Sikgb. 



Lakk a Singh. Sakka Singh. Jodh Singh* 



I Amir Si 



Amir Siogh. 



DitU Singh. Bagh Singh. Djal Singh. Dal Singh. Fatah ffin^ 

Earam Singh. Bndha Singh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 
Ghumman, the founder of the Sidhn Jat tribe^ came originally from 
Bhata in Malwah, about SOO years ago^ daring the reign of the Emperor 
Akbar^ at the .invitation of the famous chowdhri Changa^ whose daughter 
he married^ and settled near Taran Taran in the Amritsar district, where 
he founded a village named Sidhu which it still the residence of one part 
of the family. The four branches of the family now of any importancej 
will be treated of in order, but although once very powerful and in poi- 
session of large jagirs, the Sidhus have now fallen into decay and have 
little or no political importance. 

Kapur Singh^ the seventh in descent ftom GhummaUi the founder of 
Sidhu, lived during the reign of Muhammad Shah, and first became dis^ 
tinguished as the successful plunderer of an imperial caravan proceedings 
with rich giftSj from Dehli to Mecca. The caravan was, however, robbed 
on strictly religious principles, and the silver doors of the Darshani of 
the Amritsar Temple, bear witness, to this day, to the piety of the rob- 
bers. Kapur Singh obtained both wealth and reputation by this exploit^ 
and his wife and the wife of the powerful Sirdar Gujar Singh happening 
to be both pregnant at the time, it was agreed that if a boy and a girl 



430 aiaKBz m tsi fasub 





bani,:^ifaoiiidbtat«ieektmaed. ThtwiStol Ki^gr Simgi 
mma mzT p9^}ardi ta a.maij A^tmaam MA Siaf i^MndSkd^ Gujar 
aiiiga'3 wim jpringhtttfc»>pJ,fteriafiiB wtte betroiliedy and when 
ttar jKWTO '•are inwn'ffrf Hns tbat nas of MiMpgr Sm^ leqmred sc- 
S-fi tMk t iiM B i r i i B rfUA«; L^ifa St«yi of 
. ^ iKilhwit taBe% m gratpnt of the Soir- 
::&eIBifcBaflig:^Gm3iwalayKamI and 

Skjimi^ T^ lepnUdonof/adi 

Ba^ Scagh jist before tke 

i 5& ZTlBia. ^Bi Aflt dUsef B iiifwiaiil to hiTe nid that 

A m CBK — toni^ to i ^ hoitflity of all the 

Ik^maaamt^^HmwAMaBt n& Chet Singh of La- 

lof thecitj. 

■teet Ikoigii a long life of 

imm tqwaHj faitmiate and 

iBanjitSbgh. Bat 

r-is mtSLmJbaBT Jfa^Aai t^iy&e whsAt estate wasconfis* 

itkBi^i^li^lkefiiBrfBlmsBibeisof this finsiilj, 

^ m 'Ac Sdbr ^m pIbbbI ^ader the command of 

- ^g^r-^^ r\e ws^ sms «: SiUs S^ received 5^000 Bs. a 





«f &c£Huly» served in many 

Hazara. He receiVetiy 

to the setvioe of three 

«f lii fimdy> the rebel army 

CBMeqneBtly resatned ; but 

ad prvprietary rights over 

His cousin Budha Sin^h 

lS57j and is now DA&dar in a 



THE SIDHU TEIBE. 



II. Dbwa SnfOH 09 SiDKtr. 

Dtal Sxhoh. 
Bhagwiii flkigiu 



I ^ 1 — ^^ — ""^ — L ■ " 1 

Chuttar SiBflh. BhnpSioKh. Badh Singh. Jaquyat Singh. 



Xiki 8iii|^ WMh Siflfh. 

I/6W1 DiDgbf Ifwltlb Dingh. ' 



ilagh. OMuuffllngh. Qoriiiaii^ 

I I 

LtluMltegk WflMw^Sfaigh. 

HlfTORT or THK rAMIkY* 
Dyal Singh was the first of tUs bnaioh of the Kdhii familj to become 
a Sikh^ and was killed in battle near Anaodpuri in 1698, His son 
Biagwan Singh supported himself aa much by plunder as by agriculturej 
and his grandson Ariel Singh, haying built a fort at Sidhu, and having 
collected some 200 horsemen^ contrived to make himself master of 
forty surrounding villages. He had connected himself with several of the 
powerful neighbouriog chiefs^ marrying one son to a daughter of Sirdar 
Gujar Singh of Lahoroj and another to a daughter of Sirdar Sudh Singh 
Dodia ; so that he was not disturbed in his modest possessions. His 
son Budh Singh, who succeeded him^ was less fortunate^ for Sirdar Amir 
Singh of SowriaUi his kinsman^ having invaded the estate and carried 
off a large quantity of plunder^ Budh Singh pursued him^ and was killed 
in an ambuscade laid by the enemy. Shortly afterwards Banjit Singh 
seized most of the Sidhu territory, leaving in the possession of Kahn 
Singh about fifteen villages subject to the service of 25 sowars. He also 



432 SI8T0BT OT THB PANJAB CHIITg. 

made Kahn Singh commandant in a oavaliy regimenti and gave Fatah 
Singh a subordinate appointment. Faiak Singh was killed in the 
Kangra campaign^ in 1809» and his jagir was given to his brother 
Kahn Singh, who, however^ did not enjoy it long, as he fell, with 
Jamigai Singh and other members of his funilji in the onsnooessfiil 
Kashmir expedition of 1814. 

Dewa Singh, who was an in&nt at the time of his father's deaths 
received a grant of fonr villages worth 8,000 Bs. for his maintenancci 
subject to the service of four bowhtb, and in 1838 was placed in Prince 
Eharrak Singh's force. In 1848 he remained faithful to Gov- 
ernment and did good service against the rebel Dhara Singh of 
Gogaira. His viUages, Bhudan, Bhattianwala, Dhar and DOlokii worth 
2,500 Bs., were released to him fw life, on payment of two-fifths as 
nazarana, and on hii death Bhudan and Bhattianwala will be maintained 
in perpetuity to his heiiSi on payment of one^third nazarana. 

Dewa Singh resides at Sidhoan or Sidhu in the Lahore district^ the 
village founded by his anoestor Ghnmman. 



THE SIDHU TRIBE. 



III. EiaHAN Singh op Bhilowal. 



Budha Singh. Bam Singh. Tag Chand. 

Jai Singfa. Mah! Singh. 

DaMonda Singh. Ghanda Singh. 
Kitfun Singh. Bhagwan Sin^h. 

Aia Singh. Lehaa 8ing)i. Hangal Singh. 

HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

The Bhilowal branch of the Sidha family includes no chief of any 
importance. Budia Singh made himself master of a good many villages 
in the Amritsar district, and was killed in one of Ahmad Shah's invasions. 
HiB brother JSasi Singh succeeded to the estate, but in the early days of 
Sikh history few chiefs died in their beds, and after some years he also 
was killed in battle. His son Jai Singh was a mere child, at the time 
of his fother^s deaths and MM Singi took possession of the estate, which 
he considerably increased and managed with much yigonr and wisdom, 
till Jai Singh grew np and demanded his rightful inheritance. He was satis- 
fied with obtaining from his cousin the two villages of Bhilowal and Kho- 
chakwal and died two years after the arrangement, leaving an infimt son 
Da$9(mda Singh, from whom Maki Singh took back Ehochakwal, which 
he had only given to Jai Singh with great reluctance. But Maharaja Banjit 
Singh seized the possessions of both, with the greatest impartiality, allow- 
ing Dasionda Singh 3,000 Bs. per annum, with which he was to supply 
five sowars to the Sovrrian Derftb, which was first under Prince Sher 



434 HltlOlT OF THE PANIAB CHIEFS. 

Sm^ and litterly under Jtmadir KhiuUial Singh. After his fftther'0 
death Kuhm &mgk took his pheein this regiment^ bat the contingent 
WW niaed to nine sowing which be had^io fnniish till the annexation of 
the Flmjab, when his jagb ifaa eonfiscatedj as he had joined Baja Sher 
Singh* 

JBiln SiMfi itaides atBhilowalj in the Amritsar district and holds 
a penaion of 240 Bs. per ttuaqnu 



THE SIDHU TRIBE. 



IV. IsAR Singh Sowrianwala. 
Kafus Siroh. 



— _j 

Lakha Singh. fihikh* Singh* Jodh Siigh. 

Amir Singh. 



Ranjtt Singh, Badh 8ingh« Amu* Singh. Sarap 8ingh« 



D. 1894. I 

M. o. of Sirdar Fatah Singh, Karam Singh. 
Kalianwala. 



Dhanna Singh, 
j>, 1846. 



Baj Singh. Jowahir 8ingh« 



Kihal Singh. liar Singh, GtfmnkhSiagk 

I B. 1809. . I 

Karain Ichhar Singh, Nidhan Sin|^, 

Siogh. B. 1883. 1. 1842. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The history of Kapur SingJi and his famous Bon JodA Singh is girea 
in the statement of Karam Singh Uthianwala } a short acooont of another 
branch of the family may here be given* Lakka Singh held the krge 
estate of Awan to whichj on his death, his eldest son -Banjtt Singh snc- 
ceeded. He had married the daughter of the celebrated Fatah Singh 
Kalianwala, and when that chief was killed in 1807 at the storming of the 
fort of Narayanghar, Ran/U Singh Sidha succeeded to a large portion of 
his jagirs ; the remainder going to Dal Singh Nahamah. Also on the death 
of Amir Stngk^ son of Sirdar Jodh 5tii|^A^ without issue, he received the 
jagir of Sowrian, worth 1,50^000 Rs. subject to the service of 300 sowars. 
He only held this jagir for two years^ after which it was conferred on 
Prince Sbcr Singh. He served at MultaUj Theri and Kachhi^ and was 



436 HI8T0ST OF THE PA5JAB CHIEFS. 

killed in letioa at Glidi Sjunrial^ in 1836. On his death all his jagirs 
wcxe RNoned with the ezeqption of 15^000 Bs. principally from the 
eitate of Siidir Filih Singh, which Was confirmed to Uar Singh and 
GwrwukkSmgi. 

hmr SiM§h eerred with credit it Derah Ismul Khan and Peshawari 
and in 18S4 went with Pdnce Kharrak Singh on his expedition to 
Tank and Mittankot In 1837 he contrived to offend the authorities at 
Lahore and all his jagics were taken from him, with the exception of 
the village of Salimpnrah. He was, howeveri made a commandant of 
42 sowars, on 800 Bs. per annum, and placed under the command of 
Sirdar Lehoa Singh Sindhanwalia. Samp Bingh^ uncle of I%ar Singh, 
retained his jagirs ; but at his deathj his son Dhanna Singh having been 
killed at Sobraon, thej were resumed. 

Iq 1847 KiihiM Singi'i contingent was reduced to fifteen horse, 
and leaving these at Lahore, he went to Bannu with Lieut. Edwardes 
and afterwards to Multan. He returned to Lahore with Sirdar Attar 
Singh Kalianwala, escaping from the rebel army with difficulty, and 
only bringing back three of the fifty horsemen he had taken with him. 
He was then sent to Dinanagar under Sirdar Shamsher Singh Sindhan- 
walia and afterwards to Find Dadan Khan. At annexation he received 
a pension of S60 Rs. which he still enjoys. 



ARJAN SINGH CHAHAL. 



I 

Amar Singh. 



NiHALA SlNQH. 
I 

Hatha Singh. 



KaiDAr Singh. 



I 



I 
Nodh SiiK^b, 



Karam Singh, 
D. 1823. 

Gormokh Singh, 
D. 1836. 

Joala Sii^b, 
D. 1846. 

I 

^rjan Singh, 

B. 1845. 
I 
Ikbal Singh, 

B. 1868. 
HISTORY OF THE FAWILY. 

KatAa Singh, a Chahal Jat^ was, with his brothers, in the service 
of the Bhangi Sirdars Lehna Singh and Gujar Singh, who, in 1764| had 
taken possession of Lahore. No one of them rose to any importancei 
but held small service jagirs. Katha Singh was killed in a skirmish on 
tlie borders of Bahawalpar and his son Karam Singh succeeded to the 
jagirs worth 5,000 Rs. For some years Karam Singh fonght with the 
Bhangi misi, and he became known for gallantry and ability, till in 1799 
Ranjit Singh took Lahore from Ghet Singh son of Sirdar Lehna Singh. 
Karam Singh at first followed the fortunes of his old master to whom 
Ranjit Singh had given a jagir of 60,000 Rs., but seeing at last that it 
was useless to remain with one who could not advance his inter- 
ests in any way, he took service with the Maharaja, who gave him 
several villages in Ajnala. He rapidly rose to favour and became a very 
powerful Sirdar. After the Pindi Bhattian and Jhang expeditions he 
received several new villages in jagir, and after the Kassur campaign, 



43S K:srcwT cw tsi fisjiM arars. 



t be had ftfffhBj £ttim(^\mh il Ttrnwrff, Baeyt ^iitg^ 8"^ ^^ ^^e 
JkkmatDodaihndKkmam^ Ha Jigxciit lengA lesKfed &e 
rfl^^OGOBiL nlJKt toOe «mee «f 29DbaaeBi 

tbeTiIbeoUdli7il/7»SiyiaC&epnasi^. Sn^rX^rHB Sim§i 
feQiiiortalljvoaiiiiedl^ a Billet bin, in ^battle of T^^ a 1S23, 
wbentbe wiU TaB£m Gbam s> anrlT dsfemsed tke bait SiU tzoops. 
Hewas csmedtobis teat but fied tbe felloviagdsT, aadbk Iob w 
&h botb by tbe Xafeanp ai tbe annj, m wbkb be bebicoB- 
of the Gbnrkba hattalinn His ool j sarTxrias aoa 
WfcefdrH to tbe wbole jagxr. Ibk Tooag maa bad already i 
jeazs serwed under bs Cidicr aadbad Samfjkl m tbe battle of Tben. 
Wben IKwan Cbimi Lai vaa appoialed g uieiBM of ITMbaiii' after 
Diwaa Moti Bam bad been fat tbe eeesnd time lecaDedy OmrmmJU 
Siagi warn sent to mppoKt bim, aad be rriaifnfd tbere two yean. In 
1836 be waa ordered to Kobat iriiere be did good and gaDant aerriee, 
bntwas eazried offby cbdera ia Sepieniber of tbat yev. Jomlm Sia§i 
was at tbe time of bii btber'a deatb only kmr yean old, and tbe 
Mabant^zeaomedaD tbe cstalBi, witb tbe exception of one wortbBa. S.000 
wbich was pbced mider tbe saperinteodenea of Bqa Hira Sagb. 
Jcala Simgi himself died in 1516, at tbe age of twenty foor, leaving one 
son Arfam Sin^h aged seren. For bis sappoit and in oonsideration of bis 
£unily, Maharaja Dalip Singh released two Tillages Ghari and Tiahisnj 
together worth 1000 ViM., whidi on the annexation of the Ftojab were 
confirmed to him for life, with l\ wells at Chahal, in the Tazan Taran 
pargsnna of tbe Amzitsar district, which have been leleaaed in perpe- 
taity. 



SAHIB SINGH OF KARIAL. 



LaL SlllOH. 

Bagh Sinp^h. 

Jodh Singh. 

Bahib Singh, 
B. 1809. 

Jowahir Singh, 
B. 1834. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The soHthem portion of the Gujranwala district ii to so great an 
extent peopled by Jati of the Wirk tribe that the country from 
Shaikhopnra to Miraliwala bas long been known as the ' Wirkayat 
Tappa/ Over this tract Lai Singi, a Wirk Rajput emigrant from 
Jammu> held svray in the early days of the Sikh confederacies. His son 
Sirdar Ba^k Singk^ under Charrat Singh and Mahan Singh, acquired 
great power^ and held a Urge portion of the Gujranwala and Shaikho- 
pura pargannahs. When Ranjit Singh obtained possession of Lahore 
Bagk Singh was one of the most powerful chiefs in the neighbourhood 
of that city^ but it was not long before he was compelled to become a 
feudatory and was placed in command of the Wirkayat Horse, with 
a jagir worth one lakh and a half of rupees, consisting of eighty-four 
villages in the vicinity of Karial Kalan, and lUCiraliwala. Bagk Singh died 
in 1806, and his only son Jodk Singh succeeded to his jagirs, and to the 
command of the Wirk force. He served in most of the Maharaja's 
campaigns, till 18! 4, when he was killed in the first unsuccessful Kash- 
mir expedition. His son Sahib Singh was then but six years of age, and 
the family estates, with the exception of three villages, worth 1,700, Rs., 
were resumed. When Sahib Sinfh grew up he received command of his 



440 H18T0BT OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

father's regiment, and a jagir worth 3,500 Rs., and subseqnently was 
made commandant in the Rattan Singh Man Regiment. His estate at 
this time only c onsisted of Budha Garaiab in the Onjranwala district, 
and he also received a cash allowance of SOO Rs. He was implicated to 
some extent in the re bellion of 1848, and his jagir was confiscated. At 
present he holds a pension of 240 Rs. His only son Jotcahir SiftfAis 
Sabhadar in a native regiment. 



JIUN SINGH BIKHI. 



Sahib Sxnoh. 



I 

ArbtlStogb. Dal skgh. 



I "T T 

lYidbfln Singh, Sujsn Singh. FoojdAr Singh. 

D. 1S6I. 



I ,-L 



I I I I 1 

B. UukmKour, B. Khem Konr, Wtsawa Mehtab Sarapa 

II. S. Bahadar Singh, M. 8. Dal Singh, Singh, Singh. Singh. 

Gogaira. Waraldi. 8. 184S. 



I , * - 

Jian Singh, Ja^gat Anfklf 

u. Daughter of 8ii^h« Qin^ 

S. Kbaaan Singh, I 

Mokai I 



I 



Chattar Sadho 8h«r Btg Partab Didav Mola Saat Jaaw'ant 

Singh. Singh. Singh, Singh, Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. 

M . Daughter v. Daughter 

of Badan of S. Battaa 

Singh, Chlni. Singh, MokaL 

HISTORY OF THK FAMILY. 

This family was of Bome respectability in the reign of the Emperor 
Akbar, when one of its meoibersi Bai Laln^ was made cbowdbri of 
thirty villages. This post the family retained for fonr generations till 
Sakii Singh and his brother Sahai went to Amritsar where they took 
the 'pahaP and became Sikhs* Being already possessed of some 
wealth they had no difficulty in following the prevailing fashion of col- 
lecting a band of horsemeiii and ravaging the neighbouring country. 
Their most successful expedition was against Shaikhopura which they 
captured, and having ejected the Lobanah tribe from its holdings, made 
if their head-quarters. Their great rivals and enemies Were the Kharrals, 
and in one of the fights with this tribe, Sahai Singh was slain, and no 
long time afterwards, Sahib Singh also fell, fighting with the very same 



442 HISTORY OF TUB PAKJAB CHIBFI. 

Lobaaaha whom he liad driven from Shaikhopara amd whose new settle- 
ment at Mian Mir he was endeavouring to seize. The sons of SaAii 
Singh and Saiai Singh succeeded conjointly to their father's estate, and 
held it in peace till 180S^ when Maharaja Ranjit Singh turned his arms 
against them. For some time the cousins defended the fort of Shmkho- 
pura successfuUyi itnd were at length induced to surrender by Mit 
Singh Padhania and Nihal Singh Attariwala who p]:omised to procure 
estates for them. The Maharaja gave them jagirs worth 40,000 Rs., 
in the Lahore and Gogaira distncts. Amir Singh was made commandant 
in Amar Singh Majithia's force, and was sent to Attock where he was 
soon after killed near Burj Raja Hodi^ in a skirmish with the mountain 
tribes. His jagirs were^ however, distributed among the surviving 
members of the family. Shamir Singh and Bagh Singh received ap- 
pointmentsin the Charyari * and the Ohorcharahs respectively. During 
the reign of Ranjit Singh the family were continually engaged in active 
service, and till his death retained their jagirs intact. Bhagel Singh 
died a few years before the Maharaja, and Dal Singh, Hira Singh and 
Hari Singh shortly after^ in 1839. Kishan Singh and Foujdar Singh both 
fought in the Satlej campaign, while Jiun Singh and his cousin Nidhan 
Singh remained at Lahore, with the force in charge of the city. Al- 
most all the members of the family joined the national party in 1849^ 
and were among flie troops who gave up their arms At Rawalpindi. 
Their jagirs, which amounted to 8,000 Rs., were confiscated. Pensions 
of 200 Rs. were given to the widows of Hira Singh and Hari Smgh^ and 
to Arbel Singh a pension of 300 Rs., which he still enjoys. Nidhan Singh, 
who received a pension of 60 Rs., died in 1861. The family is of the 
Wirak Jat tribe, and originally came from Jammu. 

^ Tha Charyari Hone obtotned itc njune irom tha four friends ^dur-Kar^, Sirdaia 
Bhop Singh Saidhn, Chet Singh and Ram Singh Soddozai and Hardai Singh Bannia. Tbete 
yonng men handiome and weU dressed were alwaji together, and the Mahftraja was so 
pleased with their stjle that he called a body of horse after them. 



BAGH SINGH HASSANWALA. 



Ram Sinqh. 



Gurmukh Singh. 



r 

Sher 
Singh. 



Gajjt 
Singh. 



Dharam 
Singh. 



SuUu Singh. 
I 



Sin 



Attar Singh. 



Fartab Singh. 



Biaban 
Singh, 
B. 1834. 



Fatah 
Singh, 
B. 1838. 

Lehna Singh, 
B. 1860. 



Fardhan Sardal 

Singh, Singh. 
B. 1816. 
I 

I 

Ladha 
Singh, 
B. 1846. 



Bagh 

Singh. 

B. 1826. 



Kihal Ehnshhal 
Singh. Singh, 



Amrik Singh, 
B. 1851. 



Bhaggat 
Singh, 
B. 1858. 



, I 
Jaggat 

Singh, 

B. 1865. 



Ik6al Kanak 
Singh, Singh, 
B. 1861. B. 1864. 



HISTORY OF THK FAMILY. 

When Bam Singi, who was the son of a Khatri of Hassanwala in the 
Gajranwala diatricti was quite a hoy, he was taken into the household 
of Sirdar Charrat Singh Sukarchakia, and when he grew up he rode in 
the chief's troop. Mahan Singh^ son of Charrat Singb^ was his ' potrela,'* 
having been by him initiated into the Sikh faith^ and during 
his short life he treated Ham Sinyi with great consideration and 
gave him large jagirs. In 1813 he introduced his two elder sons into 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh's service^ and a few years later the two younger, 
Aitar Singh and Partab Singh, received appointments in the Ghorcharah 
Kalan. Sirdar Bam Singh was a fine old soldier^ and with his sous served 
in the campaigns of Kashmir^ MultaUi Mankeraj Peshawar and fianno. 
In 1824, SAcf Singh, eldest son of GMrmuH Singi^ was made commandant, 

* The term * potrela' aomewhat eorreaponds to the Engliih word ' godton.' The deriTttioo 
if < putr ' a son, and < rolah ' another ; and expreatas the nlatioa which a man hean to the 
person who has initiated him into the Sikh faith hj the rite of the ' pahal/ whieh retemhlei^ 
in a great mcaiure, the Christian rite of baptiam. 



444 HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

and in 1829| his brother Gajja A'»^A entered the Ghorcharahs. Ram 
Singh* 8 ]2i^rs were worth about 20|000 Ba. He lived to the close of Ranjit 
Singh's reign^ and then, having served grandfather, father and son faith- 
fully and well, died in 1839, aged ninety-five years. 

On the death of Ram Singk^ the larger portion of hia jagirs were re- 
sumed^ but his three surviving sons Gurmukk Singhy Smkka Singk and 
Aitar Singh received jagirs of 2,200 Bs., 1,500 Rs. and 1,000 Us. respec- 
tively. On the outbreak of the rebellion of 1848, most of the family 
joined the rebels, and Gajja Singh and Sardul Singh fell at Chillianwala. 
The jagirs were consequently resumed. Sukha Singh does not appear to 
baFB joined the rebellion. He w«b at the time a cripple and unable to 
move from his bed, and his jagir would have been released had not his 
death occurred in 1850. 

In 1857, Bagh Singh, son oi Attar Singh, was taken into Oovernment 
employ as Jamadar and was sent down country, where he did good ser- 
Tiee natil the reduction of the army at the dose of the campaign. He 
reenved a gntnt of two wells at Bamnagar, for life. The houses bdong- 
ing to the family, which had been attached in 1849, were also rdeased. 
BiihoH Siftgh is a sowar in a cavalry regiment. 



iSAR SINGH BOAKHA 



Cmmmmat Binqs. 

I 



■^- 



JodhSinglu Subha Singh. Soba Singhy Qodh 

D.1804. 



iSii 



Hari Singb, 
D. 1857. 

Isar SiDgh, 



Att&r Singh, Chattar Singb, Mehtab Singh, 

B. 1844. B. 1858. B. 1861. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The ancestors of Isar Singi came into the Panjab from Malwah about 
the beginning of the 17th century, and settled near Chunian in the 
Lahore district. In 1738 they made a second move to the village of 
Bhakha, in the Amritsar district^ from which they derive their family 
name. Sirdar Charrai Singh was the son of a sister of Sirdar Sawal 
Singh Ulakhwala, a powerful Bhangi chief. On the death of Sawal Singhj 
without issue, the estate was divided by the Sikh Gurmata or national 
council between Nar Singh Chamyari, the ' potrela ' of the deceased^ and 
Char rat Singh the sister's son. The share of Nar Singh was the larger, 
but the jagirs of Charrai Singh were valuable and extensive, and he held 
them till his death. His son Soba Singh held jagirs worth 40,000 Bs. 
subject to the service of 150 horsemen, from Sirdar Hakikat Singh 
Kanhcya, but Maharaja Banjit Singh in the year 1802 seized all but 
7,000 Rs. subject to the service of 5 horsemen, who with Soba Singh 
were employed in Ghorcharah Kalan. The estate was soon afterwardi 
further reduced to 2,1 16 Bs. at Guraliah and Bhakka, Soba Singh having 
displeased the Maharaja by refusing to give him his daughter in marriage. 



446 HISTORY OF THB PANJAB CHIEW. 

Soba Singh died In 1824, and the village of Oaraliah was resamed, and 
the village of Bhakka worth 600 Be. alone left to Hari Singh. 

In 1848| Eari Singh, with his contingent, served under the orders of 
Captain Hodson at Bangal Nangal and elsewhere^ and remained faithful 
throughout the disturbances. On the annexation of the country the jagir 
was upheld to him. He died in 1857, and to his son Isar Singh half the 
village of Bhakka, in the Sowrian parganna, where he resides, has been 
maintained in perpetuity. 



RATTAN CHAND DOGAL. 



Shiy^Dtal. 

I 



Shaokar My a Kanheya Jowahir Ram Sham Trikta Qovind 

Daa. Das. Lai. MaL Naram. Das. Sabai. Sahai. 

foti Raai. 



I 
Qaoesb Das. 

Prem Das. 



Battan Cbaad. ^Lhakar Das. Nand Gopal. 

Karam Qumd. Bbagwan Da9. 



I I 

Manohar Lai. Narinjan Das. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

About the year 1635, during the reigu of the Emperor Shah Jahan, 
Baba Harj/a Ram settled at Wazirabad, which had lately been rebuilt by 
Wazir Khan the imperial governor who gave it his own name. Harya 
Ram served the governor for many years, and when his sons grew up 
to manhood, abandoned worldly affairs and founded a sect of his owq, 
still extant and known by the nam^of Harmilapi.* 

The first of his descendants to take service with the Sikhs was 
Kishan Kour, who was a. follower of Sirdar Gurbaksh Singh Wazirabadia, 
the friend and ally of Sirdar Charrat Singh ; and 8Aiv Lyal, son of 
Kishan Kour^ entered the employ of the Sakarchakia chief. The revenue 

• Tbis re1ig:iou8 sect is better knowa oo the fnmtier thaa in the Sikh partofUra 
Pan jab. Ram Kishan, ohela or folloirer and adopted son of Svami Chetangir, came to 
Wazirabarl at the begin oing of the 18th centary and took ai his chela Harya Ram. Milawa 
Mai, a merchant of Dera,Ismail Khan, Tiiited Waxirabad and waa so itmok with the piety and 
wisdom of Harya that he became a ditciple and brought hii whole wealth ioto the concern, 
which took the name of both friendaandia now known as Harmilapi. The head-qnarters of 
the sect is at Dera Ismail Khan, and the present mohant is Bam Plyara. One Thakur- 
dwara is at Choniot, another at Chakowal. The disciples are of Tariooa castes ; some bare 
giren ^p worldly aflfairs : others carry on basines.^. The former wear clothes of a reddisji 
brown color. 



448 HISTORY OP THE 

arrangements of the Sikhs were rade enough in these early days, and 
regarding Siiv DyaVs management of the Sukarcbakia jagirs there is 
nothing to record. When Ranjit Singh conquered the Dhanni country 
he made SAiv Bt/al the manager and gave him an estate at Nurpor, 
subject to service. When an old mati he introduced his sons Bhanhar Dm 
and Kanheya Lai at court, and retired to Wazirabad where he died. The 
brothers were placed under Prince Kharrak Singh ; Shanhar Das for 
some time managing his jagirii ; while Kanheya Lai was tnadd Tehsildar 
or Kardar of Sahiwal, part of the estate of the FrincCr When Diwan 
Moti Bam was appointed governor of Kashmir, Sha^kar Das was sent as 
head of thd Fiilancial Office under him, and daring Moti Ram^s second 
tenure 6f office KdnAeya Lai oeeupied the same post as his brother had 
done during the first. 

Shaniar Das died in 1832. When the salt mines of Find Dadan 
Khan were made over to R;\ja Galab Singh of Jammu, Kanheya Ttol was 
appointed manager under him and held the post till 1834, and he and 
his eldest son RaUan Chand received a cash allowance of 2,000 Rs. from 
the salt revenue till annexation. 

Raidan GhandwMSk Darbar mufiahi from 1831 to 1849. He was, 
with his brother Shankar Das^ in favour at court, and received jagirs 
which in 1850 amounted to 10,3'J;J Rs. He was, when quite a youth, 
appointed to the charge of tlic Maharaja's private seal,* and held the 
office with its emoluments for several years. He was afterwards made 
commandant in the Ghorcharah Khas and Thakar Das took his place, 
for a short time, as keeper of the seal. The latter, when Nao Nihal 
Singh was in power, was appointed manager of Dhanni, Kalar Sahar 
and Rupowal, on a salary of 4,320 Rs. per annum. During the reigti 

♦ The seal of which Rattan Chand had charge wis the Maharaja's gmall prirate 
signet Both this and the large seal were affixed to most documents. The keeper of the 
small seal received an allowance of 2 per cent oq all khillats and money presents made by 
the Maharaja, and of 5 per cent on all new jagirs ; bat of the income thus raised a certain 
proportion was taken by the Qovcrnment. l^csidcs Saltan Chand Dogal, the seal was 
kept at different times by Ram Chand, great nephew of Diwan S^wan Mai, by Harsokh 
Rai (afterwards General) by Rattan Chand Duihiwala and others. 



FANJAB CHIEFS. 449 

of Maharaja Sher Singh the brothers held various offices at Lahore^ and 
Rat Ian Chand became a man of considerable inflaence. He was fined 
40)000 Rs. bj Pandit Jalla in 1844, but this was remitted through the 
intercession of Bhai Ram Siagb» Hq accompanied Raja Lai Singh to 
Jammu in February 1845, and was with the party of Sirdar Fatah Singh 
Man when that chief^ with Wazir Bachna^ was aasaasinated by Raja 
Gulab Singh at Jammu, and he was himself detsuned for some days as a 
hostage for the conduct of the army. 

During 1818-49 the action of Rattan Chand was somewhat doubtful, 
and his jagim were resumed with the exception of two gardens, one at 
Lahore and the other at Wazirabad, upon which he had expended much 
money. These were released in perpetuity, and he aUo received a Ufe 
pension of 3)600 Ra. Oovind SoAai his imele, and /oti Ram and Ganga 
Ham his cousins, received each a pension of 100 Rs. and Oane$h Das 
375 Rs. Thakar Das received a pension of 360 Ra. 

Nand Gopal, the youngest brother of Rattan Chdnd^ was taken into 
Government service as a darbar oransln in 1840, and in 1845 was made 
Paymaster of the force of Sirdar Kahn ^ngh Kohariah, brotlier-iii*law of 
Raja Lai Singh, with the service jag^irs of Pathanwali, Thattah, and 
Chakumbarik, wordi 1^,590 Rs* He accompanied the fbioe fmder Raja 
Shet Singh Attarlwala to Mnltm in ISlfS, and was believed to have joined 
the rebds, but he himself stated Chat his loyalty t» his Goremment caused 
him to be seixed and imprisoned by Sher Singh, and thai he was only 
released though the infinenoeof Diwan Hakim Rai, whose brother 
Mutaaddi Mai his sister had married. It is certain that Nmd Sin^th came 
in befoi^e the final battk of Gujrait, and his eKoasee were accepted. Since 
onnexationYie baa been in Government service, fiffst as Eotwnl at GnJ- 
nwiwala and Sialfcot, tfien Tehsildar of Warirabad and Mcesa anoccBsivcly. 
He was made Court Inspector of Police in 1861, and at the present lim^ 
is 1st class Deputy Inspector of Police alt Dehli. He is a eeabns aind 
efiicicnt officer. AoMm Ckand died in 1857, leaving two sons Monokar 
Lai and Narinjan Das. 



FATAH SINOH OF GHARJAKH. 



K#$#<v41^^ 



Sham Sivqh. 



I 



Qalab Singh. 



Tatah 
Sii^. 



Jodh 



Paiyab Singii. 
Kahn Singh. 



^ingh. 

I 



I I 

Dharam Singh, Sant Singh, 

B. 1853, betrothed b. 1B47. 

to D. of S. Dyal 

iSingh BotftHa. 



Randhlr 
IKngh. 



liehna Singn, 
M. daughter of B. Havi 
Singh Nalwa. 
.1 

Hamam Amar Isar 

Singh, Singh, Singfi* 

B. 1850. B.184d. B. 1850. 



Daughter m. to Diwan 
Hakim Rai Sialkotia. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY.. 

SAam Singh was a banker ia the village of Gharjakh, near Gajran- 
iwala. Of his two sons the eldest Gulab Singh followed his fkther^s 
profession, but Panjab Singh the younger enlisted in the force of Sirdar 
Fatah Singh Kalianwala, receiving 30 Rs. a month as a trooper* Like 
many other common soldiers in the Sikh army he rose to command by his 
courage^ and after the death of his patron Sirdar Fatah Singh, not liking 
his successor Dal Singh, the nail-cutter, he went over to Banjit Singk 
who placed him in a regiment and gave him in jagir the vilages of Aimah 
4ind Fatahpur in the Amritsar district, worth 2,500 Rs., and after, the 
second Multan campaign, in 1818, he received jagirs to the value of 
.50,000 Rs., subject to the service of 125 sowars. On his death his 
jagirs were resumed by the State as his only son Kahn Singh was 
but 15 years old. However, when the boy grew up the Maharaja sent 
him to Makhad and Gheb, in command of 500 horsemen and conferred 
on him a jaglr of 15,000 Rs. He remained here for nine years. 



HISTOBY OF THE PAN JAB CHIEFS. 451 

when his payments having fallen into arrears and his accounts not 
successrully passing a rigid examination, he was recalled and dis- 
missed from Government employ. He then became a follower of Sirdar 
Hari Singh Nalwa> and accompanied his new master in his numeroaa 
expeditions. He fought in the campaign against the Ghazis of Yusafzai| 
in 1831} and soon after, not getting on well with his brother officers, went 
over to Sirdar Attar Singh Sindhanwalia^ who gave him a subordinate 
command^ with a jagir of 7>000 Ks. He then went to Kashmir with the 
governor^ General Mian Singh, and returned after three years to Lahore 
with a considerable fortune. His son Zehna Singh married the daughter 
of his old leader Sirdar Hari Singh, who took his son-in-law with him 
to Peshawar in the last and disastrous campaign of 1837, in which the 
great general was killed. During the life of Nao Nihal Singh, and the 
reign of Maharaja Sher Singh, Diwan Kain Singk and his three sons 
were treated with favour and received military appointments ; but when 
Raja Hira Singh rose to power, trouble came upon the family. Leina 
Singh was in the service of Sirdar Ajit Singh Sindhanwalia, and the new 
minister, who hated the Sindhanwalias and their adherents, confiscated 
Kahn Singh's jagir, and threw him and Fatai Singh into prison. Leina 
Singhf who contrived to escape, took refuge with Baba Bir Singh the 
great Sikh Guru. Not till Jowahir Singh became minister did the 
family regain their liberty and their former position. Diwan KoAn 
Singh was killed by a musket shot during the Satlej campaign in 1846, and 
the Darbar granted the family a jagii in Gharjakh and Dholanwali, 
worth 2,910 Ba., subject to service. On the annexation of the Panjab 
the jagir was resumed, and in lieu of it cash pensions of 600 Bs., and 
360 Rs., were granted to FaiaA Singh and Leina Singh respectively. 
The widow of Kahn Singh also received a pension of 860 Ba. The family 
is of the Khatri tribe, and resides at Gharjakh, a village founded by the 
Wiraich Jats in the Gnjranwala district. 



SIRDAE SHAMSUER SINGH MART. 



I 



Tara Siogh Konr Stngb. 



1 



1,111 I 

Jodh Dimtta 8ukh« Dal ICohr 

SiDgh. SiDgh. Singh. aiDgh. Sindi. 



I \ I I I 

Gujar Singh. Bhup Singh. Kesni Singh. Jaggat Singh. Isar Singh. 

i 1 ' 

Bijar Singh. Fariab Sbgh. I 



Sksmsh^r Janaejdh Sinfii. 

Sinjj^h. M. B. Tej Koor 

Attanwala. 



Bmgh 



ShMD Singh. Narain Siogh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Mari family is of the Shcrgil tribe, the origin of which has been 
elsewhere related.* By this tribe sereral villages virere founded in the 
Lahore and Amritsar districts, and among others Mallanwala, Dewa, Dewm 
Masnr and Man. At the first named of these the family of Shamtker 
SingA resided till the Dtnrani invasion when the village having been des- 
troyed by the Afghans Malla Singh fled to Dewa Masur, whieh be 
mada his head-qnarters and from whence he conducted maratidiQg ex- 
peditions, till he fell in a skirmish with the imperial troops, leaving two 
sons Kour Singh and Tara Stngky the former of whom became a powerfol 
chief. He joined the Bhangi Sirdars and Khnshhal Singh and Bodh 



* FVie statement of Commandant Dewa Singh. The Gils, who hare &• chief of aiij 
importance in their ranks, inhabit the Lahore, Amritsar, Gujranwala and Firozpar districts. 
As romantic a story is told of Gil the founder of the tribe as that regarding his son Shergil. 
He was the son of a Rajput chief Prithipat or Pirthipal, by a Jat woman, and, like Shergil, he 
was exposed when an infant, in a swamp, * gili,' Xrom whieh his name Gil is derived. 



HXlTOftY OF nS PANliB cmuofu 468 

Sitigh FaizulahparU and took poMetnon of territory in tbt JalMidliai 
Doab and to the south of the Satlej. Letring kii sons, JaM Singh, 
Diioan Singh aod Sukha Singh to hold these estates^ Kour Singh returned 
to his ancestral village of Mari^ half waj between Amritsar aod Firoz* 
pur, where he built a mud fort, traces of which still exist, and his name 
is perpetuated in the village which ii known as Mari Kour Singhwala. 

When Ranjit Siagh seised the conntrjT south of Lahorsi the fort of 
Mari, then held bf Mohr Singk tbe yoangest son of Kour Singh, was 
besieged bj htm. Resistance was useless, and Mohr Singh gave up tbe 
fort and territory, obtaioing fsvourable terms and large estates at Pirn 
Chak, Bajhaca, Samrah and Haaabpiu:. 

Sirdar Kour Singh died shortly after this and the Cis-Satlej estates 
were seized by the Maharaja of Pattiala, Bhag Singh Ahluwalia and 
Jodh Siagh Kalsia. Tke deseeodaaU of JiM Singh. Suhha Singk and 
Diwan Singh are still resideiit intlie Amballa distriet where they hold 
a few villages. 

Mohr Singh, with his brother-Da/ Singh, held the jagir for some years 
exempt from service ; but it was later made subject to 100 horsemen. 
Mohr Singh served in the Kashmir campaign in which he was wounded. 
He distinguished himself at the battle of Tehri, in 1823, after which 
he was placed in command of 500 cavalry. He was engaged under 
General Ventura in IS31 in annexing the possessions of the Bahawalpur 
chief, north of the Satlej * and the next year he died, while half the 
estates in Sialkot, Dinanagar and Kassur were continued to his son 
Isar Singh. There is little to record of this chief who served with 

• Soon aftor the death of Buhawal Khan II. in 1811, Bai^it Singh demanded tribute for 
the Bahawalpor territory north of the Satlej. Badik Mahammad Khan lometimee refoaed 
payment altogether^ and alwajrt resitted till he luooeeded in gaining more faToarahle terma. 
First 50,000 Rs. a jear was asked, then a lakh, and the demand was raised till at Sadik 
Mohammad's death. Are lakhs, which was about as much as Bahawal Khan III. who 
succeeded Sadik Muhammad In 1836 could raise from the oountr/, was demanded. The Klian 
neither t»uld nor would pay, and in 1831 General Ventura oocupied tbe territory pledging 
himself to pay eieren lakhi the first year to Go?emment. 



454 H18T0ET 07 THE PANJAB CHIBFS* 

his cQintihgent at Kulu^ Saket, Hazara and Peshawar, at which latter 
place he diedi in 1843, of fever. 

Shamsher Singh held the jagirs throughout the administration of Hira 
Singh^ Jowahir Singh and Lai Singh. He accompanied Raja Sher 
Singh Attariwala to Multan^ in 1848^ and rebelled with him. Although 
a verj young man^ he possessed ability and influence^ and his 
whole jagirSy worth 27,000 Rs.^ were confiscated and in 1830^ 
a pension of 720 Rs. was allowed him for life. To his younger brother 
Janmejah SUiffh^ who had married Tej Kour, daughter of Sirdar Chattar 
Singh Attariwala, the young lady to whom Maharaja Dalip Singh had 
been betrothed, a life pension of 860 Rs. was granted. In 1860 a rent 
free holding was granted to Shamsher Singh worth 200 Rs. he also has 
proprietary rights in Mari Eour Singhwala and Kazi Chak. 

Gujar Singh, Bhup Singh and Kesra Singh^ sons of Sirdar Dal Singh^ 
were fine cavalry officers under General Avitabile* They are all dead, 
and the widows of Colonel Bhup Singh draw an allowance of 720 Bs. from 

Government. 



SIBDAB QANDA SINGH MATTU. 



L 



GuBTA SnroB. 
I 



B. Salja. BehJ Singh 



Fatah Jowahir Paaonda ' Famhan Lai Singh. 

Singh. Singh. Singh. Sinu^ 

Ganda Nmal Karam Dharam Joalm Khaiak I^a 

Singh. Singh. Singh. Singhl Singh. Singh. Singh. 

Baiant Rax^jodh Batant Kher Sher Kh«r 

Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. 

HISTORY OP THE PAMIUT. 

Gurjfa Singh^ the foander of the fiunily, was a mialdar of Sirdar 
Charrat Singh Sakarehakia. The oonneotiQiiwas atreng^ened by Qwya 
Singh marrjing his daughter Sthju to Sirdar Dal Singh of Akalghar^ 
the brother-in-law of Charrat Singh. When Banjit Singh first snoceeded 
his father he had great oonfidence in Dal Singh^ and used to be guided iu 
every thing by his advice, but they soon quarreled, and in the year 1800 
Ranjit Singh imprisoned Bal Singh and marched against Akalghar, 
intending to take it by surprise. But Sehju was a brave womaui and 
with the assistance of her brother Behj Singk^ suoeessfolly held out for 
three months, till the siege was raised. Banjit Singh obtained the fort 
later, in 1804| on the death of Dal Sbgh, and then attadced Ahmadabad, 
which was bravely defended by 8thj Singh for some time, but the garrison 
was at length compelled to capitulate. On the death of Dal Singh, 
Behj Singh received in jagir the Uakas of Jathu, Nangal and BhariaL 
Sirdar FcUah Singh his son served with credit against FaUdi Khan 
Wazir of Kabul, and in the Kashmir and Multan expeditions. In 1884j 
the Maharaja made over the Bharial estate to Jamadar Khusbhal Singly 



456 HI8T0RT OP THE PANJAB CHUBFS. 

giving another to Sirdar Oanda Singh in exchange. Gania Singh was- 
an officer onddk^ IAkR. Mng|!l "ii^^ ^ kii^ ik^iiMriy ^fibiier battles 
and skirmishes. In 1848| hft^aadr his aonfiins jpined the rebels, and the 
&mil7 jagirs amounting to Ij^^OOO Its. ,were resumed. Ganda Singh 
receives a pension of 1,200, Bs. uADasonda Singh and Nihal Singh^ 
each 120 Rs. per annum. Vli^ fitmily ill ^fhe^Mattu Jat easte^ and 
residestat Maitu ih t^e Gujirtaw^Ia diairict,.. 



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KAHN GffANlX 



Ram SncGB. 
I 

" — t • • 



kkuA, AHa 



SillieyfrUL X«hi(dlMittd^ Amgi^Blkiile Jlte»«ili/ - 

■ y fc . i n .^i. h • . 

Hemnu^ CbttBavK 

Deri ki Nindiii* Xadbt Kiskaiu 

RmOUT tr THI FAMU; . > 

This family origixiaUy camiQ from ^oltaii^aAd several membearof it 
served the Impenal GovermneBt at Lahore. and: e^MwherB* Both jImAt 
Ckand the&ther and iloiii fij^fi Die yraidfather (tf fiMinOsmdiyfim 
servante of Sirdur Sahih Sni(^ V%liA# The fbnaeri aftfr t|pe estaUiali^ 
ment at the Sikhr menarcfaji becaoa^ a Mvenue ofieer ludei Mipv DiifaBi 
Chand, on whose death he received a naitaij^nmaumdrvBderSiidaf Bart 
Singh I^alwa* He died at Waadrabad in 18S5^ at a very adf^aacod a§e» 

KaXn Chand entered Government service in 1828^ soon after the 
battle of Tehri, as a secretary (haznri-navis). He became known for 
honesty and ability^ and in 1830 received a grant of two wells at Botala 
and the village of Knlla in Sialkotj together worth 600 Ba. a year ; and 
in 1834, he obtained Mangat^ worth 500 £s. In this year Kain Ciani 
was raised to the post of mnrasala^navisi or despatch writer^ This wa» 
an office requiring some talent and would only be given to a munshi in 
whose honesty the fullest c o nftdenee eould be reposed* This secret 
correspondence was conducted under the direct orders of the Maharaja|. 
by Fakir Asizuddin, and later, associated with him, were Bhai Bam^ 
Singh and Bhai Govind Bam. 

The Derah Khas, or body guards, a res^ent containing many of the 
young Sikh Sirdars and the pick of the Khalsa army was first raised by 



458 HI8T0AT 07 THI PANJAB CH1ET8. 

Kain Chattel. He lud neither the health nor knowledge necessary for 
lits command^ which was held by hia brother Oanga Bam for a short time 
till the regiment was placed under Baja Hira Singh. Kakn Ckand was 
not one of those affected by the revolutions that followed the death of 
4lie great Maharaja. He held his office and his emoluments intact^ and 
some Muitan estates which had been granted to him at Nidhal were ex- 
changed for others of equal value, 1|400 Bs.^ at Bankli^ Lakra, Nangli 
Ealanand Nangli Giyran. After the Satlq campaign's Jalandhar 
estate, in the territory ceded to the British Oovernment, was lost, and 
in lieu of it he received the estate of Kakka ia Wazirabad, worth 3|000 
Bs. On the annexation of the Ptojab his jagirs were resumed and he re- 
ceived a life pension of l,20d Bs., whieh be stfll holds. 

£r(»nr(^*| eldest son of Kahn Ohand, was appointed in 1841, as a 
Barbar munshi on 30 Bs. a month. He soon rose to be successively 
sanad writer, Sherishtadar to the Darbar under Lai Singh; and head 
munshi to the Besidency. IniSiD, he held jagirs and cash allowances 
to the amouQt of 7|438 Bs. per annum. These being new grants and 
HemraJ having only been in Government employ for eight years, were 
resumed, and a cash pension of 300 Bs. allowed him for life. 



KBHR SINGH CHASMAHWALA. 





Kar 




QOJJA SlNQO. 

Jodh Singh. 

D. 1252. 

1 








tar Singh, 
, 1840. 

1 




Sant Singh, 






Kharak 
Singh. 

1 




Sham Singh, 
o. 1841. 

i 

M. Mokan 
>ther of 
chet Singh. 


1 


Prenn 
Singh 


Kehr 
Singh, 
B. 1838. 

Moti Singh. 


Daaghter 
Singh bn 
Wazir Sa( 





HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

Gujja Sinffk joined the Ktnheya confederacy under Sirdar Jai 
Singh abont the year 1765^ and having done good service received 
from his leader eight villages iajagir/ worth 4,000 Rs. Jodk Singh 
was a child at the time of his father's death, but Sirdar Jai Singh 
treated him with liberality^ and on his reaching maturity confirmed 
to him his father's possessions, l^hen Sirdar Jai Singh died^ his daugli- 
ter-in-Iaw Sada Eour succeeded to the command of the confederacy, 
and to her Jodh Bingk transferred his allegiance, and until ber impri- 
sonment by Kanjit Singh in 1821^ he remained in her servicCi assisting 
in the administration of her large and scattered estates. The blow 
struck by the Maharaja in the imprisonment of Sada Eour ismd the 
confiscation of her possessions was so sudden that little resistance 
was offered by the Kanheya chiefe. The fort of Atalghar, indeed, 
held out for some time^ defended by a womai^, one of the Sani's slaveSj 
and Jodh Singh stung by a reproach of the Maharaja's^ uttered in opea 
Darbar, threw himself into the little fort of Nangab^ near Jammu^ 
which he defended for several days, but was at length compelled to 
surrender, and was heavily fined and thrown into prisoB| where be 



460 HISTORY OP THE PANJAB CHIBPS. 

remaiaed some months ia charge of Haktna Singh Chimni. The next 
year, 1822^ he was sent as Thannadar to Attoek^ and for four, years 
held charge of the fort. He was then recalled to Lahore, and received 
a jagir in the Shakarghar district^ with a third share in the village of 
Chashmah^ subject to the service of thirty five sowars. He was placed 
under the orders of Sirdar Attar Singh Sindhanwalia, with whom he 
served, until the degradttion of that powerful house. When Raja Hira 
Singh became minister, Sirdar Jodk Singh was posted to the Raja's 
own Ragiment, the Derah Khas. In the many revolutions which took 
place between this time and the annexation of the Panjab, the modest 
estates 'of /o /A Slng\ were untouched. Although an old man he served 
with Sirdar Ranjodh Singh Majithia during the Satlej campaign, with 
his contingent, and at the close of the war retired to his estate at Chash- 
mahy hoping to end his days in peace. But the Multau rebellioa 
broke out, and his grandsou Kharrak Singh^ who had long served under 
Sirdar Sher Singh Attariwala, and who was with Sirdar Chattai Singh 
in Hazara when the insurrection began, joined the rebels, and marching 
to join the Sikh army under Sher Singh, with the family sowars, fought 
throughout the whole campaign. Jodk Singh, fearing the confiscation 
of his jagir and his probable confinement till the close of the war, fled to 
Jammu, where he remained till after the battle of Gujrat. In conse- 
quence of the rebellion of Kharrak Singh the jagirs of the family in the 
Gurdaspur district, to the value of 15,200 Rs., were confiscated ; but 
Jodh Singiy who was in no way concerned in his grandson's rebellion, 
received a pension of 720 Rs. which he enjoyed till his <teath in 1859. 
Th^family hav6 now resumed the occupation of agriculture which they 
gave up a hundred years ago. They possess neither jagirs nor pensions. 
Jodh Singh was a very aged man when he died. His life, embracing 
nearly a hundred years, had seen the rise of the Khalsa power ; the 
glory and the fall of the Sikh empire. 

The Chashmahwala family is of Harchand Rajput origin and emi- 
grated to the Panjab from Oude. 



PAllTAB SINGH SADHUGURAYAHWALA. 





MuKTi Chand. 

1 




Chanchal Dm. 
1 




1 

Har Singh. 


Sarup Singh. 

Dhana Singh. 
1 
Kahn Siogh. 


Partab Singh. 
Prcm Siogh. 


1 
Kishan Siogh. 


Chattar Siogh. Sharin Siogh. 




Tara Singh. Mul Singh. 


1 
Sardal Siogh. 


1 • 
Ganda Singh. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Har Singh and Sarup Singh, sons of Chanchcd Das of the Khatri 
tribe, joined the Sukarchakia niisl| and fought under Sirdar Obarrat 
Singh and Mahan Singh, as officers of irregular cavalry. Har Singh 
never married, but Sarup Singh left one son Dhana Singh ^ who followed 
his father's profession of arms. His son Kahn Singh became a distinguished 
leader of Ghorcharahs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh and received a jagir 
of 3,000 Rs., subject to the service of six horsemen. He was a dashing 
officer, and was at last killed in one of the numerous skirmishes on the 
Peshawar border. Partab Singh was taken into Government employ by his 
maternal uncle General Mian Singh, governor of Kashmir, who was mur- 
dered by his own troops in 1841. He first held a command under his father 
on a salary o( 400 Rs., and on the death of Gurmukh Singh, brother of 
General Mian Singh, received his appointment of commandant on 800 
Rs. In 1836, his salary was raised to 1,800 Rs., including tlie jagir of 
Miraliwala and an estate in the Lahore district. The revenue of these 



462 BISTORT OF THE PANJAB CHIEFS. 

lands was raised by Baja Hira Singh to 2^300 Bs.^ and they remained 
in possession of Partab Singh until the annexation of the Panjab. Du- 
ring the rebellion of 1849 he was commandant of Maharaja Dalip Singh's 
guard and did not in any way join the insurgents^ but his service jagir 
was lesumed at the close of the war^ and he received a pension of 600 
Bi.i for life. His brother Kishan Singh was an officer in General 
Avitabile's corps^ and Chatiar Singh served in Sultan Mahmud's brigade 
of artillery. Tara Singh^ son of Chattar Singh, served with the China 
force but has now left the army. 



CHARRAT SINGH OF KOT SYAD MAHMUD. 

Dhir 8i!(QH. 
Jai Singh. 

Sukha Char- Bhup B. Rap Jami- Attar Gulab Panjab Aoap 
Singh, rat Singh, Kour m. yat Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. 

D. 1840. Singh, d. 1818, M. R. Ran- ^Singh. 
jit Singb, 
1809. 



Ill i 

Nihal Dyal Khushhal Kirpal 

Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. 
Guja Singh« 



I i i J i I 

Kishan Kor laar Mol Ganda Chanda 

Singh. Singb. Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

Jai Singh, a Sindha Jat of Kot Syad Mahmud, a small village two 
miles from the city of Amritsari was a trooper in the employ of Sirdar 
Gulab Singh Bhangi. In the year I8O99 Maharaja Banjit Singb 
married Jai Singh's daughter Rup Kour, and this marriage made the 
fortane of the family^ for the lUaka Akhnur worth 30^000 Bi. was 
assigned to Charrat Singh and Bhup Singhj sabject to the service of 
200 horsemen. They held it for 15 years when it was resumed, and 
Charrat Singh obtained instead the jagir of Dhamwali worth 2|500 Bs.| 
free of seryice* with the commandantship of an irregular regiment. In 
the year 1831 Charrat Singh was severely wounded at the battle of 
Syadki Sorai^ fought against Syad Ahmad Shah, by Prince Sher Singh. 
Bhup Singh was kilted in the Khaibar in 1 840, and his estate of 2,000 
Rs. was assigned to his two sons. In 1S48| the family, with but few 
exceptions, joined the rebels, and the jagirs they had enjoyed were 
confiscated. Charrat Singh received a pension of 100 Bs. per annum, 
and Bani Rup Kour, who is still living at LahorCi a pension of 1,980 Bs. 
The family also holds a fifth share in the village of Kot Syad Mahmud* 



DIWAN DHANPAT RAI. 





•^sm9'94^^^^ 






Dtanat Raf. 
1 






Gut« Mai. 
1 






1 

Ram Kour. 

1 




Dlwan Dhanpat Rai. 


Diwan Ranpat BaL 
1 


NarainDflik 
1 


Hukm Kishan 


Ganda Janda 


1 
Biihan 


Chand, ChMid, 


Mai, Mai, 


Das. 


B. 1838. B. 1834- 

l 


B. 1837. B. 1845. 


B. 1842. 


Mokham 


Hari 




Chand. 


tteid 




B. 1861. 


B. V852. 





mBTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

J)janai Rai Entered the service of Nadir SHihh tte ic6nq^ewr erf K$ilmA 
mi l>eMi in the year 1733. Daring iht hlltomng reigfn of Ahm^ SlbA, 
his son Gutu Mai, nofc ohtaining uny ettipldy«ient in Kabul, detenniiied 
to seek his forttme in the Panjab, wfcere he tettled in the v3kge of 
Bherah in the Siiiihfiore district. Sirdair Gajar Singh Bhangi wat at tbat 
tiu»e o^tfuer ofttoatof theiveighboisring Gonnlry and to him GtU» Mai 
offered his services* £[e remained trith Gnji^ Singh and Sahib Siif^li till 
his death, acting as Diwan and regulating the civil a^irs of the laarge 
tract ove* which these chiefs rnted. His son Ram Kovr sneceeded hifii 
in his office, which he hdd until Ranjit Singh, in 1810, took possetisioft 
of Sahib Singh^s ^t^iites* Ram Kaur wfts growing too old for werk bat he 
obtained places at Lahore for his three sons. Diwan Dhanpai fi«i, wboWM 
the eldest of the brothers received Majitfaia, JFagdco amd ofher villages in 
Jagir, which in 1814 were exchanged for the Ilaka of Sodhra, worth 
21,000 Rs. from the territories of his old master Sahib Singh. He 



HISTORY or THE PAK7AB CHIBM. 465 

then placed in charge of the Manjha where he remained some years* 
Later he received the Ilaka of Shuwala, worth 10,000 Rs. in jagir, and 
was made commander of Prince Kharrak Singh's forcei which office he 
held for above a year^ being succeeded by Bhaiya Ram Singh. The« 
brothers did good service with their eontingetit at Knltttii Mankera and 
Kashmir, and after each camptign received an enhancement of their 
jagirs. In 1831, at Diwan J)hanpfd Rai^i death, the jagirs of the family 
amounted to 43,500 Bs. These were resnmedi with the exception of 
Sodhra, subject to the service of seventy eight horsemen. Diwan Ran- 
pat Rai and Naraiii i)a# were then seat to Kaagra aad Nurpur to col* 
lect the reventte due from the Kftrdars of those districts. In 1812, Raja 
Gulab Singh, who had charge of Gajrat, took from the family lands 
about Beli to the value of 5,000 Rs.» and on Sirdar Lehna Singh repre- 
senting the case to Maharaja Sber Singh, the contingent was reduced 
by twenty men, and in 1846, Raja Lit Singh struck off eight more. 

During the war of 1948^9^ tiie «ontiiq^t of Diwan Ranpat Rai 
was employed under Lala Gumani Lal^ Adatali of the Mai^ha, in pre- 
serving the peace of the district* Narain Das died in 1848. On 
annexation the personal jagir of Banpai Rai^ 2,000 Rs. was maintained 
for bis life, half descettding to his sons. Euim Chand and Bisian Das his 
two nephews also received pensions of 1000 Rs» for their IiveS| and 
Dhmpat Rat's widow^ who soon afterwards died^ the same amount. Di- 
wan Ranpat Rai died in the year 1856. The family resides at Sodhra 
and is of the Brabmfaa caste. 



GUMDKH SINGH OF TUNG. 



Sahib Sinqh, 
D. 1804. 

I 

Fatah Singh, 
D. 1803. 

+ 



I r 

Gurmakh Siogh, Stnnukh Singh. Nidhan Singh, 

B. 1799. B. 1803. D. 1846. 

I I I 

Narain Singh, Jodh Singh, Sant Singh, 

B. 1839. B. 1824. B. 1843. 

I . 
Ganda Singh. 

B. 1863. 
HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Sikhs of Tang near Amritsar, are of aa old family of Tang 
Bajputs^ who emigrated from Delhi about the beginning of the 18th 
century and founded the village which bears their name. In course of time 
from association and intermarriages they became Jats^ and on the Sikhs 
rising to power joined the Bamgharia confederacy under Jassa Singh. 
Sahib Singh received Tung with some adjacent villages from his chiefs 
in jagir^ and died in 1804, his only son Fatah Singh having died the 
preceding year. Fa^ai Singh^s three sons remained with Jodh Singh 
the Bamgharia Sirdar, till in 1816, the Maharaja seized the possessions 
of the confederacy, and they were glad to enter the service of the con- 
queror. Gurmtikh Singh and Nidhan Singh each received command of 100 
horsemen, and served under Misr Diwan Chand, and on his death, under 
Sirdar Desa Singh Majithia. After the capture of Multan in 1818, 
at which the brothers were present, they received a grant of their ances- 
tral village of Tung, valued at 730 Bs. in three equal shares, subject to 
the service of three horsemen, and their salaries were considerably raised. 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIE78. 467 

Ou rmuih Singh^ who was commandant in the Ramgharia brigade, served 
at Maltan, /llf ankera, Tirah» Kashmir and Peshawar. He also fought 
in the Satlej campaign of 1845-46 when his brother Nidhan Sin^A was 
killed. Under the Darbat he was employed in the Manjah, as assistant 
to Gamani Lai and Lai Singh Talwandi^ and afterwards was sent to 
Sowrian under Diwan Hakim Bai. 

Sarmukh Singh and Jodh Singh still hold jagirs in Tung to the value of 
660 Rs. and 400 Bs. respectively. Gurmvkh Singh has neither jagir nor 
pension, though till 1855, when the revision of the settlement took place, 
he held his original share of the Tung village, but it was then resumed. 
The widow of Narain l^ngh receives a pieasion of 60 Bs. . 



SULTAN AHMAD All KHAN. 



GRon Khak. 

SttlUn Mahmiid Khaiu 
\ 

Sultan Alimad All Khin. Muhammad AH Khan. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

This Mahammadau family daima to be of Bajpat origin and to have 
emigrated to the Fanjab from Nipal. Nothing certain is known about 
it, howeverj before the time of OhoH Khan who was an artillery officer 
under Uahan Singh Sakarchakia, and after his death, under hb son Ranjit 
Singh. He knew something of casting guns, and was skilful in his pro- 
fession, and was rewarded by jagirs worth 5>000 Bs. at Wan and Bhero- 
wal, with a large house in Lahore now occupied by the Mission School. 

On bis death his son Sultan Uahmud Khan, who had served in 
the artillery under i^him, accompanied Maharaja Banjit Singh in his 
expeditions against Multan and Kashmir. In the Tirah campaign in 
Eangra he so much distmguished himself that the Maharaja made him a 
general and placed him in command of 25 guns. He was of exceedingly 
intemperate habits, and his drunkenness brought him more than once into 
trouble with his master, but he was a useful officer and while Ranjit Singh 
lived was generally treated with favour. When Nao Nihal Singh obtained 
power Snlian Mahmud lost his command, and was sent in charge 
of a troop of artillery, under General Ventura, to Mandi, but on the 
death of the prince and the accession of Maharaja Sher Singh he was 
reinstated, and his son SuUan Ahmad Khan was made a coloneL In 
1813, both father and son were engaged in the assault on the fort of 
Lahore, which had been taken possession of by the Sindbanwalias after 



HISTOftT OF THB FANJAB CHISri. 469 

the murder of Sher Sioghj and for their senrioes on this occasion they 
received additional jagirs from Baja Hira Singh. Sultan Maimud waa 
then sent in command of the artillery to Hazanij where he remained till^ ' 
shortly before the ontbreak of 1848, both he and his son wore sent to 
the Derajat. 

SuUan Ahmad Khan was in Banna at the time of the ontbreakj 
and assisted Ram Siogh Chhapawala to rednoe the fort of Dalipghar. 
This ^ being accomplished he marched with the Sikh rebel foroe to 
Bam Nagar where he was joined by his fatheri and both fonght against 
the English thronghont the campaign. The service jagirs of SuUan 
Mahmud^ which at the time of the rebellion mnoanted to QfiOO Bs. 
were resumed, but he received a life pension of 600 Bs. which he held 
till his death in 1859. His son SuUan Ahmad who resides at Bherowal 
in the Amritsar districtj enjoys a pension of 120 Bs.| and has also pro« 
prietary rights in the village. 






COMMANDANT MUHAMMAD SHAH. 





Kiiot-UD-Dxv. 

Amir vd-Din. 
1 




4 . 


Imtm Shah. Mohammad Hassaiiu 

1 




Inayat Shab. 


1 1 f 

Muhammad Akbar Shah. Hoasain Shah. 

Shah; 
Sirdar AH. 


ChiraghShab. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The family of Muhammad Shah is of Persian descent^ Kamr-ud'lHn 
was an officer in the army of Nadir Shah, and accompanied that chief to 
India^ remaining behind as a settler in the neighbourhood of Dehli when 
the invading army retired. He afterwards went to live at Gungoh in 
Saharanpur^ where he died in 176 i. Amiruddin then left for Lokhnow, 
where Shujanddowlah was Nawab^ and entered his service first as Than* 
nadar and afterwards as a revenue collector. Failing to pay the govern- 
ment demand he was thrown into prison, and though released after a 
short timOj did not obtain fresh employment till the accession of Asafud- 
dowlah in 1775. He was murdered at Fubli by some Gujars in 1798^ and 
his wnltnam Shah fearing the same fate, left for Lukhnow, where he lived 
for some time with an old retired officer of artillery, by name Buhadar 
Khan, who taught the lad all that be knew. As he could get no employ- 
ment at the court of Oade^ Imam Shah determined to seek his fortune 
elsewhere. Hearing that Hindostanis were in request in Kabul he pro- 
ceeded thither, but at Wazirabad iu the Panjab, he met Sirdar Jodh 



PAN JAB CHISfCr. 471 

Singh who easily induced him to enter his services as Jamadar of 
Artillery. The next year the Sirdar died, and Imam Shah then entered 
the army of Maharaja Banjit Singh, and fought in many battleSi as 
Colonel of Artillery. He served throughout the reign of Hanjit Singh and 
his successors^ and was killed at Sobraon in 1846. 

Muhammad Shah, his second son^ was made a commandant of Artillery 
when eighteen years of age. He fought in the Satlej campaign, and 
under the Darbar was successively posted at Find Dadan Ehan^ Hassan 
Abdal and Hazara. In 1849, when the 5th Panjab Cavalry was first 
raised, Muhammad Shah was appointed to it^ and served in this regiment 
till 1859. On the frontier he was known as a first rate officer both for 
bravery and intelligence. As senior native officer of his squadron he 
served throughout the siege and capture of Delhi ; the relief and capture 
of Lukhnow ; the capture of Bareilly and the actions of Boluudshahri 
Fatahghar^ Agra and Allyghar. He received the order of British India 
for his gallantry at Agra^ where^ seeing a squadron of the 5th in danger 
of being cut up by a shower of grape^ he galloped forward alone^ and cut 
down the artilleryman who was about to fire the gun. When Lieut. 
Younghusband was killed near Fatabghar, Muhammad Shah cut down the 
sepoy who had fired the fatal ball. By the side of Major Sandford, who 
succeeded Lieut. Younghusband in command of the squadron, Muhammad 
Shah fought with conspicuous courage^ and when that officer felly he 
protected his bodyj buried it decently and built over it a tomb. The 
most valued of the many testimonials received by Muhammad Shah is 
a gold watch sent from England by the relatives of Major Sandford^ in 
acknowledgment of his devotion. 

In January 1859, Muhammad Shah was appointed commandant of 
the 3rd Oude Military Police under Captain C. Chamberlain. His 
services were specially asked for by this officer, who knew his worth, 
his energy and his thorough knowledge of his Military duties. When 
the Military Police were broken up in November 1850 he was made 



472 HliTO&Y OV THE PAKJAB CHISF8. 

oo;Diimandant ia fixe new polioe and held the poqt with credit till Febr^iaiy 
1861 J wheni on redactiops being made in theforeej he took his discharge. 

Muhammad SidA haa received the title of Sirdar Bohadar. He holds 
a pension of 1,800 Ba. cash and a life jagir of 2^000 Bs. in the Bermich 
District. He is the aathor of a creditable work on cavalrj tactics. His 
soni Sirdar Alt is eleven years of age. Of his four danghteri, the eldest 
is married to Amjad Alij i^on of Mir Muhammad Shah of Amritsar^ andthe 
second to Abbas Ali resident at Lahore. 



MULTAN. 



ABDUL MAJID KHAN SADDOZAT. 
AHMAD AL[ KHAN SADDOZAI. 



Saddo Khan. 
B. 1558. 
I 



Khizar Khan, 
from whom descended 
Ahmed Shah Duraoi 
and the Khizar Khels. 



Sultan Kamram Khan, 

Modud from whom dea- 

Khan. cended the tribe 

I Kamram Khel. 



I 
Buhadar Kbao, 

from wliom dee- 

oeoded the tribe 

Buhadar Khel. 



ZaTran Khan, 
from whom dee- 
cended the< tribe 
Zafraa Khel. 



Kliudadad Khan. Shah Hossaia Khan. Allah Dad Khan 



Inayat 



Khan 



I 



I 1 

Abid Khan. Lashkar Khan. 

Sher Muhammad Khan. L Nawab Zahid Khan, 

D. 1740. 

^ L 

f 



ii. Nawab Stukar Khan. 

l_ 



I 
Uasian Khan. 



Huaaain Khan. 



.liiNawabShujaKlun, 
D. 1774. 



iv. Nawab Mnxaffar Khan, 

D. 1818. 

I 



V. Nawab 

Sarafraz 

Khan, 

D. 1851. 



Za-Khkar 
Khan, 
D 1847. 



Shah 

Nawaz 

Khan, 

D. 1818. 

Abdnl MiOtd Khan, 
B. 1817. 



I 
Manataz 

Khan, 

D. 1818. 



Azaz 

Khan, 

D. 1818. 



T 



Hak Nawaz 
Khan, 
D. 1818. 

Rob Nawaz Khan, 
lives at Bahawalpur. 



i 

Shah 

Baz 
Khan, 
D. 1818. 



I 
Amir Bat 

Khao, 

living at 

Bahawalpur. 



I 



Ab.lul KbaUk 

Kh^n, 

D. 1848. 

Abdul MMJid Khan. 



Jtthaagir 

Khan, 

B. 1832. 



Mtthammad 
Khan, 
D. 18j0. 



Gulsar 

Khan, 

B. 1837. 



Ahmad Yar 
Khan, 
B. 1842. 



FiroziUn 
Khan. 
D. 18.>5, 



Sham All 
Khan. 



Mansur 
Ali Khan. 



Ahmad AH 
Khan, 
B. 1827. 



Akbar Ali 
Khan, 
D. 1853. 



I I I 

Kanim Ali Ilashan Ali Sadik Ali 

Khan, Khan, Khan, 

B. 1832. B. 18^4, B 1838. 

lives at Bhawalpur. 



Shamsher 
Khan, 
B. 1843. 



476 HISTORY OP THE 

HISTORY OP THE FAMILY. 

Saddo Kianj the ancestor of the Saddozju tribe of AfghanSi the 
Nawabs of Multan and Ahmad Shah Abdali, was a resident of Eomdahar, 
where he was bom in 1558. He suooeeded hia father as chief of the 
Habibzai tribe, but was a man of such bravery and ability that be was 
selected by the Abdali tribes, liviDg between Kandahar and Hirat^ to 
be their leader. This was in 1598. 

Shadi Khauj the governor of the Emperor Akbar at Kandahar, was 
hostile to Saddo SMn^ so ho went over to the interests of Shah Abbas, 
King of Persia, who had lost Kandahar in 1594, and was intriguing for 
its recovery. This he eflected in 1621, after Akbar's death, with the 
assistance of the Abdalis. Saddo Khan died in 1626, leaving five sons 
from whom have descended several well-known Afghan tribes. The 
descendants of Saddo Khan are known as Saddozai, * and one branch of 
the family to which Ahmad Shah, f Timur Shah, Zaman Sh^ and 
Shah Shuja belonged, reigned for many years in Kabul. 

Khizar Khan^^ who succeeded his father in the ehiefship, was of a 
mild disposition, unsuited to rule over a wild Afghan tribe. His authority 
was set at defiance, and at length seeing that he could not compel 
obedience to his orders, ho made over the uneasj honour of ehiefship to 
his brother ilodnd Khan^ who was of a determined character and held the 
Abdalis in terror. Khizar Khan died in 1626, and Modud Khan held 
rule for seventeen years after his death. He resided at Safia, some 
fifty miles north cast of Kandahar, where Ali Mardan Khan was governor, 
and with this able and enlightened man Modud Khan always maintained 
friendship. In 1637, Ali Mardan Khan, who was no favourite of bis 

* A clan of the Niazi tribe, called Saddozai, inhabitBi tbe Tillage of Dodah on tkt InduB. 
They arc not, however, connected with the femily of Sciddo Khan, 

t Ahmad Shah only adopted the name of Durani for his tribe in 1747. It had formerly 
been always called Abdali. Sherif Din had five sons, according to Afghan tradition, OBman, 
Drck, Tarin, Kawawak, and Abdal. The last received his name from a Saint, Khwaja Abdul 
Ahmad, whom he had for some time served as a disciple. (Pers, Abdal, a saint, hermit.) 



pkmAB CHittk. 477 

maBteri the Shah of Persia^ gave up Kandahar to Muhammad Sidd Khan, 
the Governor of Kabul for the Emperot 8hah Jahan, and retired to 
Dehli, where he was received with great honour. Modud Khan was 
assassinated in a domestic brawl six years later. Shah Hussain Khan 
succeeded him, bat was opposed by Rhudadad Khan who claimed the 
chicfship in right of his father Khkar Khan. A battid MrnB fought between 
the cousins^ near Saffa, in which Huaain Khan was defeated, bnt he fled 
to Kandahar, and being aided by its governor Khas Khan, again took 
the field with aconsiderable force. Khudadad Khan, unable to oppose 
him, fled to Ispahan, where he was well received by Shah Abbas II.) and 
he accompanied that monarch, in 1648, against Kandahar, which was 
taken before the army of Shah Jahan could arrive for its^ defence. The 
Shah then retired to Hirat leaving Mahrab Khan Kizilbash governor Of . 
Kandahar, and Khudadad Khan in command of the country without the 
walls. 

The enemy of Bussain Khan was now in power, and it was with great 
joy that the latter saw, some months after the capture of the city, the 
Indian army, under Aurangzib and Said Ullah, approach. He joined the 
invaders, but Kandahar was so well and bravely defended by the Persian 
garrison, that, at the beginning of the cold weather of 1 649, Aurangzib 
was compelled to raise the siege and to retire to Hindostan* With him 
went Shah Hussuin Khan and all his fSntnily, fox they could nd longer 
remain in Afghanistan with safety. 

Bhah Hu99ain first obtained the Pargannah of Sialkot in jagir, and 
soon afterwards, in exchange for it, Rangpnr, on the right bank of the 
Chenab, ten miles below the junction of that river with the Bavi. In 
1653| he accompanied Prince Dara fflieko, eldest son of Shah Jahan, on 
his unsuccessful eicpedition against Kandahar, the last attempt on that 
city made by the Moguls. The next year he accompanied Prince 
Aurangzib to the Deccan of which he waa viceroy, but in 1655 he 
returned to Debli, and through the interest of Ali Matdan Khan obtahied 
pcrmigsion to raise gcvcn hundred horee, pnd bis brother two hundred. 



476 HISTORY OF THE 

When Aarangzib ascended the throne in 1658^ Uussain Khan received 
an accession to his jagir, but his hot temper soon after brought him into 
disgrace. On one unlucky day, the Emperor was looking at some horses 
which had been presented to him, and, pointing to one of them he asked 
Eussain Khan, its breed. The chief hesitated, and a fine looking Pathan 
who stood by, answered the question. ''Slave, "said Hussain Kkan in a 
fury, " when the Emperor addresses me, why do you speak ? '* " Slaves are 
known by their mean appearance, " was the reply. Suasain Khan, who was 
short in stature and very swarthy in complexion, was so much irritated 
at this that he drew his daggor and stabbed the too bold speaker to the 
heart. For this offence, committed in the very presence of the Emperor, 
Hussain Khan was imprisoned, and thongh after a time released was 
banished for life from court. His services under the Emperor idone saved 
him from execution. Shortly after his return to Rangpur he died with* 
out issue. His brother AlUhdad Khan had died a few months previously, 
leaving six sons, of whom Inayat Khan the eldest succeeded to his ancle's 
estate. When Muhammad Muazuddin Buhadar, son of Prince Muhammad 
Muazzam and grandson of Aurangzib, arrived at Multan, on his way to 
Shikarpur and Sind, Inayat ^/i^n joined him and fought throughout the 
campaign. Bakhtiar Khan the chief Afghan rebel submitted, and was 
on the entreaty oi Inayat Khan^ forgiven. 

This chief was succeeded by his eldest son Sker Muhammad Khan, who 
was almost an imbecile, and his uncle dbid Khan administered affairs and 
possessed all real power. On the death of Abid Khan great dissentions 
arose in the family. Lashkar Khan^ brother of Abid Khan, claimed the 
chiefsfaip from his seniority, while Asghar Khan^ brother of Sher 
Muhammad Khan^ claimed through his father and his brother. The 
Afghans ranged themselves, some on one side, some on the other, and it 
was only the influence of Hyat Khan the Governor that prevented 
bloodshed. Having induced all to promise to abide by his decision, he 
appointed Zakid Khan chief. His choice was a good one, and was 
unanimously approved. 



PANJAB CHISFS. '479 

Zaiid Khan was an able man, of gentle manners and considerable 
learning. He was a great friend of Kamr-ud-din, Minister at Dehli, and 
when Nadir Shah invaded India and the Mogal power was becoming 
woak in the distant provinces, he was summoned to Dehli, and, through 
the interest of Kamr-ud-din, appointed Nawab of Multan. This was in 
1738. Zahid Khan^ immediately on bis nomination, wrote to his son 
Skakar Kkan to assume the Nawabship, but Ishak Khan, the Governor in 
possession, would not submit, and was only ousted after a severe struggle. 
In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durani invaded India, and after having put to 
flight Shah Nawaz Khan the Governor of Lahore, moved down to Multau, 
where he confirmed Zahid Khan in his appointment. This led the Dehli 
court to beliey^that Zahid Khan had betrayed them and gone over to the 
eneray^ and Shahnawaz Elhan was appointed to supersede him as Gover- 
nor, while Mir Mann, son of Wazir Kamr-ud-din, was made Viceroy at 
Lahore. Zahid Khan did not at first oppose the new Gt)vernor, but 
during the Baisakhi festival a soldier in the service of Shah Nawaz 
Khan insulted an Afghan womaain a village near the city. This caused a 
general riot in which a relative of Diwan Lakhpat Bai lost his hand. Zahid 
Khan then assembled his Afghans^ and attacked the forces of Shah Nawaz 
Khan, who was worsted and compelled to send to Lahore to beg assistance 
from Mir Manu. The Lahore Governor was the last man to give assis- 
tance to Shah Nawaz Khan, whom he hated as a rival, and sent instead a 
force against him under Kura Mai whom he appointed his deputy at 
Multan and created a Raja. Shah Nawaz Khan met the force about 
forty miles from Multan, but after an engagement, which is said to have 
lasted several days, he was defeated and slain. 

Raja Kura Mai then entered Multan as Governor. He had before 
served in the province as Diwan, and ZcAid Khan, thinking it beneath his 
dignity to render obedience to the new rvier, retired to Sitpur. Kura 
Mai was about to compel his submission by force of arms, but a new 
invasion of Ahmad Shah obliged him to proceed to Lahore, leaving 
Multan in the hands oi Skakar Khan^ son of Zahid Khan. Mir Mann 



480 HISTOBY (*F THE 

and Kara Mai met the Abdali chief near Lahore on the 12th April 1752> 
and gave him battle, but were defeated, and Kara Mai was slain. Mir 
Manu made his peace and was coiifirmed in his viceroyalty^ and under 
him Ali Muhammad Khan, an Afghan officer, was appointed Governor of 
Multan. 

Zahid Khan had died in 1749, and his son Shakar Khan gave over 
charge and remained on good terms with the new Governor. 

In 1757, the Mahrattas overran the Punjab; Ragoba, brother of the 
Peshwah, captured Lahore, and two Mahratta chiefs, Salah Beg and 
Sanjli Beg, were sent against Multan, which they captured almost with- 
out opposition, Ali Muhammad Khan taking to flight. The Mahrattas, 
whose rule was most oppressive, did not remain long ; and the next 
Governor appointed by Ahmad Shah was Khwaja Yakut. Ali Muham- 
mad Khan who had at first obeyed the royal order, after a little while 
finding the Khwaja a feeble Governor, expelled him and again took 
possession of the Nawabship. 

Shakar Khan had died, and his eldest son was a man of no ability, so 
Ahmad Shah wrote to Shuja Khan, the second son of Zahid Khan, direct- 
ing him to assume the Nawabship. Shii^'a Khan collected his Afghans, 
and Ali Muhammad having no force capable of opposing them submitted. 
Shuja Khan then became governor, and built the fortress of Shujaabad, 
twenty-three miles south of Multan. The turbulent Ali Muhammad 
Khan soon took up arms against him, and Shuja Khan, who had grown 
unpopular, was defeated and thrown into prison, while Ali Muhammad 
reassumed the government. This proceeding irritated the Durani 
Monarch in the highest degree, and when he reached Multan, in 1767, 
he ordered the arrest of Ali Muhammad who was bold enough to attend 
the Darbar. Both the offender and his son were, by order of Ahmad 
Shah, ripped up, and their bodies paraded on camels through the city, 
with a proclamation to the effect that this should be the fate of any 
one who should insult a Saddozai. Shuja Khan was then reinvested 
with the government of Multan, and Ahmad Shah left for Kabul. 



FANJAB CHIEFS. 481 

In 1771, the Sikhs, who were becoming very powerful, and who had 

in 1766 overran the Maltan country under Jhanda Singh, attacked Mul« 

tan, and for a month and a half besieged the fort ; but Jahan Khan 

marched to its relief, and compelled them to retire. After this, Haji 

Sharif Khan Saddozai was nominated governor by Timur Shah, and 

SAuja Khan again retired to his fort of Shujaabad, but when called upon 

to give up to government all the proceeds of his zamindari estates, he 

refuted and came to an open rupture with the Governor. On this another 

Haji Sharif Khan, Taklu, otherwise known as Mirza Sharif Beg, was 

appointed, in conjunction with a merchant named Dharam Das, and con«- 

trived to keep on good terms with Shuja Khan, Sat Abdul Karim Khan 

Bamazai invaded Multaii, and the Mirza called in the Sikhs to bis assis* 

tance. Timur Shah, hearing that the Mirza had chosen allies firoxa 

among his bitter enemies, superseded him| and sent Maddat Khan to fill 

the post. Sharif Beg resisted the new governor, but Shvja Khan support- 

ed him ; and they together besieged Sharif Beg in the citadel. They 

could not uke it, however, and Maddat Khan^ was recalled to Kandahar. 

Timur Shah now directed the Bahawalpur chief to reduce the rebellious 

governor to obedience. He accordingly marched to Multan with hia 

Daudputras, accompanied by Muzaffar Khan son of Skiya Khan. The 

fort was besieged and taken in eighteen days \ but the triumph was a 

short one. Sharif Beg had called to his assistance Sirdars Jhanda 

Singh and Ganda Singh, the Bhangi Chiefs, and they now appeared with 

a large force. They defeated the Bahawalpur troops and stormed the fort, 

which they kept for themselves. The Mirza on this fled to Talamba and 

from thence to Khairpur Tanwein, where he died not long afterwards. 

The Sikhs then attacked and captured Shi^aabad, wbttber Shuja 
Khan had fled, and be only escaped with difficnlty, and took refuge at 
Bahawalpur. Sirdar Xhanda Singh then left Multan in charge of Diwm 
Singh Chhachowalia, one of his misldars, and returned to Amritsar. This 
was in 1772. Some time after this Shuja Khan died, and in 1777 bif 
son Muzaffar Khan persuaded Babawal KhaO| Chief of Bahawalpur, to 



482 HI8T0BT OF THE 

make another effort to recover the city. He accordingly attacked the 
fort and was at first successfol, bat after a siege of twenty-three days 
was repulsed with loss^ and Muzaffar Khan then applied for aid to Kabul. 
Sirdar Maddat Khan was again despatched with a considerable force^ 
bat he did not reach Multan till early in the following year. Kabul 
politics had then changed, and his services were required at home^ and he 
was recalled without having effected anything. Muzaffar Khan then 
retired to Uehh, where he lived under the protection of the famous 
llakhdum Sahib Shaikh Hamed till 1779| when Timur Shah, king of 
Kabul, marched to M.altan with a large army, and recovered it from the 
Sikhs after a siege of forty days. The Sikhs were allowed to retire 
unmolested, and Muzaffar Khan was appointed governor with the litle of 
Nawab ' Bukn-ud-doulah' (pillar of the State). 

The new governor was an energetic and able man, and very much 
improved the province daring his long rule. He had not, however, much 
time to bestow on works of peace for, from 1779 till his death in 1818, 
he was engaged in constant war. The Sikhs of the Bhangi Mbl attack- 
ed him first| and then Sahib Khan Sial and Sirdar Karam Singh Bhangi 
made a joint attack, which was only repulsed with difficulty. 

In 1790 Muzafar Khan, leaving Multan in charge of Muhammad 
Khan Buhadarkhel, journeyed to Kabul, and remained absent for 
two years. When Zaman Shah ascended the throne, Muzaffar Khan 
was confirmed in his governorship, and in 1797, when that prince 
invaded India^ and the Sikhs lost for a time their ascendency, he drove 
them out of Kot Kumalia, which he made over to its hereditary Rais, 
Saadat far Khan Kharral. 

The great enemy of Muzaffar Kkan at Multan was Abd-ul-8amad 
Khan, ^ one of the Badozai chiefs, who did all he could to injure the 
Nawab at the Courts of Lahore and Kabul, and who was at one time 
appointed governor by Shah Zaman ; but at last he was defeated, his fort 

taken, and his jagirs confiscated. 

^-,# ^ — - — 

•Vide Statement<^Sadik Muhammad Khan Badozai. 



PAKJAB CHIEFS* 483 

In 1802, Muzaffar Khan first saw the young chief Banjit Singh| 

who had inarched towards Multan to spy out the land. The Nawab 

came oat to meet him, thirty miles from the city, and the chiefii| 

having interchanged valuable presents, separated very good friends. 

Again, in 1806, after having reduced Jhang, Banjit Singh marched 

towards Multan, and reached Mahtam twenty miles north of the city, 

when the Nawab, who had no wish to fight with the Sikh Chief, gave him 

70,000 Bs. to retire. Banjit Singh bestowed valuable Khiiats on the 

Nawab and took his departure. Ahmad Ehan Sial, the Chief of 

Jhang, who had been just ousted by Banjit Singh, took refuge at 

Multan, and Muzaffar Khan gave him men and money, with which 

he contrived to recover a considerable portion of his territory, though 

he was unable to oust entirely Fatah Singh Kalianwala, the Sirdar 

in possession. Abd-ul-Samad Ehan, the defeated Badozai Chief, who 

had taken refuge at Lahore, persuaded Banjit Singh, in 1807, to 

attack Multan in force. The town was in part captured, but the 

fort held out against all the Sikh cfibrts, and an agreement was 

concluded through Fatah Singh Kalianwala, by which the Maharaja 

retired on receiving a large sum of money. 

In this year Muzttfiar Khan^ tired of constant war, made over the 
Nawabship to his son Sarafraz KAan, and set out on the pilgrimage to 
Mecca. He met with many diflSculties on the journey. The Arabs, 
attracted by the splendour of his cavalcade, attacked it in great numbers, 
and were only bought off with great difficulty. Muzaffar Khan was absent 
fourteen months and at the close of 1808, soon after his return as a 
Haji, (one who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca) Mr. Elphinstone 
visited Multan on his way to the court of Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk at 
Peshawur. He was hospitably received, and the Nawab wished to place 
himself under British protection, bat the British envoy had no authority 
to accept his allegiance, and Muzaffar KAan opened a correspondence 
with the Qovernor General in Calcutta, expressing his desire to be on 
good terms with the English. 



484 HISTORY OF TBI 

At the beginning of 1810; Maharaja Banjit Singh again marched 
against Multan. He had just met Shah Shuja at Khushab, and the 
exiled monarch wished the Sikhs to take Multan and make it over to him. 
Muzaffar -Oa»had, in 1803, repulsed an attack ot the Shah's troops^ and 
in the hope of conciliating him, had more than once offered him an asylum 
at Multauj bat Shah Shuja wished to obtain the city and province as his 
own by conquest. The Maharaja treated the weak minded prince with 
great respect, but, failing to obtain any money from him, determined 
to take Multan on his own account. On the 24th February 1810, he 
arrived before the walls, and the next day took possession of the city. 

The neighbouring chiefs were much alarmed at the proceedings of the 
Maharaja; Muhammad Khan, chief of Leia and Bhakkar, paid 1,20,000 
Bs. as the ransom of his country, and Sadik Muhammad Khan of 
Bahawalpur offered a lakh, with the same object, but it was not 
accepted. He, however, though Muzaffar Khan was his friend, was com- 
pelled to send 500 horsemen as a reinforcement to the Sikhs. 

For some time the fort was bombarded without effect, and 
mining was then resorted to ; but the besieged countermined with success, 
and blew up the battery of Attar Singh Dhari, killing him, with twelve 
men, and seriously wounding others, among whom were Sirdar Nihal 
Singh Attariwala and the young Hari Sing Nalwa. The battery was 
ao near the fort that the Sikhs were unable to carry off their dead, and 
these were' sent in by the besieged, the body of Attar Singh being covered 
with a pair of shawls. 

Diwan Mokham Chand was sent to reduce Shujaabad, but this fort 
was of considerable strength and could not be taken. On the ilst March 
a general assault was ordered, but the Sikhs were repulsed with great 
loss, and they now grew disheartened, for provisions had become very 
dear in the camp; Diwan Mokham Chand was dangerously ill, and 
several leaders had been slain, while scarcely any impression had been 
made on the citadel. On the 25th another assault was made with the 
same result. It was necessary to raise the siege ; and Banjit Singh to his 



panjAb chisps. 4S5 

intense mortification, had to accept from Muzaffar Khan the terms he 
had many times rejected, namely, two and a half lakhs of rupees, twenty 
war horses and a contingent in time of war. Having received 30,000 
Ks. in earnest of the ransom^ the JUaharaja retired from Multan on the 
Hth of April. 

Seeing that his own strength was insuflScient for the capture of Mul- 
tan, Ranjit Singh addressed the Governor General, requesting the co opera- 
tion of Britsh troops. His proposition was not well received, the more 
so as he proposed that the force, instead of marching through the 

Punjab, should pass through the sterile country south of the Sutlej. 
Shah Sluija even prepared for an indepoadent attack on Multan, but he 

was wise enough to relinquish the idea which could have had no chance 

of success. 

The Nawab now quarreled with Sadik Khan of Bahawalpur, who 
had assisted his enemies in the late war. There was a strong party in 
Bahawalpur, headed by Fatah Muhammad Ghori and Ahmad Khan, 
opposed to the Khan, and these, having failed in an attempt to assassinate 
their master, took refuge in Multan territory. The Khan remonstrated 
with the Nawab for allowing them an asylum, but Muzaffar Khan, whose 
wrath was by no means appeased, supported the rebels, and when he 
saw that they were about to be overpowered, declared war against the 
Khan. He proceeded to Shujaabad himself in person, and sent forward 
his army against Yakub Muhammad Khan, the Bahawalpur general. An 
action ensued in which the Daudputras, being the more numerous and 
better supplied with artillery, were the victors, and the Afghan force 
retreated to Shujaabad. In 181 1, Muzaffar Khan was engaged in conflict 
with Mehr Rajjab, of the Rajbanah tribe, a rebellious dependent of his 
own. He defeated him and destroyed his fort, upon the site of which he 
built Firozghar. 

In February 1816, an irreguhur attack was made upon Multan by the 
Sikhs. A strong force had jbeen sent to Bahawalpur and Moltan to 



436 HISTOBT OF THE 

collect the tribute, and there being some delay in Mazaffar KhafC% pay- 
ment, Phnla Singh Akali, mad and drunk with bhang, led a storming 
party of fanatics like himself against the town^ and with such impetuosity 
did they make the attack that they gained possession of some of the out- 
works of the citadel. But Fakir Aziz-ud-din made due apologies ; the Nawab 
paid his tribute quicker than he would otherwise have done, and the 
Sikh army proceeded towards Mankera* In 1.817, a Sikh army, aoder 
Diwan Chand marched against Multan, and attacked the fort, but 
was repulsed and retired on payment of ten thousand rupees. These 
attacks, however, were not made in earnest. The Maharaja was col- 
lecting his stren.,'th for a great effort and he had sworn that Muttaii, 
which had so often defied him should yet be his. During the cold 
weather of 1817 he was collecting supplies and men from all quarters, 
and in January 1818, an army of 25,000 men under the nominal com- 
mand of Prince Kharrak Singh, but in reality commanded by Misr 
Diwan Chand, marched from Lahore. On the way to Multan the 
forts of Khanghar and Muzaffarghar were taken ; the city was invested 
and captured early in February, and the bombardment of the fort com- 
menced. The Nawab had a garrison of only 2,000 men, and the citadel 
was not provisioned for a siege, but he made a defence the like of which 
the Sikhs had never before seen. Till the second of June the bombard- 
ment went on, and two large breaches had been made in the walls, for 
the great Bhangi gun, the *Zam-Zam' of Ahmad Shah Durani, had 
been brought from Lahore and had been four times fired with effect. 
More than one assault was made by the Sikhs, but they were repulsed, 
on one occasion with the loss of 1,800 men. The gates were blown in, 
but the garrison raised behind them mounds of earth on which they 
fought hand to hand with the Sikhs, The defenders of the fort were at 
length reduced to two or three hundred fighting men, most of them of 
the tribe or family of Muzaffar Khan. The rest had either been killed 
or had gone over to the enemy, for they had been heavily bribed to desert 
their master, and many of them were unable to resist the temptation. At 
length, on the 2nd June, an Akali by name Sadhu Singh, determined 



PANJAB CfllEFg. 4S7 

to surpass what PhuIaSiogh ha d done in 1816, rushed with a few des- 
perate followers into an outwork of the fort, and taking the Afghans by 
surprise captured it. The Sikh forces, seeing this success, advanced to 
the assault, and mounted the breach at the Khizri gate. Here the old 
Nawab, with his eight sons and all that remained of the garrison, stood 
sword in hand, resolved to fight to the death. So many fell beneath the 
keen Afghan swords, that the Sikhs drew back and opened fire on the 
little party with their match locka. " Gome on like men" shouted the 
Afghans, " and let us fall in fair fight,'' but this was an invitation the Sikhs 
did not care to accept. There died the white bearded Muzaj^ar Khan, % 
scorning to accept quarter, and there died his five sons, Shah Nawaz 
Khan, Mumiaz Khan, Azaz Khan, Hak Nawaz Khan, and Shah Baz Khan. 
Zu'l'fakar Khan, his second son, was also wounded severely in the face, 
and the two others Sarafraz Khan and Amir Beg Khan accepted quarter 
and were saved. Diwan Bam Dyal took Sarafraz Khan upon his ele- 
phant and conducted him with all honour to his own tent. Few of the 
garrison escaped with their lives,* and the whole city was given up to 
plunder. The fort of Shujaabad was also reduced and five guns taken 
from it. After this the walls of Multan were repaired, and a garrison of 
six hundred men under command of Sirdars Jodh Singh Kalsia and Dal 
Singh Naharna being left in the fort, the Sikh army returned to Lahore. 

Multan was supposed to be very wealthy, and the share of the Maha- 
raja amounting to only two lakhs of rupees he issued an order that all 
officers and soldiers should restore their plunder, and that if any was found 
with them after a certain date the penalty would be certain death. This 
order brought in some five lakhs to the state treasury, but the plunder of 
Multan was estimated at two millions sterling f 



• Mr. MoorcrofI wu told by Maban^a Raojit Singh that fi?e hiuidr«d of the garriton 
sonived and reoeif ed quarter. This wat fidie. At the time of the hat aaiaalt there were 
not three hundred fighting men in the fort, and most of theee fell at the breach. 

t Many are the itoriei told aboat the loot of Multan. It never brought happiness or good 
fortune to its possessors who were killed in battk^ or died childless or in porertj. 



488 HISTORY OP THE 

Nawab Muzaffar KAdn Was buried with honor by the shrine of 
Bahauddin with his son Siah Nawaz. 

Satafraz Khan his eldest son had been for some years Nawab^ his 
father having procured the confirmation of his succession from the Kabul 
court. He was carried prisoner to Lahore by Diwan Chand, and was 
well received by the Maharaja who gave him a jagir at Sharakpnr and 
Naolakha, afterwards commuted to a cadh pension. Zi^lfakar KAan 
also received a pension. Saraffraz Khan was at first rigorously guarded 
in Lahore^ but when the Maharaja's power was secure in Multan, he was 
allowed perfect freedom and was always treated with respect and friend- 
ship by Ranjit Singh. 

In 1848, his influence was useful to the British Government in induc- 
ing the Multani Pathans to abandon the cause of Mulraj, which, however, 
they did not want much pressing to do. At annexation the Nawab had a 
jagir of 1,100 Rs., the village of Chamusaand a cash pension of 14,720 Rs. 
The pension was maintained for his life, and the jagir was to descend to 
bis son Firozdin. Saraffraz Khan died on the 12th March 1851 leaving 
eight sons and seven daughters, and Firozdin in 1855. The village has 
accordingly lapsed to Government. The emoluments enjoyed by the 
family at present, are as follows : — 





Rs. 


Ahmad AH Khan, 


... 1,200 


Katim A It KAan, 


... 1,200 


Ilaidar Khan, 


720 


Ahmad Yar Khan, 


... 1,440 


Jahaiigir Khun, 


... 1,620 


Abdul Majid Khan, . . . 


... 3,000 


Abdul Uamid Khan, ... 


720 


SadiiAUKhan, 


3«0 


Shamsher Mi Klian, ... 


360 



Ahdul MaJUl Khan is the only son of SiaA Natvaz K/mh. His 
mother was a Bamazai lady, daughter ot Abdul Kaiim Khan, some time 



PAKJAB CHIEFS. 489 

governor of the Derajat^ and brother of Wazir Shah Wall EhaOi miniater 
of Ahmad Shah Dorani. Abdul Majid Khan is much respected in Lahore, 
where he is a Member of the Municipal Committee and an Honorary 
]\[agistrate. He has been active in all measures for the good of the city, 
and has given satisfaction, as a Magistrate, by the justice of his decisions. 

He is a man of considerable learning and is well versed in medicine. 
In January 1865 he was created a Nawab by the Supreme Government 



MAKDUM SHAH MAHMUD KURESHL 



1. 


Makdnm Baha-od-din Zikriya. 


2, 


Makdma Haidar Jahan ISaUl. 


3. 


Makdum Shah Biikn.iil.alaiii Abol-fatah. 


4. 


Shaikh IsmaU Shahid. 


5. 


Shaikh Mahammad Sadr-od-din. 


6. 


Shaikh IsmaU Sirwari. 


7. 


Shaikh Amal-ad-dln. 


S. 


Shaikh Yosaf. 


9. 


Shaikh ShahniUah. 


10. 


Shaikh Baha.Qd-dln. 


11. 


Shaikh Eabir. 


12. 


Shaikh Kaim Mahammad. 


13, 


Shaikh Kabir Sadi. 


14. 


Shaikh Baha-ad*din. 


15. 


Shaikh Eaim-nd-din. 


16. 


Shaikh Mahammad Zikriya. 


17. 


Shaikh Mahaoimad Qhaoi. 


18. 


Shaikh Baha-od-dia. 


19. 


Shaikh Muhammad Ghaos. 


20. 


Shaikh Makdum Bahawan Shah. 


21. 


Makdum Shaikh Kabir-ud-din. 


22. 


Makdom Shah Mahmad. 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

In the Maltan diatrictj Makdum ShaA MaAmud, descendant of the cele- 
brated Muhammadan Saint Baha^ud-din, is the foremost man both in 
rank and influence. He is the hereditary guardian of the shrinea of 
Baka^ud-din, and of Bukn-ul-alam his grandson. His disciples and follow- 
ers are numerous both in the south of the Panjab and in Sind, and his 
great influence has always been exerted on the side of law and order. 
Baia-ud'din was bom at Kot Eiror in the Leia district^ in the year 1170. 
He was descended lineally from Asad the son of Hasham the grandfather 
of the prophet. His ancestor Sultan Hussain had come to India with 
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in one of his many Indian expeditions and 



HISTORY OF THE PANJAB CHIEFI. 491 

had settled at Kot Kiror. BoAa-ud^din soon left his.home and went to 
Khorasan, where he became a pupa of Shahab-ud-din Sawardi and waa 
soon distinguished for his learning. He then set out on his travels, and for 
many years wandered over Torkistan, Syria and Arabia. He returned 
to India in 1222 intending to settle at Multan. There was some opposi- 
tion to this at first, but he was eventually permitted to do so, and the fame 
of his miracles and his piety spread over the country and gained for him 
numerous disciples. While Baha-ui-din was in the zenith of his fame 
and power, the saint Shamash Tabrez, with one disciple, a boy of some 
thirteen years of age, arrived at Multan from the west, miraculously 
crossing the Indus upon the small praying carpet (musaUa) used by all 
Muhammadaiis. When Baia-ud-din heard of his arrival he sent to him a 
cup full of milk to signify that Multan was already as full of fakira aa 
it could hold, and that there was not room for one more* Shamash 
Tabrez returned the milk, having placed a flower on its surface signifying 
that not only was there room for him but that his fame would be above 
that of all the holy men who had honored Multan with their presence. 
On this Baia-ud'din was much enraged, and ordered that no one should 
feed or assist in any way the contumacious saint. He was independent 
himself of food, b\;it his young disciple soon became hungpry and cried for 
something to eat, and at the call of Shamash Tabrez the does fromHhe 
wilderness came and allowed themselves to be milked. In return for 
their confidence the saint killed one, according to orthodox Muhammadaa 
procedure, and sent the boy into the city to beg fire with which to 
cook it. But BaAa-nd'din was not to be disobeyed, and all refused, while 
one sweetmeat seller threw a vessel of milk in the face of the boy who 
returned to his master m tears. Then Shamash Tabrez ciied aloud, *' O 
sun ! from whom I take my name (Persian ShamBj the sun) come neafj 
and grant me the heat to cook my food, which these unbelievers deny 
me." The sun descended, and cooked the veniaon ; but it did not returOj 
and to this day is one spear's length nearer Multan than any other part 
of the world. But, in spite of the iiriution caused by interlopers like 
Shamash Tabrezj Baha-ud^m lived to be one hundred years of age, and. 



492 HiSTORT OF THE 

dying in 1270| was buried with great pompj and his ahrine is still 
visited by Mohammadan pilgrims from all parts of India and Afghan 
nistan. 

Rukn^ul^lam was little inferior in learning or sanctity to his grandfii- 
tfaer Baha-uddin. From what remains of his doctrines, scattered through 
the works of his disciples, it appears that he taught a modified form <^ 
metempsychosis. He asserted that at the day of judgment the wicked 
would rise in bestial forms suitable to the characters they had borne 
when on earth ; the cruel man would rise a leopard ; the licentious man^ 
a goat; the glutton, a pig ; and so on through the animal kingdonh 
Bukn^ul-alaM was visited by the Emperors of Dehli more than onoe, and 
his name was known throu^ut Northern India. He died in 1872, and 
his tomb was built by the Emperor Firozs Toghlak in the fort of llultan. 
-After the death of Ruhn-uUalam Multan passed through many 
revolutions, but the family of the saint was always respected. It w«i8 not 
till 1443, in the reign of Syad Muhammad that Multan ceased to he a 
tributary of Dehli. The country, under the weak rule of the Princes 
who had succeeded the able Firoz Toghlak, had fallen iuto the greatest 
disorder, and Multan was specially exposed to attack from Ghor and 
Kabul. Under these circumstances the inhabitants determined to select 
a ruler from among themselves. The choice fell upon ShaihA Tiurf, who 
was famed for his learning and piety. His reign was a prosperous one. 
He restored peace to the country and increased the revenue by his wise 
adniinistration. He was deposed by an Afghan chief of the Langa tribe 
whose daughter he had married. This man brought his whole tribe to 
Multan under pretence of paying homage to the governor, but before 
going himself into the city he drank a cup of duck's blood. He dined at 
the governor's table, and in the course of the evening feigned violent 
pains in his stomach, and called for an emetic, after drinking which h<^ 
threw up the blood which he had drunk earlier in the evening. The 
Shaikh was much alarmed and sent for the friends of the chief from the 
camp who, when they had arrived, armed to the teeth, seized and 
imprisoned Shaikh 7u9af^ and placed the traitor on the throne under the 



PAHJAB CHIEFS. 493 

name of Kaib-ud-dm Mahtnud. The usurper sent bis prisoner to Dehli, 
where he was received with considemtion by Bheilol Lodi^ who eyen gave 
his daughter in marriage to the Sh&ikh's son. In the Ain Akbari the* 
reign of Shaikh Yosaf is stated to have lasted seventeen years ; in 
Ferishta's history only two. The former is more probably correct as 
ri^o/* commenced his rule in 1443^ and on his deposition he is said to 
have been received at Dahli by Bheilol Lodi who did not ascend the 
throne till 1453. 

No other member of the family ever ruled in Multan, but many were 
distinguished for their learning. B^ha-ud-din grandson of Shaikh Tusaf^ 
a follower of the celebrated Haji Abdul Wahab, was a famous scholar. 
He was sent in 1523^ as ambassador to Husain Argun, governor of 
Tatta, the lieutenant of Babar Shah, who was marching against Multan. 
The embassy however failed, the town was besieged, taken and sacked, 
and four years later Multan became again a province of the Dehli empire. 

During the Sikh rule the shrines at Multan lost most of the valuable 
jagirs that had been assigned for th^r support. 

After Maharaja Banjit Singh had taken Multan in 1 818; he assigned 
cash allowances of 3^500 Rs. to the shrines. Diwan Sawan Mai reduced 
this to 1,600 Rs. Under the Darbar the revenue, in land and cash, 
amounted to 2,030 Rs., the Nazrana having been deducted. During the 
mutiny of 1848-49 Makdum Shah Mahmud remained faithful to the 
Government. He had| it is true, no reason to love the Sikhs, yet his 
influence and the information he furnished were very valuable, and on the 
annexation of the Panjab, the allowances of the shrines were confirmed, 700 
Ss. in land in perpetuity, subject to good behaviour, and 1,300 Rs. cash, 
for the life of the then incumbent. One-fourth of the village of Sahinath, 
which the Makdum had planted in 1834, was released to him in perpetuity 
as a personal grant. 

The shrines of Baha-nd-^n and Ruin'ml'^Uam had seen many a 
siege, but that of 1848 was almost too much for them. , Situatedi as both 
were, within the fort, they were exposed to tbe full fire of the besiegers, 



494 HISTORY OF THE PAN JAB CHIEFS. 

aud were almost reduced to ruins. In 1850 the Local Government pm- 
posed a grant of 10,000 Rs. to restore them. This^ however, the Sapieme 
Government did not sanction. Mahdum SAaAwas, however^ an energetic 
man, and with the help and money of his disciples he restored them| at a 
great expense^ to their former glory.* 

In 1857^ Makdum Shah Mahmud rendered excellent service to OoYern- 
ment. He afforded the Commissioner information of every important 
occurrence that came to his knowledge, provided 20 men and horses for 
Ghulam Mustafa Khan's risala and several for the new Police risala. 
He also supplied men for the Police and Infantry levies. With twenty five 
horsemen he accompanied Colonel Hamilton against the insurgents, took 
upon himself a portion of the camp duties, and protected the baggi^ on 
the line of march. His presence on that occasion had a great effect on 
the rebels, who saw that the most influential man of their own faith was 
against them. On the mutiny of the disarmed regiments at Multan, 
he joined the Commissioner with his followers for the defence of the 
bridge leading to the cantonments. Nono of his disciples joined the 
rebels, and his conduct presents a strong contrast to that of the Makdum 
of Pakpattaui whose followers were prominent in the Gogaira insurrection. 
For his services Shah Mahmud received a present of 3,000 Rs. The cash 
allowance to the shrine was exchanged for a jagir worth 1,780 Rs. in 
addition to the eight wells granted in perpetuity worth 550 Rs. In 
1860, the Makdum, on the occasion of the Viceroy's visit to Lahore, 
received a personal grant of a garden worth 150 Rs. per annum, known 
as the Bhangiwala Bagh. 

Makdum Mahmud Shah is the son of Shaikh Hassan Shah^ who married 
Bibi Raji SahUta, daughter of Shaikh Muhammad GhauSj the 19th in des- 
cent from Baha-vd'dtn. 



* Just opposite the shrine of Bahand-din is the tomb of the gallant Nawab MviaSar 
Khan. At the distance of some fifty paces is the ancient Hindu temple, known as Naningfa- 
puria or Pailadparia, the scene of that incarnation of Vishna, when, taking a form half maa 
half tiger, he came forth from the red-hot pillar and tore in pieces the tyrant Harnakai» who 
was about to kill his own son Pailad for refosipg to acknowledge his divinity. 



SADIK MUHAMMAD KHAN BADOZAI OF 

MULTAN. 



Kalu. 



Haji Zila. 

Mohamnud Khan. 

Hnatain Khan. 

Sarbdal Khan. 

I 

Bai Khan. 

Muhahat Khan. 

Muhammad Haijat Khan. 

Wall Muhammad Khan. 
I 



ui fiaffar. 



Hiyi 

Mian Khan. 



Shah Muhammad Khan, 



Hiyi Qhulam Muhammad Khan. 



Muhammad Sarfraz 
Khan. 



Abd-nI»Samad 
Khan. 



Hafis Muhammad 
Sarhuland Khan. 



Khan Jahan 
Khan. 



Qhnlam Kadit 
Khan, 
B. 1839. 



I 



Ohttlam Mohiud- 
din Khan, 
D. 1850. 



Sadik 

Muhammad 

Khan, 

B. 1814.' 

I 



Ohnlam 

Huiaain 

Khan, 

B.1888. 



Muhammad Sherdil 
Khan, 
B. 1829. 



Ashak Muhammad 
Khan, 
B.1841. 



Doit Mohammad 
Khan, 
, B. 1849. 



HISTORY OP THE FAMILY.. 

The Badozai tribe, like other Afghans, call themseWea Bani larail, 
or ' Children of Israel ' and claim to have emigrated from the H0I7 Land 
(Bait-ul-mukaddas) to A^hanistan^ where they settled in the moontains 
of Ghor and Firozah. The question of the Jewish origin of the Afghans 
18 one that has been much discussed^ and is too lengthy to be more than 



496 HISTORY OF THE 

noticed here. In phyaiognomy^ in manners and in their religioua rites the 
Afghans much resemble the Jews. Among them is found the custom of 
driving the ^ seape goat/ laden with the sins of the people, into the wil- 
derness ; the rite of the passoveri offerings for sin and thank-offerings for 
deliverance from danger. The ' Matla-al»anwar/ written about 1 510, 
considers the Afghans originally Effyptiaa*, who, after the overthrow of 
Pharaoh in the Red Sea, left their native country, refusing to accept the 
Jewish faith, which others of the Egyptiaiis adopted. In the ' Tawarikh 
Sher Shahi' it is stated that many years after the death of Solomon 
and during the reign of Asaf Syria was invaded by Bukht Nasr (Nebu- 
chadnezzar) who destroyed Jerusalem and expelled the Afghans who 
settled in Ghor and Ghazni. This is the beUef of all the Afghans at 
the present day, who consider themselves descendants of the captive ten 
Jewish tribes. The first converted to Muhammadanism was Kais, son 
of Ais an Afghan chief, who fought under the prophet himself and receiv- 
ed from him the title ' Malik Abdal Baihid? Whether this story be 
true or false, it is certain that the tribes inhabiting the Ghor mountains 
were converted to Muhammadanism very early ; probaUy between the 
years 60 A. H. and 80 A. H. 

The Bani Afghans overran Sistan, Kirman, and part of Khorasan, and 
attained to great power under Sultan Mahmud ; Shahab-ud-din, and Timur 
Shah, all of whom they accompanied on their Indian expeditions. The 
i9miXj f/i Sadik Muhammad Khan is called Hajizai Badozai, bom Hqfi Zila 
or 2a2^, wh6 made the pilgrimage to Hecca about the year 1600. When 
Shah Jahaoi in 1637, obtained possession of Kandahafi Muhammad Khan, 
son of J3!ffi Zila^ retired to Herat, and did not return home till Kandahar 
was recovered by Shah Abbas II. of Persia, in 1618. 

At the time of Shah Jahan's invasion, two Saddoaai chiefs, Hussain 
Khan and Alladad Khan, who had joined the Emperor, retired with him 
to Hi&doatan, and obtained permission to settle near Multan, then a pro- 
vince of Dehli, whither many of their tribe followed them. About 1670 
MmhammadKhanfTt%olvtd to emigrate to India. Hussain Khan, Sad- 



?AN/Afi CXIMIt. 491 

dosai, hearing of tkif mteotionj ud fearing that hia influenoe migbt auffar 
bj the arrival of the new chief at Maltani wrote to Sherakj chief of (bo 
Tarin tribe, to asaateinato him while paieiiig tbro9gb the Taria couatfy 
to Kohat. Sherak, accordingly invited Muhammad KhM to an entertain* 
ment and poisoned him. Unmain KAan^ his eon, waa too jonng to aTonga 
hie father's death, but his eonain ifiaa JTim assembled the BadoaaiS| 
and attacking Sherak and his tribe, defeated him and put his fiunily te 
death ; bat that chief himself escaped and fled to Dehli where he 
entered the serfice of the Emperor. Here he was followed by MUm 
Khan who stabbed him in the TCrj presence of Anrengeib. On the story 
of Sherak's treachery being told the Emperori Miam Khun nas pardoned 
for the mnrder ; bat for his insolence in killing his enemy in open 
Darbar, he was imprisoned at Dehli fbr twelve years. Both the son and 
grandson of Mohammad Khan remained at Kandahafi and it was not 
till 1738, when Nadir Shah had captured the city, that Bai Khan his 
great grandson, emigrated to Multan. He returned a few years afterwards 
to Kandahar, but his son Muhaiat Khan remained at Multan. 

The family, till the time of Shah Mnhammad Khan^ were entirely 
engaged in agriculture. He was a man of energy and took service in the 
army of Ahmad Shah Durani, in his several invasions of India. In 1778 
he assisted Bhuja Khan, governor of Multan, to defend the city against 
Jhanda Singh and Oanda Singh the Bhangi chiefs, who took it after a 
brave defence. Shuja Khan soon after died, and Muzaffar Khan applied 
for help to Timur Shah, son of Ahmad Shah Durani, who marched against 
Multan and recovered it, after a siege of forty days, from the Sikhs, in 
1779. Muzaffar Khan was appointed^ governor^ an^ for his aerviceS| 
Shah Muhammad received a jagir at Perah Dinpanah and one at Dezah 
Ghasi Khan, worth 10,000 Bs. It wm not long befove Nawab Mnzafiue 
Khan became jealous of ^ power and iaflucMe cf Khah JIMammad, and 
the latter thought it pmdent to retire from Multan. He joined the ar»j 
of Timur Shah then advancing against BahawalpoTi and ao mueh distini> 
gttished himself at the siega of Oeixawar that he wis made by the Piiiico 



498 HISTORY ev thx 

governor of tbe Derah Ghasi Khan with its dependencies^ and coatodian 
of the Deirawar fort. Very soon after the departure of Timar Shah^ the 
Khan of Bahawalpur recovered the fort, and a year later Shah Muhammad 
died. Sarfraz Khan succeeded to hia other's jagirsy but made no effort 
to keep the governorship of Mankera and Derah Ghazi Khan to which 
Abd-un-nabi the ex-ruler of Sind was appointed. He however became 
obnoxious for his tyranny, and as he failed to pay the (Government dues, 
he was superseded in favour of Muhammad Khan Saddozai, and the 
governor of Multan and Sarfraz Khan Badozai were directed to aid the new 
ruler. Abd-un-nabi made a vigorous resistance, but near Leia an actiaa 
was fought in which he was defeated and his son Mian Araf slain. 
The fort and town of Leia surrendered to the victors, but Sarfraz 
Khan was shot as be was riding through the city. Muhammad Khan 
then obtained possession of the country. He was a wise and beneficent 
ruler, and his great grandson is at the present day Nawab of Derah 
Ismail Khan. 

On the death of Sarfraz Khan, his brothers Abd-aUSamad Khan and 
Hafiz Sarhuland Khan straightway began to quarrel^ and the former 
contrived to seize the whole estate. Sarbuland Khan, on this, went to 
Kabul to obtain redress from the Emperor and received an allowance of 
6,500 Rs.y of which 4,500 Rs. was to be paid from the revenues of Multan. 
An order was also passed that the estate should be equally divided 
between the brothers ; but Abd-%l»Samad Khan would not hear of 
divisioUi and it was only the jagir in Multan which the Nawab was able 
to obtain for Sarbuland Khan. 

The elder brother Abd-vUSamad Khan was engaged in constant hoeti- 
lities with Muzaffar Khan, Nawab of Multan ; and in 1801, after the 
fall of Zaman Shah, the influence of Fatah Khan Barakzai, the new 
minister at the Kabul Court, obtained the nomination of the Badozai 
chief as governor. Muzaffar Khan had no intention of submitting. 
He called in the Bahawalpur chief to his aid, who sent 5,000 troops 
under Jiun Bam and Din Muhammad Khan. These with the Multan 



t>ANJAB CHTEP8. 499 

troops under Gulam Murtwa, besieged Abd-aUSamad in his fort at 
Dinpanah. Here he was joined by 1,000 horsemen of Mir Alim the 
governor of Derah Ghazi Khan, bat this reinforcement only enabled 
him to prolong his resistance : the fort was eventually stormed and takeui 
while Abd aUSamad fled to Lahore to induce Eanjit Singh, then rising to 
power, to espouse his cause. Influenced somewhat by his representations 
and more by his own ambition, the Lahore chief attacked Multan several 
times, and at length, in 1818, captured it ; Muzaflar Khan and his five 
sons dying in the defence. 

Hafiz Barbuland Khan had always stood high in the favour of the 
Multan Nawab^ ; and when they fell, he received, notwithstanding hia 
brave conduct at Multan against the Sikhs, a command of two hundred 
horse from Banjit Singh, and was sent to watch the frontiers of Baha- 
walpur. After the capture of Mankera in 182 1 , he received a jagir of 
2,000 Bs. in the Leia district, which he retained till 1829, when it was 
exchanged for one of the same value in Multan. He served faithfully 
throughout the whole Multan campaign of 1848-49 and died in 1853, half 
of his jagir descending to his son, Sadii MuAammad KAan. 

The quarrelsome Ahd-aUSamad Khan was not so fortunate. Asad 
Allah Khan Biloch of Sakkar, who farmed the customs of Leia, was 
his great enemy, and they fought so continually that the country became 
impoverished and Asad Allah Khan had to throw up the contract, as he 
could not collect the revenue. The Maharaja then told Ald-aUSamad 
that he must either accept a jagir in another part of the country, or take 
the contract himself. He accepted the latter alternative as the lesser evil 
of the two ; though it proved to be the greater ; for two years afterwards, 
from his own carelessness and the dishonesty of his agents, he fell two 
lakhs of rupees into arrears ; and not being able to pay, his whole property 
was seized and his jagir sequestered. An allowance of 3,200 Bs. was^ 
however, paid him^ which he held till his death in 1850. The British 
Government gave his sons a pension of 1,400 Bs., but the younger Ohulam 
Moii'ud'din, was thrown from his carriage and killed in 1860, and 700 Bs. 



500 ULBTOAY OF TH£ 

of the peaslon was resumed. The allowance was again inoreaaed to 1^000 
Ba, in November 1860. 

Sadik Muhammad Kian wsiS horn in 1814. When sixteen years of 
age he was placed in command of 10 sowars, on 1,200 Rs. per annum^ by 
Diwan Sawan Mai, governor of Mult an. He accompanied the Diwan on 
his expedition, in 1 833, against the Gurchani, Nishari, Laghari and 
Khosa tribes, when they made their incursion into Dajal and Ehanpur 
and fought in the skirmish at the Kala Pahar. After this he was thought 
worthy of an independent command, and was sent with forty horse- 
men to Harrappa, and later received charge of the Ilakas of Kamalia 
and Syadwala. In 1838, he again bad to march against his ^rst enemiea 
the Gurcbanis and Nisharis, who had descended upon the plains and 
were ravaging the country, and drove tbem back to the bills with con- 
siderable loss. In November, 1843, he attacked and defeated the Katah 
tribe, which bad taken advantage of the anarchy succeeding the murder 
of Maharaja Sher Singh to plunder the Syadwala, Satgharrah and 
Haveli districts. In September, 1844, Diwan Sawan Mai was assassi- 
nated, and his son and successor Mulraj sent Sadit Muhammad back to 
Kamalia with full civil and military powers. In 1845, he was sent 
against Fatah Khan Tiwana who had murdered Payindah Khan, Khajak- 
zai \vith his son Sikandar Khan, and Ashik Muhammad Khan Alizai, 
father of Ghulam Hassan Khan, ambassador at the court of Kabul, and 
bad forcibly seized the government of the province of Derah Ismail 
Khan. He was soon, however, compelled to return to his own district, 
where, at the time of the Satlej campaign, the Muhammadan tribes^ 
Kharrals and Fatianas, had risen in revolt. Karam NayaraU) brother of 
Diwan Mulraj, was with the force of Sadih Muhammad^ and the tribes 
were dispersed, with the loss of many of their number, including Walidad, 
elder brother of Bahawal Fattiana, who was imprisoned for life for rebellion 
in 1857. 

When the rebellion broke out, at Multan, in April 1848, and Mulraj 
bad summoned all his officers to swear fidelity to him on their respective 



PAN JAB CHIEFS. 501 

Scriptures, Sadik Muhammad Khan, withhis father, refused to take the oath, 
and at the first opportunity went over to Major H. B. Edwardea, with whom 
he served faithfully throughout the war. His local knowledge was 
invaluable to the Engineer and Quarter Master Generars Departments, and 
Majors Napier and Becher, and Major General Whish bore the warmest 
testimony to his valuable and zealous services. But the loyalty of Sadik 
Muhammad did not spring so much from love to the Lahore Government 
or to the British as from dislike to Diwan Mulraj. This governor was 
of a very different character from his father, and though not without 
ability was avaricious and suspicious. His confidence ho only gave to 
Hindus, and consequently the Pathans inhisemploy all forsook him when 
a convenient opportunity offered. Sadik Muhammad Khan^ at the close of 
the war, received a pension of ^,000 Rs.| besides khillats and valuable 
presents and a garden at Multan, and retired with his well won honours 
from active service. 

On the first outbreak of the mutiny of 1857 ho was at Lahore and 
oQ*ered his services to Government! An order had been already sent to 
Multan for him to raise 100 sowars for active service, but, owing to his 
absence, these men were raised by Haji Ghulam Mustafa Khan. On his 
return south he accompanied Colonel Hamilton in the expedition against 
the Gogaira insurgents. He was present in the action that ensued, and 
was useful in preparing rafts, by which the force crossed the Bavi at 
Thalli. In 1860 he was made assessor of Income Tax at Maltan, and 
performed his duties with intelligence and honesty. In exchange for hLi 
pension he obtained the Muhammad Khan-wala garden in perpetuity and 
a life jagir at Lutfabad and Kot Malik and a well in Bahawalpur, wortk 
together 2,937 Bs. When the Income Tax Assessment was completed be 
was appointed Tehsildar of Shujaabad and has since been successively 
transferred to Lodran, Mailsi and Sarai Sidhu. The only other mem- 
ber of the family in Government employ is Ghulam Uuasain Khan, son 
of Khan, Jahan Khan, who ia Thanadar of Kolachi in the Derah Ismail 
Khan district. 



MUHAMMAD ISMAIL KHAN SIAL. 



r^0«-l4*G^-: 



. 


Ghazi Kban< 

1 




RashidKhan. . 

1 
Sher Khan. 

1 


Sultan Mahmud. 


1 
Lai Khan. 


Mahram Khan. 

1 


Jahan Khan. 


WaUdad 
Kban Khan. 


Bahram Khan. 

Inayatullah 
Khan. 

1 


Sher Khan. 

Shahadat 
Khan. 


KhairKhan. 

Dargahi 

Khan. 

1 


Sultan Mahmud. 


Sahib Khan. 


Ismail Khan. 

Kabir Khan. 

1 




Fatah Ehan. 


Ahmad Khan. 

1 


Jahan Khan. 

1 




Inayat Khan. 

Amir Khan. 

Ahmad Khan. 


^ Jalal Khan. 
Muhammad Ismail Khan. 1 

Kabir Khan. Walidad Khan, 



HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Sials of Jhang are a Muliammadan tribe of great antiquity^ and 
until the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh possessed great power in the 
country bordering on the Chenab. They were originally Rajputs, and their 
ancestor Rai Shankar was a resident of Dhara Nagar, between Allahabad 
and Fatahpur. He emigrated, about the year 1230, to Jaunpur, 
and on his death^ great dissentions arose between the different branches 
of the family, and his son Sial^ in 1243, during the reign of Sultan 
AUa-ud-din, left Jaunpur for the Panjab, which had been two years 
before overrun by the Mogals. It seems that owing to the unsettled state 
of the lower provinces many Rajput families about this time emigrated 
to the Panjab, where they sooner or later adopted the Muhani- 
madan faith. Among them were ancestors of the tribes known as the 



HI8T0ET ^T THB PANJAB CH1E?8. 603 

Kharrals, Tiwanas, Ghebaa, Chiddars, and the Panwar Sials * Sial in 
search of a good place for settlement visited Pak Pattan, then called 
Ajodhan, and the residence of the famous Muhammadan saint Baba 
Farid-ud-din Shakarganj. He, with all his family, converted by the 
eloquence of the Saint, turned Musalman, and renewing his wanderings, 
came to t Sialkot, a very ancient Rajput settlement, where he built a fort. 
He soon left, however, and at Sahiwal, in the Shahpur district, married 
Sohag, the daughter of Bhao Khan Maikan, who bore him three 8ons,t 
BAarmi^ KokH and Mahani^ each the founder of a Sial clan. Kohli led his 
tribe into the unoccupied lands of Chohistan and Kachhi, where for several 
generations they lived wholly engaged in pastoral pursuits. 

Mahpal sixth in descent from Ski/, about the year 1380 founded the 
town of Mankera, afterwards so celebrated, and his great grandson MtU 
Khan founded Jhang Sial, on the Ghenab, in 1462. He was four years 
afterwards summoned to Lahore, and granted the territory of Jhang 
m hereditary possession, paying revenue to the Mogal emperors. Both 
Mai Khan and his son Dotolat Khan were liberal and intelligent chiefs, 
and much improved the district. GhaziKhan, ton of Dowlal Khan, built 
the fort of Choutra, and his cousin Khewa Khan the fort of Khewa, ten 
miles to the north of Jhang. 

Jalal Khan the fourth chief of Jhang, was murdered by his nephew 
Pahar Khan, who had founded Paharpur in Uchh. Hia grandson 
Firoz Khan avenged his death, capturing Paharpur, and puttmg to 

• The Tiwana, Qbeb and 8ial tribef have a commoo origin. Rai Shankar bad three tonf, 
Saino, Tena and Qheo. From the firit have defoended the Siala } the Tiwanai from the 
Ncond, and the Obebaa from GHieo the youngeit 

t Vide ante. p. IS. 

t The story goes that Bharmi, Kohli and Hahani were playing together, when children, 
with a clay cow for a toy. Bharmi personated the husbandman, the owner of the cow i 
Mahaoi was the thief who stole it, while Kohli was the chief and sat in mock judgment <m 
the offender. This boyish play was prophetio, and in later years the reigning house ui 
Sial was from tho descendants of Kohli ; Bhanni'a sons were simple peaiants, and if news of 
a strayed buffalo was required, something was generally to be heard about it in the MlhaQi 
dan. 



604 HISTORY OF THE. 

death all the descendants of FaAar Khan whom he took priionenKr 
Kahir Khan^ Jahan Kian, GAaei Khan, Sultan Mahmud Khan, Lai JSOkam 
and Mahram EAan were the next suceessiTe chiefs. W alidad Kian the 
thirteenth chief was the most famous and most powerful. He diaanned 
the Bais of Mirakj Shorkot, Kot Kamalia, and Ebewah, and aaaigned 
them service jagirs. He brought large tracts of waste land under cul- 
tivatioui and by his strong and wise government cleared the ^ B&r ' of 
robbers. The Iiahore Government^ to which he remained faithful, 
although he might, with safety, have thrown off its yoke, granted him 
the fort and Ilaka of Chuniot, and he thus became possessed of 
the greater part of the country between the Bavi and the Chenab, as iax 
North as Findi Bhattian, also holding the country to the west of 
the Chenab and Jhelam, as far as Mankera. He died in 1747, and waa 
succeeded by his nephew Inayat Vllah Khan^ who bad for minister his 
first cousin Shahadat Khan. In two years the cousins remained warm 
friends, but at length quarreling, Shahadat Khan took up arms against 
Inayat^ but was totally defeated and forced to fly to Badarpur across the 
river. Not disheartened, he raised a fresh force and attacked his 
cousin, but was again defeated and slain. Inayat Khan was shortly after 
this carried off prisoner to Syadpur by forty picked sowars belonging to 
his kinsmen of that town, who had espoused the cause of Shahadat Khan, 
but after six months he was released. He was a brave and a successful 
General, and is said to have won 22 battles. The most important of these 
were against the chiefs of Multan, who were encroaching on the 
Jhang territory and the recovery of Chuniot from the Bhangi Sirdars. 

Inayat Khan died in 1787, and the rule of his son Stdtan Mahmud 
who was an imbecile, did not last long, for his half brother Sahtb Khan, 
son of Inayat Khan by a concubine, who had sworn allegiance to him 
on the Koran, rose in arms, and imprisoned him in the fort of Choutra^ 
where he was put to death. Sahih Khan was himself assassinated soon 
after, in the house of Amar Khan, where he had gone to celebrate his 
marriage. The next Bais of Jhang, Kahir Khan, son of Ismail Khan 



pAnjab CHixrs. 505 

brought back the direct line which had gone out with Jaian Kkan. He 
was of a mild and peacefal disposition^ and was much loved bj his tribe. 
After a rale of eleven years he abdicated in favour of his son Jimad 
Khan, who was the last of the Sial chie&« The Sikhs had \>y this time 
become very powerfuli and Karram Singh Dulu a Bhaogi chiefj had 
conquered Chuniot. Ranjit Singh marched against this fort» which was 
held by Jassa Singh^ son of Karram Singh, and captured it. He then 
turned toirards Jhang, but Ahmad Khan agreed to pay 60,000 Bs. yearly^ 
and the Sikh chief accordingly returned to Lahore. This took place in 
the year 1803. Three years later, however, the Maharaja again invaded 
Jhang, with a large army, and after some hard fighting took the fort ; 
Ahmad Khan escaping to Multan, The district of Jhang was then 
farmed to Sirdar Fatah Singh, Ealianwala, for 60,000 Bs. per annum. 
Not long after, Ahmad Khan returned with a Pathan force, given him 
by Muzaffar Khan Nawab of Multan, and recovered a great part of his 
old territories, Ranjit Singh accepting the former tribute of 60,000 Bs. 
as he was too fully engaged with other expeditions to march against 
Jhang. 

After the Maharaja had unsuccessfully attacked Multan in 1810| 
ho visited his chagrin on Ahmad Khan, whom he suspected of favoring 
Muzaffar Khan, and having captured him at Serai Sidhu, took him 
to Lahore, while his son Inayai Khan fled to Haidarabad in Sind. 
Ranjit Singh feared that Inayat Khan would excite the Sind Amirs 
against him, and promised Ahmad Khan his release from prison, if he 
would recall his son and leave him at Lahore as security for his good 
behaviour. This was done, and Ahmad Khan received a jagir of 12,000 
Bs. at Mirowal in the Amritsar district. After Ranjit Singh had taken 
Multan in 1818, he granted Lug^at Khan a jagir of 8,000 B8.| and on 
the death of Ahmad Khan in 1820, the son succeeded to the jagir. This 
was in 1823 exchanged for one of die same value at Serai Sidhu, in the 
Multan district, and in 1830, this was again exchanged for a jagir at 
Mustanwali, in Leia. In 1838, Int^at Khan was killed near Bassulpur, 



606 HIITOET OF THE 

fighting on the side of Diwan Sawan MaU against Baja Golab Siugk. 
His brother Ismail Khan went to Lahore to endeavoar to obtain the con- 
firmation of the jagir in his favour, bat the Maharaja was paralytic, and 
Gkdab Singh his enemy in the ascendant, and he only obtained a pen- 
sion of 100 Bs. a month. He remained at Lahore four years, till his 
pension was discontinued| and he then returned to Jhang, where he lived 
upon an allowanee of Bs. 41 a month granted to the family by Sawan 
Mai. This was raised, in 1848, to 60 £s. 

Li October, 1848, Major H. Edwardes wrote to Ismail Khan^ directing 
lum to raise troops in behalf of Government, and to collect the revenue 
of the district. The poor chief, hoping the time was come when loyalty 
might retrieve his fortunes, raised a force, and, descending the river, 
attacked and defeated a rebel chief, Atta Muhammad, at Nikokarah. 
Afterwards, when Sirdar Sher Singh Attariwala had passed through 
Jhang and had left Deoraj in command of 1,000 men there, Ismail Khan 
attacked this detachment several times, with varying results. His 
Jemadar Pir Kumd of Isa Shah, captured at the fort of Taruka 
another rebel chief named Eanh Das. Thus Ismail KAan, the representa- 
tive of a long and illustrious line of chiefs, stood out bravely on the 
aide of the Government. His inflaence, which was great in the district^ 
was all used against the rebels, and his services were especially valuable at 
a time when it was inexpedient to detach a force against the petty rebel 
leaders. After annexation Ismail Khan was made Hisaldar of the 
Jhang mounted Police, but his services were, through inadvertence, over- 
looked, and it was not till 1856 that he received a pension of 600 Bs. 
ibr life. Three wells were also released to him and his male heirs in 
perpetuity. 

In 1857 the services of the chief were conspicuous. He aided in raising 
a force of cavalry and served in person against the insurgents. For his 
loyalty he received a khiUat of 600 Bs. and the title of Khan Buhadar, 
and his yearly grant of 600 Bs. was raised to 1,000 Bs, with the addi- 
tion of a jagir of 350 Bs. for life. In 1860 his pension was, at his owa 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 507 

desire^ exchanged for a life jagir.^ He has recovered many of hia old 
Zemindari rights ia different villages^ and although his estate is 
only held on a life tenure^ yet the Government^ on his death, will take 
care that thia illastrious family does not sink into poverty. Kabir 
Khan^ the son of IwmU KAaii^ ia an Honorary Police Officer in the Jhang 
district. ' 

Jahan Khan^ brother of Akmad JUan, and uncle of Imaii Khan, 
holds a jagir at Chand Burirana and Budhi Thatti worth 887 Ba.^ aa 
old grant of Banjit Singh to hia father and confirmed for life by the 
British Government. 



60L0NEL BADRINATH SIKDAR BUHADAR. 

polonel Badrinafh is one of thd Sikh officers who^ on tlie annexation 
of tke Patijab, transferred their services to the British Government. 
His lather was a native of Cashmir and emigrated to the Panjab at 
the Ibeginning of the present century. In 1821, ^adrlnath entered the 
Maharaja's army as a private soldier, and gradually rose through all the 
graaas ofdieoservic^ till, in 183Js he ^rai made CoIomI whkh raak hjs 
bald till Iftte «eoottd Sikh war. Httt»w plenty of fighting daring these 
years irnd was in the •tompaigns of Swat, Peshawar^ Hiftaim, Ywafzai, 
Bannn, Tirah and numerous actions. For long he served na Hie fton- 
tier ; six years iu charge of the forts of Dera Ismail Khan and Tank. 
He was with Sirdar Hari Singh Nalwa in 1833, when that chief, in the 
most masterly manner, won Peshawar from the Baraksais. In 1844 he 
was stationed in Hazara under Diwan Moolraj Dilwalwala, with the 
Katar Mukhi Regiment and some Gurkhas. 

In 1846 he accompanied Major H. Laurence to Cashmir where 
Shaikh Immamuddin Khan was in revolt, and the next year went with 
Lieutenant Edwardes to Bannu. 

He served throughout the siege of Multan with the Katar Mukhi, and 
after the close of the war retained his command, till, on the introduction 
of the new police, he took his discharge. Colonel BadrinatA was known 
as a brave and able officer, and the force under him was always in good 
discipline. In 1857, the fort of Multan, the magazine and the treasury 
were intrusted to his corps, and the regiment also furnished detachments 
which fought against the mutineers and insurgents with gallantry and 
credit. 

In 1861, the Government in sanctioning his retirement granted 
him a life pension of 3,600 Rs., inclusive of the allowance attached to the 
order of British India, which he obtained in 1857 in recognition of his 
loyalty and gallantry. 



MUHAMMAD SARAFRAZ KHAN KHARRAL- 



Kahal Khav. 

SMKhan. 
KaiMl<^KHtt Khan. 
Hahmnnad Khan. 
SalLhi Strndat Tar Khn. 



I I 

Ahmad Yar Khan. Muhammad Tar Khan. 

Abdullah Ehao. Ohnlam Mtihammad Khaa. 

I 
Saadat Tar Khan. 



Muhammad Muiaffar Khan. Muhammd Sarafrai Khai Kbao Kahan Khao. 

Mahammad Amir Alt Khan Bluhammad Khan. 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY. 

The Kharral tribe, of whieh Hie laAe Sarufrm Khan was the tcknow- 
ledged head, clahns to be of Rqput deseent^ and traces its genealogy vp 
io Baja Ksram of the Lnimf' djnastj, « fiunoua Idng of Hastinapor, 
The KharraU ha^e their chief aettletientB in the awmmpy jimgies of tho 
Gogaira dtatnet. There me auinj of tbem in Jhmng, and thej hold 
aome foity viUages in Lahore^ chiefly abeot Sbaikhopurm. Thioagfa all 
historic times Ao Kharrals liave been a tnrbulent, aavage and thieriah 
tribe, ever impatient oF oontrel and deltgbting in strife and plunder. 
More fanatic tban other Mohasnmadaa tribes tlwy submitted wifli the 
greatest relnetance to Hindu mk, and it was as muoh Diwsn Sawan 
Mai and the Sikhs eonid do to retftraia ^Mm, for -whenever an oigniiisad 
force was sent agitnst them they tettred into the aiars h es and thiek 
jungle where it was ahnoflTt tmpossiMe to follow then. Onee they re- 
helled under Britisih rule^ during the dssturbanees tif 1857^ and the 
lesson tm<;ht ibem at thirtr tine will be sufficient for this generalion 
at least. 



DT THT 




CiTtPffL VIC ▼'liL ITUSIIL '«IB9r fTDE: AmnE uyniJi^ 

cxBcux vHK acK iiGst xif ixe Sak, mcwmf of -as jdoi 
«?=T?^KL 'ZiK irrss acme mr nc XL 0&» nLft ixiik. bIibuL 

'Mjcu^ ixflc le tmngrn n iKsct v> £i£ dHQuxts 
dft lie ¥aiM x^ BL iJuBiis : ■&£ pnmoed ^oc GSub: ^^bs. ■ ^ti* ^imffy 
»*tii^ tc Zvaeas. ^*^*^ iicaio. jik fgiOTTtttr id ^^»^f^ ri*T ^fW JShk 
tauaf 'wm »■■ i^ w&^f ieM-imc i iirMirr, mfl knUliie nxmmzDnE Ihkr? nf 
^m vramBai wmti le intf tiiHMftK Toieimti bdbde ^nt jok ly *&s 
jCiijscf zQuirvcs Ji. yCMiwBMPSi. 

«f idsn ttofiTB far lonc ^'ssnoed to m yoBBg i 
ofi ixks Terr m; at :^f dke mirrage, nea ill tii£ friokii vs* M»!iin'ii'r 
he; brer psr it*; sa Lis tih>'9iip;JfirBd »sre ani piJkya if sr Dus- 
ftbad. Tzii dsBo, mms^ssi azki jii ■■! i1 is kit ikisie : ai Uhir rarrrr 

hard ::>t h^ life. SAiiia ihsj canicd hams vi± tkea, ai Tiksszi ksr 
bexr«>-Jiei wished to rptr*; ber life, ber pKcna ftzaa^led ker. TVae 
mizzden were tLe cui»e oi mch Uoodj feais betweea the daas 
that it a: Isn^lh wu tb^jofbt int3ispk^3Qi to hare djcaghtos, amd as 
soon as u^er were b^m tber were Etrangied as Saiuba had been. This 
custom c: itzuxa izifinbcsde was oofmmoa amoog the Kharrak till Colonel 
IUm;;:.-)n, C:z:xissi:^x»er of M^kan, pesaaddd tbezn to discontinae it. 

LaI Khan the son asi smsocaaor of Ghazi Khan of Jhang was not 
fo)\iior ot' >j£.3i/ Yx* Kia% than his father had been. The Kamalia 
chief had caluNi hisi the son of a dandnf girl, and he gathered his Sials, 




PAN JAB CHIEFS. 5|1 

and marched agai&at Eamalia where he shut Saadat Khan up in the fort 
" Come out/' said Lai Khan, *' come out and see what entertainment 
the son of the dancing girl can give you.'' But Saadat Khan was not to 
be temptedy anc[ Lai Khan^returaed to Jhang, having plundered the whole 
of the Eharral country. 

Walidad Khan the thirteenth chief of Jhang was in favour in court. 
He took possession of Kamalia ; assigned the chief a service jagir, and 
held his conquest during his whofle rde. flia successor Inayat Khan, 
was either more generous or more foolish, for he restored Kamalia to 
Muhammad Yar Khan and Ahmad Tar Khan the sons of Saadat Khan. 
But in the next generation it was again lost. Sirdar Kamar Singh 
Nakkai conquered it^ and on his death, it fell into the hands of Sirdar 
Ram Singh, head of the rival Nakkai housCj whose father Nar Singh bad 
been killed in a (igbt with the Kharrals. 

Ohulam Muhammad Khan can scarcely be said to have had any power 
whatever ; and his son Saadat Tar Khan the Second was not much more 
fortunate. For a short time he recovered his patrimony, for when in 
1798, Shah Zaman invaded the Panjab, and the Sikhs took to flight in all 
directions, Muzaffar Khan governor of Multan thinking the opportunity 
not to bo lost, marched to Kamaliai and drove out the Sikhs after a 
49evere fight. Saadat Yar Khan was reinstated, but he did not hold his 
own very long for in 1803 he was compelled, after a fruitless struggloi to 
submit to Ranjlt Singh who annexed Kamalia to Lahore. Saadat Tar 
Khan fled to the protection of Nawab Muzaffar Khan of Multan. Banjit 
Singh, however, recalled him, and gave him proprietary rights over forty 
villages, in which he was succeeded by his son Muzaffar Khan. In 1810, 
the Maharaja gave him the village of Muhammad Shah which he held 
through Sawan Mai's administration. 

Muzaffar Khan was succeeded by his brother Muhammad Barfarat 
Khan^ who was an able man and a brave soldier. He held the family 
jagira throughout the reign of Ranjit Singh, but Raja Hira Singh reduced 



ili HISTORT bP tSk fkHSAB CHIEFS. 

^16M tb thtt British <3DvertimBnt In 18S1 ke ^t6 iieiiciy aaustance to 
Iitettteimttt Bum^ eDkbany, ^hen proceeding up the Savi to Laiiore. 
lid the )Be6i^d 6ikh W«l9^ of 184^40) he ranainiMl lalthfU to Oovvm- 

ment. Acting on the orders of the Resident, he misnl his tllm and 
attacked the Sikhsi whom, it most be confessed, he had good pxiTate 
ieaaoBii Ic^ hating. He captured from the rebels the fort of Talamba, 
and girriBoned it with his own men, and at the close of the war he was 
mvmtiei With a life pension of SOO Ba. a year. An assignment of 
275 fiflw ta year from the town dues of Kamalia was also allowed him. 
I^ September 1857| when a large portion of his tribe^ under Ahmad 
Kh«ii> rebelled, Sarfaraz KAsn remained loyal. It was he who first gave to 
Captain Blphiastone information of the intended insurrection, coming to 
his house at night, half an hour after the Kharral chiefs had ded, and 
thus enabling that officer to obtain assistance from Lahore. Be was 
aift^mal^i ttmb tuseful in pfrot^rteg iftfotlftatioii bf tbe inoMmntaof the 
T^biels Mi iilktt thetr iditfp^tsion iti f^amtriag the platider. For thaM 
lsei^(^, htD itcieived !lie f«tle ^ K^an fiulmku: ; a khiUat of dOO fia. 
!and a jagir of 5l}5 Ba. for Iife» 

Sar/ataz Kian died in October 18IS3, ftfid hh j^ns and p^lttAiMi, 
amounting 1,775 Bs., lapsed to Crov^rnment, with the exception bf^eWfi 
wells worth 157 Bs. released in perpetuity, fie left oii^ son Mu/utmMS 
Amir AH Khan, who is now al)out seventeen years of age. 



UTTAM 8INGH NAKKAI. 



OmwmiMmu 



Dtwi Singh. Kamar Singh. Wasir Singh. Chancbi Singh. Makair Singh. Halka Singh. 



Jnbr Bil^B* Bnbflsingab 



Uttam Singh, Sher Singh, Chama Singh. ' 

B.ld48. B.l$5i. B.lbA 

HISTORY OF THE FAMILY^ 

Tht NakkA«>iiiitq^ between Lahort imd Gk>gaisi^ lasfhfcn its ipyane 
%9 two £uniiM% fcbii Df Sirdar Ehw Suigb ^ aahrwal Md ihat ^ 
iMsniifiMii^^ of Oogaira, Botw«eo ttiefaDilitfstbocowiii&o refetioiMbipi 
bof liiey WOTi near aeigPOi^iiis mi wm% Wffigti an |psi(iite4 qmt* 

tala. 

JTamar 5»9i^^, m>fi Of C1i0W<Hiri MHfa, was s IxM attd •oa^eeasM fUef, 
and took poiweaslon of Kdt KwnaBa, SyaAwak and tiietiiiit^vtiifaif: aonlty. 
He generall J contriveB to lioM Us own iq;afaiBt Sirte: Ban Biiq^ of 
Bahrwal, but sliortly Wore Ua Aeath, ki ITSOj SyadwaSa feSl into the 
hands ot the enemy. )ra:^i> tSinj/h, who saoceeded hia tm>tSier| tecovereB 
the town from Bhagwan Smgh| son of Ban ^Sinf^f and the t^bt&ag 
between the rival ch!^ wetfb onaafiercellyasid with as little reanHafe erar* 
To strengthen himself Bhagwan ISingh married hia rirter toffaa'iiiftnft 
aon^MahaaSinth fiokavchakii^ but duaaUianfia did him little f^^ as 
in 1788, Sirdar Jai Singh Kanhefa, who wsa 4Uigr7 with Malum Sisi^ 
far aaokiog Jamma and deoeivuig Hakikat Singh Sinhejs^ maacbed into 
lite Nakka oovalry, Md aeiaeA ihe lenitorjr of hoUk Wftmr ^Suifi And 



514 HISTORY OF THE 

Bhagv7an Siagh with the greatest impartiality. The chiefs had however 
their revenge^ for two years later they joined the Sakarchakias and Bam- 
gharias in the attack on the Kanheyas, when the power of that great 
confederacy was broken and Sirdar Qurbaksh Singli slain. 

Sirdar IVazir Singh was murdered in 1790 by Dal Singh, son of 
Hira Singh of Bahrwal, but his death was avenged on the assassin by 
a devoted servant, who slew Dal Singh in liis ownliouse and surrounded 
by his fiunily and clan. Mihr Singh succeeded to the estate and held it 
till 1804, when his brother Mohr Singh excited the indignation of 
Ranjit Singh by secretly betrothing his daughter to Ishar Singh, the 
xeputed son of Bani Mehtab Kour. Ranjit Singh knew that he was not 
the father of the child, but Mohr Singh's presumption gave him a good 
excuse for seizing all the estates of the family. This he did, only leaving 
a jagir worth 4,000 Es. 

'Sirdar Mihr Singh died in 1848. His son Dhara Singh succeeded 
Idm, and during the Firozpur campaign rendered himself conspicuous by 
raising a band of horsemen, and plundering the country in every direction* 
For this conduct, on the return of f>eaee, his jagirs were confiscated by the 
Darbar. In 1848 he joined Raja Sher Singh, with his sowars, at 
Multan. He soon, h9wevei:, returned to his home, but was induced by 
Ahmad Khan, the celebrated leader of the Kharral tribe, to fortify 
Satgharah, and make a stand against the British. Dhara Singh consented, 
but his treacherous friend betrayed him to the Government and brought 
a force against him, which defeated him with considerable loss. He 
then fled to the Sikh arp;iy, and fought in the battles of Ramnagar 
and Qujrat. Some time after annexation the Board of Administration, 
Ending him in great poverty, procured for him a pension of 300 Rs. 

During the disturbances of 1857, Dhara Singh had an opportunity of 
avenging himself upon his old enemy, Ahmad Khan. This chief, who had 
' great influence with the Kharrals and who had headed many successful 
insurrections in his day, thought ^he mutiny of 1857 an opportunity for 



PANJAB CHIEFS. 515 

disturbance aud plunder which it would be criminal to miaSj so he called 
the tribe to arms and invited DAara Singi to join him« But the 
Sirdar thought of his ruined homestead and his plundered harvest, and 
gave information to the Government of Ahmad Khan's intentions. He 
joined the force under Major Marsden and marched against the rebels. 
He was present in several engagements and claims to have shot Ahmad 
Khan with his own hand. When the outbreak was crushed he gave 
important information which insured the conviction of manj of the rebels. 
\Vhcther2) hara SingA was influenced bj lojalty or by revenge his services 
were equally valuable^ and he received as a reward for them fax addi- 
tional grant of 30O Ba. per annum^ with 2 villages Oasgorian and Mihr 
Smghwala, worth 200 Bs. which had belonged to his old jagir, in 
perpetuity. 

Dhara Singh died in 1860^ leaving two sons Uliam SingA and 
SAer Singh. 



BAWALPINDI. 



THE TIWANA MALIKS. 



Amib Au Ksan. 

Mir Ahmad Kluui. 

I 



D«du 



Khan. 



Mir Khn. 



I 
Sher Khan. 



Alam Sher Khan. 



Khan Muhammad Khan. 
I 



Khaa Beg Khan. 



Chiragh 
Khan. 
I 



Ahmad Tar 
Khan. 



Oholam 
Hafian 

Khan. 



Qbnlam 

AU 
Khan. 



•Baz 



Mir Baz Khan. Sher Khan. 



Khnda Ytr 
Khan. 

VatahKhan. 



Fatoh 
Khan. 



I 
Alim Sher 

Khan. 



Fatah 

Sher 

Khan. 



Alim 
Sher 



Sher 
Bidudar 



Ahmad 
Khan. 



Saltan 
Khan. 



Kadir Bakih Khan. 
Sher Mohammad Khan. 



"I 



Alim Khan. Sahib Khan. Jahan Khan. Fatah Khan. 



HirrORY OP THE FAMILY. 

From a common ancestor have descended three remarkable tribesj 
the Sials of Jhang, the Ohebas of Find! Oheb and the Tiwanas of 
Mitha 'nwana in Shahpar. The Ghebas know bat little of their past 
history^ but they are claimed as kin by both Siab and Tiwanas who 
till lately were agreed as to their respective descent from Gheo^ Tena 
or Teo and Seo^ the three sons of Bai Shankar a Bajpnt of Dharanagar; 
the ancestor of the Ohebas being GheO| of the Tiwanas TeOj and of 
the Sials Sec. The bards of the Tiwana tribe have lately been 



520 



HI8T0BT OF THE 



making further enquiries and have now a different story which will be 
moref easily understood by an extract from the genealogy. 



KAMASBOi 



1 


1 


Kanun Chand. 


Bijdeo. 
Sfti 8hankar» 


Tiwana, 


fourth in descent from 


third in descent from 


K&raxn Chand. 


Bijdeo. From Bai 




Shankar have 




descended 




the Sials. 


Mailu, 


• 


sixth in descent from Tiwana^ 

1 





Titu. • Wattu, 

firom whom have descended' 
the Dandpntras oC 
Bahawalpnr. 



Lakhu* 
from whom hare desoended 
the Hindu llwaiia» 
Of Pattiala. 



IMaU 
from whom have descehded 
the llwanas. 



1. 



Marukhy 
fpom whom have descended 
tlie Ghebas, 



Whether the amended genealogy is moretruthfal than befora it 
is impossible to saj« It certainly seems more probable than the 
regular descent from the three sons of Bai Shankar. If the Tiwanaa 
did not come to the Fanjab with the Sials^ their emigration was no 
long time afteif and must have been before the close of the fifteenth 
century. They soon embraced Mubammadanism and aettled at 
Jahangir on the Indus where they remained till the time of Mir AH Kiau^ 
who by the advice of his spiritual guide. Fakir Sultan Haji^ moved -east- 
ward with his tribe and many of the Shaikhs, Shahlolis, Mondials and 
others^ He arrived at the country then called Danda, and foiuided the 

* More will be said wl the bSelory of Bahawalpur vsgardhig the alleged Hindu origin of 
the Daudputras. They themselves trace back to Abbas the uncle of the prophet Ijiahammad, 
and make Daud Khan, their ancestor, the great grandson of Chini Khan Amir of Sind, 
Yrbile, in tmth, be was awisaterof Shikarpnr, neither rdated to the Anur or the Prophet 
and only remarkable as a successful freebooter. Almost eveiy Huhammadaa familj 
considers it a point of honour to trace its genealogy up to Abbas or Asad or some near 
KUtive of the Pro|ihet, and maDy only stop at Hoah or Adam. 



tillage of Oukhli MoUk, in the GHiAhtmr dJBtrict His Bon Mir Ahmad 
Kim, about iho year 1680, built Miiha Tiwana, fiev^n miles east o{ 
Oukhli^ where he had fookid swe^t water, from which the town was namecU 
(miMa / sweet). This chief wis engaged in constant hostifitaes with thff 
Awans his neighbonrs to the nortbt and at Hadali, fire miles from Miiha 
Tiwana, defeated thom with great slaogfater. Dadu Ekan and Sier Kitrn^ 
the third and fourth Maliks, improved and enlarged Miiha Tiwana^ whicl) 
soon became a floorishing town^ and many settlers from other parts of 
the country took up their remdence in it ; Awans from Jbelam ; Kurars 
from Mankera ; Cbahals from the seighboorbood of Jjahore, and Nuns 
from the upper Che^aK 

Sier Kian became Malik in an irregular way. Discontented with tfa& 
severe rule of his father, he rebelled with his brother Alam Sher Kian^ 
and assassinating their uncle Mir Kian, killed their father in a skirmish 
outside the walls of the fort. The two brothers seem to have lived toge- 
ther without fighting between themselves^ a circumstance remarkable 
enough among the Tiwanas, and they cennderably enlarged their territory 
at the expense of the Awans, seizing Wurcba and other territory at thfr 
foot of the hiUs. It iii related that Atom Sher Kian, thinlctng Awan 
shooting the finest sport in the trorld, Would frequently go alone io the 
mountains with his gun, and after shooting two or t^ee Awans, as otiier 
less ambitious men shoot partridges^ would return to breakfast. Sier 
Kian now thought himself strong enough to refuse lAie tribute the Tiwa* 
nas had hitherto paid to the governors of Berah Ismail Khan. His 
brother accordingly attacked {he troops which had been sent to collect ft 
on their return march, tad tiddng them by surpris^i routed them with 
the loss of their leader. About the year 1743 Sier Kian founded Kurput 
Tiwana, which soon became a large and thriving village. Some years 
later he contrived to quarrel with Inayat Khan the fighting cMcf of 
Jhang Sial. The latter had won Hari, on the right bank of the Jbdaiii, 
from the Nawab ofMidtaM, and had placed iiimiikMgt9( Sier Kim 
who was to receive a certain sum for its management This was bo< ipM 



SZS HISTOBT OF THE 

with any regnlarityi and Bier Hem thinking to exact it Tnjimmd, assembled 
his elan and driving the Sials oat of Khai laid siege to Eot Langar Khan^ 
Inayat Khan mai^ohed to relieve it^ and defeated the Tiwanas in a l)attle 
before the walls, 8Xer Khan died in 1767, leaving two sons KAan Mt^ 
hammad Khan^ and Man Beg Khan. His brother AUm Sher Khan had 
fallen some time before in an expedition against the Panchars. The first 
occupation of Khan Mi^hammai the hew chief was the suppression of a 
revolt of the Hasnal and Mastial tribes who inhabited Butala,* Hadali 
and Hamokah. In this he was successful, and he then went to Jhang 
to visit his kinsman, leaving MithaTiwana in charge of his brother. On 
his return he found the gates closed against hira and his brother the 
acknowledged chief, ^e then retired, to Nurpur Tiwana, where he raised 
troops and marched against Khan Beg Khan, who was defeated and 
ihrown iatQ prison. He was however soon released, promising obedi- 
ence for the future. Khan Muhammad was engaged in constant hosti- 
lities with hi^ jneighbours. Nurpur, was attacked by the Nawab of 
Mankera, and only relieved, after a siege of more than a month. . With 
Xisl^Kh^Ui the chief of I^hushab, some fifteen miles from Mitha Tiwana^ 
on. the Jhelam, Khan Muhammad h^ alwiys been friends, till Jafl&r 
..Khani the son and heir of Lai Ehan^ suspecting the Tiwana chiefs 
intentions were not quite houest, plotted against him while visiting 
JBSiushab. Khan Muhammad escaped to his own town and prepared for 
fight. Lai Khan, with his younger son Hakim. Khan and his wife 
JN'nrphari, came to assure K^an Muhammad of their innocencei, but he 
arrested them and marching to Khuahab opened fire upon the town, 
l^ing his hapless prisoners to the guns to divert the fire of the enemy. 
Jaffir Khan called Mahan Singh Suk^rchakia, an old friend of Khan 
Muhammad, to his aid. The Sikh came with a considerable force and 
.compelled the Tiwana chief to retire. Khan Muhammad, however, had 
his revenge and like a bloodthirsty savage as he was killed in cold 

^ Called Batala from the number of idols (bdt) found wlien digging the foundations of 
4be Ullage. 



PAKJAB CHIEFS. 528 

blood hia wretched priaonen who had neither done nor wished him evil. 
Towards the end of his rulei his brother Kian Beg KAan again took up 
arms against him, being aided by Rajjab Khan, a Sial chief of Ghar 
Maharaja, Fatah Khan of Sahiwal and Jaffir Khan of Khnshab. For 
some time Khan Mulammad defended himself, but his enemies were too 
powerfal and in 1803 he applied to Banjit Singh for saccour. That 
Sirdar was by no means secure himself, but on the promise of a stibsidj 
of one lakh of rupees he consented to trap Khan Beg Khan. It was 
arranged between the confederates that when Banjit Singh marched 
into the country, Khan JftfiaMiMi should take to flight, seeing which. 
Khan Beg Khan would probably come to pay his respects, believing the 
Lahore chief his friend. All happened auspiciously : Khan Beg Khan 
was caught by Banjit Singh, and made over to his brother by whom he 
was put to death. Banjit Singh took his blood money, and with some 
small tribute from the Mnhammadan Maliksof the neighbourhood 
returned to Lahore in 1804. Khan Muhammad Khan had outwitted 
his brother, but his second son Ahmad Yar Kian now rebelled against 
him, and having won over most of the tribe to his side, induced his 
father to make a virtue of necessity and yield the chiefship to him. He 
had no easy life and was always fighting with the chiefs of Mankera, 
Khushab, and Sahiwal, with varying success. 

In 1817 Maharaja Banjit Singh sent a forcey under Misr Diwan 
Cband, against the Tiwana chief at Nurpur. After a short resistance 
the fort was taken, and Ahmad Tar Khan fled to Jhandhawala or Jan- 
diala in the Mankera territory. When the Sikh army had retired| 
leaving a garrison under Jawant Singh Mokal in Nurpur, Ahmad Tar 
Khan returned and regained possession of the country ; but he was a 
second time compelled to fly to Jandiala, from which he was driven by 
the Mankera Nawab who threw his sons into prison. He now sob* 
mitted to the Maharaja, who granted him the Haka of Jhawarian, worth 
10,000 Bs. in jagir, subject to the service of 60 horsemen. In 1821, 
Banjit Singh marched against Bafiz Ahmad Khas^ Nawab of MaDkera, 



824 HttTORT OF THE 

and ihe Tiwaha Malik gladlj joined the expedition aa he had an old 
Bcore to wipe out with the Nawab. Mohammad Khan, the predefeettoc 
of Hafic Ahmad, had soiroimded Mankera with a cordon of twelve fints^ 
HaidapalMid, Hoajghar, Fatahpnr, Pipa], Darja Khan, KlMmpiir^ Jhaa« 
dawala, Kalor, Dulehwalai Bhakkar^ Dinganah and Ghonbara; while to 
make the central fortreai inacceasible he had permitted no welb to be 
nxnk within the cordon. But for all this the beaieguig armyy with the 
inTincible Ranjit Singh commanding in persouj moved on^ t^lgpng 
wells aa it adranoed, invested the fort and after a siege of S5 days, ike 
ITawab capitulated, being allowed to letain the gOTemment of Derah 
Ismail Khan. The assistance rendered by the Tiwanaa dnring this 
campaign was rery great, and the Maharaja was so much struck with 
their handsome and manly appearance, their bold riding «nd their gal- 
lant fightiag, that he insisted upon a troop of Tiwana home retammg with 
him to Lahole. Of this troop of 50 horsemen Kadir Bahh was the oem-^ 
mandtt. He serf ed at Multan some years, and in many campaigna, with 
distiaction. In 1837 his cousin FaUh Khan shared with hiaa the conuaaod 
of the sowars* Khuda Yar Khan found himself a person of very small 
importance at Lahore^ where no one of the Sikh nobles cared a straw £or his 
long genealogy or for his hereditary claim to rale over the Shahpor jungles. 
He was appointed on 1 ,000 Rs. a year, * chabnk sowar' or rough rider to the 
Maharaja, whose hunting expeditions be superintended until his death in 
1887. Fatah Kian, son of Khuda Tar Khan^ had been, during these years, 
in the service of Sirdar Hari Singh Nalwa to whom the Mitfaa 'Kwana 
country was given in jagir, in 1819, Jawant Singh Mokal having heM 
it two years. He proved himself as impetuous and overbearing as his 
master, and quarreled and fought with Sirdars Fatah Singh Man and 
Amir Singh Sitidhanwalia who sueeessively held the adjacent district of 
Panjkotah. Till the death of Hari Singh m 1837, Fatah Khan held a 
command under him in his native country, and any jagir or estates he 
may have received were given by the Sirdar and not by the 
Lahore Government. In 1837 he came to Lahore, where Raja Dhyan 
Singh, who had beard of ho courage and unscmpulousness, thonght 



PANJAB CHlBfS 525 

that he would tnak6 a utefol ttofiayi ud took him into &v6ar; ud, 

ill 1836, procarod for him the appointmeat of maoagtr of the Mitha 

Tiqraoa couatry, with oonlirol of such of the ftalt ^mitiesj like Wurcha 

and Choha^ as faij to the loath of the range and dose to the 

plain cooiitrj. With him was associated Pras Rao^ a Ehatri, but their 

joint administration was not voy auecessfal and in 1840 fktak £ian was 

iOfiOO Es. in arrearsi and Prince Nao Nihal Singh, glad of an oppor* 

tunitj to hnmble an adherent of fiaja Dhjan Singh, placed him in arrest 

in the house of Misr Lai Sii^h Toshakhania until the arrears were paid 

off. On the death of Nao Nihal Singh the IL^a regained his power 

and FataA KkarCi fortunes rose with those of his patron. He was sent 

as Manager of the Eachhi country and Sahib Khan, Alam Khan and other 

of his relations were made Kardars of Mianwali| Shaikhowal and Nurpoi; 

Tiwana. Soon after the accession of Sher Singh, FataA Kkan was sent 

on duty across the Indus. The country of Tank hadbeenruled for aia^y 

years by a Kattekhel family, the last of whom AUahdad Khan had been 

ousted by the Sikhs. The country^ however^ broi^ht little profit to its 

conquerors. AUahdad Khan, indolent when in power but active enough 

in oppositiotti ravaged the country, cut off Sikh convoys and foraging 

parties, and tlie revenue had fallen to next to notUng. In this atrto 

of tilings Raja Dhyan Singh proposed Faiak KAaM as the only man wlud 

could restore order, and he was accordingly sent with a strong force and 

full powers. His mission was entirely successful. He proposed to 

reinstate AUahdad Khan as governor of Tank, but the chief died before it 

was possible to carry oat the design. Then Fatah Kham proceeded to 

Marwat^ the country to the North of Tank, to collect the goverameat 

revenue, without fighting if possible bmt ai^ how to ooUect it. The 

first thing that he did was to build a fort at Iiakki, on the Oumbelah 

river, in the heart of the Marwat country. This was not A]^osed by 

the chie£9, for he had promised to reduce the revenue deaumd to oM 

sixth of the produce, and had thus woa their sapport^ bat no aOioner 

was the fort completed then FatakKham begged for laans, ia addition 

to the revenue charge, which loane could not be refused and which 



526 HI8T0RT OF TUB 

Diwan Donlat Bai, his suocessor^ made a perpetaal poll tax odious to 
the last degree to the people* This aocomplished^ FaUik Kian retnmed 
in triamph to Lahorey taking with him Shah Niwaz Khan the young 
son of Allahdad Ehan Eattekhel, who was well received at court. The 
fortunes of the Malik now seemed made^ when, in one Aaj, his friend 
and patron Baja Dhyan Singh and Maharaja Sher Singh fell by the 
hands of the Sindhanwalias. Fatal Khan was with the Baja just before 
his murder; but as the assassins and their Tictim passed into the Iiahore 
fort, he fell behind and allowed himself to be shut out. No man was 
more versed in intrigue than he ; he saw a catastrophe was impending^ 
and had no such love for the Baja as to desire to share his fate.* Baja 
Hira Singh, the son of the murdered minister^ openly accused Fatah Khan 
of being in the conspiracy, and put a price on his head. There was no 
reason to believe the charge true for by the Baja^s death Fatah Khan 
could gain nothing and might lose all. He escaped in disguise from 
Lahore and fled to his native Tiwana, whither he was followed by a force 
sent to arrest him. But the Malik fled across the Indus to Bannu and 
took refuge with Swahn Khan, who was offered S^OOO Bs. to give up his 
guest, but this the Waziri chief was too honourable to do. Kadir Baisi, 
who would have been imprisoned had the Sikhs succeeded in capturing 
him, took refuge with his old master Sawan Mai at Multan. When 
the Lahore troops had retired, Fatah Khan re-crossed the Indus 
and called the Muhammadan tribes to arms. He was now welt 
known along the Indus, and he soon had a large following at his back. 
He ravaged the country with fire and sword and defeated several bodies of 
irregular troops sent against him. When, however, a regular force 
under Sirdar Mangal Singh Siranwali marched against him he again 
escaped across the Indus, while Mitha Tiwana was sacked by the 
Sikhs. When at length Baja Hira Singh and Pandit Jalla fell from power 
Fattah Khan hurried to Lahore where he knew that he should be well 
received by Sirdar Jowahir Singh the new minister, whose battles he 



Videpp, 23. 24, 



PAKJAB CHIBFS. 527 

had fought ia fightisg against the late adminiatratiotu He waa not 
disappointed. Jowahir Singh gave him valuable presents and xniade him 
governor of the Mitha Tiwana country, of portions of Jhelam and Rawal« 
pindi and of the whole province of Derah Ismail Khan and Bannu, super- 
seding Diwan Doulat Bai^ son of Lakki Mai the governor first appointed 
by Maharaja Banjit Singh when he resumed the country from Nawab 
Sher Muhammad Khan. * But Jowahir Singh had not given Faiai 
Khan this power and position for nothing. The minister had a danger- 
ous rival in the person of Prince Peshora Singh^ reputed son of Banjit 
Singh^ to whom the Sikhs now generally looked as the best man to seat 
on the throne. The Prince had^ with the help of the Muhammadan 
tribes in the neighbourhood^ gained possession of the fort of Attock, ^d 
FataA Khan Tiwana and Sirdar Chattar Singh Attariwala^ men upon 
whom the Minister knew he could rely^ were directed to proceed against 
him. With some 8000 men they invested the fort, but the feeling in 
favour of the Prince was so strong that they would have been unable to 
reduce it by force. Strategem was accordingly resorted to, and on 
aolemn promises of safety the Prince surrendered the fort to F<Uah Khan 
and Chattar Singh. Having secured their victim the two chiefs began 
their march to Lahore, and in two days reached Hassan Abdal some SO 
miles from Attock. At this place a letter from Lahore was received in 
which was written that it was unsafe in the present temper of the Sikhs 
to bring Peshora Singh to the capital and that he must be detained in the 
North country. The order was well understood. That very night FtUai 
Khan and his confederate entered the Prince's tent, with a guard ; seized 
him, placed him in ironsi and leaving the camp standing, marched back 
to Attock with all speedy accompanied by a few hundred horsCi and cany- 
ing the Prince with them. As he drew near the gloomy walls of the 
fortress he saw his certain doom and .begged for his sword and shield 
that he might die fighting like a man. But there was no mercy in 
the heart of Ja^oA Khan. The unfortunate Prince was hurried into the 

• CommoDly known m Shah Niwas &htn* 



128 HISTORT OF THE 

fort and placed in the lower chamber of a tower past which rushed 
the blaoki swiflt Indus. When night came he was strangled and his 
body thrown into the river. Through all the evil history of the Panjab 
there is recorded no murder more cruel than this. Feshora Singh was a 
JBnej high spirited and gallant youths beloved by the troops and the people, 
and only hated by those who feared his rivalry. But the murder did 
not go unavengedi The weakminded, slavish Chattar Singh died in exile, 
many hundred miles from his native land. Jowahir Singh the instigator of 
the deed was killed by the enraged soldiery shortly afterwards, while upon 
MaHk Fatai Khan came the troubles related here. After the murder he 
brossed the Indus at Kalabagh and took possession of his neir province 
of Derah Ismail Khan. The governor Doulat Bai retired, not pre- 
pared to resist at this'timei and the Malik then determined to get rid of 
some of his Tank enemies and thus render his own power the more secure, 
^e three chief jagirdars in Tank were the famous Payinda Khan, Ashik 
Muhammad Khan and Haiyat Ullah Khan. These three chiefs were 
enticed to Derah Ismail Khan, and Payinda Khan visited the Darbar 
of the Malik to talk over his affairs and arrange them satisfactorily. 
The conversation grew somewhat excited, and at length Faiah 
Khan insulted the Afghan to his. face. Payinda Khan saw his 
danger and sat still, but his young son, Sikandar Khan, unable 
to control himself, drew his sword and cut down the Malik's 
Jamadar Partaja, who was standing by him. FataJi ^Khan was 
ready for this. In a moment the room was full of armed men. 
Payinda Khan, his son 'and most of his retainers were cut to pieces.. 
Then the Malik attacked the house of Hyat Ullah Khan where Aahik 
Muhammad Khan and Nasir Ullah Khan had taken refuge ; stormed 
^tand put the inmates to death. I}yat Ullah Khan himself escaped 
to the house of Nawab Sher Muhammad, who purchased safety for 
himself and the fugitives for 4a,000 Rs. The indignation at this atrocity 
was great on the frontier and even the authorities at Lahore were compelled 
to appear shocked. Fatah Khan bribed high for immunity, Baja LaJ 



PANJAB CHIEFS 529 

Singh^ the Maharanii and Mangela the slave girl all took his money and 
promised him protection ; but popular feeling was too strong against him, 
and Diwan Doulat Bai was again nominated governor of Derah Ismail 
Khan. The Malik determined on resistance^ and when Doulat Rai arrived 
at Bhakkar^ opposite Derah Ismail Khan on the left bank of the Indus^ 
he crossed the river to attack him. The Diwan however had regular 
troops with him, and Faiah Khan was compelled to retire to Derah. 
Doulat Rai followed and marched upon the town, outside which the Malik 
met him with some 3,000 men. But these troops were undisciplined and 
did not care to wait the assault of the Diwan's Multanis whose prowess 
was well known, and they dispersed without fighting. Fatah Khan, 
deserted by his adherents, was compelled to retreat to the fort of Akalghar 
which he had left in charge of his son Fatah Sher Khan. There he 
murdered all his prisonerSi and the same night crossing the Indus retired 
to Mitha Tiwana to wait for better days. The country was at this time 
in confusion after the Satlej campaign, and the English, to whom the 
Malik had offered his services during the war, were at Lahore. Baja Lai 
Singh was no friend of Fatah Khan and would have confiscated all his 
jagirs but for the intercession of Sirdar Sultan Muhammad Khan. In the 
hot weather of 1816| the Malik was sent to Kashmir^ as he was an 
intimate friend of Shaikh Imam-uddin Khan the rebel governor, and 
it was thought that he might influence him favourably as he could 
gain nothing by playing the Government false. He went with Lieute« 
nant Edwardes as far as JammU| from thence to Kashmir with Puran 
Chand, and having performed* his mission with ability and success re- 
turned to jjammu. He afterwards accompanied Major H. Lawrence to 
Kashmir. 

On the return of FcUah Khan to Lahore he was called upon to explain 
the accounts of his late Government as Diwan Dinanath had brought 
him in a defaulter to the amouat of seven lakhs of rupees. This Fatah 
Khan asserted was covered by the expenses of five thousand horse and 
foot engaged by orders of Sirdar Jowahir Singh, but the written orders 
which he produced as those of the Sirdar were without date^ no particular 



5S0 HISTORY OF THE 

[Service was specified nor any detail as to the number of men. After a 
long dispate and full allowance for these presumed levies having been 
granted^ the demand against the Malik was reduced to four lakhs of 
rupees. FataA Khan complained^ and his son complains to this day, of 
the harshness of thii^ demandj but in reality the Malik was treated 
with exceptional leniency ; every rupee of the four lakhs was due, as 
the accounts still in Raja Dinanath's office show^ and this was at the 
time admitted by himself and the admission signed and sealed with his 
own hand. Fatah Khan could have paid the four lakhs without the 
slightest inconvenience. He had not been a manager under the tyran- 
nical Hari Singhj or irresponsible governor of the Derajat^ for nothing; 
but be pretended that he could not pay and he was placed in restraint in the 
house of Khan Singh Man^ with the approbation of Major H. Lawrence. 
For three and a half months he was thus kept under arrest ; and then^ as 
he resolutely asserted his inability to pay, he was removed to the fort of 
Govindghar. Directly the order for his imprisonment was issued he offered 
to pay two lakhs of rupees in eight days. The Darbar allowed hicn 
twenty days in addition to this, but when the time had elapsed Fatah 
Khan had changed his mind. He knew that a temporary imprisonment 
was all he had to fear, and he preferred this to paying what was due 
from him. But he had not done with his promises. His son Fatah 
Sher Khan iras imprisoned with him, and after two months he petitioned 
that the young man might be released in order to raise the money* This 
was permitted ; Fatah Sher Khan was liberated and declared in Darbar 
that Maharaja Gulab Singh would be ansVerable for one lakh| and that 
the rest should be paid on his father's release. After some delay 21,000 
Bs. were paid into the Derah Ismail Khan treasury ; and the Multan 
rebellion breaking out, Lieutenant Edwardes, thinking the Malik would 
be of use on the frontier, obtained his release, and in June 184S, when 
the state of the country made it advisable to recall Lieutenant Taylor 
from Bannu, Fatah Khan was sent as governor of that province with 
Marwat, Isakhel, Kachhi, and Mianwali. He would rather have fought 
Mulraj in the open field, but he was ready to work any where, and at 



TA!7JAB Cq^KFt. 531 

the begmning of July took over charge from Lieutenant Taylor. TBe 
Sikh force of Bannn was thoroughly disaffected and the appointment of 
Fatah Khan increased its dissatisfaction. Early in Angust the troops 
broke into open mutiny^ but the vigour of Faiah Khan suppressed it for 
the time. There were at this time in Bannu, four regiments of infantry, 
500 cavalry and four heavy guns with a troop of horse artillery. The 
only European with them was Colonel John Holmes^ an old servant of the 
Lahore State^ and chief among the Sikhs was Sirdar Bam Singh Cbhapa« 
wala. When the news of Baja Sher Singh's rebellion at Multan reached 
Bannu^ about the 25th September^ the Sikhs rose in mutiny. They 
murdered Colonel Holmes, seized four light guns which had been witk- 
drawn from the bastions for the purpose of bemg sent to Multan^ and 
besieged Faiah Khan in the inner fort of Dalipghar. He called the Mn- 
hammadan tribes to arms, and many answered to the call^ but the. Malik 
had even in Bannu as many enemies as friends. First came to bis aid 
Muhammad Khan Isakhel whom the Malik had once reinstated in his 
chiefship : then Dilasah Khan, whose name was a terror to the Sikhs^ 
and who had beaten from his mud fort Tara Chand and the bravest of 
the Sikh Sirdars. With these came Jaffir Khan of Tappi, Bazid Khan 
Shoraniy Sher Khan and Muhammad Azaz Khan Tsakhel. But the Sikhs 
found allies also : Mir Alim Khan of Mudan the intimate friend of Ram 
Singh Chhapawala^ Musa Khan of Sikandarkhel^ and on their side too 
were numbers^ discipline and guns. But the gallant borderers at first 
got the best of the fight^ and took possession of the town of Dalipghkr^ 
while the Sikhs had to stand on the defensive. But this was a temporary 
advantage, and the Sikhs attacked the Muhammadans in force, drove 
them out of the town with great loss and closely invested the fort. The 
Malik might have held the fort for ever against the besiegers had there 
been a supply of water ; but the well was then being sunk, and the 
defenders were soon reduced to the last extremity. They dug night and 
day, but they could reach no water and at last were compelled to surrender. 
Fatah Khan^ to whom the Sik&s would never have given quarter even 
had he deigned to ask for it, was shot down at the gateway of the fort. 



662 HISTORY OF THE 

and Mukauamad Alim Khw tud Sb6c Kbaa laakbel lind LaL B«z £luui 
of Bazar were carrijod away aa pmona^aad.did nob reaver ilieir liberty 
till after the fiiuil defeat of the 8ikk army at Gt^>i^ 

The more the character of Malik Fatah Khan is regarded^ the 
less win he appear worthy of oar admiration. He was brave indeed, 
bat what is courage unless allied with generosity and honour ? What 
was tbat courage worth which could murder in cold blood prince 'Peshora 
Singh ; which could lure to their destruction the gallant Payinda Khan, 
and the chiefs of Banna ? It was only in times when might was right, 
and honeity was professed by none, tbat such men as Fcdak Kkan could 
become distinguished. Proadj tteacherous and cruel, insolent to equala, 
tyranntc:il to inferiora, and a ready tool for the commission of any 
crime which a superior might assign to him, there is no virtue wbich 
can be tlaim^d for him save a spuiious Sbetality, which was generally 
indulged not at his own expense, but at that of Che state. He died 
defending the fbrt entrusted to Mm, but this honourable end to a lifb 
of violence and blood should not indxice men to forget or to extenuate 
his many crimes. 

On the annexation of the Fanjab it was not easy to discover the 
real position o^ the family with regard to estates and allowaaeas. At 
the death of Khudkjfor KAan in 1837> the estate was divided between 
kis son Faiai Kkan^ and his qephew K§^ BakJu Thaibriiier eoia« 
manded ^2 sowars and the latter 33 ; the allewaaoe of Fatok Khau 
was I9OOO &8., the same as his father bad held as ' bhabok eowar ;' dnt 
of Kadir Bahb wM 720 JSs. Besides thia there waa U>,<b40 As. for the 
pay of tbetioopers. Total 12,160 £s. Whta K^tdir Bakah died the 
ji^ir was eontiaued tx> kis son Sber Mukamnad fJum. In Jowahir 
Suigh's time F^dah £%aa waa allowed fOne quartec ef the reveane o(^ 
kctions of Mitha 7iwaaa and CkiMAMj^i in eonttderatien of the farmer 
poflition of his family in the district. This ^ chabaram' or fourth 
amouated to 8o345 Rs. a year, but. the fitalik only held ib one year. 
Under Lai Singh it waa reaomed, as were ki9 ^Iher aUowanceSi aad 



PANJAB CBlEn. 538 

hk BQNfan wcire diachargad. FakA Khan aeemi alto to hate reoeivad 
from Raja Galab Singh, the farmer of the salt revenue, some peroentagd 
op th^ coUectioas at ITatehpur, where^ in 1843f he had asauited to reopen 
and work a long disused mine. When sent hj Jowahir Singh a« 
governor of Derah IamaiL£ban| his pay was fixed at 10,090 Ss^j but this 
was aominali and at so great a distance from I^abore a i^vernor <HHild 
make his pay what he liked. On the ann^Mtion of the ) Paojab the 
Tiwanas were not forgotten. Their services during the was had beeia 
valuable in the extreme. B^er Muhammad Khan expelled the. rebel 
garrison from Khushab, and then took possession of Shabpur. Th# 
Hitha Tiwana fort^ which had l^en seized by a body of the enemy, he 
"besieged and deduced, as also Sahiwal and Ahmadabad. Sahib Khan^ 
brother of Kadir BaksA, had his share pf the figh