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Full text of "Pantologia. A new (cabinet) cyclopædia, by J.M. Good, O. Gregory, and N. Bosworth assisted by ..."

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600029450Q 



Mq J. ■ »;877 
12. 



p 



P A N T O L O G I A 



as: 



VOL. XII. 



U — ZYT. 



LoBdon: Printed bj T. DAVISON, 
LMriMrd^lKMt, WUlcMui. 



PANTOLOGIA. 



NEW CYCLOPiEDIA, 

OOMHUIHCHDniO 

A COMPLETE SERIES OF 

jllphabbtxcaut ABmuiaxBi 
WITH A GENERAL DICTIONARY OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES^ AND WORDS: 

TEBWHOUB 

PRESENTING A DISTINCT SURVEY OF 



ELEGANT ENGRAVINGS; 

THOSE ON NATURAL HISTORY BXINO FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS BY EDWARDS AND 

OTHERS, AND BEAUTIFULLY COLOURED AFTER NATURE. 



BY JOHN MASON GOOD, ESQ. F.R.S. 

MEMBXm OF TBB AMSmiCAII PHUOtOPBlCAL SOCIBTY, AMD OF THE LIHIIEAN ■OOXXTT OF 

FHILADBUPHIA; 

OLINTHUS GREGORY, LL. D. 

or TBB BOTAL MIUTABT AOAOBinr, WOOLWICH, AND BOFOKABT MBMBBB OF THK UTBmAST AMP 

PULOaOPHlCAL aOCIBTT, MBWCAtTLB-VPOM-TYIIB j AMO 

MR. NEWTON BOSWORTH, 

OF CAMBBIOOB ; 

ASSISTED BY OTHER GENTLEMEN OF EMINENCE, IN DIFFERENT 

DEPARTMENTS OF LITERATURE. 



VOL. XII. 
U — ZYT. 



LOJiDON: 

printed for 0. xear8ley; j. walker; j. stockdale ; r. lea; e. jeffbry; 
crosby and co.; sherwood, neely, and jones; suttaby, bvance, and co.; 
j.blacklock; w.lowe; j. booth; j. rod well; bell and bradfutb, edinburob; 
brash and rxjd, glasgow ; and m. kkene, dublin. 

1813. 




V A B 

Uor u, the Sfltii letlcr and 3lh vowel of 
• out ;>l{ih>brt, is rormed in ihe viiice 
by > touud cunfigutalion of iha llpt, iixl a 
BCJttt cxirusion of the und« one than in 
nraiing the leitrr o, and tile tongiie ii nlsa 
tmn CMiQul.iud. The sound ii thutt in turil, 



lb(ricuie than lon^; as in brule.^utt. lutt, 
he. li ii Diuitty toDg in polyijllableii ai in 
«M, tunaiu, iic. bui in Mine wordi il i* 
«teiut, M III na/urr, aeniuTe. &C. l^ji let- 

HIhe ioxm or V, or v, ii pntpeily a con- 
t and n luch ii placed bel'oie all the 



when ihe olhirr 



^ ihey hnd 
ignf the Fourlhcci 
fm-nt iiilnidiiccd, ihi 
[nsing itvD dilTerent wundi by the same 
'I'ln liaving been obieivci) long licfurr. In 
Bnmruli V Mandi fnr five ; and wiili a daih 
•i>M 11 top, ihm V, it ilKriilics 5000. In 
>MMTri>ii<int, nnioiipi ihc ({oaiAns, V. A. 
"omlfiit Trtrrant aitlgMai ; V. U. t-iro bona; 
V.B.A. riri h>n> Bri'UtaUi; V. B. F. tir to.iie 
/tii V. C. wr tPflWnrt. ; V. C. C. ]'. «ait 
rt^a ekariinmr, J'rlicilrr; V. D. D. volo 
iaiMmi V.G. vrrhigraliai Vit.Vt, cirgn 
Mtfaiut VL. Btdetieel i V. N. yuinlo lutua- 

V'ABRF^ a town of France, in l1ie depad- 
■Mnt oi Afciton. Though an i:|ii.>ca|i3i *ec 
Ubit the ie%4liiuon, it it liitle U'lier iliaii a 
ri but h» Mime tnanuractiirn ofieigei, 
Kt, «iidooiian«. It itsented at ihccoii- 
T rt( iwD fiiiall rivers that fall inio (lie 
30 mile« S. E. of Kcxlex. and 33 K. of 
Allit.' I^it. 9. iS E. Lai. 43. i7 N. 
VOL. XI.— PAllTll. 



VA'CANCV. I. Cframiiacoii/,) I. Entpef ■ 
spaee; vacnily iShaki,), S. Cluiini apace 
unfilled Itfslh). 3. Slaie of a unit or em- 
ployment whtii it is imsupptled {Ayliffti. 4. 
Time of lei«ure ; rclaxtiion j interiniisinn ; 
lime unengaged iffaltt). i. Liiileniicii ; 
emptiimi of thnught Ufoltea). 

VA'CANT. «. Ivacaot. Fr. vacant, L«.) 
I. Empty; unfilled; void i.Bnyir). V. Free; 
iincncumlier«l ; uncrowded Utfwc). 3. Not 
filled by an incumbenl, tn posncsaor (Sm\f>). 
4. Betd); at Iciiuie ; dixngaged iClaTmiioH). 
b. Thoughtless ; empiv of thought ; Dot busy. 

To VA'CATE. o. n. {Boeo, Latin.) I. To 
annul ; to make void ; (o make of no amhoriiy 
(_S'lioif). ir. Tn mdke vacant; to qml chh- 
»e«ion of. 3. To defeat ; to pul an end lo 

V ACATiON. I. {vacalie. Latin.) I . Iij- 
tcrmis&iuiKirjiiridical prrrceedings, or any other 
ttuied employments ; teem of couiti or senates 
iCoiCTll). S. Leisure; ricedom from trouble 
oi perplexity (tltamand). 

vaVCaRV. *. {vacca, Latin.) 
house; acow-pas[iire (/jul^ey), 

V.^CCIN.ATION, in meheine,! 
of inoculating a penao with the rirui of thr dli.. 
cue, estird Tsceina, or raw.piix, in onlrr tn 



^ 



I'hii may lie reitarilrd as one of the mstt l(n> 
poiiaal dl»ruii'Tie« of itinrfi'm liniei, and al. 
though ilrennounly iippnucd --^ j^^j_j t^. r_ 
diriduals in muit rouiilriei 
Ibe support and nountenaii' 
rrmineBti of everj pan o( tl 
in entitled. 1,'ntli'r tbe arline d.dcui.itiom wo 
hate entered at nonie length Intu Ihe tiiilDr> and 
pTK\ii otUiiiKiInitabla prvwr^alire, and lwt» 






Fllllv to Hhkl 



VACCINATION. 



cursorily exmnined into the te«timonies in its 
favour. That article^ howeveri has been written 
for mure than three years from the present time: 
in the counse of which period Taceination has 
bvcn tried upon a much more extended scale, 
and its effects have been examined with still 
closer precision, and we are happy to add, with 
more phiIo!%ophical coolness. One i»f the best 
papers that has been f^iven to the world by the 
French Imperial Institute is an article upon 
thi.i subject, drawn up by three of its brig^htest 
ornaments, IVf . M. Bcrthollet, Percy vnil Halk?, 
and read Aufus1 17, 181ft. It has since beta 
published, on account of its national, or rather 
its universal, importance in the Moniteur, and 
we cannot forbear presenting our readers with 
the following translation of that part of it which 
diiefly examines and replies to the feneral obser- 
vationM which in different coantries hate been 
advanced in opposition to it. These obser- 
rations are put in the form of six successive que- 
ries ; each of which receives its proper answer. 

I. — Do the fever and the general eruption 
which follow the inoculation for the small-pox, 
but do not appear after vaccination, constitute a 
necessary purification of the system, the want of 
which may lead to donj^rous consequences ? 

II. — Do the facts observed demonstrate that 
the cow-pox, introduced into the system, is of 
su(h a nature as to produce eruptions, or ac- 
cidents, which oufpht to be ascribed to the diffi- 
culty, the imperfeelion, or the want of erup- 
tions? 

III. — It the virus introduced by vmcclnation 
of such a nature as to produce immediately, 
that is, during^ the development of the natural 
effects of vaccination, fatal accidents? 

The first two of these queries are answered in 
the affirmative; the third in the negative. We 
must pass by the train of argument, though 
highly ingenious and conclusive, in order to 
notice, in a somewhat detailed manner, the three 
questions by which these are succeeded, and 
which are of considerably more practical im- 
portance. 

IV. — Is the vims introduced by vaccination of 
such a nature as to produce, even after its opcia- 
iion has terminated favourably, diseases, more 
or less severe, and which may even prove fatal ? 

The solution of this question is difficult, b€H 
cause our investigation is of necessity iBterruptcd 
by a great number of uncortftintics. 

It is certainly difficult to establish, that a virus, 
introduced into the body, and capable of render- 
ing it inaccessible to the small-pox contagion, 
has not the power of producing any other change 
which can affect the health. 8uch a consequence 
can only be the result of a numt>er of obiierva- 
tious, so great, that its disproportion with the 
contrary observations must present us from as- 
cribing them to any thing else but causes abso- 
lutely unconnected with the introduction of the 
viruf. 

Ktit t!io obsenations in support of a contrary 
opiuiua most he equally dilJlrult to obtain. If 
a disi'SHC appear after vaccination, in order lo 
sbo'v thst it can he asmbed to no other cause, 
no ou;;ht to kfk<.w what was the state of the sub- 
ject bi Tore vaccination, and whether his consti- 
tutional or hereditary te*npc(ament did not pre- 
pare biui fur those maladies which have talirn 
place. \¥e mu^t be able to show that atUrr vac- 

iiMUpn be has aot boc« exposi^ Va wum c»p«" 



ble of producing these diseases. We ought liktf* 
wise to inquire whether the source from which 
the cow-pox matter vras derived was infected 
with any foreign ferment. And finally, as in all 
ages and all circumstances of life various dis- 
esses appear which cannot be assigned to mmf 
Known cause, those which succeed vaeeinatioa 
ought, in order to be ascribed to it, to show such 
a character of affinity with each other as to indi* 
cate their common origin, and offer in their de« 
velopment a connexion more or less acasiblo 
with the primitiTc effects of vaccination to which 
Ihry succeed. 

It is tlicrefore requisite to admit, in oppoeitiom 
to the advantages ascribed to vaccination^ thosa 
obtiervations only which are well authenticated, 
and the details of which are sufficiently complain 
to enable us to appreciate their value. 

Ncvertiielcss, if the number of facts alleged 
were very considerable, as it would be impossi- 
ble in such a case to ascribe them to mere ao* 
cident, they would in a great nirasure su|^ly 
the place of exact observations, and would pro- 
duce a certain degree of proliability in their 
favour. 

By attending lo all these particulars we shall 
endeavour to give an answer to the question 
proposed. 

We shall begin with the observations which 
have been given as proofs that there exists dis- 
eases which owe their origin to vaccination. 

Among those that have been pubiisiied, Ar 
that have ivrnc to our knowledge, tbece ^re very 
few which, coni»idered separately, have the ch^ 
racier of exact observation ; and not one pot* 
sesscs the conditions necessary to fix the rehn 
tion of the malady noticed to the previous 
dnation. 

Out of eleven observations that havo 
particularly communicated to us, and which, 
from the precision with which the facts wev» 
announced, as well as the nature of the evidenen 
of those who eemmunicated them, seemed to dn- 
senre particular attention, we have had it la 
our power to verify seven. All of thsse sc v u a 
were formaUy and authentically dn'nied by oeiilar 
witnesses, most assiduous^ and consequently Iwet 
acquainted with the facts, either from situatioD, 
or the interest which attached them to the chik|- 
ren who were the sutyect of tliese observations. 
We can only suppose that the persons, who com- 
municated to us these observations, persons well 
informed, and without any motive to deceive, 
were led into error by false reports concerning 
things which they had not been able lo see with 
their own eyes. After this it was natiural for us 
to suspect the authenticity of the other Ihcts 
which had come to our knowledge by thu same 
means, though we had it not in our power to 
verify them by actual inquiry. 

A fact reported to the medical society of 
Circnoblcha«biM'n mentioned, and it is ud\aaced 
ill tlif nork of .M. f*happon, as a proof of the bad 
etlcrts vf \ac<*iniition. A cnild aOer vaccina- 
tion had the face cinered wiih pimples, which 
were succet*iled by s<*ahH that gave the fjM^e a 
hideous appearance. This was followed by an 
anasarca, and the cano ended latallj. Notwith- 
standing the want c»f details in this cas«', it is 
easy to perrei\e in it that eruption m> ramitiar to 
infauts, and known by the vulgar name of aovte 
iaiicuit (cj-^uia lacUu). Its appearance alter \ac- 
cinstiou does not prove that it had any thtn^ in 





ACCINATION. 

frctpimtlr H* Ihc lup- true taw-pox, an obvmiAian of mow imparti a l i 

JoiiK praduce very neiete than hki alwajm Ikwd (uppusd. 

__ p"^"" "f vwciDktion, The fads furDitheit bj Ihc Biblintheque Bri« 

!■ Ibc IkwI or UiH urgini of (uoique nlTiinl uo Ibe r»llairins r«BtiUk. Wa 

(hill natice thole oolfwhirh bntelteeD aiHiouu<«d 

with iDmueh preciaioo aa lo gireuiaaenFlidea 

of the rate. 

In IMU H. Oilier anaaunn^ at Groeva that 
out af lAOO pureiiDii vaccUalcd not one aceidml 

IN hnv tM* >tlb tlrangfTv lo Iha art »f mc- had onurred. 

Uiim. miiiia'lji jiiiiriiV, who hate a*>invd un Dr. Anderioa writes, in IEI04,frani MMlra*,tv 

HiM Hwlr cki Idrcn, altn haiiBg Iihmi rarvfullj the J^taaeriin Society of London, that the eum- 

•ad lUHnnAill; VMvlBaled, elperiennrd Hirral her of lacnnationi perfonued by the British asd 

- -"- rruplionu, loiwiimti Indian ph}'BifiaiiitaaEiigli«li, I'artugune, Brah- 

ich they had not Iwrn Hiin, Malabar, Untloo, Mahoinetaii, Half-ca&t, 

Theae lymplnin* in Pariah, Maralla, CanndinD, and Rajaput iub< 

•blicril tbam tn haie rcuurae to jcetK, amoUDted to 146,918 ; and that in none of 

. . _ . i*<iip> in order to rmiore them. It IhcK caae« had a single accident been obierted. 

■m» lapaaithki fur lu to laake ourulf es le well Tbj* FButiieFalioD wat tonde in I81K), and pub- 

liifaihili il with tho origin of thew farls as la iithed in i)<01 by the gaverament of Maiirms. 

(a Mt to Juds* liiiK Dar the allegatiou wvre In ISOli the Jeanariau Nodety of London, i* 

•til Ihaadnl ; but without r\je«ling Ihem alio, onoiiniuenni uf rumours propagntcd mperlinf 

MttvT, «<p otay uy that all the cbildrcn, and tacctiialion, as if It occiuiiaDed variou* dreadful 

adalla, thai wo hate had an oppsrluoily of diwasuK till that time unknown, naa induced to 

inelTcii, or that we have aei-n tke- nikke an exact enmlnatioD. The reault of Uila, 

4ule4, DVter eiblhiled any nuali lyniptoni. Minprehcnded in twanly-two parigrnpha, glreii 

Thm I* a rlrcuaaitaare nhich «■ obterte in pariip-aph tweDl;-oiitr the folluHiDg atate- 

ti^veBtly, aail to wlilrh we nu<ht to atlmd nipnl: the dJwaK produced by vascl nation i> i a 

pMinilarty, while diMuulng the |ir«*<,-Dt quo- general slight, and without bad cnnieiiuencci. 

lia Weaftm >ee BB aeeldentalimpreMian, an The caiieii contrary to tbia conclusion are in 

•••IliMS, a hll, enraaioQ llm dfltelopuivnt of a iiinall noniber, compared with Ilie total naraber 

lacev, to Il» nituni «f whivh that ncLiuieual af Fates, and may very naturally be nieribed 

«■* is •ktlotwly a atranfier. Tho (rflkll-pox the rotiatitutiou, or llie peculiar disposition 

iwtrartn ejipcan anoT sueh aeridenli, and in the inditidunls who have exhibited tlio exMp* 

Aer «WH!Hi they hs*c »«aainiuid liolpnt fevers Hods. 

'•Ikn aaladiet to wbli'h a dispnailinu aoems In lSD7thpSocietyarSur|^niin landon pub- 

Ishme pn^eiiuM, and only reiiuired an »«•- Uahcd another report, more precise; and in 

Mn ta call II into arliiui. Is il nnl alan possi- whirh they allow tho eresle>t reserve with re- 

Me, (hM In eirrunialaareii whirl) we ran najilbev specl to Mie ixioseigueucet to be drawn Ccnta III* 

Mmaloe OOF forrare, taennslloB may siveoe- reuilti obtained. We have alreaily said, ia 

■alen ta the appcarauee ef a malady without ipeBking of the eniptiona fol lowing vaccinal Ion, 

Ma(ita lanse, and thui-brtn" about what any thai there »ere only sixty-six examples of tbeiu 

■ttcr ramnolinn wnuld hate done, expcricneed among l&t.36l persons vaecinsled j twrnty.fuur 

MtkFMme Itnie? In that rase there would be erjiipclatous affeclluus only were afaserrcd out 

■•thiae la lueh diaeaam connreled nilh taeeina- of tbc number lixty-tii : and among these Wf 

Han, vf pnirredint Avui the cow-pox vinii. must reekon the only three deatht which fiillowbi 

Hmee then thrn-- la net one of tlio obaerrB- ed veerinaliun, and which have already 

lisn, (wlledeij hilhi-rin, which ran of itself noticed. All this is the result of the nnav 

tm» aa ■ proof of the nplniun which wc are 4211 correspondunta, whose leslimoDy was b( 

'■■intog. il rrmaiiiB for us lii aeo irhethcr ol by ■ rircular letter. 

UM enltretltely Iheir number is sueh, rem- In another plare mention ia made of the aama 

mn4 wiUl llut of IIh" rawn whose hiali>r7 is erytlpelatouieui!i,probab1ye«mprehendeduiidcr 

!■ ■», •• to (Ive souic solidity to the ohjee- ihe I went y-fiiur which have been Jualmeutinnod. 

liMl- The disease ii ucribed to the too great depth <^ 

Tin MlladiMia tA whtrJi we hnto had r^ the indnoos, by mcuns of which the cow-pa' 

Mnatttrandy, in urderto g>v' ■" anawer lathe matter had been putheJ loo tWr below theaUi 

•Iter ^SMliona, will atill fumlsli us with iiumcr- instead of being inlrodured between it and " 

ant r»H. In ..-iiiify this. epidennis, Other obaervxliona nut give 

. !-n(^ of Paris, beaidos the facia probability to this p mum pi ion, which wu 

li'-nt ahote, fiirnjshea the fol- not attempt luctaminc hi-rc. 

in ibe am In the proportion At Alep|vi, the tnglikhrunsul, Mr. Barker, 

"I" i auppuratlofls cODtlanio): nucteedeil iu faniiliarisinj; Ihe iHiople Id taat^l 

. in the propOTlion of one to lion; (!00 were taccioslMl in IHM, nithout 

I",'""' ; Bill! ili.-.^ an only local accideiita. par- torring a single ditogreeable accldcnl In folk 

llcxiar to tli0 parts on which the Inoeulallnn In IMUtho SpaDiihgotcrnmentUndcnaok 

*•• paTfomied. As to general arridents they tiobtc aad pineroU' enterprise of aFUiIing ou' 

tar only beiea ohMfrred when from particular c&pedillon, which Icnnlaaled in 18C(f. The. 

•y«ta Mie number of puortnrn has been very „b}tel of this expedlttoa was to convey to 

*ui4 iacreiaril. a* whcd Ihejr hate amomiW t» their Amerlmo and Adatic pDBscstivn<i thv new 

^1 te, jo,ar rtait toltV. These «(!<'idrnts hav* meant of preaenlnE the colonies a^insl Ihe 

^ fcnr wid r«niuIji!on<, whi'b did noHo ravages of lliv unall^x. 

Mf la«li»™ terminate falally. The ciitea col- A cerlalo number of children wn* embarked. 

I.«^ I- ... 1..„ _» D-j. 11 ...J. .. _i ,^ ,^ f^ taecinalid sucWMiielj durinj 

age. In Wm nuattet Mic tu^.^^x-niru 



N 



e w« ^H 

.UeliT^H 



VACCINATION. 

WHK trantportf d to the Cannrien, to Porto Rico, dure retultii that aeein dia nctricallT oppoaite fn 
to the Cararraft, to OnAtimala, to New Spain, to earh other. The^ eftVn^ do not appear cootn^ 
tfie Philippine islands, to Mnrao, to Canton, to dirtorj, bnl because they varj aeoGrriio^ to the 
the islands of Yisaye, where a hostile nation was disposition and the 8tn<^th of the aubjeeta who 
ao atnick with this act of i^rnerosity on the park receive the virus, and acc«>rdin(; as the eaaentiai 
•f the Spaniards as immediately to lay down phenomena of the malady, which thia^irua oeea« 
their arms. The colonists of St. Helena, who aions, take p-aee with more or less vIoleDce, r»> 
bad hitherto refused the cow-pox matter from gtilarity, or perfectioa. The fact okiata. Tbe 
their own countrymen, received it from the only conclusion, which id our opinion caa ba 
Spaniards. The provinces of Terraflrma, of drawn, ia that these efeeta depend apoa gaocral 
Carthagena, of Peru, &c likewise receiyed the laws, which it is not our busineaa bare to as- 
ctfw-pox matter, which was even found indif^en- plain, and that they must not be regarded aa a 
ous near Puebla-de-los-Anf^les, not far from apecifteproperty, which, if itdid exist, oouldnttt 
Valladolid, and in the Caraceas. The viceroy gife birth to consequeaoes ao different, 
of New Spain has attested that out of ^,000 in- We must, nevertbeleas acknowk-dpe, thatbow- 
dividuals vacciirated in his f^ovemnent nut a ^^er strikiuf the obscrvationa nay be, they do 
tingle unfavourable accident bad come to his not lead to a striking demonstration. Honca^ 
knowledge. when any person saya that ioooulatioB ikvoma 
At Ecfaaterinoslaff, the Duke of Ridielieu^ the cure of a particular disease, vre muat rcatrwt 
IfOTemor of the Crimea, assures us that out of the proposition to mean nothin([( more thaa a 
V065 individuals raccinatcd in six month!*, not a aimple expression of the particular faet obaenrod. 
aingle aecident intervened, except one, in which A person was afflicted with a chronio diacaao^ 
the amall-pox appeared the day afler vaccina- from the knowledge of tlie character a^d pro^ 
tion. ffrcBS of which we could not expect a ^wcdj 
Finally, in 1810, M. Cinrioni, minister of the cure. This per«oB was inoculated, and aooa 
interior at Milan, wrote to M. Sacco that aa far after the cure took place in a manner qait- im- 
fts bis information went, notk single instance had oxpected. Such is the fact. To draw aa m con- 
oeeurred of small-pox appi^arioj; upon iodivi- sequence that the inuculalion waa Ibe cauao oC 
duals that had been vaccinated, and no disease the cure, it \wuM bo necessary that analog oua 
whatever had foUowed the process. Mistanoes had either always, or at leaat very fra- 
il appears to us that the small number of an- quently, occurred; otherwise the oomeidcaaa 
favourable observations which have been collect- m^y ha\e l>een entirely accidental, 
ad, and amon^ which we must not include those Examples are f;iven of obstinate, eves heredl- 
not well authenticated, and which depend upon tary ulcers, of eaehexy, scurvy^ oruptaotta. Ice. 
assertions dcstituie of proof, disappear cntii«ly cured in consequenoe of inoculation. Tho cha- 
before such a mass of facts. racier of those who have attested theao faeli 

V.-Snpposinff that inoculation for the small- 2?!' ""l^P^T*. "! ^ ?"**'*"' *" .ST^il!!; 

pox has the advantage of sometimes favouring Y'/ ^^'^^ admit them; but to prove that th^ 

the cure of certain chronical diseases, u this ad- ^I^^'T" °"?h .k ^^ * preference for 

vantage peculiar to it. and ought it to ensuro it a l?;^!".''*'".? "* *\m ilTi T*^ 7"* ''■^' 

preference over vaccination > cmation, it would be at k-ast neceaaary to prove 

"^ ^ that vaccination has not been followed by equally 

This question does not present fewer difficulties fortunate couKequencea ; but the very contrary 

than the preceding. fact reaults from the observations collected by 

In speaking of the diseases, the origin of which the correMpondeuoe of Paris, and from several 

has been referred to vaccination, we might have cai^ea announced in the works extracted by the 

observed that the same reproach had been thrown authors of the Bibliotheque Britannique. The 

ogainst the small-pox, and that not without some variety of facts announced by the oorrespondcnee 

yeason* Not to mention former authors sua* of Paris is so great that it might even lead to 

pectcd of partiality, we shall satisfy ourselves some aocpticisBi. We shall therefore only notice 

with reffrriiig to tbu authors of the Bibliotheque those relations which aro given by persona en- 

Jtritannique, who have given some instances, titled to draw our attention, and those the detaiU 

Other faclM of an opposite nature have been al- of which contain some interesting particulars, 

leged, showing that inoculation is an opoch of Without attempting to draw any consequences 

an advantagc>ous change in the conslituliou, by from tlicoiy we shall simply present a short state- 

tlie cessation of vAri%MiK infinaities, and the con- ment. 

CrmatioB of the health and constitution of the 31r. Richard Dunning, of Plymouth, in a work 

^non inoculated. published in London in ld(H), entitled Some Ob- 

These adrantiiges have been ascribed ritlier to ac'rvations on Vaccination, £cc. when speaking of 

rMe perfection of the eruption, tuitl the rei^ularity tiie cdi*(-t.s of vaci'iuatiun on the health, aaya, that 

/»f tlu; general coinmolion %»hich axTompanicn it, he has generally obsci'vcd the health improved 

or regarded as thceOeot of the suppurations pro- by vaccination, and he gives two instances: the 

longed i:i the place vihere the inoculation was first a young girl, daughter of a consumptive 

prrforiucd; a phenomenon which has been imi- father, subject to vomiting, and continually la- 

tated by means of a supplementary suppuration, houring under oppression, with a cadaverooa 

induced by blintcrs ulicn the circumstances of aspect spotted v\ith livid blotches. After a for* 

tbe case seemed to require it. It has t>een con- tuuate aud successful vaccination, she in a few 

ccivcd that these evacuations destroyed the causes mouths rt*covcrcd the best p«»ssiblc state of 

of the diseases formerly evisting« and in the health. The Mh*ond example was a child tvio 

midst of Tihich tbe amall-pox had made its ap- years of nge, naturally delicate, recovering from 

ncarance. \ an inflammation of the brcant, but still pale, very 

Observers will not consider it as a fontradic feeble, and oppressed. This child, after vaeci- 

mto say that a commotion esclted by the in- nation, speed iiy recovered strength, acquired a 

sductiott of tbe matter of tnuU-x>ox may pro- good habit of body, a free rcspiratiooi and ftA 



VACCINATION- 



MM>tI<lt tlale «f ImlUi. M. Msunoir, otGt- 
mttu, •« this oecadon add* sBulher iiXiUnre; ■ 
«4utd. «)mw arai wu ootcred with darlrous 
ifi^fMI, Whick ialtnrd durine tbe inHumce 
•TtlH Mv-p«ii inaenUtion, and aismneil tlie ap< 

■hilliia wma arar Uiii child got quit at the rrup- 
tlMcnllMly. TbesuueiwrwntffimiiitJiathehM 
«hMirVid| Bwa BncrrmlK TaccinBlion, a sensible 
fauna«vBnl is tbe hemlth of delicate iDfintn. 

■faBiUr mult* ha>* bceo aDDouacrd in the 
■pmidi cSpedition, with an InlcntUm to pnbllih 
tbtm. 

Ur. 8*era. in hii treaHse Delia Vacdoaitne 
(linHt. XeaO), aflUnu, thai whcD TaednatlDg in. 
Ami afcrtfd with pall; la the armi or lower ex- 
tmailla, irvobled wiUi rhronii? diHiim of ttie 
(laBd*, &«. he made a gtttt nunilKr of punclum 
«« pnrVM. la the anounl DflhiHy or fnr!; : lliBl 
■saM of iMm patientt were perfectlj rured, and 
Itet tb* bollh of olbcn iT«i eonudcreblf im- 

M. BHTCf, Of BMBSconr obmrei that vacc]- 
■ ■ M— ted b«ca performed, in 1801, in three 
vIB^n fcalanflas la bi* departaieat, on 141 in- 
(feirta BNitar IWcWc jean oFai^, cooititutiagmore 
thaa aaa kalf af all the cbildren under that age 
latbepliM. Inl809norewerthaa ISlortbcse 
cktUmi enjejed [lerfecl health, scYen aloae 
Wii«c I'd of ditTrrent diiteawsi but of the 
chQ^Mi ikal had Dot beeo raroinalrd no feirer 
Una tfnu-iix were drad, though no loiall-pox 
ImJ vbiM Ihe omintrj durinf the period. If 
nadtr IkU taut number be ddI) included the 
AiUf«a thai eiUled in 1804, and nnl thow born 
M««Mi that perioil and 180)», we mult conclude 
AM VMainalim bait rendered the children Icsi 
■MatfAiiiW af atlier diiaaaeti but H. Barrej'i 
tttKwwOtm fa MrtauBeiMtlj praclaeto esableui 



VMlaMvwstt 
kar. lfw«t«l 



TIm IHteU maUlned in the eorreipondeace af 
1 tbemwltc* ia a Bueh (realer oum- 
I all theie curen to be 
iliall at leait allow the 
•BiariinMaortbeeureiwiihvacrinalion. £itn 
!■ Ibal OBM the gnral number of farti muat pro- 
Aacval lead a nupicion that lanuDation had a 
tuafnl r#*rt in Ihne caiei, and gite us a cei^ 
l«t«| that at leait ll wa> not iiguriouj. 

Tte maBc* af the Dbwriera, the placet where 
tta abMUntlain wcm made, tbe hind of obier- 
»Mliaa, ara tnarliod with preeiaion in the note* 
■UA bavc bora put Inia aur hnndi. A conii- 
<i l »tl» MMber eater into detail >, bolbmpect. 
tag Aa •bvnoiMDB and Ibe netfamlt mplafcd ; 
Iba — ihw af pHartuTCT made in order to induce 
• Baivfiaaaldanblc emsmolloa, and to render it 
—fa f»»ital Bsd Burecflcaeiauf. 

WaovfM la nmaih hinvnore parlicularlj the 
MlaJlw Wbieta atbrt the organi and funrlion* 
wMdt htlmnf %o tba Ijupbiiic •jrittm. On IhM 
aaeawrt we aball begin with them. Fourtera 
ak«art^raka*a(l>ca a grrat uuinbcr of example i 
rf Ifcg I mala laetea diaappcaring aRer laivlDa. 

paa atwtiBUnt for iwenlj-aeteo daji. Svncn 
rfiHitria katc ••bI ■ great number of obiem- 
liMH, twa at which are ■crompinied with dalaOj, 
tlaliaC Ike leraiiBStion nf daitroua aSketiona 
different pan* of the bodT, nad 
Inooeaf 
ly a vialent 
w-pm, and by a au^ 
a mwtlt, Ki«llt«tB ob. 



■errtrr!) haTe gi*en an asMlfBt irf i4tnH(^ Urf 
oliaiiaalFoptbalmiaiio acmfutoua rbildrvn cured 
by TaiTiualion. Eight uf thrae obscrralioiit ars 
detailed, la aereral eaici Ibe ptmclum made 
amounted Id flfleeti or twenty, ^onie were iiirtde 
iu tlic nape of Ibe neck. In moil ef them Ibe 
■uppuratioai wer» long continued ; annielimi-* 
thej were aunecded by biialera : but in ererj- one 
of the CB»e» the aame meana bad been emnlnyed 
bcfuru vaccinatioa without an; cAbel, Twelia 
obsertert hare given numcniu* facta rrlalite la 
Ibe tcrminattOD of Bcrofola after Taccination. 
Eight uf Iheae are detailed. In ear the tcrofnU 
waa cumplicated with opthatmlB. Sixteen punc- 
laro were made in the limbi. Oa the aCTFnth 
day the child opened iti cjci, and waa tapable 
of bearing Ibe light. The indamiuBlion uf lh« 
puncture! waa Tiolcnt; the inguinal glands aub- 
(icled, the icrufuleui tumour) disappeared, and 
the rure nan complete; but it was tfauugbl proper 
to enileaiour to render it atill more aecure by a 
cautery performed on one of the liniba. In an- 
olbercaae the acrafuloui^ lumoura were open, ttiej 
diic barged »a unhealthy ^u>, and tbe 8eth waa 
pale and fungoua. During the progreia of Iha 
enw-pui the edgei of the ulcen berame red, and 
tbe Sesh dnu ) the luppuralioB beeame lea* abun- 
dant, and les* waterjj much of the humoura waa 
drawn to the vaccinated arm ; the inofutou* tu- 
jDoan bealed in the oeurae uf a moolb ; the enW' 
pox continued to tuppurale during three moDtht, 
and ibeD the cure was conplcle. 

Since tba mlroduetlon of Tacdnatian into Iha 
deparlment of Hi.unI Blanc, M Carou, pbyti- 
cisn of Anoecy, affirnu Ibat the number of acra- 
futoui diicau* bai leniiibly diminished; and M. 
Bacon, pliygicim at Palaiie, that in tbe hoipilal 
for children, furmerly filled with scrnAilaDs caaet, 
DO lueh dlteaM i> now to be found. Four ob- 
•errers sent variuui obsnrrationi, dTeofwhicb 
are lery detailed, and bate for their abject) eaiai 
of rickeii, Dot indeed cured, but modified in ■ 
reoiarkable manner, and the progrcsa of which 
wai either stopped, or sensibly retiirded, by tdc* 
eination. Tbe power of wallung recsier«d, 
•trenglh increaaad, and the antidity of atalioti 
re-e< tab tithed, were the most aentible i-ffecl* that 
mulled j and in theae euei tjie nunwrou* punc- 
lurei along tbe spine* were the mean* by which 
they flattered theuselTca with baTing obtained 
auceesi. Throe obserTer* hare ipokea of Um 
tinaa capitis. One of the Db*enatiuns ia de< 
tailed, and gircs an aecaunl of a lioea <•( a yel- 
taw colour, yieliliog a copious yellow buisour, 
of the conaialcaca of boney. Twelve pundurM 
were made upon the head iiself. When the van. 
einal crusla fell olT, the eruiU of Ibe tinea dried 
Up, fell olT, and the cure wai complete. Pin 
obserttr* fumi*b numtrnua facts respecting Tie- 
cinatlon parrfonned on pitienU l^iouring under 
aerrou* disorders. t'lTO af tbaac are dslailed. 
A megriin which continually dirlured a )uung 
man of rourteen yeari of B«e, for scleral years, 
Taniihed after tba luppuralion of the caw-poi. 
Daily coatultious, during t«D Ri<inlbs, in aehild 
of twenty montha, wbieh bad not bean Blleirlated 
by medicine, becsmo less tioleat during the pm- 
graai of TaednatioD, and afterwards disappearaf 
altogether. Various eonmlsiia diieaaei, thre* 
of wbich were epileptic, were tuspvaded during 
the pri.jreaa of Ihe oow-pox. Afterward* they 
coDtiuued to recur, butsi losgeriulenals. Threw 
af then), one of nliich waa hereditary, ivsml al 
loftUwr. Ib »&■ thai had « - 



^ 



VACCINATION. 

day, t]ic TBNination wa«perronni*d during sleep. It will be Mked, perliapK, whetlior, if w« ftd« 
because it would have broiif^ht on a fit if the mit an equality of adyantagCH in favour of vac^ 
patii'iit had boon awake. The cpilepay diKap- cination and iuocuiatioo, conKidcred as a remctly 
pearvd the ninth day after the Tacriontion. In for diilcrent diMeaxcRy it would not be of advan^ 
liiu, Mho was afllicted with an hereditary epi- iage to preserve the inoculation for the »inall* 
U'psy, and who waa cured, vaccination wan per- pox as a nic^ns of utility in certain situations, 
formed by iui-ision, and the pustules were con- We answer, that in such a comparison w% 
verted into an ulcer. Ten observers furnish va- ouf^ht not 1o leave out the dangers of a conta- 
rlouii observations, four of which arc detailed, gion^ subtile and persevering like that of the 
and relate to perimlical and obstinate fcversy siu all-pox, compared with the «iru8 of the cow- 
such as quartan*, double lerlians, and quoti- pox, which can only be commuuicaled imnie- 
dians. Thvy were cured by vaccination. Two dialely, because the least alteration destro)S iU 
quotidians, with which young bob of twenty- pn^peiiies. \Vc ought als'b to reckon for nomc« 
eight were afOicted, had lasted fur ten uioutbs; a thing the hope at present entertained of beinf 
double tertian, in a child of three yearc, had able to destroy the small-pox altogether. Could 
lasted tliree months. They ceased after vacci- houses for inoculation, though eitablislied under 
nation. In four persons afflicted with intermit- the care of the police, be subjected to laws so 
tents, and Vaccinated, the cow-pox appeared only severe, and to a sequestration so exact, as to 
Upon one, and he alone was eured. prevent completely the spreading of tlie small- 
Several other obseneni, to the number of pox from theui, something might be said in its 
fourteen, hare furnished various remarkable facts favour ; but whoever considers the nature of man, 
rvf>pecti'ug difii' rent other diseases. Inaniafant, and the state of society, must be convinced of 
a year old, a paUy of the left arm, which had the impossibility of securing any such object 
lasted two months, disappeared a month after In our opinion, even admitting vaccination and 
yaccination, performed by making six punctures inoculation to be equally efficacious in removing 
in the diseased arm. A great number of violent other diseases, the balance in favour of vaccina^ 
coughs have lieen suspended, moderated, or tion is so strong that it is impossible to hesitate 
eured. The consequences of suppressed measlesy one moment about preferring it. 
namely, a dry eongh, fever, and diarrhcea, were «.w ** « , . .,. 
eared by a c^w-pox induced by twenty pune. T^— J?^'^ ^" ^"^ "^^ ^^^^""^ "««" *»?•' F.^T'- 
tures, during the suppuration of which a strong native efficacy of the cow-pox, compared with the 
fever and miliary eruption occurred. A violent ««^™« ad>Bntage resulting from the small-pox, 
pain in the joint of the left thigh, with which a n»*"™^ or inoculaUd > \^ hct consequences fol- 
ehild of nine yearn of age was afflicted, with a ^P'^ ^~™ *»?'»» P«-«Pcrly considered, m the one or 
threatening of spontaneous luxation of the limb, *"e other virus ? 

wa« treatai by means of eighteen punctures round Nobody disputes the power of tlie cow-pox to 

the diseased joint. Sixteen pox, the aureolas of preserve from the small-pox : and this questioOi 

which were eon fluent, occasioned fever, and then which at the commencement was the nu»st iw- 

suppurated. Soon after the pain of the joint portent of all, has now become only secondary to 

disappeared, and the cure was complete. A white various others that have been put, and most of 

•welling of the knee in a child of eight years of which we think we have already answered. At 

age, and a dealbess which had increased for the same time, to this question must be referred 

eighteen months in a ehild of six jears of age, a variety of other particulars of considerable in- 

werc lM>th cured by vaccination. terest, such, for example, as the distinction t>e- 

Such are the facts which we liavc collected re- tween the true and Talse cow-pi>x, tlie eruptions 

■pecting the diseases existing at the time of vac- that have twen confounded with the small-poX| 

dnation, and cured by that process. We hnvo the changes inlroduced in the bills of mortality 

noticed those only which are related wilh prifi- by the introduction of the cow-pox, the hopes of 

•ion. We do not think that tliey ought to be dcstniving the small-pox, or of driving it out of 

always considered as cures due to vaccination, the civilized world. 

Separately taken, we do not Si'c in tliem any The idea of the faculty of preserving ft«m the 

thing else than a coincidence bolwecn the time small -pi>x divideia itself into two questions. 

of cuH! and vaccination ; but taken collectively, One may l>e thus stated : Will an individual, after 

we think that the number of fscis, and the cir- being vaccinated, if he be placed in a situation 

cumstan(H>s accompanying those which we hnvc proper to pmduce the small-pox, and which 

fiartieularly noticed, give at least a presumption usually produceM it, continue exempt from that 

In favour of vaccination, more than suillriiMtt to disease? The solution of this question can only 

eounterbalanee the facts which have lyeen alleged be obtained b) a multitude of expei*iments ; and 

in favour of the small -pox, in what wav sovver tlmt solution will give, then, not ab^tolute rcr- 

that diM'ase is communicated. Weacknowlfdge, taiuty, but degrees of probability proportional 

at the same time, that a comparison iM-twn-a to the number of experiments undertaken to 

^*acciiislion and inoculation for the small-pox, in resolve the question. 

this point i>f view, rannotbe fairly mntir, because The other question is this: Is it ini|iosfiihle for 

a mii:-h gn-nler numln'r of cases of the foruunr a vaccinated persnu to be infected with the nuial I- 

than r»t* the Itttter havt* btvn civen to the public, pox ? Kxperience cannot decide, in the affirma- 

\arcinution, under the wpcrinl projection of go- tive, the qiK*«»lIon when thus stated; but a single 

vernniput, has iH'cnmo the object nl'a n*eiilarand ob^cr^ntlon is fcuitii-ient to decide it in the nrga- 

ketive <*nrn ^pondence, in which few fiii'i> havv live. If 111 at obsiTvaiion d(K*s not exist, the 

esTuped ohsei'vers, only in danger uf being led question must iwntinuo insiiluble; liccause, in 

aslrny hy their leal. Inoculation, on the other order to ivstilve it, we niu^t be acquainted with 

hand, hut little favoured bv government, was the nature of the viruK o Ismail -pox and of cow- 

benmi'.- the ehie<t of enter{ n^-es, in which a pox, with all tlie nrcuniotanci>s which are capable 

spirit of cupidity waa much muri- prevalent than of excluding or produinig mntagion, and witis 

"V spirit of obs«r%atieB. the pecuUv dispositions which prevent men fron^ 



VACCINATION. 

mntractin* it: ill of ihem things absolutely un- whenoctheei^htli,ci^htyeigl)l;tv'henonthcniufh, 

known ttf ujc. oi£plity-fivc ; i^hen on the tenth, eip^hty ,: when on 

W« mnht therefore eonflno oufselveH to th(* the eleventh, fifty; and when un th« tv^elfth, only 

first of thew question*, and inquire into what from ten to fifteen. nesidpR thi^, th(> longtir time 

eonfidenne we may repo«e in the presttrvative elapses before the matter be exlmcted from a pock| 

poww of the eow'pox. Sudi is the nature nf tbe more likefy is the pock to suppurate, and be 

the question to be resolved. We thought it ne- converted into an ulcer. M. Hacro recommends, 

uriiary to fix its nature with precision, before likewise, ill order to be more certain of the efli- 

yroeevding to eollceti as we have done with the cacy of the matter, to avoid opening the pock too 

•ther qaestions, tlie positive elements of its sola- near the centre where the puncture was made, 

tioB. Let us establish, in the first place, the but to take the matter from as nearly as possible 

Bature of the facts which Ought to constitute theouter edge of the pock, where it is more uni- 

the^e elements. formly pure and limpid. Notwithstanding the 

It U obvious, in the first place, that we ought various ingenious modes that have been contriv- 

to es elude all thone in which tlie characters of cd to transport the matter from one place to an- 

the eow-poT have not been ascertained. Some other, the most certain method of vaecinating, 

penoos have considered the difference between when it can be done, is to take the matter out of 

the true and false cow-pox as a subtilly; but we one arm, and immediately introduce it into an- 

aBBwer, thai when tbe charaeters, taken from the other. 

rpoeh of development of the fonn and appear- A second order of fkcts whidi ought to be ex« 

ma«T of the pock, of the nature of the humour eluded firom the comparison, consists in observa* 

coBlained in it, of the manner of its desiccation, tioos of eruptive di&easesj distinguished by the 

aad of the mark which remains after it has name of the small-pox, but which from theif 

dropped off, are lo distinct from each other, as in characters belonged evidently to the chicken-pox, 

the true and Iklae cow-pox : when to this differ* or lo some anomalous emption, which have but a 

eaee it Joined the determination of the circum- faint resemblance In fdrm to the small- pox, bnt 

itaneea upon which the failure of vaccination are in other respects quite diififrent. Such erup- 

mnally depends, aa, for example, the too late lions show themselves every day upon children 

period at wbidi the virus has been taken, the who have had the small-pox | and tvhen they 

chanfca in the cow-pock which have occasioned appear before that diwasc, they do not prevent 

the mixture of pas with the true limpid liquor it from infecting the patient. An attentive ob* 

of the cow-pock— -when these circumstances have server can easily distinguiith such eruptions. 

ken acenrately observed, no farther ambiguity The small-pox have a regular jHvgress which 

icmains, and tlie distinction l>etween the two cannot be mistaken ; and when they are confluent 

kinds of pork is perfectly established, and may they can be still confounded with other eruptions, 

W easily detennined. which are usually exempt from all danger, and 

This diflcrraoe was established in consequence even from severe illness. Every observation 

tf errors eommitted in the first experiments. At then, which does not give as the essential cha- 

Faris we were in possession of the false cow-pox racters by which the Small-pox is distinguished 

■Btlcr, nnd were not acquainted with the effects fkom other eruptive diseases, and in which vre 

•f the true till Dr. Woodville made a journey to do not find the fever of the commencement of tba 

Praaee> nnd naturalixed among us the irue disease, tbe eruption, the suppuration, the fever 

■atlcr. At Geneva false eow-pox matter im« of intumescence which accompanies it, and Ihtf 

psMd upon the physicians, and disappointed desiccation— ct cry such obnervat ion cannot corns 

tkcir hopes during twenty-one months, tili, in into comparison with the observations in favour 

May, I WO, the virus sent by Dr. Peanon sue- of the present question. 

ttedrd completely. Tiiere is a third order of facts which cflnnot 

The diiiereBt characters of the true and false be admitted into the comparison of which we 

cow-pox matter have been already pointed out in speak j we mean those cases in which a true 

Uie frprirt inserted in the fifth volume of the small -pox makes its appearance during the time 

AyMcnl and Bf athrmatical Memuira of the In- of vaccination, at an epoch when we must sup- 

ttitule. They have l>een repeatedly publiMhed pose that the infection was cau!;ht before the 

W tile eeMtral eomnittee of the society of Paris ; cow-pox could exert its preventive powers. This 

tbf^- are described in several parts of the Biblio- point has been discussed in the flrsit report to the 

Ihvquc Britannique, and in various other pub li- Institute. We have already, in the nicmuiri 

cations. Dr. Sarco has given at the end of his given several cvAmpIcrs of it, in speaking of tbe 

*ork very good plalea, where both the true and eruptions and diseases ascribed to the cow-pox. 

ths false eow-pock are represented. On this point Dr. Sacco has made some curious 

Bcsidea this. Dr. daeoo, endeavouring to fix experiments, to determine the precipe time when 

Aw time when the eow-pox may be usefully com- tlie small-pox may still appear after vAcrinstion. 

■aaicnled, has delermliM*d by experiment the Supposing the cow-pox to appear on the third 

lelation between the prnhabiUiy of sui'cess, nnd day aftur the puncture, the inoculation fur the 

the successive dnvs in which the virus has been small-pox performed between the flr>t and fifth 

•illeeted. According lo his observations, sup- day ocrnsious the appearand; of the siiinll-pox 

paling that the row-pock l»et;insto Rppearon the between the seventh anil eleventh day. In»(U- 

thifd day, as usually happens, the success may lation performed on the sixth or seventh dsy 

ke nmaidered as certain if the virus be taken occasioned a slight inflammation of th<' part 

between tbe fifth and eighth day, reckoning from punctured, without any general eruption. Either 

tbe time 4if the puncture; or between the third no pox appeared over the punctures, or if they 

iad sixth day, reckoning from the appearance of did they speedily dried up. Inoculation pcr« 

the pock, lie found that when the matter was formed from the eighth to the eleventh day pro- 

tikm on the sixth day ffhim the appearance of duced a slight alteration at the place of the 

the pock, out of lUU punctures, ninety-live sue- puncture, seldom a p^ck, or at least it very sipecdi- 

nsAsilj wbcD Ml the scttntb; ninttj'-two: ly dried up. InocttJaiion with small -pox matter 



VACCINATION. 



I M dxIrHl ioruDb Mwrcn tho 
cli-n-ulb anil Ihirtccntb d*)- after isrrination, 
Uin* nf tlirm ocl) FShibilnl ■ (li^bl redncu at 
tbe plan of Ihe puaclunr. nhitr IhF thirlnn 
olhrn hail (ui ijinplonii wlialetcr. If Ihe fornia- 
tioa of Ihfi row-park be latiT lh>in Ihr Ihift) itj, 
•a hii>t>Fni K>n>Mia», In IhstcaM Ihe pnatibilil; 
of till' <auil-poK iaferlion will be exlend^ to ■ 
time {irDportioiiBlIf longer. 

Th«H dcUili tpprared (o ui DctftMrjp. in 
iR^r (n nhow to whil dtf^rcp of exartnen ob- 
MTtallom na the prcwnalitc power of the eow- 
poa haic becB carried, and to nhow that the dif- 
UnntiuDi tn which theie mcirrha have given 
origin are far froB heinp, *■ loirf peruDi wiih. 
u> lo brlicie, ■ubliltiei and lubUrfjgea iDveDtcd 
to nciiu the want af lueeeu. 

Now in appljing the reiDUki thai haie been 
node tn the alleged Dbierralioni of hniall-pux 
appearing afler vardnalion, if we exclude all 
thane whieh want (he rondilioD* ncreiur; for 
rendering then rredilable, we flod very lillli! 
which can eoiue in umpelition with the facta on 
the olbv Hide. There arc, howcTer, loiue, 
■iCaintI which It J* diffieult to ilart anj ptautihie 
o^cclian. The Jennerian B.icici; of Londoa 
ctidenltj admit the exideooe of mtch, r- - 



I, ele*c! 



d nnee 



report. The College of Sur|;eaa> of Londua na;, 
that out of 16,4^8 raMi of Taceioation (here 
were Adj-tii, that i>, oDe in 3,00l), where il wis 
iatuQIncnt to act at a preMrtativr from the 
■mall.pox. But they have not infonned ua 
■ ■ " iteeffo.-torih< 



lloui, and ti 



r fniuffi 



y could be aicribcd. The author* 
Blblii>lbt(|ue BriUnniqiK bate inwrlrd in their 
worh a letter from Idodon, dated 5th Aupiit, 
IBll, ■tallng that the ualioualeow-pomlablj^h- 
BCnt in London had publiibed two earn of 
■aall-pdi occurring after a tnoit auccenarul rac- 
oinatioti. " Thene caiei," lay* the letter, " are 
well BMvrtaincd, add admitted oa the part oflhc 
■■labliihiDcuI. But the^ publiih, at the Hine 
Ume, three eaica of natural ■mall-poi occurring 
twloe la the same Indliidual, after an iulcrral of 
•lerra j«ar»." 

The correipondence of Hie central eommiltee 
ef farii eanlaini Hoe aluillar caamplea 8iz 
iib*er*atioBi were eomBuaictUed bf men nail 
Inromed, and frca ftam prqudiee^ but tbey 
wera not aecompaaicd wilh detail! luSnent la 
rcmoieall uacvrlaUtj. Two of theie announced 
•mall-pox appearing in the inidil of an epidemic 
•mall-pox, Which aSicted Beau vaiiiin llie autumn 
ef ISia Hut the children in whom tbii diieaie 
appeared had been vaccinated when the cow-pox 
waa flnt iolrodurcd inlo Prance; and a* no de- 
tail* araglvEu, it ia very ponible (hal Ihediteaie 
rouimunicated wa* llie falte cow-pox, at that 
time au remtnon In Ihia oouatry. ,\ll the olher 
rhildnn, vacrlnatrd la the aame plan, and at 
latar period*, continued exempt IVom the imall- 
poa. Tharw i« a fad, which waa Teriflcd bj 



ha* been ticcinaled lo be aBicled with tbe mmK* , 
pox. Nor iode«l ought we to look for an} >acli 
impo«ibiIil]', as it hm been well aKcertaincd Bol 
In hold, even after inoculation, with the matter 
of Mnall'pni. 

But what dep«ps of prnbabillty do Ibeacob* 

tervRtive Cram *mall-pax' We may oblala itb| 
comparing the number of individuals who baia 
taken the tmall-poi aflir varriaalion with Iba 
whole number vaccinaled. and nho bave nol 
caught the infection, lUnufch repcHedlj exposed 
to it. Another baM of Ihia eialualleo I* Iba 
number of coUDlct- eipehmenti made, either b]> 
inoculation, or by placing penonalhal hant>c«B 
TBccinated In tuntaet wiUi Ihoie that are aUcttd 
with Ibe >mall-pDX. 

If we lake the result of llie correipnndcnte aC 
tbe eenlral commillrv nf Pari*, Ihe icvcn obaeri. 
lationa a' ovc- mentioned, lupposing then all 
exact, are to be u|ipaii«d to no fewer IbiB 
3,671,669 case* of laccinatinn. If it be objeeled 
Ibal Ihcae seven obtervalions, Ibe only one* with 
which the committee were acquainted, are in bD 
probability not the only onei which have oerarred 
in the empire, we answer, Ihat cien these tereo 
■re not altopcther fne ^ta unrertainty ; and 
Ihat thed,6Tl,e'U vacrinationt meolioned by the 
eommiltee are far from bring the whole Dumber 
hitherto performed iu Fruire. These two Bom- 
ber«, being tbe whole ablnlDcd by the aame nu^na, 
are very fairly cnmparable witt< each otbar- 
They gire ua the ratio of I to 381,660. 

With retpect lo couoler-ei peri men li, they are 
of three kindi; those made by inoenlaliag 
with anall-pox lirua; those reaulting froa 
ConiiOf in oantact n ith infected peraoDaj 
tboae reEulting rrom the reporta nf epidecaic 
imall po« in village*, from which nry few 
persona escape. The accounis transmitted la 
the eommittce present 640 individual* put lo Iba 
teil of inoculstiooi OSO penona titing with ib- 
diiiduali aSirtrd with the KoiBll-pox, and lo 
contact wilh Ihem, yet eicaping the diaraic. white 
every other penon look it ; and 4313 who in the 
midnt of epidemics affecting whiile villages ea- 
raped the general contagiau i making in all i&63 






1 the ( 



in. in cirmmatanrcs either artificial or 
nl, in which Ibry ougbt, had it nol been for 
inalion, to bave been afflicted with the dia- 






*dU> hav 



obtained in all other 






»ith a 



meroua, but favourable amall-poi. on the Till 
Daecmbar. IBOtt Thla child, called Emma 
Karoui-una. lived In the old *U*ct of IheTemplej 
Nn. IU, lud bad been >ucrvurully vaa-inalMl on 
the 34lh March, ItUM, by M. Usnv, physician la 
Bin Kran;ai>, who had prevrrved ao acsount of 
Uw vaMlnation, and llsprngrea* Ilia there fore 
ni4Ht Ukt it U not ii^pMtUila fix « duU that 



ar-li, il la Impossible Bol to 
conclude that the probability Ihal vacrinatioa 
will preaerve from the toiall-pax i* ai stmng aa 
Ihat inoculition wllh smallpox virua itself wilt 
prove efficacious ; or Ihal the im all pox will cat 
recur I second time in the aame iodivtdual : for II 
i^ipeara to us unrcaaunable, or at leant premalnrt, 
to cuoclade thai *niall-pax will rrciir aRer th* 
one oftearr tbau Ihc other. 

If In these ubservatiuus we Join Ihoae whM 
are their natural rouHi)uence, and which bav« 
been attested by pbytiriani and naglstralcs, both 
in France and in other countries, thsl luialUpaV 
epldemiea hate been slopped in their progress hf 
vaccination i Ihat they bare bi-en etrluded tram 
Ihr-ibc vUla|;ri where varcinatloii had lirCD gene- 
rally prartined ; thai Ibeae epidemic*, which u—d 
lo rcium al ataled periudi.bave ceased to apjicar 
at tbeir uiual epochs i that mti 
CtMtd to kuBW Utc laiatl-pas, Mi4 Ihtl Jl 



»pi**r 
saban 



V 



<\ 






VAC VAC 

nufh more uncoinuinD tbtn ronnfrly In rnreigii (a vacrinaticiD, which b«v« m*de Ibeir 
Itoirni thcmielTH, except in tho«e pixel aiipoLnncv during its cuurw, orwbich, hkvlng 
h* pr(judjc«i or the pvaple haTe rrjecled pretiounljr eiUled, acquired an intrfuiity irhidi 
■on : thM tbc nortslity of children hiu ougbl In be ucribed not lo tlie liriu of cow-pox, 
ud that populalioD hai remirluhly but lo Ihu peculiar lUte of ths lulyecti racm- 
*arinu« plarn — if we coDtider all Dated. 
IkMa drniBulanon, wa iball not only appreciate 'rhal the ditordcn which hare been lonietimei 
Iha adtWDlaee* which ■neiely it likely to reap nbiervcd to follaw vaceiaation, when they are not 
tarn the prseioiis ditcoTer; of Jeaoer, but the oning to diKeaui already existins. are evidenllj 
lii^ (bal Ibe imatl pox, that dreadful loourge particular casri, owing lo tbc condition ofindl- 
if Ndety, will di<appe*r altogelher, will be no viduali, and which, bearing no proportion lo the 
kajn chiiDcrirBl ; lince thia ha* been already number of caxw exempt frmn all iiiich dua^ree- 
waSiad in (ha** plaeei where the cunSdiniK of able result), can give no roam for drawing a ge- 
IW pODf la in the eOcae; of vai.'ciDatioa hac in- nerel and unfavourable oonclutioa. 
4aeed the* generally to adopt it. That theie obtenalion*, even BUppoilog them 

Tbr ntporti publiahed by Ihe central commiltec inconteitable, are more than compeniated by the 
ttPtrU in 18(0, ISM, ISM, 1S08, lljll, and numerous exiiaple* of cbranic and obMinate 
*~ — ' 1 1ralLetiaiof ilaroireipoudence, lualadiei which hove been completely and unez- 

. auccuaiirely publikhed, coulain pcck'dly cared by raRcinalioa: and thai lhei« 
poatliie proof* of all that wc bate example*, if we compan them with similar 
JMly, of epidemic* terminated or exauiplei in favour of aniall-pai iaoi^ulalion, If 
I, ol their periodical return* pre- to tb.a compariion we join the diSerencea in Uia 
by the number of vaeciaaliona^ and of the euential character of the Iwo ipeciea of Tirua, 
^S not only rendered rare, but of it* being and in their coDtaglouseffeda, give lo vacd nation 
'a particular plaK>, hince the au incDoiparable advantage over imall-pox ino- 
BccinaUon. The aanie pheno- culalion, coniidcred a* a preireative of imall- 
■■• «* anciieo by the minuter of the inlerioi fioi, and a* a remedy for other diieaae*. 
rflfca kiagdom of Italy, eapeeially in Ibeepide- Finally, that thepreaemtiveelf^rtoflbeeaw- 
■iea mhmii aad at Bre*eia and Milan, The pby- pox viru*, when Ihii viru* la pure, and baa 
Mima af Oeaera alteat the annihilation of the produced genuine cow-pox, ia at leaal aa ocrtalD 
takU-BOV ia their tnwa. The diiainution of b> that of the virua of aniall-pni ilielf; and that 
■artaflty, and the inereaied'populallon, in con- when coaiidered relative to sodely in general, 
MfMMW, have been aircrtained at Ruuen, at ■aecination hat an adranlage which amaU-pax 
n— iiialh. «t Betan^n, In the department* of inoculation cannot poaaeu; namely, the advsn- 
•• Vpftr Rbiae, of Dordngne, &e and even in t»se of atopping, dimiaJRhing, and dcitroying 
aaHVfuaiifnuf Paria. Theae are irtvfragable epidemic amall-pox ; nfdiminiahing the mortilitj 
1*1 aft at the adTanlage* which may be cipecled of children, and of inereaaing the papulation ; 
Imi tbc diamvery of Jenner. and that the reiull* already obtained give hopes 

la dw aae«uat which ns have given to tlic In- of aeeiog the imalUpox, one of the moat diamal 
MlM^af the reault* obtained from the introdue- diwaae* under which mankind haa groaned, re- 
Ik* af Uw aow-pox into Fraace, after twelve mated entirely from the face of Ibe earth. 
)MnM|«fl»ee, we bate only eollected fact, of VACCINIUM. Wl.o rile berry. Moor- 
laMled «.tbentle.lr. We were of opmioa ^^ i;ra<.l>et.y. Id boiony. 3 «liu* '■( the 

vwB Iroa aavobaervation*, the mure nuflierou* ,, ■ ^ . j ' l i 

IWyaachltobe. We have rejected all the eaae* P«ialW, stameru ii.ierttd Oil the receptacle ; 

ab^ X advantagea reaulting might he ateribed t^="T inferior, four-celled, miuyieeded. Twen- 

V> peeulkr eireumatanwa la the case. It wa* ly-aevcn *pecie», chwfly nilivesof North Amc- 

Mt ooe iatealion to cnneeal any of the motive*, nca) lei-eral of Europe, a few of Ja|i3i) : four 

■r any of the IkeU, on wbirh the ul^eclion* made common lo our countly. « follow. 

■caissiiaceiBaiioDbavebFeafonndi'd. We have I. V. myriillui. MyrtJcberry. Bilberry, 

■aapand both aide* uf each queilion together; Bleabeiry. Pedunclei one-(low«ieil ; leave* 

aad >« have aimvd lea* at drawing abioluie and ovate (crrate deciiJuiiuf ; ileiii angular, 

_,j_j _ _ .h ht.ioing ihe Found on heaths i the berry blueish-bbck i l.ut 

■^"^ V there u a variety with while bt'rrics The 

■| f'lh'" betrie* »re uiiinnent: ihey areeaicn in milk 

rh it may render to i" ihe highland. i,f Scotland, and oflen ..lade 



■ oon*cqueiicic 
tbn tervien whit 



(att> and Jet) ei. Grouse feed u|)nii iheni 

havee.Ubliahed,ioaaali.factDry when ripe; and they are sometimes employed 

^.dora'l&lo Ihe body any malu-r calculated to 2. V. ufigino^^unl. Great bilberrv-bush. 

rlara diaagrerable eiieet*, and which ought to Peduncles one-flowered ; leavn obotuic, very 

Ibrvwa Dot by eruplioa* limilaf lu thu*e uf entire, glabrouii branchea round. Found on 

lb* iaaJI-pax. hcatht, and on the sunimiu of ihe Highland 

Tkal Ihe eraptiont, which al Arat frnjucntly mounuins: thi berries larger, but leu eUHmed 

kDM*«d vacooalloB. were owing not to the ^^,^„ ^^,^ ^^^^ 

w^t» «r Ite vlrua ll-elf, but to other d re um- 3 y. vUi. id«3. Bed whotikberry. Ra- 

MM«a^n.tt «*«•"" "'". ^"'""' "^'k".!^' een.« terminal, ..oddioR; leave* oho.a.e. re- 

^Siil?™*.'^i'd •""«. d«tiool.te, do.teSondemealh. Found 

*r!^S!^t^^t.utU of vaccination «" "-"ihs; the berries, whieh are .!«. daM. 

ivMtawatacrvadinicbt to be ucribed 10 cBU>e( f-atpU, »n aubacid aDd cooUng. In bwedokj 



VAC VAG 

they are often made into rob or jelly. This, in ricellian tube (see Pneumatics, pa. 

the old botanical books, is an arbutus, it is to and it is very doubtful whether the pa 

ranked by Caspar Bauhine, and is probably of the densest bodies known be in | 

one of the arbuia inatura puniceo colore referred contact. See Optics. 

to by Lucretius, lib. r. 939, as constituting a Tq VADE. «. n. (vado, Latin.) Tov; 

part of the food of man in his savaae state, and to iiass away {ff'otton), 

hence rendered trt'/i tt7oo(^t{7Aor//< by his traoi- Vade mkcum, or Veni mecum, a 

Jator. The passage is as follows : phrase, used in English to express a thir 

« Olandifenu inttrcurabant corpora quercas " ^^^T handy and familiar, and whic 

Plerumque;et(jusnuncbyberu8temporescemi8, usually carries about with them; < 

Arbata puniceo fieri matura colore, applied to some favourite book. 

Plurima turn tellus, etiam majora, ferebat. VADO, a seaport of Italy, in the terri 

But acorn-meals chief culled they from theihade Genoa, with a fort; taken by the Fret 

Of forest-oakfi ; and in their wintry month', 1795. It is three miles W. of Savona, ; 

The wild wood-whortle with its purple fruit S.W. of Genoa. Lon. 8. 8 E. Lat. 44. 

Fed them, then larger and more amply poured. VADS^FEIN, a town of Sweden, i 

Good. Gothland, where the kings of Swede 

4. V. oxycoccos. Cranberry. Moorbcrry. formerly a palace, now in ruins. It is 

Leavesovate,Tcry entire, revolute, acute; stems on the £. side of the lake Wetter, nc 

i;reeping, filiform, glabrous. Fodnd in moors river Motab, 32 miles W. of Nordki 

and peat-bog9; berries red, and nearly of the Lon. 15. 55 E. L»at. 58. IS N. 

size of those belonging to the hawthorn. In VA'G A BOND, a, (voga^^ona, Frencl 

Cumberland, and some other parts, they are Wandering without any settled habit 

cultivated largely and very profitably by the wanting a home {Ayliffe). 2. Wand 

poor, who bring them in great abundance to vagrant (^Shak%peare\ 

market, whence the country becomes supplied v a'oabond. j. (from the adjective 

with the fruit that provides us with cranberry A vagrant; a wanderer: commonly in ; 

tarts. It was formerly used in medicine under of reproach (Raleigh). 2. One that w 

its specific name. See the article Oxycoccos, illegally, without a settled habitation (/F 

and BoTAWY, Pi. CLXXXIII. VAGAOIY. 5. (from vagits, Latin.) . 

VACHA, a town of Germany, in the land- freak ; a capricious frolic {Jjocke). 

C.vateofHesse-Casscl,40milesS.£.ofCasseI, VAGINA, in botany, a sheath or 

n. 10. 12 £. Lat. 50. Sb N. brane investing a stem. 

VACIIK, an island of the West Indies, off Vagina, in anatomy. Vagina uteri. 

theS. coast of St. Domingo, op))Ositc St. Louis, canal which leads from the pudend 

It was formerly a rendezvous of the bucanicrs, external orifice to the uterus. It is som 

Vrho began a settlement here in 1673. of a conical form, with the narrowe: 

VACI'LLANCY. t, {vaciUanst I^t.) A downwards, and is d<:$cribcd as being 

state of wavering ; fluctuation ; inconstancy six inches in length, and about two i 

(More). meter. But it would be more proper 

VACILLATION.*, (vacillaiio, I^ntin.) that it is capable of being extended to th 

The act or state of reeling or staggering iDur- mensinns ; for in its common state the c 

ham). isseldom found to be more ihanthrecinchi 

VACUATION. t. (from vacuus, Lat.) the external orifice, and the vagina is con 

Tlie act of emi)tying. as well as shortened. The vagina is comp 

VA'CUIST. M. (from vacuum.) Aphiloso- two coats, the first or innefmost of w 

pher that holds a vacuum {Boyle). villous, intcrs|)crsed with many excretory 

VACU^ITY. s. (from vacuiias, Latin.) I. and contracted into plice, or small tra 

Emptiness ; state of being unfilled (Arh.). 2. folds, particularly at the fore and back pa 

Space unf.l'c'l; sjwice unoccupied {Rogers), by child-bearing the«e are lessened or 

3. InaTiity ; want of reality {Glanville). rated. The second coat is comf)osedof 

^ VACUNA, a goddess at Rome, who pre- membrane, in which muscular fihres s 

sided over repose and leisure, as the word indi- distinctly observable, but which are em 

cutis {vacare). Iler festivals were obser\'ed in to a certain dejirce, with contractile now< 

the nionth of December. {Ovid). a muscle. This is surrounded hy cellular 

VA'CUOUS. a, {vacuus, Latin 5 vaate, brane, which connects it to the neiehb 

Tr.) limply ; unfiiled {Milton), j)arts. A portion of the up|)er and p< 

VACUUM, in philosophy, denotes a space part of the vagina is also coxered hy tli 

empty or dc\ Old of all matter or body. Ii has tona*um. The entrance of the vn^ma 

been a matter of much disipute among phi- stricted hy muscular fibres, ori^inatinj 

]o><r){ lii'r:i whether there be in nature a per- the rami c»f the pubis, which run on ea 

fret xacuuiM, or fpace void of all mutter; of the pudendum, surroundinp^ the p< 

but it lio'.licb consiiit of material solid alomb, |»art, and executing an equivalent oflTice, 

it is ctldeiii that there must be vacuities, they cannot be sai<l to form a true sphii 

or mohuu would l^ iiupussihle. We can The up{)er part of the vagina is connc 

eveu produce M>nieihinji{ very near a vacuum the circumference of the os uteri, but r 

ill tlic receiver of aa air-pump and in the Tor* stnug|it lioti io as to render the cavity 



VAG VAG 

ntenis a continnatioD of that of the vagina. th« hymen remained unbroken ; but^ on 

For the latter stretches beyond the former, and, making very particular inquiry, he discovered 

being joined to thecenix, is reflected over the that this was her second labour, and that the 

OS uteri, which, by this mode of union, is 8US- part which from its form and situation was 

pendcd with protuberant lips in the vagina, and supposed to be the hymen, with a small aper- 

permitted to change its |visitioo in various ways ture, was a cicatrice, or unnatural contraciioii 

and directions. When therefore these parts of the entrance into the vagina, consequent to 

are distended and unfolded atthe time of labour, &" ulceration of the part after her former 

they are continued into each other, and there is labour. Fungous excrescences arising from any 

DO part which can properly be considered as the part of the vagina or uterus have been distin- 

precise be^nning of the uterus or termination guished, though not very properly, by the 

of the vagina, general term polypus. See Folypus. 

The diseases of the vagina are, first, such an Vagina of the nerves. The outer 

abbreviation and contraction as render it unfit covering of the nerves. By some it is said \p 

for the uses for which it was designed : second- be a production of the pia mater only, and by 

ly, a cohesion of the sides in consequence of others of the dura mater, because it agrees with 

preceding ulceration : thirdly, cicatrices afler it in tenacity, colour, and texture. 

an nlceration of the parts: fourthly, excres- Vagina of the tendons. A loose mem* 

eences : fifthly, 6uor albus. This aboreviation branoits sheath formed of cellular membrane, 

and contraction of the vagina, which usually investing the tendons, and containing an unctu- 

accompany each other, are produced by original ous juice, which is secreted by the vessels of its 

defective formation, and they are seldom dis- internal surface. Ganglions are nothing more 

covered before the time of marriage, the con- than an accumulation of this juice. 

summation of which they sometimes prevent. VAGINALES. The name of the twcnly- 

Thecurative intentions are to relax the parts by seventh order in Linn^us*s Fragments of a 

the use of emollient applications, and to dilate Natural Method in his Philosophia Botanica. 

them to their proper size by sponge or other VAGINALIS. Sheathbill. In zoology, a 

tents, or, which are more effectual, by bougies genus of the class aves, order grallae. Bill 

gradually enlarged. strong, thick, conic-convex, compressed ; the 

Another kind of constriction of the external upper mandible covered above with a moveable 

parts sometimes occurs, and which sevms to be horny sheath ; nostrils small, placed before the 

a mere spasm. By the violence or long con- sheatn; tongue above niund, beneath flattened, 

tinoance of a labour, by the morbid state of the pointed at the tip ; face naked, papillous ; wings 

constitution, or by the negligent and improper with an obtuse excrescence under the flexure; 

iKe of instruments, an inflammation of tne ex- legs strong, four-toed, naked a little above the 

teinal parts or vagina is sometimes produced knees ; toes rough beneath ; claws grooved : 

in such a degree as to endanger a mortification, one species only, V. alba, white sheathbill. 

By careful management this consequence is which inhabits New Zealand and the South 

usually prevented, but in some cases, when the Sea Islands ; from fifteen to eighteetv inches 

constitution of the patient was prone to disease, long : feeds on shell-fishes and carcasses, 

the external parts nave sloughed away, and in VAGINANT LEAF, in botany. A 

others equal injury has been done to tKe vagina, sheathing leaf. See Sheathing. 

But the effect of the inflammation is usually VAGINATE STEM, in boUny. A 

confined to the internal or villous coat, which sheathed stem. See Sheathed. 

is sometimes cast off wholly or partially. An VAGINOPE'NNOUS. a. (vagina and 

ulcerated surface beine thus left, when the dis- penna, Latin.) Sheath-winged; having the 

potion to heal has taken place, cicatrices have wings covered with hard eases. 

been formed of different kinds, according to VA^GOUS. a. (vagus, Lat. vagt/e, French.) 

the depth and extent of the ulceration ; and Wandering ; unscttl^ : not in use {Ayliffe)^ 

there being no counteraction to the contractile VA'GRANCY. «. (from vagrant,) A state 

itateof the parts, the dimensions of the vagina of wandering; unsettled condition. 

become much reduced, or, if the ulceration VA'GRANT. a. Wandering; unsettled; 

dioold not be healed, and the contractibility of vagabond ; unfixed in place i^Prtor), ^ 

the parts continue to ofjerate, the ulcerated VAGRANTS, in law, are divided into 

surfaces being brought together may cohere, three classes : 1st. Idle and disorderly persons, 

and the canal of the vagina' be perfectly These, as described by the vagrant act, consist 

diMed. of those who threaten to run away and leave 

Cicatrices in the vagina verv seldom become their wives and children to the parish. All 

an impediment to the connexion between the persons returning to a parish whence they have 

•exes ; when they do, the same kind of as* been legally removed, without bringing a cer* 

•istaoce is required as was recommended in the tificate from the parish to which they belong, 

natoraloontractionor abbreviation of the part; All who, not having wherewith to maintain 

they always ^ve way to the pressure ot the themselves, refuse to work. All who beg alms 

head of the child in the time oflabour, though from door to door, or in the streets and nigh- 

in many cases with great difRcultv. Sometimes ways. Likewise those who, not using proper 

the appearances may mislead the judgment : means to get employment, or possessing ability 

Dr. Denman was caned to a woman in labour, t» work, refuse to do it; or spend money in 

who was thoo^t to have become pregnant; alehouses, or in any improper manner; and by 



V AG V A I 

iMdi employing a proper proportion of iiMf «ctiiiiae him ; and >^ ^ cuinot shew some 

ramings lowa^ the maioirnance of their fa- lawful way of ijetting hU livelihood, or pro- 

niliesy sufierthem to become chargeable to the core bail for his reappearance, may commit 

{Murish, The punishment for these ofiences is him for a certain time not exceeding six days ; 

A oomnuinient to the lioiise of coneeuon, and and if, after advertising his person, and anj 

hard labour, for any definite time not exceed- thing about him suspected to be stoltn, no ae- 

ing a month ; the Ume must be set forth in the cusatioo is brought,-, he sliall be discharged, or 

«vamnt of .commitment, which must also dealt with according to law. All rogues and 

ahew the authority of the person copimitting. vagabonds are examined upon oath as to their 

The commitment must be in execution, that parish, and the written examinatioii signed by 

is to say, for punishment; and being so, the them and the justice, and transmitted to the 

justice must make a record of the conviction, sessions. 

and transinit the same to the sessions. Any The punishment is public whipping or con* 

person may apprehend and carry such persons finemen^ to the house of conection till the next 

AJieCbjre a ougistrate ; and if they resist or escape, sessions, or any less time ( and if at the scssiona 

ihe shall be punished as rogues and vagabonds : the court aclji^ge spch per|on a rocue and rm^ 

the reward for such apprehension is nve ahil- gabond, or an inconigible fogue, inty Miayor« 

lings, to be paid by the overseer of the parish* der such rogne or .vagabond to the honee ot oor* 

^. Rogues and vagabonds. No infant under rection and hard labour for six months, or such 

t)ie age of seven years can be called a rogue incorrigible rogne for not less than six months or 

a^id vagsbond, but shall be reipoved to its place more than two years, and durinx his confine- 

pf settlement, like other paupers. men^ to be whipped as they shall think fit. 

The following is a list of those who ai9e And if such rogue or vagabonil ia a male above 

deemed rogues and vagabonds. All persons 12 years old, the court may, after his con^ne- 

gathering fldins under pretended losses ; persons ment, send him to be employed in his majes- 

soing.ab9utascollectprsfor prisons or hospitals; ty*s 8er\'ice: and if such iucorrigible rogue 

|<;ncers ; bearwards ; common plavers not le- snail make his escape, or offend a second time, 

gaily authorised ; minstrels ; jugglen ; real or he shall be transpotted for se%'en years. After 

pretended gyp^^n ; fortune-teflers i any persons such whipping or confiaement, the jnstice 

nsiug any subtle craft to impose upon any of his may, by a pass under his hand (of which a 

mjyp,sty*f syl^ects, or playing at unlawful duplicate shall be 61ed at the next sessions), 

games, or any who have run away and left cause him to be conveyed to the place of his last 

their wives and children a charge to tne parish ; legal resideoce, and it that cannot be found, to 

all petty chapmen and pedlars not autnorised the place of his birth ; and if they are under 

by law i all persons not giving a good account 14 years of age, and have parents liviug, then 

of themselves ; all beggars pretending to be to the place of their abode ; and the parish to 

soldiers or seamen, or pretending to go to work which the vagrant shall be convened shall em- 

in harvest ; or illegal dealers in lottery tickets ploy him in some workhouse till he geu some 

and shares. And a)l other per^ons wandering employment; and if he refuses to work, he 

abroad and h^^ng, shall be deemed ros^ues shall be sent to the house of correction and hard 

and vagabonds : the reward for apprehending labour. 

such persons is 10s., to be paid oy the high The general tenor of the laws respesting va- 

p>nstahle, on an order from the justice* There grants is extremely severe, and very justly so ; 

IS a penalty of lOi. on a constable who refuses and it is the duty of every justice of the peace 

or nedects to apprehend them. to keep his district free from this class, as they 

3. Incorrigible rogues, are all end-gatherers, are great burthens to the parish, and very dtffi. 

oflendiiig against the stat. 13 Geo. ; which is cult to be removed. For the best account of 

collecting, buying, receivingi or carrying, any the vagrant act, vide Burn's Justice, vol. 4, 

ends of yam, wefu, thrums, shortyarn, or other article V amnt, 

refuse of cloth or woollen goods. All persons VAGUE, a. (vmgue, French ; vagus^ LaL) 

apprehended as rogues and vagabonds, and es- 1. Wandering; vagrant ; vagabond (£^ie.). 

ca{>ing, or refusing to go before a justice, or re- 9. Unsettled; undetermined (Locir). 

fusing to be conducted by the pass, or giving a VAHLIA, in botany, a xenus pf thcdasa 

false accoimt of themselves on examination, pentandria, order digynia. Calyx five-leaved ; 

after warning. All rogues or vagabonds escap- corol five-petalled ; capsule inferior, one-€cll« 

ing from the house of correc^on before the ex- ed, many-seeded. One species, a herb of the 

piratloo of (he time of their commit/uent ; and Cape. 

al) Who have been punubed as rogues and VAIL. i. (voi^s, French.) 1. A coruin ; 

va^abQiiJ?^ and repeat the offence. a cover thrown over any thina to be conceal- 

Tlicre it by 17 Geo. II. c. S3, a privy search ed (^H^dom), 2. A part of female dress, by 

appointed ; and the justices or two of them which the fore is concealed. See Vbil. 3. 

four times a ye^r at least meet, and command Money given to servanu. See Valb. 

the constables of every ward or parish, proper- To Vail, v, a. To cover. See Veil. 

1y askiitteft, to make a general Mrarcli in one To Vail, v, a. iavaitr le lomeit French.) 

nighi. aixl cau:>e all vagrants tha; shalj be fonqd I . To let fjll ; to suffer to descend {Carew). 

on such se«ircli to be brought before a justice ; 9, To let fall in token of respect iKnolles). 3. 

stnd two justices, in C4se such person is charg- To fj^ll ; to let sink in fear, or for any other 

19 a vagrant^ or on sufpicioa of felony, maj interest {^hdttpeart). 



V A I 

r« VdHt. r. ■- To yield ; to give place ; » 
•tow Kncct bv rieldiiitf CSanfA). 

VAIIXaNT (John Foy), a French medal- 
Ga, horn •iBeiuiaii, l639- Hr slutlieiljurii- 
pnideacr, and Rflerwards medicine i but the 
li^i of • number of medilt, which a peaiani 
iMad in duging in a neiDhbouiiiig iietil, lixcd 
the beni afhit geniui. On a vieii to Pari) he 
■M lauwlaced lo Colbert, who engaged him 
• uanl u*CT7 Italv. Sicily, and Greece, in 
MM of (ncdal*. On • wconiJ voyage from 
llailfilU r , he was taken by pirates, and wus 
huM m • ilarc to Algiert; but after five 
MallH eiTibTery, he (cturned lo France for hii 
■■■■. Ai Ma, ihe tight of another pirate 
I freih slavery ; but to preteryc the 
which he had collected at Algiert he 
red (hem. He landed iooa after at the 
— Bihi of the Rhone, and nature discharged 
tke&Tourite medals, He nndcriixilt another 
•opp, aod vititeii Egypt and Peraia, and ie> 
uimcd htailed with curioijliei. Hii laboun 
rtn liberally rewarded by Lewis XIV. ; he 
*aa aiAde auociaie of the academy of inscrip- 
Ww ITOI, and died of an apoplexy 170C,aged 
■MM«.«>x. The best known of his works 
MI,N«Uiitamata impcraionim Koman. prxstan- 
i«* ■ J. Cassar. aJ Posihomum U t>raonos, 
Mb, tnlarged to three lols, 4to. — Seleucidanini 
iBpOwn, tec. 4IO. a valuable work — Numia- 
Mn an* Aittiutorum fit Czsar. in coloniia, 
Jt>. MM voli. Mlio.— Niitnistnata impcraioruni, 
fee Aptal Crvcos, folio. Sfc— Ho ion, John 
Fiancu, waf born ai Rome, and educated at 
ParH anong the jesuiis. He took his degrees 
ia medicine, bntttudicd the science ormrdals. 
il« died I7t)9, aged forty-four, of an abaccM 
u> the head, ocrwioned bv a Uti. Me it 
mliortif a Trealiteou the Nature and Use of 
CoCtv.lec. 

V>iLL*MT (Sebastian), a botanist, born 
anr PoriioiM. from or)(anisl at a convent he 
ucame aectetaty to Fag'in, ihe king's iihysi- 
dan, and iras made direcmr of the royal gar- 
4mi. Haeririched tlw garden by the addition 
af ewnui plants, and had a seat in the aeade- 
nf of aeWncci. He published remarks on 
Toumefort'tlmtilulions o(Bounj~Butanicon 
hnttcaae, eunlaining an account of ihe plinta 
•rhxh now near Pans, with 300 plates. &c. 
HtdwdnfiiiaMhma. ITS2, aged fifty-three. 

VAI.N. 0. (netn. Frencli; eanur, Latin.) I. 
Fmiileni ineffectual (Sktiipearr). S. Einp- 
tj; Boieali shadowy {Druden). 3. Meanly; 
poad; prowl of petty things (Suijt). 4. 
biwwfi aalcnlalioiu (Popr). b. Idle; wnrlh- 
lc»; Doiiiiporunt (Denkam). 0. False; not 
tat. 7. /a Vaik.To no purpose; tonoetidj 
liiifwfillji without elTect iAddue^). 

VAWOLOHIOUS. «. (oan»> aiH] ghrio. 
Mliliatia.) Boasting wilhont performance!; 
■Md IB ditsKKurtiun tu desert {Millan). 

VAINGtmiY. .. (eaf.« gl«nu, Ulin.) 
Piridaabmc merit; ampty piide (T'uy/sr). 

VAlTfll-V. ad. (from eoin.) I. Without 
»fl»t«i 10 no porpote i in vain iDrgfien). S. 
Pnaiifi arroganihr i,Delann). 3. UW i 



VAI'NNESS. I. (fromoMi) Thetlaieof 
being vain ; pride; emplineis (S'lokipearc). 

VAISON, adeeayed town of France, in the 
deparuiient of Vaueluse. with a bishop's ■ 
It was lately subject to the pope, and i« ■(- 

ne:ir the river Oreie, and the ruins of am 
Vaison, which was one of the largest eili 
the Gauls. It it 15 mites E.N.E. of Orang 
andgfiN.E. of Avignon. Lon.S.SE. I 

+4. 15 N. 

VA'iVODE. I. (wttiicad, a govcrnom',' ' 
Sclaeoiiian.) A prince of the Dacian provinces, 

VA'LANCE. I. (from Falcticia, whence 
the tile of them eame.J The fringes or drapeir 
hanging round the tester and ilcad of a b 
ISwi/l). 

To VA't.aiicB. c. a. To decorate i 
drapery : not in use (Sliakipcare). 

VALANTIA. Cross-wort. In botany J 

Bnuj of the clasa polygamia, order mono 
ermaph. : calyxless; carol four-parted; 
mens four ; style one ; seed one. Male : 
iTileas ; corol three or four-parted ; stam 
lour or three ; pistil obsolete. Eisht speciq 
naiivesof the south of Europe or West IndU 
It was furmetly supposed that o _ 

try furnished a ninth species; but the plu 
thus luppostd to be a valaolia belongs to ^ 

VaIcKOWAR. a town of Sclar 
seated on the Wnlpo, nrai its confluence si 
the Danube, between Eascck and Peti 
rlin, 70 miles N.W. of Belgrade. Lon. |9 
ii E. Lat, 4i, 55 N. 

VALDAI, a town of Russia, in the govr. 
ment of Novogorod, on the aide of a lake of i 
jame name, Itcootaini several brick hoi 
ings; and even the wooden houset ai 
decorated than the generality of Russ 
togei. its environs riie into a variety of ge.. 
eminences, and abound with beautiful labM^ 
sprinkled with woody islands, and skirted by 
forests, coin-lield', and pastures. 

Valuai (Lake of), in the government of 
Novogorod, in Russia. It is 30 iiiile« in cir* 
cumference, and the largest in the country 
round the town of Valdai. In the middle of 



which 



n among a 



ofsurrouiidi 

Valdai Hills, hills of Rutsia, in ihege. 
venimenl of Novogorod, which, though of n« 
considerable elevation, are the highest i ' 
part of the country. "They separate the ' 
which flow toward the Caspian from 
which Uke their course toward the Balii 

VAL DI DEMONA. a provioce i 
N.E. angle of Sicily. It meant the valley 
demons, and is k> called because Mount Ei 
i( situate in ihii province, which occasiooed 
ignorant and super^tiiioiii people, at the lims 
of its fiery cmi)tioni, to believe it wai 
nev of hell. The capitil u Mci&ina. 

Val di Mazaka. a Drovincc in 
angle of Sicily, m calletl from the 
Mazara. It cnntaios Palenno, the capital 
the whole UUiid. 



I thi* 

m 



1 



V A L V A L 

VALDIV^IA. SeeBALDiviA. nftr (He Mediterranean, 130 miles E.S.E. of 

VALE. t. (va/, French; oalliit Latto.) Madrid. Lon. 0. 10 E. Lat. dg. 93 N. 

1 . A low ground ; a valley {DrudcM), 8. (from ^ V alenci a (New), a town of I'erra Firma, 

avaii, profit ; or vaU, farewell.) Money given in the province of Caraccas, seated on the lake 

to servants (iSnii/V). Tocarigua, 67 miles S.W. of Porto Cai-allo. 

VALEDICTION, i. ivaledico, Latin.) A Lon. 65. 30 W. Lat. Q. 50 N. 

farewell (Donne). VALENCIENNES, a city of France, in 

VALEDl'CTORV. a, (from vaiedico, the deprtment of the North. It contains 

Lac.) Bidding farewell. about SM,000 aouls, and the Scheldt divides it 

VALENCE, a city of France, in the de* into two parts, it is a very important place : 

partmcnt of Drome, with a bishop's see, a ci- the citadel and fortifications were constructed 

tadel, and a scIkx>1 of artillery. It is surround- by order of I^ewis XIV., who took this town 

ed by good walls, and the greatest part of the from the Spaniards; and it was conRrmed to 

public places, and many private houses, are him by the treaty of Nimeguen, in l673. In 

adorned with fountains. Beside the handsome 1793, it was taken by the allies, after a terere 

cathedral, there are many other churches, as siege; but it surreiulered, witliout resistance, 

well as late convents, that are worthy of notice, to the French, in 1794. Beside lace, this city 

It is seated on the Rhone, 30 miles N. by E. is noted for manufactures of woollen stuffs an^ 

of Vivicrs, and 333 S. by E. of Paris. Lon. 4. cambric. It is 28 milea S.E. of Lisle, and 120 

62 E. Lat. 44. 56 N. N.N.E. of Paris. Lou. 3. 32 £. Lat. 50. 

Valekce, a town of France, in the depart* 21 N. 

ment of Lot and Garonne, situate on the Ga- V ALENS (Flavius), a son of Grratian, bom 

ftmnc, ISmilcsS.E. of Agen. in Pannouia. His brother Valentinian took 

VALENCA D'ALCANTARA, a cousi- him as his colleague on the throne, and ap- 
derable town of Spain, in Estremadura, with pointed him over the eastern parts of the Ro- 
an old castle. It is surrounded by walls after man empire. The bold measures and threats 
the antique manner, flanked by some small of the rebel Proconius frightened Valens, and 
bastions, snd a few towers; is very strong by he would willingly have resigned to him all 
situation, being built on a rock, near the river his pretensions to the empire. By his lenity he 
Savar, 20 miles S.W. of Alcantara, and 40 N. permitted some of the Goths to settle in the 
of Badajoz. I^n. (j. 30 W. Lat. 39. 26 N. provinces of Thrace, and encouraged them to 

V ALENCEY, a town of France, in the de- make depredations on his subjecu, and to dis- 

partment of Indre, with a castle, seated on the tnrb their tranquillity. His eyes were opened 

Nabon, 15 miles S. of Romorentin. too late; he attempted to repel them, but he 

VALENCIA, a province of Spain, formerly failed in the attempt. A bloody battle was 

a kingdom; bounded on the E. and S. by the fought, in which the barbarians obtained some 

Mediterranean, on the N.E. by Catalonia, on advanuge, and Valens took shelter in a lonely 

the N.W. by Arragon, and on the W. by house, which the Goths set on fire. Unable 

New Castile and Murcia. It is \6't miles to make hi;i escape, he was burnt alive in the 

lung and ()2 broad, and is the mo»t pleasant fiftieth year of his ace, after a reign of fifteen 

and populous country in Spain ; for here they years, A. D. 37H. Valens did not possess any 

enjoy a perpetual spring. It is watered by a of the great qualities which distinguish a great 

great nnnilier of streams, which render it fer- and powerful monarch. 

tile in all the necessaries of life, especially fruits VALENTINA, in botany, a genus of 

and wine; and in the mountains arc mines of the class octandria, order monogynia. Calyx 

gold, silver, and alum. I'hc inhabitants are five-parted, coloured, spreading; corolless; 

much more lively than in other parts ot Spain ; capsule berried, four-seeded, pulpy. One 

and the women are handsomer. species only, a branched shrub of Hispaniola, 

Va I hK CI A, a city of Spain, capital of a pro- with alternate leaves, and terminal, umbelled, 

vince of the same name, with an archbishop's scarlet flowers. 

see, and a university. The Moors were ex- VALENTINE'S DAY, in the calendar* 

pelled from it, iu the thirteenth century. It the fourteenth of February, 

was taken by the earl of Peterborough in 1705, Valentine, a sweetheart chosen on Va« 

and lost again two years aficr. It contains lentine*s day. 

19,000 houses within the walls, beside those VALENTINIANS, in ecclesiastical histo« 

in the suburbs and pleasure gardens around it, ry, an ancient and famons sect of Gnostics; thus 

which amount to the same number. The called from their leader Valcntinus, an I'lgypt- 

eathedial has a steeple 130 feet hieh, and one ian by birth, who was eminently distinguished 

tide of the choir is incrusted with alabaster, by the extent of his fame, and the multitude 

and adorned with fine paintings of scripture of his followers. He lived in the days of Po- 

hbtory; the hiffh altaris covered with si Uer, lycarp, went 10 Rome in the |)ontificatc of 

and lighted witn fourteen silver lamps. The Hyginus, flourished in the reign of Antoninut 

palace of the viceroy, that of Ciuta, the monas- Pius, and continued to the time of Auicetus. 

tery of St. Jerom, the exchange, and the arse- Vide Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. jv. c. 1 1. His 

naf, are all worthy of notice. Here are flou- sect, which took its rise at Rome, grew up to 

fishing manufactures of cloth and silk, and maturity in the isle of Cyprus, and spread 

several remains of antiouitv. It is seated on itself through Asia, Africa, and Europe, with 

the Guadalavia (over wnicn are five bridges) amazing rapidity. His principles were much 



V A L V A L 

(t« nme with those of the Gnostics, though in of Africa, and on the banks of the Rhine and 

miny leipects he entertained opinions peculiar the Danube. While he spoke with great 

to himself. He placed in the plerom.i| as the warmth, he broke a blood vessel, and fell life- 

Gnrntics called the habitation of the Deity, less on the ground. He died on the seren* 

thirty cons, half male and half female; to teenth of November, A. D. 375. He Was 

these he added four others, which were of net- then in the fifty-fifth year of His age, and he 

ther sex, riz. Horns, Christ, the Holy Ghost, reigned twelve years. {Anmian, &cO— About 

and Jesos. The youngest ason, called Sophia six days after the death of Valentinian, hts 

or wisdom, conceived an ardent desire of com- second son, Valentinian the fecond, was pro- 

prehending the nature of the Supreme Being, claimed emperor, though only five years old. 

•od liy the force of this propensity, brought He sncceeded his brother Gratian, A. D. 383, 

forth a dau^thter, named Achamoth; who, but was robbed of his throne by Maximas, 

betog exiled from the pleroma, fell down into four years after the death of Gratian; and in 

the undigested mass of matter and arranged it ; this situation he had recourse to llieodosiuB, 

and by the assistance of Jesus, produced the then emperor of the east. Maximus wascon- 

demiuige, the lord and creator of all thing?, quered by Theodosius, and Valentinian enter- 

This demiurge separated the animal from the ed Home in triumph, but was some time after 

terrestrial matter; and out of the former stnnslcd (15th of May, A.D. 392) by a Gaul, 

created the superior world, or visible heavens; called Arbogastes, in whom he had placed too 

and out of the latter the inferior world, or the much confidence. Valentinian reigned nine 

terraqueous globe. He also made man, unit- years.— Valentinian the third, was son of 

iog in his composition the animal and terres- Constantius and Placidia, the daughter of 

trial matter, to which Achamoih added a Theodosius the great, and therefore, as related 

tpirituai and celestial substance. The demi- to the imperial family, he was 'saluted emperor 

urge, according to Valentinus, arrogating the in his youth, and publicly acknowledged as 

iMmnurs of God alone, sent urophetSv to the such at Rome, the third of October, A. D. 

Jewish nation to urge his claims ; and his 423, about the sixth year of his age. He was 

ambition was imitated by the other angels that at first governed by his mother, and the in* 

preside over the different parts of the universe, trigucs of his generals and courtiers ; and when 

Id order to chastise this lawless arrogance, and he came to years of discretion, he disgraced 

in illaminate the minds of rational bein^ with himself by violence, oppression, and inconti- 

the knowledge of the true and supreme Deity, nence. He was murdered in the midst of 

Christ appeared on earth, composed of an ani- Rome, A. D. 454, in the thirty-sixth year of 

mal and spiritual tiibstance, and clothed, his age, and thirty-first of his reign, by Petro- 

moreover, with an aerial body. Christ took nius Maximus, to whose wife he had oifered 

Mt upon him our flesh, but brought with him violence. He was the last of the family of 

a certain spiritual body from heaven, and Theodosius. 

pttied through the Vir^n, as water ikrough a VALENZA, a town of Italy, in the Mila- 

pipr, without the least participation of her nese, capital of the Lumeline. It has been 

lubptance; and that the Soter or Saviour flew often taken, and is seated on a mountain, near 

down upon him at his baptism in the shape of the river Po, 13 miles E.S.E. of Casal, and 

a dove. Vide Teriul. de Prescr. cap. 49, & 35 S S.W. of Milan. 

lib. adv. Valent. c. ^7* Valentinus maintain- Valenza, a fortified town of Portugal, in 

cd likewise, that the world was made by the Entre Douero eMinho, seated on an eminence, 

offspring of the devil; and therefore made all near the river Minho, o|)|>osite Tuy, in Spain, 

the wickedness in it owing to the make of the and 30 miles N.N.VV. of Braga. 

world, and not to the will of man. He denied VALERIAN. See Valeriana. 

the resunection of the flesh, and affirmed the Valerian (Greek). See Polemo- 

sou) and spirit only to be saved by Christ. Vide nium. 

Aug. Haeres. 11. The Valentinians, says VALERIANA. Valerian. In botany, a 

Ireiueus, call themselves the spiritual, and the genus of the class triandria, order monogynia. 

orthodox, psychicos, the animal men; that Calyxless; corol one-petalled, superior, cibboua 

these animals know not the truth, and for that on one side at the base ; seed one. Thirty-ona 

reason must be beholden to faith and goofl species ; all natives of Europe, except V. vilto- 

works for their salvation ; but, for themselves, ta, which belongs to Japn. They are thui 

they stand in need of no such things, because subdivided. 

they are naturally spiritual, and cannot lose A. V. iih a single i^appous seed. Forming the 

their spirituality; and therefore, though sin tribe of Valeriana, properly so called, 

may damn the churchmen, it cannot hurt the B. Fruit three-celled, crowned. Forming 

lainli, Iren. lib. 1. adv. Valent. the tribe fedia. 

VALENTIN! ANUS. This name is com- The following are cultivated. 

EMm to three Roman emperors; the first of 1. V. rubra. Common broad-leaved red 

whom was a son of Gratian, raised to the im- yalerian. 

C'al throne by his merit and valour. He 2. V. angustifolia. Narrow*leaved valerian. 

t the western part of the empire for him- 3. V. i>hu, or major. Garden valerian. A na- 

self, and appointed over the east his brother tive of Silesia, the roots of which are said to 

Valent. He obtained sigiul victories over the be efficacious in removing epilepsies and rheu- 

hufaarluit in Ibe provincea of Gaul, the destrty maiitinty etpedally sciatic rneumauimt. 



V A L V A L 

4. V.calcitrapa. Cut-leared valeriaii. With the consulthip. He died in the lOMi 

5« y . triptens* Three-leaved ▼alerian. year of his age, admired and regretted for manj 

6. y . montana. Mountain valerian. private and public virtues^— 3. Marcot Corrt« 

7* V. Cehica. Celtic valerian. nus Messala, a Roman » made consul %rttli 

6. V. tnberosa. Tuberou|> rooted valerian. Augustus. He distinjcuished himself by his 

9. V. PVrenaica. Pyrenean valerian. learning as well as military virtues.— 4. A La* 

10. V. locusta. Common com-sabd, or tin historian who carried arms under the sons 
laotib's lettuce. of Pompey. He wrote an account, still extant, 

11. V. officinalis. Officinal valerian. Found of the most celebrated sayings and actions of 
wild in our marshes, Uie root of which has the Romans, and other illustiicMis persons, 
been long extolled as an efficacious remedy in The veork is divided into nine books, and is 
<^lepsy, which caused it to be exhibited m a dedicated to Tiberius. Some suppose that he 
vaiieiy of other complaints termed nervous, in lived after Tiberius, from the want of purity 
which it has been found highly serviceable. It in his writinss.— 5. A Latin poet who flourish- 
is also in very general use as an antispasmodic, ed under Vespasian. He wrote a poem in 
and is exhibited in convulsive hysterical dtt- eight books, on the Araonautic expedition, but 
eases. ^ A simple and volatile tincture are di- it remained unfinished on account of his pre« 
rected in the pnarmaoopceias. mature death. 

VALERIANUS (Publius Licinius), a Ro- VALET, a French word, employed by us 

man, proclaimed emperor by the armies in to denote a servant whose office is to dress, 

KhoBtia, A. D. fM. The virtues which shone undress, and wait upon his master, 
in him when a private man were lost when Valbt, in the old manage, was a stick 

he ascended the throne. He took his son armed at one end with a bluntoJ point of iron, 

Gallicnus as his colleague in the empire, and to prick a leaping horse. Some valets formerly 

showed the malevolence of his heart by perse- had spur-rowels upon them, with the points 

cuting the Christians, whom he had for a beaten down. Wnen a horse first began to be 

while tolerated. He made war against the worked round a pillar, without a rider, they 

Goths and Scythians ; but against Sapor, king used to prick his flanks with the valet, to make 

e^ Persia, his arms were attended with ill sue- him know the spur and obey it without resist- 

ces9. He was conquered in Mesopotamia, and ins. 

when he sought a private conference with VALETTA, a city of Malta, the capital of 

Sapor, the monarch seized his person, and that island, and wonderfully strong both by 

carried him to his capital, where he exposed aatuie and art. It is seated on a peninsula, 

him to the ridicule and insolence of his sub- between two of the finest poru in the world, 

jects. When the Persian monarch mounted which are defended by almost impregnable for- 

on horseback, Valerian served as footstool, tifications. That on the S.E. side of the citj 

Sapor at last ordered him to be flayed alive, is the largest ; it runs two miles inland, and is 

and salt to be thrown over his mangled body, surrounded by such high ground:^, that the 

so that he died in the greatest torments. His largest ships ma^ ride in the most stormy wea- 

»kin was tanned, and painted in red, and was ther, almost without a cable. This basin is 

nailed in one of the temples of Persia. Vale- divided into five distinct harbours, all equally 

rian died in the 7l8t year of his age, A. D. safe, each capable of containing a vast num* 

SSO, after a reiKU of seven yean. her of shipping. The entrance is scarcely a 

VALERIUS. This name was common to quarter or a mile broad, and is commanded 

many celebrated Romans, the moA conspicu- on each side by strone batteries, fronted by a 

ousof whom are the followinE: — I. Pnblius, a quadruple battery, one above the other, the 

celebrated Roman, surnamed Poplicola. for his largest of which is on a level with the water. 

g>pularity. He was very active in assisting llie harbour on the N. side, though only used 

rutus to expel the Tarquin^ and he was the for fishing, and as a place of quarantine, ia 

first that took an oath to support the liberty likewise well defended : and in an island in 

and independence of his country. He gained the centre of it is a castle and a lazaret. Va- 

tbe victory ui the battle in which Brutus and letta has three gates, and the streeu are all 

the sons of Tarquin had fallen. Valerius died paved with flat square stones. The houses are 

after he h^ been four limes consul, and re- neat, and built ot stone; the roofs forming a 

ceived the thanks which a people redeemed flat terrace plastered with postolana; and 

from slavery usually pay to their deliverera. roost of them have a balcony to the street. 

He was so poor, that his b^tdy was buried at the where the inhabitants pass a great port of their 

public expence. The Roman matrons mourned time. The principal buildings are the palace 

ois death a whole year.— 2. Coninuy, a tri- of the grand master, the infirmarv, the conser- 

bune of the soldiers under Camillus. When vatory, and the magnificent church of St. 

the Rouian army were challenged by one of John. The pavement of this church is 00m- 

the Senones, remarkable for his strength, Va- posed entirely of sepulchral monuments of the 

lerius undertook to engage him, and obtained finest marbles, porphyry, lapis lazuli, and a 

in easy victory, by means of a crow that as- variety of other valuable stones, admirably 

^- -> ^'*mt and attacked the face of the Gaul, joined tcwethcr, representing the arms, insignia* 

^ surname of Corviuus. Valerius 8cc, of thepenons whose names they comme« 

Mcr the Eiffuriana, and the neigh- niorate. The great source of water that sup* 

9 and wti lis ttmei hoaoiued plies ValdtA rises near Citta Veochia, and is 



V A L 

Vmbc* conTtyri by an iquelucl, (tcctrd ■! 
IfakvspeAOCDroneofihegraail tnailen. Not- 
wriihmnHtng the luppottd bigotry of the 
lllalme, here ii » nioiquc, in which the 
TadcMh ■bvn *re pcrmiilcd lo enjoy lh«ir re- 
Ggpoo. The Turks bnieetdihitcitj in Ii66i 
Vtt, a/ter miiny dreadful aiiaulli, were corn' 
peUed in ruw ibe »ie^, wiih the lost of.^O.OOO 
ncn. It Mrrendered lo theFrenchfimilcr Bn- 
MfNTlr, in I7S8; ind ihey, in 1800, jurren- 
4*Md it 19 tbe British, afier ■ blockade of iwo 

rn. V«UUa 1) liliiile nppostic Cape l*iiuero 
Sidry, Lon. 15. 34 E. Lai. 35. 5* N. 

VaLETUDINA'RIAN. VAtftTo'Diw^. 
ar. a. ImlttHdinairr, Ft. valcludo, Laiin.) 
WnLIf I ricklyi infirm of health (DrrAum). 

VA'LiAJiCE. 1. ivaillance, Fr.) Valour; 
petKNul puiuaocc I bravery (5^'Nifr}, 

VA'LIANT. a. ieaitlaiit. Fr.) Siout; ptt- 
wfiall* paiaani : bnTc iSeltan). 

VA'LIaNTLV. ad. (from valianl.) Sloul- 
Iti wiih pmnnal auength (.Snaliei). 
' rA'LlANTNESS. .. (from valianl.) Va- 
bat ; penonil bravery ; putiMoec ; Rerccneii ) 
MMIiMM(ir»<''^>). 

VA'LU>. a. {volidt. Fr. vaMu,. Laiin.) 
L Sirot^i powerful) efficacioui; prevalent 
(JfUtM). X. Having iniclleriiial forcci pre- 
nknl 1 weighiy } cnncluiive (AepA'ni). 

VAU'DrTY. I. (Da/i<i.(e, Fr. from valid.) 
I. Fence to convince) cerwiniy (Pept). S. 
TabK. A KDie not tued [ShaiiJ/faTe]. 

TALLADOLIO, a cli; of S|Min, in Leon, 



It 



and 



•wumIm by lUong wall*, has long and broad 
MracUi ann ii adorned with handiome build- 
Op, iqaaTC*, auil founiam). Tbe markei- 
El Catnpo. ii 700 pacet in ctt- 
nirtouiiileil by a ereat number of 
■■■■na. There a<-e 70 mim.iitcriei and nun* 
isiei, ibe finctt of which ii iliai of ibe I>i< 
ttoican*. rciiiaikable for its cliurcb, which 
a one of ilie nioit mngiiiiicent in the city. 
1W kioc* foriucrlf r'tided at ibi» placp; and 
ikaa^al (isbce. which >iill remain*, iaof very 
*" rnt, though but Iwu iiuriri hieh, 

jhoute UkM ii|i Ibe enlire >i(]e oT a 
The house of the inquliitinii is an 
for there are no wtidowi, but a 
et in the VigiH. Here arr wme 
«wllen manufactures, and mainr KQliUmiibs 
nd jcweJIcD. The environs of the city are 
CMried with jctnten*, orchards, vineyarili, 
attiawn, and lirlds. Il is seated on thr £s- 
c«ti, nesf the Pituerga, 74 miles ii.S.E. of 
Un,aml lou N.N.VV.of Madrid, i/>n.4. 
flW. Lat. 41.48 N. 
**lfcAI»otil>, orCoMAVAGUA. a city of 
""^ ipiial of the province of Honduras, 
■ " aeei leated in a plain, SBO 
Lon. es. 20 W. Ui. 



ANCY- *. (from valanee.) A large 

nihu altadc* the face (DrgiUn). 
ALLBA. in botany, a gennsof the class 
Hfandiia. order mooogynia. Calyx three oi 
"tB-batedi (wuli fotu or five, ttuecclefti 



V A L 1 

Hipna four or Hre-clefti capsule Iwo-oelletf, 
many- seeded. One ijwcies only i a tree uf 
New Granada, wiih allernale, hcarl-thupcd, 

enlire leaves, and ltd panicted ftoweti. 

VA'LLEY. ». (BflWe, Fr. vallu. Lai.) i 
low ground ; a hollow between hills (M" 

VALLIER CS1.J, a town of France, in _ 
department of Ardeehe, seven miles N.E^^ 
Tournon. Lon. S. i E. Lai. 49. tO N. 

VALUSNHRIA.in botany, a genus of ll| 
cbss dicecia, order Jiandria. Male : spalli^ 
two-parted ; (padix covered with florets ; conn^ 
three-parted. Female : spalhe cloven ; one- 
flowered; calyx three-parted, superior; iti^ma 
thrae-partcd j C4psule one-celled, maay-seeil ' 
Two species; oae a nalire of Fiomark, 
other of Coromandel. Aquatic plants, 

VALOGNE, a town of France, in 
narlmeni of the Channel, noted for cl 
leather. It is sealed on a brook, eight 
from the sea, and 1S8 W, by N. o* ' 
Con. 1. 26 W. Lai. 49. 30 N. 

VALONA. a seaport of Turkey in EuropM 
in Upper Albania, with an archbishop's 1M|J 
It was taken, in 169O, by the Vcoetiam, wha 
abandoned it after ihey had ruined the forti6- 
calioni. It is seated on theftutf of Veniec, 
near the mounuins of Chimera, AO miles S. 
ttfOurauo. Lon.i9.23E. Lat.41.4N 

VA'LOUOUS. a. (from tialear.) Brarcj 
stout i v:,liant(.S'pni.CT). 

VA'LOKOL'SLY. ad. In 3 brave manner. 

VA'LOUR. I. ivaitur. Fr. uafcr. Latin.) 
Personal bravery; sireiiuih ; prowess ; puiv 
sance; sloumesi (r^mpfij. 

VALPARlsSO, a town of Cbili. with a 
well- frequented haibour, defended by a siroag 
r«rl. It is wated on the Pjri5c ocean, at tha 
font of a hi^h mountain. Lon. 78- i* W. 
Lai. 33 3 S' 

VALPEHGA.a lown of Piedmont, in the 
coontv of Canavrse, 1 1 n..lei S4>. W. of Ivrea, 
and iB N. of Turin. Urn. 7- 44 E. Lat. 45. 
21 N. 

V.VLUABLE a. (ea/aa£/e. French.} 1. 
Precioui ; being of great price. S, Worthy [ 
desenina regard (.4ueriiirg). 

VALUATION. .. (from valw.) I. The 
Mting a valucj appraisement iRai/). 



V ALU AT 



who I 



I. (from vainf.) An ■{»• 
upon any thing its price 



(.Swift). 

VA'LUB. I. [value. French ; vaiar, Latin,) 
I. Price; worth (Joh). S. High rate (<J(Ui- 
lon). 3. Rale; price equal lo the worth of 
the thing bought (Ihydtn). 

To Va'iub. u. a. (valoir. French.) 1. To 
rale ai a certain pticc {Sprnter). S. To rale 
highly; lo have in high csiecm (Atlrtbury). 
3. To appraise; to esiimale ILevilieut). 4. 
To be worth : 10 be equal in worth to (Siak- 
iB'ari). 6. TotakeaccnntofCfioeoB). 6. 
'i'o reckon at, wiih respect to nuinlier or pow- 
er {ShaktpraTf). 7. T" consider wiih mpect 
to importance ; lo hold imporiant ll'larendoa';, 
8. To CBuipart with mpcei lo price, or Mvel- 



V A t VAN 

l^nde (Jot). Qi To raise to ntimatidn : nOt aotrtt doweri : as in borage and other asperU 

in ii»e (^Sidney)* ibliaR. 

VALVE. Ill hydrauliw, pneumatics, &c. VA^LUELESS.aiBeingof no value (SAa*-. 

IS a kind of lid or cover to a tube, vessel, or ipeare), 

orifice, contrived to open one way ; but which, V A'LUER* f. He that values (Fell), 

the more forcibly it is pressed the other way, VALVULA, in anatomy, (dim. of tra/ra.) 

the closer it shuts the aperture, tike the clap« A little valve: a valvule, 

per of a bellows: so that it either admits the Valyula coli. See VitLYB of tbE 

entrance of a fluid into the tube, or vessel, and coLOsr. 

prevents its return; or permits it to escape, Valvola eustachii. A membrarious 

and prevents its re-entrance. semilunar %'alve, which separates the right 

Valves arc of great use in the air-pump, and auricle from the inferior vena cava, 6rsi de^ 

other wimt-machines ; in which they are usu- scribed by Eustachius. 

ally made of pieces of bladder. In hydraulic VaLyula tolpii. See Valve or THE 

engines, as the emboli or suckers of pumps, colos. 

they are mostly of strong leather, of a round ValvulA conhivbntEs. The semilunar 

figure, and fitted to shut the aperuites of the folds formed of the villous coat of the inlesti* 

barrels or pipes. Sometimes they are made nnm duodenum, and jejunum. Their use 

of two round pieces of leather enclosed between appears to be, to increase the surface of the 

two others of brass ; lia\ ing divers |)erforation8, intestines. 

which are covered with another piece of brass, Valvuljb mitrales. See Mitbal 

moveable upwards and downwards, on a kind valves. 

of axis, which goes through the middle of them Valvula semilukarei. SeeSESliLV* 

all. Sometimes they are made of bras^, co- nar valves. 

vered over with leather, and furnished with a Valvule tricuspidales. See Tmu 

fine spring, which gives way upon a force ap* cuspid valves. 

plied against it ; but upon the ceasing of that, Valvi^la TRiGLOCHiirBS. Sec Tri« 

returns the valve over the aperture. See cuspid valves. 

Pump, and Hydrostatics. VAMP< s. The upper leather of a shoe 

Valve OF THE COLON, in anatomy. The (Aintwortk), 

end of the iliac portion of the small intestine To Vamp. v. a. To piece an old thing with 

enters the large one obliquely, and projects some new |)art(Ben//«y)< 

somewhat within it, so as to forma kind of VA^MFER. $. (from vamp.) One who 

valve, called from its discoverer the valve of pieces out an old thing with someihinfT new. 

Tulpius, also the valve of the ccecum. VAMPIRE, in zoology. See Vesper^* 

Valves, in anatomy, (valva, from valveo, tilio. 

to ibid up.) Thin and transparent mem- Vampires, in the ancient Superstitions, a 

branes, situated within certain vessels, as arte- name given to the mischievous apparitions of 

ries, veins, and absorbents, who«e office ap- dead men; who, after they have been dead for 

pears to be to prevent the contents of the ves- many years, are seen to return, to speak, to 

sel from flowing back. walk, to infest villages, maltreat men and ani'* 

Valves (Semilunar). See Semilunar mals, suck the blood of their neighbours, &c« 

valves. For an amusing summary of some of these 

Valves (Tricuspid). See Tmicuspid legendary stories, see tlie Athenaeum, vol. iii. 

valves. * pa. 520. 

Valves (Trtglochin). See Tricuspid From the obvious relation to this class of 

VALVES. imaginary beings, it happens, that one who 

Valve, Valvelet, or Valvule, in bo- affects ^eat attachment to another, and hangs 

tany. Valva s. valvnla. There seems to be about him only that he may ruin his peace, 

no occasion to use the diminutives in English ; his reputation, or his fortune, and thus suck 

for Lion^us makes no distincti<in between his blood, is called a vampire. 

valva and valvula. He uses valvula capsuls, VAN. t. (from avant, French.) 1. The 

and valva glum» ; but more freouently the front of an army, the iirst line (Dryr^). 2. 

diminutive. Valvula — paries quo tructus tegi- (van, Fr.) Any thing spread wide by which a 

tur ektcme. The outer coat, snell or covering wind is raised; a fan (Broome), 3. Awing 

of a capsule or other pericarp; or the several with which the air is beaten (Milion). 

pieces which compose it. There seems to be To Van. v. a. (from vannus^ Lat.) To fan \ 

an impropriety in explaining valvula by paries: to winnow: not in use (Bacon). , 

it is rather the door or opening by uhich the Van, Vamt, or Vaunt, a term derived 

seeds arc to go out or escape. If a pericarp be from the French avant, or avaunt. signifying 

entire, it is said to he univalve, or to consist of before, or foremost of any thing ; thus we'saVf 

one valve. If it be divided, according to the the van-guard of an army, &c. * 

number of pieces or divisions, it is called hi- Van» in sea-language, denotes the foremost 

valve or two-valved ; trivalve or three-valved, division of any naval armament, or the part 

hoc. that usnally leads the way to battle, o* ad* 

The leaflets composing the calyx and corol vances first in the order of sailing. 

are also named valves: as are also Van, a strong town of Cunli«u»n, with a 

Hanoet or scales which close the tube in castla ou a mountaiuj in whicii tht Tuiki 



VAN VAN 

keep a nameitRM girriioa. Il is governed by ^fertice of Cbarles L who conceired i marvel* 
a beglerbcg, tnd seated on a kke of its name lous esteem for his works , honoured hiin with 




tic wriicrp was born in Cheshire, of a good for liis )X)rtrait ; and wal» followed by most of 
fjmily : he became eminent by his poetical the nobility and gentry of the kiiigxlom. He 
talents and his skill in architecture ; to both acquired great riches by his profession ; mar- 
which he discovered an early propensity. His ried one of the fairest ladies of the luiglish 
ftnt comedy 9 called The Relays ; or, Virtue court, a daughter of the lord Rutheu, earl of 
in I>anger, vras acted with great applause in Gowry ; and, though he had little with her 
^^7» which encouraged him to proceed in the except her beauty and her quality, lived in a 
same ILie. The reputation which he gained state and grandeur answerable to her birth. 
by his comedies was rewarded with greater ad- He grew weary, towards the latter end of his 
vantages than usually arise from Uie proBts of life, of the continued trouble that attended fact:- 
writing for the stage. He was appointed painting ; and, being desirous of immortaliz- 
Clarcnceux king of arms ; a place which he ins his name by some more glorious under- 
held some time, and at last disposed of. In taking, went to Paris, in hopes of being em« 
1716 he was made surveyor of the works at ployed in the grand gallery of the l»uvre. 
Greenwich hoapiul ; he also held the place Not succeeding there, he returned to England ; 
uf comptroller-general of his majesty's works, a^nd proposed to the king, by his friend sir 
and surveyor of the gardens and waters. Sevc- Kenelm Digby, to make cartoons for the ban- 
nJ noble structures were raised ander his di- queting-house at Whitehall. The subject 
Rction, as Blenheim, in Osfordshire; Clare- was t#nave been the inbtitution of the order 
mom, in Surry ; the old Military Academy, of the garter, the procession of the knights in 
in Woolwich arsenal ; the old Opera-house, their habits, with the ceremony of their in« 
in the Haymarket. He was the author of stalment, and St. George*s feast: but his 
eleven eomic pieces : he died in 17S6. demand of 8000/. being thought unreasonable^ 
This writer was noted for the heaviness of while the king was treating with him for a less 
his buildings, and the lightness of his come* sum, the gout and other distempers put an end 
dies. £very one knows the proposed inscrip* to his life. He died in l64i, aged forty-two 
tian for his gravestone : years ; and was buried in St. Paul*.« cathedral, 

..... ,. .!_ # i_ where his monument, whatever it was, peiish* 

" Lie heavy on him earlh ; for he ^ ^ ^^^ fire 

Laid many a heavy load on thee." VANE, in a ship, &c. a thin slip of some 

VANDELLIA^ in botanj, a genus of the kind of matter, placed on high in the open air, 

cLss didynamia, order angiospermia. Cal>'x turning easily round on ap axis or spinole, and 

ifiosiK four-cleft; corol ringent; two outer veered about by the wind, to shew its direction 

filaments from the disk of the corol; anthers or course. See Weatheiicock. 

r^nectetl by pairs ; capsule one^celled, many- Vakbs, in mathematical or philosophical 

Kcdeil. Two species. instruments, are sights made to slide and 

1- V. diffusa. A plant with herbaceons move upon cross-staves, fore-staves, quadrants, 

item, and axillary flowers, of Montserrat. &c. 

3. V. pratensis. A native of South Ame- VANELLOE. A Innst flattish pod, con- 

'in* taining under a wrinkled brittle shell, a red« 

VAN-DIEMEN'S LAND. See Die- dish brown pulp, with small shining black 

Mcy. seeds. The plant which affords this fruit it 

VAN DYCK (Sir Anthony), a most illus- the epidendrum vanilla ; scandens, foliisovato- 

trious piintcr, was born at Antwerp in l.'>99, oblongis ncr\'osi« sebsilihu> caulinis, cirrhis spi* 

and tiainrd under the no less illuritrious Uubcns. ralibus of Linneus. Vjiuclloes have an unctu- 

Afterwards he went to Italy, staid a short lime ous aromatic taste, and a fragrant $mell like 

<u Rome, and then removed to Venice; where that of some of the finer balsams heightened 

he attained the beautiful colouring of Titian, with musk. Although chiefly used as per* 

nul Veronese, and ilic Venetian school : fumes, they arc said to possess aphrodi&iac vir« 

proofs of which appeared in the pictures he tues. See'EpiDENEtRUM. 

(irew at Genoa, where he left behind him VA^NGUAUD. f. iaiani garde, French,) 

"lany excellent pieces. After a few years $})ent The front, or first lino of the army (Miiion), 

abroad, he returned to Flanders, with a man- VANGUERIA, in botany, a gtrnus of the 

Gcr of painting so noble, natural, and e.isy, class pcntandria, order niOiiog)-nia. Calyx 

^Titian himself was hardly his supeiior ; five-toothed; corol with a globular tube, and 

and DO other master in the world equal to him hairy threat; stigma hilamellate; berry in- 

'Qponrsiu. The prince of Orange, hearing ferior, four or six-siceded. One species only, a 

<^Dis fame, sent for him to draw the pictures tree with glabrous branches, opposite entire 

^^ princess and children. Cardinal Riche- leaves, and eatable fruit, supposed to be a na« 

^ invited him to France ; where, not liking live of China. 

![>> eatertainment, he staid but a little time. VANILLA. S>ee Epidendrum and Va« 

Then be came over to England, soon after nellob. 

««beai bad left it, and was eniertaincd in the Tq VAO^ISH. v. n. (jaannco, Lat.) l. T» 



V AP V A R 

lose perceptible existence {Sidney), t. To VAPOflA^ON. $. {vapura^f, Lat.) The 

piss avray from the sight ; to diseppear (Skak'^ act of escaping in Tapours. 

speare). 3. To pass away; to be lost {Aiter- VA'PORER. «« (from vapour,) A Imaiier; 

hury). a braggart (600. rfike Tongue). 

Vanishing QUANTITIES. SeeEvx. VA^P0RISH.«. (rrom »i^iir.) 1. Vapors 

ABSCENT. ons ; full of vapours (Saiiiyt)* 2« Splenetic r 

VA'NITY.i. (oam7af,Lat) l.Einptiness; humoursome ; peevish (Pope) < 

uncertainty; inanity (£cd«f.). 8. Fruitless VA^POROUS.a. (o^ormr, Fr.) 1. Full 

desire ; fruitless endeavour (5tc/ney)« 3. Tri- of exhalations ; fumy (i)erA«iii). $• Windy | 

fling labour (Ao/ergA). 4. Falsehood; untruth flatulent (iffftii/Ano/)- 

(Davtet). 5. Empty pleasure ; vain pursuit} VA^POUR. t. {vapor, Lat.) 1. Anything 

idle show; unsubstantial enjoyment (Pope), exhalahle; any thing that mingles with the aif 

6. Ostentation ; anogance {Raleigh), j. Petty {Milion)* €. Pume ; steam {Newtom), 3 

pride ; pride exerted upon sli^t [^unds. Wind; flatulence (Baron). 4. Mental fume | 

VANLOO (Carlo), a distmguished painter, vain imagination ; fiincy unreal {HummomdU 

was bom at Nice in 1705. After visiting 5« (In tht plural.) Diseases caused byflam* 

Turin and Rome, he went to Paris with his lence, or by diieaseil nerves ; hypochondriac^ 

brother John in 17 i9- In 1723 he gained the maladies; melancholy | spleen {Addison), 

academy's first medal lor design, and in the 7b Va^oor. o. ii. (vopefv, Latin.) l.Ta 

year following the first priae for painting. In paai iu a tapour or fuvie ; to flv ofi* in et apo« 

1735 he was received into tlie academy ; he rations {D^mu)^ ST. To emit lomea (Bocmi}* 

wu afterwards honoured with the order of St. 3. To bully ; to brag {Gianoille), 

Idichael, and named fint painter to the king : To Va'pour. «. a. To efiiise, or scatter m 

he died in 1765. * fiime or vapour (i>afifie). 

Vakloo (John Baptist), brother to the Vapour, in meteorolonfi a thin homid 

preceding, a celebrated^ historic and portrait matter^ which, being rareficci to a ceitain degree 

painter, wu bom about l684: he died in 174^. by the action of heat^ ascends to a partioilaf 

Hia son, Louis Michael, became principal height in the atmosphere, where it is suspend* 

K'nter to the kii^ of Spain, and Charles ed, until it rettvns in the form of dew, ran, 

ilip lo the king of Prussia. snow, &c* On this subject we refer our fead« 



Vavloo (Michael), nephew of the precede ers to the articles ETAFaaATiov and Mi- 

log, and knight of the order of St« Michael ; tboroloct. 

an artist of considerable excellence. His hia- Vapovr bath. See Baths and Bath* 

torical pieces have genuine merit, and his por* ivo. 

traits are elegant and agreeable. VAR, i department of France, incloding 

Vavloo (Charles Andrew), brother and part of Uie late province of Provence. It takes 

pnpil of John Baptist, wu born in 1705 ; he its name from a river which has iu source ia 

u Known by the brilliancy and freshness of hb the county of Nice, and falls into the Mediler* 

colours, and great exactness of proportion; he ranean, four miles W. of Nice, 

was one of the professors of tne academy for VARALLO, a strong town of Italy, in the 

painting, at Paris : he died in 1765. MiUnese. 98 miles N.N.W. of Novara, and 

VANNES, a seaport of France, in the de- 47 W.N.W. of Milan. Lon. 8. S5 £. Lat. 

partment of Morbinan, with a bishop's see. 46. 4ff N. 

Its principal trade is in wheat and rye for VARAMBON, a town of France, in the 

Spain; aiM it has a trade also in pilcharas and department of Ain, seated on the Ain, 14 

sea*eels« It is seated on the gulf of Morbihan, miles N.N.W. of Bourg. Lon. 5. 16 £. Liu« 

three miles from the Atlantic, 66 S.W. of 46. 83 N. 

Rennes, and S66 W. by S. of P^ru. Lon. 8. VARENIUS (Bernsrd), a Dutch physician, 

46 W. Lat. 47. 99 N. who wrote in Latin an excellent System of 

To VA^r^QUISH. V. a. {vancre, Fr.) 1 . To Universal Geography; which was re-published 

conouer; to overcome {Ciurtndon). 8. To with great improvements, by sir Isaac Newton, 

conlute (Atierhury). in 1 678, and nas been translated into English, 

VANQUISHER. «. (from vanfuisk.) Con- in 8 vols. 8vo. He is also the author of a curi- 

qoeror ; subduer {Skak^eare). ous description of Japan, and the kingdom of 

VA'NTAGE.!. {iromndvmntage,) I. Gain; Siam, in Latin. He died in 166O. 

profit (Stc/ney). 8. Superiority ; state in which VARI. SeeJoifTHi. 

one hath better means of action than another Vari, in xoology. See Limur. 

{Souih). 3. Opportunity; convenience (i9Ad A- VARIA. The small-pox. SeeVARiOLA^ 

ipeare), VARIABLE, a. {variable, Fr. variatilii. 

To V a'ntage. v. a. (from advantage.) To Jjiiin.) Changeable ; mutable ; ineonstant 

profit : not in use {Spenter). {Shaktpeare), 

VA'NTBRASS. s. {avani bras, French.) Variablr quaktitibs, in geometry and 

Armour for the arm {Millon), analytics, denote such as are either continually 

VA^FID. a. {vapidus, Lat.^ Dead; having increasing^ or dimininhing ; in opposition to 

the spirit evaporated; spiritiev; mawkish; those which are constant, remaining alwaya 

flat {ArI*utknoi). the same. Thus, the ab»ciiiscs and ordinatcs 

V A^PIDNESS. 9. (from vapid,) The Itate of an ellipsis, or other curve line, are variable 

of being spiritless ; mawkishDett. quaDtatics, because the} vary or change thaif 



V A R V A R 

ftm:Ditodes togsekhcr. Some qmntities may be the transverse semidtameter of the orbis luarf* 

Tanable by themselves alone^ while those con* nus, as If) }{ to 1000. Or, taking the mean 

Dected with them are constant : as the abscissA motions of the moon from the snn, as they are 

of a miailelogram, whose ordinates may be staled in Dr. Hjlley's tables, then the greatest 

considered as all equal, and therefore constant, variation at the moan distance of the carih fn)m 

The diameter of a circle and the parameter of the sun will be Jd' 4l^^'(i, in the apogt^ of the 

a conic section are constant, whde their ab» sun 33^ 9rf\ and in his perigee Z& b\'\ 
scisscs are variable. Variable quantities (see Variation of curvature, in geome- 

FLUXioifs) are usually denoted by the last try, is used for that inequalit)* or change which 

letters of the alphabet 2, y, x^ while the con- takes place in the curvature of all curves except 

ttant ones are denoted k^ tlie first letters a, the circle, by which their curvature is more or 

h^ c. less in different parts of them. And this varia- 

VA^lABLENESS. «. (from variable.) I. tion constitutes the quality of the curvature of 

Changeableness ; mutability {Addison). S, any line. 

Levity : inconstancy {Clarissa), Sir Isaac Newton makes the index of the in- 

VA'RiABLY.adf. (from t^ariafr/tf.) Change* equality, or variation of curvature, to be the 

ably ; muublv ; tncon«tantly ; uncertainly. ratio of the fluxion of the radius of curvature to 

VA'KIANCE. «. (from vary.) Discord ; the fluxion of the cune itself: and ]VficIaurin» 

disagreement ; dissension {Sprai). to avoid the perplexity that diifcrcnt notions, 

Variawcb, in law, signifies any alteration connected wiih the same terms, occasions to 

cf a thing ibrmerly laid in a plea, or where the learners, has adopted the same definition ; but 

dcelintion in a cause differs from the writ, or he suggests, that this ratio gives rather the va« 

from ibe deed upon which it is f^rounded. If riaiion of the ray of curvature, and that it 

there be aiariance between the declaration and mi^jht have been proper to have measured the 

the writ, it is error, and the writ shall abate ; variation of curvature rather by the ratio of the 

and if there appear to be a material variance fluxion of the curvature itself to the fluxion of 

between the matter pleaded and the manner of the curve; so that, the curvature being inverse* 

pl^nding it» this is not a eoml plea, for the man- ly as the radius of curvature, and consequently 

Bcr and matter of pleading ought to agree in its fluxion as the fluxion of the radius itself di- 

nbstaneey or there will be no certainty in it. rectiy, and the sqnare nf the radius inversely* 

Cio. Jae. 47p. its variation would have been directly as tlie 

VA^RIATION. s. {variatio, Latin.) 1* mcasureof it according to Newton's definition^ 

Change ; mutation ; difl'erence from itself and inversely as the square of the radius of cur* 

(Beal/ey). 2. Difference ; change from one to vature. 

aoother {ffoodward). 3. Successive change According to this notion, it would have been 

i^koispeare), 4. (In grammar.) Change of measured by the angle of contact contained by 

iMininaiion of nouns {fFhiis). 5. Change in the curve and circle of curvature^ in the same 

BJtaral phenoraenons {fybiion), 6. Deviation manner as the curvature itself is measured by 

{Drwden) . the angle of contact contained by the cun'c and 

Vari AT I oir, in astronomy. The variation tangent. The reason of this remark may ap- 

of the moon, called by Bulliald the reflection pear from this example: the variation of cur« 

M her light, is the third inequality observed in vature, according to Newton*s explication, is 

ihemoon*8 motion; by which, when out of uniform in the logarithmic spiral, the fluxion 

the quadiatures, her true place differs from her of the radius of curvnture in this fissure heins; 

phee twice equated. See Astrovomy. always in the same ratio to the fluxion of the 

Newton makes the moon's variation to arise curve ; and yet, while the spiral is produced, 

pirtly from the form of her orbit, which is an though its curvature decreases, it never va* 

dli|im; and partly from the inequality of the nishes; which must appear a strange paradox 

^Kciwhieh the moon describes iu equal times, to those who do not attend to the import of sir 

9f a ladius drawn to the earth. Isaic Newton*s definition. 

7* find the greatest tfaria/toii.-— Observe the The variation of curvature at any point of a 

■mod's longitude in the octants; and to the conic section is always as the tangent of the 

time of obiervation compute the inoon*s place angle contained by the diameter that passea 

t»iee equated i then tlie dif&rencc bct%veen through the point of contact, and the perpen* 

the computed and observed place is the greatest dicular to the curve at the same point ; or to 

variation ■■ (36' 4l''*6) sin. if ( ]^ — O)* theangle formed by the diameter c»t the section^ 

Tyeho makes the greatest variation 4(/ 3(/^ ; and of the circle of curvature. Htnce the va- 

and Kepler makes it 6l' 4<^^ But Newton riation of curvature vanishes at the extremities 

nukfi the greatest variation, at a mean distance of either axis, and is greatest when the acute 

between the sun and the earth, to be 36' 10^^ ; angle, contained by the diameter passing 

stiheothrr distances, the greatest variation is throueh the |K>int of contact and the tangent, 

ia i ntio compounded of the duplicate ratio of is le;ist. 

t^ liiDCs of the moon*s Vynodical revolution When the conic section is a pnrahola, the 

^(tttly, and the triplicate ratio of the distance variation is as the tangent of the ancle, con- 

<M the sun from the earth inversely. And tained by the right line drawn from tne point 

dirreforein the sun*s apogee, the greatest varia- of contact to the focus, and the perpendicular 

Lisas' 14^, and m his perigee 37' ll'^j to the curve. See Curvature. 
piovided that the eccentricitv of the sun is to From sir Isaac Newton's definttioa may be 
VOL XL-PART II. " D 



V A R V A R 

derived practical rules for the variation of car« pox ; so called from its beine chanjseable.) 

Tature, ai follows : * Variola lymphatica. The chicken-pox. A 

I. Find the radios of cunrature, or rather its genus of disease in the clas« pyrexiae and 

fluxion ; then divide this fluxion by the fluxion order exanthemata of Cullen ; known by mo- 

of the curve, and the quotient wi if give the va- derate synocha ; pimples bearing some resem- 

nation of curvature; exterminating the fluxions blance to smalUpox, onickly forming pustules, 

when necessary, by the equation of the curve, which contain a fluia matter, and after three 

or perhaps by expressing their ratio bv help of or four days from their first appearance de- 

the tangent, or ordinate, or subnormal, &c. squamate. 

. -3 VARICOCELE, (from varix, a distended 

«. Since^^, or -^ (putting *=1) denotes vein, and xn\n, a, tumour.) A swelling of th9 

— ij — j? veins of the scrotum or spermatic cord ; heoce 

the radius of curvature of any curve x, whose it is divided into the scrotal varicocele, which 

absciss is x, and ordinate y ; if the fluxion of is known by the ap|>earance of livid and tumid 

this is divided by ., and . and i* are extem.inat- ^*^»"» ^" the scrotum ; and varicocele ofthe 

«d. the general value of the variation will come JP«""»^»c cord known by feeling Hard Tenm- 

' ^ form vessels in the course of tiie spermatic cofo. 

^^, -3Mr»-t-j>(l+y') then. substituting the y"i««*le ««»•)• "!»" f">^ excessive w.lk- 
^ ' ' ^ ing, running, jumping^ wearing of trutscs, 

T»lufsofy.>, i (found from the equation of »'«! '»»« ."kf. producing at first a »light wj- 

the curve) into this quanUty, it will give the ««'"«' '" !»*« P?"' ^^""^ 'l ""'. «">«>»«•. 

.•»:.t:^» 1».«»K* T /» ^ contmnes advancing towards the loins, 

yariation sought. VA'RICOUS. a. {varicosus, Latin.) Dif 

Ex. Ui the curve be the parabola, whotc ^^^ ^.^j, ^ihtation (SAarp). 

equation is ar=y*. Here then 2yy ==ai=fl. To VARIEGATE, v. a. (rorifgii/irf, school 

J. fl I — fl.v -^aa J Latin.) To diversify: to stain with different 

andy=— ; hence jr =-— =—-, and colours (IToorfirarrf).^ 

-3flo| 3a» VARIEGATION, s. (from variegate.) 

i:= ~= — . Therefore, Diversity of colours (JBrr/yn). 

^y* ^y* VARinETY. t. ^varietu, French; vaneiat. 

— 3y*+>' (I 4-y^) I 4-y* Latin.) 1 . Change ; successioix of one thiiw 

■T5 = — 3y + i X — i:^ — to another ; intermixture of one thing wito 

"^ ogji tfi^c "5 another (N<pii?/o«). 2. One thing of many by 

1. _ X (I ^ —\ X ^ zz — ,• which variety is made (Raleigh). 3. Diller- 

2y ^«^* 4yy a* a cnce ; dissiniilitude {AUerhury). 4. Varia- 

the variation sought. tion ; deviation ; change from a former stats 

V^ARiATiov OP THE NEEDLE, in magnet- {Hale). 5. Many and difierent kinds (Lav), 
ism. Although the north pole of the magnet Variety, in botany, Varietas. Est 

in every part of the world, when suspended, planta niutata a causa accidentali. Varietates 

points towards the northern parts, and the tot sunt, quot differentes plants ex ejusdem 

south pole to the southern parts, vft itaclrlom spociei scirine sunt products. Species varie- 

points exactly north and south. The angle in tatum sunt, macnitudu, plenittido, crispatiOf 

which it deviates from due north and south is color, spnor, odor. Fhilos. Bot. — ^A plant 

called the variation of the needle, or the varia- changed oy some accidental cause. There ape 

tion of the compass; and this variation is said as many varieties as there are different pbntft 

to be east or west, according as the north pole producra from the seed of the same species. 

of the needle is eastward or wesiwanl of the Varieties are size, fulness, curling, colour, 

meridian of the place. This deviation from taste, and smell. 

the meridian is not the same iu all parts of the In Dclin. PI. it is expressed more fully: thus, 

world, but is different in different places, and variation is a cliunge in some le>s essential part 

it is almost perpetually varj'ing in the same orqualitv; as colour, size, pubescence, or age. 

place. VV^hen the variation was first observed, Externafly, by the plaiting or interweaving of 

the north pole of the magnetic neeflle declined the branches ; by bundling or uniting of scve* 

eastward of the meridian of London, but it ral stalks into one broad flat one ; by the greater 

has since that time been changin«< towards the breadth, or narrowness, or cuHing of leaves ; 

west; so that in the year 1657, the needle by becoming awnles<, or smooth, or hinute. 

pointed due north and south: at present it Internally, by becoming mutilated in the corol, 

declines towards the west, between 24^ and or having one larger than ordinary ; by luxuri- 

95**, and it seems to be still advancing west- ancy, inultiplicaiion, or fulrie*-s ;' by bvroniing 

ward. See Declination and ^Iagnetism. proliferous, or crested; by bearing bulbs in« 

Vaiiations ((^alculus of). See Calcu- stead of seeds; or by being viviparous. 
Lus. To tile references n)ade under that The usual causes of variation are climatey 
article, we may now add Mr. Woodhouse*s soil, exfxisure, heat, cold, unnds* culture. 
Treatise on l»4)f)eri metrical Problems, and the Variety is applied in a sense nearly similar to 
Calculus of Variations ; the first English work a multiplicity of s|>ecies in the other depart- 
in which some of the brauclu*s of the modern ments of natural history. It implies a trivial 
atlJly^•s have ever been treated at all. deviation in the individual of a species from its 

Varicella, (dim. of varia, the small- general character. 



— 3a 



VARIGNON. 

TARIGNON (Peter), a celebrated French weariness that a tdtii; applfcattoA mieht o^ctf^* 

mathematician and priest, was born at Caen, sion. He kft off gsj and IK-ely, fitled with 

in 1654, and died suddenly in 1722, at 68 years pleasnre, and rm^tiem U) renew it. In speak- 

oi aee. He was the son of an architect in ing of mathematics, he would laugh so freely^ 

nklaiinc circotnstances, but had a college edu- that it seemed as if he had studied for diversion. 

cation, being intended for the church. An No>condition was so much to be envied as hisr; 

acciilent ihrctv a copy of Euclid*s Elements in his life was a continual enjo}ment, delighting 

ius way, which gare nim a strong turn to that in quietness. 

kind of leaminc. The 9tu<1y ot geometry led In the solitary suburb of St. Jacques he 
hrm to the works of Des Car^s on the same formed, howetcr, a connexion with m^tny 
•ciciice, and there he was striKk with that new other learned men ; as Du Ilamel, Du Vtr- 
light nhich has from thence spread over the ney, De la Hire, &C. Du Verney often asked 
world. his assistance in those p:irts of anatomy con- 
He abrid;;ed himself of the necessaries of nected with mechanics • they examined ro- 
Irfe to parcmise books of this kind, or rather gether the positions of the mnscles and their 
CfMHidered ihcm of that noniber, as indeed directions; hence Varignmr learned a gnod 
they ought to be. What contributed to heighten deal of anatomy from Ux\ VernCy, whrch he 
this pftssion in litm vms, that he stmlied in repaid by the application of xnailhcniatical rea- 
ffiraie : A>r hi» relations observing that the soning to that subject. 

iMohs he sttxlied were not such as were com- At length, in l6d7, yarig;non made him- 

iBonly osed by others, stfbngly opposed his self known to the public by a Treatise on 

appfieation to them. As there was a necessity New Mechanics, dedicated to the Academy of 

M his being an ecclciiastic, he continued his Sciences. His thoughts on this subject were^ 

tbeologicit studies, yet not entirely sacrificing in effect, quite new. He discovered truths, 

his favoorite subject to them. and laid open their sourctrs. In this work he 

At this lime the abb^St. Pierre, who studied demonstrated the necessity of an equilibrium^ 

phtlisophy in the same college, became ac- in such cases as it happens in, tnoti^h the 

quainted with him. A taste m common for cause of it is not exactly known. This dis- 

ratimial subjects, whether physics oi* nieta- covery Varignon made by the theory of com- 

phviics, and continual disputations, formed pound motions, and is what this essay turns 

the bonds of their friendship. They were upon. 

muttially sen-iccabic to each other in their This new Treatise on Mechanics was greatly 

ttudirs. The abb^, to enjoy Varignon's eom- admired by the mathemaiicians, and procurvd 

panv with greater ease, lodged him with him* the author two considerable places, the one of 

•Hf; thus, ^rowing still more sensible of his geometrician in the Academy of Sciences, the 

BMUt, he i\*solved to give him a fortune, that otherof professor of mathematics in the college 

be ini;;ht fully pursue his <reniu«, and improve of Mazarine, to which he was the firdt person 

Ins talents ; and, out of only 1 8(N> livres a year, raised. 

which he had himself, he conferred 300 of Variiinon catched eagerly at the ^icnce of 

them upon Vargnon. inftnitesimals as soon as it appeared in the 

The abb^, persunded that he could not do worlJ, and became* one of its mo;it early culti- 

better than go to Paris to study philosophy, vators. When that sublime and beautiful 

irtiled thera in 1086, with M. Varij*non, ni method was attacked in the acavfemy it»elf (fur 

the suthirbs of St. Jacques. Inhere each it could not escape ihe fate of all innovations), 

ftodied in his own way; the abb^ applying he became one of its most zealous defenders, 

hiMMelf to the study of men, manners, and the and in its favour he put a violence upon his 

piinciples of government; whilst Varignon natural character, which abhorred all conten*- 

■ wholW occupied vrith the mathemalics. lion. He s^imetimes l.i;nentcd that' this dis- 

t, says t^'ontenelle, who was their country- pute had interrupted him in his enquiries into 

M, often went to see them, sometimes the integral cakulbiion so far, that it would be 

ipcadiDg two or three day« with them. They ditllcult for him to resume his disquisition 

md also room for a couple of visitors, who where he had lefl it off. He sacrificed in*> 

fUK from the same province. We joined finiiesimals to the interest of inftnitesimnis, 

togrtbcT with the greatest pteasnre. We were and ga%e up the pleasure and glory of makinfi; 

^oang, full of the dnt ardour for knowledge, a farther progress in them when called upon 

stRNigly united, and, what we were not then by duty to undertake their defence. 

iniia|j« dispoaed to think so great a happiness. All the printed volumes of the academy bear 

liule known. Vangnou, v^ho had a strong witness to his application and industr}'. His 

eooititution, at least in his youth, spent whole works are- never detached pieces, hut c(»m])lete 

<h^ in study, without any amusement or theories of the laws of motion, central forces, 

Rcieaiion, except walking sometime} in fine and the resistance of mediums to motion. In 

weaihrr. 1 have heard him say, that in study- these he makes such use of his rules that 

ing tffter supper, as he usually did, he was nothing escapes him that has any connexion 

oneo surprised lo hear the dock strike two in with the subject he treats, 

tbe morning ; and was much pleased that four Geometrical certainty is by no means iif- 

botiTi rest were sufficient to refresh him. His compatible with obscurity and cf)iiflision, and 

(lid not leave hit studies with that heaviness those arc sometimes so great that it is surprising 

*hich they usually create^ nor with that armalhcttiatician thould^not misshis wayin so 



V A R V A R 

&rk and perplexing a labyriuth. The works he was hy no meani dispoaed to lose amy» 
of M. VarigDon never occasion this disagree- Frequent visits, either of French or of foreign- 
able surprise, he makes it his chief care to ers, some of whom went to see hioi that tnej 
place every thing in the clearest light ; he does might have it to sav that they had seen him, 
not, as some great men do, consult his ease by and others to consult him and improve by hit 
declining to take the trouble of being methodi- conversation ; works of mathematics, which 
cal, a trouble much greater than that of com- the authority of some, or the friendship he 
position itself; he does not endeavour to had for others, engaged him to examine, arul 
acquire a reputatiou for piofoundness, by leav- which he thought himself obliged to give the 
inz a great oeal to be guessed by the reader. most exact account of; a literary correspond- 

He was perfectly acouain ted with the history ence with all the chief mathematic'ians of 

of mathematics. He learned it not merely out Europe : all these obstructed the book he had 

of curiosity, but because he was desirous of undertaken to write. Thus a man acquires 

acquirins Knowledge from every quarter. This reputation by having a great deal of leisure 
historical knowledge is doubtless an ornament / time, and he loses this precious leisure as soon 

in a mathematician, but it is an ornament as he has acquired reputation. Add to this, 

which is by no means without its utility, that his best scholars, whether in the college 

Tndecd it may be laid down as a maxim, the of Mazarine or the Royal College (for he had 

more different ways the mind is occupied in a professor*s chair in both), sometimes re-^ 

upon a subject, the more it improves. quested private lectures of him, which he 

Though Vari^on*s constitution did not could not refuse. He sighed for his two or 

seem easy to he impaired, assiduity and con* three months of vacation, for that was all the 

stant application brought upon him a severe leisure lime he had in the year; no sooner 

disease m 17^5. Great abilities are generally were they come but he retired Anto the 

dangerous j the possessors. He was six country, where his time was entirely his own, 

months in danger, and three years in a languid and the days seemed always quickly ended, 

state, which proceeded from his spirits being Notwithstanding his ^rcat desire of peace, 

almost entirely exhausted. He said that some- in the latter part of his life he was involved in 

times when delirious with a fever, he thought a dispute. An Italian mouk, well versed in 

himself in the midst of a forest, where all uie mathematics, attacked him upon the sulyect 

leaves of the trees were covered with algehrai- of tangents and the angle of contact in corva, 

cal calculations. Condemned by his physi- such as they are conceived in the arithmetic 

cians, his friends, and himself, to lay aside' all of infinites ; he answered by the last memoir 

study, he could not, when alone in nis cham- he ever save to the Academy, and the only 

her, avoid taking up a book of mathematics, one which turned upon a dispute, 

which he hid as soon as he heard any person In the last two years of his life he was 

coming. He again resumed the attitude and attacked with an asthmatic complaint. This 

behaviour of a sick man, and seldom had oc- disorder increased every day, and all remedies 

caf^ion to counterfeit. were ineffectual. He did not, however, cease 

In ref^rd to his character, Fontenelle ob* from any of his customary business ; so that, 

sencs, that it was at this time that a writing after having finished his lecture at the college 

of his appeared, in which he censured Dr. of Mazarine, on the 22d of December 17^> 

Wallis for having advanced that there are cer- he died suddenly the following; night, 

tain spaces more than infinite, which that His character, says Fontenelle, was as simple 

great geometrician ascribes 10 hyperbolas. He as his superior understanding could require, 

maintained, on the contrary, that they were He was not apt to be jealous of the fame of 

finite. Th^ criticism was softened with all others : indeed he was at the head of the 

the politeness and respect imaginable ; but a French matlieinaticians, and one of the best 

criticism it was, thougn he had written it only in Europe. It must be owned, however, that 

for himself. He let M. Carr^ see it, when he when a new idea was offered to him, he was 

was in a state that rendered him indifferent too hasty to object. The fire of his genius, 

about things of that kind; and that gentleman, the various insights into every subject, made 

influenced only by the interest of the sciences, too impetuous an opposition to those that were 

caused it to be printed in the memoirs of the offered ; so that it was not easy to obtain from 

Academy of Sciences, unknown to the author, him a favourable attention. His works that 

who thus made an attack against his inclina- were published separately were, I . Pmjet 

tion. d*une Nouvelle Mechanique, 4to. Paris, 1 667. 

He recovered from his disease ; but the 2. Des Nouvelles Conjectures sur la Pesanteur. 

remembrance of what he had suffered did not 3. Nouvelle Mechanique on Statigue, 2 torn, 

make him more prudent for the future. The 4to. 172.5. His memoirs in the Memoirs of 

whole impression of his Project for a New the Paris Academy are v^ry numerous, (ifvl* 

System of Mechanics having been sold off, he ton's Did.) 

formed a design to publish a second edition of VARILLAS (Antoine), a French his- 

it, or rather a work entirely new, though torian, was bornat Guerrt, in l6S4: he wrote 

upon the same plan, but more extended, li a history of France, bcginninc with Louis XI. 

must be easy to perceive how much learning and ending with Henry III. ; he published 

he must have acquired in.tbe interval ; but he also I^es Anecdotes de Florence, ou rHistoire 

oflea complained that he wanted time, though secrette de la Maisoa de M^icis, i68^ ; aiifi 



Variola. 

Unloirr to RerotuiionM •rrivSj en Europe In lome initunrM, lhe»c jyiuiitonu ji 

en nalicie ile Religion, lQl(f : he died m in a liigh dcj^tce, >nU in ollien they a i 

I<ig6 : be ii a rety iintui Iiiituriun, niKciallj iiitxtcrule and triHin;;. In very yuunj 

itt ituilrr> where religiua is concerned. drcii, )Unin({> and cinivul-iun are apl i.. _ 

VARIOl.A. (from oorjiu, diannng colour, filvx a ihort time jirevious lu ihe appearu 

because ii ifiili^fcs the skinO The sinull- of ihe eru|iiiun, always giving great aiaroi, 

pent. A grnui ol diieaie in the claujiyrrxix those aot coiivcnant wiih ibc fretjucncy of-d 

and uidcr eKjothemalaofCiillen; distinguish- iiccurience. j 

rd In fjiKKzha ; ciu|Miun uf red umiplei on ihc About the third or Tourth dar Trom the tS 

ibira iMv. which un the cighih Jjy caoiain sciztirc, the etU))iion then'i iuVtf in liitie fl 

pmt, u>i drying, IjII off iu cruris. *pau (liniilar lo lled-bitcs) on ibc face, n> * 

ll is a ilociii* of a very couiujjiout nature, and bteait, and lliete continue lo increai- 

■apfMMcd to hiiVE been introduced into Europe number and size for three or four tongeft' 

Eraai Arabia, and in which tliere ariws a (exer, the end of which lime, ihcy are to be OM 

dtU «« MKceeded b^ a number of little infliin- diiperKtl over tcvi-rul |i.irti of the body, 

■ititMM in the skin, which proceed to iitp- If the pustules are doi very niimc 

pwaliitn, the otMtt frtiroeJ thereby being febrile lyniptomi will generally go o 

eaputtle of pruducin.; the diaorder in another a|)pearance of the eruption, or they will ^l 

pcnuci. It makes iu itiAck on |>eop!eof all ciime very uioderali-. Ii simietlmcs hajipa. 

Bit the )-oung uf both sexes arc more that a number of little spuls of an eryst|wlatat3 

' it than those who are luuch advanced uutnre are interspersed ainonpt the puiiuiti}" 

■ail it oiiiy prctiiit at all the leasani of but these generally go in again a* soon oa the 

I but in gencial is moil preiatcnt in su|>puraiion commences, which istniially about 

Bg am) summer. the lifth or sixth duy, at which periof], a small 

Mnatl-pos U disiinguished into the vesicle contsining an almost colourless fluid 

Jiwi nel and confluent, imjilyiiiK that in the may be obgrr^ed u|<on the lop of euch piin|ile. 

fiirmti the eruptions ace perfectly separate Should the pustules be perlcctly distinct and 

fiom each Dtlin, and th>it in (he latter they run aepnrcite Trfin each olhcr, tile suppuraiion 

much into one another, will probably be completed about the eighth 

Qufaapecicsaie produced cither b]| breathing or ninth dav.'and they will thcu be filled with 

til intprtgiMicd mih ihc effluvia ariiina from . a thick yellow mailer; but should they run 

tbc body of tliooi- wliu Idlxiur under liie di^ much iuio each o.lher, il will not be completed 

HIT, Of by the itilfudiiclion of a small quantity till M>me days lalcr. 

nflbe vanulous mailer into the Imbil hy inocu- When the piisiulo arc veiy ihiclt and nu- 

lalHHi ; arid it is probable that the diffeience of merous on the face, it is apt about this time to 

lb«finall-)iox is not owing; luariydiHerencE in become much swelled, and the eyelids lo be 

ihf eoatagion, but depenas on lue uMe of the closed up, previous lu whii'h, iheie ujually 

team tu whom it ii applied, or on certain cir- aiiscsahoitr)enes!i,anddiiriciiliyaf>walluwiiig. 

ConiButcea concurring with the application a( accompanied with a ci)ntider>ible dischaigi^ of 

il. viscid saliva. jUxiut the eleventh day, the 

A (vriely of opinions hsvc been entertained iwelling of the face utually suhiides, Ui(;i:lliei 

Reading ihc cnret of tlic v.itiulons infection u'iih ihc afleclbn of the fauces, and ii hic- 

DQ the fetus in utero: a sunicieiit number of cecded by the same in the hands and feet, after 

iMtaucei, however, hai been recorded, to as- whieh the pmiules break, and diichar^ their 

cenaio lliat the disease 111.1^ be cnmmunicated contents, and then liecoining dry, they fill in 

fmn ibe mother to (he child. In some cases, crusts. InvInK the shin which ihey cnncrcd 

ibe body ofihe child at its birth hn* been cover- of a hniwu red colour, which ajiprarance con- 

dl nrlih puitulei, and the nuiure of the disease tioues Rir niotiy days. In iIiim« ca^s where 

tu( b(«u mi»l saliifaetorily ascertained by iuD- ihe pustules are iugf, and are late in be- 

uiUting with matter taken from the pnetuli-i. coming dry and CilUng olT, they arc wry ajit 

In other cases, there ha* been no appear.incc 10 leave pits behind them ; but where ihey are 

aflhe dtacaif at the lime of the birtn, hut an small, iup|iuiaie i|iiickly, and are feir in num- 

Ruplimi Slid olhrr lyniptomi of the disease ber, they ncitlier leave any marks behind them, 

hate appcated un early, as lo atceruin that the not do they uccjsion much a^Miion of the 

■nticiiaii itiaii liive lieen received ptevioutly •}itent. 

taibt removiil of the child from the uterus. In the confluent suialI-|>oit, the feter which 

Foui JifffTriii stales or sugea arc to be ob- preccilcs the eruption is much more violent 

■mrd in (tie umall.pax; first, the febrile; se- than in ihe disliuci, being attended usually 

cood, the erupii'c ; third, the roituralive ; and with great anxiety, heal, thirst, nausea, touiii- 

biinti, that of declination or scabbing, which in;}, and a frequvnt and coniracted pulse, and 

is iisiulW known hj the name of secondary o-ften with coma or delirium, lu infants, 

tnrt. \Vhc.i lh<? dimic has arisen naturally, convutsii'e fill are apt to Oixur, which either 

tad ■• uf the distinct kind, (he eruption iicom- priwe fatal brfnrc any eruption appears, or they 

■only prerTiled liy a rcilncu in the eyei, usher in a malijiiaat sofcics of ihe disease. 
nrcacM in tlic thtnal, pain* in the head, back, 'Hie eruption nsiu 1^ makes its appearance 

and loiiit. oYarincM and fnintneit, alleinale bbouiiht third day, being frequently preceded 

E-Hamlb«,it.thiiii. nausea, incliija- or atlended with a rosy eEnorescence, similar 

t, and a ^ui«k piiUt. iv v^liat takes place in the mctijlci j but the 



V A R V A R 

w 

fcvtr, although it suffers some slij^ht remfision tecanitnnied with considerable risk> the St* 

on the roming out (»f the eruption, docs not f,rt(t oi which is «:ver in pro|)ortion to the vio- 

go off a^ in the dLtinci kind -, on tiie contrary, lence and ptrnianence of the fever, the number 

it becomes increased after the fifth or sixth of pustqles on the face, and the dispositioo to 

day, and continues considerabio throughout puirfscency which prevails, 
the reaiainder of i lie disease. When ther^ is a great tendency this way^ 

As the eruption advances, the face being the disease usually proves fatal Mtween the 

thickly besei with pustules, becomes very eighth and ?levenih day, but in some cases, 

much swelled, the eyelids are closed up, so as death is proiracted till the fourteenth or six* 

to deprive the patient of sight, and a gentle tfenth. The confluent smalt-pox, although it 

salivation ensues, which towards the eleventh nia^' not prove iinuiediately mortal, is very apl 

day is so viscid as to bespit up with creat diiii- to induce various morbid affections, 
culty. In children, a diarrhcea usually atteitds j&uh kinds of small'(>ox leave bcliind them 

this stage of the disease instead of a salivation, a pre(lis|x>sition to inBamnmiory complaints^ 

which is to be met with only in adults. The particularly to ophthalmia aitd viscer.il niflam* 

vesicles on the top of the pimples are to be per- mations, out more especially of the thorax i 

ceived sooner in the confluent smalUpOx tnan and ihey not unfrequeutly excite scrophula 

in the disiioct; but they never rise to an emi- into action which might ottierwise have laid 

iience, being usually flatted in ; neither do dormant in the system. 

they arrive to proper suppuration, as the fluid The regular swelling of the hands and feel 

contained in them, instead of becoming yellow, upon that of the face subsiding, and its conti* 

turns to a brown colour. nuance for the due time, may be regarded in a 

About the tenth or eleventh day, the swell- favourable li^ht. 
ing of the face usually subsides, and then the The dissections which have been made of 

hands and feet bc^in to puff up and swell, confluent small-pox have never discovered any 

and about the «^ame time the vesicles break, pustulesinternalty on the viscera. From them it 

and pour out a liouor that forms into brown or also appi-urb thtt variolous pustules never at- 

black crusts, which, upon falling off, leave tack tne cavities of the body, except those to 

deep pits behind them that cojitinue for life, which the air has free accc'^s, as the nose, 

and where the pustules have run much into mouth, trachea, the larger branches of the 

each other, they then disfigure and scar the bronchite, and the outermost part of tlieoieatas 

face very considerably. auditorius. In cases of proia|)Sus ani, they 

Sometimes it happens that a putrescency likewise frequently attark that prtoftbegut 
of the fluid:( takes place at an early period of which is exposed to the air. I'hey have usii« 
the disease, and slicws itself in lii'iri 8|X)ts in- ally shewn the same morbid appearances in- 
terspersed amongst the pustules, and by a dis- wardly, aa are met with in putrid fever, where 
charge of blood' by urine, stool, and from the disea!»e has been of the malignant kind, 
various parts of the ijodv. Where the febrile symptoms have run high. 

In the conBuf^nt small-pox, the fever, which, and the head has been much affected with 

perhaps, had suffered some slight remission coma or delirium, the vessels of the brain ap* 

from the time the eruption made us appearance pear, on removing tlie crauiuuk ami dura 

to that of maturation, is often renewed with mater, more turgici, and filled with a darker 

considerable violence at this last mentioned coloured blotKl itian usual, and a greater quan- 

period, which is what is called the secondarv tity of serious fluid is fotutd, particularly to« 

fever, and this is the most dangerous stase of wards the base of the brain. Under suuilar 

the disease. It has been observed, even circumstances, ihe lungs have often a darker 

amongst the vulgnr. that tl>e small-pox is apt appearance, and their m(»idture is more copi* 

to ap|ycar immediately before or after the pre- ous than Udual. When no iuBammaiory iU 

valence of the measles. Another curious oh- fection has supervened, they arc n;o^l usually 

serration has been made relating to the symp- found. 

toms of these complaints, namely, that if, VaRIOLARIA, in Itotany, a tribe of the 

while a^tient labours under the small-pox, crypiokimous i4enus Lepkaria, which see. 
he is seized with the measles, the course of ilie VA^R10U.S. a, (^vurius, I^'in.) t. Dif- 

former is letarded till the eruption of the inea- Cerent ; several ; uuinifoid (3/t//). ^'. Clianice« 

sles is finished. The measles appear, for in- able; uncertain; unfixed; unlike itself 

stance, on the second day of the eruptum of {Lorkt). 3. Uniikc each other {Dryden), 

small- pox, the progress of this ceases till the 4. V'arieu.Tted ; <liver>ifie<l (Mtlivtt). 
measles terminate -by desquamation, and then VA'RlOUSiA'. </;/. (from various,) In a 

it goes on in the usual w:\y. Several cases are various manner (iiacon). 
however recorded in the Medical and Physical V^ARIX. (frotu varus, i.e. ohfortus), \ 

Journal, as likewise in the third volume of the dilatation of a vein. A genus of dir.ease in the 

Medical Commentaries, in which a concur- class locales and (»rdcr tumores of Cullen; 

rence of the sniall-fxix and uieaJcs took place known by a soft tumour oa a vein which cli>es 

without the priig'ess of the former b^ng re- not pulsate. Varicose veins mostly l>econie 

tarded. The distinct small- pox is not attended serpentine, and often form a plexus of koot<, 

with danger, except when it attacks pregnant especially in the gioins and stcrotum. 
women, or appntaches nearly in its nature to VA'RLET. s, (variei, old Freoch, now 

Ijhatof the CQiiAueiit; but thin bi9t u always valei.) 1. Aocieotly a 8er%ai)t or footiuaii 



V A R V A R 

{Speiu&). 8; A acoundrd ; a rascal (Dry" in the lid of which there is a small hole, till il 
den), is obserred to become soft, and to be melted 
V A^LETRY. f . (from varlet.) Rabble ; together into one mass. As soon as this it 
crowd i populace {Shakspeare), ^ perceived, the ves^I is Uiken from off the fire, 
VA'RNiSH. t. {vemis, rrench; vemix, and suffered to cool a little ; when a pound of 
Latin.) 1. A matter laid npon wood, metal, good painter's varnish is added to it, and the 
or other bodies, to make them shine {Bacon), whole suffered to boil up again over the fire^ 
S. Cover; palliation.. keeping it continually stirring. After this, it 
To Va'rkish. V, a. {vemisser, French.) K is again removed from the fire; and when it is 
To cover with something^hining(5AaAipeare). become somewhat coo), a pound of oil of 
9. To cover ; to conceal or decorate with some- turpentine is to be gradually mixed with it. 
thin^ ornamental {Dryden)» 3. To palliate; Should the varniih, when it is cool, happen to 
to hide with colour of rhetoric {Denham), be yet too thick, it may be attenuateil with 
VAavisH, in the arts, a compound fluid, more oil of turpentine. This varnish hai 
obtained in various way«, and which when always a dark-brown colour, because the am- 
spre^d over a solid substance adheres to it, and bcr is previously half- burned in this operation^ 
being dr}', forms upon \t% surface a shinins but if it be required of a bright colour, amber* 
and transparent coat, impervious to air and powder must be dissolved in transparent paint- 
moisture. er*s varnish, in Papin*6 m::chine, hy a gentle 

The be&t, perhaps the only substances' that fire, 
are capable of producing these effects, are As an instance of the sort of vaniisbes with 

retios; and as of these lac has been more ge- ethereal oils, may he adduced the varnish made 

ner^lly employed, either alone or in conjtmc- with oil of turpentine. For making thif, mas- 

tion with other materials, than the rest: many tich alune is dts.>olved in oil of turpentine by a 

of the most valuable and important varnishes very gentle digesting heit, in close glass ves* 

are deiiomiriated lacquers, and the mode of sels. This is the varnish used for the mwlern 

Qsing them lacquering ; those eooecially which transparencies employed as window-blinds* 

irr applied to tlie surface of metals, to heighten fire-screens, and for oiner purposes. Theso are 

their colour as well as to afford them protection commonly prints, coloured on both sides, and 

from the action of air and moisture. afterward coated with this varnish on those 

The resins, or resinous substances that are pjrts that are intended to l)e transparent, 

chiefly made use of for the purpose of varnish. Sometimes fine thin calico, or Irish linen, is 

in^ are the following \ fac, benzoin, mastich, u^ed for this purpose ; but it requires to be 

anime, elemi, sandarach, turpentine, gamboge, primed with a s(»liition of isinglass, before the 

diagoirs blood, copal, amber, asphalt, caout- colour is laid on. 

chooc. Copal may be dissolved in genuine Chio tur« 
These substances are capable of solution in pentine, according to Mr. Sheldrake, b^ adding 
the one or the other, and some of them in all it in powder %o the turpentine previously melt- 
the three following menstrua ; alkohol, or spi- ed, and stirring till the whole is fused. Oil of 
rits of wine, volatile or essential oils, and fat or turpentine may then be added, to dilute it suf- 
fixed oils. ^ ficiently. Or the copal in powder may he 
Btfure a resin is dissolved in a fixed oil it is put into a long-necked matrass with twelve 
orcessary to render the oil drvin^ For this parts of oil of turpentine, and digested several 
purjKMe the oil must be boileo with metallic days on a sand- heat, frequently shaking it. 
os)ds, in which process its mucilage combines This may be diluted with one-fourth or one-- 
With the metal, while the oil itselt unites with fifth of alcohol. Metallic vessels, or insiru- 
ibe oxygen of the oxyd. To accelerate the dry- ments, covered with two or three coats of this, 
ingof this varnish. It is necessary to add oil of and dried in an oven each time, may be 
torpentine. washed with boiling water, or even exjKM^ to 
Ihe essential varnishes consist of a solution a still greater heat, without irijury to the var- 
of some o^ the above resins in oil of turpentine, nish. 

The varnish being applied, the essential oil flies A varnish of the coivsistence of thin tur^ 

o£ Thi% is chiefly used for paintines. pentine is obtained for aerostatic machines, ^ 

When resins are dissolved in alkohol the the dieestion of one part of elastic gum, or 

nroish dries very speedily, and is subject to cKoutcnouc, cut into smnll pieces, in thirty-two 

erackj but thi> wult is corrected by adding a parts of rectified oil of turpentine. Previously 

HDall qijuntity of turpaotine to the mixture, to its being used, however, it must be panced 

which renders it brighter and less brittle when throiish a linen cloth, in order that the undis- 

dj\. solvefl parts may be left behind. 

The coloured resins, or resinous gums, as In spirit- vamif^h, it should beobterved, that 

|iinl)oge, and dragon*s blood, arc used to give a the most solid resins yield the most durable vaf- 

tincture u* the varnish. nishes ; hot a varnish must ne*'er be expected 

We have already observed, that when fixed to be harder than the resin naturally is of which 

(4li are uied they must be previously rendered it is made. Hence it is absurd to suppose 

drying: and we may take an example of var- that there are any incombustible varnishet, 

nijhes thus prepared from common amber since there is no such thina as an incombus- 

wrnish. To make this, half a pound of amber tiblc resin. But the most solid resins by them- 

ii kept over a gentle fire in a covered iron pot, r] v es produce brittle varnitfbct : therefore tome* 



VARNISH. 

(filing of a softer 8ul)stance must aUvayt be it extracted by incisions made in the spring | 

mixed with them, thereby this brittleiiess is and when the varnUh, which is received lo 

diminished. For this purpose gum elemi^ tur- slicIU^ does not flow, several hog'i bristles, 

pentine, or balsam of copaiva are employed in moistened with water or saliva, are introduced 

(mrper proportions. For the solution ot these into the wound, and cause it to run. VVhea 

)odif« the strongest alcohol ought to be iised» the tree is exhausted, the up|)er part of it is 

which may very properly Indeed l)e distillej wrapped in straw, which is set on fire, and 

over alkalf, but must not have stood upon causes the varnish to precipitate to the bottom 

alkali. The utmost simplicity in composition of the tree, where it flows out of perforations 

with respect to the number of the ingredients made for that purnObC. 

ID a formula is the result of the greatest tktll Those who collect the varnish set out before 

in the art; hence it is no wonder that the day-break, and place their shells beneath the 

greatest part of the formulas and recipes that apertures. The fhcUs are not left longer than 

we meet with are composed without any prin- three hours in their place, because the heat of 

cipLe at all. the sun would evaporate the varnish. 

In conformity to these rules, a fine colour- l*he varnish emits a smell, which the work* 

less varnish may be obtained, by dissolving men are \ery careful to avoid restpiring. It 

eight ounces of gum sandarach and two ounces produces an effect which they call the bud of 

of Venice turpentine in thirty-two ounces of the varnish. 

alcohol by a gentle heat. Five ounces of shell- When the varnish issues from the tree it re* 

lac nnd one of turpentine, dissolved in thirty sembles pitch. By exposure to the air, it gra« 

two ounces of alcohol by a very gentle heat, dually becomes colourcd» and is, at last, of a 

cive a harder varnish, but of a reddish cast, beautiful black. 

To the5e the solution of copal is undoubtedly The juice which flows from incisions made 

preferable in many respects. This is elTccted in the trunk and branches of the rhus tnxico* 

by triturating an ounce of powder of gum dendron possesses the same properties. It is a 

copal, which has been well aricd by a gentle white milky fluid, which becomes black and 

heat, with a drachm of camphor, and, while thick by the contact of the air. 

these are mtxins together, adding by degrees To make the varnish bright, it is evanoratet) 

four ounces of the strongest alcohol, without by the sun ; and a body is given to it with hog*t 

any digestion. gall and sulphat of iron. 

fietween this and the gold varnish there is The Chinese use the oil of tea, which they 

only this difference, that some substances that render drier by boiling it with orpiment, reat 

eommunicate a yellow tinge are to be added to gar, and araenlc. 

the latter. The most ancient description of To ^ive lustre to a varnish after its.applica* 

two sorts of it, one of which was preprcd tion, it is rubbed with pounded pumice-stone 

with oil, and the other with alcohol, is to be and water; tliis is dried up with a doth, and 

found in Altxius Pedemontanus Dei Secrett, the work then rubbed with an oiled rag and 

Lucca, of which the fir^t edition was publish- tripoli. The surface is last of all cleaned with 

rd in the year l-la?. But it is better prepared, soft linen cloth^ cleared of all greasiuess with 

and more durable, when made after the follow- powder of starch, and rubbed bright with the 

ing prescription : take two ounces of shell-lac, palm of the hand. 

of arnatto and turmeric each one ounce, and We have said that lacquers or lacquer 
thirty grainb of fine dragon's blood, and make varnishes consist chiefly of those that are sp- 
an extract with twenty ounces of alcohol in a plied to metals to heighten their colour aiKl 
gentle heat. * bring it nearer to that of gold, as well as for 

Oil varnishes are commonly mixed immedi- protection. The metals commonly lacquered 

ately with the colours, but lac or lacquer var- are bras^ and tin. The following is one of 

ni>hei( arc l:>id on by themselves upon a bur- the best varnishes for this purpose, 

ntshed coloured ground : when they arc in- Take of turmeric pulverisea one ounce, and 

tended to be laid upon naked wood, a ground of saffrcyi and arnatto each two drachms; in- 

fthould be 6 r«t given them of strong size, either fuse them at a moderate temperature for a 

alone or with some earthy colour, mixed up week or more in a pint of rectified alkohol ; 

with it by levigation. The gold lacquer is separate the yellow tincture thus obtained by 

simply rubbed over brass, tin, or silver, to give straining through a piece of clean linen, ana 

them a pold colour. add to the clean liquor three ounces of good 

Perc d'lncar\'ille has informed us^ that the seed lac: let the matoriuls digest together for 

tree which affords the varnish of China is some days in a bottle, with frec|uciit shaking, 

called Uti-chou by the Chinese. This tree is and then strain off the clear (Kirt, which is the 

propagated by offsets. When the cultivator is lacquer. If the piece of brass to which it is to 

de<^iroiis of planting it, he takes a branch, be applied is large, as a lock for example, it is 

which he wraps up in a mass of earth, by to be warmed, and the lac(|uer, made also 

means of flax. Care i« taken to moisten this warm, is to be spread on tvith a brush: if the 

earth ; the branch pushes out roots, and is articles be small, they are to be made up into 

then pruned and transplanted. Thi«> tree packets, then warmea, and afterwards dipped 

grows to the ^ize of a man's leir. into the varnish. 

The varnish is drav.n in spring. If it be a Varnish tre£. See Rhus. 

cultivated trcf^ it affords three gatherinip. It VA'RNISHLH. r. (from t;ar;i/*A.) l.Oiie 



V A S 

Ui Tamiih IBoylt). t. A dia- 
•uMct ; ;in ailorner ( fope). 

VaUBO (M. Tei«»uuO. > Roman omul, 
•tCiniueiby A'lnibal. (SucTeren- 
A Laiiii wtiu-r, Mebiaiol Tnr his 
Off. He wniic no lt«< ihan SCO 
lima, all now lA-t, exccjii a imtiH 
m, and Jiioihcr, Ue liitgiia I jtjna, 
Cifcto. He was Pompey'i liru- 
unuii in hU [>irniiMl wan, arul nbialiiKl a 
9«nl rtowB. Ill ihe eival win he wns ukcii 
IfCatsr, anil pmiciibed, but ticncaiicd. He 
tun bMB gruity conimr'idcil bf Cicero Cnr his 
•fwlnioa. He' (lied H. C. SR, in llie SSih year 
of hii igt. — 3. A niiH-e of Gaul, in the agr of 
J. Cvwi. He tfan-latMl tnlo Uiin vtnt ihc 
AapaMoiiea of A[t<>1l6iiiiit Hhodiut, wlih great 
ctvnclBfM and i-leasnec. He failed in hi» 
siumiit ID wriir Miirr. llfaral.) 

VARHONIA, in boMiiy, a genus or ihe 
ela>t«»iandri*. order moQOgynia. Curul Are- 
cMli drujw with a fiHii-celled nut. Nine 
•win; »htulMof the WesllndiMorAinrrica. 
TA'KVHLS. I. (.farcilU,, Fi.) SiKertini^ 
abomihe le;* ar.i hawk, on wliich the owner'i 

r« VARY. w. o. (MnW. Laiin.) 1. To 
thta^i to iiiAit unlike itscir (Milm). 8. To 
dunge to noiiiPihiiig rUr {Jfallrr). 3- To 
D^e of difTcrcm kjndt (firiiwn). 4. To ditct* 
lih, In laricgile OfiJ/oNj. 

T« V*'».r. ■>, n. I. To be changeable; lo 
iww in ftilTricnt fonns (M<//on^ I. To be 
mdAe each oihci {ColHtr^. 3. Tn idlers lo 
Wnnme unlike ilielf |.P<>p«}. 4. To deviate! 
lailnnn {Lockr). 5. To tucceed eneh oiher 
l.tiJu««). (>. To diiagree ; lo be at variance 
lOonn). ?■ To ihift culouri (papr). 

V»'«r. f. (from the verb.l Change^ alter- 
*tiM T not in UK {SttQktpeart). 

VAS DEFERENS, (from rfr/«o. w con- 
■t*.] A dun which ariaea from ihe cpididymii, 
•ad (tMMi through llic inguinal rn<|z in ihe 
•(iRiutir cord into the cavity of ihe pelvis, 
■M WtRimsles in the reiiruiz seminalrs. Ii« 
w*iiu> eoRvey ihe icmcn, or at lenii a seini- 
m) fluid •ecTMcd in the iciticle, and btoujihi 
■ hbjrihe rudiilymii into the veiiculie scoii- 
vdtt, 

VASA. VeiM-lt. In rtnntnniy and botany. 
Caiuuni Te|;Fl.ihilia tiiplicibus tati;. I. Sue 
«« liquarrui Tchunt'. carrying ihe juice!. C. 
I'innili alvff.lis aticeum eouKiranl : secreting 
««ttivin^ Ihfin. 3, Tracheie acieni atira- 
hmi: aJt-iriielt. Philoa. Bot. SccAkato- 
>*< boTASV, aiul PUVSIOLOGV. 

V»»a aatvta. Tlic aiirries which come 
iitnlhc «|ilrcn, and run ulong ihe lurgc arch 
•'ihc tininach lo tlie iliajihrasni. 
Va«* ptvssaaTiA. See Vxs niiriERtMi. 
Vua vorncosA. The contorted iwels 
"f 'he fboiwlil membfanc, 
.V*1>CtJl.AR.o. (fn-m M.n</««. Uiin) 
^MgncvfrtMlsi rKiUrreiKbC^i'tu/A.). 
^^^KtJLl'FBRUUS. 0. {vauihm and 
^^^^^Etiii-t Such plants a« have, beside the 
^^^^Hknlvi, a pcruliar vcmcI to cnntain the 
^■imwetinic* dmded into ctllt(qiir<cy). 



VASE, a (erm frequently used for ancient 
veuel) dtig fruiu under ground, or otherwise 
found, and preserved in ihe cabinets of ihe 
curious. In archiieciure, the appellation vase 
ii also given lo those ornaments placed on cor- 
nlchn, sochles, or^sedeilali, te|)rescniing the 
vessels of Ihe ancients, parliculatty lho-<e used 
in sacriiiee ; as incense-pots, flower-pots, &cv 
They serve lo crown or ^iiiih fjfa<les, or fron- 
tispiecesi and hence cnllcd acroieria. Tlte 
term va»c, however, ii more particularly used 
in archiieciure to signify thebodyof iheCoriii- 
ihian and Coiii)>osiic crtpiuil ; otherwise called 
the tambour or drum, aud soinetimes the cam- 
piina or hell. 

VA'SSAL. a. {vniial, Fr. Boitalh, lul.) 
I. One who lioldj by the will of a superiour 
lord {.Iddiiou). i, A subject ; a dependant 
(Italt'tah). 3. Aser^'anl; one whoacts by ihe 
will ot another {Shakifenre), 4. A slave ; a 
low wrclch {Shahprarc). 

VA'SSALLaGE. .. {i'0«f/a«, Fr,) The 
lUtc of a vassal ; lenuie at will ; servitude ; 
slavery ; dependance IDryJrn). 

VAST. a Cf owe. Fr. rai/«j, Ul.) I. Urge j 
great (ClarenJan). S- Viiiousty great ( enor- 
mously exiensive or capacious (Millon). 

Vait. I. (aatlum, Lai.) An euiply waste. 

VASTATION... (coi/a/io. Lat.) Waste; 
depopulation (J)«aw of P'lelu). 

VASTl'UrrY. .. U-ttililai. Lai.) Wide- 
nest; immensity. A barbarous word {Sliak- 
tprarr). 

VA'STiy.ad. (from tasl.) Greatly; u>% 
gi-eat degree (5uuM). y 

VA-STNESS.*. (from va>l.) Immensiiytl 
enormous greatness (Bc«ri<.«). » 

VASTUS EXTERNUb, ii.iinatomy. {vai- 
ttii, so called from ils size.) Tills l.irge, ihick, 
and fleshy muicle it siliiaied on ihc unlet side 
of the thigh ; it arises, by a broad ihick ten- 
don, from ihe inwer and -nnlcrlor part of the 
great trochanter, and upper pan or the linra 
Bspcria; il likewise adheres by fleshy fibres tu 
the wiiole outer edge of ihat rough lint. It* 
fibres descend obliiiuely forwards, and after tt 
has run four or five incnct downwards, wc&n^ 
it adhering lo the anterior surface and oi"'~' 
side of the crur«\it, with which it coniir 
to be connected lo the lower pari of the liii_ 
where we see it leniiinating iti a broad leitdon, 
tvhich is inserted into ihe upfier part of ihe 
patella laterally, and sends oft an nponeuroii* 
thai adheres to ihe head oF the libia, anil ii 
coitlinued diinn the Irg. 

Vastus internui. This muscle, which 
i» less considerable thiin the vastus exieinu!, ii 
tiiualcd at theiniiiT side of the thigh, being 
se|UiratciI ftoni itie lastdocrilK-d muscle byllie 



r tt 



It arises tendinous 
tlie fore-part of the o 
lite letier irochanter 






, and the iliacus ii 



, connected with 
the crursus, but it conitntics longer flnhy than 
tlui inuiclr. A little above the kuee iv« m*. 



VAT V A U 

its outer edge uniting with the inner cd^c of value of this and the Alexandrian maniucriB^ 

the rcciuj, after which it is inserted tendinous in which .thirty F^lms* a few chapters, ana a 

into ihe up)HT part and inner side of the pa- few verses, are now lost, as well as parka of 

tella, sending oil an a|)on€urosis which adheres verses in different places ; and in whicn there 

to the ujH)<:r part of ihe tibia. have been some rasures and insertioDS^ at 

VA'STY. a. (from vast.) Large; ener- Grahe allows. If, as Grabe states it, that iiift* 

moiwlvjgrcai {Shakspeare). nuscript be the most respectable which coidcs 

VAT\ s. ivai, Dmch j j:ac, Sax.) A vessel the nearest to the Hcxaplar copy, the Alexan- 

in which liquors are kej.t in the inunauiM state, drian manuscript seems to clniiii that merit in 

VATiCA, in botmy, u genus of the class preference to its rival. But if it be thought a 

dodecjndria, orrier nionogynia. CaKx five- niatier of snfK^rior honour to come nearer the 

cleft; petals five; anthers tificen, sessile, four- old Greek version, unaltered by Origeo, that 

celled. Oue species only, vaiica Chinensis : a merit seems to belong to the Vatican. For 

tree of China and the Mysore, with alternate, farther particulars, see the Prolegomena of 

heart-ovute, entire, glabrous leaves; panicled Walton, Grabe,Wetstein, Mills, and LeLoog, 

flowers; branclu's biriatc, or angular. ubi supra. 

This seems to be the proper lac- insect tree, VA'TICIDE. i. (t;a/ei and c<P(2o, Lat.) A 

roncerniug which naturalists have so long dif- murderer of prophets. 

fcrcd in opaiion. The reader will find a par- To VATI'CINATE. n. n. {vaiicinor, Lat.) 

ticular account of it, as well as of the manner To prophesy ; to practise prediction {Ilowel). 
of coIIectiuL' this valuable secretion, in Bucha- V A'v ASOUR. j. {vavat^eur, Fr.) One who 

pan's Journey, vol. i. pp. I/O and 343. Sec himself holding of a superiour lord, has oihert 

also the article Lac, in the present work. holdine under him {Camden). 

VATICAN, a hill at Rome, near the Tiber VAUBAN (Sebastian le Prestre, seigneur 

and the Janiculum. lately admired for ancient de}, marshal of France, and the greatest en* 

monunients and pillars, and for the palace of gineer that country ever produced, was born ia 

the |)ope, which is said to consist of several 1(333. He displayed great abilities and skill in 

thousand rooms .* the pans r." it most admired many sieves, and his services were rewarded 

are the grand staircase, the pope's apartment, with the first military honours. He was made 

and especially the librar)', which is one of the governor of Lisle, commissary^general of the 

richest in the world, both in printed books fonifications of France, and afterwards gover« 

and manuscripts. nor of the mariiiuie nans of Flanders, and a 

Vatican manuscript is one of the most marshal of France. He died in 1707, having 

celebrated manuscripts of the Greek version of brought fortification to a degree of perfection 

the Bible now extant in the world. It was unknown before. His writings on these sub* 

published at Rome by cardinal Carafa, at the jects are in the highest esteem.' 
command of Sixius Qnintus, in 1687 ; and in VAUD (Paysrie), a country of Switzerland, 

the preface, it is said to have been written anie in the canton of Bern. It cxtemls along the 

milUiimum ducenfesimum annum, i. e. before lake of Geneva, rising gradually from the ed^ 

387 ; but Blanchiui supposes it a few years of that lake, and is richly laid out in vine^-ardsy 

later. A Latm edition f^rom this manuscript, corn-fieids, and meadows, and clK>qiierea with 

wiihnotc^, was printed at Rome in 1588, by continued villages and towns. It was wrested 

IHam. Noliiliufi ; and an edition, with the from the duke of Savoy, by the canton of Bern, 

Greek and I^tin, with the division of the in 1636. I^usanne is the capital, 
verses, according to the Vulgate, and Nobilius's VAUDaBLKS, a town of France, in the 

Latin note), and the Greek scholia of Carafa, department of Fuy de Donne, five miles from 

by J. Morinus, at Puris, in lf)V8. This ma* Laoire, and 240 S. by E. of Paiid. 
nubcript is written in large or text letters, and VAUDKMONT, a town of France, in the 

has no distinguishing chapters, verses, words, department of Mv-urtlic, with a caNtK'. it is 

nor any nurks of accents. It is mutilated seated in the most fertile country for corn in 

both at the beginning and end; and wants all Lorrain, 16 milts S.£. of 'ii>ul, and 18 

the tirst forty-six ch.iptera of Gene^is, thiry- S.W. of Nanci. Lon. 6. 67 li. Lat 48. 

two Psalms, viz. from the 106th to the 137ihi •(> N. 

and the Inter part of the Fpisile 10 the He- VAIJDEVH^. j. (vaudrvili^, Fr.) A song 

brews, from chap. ix. ver. 14. with the other common among the vulvar; a balad; a iiWm 

Kjus'les of P.jul fo Timoih), Titus, and Phile- sliain. 

inon, and the whole book of ReveLiion. It VAUDOIS (Valleys of), in Piedmont. 

fjUM-ars aU>, that the whole inanuscripi has Ti^ey lie N. of the niarquisate of Saluzzo, and 

been repaired, wiih fre^h ink laid over tni* let- ihi* ch.ief town is Lncirna. 
i«T<, which v/ere di<ipi)earii)j^ throuj^h age. Vauoois, Valdenses, or \Vai.dbx9F.s. 

Im the ediiion of Carafa the muiilaie<l |>assjg<>s in eccle'^iasiical histor\', a nan.e tjven to a sect 

have been supplied from other c pies. of reformers, who made their fust appc-arauce 

It has been asserted, by two eye-witnesseo, ab<mi the vear ll()0. 
that this manuscript has undcr);>ne some al* Of all the ^ects that arose in this century^ 

terations by a later hand. See I^ I/)n^*s Bi- none was more distin^^uishcd by the rrputattdn 

blioih. Sacra, cap. 3. sect. 4 ; and Wclstein*s it ncouired, by the muhiiude of its votaries, 

Pndtgomena, Nov. Te3t. p. V4. and tlie te&timony which its bitterc-^t enemies 

It i> ditBcuU to e:itimatc ihe com|)arativc bore 10 the probity and iuuoccuce of iu aiem* 



V A U D O I S. 

kn» thtn that of the Waldenses, to called, in the ]itace of Vaodois. The hinody inqnisi* 

uy« Moshetin, from their |Mir«at and founder tor, Reiuenis Sacco, %vho exerted such a furi- 

Fetcr Waldui. lli^'y were also called Leonists, ous zeal for the dcsiruction of the Waldenses, 

fnim Leona, the ancient name of Lyonsi, where lived but eighty ^ears after Valdus of Lyons, 

their sect took its rise. The nK>re eminent and must, therelore, be sii|)(X)!>ed to know 

penons of that sect manifested their progress whether or not he was the redl founder of the 

tuwainls |>eifcction by the sim|ilicity and mean- Vaidensfs or Lffonists ; and yet it is remark- 

DCMoftlieir external appearance: hence, among abie, that he speaks of the Leonists as a sect 

ochcr tbinj^, they wore wooden shoes, which that had flouristied abo^e tive hundred years; 

in iIk French bnguage are termed sabots, and and mentions authors of note who make their 

had imprinted upon tnese shoes the sign of the antiquity asccitd to the a|X)btolic a^e. See the 

to dUtinguish themselves from other account given of Sacco*s book by the Jesuit 



Christians; an<l on these accounts they ac- Gretscr, in the Bibliotheca Patruui. See also 

qaircd the deuouiiuatious of Sabbataii and In- Leger's Histoirc Gen* des ligli^es Vaudoises^ 

sctbbauti. cap. 2. So, 26, ^7* 

Tlie origin of this fauious sect, according to But to return to the history of Peter Valdus. 

Mi>fcbeimt was as follows: Peter, an opulent Soon after Pettr had assumed the exercise of 

tiicrcbjDt of Lyons, suruauied Valdeuhis, or his ministry, the archbish<ip of Lyons, and the 

Va'idisius, from Vaux, or Waidum, a town in othef rulers of the churclt in that province, 

tiM OMnjuisate of Lyooa, beinz extremely zeal- vigorously opposed him. However, their op« 

ous fof the advancement of true piety and position was unsuccessful ; f tr tl^e purity and 

Cnriscian knowledge, employed a certain priest, simplicity of that reii^im which these good 

called Siepha nut de Kvisa. al>out the year 1 160, men taught, the s|K>tle.«s innocence that shone 

in translating from I^tin into French the four forth in their lives and actions, and the noble 

Gos|ieis« with other l>ouks of holy S'^rijUure, contempt of t'lcUa and honours, which was 

and ttie most remarkable sentences of the an- conspicuous in the whole of their conduct and 

cieiit f1octois« which were so highly esteemed conversation, appeared so engaging to all such 

ia tills century. But no scjoner had he |H;rused as had any sense of true piety, that the number 

tiiesc sacred tiooks with a proper degree uf at- of their followers daily incrs.'a^ed. They ac- 

uation, itiaM he perceived ttiat tlM! religion, cordiugly formed religious asstrinblies first in 

ssnich was now taught in the Roman church, France, and afterwards in Loinbardy, from 

difieral touUy from that which was originally whence they propagated their sect throughout 

inculcated by Christ and his apostle<i. Struck the other provinces of Europe with incredible 

with this glaring contradictioti between the rapidity, and with ^uch invincible fortitude, 

doctrines of the pontiffs and the truths of the that neither fire, nor sword, nor the most cruel 

GfJS|iel, and animated with zeal, he abandoned inventions of merciless |iersecution, could damp 

bis mercsiuile vocation, difttriUited his riches their zeal, oreittirely ruin their cause. 

imota|[tbe poor (whence the Waldcnses tvere The attempts of Peter WaMus and his fol- 

catled poor men of Lyons), and forming an lowers were neither employed nor designed to 

psiociatioii with other pious men, who had introduce new doctrines into the church, nor 

aiopusd his seotimeuts atul his turn of devo- to piopose new articles of faiih to Christians. 

tioii, he l«egan, in tlie year 1180, to assume AH they aimed at was to reduce the form of 

tHe (|uaUty of a public teacher, and to instruct ecclesia.siical government, and the manners 

t'le multitude iu the doctrines and precepts of both of the cKfrtity and people, to that amiable 

Christianity. simplicity, and primitive sanctity, that charac- 

Br/za, and other writers of note, who are terizcd the ajxisiolic ages, and which appear so 

ibilowcd bv Dr. Maclcane, the learned transia- strongly reconinK-rrleil in the precepts and 

inrofMosheim*shi»ior\', give different accounts ^injnr.ciitHVi of tlie divine author of our 

of the origin of the Waldcnses ; alU*ging, that holy religion. In con-cquetice of this design, 

ii «ecms evident from the best records, that they complaitiud that the Iloman church had 

Vildusdcri%ed bis na;ne from the true \'alden- degti;c;aicd, under Constuutine the Great, 

Mof Piedmont, ivhose doctrine he adopted, fro.n its priuitiive purity and sanctity. They 

io(i who were known by the names of Vaudois dented the su;>reiuacy of the.- Roman pontin* 

•od V'ttldenseii, t»efore he or his immediate Hoi- and luuintjined, iliai the rolers and niini>iers 

iMicrs existed. If the Valuenses or Waldcnses of the churcn were oblised, by tliclr vocation, 

bul derived their name from an eminent teach- to imitate ttio poverty of the apostUs, aiul to 

cr. It would proltahly lia«e been from Valdo, procure for iliemselves a subsistence by th<> v^ork 

*Ho w»s remarkable for the purity of his doc- ot their hands. They considered e*ery Chris- 

^Ofin the eleventh centurv, and was the co- tiin a?, in a certain mensnrf*, qMalified and au- 

t'lipofar)' and chief connsehor of Ucrcngarius. thonzed to instruct, extiort, aiwl confirm the 

Boi llie truth is, that they derive their name brethren in their Chii*»iin courf-e, and dc- 

fnno their valleys in Pii^dmont, which in their manded the restorjtion of the ancient peniten- 

ho4m;{ewere called vaux. and hence Vaudois, tial disci))liue of the clii:rc!i, i. e. the cxpi.ition 

tiieirtioe name: hence also Peter, or, a» others of transgressions by pra\er, fasiiiig, and alms, 

^< liiia, John of Lvons, was called in Latin which ilie new-invented doctrine Y>f iirltil- 

Vilila^, because he hid adopted their doctrine; gences had almost totally abolished. The)', at 

**^ hfnce the term Valdenses or Waldt-nses the same time, alBrmed, th.it every |)iouaCliiik- 

^1 by those who w*ritc in English or Latto, tian was qualified and entitled to prescribe lo 



V A U V A U 

the peoitent the kind or degree of satisfaction Vault, in architecture, an arched roof, m 
or expiation that their transgressions required ; contrived that the stones which form it ^usuia 
that confession made to priests was by no means each othvr. Vaults are, on many occasions, 
necessary, since tlie humble ofl'ender might ac- to be preferred to soffits or ceilit.gs, as they 
knowledge his sins, and testify his repentance give a greater height and elevation, and are be* 
to any true believer, and might expect from sides mi^rc firm and durable, 
such the 6ounsel and admonition which his Salmn^ius obsvnes, that the ancients had 
case demanded. They maintained, that the only three kinds of vaults. The first was the 
power of delivering sinners from the guilt and fornix, made cradle- wise; the second a tesiudo, 
punishment of their oH'ences belonged to Gud i.e. tortoise- wise, wliich the French call cnl 
alone ; and that indulgences, of consequence, de four, or oven-wise ; and the third concha, 
were the criminal inventions of sordid avarice, or trumpei-wise. But the moderns have sob» 
Thev looked upon the prayers, and other cere- divided these three sorts into many more, lo 
monies that were ins'.ituted in behalf of the which they have given diflcrent names, accord* 
dead, as vain, useless, and absurd, and denied ing to their figures and uses; some of them 
the existence of departed souU in an intcrme- are circular, and others elliptical, 
diute state of purification ; affirming, that they Again, the sweeps of some^are brger, othen 
were immediately, upon their separation from less, poriions of a sphere. All such as arv 
the body, received into heaven, or thrust down above hemispheres are called high, or surmount- 
to hell. These, and other tenets of a like na- ed vaults ; and all that arc less than hemispheres, 
ture, composed the system of doctrine propa- are called low, or surbascd vaults, or testu* 
gated by the Waldenses. It is aUo said, that dines. 

several of the Waldenses denied the obligation In some vaults the height is greater than the 

of infant-buptism, and thdt others rejected diameter; in others it is less ; others agaiiL are 

water-baptism entirely; but Wall has laboured quite flat, and only made with haunses; othen 

to prove, that infant-baptism was generally like ovens, or in tne form of a cul defour, &c. 

practised among them. and others growing wider as tliey lengthen, like 

Duiing the greatest part of the 17th century, a trumpet, 

those of ihcm who lived in the valleys of Pied- Vaults (Master), are those that cover the 

mon% and who had embraced the doctrine, principal parts of buildings, in contradiitioc- 

discipline, and worship of the church of Ge* tion to the upper or subordinate vaults, which 

neva, were oppressed and persecuted, in the only cover some little part, as a passage or gate, 

most barbarous and inhuman manner, by the &c. 

ministers of Rome. This persecution was car- Vault (Double), is one that is built Ofcr 

ned on with peculiar marks of rage and enor- another, to make the outer decoration nnge 

mity in the years 1()55, 16*56, and \6gi}, and with the inner; or, to make the beautv and 

seemed to portend nothing less than the total decoration of the inside consistent with that of 

extinction of that unhappy nation. The most the outride, leaves n space between the concavity 

horrid scenes of violence and bloodshed were of the one and the convexity of the other ; iu* 

exhibited in this theatre of |)apal tyranny; and stances of which we have in the dome of St. 

the few Waldenses that snnived were indebted Peter's at Rome, St. Piml's at London, and in 

for their existence and support to the interces- that of the Invalids at Paris, 

sion made for them by the English and Dutch Vaults with compartments, are such whose 

governments, and also by the Swiss cantons, sweep, or inner face, is enriched with pannels 

whosolicitcdiheclemencyof the duke of Savoy of sculpture, seprated by platbands, llirse 

in iheir behalf. compartments, which are of different figures 

VAUGELAS (Claude Favre de), a French according to the vaults, and usually gilt on i 

writer, was born at Chamberry in 1585. lie white ground, are made with stone or brick 

had a concern in the great French dictionary, walla, as in the church of St. Peter at Rome, 

and was one of those who first corrected and or with plaister on timber vaults, 

regulated the French language. He wrote two Vaults (Theory of). A semicircular arch 

excellent works, 1. Remarques sur la I^ngue or vauli, standing on two piedroits, or impost^, 

Fran9«)ise, Paris, ltl47. 2. Quintc Curce de and all the stones that compose them, being 

la vie ct dcs actions d*Alexandre le Grand, cut, and placed in such manner as that their 

tradiiitdu Latin, Paris, l653. He died about joints or beds, being prolonged, do all meet in 

10*55. the centre of the vault: it is evident that all 

VAULT. 1. (vaulie, Fr. rolia, Ital.) 1. A the stones must lie in the form of wedges, 1. e. 

continued arch {Burnet), S. A cellar (Shak' must l>c wider and bi'^ger at top ; by means of 

spcnre). 3. A cave ; a cavern (Sandys), 4. which they sustain each other, and mutually 

A repository for the dead (Shrtkspeare), oppose the effort of their weight, which deter- 

To Vault, r. n. {router, Fr.) 1. To arch ; mines them to fall. The stone in the middle 

to shape as a vault {Shakspeare)* S. Tocoxer of the vaults, which stands perpendicular co 

with an arch (Miiion)' the horizon, and is called the key of the Tault, 

To Vault, f. <?. {volii^rfr^Fr,) 1. To leap; is sustainerl on each si<!e by two contiguous 

to jump (/ft/(/iion). 9. To play the tumbler, stones, ju:<t as by two inclined plnnc*»; and, 

or jxisturemaster. < consequently, the effort it makes to fall it not 

Vault, s. (from the rcrb.) A leap; a equal to its weight. Hut still that effort is th« 

jump. greater, as the iuclincd planes are les« iocUucd | 



I 

i 



■o liial if the; wete infinitely lilitc incViied, 
L e, U' ihcjp WMC pFiMfHllculat to ilie lioriioD 
M well at the ktj, il will leiul tn T.ll with lis 
wrboU wci^i, and wtniM aciunUj fall but fur 
die monar. lite Kcnnd iinne, whicli it on 
tbc ri^tM Of Icfi uf ilia kef -itone, is susiainrd 
bja tbirJ, whirh, bj vir'ueorihe (i^iirrnrilie 
fiuli, i* ntonuriljr n'inre inclined lo the ^trond 
Uon the iccand ia Id ihc first ; and conse- 
Qwnlly the tecond, iu ihe cfton il maki-a lo 
b&, emtiltt)'* a lci>! part of iU weight than ihe 
fir>t. Foe the uric rcunon, ihe stonei rrom 
ihc Lc)-tione emplov itill a Icm and le» pan of 
UieiTKcuhl lo tbc'bit; which, resting on a 
Iwrixoaul |i!»nt, empki^! no part of it* weight, 
Of, which » ihc Mnie thing, make* no eft'ortat 
*V, aa bcins ealiniy lupportcd by the impost, 
Now, ill Taiili], a peat point to be aimed «i it, 
iluliD ihr iiiuitoirt, or key-ntoi'es. make an 
a^ual rScn lowai.U fallinz. To effeet iliis, it 
n riwbk, that « uach (reckoning fraiii the liL-y 
to iht iuipml) employ Blill a lesi and leu part 
of Ml wliok weight; the fini, for inslnntc, 
ooly cnplnyins onr-halfi the iMroiiil, oiic- 
■Wnl I the Ihifd, one-fourth, ice. then h no 
Mbcr way of aiakiiiK thiue diflrtcnl pniii equal, 
ba> bf i pro|Kirtioiiable lugmeti union of^ the 
«4mIf 1 i. e. the taKond iloiic inmi be heavier 
tkm the linl, ilie third llian the second, ice. 
*t the hiti which tltould be itiRnilely heavier. 

it. Dc la Hire dcmonilr^tn what thai pto- 
imuoii i*. is which tlie weight of the itnne* 
<f a KmiciKiiUr arch muM he increased lo be 
M ci|ailibrio. or lo Icnil with eijiial force* lo 
bU, wfaicli il ihefirmesidiipMiiion x tatilt can 
h»w. The arcliitecis before him had no cer- 
Uai fate lo oicutucl thetniclres by, but did all 
Jt randmn. Reckoning ihe degrees of the 
•inarfttM ofa circle, fioni,the key-slone lo the 
HipMl, ib« extremity of each itone will take 
«|i M much Itic gTMIcr arch as it is farther from 
tbtkrr. 

M. I)e la Hire-i rule it, to augment ihe 
wn^l of eieh »lone aboye thai of the kcv- 
waot, m miich ai the uiigent of the arch of 
Ae oouB exceetls llie tangent of ihe arch of 
half the key. Now the tangent of the Lit 
■3K of necruily becomes infinite, and of cnn- 

Xatet iu weight should be lO (on i but, m 
■tyhai no pldceinpraciice, ihe rule amount) 
» ibis that Ihe hat iionci should tie loaded as 
mnA a* pnuible, that they mjy ilie better rc- 
Ml the (Aon which the vauli makes lu separate 
4«n which iscallcd the thoolor drinofthe 
*aolt. Mr Pajeni hu aincc deiermined the 
nm, at l^ute, which the extrad'n, or outside 
•f anull, whoM imndns, or inaidc, is apheri- 
mI. miM have, that all the stonet may be in 
■{•■Mirin. 
With nf^^td lo (he iheory in ihe more com- 

KiMD, KC our articlo Akch and Dome. 
mathemaiical reader may alwi advuiKai:?- 
CinljK/OHiIi (Mcgofy'i Mechani'-t. »ol. i.; ihe 
' ^ and laults at the end offiot- 
. Ur. Hinton's tiraliK on 
? H(.ol, of hi* 8vo. Tracti, 
il M. Burarri'g liealite, en- 



s' the 
yd>|^J 

i 



:-s Vol 



U B I 

Vault, in farriery, Tovault a borse-sjioe, 
)• X'l lurge it hallow, as In the case of Mr. Si. 
Ilfl'ii ihne. But lliii inn of shoe spoils the 
feet ; fur the sole grdduatly aasuines the foniB:^ m ■ 
of the shue, and the frog becomes every daVf^^U 
more and more raised from ihe Ktouml. 

VA'[JLTAGE.j.Cfromi.au((') Arched« 
lar: not in use (Sfto/jpeare)- 

VA'ULTED. a. (from vault.) Arche 
concave (Pope). 

VA'ULTER. *. (from vaull.) A leapt 
a jumper ; a lunibler. 

VA'ULTY. a. {from vault.-) Afched ; coiil" 
cjve: a bnd word(SinA^«peair). 

To VAUNT. V. a. {vanlfT. Fr.) To boasi; 
to diiplay with osicniaiioii {Spenifr). 

To Vaukt. 11. n. To play the bra^tgarti to 
talk with iKtrntalioni to boast (Cranuii/f), 

Vaukt. j. (from ihe verb,) Brag; boast; 
sain ostcnlalion ( Cranuii/r) ■ 

Vaunt, j. (from avant, French.) The 6ilt, 
part : not ii*ed (SAatiaeore). 

VA'UNTER. .. (.i^anuur, Fr.) Boail 
braapnrt {Drydtn). 

VA'UNTI'UL. n. (oflirn/ and/n«.) Bof 
full ostentatious (SPfHjfr). 

VA'nNTlNGLY. ad. (from vaunting.) 
BoailfuUvi OttenlBiiously {Si'nhpfart). 

VA'UNT.MUKE. .. {,ava>U ««r. Fr.) A 
fjise wall (Knawlei). 

VA'VVAHD. >. (t-anand ward.} Forepart. 

UBEKLINGIN, a free imperial city of 
Siiabia, in the coonty of Fursienburg. The 
inhabitants, who are partly Roman catholics 
and partly promianti, c;irry on > grcn( trade in 
corn, which they send lo Swjsseriandi and 
not far hence are very famous baths. It 
is feated on a high rick, near the lake of Con- 
stance, 1£ miles N. of Constance. Lon. 
10 E. Lai. 47. 50 N. 

U'BERTV. (. iuhcrloi^ LaL) Abundant 
fruilfiibiM*. 

UBES(St.), orSETVJiAL,albrtifid town 
of Portug4l, iu Eslrcmsdura, with a good har- 
bour, defended bv the fort of St. Ja|io. It is 
butit on the ruins of the ancient Seiobtiga, at 
Ihu head of a bay. near ihe mouth oT the 
Zadaen. It has a fine fishery, and a very good 
Iraije, pirticuiarly in salt, of which n great 
(^uan^ity is tent in thecoloniei in Amerirn. It 
i& scaled al the end of a plain, five miles in 
length, extremely fertile in corn, wine, niid 
ftniis : the N. end bounded by a row of 
niountuint, loiidcd with fine forests of pines, 
and other treei; and within are quirricg of 
Ja<per of several cnloun. of which ace ninde 
pilLrt nnd imajfts, thnt lake a very fine polish. 
It is S3 miles S.E. of Lisbon. X^n. 8. 64 VV, 
Lat. 38. seN, 

UBICATION. Uni'iLTr. $. {(torn 
Lalin.) Lncal rflatinn ; wheicneit (Glaav. 

IJIJIQUITAKIANS. (formed from at; 

rvcry.where.) In ecclesiastical hittorv, a 

i>f Liithemns which rose and spread ii>elf Tn 
Germany! and whoie disiingiiithini doctrine 
was, that the iHidy of Jisut Ohiiit ii cvery- 
whcte. Of in ctery place. Bientiut. one of 
iLic eailicil icfainiro, it said Iu have fii 



1 



V E C V E D 

broached this error, in 1660. Luther himself, by Ommen, Hanelt, and SwarUlays, below 
in his controversy with Zuin^lius, had thrown which it enters the Ziitder Zee. 
out some unguarded expressions, that seemed Vrcht, a river of Holland, which branehci 
to imply a belief of the omnipresence (»f the oflf from the old channel of the Rhine, at 
body of Christ ; but he becime sensible after- Utrecht, and enters the Zuider Zee, at hi mden. 
wards, that this opinion was attended with VECHTA, a town and fortress of West- 
f^tdi difficulties, and particularly that it nniixht phalia, in the principality of Munster, od a 
not to be made use of as a proof of Christ's river of the same name, 97 miles S. of Olden- 
corporeal presence in the eucharist. How- burg, and 35 N.N.E. of 05naburg. 
ever, after the death of Luther, this absurd VE'CTION. Vectita'tion. *. (cec/tt, 
hypothesis was renewed, and dressed up in a vectifo, Latin.) The act of carrying, or being 
specious and plausible form by Breniius, carried {Arbuthntt), 

Chemniiius, and Andneas, who maintained VE^CrURE.9.(»M/ffra, Latin.) Carriage, 

thecommunicationofihe properties of Christ's Veda. {wisdom, undersfanding, Sanaerit; 

divmity to his human nature. 1 1 is iiideed ob- „,v?rr*, Latin.) The name of the books which pro- 

vious, that every Lutheran who believes the emiocntly compriRe the religioui tenet* oftke 

doctrine of consuhstantiation, whatever he Indians. This term has often been rommunicalad 

may pretend, mnst be an Ubiquitariau. to Europe through the medium of the Bengalee 

UBrQUlTARY. a. (from ubique, Latin.) dialerl, wkirh having no such letter i«r aonnd ai 

.^Existing every where {Howel). V is compelled to employ a 1^ in iu stead, aaA 

Ubi'QUITARY. *. (from uhique, Latin.) hcnca the words «««/.« or Bfc/oj, tor the nsorwpr©. 

One that exists every where (Hu//). P"" ^"* »' ^^^' H*^"« •^ -Benares for «v 

UBFQUITY. *. (from ulkqne, Utin.) narrt, and Bahar for Tahar, as well aa fiimaiim 

Omnipresence ; existence at the same time in ^^^^^n^^^* u i u i. ^^ .v 

•II r^ulL. / u^u^\ The sacred ordinances, or holy booka of tJM 

i?S(r ' D ^TT I A' .u 1 Hindus, are distinguished by the general tcni 

UBY, or Pulo-Uby, an island m the In- g^„^;^ ^^ S/Uu.'4 as it is often impraperly 

dian Ocean, at the entrance of the bay of biam, ^\\^^ ^hich is derived from a Sanscrit root, im- 

twcnty miles in circumference. It yields good porting to ordain or eitallisk. The whole of tba 

water, and plenty of wood Lou. 106. 50 £. gastras arc very numerous ; but there are six thai 

Lat. 8. 25 N . are held in much higher veneration than the rot, 

UCKER, a river of Germany, which issues and are hence called the Chremt Sattrv, Fi^ft 

from a lake of the same name, near Prenzio, or Works •/ true KnovUdge. TlMse six are tiM 

in the Ucker inarche of Brandenburg, runs Veda, and Upa-Yeda, tha 4nga, Puraaa, Dher* 

N. through Pbmerania. and being joined by "la, and Dersana, which three last are" ' 

the Rando, enters the Frischen Haf; a bay of ■*)?;? •?» ^P»"»^, ^ . r • .i. 
the Baltic ■'Of these we will en^feaveur to give the 

TTr>i>iAXTA • u^ . r.u^^i.. aa dear a notion as the short space to which w« 

UCRl ANA. in botany, a genus of the class ^ j.„,.^^ ^^ ^„^^ ^ j^J ^iU .^fte^w.^^ 

pentandria, order monogyma. Calyx five- instance a few of those books which are regmrded 

toothed, suiK-rior ; corol salvcrshaped. with a m of subordinate authority to the Great Sastras. 

very long tube, and swelling naked throat ; an- aU these are written in the Sanscrit, a lan- 

thers sessile ; style clavate, hairy ; sti^^na bila- guageonce general in Hindustan, and possessing 

mellate; berry two-celled, many-celled. One a surprising affinity in itx radical terms to tha 

8{)ecies only, a shnib of Guiana, with square Greek : it is peculiarly copious and elegant; bat 

branches, lanceolaie, very entire leaves, and aince the invasion of India by the Makomctaas, 

flowers in terminal heads. has ceased to be spokea ; and is now oaly 

U'DDER. 1. (u-Dcji, Saxon.) The breast or ««»*died as the sarred langaage of the Bcaminicai 

dugs of a cow, or other large animal {Prior), i*ligi«n anthc lUbrewisoftbe Jewish 8o sa- 

S'DDERm a iUonTudder,^ Furnished raUrpTnlilul^^^^ 

^'*i T.i.ii ? ^1^^' •. r t. I -.1 priesthood is permitted to study it or to rt^ tha 

UDlNA.or Udine, a city of Italy, capital ^^^ „,^j it contains. The emperor Aekbar 

of Friuli, with a citadel. It contains lO.CKK) cou\d not, either by promises or threats, piwaU 

inhabitants ; and in 1750, on the suppression on the Bramins to discloNe its mystical contents. 

of the patriarchate of Aquileia, was made the But their firmness hsH at length yielded to the 

see of an archbishop. A treaty between the courte«iy and philosophical solicitations of the 

Austrians and Frcncn was itigncd here in 1797. English establislied in Hindu^aan ; and foreign 




i^i^i.^^ivwi. a ."w„ u. c,.uv..a. ....... ^.- ^.^^^^ donation, nan presented to the Urtish 

vemnient ot Irkutsk, seated on the Se lin^ri. j^i„^.„„ -^ ,.^j,^ ^y coionei Poller, through tha 

150 miles h, of Irkutsk. Lon. 108. S?0 L. handnof sir Joseph Banks. 

Lat. f'2. N. The r^-dt consists, in reality, of four distinct 

VEAL. 1. (reel, a calf, old Fr.) The flesh books; and heniv it i^ often denominatinl dls- 

of a calf killed for the table {Gay). ^ junctively Wiefour »rf«j. 'I'Im'v omtain coUec- 

VKCllT, a river that rises in Westphalia, tively a hundred thouMaiiii </4'.oU or stanaas of 

near iMun>ter, crosses the comities of Stenfort four linos each ; for, like ah very remote reeords, 

and Bcuthcim, and cultring 0\erywe), passes they arc wiillui in measured poetry^ aud pecu- 



VEDA. 



lauph;.ihFrmlioD of the world. irUc'nui trtv- 
oi'^tr*. praym, laoralitjr ■nil p>«<y : tnd \hr\ in- 
rtadr hitDU in i>r*iw of the ^upirme BrinE.'nnd 
to biMnur nf •uhnltcni inlrlllEtnni Thr roiir 
^(4a* Brr dntlnsuixhnl bj the naiii» of (tie 
Hik-mlB, Vijur-icda, Bim-ired*, init At'herta- 
«*4ki Kbnirethifj sR colleetlTHjrdenointiiBtdl, 
hft (vnkiai^ion of all thrw tPnni, Rikytjur- 
" m. Thr vjlhar of thcw biMik* ii 
■nd hrncf Ihrj 



lie and liberal Scire «t Mt-xaUg t fct- 

nernl ccile of llielani and riii'om. i>f Ihe IlluduK. 
For ihid purpose hp tfteaihlvi! TlraDiini fmia 
«^err p^rt of' the pcniniiili Bl Fart William In 
CalnitlK i who, under hi* ainpim, rompovd, 
from Ihp Y(dn* and uther aiithonlic boflk<, a g»- 
nirrtt langiiaRr. Thli 



nenti ptndfrt In Hie 

-?d, with ( 

1 and trooi t' 



fnor moulhi of Brania, earU of liin Tritii> 

■Hlln kavlait nintrlbutpd iu proper book. Tlie in tl 

■idkrstlrllt of the fourth bauk hm Ixwn ^us- lion 

pwMd li; tit W. ionea, and Mr. Wilkint, from ba< i 
hHb pantruUr paataiei il mnlaini, wtiicb Ai 

tba«M •MO) to intimalp that it !■ poilrrior to eni 

\)«(a,*hotr*ii^ tliein thrirpTcvnl arran^ment. Ihe ; 



■ilh the 

ipuloiu aecurary, It wao rfudered by 

Hallied Into Engliihi and published !a 

iiipponnl lo ha\e 1777 ouderlhelillpof " AC'odi-of Gentoo Lawi; 

' lued or, OnJioalionaof thePundil*. FroniaPerr— " 



MrX^ahnke )■*< CBodidly 
Mfll«l b«l ihinki il probabl 
IhwiitiW B'il, wme vorlioai 



Ltlon made frani the Original, and writtt^ 
SancrilLanguasi^.dio. London, ITTii." "* 
of the movt valuable presents Ibat*'"- 

rr ivreived ttoia Aila. 

oDf Ihp ohifff of the Inferior Srulro . 

innhi, may be mentioord the Vfamshait, 

If id Henu j Uii) the iir piilnitpfucitl Sai- 






The r'pn-K'i*"''!, or Ho!j MyiliV.e", coniitt of 
not Itii Ihan (lltj-tiTa theiito|:lpal tmliae^, the 
titlrtof whirb, togetjter with a almrl noliee of 
thdr mil tents, arc given by Mr. Colcbrokc ia tbu 
Jvjtic liantclvi. They appear tn be, f.ir Iho 
uiutt pari, exlrncU from the Veda*, and are ae- 
tanka, ll'l> In like nanair railed plumlly, Ihe knowludKedtncnnluO Ihcqulnlnwuce of Indian 
Jt*r t^ftetiai, maybe rrfarilcd ■« » eonimentary theology. The nioU eitecmed and argutuenla- 
■pan, arr auppletnrni lo Ihe preoedJDS i "p in «i»c porlJon il eolitied A'rttrtiJa. An important 
Snmntt hiriag ityniinymoiiii with the liitin I'lh, part of Ibc llpanlihada naa lrau<Uled from a 
%»i (n>t>Anini; Inferiority. The nnnic* of thp >er>ianfer<ion into Latin afew yean ago by M. 
(bar t'pavnlai are \yu*l, Oandnna, Dhnnunb, Anquetildu IVrran, under (be title of Ou/tne- 
* " — The flrit Ireali of medieine, - -^ . . 



Whlla It* name li m 

Tfc« I>tirr.. or s 
' - ' In like ■ 



Aof (iW n 

ifia'aritimum, A'c. Mr. Ilnlhed, howenr, hai 
given a heltrr Iranilalion into Engltfbj which i« 
3epu*jied iu itie British Museum. 

Oflhe Snerol Fuemi the motl reneralrd are the 
llir third, eunipoied by Viiwamilra, Itamagana, a complete epic, on one continued and 
(!*■(• iiriba (kliricatioD and uieofthe weapoiiK heroic action ; aoinewhal InlercMlng, but too 
•f Iba m] litary tribe. The fourth, canlaining coniplirated nud bnpangted wilbim&gury. II ii 
-■■riM* Irralivi on the merhaaical arta,wii4re- (he work of Valmiki, the earlteit of the ganierit 
bards. The next in celebrity, and perhapisu- 
ine, can-ii«1i of fix pcrior to it in reputation for holiness, U Ibe 
They are ■uppn\ed to WSar^tn or AfoinfarnM ofVyaia, whom we hnvo 
katebrra wrillen bydiffierentnoly Hieo ^ Ihe flnt already id enllonrd as ttie arranger of the Veitit 
tfcnw U«Bl u< (raninar ; Ihr fourth of religious iu thHr prenenl form. 

(■rvawoia; tlie Anh of raalhemalin ; nnd (he The s]x plulaaii/haa! Saitrai are Ihe work* nfai 

italfe of dllllrult worda and phrBies in IIlc Vedai. many wge«, each of whoui has ealabtiahiil hi> ih:- 
Ta tlw .I-i^-H. auen«riii ,the t'panga, as Ihe culiBrs<rhaal,uidhBii, eren inthepnfiienldu),an 
rita. The Upangi, or supple- ettcniive trainof disciulei. Thclrnamoare a* 
I, roniiita, ai we hite already follow: 1. Gautama, who, if we may h« tllowcil 



Md ftl'hapalyi 

Bb4 I* ninpoxd to biTe bean delivered 

Ua4 b) Bnmba Indra Dhaawanlarl, 

•iWr Miln. The teiund treats of nil 

(• *aU to have ieta invented or explained by 



ir tidy of It 



The/^^C 



r *!.(., . 



vrJ. iir Ihe Mimno, Dhrrma, and Dtri 

<wy.r\,A«g», .nd t^'-ir"' -re Hot 

'- ''■ TT'iTntnalrd ftilaii^ii', or p'rda ijj- 

Thc /Vntin. are a .edfs of 

..lies in blank *en*, from the 

1 ' I Id In Ibesupposed <DcsrnatioD 

.< j.rrdecvi'iior ofBrahna. The 



:« of the Hindu' 



_ I larialy of worki uu differ. 

■ of Hloiin philoiophy. The greater 
.toaTlhcar mn Iht acknowledicd proOuc- 
<lM*rVjaai aad ■tpetiall}' Ihe Uhagainl or 
UfcafEvlahBa, oonslitnliug the cichleealh Pu- 
Olhrrit, and partimlarly in ihe PA"wn, 
* " «r« (aid lo he lb - gift of jWriw, 
•Jin of B< " * ■ 



pirallel viiUi the Grecian schoolt, may . 
be cDitipiireO with Aritlotle; 3. Canmla wiUi 
Thilra j 3. Juailni with SoemUti 4. ry-rio wlUi 
Plato ( a Cb^i withPyltaagoraii snd G. ;>.ii.ui- 
gnii with Zeno. 

Of the rlarms of these sacred bonks to a lery 

remote antiquity, we know but little. The Bra- 

urk) niinsgite to many of Itteia, and eipeeially to the 

The Veda* and the Punuiai, an age that would rarry 



*rtx>9lL. ufU<r, 



i 



. .„... jousand years be&re tL 

MoMlic aeeount of the ctealian. Sir William 
Jones, whoae hip<illii.'sia ha« traced the Indiau 

•mriirc above 3,80U year* f^om Iho prencat tiiur, 

gin of ICHU years before Uie birtli ofourtiavinut, 

ami eiiniiei)U?iitty a ocntury before Ihkl of MoMi: 

bill be ninsidera llinn lo hnve been at thai Uniu 

iiul work has been traiiiUled in a'tsU'ef traditiooaloilMcnre alone. Bcnin- 

i.-W.Jntjrs.iioiler Ihe title of the ocites the Initilutca of Menu to hata been rorii- 

Vel a tlill more valunblf, a* posed abautthreebundred)caTiUl«>r,aji4lhcPu- 

'.'I'Diive, [rerfHrnianni upon the ranaaaltoulsix hnmlrvd ycannfter Iho lai1ilu<r«i 

M jrtuuied by Mr. llailingi, In buiihat none ut tliCH wcru at tuch early periods 



VEDA. 



fntheftmn In wM«fiire!ia*« Itwm M prncnl. 
U'ehan called Uiia tifit of Ihr subject ii/patlirli- 
raU becauae Ibe dnU he BlIiMleii to are nnl «U- 
bliahed with ■ lufBcicnl degrev of nrtainlj, anil 
even Ihe irinirDrnti which arc drawn from them 
are far tooniwly ipua. It muit lie admitted, how- 
enr, that IhcapiDiODi ofM. Freret and H. Baillj 
uennu-ljia unisoD with Iboae nf nur dialin/^uiih- 
vd rouDt^maD. Mr. Colebroke.on the cnntrary, 
ifgard) the whole of these ■■ about iwaredlurits 
lea<i ■nrieat than air William JoneK: while in 
the opinion of other orientallati of f reat credit 
and learning, Ihe preteniioDi of the Puranna arc 
aunk to comparaltvely a modem dale, and Ihnic 
vflhcVedailhenisclratTerjroDMderabljKhakm. 
•• The Puranai," laja Mr. Wilford, (Afiatic 
ncaearchea, vol. iv. p. SH.) " are certatnt; a mo- 
dern compilation from Taluable mileriaU Ihal [ 
am afraid nol auger exist. An aatronominl obiter' 
Talion oflhe helisckl rising of Cai>opiu,meoljoiinl 
in two of the Purmnai, put* Ihii bejond doubt." 
Ur.Beat1)(Id Tiii. p.340.)haiifollawed>similar 
plan of ralrulatlon, and eanelude*, «k the roiult 
of hi* argumcol, Ihal " it miint be eiidcnt thai 
none of the mndtm romanrri, mmmonly nlled 
th« Furanai, at lead in Ihe fonn the; now Hland 
in, are older than 6M jeam, but that tome of 
itien are the eompilalion of utill later lime*," — 
Suchopininn, Bofar aait relatettotheeighlcrnlh 
or lut of the Punnai, the Bhigaval, or Lifu iif 
Ktiahna, n even eouoten an red, indeed, bj Mr. 
Colebrokc, who intimalei that Ihe Pun did Ihcni- 
aelrea are divided upon thiiaultJect: " I am mj- 
lelf," aaya he, " inclined to adopt an opinion, 
•upporled by many learned Ilindiu, who conii- 
dcT Ihe eetebraled Sri (or Surya) B/iagBBxta a* tli<! 
work of ■ granimarian, aoppaml to have lived 
about lix hundred yean ago." .Iiiat. Riieaitht], 
<ili. p. UT. 

Theae argumcuti and obiervalioD* indireetlj 
ftllcel the luppoard high antiquity nf the Fidiu, 
whieh [a aim rendered mmethlng more than aua- 
pirioui by inolhcr fact. Mr. Wilkini, in hii pre- 
ttkOe to the (•fla, or iiongH of KV/iAiru, obaerves, 
that Kriahna, Ihmughout Ibe whofe, makea men- 
tion of Ihren Vedaaonly, and IhoKe the three flmt 
la their preMinl onleri the fourth, protinf llsrlf 
bercbrapoilerior work. makes menlinn of Kriihnn 
hinuett Thiv wa> remarked to aevcral puodita 
who aaaiated in the Iramlation, all of whom ei- 
pmaed great attonlihmcnt at il, a* tl bad eacaped 
the nutiee of all the numerous eommenlatora ou 
the Oila. It wai to tlila fact ne alluded. Id no- 
lleing in an anterior paatage the doubtt thai liavo 
long eiimled raneeming Ibe gcouincnen uf the 
fourth, or Al'hrTva-neiia. We may ihorlljr, how- 
ever, apeel far more Important and valiifkctory 
information upon tlteie point*, from the actiiily 
with which the Bram^nieallrgcnda are nnwuouEhl 
after, examined, and tranilated by Aaiatio *e£a- 
lara, both In their private raparily, and under the 
eipreaa ordem of the Anglo-Indian govemuieut- 
Cnder Ihew auapinea a coniiderable part of iIm 
Ramayana ha* already bem literally Iranilaled 
by tbo« learned and indefatigable miiaionariri. 
Dr. Carey and Mr, Hanhman, who expect to be 
able to nimplete thU alngular and bulky myi'mi 
of Valmlkt, or Valmeeki, in ten voluniei quarta^ 
Bod will probably Immediately encr«arda turn a 
almllar attention tn Ihe Alahtl-arai ufYjaaa. 

Wc noticed at Ihe rommFBecmcol of thi* arlirle 
thai a eoBiplrle ropy of Ihe Vedai haa bn-n pre- 
- Sidle the Br«ll.h Mutrua byCulun-l Polirr. 
^bthebandacfiitJoMphBaska. Weihall 



add, a* a dantmmt of great mrWItT tnd fntrrMff 
the letter which accnmpanied thia macnltteent 
donallou, Ihe original of whirh will be liiund in 
Ihe Briliih Museum, and wbith prove* ibundaot- 
ly the dilSralt; that eiiilcd not munj yeara ago 
of obtaining any cerlain knowled|te in regard la 
the doetrinea and literature ol the BrnmlDa. Tba 
letter U addreued to the ealighteoed and right 
honourable pretidmt of the Royal Bodely, and 
bean dale, London, May -JO, ITS9. 

" Since the Knglixh by their mn^ueata asd aU 
tualion have become heller aoquaintpd with JitdUf 
and ita aboroginei, Ihe Hindoua, the ■»•« of 

nf learning aonielbin^ certain of Ihiuc aaercd 
books which are Ihe basit of the Hindu religiea, 
and are known in India and elsewhere, under lb« 
name of Ihe Baidi (FM; AWni). Many ea> 
deavours wo know have been exerted tn proBoW 
them, not only on llie coast of Coromandel, bat 
alto in several parls of Bengal, and even at B>n> 
uiirea : but hitherto thi> book could not be had It* 
aayoflhoite placet, complete and original ; anl 
nothing could be obtained but various ahaataB 

gsilirrai) which are only eommeiilariea of Iho 
aldi, to expound and explain such diOlnilt pto- 
tn^ei lu ueear in Ihem. During a long reaidene* 
in the upper provinrcs of Hindustan, 1 mad* it 
aim my buiilnras particularly to enquire for the«« 
books { and Ihe more so, at I found dnubU had 
arisen in Europe of their very eiinteoiw. Mf 
rpieardiei al Awd, Lucknnw, Agrt, and Delhi 
were perfeelly uule<«, and I could not IB any at 
these plapei obtain what I wanted. Thut disap- 
pointed, I Ihouchl of aending to Jaypoar far 
Iheru, and was led to it fmni a koawledgo that 
during the pemmlion the Hiudut aufliatiA 
throuKhaut India, and which bf>gtn in Ihe iwelAk 
year nf the reiffn of Aurengieb (the peraeculieM 
wa< at ill hHcht in the year of the llejira 1090, 
or ofoun 11)79, on aceounl of Ihe rebellion af 
Odaipour}, the Ki^ah uf .inharr. Ram i^ing, frMa 
Ibe important KTvicei rendered by his father ttm 
Ureal Jay^ine, and hit own atbtchment M UW^ 
emperor, escaped, if not cnliielj, at leatt ■ graHl 
part of that penwu-ution, which levclM lo Om 
ground all the llindou placet of wonhip in lh» 
proviacei, and caused the deitrurtion of alt lb* 
nligious bookt which eould be found beloagiiw 
lo Ihe llindoui. Id eonteqnence, I wrolr lo o 
correipondent al Jaypuur, and (sou leaml fraa 
binillial the Baidt wcnto beproeured Ibere.but 
Ihal no copy could he obtained from the BnMm 
mans, wllhuul an order ur penultilon froM hf^ 
lab l<ing, who was then the Rajah of Ihe pUM» 
and ii Ihe tame prince who hat to lately been oh 
giigcd in war with t!aindheah, and who U a 
graodion of that famous R^ah Tay Sing <Hlr- 
>nh liajab) who built Jaypxur rli»e to Aiibair, 
and wat Iho founder altn ofllic famou* obtaet*- 
tories at Jajpour and Delhi, ttr. and the editor 
of xme curious aslronnmical li^le* whirh b* 
gave to tbe world unilor llie name nf Mohamaarf 
8hah, then on Ihe tbruno of Delhi. Hatiag » 
small knowledge at the Btjah, whom 1 had a:^ 
a few year* bi-fore, irhen he paid hit mirl lo 
Shah Alum, then eneampcd in the nelghbourbood 
of Jaypour, 1 heailated not in appljlng ID Um, 
by letter, for hii peruiisiiun lo hate tbe copy 1 •• 
niuchwutrd, and my friend Don Pedro drSitva, 
a wortliy PortuRueie physiHau in lb* tiniea of 
Ihr Rajah, undertook lu deliier il, and lo for- 
want tbe application wllb bii •ollalaUoB* if as* 



amtltUHr s 



*< lkn*t Syi, on mdiog Uiii leltrr. imilinK; 



*D*«r 



e t-:ili 



.l>eBli! 



cauld 



•t thtlt hot)' 
•mrij ihst it Hu amal with Ui to collect uid 
nsMll all kindanfrkluBlitcbciaki, nrwbidi »e 
■nrd !• HunipD pabltc librkrjca { uid Ibit Ilia 
il*^ IhAU^Ii monh Hught srtrr, coulil nol be 
mrt w\\h UT wttrrt sIk, and thai, witlinul hii 
fmaiHiun. thp ftntimni rcfuiod lo ti\e M ropjr. 
Oa Uu* Ihr Rajab ianav<liali*1ir iMUcd iin order 
ntfi ■■ nr •iiaiiil, and. tu Ihe Dpurxt of a ynr, 
pCfiae ■!« UrcliHini Ir&naitibvri U ■ (irrtaiii rate 
(iu*' CRT) hundml ■iit/>it- ar <^tuiu, I nlilaiiicd 
lae Watt whx-h form tbc vubject »!' Ihia addnti, 
•^ •hi-6 1 liad M lane wiahed lo pooiris. 
-■ Ob b; nn-iiine Ibow bnokn at Luu-kanw, I 

i i tat U ifi Uwi'r real aiilhrDllcity , to ttrotiK were the 
iiWiiiH^a mlrrlabied ; tnm the litllv turceu we 
badhlthrfta hwl In tMwenrine Ihem, and from the 
daahMfSil on tNpJr TCrj MJitcniv bj xiine mo- 
doMmMJWn. But ttKbookit baring btvoihonn 
tvlbcktr B^jah ^nuoflram, a learned Bnliman, 
Uk^ U Loeiouw, and a penan well kooiTD lo 
Baay la Bneland, ha immcUiatelj reeaicDiiinl 
tkiM far iriH anil •uthmitir, and br^ged of me to 
■■■■a Ikm unui limi* with Uim. \t mj rcqueil 
Iw aftrTwar^* vpiralrd them in manageable 
(vIoMvi, aa Ihrj now ai* ; and this 1 tJiou^liI ne- 

Itaf mrain lame ihceU; thcHiudoui, in |ccne- 
nl, im\4am «f iwht biading their aaiTed booki, 
parUvwIwIr Ihi Btidv But 1 wai oblif^d to 
pfnit— hfaa. whicti I nadily did, Ihej should 
■M ha hnuad in any hind uf Icatlier. but either in 
•Ilk or »!irt. Kajmb ADundnua riuilwr nuniber- 
*d tkv paffn. and Willi hit own hand wrote in 
fmfmtt rl>arar>r», Tor ay information, nol only 
tw littr-pacf of each toiuiiic, but alau ol' each 
■ r trm ii, Bkri the nunber of lean* Ibe; nevorally 

' Bj IhU tl mty be Hen how lltiira dopendann: 



if the prinriplei or their rc- 
UfiaB, tbcie aiy^lerie*, aod holj' hooka, la truth, 
1 ••»• alwaja fnuad IhoH who were really mm 
^MMBor aaA knawledce icry ready to impart 
■■d •oaBwilisie wUnl Ihey knew lo whuevar 
wmU Nokii H and lialen to them with a (iow 
■ClifcnMllM. Mid not merely fur the purjiuiie nf 
tmmlKg lata tUlnil* wltalcvrr wai not periWi-tly 
KumpiMtii idcaa, tenet*, and 






nidi, I 
•hoivht by Ibe iwlUn* Iu h.- full 
rWimlr at any tltiBg they have. At thp tamC 
«:■» it moal bv onnvd, Uial all the,llindaii!<, tlie 
llnAaaat volt ptrrpleil, are forbidden by their 
T > Ua»uM (moa Bludjin' and learning the lUudif 
(he tChaft' alone beioK permitted lo hear then 
rT*4 ami riiiairnded. Tbit boinj: the cate, it 

wta b U.I eira nf IW lainc Ikilli. to be rarnunMl 
•Mft wtol b >ienii.-d oeu to a llindou I Tu thia 
Ika lli«km»ii» readily reply, that beins nuw in 
Ub Ou J^. w fourth ■((•, in whi4'h religion la 

atnillan lbn> In thrac ilayi of wicfculnm, iin« 
bf lfe« d K T . Tt of tit ^apntma Being it uiutl be 
•a, AIUr aamvliw*, nolttithitaudinii, Ihave 



be twu lower clanet among Itui 

(a 'I aad the SmJi'. 
" T«t«tBni f/um Ihia digrcuiun.— Puisestcd, 
VOL. XI— PART H. 



now, of thetc ucred roanuxeriptXi which I pro- 
curcil fur the wle iiurjww of cstrnmunieatin; to 
tbuse who would bcncfil frim their permnl, I 
loon after sent Ihem lo tjr Williaai Jonet, the 
only European Ihcn in Ititlli, I bc!iot-e, who 
euuld [f^ and expound any part of lliem. 
From that leamud geatlcmaQ, whote knowledge 
and merits are far abote'my prviie, we may ei- 
pecl lo learu in the future inemoirt of the Aaialie 
Siii'iely what are hia opinioni ruUtive to tlieoH 
Ihe nurmiaei in India, and even among Ibo Breh- 
msns,aboultheautbeolicily,oratloailtheinerita, 
of one of the four Baidt, railed ttic Auerhaii, and 
ID nil likelihood aome entracti and trauElalinna 
from each : and on that scoounl, 1 ihall beg leave 
to refer you for any further iufurmalion on thcM 
book* to one who is so eompetcnllogiie the pub- 
lic llie fullest and the trueil. 

" The Baids are now in London, and aecom- 
pany this addren: the purpart of which it to 
request of you, Sir, ai one of Ihe Iruslcet of the 
Briliih Museum, to rereive anil lodcD Ihcm in 
that laluable and nobte n-pasilorr, a* a small 
token and tribute of respect and admiral ion, 
from one who, though not bora a unluni auhject, 
yet having tiprnt ilie best pnrt of bin life in Ihe 
uu'vioe of ihii maatry, it really unaequaioled 
with any other." 

VEDENSKOI, n town of Russia, b the 
gnvcmmeni of Arcluiiijel. siliiaie on thi: Vok- 
tfciia, SOO mUeili.^.E. of Atciiingel. Lnii. 
46.41 E. Lat, :i8. 45 N. 

VKDETrE, in war, a ceniinel aa liorw- 
bick, with hi* hnrac'a hcoii towuciU x^e pUce 
whence any danger iita bcfeatRj, amlliiscsni- 
bincailvanceJ, wilb the Lutt-enii j^iiiist hi* 
right thigh. ^Vl|en the ciieniy lias encaiiipcd, 
ihere are vcdeiies pnsietl M all ihe avetiue*!, 
■nil on all the lining grounda, to vtslcli T. 

To VEER. V. n. ivirtr, French.) To 
abuiii ( /{ojcom in 0n1. 

VeVBBR.B.n. l.Tnleloul( 
2. To turn ; to change (Bntici). 

To Vkea and Kaiji., lu jmll a rope 
by dtawinK it in and ilickemne it alien 
till ihe bnuy to which it iiijiplied ac^utrea 
■ilditional inmion, likethe increased vihtntis 
of a iwndiilum, so thatihc ro|ie It stiaiicneit to 
a greater leniion with nintc fncililymd drs- 
iiaicli. Tliis mcihod i*_parlicularly 
iiaiiling ihe bowli 
veer anil haul when it altera i\» direciion, sncl 
b^cOlnl^« incire or less lair. Thus it it said to 
veer aft and to haul forward. 

Vbeb, 'Jer-Veer, anciently Camp-Veer, • 
town of Zealand in the United Ftuviiicn, 
siaoding at ihe moiiLh of the East Sehelde, 
about four miles from Middleburuh, anil eight 
from Flushing. Veer, in Dulcn, signifiei a 
paunge or ferrr over an arm of the tea or ■ 
liver ; and as there was once a ferry here over 
the Schelile to the villa^ of Compen, on the 
island of North Bevelnnd, the town thereby 
^01 the name of Veer, Camp- Veer, end Ter- 
Vc^r. [t is well fortified, ano formerly eiijoyeJ 
a good tridc, specialty to ScollanJ i the na- 
tives enjoying paittcular privileges here, Tha 
baibour is very good, and the artenal lh< 
furaiihed ill tbc world, Heoc 




s larlicularly used i 



i the Vert 



1 



V E G V E G 

cientlyfarlsofOxford, are said to have derived dlicern nothinir bol naked rocks aud cicnimi 

both their origin and name. tnoww. . . . , , , - 

VEERING, or Wearing, the operation ^ Thus, endowijd with a viffoar elsewhiw un- 

by which a ship, in changing her cooWe from ^«r». ^'^^A***" '" *^^ Tu IZ* JH^ 

^ i_ J . \i. .u ^ . u -.^-» .« wllh inereancd enerfv tbroueh the various 

one board to ihe other, turns her siern to periods of their exi.teKe. Time, which to the. 

windward. Hence it is used in opposition to ^^^^, ,^^^ .„ ^^^^ j^„^^ .„ ^j,^ mounlain. iica. 

tacking, wherein the head is turned to the Here, every thing is done rapidly ; meteors dmrt 

wind and the stern to leeward. See Seaman- ^ftgp each other, and the air in in perpetual 

SHIP. Sfritation. From all these controUinif cam*, 

VEGETABI'LITY. s. (from vegetable.) acting tocher in full force, germinaUon, 11^ 

Vegetable nature ; the quality of growth with- reneencp, and frurtification lake place alaioat 

out senitalion (Brotra). simultanenuMy. HomctimeswithawiDdblowiaf 

VEGETABLE. Vegetabile. Viucompo- from the south, with a hea^^ ^shower, or wilh a 

sita, absque motu voluntario. Regn.Veg. A scorching sun, the face of the meadow*, dow^ 

compound life, without voluntary motion.— •"«» ft>^^ »» '^ '»*>?'<^n^ changes, and the whoto 

Otherwise defined to be-^n organical body, ^ • Pa*"*'*;? ''"^*"J!^!1 VlJ^lt^^^^ 

• •*• •. Pi_ ^ every itne day » a Kpnne id tnefte situatioaa to 

which draws m its nourishment by pores or ^J^ „tinilar ««e.nblage of vegetablea, or to 

ycssete on its outer surfece. Or, an organical ^^^ »^j ^^ inaccessible heights in which tk^ 

body destitute of sense and spontaneous mo- g^^, 

tion, adhering to some other body in such a To this picture, another sueeeeds. If we er- 

manner as to draw from it nourishment, and amine the mountains and valleys every place hM 

having the power of propagating itself by seed, its peculiar soil, everj' different elryatioo lla 

The primary parts of a vegetable are— -1 . peculiar climate, and each of then ita charms 

The root. S. The herb. 3. The fructifica- terislie vegetables. In the plain*, thcaeTcsctaUa 

lioi]. assemblages occupy vast spaces, the limita «f 

Ve'oetablb. t. {vegetahUiu Latin.) 1. which arc too extrasive, and indetermliirte, to 

Belonging to a plant (Prw). S. Having the ^ «»» J perceived. On »hf ~n*~y» ^^ 

«atureVplants%/i/L). ' \ ':^lT^^^JS^ ^::t^ .^:^^ 

Veoitablb kingdom. TheMCondof penile rising extended between two dale., 1. a 

the three great divisions of natural bodies, Ju^ ^ ^^^.^ ^^ In ^ Ci^; which tte travclkr 

comprehending all those substances which are abends in a few moment!*, he finds the perpetnl 

organized and have life, bat are destitute of barriers of those productions, which nature has 

sense and spontaneous motion. Linn^us dis- been pleased to separate, 

tributes vegetables into, three tribes, seven fa- Among the various causes of these se pamHau ^ 

milies, or nine nations. In his Artificial System one seems to reign predominant over all othtra; 

he arranges them in twenty-four classes. He this is elevation above the level of the aea. !■ 

has also made an essay to reduce them into 'very 100 inches in height, the temperature lUb 

natural orders. See Botany. about half a degree of our ihermomelera. Ate 

To VE'GETATE. v. n. {vegeio, Latin.) To !'^*»,?*S"^ "f ~^**' ''^''^' ,^T"iLIKu 1 .2 

*-. « 1 . *^ u * . . -.1 * to all vegetation, an eternal frost prevails oa tta 

grow as plams ; to shoot out; to grow without ^^^^.^ J^ ^^^^ '^, „ ^^ ^„^ ^^ ^^ 

bensalion(Troorfifarrf). ^^ ^^^^ ^f ..^J^j^^i elevation cormpooda 

Vegetation, in natural history, the nearly to one degree of the disunce at whidi Iha 

development and growth of plants. Upon the mountain is plawd fkom the pole, 

different parts of plants and their respective By thix scale, the various phenomena of 

offices, and the various systems which have ent climates in our globe may l>c eaaily 

been devised for their dassiflcation, we have stood ; circumstances may diffrr, but the { 

already treated under the articles Botany and results will Ik* nearly the same. While the 

pHvaiOfxiaT. crease of cold is accompanied by a dimlnutioa flf 

It yet remains for us to notire in a conrcn- the column of air, it is also affi>ete«l by tbeob- 

trated view a few of the more remaritable farts liquity of the ravs of the sun, and the diatriba- 

that relate to vegetation, in the broad and general tion of vegctahlVs in all alpine countries, d^ 

aense of the term, and the chemical materials pcmU principnlly on these two caunea. 

which are hereby produced. Thus, in the Swim^ Alps, and Pyrenees, trm 

-. i* zr <• ^^^ ^" l^<'*>^ ^^ "^"* ''^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ymrda oft" 

J^amomtna of l^egeUttum, |y^, elevation, as they do about the 70th degeet 

An attentive gardener, obnerves M. Dsmond, of north latitude ; and that circle these gigaalie 

in the Annnk*s du MuReuio, on ascending the vegetables occupy is divided into several Icsa 

high mountains of temperate regions, in imme- bound^i, which hnve earh their peculiar eharar* 

diately filnick with the vigour and luxurious teri.ttirs. At the foot of the mountain ire lad 

appearance of their vegetation. The plants he the oak ; in the middle region, the lieech ; abow 

ban Men in the ac^ncent plains an* changed in thc^^e, the flr and yew HU(*ceed, which hoob give 

aiie, aHpert, and form, so that he hardly recog- place to the pine (vinu* ^iflvestru, L.). Alaag 

niRen tlu* ino«d common. Their stems are ele- with tliin last mentioned tree, in the Swiss Alps, 

vated, tlu*{r flowem larger, e\'en the lesvei of the the larch and cenibro (pinu* remhra^ L.) alsa 

trees have acquired a Rite which makes him grow wild, whirh are unknown in the Pywaaaa 

doubt the identity of the wpecieR. The woo<ls The cedar of lichanut would probably thrive « 

are more inipenetral»le, the turf of the downs well on the«e nmuutoinx as on tho«e of Asia, had 

elo^Ar, and « green more lively, fresh and brlU it lieen fixed there ; hut such is Mill the mysUffy 

liant eol»iin« rtery thing, from the dtipths of the of the original diHSnnination of vegetablea, thai 

irallry, up tu those hvighla where t&o eye can nature aaeras by turns iudiffamt to tha aiBiU- 



toair-'><on brinslne Ins'*''"' '" t^^ ''on'c nimnic 
^■ol* »f tlM tno^ diiliDl rounlrlfs ; and unic- 
linci ieuyiae thii roDronnily or tcgrtabka to 
nxiaiu rurll; ilikr, bath in toil and tcin- 

la iJili lanv of Irm, Ihe rhattDdpndran form- 
little ilirult penill 



O E T A T I 



" nhnie the pnini nf ponf^elalioi 
ihli'tllf fblli in wintrr tn 3£ or 

■ ■ ■ IhoitcO plan- - - 



nliii'h m 



iial, 



■ly iinconTfd eTCTj j-rar. f 
on trtmrtif Ihroi on Ihe Ixirii/rsof lliv perpetual 
low, wilb only hairof their ilniM exjiowd and 
igctulin^ , Ihl^ other half luriiNl in il, and it i* 
Iklu at Europe bdIcIj, ia ler; abundant. It probable, tbat manj oribem dn not itM the l)|tfat 
•Iter deaceodi inlo tbc plalni, and can hard); ten timealo a rcntury,raDmngthroiigh tliewhula 
W ni1tital«d in a (■'^"■t deiiiaoding ill nnllie coiiric of their TPgetatinD in a fen t hort neck-i, 
•ir, tuil, iraJer, nay •nom, ind evro there imly and doomed aflemardl to alrep Ihrough a winttf 
a w i H i i ia partimUr apots. Nolhiop ii mora of many ]?ar«. 

b«Mifal when In flower, bul uothTne U more Planli nubjccled to ao aingnlar a made of PS. 
MirartakW. In ttir Pyrcncci il Aral appears at iilenra nre nol bdidd^ Ibe speciei whirh ^ronr in 



(■■all' iWt metrei of cteratian, 
■nairlj al 3Tt)0 jardu, and wilhin 
laia abuadaat and li^rDUi, tt ' 
■*'"--*■ to ealirpale (I there, m 



oppi 



TW ^siper IrvTenci far beyond this eirde, 
Vptolbeelnatiunaf2U0l)nielrri, butlhUthnib, 
aaltwnndt, gradually lout tbc babil and np- 
j ^f MW whlcb diklincuiih il in our p1a[i 
tkftr , tl rcviablea the Juniper of Si ' 
l^flanJ. wilb a low apreading Item, 
* ■ (Tonnd, teekine an aiyli 



he plains of our tcniperale regiDnt : they helung 

exrhiiirely to such aa grair on Uip (timmila of 

aiDunlsiDa, or near Ihe pa(*t, NorVF ay, Lapland, 

and GrFPnlBnd,rumi<ih plantt anilogouilo Ihotu 

of the Sititii Alpi aad Pyreneei ; but few, or 

ponsibly Dnoe of them, areaeen in SItaerin, Kama- 

rhatko, or etcn in the polar rrgiona of America. 

One iruuld hardly have nuppoicd iiii gniA i di- 

11* lenity of icgclable proUueliona in Fuunlriui la 

ind mueh aliku and near each other, nor, on Ibo 

ilrate other hand, so s"*al a confonnilyaa exiataantong 

.... «, by the plani* of Iheac rounlriet, and the plant* of 

Ihoae aide! of llie roeki eipoaed to aoioe alpine region > dittant fVoni Ihem 40de|Creei. 

wr wrat, af aintt which il ipreada out In fad, we lenrn from actual obaarialion, Ijial 

npalicr, witb a regularity tile diaaemiuation or>ef;etablei ia not aliraya re* 

bkb art an Kldom altain. e"laled in parallel ditlancea from the equator) 

la a B«re |)nated region, fre And Ihe rigour thai if a certain number of plaota, canUued by 

t It* rllmalr will nnl permil the existence of iheir roualitulion lo a peculiar climale, arc to be 

^■I*hnb wbsterer, nhirh Ihe Aral anowk do not found to a corlain dialance under the aaiaa lati' 

■l Ut aly MvfT. Still higher, rrea ttaia abeller ia tudea, many ulhen, on Ihe contrary, haco been 

taauMcaPBt, aad nothing but a few herbi, with scattered over diflercnt rounlrin in the direclioa 

Bvtnaia) roela aeiually under the earth, subaiat. oflhcir meridian a. Toward* the anulh, Ameriea, 

Italon has almoal enlirety baniihed from auch Africa, and A«a| towards the north, Europe, 

■hiTa lanual planta; where the whole summer Aaia, and America, are tar troia producinif the 

t oduaed (a a few day*, nay, someliniea, a few aame ve|;etablea under the lame parallela [ white 

kMf* i whrn often a atonn of wind, or dripping manj ptanla, growing wild in each of theie grand 



laaliart, « 



6a Um aoDtrajy, hardly any elevation oeema 
a atop Ibe prngma of tome perenniala, which, 
• Ike appTMcIi of actere rold, t heller Ihem teltet 
mhr tSu> duubk- ptDlcelInn of the ennh and 



■ oflbe globe, brave every ob&Tucle Dppna- 

"rersily of climate, anit propa- 

a geographical direction quite 

t which a ainilar clitunle would 



II by a div< 



I. by which they ai 



T or later, they 
e multiplied. 
Me tegciauie loDc or our alpi bai in fai 
limiU than Iboae of (lie earlh or sa 
•■•Blag tt^m, Tbe Pie du Midi, whi.-h I hare 



Thu<, for example, many of the carfou* plant! 
f Sardinia, Sicily, and Italy, mount up Ihe liiiiat 
end again into tbe lower pari* 
ul being allured by our fine 
Thus, likewiae, the PyrrDe«« 
-n Spain a great number of the plania 
of Barbary, acattcring them orer the weilem 
-ovinrei of France. The merendera, wbich 
'UWB in Ihe north of Africa, la found in AndalO* 
a, Caiitile, Arragnn ; irhpneroHinglhePyrenea 
i 36 timra, ia 337S yard* above the level it dei(«nda as far aa the Landea de Buurdeaa 
■f Ite an. Wl I oeier once found tbe Ihermo- The narciiau* butbomditim, and hyacii 
Vtor Iharr rit* to the tenperale point. Vet, nn linai, grow wild in the aame placet, i 
a Marly htn rock, I hare tbere gathered aa the same route. The anibencum hicolorum of 
■aayaate ipeciea of vefetablea, excluding cryp. Allien traverses Ibe aame chain of inDUBtaini, 
li«aBnt ptanti of thete, one only, which per. and arrives in Ai^DU. The acilla umhollata and 
lup* I aaAy never And again, was aanual. At emeus nudifinrui have migrated from the Pyr^ 
AWiUlc, a place 173 yaras higher Ihnn the Pio oeei even Into England. Yet nol o 
daMMl. where Ibclhermoaietei'inBuninierneker abniE-Dienlioocd vegetables have been 
la*u«« tliaBSdegreei, M. Ramond aasetta, nated laterally, In meet those sonlt 
Iteliafic Journeys, he haacollccled ISdifierent which hare croaaod Ihe ttwia* Alps, 
^lawaiala (In ihe top of Mont Perdu, al an But it ii In Ibe great valleys of Ihe Pyren(d 
•IrtatiM of 3>^l2' yards, even In the huiuia of extending from north lo auurb, that theac v^ffefl 
liawaialaaiim. baton rorki the sloping situa- table galaxies becnine luoatalrikrng and alnguln^l 
■ Hf «hl«b bad eleartsd Ihem of snow, he hai The dianlliQi auperliua runa through ihe ntlitel 
W» *U SIdr-nt plaeta very vii;orou>. Here, valley of Campao and Qavarnie, witbnul e*^'] 
k «■■ of ibr tiultcst dayi of a sumnier remark- catering any of Ibe side onea. The virbaaeuft I 
Imb tn iU bMt, lb* Uiflncamotcr qnlT raia to mycoEi, that baauUfut and acaree elaat, wUOi 1 



VEGETATION. 

^ors not belong fitlicr to the (rcnus iu wliicli After all, in Alpine countries, the diA*renf 

Tjinneus Iiba placed it, or perhaps to any natural aoils, and their productions, retain most of their 

tii'dor yet dclined, and uhich has so exotic an aboriginal rharactcr : there, the priuiitiYC distri- 

appearanoc, that it dislim^uislies itself like the bution of vegetables has been least disturbed^ 

King-Usher, anion; our indigenous birds, iuvari- their localities can be easily traced, the influenev 

ably keeps tu the same dii-eotion. Nothing is of the air is most perceptible ; there, the oonti- 

niore abundant in ail the great valleyA of the guity of objects exhibiting more forcibly tbcir 

l^-n!nt*CK, in every soil and exposition : yet the siiniiitudes and dissimilitudes, the eye of the ob- 

very same soil^ind exposition never attract it to server takes in, at one glance, every trail which 

any of the collateral ones. We could rite a mul- is interesting ; and if it be necessary for the geo- 

tltude of similar examples, but it is hufDcient at lugist to visit tliese grand chains of mounlainfy 

present to mention one more, the box tree. This to study the structure of the earth and those ca- 

shrub, so very robust, in aiFectcd by elevation tastropiiesmhirhha^e imprinted its present form, 

like the most delicate ones. At the base of the it is Mtill more su for the horticulturist, who 

I'yrenecK, both on the French and Spaninh side, wishes to penetrate the mysteries of the primary 

it coders eiery hill: thence it enters the great dissemination of vegelables and their aubaequent 

valleys, running from the north-east towards the propagation, hoping thence to deri\-e hints for 

«outh, but never quit^ them; in vain do the their suc(*essful cultivation and improvement^ in 

numerous branches of these valleys offer it an the parndiac surrounding his dwelling. 

asylum ; passing their openingM, it keeps lo its Are the vuriatiunv we thus meet with, tht 

llrst direction, slopping on the cre«t of ihe chain adaptation of the plant to the climate, its selce- 

at about ISOOO metres above the level of the sea, tion of climate, and its change of appearance and 

and appearing again on the other side at a siuii- power, the result of a vegetable instinct, or pf 

lar elevation, and in a similar direction, from mere merhauical forces ? this is a question whick 

which it never deviates. has lung excited and still continues to excite tbt 

Thus it is, that in high mountainous countries allention of physiologists. Whichsoever l>e th« 

we discover tlie strongest tra' es of the original ruling principle, it inu>t equally operate in eveiy 

design of nature; there, ench order of vegetables part and diKcoier itself in every organ. Let 



is confined within narrower bounds; there, local tlien select a ^ingle organ as the subject of our 

influence more powerfully resists every oiher. enquiry, and follow it up from its development; 

Xevertheless,thelapseofui(c-s, andcKpeciolly the and let that organ, though any other would 

presence of man, bus here introduced ninny mo- answer as well, be \\\c tendril. The tendril it 

difications; for, in traversing the iiitineuse theiietioleof a plant without the leaf) expaasioB, 

deserts of these high mountains, among the raie poHsessing a vasi'ular structure of tho same naturt 

plants Tthich form their herbage, Hunie few of the as that of herbaceous stems. The sap of tiM 

i*oninionest here and there occur. If the verdure tendril not being wasted in the formation of 

lakes a deeper tint than usual, contrasted with leavcie, the tendril itself necessarily grows loBgcr 

the gaver colour of the alpine turf, the ruins of a than the petiole, and on this account is too slai- 

hul, or a rock blackened by smuke, explain the der and feeble lo maintain a •traight directioB. 

nty<:tery. Arouud these asylums of man, vve Hen ^e arikc.^ its twisted shape. It is conjectured 

fiMil naturalized the common mallow, nettle, by A^ ildenow, that the diminished force of the 

elii'^kweed, c«tmmon dock. A shepherd hud pos- cum'nt of air has some influence upon their 

sibly Hijourned here some weeks, and in driving course: since plants that support theuiselves l>j 

his flueks liilher had also atlraclet!, without tendri!^, stnd out, when distaut from a wall, tree, 

knowini; it, the birds, the insects, the seeds of or shrub, all their tendrils towards tliat side oa 

the plants of his lowland cot. lie msy possibly which the plaut is to attach itself. This idea, 

never return, but these wild spots have rei*eived how«:ver, is far fnun KatiKfactory,and by no meant 

in an instant the indelible iuipre>xion of his fool- explains the din^ction of the curvatures of tha 

s»teps ; so much weight has a being of his import- tendrils of different plants. Other physiologiili 

aoco in the scale of nature. have consequently taken very high ground ; and 

In other placca he has signalised his presence have aflirined that the inotious of the tendrils of 

by destruction. Before he approached the nioun- plantn^ and the efforts they apparently make to 

tains, the immense forests which coven^d their apprfiach and attach thenist.*lves to contiguous 

bases have fallen under liis axe, for vioods are objects, origiunte in some degree, not merely of 

not the abodes of man ; he avoids the circuitous instinct, but of sensation and perception; but 

paths of so vast a labyrinth, susjiecting danger this is a more dangenms hypothesis than the 

under their shades ; he there mourns the absi'iit preotMling, and altogether unsupported by fact 

sun, an obJe<t which every day renovates his or anah»gy. 

delifl^ht; and hence it is seldom that he penetrates Mr. Knight, sensible of the miHchierous con* 

a forest, without fire and sword in hand. sequencers to which such an opinion seems una* 

Acci»rdingly the* seeds of woodland plants be- void.ibly to lead, contends, on the contrary', lliat 

come dormant in a soil n<iw dried by the sun and all the movepaents and actions of tlie vegetablo 

viiiid, and no longer suitable lo their germinating, world are as much the result of the two antago- 

Olher veL'etaMes take their places, the climate nist powers of gravitation and a centrifugal force, 

itself changing ; for tlie temiHTaturc rise>, the as those of unorganised matter. We can, however, 

ruiiis are less fn'queut, but more copious, the as little }ield t<i this conception, as to either of 

winds iiio:*e 'iiicc;ii4tunt and impetuous, deep the two pre(*rdiug, believing that instinct cxistt 

gullies an* funtied in the sides of tlie acclivities wherever vitalilv of any kind exists: yet as tha 

by torrititv, nnd rocks are depri\ed «if the enrlh hypothesisisplausibly and ingeniously supported, 

viliich coM'ced them, and, at the same lime, of and forms the latest that lias been olTereii upoa 

tlie ii1:!iitH which ornamented them, by falls of the subject, we shall present opr readers with 

immense liind<i of melting snow ; thus the face of his own words, which are thns given in a letter 

tlie ^Inbf, where man inhabits, is more changi*d in to the presidcMitof the Royal Societ} of the date 

one Lx'utur}, Ihau in twenty where he is absent, of ISIU. *'l was induced, during last iiiniutT^ ti* 




VEGETATION. 



_ . . e portwn nf lime to watch 

^r molioQi of Ihr timdriU or ■lifl'erent tgwinei or 
pInDU ; >ni) I hBie noir the pl^uure to nddr^is 
you ■■ arcount nf the obH-riitioag 1 wu 
i^lnl In nikkr. 

■' Th* pUnUiclcMed were the Virginia i^reciwr 
(tbe uapclopu* itaiaqii^rDlia of Miebaui), Ihc 
Iwj, md UiE eumnon liac aiiil pea. 

■' \ pikat of the aaipeln|isii>, irhirh gni\r in a 
_ nit« pal, waa removed lo a forHng-houie in 
Ite end of M»j, and ■ (injlc ukaot rrom il wm 
m»i» In (roK prrprndi^uturlf uptrards, hj bt'iag 
uffertei to Ibit (Huitioa by • tcry lUiidiT bar 
' Mid, to irbkh II naa bound. The plant nai 
d in Uu- loiddlft nf Ihe huute, and was Tullj 
■d ta the «un ; and eterjr object around It 
._ .- MW iwl far Ixrjond the reach ofils tcudrili. 
IVm timia>«l«i)pud, it« leiidrili, a> aoon u the; 
•«« Btarif full eroHDi all pointed towardi the 
■arU, •# haeW «a1l,'wliirh wai dittatil about 
c%lit fiBl: hul not meeting with any tiling in 
** ~ ditrt^ion, to irhirh tliej muld attach thcn- 
1, tlt<7 dmlinfd Kradiiilly Iiwardi the 
. ti, and ultlmalvl; allarhed tbemaelici iu 
■k iloa hrDMth, and the ilendrr bar of n-ood. 
~ A (Aaat af the aame tpeaai ma pla^t^d at 
Mai rod or the huuK, nrar tlie glau, nod wa> 
lac mfaiura tkreened from llieperpeadieulu' 
Ij ahmita tendrili pointed towardi the vreil, 
rstn- sf IhE hnuw, B> Ihoae undpr Ihc pre- 
odtaf eimiBialanrfu had poinlid Inwards Ihe 
It wd btek «all, This plant was remoied 
In |3M i>r«l eiyl nf the bouv, «■ I expotnl to Ihc 
Min* ran. being aktwrnit, *• in the prei.'eding 
«*, rroui tlif piTpcndieutar light ; and ill ten- 
ill, wiikla » lew hour*,ehanEedlhi.'ir direction, 
id f'at (ninlcd lu thr renlre of Ihe home, 
klrfc wu pirtiallr mrrred with vinet. Thi> 
tMwatllien rvmiited lo thePentreorihehouiie, 
■dfUIIfsiimu^ lo tho pirpenilleular light, and 
btbc M«i and a picee nf darfc-coloured paper 
«M plaiW upon one aide of il, just wilhiu the 
- ill (# iu tendrili ; and lu this itubslHnn: Ihej 
I afipcared to he atrnnBly atlrarlcd. The 
•f *■( Uirp placed upnii lb* oppoiite side, 

1 ilie tendril*. It wu then if. 

■it pi all? glati wa. iiihsli luted j 

<- Ihe iTDdriU did not indiuito 

I'l npproanh. The posilioo of 

i L> ctianfed, and ore wa» taken 

htji't il< ■iirfsee lo the Tsrjing piisilion of 

MB, *a that Ihe Ugbl fefleded luighl roatinue 

trihe Ihe toadrila; which' Ihen receded rrom 

(In*, and appeared lu lie strongly repulHd 

•* Tli« MMlrll* of the ampclDpttt terjr eh 



■e fillip 



only from «urh parll ofthe 
or p[irlin!ly, shaded. 

" A seedling plant ofthe pearh tree, and one 
ofthe nmpelop^ii and iTy, were plamid nearly in 

cumstanis*; exivpl that lupports, furmed of very 
slender ban of ivootl, about four ineliet high, 
were applied In the ampelopsis and ivy. The 
peaeh tree continued lo grow nearly perpendicu- 
larly, with a xlighl inrlination toward* tlie Trout 
>nd south side of the liou>«, wbilil the slcoii of 
the anipelopiit and iry, ai «nan as Ibej exceeded 
thr height oftheiriupportn, inclined many point* 
f^om the pcrpendieular line, in the upp«tite 

" It appears, therefore, thni not only the ten- 
drils and elajTS of these creeping dependent 
planli, bat tbnt their stems alw, are made to re- 
cede from light, and to press again it the optka 
bodies, whieh nslare intended lo aupporl — * 

" M. D^candale, J, belicTC, first observed 
Ihe lucriilcnl shuuli of tn»> and licrb*ce«irfF^' 
plants, which do not dppcni 
aupport, are lient towardt the point from which 
they recclie liglil, by the coiitraction of Ihe n-U 
lular subitance of Ibeir bark, upon that sidi: ; 
and I belierv hia opinion lo be perfectly well 
rounded. The operation of light upon the ten- 
drils and atem^of theampelopiiitiand jtj appears 
to produce diamelricatlj opposite elFects, and 
to oeeation an eatension of llic eellatnr bark, 
wherever that is exposed to its influence j and 
this eircumslance aSiird^, I think, a salisniclory 
evplanatiaa why these plants appear to aeek and 
approarh contiguoja opake abject*, jult as Ihc; 



m 



x> alTord Ihem support and pi 



n Ihrir i 



ernul 01 



origin a ting from the alburnous 
lant ; and in being, under rer- 
Mai rimnoManns, converllblc into fruit slnlki. 
' rtaipcri ofthe iv], to experiments 
I shall DOW proceed, appear to be 
-ii.ion* only; hul lo be capable (I 
. I" HnR}arbiTaming perfect roolB, 
' I' rimimi lances. Bxpcrimenls 
. . rj nearly nimilar lo the pre- 
iipm thia plsnli hut I round 



^. < should a 



.■mpt 



wi\h Ihe 
-td tlinl the ctawa 
, ;ivl as the tendrils 
-::JllltltUieyapnwe 



" The tendril of tlu) vine, as I hai 
alated, is iiilenially similar to Ih&I of 
Inpstt, though ila external forni, and mode of 
Btlariiing itself, by twining round any slender 
body, are very different. Some youug planU of 
this species, which had lieen raised in pnls in the 
prerediog year, and had been headed down to ■ 
alnglc bud, were plaeed in a forcing -house, with 
the plant) 1 have alre&dy nientioDed; and the 
shoals rmiii thcie wen; bound to slender bars 
of wood, and trained peqiendirutsriy upwards* 
Their tendrlla, like those of Ihc ani pel opais, wliea 
first emfllcd, poluled upwards; but they gradtv- 
■lly fi>rDtcd an incrmiing angle with the (tcma, 
ajid ullimalely pninled perpendicularly down- 
words; no ohjecthaTingprestnlcditiclflil Which 
they eon Id atltch Ihemselrea. 

" Other planla of the viup, under (imilar eir- 
i^umslaocH, irere trained horiaontally ; wlieu 
Uidr tcDdrila gmdually descended beneath their 
alemi, with which they ultimalelf stood very 
nearly it right angfe!. 

" A third act of plants were trained almost 
yxTpcndirnlarly downward*, hut with an inclinn- 
tion of* few degrees towards Ihe north ; and Ihc 
tendrils of these permanently retained Tcry 
nearly Ibeir Srtt position, relatively lo their 
Blenis ; whence it appears Ihal theae orgsni, like 
the ttindrila of the ampelnpsia, and the riaivi of 
the ivy, are to a great caleni under Ihc control 

" \ few other plants of the lune species were 
trained in each of the prec'eding inelhodsj hul 
propur objecta were placed., in iHlTvreDt liluiitl«ul 



VEGETATION. 



ocir them, wHh which their tendrils might oome 
inta contnet ; and I was bT tliene meani afiurded 
%n opportonity of obnerving: with accuracy the 
difference between the motimia of theae^ and 
those of tbe ampelopiiif^ under aimilar ctrenm* 
itances. The latter almost immediately receded 
from lif hty by whatever means that was made to 
operate upon them ; and they did not subsequent- 
ly show any disposition to approach tbe points 
from whidi they once reeeded. The tendrils of 
the rine^ on the contrary, Taried their positions 
In every period of the day, and afler, returned 
•gain duriDf the night to tbe situations they had 
oceupied In the prewding morning ; and they did 
not so immediately, or so regularly, bend towards 
the shade of contiguous objects. But ns the ten- 
jdrils of this plant, like thoite of the ampelopsis, 
spring alternately lyom each side of the stem, 
nnd as one point only in three is without a ten- 
jdril, and as each tendril separates Into two divi- 
nions, they do not often fail to eome into eontact 
trith any ol^ect within their reach ; and the ef- 
fects of eontact upon the tendril are almost Im- 
mediately visible. It is made to bend towards 
the body it touches, and, if that body l>e slender, 
to attach itself firmly by twining round it, in 
pbedienoe to causes which I shall endearoyr to 
point out 

''The tendril of the rine, in iu internal or- 
ganisation, is apparently similar to the young 
suceu'ent shoot, and leaf-stalk, of the same plant j 
and it is as abundantly proricM with vessels, or 
passages, for the sap ; and I have proved that it 
is alike capable of feeding a succulent shoot, or 
n leaf, when grafted upon it It appears there- 
fore, I eonceive, notimprobsble, that a oonsider- 
nble quantity of the moving fluid of the plant 
passes through its tendrils; and that there is n 
rio!«e connexion between its vascular structure 
nnd its motions. 

'* I have proved in tlie Philosophical Trans- 
itions or 180Q, that centrifugal force, by operat- 
<rig upon the elongating plumules of germiusting 
seeds, occasions an increased growth and exten- 
sion upon the external sides of the young stems, 
and that gravitation produces oorrespondent ef- 
fects ; probably, by occasioning tlie presence of a 
larger portion of tbe fluid organitable matter of 
the plant upon the one side than upon the other. 
The exfernil prex.«ure of any body upon one side 
jof a tendril will probably drive this fluid from 
one side of the tendril, which will oonscquently 
contract, to the opposite side, which will expand : 
and the tendril will thence be oompelled to bena 
round a slender bar of wood or metal, just as the 
stems of genninating seeds are made to t>end up- 
wariu, and to nine the cotyledons out of the 
ground ; and in support of this conclusion I shall 
obKcrve, that • e sides of the tendrils, where in 
contact with the substance they embraced, wen» 
eomprexfted and flattened. 

" The actions of the tendrils of the pea were 
BO perfectly ximilar to those of the vine, when 
they csme into contact with any body, that I 
need not trouble you with the observations I made 
upon th:i* piant. An increased extension of the 
Cifllular fcuhiiuace of tlie bark upon one side of 
the tendrils, and a correspondent contraction 
upon the 0|>po«ite Hide, oreasioned by the opera- 
tion of light, or the partial pressure of a body in 
Ooutact, uppcirrd, in e\ery case which has oome 
under my obnTvatiun, the obvious cause of the 
motions uf tendrils ; and ttierefore, in conformity 
with tike conclusions 1 diew in my Uai nsemoir, 



Inspecting the growth of roots, I ftbill vnl 
infer, that they are the result of ^ure iiec 
6hl^, uninfluenced by any degrees of sens 
or intellectual powers.'* 

Cktmitdl Produetkmi of Vegetation. 

The products hitherto found in the vegi 
kingdom, so far as they have been examined 
iny degree of aeouraey, may bo redooed i 
four heads- I. Substances soluble in vral 
least in some state or other, and which, in 
ral, are solid, and not remarkably oombm 

II. Substaqoes either fluid, or which melt 
heated, and burn likiB oils. These are all 
luble in water, but in general dissolve in all 

III. Substances neither soluble in water, al 
or ether, and which have a flbrous or wood; 
ture. IV. Substances wbich belong to the i 
ral kingdom, and occur only in small qtiaa 
In vegetables, and may therefore l>e eonsi 
as extraneous. They »re thus arranged b 
Thomson. 

I. rarntf#. 

1. Adds. 

3. Sugar. 

5. Sarooool. 

4. Asparagitt. 

5. Ghim. 

6. Jelly^ 

7. Ulmia. 

8. Inulin* 
d. Starch. 

10. Indigo. 

11. Gluten. 
Id. Albumen. 
)9. Fibrin. 

14. Gelatin. 

15. Bitter prinriple. 

16. Extractive, or extractt 

17. Tannin. 

18. Narcotic principle^ 

II. Oleqfomu 

1. Fixed oil. 

2. Wax. 

3. VolaUle oil. 

4. Csmphor. 

6. Birdlime. 

6. Resins. 

7. Guaiacum. 

8. Balsams. 

0. Gum-resins. 
iO. Caoutchouc. 

IU. Fibrous. 

1. Cotton. 

2. Suber. 
3 Wood. 

IV. Extraneous, 

1. Alkalies. 

2. Ksrths. 

3. Metals. 

We shall conflne our observations to the | 
npal of these products : for the rest, the re 
may turn to the separate articles under thi 
spective names. 

The most impoflant of the w|iole, if we 
regard to its quantity, in which it greatly ezi 
all thfi rest put together, is vegetable Jih 
wood. This is to plants what bone, musele, 
cartilage, are to animals: to this they areent 
indebted for thrir ttabiUty, and the rcslsl 



VEGETATION. 



7 M« «kW lo appour o (Ktmikl violenre. It 

MMtllola Ihc (rmtitp pirt at nil woodi sucl 
haHi*; u( the in>KO rpiilermii or hrrbuceout 
tla*Ui«rihc Dcl-oork orkatri ; miJ of Ihellne 
tom%f Ibm in whi'-b Ihe miiIii of rollon and 
•ariuiB olhrr vCftvUbln we imbcilded. It con- 
aitli ot oitKin, najrpm, hjdrflgrai, bdiI ■ lillle 
iMt. By dr} dintilldinn it field* hTdro-carlNK 
Mat CM*, cmrbunir ■rid, rmpirruniBlii-, ■ntoui, 
M nT*-li||iw«a< aHd, witli ■ little uainonii, and 
■ finl«t«ttlitroil. AUr;*propaniunDfrharGO>l 
nwalM Mihid in th« rctnrt. Mill exhibiiing, in 
• very pcrCrtt uanner, Ihe lexlun: nf tlic waod. 
Tbnc Ik BO lUiBwl wbdann at all analugou 
lAlafitir 



WM^ta Sbrr. 



fumlaat 

mm qwrincly in aa»l of the bulbous, luberous, 
Md rtbtr flcihj root». It i» not MrerUined 
■iMllMr ftint raUn Into iti Fomporition : amtno' 
■U, otrtiinl;, ia not alPiirded by dry diitiUatinn. 
It tfpcan to be aliwlutely peculiar to Ihe Teee- 
tiUe kia(d>n. 

Sunci, or cUrarlmf, !■ another of the peniliar 
MpHUt priaelpin found fa abunduin:. But 
thMfk BMbiag aBBliiKout tn it pxjtti in the 
Mkad ktofdom. yet it affordo ammDnia botb by 
^dlatilUlion. and bytlie irlion of quick- lime ; 
la Iha rorvo' caie, indeed, tbe tmmoDiR it mark- 
•4 bt the «intraiporanrou« produelioD nf enipy- 
mMilic arid, faul it may readiij.be lel at liberty 
^ IKWU of tlie txcd alkiilim. 

laalbrr Important prinriple ii Mnnia .- it U 
nauiud ia a-rluD barki, wood), and leiTei, 
ui aAmji by dry diMillalion tn empyieumalis 
>dl. bat DO aaiaionia. It may he mntiderrd u 

rliirto TTCrtablei, nlthouKh it appenri, from 
HMchrtl'a cuprrimenti, tbat a lubslancc 
"i7iiBilar to tannin may be iirocnired by thu 
lOin of aitrie af id on variuua kiuda of auioiat 
BtHfr pCMiouily diarred. 

^•■--mcifaie i* aunlhcr of the peeuliar lef e- 
t>^1f prlndplei, lo wliirh nuthing aiiaini-oui bni 
Uhttto bern dimTcred in tin animal kingdom, 
aktt H be Uie poiwiaoui waller of vennmou* 
mkit, irhioli, M analyied by Ponlana, appesn 
(•>»«tBany nf the chanrtcri of lenetable gum. 
Ilmldn rhiefly in the harki of Ima, and in a 
H *f the bulbaut TODti. By dry disliUtliun it 
Afdi u empyfcunatlc ai'id, from nhidi, how- 
nr, i|aldi.||uc tetk at liberty a i|uanltty of ain- 
■•la, Ihua (huoing that aiut enter, intu the 
'a aj wai lioa of this lubulanra. 

I-Utilt Ml ii bIki peruliar to \he legclable 
bfdaB. It a<<eun iu the bark, the Kood, aud 
tttai^ncofaeveral »erd<. Itappean to ron- 
■<" tBtinly of oiygen, hydrogen, and carbon ; 
■M doM nut afford any amoioDia by diilil- 
llUaa. 

Camplut, rn:*. and tdbsni, alio rank among 
Iti peculiar trgetable prindpio, and appear lo 
<*M<laf (nyfi-tt, hydrogen, and i-arbug, nitliout 
oyaiaL A few of UiearaniaUeBnimal producit, 
hdanJ, (aeh u maik, drat, and ambergrit, ap- 
pear to ooalaiB B porlioB of reain, whifh, how- 
•NT, diffen from irgetable reain, in attbrding 
•■mmU by dieevtioB with fixed alkali, and 

fmallar Tcgclable prindplei. into the cvmpo' 
UiIbb of obleb, a eantidrrable qiiaulily of acot 
olara, a* Ibry aBord amoiotllB tuid oil by dry 

JbUCallan, Iiul no acid. 



The Bpidi pcFUliar to »^3«fl«KreTl 
tari>'. dtric, nod gsllir, Ibe laillc, oxalic, acetic, 
atid pruicir. Of theic, boircier, lh<.- four latter, 
though not originating in aniiuBl orgnniialtao, 
may yet be pmduced, hy Ihe action of diffenai 
reaeentn, "n wreral animal produels. 

Thu '.ubottDcei that follow ara commoa to 
both ve^-table and animal mailer : 

S-'gii'. — Thin i< contained lajgelj in naniB ef 
the grasa ttroH, in the aeclaries of all blouomii 
in the pulp of cerlain fruili, and in many oftlla 
flcsliy iipiadle-ahaped rooti: nlao in Ihe milk of 
aniinula, and in huiaan urine in a peculiar dii- 
ca>ed Klate. It ia mui^ more abundant in Il|a 
vegftnble than in tlw animal kingdom, and fay 
deilructite diatillalion, adbrdiia laigc proportion 
of empyreumatic add, hut uu ammonia. 

Fiitd oil. — Tbla ia contained in OHWt leedl, 
and ill the pulpy fruit of the olive, the camd, 
and perbapt of a feir other planli. In animalt, 
ll renidea in the liver, in the cellular meinbraiM, 
BUd in ruilk. Il appean to conaiit of ocjsca, 
hydrogi-n, aiid carbon, with little or - -^' 



Bbrd.) 



a by A 



and gtl/Um. — Theae lubtlaiMB* 
'nee in the regetable kiugdon, 
but they couslitule almoit the whole of the aoft 
parLi of •aiuali. Tbey are rompuird for the 
■aosl part of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and aiat, 
and aflbrd by diatillatioa ammonia nnd oil, bnt 
no arid. 

Brnink and fho^koHc addt.—^r tiiae, the foiw 
oter ii round in the vegetable baKauu, and In 
the urine of tlie horse, and of a feir other i)U»- 
dnipedt: ti\e latter, combined Hitb lime, ii verf 
abundant in aniniaU, eomtllutio^ tlie prindpd 
portion ofthe boDt», and olher hard part*: but 
it il of oiaiparalivcly rare occurrence in vege- 
lahlea, in whidi it it fouud in combinatiun wUk 
lime, or polaih. 

All Ihe abote vegetable prindplci may be ul- 
timaldy rcnolvcd into thu followiag Gflecn lub- 
atauLTB; vix. oxjgen, carbon, hydrogen, not, 
lulpbur, phoHphoric and muriatic acidfi, oiyda 
of iron, and manganese, potaihi and aoda, lime, 
magueiia, ailex, and alumine ; and of tbeae, Ihe 
Ant four coailitute by ttr the largvat main of 
vegetable matter. 

\i. all animal matter i< prepared by tbc proeeas 
of digeition from vegetable*, it i« obtioui Ihat 
each uf thete great dtuea of aubitanceamuitex. 
Iiibit, in its alliniale analyiin, the utne tiiaplo 
■ ubstancea. It i* moreoicr evident frtiai the 
preceding enumeration, that not only the elc- 
nienti, but maay of the aecondary priBcipk-a de- 
rived from them, are ooaunon both to vegelublea 
Bad animal*; aud, thervfore, that, ilrictlyipeak 
ing, Ihere ran be no eaieatial charaetera by ithieh 
Ibe cb><mi)l can pronounce dediively eaocvrning 
any uuknowo tubttance preaented to hi* cxaou- 
BBlion, that it'bolongi to the aaiual or vegetable 
kingdom. Tha old che^uitU, indeed, rolled Willi 
confldenix on tho pheaomena aAordcd by dr> 
dructive diiitilUtian: If an amoiuaiacal liquor 
Tvrre produced, aoeompBBied by the odour of 
burnt feathen, Ihe lubilance yielding it waa 
itumedialdy prenuned lo bo of animal origin ; 
nhile if an add liquor wai produced, accuulpa- 
nied by the odour of' iroud (moke, tlie unknown 
kubilnnee wt coniidcrcd ai bulungiiig tu the 
vegetable kingdom^ and Ihii, thougli by no 
nieani an infallihle criterioo, must ■nil bo Cell* 
liJcrtd *« Uw be*t tlial ean bu adoplcd. 



V E I V E I 

VHGBTATIVE. s, {vegeiai'\f, French.) the altar, crucifix, imafflcs of sainU, &c. A 

1 . Ha\ ing the quality of jgrowing without life veil of crape is wore on the head hy nuns, as c 

iRairigh). 2, Having the power to produce badge of their profession : the novices wear 

growili ill plants (^Broome). while veils, but those who have,niade the irowt 

VE'GRTATIV'EN£SS.#.(fromt;egf/a/ii;^.) black oncs. See the article Nun. 

The quality of producing growth. Veil, in botany. See Calyptre. 

VLGL'^tE. a. (.vegelus, Lat.) Vigorous; Veil (Charles'^larie), the »on of a Jew, of 

active ; spriehtly (South). Melz, in Lorrain ; who, on his conversion to 

VE^GHliVE. a. (I'rom vegeto, Lat.) Vege- Christianity, became a canon regular of St. 

table ; having the nature of plants {Ttisscr). Augustin, and prior of St. Ambrose, at Meluu; 

Ve'getive. s. a vegetable (i>ry(/m). but' turning ptotestant, he fled to England, 

VEGLIA, an island in the gulf of Venice, where he preached among the anaba|>ti8ts in 

on the coast of Dnlmatia. It is QO miles in I686 : he wrote Commentaries in Latin upon 

circuit, rocky, aiul badly cultivated, but pro- several books of the Old and New Testamente. 

duces wine and silk, and has small horses in Veil (Lewis de Compiegne de), brother to 

high esteem. The town of the same name has the preceding, also a converted Jew, and who 

a good harbour, a strong citadel, and is the see published many learned nieces, particularly one 

of a bishop. Lun. 14. 5G E. Lat. 45. 22 N. entitled Catechismu^ Juda?e»rum in disputa- 

VEG LIANA, a town of Piedmont, seated tione et dialogo magistri et discipuli, scriptw 

on an eminence, near the river Doria, 12 miles ^ H. Abrahamo Jagel, inonte Silicis oriundo, 

N.VV. of Turin. Hebrew and Latin, I()7y. He, like hia bro- 

VEH, a town of Hindustan, in Moultan, ther, became a proiestant. They both died 

seated at the junction of the Setledgc with the about the end of the l/th century. 

Indus, 63 miles S.S.W. of Moultan. Lon. 70. VEINS, {vena, from venio, to come, because 

5K. Lat. Qg. 8N. the blood comes throuu^h it.) In anatomy, 

VE'HEMENCE. Ve'hemency. t. (vehe' long membranous canals, which continually 

mfft/ra, Latin.) 1. Violence; force (3//7/o«). become wider, do not puKatc, and return the 

S?. Ardour; mental violence ; fervour {Add.), blood from the arierie** 10 the heart. All veins 

VE'HEMENT. a.ivehemcni, French; vehe^ originjie from the extremities of arteiios only, 

mntf, Latin.) 1. Violent; forcible (Crcii;). by anastomosis, and terminute in the auricles 

S Ardent; ea^er; fervent {MUfon). of the heait; e.g. the vena cava in the ri^ht» 

VK'HEMENTLY. ad. (from vehement,) ami the pulmonary veins in the left auricle. 

I. Forcibly. 2. Pathetically; urgently (ri/« They are composed, like arteries, ot three 

loisoji). tunics or coats, which are miicti m«>re slender 

VE'HICLE. *. (wMfVtt/Mm, Lat.) l.That than in the arteries, and are sup|>lied with 

in which any thin^ is carried {Addison). 2. semilunar membranes or fold» Cilled valves. 

That part of a medicine which serves 10 make Their use is to return the blood to the heart, 

the principal ingredient portable (Uz-om-'h). 4. The blood is returned from every pan of the 

That by means of which any thing is conveyed bo<ly into the rij^ht auricle : ihi* vena cava su- 

(L*ii</ ange), perior receives it from the head, neck, thorax, 

VJiII (aiic. geog.), a city of Etruria, the and superior extremities; the vena cava in- 
long and powerful rival of llomc ; distant about ferior, from the abdomen and inferior exiremi- 
100 stadia, or twelve miles, to the north-west; ties; and the coronary vein receives it from 
situated on a high and steep rock. Taken after the coronary arteries of the heart, 
a siege often years bv Camillus, six years be- Thcvenacavasu|)eri()r. — This vein terminates 
fore the taking of Rome by the Gauls: and in the superior part of uic right auricle, into 
thither the Romans, after the burning of their which it evacuates the bloiKl, from the right 
city, had thoughts of removing ; but were dis- and left subcla« inn veins, aiid the vena azygos. 
suadcd from it by Camiilus {Livy). It re- The ri^rht and left subclavian veins receive the 
niained standing after the Punic war; and a blood from the head and upper extremities, in 
colony was there settled, and its territory as- the following manner. The rein* of the 
signed to the soldiers. But after that ft de- fingers, callfd dic^iiaU, receive their blood from 
dined so gradually, as not to leave a single the di<;ital arieries, and empty it into, 
trace standing. Famous for the slanglitcr of 1. The cephalic of the thumb, which runs 
the 300 Fabii on the Crcmera {Oiid). 'V\\c on4he hack (>f the hand along the thumbs and 
«not on which it stood lies near Isola, in St. evacuates itself into the external radial. 
Peter'.* patrimony {llolsfenjus). 2. Tlie salvaiella, which runs along the 

To VEIL, V. 11. {velo, Latin, .^ce Vail.) little fin^rr, unites with the former, and em|>- 

1. To cover wiih a veil, or any thiii<z which ties it^ Mood into the imeriial and external 

conceals the dice (Boy if)' ». To rover: to cubital veiiiii. At ihe bend oJ 1 lie fore-arm are 

invest (A////0/2). 3. To hide; to conceal {Pope), tlirce veins called the great cephalic, the basi- 

Vf.il. jr. (tWiim, Latin.) 1. A cover to lie, and the median, 

conceal the face {IFalirr), 2. A cover ; a Tiie great Cv phalic runs aIot>g the superior 

di^^uibC {Dntden). part of the fore arm, and receives the blood 

V'eil, a piece of stuff, serving to cover or from the external radial. 

hide any thuig. In the Uomi«li chtirches, in The basilic ascends on the unrler side, and 

IJmcofLent, tbey have veils or curiaius over receives the blood from ilic external and in- 



VEINS. 

ternal cubital veins, and lome branches which called tbe peroneal vein. These tliree branches 

accoin|jauy the brachial artery, called venae unite before the ham into one braiicii, the 

atcUitum. subpopliteal vrin, which ascends through the 

The median is ntiiated in the middle of the ham, carrying all the blood from the- fuot : it 

fore-arm, and arises from the union of several then proceeds upon the anterior pari of the 

branches. These three veins all unite above tiiigh, where ii is termed the crural or ftiuoral 

the bend of the arm, and form vein, receives several muscular branciic^, and 

The brachial veiu, which receives all their passes under Poupart's ligament into the cavity 

blood, and is continued into the axilla, where of the pelvis, where it is called the external iliac. 

ii is called The arteries which arc distributed about the 

The axillary vein.-— This receives also the pelvis evacuate their blooci into ihe external 

blood from the scapula, and superior and in- haemorrhoidal veins, the hypogastric vein.*, the 

fcrior parts of the chest, by tUe superior and iuternal pudendal, the vena luagnn ipsiu^ jjeuis, 

inferior thoracic vein, the vena muscularis, and ubiuratory veins, all of whicii unite m the 

and the scapularis. pelvis, and form the internal iliac vein. 

The axillary vein then passes under the cla- The external iliac vein receives the blood 

Ttcie, where it is called the subclavian, which from the external pudendal veins, and then 

vnites with the external and internal jngular unites with the internal iliac at the last vertc- 

Tcics.and ihevertebral vein, which brings the bra of the loin:*, and form the vena cava in« 

blood from the vertebral sinuses; it receives ft rior or asceudcns, which ascends on the right 

sIm the blood from the mediastinal, p-ricar- side of the spine, receiving the blooJ from the 

dt3c, diaphragmatic, thymic, internal mam- sacral, lumlxir, right spermatic vems, an(l the 

nury and laryngeal veins, and then unites with vena cava hepatica ; and hav ing arrived at the 

174 ftUow, to form the veiiu cava superior, or as diaphragm, it passes through the right fora- 

ic is ioatetimcs called, vena cava descendens. men, and enters ihc right auricle of tde heart, 

Tbe blood fnmi the external and interiial into which it evacuates all the blo'id from 

piris of the head and face is returned in the the abdominal viscera and loxver extremities. 

&>!|t)wing manner into the external and internal Vena cava hepatica. — ^Tiiis vein ramihes in 

juzulars, which terminate in the mbclavians. the substance of the liver, and brings tiic blood 

The fn>ntal, anizular, temporal, auricular, into the vena cava inferior from the branches 

sabiingual, and occipital veins receive the of the vena (iorta;, a great vein which carries 

blood from the parts after which they are the blood from the abdoininnl viscera into the 

named ; these all converge to each side of the substance of the livt-r. The trunk of this vein, 

neck, and form a trunk, called the external about the Bssureof the liver, m which it is si- 

juailar vein. tuated, is divided into the hciMtic and abdo- 

rhe Mood from the brain, cerebellum, me. niinal portions. 'I'he abdommal portion is 

dnlla oblongata, and membranes of these parts, composed of the splenic, meseraic, and internal 

L> received into the lateral minuses, or vein<: of hemorrhoidal veins. Tht:v>e three venous 

the dnia mater, one of which empties its blood branches carry all the blood from the stomach, 

thn«ugh the foramen lacerum in basi cranii spleen, pancreas, omentum, mesentery, gall- 

into the internal jugular, which descends in bladder, and the small and large intestines, 

the neck by the carotid arteries, receives the into the sinus of the vena ports. The hepatic 

bUod from the thyroideal and internal maxit- portion of the vena ports enters the subMance 

lary veins, and empties itself into the subclavi- of the liver, divides into innumerable ramifica- 

ans within the thorax. tions, which secrete the bile, and the sui)erHu- 

Tbe venaazygos receives the blood from the ous blood pas'^cs into corresponding branches 

broochbl, superior, xsophag^^l, vertebral and of the \enac cava; hepatics. 

ioteicottal veins, and empties it into the su- The action of the veins — Veins do not put- 

p^noT cava. sale ; the blood which they receive from the 

Vena cava inferior. — ^l^he vena cava inferior arteries llows through them very slowly, and 

ii the trunk of all the abdominal veins and is conveyed to the right auricle of the licart 

tliose of the hiwer extremitie<(, from which by the contractility of their coats, the pressure 

parts the blood is returned in the following of the blood from the arteries, called tlie cij a 

inanner. The veins of the toes, called the di- ier^u, the contraction of the muscles, and rc« 

glial veins receive the blrxxl from the digital spiration; and it is picvcnted from going back- 

a rrcries* and form on the back of the foot three wards in the vein by the valves, of which 

breaches, one on the great toe, called the ce- there are a great number. 

ph^iie,another, which runs along the little toe. Vein, amon;^ miners, is that space wliirli 

called tbe vena saphena, and on the back of is bounded with vvoughs, and icoutaius ore, 

Lne foot, vena dorsalis pedis ; and on the sole spar, canck, clay, chirt, croil, brownhen, 

of tlie foot they evacuate themselves into the pkcher-chirt, cur, which the philosoplicrs call 

|/1 jntar veins. ^ the mother of uieials, and soiiteiimes soil of nil 

The three %'eins 0f\ the up|)er part of the foot colonrb. When it bears ore, it is called a 

CO m i ng tozethcr above the ankle, form the an<w quick vein; when no ore, a dead vein. See 

ifri^«r tibial; and the plantar veins, with a ]VIinf.raloc>y. 

branch from the calf of the le^, called the su- Vein signifies farther, .1. Tendency or 

r.I %eii>, form the |)osterior tibial; a branch turn of the mind or penins {Dri/dcn), t*. 

aiio asceiidi» in the direction of the fibular Favourable moment (/;W/o/0> ^- Humour; 



V E J V E J 

temfier (B^Mon). 4. Continued dispoiitioo innocent animal coold hare been. ^ 

(J'emple). 5. Current; continued production long conversation with the ne^jro, of « 

iStciJi). 6.Strain; quality (0/i.)* 7« Streak $ asked several questions, to which he ^ 

varieftation : at, the veins of the marble. most pertinent answers, I informed hi 

V£'1N£0. Ve'iny. a. (peintuxp French, much I should be gratified if 1 could 

from oftn.) 1. Full of veins. S. Streaked; abled to handle serpents with the san 

varieaated {Thomson). rity; and finding tnat he was not ai 

VEJUCA DU OCJACO. a plant which procure me that ^satisfaction, I offered 

bas the power of curing and pieventiog the recompeoce, with which he seemed ti 

bite of venoomus serpents, and isprobably the Next morning he returned with the 1< 

ophiorfaiza mungos of Linn^us. Tlie following the plant in question, which he moi 

account is given of it bv Don Pedro d'Orbies y and, bavins bruised them in my pi 

Vargas. " The abundance of venomous ser- made me drink two large s|>oonfuls 

penta found in the ^varm districts has rendered juice. He then made three incisions b 

It necessary for the unfortunate Indians and my fingers in each hand, in which he 

negroes, who traverse the woods almost lated me with the same juice; he perfc 

always barefooted, to search out the most efli* similar operation on each foot, and < 

cacious remedicB for the disagreeable effects side of my breast. When these op 

produced by the bite of these animals* Of the were finished, he informed mc that I m 

remedies hitherto discovered, none is equal to holdof the serpent. 1 made several c 

the juice of a plant of the creeping kind, called tions to him in regard to the disag 

vrjoco du guaco, for it not only cures the ma- consequences to be apprehended in 

ladies arising from the bite of serpents, but should be bit by the animal ; but findi 

preserves from their effects those who have he seemed conndent in his skill, I res< 

drunk of it before they are bitten; so that the take it into my hands without any fear^ 

Negroes and Indians acquainted with this 1 did several times, the animal never 

plant lay hold with their naked hands of the the least attempt to do me any injury 

most venomous serpents, without sustaining of the individuals, however, who wen 

any injury from them. This knowledge, of house, being desirous to run the same ri 

which they formerly made a great mystery, bit by the serpent the second time he 

gave them much importance in the country, in his hands; but without any further 

and there is no doubt that they gained a great venience than a slight inflammation 

deal of money, both from tnose who were parts. Two of my domestics, who hi 

bitten by serpents, and tho&e who were desir- also inoculated, encouniced by this first a 

ous, through cariosity, to see them handle these went out into the fidds and soon I 

danserous animals. with them another kind of serpent, 

"peingbornin thekingdomofSanla-F6, be- venomous, without sustaining any hui 

lon^ng to South A merica, I had often heard it. In a word, I have caught ^tveri 

the inhabitants boasting of the great ability of that time without any other preparatio 

thtse negroes, whom my countrymen call that of having drank a little juice of the 

empirics. But as in the capital, where I was du guaco ; and after re|)eating these 

educated, which lies in a cold district, there either on myself or my domestics, and 

are no venomous serpents, I had no oppor- with the completest success, I resolved i 

tuniiy of seeing any till the year 1788, wnen to give a memoir on this remarkable a 

being at Margerita, I heaid of a slave who had in a periodical paper publibhed every y 

a great reputation as beins invulnerable to ser- Santa-Fe. I added a description of the 

pents, and who belonged to a gentleman of and every thing that appeared to me d( 

that place. As I was resolved to examine him for rendering public and general this di 

myself, I be^ed his master to send for him, so useful to mankind. An account of 

with a sufficient provision of serpents, which experiments, and of the persons who w< 

he readily consented to do. On the dOth of sent, will be found in that paper, datt 

May, of the same year, the negro came to the tember 30, 1791. 
house where I resided with one of the most •* I shall here only ohserve,that the tr 

venomous serpents of the country, which he current among the Indians and ncf^roe: 

had put into a calabash ; a kind of vessel em- vice-royship of Santa-Fc, res|)ecting th 

ploved by these people for the same purposes ner in which the virtue of tniji plant v 

as bottles are employed in Europe. Having covered, is as follows :— A bird of tl 

informed him that I was desirous of seeing a kind, described by Catesby under the n 

specimen of his talents, he replied that he was the serpent-hawk, feeds chiefly upon 

ready to gratify my curiosity, and taking the in the hot and temperate regions of th 

serpent from the calabash, handled it with so of America. This oird has a monoton< 

much confidence and composure, that I ima- sometimes very disagreeable by its rrp 

giiied he had previously deprived it of its teeth which imitates the articulated word gw 

that contained the pf>ison. 1 therefore caused which account the inhabitants have | 

him to open its mouth, but I saw that it still that name ; and these people say that y 

had its teeih ; and was convinced that the cries it is to call forth the serpents, ovei 

negro possessed some secret for soothing it, for it exercises a certain kind of authority, 

it appeared as ume aod harmless as the most add other extravagant fables; but it u 




puniiea ittem irhtfrrer ft findi 
1 ihc India III and negmci, whu 
*f part of iheir limt in the To- 
field*, iU9«ri, (hat 10 lake Ihem 
ufely lh«y prepare ihcmselvi;] by 
^ M>ina leam of ihe plant in question. 
Ttii» dUJ be lra«; the; niAy have di>rovercd 
■he Hitwe of it, and Hjicrienecil it with sue> 
tT«^ Li thi» Cise, ai in nsatiy others, the 
inttinct olaaiinaU has been of use to us. 

"In tegatd tothepliiiit, ilGgeniuhasiialyet 
been cbiMd in any book of boianv I have ever 
km; tiid for that rcuon 1 fhall venture to 
^i«« description of it, as well ml can, taking 
Hnnljge of the memuir above menlioneil. 
The root i* (ibraut, Hnd extends in every (Tircc- 
timitbeitein is ilnight, iietfeclly cylindric 
olm lb« plant it lender, but when old be- 
tunrt pentd^oi^al. that is lo say, acquires 
(^em tnstts. The lejva which grow on Ihe 
Hm stand onpotiie lo each other, are shaped 
Iitti hfarl, have a dark green cnlnur, inter- 
mlud with >iolet; are imctoth on the lower 
sifc, tough on llie upper, and somewhat 
•ctiovi Its cnrrmfalferouj flowers are yellow, 
loKalaoi, and have four florets on each com- 



.npelal. 



focidiWfifoTni, wilh ftvi! indciilBtions, and i 
ttintfiteiianiiiu, united by anthers in ihe form 
•Tcjlinilcni, which citiUtvce ihe tivle. The 
ijlthaii siigiDideeiily divided, Hndiheclvx 
IBBtaiiu MrenI broiiJ secdi, each wilh a silky 

" The plant is vii-aeious, ind It found in ihc 
kn and teniprnte regiom of the liee-royihip 
>fSiiiU-F(i it ii, in geiieni, found growing 
M the bunhrnaf rivulet! and in shady places, 
lUWr lliaD in the o]>eu plains. Nature has 
M |>(iMluceil it in lheele>.iied orcolddisliicis 
tf (Itti eottilnent ; and for this rcaMin, no dniibi, 
llal it* virtue wuuld be uiehsj. us ihereareno 
•netnoai serpents but in the coiinirics where 

m.ARRUM, g mor>hy piece of ground 
M die side of the Tiber, which Augustus 
'uiiTed, and where he built houses. The 
(bee wu frenuenied ■> a market, where nil, 
•iKcK, See. were exposed lo sale. (HoralA. 

VEI.AUIUS, in iin[i(|>iilv, an officer in ihe 
Mn of ibe Ki'tnan eiiii>eriiis, being n kind of 
*kcr, whioe pnu wm liehind ihe curtain in 
itefirlnce** ansriment, as ihat of ihe chancel- 
^1 ■'tt a1 tlie euliy of the balustrade ; and 
^«f tbtosiiarii at ihi: door. The vebrii 
W a n^rrior of the same deno initial ion, who 
naqiaiided them. 

VELASQUi:S {Don Diego Ue Silva), an 
(■Uncnl Spanish |>aiiitcr, was born at Seville 
>> IS94, imt repa>re<t to MaJiid, where his 
bjaus becdiiic ■ powerful rccomniendation of 
Hm to the niysl family. Philip IV. had a 
1*2 (ntlicvlar re^rd for hitn, and look a dc. 
'^ in teeing him |iainl) he eonleried the 
'uniiy of cdvalicr U|hiii him, and when lie 
'M. bonoiired bis memory by an exiieniive 
i«)enl. 

VELAy, ■ late province of Fiance, bounij- 



V K L ':■ .■ 

rt on the north by Forei, west by Auvcrgne, 
south by Gevnudan, and east by Vivarez. Jl 
is full of high mountains, covered wiih «nut« 
ihegreaier part of the year, but abounds i^_ 
cattle. It now forms the depaiiment of UuM" 
Lnire. ^ ''^' 

VELDENTZ, a town of France, ii 
department of Sarre, lately of Germany, i 
palaLiiiaie of the Rhine, with a easlle. 
environs produce excellent Moselle wine 
is seated on the Muselle, ig miles N.£. 1 
Treves. 

VELETRI. a town of Italy, in Campo^ 
di Roma. It is the residence of ihe bishop M 
Oatia, whose palace is maanilicenl; and ihM 
are large squares adorned with (ine fountains 
It is leatid on an eminence, IB miles S.l£. rf'' 



VELEZ DE GOMARA. a seaport of the 
kingdom of Fez, with a castle, scaled belweeu 
two high mountains, on ihe Medite 
ISO mile* N.N.E. of Fez, han.i. OV 
Lai. 56. 10 N. 

Velez Malaga, a town of Spain, 
Granada, sealed in a large plain, between t^ 
rivers, near the Mediterranean, 13 miles E. I 
N. of Malnga, and 62S.W. of Granada. 

VELEZIA. in botany, a genus of 
class iientandiia, order digynia. Cntot fi*£ 
(Stalled, smalh calyx fllilorm, five-tooth etf:g 
c.ipsule one-eellcd; sictls numeroi 
single series. Une species; a native of ll 
Hjuth of Europe. 

VELLA. Cress- rock el. In botany, ageli^ 
of the class letradyiiainia, order siticul" 
Silicic with the partiiinu twice ■• larie as 
valves i ovate outwardly. Two spcciesi 
V. annua, common cnswocket. a herb iS 
digenonsioourowD sandy fields : the other, ViJ 
psciidn-cytisui, ashtubby plant of Spain. \ 

VELLEIA, in b.Uny, a ^-nus of ihel 
class iNniandtia, order monogjnia. Calyx 6*»t4 
Iraietl, inferiorj co to 1 tubular, gupti '* 

wilh a five-cleft Iwrder; capsule fuL 
one-celled, many-scededj seeds imbricate. Orf 
SMcies only) an herbaeeoui stemless phni ■ 



VELLE'ITY. J. (i>eWfi(ai, from vent. Latj 
tie lowest deerre of desire [Lnrke). 
roVE'LLlCATE. v.D.tweWi™, Lat,] * 



VHI,I,ICAT!ON. J. {vtthcalio, Uiin.) 
Twiichingi slirnuUllon {Wulhl. 

Vellicatiom, in medicine, (from vdticot 
to pluck. 1 Theaiicmpt to pluck sninL-ihing 
fioni the bedclothes: a cnminoJ syinplum iti 
the Inst •times of low fevers. {Titmui). 

VELLUM, is a kind of parchment, ihatii 
finer, eventr, and more white than the i-otii- 
nion psrehnient. The word is formed fTOiit 
the Freiiclt veHn, of the Ldtin vilulinui, be- 
loniiliie t<> a calf. 

VELOCITV.orSwiiTHrM.orCBi,«mTV, 
in mechanics, is that afF ction nf muiii'H, by 
which a >nn' ing tyidy pasxs iiver a crrinin 
sixice in a certain time. It is always pinpoi- 
iHKul to the space moved over k> a given liuiC 



V E L V EN 

wlicn the velocity is unirorin, or always the velveting, of this stuff, is formed of parts of the 

siame during that time. threads of the warp,\vhich the workman puts oa 

Velocity is either uniform or variable. Uni- a long narrow-channelled ruleror needle, which 

form, or equal \elucity, is that with which a he afterwards cuts, by drawing a sharp steel 

body passes always over equal spaces in equal tool along the channel of the needle to the ends 

times. And it is variahlc, or unequal, when of the warp. The principal and best manii- 

the snaccTi passed over in equal times are un- factories of velvet are iu France and Italy, |>ar« 

equal; in which case it is cither accelerated ticularly in Venice, Milan, Florence, Genoa, 

or leiurdcd velocity ; and this acceloratioii, or and Lucca : there are others in Holland, set 

retardation, may also be equal or unequal, i.e. up by the French refugees; whereof that at 

uniform or vaiiable, &c. See Acceleka- 11 acrlcm is the most considerable: but the)' all 

TION, Motion, and Dynamics. come short of the beauty of those in France, 

Vilociiy is aUo cither absolute or relative, and accord imily arc sold for ten or fifteen |N:r 

Absolute velocity is that we have hitherto cen!. less. There are even some brought from 

been considering, in which the velocity of China; but they are the worst of all. 
a boily is considered simply in itself, or as Ve^lvet. a. 1. Made of velvet iSkaks.), 

passing over a certain »pacc in a certain 2. Soft; delicate (ybttn/j). 
time. But relative or respective velocity 7o Ve'lvet. r. w. To paint velvet, 
is that with wliich bo<Iies api.roach tcs or VELUM PENDULUM PALATI. Ve- 

recede from one another, wlielner they both lum. Velum oalalinum. The soft palate, 

move, or one of them be at rest. Thus, if The soft part or the palate, which .forms two 

one body move with the absolute velocity of arches, aflixed laterally to the tongue and pha-> 

two feet |>cr second, and an oilier with that of rynx. 

six feet per second ; then if they m<Ae directly VENA AZYGOS. Vena sine pari. See 

towards each other, the relative vihicity with Azygos vein. 

which tluy approach is th.it of ci;;lu feet per Vena medincn.'^is. See Medineva^s 

second ; but it they move both ihe same way, vf.NA. 

so that the latter overtake the fjrmer, then the Vena fortm. {vena por tee, a poriando, 
relative velocity with which that overtakes it, because through it things are carried.) Vena 
is only that of four feet per second, or only |K>riarum. The great vein, situated at the en- 
half of the former; and consequently it wifl trance of the liver, which receives the blood 
take double the tmie of the former before they from the abdominal viscera, and carries it into 
come in contact together. the substance of the liver. It is distingiushed 

Virtual velocihj of a point solicited by anj into the hepatic and abdominal poriioo : tlie 

force* is the ikuient of the space which it former is ramified through the substance of 

would describe in the direction of the power, the liver, and carries the blood destined for 

when the system is supposed to have under- the furmalion of bile, which is returned bf 

gone an iiuK'finitily small deranr;cment. branches to the trunk of the vena cava; the 

Prindpic ofvirhial i elociiics, in mechanics, latter is conijiosed of three branches ; viz. the 

is much employed by the foreign malhemati- s|-Lnic, nu-eiueric, and internal hsmorrhoidal 

cian«, and is thus i nimciate<l : if any systeni vein-J. See \'eins. 

whatever is solicited by powers in equilibrio, VENA! LA(-TEJE. The lacteal absorb- 

and there be given to this system a'ty small cuts were so callc.l. See Lacteal?. 
motion, in virtue of which every point describes VENA FRO, a lowij of Naples, in Terrs di 

an indefinitely small space, the sum of the I-.:i\oro, with a bishop's see, seated near the 

products tf each power, nndliplied by the space Vnllurno, i>7 luiic'; W . of Capua, and 43 N- 

that the point where it i^ applied would de- of Na|)les. Lou. 14. IJ) E. Lat. 43. 32 N. 
scribe, according to the dirtc.ion of the same VE'NAL. a. (venal, French ; vcriotis, IM 

p)w«T, \yiil be always equal to zero; ref;;ird- 1. Mercenary; prostitute {Pope), 2. (ff«'W 

ing as p'lsitive the small spaces described in r<2«.) Cont.imed in ihc veins (/ftiy). 
the 3tn-eof the powers; and as negative, th<»sc VENA'LITV. s. (t'rom venal.) .Mcrctnari- 

described in the oppo>iie sense. ness ; prostitution. 

This principle is due to Cia-ilro. For its VEN'ANT (St.), a town of France, in '^* 

history iind dcmon^tration, sfc Metan'que de dcjurimcni of the Strait:? (>f Calais. Ii cjn l< 

la C/ranp:'', p. 8. Set, a'.'jO, Fourier's dinioi:- laid under walcr at aiiv ijiuCh which is its cl^i^' 

fitratiMn in b° Cahier du Journal dc FEcole defence, and is i?7 miles S.E. of Huukirk, i*"^ 

Polxtrchnirnie. CO N.W. of Arras. Lou. 'J. 3(/ E. Lat. ■^^' 

\'lOL'i'llEl.ML\, in botany, a genus of 3S N. 
the (las? ln;xap(lria, (?r<!iT niDiicgynia. Corul VENASQl-E,a t;)wn of Sj.ain, in Arra^''"* 

tulular, •'i\-io,j;lu(i ; staiuens in>vrttd in the in a valley tjf thr same name, wiiii a sir"**? 

tJilfe; eaji'-wu nn'nlb^u^lceou^, three-\M:;j;ccl ; ci-jtlc. It is >ealed (in the I*>>ara, in a cn»*"' 

the cclN nni:.<i(cded. l*(;ur-s|>ecic?, n;nives of try priKlucing i»oo<l wine, 35 miles east of li***' 

lheC'uj)e, n;jc or two with n<MJdin.z flowers. b.»>tr(>. Lou. t). C.> \\. L::t. 41. o8 N. 

VEIAET, a rich i^ind of siutf, all s'lk, \'ENATIC. a. {rcnaticus, Latin.) L'**^ 

coveied on the outside with a cl«.se, short, line, in h-miiim. 



soli ihag, the ijihei ^ide being a very strong VENATION. .«. {vrviifio, I^tin.) The 
close ti>due. The nap or shag, called aho the or practice of hunting \Uiou'u), 



:,cx 



V E N . 

IND. V. a, {uendrc, French ; vcndo. 
To sell ; lo oftcr to ^alc {Boyle). 

3£H, a cle|>artiueiit of France, iiiclud- 

of the late province of Poilou. It is 
from a small river of the same name. 

r-!e-Compte is the capital. 

e'e. 1. (from vend.) One to whom 

5 is sold {Ayliffe), 

bER« i. (vendeur, French.) A seller 

• 

1)1 BLE. a. {cendibilis, Latin.) Sdle- 
arkctahlet Cart w). 

DIBLENESS. i. (from vendible.) The 
leing saleable. 

DIBLY. ad. In a saleable manner. 
DITATION. 1. (vendiiatio, from 
Lat.) Boastful display {Ben Jonson). 
DITION. s. {vendition, French j rf n- 
ii.) Sale ; ihe act of selling. 
DOME, a town of France, in the de- 
i of Loir and Cher, seated on the river 
) miles N.E. of Tours, and 95 S.W. 

Lon. 1 . 8 E. Lat. 47. 50 N. 
!NTl'ER. v. a. (amon^ cabinet makers.) 
e a kind of marquetry or inlaid work 
I. 

EERING, Vaneering, or Fineer- 
(ind of marquetry, or inlaying, where- 
at thin slices or leaves of fine wood, of 

kinds, are applied and fastened on a 
of some common wood. There are 
ds of inlaying : the one, which is the 
iinary, goes no farther than the mak- 
jmpartinicnts of different wooils ; the 
Quires much more art, and represents 
birds, and the like figures. The 6rst 
nrhat we properly call veneering $ the 
e have alreaay described under Mar- 
'. The wood intended for veneering 
awed out into slices or leaves, about a 
:k : in order to saw them, the blocks 
J arie placed upright in a kind of vice 
ig press : the descnption of which may 
jnder the article just referred to. These 
e afterwards cut mto slips, and fashion- 
's ways, accordine to tne design pro- 
hen the joints being carefully adjusted, 

pieces brought down to their proper 
is, with several planes for the purpose, 
glued down on a ground or block of dry 



V E N 

VKNEFFCL'VL. a. (from trfUf/fciMm, Lat.) 
Acting by poison ; bewitching {Brotvn). 

VENEFl'CIOUSLY. ad. (from tenifcium, 
Lat.^ By poison or witchcraft {Brown). 

VE'NEMOUS. a. (from venin^Fr.) Poison- 
ous. Commonly venomous {Acts). 

To VE'NENATE. v. a. {veneno, Lat.) To 
poison ; to infect with poison {Woodward), 

VENENA'TION. s. (from venenaie). Poi- 
son; venom {Brown). 

VENE'NE. Venen'o'se. a. {veneneux,Fr.') 
Poisonous; venemous {Harvey. Ray). 

VFNERABLE. a. {vencrabilis, Lat.) To 
be regarded with awe 3 to be treated with re- 
verence {Fair/ax). 

VE'NERABLY. ad. (from venerable.) la 
a manner that excites reverence {Addison). 

To VE'NERATE. v. a. {vmerer, French ; 
veneror, Latin.; To reverence^ to treat with 
veneration ; to rec^ard with awe {Herbert). 

VENERATION, s. {veneration, French; 
veneraiio, Latin.) Reverend regard 3 awfut 
respect {Addison). 

VENERATOR. 1. (from venerate.) Re- 
verencer {Hale). 

VENE'REAL. a. (rfnirewi. Latin.) I. Re- 
lating to love {Addison)'. 2. Coni>iiting of 
copper, called Venus by chymists {Boyle). 

Venereal disease. See Gonorrhea 
and SiPHiLis. 

VENE'REOUS. a. (from venery.) Libidi- 
nous; lustful {Dcrhani). 

VENEUONI (John), was born at Verdun, 
and called himself Vi^neron ; but as he had 
studied Italian, and was desirous of leaching 
it in Paris, he Italianised his name. The 
perspicuity of his principles procured him nu- 
merous scholars. He is one of those authori 
who have greatly contributed to extend the 
taste for Italian literature ; he composed some 
choice fables, besides his grammar and diction- 
ary of the Italian and French languages ; he is 
also author of Letters of Cardinal Bentivo- 
glio. 



VE'NERY. s. {venerie, from venir, Fr.) 
1. The sport of hunting {Howel). 2. The 
pleasures of the bed {Grew). 

Venery (Beasts of). Beasts of (brrst ; so 
denominated in the forest laws, originally 
framed for the preservation of vert and venison. 
n\\\ good strong^ English glue. The They include tne hart, hare, hind, boar, and 
bus joined and clued, the work, If wolf. - 
I put in a press; it large, it is laid on VENESECTION. *.(rma and irc/io, Lat.) 



press; ti large 
efi, covered with a board, and pressed 
ith poles, or pieces of wood, one end 
'reaches to the ceiling of the room, 
other bears on the boards. When the 
(uite dry, they take it out of the press 
ih it ; first with little planes, then with 
crapers, some whereof resemble rasps, 
ake off dents, &c. left by the planes. 
ofiiciently scraped, the work is polished 
t skio of a sea-dog, wax, and a brush 
isher of shave- grass : which is the last 
in. 

iEFICE. *. {venffciuniy Lat.) The 
: of poisoning. 



Blood-letting ; the act of opening a vein ; 
phleboioiny. See Surgery. 

VENETI, a people of Italy, in Cisalpine 
Gaul, near the mouths of the Po, descended 
from a nation of Paphlagonia, who settled there 
under Anlenor, atier the Trojan war. The 
Venetians, who ha\e been long a powerful and 
commercial nation, were originally very poor. 

VENFFIAN BOLE. The mineral deno- 
minated bole is of various colours, but u>ually 
of an obscure Isabella yellow, red, reddibh, or 
whitish brown. Jt is also found in various 
parts of the earth ; but chiefly in Italy, France, 



V E N V E N 

Germany, Hungary, Ponugal, Armenia, and E, side of the gulf of Venezuela, 70 mile 

Lemnos. A mon^ other places, this argillace- N.£. of Maracaybo, JiOU. 70. 13 W. JLit 

ous earth is duic in Coriiithia, and inanufac- 10.43 N. 

tured at Venice into a red pigment, and hence VE'NEY. *. (venn, Fr-) A boat; a turn ^ 

exported as a pigment to ail )^rts of the world. fencin{E {Shakspeare). 

It is in truth a native red ochre, of a fine To VENGE. v. a. (venger, French.) T< 

bright and not very deep hue, approaching in aTenge; to punish (5Aaibpeare). 

some degree to the colour of mmium or red- VE^NGEABLE. a. (froiDveiigOReTenge 

lead, is moderately heavy, and of an even and ful ; malicious {Spenser). 

smooth texture, yet vcr\- friable, and of a dusty VE'NGEANCE. 5. (ven^mnce, Frendi.] 

surface: it adheres firmly to tluc tongue, it very 1. Punishment; penal retriliution ; avenge- 

smooth and sod to the touch, easily crumbles ment {King Charles), 9. Jt is used io f4mir 

to pieces between the fingers, and very much liar language. 7b do witk a vengeance, ii ioi$ 

stains the skin in handling. It has a slight with vehemence, 

astringent taste, effervesces considerably VE'NGI*.FUL. a. (from vengeance and 

with nitric acid, and in water immediately full.) Vindictive; revengeful; retributiie 

breaks into a fine powder. Though cheap, {Fri^r), 

it is often adulterated; anil occasionally in: i-» VE^NIABLE. Ve^niaL. a. (9nit>/.FiCD€h; 

tated by mixing common red ochre wi in the from venia, Lat.) I. Panlonal>le; excosaUf 

colcothar, or caput mortium, taken out of the {Hoscgm,), 2. Permitte<l ; allowed {MiUm), 

aqua fortis pots and washed over. It is used VE'NI ALNESS, f. (from vei?f«/.) Slate «f 

in bouse painting to imitate mahogany. beins excusable. 

yENETIANO (i3ominico), a Venetian VENICE, a late celebrated republic of 

painter, who introduced the use of oil colours Italy, which comprehended the Dogado> W* 

m painting into Italy, the art having been duano, Vicentino, Veronese, Bresciano, Bcif 

communicated to him alone by John Van gamo, Crcmasco, Polesino dt Rovigo, Ticri- 

£yck, the inventor. He was treacherously sano, Feltrino, 3ellunese, Cadorino, and put 

mnrdered at Florence in 1746 by Andrea del of Friuli and I»tria. The government of .tb^ 

Castagno, to whom he had intrusted the republic, liefore it was subverted by (W 

secret. French, was aristocratic, for none oauld bare 

VENEZUELA, a province of Terra Flrma, any share in it but the nobles. The dogt wti 

bounded on the N. by the Caribbean Sea, on elected by a plurality of votes, obtainMi io • 

the £. by Caraccus, on the $. by New peculiar manner by means of gold and silftr 

Granada, and on the W. by St. Martha. When bulls ; and after his election the ducal cap wis 

the Spaniards landed here in I4<)9, they oh- placed on his head, with great ceremony, oo 

served some huts bntlt upon piles, in an Indian liis public entrance into St. Mark's churcb. 

village, in order io raise them above the sta^- He neld his dignity for life; and his office wu 

nated water that covered the plain : and this to many the Adriatic sea, in the name of the 

induced them to give it the name of Venezuela, republic; to preside in all assemblies of the 

or Little Venice. Near the scacoast are high state ; to have an eye over all the members ol 

mountains, the tops of which are barren, but the magistracy; and to nominate to all tbi 

the lower parts in the valley are fertile, pro- benefices annexed to the church of Sl Mark 

ducing plenty of corn, rich pastures, sugar. On the other hand, his power was so limited, 

tobacco, and fruits. There are also planta- that he has been justly defined to be, in habi 

tjons of cocoa-nuts, which are exceedingly and slate, a kin^ ; in authority, a counsellor 

good ; and gold is found in the sands of the in the city, a prisoner ; and out of it, a privati 

rivers. Tliis province was bestowed by era- person. "There were five councils: the firs 

peror Charles V. on the Velsers of Augsburg, was called La Signoria, composed of the Ungi 

the most opulent merchants, at that time, in and six counsellors. Tiic second was 11 Con 

Europe, in consideration of large sums they siglio Grande, in which all the nobles, amount 

had advanced to him. They were to hold it ing to 2600, had a voice. The third was I 

as an hereditary fief of the crown of C'astile, Consiglio dei Pregadi, consisting of about 9M 

on condition of conquering the country and of the nobility. The fourth was II Consigli< 

establishing a colony within a limited time. Proprio, which was united tu the Signoria ; it 

Unfortunately, they committed the execution members consisted of S8 assesson : this coon 

of their plan to some of the soldiers of fortune oil gave audience to the ambassadors. TIm 

with which Germany abounded in the lOth fifth and last was II Consiglio die Dieci, com 

century, by whose rapacity and extortion the posed of ten counsellors, who took notice o 

country was so desolated, that it could hardly all criminal matters; and the doge himself 

afford them subsistence, and the Velsers were when accused, was obliged to appear befor 

obligeil to relinquish their property. Tlie them : there was no appeal from this council 

Spaninnls immrciately resumtnl possession of which was a severe state inquisition. Thi 

it ; hut, notwithstanding it> many natural od- constitution, however, now no longer exists 

vant.iges it is still one of their most languish- In 1797> a tumult having happenefl at Venice 

in^ and unproductive setilenientb. in which some French soldiers were killed, th 

Venezuela, the capital of a province of French seised the citVt and instituted a |>fovi 

the same ruiine, in Terra Firnia, with a sionary democratic government: but, sooi 

bi>hO|>'s :cc. it stands on a peninsula, on the after, by the tteaty of Campo Formio, the cii 



VENICE. ^^« 

mi Ufnfoij oTVtn'ict, lying (o th« N. and ihey reach Oie laguna. The number of the 

W. 'if thcnver Adijp, was ceded to Ainlria ai inhnbiunu is computed ai iSO.OOO, ami ihej 

4 Juehy, in rquivakncc Tor ihe dominion! (hiil hive a flourishiiu; trade in iiilk nunufactufM, 

WuM had luBt ill ihe NetherlanilE i and ilic bonr-larc, and all aom o[ ^lats«i and mirron, 

tnniindeT of the Ittritory wit annexed [□ what which make their principal employments. 

th( French Uien ityled ihe Cisalpine republic. Most or the hoiue< hare a door opening upon 

la ItOi commenced a ihort war between a canal, and another inio a street ; by meant 

Aialria and Fiance, and by the treaty of peace of which, and of the bridged, a person may pn 

U Pteibufg. the duchy of Venice via* given loatraoil any part of the city by land, ai wcil 

^; toii the nhole Icriitory of Venlee is now aa by water. Thestreeli, in general, are nar- 

iiunol* ibc newly erected kingdom of Italy, row; and ro aie the canals, except the Grand 

TbtVetielian unitorieson the continent, enu- Canal, which is lery broad, and has a lerpen- 

Mited above (and which, by wiv of dieiinc- line courie ihiou^h the middle of the city, 

wa, are ■ometimet called (lie Terra FirmaJ There are nearly iOO bridgea in Venice j but 

iRiinciibed in their respective placet. Venice what past for soch are only single arche* 

ini*nce ooc of ib« moil pnwerful coinmei- thrown o«r the caosk ; mo»t of them vciy 

ml ud matitime ftates in Europe. For llrt paltry. The Rialto consists also of a siii)i1e 

it m indebted, at fint, in the monopoly of arch, but a very noble one, and of tnaihle, 

At CsaiiiMrce of India; the iitnducts of that built acroi* the graifl canal, near the middle, 

mirr beins conveyed, in the middle agei, where it ia the nanowc!!: this celebrated arch 

Wlhe'pilfoT Penia, ihe Euphrates, and the is gO feet wide on the level of the caiia!, and 

Tifrij, t% far ai Bacdsd ; thence by land, S4 feet high. The beauty of it ii impaired bji 

KTOBtlke dcicrt. to Pahnyra; and thence to two riws nf booths or sliops, which ditides its 

ftt Mediterranean ports: and, afterward, the upper eurface into three narrow ilreeti. The 

iwplrinc of the ctu<aclere with provision* and view fraio the Itiatto la equa'ly lively and mag- 

Bliwy tiorei was an additional louiceofopu- ititicent; the canal covered by boats and ^on- 

b«e and power. All this declined, however, dolai, aiid flanked on each I'de by mapniticent 

iflct the diKDvery of (he Cape of Good Hope palaces, churche*, and spiies. The only place 

tf iha PortMuese, in HSG; which, in in where a person can wallt with ease and lafetj 

nONqwincc*, na« reduced Venice from a slate is in Uie Piaiza di St. Marco; a kind of irrc- 

tt lk« hightil splendour to cdotparaiive in- gnlar quadrangle, formed bji a number of 

lipitban«e. The Venetians are lively and buildings, all of marble ; nailiely. Ihe ducal 

Sieui, rxtiavaganily fond of amusements, p'tlace; the churches of St. Mark and St. 

in tracommon rrlish for humour. They Geminiann ; and a noble range of building*. 



nt'ta grarral tall, well made, and of a ruddy in which arc the miwcnm, the p>iblic tibraiv. 

hnra cskiur. wiifa dork eyes. The women th^ mint, &c. The |>atri3rchnl church of Si. 

R of a fine style of countenance, with ei:- Mark, one of the richrtt and most exponiire 

pWRe fetlitres, and a skin of a rich cama- in the world, is crowned by five domes ; and 

iiMi : they are of an easy iddieis, and have no the -creasury is very rich In jewels and rchc^. 

arniion lo caliivate an acquaintance with The churches and conventi are numeroui, in 

Kniigert whn are properly recommended, which the most admirable part are the paint- 

W'hatner degree of ncentioutneii may pre- ings; and indeed Venice, highly renowned 

til anionic tliem, jealousy, poison, and the for valuable piiiniinei, lar surpasses, in this 

nlitlo have been long banished from their respect, even Rome lUelf. The ducal palace 

pllanity. The common people display inme i* an immense building i before the tubver- 

^Utict very rarely to be fuund iu that sphere si'in of the republic it contained the apart- 

m life, being remarkably sober, obliging to ments of the doge; halls atid chambers for 

ttU|pn. and gentle in their intercourse with the senate, and the different cnuneib and trt- 

«Kfa other. buual) ; and an aimury. in which a great num- 

VcKioc, a i:ity of Italy, and a long time ber of miurketi were kept, ready clurged, that 

^capitalnfa tertiloty iif lUeviincnflme. In the not) I es mi^ht arm iheintclTes on any sud- 

Ae 4th century, when Atiila, king iif the den iosurreciinn. The araenal is a fofti(iea> 

Haoi, ravaged the N. pirt nf Italy, mnny of trun of three miles in compass: before it waa 

■^ iohabitanit nhandcined their rouuiry, and (liUa^tcd hy the French, it contained aims for 

tnildimo Ihe islandsofihe Adriatic sea, now 60,000 foot aiul SO.OOO horw, atran^ceil in an 

olUthei:ulfof VenioF. These islands liein;; ornamental manner; and SBOU men wcte 

om each oiber, ihey found means lo join daily employed iu building ship*, casting ojn- 

tbni, by diivinc pilri on the sides, and form- noni. making cable>, soils, anchors, ice. The 

Kibe channeFs into canals, on which ihry handsome structure colled II F'lniic* di Te- 

ibotMet, and thus the superb city of W ilcschi, containing 33 shops and 100 rooms, ia 

■inliad iu beginning. Il is the see of a pa- that where the German merchants lay iheir 

■iaieh. attd standi on 73 little islands, about c()muKKliiiei. The bank of Venice it luppnsed 

'*e ailcs from the mainland, iu a kind of to be the lint of the kind in Kurope, after the 

Jjgona or lake, tcmrated from the gulf of model of which thnse of Amsterdam and 

Venice, btMOic islands, at a few miles dis- Hamburg were esiabliihed. In this city a 

—""" iTlrse islands, in a great meatnra, famous camiviil is held from Chrisimja till 

ft the Adriitic uotiBtf bcfuw Ashn-edimday ; ia til which lioie libertioiia 




V E N V E N 

reigini through the city, and thousands of fo' To Vent. r. n. To snuff: as^ he venieth 

reigners frequent it fntm all parts of Europe, in the air {Spenser). 

The chief divcr^ion^ arc ridotios and mas'|ue- VliNTA I)E CRUZ, a town of Tera 

rades; and St. Mark place is the general rrn- Firnia, in the isthmus of Darien /seated on ibe 

dczvoti5. Venice is included in the province river Chagre. Here the Spaniards used to 

called the Dorado, and is \**5 miles N.N.E. of bring the merchandise of Peru and Chill on 

Fl<irence, and 140 ¥.. of Milan. Lon. 12. 23 mules from Panama, and embark it on the 

K 1-at. 45.27 N. flver for Porto Bcllo. It is 20 miles N. of 

Venice (Gulf of), a sea, or pulf of the Panama. 

Me<literranean, between Italy and Turkey in VE'NTAIL. i. (from ventaiK French.) 

Europe. It is the ancient Adriuticum mire. That part of the helmet made to lift up. 

and is still sometimes called the Adriatic sea. VLNTA'NNA 5. (S^ianisii.) A window 

* There are many islands in it, and many hays (Drifdrn), 

or small J5ulfs on each coast. The urand ce- Vl'INTER, in anatomy. A term formciiy 

remony of the doge of Venice marrying the applied to the larger ciicumscrihcd cavitioM 

Adriatic annually on Ascension Day« by drop- the body, as the abdomen and thorak, 

Cing into it a ring from his bncentaur, or state Venter is also u.^ for* the children byt 

arge, attendee] hiy all the nobility and ambas- woman of one marriage : there is in Uw • 

sadors in gondolas, was intermitted in ITp?, Brst and second venter, &c. where a man bath 

for the first time for several centuries. See children by several wives; and how theyshill 

H inch ley's History of the Subversion of the take in descents of lands. 

Republic of Venice; or Edinburgh Review, Venter inspiciendo, is a writtoseuch 

vol. xii. pp. 37P — 3()4. a woman that saith she is with ckild, sad 

VENIRE FACiAS, in law, is a judicial thereby withholdeth lands from the oat heir: 

writ lyin^ where two parties ])lead and come the trial whereof is by a jury of women, 

to issue, directed to the sheriff, to cause twelve VE'NTIDUCl'. s. (venius and ductus,) A 

men of the same neighbourhood to meet and passaee for the wind {Boyle). 

try the fame, and to say the truth upon the VENTILAGO, in botany, a genuiof the 

issue taken. class pen taudria^ order monogynia^ Calyx to*. 

VE'NISON. s. {venaiton, French.) Game ; bular ; petals five, scales opposite the staoiem; 

beast of chase; the flesh of deer {Shak^ capsule globular, ending in a long oiembfam^ 

tpetire). ceous wmg, one- seeded. One spccieB ooly^a 

VEN LO, a strong town of the Netherlands, climbing shrub of the East Indies, with nuaic^ 

in Upper Guelderlund, and a place of trade for ous small, dirty, greenish flov^xrs in a .icrni* 

mercnandise coming from the adjacent coun- nalpanicle. « • 

tries. In 1702, it surrendered td the allies. To VE'NTILATE. v. a. {venlUo, Latin.) 

and was cnnfirmctl to the Dutch by the barrier 1: To fan with wind {JFoodtooird), 3. To 

treaty in 17l'>. It was taken by'the French winnow; to fan. 3. To examine; todiscon 

in 1794. It i^ seated on the E. side of the {Auliffe), 

Meuse, opposite Fort St. Michael, IC miles VKNTILATION. 5. {veniilafio^ Latin.] 

N. of Rurcmonde. L(mr (i. () E. Lat. 61. I.Theactof fanning; the state of being fanned 

'J'J N^ {Addison) . 2. Veni; utterance : not in um 

VE'NOM. *. {venin, French.) Poison (Dry- (Jfotton), 3. Refrigeration {Harvey), 

den). VENTILArOU, a machine by which Um 

To Ve^nom. v. a. To infect with venom ; noxious air of any close place, as an hospital, 

to poison ; to envenom. gaol, ship, chamber, &c. may be diach«i]pi 

VE'NOMOUS. a, (from venom.) 1. Poi- and changed for fresh air. 

snnons {Shafcspearr). 2. Malignant; mis- The noxious qualities of bad air luve beer 

chievoos {Addhon). long known; and Dr. Hales and otberfehivi 

VE'NOMOl-SIA'. ad. Poisonously ; mis- taken great pains to point out the miscbicii 

cliievouslv: malifsnantly {Dry den). arising from foul air, and to prevent or renudj 

VE'NOMOUSNESS. s. (from venomout.) them. That philosopher proposed an easyanc 

Poisonotisncss ; malignity. etFcctual one, by the use ot his veoiilalors ; ibf 

VENT.y. ifentt\ French.) 1. A small aper- account of which was read before the Royil 

ture; a hole; a spiracle; passage at which Society in May 174 1 ; and a farther account ol 

any thing is let out {Milton). 9. Passage out it may be seen in his. Description of Veiitilfr 

of secfecy to public notice (^/^oZ/oM). 3. The tors, printed at I^ndon in 8vo. 1743; tn^ 

act of openint; {Philips). 4. Emission ; pas- still farther in part 2, p. 32, printed in 17^1 

snee {Addison). 5. Discharge ; inean<( of dis- where the uses and a))plications of them an 

chnrge (Mortimer). 6. {rente, French.) Sale p)intcd out for ships and prisons, &c. Foi 

{pope"). what is said of the foul air of ships may bi 

To Vent. v. a. {venter^ Fr. from the noun.) applied to that of gaols, mines, vrorkhoiiscsi 

1. To let out at a small api-rture. ?. To let hospitals, barracks, Sec. In mincsi veniiliKNi 

out ; to uivr way to {Den/wm). 3. To utter; may guard against the suffocations, and othei 

to report {Stephmt). 4. To emit; to pour terrible accidents arising from dain()S. 11* 

out {S/iuhpeare). 5. To publish {Ralagl^)* air of ^aoU has often proved infectious; v^ 

U. To sell ; to let go to sale (Girrtr]. we bad a fatal proof of this, by the uaM 




V E N T I I, A T O It. 

Oiicorilicpiincipdt ni^ tab** should ^eternd ' 
n near lolhcsttrn nf the vc.-ivl aicunieiiicnt, 

riMHi, which wcfc Hotknl Uj a huiuII nrid ilie other as near to the stem. 

I( liUcnl un llielopor Nciv^tci ami Tiirungh ihat tube whiuli ii in the htai, 

n l)EGain« more healthy. tlie fuul nir » U) be cxtructcd; ntiil ihrougti 

lain fiitbcr luggaH, 'that venlllaiof] ibat which is hi ihe il«n, ihe fresh sir la la 

t of uie in mailing wit; for which dcicenil to the diSereul deths and olbei apart- 

tb«R thould be a iircam urwiier |p loeijli ul' ihe vensel. 

tm ; or they Diight be worked bjr a The extraction of' the air it eatily cITecied En 

I, and the briiie bhoiild be in lung ibe follnninj; matiner: let ■ iraosverle lube 

•nail, covered with boardt of canvas, be fiili-d lo that which de^Cendi in ihe hiud of 

noK above the lurface ot the brine, lo the tfsscI ; it may be >uuk u ilhln the Ivvul of 

ibc tlttam of air, lO a» to make it act the ilech, aoa» Ui avte no inequality of tur* 

rurbccof ihe brine, and carry off the face. Let it he coniiiiued till it Coinu be- 

vapouri. Thu» it ini^hl lie reduced neaih lii« fire-pbec, then ascend In a per|>cti- 

yJt, with a Miiog of riiel, iu winter dicular direction through the lire, dnd open a 

ner, or in rainy weather, or any siaie liiile above it; or it may be ninde lo cominu> 

Ir whaieter. Ventilatori, he aiipte- nicate miih the chiainey. It would be more 

ii|;ht also aerve fur drying linen hung cnnvrDicnt if ihe Irre was near ihe place where 

Mtf, narruw galleiie», especially in the lube rises through the deck i biitlhcexpC' 

lamy weather, ahd also in drying rinient must erjually lucceoli if ihc tube be 

ciMbs. after they are foiled of dyed ; made lo descend again lill it li beneath ihe 

■--^■- ■*—— —lalonraighlbework. common fire-place. The ettrcl that wilt re- 



fulling water-mill. Venttlaturs suit from ihis coutrlvaiice 

uiefiil appendage lo mall and ihe lube which i>ai»s ihroiigh Ihe fire is 

the same author is farther of heated, the air will atCend with a fnree prp- 

TCntilaiion of warm dry air purlionable lo its kvity. and the ascending co- 

iiUuiaing siove, wilb a cauiluas hand, lumn can only be supplied from bctuw, ctiiMe- 



orKTrice to lr«cs and plants in areen- quently it miul Come from all those pans of 

obcre il is well kiiown ihalait full of the ship with whtch ihcmain lube cominuni' 

id vapours which pir^pire from the caies. 

reryunkindly to them, at well a« ihe When the ports a 



1 human tiodies arc to men ; for 



f ports are open, ihe quantity of 
lusted from ine ship will betub- 
II . . \,.,i :r .!.». ..,.„ .11 



ii as nec«uary (o ihe healthy state of plied from all quarters; but if they wer 
I W of animals. — Venlltutots are also shut, and llie hatchways and other openih^ 
ml use for drying cornt hups, atul completely closed, ihe renewal of fresh air ii 
rnpowder maybe thoroughly dried, by made certain, hy means of the tube which de- 
ir lip through it by nieaiis of renlila- sceiids in the iiern. The main air tube, where 
kli ii of great advantage lu ihe ii ri<es above the deck in the stern, should have 
ftf il. These ventilators, even the an hnriiouial one lilted lo ii, which might be 
Br*, will also serve lo purify most made lo iraverw, to that it Could be lurned 
I eunuolly the bad air of a shin's lo windward ; it might alao ekpand ai iu cx> 

n ■ person is tent down Into it, by tremity, like the mouih uf a trumpet ; and 

kir dirough a trunk, reaching near thus perfectly fresh air must enter, and the 

Bi of it. And ^u a similar manner force of the gate would tend lo impel it Into 

imft water, and itl-tasted milk. Sec. ihe vessel. 

n^, via. by passing a current of air When that part uf the tube which pants 

icm, from boltom lo sap, which will thiouah the tire is red hot, the draught which 

liiensiv* particles along with ii. would be thui occasioned misbi perhaps be 

lexud ulher uiies to which they might ton great, and ihe open pipes which commual- 

, OS well as for a particular account i^aic with the decks mightcmitand Imbibe the 

airuction and disposition of veniila* ficsh air in so direct u stream, that it might lie 

iip«, bospitah, prisons, ta. and the injurious to those giersoiis within Ihc (furrenL 
IMtsdittg theoi, see Hale's Treatise Mr. Abcrnethy therefore thinks it ■il'ould 

i>of», part t,pa»imj and ihc Philos. be belter if those smaller pipes nhich lead 

.49. from the main tubes ware made to run along 

•nxlhja few yeirs Rfrn proposed a thedccks,and communicate with them bynu- 

• Vdiiilationofthips.uhich consists mcrous orifices. Two pijies opening into 

IWD tube* 10 descend from above the the main exhausting lube mitfht be rftlended 

M bottom of a veoel, or m low a« along Ihc tofis of the deck, in the dagle formed 

I h raqairedi and which should between the sides and ihe cichng; and thut 

M> 1» Uiullcr pipes (iipcn al their the air would be extracted equally from all 

1) «riD> Uiote places de^ifitird to be |>art?, and in a maancr not likely lo occasiuii 

Tbereiheuld be B couiriiance for injuriauB currents. Some diusinn of the 

keae oommunicaiing pi|.e'L, so ihat streamofairwhichenters from tliesiem might 



!^or floaiood 

h-p.urri 



isionally prevented from also be made, if it were ihoucht n 
"■ ' 1(1 itl : 



lo any particular pan Thus a vtrj complete, anfl iti no way tnja- 
lietu, ventilation may be obtained: ihcuiin 

.urrir. f 



i 



V E N V E N 

the vesiel woiiI<lbe perfectly changed when ihe house, and in the presence of fereral person 

fire was strong, without expence or trouble ; who were with her, she heard herself accoste 

andagradualandsalubriousaltcrationof it might in a voice perfectly resembling that of her dcai 

at all times be made, by a very little additional husband, and which seemed to proceed froo 

quantity of fuel. . The air tubes should consist above, exclaiming, ** Give mydaughter in mar 

of separate joints, so that occasionally they rianetol^uts Brabant; he is a man of great for 

might be taken to pieces ; and to prevent their tune, and of an excellent character. I now eri 

being injured or put out of order by rough dure ihe inexpressible torments of purgatory fo 

usage, 'the cop|>er pipes should be made of having refused her to him. If )'DU obey thi 

considerable strength, placed against the sidia admonition, I shall soon he delivered from thi 

of the vessel, and even incased in wood. place of torment. You will at the same tim 

VKNTRK'LES. A term given byanatn- provide a worthy husband for your daughtei 

mists to the cavities of the brain and heart. See and ptocure everlasting repose to theioulc 

Cerebrum lind Heart. your poor husband.** 

VENTRICOSE. Ventricosus. In botanv. ' The widow could not for i moment resu 

Bellied ; distended ; swelling out in the mid- this dread summons, which had not the moa 

die. Ventricosa spica : a lateribns gibba. distant appearance of proceeding from Loui 

Swelling out at the sides.— -Applied to the jie- Brabant ; whose countenance exhibited no yi 

rianth, in esculus, and to the corol in digi- sible change, and whose lips were close in 

talis. motionless during the delivery of it. Accord 

VENTRICULOUS. Swelling out a little : ingly, she consented immediattly to recei? 

is the periaoth of salicornia. him for her son-in-law. Louis*s finances 

VENTRICCJ LUS PULMON ARIS. The however, were in a very low situation ; and th 

ri/iht ventricle of the heart. formalities attending the marriasce-contrM 

Ventricvlus succENTURiATUS. That rendered it necessary for him to exhibit suny 

portion of the duodenum, which is surrounded show of riches, and not to give the ghost thi 

by the peritoneum, is sometimes so large as to lie direct. He accordingly went to work opoi 

resemble a second stomach, and is so called by a fresh subject, one Cnmu, an old and riel 

tome writers. banker of Lyons ; who had accumulated im< 

VEXTRl'LO^JUIST. j. (venlritoqu^, Fr.) mense wealth by usury and extortion, and wli 

One who speaks in such a manner, as that the known to be haunted by remone of consciena 

sound seems to issue from his belly. Such on account of the manner in which he had ae* 

was the original import of the word } it is now quired it. 

extended: see the next article. Having contracted an intimate acqoaintanei 

VENTRILOQUISM, an art by which cer- with this man, lie, one day while theywcif 

rain persons can so niodify their voice, as to sitting together in the usurer's little back par- 

make it appear to the audience to proceed fn)m lour, artfully turned the conversation on rrii* 

any distance, and in any direction. Son;c gioiis subjects, ou demons and spectres, tiM 

faint traces of this art are to be found iu the pains of purgatory, and the torments of hcO. 

writings of the ancients; and it is thonpininn During au ititen'al of silence between then, 

of M. Dela Cha|)elle, who in the year 1772 a voice was heaid, which to the astonisiRd 

published an ingenious work on the subject, l»anker seemed to be that of his deceased father, 

that the responses of many of ihe oracles were com idai nine;, as in the former case, of Im 

<lclivered bv persons thus qualified to ser\'c the dreadful situation in pursatory, and calfiag 

purposes of delusion. As the ancient ventrilo- upon him to delix^r him mstantly thence, fay 

quists, when exercising their art, seemed gene- putting into the hands of I^uis Brabant, then 

rally to speak from theirown bellies, the name with him, a large sum for the redempikm tC 

by which they were desi'^ned was abundantly Christians then in slavery with the Tuiki; 

si;>nifirant : but it is with no great propriety threatening him at the same time with etcrail 

that modern perfnrmcrsa recalled Ventriloquists, damnation if he did not take this method 10 

and their art ventriloquism, since they ap|>ear expiate likewi«e his own sins. The reader will 

more frequently to speak from the pockets of naturally suppose that Louts Brabant affecMJ 

their neighbours, or from the roof or distant a due decree of astonishment on the occ a iifl B j 

corners of the room, than from their own and furtlier promoted the deception, by K< 

mouths or their own bellies. knowled^ng nis havin^i; devoted ntmielf to thi 

From Brodeau, a learned critic of the six- pi«)vecutton of the chanuble dewgn imputed If 

teenth centurj', we have the followirig account nim hy the ghost. An old usurer is natmalh 




some, and rich heiress ; hut was rrji-cted by into the open fields, where not a hoiae, or 

the par^'Uts as an unsuitable match for their tree, or even a bush, or a pit, was in sight, capi 

daugntcr, on a«'count of ihf lowncss of his cir- hie of screening any supposed confederate. Tni 

eumsi.inccs. The young lady's father dyine, extraordinary caution excited the rentriloqou 

he made a visit to the widow, who was totally to exert all the powers of his art. Whercvv 

ignorant of his singular talent. Suddenly, on the banker conducted him, at everv step III 

>iis first appearaucfi in open day^ in berown can wexe saluted on all aidei wiib'itac 



"IP'nTg 



VENTRILOQUISM. I 

pliinii «iid gniun not only t>( his father, but phitiHophen, on the article nf ghotb and iJj 

iifall hu rlcreawd niations, tmpluritig him far (lariuoni. M. !ji. Gill ilmuuhl il 

ilwhivr nf Gnd. and in ihr nani« of every laint tinitt lo disabuse tlic gout falhctt. 

inlhveikndfu', to have mercy nn hit own soul pose, however, he round it exiremely difficolj 

■nd ihcin, hv efftciually secondmg wiih hii to etiect, till he had prmailed upon ihem H 

pone the intsniifliis rif hii worthy comianioti. return with him into tlic ctmteh, and there *~ 

Carau coii4d no longer resiai the voice of hen- witne^sei of the uiunncr in which he lud ci 

rtn. anj acentrlingly carried liji> gnc9i home duotcti ihi^i ludicrous di^cegiiion. 
wlh him. aiuJ paid him down LO.OXI crowns . A vEntrilo<|Di>t, who petrunned fealssnuw ' 

■lih which the honnt vciittiloquUt returned wliat similar to tbeie, made hi> appcarunce is 

M hrit. ">d niarrird his miiiieu. Theca- Edinburgh, and inany of itie otiier tuwns o^ , 

tituojihe Wilt faial. The secret wai afterward* Grcai Britain, « few yean ago. He i 

Unm, anil rexchvl thi u«urct'* ean; who niccasfullyihe voice ofasqueukinjchild, ni 

•UM aiuch aKecied by llie loMof hii money, made it appear lo proceed Truin wliateier plae 

mi die mortifying tailleriei of hit neighbours, he chmc : from the pockei* uf ihe ciimp.i 

ibrbe took lo hit bed aiul died. from a wooilcn doll, with which he held m 

niiltiek ort»iii«Bribunt itevetiexceeded «piiiird conversations; Trpm beneath . 

by in innocent piece ofwaegery played off not or a wine-glass, and out of any person' 

Wly jeanagr> hy inoiher French ventnluquiit or h.nnd. When the voice «eemed to com* I 

OS I whole cnminuniiy. We have the uory from beneath a gtaas or hat, il was dull and oi 

AomM. Dela ( hapelle, who informs m, ihai a low key, u sound* confined nlw.iys are; an 

Ji. Si. Gill, the venirilotinisi, and lii« intimaie what evinced hiii dexleriiy uaa. thai when tti^ 

tiitil, reiiimint; home rrnin a place whither glafs was laieed from the lable liurinz ihe timri 

hiiboiintsa had csriied him, soiiRhl for shcl- of his speaking, the words or svlhibhii iittcreA . 

IB fraiR an approachiD); ihundei-storm in a afierivaids were on a hi^ther key, in cuiiw j 

nifjibouring convent. Finding the whole qitencr, imi would have llioughl, of the 

4Miaianitymmourninj!,heen<]uired theciute, being readniitied lo the spoiker. This part off J 

mi •KU tald thiit one of ihcir bo>ly had died the expetinicTil failed, hotvevir, when the in** I 

'hirly, who was the otnamcnt and delight of nagemeiit of llie gl»i was at n disianoe com' i 

Ifeeohole loeieiy. To |iawaway the lime, he tnitieil to any of the company) but aa lh#V 

Vilktri into the church, attended by some of moiu was not well illuminated, wo art tncliuoif I 

At ntiiiifMSS, who shewed hirn the innib nf lo aiiribute ihU failure lu the rcntrilucjuist nfvl 

dKit deceased btolher, and spoke feclii)j>l* of being able to perceive at whal precise tnslawff 

iiy honour* they hud Wlowed on his of time the glass was r*ninved tiom ihe tibllv ^ 

^r. Kud^lenly a voice was heard, appa- The sameartisl iniilaltd the umee of a scoldtnf 

■•nlly nroeecding from the roofnf the choir, old tvonian, distorbedaiunsussonabte honv! b]t | 

bnealini; the siiuatiun of the defuiin in ]iur- a person d e maud i iig «d mission into her hnusej 

flurv, and reproachine ihe brotherhood with bui this ekhibiiion did not to us appear m.i»^ i 

Bdr'hikewarmncts and want of teal un his lerly. The tones of ihe old woman iind iM I 

I. The fri^rB, as soon us their child were not accurately diicriniinaicd : ibfl [ 

pive ihem power lo ipeat, con- "' " ' ' ' " ' ■ ■ ■ - 

ft, and agreed to acqu^iint [he rest 
iniiy wiih this siugular cvcni, lo 
,^ to ihe whole society. M. St, Gill, 

rtttirUted in earry on the Joke slill farther. 

Iuntii.il Ihem from taking this step, tellitig 
n diat they would be treated by their «b- 
. brelbrtn ai u lel of hxils and vi&ioQjtics. 

W teeummended lo ihem. however, the im- 

kediklrly catling of ihe whole community 

■W the church, where the thostof Iheir dc- 

, (d bmiher itiieht nrobahly reiterate his 

•MipWni*. Accordingly'' ull the friars, 



bini*. Accordingly'' ull the friars, 
_., lay-brolhcrs, ann even the domeslit 
fceonvMH, were " 



IS a young ai:old, and the scpld spoktf J 
like an aneiy child. We have heaid that, ] 
when in KJiiiburgh, the iame practiiinnMf I 
ailonistied a number of jienons in t' ' 
Fish-markel, by making a liah appear 
spc.ik, and 'give the iic lo iu vender, wtio n^ J 
finned ili.it ii was fresh, and caught in ' 
morning. 

We have seen an eminent philosopher of 1 
our own time, who h»d no previous piactieA I 
of ihii art, but when rpeaking on Ihe -.uhjfvf I 
in a mixed company, took up an hut aiMli ' 
raiding; ihe flaps I'lgeiher, said, by way of at 
ample, ■' Supp>i»e I had a small monkey in I 
imediaitfly »unimoned and this hat ;" and then cautiously pulling his haiij 
In a iiHort time the loice in, as if to catch il, he imiiaied the cbaKer of 
ed its tanientatjon and re- the sup|>osed sirupding animal, ai ihe Mine 
{nsiluj, and the whole convent fell on their time ibac his own efforts to ^ecu^e it bad B ini>' 
Ui, utd vowrd a enleinn repsrsiion. As a mentary impreuion on the spectauirs, whiob 
trrtNep, iheychanied a Do ptofumiis in a full left no lime for them loqutjtion whether ther« 
'^■'^- -■ * ig Oie intervals nf which the ghost was a mnnkev iu it or noi: ihis impretsioil 

J expressed ihe comfort he received was completed when, the intiani afierwarils, 

^S Aeir pious exercises and ejncuialinns on he pulled out his hand as if hurl, and rxclaiiH- 
Msbehttf. When alt was over, the prior en- ed, " he has bit ine." liwas nnl till then thai 
<1mi into a serious conversation wiih M. St. Ihe impression of tcslity gave way to ihe di> 
' ^ i itid on the strength of what hid just version arising from the mimic ait i and one 

KciouslyinveigliadscaitLsttheBhsurd of the criinpany, even then, cried out, " i* 
of iDodefu sGcptiM and pretended there realty a nreiikBy in the hat ^ 



V E N V E N 

Tn this manner it wat that, at the beginning siumttoiif. When distant^ and conseqc 
of the last century, the femous Tom Kiug, low voices arc to be imitated* the articul 
who is said to have been the iint man who may be given with sufficieul di»iinci 
gave pubhc lectures on experimental philo- without moving the Ii|». or altering the c 
sophv in this ouuntry, was attended by the tenancf. 

whole fashionable world, for a socoesaion of VE^NTURE. s. (.avaniurtt French, 
many nights, to hear him kill a calfi This A hazard; an undertaking of chance ui id 
performance was done in a separated part of m {Locke). H^ Chatico; h«>p {Baton) 
the place of exhibition, into which theexhi- The iliingputto haznrd ; as(ai«c {Shakspi 
bitor retired alone; and the imagination of his 4. jIt (x vV.kture. Ai hazard; wi 
polite hearers was taxed to suppfy the calf add much consideration; without any thing 
three 'butchers, besides a dog who sometimes than the hope of a lucky chance {Spenset 
raised his voice and was checked for his unne* To Vk'n ture. u,n. (from the noun, 
cessary exertions. It appears, from traditional To dare {Addison), 'J. To run hatard ( 
narrative, that the calf was heard to be drag|^i den), 3. To Vns ivRKai. To V knturb 
in, not without somt efforts and converKiiion upon. To enjtage in ; or make aitcnipts 
on the part of the buiehers, and noisy resist- out any security of success, upon mere 
ance from the calf; thatthcv convened on the {Sftaksveare- Bacon)^ 
qualities of the animal, and the profits to be ex- To Vb^NTURK. v, a» 1. To expose to h 
pectedfrom the veal; and that, as they proceed- (Sftuktprare), 2- To put or send on a 
ed, all the 'hau€% of knife and steel, of suspend- ture {Carew), 

ing the creature, and of the last iaul caias- VK^NTURER i. lie who ventures. 
trophe, wete heaind in rapid succession, to the VEfNTURESOME. a. (from ven 
never-failing satisfactinn of the attendants; Bold; darins. 

who, upon the ritet>f the curtain, saw that VE'NTURESOMELY. ttd. In a U 
all these imagiiiar^ JMffiona^ had vanished, darinc manner, 
and Tom King afona remamed to claim the VE^NTUROUS. a. (from venlure,) 
applanse. V * '"^ ) ^^ ) fearless ; ready to run hi 

A very able v«*Uikltfoiflt, Fita- James, per- {Pope), 
formeJ in public, in Sono-square, about seven VEfNTUROUSLY. ad. Daringly; 
yean ago. He pertotuted various charactera lesly ; bold I v {Bacon). 
by appropriate dresses ; and by a command of v E'NTuROUSNESS. f, (from veniu 
the muscles of lib face he could very much al- Boldness ; willingness to hazard {Bojfle), 
ter his appearance. He imiuted many in- VENUE, the neighbourhood from w 
animate noises, and, among othen, the reneti* juries are to be summoned fur trial of c 
tion of noises of the water-machine at Marli. In local actions, as of trespass and eject 
He c<mversed with some statues^ which replied the venue is to be from the neiglibourhi 
to him ; and aLio with some persons supposed the place where the lands in question lie 
to be In the room above, ana on tlie landing- in all real actions the venue must he 1; 
place; gave the watchman's cry, gradually ap- the county where the thing is for whic 
proaching, and when he seemed opposite the action is brought; but in transitory ac 
window, Fitx- James opened it, and asked what for injuries that may have happienc< 
the time was, received the answer, and during where, as debt, detinue, slaiuier, or the 
his proceeding with his cry, Fita^ames shut the plaintiff may declare in what coui 
the window, immediately upon which the pleases, and then the trial must be ii 
sound became weaker, and at last*inscnsiblc. county in which the declaration is 
In the whole of his performance it was clear Though if the defendant will make a£ 
that the notions of the audience were sovcrned that the cause of action, if any, arose 
by the aiutiliary circumstances, as to clirection, tliat, but in another county, the court w 
&c. This mimic had, at least, six different rect a change of the venue, and oblig 
habitual modes of sneaking, which he could plaintiff to declaK> in the proper county, 
instantly adopt one alter the other, and with so the court will »omeiimcs move the veuui 
much rapidity, that when in a small closely thepro|>er jurisdiction (especially of thee 
parted off in the room, he gave a long, con- and limited kind), upon a suggestion dul 
fused, and impassioned debate of democrats (in ported, that a fair and im|>artiai trial can 
French, as almost the whole of his performance had therein. With respect to crimiDal 
was) ; it seemed to proceed from a multitude of it is ordained by statute 21 James I. c. 4 
spcaken: and an inaccurate observer might all informations ou penal statutes shall 1 
have thought that several were speaking at in the coimtics where the offences wen 
once. A ludicrous scene of drawing a tooth mitred. 

wa-« performed in the same manner. VENUS, the goddess of beauty, the r 

These example^, and many more which mi^ht of love, the queen of laughter, tlic mist 
be afklcd, are sufficient in proof that ventrilo- the graces and of pleasures, and the pal 
quism is the art of mimicry, an imitation ap- of courtezans. Some mythologisu spi 
plied to sckunds of every description, and au more than one Venus. 'Of these, ho' 
tended with circumstances which produee an the Venus sprung from the froth of the i 
enteruining deception, and lead the hearen to ter the mutilated part of the body of 1 
imagine that the loice proceeds from diffvent had been thrown there by Saturn, u th 




cvnM lo heaven, where ail the t^otls ailmirMl 
licrbciuty. Jii|iiler atuiinpied to g>in her ar- 
frciinni, hat Vcniu refiiieil, and the ^nd. to 

Eni>h ber obtiinacy, gave her in murriage to 
u;l;«nn Vuloa. She, however, defiled 
bn huitisml's bed bvherainaurs>vithiheeodi. 
[Sec Mar j, Alectrvoh, Adonis. An- 
HtSM. KatAs.) The power of Venu» 
naihe heart wai lupported by a girdle, called 
■n> by the Greek), and cfilut by the Latins. 
Tlia myileriiiii) girdle gave beiutv, grace, and 
tkpiiM, when worn tven by the mnsi tlt- 
(orawd; it excited lore, and rekindled extin- 
mntnd flimet. Junn herself was indebted lu 
ihit pMtetrul ornament, in gain the fai'Oiirs of 
JxpiiET. The contest of Veniu for the ^Iden 
■ppll of discnrd il well known. Site traih'^ 
iht piite over Pallas and Juno, (kc Pabis, 
UlKDitDiA), and rewarded her impanial 
jgdfr iviih the hand of the faireat i>*<imiii in 
thimiild. The worship of Ventis was oni- 
irmIIt etlabl»hed : staiiie< and tem|il« were 
owed to her in every kin^om, as to a divinity 
"ho preiided over generation, and bv whose 
iaAiKnce mankind existed. The rote, the 
"fttle, ind the apple, were ucred to Venus i 
iM anong birdi the dove, the swan, and the 
•prnnr were her favouiites; and among 
Sihei, lh<ne called the aphya and the lycoito- 
■ns. She u generally repretenied with lierson 
Capid, an a chariot drawn by doves. 

ViKiri, (be most beautiful atar in the hea- 
Wiu, knoirn by the names of ilie morning and 
(Wang star, likewise keeps near ilic sun, 
iImiiIi (he recedes frnm bini almost double 
Ike diuance of Mercury. She is never seen 
<u int casiern r|uartfr oFthe heaicns when the 
(m b in the western ; but always seems lo at- 
Vai him in the evening, or Waive notice of 
In ipptoich in llie morning. The planet Ve- 
lUMMcseiiuihesame phenomena with Mercury^ 
-W her different phases are tnuch luorescnsi- 
Ut, her oseillationi wider, and of longer dura- 
6m. Hcrgrraiesi diaiaiiee from the snn varies 
"MB 45* to nearly 4H°, and the mean duration 
rf a CMRplete nacilbtion i^ ^84 dayt. Veniia 
W been sometimes seen moving acrois ihe 
*M't d'nc in the Ihrm of a round black ipnt, 
*'th tn apnarvitl diameter of about !>rf. A 
Cnr days •tier this has lieen observed, Veiiiiiis 
■m in the ntornin^-, w^st of the sun, in the 
faramf afinecrescent, with the convexity turn- 
li iO«rd the sun. She movei Brwlu.illy west- 
^^ with a rciatded mntion, and the crescent 
lW)«m more full. In about ten weeks she 
bi.QMHcd 4G* west of Ihe sun, and is now a 
■onieirde, and her diareteler ii SO*. She is 
H« stationary. She then moves eastward 
oilhamolKin gradually accelerated, and over- 
^ the snri about gj months afler having 
Wi Men vn hi) di». Someiime after, she ii 
'^ ID the OT'amng. east of the sun, round, 
^*«rT small. She moves eaat ward, and in- 
■■ juodnws. 



i^ina in ']iaiiieier, but Weoml 
■e the waning moon; ai.d, aft. 
Wt, after a period of nearlv SBi day4, com«* 
again into ixinjunetion wiib the sun with 
ajiparentdtDmeier of 5g^. She does not mi ._ 
exactly in the plane of the ecliptic, but da^ 
viatei from it several decrees. Likr " — - — 



.Ike Mercury, 
. disc. Tfij 
rvedfrom dilC 



duration of ihete iran^itg, as observed 
ferent parti of iheeanh'a surface, are ven diGi 
foreni : this ii owir' lo the paralkuc of Vewuij, 
in coiiaeoiience of which dinctent obtcrvers I». 
fer to diherenl paru of the sun's disc, and 
bar describe ditterent chorda nn ihatdiac. In 
the Iransitwhicli happened in 1769. iheJiBeifc 
cucc of its duration, as observed at OlaheitB 
and at Wardhuys in Lapland, amountel 
lo 83 minolcs, 10 seconds. Tlii* diffcretioe 
f;ivFs ua the parallax of Venua, and of coun# 
tier distance from ihe earlh during a conjutw* 
lion. The knowledge of this parallaK cnahlfi 
us, by.T method to be afterwards described, t« 
ascertain that of ihc sun, and conBoquenily ■• 
discover its distance from the earth. Tiie 
Rieat varialioni of the apparent diameter of 
Venus demoniliate that her distance from ihe 
earih is exceedingly- variable. Ii is largeaf 
when the planet passe* oi-er the .surface of ihg 
sun. Her mean appucntdiameieria^S''. See 

A3TH02IOMI. 

Vknus, the name formtrly piea lo coppct 
by the cbcniitls. j, . 

VsHtis, in zoology, a genua of the cli«, 
vermes, order teslncea. Animal a leihvai 
shell bivalve; the fronlal mariiin flatltned^ 
wiih incumbent li]ia i hinge wiih three lectin 
alt of them ap^iroximaie. the lateral oiA 
divergent at i)ie tip. A hundred and fifiV'^iUf 
speciea, scaltctcci ihroiigli the seas and'coaad 
of [he glolie j fuurttrn cnmmoil 10 out oWB 
shores. They are thus tubdivided. • 

A . Shell siimcwhal hearl-»haped. 

n. Orbicular. 

C. Oval, a little angular near the beakii. 
The firat subdivision conlaina the htfgttt 
number, the third the fewest. They aro 
of very difleri'm slaea, ami several of them 
have a near approach 10 the ratdium. 
We shall select a speci 
V.dionr. Shell trat 

a double row of ipinrs _.. .._. 

The shell nearly heart-^hajied, equivalve, 
rounded, pale pinit, a liiile gibbous before anil 
behind, and marked with iianavene, parallel, 
abaipened ribs Inhabits the American ocean, 
and ii rvlremcly rare and valuable. 

9. V. dysera. Shell somewhat heart-ahaped, 
with tranaverse, remote, reHertcd grooves ; the 
margin erenulale. Inhabits the Ameiicaa 
ocean j rare and valuable; varies in colour and 
marks; ribs thin, sharp. 

3. V. nitrcenaria. Shell thick, strong, with 
sltghl) ttanivcne sirite, and covered with K 
brown cuticle, within pale violet ; depression 
behind die beaks, ovale; margin erenulale; 
above three inches long, and nearly the taiab 
broad. Inhabits Europe and North Amcricat 
and is found fossilc in the mountains of Swe- 



V E R V E R 

4en. In North America thae ihells arc in siiilccs, and tenniiud* of t greentsh-white or 

called . clams, and the Indians make their herbaceous colour, appearing in July. This 

wampum or Indian money of them. They plant was largely resorted to fajr the ancieutt 

are found also occasionally on our own coasts, as an antispasmodic, end is still employed for 

4. V. Island ica. Shell thick, strong, with the same purpose in modem practice, under 

slight transverse sirix, and covered with a the name of Hell bborusvbrus, which see. 

brown cuticle, within pore white; without 9. V. nigrum. Dark*flowered veratnim. 

impression behind the beaks ; margin entire. Black hellebore. Raceme componnd ; corok 

Inhabits Europe, Africa, and the Capnian sea, much spread : root perennial ; stalka highar 

and found also on our own coasts ; tnree and than the preceding ; floweri dark red, wtth 

a half inches long, and nearly four broad, the petals patulous and flat. A native of 

The first is eaten by the Icelanders. Austrb and Siberia. The root of this tpeciea 

Vbvus's comb, in botany. SecScAicoxx. is also employed in medicine; principally aa 

VsMV8*s /LY-TRAP, in botany. See Dio* an emmenagogue and in cases of mania. Set 

MAA. HblLBBORUS ttlGER. 

Vbnu8*8 lookikc^slam, in botany. See 3. V; luteum. Yellow-flowered veratTam. 

Campania la* Racemes quite simple ; leaves se^stle ; flowers 

Vevvs's NAVBLWOR.T, n botaoy. See spiked, yellowish. Anativeof North America. 

CyNOCLOSSUic. 4. V. viride. Green-flowered veratrum. 

V£PR£CIIL£. (from vepres, a brier.) Racemes more than decompound ; enrols belU 

The name of the fifty-fourth order in Linn^us*s shaped ; the claws thickened at the side with- 

Fr^ments, and of the thirty-first in his in. A native of North America. 

Natural Orders. VERB. «. {verhe, French ; verbum, I^atin.) 

VERA CRUZ, a city of Mexico, in Tlas* A part of speech signifying e&istence, or some 

cala, on the gulf of Mexico. The harbour is modification thereof, as action, pnssion. See 

defended by a fort, situate on a rock of tlw Grammar. 

island St. Juan de Ulhua, nearly adjoining. VE^RHAL. a, {verhnl, French ; verhaluy 
This port is the natural centre of the treasure Latin.) I. Spoken ; not written. £. Oral ; 
Riid merchaiirlise of Mexico, and it receives -uttered by mouth {Shaksptnre), 3. Ccmsist- 
much East India produce, by way of Acapolco, ing in mere wonis {Crlanville), 4. Verbose; 
from the Philippine islands. Here the ships full of words (Skakspeare). 5. Minotely 
from Spain receive the produce of the gold exact in words (Pope), 6. Literal; having 
and silrer mines of Mexico. An annual fair word answering lo word (Denkam)^ 7. (In 
is held here for the rich merchandise of the grammar.) A ver(>al noun is i noun derived 
old world ; and such crowds uf Spaniards from a rerb. 

attend, that tents are erected for their accom- VERBA^LITY. t. (from verbal,) Mem 
modntion. The Old Town, \6 miles tu the words; bare literal expression {Brawh)» 
N.W. is famous on account of tlie bndingof VE'RBALLY. ad. (from verbal.) I, in 
Cortex, with 500 S|)aniards, when he under* words; orally {Souik), S. Word fur word 
took the conquest of Mexico. Vera Cruz is (Dry den). 

^00 miles E.S.E. of Mexico. Lon. 96. 60 W. V'EilBASCUM. Mullein. In botany, a 
Lat 19. 6 N. fi genus of the class pentandria, order mono- 

Vera Paz, a province of Mexico, in the gynia. Corol wheel*shaped, a little irregular; 
audience of Guattmala; bounded on the N. stamens bearded ; capsule superior, two-celled, 
by Jucatan, E. by the bay and province of two-valved ; stigina simple. Nineteen species; 
Honduras, S. by Guatimala Proper, and W. natives almost entirely of £uroj)e ; six foond 
hyChiupa. Itisfollofmounuins and forests; wild on the road sides, banks, in the wastes 
but there are many fertile valleys, which feed a and lanes of oar own country. The following 
great number of horses and mules, lliere are cultivated. 

«re alio many townn and villages of the native 1. V. Boerhaavii. Annual mullein. 
Americans. The capital of the same name, 2. V. blaitaria. Moth mullein. 
or Coban, is a bishop's see, but is inconsider- 3. V. thapins. Great mullein. 
Able. It is 130 miles N.E. of Guatimala. 4. V. phlomoidcs. Woolly mullein. 
Lon. 89. W. Lat. 16. 10 N. h. V. lychnitis. White mnlldn. 

VERA'CIOUS. a. {vermx, Latin.) Observ- 6. V. smuntum. Scallop-leaved nmllein. 
antoftrtitb. 7. V. ferru^ineum. Rusty mullein. 

VERA'CITY. *. (verax, Latin.) 1. Moral 8. V. Phoeniceum. Purple mullein, 
truth ; honeity of report. 2. Physical truth j 9. V. myconi. Borage-waved inuUein. 
consistencv of TC\ton with facts {Addison), lO. V. niarum. BLick mullein. 

VERATRL^M, in botany, a genus of the Two of these have lon:;;; o(-cu)ned ■ place in 
claAS poly^amia, onler moncecia. Calyxless.; the materia medtca, verbascum ntgrnoi jnd 
pctjU six; stamens Kven. Herm. :' pistils verliascum thapsn^, and a|>f)eiir to be ordered 
three ; capsules three ; many seeded. Male : indilfcrently by this name in the pharmaco- 
rudiment (»f a pistil. Four sixrcies, as f«>llow. poBias. The Hmveni, leaves, and roots, aie 
1 . V. album. White hellebore. Raceme used occasionally as mikl adstringeitis. The 
m«>re than dfccmipound ; the divisions spiktd ; leaves possess a roughish taste, and promise to 
corr»ls erect. A native of Greece, with jieren- be of service in diarrhccas and other dcbilitjted 
mul root; sleou three or four feet high ; floweri tlatet of the intestines. 



V EH 

Hie Uack onillcin, which U (bund wild in 
ttvr watts and Unes, u'ith vellow blouiimi 
tipt wiiji putple, aSbidt a lariua on which 
bra feed luiuiiouily. Swine cat the ileai 
and leiicai slwcp «re not fund of it; cowtj 
bone*. >«d «<niu, rcfuae il. 

VERBATIM. «(. (Lotio.) Word for 

Ti'ERBENA. Vemin. In iMiwny.awnus 
etihe cbii diauiJria, nnli:r uonnK^oia. Coml 
baaet-form, iitmly equal, ciirvetTi calyx wiih 
noe of ihc tcrlh truncate ; i«cdi two or rout, 
lukicdi tiauwiistwoor fuur. Nineteen tiiecie«i 
AieajF nativet of Ameiicj j a few of the Eist 
India and ofEiiro^; nnecammoii lo out own 
tnuntn- They are tiius subdivided : 

A. With two stanicni and two scedi. 

% With four sLaiucni. 

The ftillowiug ipccio are cultivated : 

l.V. India. Indian vemin. 

.&y.fuptiu. Trailing verrsin. 

9> V. piubica. fietoiiy-lenved vcriain. 

^ v. JaDMiceDtu. Jamaica vetvuin. 
,f- V. Hexicana. Mexican icrrain- 

B. y. iiloblifon. Globe-flowered Tcrvain. 

T.V.bonarieniis. CUi.'terllowered vervain. 

9- V. iiaiUU. Haihert-leared verviiiii. 

%. V. Uiphylta. Threr-lcavcd vervain. 

10. V. oflicintliii. Officinal vervain. 

'pM lui hu been Inne emjiloyed id medi- 
nat. It isilnliiutcof odour, and lolbeluilc 
uattifttia but a tlighi dc^ee of bitterness and 
ttudo^Uiy. In Toiuiei times the vcrUen* 
Wm» to hiva been held lacretij and wai em. 
plcned in celebrating the i4x:Titict3l litu ; and 
oiui I (icff 10 ihu, mure ib-in the natural 
jowa of the plant, it wa* woru suspenJeil 
iboul the neck U an amulet. 

Tbis practice, thu« founded on superatition, 
*H, however, in procesi of lime, adopted in 
ntdieinet and iherrfure to obtain iu virtues 
■OKeOeclually, the vervain was directed to be 
bniiol bcCwe ii wa* apiiended tn ihe neck ; 
*r>d of 111 gund effccls itiu? uxd for inveterate 
iMiddcbti, Fotciiui rcldtei a teinarkablc in* 
•tun. In itill latcf liiura it hui been ein- 
(Iqml in the way of ciupliuin, by which we 
antold the inait severe uikI obstinate eaies of 
ct|^ujaj{ia have been cured, for wliich we 
tu'c the anlhoritics of Eiiuuller, Harimann, 
uid mart cspeci.Ally De Hcaii, Notwitliitind- 

ui| diCK uviiniunici in favour of vervain, ft 

>»• facrveOiy COloo into disuse in Hriiain; 

AM bat the pamphlet of Mr. Moilcy, wriitci 
P^vfextdly to iccommcnd ira uae iu icrophu- 

•oui t&:ii(ii», hail ibc effect of re'storinK its 

BM^eal dunetei. Thitpntlcmao direcuihe 

"M of irrviiu to be tied with a, yard of white 
tiUin ribKind round the neck, where it is to 
'nuio lilj ihr pjtieni tcGoieri. Healui has 
'"tnmr in infiuiooi and ointinenti prepared 
(ioQi ibe kravuor the plant, and nccajionatly 
Bill in aiil I he luvst active medicinei of the 

^ 'JV iiUiii ii found wild on out own rood 
oiat llie ifikea arc fililiirm, paniclcd i leave* 
' AMf'dff'i j*W^l fiowcra pale blue. Sheqi 
I —•-- -— ij iiuna, and joau, icfuic il. 




V E R H^H 

7b VE'RBEBATE. v. a. (r*r6ero, Lntint) 
Toheaij to strike. 
VERBERATION. .. (from »o■^fTa/e.) 

Blowj ; bealioe {^rbullijutt). 

VERBESIHA. in bouiny. a penut of the 
class synuenesia, uidcr polygamia superflua. 
Rtcentactc chaffy ; down nwi'cd ; cslyic in a 
double row_i lloieli of the rjy aliout five. 
Sixteen apeciea ; nilives of itie £ast ot W^j 
Indies- Tiie folium iiiK ori: eullivaie' 
l.V.alata. Wing-stalked verbcsi 
S.V. Chinetnij. Chinese verbeur 

3. V. nodiflom. Sessile- flii«trrd yi 

4. V. fr»rjcoi4. SUrubliy vcrbestl^l 

5. V. gig.inieM. Tree verbesiga. 
They art iuctcascd by towiug ihe^di » 

moderate hot'bcil, or tn [lOts plunged inli; !^* 
in the early pail of spring ; after incy apjieuf 
they are to be uiauae«I as leudcr aniiuita. 

ViillBERIE, an ancient town of France, 
in the department gf Oite, seated iifi the ritef 
Oiw, IU miles N.E. of Seiilis. Loo. s. SI E. 
Lit. 11). iaN. 

l-KKBCSE-B. Ivrrloius, Latin.) Exol.cr- 
ant in words ; prolis j tedious by inuhiplicily 
of words (f 'iurj. 

VERBO'SITY. .. (from lo-foie.) Exa- 
beraoee "f words; much empty talk ihroome'i. 

VliaCEU. a sirona tonn of Piedmoi.l, 
capital i)f a lordship of the same ramu, wiiit a 
bishop's tee, a citadel, and a catile. Tlic 
lown-house. the governor's palace, and the 
hospital, are liandsunic itrueturei. (t is seated 
at tile conHuenceor the Sessia and Cerva. ID 
mile* N.W. of Casal, and 40 N.E. o( Turin. 
Lon. ». 24 E Lai. 45. 31 N. 

VERCHOLENSK, ■ town ofRussi., in 
thegQvernmeutoflrkutsk.sealcdnotlieLcnn, 
120 miles N. of Iftutsk. Lon. 105. 35 E. 
Lat. ii. N. 

VERCHOTUBE, a town of Ku«,ia, in 
the gm ernmeoi of Perm, with a bisbopi see. 
Thb WM the litii town the Russians built In 
Siberia. It it siwcile liu mile* N. of Ca>ha- 
nneuburg. Lon. O'lJ. 13 E- Lat. js. 4^ N. 

VEBD CCapc), a proi...jntiiry on Ihe VV. 
ccMisi of Aftica. is miles N.W. of the mouili 
of ilic GainbLi. Lon. 17- 3J \V. L^. K. 
4dN. 

Vkrd Islands (Capr). KUndj in the 
AtUniic, aboie 300 miles W. ul ibcCoaHof 
Africa. Uiwctn 13 ai'd 19" N. Ut. 

f Anthony N ., 
Portugal, a.id r 
ccived their ^(ucral naioe from thcii iicuaiion 
oppoiile Cape Verd. The prtoojiai are ten 
in number, lying iu a ;eniiciri:ie. '1 iieir name* 
arc St. Antonio, Si. Vincent, Si. Lucin. !)t 
Mieolas, SaI, Bunaviita, MayO) St, ,Iago, 
Fue^D, and Bravo*. 

VE'BUANT. o. ivrrdaiatu. Fr.) Glccn 
lit'Uon). 

VEHJJEN, a duchy of Germanv, in .he 

circle of Lower Saaouy, VH mllei loiiK. and 

nearly as much hiood; bomided on the E. 
ami b. l>y the duchy of Luneiiberii, on the W. 
by the Wescr niiJ ilic duohy of Bremen, and 
uu the M. by tbe duchies of Bieiuen wnL— 



V E il V E 11 

lAinfnhurg. It consists chiefly .of heaths and taken soon after. The inhabittnti are timed 

high dry lands ^ but there are good marshes on for making fine iwcetmeata. It is teatcd on 

the river VVeser and Aller. In 17 IS the Danes the Meute, which runs through the middle, 

wr&iicJ this duchy from Sweden, and, in I7ld» 49 miles S.W.. of Luzemborg, and 150 H. of 

ceded it to the Hector of Hanover ; which ccs- Paris. Lon. 6. 22 E. |Lat. 4p. {^ N. 

rion, in 1718> was cuufirmed by |he Swedes. Verpuv, a town of France, in the depart- 

The inhabitants are Lutherans. ment of Upper Garonna, sealed on the Ga* 

Verden, a town of Lower Saxony, capital ronne, 22 miles N.W. of Touloiue. Lon. I. 

of a duchy of the same name. It contains four 20 E. Lat. 43 . 54 N . 

churches, and is sealed on a branch of the VE'RDU RE. s. (vfr</»re, French.) Greeny 

Ailer, e(i miles S.£. of Bremen* Lon. Q. E. greep colour {Milton). 

Lat. 53. 10 N. VEHDUROPS. a. (from verdure,) Green j 

VKRDKRER, a iudicial officer of the king's covered, or decked with ^n^een {Milton), 

forest, eltrctcd (unuer his majesty*s writ) by a VEREA, a town of Turkey io Europe, in 

mijority of rotes in a convened coon ty court the province of Macedonia, and the tee of a 

of the shire in which the forest lies, and there Greek metropolitan, It is 48 miles W. of 

sworn before the sheriff, to keep and maintain Salonichi, and 115 £. of Valona. Lon. 22. 

the assizes and laws of the forest ; and also to 18 E. Lat. 40. 40 N. 

review, receive, and enrol, all the attachments Verba, in botany, a genus of the claai 

and presentments of all manner of trespasses octandria, order tetragynia. Calyx four-leaved ; 

of the forest in respect to vert and venison. corol salver-shaped, four-cleft, with an ioflaicd 

The official department of verderer bears a tube; nectariferous scales four, at4he base'of 

great similitude to that of coroner ; for as the the ^rms ; capaules four, superior, oAcM:elfcd, 

coroner, upon notice of a sudden or accidental many-seeded. One species only, a socculcnt 

death (if attended mth circumstances to render shrub of Sierra Leone, with termiotl, aztUarj 

the inquisition necessary), is to take a personal racemes and yello%v flowerSr 

view of ihe body, and to make inquiry, upon VEREClrND. a. (verecundus, Lat.) Mo* 

the joint oaths of twelve men, hpw and by dest ; bashful. 

what means the person came by his or her VERGE, s. (verge, French ; virga, Latin.) 

death, and who iind what was the occasion 1. A rod, or something in form of a rodp 

thereof; so it is the official duty of the verderer carried as an emblem of authority. The mace 

to look after and view the beasts of the forest ; of a dean (Swift), 2, (vrrg^, Latin.) The 

for in consequence of any of these hein^ found brink; tbe edge; the utmost border (S/tak- 

hurl, wounded, or slain. n|>on notice given to speare). 

the verdi-rer, he is to take a \iew of the same, Vbrge, signifies the compass of the kine's 

and to cau^e a jury of twelve uten to be sum- court, which bounds the jurisdiction of the 

nioned from the surrounding district, that an lord steward of the household ; and which is 

inquisition may he made to discover (if pes- thought to have l)een twelve miles round, 

eibie) how and by whom the &aiil beast was The term verge is also used for a stick or rod, 

hurt, wounded, or killed, The office of the whereby one is admitted tenant to a copyhold 

\crderer at the court of attachments is to sit estate, by holding it in his hand, and swearing 

there to see, hear, and examine the attach- fealty to the lord of the manor, 

mentsof the forest, b<Mh in vert and in %'enison, Jo Verge, v. n. (vergo^ Latin.) To tend; 

BTtd to receive the saute of the subordinate to lx:nd downward (Pope), 

officers, or thos«f who may attend to present VERGERS, ccrtiin officers of the couns 

them there, and then to enter them into their of King's Bench and Common Pleas, whose 

own rolls. business it is to carry white wands before the 

VE'HDICT. «. (verum dictum, Latin.) 1. judges. 

The determination of the jury declared to the I'here are also vergers of cathedrals and 

judge (Spenser), 2, Declaration ; decision ; collegiate churches, who carry a rod tipped 

judoii»eni 'Sr>Hth). with silver before the bishop, dean, &c, 

VERDIGRIS, the rust of copper, in mine- VERGETTE, in heraldry, denotes a pallet, 

ralocy. Sec ( 'vprum. or small pale ; and hence, a shiekl divioed by 

VhRDl V\\R, a kind of mineral substance, such pallctji is termed vergette. 
sometimes used by the painters, &c. for a blue; Vl.RI'DICAL. a. (veridicut, Latin.) Tell- 
but more usually mixed with a yellow for a injc truth, 
grt'cn colour. VEKIFICATIOX. i. (from rerift,.) Con- 

VKKDOY, in her:>!dry, denotes a liordure firmation by ir^ument or c\*idencc (/ioy/r). 

of a co.*t of arm-, cUargcd with any kinds or VI'?111FIKK. s. (from verify,) One wh« 

parts of flowers, fruits, seeils, plants, Uc, osMircn a thii>j! to l)e true. 

VERDUN, a town of France, in the depart- To VE'UIFY. v. n. (verifier, French.) To 

ment of Mcuse, with a bishop's fee, and a justify against charge of falsehood ; to con* 

>tn>n^ ciui'lil. Its fortifications were con- firm; to prove true (//oo^er). 

ftiriii-U'd by the chevalier de Villc and marshal V17RILV. ad, (from very.) 1. In truth; 

de Viiiihai); the latier of whom was a native certainly {Shakspearc), f£. With great con* 

of ii»is •»Uce. In I7.^.>, great |)art of the fidenre (Stvi/f). 

ealhcdral w.!** desiiovcc* by lightninz. Verdun VERINA, a town of Terra Firmt, in the 

was tjkvn by ilie Prussians in \792, but re» pruvinceofCouiana, celebrated for its tobacco* 



V E R 

It W ittnate an ■ gulfo' ihr Ailantic, 4^ miUit 
V.oKCom»»a. i^n.63.44W. Uii.iO.8N. 
VEIUSl'MILAR.VEiiisi'MiL0V9.a.(vr- 
nnwaUt. Latin.) Probtblc; tihcly (I^itc)- 
ATRISIMl'UTl.'OE.VBRiMMi'tiTr. .. 
Itmtumilttadf. Lai.) Probability; likeliliooJ) 
iDrinL>ljtic« of imih (Drydeii). 

XE'HlTAULE.a. u^ilMr.Vr.) True; 
lercr.Ue t« fact (Brown). 
VEHir.ABLY. arf. In a true tnarmvr. 
VfrarlT... IvmU, Fr; ^trila,. Uiin.) 
I. Tnuh ; coniMnance to llie reality v{ iliings 
IS'Mti;. V. A inu u*sert!oii ; ■ Irne tend 
xlHatii, 3. Mi'tal truth; BgiKmeiilor ihc 
■Txdi niih lilt thoughts. 
VERI tJiCK, a liquof obtainet! from pNipw 
' (uilii for wine or cyder ; or from 
whibt yet neij anil unripe. lis 
in (ancei, ragouii, &c. ihough it is 
edmi in some medicinal coinpuii* 
i» used by the wax-chaudleri to 

.._JllANrX)lS. a InieiertiloryofFranee, 
la Pnidy, nhich, will) the Inie )iri)vince of 
SoiwHinMt, n now included in the depart tnrni 
•f.^BDc. Ii abounili in corn Uid excellent 
fiu. 

VERMANTON. a town of France, in the 
iefuiHtiit of Yonne, scitpd mt a river, ID 
■i)f»S.E of Anxerre. Lon. 3. *» Ii. Lat. 
*; 40 N. 

VERMF5. Worms. Ii> «>oli>7y. the 

Ndh cUb of the Liuit^itn tyiti;m, thus ctss- 

■ully chunicierlied : ofilowr ninii<jii,>uft sub- 

nM(,lb<« to Inoreaie ihvir bulk, and rotore 

|m» H-bioh have been dciiroynl, extrcniely 

ITMcint «f life, and the inhabilanii of moist 

j|B|^J^ny of ilietu nrc wiiliout diminct 

^^^^^■MKW of dwni ivilhoiit feel; they are 

^^^^^■rdblinguUbeil b^ their lenuctes or 

^^^^Bncf are (tividcd inln the five ortlrri 

^HMOBa, molluKa, ti^tncea, zonphyta, and 

UHriii farwhichseeZooLOCVamlUEL- 

VKRMICELL!, ■ composiiion f.f flour, 
'iuoF, yollu of eggi, sugar, and natTnin, re- 
JoeeJ u a {Xile, and furinvd into long slender 
t«m.likcworinj(i«henceiu name], by forcing 
<iwiih4w»>0Ti ihrniifrha number oflittlc hoi ri, 

VKHMFCULAK. o. (B«-«irH/»., Liiin.) 
Acting like a uvunn ; cnnliitued from one part 
ouwherof iheumebody (Cheanc). 

VUMICULARIA. in bolany, a genu) •>( 
*t tbit cryuioiamia, onler fungi. Cajuule 
^Aalir. wsnie, filled with lno«e,worm-shai>eil, 
"■iairrrom IkhJim. Three >neci«, exniio. 

TiVERMrcULATE, -.a. <.ermicuialu>. 
'^Dt.) To iitUy 1 to work in chequer woih, 
aiMtnarrfiveraenliinrs {Bailry). 

VJJLMICULATION. .. (from «r™irN- 
'•''-) C-oatinuation of tnolion from rme luit 
»»nha(Httle). 

A lintt cnib. wnrm ( OfribaiH|. 

VERMl'CULOUS.B. (lo-mtcn/cwut, Lai.) 
rBllnfnnlHi fu^mbbn^; utuIh. 

VPRMIPORM. a. (orrmi, and/Drmn, La- 
ti") lllnngitic &ha|i*of i> worni. 

>lawirojiM rROCKM. I'roiuberantia vef 



nilfbrmU. The snbilance wfilch i 
two hemispheres nfilic cerebellum Ii 
furmtilg a procos. ll ii Cilled vi 
fmni ill resemblance to lh« conioniont C 

VERMIFUGI-X (rermifuga, from virmttJ 
a worm, iniljiigu, ta dijve o»ay.) See A* 

VERMILION, a verv bright and beaulifa 
red eoloiir, eomposeil of quicLsilve ' " 
phnr, in ^at esieein among the an 
iler the name of minium; though wbatipcalij 
the name of minium amongst us is an ox; 
of lead, known also by ihe name of red-lea 
'lliis substance is well known to an 
CiMNABAR, Lead, and Pliimbum. 

To Vehmi'lion. b.u. (from the 1 
colour with vermilion ; die red. 

VK'RMIN. f. (rwm.li, Fr. ; »«■«», Latin 
Any noxious animals. Used commonly a. 

iMilleclive name, for small -- * 

lice, fleas, See. 

To VE'RMINATE. v. n. (from v 
To breed vermin. 

VERMINA'TION. ,. {from verminale.-^ 
Generation nf vermin (Dcrliam). 

VE'RMINOUS, 0. (from vermin.} 
ing to vermin ; disposed to breed vermii 

"^ERMFPAROUS. a. C^ffBiir ant 
Latin.) Pr<»inc ing worms (Brown). 

VERMONT, ore of ihe unitecl tlatcs a 
America; b<"undrd oii the norlh by C 
on Ihe east by the rivi-r Cimneelicm, wi 
divides it from New Hanipsliire, on l)ie it 
by Massachuiels. and on ihe wcsl t^ I 
York, It is 157 tn'lw long and 65 bn 
and divided into eleven connties. A chain 
hi^h monntaifif, runnint: r>ortb and si 






ritles Ihe 



eally ii 



the 



Connecticui and lake Cham pi: 
The natural growth upon this ehain is hi 
lock, nine, «pTuct-, and ulher etergree 
lieiiee ii has always a gieen appearance, aitd 
ohrained the descriptive name of Vcrmorl^ 
from the Fiench verd nonl, green mountain 
The country is generally hilly, but not rockH 
ll is finely wall-red, the soil is very ferl"' 
ih-ere it not a better climaie in the 
The inhabiijnis have lately been rsiimated » 
100,001). The prmcipal lown is Benninitton 
VERNA'i ULAR.«. {vrmafu/H,, Latin. 

Nulive; nfonr'sown c.miiiry (.J(/Ji(on). 

VE'RNAL a ('wnu., Unn.} IJ.I0..S 
la ilie fprins iMilionj. 

VE'RNANT. .. iPiTflon.. Utin.) FIou 
riiliiiig, ■» in the tniin^ {Milton) 

VERNATION, (fiom orr. the s 
^eFoLiAiiOH. «hich ii the lerui in 
Bdi. f 'r wtiirb ihis miubilituledinTcrm.Ii 
and D'lin. PI— In ih« two jailer redtnai 
oiniiied, and ilicrc I3 some difiercncc ii 

VERNEUIL, a town of Fiance, in the 
pamnent of Eure, tented on ihe Atire. 32 rr 
S.W. of Evreux, atid fiS W. by S. of Pj 
Lon. 0. ftp E. Lat. 48. « N. 

VeavEUiL, s town of France, in the 
panmentorAllier, three miles fruni the t 



VERNIER. 



AUier, and 16 S. of Mouliot. Lob. 3. S5 £• 
Lat. 46.180 N. 

VERNIER, is a scale, or a divbioo, well 
adapted for the graduation of matbematical in- 
struments, so called from iu inventor Peter 
Vernier, a gentleman of Franche Conl^, who 
communicated the discovery to the world in a 
small tract, entitled La Construction, TUsage, 
et lea Proprietei du Quadrant Nouvean de Ma- 
ihematique, &c., printed at Brussels in ]631. 
This was an improvement on the method of 
diTision proposcJ by Jacobus Cortius, printed 
by Tycho ui Clavius*s Astrolabe, in Iht^S. 
Vernier's method of division, or dividing plate, 
has been very commonly, tliongh criorMiously, 
called by the name of Nonius i the method of 
I^^onius being very different from that of Ver- 
nier, and much less convenient* 

When the relative unit of any line is so di- 
vided into many small equal parts, those parts 
may be too numerous to be introduced, or if 
introduced, tbc*y may be too close to one an- 
other to be readily counted or estimated ; for 
which reason there have been vat ious methods 
contrived for estimating the aliquot parts of the 
small divisions, into which the relative unit of 
a line may be coramocllously dividad; and 
among those methods. Vernier's bas^bcen most 
justly preferred to all others. For the history 
of this, and other inventions of a similar na- 
ture. See Robins's Math. Tracts, vol.ii. p. QOs, 
Ice. t. 

Vernier's method is derived from the follow- 
ing principle. If two eoual right lines, or cir- 
cidar arcs. A, B, are so aividecC tliat the num- 
ber of equal divisions iu B is one less than the 
number of equal divisions of A, then will the 
excess of one division of B above one division of 
A be compounded of the ratios of one of A to 
A, and of one of B to B. 

For let A contain 1 1 parts, then one of A to 

Abasltoll,or^. Let B contain 10 parts, 

then one of B to B is as 1 to 10, or --• Now 

• 10 



1 
10 



1 
77 



11—10" 



1 



_ 1 1 
"To^u' 



Theii360t:d,U159S6xSR- • 1^ 

?:il^X 2 R Inches. 
360 

Or, 0,01746329XR is the length d 
gree in inches. 

Or, 0,01 745389 X R X p is the leogl 
in pth parts of an inch. 

But as every degree contains n tior 
parts, therefore n = 0,0i7463S9XR> 

The most commodious perceptible di 

■jf or --of an inch. 

5 10 

Example, Suppose an instrumeni 
inches radius, into how many convenii 
may each degree be divided? how i 
these parts are to go to the breadth of 
nier, and to what parts of a degree ma^ 
serration be made by that instrument f 

Now 0.01745 X R = 0,5236 incl 
length of each degree: and if p be s 

about - of an inch for one divisioi 
8 

0,5236 up =z 4,188 shows the number 

^iiris in a degree. But as this number 

an integer, let it be 4, each beiiig \5f : 

the breadth of the vernier contain 31 < 

partSi or 7|^> and be divided into 30 p 

Here n = - : m = — ; then -• X 
4* 30' 4 

— of a degree, or 30', which is the h 
120 ** 

of a degree that instrument can show. 

If a = — , and • =- -5,; then* X 
5 30 6 

Go ^ , ., 
-^ of a minute, or 20". 

6 X 36 ' 

The following table, taken as exan 
the instruments commonly made from ', 
to 8 feet radius, shows the divisions oft 
to nearest tenths of inches, so as to b< 
qnot of 60*s, and what parts of a dcgi 
be estimated by the vernier, it being 
into such equal parts, and containing s 
grees as their columns show. 



10X11 lOx n 
Or if B contains n paru, and A contains n 

-f- 1 paru; then - is one part of B, and— -7- 

is one part of A. And - — — r' = 

n n-f-i 



n 



^ r+- 



II X « -t- 1 

The most commodious divisions, and their 
aliquot parts, into %«-hich the degrees 00 the 
circular limb of an instrument may be sup- 
posed to be divided, depend on the radius of 
that instrument. 

Let R he the radius of a circle in inches; 
and a degree to be divided into n parta, each be- 

I 
ii;g -th part of an inch. 

Now the circumference af a circle, in |arts 
of iu diauelcr^ inches, if 3,1415y2(> X « R 
iuchct| 



Rad. 


Part \\. 


Parts 

• 


Breadth 

of 
vernier. 


Pa 


inches. 


adeg. 


in 
vernier 


obsci 


3 


I 


«s 


i5i 


4' 


6 


1 


20 


20i 


3 


9 


a 


20 


loi 


1 


IS 


2 


a4 


I2i 


1 


IS 


3 


20 


6; 


I 


18 


3 


30 


loi 





21 


4 


30 


7i 





H 


4 


36 


9} 





30 


5 


33 


m 1 

'1 





36 


6 


30 


si 





4i 


8 


30 


3i 





48 


9 


40 


4| 





60 


10 


36 


3i'b 





7» 


11 


3» 


2:, 





84 


'5 


40 


»f 





96 


»5 


60 


4 






By altering tlie number of divisioiM 
in the degrees or in the vernier, or in I 



V E R 

■Ktc nn b« oWrv«d lo a difleraiu degree of in ite woodt , pastiitM, matshw, Ahcim, nt on 

tcnirncy. Tliuf, W. nraJiusofJoinchcifo the mouiiu'mkof our owncoonlry. They we - 

Jeuw ♦>* lii'idwt in"* 'K P""". each bf ing five thue wbdimled. 

*" ■ ... - _ .1 .L^ i._.„.i.i. ..r .1. " "' * '^*- — 



I, and Ihe breadili orihc 
hach paiW, or IJ". d"d diviilfd ii 

jktodth of the vetniw SJ,'. and divided 



> SO part], 
Uking the 



3U 360' 



10" : Or 



C. Pe.!uncie» with a lingle flower. 
The following arc cultiv*t«l. 

I. V. Sibirica. Siberian (|)eedivell. 

S. V. Vji^iDica. Vii^uidn apcsdwcll. 

3, V. s[iurii. BattuNripecdx eil. 

4. V. mariucM. Sea ipeedwell. 



L. — _.r;e"; where the bicadih of then 



rno. Lalin.) Seriljc 
fawDiog behaviour of 

VERNON, a I 

Ltin oflCute, tvuh nn micicn 
at the end of the bridge o\ 



.J- Fr.in 



6. V. hybrida. Welsh iptedwi 

7. V. iiiciw. Cut-ltavcilipcedwtll. 

8. V- dcciifuia. CroM^leaved q>e<d*rdl. ■■ 
Q. V. ofHcinalii. Officinal ipeedwell. 
The lam has been long known in mcdieidC. | 

II ii foiiiid itot «nfreqiienJy on dry halwo | 

, Rioonds and healhs, as thai of Hia>p9leadi 

Wiuntni ofliure, ivlth an ancient casilc, ami a flowering in June and July. The leaves hut 
RntrM at the end of the bridge over the Seine, a neak ant diugreeaUc »Diell, wliii:h on drying I 
i7Biil»S.E. ofKoucn, »nd42N.\V. ol Paris, ii diKipa led, and which iliey pvc nver in di*. ] 
Ldu. I. 48 K- Lai. -ly. 6 N. liilalion witli waier, but without yieWiog a — 

VHRNONIA, in botmy, a genus of the separable «d. To ihc tuite iheyare bitteri ._ 
wnageiioia, order polv^atiiiii sfinalij. Re- a„i| roughialt i an exliacl made from them kf 1 
fndc m^cii i calyx ovale, imbricaic : down rectified spitit is nioderatelj billet and adilri»>.l 
itfiki the otiter chaETv, i^uiar caiiillary. g^nt. Thii (ilani, a century ago, wisniMlld 
Tfurtp(«ieii natives of tlie West Indies and recommettdod, especially in Germany, aaasut^ I 
Antnea. itiiuie for tea ; and ihe French iiill dlitinguiA 1 

' \'tJtOLI. an ancient and populous lown of jt by the name ofTU^ d'Europe. But thooflh 1 
IbIj. in Canipgna di Roma, with a bishop's ttijg European tea has a ronshncd and a slight 1 
«.' It if Mated on the Cosa, at the Tout of the biiicrneis, which is not unj^aieful lothelasle, I 
A|>enaine>, 4S miles S.E. ofKome. Lon. 13. yet the qiialiiics are so unb'ke those which vm J 
)»E. tjiI.4I.S8N. diacoterin ibe foreign tea, that the rxtreindy \ 

. VERONA.afaninusdtyoritaly, capital of ),igh price of the latter, at llut lihte, mult i 
Um VtrMiew. with a bishop's sec, tliree fnrl!, have been the chief reaioti for causing a cam 
W an academy, II is turroiiTidcd by thick i^ary opinion, and of reconciling Europeans K 
ajit, deep ditcliei, and gi>od rani|iarii. The ^ substitute lo imperfect as the leaves of verft' 



U arc neither clean nur ttialjfht ; but 
place called Ihe Pia7za d|A 









considerable sliare i 



repreaontiiig ihe maoD :. 

of Venice. The most remarkable {utmer calling it pol^chreila herba v 

MfBdart i» the amphitheatre Uiili by ihe Ho- The disotden in whjch it has been « 

aui, it) which there are 44 rows of benches nuiai utcful aite those af the luiigt, as coughi, 1 

tTolulc mitble, which will conveniently hold asthmas, consumjiliiiDt, Sec. in whichit iisud 1 

UiOOO persons. Verona is the birthplace of not only in prove expecioranl, but by its extn. I 

Kay the ualuTiili<l, and in Ihe cathedral is a onlinaty vuliwrary power lo heal inteiiial id^ J 

auBtficent toinh nf pope Lucius- The fivei eers. Its ute has likewise been Tceommend 

A^divides tt inUt two parts, which camiuu- by Kvcral authors in vaitotii other complaii 

MW%tMro handsome btid;ae«. Verona was requiring medicines of very different chan 

Ittra b)- the French, in Jiily 179S> bul re- lers; but if we judf? of ihe utility of ihe v-ei 

DlitD 1^ the Austtians in Jutie ITyO- It is nica by its sensible qualitiieB, it is only u> he 

I' tuil^ N.E. of Mantua, and G^ S,W. of lecn^ulsed as an adstringenti aud not uiS< 

Vtiiet. Lon. 1 1 . 94 E- Lai. i5. t6 N. ciently powerful at such to produce any oao> 

TEROXESE, a province of llaly, in the sideratle eficct, aud i; ilierefote now disM- 

*iBt07 of Venice, bounded on the N. by ihe gariied by lucdical practitioners. 
Tumiuo. on llie E. by the Vicentino and Pa- VERRES (C), aRnmao who governed the 

Jnno, OB the S. bv the Mantuan, and on the province nf Picily as prclor. The op|ire»!.ion 

"" bjiheBresciaiio. It is 35 miles long and and rapine of which he was guillv whikin 

i._ . _i i-.i. f..:i.„ :., ,^ce SO oflboded the Sicilians, that diey ar 



ntkoai!, and o 



alttWiaWundiug ii 

wdt. 



: of ihe n 






VEROSK-'A. Speedwell. In bolany, 



id cused him before the Roman senate. Cicem 
iindcrlook the can^e of ihe Sicilians, and pro- 



tniu 



nounced ageiiul Vcrrea those celcbfalcd o 

if tlK cUm diindiia, order moiiogyoia. lions still extant. Vetics, deapAiring* of the 

heel-tha[>ed, four-cleft, the lowest di- hujccis of his defettce, retired to ime of tlic 

■- two-celled, provinces. Hewusal lasikilled by the soldien. 

r Europe, a rtr Aniony the triumvir, about 86 yeaia aftei 



|l Ncvv Zealand i 



'u'ua narrower; cipiule supci 
&fn wRii tprcies i scailered 



fuund wild his voluntary utile fiom the capital. 



V E R V E !t 

VERRUC-ffi. {verruca, a verrendo, a ver* 7*o VE'RSiFY.r.o. To relate in veTtc(Dii«/ 

runco, to change for the better.) WarU. A VE'RSION. *. (vermn, Fr. versio, Litin. 

genus of disease in the class locales and order l.Chanp; transformation (Bacon). ^. Chang 

tumores of Cullen. of direction {Bacon), 3. Traiistation {Drjfdtn] 

VERRUCOSE CAPSULE, in botany, a 4. Theact oftranslatingf 

Nvarted capsule. Having little knobs or warts VERT, a term in the forest laws tncludioi 

on the surface. As in euphorbia verrucosa.— plants growing within a forest or its purlieui 

Verrucose leaf. A warted leaf. Tectum punc- Dcaring green leaves, and of sufficient heigh 

tis carnosis. Covered with fleshy points. The and magnitude to cover or furm a covert for i 

tame with ranillose or papillous. deer; overt-vert implies trees of a higher kind 

VERSABrLITY. Ve^rsablbnbss. i. nether-vert, shrubs, or plants of a lower su 

(versabilis, Latin.) Aptneu to be turned or ture. 

wound any way. VERTEBRA, {vertebra, from verfb, it 

VERSAILLES, a town of France, in the turn.) The spine is a long bonv column, wbid 

department of Seine and Oise. It contains extends from the head to the lower part of thi 

60,000 inhabitants, and, since the revolution, trunk, and is composed of a number of irregab) 

has been created a bishop's see. In the reign bones which are called vertebrae, 

of Lewis XIII. it was only a small village, and The spine may be considered as being com* 

here this prince built a hunting seat in l630. posed bltwo irregular pyramids, which arc 

Lewis XlV. built a maijnificent palace here, united to each other in that part of the }t&vi 

which was the usual residence of the kings of where the last of the lumbar vcrtcbfap is.tili^ 

France, till 1789, when Lewis XVI. and his to the os sacrum. " "'" 7 - 

family were removed from it to Paris. The The vertebrae, which form the "tipper aid 

buildings and gardens were adorned with a longest pyramid, are called true vertebrae];, an^ 

vast number ofstamtes, by the greatest mas- those which compose the lower pvitfthic^ * 

ters, and the water-works were inagniBcent. the os sacrum and the coccyx, are termed fabft 

The gardens, with the park, are five miles in vertebrae, because they do not in every thii^ 

circumference, and surrounded by walls. Ver- resemble the others ; and particularly because, 

aatlles is 10 miles W.S.W. of P^ris. Lon. 2. in the adult state, they become perfectly iib- 

IS E. l4it. 48. 48 N. moveable, whilst the upper ones continue Id 

VEHSAL. a. (a cant word (or universa!,) be capable of motion. For it is u|)on the bona 

Total , whole (Hudiiras). of the spine that the body turns, and their name 

VE'RSATILE. a. {venaiiiis, Latin.) I. has its derivation from tlie Latin verb veri0,U 

That may be turned nijiid f^Harte). 2. Change- observed above. 

^ble ; variable {Glanville). 3. Easily applied The true vertebne, from their situation with 

to a new task. respect to the neck, back, and loins, are divid- 

VE'RSATILENESS. Versati'litt. 1. ed into three classes of cervical, dorsal, and 

(from versatile.) The quality of being versa- lumbar vertebra;. We shall here consider the 

tile. general structure of all these ; referring for a 

VERSE. *. {vers, French; versut, Latin.) description of the number, &c. in each class to 

1. A line consining of a certain succession of our article Anatomy. 

sounds, and number of syllables {Shakspeare). In each of the vertcbnc, as in other bones, 

2. {verset, French.) A section or paragraph we may remark the body of the bone, its pro- 
of a book (Bur nf/). 3. Poetry; lays; metri- cesses, and cavities. Tiie body may be comi- 
cal language (.Prior). 4. A piece of poetry pared to part of a cylinder put off transversely; 
{PopeY. convex before, and concave behind, where ii 

To Verse, r. a. (from the noun.) To tell makes part of the cavity of the spine, 

in vc,-.* ; to r/la e {>ictical|y {Shakspeare). Each vertebra has commonly seven processes 

• To be VERSED, r. n. {versor, La»in.) To be The first of these is the spinous process, whic* 

skilled in : to l)-j ccoiiainted wiih {Dry den). is placed at the back ^rt of the vertebra, an 

Versed-sine, ofan arch, is the piart ^-f the gives the name of spine to the whole of thi 

diameter interrept<rd between the bine and the bony canal. Two others are called transven 

commencrmeni of the arc { and it is equal to proces^es, from their situation with respect ti 

the oiHerenct* between the radius and the cosine, the spine, and are placed on each side of tb 

See MUK (Vrr.«-H). spinon* pnjcc'.s. The four others, which ar 

VE'R^EM AN. «. {vrrseand man.) A poet; called obiique processes, arc much smaller thai 

1 write- m %ersf' (Prior). the other throe. There arc twoof theteon ih 

VE'KSK'LE. i. {rersiculus, l^t.) A little upper and two on the lower part of each v« 

verse. tebia, rising from near the t>asis of the trJiM 

VERSIFICATION, t. (versification, Fr. verse processes. They are sometimes ciUe 

from rrrii/y.) The art or practice of making articular pnicesscs, bec.iuse they are articulate 

verses {Grant itte). with each other 1 that is. the two superior pic 

VERSiriC'ATOR. Versi'fier. .«. (rrr- cesses of one vertebra arc articulated with fli 

njtcateur, Fr. versijicator, Lat.) A versifier ; two inferior processes of the vertebra above if 

a maker of verses, with or without the spirit of and they arc called oblique processes, froi 

poe'r\ f ff'attf). th*-ir situation with respect to the proci-s» 

To Vl/RSi FY. r. «. (i'er«f/?n', Fr.cff/t/ff or, with which they are articulated. Tnese o| 

IaU) To make venes (Dry tffii). llque processes are articulated to each other t 



' E R T E B R ^. 

of pa^itaM, and each pcocM» is ligaTnciil, ir we may M nil it. is itrtngthenrl 

•U ■nutiUtion with caitilagc. by oihEr Shoricr ligauienMus fibres, which \>m 

I in ciccy itrtcbrj, bciw«cu iu bcwly 'loiii Viae vciiebra lo anotlitv, thtoughuni the 

jM», » lunLDMrn, Iwge «nuugh lo ud- whole ipini;. The iiiterual hgauient. ih* fibies 

a. Thru tbnmiiia cbiCMpuiiil with nf which, like the cxlirnil one, «re tpiKul in 

r Ibioii^h ill the rettcbrz. aiul forni a longiiLullnal dlircuon, is exiended mci the 

gr c«tKluit, fur the lodgoiciit of the back uati of the bodies a( the lerubrx. wIicn 

myr. <bej heli> la foTin the citiiy of thr s|)ii>e, iiid 

ihU gtcat hole, there are four notches teaches liom the foranieD iiiagnain or Ihe wd- 

•ile <if eicry vcitebiii, beiwEen rhe pital bone to the oi t.-icriim. 

ocoK* and liie body of the v««ebro. We iiinj innuie to Tciuatk. thaiall the rer- 

Me luNchei are ul the iipp«r, and <wu tebite dtrntiii^h in density and firtnticn of leX' 

ctptnof thebone. luch of ihe in. tare, in moportion aa they incieale in si»c. m 

hct. oteeiing with one nf the supc- that the lower vertebra:, though laiacr, are uui 

t*of the rericbta below it, fuiiiis a so heuvy id propuriion as those above them, 

whilst the siiperior Hatches Jo the in consrquence of ihii mode of structure, the 

lh« iiifcriur notches of the vertebra siic of the vertebra: ii increased without adding 

'n^ne four fiininiiu fxrm uauages lu ihcir wei|,hl j and this is an object of no 

MSmIs, and for the Dcrvei ihut pais little ioi]>n nance, in apart of the body, which, 

jtainc. beside) flexibility and suppleness, seems to 

MviK are united tonther by mean; requite ligUtiieis as one of t» essential piopcr- 

tnec, compressible like cork, which ties. 

a4 of pjriition between the lever.il In the f^Em, at the ordinary time nf birth, 

'Hiii intervertebral lubsiance seems, each veiiebia U found to be composed of three 

H, to approach nearly to llie nature bony pieces, connected by cartilages which 

Bb ■■ in the adult it has a greater re- afteiwardl ottily. One of tlicte piece* it the 

t Ut cartilage. When cut horizon- body of the lione ; the oilier two arc the pnstc* 

>peats to coD<^isl of conccnirical curv- rior and lateral portions, which form the fora- 

cxiemalty, it is firmest and hardest ; men for the medulla spinalis. The oblique 

, It becomes thinner and softer, till proceiics are at that time cooiplcle, and the 

, in ibe centre, wc find it in the form transvecie piocctsci beginning to be fbnued ; 

unit lubslance, which facilitates the bnt the spinous procvbtcs arc totally waDtin|{. 

if ibc spine. Sec Ahatomt. 

, an Italian anatomist, Inng aito oh- Before we close, the article, however, we 

III the change which take* place in shall briefly notice the uses of the spine. Wc 

ircrlcbral cariilaftes, (as they are luu- find the spinal marrow lodged in this bon* 

1} la Mlvaiiced life, occagioiis the dc- canal, aecure from external ir^ury. Ir defenJa 

alAlUK, and the stooping forward*, the thoracic and abdominal viscera, and forait 

; IWinily to be observed in old people, a pillar which supports the head, and gire* a 

lili^ then become shiiTcllcd, and general firmness lo the whole trunk. 

iiIt io*e, in a great meaiure, their To give it a firm hasis, we find the bodtet of 

Bal, betidos this gradual ellect of the verlebta gradually increasing in breadth ai 

hcM cartilage! are subject lo a tein]>fl- they dcacend ; and to lit it for a variety of mo- 

pution, from the weight of the body lion, it iscom|)osedofagrratnumberuf joint*, 

)(t pMlure, so iliat people who have with an inlcrmediaie elastic substance, so that 

LVonJing, or liave carried a consider- lo great firmness there is added a perfect flcxi* 

^t,are fuMP'l fi he ih-irlcr than when biliiy. 

r been loi'it in Iml. Hence we jre 'l1ie lowermost and largest vertebrm are not 
Iwiuiirning than at night. Tliisf^ct, so heavy in jiroportion as those above them; 
xmiiuly olni.iui, vru out .nsceriaineil their boOiea being more apongy, excepting at 
e aean, 1 he d<lTrreiice in ikcii ca^is their ei /gum fere nee, wheie ihry ure more im- 
m* the «ge aniJ «ite ofihe lubjccli in mediately eaposcJ to piesiure) so that nalntc 
■C fwople, it will be nearly an itt^'li ; secitii every where endeavouring to relieve ii* 
&, Ot shoitet persons, it will be less of an unneciwiry weigni of bone. Bui beliind. 
iile. wliere ihc spinal marrow ii mure cxiMMnj is 
s the connexion of the several veitc- injury, we find ilie pp«e»e» composed of very 
OKan* of these cariil-ittca, there are huid bonei and the spinous pruceites are in 
must llriiiig; liH^meni'. which uniic gene'sl placed over each other in « stanlini; 
l«f (he spine 10 each other Some of airecimn, 30 that .1 pointed initrunirnt cannot 
intrnn arc exicrnal, and nther* inier> casilyget lieiwern ihein, eKcepiinzinlheneck, 
POn^ the external li^mcnla, we oh- where they are a liu< aiperpeflilicularnud leave a 
I wliKh ii comniiin m all the vertebra, greater space between them. Hence, in some 
), in ■ longitudinal direction, from countries, it Is usual to kill cattle t» thrusting 
lUt of the body of ihc second verrebra a pointed instrument between ine occiput 
rck, oter all inc oiher venebne, and and the atlas, or between ihe atlas and the 
{t broader as it descends towards the os second vertebra. Besides these iitrs of the ve/< 
isJicK ii beooion thinner, and gradu- tebrx in defending the spinal niurrow, and in 
">,. Ttlii exKinal Ungiiudinal aftinilatiDglhe.KVctolreiiebne, tsi* the case 



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'•»* */■■ ^ <-■..•■ ^ ;•' '* I. '^ y-* »■-.•• 

•«if*« /'I'l. itf«i*/^ «»r /«ii'f, . fl*!'** ^ tiff I? 

• «i>l •/( t^ lar •'•!, «'>»*i- I' I •;.'<«••« I'f 1^* in 

V f I* » M / f « I'' ' r 9, i« ■ y ii ' tf 1^ f'f flip 

*i*\*' I* . {*• •" ¥ *****>■ /W lift /. I. Ill, .1' «| riH'lir 

»tt II |il •< ' I '•' ■■' f" •! ' •" '**« 'i" 4'"» rjil**'! 

tttttttiiUt, 'I lift iii( imIi^ii f/( Mil/ )«l4( c II fe vcr- 



Tar. -▼ ■ l:- itir.*.' -t: irc ssnc 1 jyieCi 



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V:,r.f:« -ALLY t« rS.-«: r 
I.-.* 7*^. -. £;-.rT . 

V i.KTl<. II., .a bc-"anT . ' rotrcklu 

I #- « '. . I -. *• ."J :r <r t ' -r. : a^i • *-■• > : Hibcm 
it' i\ f?-?*"-:. /*.— M \ V.'riT^e*. at 1 
!/•# It J?. \' is c^tr.m-Mi'v wrriicn wh 
111 vifiirl 4«rr:« to be the p*nper or 
rr4^*7. »incc ii it.'MI he denied trwo 
%^rb *o whir!, i^l.ich 9izr.inc» to turn if 

L«i r e«i* putt th:n term Pv a «>Tt of infl< 
r^-rsf*" ri;!'it up of many subsc«^ilv* fio«rr» 
r i/r:'!in;; the »t(*frf in a t\\\-^. Fit ex floi 
riii'rrro*ii» luWs^ilibuc, caulcm anniilatim 
Ifiriitiliiifl. — A) III iiieiiiha puleg;iuni9 mi 
himii, he. 

A vtr:« "'1. h' or! nr whirl, may be 
I. Sviuilc ur |.i.i!uiii.Ud. 



V E R V E S 

I ; that H, without inrolucre, bracte V&'rt. ad. In a gr^at degree ; in an emi* 

firaeced, or inToIucred. neot degree ^Addison) 

dcd. Diatant, or remote. — Hence VERZUOLO, a town of Piedmont, with a 

CILLATE FLOWERS. Verti- castle. It is surrounded by an ancient wall^ 
% I or flowers growing in a whorl ; flanked with towers, and seated in a very fruit* 
he stem in rings one above another ful soil, near the Vratia, three miles S. of Sa^ 
lit. -^It is applied to peduncles ; and luno. 

to blanches and leaves.— Plants bear- VES ANIiE. The fourth order in the class 
I in this manner are styled neuroses of Cullen's nosological arrangement ; 

CILLATJE, in botany. Verticil- comprehending diseases in which the judg- 
. These are included in the fifty- ment is impaired, without either coma or 
cr of Linn^us's Fragments ; and the pyrexia. 

a of his Natural Orders. In the VEStCA. (a diminutive of vas^ a vessel.) 
>\stem, they form the order gym no- A bladder. * 

thecla<sdtdynamia. Theyabocon- Vesica pellis. The gnU-bladder. See 
of !liy*s classes. Gall-bladder. 

'GIXOUS. a. iverliginostts, Lat.) Vesica drinaria. The oribary Madder. 
i^ round ; rotatory {Bentleu). 2. See Urinary bladder. 
oodtoard). To VFSICATE. v. a. ^vesicai Latin.) T« 

IGO. f. (Lat.) A giddiness; a sense blister (Wurman). 

in the head C^riMfAnoO. VESICATION.*, (from reitca/e.) Blister* 

;o, in medicine. Giddiness. Mostly ing; separation of the cuticle (IFtscfiiati). 
tic. VESICATORIES. {veticatoria, from vesi* 

JMNUS, in mythobgy, a deity ca, a bladder ; because they raise a bladder. > 
e Rornaii3^ who presided over the See Epis?astics. 

I orchards. He is generally repre- VESICLE, (bulla,) An elevation of the 
L young man crowned with flowers, cuticle, of a lar^e size, irregularly circomscrib* 
p to the waist, and holding in his ed, and containing a transparent watery fluids 
I fruit, and a crown of plenty^in his Vesicles with a dark red or livid coloured base 

are usually denominated phlyctssnc 
LTS. a town of France, in the depart- VESICULiE PULMO^I ALES, {vesicuht 
laroe, seated in a plain, at the foot of a diminutive of vesica , a bladder.) The air cells 
n, on which are vineyards, produc- which compose the greatest part of the lungs, 
30od wines, 17 miles S.W. of Cha- and are situated at the termination of uie 
78 N.E. of Paris. Lon. 4. SE. Lat. bronchia. 

VESTCULiB seminalbs. Two membra* 
AIN, in botany. See Verbena. lious receptacles, situated on the back part of 
IM MALLOW, in botany. SeeM al- the bladder above its ucck. Its excretory ducts 

are called ejaculatory ducts. They proceed to 
ELES. f. ivcrvele, Fr.) Labels tied the urethra, into which they open by a pccu* 

(Ainsworth). liar orifice at the top of the verumontannm^ 

[NS, a town of France, in the de- They have vessels and nerves from the neigh- 
if Aisne, famous for a treaty, in 1 598, bouring parts, and are well supplied with ab- 
lenry IV. of France and PhiKp II . of sorbent vessels, which proceed to the l3m)phatic 
: is seated on the Serre, 40 miles N .E. glands about the loins. The use of the vcsicule 
f. seminalis is not exactly known. 

S (Lucius C'Cionins Gommodus), a It is pnwcf) satisfactorily by J. Hutiter that 
myicroT, son of ^lius and Dmnitia they are not receptacles or reservoirs of semen, 
ras adopted in the 7th year of his age They however secrete a mucus of their own^ 
iielius, at the request of Adrian, and apparently of ure in coition ; but are wanting 
J Lucilia the daughter of his adi>pted in many animals. See Observations on the 
10 also took him as his colleague on Animal Economy, vol. i. p. 31. 
\ He was sent by M. Aurelius to \^ES1'CULA!1. a. (from vesicula, Latin.) 
e barbarians in the east, where he Hollow; full of small interstiiees ( CAe^nO- 
t complete victory over the Part hians. Vesicular fever. (See Pemphigus.) 
ifter marched with his imperial col- This disease seems to consist in eruptions dis- 
aintt the Marcomanni in Germany, persed over diflerent parts of the body (internal 
n that expedition of an apoplexy, in as well as external), which gradually lise up 
rear of his age, after a rti^n of eight into vesicles of about the size of a large nut, 

some months. Verus has been containing a yellow serous fluid, that is in 
nsored f >r his de^>aucheries. some instances of an ichorous nature, and 

'. a. {vfray, or rrai, Fi.) 1. True; which again disappear in the course of three 
den). 3. Having any qualitie5, com- or four days. Hy some authors it i» described 
id, in an eminent degree : a very as being attended both by fever and conta- 
^avt>f). 3. To note thmg5 emphati- gion, and by others, as bcfing accompanied by 
eminently: ike very bottom {Shah* neither. It is therefore sup(>osed that there 
4. Same : iht very man {ISprai). are two species of it, the chronic, and the 



V E s V i: s 

ftcute. Ttie disease is, however* of very rare dencj of the fluich to put refaction, 
occurrence. ohvious that in the lirsi case, cvacu. 

By the Keneralitj of the practitioners who other antiphlogistic remedies will b< 
have favoured us with their opinions^ the prin- and that in the second it will, on the 
cipal of whom is Dr. Dickson, it has not been be necessary to shun all evacuation! 
considered as contajcious. This gentleman saw employ those remedies alone whict 
six cases of the complaint, in none of wliich it the strength, and give tone aod v'lff, 
wak received by contagion, nor communicated system. 

to those wlio attended the sick. VKSOUL, a town of France', cap! 

Dr. CuUen infijrms tis that the blisters are department of Upper Saone. In its i 
filled with a thin ichor, which Is discharged, a medicinal spring. It is i£ated at tl 
not absorbed, as mentioned by Dr. Dicks^m ; a mountain, near the river Durscon, 
but during bis wh(4c practice, tt appears, that N. of Besanfon, an J iO(> E.S.JB. oi 
he met only with a single ca&e of pemphigus. L^n. 6. 8 £. Lat. 47* 36 N. 

Some slight degree of hssitude, sickness, VKSFA. Wasp. In zoology, a 
and head-ach having prevailed for a day or two, the class insecta, order hymeneprera. 
small vesicles of about the size of a pea then homy, with a compressed jaw ', fee 
make their appearance over difierent parts of equal, filiform ; antennas filiform, 
the body, and not unfreqnently in the mouth, joint longer, and c) lindrical ; eyes lun 
and other parts of the alimentary canal, and gUbrous ; upi^r wings folded, in a 
these gradually increase till they become a^ sting pungent, concealed in theaUlome 
large as a nut or almond. Someumcs they are hundred and twelve species, scattered 
ao nomefoos as to run into each other* The globe, eight common lo our own coun 
pulse during^ this time b small and frequent, "^^Y arerthna divided and subdivide 
and the natient is sensible of a considerable A. Tongue simple, or tongueless. 
dcaree of debilityi «. Lip (umi>hea with a bristle on e. 

If the vesicles be noC broken, they fill with ^. Lip ovate, as long as the jaws : 
a ydlowuh serum, which is again absorbed into li nus of Fabricius. 

the system in the coarse of three or four days. /. Lip compressed, rounded, longer 
This appeal! to be the most favourable termi* jaw : the philaiithus of Fabricius. 

nation; as they have been known to leave 1. Lip short, horny: the crabro o 
Uoabloome nlcen hehind them when they cius^ 

broke. B. Toiicue biBd, retractile : the a 

pemphigus resembles the smalUpoz in fre* Fabricius. 

quently leaving pits in the skin, ana the parts, C. Tongue inflected, five-cleft : the 
which the vesicle occupied, remaining of a of Fabricius. 

dark colour for a considerable time afterwards. A specimen or two is all for whick 
In the third volume of Medical Facts an<l Ob- find space. 

servations. Dr. Winterbottom takes particular 1. V. crabro. Hornet. Thorax bl 
notice of this occurrence. fore-part rufous, immaculate ; incisurt 

We are to be influenced in our prognosis by abdomen with a double cnniiguous bl 
the seat and appearance of the^esicles. When Inhabits £uro|ie, and makes its nest 
they only appear on exteriul pans, aod are not trunks of hollow trees, or in the tiuib 
numerous, tney demand little attention ; when of lofts: the sting of the female is e? 
they are numerous, when they at tack thealimen- painful ; the male in all the species is s 
tary canal, and are attended with a small hard The hornet is not found in Scotland, 
pulse, the danger is considerable. The dancer common in England. The antennas 
IS likewise very great, when the ulcers, left oy and legs, are of a brown or chesnut 
vesicles, shew a tendency to grangrene by com- the abdomen is of a tluc orange brov 
ing livid, which seldom happens, however, on the eatension of the ar.nuli, it disc 
unlesa a fever of the tme typhoid kind has ac* each side a line of black ; the winss ai 
companied it. ^ colour of amber ; and the aniaial, f 

On tak ing acomprehensnre survey of what has merits the first rank among the vespc. 
been recorded by recent writers on the subject, 8. V. vulgaris. Common wasp. 
it must, we think, be concluded thatpemphi- black, surrounded on the anterior pa 
gus is an affection merely sporadic, ano not of a yellow line; abdomen oolden yellof 
contagious nature, and that the syoiptoms ac- triangubr spots down tlie oack part, ao 
company ing one or other instances ot this affec- ones on each side, 
tion are those which attend febrile diseases, whc- The wasps in general seem to fill u|; 
ther inflammatory- or putrid. The most important die rank between the ichneumons aod tl 
distinctions necessary lo be aKertained appear like the former, ihev are rapacious am 
therefore lu be, Itt.'Wheihcr the fever be of voroos, and, like tne latter, construe 
an inflammatory nature, and accompanied with and sometimes feed on the pmduce of ( 
a siroii^ aud increased action of tne vascular they devour fmti, butcher meat, and < 
system. Sd. WhctSier tlie fever have a ten- continual hostiliiirs against almost en 
dencv lo the typhoid type, be marked by great cies of fly : thcv are at once the rivab 
debility, and symptoms which denute a ten* enemies of the common bee j many « 



bkc ■ prry of thnr Annpy . 
I AlntoH n^ry penoit iijiul liavt sern the cs- 
■MtAncnt marie nad«T uoum] by the com- 
Mo wasp. Il Ii ihtni) oTsubicrraneouscilj, 
Ulirti ■« ftrUiti «tson» of ihr year contoiiii 
iuMf ifcouaaA of inhabiimis, and i) con- 
IummI ncarl; trith the umc iugenuiiy and 
I hwik b that <(f lh« bonty be^. Like i(, il 
M&rBilly ffltmrti with niinba comisilng af a 
fcii bit of hrxagonal cells, all cnvdnpcri undct 
Im cbninu'ci mrerhig, and consiruclcd vriih 
tart (ft- In ihii parliciilar ihcj excel the 
Eganon be«. which ranlcnis JtMlf wUh )h« 
hra MorxirA liy the hive, or with ihe uutik 
•fimtrii ttr*, ID (heir wild tiate. 
' TWkm;!' tl»e wMm gericfiilly make choice of 
liBtMbrxe hole under jrround foriheconsiriie- 
iliM of i6rir lint, iheylrave nevcrihelesi miiL'h 
Unrin ti.iderpo in removing pmtuhcraticc!, 
'loil etrninc: nway rtrth, til! it is brought to 
lbii|Airficil figure which tuits iheirpui|-<HU. 
Hit »ntt coiopleiert, ibey next conmuct that 
pfCT-lile covcriiri; wilh which the whole 
kirhhnrd. The eombs in whith the cells 
Mr )o6fr4 next ef<tfm iheir Bitentioi). These 
nt anp^ hoiiiortally tn diffeicni slorlw, 
llMKliiii'i tw-clrc or fit'ieeti above each oiher, 
'd ttppntted by enlomradM, betvvcrii trhk-li 
iktMolr ciii»eti«o( ihu sublet ft neon* com- 
|aA*allh Jrc>i>en ai timeiio wnik, like men 
itiltit iiTorti of a lowtt. The eclli of the 
J««pt>re not eoniirnetcd with ihnl geonie- 
niiil ikilt trhicli hai been m often admirtd in 
l&W Hf thr bee; but they arc not on that 
Jttnmiithe \rit nd»p(ed w ihe pmpose* ihey 
'M4mrac4 tt> wrve. Eath comb has only 
tiadf mige orrella, ivlth iheir motilh> oiirn- 
ii^fcfhjw. Thry ..re iolelidml, not fof the 
iKefAloii of linnn. but for ibr hvbitnlion of 
tfwjBBHf , «hii-!i ire fed twice orthrice a-doy, 
l.-noiirl. ...Ti-H in by (he par* nn For the 
r-cradon iif iisfood, each 
iK-ai) lamed downward op- 
' I of iu cell, ready (o receive 
..(t, 

rwiroetinn of w»ip hite;, all fiiifcd lo the 
<^af the difTerentspeciet that iiihabil ihem. 
^t ture only a tingle row of cells, placed 
iWiaftv, like Ihote of the hee, ihe mouth! 
^ir; ihe Min r the reawn of ihis taiietj' seems 
toljf, ihat toine Viiids require the heal of iht 
ina bitch iheii egv*; an advantage vrhich 
WiAtiwt he (rt)l»inM weie there more rows 
"f rih, or were ihey placerl in a dlffwenl 

■ hiTc of beu, lo in that of wasps, 

C rtircv dllfctmi kinds nf inimab : at 

naini only a single fe- 

mber of what ascd in be called 

t jnulei, and were supposed to be 

'Siou^ il it probable they arc females 

i*Ar[i«I fcmnte oTBatis; at oilier 

•omc hundrrds of females, 

r Clamber of males. The 





i even iho mak 



ffran half Hie weight of'tK* 

Tlie cnndilioii of the female wasp iliffcr* 
videlyfrom ihal of the female bve. Tire laiterj 
sthen she leads from ihe parent hive a yoling . 
colriny, and founds a new empire, is es'cmi^ I 
ally a i|iieen ; for she is mote implicitly obeyed I 
than Ihe best of monarch*, by the most loyal I 
of his lieges. 'Jlie female wasp, as lier s'— ■—* ' 
is tn.^re laborious, so hct gtniu. seem? 
enterprisinc. Unaifled by any of her kiiit), 1 
she bp. in ihe beginning of every season, ihe 1 
fouoriaiiLin of a new edifice, which is desiiiiei J 
10 be the birthplace of niiny ihousaiidi of het ] 
sjjecies. She conWTuiHs ine firs! eel" 
which she commits the earliest of her csgS, 
which in lime become labuuicn, the most 
active and enierprisinz of the wluile race i aii4 I 
by these she is sstisled in completing the rest J 
(ifthe^orh. ' 

The male wasps ate not so slolhfol a 
male bee; ihey disebari^ several duties i. 
interior jmrts of the bive; but tn the nit at I 
bailfrmg, either the cells or the extetnal coJ I 
vcrin)t, ihey sti aJtnaether unskilled. Thii | 
falls lo be cxecoted by the laboufi-rs, vih6 \ 
cariy iToiiwrih amaiinfe dispatch. They col- 
lect together the small fibres of half n 
wood, which ihev ilioi?ten wiili ^ glut! ,__ 
suhstsnce, anil mnke up rnlo [hat [Kiper 6f I 
which all thcic tmtk is rurmcd. I 

The aerial W3«p crmitrncts sm.ill nesi) of J 
abtnn ihe sixe of an oran^, which il aiiach«A I 
lo the branch of 3 tree, 'lliis compacl tittfe,V 
edifice is exposed to the weather, biil is 'eil';^ 1 
dercd hn|>eneIrBbtc lo rain, by a number or I 
leaves which are ptnecfT round il, exacily re-. T 
seHiHlng nil inverted rose. A pariicular siiecitf j 
in the ncipbbniirhoftd of Cayenne consituci, I 
a br^e obluo^ boit, about twelve or fifteeii 
inches long, of Rnc parchment, which is als4, I 
pendent from the branch of a tree; there ih»,^ 
combi fahricatcd of ihe same siibflance ard L 
ranged horitoii'ally, in dlfTereitt stories, on^i 1 
above ihc oiher, cuch having a round hole is-!l 
the centre, \w which the waips are enabled P 
lo ascrixl or descend lo .lilTcrerll flats ofiheif"', 
building. 

While these operations arc carrying on M' 
the joint bbours of the hive, ihc mother waip . 
conliniin lo [ay till she has produced fifteen of 
sixteen ihous.^nd labourers, and about fiie at 
six hundred perfect males and females: ihd 
commnnu'caUh day by dav Increases in niim'^ 
beta, and eiljoys jleace. fowards the itionlh 

of October provisions begin to pow s< '' 

and a new scence ensues. This hitherto 
cable Itibe seems ihen fired wilh mutual rjge i 
and the whole edifice presents one sceije (^, 
massacre- The labourers and males tear front 
their cradles ihe eus, the larrrs, and new botif 
iniecM, with unJistiiigiiishinp fury, Thq? 
next fighl one another. Care for the slate. 
MilicituHe for posterity, or love to their na'" - 
place, now no lunger eiisl ; the whole c< 
mooweallh is shaleii to the foundalioft. It; 
and frosts ensue ; the ciiiiens are seixed with 
disease ami languor; and happily for ih^ other 



V E S V E S 

imf rts, and the fruit gaHenSs alinoft the D. Fore-teeth, upper two, lower nx, 

whole (lie. Some few females escape the dis* IL Fore-teeih, upper two, lower four, 

astern of civil war, and the set erity of winter, F. Foie-teeth, \\p\ter two^ lower none 

and in the ensuing 9|>riDg become the founders G. Fore- teeth, unytet none, lower four, 

of new empires, which are agjain to be over* H. Toothless in both jaws, 

tinned in like manner. I. Number and oider of teeth unknown. 

In describing the economy of this tribe, we l^ie animals of this genus fly abroad Lj 

have not allowed ourselves to adopt the term niglif; by mt*ans of their ex|iansile membrane f 

neuters."^ Thegeneral resemblance of structure feed on molhs, giiats, and nocturnal insects^ 

which it bears to the bee tribe is so close, that thev are torpid during winter in cfAd countries 

there can be little doubt that such an anomaly gatneriiig together in dark cavcinsj adhcrioc ui 

no more exists among the former tlian ainoug walls, and hanging by tfie hindrlegii:. um^ 

the latter : and we trust that the indefatigable have a reroarkuble additional leiiK of affoidii^ 

Aud very accurate Huber, to whom we are ao oVgeets in (heir way when deprived of tUir 

much indebted for a ml knowledge of the eye4>, 

atructux^e and economy of the bee» will }ct 1. V. vampyrus. Ternale bat. IUQm; 

pursue his investigations into the familict of nose «n>p}^ ; membrane divided betwcn ifai 

thevcspaand formica; from hoth which it is thighs. Three other varieties, from variatioo 

probable he would aa effectually remove the of colour ; black or dark- red ^ brownish-bUck j 

anomuly of a neuter gender as he has done or straw*colour. Inhabits the west of Africa, 

from that of the apis. See the article Bbe southof Asia, islands of the Indian oceao, and 

in this work. See, also, Nat Hiat. Pi. of the South sea. 

CLXXVIII. Bats of this species have large canine tcedi, 

V£^PASIAN CTitus Flavius), a Roman four cutting ones above, the aame betow 1 1 

emperor descended from an obscure family at sharp black nose ; large naked ears ; and ^ 

Kiete, and formerly a horse-doctor. He was pointed tongue, terminated b^ sharp aculcatcd 

honoured with the consulship, b^ his own papillsp. "nie exterior toe is detached fnua 

private merit and his miblic services. He the membrane; the claw strong and liookol. 

accompanied Nero into Greeoe, and was after- There are five toes on the hind-fcet, wilk 

wards sent to carry on a war against the Jews, talons very crooked, strong, and comprescol 

His operations were crowned with success ; sideways, lliey have no tail ; the membrtoe 

many of the citiea of F^destine surrendered, is divided behind quite to the rumu. Tk* 

and Vespasian began the siege of Jerusalem, head is of a dark ferruginous cplour ; tiieneckt 

This was, liowever, achieved 1^ the hands of his shoulders, and underside, are of a much li^Vf^ 

son Titus, and the death of Vitellius and the and brighter red. On the back the htff ^ 

affection of hu soldiers hutened hb rise, and he shorter, dusky, and smooth: the nenhnnci 

vat proclaimed empmr al Alexandria. In of the wings dusky. Some arc one §oai loog* 

the beginning of his reign Vespuian attempted and four from tip to tip of the wings expanded i 

to reform the roanneii of the liomans. He but others vastly larger. This species is oo< 

•repaired the public huildingB, embellished the gregarious, thou^^ numbers of them at tim^ 

city, and made the great roads more spacious meet accidentally on the same tree in quest o 

and convenient. AAer he had reigned with food ; and being fnshtened, may chance to f 

great popularity for 10 yean, Vespasian died the same way in a f^k. Two of the varieti< 

.with a p:iin in his bowels, A. D. 79ff in the are luimed rougeite and roussette. 

7(Hh year of his age. He was the first Koman Tlie ruugettc differs from the roussette chic^ 

emperor that died a natural death, and he was in that its whole body and head are cinereot» 

also the first who was succeeded by bis own mixed with some black ; and that ou the ne^ 

ton on the throne. Vespasian has been ad* there is a great bed of orange or red. T) 

mired for his virtues. To men of learning and size is also much less; the extent of the wioj 

merit, Vespasian was very liberal : one hun- being little mure than two f«et. They inhat- 

dred thotis.ind sesterces were annually paid the same countries, agree in food, but difiRrr 

from the public treasury to the different pro- manners. They are found in Guinea, Mad' 

fessors thai were appointed to encourage and gascar, and all the other islands in the Indi^ 

promote the arts and sciences* occnii, New Holland, the Friendly Islandl 

\F/S?ER. t. CLatin.) T^ie evening star ; the New lit bride!*, and NeW Caledonia. Th 

the evening i^Shakspeare), rougcttes flv in flocks, and i>erfc:ctly obscua 

Ve^spirs. s, (without the singiilar, from the air with their numbers. They begin the j 

vcsperuf, Latin.) The evening service of the flight from one neighbouring island to anothe 

Uomiih church, immediatclv on sun-set, and return in cloud 

VESFERTILIO. Bat. Vampyre. In from the tnne it i^ li^ht till smi-ri>e. Thr 

a'Kilogy, a (zenus of the class mammalia, order lod^ during ihe day in hollow trees. B«itl 

{)rimate|. Tt*eth all erect, acuminate, approx- kinds li^e on fruits, and are fond of the juto 

imate ; forc-fcet palmate, formed for flyiiigi a of the p;din-irv:e, with which they will inioxi 

membrane surrounding the body. Tweiity>five cate themselves till they drop on the ground 

species. thu« subdivided. They swarm like bees, hanging near one an 

A. Porfoteeth in each jaw four. other fn>m the trees in great clusters. In New 

R. Fore-teeth, upper four, lower six. Caledonia the natives uk their hair in ropes, &c 

C \ Fure-teetb, upper four, lower eight. lliey grow excessively fat at certain times of thi 



V E S P E 11 T I L I O. 



»r. The Indbns e>l iheui, an>l ilcHnre the 
nhto tw (crygood. Tlir ncztof» tiati: thcin 
1 •WMHTence. 'Thtir liodics trc froWi the size 
r a pat)«i lo itiat oF a dove, While fating, 
tcy miVfa gr«at noise ; their nn«tl^ niik : 
in BIT ftrree, hhe, and mxke gml re 
rh«u taken- Ttw^ bring one voub^ < 
me. The ancianu had wme knowledge of 
t>tt<? anitnalt. Herodittin mentions winged 



il 1i»rt in woods dntl mtc«, ^v^ic^l art'ffiliii'! 
fti.lt of its dung, iirodaciive of ijlt|iciic, It 
feed? nn the pritUy pear. 

S. V. sj^smi. Conlatcd but. T«iHe»( n«B^ 
fitbtc: obcoritate; Very bcoad .nnd loi;c(riir»;L 
heart-shaped nieinbriJie at liie tnd ol lis nr— " 
and a web beiit^en the hind less ; cnlour m 
ilk face a very Ughl rd ; of ibe l»>dy itiM 
jralfer. It inhabits Ceylon, and the Kle t 



miij-betsis like htts, tha( molested the Arabi rernati, one of the Moluccas 

-bo ptbered tht cania, to such IT ilcgree. 0- V. Icporinn!!. Peruvian hat. ^TaiWj 

Itwt Uicy were obliged to cover themselves all uiiiicr lipj bifid, 

bill ihecyv) with ikini, From such relalioM, Tbii ajiecies bus a head like a pitg. 

ii h probable, the ix>eli formed their Rctiotu large straight nointed nra; twoeioinc t 

o( H»T»iei, and two amall ciititriK teeth between ihi 

UMb Ibe greater and lener ipeeie«mreei[ual- itt each jaw. Tlte tnil is inclosed ii 

^A|4of human blood, Personi attacked by braVie ibat joins the hind-lcin; and mppoi 

m' 

kOMiacI 



t in dari'jer of uiMing from a iminil bj^twO ligameau alio im 

T the sleep of death. The bat is so brant. Colour of its fur an iron gieyl 



aculeaied eijual In thai of a tniddle-sized rat; e:(Icnt4 
vein without hein^ |teTceived ; its winp two feet five ih'ches. 
Hcki the blood till it ii satiated, ott the There is a variety of this si>eeies with hantfl 
Bc fcflainj; ;with its Winp, and aftitatlng in^ lijn like the chops of a niaitifT : the ntn^ 
■ir. in those hot cli>naies, in M pleasing a as well as itfiper lip, divided : lone, fVati^ivg 
■tttr, M to cast the sufferer into a s|ill sharp-pointed tars, A fewjolnu nfh& shottutf 
"^ '' ' hereloTe very ti'isafc to stict out withoin the membrane, which at i" 

" ' satne time exieiids far beyond, h aiigdlar, g 

ends id a point ; claivs on the hind-feet largi 
hookei), and comprtssed sidewais : membrai 
of the wings dutky, and voiy thin. Fur 
the head mid hack brown ; on the belly d 

long : mtent of the witiH 



e open any en- 



tbep in the op«n 
■nnct to Mieh dangerous 
Mn in whieh these exiii- Nor do they con- 
6ae tliemtelves to human blood ; in ceruin 
pn> of AuMfiea they even destroy cattle. 
"" ■' ' ly has a heail like a ^y- 



^Mnd ; large teeth ) and lon^, broad, nliknl twenty. Inhabits Peru and the Miisijuti 
•in. The whole body is coTercd with soft shore. ' 

ikorl hsirof a straw colour. Ii is near nine 7- V. molosius. Bull-dog bai. Toil C 
iadiei long; the estent of its wings two feel tending far licjond the membrane; upperlij 
ntn liicbo. (itnduluus. Two other varieties', from slie"*!" 

Il ii to litis sprcietl.innAis refers the hlood. colour. Hroad romid ears, touching each n|(l 
Nckingbatorvamp^'renfiheencicnis; ihoiiKh inftoiit; nihlck note; upper part of iht b 
ilietirai, at a apccific name, is given lo the deep ash colour, Ipwer paler : ine tall longi ' 
nni. five last joints are dispn^ged fron] the mtt 

f. V. sptctram. Spectre. TaiUest; noie brane : aniuiul two iiidiei lon^ : extent 4 
hnsFllal) lanceolate; inhabits South Ame- iu winns nine and a half, ll inh,ibiit 
nw; like the ft>rmer, lives in the palm-trees. West Ihdiei; and has a near resemblance *| 
xi'l gntwt veiy fat i has a long nose ( large the precedinz. 
»n>i j king, brund, upright ears ; a conic erect B. V. ur^ttta. Senegal bnt- Anterior part 
Mnbnnc at Ute end of the nose, bending at of the head yellowish brown i feet snil tr 
1^ up and flexible. The hair on its bfitly is black; longheadi nose a little pgintcd j s 
MctiMt. and parthrlnngi the wings are full and pointed ears; fitr of a tawny bru 
•fnmlfteil fibres : ine nieitibrine reaches from mixed with a-h colour; hejly paferj .,._ , 
ktat-ltgio hind-leg. From the rump eviend joints of the lajl fVee ; four inches faitg jexten|' 
ikm icttdom. which terminate at the end of tweniy-ono, 

■WoKnibniiw. ll i» leven inches and a half t). V. leplurus. Poiich bal. Tailed ) no*. 
I°ati nient of the wings two fi;ei two : ugly, tri Is tubular g ears long, obtuse, valved t of a 
Mil*l«rmed. brown colour ; an inch and a half long; Inhv 

bttt Surinam , and bus a small purseor paDcif^ 
near the second joint of each winj. * 

10. V. hiipidm. Bearded bat- Tjilefli. 
hairy; noiiiri Is channelled ) cars long, bairoM 
A imall species. It has very lonz hair on ilK 
forehead and under hi chin j its Ibr is of a reih4 
diih brown above; on its gndcisHt of s Jlrtn 
white liiigcd with yellow. 1 

I. V. Moveboraeensis, New Yorh batS 
Mrs ahomfl 

- —nn colour, tinipnl with red i inhabits utily iha lop of (he nose a little bidd ; tw 
'istwa, Surinam, and Seneital, la (be liral, oaitiii* icttb in each jaw; it fery Ions uil tl 



I. V. boMMs. Javelin hat. TaillcM ; ntne 
Uiie, ftaroibliiig a leaf of ticfntl i large |tnlnt- 
•* nrsj an erect mrmbran? .it the end of the 
Ml, in furm of the head of an ancient javelin. 
I'iababjit the warm pnru of Anictica; is of 
^(iacof theeammon bat ; ftit cinereous. 

fV.Kmcinos. Leaf bat. Tailless j snout 
nilhnied ) lio*e foliate, iKarteiJ ; imsll 
*m«d tsi*! a membraoe on the nose, <rf 

'^bnnof an ovale leaf; and a wob between Tail lonz) nose short, acute. 
<^l><TNl le^. Uf the same <i>c a* the lait t round. Head shaped like th 



V E S V E S 

cloffd in the membrane, the upper side of covend with )6iig hair; lips yellow;, aboirea 

M'hich is covered with very long sntt hair of a yellowish brown ; below dusky. This is the 

bris^tU tawny colour : the belly paler. At the least of hats, not an inch and a quarter lone i 

base of each wing a white spot : the wings the extent of its wings only six and a half. It 

thin, naked, and dusky : bones of the hind- inhabita iiVance, and is common about ilie 

less very slender. Length ten inches and a rocky and mountainous parts of Siberia, 

half; tail near two; extent of the wings equal 18. V. barbastelhis. Barhastel. Tailed; 

to the length of the body. cheeks tumid, hairy; a sunk forehead, and 

It inhabits North America, and is also found long broad ears, touching each other at their 

in New Zeiland. base, which conceal the face and head whea 

12. V. pictus. Striped bat. Tailed ;. nose looked at in front. Nose short, and flatted at 
simple ; ears funnel-shaped, appendaged. In- the end ; the upper port of the body of a dusky 
habits Ce}'Ion. Wings striped with black, brown; the lower ash-coloured and brown: 
tbmetimcs with tawny brown; two inches two inches long; extent ten and a lialf: inha« 
long. I ts colour varies ; the upper parts are bits France. 

spnieiiines of a clear reddish brown ; the lower 1^ V. murinus. Common bat. Tailed ; 

lyhitish. nose, mouth, simple; ears less than the head ; 

13. V. cephalotes. Molucca bat. Tailed; fur mouse-coloured, tinged with red: two 
head large ; lips projecting ; nostrils spiral ; inches and a half long : extent of its wiugp 
warts under the eyes ; ears small, not valved. nine inches. It inhabits Europe, and is comr 
First described by Pallas ; has a large head ; mon in Britain : flies at night, feeds on moths, 
spiall ears; thiclc nuse; nostrils terminating is the prey of owls; caught by the heads of 
outwards in form of a screw : tongue b co« burdock whitened and thrown into the air ; 
vcred with papillae and minute spines: claw when ou the ground cannot rise till it haa 
or thumb jouied to the wing by a membnine : crawled to an eminence ; torpid in the winter; 
the first ray of the wing terminated by a claw, revives in the spring; breeda in the suoinscr- 
The end of the tail reaches beyond the mem- See Nat. Hist. rl. CLXXXVI. 

brane: upper pans greyish, or of a straw co- VI'l^PERTINE. a. (vetprriinusj Latin.) 

lour ; belly of a dull wnite: tliree inches and Iiapi)euing or coming in the evening, 

three quarters long : extent of its wings about VESPIIIN, an episcopal towa of Hun* 

fifteen. S^'X* capital of a county of the same name, 

14. V. ferrum equinum. Horte-shoe bat. with a castle. It is seatea on the Std, I9 miles 
Tailed ; nose like a horse-shoe ; ears as Ions W. by S. of Sluhlweissenhurg, and 70 S.S.E. 
as the head, not valved; tail half the length of Presburg. Lon. 17. 67 £• Lat. 47. 
of the body. Has its name from the mem- 16 N. 

brane at the end of its nose : its ears are broad VE^SSEL. «. (roMtf/Ze, French.) 1. Any 

at their base» and sharp-pointed, inclining thing in which liquids, or other thin^« are pai 

backward; it is cinereous above, whitish be- {Burnet), 2. The containing parts of an ani- 

neaih : three inches and a half lung ; extent maL body {Arhuthnoty 3. Any vehicle in 

ahovc fourteen. which men or goods are carried on water. See 

There is a less variety of this species ; found Boat and Ship. 4. Any capacity ; any thing 

about the Caspian : inhabits Burgundy ; and containing {Milton), 

has been discovered in Kent. Vessels, in botany. Vasa — arc, 1. Suc- 

15. V. noctuln. Noctule, or great bat. ciferous or sap vesteU. Canals commonly 
Tailed; mouth simple; ears oval, valved, straight, and of a very small bore, fur conrev- 
Talve small ; note slightly bilobaled ; ears ing ttic liquor, juices, or sap of the vegetabfe. 
small and rounded ; a small wart on tlic chin, The^e are called vasa (kmt* ifex«iv) in Delin. 
and hair of a reddish ash colour; length two Pi. 

inches and eigl)t*tenths ; extent of its wings 2. Utricles, or little bagis; usually full of 

thirteiMi inches. It inhabits Great Britain a green pulp, filling up the interstices of the 

and France, and is very common in Russia ; vessels, and ber\'ing as reservoirs wherein the 

it flies hi^h in search of food. There were sap is lodged and perhaps secreted. 

taken under tho eaves of Queen's college, 3. Air vessels. Trncheat. Sf>iral canuls* 

Cambridge, in one night, a hundred andeighty- usually of a larger bore, for receiving and di*- 

five; the second night, sixty-three; the third tributmg the air. 

night, two. Each uiat was measured had fif- Ou this subject sec the learned (vreAv's in- 

teen iiK-hes extent of wingi. comparable treaiiie on the Anatomy of Vegt- 

1(3. V. serotinus. Serotine. Tailed ; yel- tables, 

low; ears short, thick at the edges; nose 7V> Ve^ssel. o. a. (from the noun.)To put 

lonnisli ; hair brown on tlie upper part of the into a vessel ; to barrel {Uacnn). 

body ; belly of a paler colour : two inches and VEfSSETS.. j. A kind of cloth oomaaoijy 

a. half long; innabiis France; and is also made in Sufiulk (Bai/n/). 

found beyoiid the lake Baikal : biit has not as VE^SICNON. $. uiuoug horsemen.) A 

yet been discovered in any other part of the wiiuljiall. 

vast dotninions of Russia. Vl'iST. s, {vcstit, Latin.) An outer gnrineDt 

17. V. pipistrellus. Pipistrel. Tailed ; {Smith), 

forehead convex ; nose small ; upper liii swells To Vest, v, n, (from tlie noun.) 1 . To drf<s; 

a little on each side; ears bruad ; torehcad to d«ok ; to enrpbe ^DrytUn). 9. To drcis in 



V ES 



pitcc in powrsnoii (.Chrendaii). 

V£!»TA. a fiAiUcM. ihuslitcc o( Rhn inti 
Saiitni. Wlics conaiileivd m iht nwitter o( 
•he fob. ihc 1* ihe n<Mhet of Rhi-a anil Sn- 
iHia ; uul vrhea cuniidcml ua (he p.iirone» of 
ibe voul (irfrni hkI the ^odilcM vl 5re, >hf b 
mIM tbtdBUghiMnf isKurn and Hlie^. Lu- 
te Ibis iiaiiK »he *«s <v(itihip|iC(l by ihe Ri>- 

»M»Ilalf.ar>dNituulMih hcr>terD|>lc where 
na Hials m«k petinitml to fto. A lire wra 
awtiaiuit; kept Itghted in h«r sanctnory by tt 
ecraiu tiH>il>cr«r virgins, who Itad dolicainl 
tbcnadirca w (be acriice *>( ihc ^dilcsc. If 
litt tiK OTi ticcuRie euinci, ilic virgin by 
whns iKK''e(!'>cc i< hkU iitpniiid was severe- 
ly pwinhcil, tatd it wu kinillnl aeain by the 
nf* of the nin. 'I'h« innpte of Vesu wai tiF 
a roanJ fnriii, atiJ ilie goilJess n-as repreiental 
Malona Rawing robe, with u veil on licrhcad, 
biJtbiig in »ae hjnd a liunn, or ■ iwo-esivd 
icaH. aoit in the other ■ JavHio, oTaometiDin 

At Um Gi«vki und lt)e (tonuit) were tiul to 
■■cligiTtn to the wi)fthi|>tHnE of start m the 
■■11(11 nalioBs, •« ihcy idorcd Vetn kkiI VdI- 
CMi, at the letrrttrMl and clcnienury hre, dis- 
liaf/mabiauf, the lire of the etrtti frutn (hni of 
Iwiiin. lofciKg Vnbi for the earth, in the 
cwitrr wheKoi (tcconJing to their opinion) an 
T m I fin wot bnmin)!;. Thii it reponed by 
0*id in hb Futi, And thit pnet tells ita also 
aiiemrdt, llui the uerpetunl lir«^ wulhc only 
(Map tbey had of Vetti, bem-g imposiible to 
hma inx- image of lire; and lint it was u cus- 
UM fumierly to keep a lire at the entry of 
kuim, (chieli therrfoT« hai ever since kept 
(he Munc of vaiibidutn ; and that they tat at 
longttblet In take their meals in iheic onirici, 
whrre the fire rcpteiciiii-d tht ends, 

Vhta, one uf the tniall |)lHt,etiiry hodin 
^mvemi Ijlely to icrolvc belnern the pUntU 
Hariand Jupitn. See Aetrohomv. 
VETSTAL. a. Denoting;' pure lirfitiiiy. 
ViiTALt, piieitcssei siiiiuiig llie Itoiiiani, 
eHRCtaicd la the lervice of Vesia. This 
tCcewu very ancient, at tlie mother of Ro- 
■nhu wai one of the rettnb. ^neas ii nip- 
paw4 to have httt chutcn the vcsialn. Numa 
bs tptininied four, lo which Titijuin uitdMt 
txi. After the cxpibion of the Tarqoins, 
Uxhigh piriest was eninijicil with the caie (rf 
iWa. Thtir entploynn-tit was to take e»(c 
*1m the lacml Arc of Vesta was not extin- 

eld. It wit requireiJ that ihcy should lie 
BTiguod r4niily, and he without bleiiiish 
"ieferroiiy in every part of iheit boily, Fo( 
■Unyycan ihey were lo remain in ihe greatest 
MiUiinice ; Ilie lea tini ye;in were sjieni 
vtlniMing the dntira of the order, the ten f<i1- 
iMin; were employed in dischar^ng them 
*<lh tmetiiv. and the ten lut in mstnicltng 
•Hch u had coteiod the noviciate. When the 
"•wy years wctb cUpted, they were permitted 
k UAy, or tf ib<7 tiUI piffcued celiblcy. 




jlids were guilty of ir 
for ihe space of one liiouianil years, dnra 
iVhicIi the ordcT continued etlablijhed, from 
the reian of Numa, only IS were punished for 
the tioTaiion of their vow. The veiinlt were 
at>ali<lied by ThnoilfniiK the Great, and the 
fire uf VeitB vxiinguisbed. 

VliSTALlA, festivals in honoor of Vesta, 
observrd ai Rnine on the gih of June. 

VESTIBULF., in •rchiiecture, a kind of 
enlraiice into a largje building j lieingi 
)>l.ire before the hjll, ot at the boitcun 
araircasc. Vettibntet intended litr n 
0<uice aie utnjlly between the couit i 
carden. I'ur the etymology of this word, 
Vbsta. 

VESTIBULUM. IttUil-alHm, 
A round cavity of the internal car 
ttic cochlea anfl lemicirculai canals, 
are an oval apeniu)( conimunicaliag with 
cavity of the lympaaum, and theortlir 
ecmicirciilar canals. It is within tta 
and the iemicticitlar canilt that thr 
paratuK, discovered by the cetehrated 

Est Scarpa, Ires. He has demonstrated ni 
ranous lubct, connected lootcly by cell 
texture, within the bony semicircullir cdi 
ench uf which is dilated in the cavtiy of 
vntibule into an anipulla ; it is upon ih 
ainpulls, which communicate by me.ins <if 
alveus communis, that btanchn of the |>oi 
mollis are e:tp<inded. 

VE'bTIGE.f. (uetr^Ein. Lat.) Foatstc] 
mark left hehimi in puling [Harvty). 

VE-STMENT. .. ieulmtntim, Ul.) 
menl ; Mrt of dresi (ffailer). 

VKSTRY, a place adjoininff to a chnrdi* 
where Ihe vestments of the minister are kept^ 
also a meeting nt such place where the mlniiu 
ter, churchwarden, and principal men of most 
pnrishes, at this day tnake a parish vcttty. Oft 
the SnmUy before n vestry is to meet, public 
notice ou^ni to be jiiven, either in the church, 
nr after divine service is ended, or ei^ at the 
church-dnor as the parishioners come out, both 
of the calling of the taid meetiuj;, and also of 
the time and piece of the a^tembling nf it; 
and it is reawnablc then also to declare fur 
whii bu'iiiett the said meetine 'n to be helil, 
that mine niav be surprised, bill that alt may 
have full time before, to consider nf what is lo 
be prnpotcd at the said meeting. Wan. e. 3g, 

In the ancient churehes there irere two 
placet cich known under the name of di 
nicum ; one called diacunicum bemaiis, vr 
was within the chancel ; the other i(iiicODi< 
ningnum, mmeiimes without, but 
portioni^l off from the chancel on the ni 
side. This Inter was of the nature of the 
dein TEitrii-s. the lacrisiy. in which the pli 
vetsel), andvesimenu, belonging to thechurd 
and other things dedicated to holy Ittet, w< 
laid op : and where in after times, '■ ieli*]i 
and Hich like fopperii-s," tayt Dr. Cbtc, ' 
treasured up with great care and diligCi 
ii of tM diMooiomi magiiiiia thatTl 



<4 



VET VEX 

giut is to be understood, when he sajs, the VETERINARY COLLEGE, an insUMi- 

ChristiansorPaneasor Caesarea Philippi trans- tion first established in the year 17f)?» in M. 

intcd tlie statue of our Saviour, erected by the Pancras, near London^ The pubh^c arc in- 

woman whom he cured of an isnuc of blood, dcbted for this truly national foundation to the 

into the diaconieuin, that is, into the vestry or discernment and patriotic excnitms of the 

repository of the church« The vestry was Agricultural Society of Odiham, in ilam phi re. 

named (iiaconicuui, because all thin^ there The first professor was Mr. Sl Bel, a French • 

deposited were under the care of the cTeacons, man, who had previously signalized himself in 

part of whose office was to look after the vest- this country as a veretinary an^lnmist, by dis- 

inents.vcs<«els,andutensilsbebngins to the altar, secting the famous race-none 'Eclipse. Sec 

VpySTUUE. f. (vesture^ old French.) I. Eclipse. 

Garment; robe {Shakspcare). 8. Dress; habit; This college is supported by public subscrip- 

esternftl form {Bcniicy). tion. The annual contribution is two gui- 

VESUVIAN, ID mineralogy* a species of neas, but payment of twenty guineas ai once 

Argillaceous earth of the schorl tribe. See constitutes a subscriber for life. lu some re- 

ScoRLU». cent instances, the institution has also shared 

VESUVIUS, a volcanic mountain of Italy, the boonty of parliament; an important sav- 

lei'CB n^les E. of Naples. It is near 30 miles m in^ having resulted to the nation from the ap- 

cWcuitat the knnCf and about 3(J00 feet high, pointment of veterinary surgpons to ihe differ- 

Toward the sea it is covered wLih fruit trees ent regiments of British cavalry. See Col- 

and vinevards ; iwit on the S. and W. sides, lege. 

and on the top^ nothing is to be seen but black VcTERiy ary BcrsvcE. Tlie kiiowleoge 
ashes, cinders, and stones. l*he top of Vesu- of administering to the diseases of cattle of all 
«;ius is "divided into two points, and tlie kinds. The term velerinuriui, whence our 
aouthernmost is called Monte di Somma. l*lie English word veterinary, is of doubtful derira- 
eruption in the year 7()> under Titus, was ac- tion. It is sufficient to obser\'e that the term, 
companied by an carthauakc^ which overtnro^ as used by Columella and Vesetius, implies pe- 
ed severaLcilies, particularly Pompeii and Htr- euarv medicine, or a knowledge and piactise in 
culaneum; and ibis eruption proved fatal to the diseases of cattle: a science studied both 
Pliny the naturalist. Great quantities of ashes among the Greeks and Romans, and not un- 
and sulphttccoas smoke wefc carried not only frequently the subject of political regulations. 
to RomQj.faHl alsobayood the Mediieiranean, VETONiCA CORDl. SeeBtTOKiCA. 
into Africa; birds ware inffocated in the air, VETUUIA, the mother of Coriolanus, wa« 
And fell down upoh the mound; and fishes solicited by the Roman matrons to go to her 
perished in the iMigNboaring waters, which son with her daughter-in-law,^ and entreat him 
were made hot; Aod' infected by it^ Another not to make war against his country. She 
ttry %iulent eruption, in l631, totally destroy- went and prevailed over Coriolanus, and for 
«!ki the town of Torre del Greco. The entp- her ser\'ices the Roman senate offered to re- 
'iioii in 1767 was the Syth from the time of ward her as she pleased. She only asked to 
TitHS, atoce which there have been 1 1 others: raise a temple to the goddess of feutale fortune, 
ne^t to those in 79 aud Ifi31, that of 1794 was which was done on the very spot where »he 
the most violent and destructive. In this had pacified her son. 

rrnption the lava flowed over 6000 acres of VETUS (L.)^ a Roman who proposed to 

rLcli vineyards and cultivated lands, and the open a coiiimunication between thtr Mnii- 

town gf Torre del Greco was a^n deatro)'ed ; terrauean and the German ocean, by nitaii» 

the t(ip of the mountain likewise fell in, and of a canal. He was put to death, hy order cif 

the crater is now little short of two miles in Nero. 

circuiufirence. Here was also a very disas- VEVAY, a town of S%visserland, cafiital of 
trods eruption io September 1810. See Vol- a bailiwic, in the Pays de Vaud. llie priu- 
CAKd. cipal manufjcturc is hats, it liaA a lar^e tnde 
V'hTCII, in botan^f. vSee Vicia. iu cheese, and its wine is in great ebiimation. 
Vetch (Bitter), in botany. See Oao- 1 1 stands near the lake of Geneva, 10 miles K. 
Lvs. by S. of Lausanne. Lon. 7* £. I«aL 40. 



Vetch (Liquorice), in botany. See Astra* 65 N. 

c%LU.s. y'o VEX. f. ff. Crr.ro, Kit.) I. To nlagne ; 

Vktch (Kidney), in botany. See An- to torment; to harass (/V/ur). i^. To ili»turb : 

1HYLI.IS. ^ to disquifrt (i'^/''^)* 3. To trouble with sli*:lit 

V^p.rCH ( Knob-io riled liqtioricf)^ io botany, provoratioiis. 

See (JLYciKE. ' To Vtx. v. h. To frot j to be on icr.lwTs ; to 

VE'TCHY. a. (from vetch.) Made of be iincn*v (CAo/ymin). 

vetclic ; abounding in vetchts {iipcnicr). \KXAT10X. j*. (from tvr.) 1. 'Hie act of 

\'\:/ fER.AN- s. {veierunus, Latin.) An old troiiMinjr {Shak*p(ttre), L*. The M.\{v or hcm^ 

•old'cr ; a man l>)n^ prai:ti>t*<l (.-ic/(i»&/i). troubled; un«^a^tiio> ; sorrow (Temple). 3. 

Ve'tbaan. a. Long practised in war ; loDg Tlie caiuc of trunblc or iincasine.vs {SKaksp.). 

«»;H>ri<rnred {Uacim). ^ * 4, An act of harassing by law (Dacun). 6. \ 

V ETK R I N iV)X 1 A N . s. (t;e/miMrii», Lat . ) f lif^ht tca»i ng trou ble. 

due akilkxl iu die diseases of cattle {Brown), V£XAT10US. «. (from ve.\aitun.) I. Af- 



VETERINARY SCIENCE . pimn. 




>.^-it 



H' 



■«•'. 



> ' 



■f. 



^•^ 



■r- 



•• . 



V I B V I B 

flrctive ; troublesome ; caoiing trouble, (iSpif.)* ilower than in higher ones. See Pendulum. 

2. Full of trouble, or uneasiness {Dlghy), 3. In our latitude, a pendulum 39i inches long 

Tracing f slifthtlv troublesome. vibrates seconds, making GO Tibrations in a 

VEXATIOIJSLY. ad, (from tfexaiious.) minute. 

Troiiblrsomcly ; uneasily. The vibrations of a longer pendulum take 

VEXATlOUSXHSa. t. (from vexatious,) up more time than those of a shorter one, and 

TrmibUfsoineoess ; uneasiness* that in the sob-duplicate ratio of the lengths, 

VE'XER. X. (from o^-jr.) He tvho vexes, or the ratio of the square roots of the lengths. 

VEXIL, in botany. {vexiUum.) Standard Thus, if one pendulum be 40 inches long, and 

or banner. Fetalum corollas pnptlionaceae su- another only 10 inches long, the former will 

periiK ailfcendcns ; alls carinacque incumbens. be double the time of the latter in perfbrming 

VEZEL.\Y, a town of France, in the de- a vibration ; for ^40 : ^10 :: ^1/ 4 : ^ \, 

partment of Yonnc. In IhHO^hU town bt-ing that i«, as ttvo to one. And because the num* 

in ihe possession of the Calvin ists was lx^sicgea ber of vibrations, made in any given time, it 

bj the troops of Charles IX. witliout success, reciprocally as the duration ot one vibration, 

■iter the lo«s of 1500 men. Theodore Beza therefore the number of such vibrations is in 

wAt a native of Vezelay. It is seated on the the reciprocal subduplicate ratio of the lengths 

t^p of a mountain, near the river Cure, 26 of the pendulums. 

milfii K. by S. of Auxcrre. Vibrations of a stretched chord, or string, 

rF.V,n government of Siberia, formerly in- arise from its elasticity; whieh power being 

cW.td ill the fcovernment of Tobolsk. It is in this case similar to gravitv, as acting uni* 

c!l«idcd into ilte two provinces of Ufa and formly, the vibrations of a cnord follow the 

Orrnlmrj. same laws as those of pendulums. Conse« 

rpA, aliiwn of Siberia, capital of the go- quently the vibrations of the same chord, 

vernment of the same name. It is seate<l on equally stretched, though they be of unequal 

the rii-er Ufa, near its confluence with the lengths, are isochronal, or are performed in 

BieUia, 7G0 miles E. by S. of Moscow. Lon. equal times ; und the squares of the times of 

55. K. Lat. 54. 60 N. vibration are to one another inversely as their 

U'GLILY. ad, (from tig/y.) Filtliily; tensions, or powers by which they are stretch- 

with deformity. ed. The vibrations of a spriiiEt too, are pro* 

U'GLINE&S. s, (from ugly,) I. Defor- portional to the powers by w&h it is bent. 

mity; contrariety u> beauty {Drydtfn), 2. These follow the same laws as thow of the 

1'urpiiude ; luainsonieness ; moral depravity chord and |)endulum ; and conseqoenlly are 

'^n'h). isochronal, which is tlie foundation of spring- 

IJ'GLY. a. Deformed; ofiensive to the watches. See Chord and Music. 

iulit : cfintmry to beautiful ; hateful (Miiion). Vibration's are abo used in physics, See. 

VPAl.. i. (|taXi|.) A small bottle {Addixon), and for several ojher regular alternate motions. 

To Vi^A L. 0. a. To enclose in a vial {Milt,), Sensation, for instance, is supposed by Hartley 

Vr.Wn. X. {viandv, Pr. vivanda, Italian.) to be performed by means of the vibratory mo- 

FciM ; mf.it dressed {Shahpeare). tion of the contenu of the nerves, begun by 

VlA^nCUM. s. (I^tin.) I. Provision external objects, and propagated to the brain. 

for a journey. 9. The last rites used to pre- See Hartley. 

farr the passing 8<»ul for its departure. VlbRlSS.!!). (vitritsa, from pi7vo, to qna* 

Viaticum, in Iloman antiqiiitv, an appel- vcr.) Hairs growing in the nostrils. SmCa* 

Uion given in common to all officers of any pillus. 

of the [nag:istratci ; as lictor^, accensi, scribes, VIBRIO* in zoolo^, a amus of the class 

criers, &c. vermes, order infusoria. IVorm invisible to 

yil)l('K.S. (ri^'fx,) The large purple spots the naked e)'e, very simple, round, elongated. 

which appear under the skin in certain uialig- Twenty species, found in vegetable infusions, 

Dant frrers. in marshy waters, putrid sea« water, vinegar, and 

ToVrBRATM V, a. (rihro, I^tin.) 1. other mild acids, in paste, and otiier viscid 

To brandish ; to move to and fro with quick substances ; of various forms, and some of 

BMtion. 2. To make to quiver {Holder). them often changing: their form. The most 

'A Vi'bratk. r. n. 1. To plav up and minnle is vibrio lineola, traced in vegetable in* 

^wn, or to and fro {Uoyle), 2. To quiver fusions, a smaller animalcule than monas ter* 

iP(ipf). mo, and appearing little more than tremulous 

. VIBU ATION, in mechanics, a regular re- Ions points. See Nat. Hist. PI. CLXXXV. 

<^>PR>Ciil motion of a body, as, for example, a ViBUKNUM. Guelder-rose. In botanjr, 

P^uium, which, being freely suspended, a genus of the class pentandria, order trigvnia. 

s^ngi or vibrates from side to side. Meclu- Calyx five-parted, suMrior; corol five-cleft | 

ijical authors, instead of vibration, often use berry one-deeded. Twenty-three species; 

">c term oscillation, es|)ecially when speaking chiefly natives of the East aiid West Iiklics, a 

^'^ body tiiat thus swings by means otiu own few of Europe, two commoii to onr own 

^^■ty or weizht woods. The foUowioc are cultivated : 

.'Hie vibrations of the same pendulum are* I. V. lanUna. Wayfaring tree. Shoots 

"'' isochronal ; (hat is, they are performed in pliant, covered with a lightish-brown bark ; 

^1^ Cf|uaJ time, at. least, in the same latitude ; leaves heart-shaped, serrate, veined, downy nn* 

^*' m lower latitudes they are found to be demeath^ flowers white and umbelled^ sue* 



VIC VIC 

ceedcd by bunches of red berries. Foniid wild VICARIOUS. «. {vicurius, Latin.) Oe* 

ia our own ivoods. puted ; delected ; acting in the place of an- 

2. V. opulus. Water-elder. Cnoimttn other (AVr/i). 

gueldcr-fnse. This is also a native of our VFCARSUIP. i. (froio tiscar.) The office 

woods, with large globular umbels of white of a vicar. 

flowers at the ends of the branches in great VICE. s. (ot/m0i» Latiu.) I. Tlie coune 

noundance; stems shrubby. There is a va- of action opposite to virtue; deprarity of mao- 

riety, constituting a tree eighteen or twenty ners; inordinate life (Law). 2. A fault; an 

feet high. ofl'ence {MUion). 3. The fool or punchinello 

3. V. lentago. Pear-leaved viburnum. of old shows (^/ta^ipeore). 4. (tiyi, Dutch.) 

4. V. cassinoides. Thick-lcave<l viburnum. A kind of small iron press with screws, used 

6. V. oiiidum. Shinio^-leaved viburnnro. by workmen {Arbuihnot)* b. Gripe ; grasp 
6.' V. lacvigatum. Cassioberry-bush vibur- {Shahptare), 6. {vice, Latin.) Ii is used 

hum. in composition for one, ^ut t'tcem grri/, who 

7. V. nudum Oval-leaved viburnum. performs, in his stead, the office of asuperior» 

8. V. prunifulium. Plum -leaved viburnum, or who has the second rank in command; as, 
f). V. dentatum. Tooth-leaved viburnum, a viceroy, vicechancellor. 

10. V. tinus. Ljurestine or laurestinus, of To Vice. v. a. (from the noun.) To draw 

which there are many varieties, both as im- by a kind of violence (iSAa^jpearc). y 

ported from its native soil, the eoulh of Europe, Vl'CEADMIRAL. s. ieice and oHmiral.) 

and as increased in its cultivated slate. 1. The second commander of a fleet {KnoUcs). 

All the species of viburnum, vihether de- 2. A naval officer of the second rank, 

ciduous or evergreen, are durable in root, Vl'CEADMlRALTY. #. (from viceadmi' 

stem, and branches. They may be all propa- rai). The office of a viceadmiral (Corrw). 

giied by byers ; and will grow freely in the VI'CE AGENT, t. (vice and agent,) One 

open ground all the year, whether in planta- who acts in the place of another (Hooker). 

tions or more open situations. VICECHA^NCELLOR. j. Mcecamcella^ 

VIC, or ViQUE, a town of Spain, in Cata- rius, Latin.) The second magistrate of the 

loaia, and a bishop's sec. It is seated in a fer- universities. 

tile plain, on a small river that flows into the Vl^CED. a. (from vice.) Vitious ; cor- 

Ter, 36 miles N. of Barcelona. Lon. 2. 13 £. rupt : not uMd {Skakspcarc), 

Lat. 41.56 N. VlCEGEfRENCY. *. {dom vicegereni.) 

Vic BiooiB, a town of France, in the de- The office of a vicegerent ; lieutenancy ; de- 
partment of Upper Pyrennees, situate on the puted power (Soulh). 
Adour, 12 miles N. of Tarbes. VICEGE'RENT. s. Oicemgerens, Latin.) 

Vic le Compte, a town of France, in the A lieutenant; one who is intrusted with the 

department of Puy de Dome, with a palice, power of the superior {SprcU), 

where formerly the counts of Auvergne re- Vicege'rext. a. (vicegerefu, Lat.) Hav- 

sided. AI)Out a mile from it are mineral ing a delegiated nower; acting by substitution, 

springs. It is seated near the Allier, 16 miles VlCEGRAl), a town of Hungary, with a 

S.E. of Clermont. castle on the tup of a ruck, in which the crown 

VICAR, one who supplies the place of an- of Hungary was formerly kept. It is seated 

other. The priest of every parish is called roc- on the S. side of the Danube, ei^ht miles S.E. 

tor, unless the prawlial tithes are appropriated, of Gran, and \6 N.VV. of Buda. 

and then he is styled vicar; and when rectories VICKNARY. a. (rtcffiarttfi, Latin.) Be- 

are appropriated, vicars are to supply the rcc- longinp; to twenty {Baileu). 

tor*s place. For the maintenance of the vicar, VlCENTlNO, a country of Italy, in the 

there was then set apart a certain portion of territory of Venice; bounded on the N. by 

the tithes, commonly about a third part of the Trentino and Feltrino, E. by Trevisano and 

whole, which are now what are called the vi- Paduano, S. by Paduano, and W. by Veronese, 

carial tithes, the rest beioR reserved to the use It is 36 miles long and 27 broad, aud so plea- 

of the rectjrs, which fur the like reason arede- sant and fertile, that it is called the garden and 

nominated the rectorial tithes. flesh-market of Venice. Here are also mines 

VrCARAGE. s. 1. The benefice of a vicar, of silver and iron, and quarries of stoue, a1- 

2. The parsonage house of a vicar. . most as fine as marble. 

For the most ftart vicarnges were endowed VICENZA, a city of Italy, the capital of 

upon appropriatiiin>; but sometimes vicaraices Viceniino, and a bishop's see. It is without 

have been en lowed without anv approprta'ion walls, but is a lar^ce place, adorned withabote 

of the parsonage I and there are ^tvcral churches 20 palaces from the designs of Paliadio, who 

where the tithes arc wholly impropriated, and was a native of this place. The cathedral is 

no vicurj;:e endowed; and ilurc the i.npro- embellished with nuirble, and has some good 

priators are h')und to maintain curates to per* paintings; beside which there are above 60 

form divin? service. Sec. llie parsons, pat'on, other churches, and in that of St. Corona, the 

and ordinarv, may create a vicj;.i^'P, and endr>w high altar, and the painting by Paul Veronese 

it; aud in time of vacancv of liie church, the of the Magi paying adoration to Christ, attract 

patron and ordinary may do it ; but the ordi- particular no.ice. In the fine square before 

nary alone cannot create a vicarage, without the to wnhouse are two lofty columns, with St. 

ihe patron's assent. Mark's winged lion on one of them, and on 



TIC 



VI" 



tbe other a iUiueof our Saviour. Tlic other 
ranitkjUc placn are ihc Mtmie dellu I'icU 
with its tine library, ihe Pdlazzo Vechio 
w'lih iri «iliiiirablc iwinllnss, ihe Thcatrum 
Olympicuiu. afm ilie moiTet oi the amphi- 
tlitstre of PalUdto, atul Ihe iriiimphal arcbei 
ia tlw palilic ptomen^e of CiimHi Matzo. 
The prindpal titanufa«tum are liltc, dtmaik, 
and tjflbtA. Tliiit city is leawA iK-iivcm the 
ritw* BM-hiKli">i« ami Rcfune, and two moun- 
■UDS, io a Imilc plain, 13 mil« N.W.ofPa- 
im.H W. of Venice, mid 13.^ N. of Ramc. 
Lml||.4;iE. La< 45.26 N. 

TICHY, a lOwii of France, in the dqiart- 
nnlof Allier, fiitiout for ih« mineral waters 
nctf it. It \i ie«ied on the Allier, \b miles 
S.E. «f Ghki^I. nn<\ IHO S. by E. of Paris. 
U».3.9t v.. Lat. 46.0 N. " 

VICKROY. .. (wffTOi, I'rench.) He «-hn 
fwcms in place of a hing with rci^l aiithorily 

_»rcEROYAl,T\'. I. (from vicrroy.) 




DitnilVufa vi< 
Vl'CETy. « 

""vici 



(Adiiisim), 



NVely; 



(B«. Jon- 



IC1.A. Vcleh. In botany, a genua of 
■■eelan(!iu!d|ihia. utdcr decandrin. Stigma 
tnitncncty beardeil on ilie lower side. Forty- 
fear tpM^in, iMltered over the globe ; tn-ua 
canmon w our iivin cwuu and hwlgei. They 
«« ihiH *abitivtdef) : 

A. Ptdanclei elongated. 

B. Plewen axillary, neirly »e«ile. 

The following are chiefly worthy of notice ; 

I.' V. )ati*a. Comiiion vetch. Leguinea 
MMSCigmctallyin pin; lenRets oblong> ovate, 
■he !•««( one« ubiiue. with a point ; stipules 
Mothni, wilh a diseoloured dcpreatnl mark ; 
towen li^l uiid dark purple 1 puds eieel ; 
•eedi Warli. It is well known to be an excel- 
loM foddrf for hoitea.and a native orour own 
nm-fieMi. 

s. V.erjcc.i- Tufted Teich. Stem branched, 
<hmnr f«iir feel lonui peduncles many-flow- 
«ibI, kinurr ih»fi the leaver ; flnwefi imbricate, 
Dtnnenai, peitdiilous, nurple ; leaflets lanceo- 
W, lalhcr oblive, piiWirenii stipules half- 
4iiwiihaped, lineai-iiibulaie, rery emir*. 
TUt i) am a nativu of our own country, and 
bwid wfhl in our bedpM. The toots are pe> 
Knnial ; bat tbe tmik* are annoiLl, weak, and 



and loo well known for n 
li enihtiecs a great iDullitudeofri 
in every variety 19 a valuable eseulrn 
There are four sorts of beans e 
sown in our gardens; the »aiall Lisbon, ihe 
Spanish, the SLindwich, and the Wtndsor- 

The first and secotMl lorl) are to be pli 
in Oelober and November, under warm 
and hedges, where if they stand throu^ 
winter, they produce beans early in the sfi 
They may also be raised very close in ' 
and covered with hoops and mat' in the 
ter, and in spring; planted out; but Ihi 
some haiard in the iransplantins. and they <M 
be I fortnixht or more later than those vk hit . . 
have stood the winter abroad. The Lisboti- 
bean is preferred to the Spanish ; and the cu- 
rious ouij;ht to have fresh iced every two years 
from abroad, for they arc apt to degenerate, 

though nnl in goodness, yet in ibeir caili " 

The Spanish and Windsor-heans are n' 
be p'anled till Christmas j but especially 
Windsor, which are subject, mure than ( 
other kind, to be hurl by the cold. The«l' 
beans should have an open ground, and be 
planted at the distance of two feet and an half, 
row from row, and four inches from one an- 
other in the tows ; but if ihe place is closelj 
surrounded with hedges ur walls, Ibe <1 
must be greater, else the slalhs will mi 
but they will bear very little fruit, llii 
wich-beans arc hardier than the Windsor, 
may be planted to come in betw 
crops and them ; and though not much 
carded at present, itiey are a very good 
The firsiplaolatiouof Windsor-beaua si 
be made m the middle of Januaiy; and 
that, a new planiaiion should be made every 
three weeks till the middle of May, thai there 
may be a tucceSEion of crops. 

&»ides the gjrden-beans, there are several 
other varieties cultivated in tbe fields, but it is 
commonly the small hoT^e-bean that is propa- 
gated by the plough. They delight chiefly in 
a stiff, strong, moist clav, and thrive not in 
ehi or dry jnouods. Ihcy are commonly 
■ "■' Thr« bushels 



viii « 



1 Pe'br 






1mA 
br this 



e Kndnb which proceed tfoin the end of 
en havrs ciin lay hold of boujhs, branches, 
dw side of i hedge, ti> iu|i|Hiri [hem), thai 
— art htnOy At 10 be cuhivuled in the fielil, 
h Mme writers have recommended ihcm 
lis pnrjmse ; Fbt w they canmtit be lup- 
d there, ihey will trail 10 much upon the 
irf, that they will l>e apl to rot : nor do 
shnms, which are less sneeuhrnt llian 
of ibe Tcich commonly raised, zrow iri .1 
~ height t» ho cut for use till lute in 
lien there ii little want of green 



1 of Persia, 



il ht fBitlt 

r. V. Ekba. Beu. 



Independently of these the sorts cbieHy 
iLVutcil are ihe magnzan, which is aii exec 
early bean [ Ihe lokcn, an eitcellcnl beal 
appearing about ihe lime of ihe Sandwi 
and Ihe white and black blossom, which 
c^ieemcd for the beaniiful green of the 
when boiled- Without mat care, howi 
thc«c two arc verv apt to decenerale. 

VrCINAfJE. >. (eirim-r, Latin.) N< 
bomiinod j places adjoining. 

VICIIJAL. Vici'wi. 0. (»ic«v., Latin.) 
Ne.irt nciahl-ourinii IGlaniiill')- 

VICl-NITY. .. G>iriMu,. Lniino 1- Near- 
acn ; stair of beinc neat (_Halt). S. Ncigh- 
bmirhnod (ffoiffri). ' ~ 

VICIOUS, o. (from ei«.) See ViTIQI 
l>vntcd rn TJce ; not addicteo to viritie {." 
Uh). 



Ml 



1 



VIC V I c - 

VfCI'SSlTUDE. s. {vkkitUudo. Latin.) 1 . VICTCKRIOUSNESS. U^jammcUmuM.) 

Regular change ; relurn of the lamc tbin[p in The sute or ouality of being victorioua. 

the same succession (^€ip/oii). 9. Revolution ; VFCTORV. i. {victoria, Latin.) Cooqucit ; 

chznfgc iAUerbury). success in contest j triumph (7*ay/or). 

VIC9, a town of Naples, in Term di La- VI'CTRESS. s. (from victor.) A femak 
voro, with a bishop's see. It was aloxost ruined that conquers : not used. (^Aai^eore). 
by an earthquake to 1694, and is seated near VrCTUAL. Vi^ctuals. 1. imcfuaUUf, 
the bay of Naples 15 mil^ S. by £. of Na«> Fr.) Proruion of food; ^stores for the sap- 
pies. I»n. 14. 83 £. Lat 4a 38 N. port of life ; meat {Skak^eofe). 

VicOy a town of Naples, in Princioato Ci« To Vi'ctual. v. a. (from theoonn.) T« 

teriore, 1? miles S.S.E. of Naples. Lon. 14. store with provision for food {SUalitpetrty, 

30 E. Lat, 40. 43 N. ^ VFCTUALLER. s. (from vicfuals.) 1. 

Vico, a town of Corsica, in which is the ca- One who provides victuals iHiU^ward)* 2. 

tliedral of the bishop ofSazona, a town now in One who keeps a house of entertainment, 

ruins. It is 15 miles S. W. of Gorte, and 30 VICUNA, or VicucvA, a species of the 

S.ofCilvi. Lon. 9.16 £. Lat. 41.56 N. Camel genus, which see. 

VICX)VARO, a town and principality of For tlie best account of this interesting ani« 

Italy, in the province of Sabina, seated near mal we arc indebted to M. lArrey, who a few 

the Teveronc, eight miles E. of Tivoli, and 40 years ago had an opportunity of particolai l»«t- 

N.E. of Home. Lou. 13. 8 K Lat. 42. tending to both a male and female, and 01 dis- 

30 N. secttng tliem after the owner had unfortunately 

Vl'CrriM. 1. Cvictima, Latin.) 1. A sa- lost them. His account, in as abridged a form 

crifice.; something slain for a sarnfice (i^rn- as we can give it, in as follows: 

bam)m S. Something destroyed {Prior). '* A merchant of Cadis, a lorer of natural hit- 

VI'CTOR. s, {victor, Latin.) Conqueror; tory, brought from Peru two yoinig Ticunas, a 

vanquisher; he ihat gains the advantage in male and a female. He first landed them at 

auv contest {Sldnejf. AeUUsou), Cadiz, at the bcginnins of the year 1806 ; and 

Victor Aurblius, a writer in the age of toward the end of April in the same ycarcoo- 

Constantius. He ga%'e the world a concise his- veycd them to Madrid. They did not appear 

tory of the Roman emperorsp from the age of to be inconvenienced by the change ofdiiiiate, 

Augustus to his own time, or A. D. 3(>0. He or difference of food, till the weather began to 

al:io wrote an abridgment of tlie Roman his- get very hot. They were very badly lo&ed in 

tory^ before the age of Julius Capsar, which is a small dark room, not well ventilated. In 

now extant. Victor was greatly esteemed by this hole I had an opportunity of seeing th^, 

the empcrurs, aiul honoured with the cousuU examining their fiaure and gait^ and studying 

■hip. their manners and habits. 

VICTORALIS LONGA. This officinal •< The female, which was Um and older 

plant is the aillium victoralis of Linn^us. The than the male, being about three feet bigh, died 

root, which when dried l(»se3 its alliaceous soon after, durinz a short tour I made in the 

smell and taste, is said to be eflicacinus in neiahbourhood ot Madrid to inspect the hos- 

alluying the abdominal spusms of gravid fe- pitus. I could not learn the cause of her 

males. death ; but, as the body quickly putrefied» it 

VICTORIA, one of the deities of the Ro- was thrown into the fields. 




was greatly honoured by the Greeks, partieu- stantly squatted on his four lep: but be ap- 

Lrly at Aihons. She was represented with pearcd better and more lively in the cool of 

winp, crowned with laurel, and holding the the evening and morning, which he seemed to 

bnnch ofa p<ihn-trcc in her hand. seek; while in the heat of the day he was 

VK^TORINA, a celebrated matron who overcome, and breathed with difficulty. Thus 

placed hcrs(*If ai the head of the RoAian arniiea, melancholy and unwell he passed the first week 

And made war a«;ainst the emperor Gallitnus. of June ; and, about the I5th, symptoms of 

Her son Victorious, and her grandson of the inflammation appeared, a few days after which 

same name, were declared emperors, but when he died. 

they were ;)ssa«sinatvd, Victorina invested with "Foreseeing this event, I had obtained 

the im|K*rial purple one of her favourites called permission of tne owner to dissect the animal 

Tetricus. She was sometime after poi^ned, after his death, and dispose of his skio. My 

A. D. l;u9, according to some, by Tetricus first care was to remot-e this with due cautions 

himsi*lf. that I might be able to proserve the natural 

VIC TOmOUS. a. {rirtoricttx, French.) shape of the aninuil in stuffing it : after which 

I. Conquering; having; obtained conqiie»t; I proceeded tp examine the viscera, the articu- 

siipcriour in conte«t (Afi7/oM). 2. Producing lations, and the general disposition of the 

conaur«t (Pope). 3. Betoken ina; conquest. maM:1es.** 

VICTCKRIOUSLY. ad. With conquest; Through this anatomical detail it is not tie* 

successfully ; triumphantly {JIammond), cct^ary to follow the author : wc sliall oaiy 



ihmfJiW pffsem the reader wlih M. Xjuney't 
dncnpuoaof his extemat BgUTe, and general 

" The heathif th« vicuna hat the snme shape 
n'l eKtrmil characlcri as thai of (he camel. 
Tk j»w» ha»« the same numljer of grimling 
mih. Tlie lower hat only four cutting tecih. 
lie miilftlrmasi of which are ihe mrisi (iromi- 
mi. I'lie upper has none, as in oihtr riimi' 

"ThcfumnH hind limbs in every res ptot 
imuibte tiKwe of (he camel. 

■■The joints of ihelimb* form a perfect gin- 
(IjioiH. ailniiicinfc a d'trecl and com^leie Hcx- 
ue of one part against the next, so ilial this 
uJ(n»l, lilie the camel, hends all hi) four legs 
mdenualh hit brevsl when he lien dvivn : and 
Am double Rcxure U the effect of the natural 
H'Wureof the liinlii, as in ihc camel, which 
Ihtdinnpportnnilynf studying in ^ypt, and 
«f mmhiing from iis birih tn iia adult age. It 
wnolihcrrTnrp the result of training. 

" 'Hie ktt of the liciina are terminatctl by 
(••Ian;, namin*, soft soles i and have mucn 
IttnnWaDce to the fcrlof young cameli, 

""nie outward figure of the head |)erfeci!y 
MtmUes that of ayoiiiiRcami-l, except in the 
ran, which are erect and tmnnth like ilinse of 
g kinnroa. llie neck, body, and limbs are 
wiibilf diipMed ; and the bpijy, like it, is co- 
mrd with a rBwn-enjoured, silky wool, but nf 
nlRBM finen«». Prom it mav W made sliiHs 
«t lort and line at the shawls of Casiniirc. 
Thi4 tufted Hcrve kevpt the aaimal to warm, 
Tiial il iKki and jitcfen for iu habitation the 
*u*DiDiti nf mountains covered with snow. 
If (he «ift nf this animal were uniformly cut, 
(I tnmtil nioctly rrscnible-o cidtcI two or three 



as the camel, 

rs pbin- 



c tilli-<l 






■'llie vicuna hasthenamcc 
lh< tlRW gait, aiul ncnrly the i 
It k extrfmrly ihyand timid. 
tire criei at the least nnplen 
•ad wbm too much atarnicd 
with lan. The very active tnnvemeiit of 
nil Bad can indicntr j<s dilTereni scnsniic 
It is rtrf^ grnife iind care^>ing when tamed. 

•* 'Ok r«»emUlance 'he vicuna boiri to 
ennd in it* exWmal figure, internal ttructi 
■nil l|ialinVt, would lead me to cidl il rnim 
''pvt^t aariUas ftelui, the little 

•• 111* owner of the animal give mc the 
Mlowing accoanl of the Peruvian mode of 
bunting It. 

>* TIh itieima* commonly inhabit the frozen 
■inbinfihe higli monmains of ilie C'ordil- 
Setiral of tlie iiihabiiants assemble lo- 
B hunt them. They Kntiurround the 
'H wbern ihev are most nnmerom ; and 
knf mouTnCul eiiei, or the discordant 
r br^ wind instrainents, a* hunlin§; 
bey letrify the animals, who take flight 
t ntmroit of the mountain, where no 
ikMbt tbey luppoie theniselves 
Here ilie ounten fonnaline ofcit 
with uakcs, <rn which nr tin: 
TbcM ttoke* art: coimeriFtl wiih r 



cords placed ptttty dose. Two or three himt* 
era tlien ntinck Ihe herd, which disjwrsM. 
Fm^iienily some of the vicunas are siinirisedi 
and the mt rush down the mountain, but a* 
soon as ibey reach the fiMicc, imirad of leaping 
over it, which they tnij^ht canly do, terrified at 
the colour of the Ifep, ihcy crouch down in 
the snow, or in hnlo, where hunters posted 
for the purpnie easily lake tliem. After lying 
their Ic^, thry atrj (hem to a convenient 
place, to sheer their fleeces. If the animals be 
old, tlicy let them loose : if young, they take 
them to their huis, keep them, and train them 
lo carry burdens, loading them in the same 
manner as cameli. They cannot live in the 
horning plaint of America, and accordingly th« 
inhabitants of the mountains alone can keep 
them. This no doubt i> the reason why the 
animal has been hitherto so little known. 

" When the animal is yniing, its flesh is jood 
pntingi hut the wool isjiisily in hich estima- 
tion. The merchnnt atturcd me, lltst it wa» 
seldom sent tn Europe pure, being almost aU 
ways mixed with nthcr wnni of less value. 

" 1 think with him, that it might be natura- 
lized and breeil in the Pyrenees, on the summit 
of which the snow scarcely cAr thaws ; parti* 
cularlv as ihr pnsmre thfre ii excellent." 

VIDA (Murciis Hictonymus^, bishop of 
Alva, in Mountserrat, and one of the most 
excellent Lutin poets that have Biipearcl since 
the Ausosun age, uat horn at Cremona in 
1470. leaving dial iiigiii shed himself by his 
learning and inste for literature, he was made 
bishop nf Alva in ISS',-. After continuing two 
yeais with pnpe Clrmcnt VII. at Home, he 
went to reside upon his *cf, wher*, fnr thirty 
years, he |ieifurmeil all the offices nf a ^ood 
biihop and a good nWn ; nnd though he was 
mill), gentle, and full "f guudnets, he was so 
r-ir from wantinii spirit, that tVhcn the city of 

" ' "" besieged by ihe French, be used all 

*— " ■" lit its being ^ven up, 

the [icnple, and. when 
by supplying ihrin at 
Ills own expellee. His piieiio, and ]>ocni im 
the silk-worm, pass for his master-|»eee ^ bis 
poem on the same of chess is also greatly ad- 
mired. He also wrote hymns, ecIoRues, and a 
jioem eniilled Cllristiadoi, in six Imnlis; all 
which are in L^tin, and hare pined him a 
great reputation, His woiks in pnue consist 
nf dialt^ur*, synodical r 
and other pieces. He died in If 
his beine made bishop of Cttinn 

Vint'UCKT.ai/. (Latin,) 
is. Generally written st:. 

To VIE. B a. To show 01 
petition (L'Kslrangc). 



nafiet 



<i practise ir 



To i 



intend 



VIELSK, a town of Russia, in the (^vern- 
ment of Vologda, situate on the Vaga, l,S(> 
miles N.N.E. of Vologda. Lon. 41. 4i E. 
I^t. 6l.40N. 

VIENNA, a city of Grrmany. capital of the 
circle of Austria, and of the whole German 
empire. The city itstif ii not of great extenlt^ 



VIE VIE 

nor ctn it be enlarged, being limited by a very the order of the knighti templars of Jerusalem, 

•tron^ foniBcatioQ , but it is populous, and Near Vienne, on the banks of the Rhone, are 

cOnta:ni 60,000 inhabitants. The streets in produced the excellent wines of Cote-Rotie, in 

ffeneral are narrow, and the houses high, a soil where the gra|>e, as the name imports, is 

Some of the public buildings are magnificent : almost parched up by the sun ; and, a little fur- 

the chief of tnem are the imoerial palace, the ther, are grown the famous hermitage wiocsp 

library, and the museum ; tne palaces of the so called, because a hermit had his grotto 

princes Lichtenstcin, Eugene, &c. Vienna there. Vi«nne is 16 miles S. of Lyons, and 

was ineffectually boieged by the Turks, iu ^5 S.£. of Paris. Lon. 4. 53 £. Lat. 46. 

16 89 and 1^3. At the bttef period, the siege 3 1 N. 

Mras raised by John Sobieski* King of Poland, Viknnb, a department uf France, formol 

who toully defeated the Turkish army before of part of the late province of Poitou. It takes 

the walls of this place. No houses without its name from a river which rises in the depart- 

the walls are allowed to be built nearer to the ment of Correze, and flows into the Loire five 

glacis than 600 yards; so that there is a cir* miles above Saimiur. Poitiers is the capiui. 
eular field of that breadth all round the city, VIETA (Francis), a Ttry celebrated French 

which has a beautiful and salutary effect. The mathematician, was liorn in 1540 at Fonienai, 

suburbs are said to contain 000,000 inhabit- or Fouteoai-le-iGomt^, in Lower Poitou, a pro* 

ants; but they are not near so populous, in rince of France. He was master of requests at 

Proportion to their size, as the city, for many Fsris, where he died in 1 603, being toe Mxty- 

ouses have extensive gardens belonging to thini year of his age. Among other branches 

them. Many families who live during the of learning in which he excelled, he was one 

winter within tlie fortifications, spend the sum- of the most ref>peciahle mathematicians of the 

mer in the suburbs. The cathedral is built of sixteenth century, or indeed of any ajse. His 

freestone, and the steeple is 447 feet high, writings abound with marks of great originality. 

Joining to this church is the archbishop*s pa- and the finest genius, as well as iuieiite appli- 

laoe^ the front of which is very fine. The uni- cation. His apultcation was such, that he hat 

versity had several thousand students, whu, sometimes remained in his study for three days 

when this city was besiec;ed, mounted guard, together, without eating or sleeping. His in- 

as they did also in 1741. The archdncal library ventions and improvements in all parts of the 

is much frequented by foreigners, as it contains mathematics were very considerable. He was 

above 100,000 printed books, and I0,(X)0 ma- in a manner the inventor and introducer of 

nuscri|Hs. The archducal treasury, and a ca- specious algebra, in which letters are used in- 

binet of ciirio>iiiesof the house of Austria, are stead of numbers, as well as of many beautiful 

Seat rarities. There is a sort of harbour on theorems in that science. See Algebra. 
e Danube, where are maj;aziiies of naval He made also considerable improvements in 
storcit, and ships have been titled out to serve geometry and trigonometry. His angular see- 
on that ri\er jj:ainst the Turk«. Vienna is an tions arc a very ingenious and masterly perform- 
archbishop's see; and in the winter season is ance: by these he was enabled to resolve the 
freuuenily visited by dreadful siorms, which problem of Adrian Roman, proposed to all 
ru»n through ilie openings of ihc neighbouring mathematicians, amounting to an equation of 
ninuiitains. it is sedted at the place where the the 45ih degree. Romanus was so struck with 
river Vienna, or Wicn. falls into the Danube, his sagacity, that he immediately quitted his re* 
60 miles W. of Presburg, 360 N.N.K. of sidence of Wirtzl>ourgin Franconia, andcame 
Rome, .^20.S.t^ of Amsteniam, and 960 £. of to France to visit him, and solicit his friend- 
Paris. Lnii. \6. 22 K. I^it. 48. 16 N. ship. His Apollonins Gallus, being a restora- 

Vienna, a tuwn of ]Mar)'land, in Dor- lion of A|Xillonius*s tract on TanDcncies, and 

chciter ccjiujty, situate on Nanticoke river. It many other geometrical pieces to be found in 

carries on a brisk trade with the ncii^libouring his works, shew the fmest taste and genius for 

seaports and i:> I60 niilcb S.W. cf Philadcl- true gooinctrical speculations. He ga%'e some 

pliia. ^ masterly tracts on trigonometry, both pUue 

VIliNNfi, a consirkrablc town of France, and spherical, uhich uiay be found in the Col- 
in the dt'p.iriincnt of Iserc. It is sea ti*d on the lection of his works, published at Leyden in 
Klioiie, (r\Lr wliieh it had formerly a bridxr, l()46, by Schooten, besides another larsc and 
of which only some piers remain, that render separate volmiic in folio, published in tne au- 
the na\ i^^atioii dunceron*. Under the Romans thor's lifcimc at Paris in [.'i/p, containing 
ii ua- ilu' r:»i)i:al of a colony, ami the scat of a extensive tri<roiiometrical tahks, with the con- 
<c.iaie. In t.ic iifth centurv, tiic HiirKundians sirnction and u«r of the same, which are ^<arti- 
riM<i'- i: ill"' i|)'ial ofiiicir Liii:^loni. Itscoin- cularly described in the intrtiductinn to 
meree (m:i>i :^ in v. i:ie!-, ^il!:, and >\vord- lluttoirs loqarithms. To this complete trca- 
IiIjU--, '.!»..!» I.i-t ur* hijhly iNke.ned. R*-- tise on t^i^n^()^Ielry, plane and spherical, are 
fiif? Mrj I ■••!.i';>>:r, it \va« lite >€e of an arch- subjoii>e<l several miscellaneous problems and 
bi^hnp. '1 IK- I .'iK.iral i* a h.ind«iMiio ;]^othic observations, such as, the quadrature of liie 
•kirtictuTC. In 1.1 ;. a [ii-nc-ral rnincil was circle, the duplication of the cuIn:, &c. Com- 
held hci:-, :;'. ivliicii |Mi{»«- ( inneni V. presided, putation» are here given of the ratio of the dia- 
and Phiiip lie- Fair of l-'rince, luiward II. of meier of a circle to the circumfetvnce, and of 
Kn^ijnd, and Jjuie- \I. of Arra^pm, aysistcd. the length of the sine of one minute, both to a 
Thi.i c9'inc;l r- Uinoni ftir the suppression af great many placet of figures. Viata ala» at- 



VQp'Fi) 3 teGMmation of ihe Gregnrian cbarnc- 
•rt, Kr<:t« Miur fMcn oit asitonoiny, and 
WM «iicb cclrlM-ilel (or liii ikill as a decy- 
•lirrcr, 

r. VIEW. ti. n. (cm,, Frendi.) I. To 
tenej ( xa losk on Uf way of exam ina lion 
tfbw). «. To »ci lo twrceire by the eye 

OVoHm). 2. Slight; power of beholJing 
(Utit). 3. tnldlcctUdl tiglit; mental hen 
(iCfton). ♦. Aet of weing (D^nAii™). 5. 
Sigk; eyc(Lnc4«y 6, Surtey; exammatJOD 
bvlhteje (Dryifaii}. 7. Iniellcciu&l survey 
lutir). S. Sp*M that mav be taken in by 
'■'-•■■" fdr\ • - ■ 



V I G 

Mmbly is made up of the inliabite 
veil and turch together. Their thniiksgitd 
ix one and [he same; their exultation the tam 
their joyful clioral-ilation the very siini 
Chrvs. Bom. 4. 3f 1. de verb. Eiai. 

Vigils were also kept as at 
in the greater fenivals of the Nativity, Lrpi|A 
ay, Easter, Ascension -day, Pentecost, ice, 
•ate find mentioned by Tertulliaii, LacUnlh 
Chrysoslam, Socrates, and many olbei 



— "^ iWalTer). 10. Diiplay; 



Ilea to tiw light or mind {Locke). 
pcHof inteml iLocItt). IS, lateniioii ; de- 
mlArtalknot). 
>1'EWER. I. {from iiifui.) Onewhn views. 
VreWLESS. a. tfrom virw.) Uiueen ; 
■KdMWmJhleby the liiht (Pope), 

VIGESIMATION, .. lagen«u.. Laiin.) 
Hi act nf pultiito to death every intniieth 

VVGIU I. luisiHa. Latin.) I. Wnich : 
ilNlkiui pHroKaeil in tlie citsiomary hours of 
■■(Pt^)- t. A fast kept berore a holiday 
ISiaitfitart). .1. Service used on the niuht 
hnltday fStiUinefiel). 4. Watcll i 
j-cofileeplWa/Irr). 

Vicii.a, ill chureh hisioiy, were the per- 
niiciatiDDf, which as harliin^erj vrent before to 
PMH*brlhc«ulefnn*iiciof ihefbtlowiii^d:iTB. 
IM* vipils were much uf iho same tiatoic 



floris ajjerli. The state of the on 
— Absoltunlur Jeterminatis horb d 
phntac (lores quocidic 0[]eriunt, expandunl 
clfludunt. Theje vigils or watchingsate ■" 
g. Appear- formed at delermincd hours of the day, v 
jinibi- plants open, expand, and shut "' * " 



3icr, whieh was early, b«foi« it was light : 
■beronljr differed Oom the muoI Antelucan 
■cmcc m Ihii, thai whereas the ujuni morning 
Mrriae Oevrt began till afVci enidnigJit toward 
t<idt«ra«tin^ ill ihe momingj iheae vigils ivere 
a l(«(]»r service, whict) kept the congres*lion 
■ttbiifrh iheemlett pan uf thciiighi. Thne 
tls Giecka allnj nmrxtlis'. ^oi\ the Latins. 
■MiMtafMncit and ptrmgilia, wttcbin^a all 
ito n|ht. S'. Chrysoslom often speaks nf 
ik^) •• GtfioUi the church," saya he, " and 
dWiNe the poor conliiiiiini; from midnight la 
^Mkof^jr: gDaixl*eeltienaly pemoclations, 
jtiawg Anr and ntsbt uigi-ther: behold ihe 
m^a$Chri». fearina neither by night nor 
■y w, the tynnny ofsFocp nor the neceivitics 
4 pmrly." In urmilifr plnri: he call^ tliem 
iht eootinii«il aoii perfect night Mations, in 
WawiM Id the *tai!oni bv day. nhith were 
nopnial and imperfect. -'Dy the«e,"headds, 
")M milalc the statioD of the ineriic choir, 
WMNyoanAbr up iwimiBvcu u^taXi^wv, |i«al- 
*«^, and brmiiodyi incesuntlv to your Cre- 
"- OlbeWoDderfhl f«tu of Chnill The 



'hteKflieh, »ing liieiamcdoxology, after their 
•™aple. The olierubitn above cry aloiid, 
'l^. holy, holy ! in theirisagion hymn j and 
1 ott earth beliiw send 
a commoQ geaenl as* 



daily. 

Linnfus calls ihoic flowers which oba 
thii slated rnle of opening and shui 
Howem ; and divides them inio three kiiid*.4 

I. Meteoric. Openitig OJid shutting jr 
or later, according lo the temperature of -d 

S. Tropic, or iTOjMCal solar ftiwer 
ing and shutting aomicr or later a 
increase or decrease ; and thcrefure olMOviq 
the unequal or 'I'urtliih hoars, 

3. Equiniiatial, or eqiiinociinl sn1i>r6«*wi 
OjieniiiB, and usually shuiiing at certsia di 
minaie hourt of the day ; aiid thernfarc obsa 
ing equal or European hours. 

Liiin^u! h:is /ven a l^blc of Thes< 
some nb<<.-rvatinns, in Pliilua. Hot. p. S73. 

VI'GILANCE. Vt'o 
inner, French : vigilanlii 
bcarance of sleep (Broomrt- B. Watthft 
ness; ctrc u 01 spec lion ; Lncenaiil caic (MM 
Ion). 3. Guard; watch (JfiAran). 

ViGti.AHC>i, in nicdicinr. Pervigilini 
Eilance when attended by anxiety, pain ii 
ncad,loseofappelite,anddiminuii<i[iof ti 
ti by Sauvage and Sagat considered as a 
ofdi<iea)e,and called aar^'pnin. Itm^iiri 
conceive, from a. variety of causes, butt 

1. From icirncedent or oionic gout. 

2. It may be induced by passions 
mind, such as anger, fc^ii, and suoiig deu 

3. From hysletica! aHcciions, when i('l 
attended liy palpimiioDs, ilartitigi, subsulH 
ictidiniim, impeded respi ration, spauiuiilic i ~ 
traction, and cuniuluvc niotiont, at the 
slant when ileep in siealiiis on the senirs. 

4. From disease of ihe head, when il 
tended by violent head-ach. 

5. An ahsccsB hi the pancreas hat bren ri 
cause of vigilance, atictided byoold fi 
syncope. 

0. ll is oficn induced Iw crief, and Iherefl 
coindding tviih the second species. 
7. Indioesliun finiiirnilv is the c: 
S.,hi> common ill all fevers. 
g. It is au atleu'lanl on old age. 

10. It not unfmjiieoily precede* cpiilaxi^' 
and other critical ditcbargcs. 

11. A very common cause is the irritaiion 
of iniccts; as bngi, lice, fleas, gnais, ants. 



VIGILANCE. 

The reverrnd Dr. Townsend eonsideri the arterial blood of tho'pAniii ehoroidcs? Wtf 

(iccasioiiul causes to be e\ideiitly such as stimu- fenow, that \j vigibinee and thowht^ at weU 

late the system. ' as by inotioi> in uie syitem, whetner^viiai -or 

1. llie stimuli may be purely mental, such voluntary, both oxygen and hydrogen «re 

as anger, fear, joy, grief, wii'h intensity of eonsiinicd and lost, whilst heat «iid waler ara 

thought aud voliiiou. He informs us he was prodiited ; and it is now understoM that iM 

aoqnainted thirty years a^ with a most amiable chemical union of thoaar priDci|>Ui goderatoa 

lady, who having the misfortune to lose a hus- water and disengages iicat. • • 

band, by whom she was tenderly beloved. Let theftndeiit reeoNecl^ eoQtiouaaoiir'VK 

never slept a moment for six weeks ; and Sau- thor, that in the ventricles of the brain he fisda 

vase makes mention of a young lady at Mont- no coagulable lymph, btti the purest Wliier* 

petlier, who, having seen her husband mur- which is therefoft deoominated rosckl Ijfttpk 

dered by assassins, was deprived of sleep more by Boerhaave. - • ' • ' ' 

than three months. I have already staled, that the ab toti i imt 

' S. The stimuli mav be material, incloding recover their tone merely by qtrieseenoe ; b«l 

such changes ia the body as excite sensation ; supposing the stimuli above stated tie fttolictf 

such as strong light, loud soimds, offensive to any part of the system, die absorooiiiv 

smells, disgusung taste, hard touch, if they are agreeaole to the bws of the aiiimal «cono«iT, 

unusual or such as commonly call forth vo« will be excited by sympathy ; for it is observed, 

lition, for none of these produce watchfulness, that irritation dra^vs into content -the nearest 

when the mind has been accustomed to regard exhalcnts, and the remote abtorbentt. The 

them with indifference. The most powerful fact is certain, and the wisdiim of this eomo* 

stimulus is pain, because by this the animal is my will be obvious to the student, if he eaU ur 

wamed of immediate danger ; whether the un- mind the efforts of nature to relieve henelf. 

fasy sensation arises from tpasm, distention* In support of these theoretical eonjcctofrt, 

lieeration, or any tolntion of Tontinuity pro- the subsequent considerations are tiu||tctted. 

duccd either mechanically or by chemical at- 1. A superabundant supply of^ydre^en 

traction. When pain has been for any length from fermented Ikiuors received into the sio* 

of time endured, it proves, like all other sti* mach, at first brigtitens all ilie faculties ami 

mulants, a pNOwerfnl sedative. fp\ts increase of vigour, but speedily brines on 

3. The stimali, if not so powerful as to ex- mtoxicatiou followed by apoplectic sleep ; 

cite sensation or volition, may yet produce ir- but the inspiration of oxygenated ait stops ttio 

fitation. progress of intoxication, and therefore prevents 

The irritation may be, ap<»]>lvctic sleep. 

■ a. In the lungjs; as in cases of asthma and li. We observe in crowded raomSt when 

catarrh. candles bum dim for want of air, the homan 

^. In the stomach, arising from indigested understanding is confused, all its powers are 

sordes, viscid mucus, worms, hunger and ihirst. enfeebled ; but the imagination kindles, when 

Hoffman says, ** ventriculo bcnehabente, to- the lun^ take in a fVesh supply of well oxyge* 

tam cc^pus alacritus est, somnus sit placid us, nated air. 

si vero onustus est alimentis incongruis, somnus 3, The inspiration of foul air in mines, whe* 

deficit vel insomniis terrificis interturbatur.*' ther hydrogenous, carbonic, or the two com- 

c. In the bowels; from bile and Batolcnee, bined, brings on deep sleep and death ; but by 

from faeces in the rectum. the admission of uncontanii nated air the miners 

if. In the urinary bladder. are speedily revived, and the same happens frc* 

r. In the seminal vessels. quently in Spain to those who sit too long, or 

y. In the brain, or its meninges, either aris- sleep in a close room with burning charcoal, 

ing from or attended by a quickened circulation which consumes the oxygen and dischaigea 

of the blood ; for whate\*er accelenites the mo- carbonic air. » 

tion of the circulating fluids in the veMcls of 4. Boerhaave has remarked, that in acute dit-* 

the brain, induces vigilance. Tlius far, 8a\-s eases, the blood is found chiefly in the a neriee. 

Dr. Townscod, all is clear, but as we advance while the veins are companitivelv empty, for 

weshall find ourselves intheregionsof doubt, of this phenomenon he in vain encteavours to ac* 

darkness, and of conjecture. Howthen shall we count; but the cause is evidently this: the 

account for vigilance ? Borrowinga ray of light blood in all inflammatory fevers, being highly 

from chemistry, shall we venture to suppose it oxygenated, stmngly stimulates the heart, ani 

may arise from' the uninterrupted supply of oxy- is therefore propelM 'into the arteries in grcas 

gen and hydrogen to the veswis of the brain ? If abundance, and quicker than the veins can t^ 

we suppose sleep to be produced by thepre:»sure ceive it. But when highly oxygenated blood, 

of ro^cid lyniph on the ventricles of the bruin, as in acute diseases, such as synocha, pleiiriti*, 

aud particularly, as I may now proceed to slate and phrenitis, moves with rapidity thniufrh the 

it, by pressure un the plexus choroides and the system, and therefore in the vessels of the hrarn, 

minuter or secreting vosels of the brain, may vigilance, particularly in young subjects, some* 

wc not indulge our imagination and conjecture, times continues night aiul day lor a whole H*eek 

that \igi lance i» produced hy the union of oxy « together. In such circumstances, as Bocr« 

gen and hydrrifKeii; the latter perhaps secret- haave, with his usual accuracy of discernment, 

rd by soire uf the vessels of the brain, the well observed, their body lus been rendered 

f^^rmcr dcrivcil l>y chemical attraction from tlie lighter by one-third prt of its wei(^ht, so tha< 



VIGILANCE. 



Vjmr who \mi bccft vcrr fu, hace been rvHuced 
tTojoii to ikcictout. ik-q till kciurrs ua lh« 
tUxiry uf ph])tic, Mx'iMii* byg, 600. 

In tacb eircuxiiuucrt, vtUlst the fever ngci, 
ttw iMMnt Mil riic up wilti ease and Gi)|ipoit 
hiMMf IB bal, bui wAeit the fever a exli»ust- 
W| »c«h,Mid reUxctl, he slerpi iiicessanilf, or 
•oJy awaJtei lo Like in uiore fomi, that i). to 
Nfflf dM baip gf life with hftlrogeo, iben 



\ by oiudefA chcmisii, li may he 
nybiaMl ill the burning of a wax caadle. 
Ym kioillc iwisltd iliruuli of cotton and iherc- 
hf tath the t/tx; ihit being fluid ii, by capiU 
mf •iiraeiion, drawn up inia the wick, and 
■liiiiiti into (he part ivhich is in flaoir, front 

Am MiM eoinbiniii^ teadily wiih the oxygin 
if lb* uiDotplicric air, compwei iqueous iH' 
pow. whicb may be cMily condensed, and icti 
u fabeny botli light aud bent. A very elegant 
piDCCM a( combuauon, and at the teme time u. 
ntj Mai|il« one, may be leca by putting one 
drapafaUiMiniaaiwonuncephislofoxygenai- 
tda>r.MMllLi[tdUngitwithant*icb. Tliccom- 
hiiMUoa i> Jnuaotancous ; water ii pmluocd, 
lod ibt Itgtit tiKJ heil are not inferior lo those 
■Uck «r« duniaaged from detonaiing gold. 

Ilia •llowcd that the blood, in iu return ti>- 
■■lA the heart, hai lost the oxygen which it 
U Mouircd in the lungi. What then ii )ic- 
MMofiil Snrely it is not annihilated. The 
jdaDtityderiied frum the air merely by bieaih- 
IM U coaudcrahk. 

It ii well kuDvvn that both menial and mus- 
ealar tiunionconiuinc tlic fat; and it ii well 
awnliincd thai whenever there i* mnliun or 
aof eontbinaiioa in lIig syttrin, heal is genrral- 
td; a it likewiw proved by ihe experiments of 
Or. friralcy, that oxygen ml\ paM throuxh the 
pMWof membmnci to unite with hyilroj^. 

Since, then, we hnve lost <ixv)(en and hydro- 
puio gicaiabunilaiiee, and acquired buih heat 
jad mutt, is it not probuble that the oxy^n. 
diuppcircd, has formed n cheaiicil 
'tli liydragrn and jiindnced the water, 
' e ismc lima hut ha« liceii evolved ? 
ttlltl cnnliiiually formeil la cillu'r 
inemanil* by ihe Iviniihviirt, and 
\ liMk to the niut i>f circulating! fluids, 
«r MHc* out of the tyilcm by the exhalcnt Bt- 

WhMnrr lh«n hroomea of these conjectum 
aM fMiiem the timxiuiatecauMof vij^ilunct, it 
(UBiU cmirnaeti, ih«t the occmIoiibI Cduse* arc 
■■ell a* itiiDuljiti: tlw lyiteni, and that from 
■Winei walchfulncu lo furious Mtinft, it 
b«Mi pnifiutlMii lo Ihr degree of oeiicniCDt of 
ibcbtain. 

Unanin^ ii tlic iiilermcdiale tlile belwei-n 
vi|[ilaiice »i)d tleept aud may be considered 
bnc. It ukci ploea usually towanls tlie moi^- 
mfUtuiA tay be at any linie rxeitrd by irrita> 
Ikm m ihf •yilem. )l ii the imperfect 



The inleniity of ihnt afletlinni drpenA tiir 
ihe degree of excitement in the brain, uixl ihii 
aguin vviil be in prupurtlnn lo the irriiBhility uf 
ilie syiteiu and to the energy of the excii'ing 
ciuie, which caiuc may bo either mentul or 
material. 

I. Ifduring the day we have seen any thing 
uncommonly sttiliing, although not in the leait 
Lntereii'mg, as producing neither pain, pleasure, 
hnpt.nor fcait the imiuewill, unless wetlecj) 
jirufooiiitly. bti renewed by night. !>pinoaa re- 
Ltd of himself that from the time in which 
lie 5rit saw Brazilians te\cn feel high with 
long yellow huir, it made so lUong an impres- 
sion, ihui he hud always th« same image in hi* 
ar»ms, aud Could with diHicully free himself 
rroiii It during the day. 

». The ol'iener Ibis image h renewed, the 
more readily will it be excited in tlic mind; 
and by fn'ouency of iccurreace a regular habit 
will be rsUbliihed. 

When the passions of joy, sorrow, liope. 






^J lei 



hisimagi- 
"^uing, Ihe 



ciilwr indiSirenl, o . 
h»p«i luTi dcsiici ami toliii 



the day, the Btieodant images will 

iiiesenl ihemselveV in dreams l^ night. A, 
ady ut Montpellier no sooner closeil her eye* 
lo sleep, ih.in the image of her murdered has- 
band, and the assassins sprinkled with hit 
blood, were in the most vitiil forms lepreseuted 

4. VVhaievet ima^e is by dreaming presented 
lo the mind, is apt to associate others between 
which and it there is cither natiifiil or acci- 
dental connexion. Thus, if a man dreami 
thnt he hai been guitly of a 
iijtion will represent constables pursuing, 
judge pronoiuicing sentence, aud the execu- 
liojier fixing the halter on his neck. 

There is a curious experiment, which shi 
n propensity in the system lo lenew what 
images have mode a vivid impteisian 
siphu 

If, when the sun shines bright, you look 
ihrau;:h a window ui a landscaiic, fixing your 
eyes treadilv on one spot, till rision is distress. 
inp, and lill the view begin* In fade, then 
^'iilty claw vour eye-lids and put a hat before 
your face, ihc represent at ion will altelnatety 
appear and vanish) and what is siill more 
lemarkable, ihe image of the window- bars 
and of the nearest trees will be dark, whiU 
■he sky appears to be either purple or light 
ttieen ; but whenever the hat is removed, and 
light is transmitted through ihe eyelids, the 
bars of the window and the trees becume red- 
likc edged with green, and ihe iky is dark. 
Even when (he eyes have been for sonte lime 
opeood and enpngcd with other objccii, oti 
l<eing chised again, all these ap|>«araiict3 will 
be renewed. 

Whan debility and irritability prevaiHn the 
extreme, the mmi uifling irritation will b« 
suHieient to produce the rccurrerice of images, 
p.-istinns, tenaalioni, and aitsoctalion of ideas; 
hut ill llie mora lotpid it requires tutor power- 
ful stimulus; and this may be either in the 
sinmach or the brain itielf. 

'I'be tiomach it commonly the part In irhicik 



V I G V I L 

we may seek the occasional cause of dreams ; strength (AfiV/on). 8. Mental force; inlcllec* 

but whatever induces determination to the toal aUIity. 3. Energy; eUicacy (B/crrAfRorr). 

head, or (quickens tlie circulation in thtvesiicis VILAINE, a rirer of France, which lisci 

of the brain, without producing vigilance, will in the department of Maycnnc, passes bj Vitre 

have the same effect. Dr. Lower gives the and Rennes, divides the de|iartmcnt ol' Morbi« 

case of one who slept soundly whilst his head ban from that of Lower Loire, and eutert the 

was inclined forward, yet when his head fell bay of Biscay, below Roche Eieroard. 

back he was soon awakened wiih horrid dreams VlLE. a. (i;t/, French ; viiis^ Latin.) 1. 

and tremors. Ba«e; ntejn ; worthless; soidid; despicable 

In this patient, after death, water was dis- (S/iakspcare). S. Morally impure ; u tckcd 

covered in the ventricles of the brain. (Milton). 

All this is ingenious, but by no means satis- Vl'LED. a. (from vile ; whence reviie.} 

factory. The phenomena both of vigilance Abusive; scurrilous; defamatory (//ffytr«r^. 

and dreamins are certainly closely connected VPLELY.o^. (fromW/r.) Basely ; nwaJllj ; 

with that of sleep : and we nave already oflered shamefully (Sltakspeare). 

another, and, if we mistake not, a more com- VrLENESS. s, (from vile.) -1 . 



3 t 



petent tlieory of dreaming, towards the close meanness ; despicableness ; worthlmnest 

of the article Sleep; which see. {Drayton. Creech), 2. Moral or intellcciual 

VFGlLANT.fl.(rfgi7fl«f, Latin.) Watch- baseness (Prior), 

ful; circumspect; diligent; attentive (//ooifrer). VlLIFrER. i. One that vilifies. 

VFGILANTLY. ad. \ Watchfully ; atlen- To VFLIFY. ». a. (from vite.) I. To dc- 

tively; circumspectly (Hoy toartif). base; to degrade {MUton). S. To defame; 

VlGNOLE (James Barozsio), an archi- to make contemptible {Addison). 

tect, born at Vi^nole, 1507. He was employed VILL. s. {vilU, French ; villa, Latin.) A 

by Francis I. m the construction of sexeral rilloge ; a small collection of housei {Hale). 

splendid edifices, after which he returned to VFLLA. j. {vilh, Latin.) A coantry seat 

Italy to finish the ualace of cardinal Farneie. {Pope). 

He died &37df agea 66. He wrote a treatise villa Franca, a seaport of the county 

on the five orders of architecture, in Italian, of Nice, with a castle and fort. The harbour 

3 vols. 4to. and another, sur la pers[)cctive is eapaeious, and the mountains which inclose 

pratique. it extend into the sea like promontoriea. Ik 

VlGNOLES (Stephen de), better known was taken by the Freiich in I705^ by the 

by the name of la Hire, was a general in the French and Sftaniards in 1744, and by the 

sen-ice of C'harlcs Vll. and he obliged Bedford French in 1792. It is three miles £. of r«ice. 

to raise the sii-ge of Montargii, and assisted Villa Franca, a town on theS. coast of 

Joan of Arc in the relief of Orleans. He died St. Michael, one of the Aaores, defended by a 

at Mont.'iuhan, 1447. fort and other works. Opposite this place, 

ViGNOLES (Alplionso de), of Auhais in half a mile from the shore, is a small island, 

Lan^KiUK, Itrft France on the revocation of which has a basin with a narrow entrance, 

the edict of Nantes, and retired to Pru^ia. where bO vessels might anchor in security. 

He was made director of the Royal Academy It is l6 milt-s E. by N. of Punta del Giida. 

of Scit-nccs at Berlin, where he" died 1/44', Lon. 25. 30VV. Lat. 37. 50N. 

iwfcil i]5. He wrote the (!!hronology of the Villa-Franca-de-Pan ades, a town of 

Holy Scriptures, 5cc. 2 vols. 4to.; Episiola Spain, in CatalMiia. It i$surroundi*d by wails, 

Chronologica, ^c. and seated near ihe Mediterranean, 18 miles 

VIGO, a seaport of Spain, in Galicia, W. of Barcelona, and SX) N.E. of Tarragona, 

situate on a bay ot the Allanlic, defended bv a Lnn. I. bft E. Lat. 41. S() N. 

fort ou an eminence, and an old castle. It (las Vil la-IIermos a, a town of New S|>air, 

a good harbour, into which, in 1702, the in the province of Tabasco, seated on the river 

English and Dutch ilcet t'orctd their passage, Talxisrr*, 40 miles S. of the bay of C.'ampeachy, 

and made themselves mnsters of the Spanish and 50 N.E. of Chiapa. Lon. 94. 5 W. Lat. 

plate-Hcct, when iust arrived from America. 17.43 N. 

In 1719. the Enpish pot |)'Wsi'«»ion of Vigo, ViLLA-JoiosA,or Joysa, a town ofSpain. 

but rciinc|iiiHhfd it afier rniiiing cnniributiuns. in Valencia, on the cuast of the M<Mliterranean, 

It stands in a fruitful countn-, 14 miles 18 miles E.N.E. of Alicant, ami 24 S. of 

W.N.W. of Tuy, ;ii»a 47 S. of ■( -oinpostella, Gandia. I/>ii. 0. 1 ". E. Lai. 38. 42 N. 

VIGOROSO. (li.'llan.^ In ninsic, a word Vi lla-Nov a-da-C'ervei-.a, a town of 

implying: that the movoinmt bct'ure which it Portucal, in the pDvinc*'. of Enire-nouero-e- 

is pKiceil ib to lie pL-rJorined in a br.ld, oner- Minho, siuntr on the Minho, near its mouth, 

'^ctir style. 27 miles N.N.W. of Braw, and 45 N. of 

Vl'GOIlOUS. <i.(fromtfgor, I-atin.) For- 0|M)rio. I/m. 8. 40W. Lat. 41.55 N. 

cibic ; not weakiiied; full of strength and Villa-Nova de-Pouto, a town of Por* 

\i(^ iAtierburu). tugal, in the province of Enlre-Douero-e- 

Vl'CiOUOlJSLY. ad. With force; for- M'-nho, scale<! om tin- river I>ouero, opposite 

cibly; withoiJ weakness (.SV^ri/A). ^ Oporto (on which it dcpcn«l«), and defended 

VrCiOKOUSNESS. I. (from vigour.) by sevor.il fort^. It contains about 3000 io- 

I^trrj- ; «i'.rcnj?.th Cruulor). hahitants. 

Vl'GOUK. *. (li^'or^ Latin.) 1. Force; Villa-Nova di-Portimao, a seaport of 



VI L V I L 

Fortagal, in the prorince of Algatra. The low Latin.) i. One who held by a baic 

tnwn IS fortified, and defended l^ two forts, tenure (Davies), 2. A wicked wretch {Cla- 

It is nine miles E.N.E. of La|^, and 42 W. rtndon), 

of Tarira. Lon. a. 41 W. Lat. 3?. 6 N. Vl'LLANAGE. i. (from villain) I. Tlie 

Villa«Nuova-d'A9T1, a town of Pied- suite of a villain; base scn'iiude. (See ViL- 

niniii, in the countyof Asti, 10 miles £. of lenage.) 2. Baseness; infamv (Drydfn). 

Tnrin. Lon. 7- AQ E. Lat. 4.*i. 50 N. VILLANELLA. The air o'f an old rustic 

yiLLA-PavDA, a town of S|>ain, in Leon, dance, the time of which was gay and brisk, 

^rtth an anenal, and a pa|ace belonsing to the and the nieavure stron(i:ly marked. The sub* 

eocistibie of Casiilc. It is,S6 miles N. of Toro. ject or melody was first i>layed in a plain style, 

Lon. 5. O W. Lat. 48. 5 N. and then emhcllibhed with variations. 

Villa-Kbal, a town of Portugal, in the To VI'LLANIZE. v. a, (from villain,) To 

mo»tnre of Tra-los-Montcs, and capiul of debase; todegnde; to defame (Bra//ey). 

C<Hnarca. It is ceaied at the confluence of the VI'LLANOUS. a. (from villain.) 1. Base; 

CV>r^fi and Ribera, 15 miles N.E. of LamegOy vile; wicked. 2. Sorry; worthless {Shak» 

ami 4-% S.E. (^ Braga. Lon. 7.20 W. Ol. speare). 

4l.«|N. VKLLANOUSLY. ad. (from villaneut,) 

ViLLA-RfCA, a seaport of New Spain, in Wickedly ; basely (KnoUes). 

the atsdieiice of Mexico and province of lias- Vl'LLANOUSNIiSS. i. (from villanous,) 

eala, -seated on the gulf of Mexico, 200 miles Baseness ; wickedness. 

li. of Mexico. Lon. 97. 15 W. Lat. 19. Vl'LLANY. *. (from w/Zaiw.) 1. Wickcd- 

90H. ness; base ntss ; depravity; gross atrocious- 

ViLLA-RrcA, a town of Chili, seated on noss (Shakspcare). 2. A wicked action; a 

the lake Maiabatigcn, 62 miles from the Pa- crime {Drvdcn), 

cifte ocean. Lon. 72. 41 W. Lat. Sif, 15 S. VI LL ARIA, in botany, a ^;enus of thb class 

ViLLA-VlciotA, a fortified town of Portu- dioecia, order pcntandria. Calyx five-parted; 

gal, in Alenteio, with an olc| castle, and a petals (}\e. Female: style one ; berry three* 

palaee where the dukes of Braganza formerly celled; seeds solitary. Its native place not 

icsidcd. In the suburb is an ancient temple, known. 

ofiginallv built to the honour of Proserpine. VILLARS (xXndrewde Brancasde), a ge- 

The anif about this town is extremely fertile, neral who espoused the interests of the league 

mnd there are quarries of fiite green marble. It against Hc-nry IV. He was afterwards gained 

•uslaifMd a famous ^ifge ajsainst the Spaniards, over by Stilly, and when taken prisoner at 

in l667s which occasioned a battle in a neigh- Dourlcns by the Spaniards, 1596, he was 

bonring nbin, the event of which placed the bas(*Iy murdered. 

^rinvn 01 Portugal on the head of the duke of Villars (Louis Hector, marquis and duke 

Brasanta. It is 1 6 mites S.W. of Elvas, ami of), peer of France, was born at Moulins, 

A3 S.E. of Lisbon. Lon. 7. 16. W. Lat. 38. l0*53. Ht* distinguished himself on the Rhine. 

36 N* at the siege of Maastricht, H the battle ci 

ViLLA-VjcrosA, a seaport of Spain, in Sencf, and on various occasions. At the peace 

Asiuria d'Oviedo, seated on the bay of Biscay, of Hys^vick he went ambassador to Vienna, 

92 miles N.E. of Oviedo. Lon. 5. 24 \v . and when afterwards placed at the head of the 

Lat. 43. 9? N. French armies, he defeated the prince of Baden, 

ViLLA-ViciosA, a town of S|>nin, in New and gained the battle of Hochstet ; but was ac 

Castile. Here, in 1710, general Staremt)erg last routed and dangerously wounded at the 

Mnled the French and Spanianls under the battle of MalpUquet, 170(). He afterwards 

4ak€ of Vendonie, although they were twice regained his reputation at Dcnay* and by the 

kh Bomber ; but, from want of provisions, he fall of Douay, Qnesnoy, &c. and he assisted in 

*n obliged to leave to the vanquished all the the establishment of peace at Kadstadt, 1 7 14. 

aiK-aiitaces of a complete victory, which, ac- After the death of Louis XIV. he supported 

(iBrrfingfy, they ascribed to themselves. Villa- the administration of Orleans, and in 1733» 

Viciou IS six miles N.E. of Brihuega, and 4g when a new war broke out, he commanded 

N.E. of Madrid. the French armies in luily. He took Pisiahi* 

VILLAC, a town of Germany, in the duchy tone ; but soon afterwards fell ill, and died at 

*fCsrimhia, belonging to the bishop of Bam- Turin in 1734, aged 8?. 

W. with a castle. It carries on a great trade VILLEN AGE, in law. The folk-land or 

^ih the Venetians ; and near it are the baths estates held in villenage, was a species of 

•^Topliii. It is seated at the confluence of tenure neither strictly feodal, Norman, or Sax- 

^Draveand Geil, surmunded by mountains, on, but mixed and compounded of them all ; 

12 miles S.W. of Cla»nifuri, and 88 N.E. of and which also, on account of the heriots that 

Bfiten. Lnn. 14. 3 E. Lat. 46. 50 N. usually attend it, may seem to have somewhat 

VI'LLAOE. f. (village, French.) A small Danish in its composition. Under the Saxon 

«ollfciion of hoti«es, less than a town {Pope), government there were, as sir William Temple • 

VllJLAGER. s. (from tillage.) An inha- speaks, a sort of people in a condition of down- 

"itint of a viUaee (Locke), right servitnde, used and employed in the most 

VllXAGERY. i, (from village.) District servile works, and belonging, both they, theic 

^tillages (Shaksptare). children, and effects, to the lord of the soil» 

VllXAlN. f . (niain, French : mUamu, like tb« itst of the oattle or stock upon it. 

VOL. XL— PART 11. H 



VI L V I L 

These seem to have been those who held what to that degree, that they came to have in thm 

was called the folk-land, from which they an interest in many placet full as good, ia 

were reuiovoable at the lord's pleasure. On others better, than their lords. Hence aro« 
(he arrival of the Normans here, it seems not Villbnaob (Privileged). The tenaniscf 

improbable, that they, who were strangers to the lands under the crown were not all of tin 

any other than a feodal stiite, might give some same order or degree. Some of them, as Bril- 

sparks of enfranchisement to such wretched ton testifies, continued for a long time pun 

persons as fell to thtir share, by admitting and absolute villeins, dependent on the will cf ; 

them, as well as others, to the oaih of fealty, the lord ; and common copyholders in only a ^ 

which conferred a rifcht of protection, and few points. Others were m a great mcanR - 

raised the tenant to a kind of estate superior to enfranchised by the ruval favour, being oflff - 

downright slawry, but inferior to every other bound in respect of their lands to peribm < 

condition. This they called vUlenage, and the some of the better sort of villein-aervioes : bil : 

tenauU villeins, those determinate and ceruin ; as, to pkw^ ' 

These villeins, belonging principally to lonls tlie kin^*s land for so many dm, to supfly fil = 

of manors, were either villeins regardant^ that court with such a (juanti^ ot provisions, anl ^ 

is, annexed to the manor or land ; or else they the like ; all of which are now changed ioli 

were in grots, or at large, that is, annexed to pecuniary rents : and in cousideraiion hcnrf 

the person of the lord, and transfer rable by they had many immunities and prhrik^ 

dec^ from one owner to another. The^ could granted to them ; as, to try the right of dmr 

not leave their lord without his permi:»ion; property in a peculiar court of their im% 

but, if they ran away, or were purloined from called a court of ancient demesne, by a peeih 

him, might be claimed and recovered by action, liar process, denominated a writ of right ckaet 

like beasts or other chattels. They held, in- not to pay toll or taxes ; not to contribme li 

deed, small portions of land by waj of sustain- the expences of knights of the shire | not II 

ing themselves and families : but it was at the be put on juries, and the like, 
mere will of the lord, who might dispossess These tenants, therefore, though tbek ts- 

them whenever he pleased ; and it wfls upon nure be absolutely copyhold, yet have n ' 

villein services, that is, to carry out dung, to interest ec^uivalent to a freehold : for thooglb < 

hedge and ditch the lord's demesnes, and any their services were of a base and viUeooa 

other the meanest offices : and their services original, yet the tenants were esteemed ia dl 

were not only base, but uncertain, both as to other resftecu to be hiahly privileged villoDi; 

their time ana quantity. and especially for that tuneir services were fini 

A villein could acquire no property either in and determinate, and that they could net bl 

lands or goods : if he purchased either, the compelled (like pure villeins) to relinqoidl 

lord might seize them to his own use, unless those tenements at the lord's will, or Ui mU 

he contrived to dbpose of them again before them against their own: e< tieo (says Brvlai) 

the lord had seize«l tnem, for the lord had then dscuniur liheri. 
lost his opportunity. Lands holding by this tenure are therefore i 

In manv places also a fine was payable to species of copyhold, and as such preserved sod 

the lord, if the villein presumed to marry his exempted from the operation of the statute sf 

daughter to any one without leave from the Charles II. Yet they differ from commoa 

lord : and, by the common law, the lord might copyholds, principally in the privileges befoit 

aho brin^ an action against the husband for mentioned; as also they differ from freehoMcn 

damages in thus purloining his property. For by one especial mark and tincture of villensgii 

the children of vnleins were also in the same noted by jBracton, and remaining to thisdsy; 

state of bondage with their parents ; whence viz. that they cannot be conveyed from maott 

they were called in Latin naiivi, which gave man by the general common law conveyaaeei 

rise to the female api>ellation of a villein, who of feoffment and the rest; but must pass bf 

was called a neij'e. In case of a marriage surrender to the lord or his steward, in tbe 

between a freeman and a neife, or a villein and manner of common copyholds ; yet with diii 

a freewoman, the issue fuliowed the condition difference, that, in the surrenders of these 

of the father, being free if he was free, and lands in ancient demesne, it is not wed to stji 

villein if he was villein; contrary to the maxim ** to hold at the wil] of their lord,'* in thnt 

of the civil law, that partus sequitur venirem. copies ; but only, " to hold according to die 

But no bastard could be bom a villein, because custom of the manor." 
by another maxim of our law he is nullius VPLLI. j. (Latin.) In anatomy* are the 

fiitts ; and as he can gain nothing by inherit- same as fibres.; and in botany, small hairs like 

ance, it were hard ttiat he shouki lose his the grains of plush or shag, with which some 

natural freedom by it. The law, however, trees do abound (Qiiificy). 
protected the persons of villeins against atroci- VILLIERS (George), the celebrated dukc 

ous injuries of the lord : for he might not of Buckingham, was bom at Brookesby, in 

kill or muim his villein, though he might Leicestershire, in 1 592. After having spent 

beat him with impunity. three years in France, his mother resolved ta 

Villeins uiitcht be enfranchised by manu- carry liim to court, concluding, that a yooiH 

mission. In process of time they gained con- gentlcorun of his fine person could not tailM 

sidrralile gr^jund on their lords ; and, in par- making his fortune under James I. The kir^ 

ttcular, strengthened ifie tenure of their estates being present at a play act^ by the Cambridge 



V I L V I N 

, it WIS contiired lliat Villiut should Thomas lord FaiifaK, through whue ir 
*Qd the kiiiK DO foonec cost hu eyes he rri^uvervd ihe snalesi |)aii of ihe tu. 
itn than he Dccame Uscinaud i for, hid hsi. After lh« restoniiioii he ivas 
) Clotendoii, " ihnu^h he was a prince one iif the lartls of the bcd'Chainbcr, cal 
B learning and knowledge than any theprit'yc(>uiicil,a[idiippomiedIord lieul 

Uwt ue, and really delisted more in of Yorkshire, nnd master of the hone. All 
nd ifl iKe convenntiun onearned men, ihete he lotl in 1666, being detected in 3 con- 
all witc men living, he was ibc most spirocy ugninst (he government, but iipon 
d with haodiome persona and line humble submission was again uken into fa- 
' Tbn he conceivtil inch a likiiiz to vour, bring reatored both to ibe privy cuuncit 
lOn of VUlien, that he ■' resolved to and bed-chamber. In 1671 he was Inbialltd 
in) X masierpwce, and lo mould him chancellor of ihe university of Cambridiie, and 
ally 10 his Own idea." The kind's late sent ambassador lo France. He died in iSSH. 
U the carl of Someisci, was imme- His poems, which indeed are not very numcr* 
liacarded, nnd Villien. t/ioa after his ous, are deemed good of their kind ; but hla 
Mlance al court, was made cup-beaier principal H'ork is a comedy called the Kc- 
*jtMj- In a few weeks being knight- hearial, which is a piece of neat ariginality. 
Mut any oilier qualificalion, he was VILLOSE. Villosus. In botany. Pit!* 
Kenlleman of the bed>chamber, and mnllibui piibeicens. Pubeicem or coiered 
11 (lie guier. In > short time he was wiib soft niirs. As (he stem in toniex and 
MiOD, a vitcounl, an earl, and a mar- rhut. The leaf in ulex europxus or furze, 
I becime lord hi\;h admiral of England, primula vlllosa, &c. The stigma. 
4m> of the Cinque-porls, master of ilie VILLUS, In botany, (from ^»Me, or a 
ad entirely disposed of the favours of i/ehndo, or a vfllenda ; or from iiam for i.iui 1 
; !n conferring all the honours and all or from pilui\ or from virmus, cinclnnus mol- 
es of the three kingdoms. In which, liter flexus; such is the unceriaiiily of d>.'riva- 
aresujded by appetite than judgment, tion.) Il is inletprcled pili collccti, ic ilucci 
id almost all liis own numerous family rcsliutn : collected hairs, the pile or nap of 
indents, many of whom had no other cloth. In Linnfus's idea it seems to be soft 
in Uieirallianceio him. Onihetuc- close hairs, forming a fine nap or pile Uke 
if Charles, in iGSi, the duke con- veUct. 

t thesamcdeine«Df fa'our, but he had VIM EN, in botany, (n menio, from bit^d- 

MiGdcnCG with the parliament. Voles ing.) VirguUum Icnluni ac flexile, ad li^an* 

iDStianocs passed aninsl him si an dutn aptum. A bendiau twig or wyUle : 

ntiepublici and his ill manaf^menl slender and flexible, hi fur binding. 
Ic the ground of the refusal 10 give (he VIMINAIUA. Rush-broom. la botany, 

apply. The duke caused ihis and ihe a genus of the class and onler decfiidrla, luo- 

liamenl 10 be quickly dissolved, set on Bogynia. Calyx angular, simple, quinqnefidi 

T pniccts for raising money ; ami, in curol |>apilionaceou9 ; style t»piliary ; )(igira 

! Mid and did every ihliig with passion ilniple. acute; legume coriaceous, one-seeded. 
«DCe. A war having been declared One species, V. denudala, leaflet rush* 

France, he took the command n( the bto'im. The rush-like branches, or, more 

late descen( iijKin the iilc of Ith&, properly speaking, ihc long petioles, of ibis 

h the flower of the army was lost, shrub have been mistaken both by Shuder and 

rvturoed 10 England, and repaired the Wildcnow for the leaves, of which, iii ila 

the army, he was about to transport more advanced stages, it is entirely destitute. 

to the relief of Rochelle, which was The pod. when neaily ripe, contains only one 

\\effA by the cardinal Richelieu; and seed. A native of New Holland, in (he 

^Drumouth for that purpose, when he neighbourhood of Pott Jackson, and was one 

Ninatnl by Fi:lton, on the ::3d of Au- of uie first pUnu imporled by seed from that 

W. country. Thus prop,-igal«d it rijieus with us, 

tsaa tGeoree). duke of Buckingham, and may be treated as a somewhat hardy green. 

tb« pm-ediog, was bom in iGii?- houseshrub. Sec Uotant. PI.CLXXXIIL 
ompleud his studies at Catnbridge, he VIM INEOUS. a. (cininew. Uiiit.) .Made 

oad, and did not return till afict the of twi» (Privr). 

muufthecivil wars, when, the king VINCA. Petriwinkle. In botany, a genu* 

Oxford, his grace repaireil ihilhcr. of the class i>enl.indria, order njonngynis. 

oitcd to his majrsiy, and entered iiiio Cofol twisted, salver-shaped, inferior; follicles 

rowb eollc^. Upon the decline of two, ctcci; se«»ls nake-l. Five species : ihree 

s cause he alUnded prince Charles to natives of the West Indies or America ; twu 

, anil was with him at (he baillc of common lo our own heilijes and woods. The 

If, in lOJl ; after which, making his ihree following are ciiliivaied. 
lyood sea, he again joined him, and I. V. rosea. Madagascar pcrriwinkle. 
I ^ler made knight of the ganer. 2. V. majnr. Great pcrriwinkle, 
, twwcTcr, of tcirieving his afTaiis. he 3. V. minor. Smalt pcrriwinkle. 
•ately lo England, and in l(iS7 mar. The last is employed medicinally under ihc 

'- (he dac^ter and sole heir of name of vinca pen inn. Ii pcmeisei biitct 



VIN V I N 

tficl'idstringent virtues, and ii Mid to be efii*' imparts at first a considerable sweetness, wbicb 
eacioiis in stopping nasal hcmorrhnRes when is toon succeeded by an uopleasant sobocnl 
braisrrl and put into the no«e. Boiled it forms bitterness. It is given in scMOie coontiieiiB 
a useful adstringent gargle in common sore the cure of ElanduTar cbstractions. ^ 
throat, and it is given by some in phthisical VINCI (Leonardo da), an illustrious TtaEai 
complaint?. painter descended from a noble Tuscan familji 

VINCENT (Cape St.), the S.W. promon- was born in the castle of Vinci, near FIorm^ 
lAry of Portugal, S5 miles W. by S. of I^gos. in 144.5. He was placed under Andrei Ve- 
Lon. g. W. lat. 37. 3 N. rochia, a celebrated painter la that city, b«l \ 

Vincent (St.), one of the Wind«vard soon sur|>assed him and all his predecesionii \ 
Caribbee islands, in the West Indies, 55 miles much, as to l>e reputed the master of thethU | 
W, of Barbadoes. It is inhabited by Caribs, or p;oIdcn age of modem painting. But til 
a warlike race, between whom and the abn- studies were far from terminating here; 91 
rigines of the large islands there is a manifest man*s genius was more universal ; be tppM 
distinction. They arc conjectured to have been himself to arts, to literature, and to the aecoB- 
originally a colony from North America; their plishments of the body; and he excelled it 
fierce manners appraiching nearer to those of every thing which he attempted. Lewis 
the original natives of that continent than they Sforza, duke of Milan, prevailed on him tobt 
do to that of South America, and their Ian- director of the academy for architecture he M 
^uat^e also having some affinity to that spoken just established, where Leonardo soon bsimb- 
m Florida. In their wars tliey preserve their ed all the Gothic fashions, and reduced eiot 
ancient practice of destroying all the males, thing to the happy simplicity of the Gm 
and preserving the women either for servitude and Roman style. By the duke'i order, ki 
or for breeding. St. Vincent was long a neu- constructed the famous aqueduct that safjiGn 
tral island; but, at the ])cace of 17(>3, the the city of Milan with water. This cud 
French agreed that the right to it should be goes hy the name of Morlesana, being ibsve 
Tested in the English. The latter, soon after, icHK) miles in length, and coi>durts the water if 
engaged in a war against the Caribs, on the the mer Adda quite to the walls of thecitf. 
windward side of the island, who were obliged In 1479 ^^ ^'^^ desired to construct some new 
to consent to a peace, by which they cedeJ a device for the entertainment of Louis XIL of 
large tract of land to the crown. Tneconse- France, who was then to make his eutianoe 
quence of this was, that in 1 779, they greatly into Milan. Leonardo accordingly made i 
contributed to the reduction of this island by very curious automaton in the form of a lioOp 
the French, who, however, restored it in 1783. which marched out to meet the king, rcani 
In 1795, the French 1 mded some troops, and up on its hinder Ices before him, and opening 
again instigated the Caribs to an insurrection, its breast, dbplayed an escutcheon with flcvn 
wbirh was not suftxlued for se\'eral months, de lys quartered on it. The disurden of Loflw 
St. Vincent is 24 miles long and 18 broad. It barny, with ilio misfortunes of his patrons, the 
is extremely fertile for the raising of sugar and Sfor/i, obliging Leonardo to quit Mibn, he 
indigo ; and here the bread-fruit trees, brought reiired to Florence, where he flourished undei 
from Otaheite, thrive remarkably well. King- the Medici ; here he raised the envy of Michid 
ston is the capital. Angelo, who was his contemporary ; nA 

Vincent (St.), one of the Cape Venl Raphael, from the studv of his works, acaniitd 
islands, \2 miles long and three broad, and hi^ best manner of designing. At length, oD 
uninhabited. On the N.W. side of it is a the inviution of Francis I, he removed to 
good bay, where ships may wood and water, France when above 70 years of age, where the 
and wild goats may be shot. Lou. 25. 30 W. journey and change of climate threw him into 
Lat. 17.30 N. his last sickness : he languished for tool 

Vincent (St.), a province of firasil, lying months at Foniainbleau, where the kin^cube 
imder the tropic of Capricorn, and the most frequently to sec him; and one day risini( if 
80utherT\ one except that of Del Rey. The in iiis bed to ocktiowlcdpe the honour done 
capital, of the same name, is an inconsiderable him, he fainted, and Francis supporting hiio» 
town, havinz only about 60 houses, and the Leonardo died in his arms. His deatn hip- 
harbour will not admit lar;;e vessels. It is pened in 16^0. Some of his paintings are V 
situate on an island, in the bay of Santos, I90 be seen in England and other countries, bat 
miles S.W. of St. Sebastian. Lon. 46. 28 W. the greatest part of them are in Florence loA 
Lat. 24. 15 S. See Santos. France. He composed a great number of dii- 

"Vincent (St.), a town of Spain, i.i Astu- courses on curious subjects, but none of the« 
rias, seated on the bay of Biscay, nine miles liuve been published but his treatise on th( 
W. by S. of Santillana. Art of Painting. 

VlNCb71X)XICUM. (from rinco, to orer- VPNCIBLE. a. (from vinco, Latin.) Coft 
come, and toxicun/t, ftoison; so named from quemble; sui)erHhIe (A'arrii). 
its supposed virtues of resisting and ex|)cliiiig Vl'^CIBLENESS. *. (from rtnctl/r. 
poisons.) Ilermidinaria. A^clepias. Swallow Liablene.4» to be overcome, 
wort. Tn me poison. The root of this plant, Vl'NCl'URE. j. {vinctura, Latin.) J 
nsclepins vinceiuxicum of Ijnn^us, smells binding, 
when fiesh somewhat of valerian 3 chewed it VINCULUM^ in algebra, a mirk or chi 



[Act drawn orct, or including, or 
It wav ■ccoropanying a rucmr, (iivi- 
mi, kt. vfhta it ii coii))Miiii(l«d of 
IU», qiunliliet, or termi, to cuiiiicct 
ether m one auaoiiiy, and shew that 
lo be maliijilicd, oi divided, &c. iu< 

Bnt wed ilie bu or lin e we t the 
. ibr m *iDCulum, ihus o-f f>; and 
jntd tbe ptrenihaii thus (a + 6). 
r««, Ot Ca + t)«f, detioiea ihe pro- 
■od the Mim < n-6 considrred Bionc 
Aln t/a*b, or ^(at-b), denotes 
t not of the turn a+ I: Sometime! 
: b Ml bcTort a compound Tacbir, ai 
B, eipeeially when il Is very long, or 
etcnesj thus 31 ■ : l-S.r-t-Sr*^ 
&& 

e^IAL. a. (ciiNiIi^id, Lttt.) Be- 
1 a Tintan. 

rDE'MlATE.B.n- ivindemia.Lat.) 
lbevinUBc(£uc/y.O. 
eMIATfON.i. ((.i/i^mia.Utin.) 
haini (.Bailey). 

EMIATRIX. or Visdemiator. a 
of the third oia^iiude, In the norlh- 
Dflheconslellalion Vir^^a. 
NDICATE. v. o. (liiirfiVo, Latin.) 
ilify; to mainuin {iralii}. 2. To 
ta afcnge iPearson), 3. To as&rrt i 
n\Ut&C!Ky{Drydm). 4. Tocleaii 
rrofn crninre [MUlon). 
ICATION.i. (BinJieafina, French. 
BwCr.) Defence; aiKftionijustifi- 

["CATIVE. 0. tfrom vindicate,) Re- 
given to revenue [Sp'oi}- 
tCATOK.!. CfrommJiVife) One 
cam: no asscrtoi lOtuden). 
ICATOKV. n. (from oia^atar.) 
«j i pcrfoiinins the oifice of ven- 
UvaAM), i. Defciiioryi juslilica- 

fCnVE. a. (ftoni vindicta, Ulin.) 

meo^i revengeful (Drycien). 

I. (ruiM, Lai.) Tbeiilaot that bean 

See VlTlS. 
'K^TTBR, ill eAIOtnology. See 

jAJL Under the article AcBTIc 
ttave obterved that tim acid i* eoi- 
Ihrw different iialei, which have 
Untthrd from Ach uilicr by peculiiir 
ivheii fsnt pnpareil. il Is cjlled WN-- 
!D piirtfird liy Jlilillntion, il UMimcn 
of di'liUrd viiw^ar. Of actloui arid, 
tned by the chrini^K; and when cun- 
u ranch a poiiible. by peculiar [fro- 
il catted taiUcal cinrgir, or by the 
Utlir add. 

t VIM kiinwn nunyagei before ihc 
»f any othet icid. Iliow only excepted 
tt rewty foimcd in vegeiablci. It ii 
I by MuMt 1 auJ apprari, indeed, to 
'itcomnloa umhiuuhk ibe U ------ - 



and Elrongly : 

from light .«l 

fitepaied \>y ftinienliiig aoy subi 

pound which huj already undr 




V I N 






nations at a xty eurty period. 



ideraon 
^ir, iherefore, may 
be tnade iaitnediaiely from^ any wine, matt 
liquor, cyder. Sic. ; or from the ^uice of tbe 
grape and other fruits ; from infusion of malt, 
or any aaccbariiie liquid, ihrouzh the inlerme' 
dium iifvinout fermentation- Both these me* 
tbods are actually ptacliied with complete luc- 
ceu. . To inuke viiie^iar out of a liquor con- 
taining suil.tblc maierialsi it ii only rucetsary, 
lat, to allow «nnie occeia of air lo the vettel 
iu which it is kept ; and, £d, to keep it in u 
temperature niher higher than that of the at- 
mosphere ID this climate, thai u to uiy, about 
76" uiS0', It ii also almoiteisenlial, where a 
liquor already fermented is employed, lo add a 
portion of yeast, or any other ftrinuiil ; liiT 
though any fermented liquor, if kept in a rno- 
deraie leniperatuie in an open i-esiel, will spon- 
laneoualy run sour, or become changed to vine- 
gar i this chan^ ii too gradual to pruduce this 
acid in perfection, and the tirst acetified pnr- 
lion turns mouldy before the laM hjs become 
sour ■■ but where the subttauce employed hut 
not yet umlergone fer menial ion, the whole 
pioccis of tile vinous and subsequent acetous 
fermentation will gu on uninterruptedly wiib 
the Mme ferment which at Eni set it in action, 
which happtni, for esampii, in the making 
" '' '" "" from sugar and water. 

' licfly made from 
usual proceis iit 
London : a maih of niak and hoi water is 
made, which, after infusion for an hour and a 
half, is conveyed into a cooler, a few inchea 
dee|), and iheoce, when >uiEcieQlly cooled, 
inio latDc and deep fermenlina tuns, where it 
is mixed with yeatt, and kept in fennentalion 
for four or live days. Tbe liquor (which is 
now a bitong ale without liopt) is then distri- 
buted into emaller barrels, set eloic together in 
a sioved chamber, and a moderate heat ii ke|it 
upforahuiii six weeks ; during wbicii the fer- 
mentation goes on equally and uniformly till 
ibe whole is uinrrd. Thi* is then etn|)lied 
into coinman birrcli, which are set in roir* 
(ufien of many hundreds) iua fieUlin the opeu 
uir, ilie bung-butc bciiiv just covered with a 
tile, to keep off the ivei, but to all<iw a free id< 
miksion of air. Here llic liquor remains for 
four or live monlli). according to tlwheatof 
the weather, a gentle fcrmcnUiion ^nc kejM 
up till it becomes perfi^ct vinegar. Tiiis il 
finished in the fallowing way i lurge tiins arc 
employed, wjiha false bottom, on which is put 
a quiniiiyof the refuse of raisins, nr other fruit, 
kit by the makers of raikin and other homo- 
made wines, called lechnically rape. ThtM 
rape-tuns are worked by pain; one of tlieiii is 
quite filled tvUh ilie vini;gar trotu the banala, 
and the othef only three-qua tiers full, so that 
the fetineoiatinn i> excited n>otc easily in ih« 
latter than the former; and every day a pariioa 
of the vinrs^r it laded from one to the oihet, 
till tile nliulc is completely finiihed, and fit Lg 



V I N V I N 

sale. Vinegar, as well as fruit. wines, is often It may be preserved without alteration is 

made in small quantity for domestic uses, and close vessels. When exposed to a modenie 

the process is by no means difficult. The ma- heat, it evaporates completely, and without uo- 

terials may be either brown sugar and water dergoine any change in its properties. Wbco 

alone, or sugar with raisins, currants, and espe- exposed to tlie action of cold, part of it coa- 

cially ripe gooseberries. These should be mix- geak. The frozen portion, which consiiti 

ed' in the proportions which would give a almost entirely of water, may be easily septnl- 

strong wine, put into a small barrel, which it ed; and by this method the acid may beob- 

should fill about three-fourths, and the bun^-hole tained in a high degree of concentration. The 

very loosely stopped. Some yeast,, or which is mobt concentrated the acid is, the greater ii 

better, a tnast sopped in yeast, should be put iu, the cold necessary to produce oon^elatioq. 

and the barrel set in the sun in summer, or a Mr. Lowitz has ascertained that the acid itsdC 

little way from a fire in winter, and the fer- how much soever it may be concentrated, crjf^ 

mentation will soon begin. This should be tallizes or congeals at the temperature of 28*. 

kept up constant, but moderate, till the taste When acetat of copper, reduced to powder, 

and smell indicate that the vinegar is complete, is put into a retort and distilled, there coaci 

It should then be poured off clear, and bottled over a licjuid at first nearly colourless, ifld 

carefully, and it will keep much better if it be almost insipid, and afterwards a hishly concen- 

boiied for a minute, cooled, and strained, before trated acid. The distillation is to be contiDucd 

bottling. till the bottom of the retort is red-hot. What 

Vinegar, however, as its name imports, was remains in it then is only a powder of the colour 

formerly made in a larae way from wine rather of copper. The acid product, which shook! be 

than from malt; and this is the material which received in a vessel by itself, is tinged green bf 

probably furnishes it in the greatest perfection, a little copper which passes along with it,* btf 

and which is solely employed in the wine- when distilled over again in a gentle heat, it Ji 

countries. It is there prepared by adding wine obtained perfectly colourless and transpareot. 

lees to wine, which excites a new fermentation The acid thus procured is exceedingly puiiflot 

that is kept up till the whole is changed to and concentrated, and constitutes wnat we bare 

vinegar. Any wiue will answer the pur|>ose : already noticed b^r the name of radical vineg^» 

the oest and fullest- bodied wine ^ivcs the or vincjcar of Venice, 

strongest vinegar, and that .which is already Vl'NEYARD. s. (pinj(caji*D, Saxon.) A 

soured and injured by keeping may be applied gromid pluntcd with vines {Shaispeare). 

to this use. ' VINGOHLA, a Dutch settlement in tbe 

As even vinegar, however, is not the ulti- peninsula of Hindustan, on the coast of Cos- 
mate change which a vinous liquor spontane- can, a little N. of Goa. Lon. 73. 28 £. Lat* 
ously assumes, there is a period in the process 15. 57 N. 

of tne manufacture in which the acid is in its Vingorla Rocks, rocks lying aboat Kven 
highest degree of strength and perfection, after miles from the coast of Concan, in the peoio- 
which. if the process is not stopped, the liquor sula of Hindustan, and 10 miles S.S.W. of 
speedily deteriorates, the acetous acid gradually the island of Melundy, or Sunderdoo. Tbcy 
disappears, and only an offensive, mouldy , watery are ]>ossessed by the Malwaans, a piratical tnbe. 
liqiua remains, with scarcely any sourness, it Lon. 73. l6 W. Lat. 15. 62 N. 
belongs, therefore, to the skill and experience of VINGT-UN, in card-playing, a game that 
the manufacturer to know when his vinegar is has a near resemblance to quinze, so denotn^* 
complete, and fit to be drawn off and closely nated from the numl)er of points by which i^ 
barrelled. The specific gravity of vincsar game is won. It may be pla\ed by two ^^ 
vari(» from 1.0135 to 1.0251, and it diners more persons : and as the deal is advantageous* 
also in its other properties according to the and often continues long with tlie same persof*: 
liquid from which it has been procured. It is it is usual to determine it at the commence 
very subject to decomposition ; but Scheclc dis- ment by the first ac«* turned up, or some otti' 
covered that if it is made to boil for a few mo- mode previously ngreed upon, 
mcnts, it may be kept afterwards for a long The canis must all be dealt out in succC^ 
time without alteration. Besides acetic acid sion, unless n natural vingt-un occurs, and i^ 
and water, vinegar contains several other in(;rL*- the mean time the pone, ur youngest-hao^> 
dients, such as mucilage, tartar, a colouring should collect those that have been played, an^ 
matter, and often also two or more vegetable s hufHct hem to;ret her read v for the dealer agaio^ 
acids. When distilled at a temperature not the period when he shalf have distributed ttM 
exceeding that of boiling water, tilt alK)ut two- whole pack. The dealer is first to give two 
thinis of it have passc.l over, all these impuri- cards, by one at a time, to each player, irKlud- 
ties are left behind, and the product is pure in;; him>elf, then to ask e\ery perstm in iota- 
acid diluted with water. tion, be<;iniiin«2; with the eldest hand on the 

The acid thus obtained is a liquid as tmns- left^ whether he stands or chuses another card, 

parent and colourless as water, of a stron;r which if required, must be given from off the 

acid taste, and an agreeable colour, somewhat top of the pack, and afterwanls another, or 

diiTeront from that of vinesar. In this state, more if desired, till the points of the additional 

as we have already observea, it is usually called card or cards added to those dealt, exceed oi 

acetous acid, or distilled vinegar. Sec Ace- make 21 exactly, or such a number less than 

Toua ACID. 21 as may be jtxiged proper to stand upon; liui 



V I N 

chni the Bointi txettd SI , then ihe cards or 
till iiidividuiil player arc (o be thrown up 
KncllT, *nd the siakc to be paid to (he dealer, 
•ho alw is in turn entitied to draw addii' 






I ukini 



ingl-u 



loubio iiakej ftom all who ttand the ^ine, 
ncept (iich niher players likewise having 91, 
SEiwten whom it is thereby a drunn game : 
Uid when any advenary hu a vingt-un, and 
ihe detltT not, then the opponent so having 91 
'n double tuket from htm; in otiier cases, 
ICpta natural lingl-un happens, ihc dealer 
tap linKlc stalia to all whose number! under 
II w higher than hii own, and repe ivcs from 
Aow who have lower numbers ; bul nolhing 
iipudor received by such players as hovetiimi- 
ktaambento the dealer; and when ihe dealer 
re than Si, he IS 10 pay to all who have 
Dot thmwn up. 

T»enly-«ne, whensoever dealt in ihe Itrst 
tnnnce, Js sidled a natural vingl-un, should 
kMm) im mediately . and entitles the jios- 
wm to the deal, besides double stakes frnin 
rfl1le[J«y«n, unless there shall be more than 
Kt uturvl vin|;i-iin, in which case the younger 
hnd er handa so having the same are ei- 
mtilftom paying to the eldest, who lakes ihc 

N- B. An ace may be reckoned either as 1 1 
KTI: every court-card is counted as 10, and 
du ml of the |>ack according lo their points. 

The odds nf thii game merely ilejtcnd upon 
4k cerue quantity of carils likely to come 
tahr or exceed 31 ; for example, if those in 
kntl n»!te 14 exactly, it is 7 m 6 that the one 
nsi drawn does not make the number of points 
itore Kl, but if (he points be 15, it is 7 10 6 
imul that hand ; yet it would not therefore 
iniMsbe DTodrnt to slaod at 13, for as ihe ace 
nylw calculaicd both ways, ii is rather above 
nn'ea bet that the adversary's two linl cards 
mwoDt 10 more than 14. A natural vingt<un 
My be eupccted once in seven conps when 
Mo, UmI twice in seven when four people play, 
adwoa according 10 the number of players. 

VTONEWED. ot ViSNBY. a. Mouldy. 

VmOUS. a. (from utnum, Lai.) Having 
(htDMlitiesorwinci consisting of wine. 

Tl-NTAGli. I. (ainflge. Fr.) The produce 
tflht tine fur the year; the time in which 
|RpnaK Ulheted (Socon. Ifaller). 

Vl'fJTAGER. J. (from einlagt.) He who 
tHhenthe vintage {Aintworili). 

nNTIMlGLlA, a town of Italy, in ihe 
npoblie of Genoa, with a bishop's sec, a small 
Iwhoitr, and a mrong castle on a high rock. 
U his been ofien laEen and retaken, and is 
■Wad on the Mediterranean, at the mouth of 
>t>c Koua, to miles E.N.E. of Nice, and 70 
S.W.ofGenoa. Lon.7. 37 li- Ut. -13. S3 N- 

VltfTNEB. J. (from wmm.) One who 
■Bs wine (Hoatrl). 

VI'NTRY.i. The place where wine is sold. 

TlNUM. Wine it the juice of ihe grape 
•Itoedby fermentsiioo; its variety dependirii; 
*hiefly 00 the pioporii 



|*;«i«,and in ilie a 
a|^ b mipluyed ij 






■rof it 



V I o 

) name i^niim, as a menstruum fr>r ex< 
trading the virtues of a variety of medicio«t 
materials. The chief Ibnns are the following. 

V. ALOES. A Stomachic purgatiie, calcu- 
lated for ihe aged and phlegmatic, who are not 
troubled with the piles. 

V. AHTiMONti. In small doses this prove* 
alterative and diaphorciie, and a Inrgc dote 
emetic ; in which lost intciitiun it is the com- 
mon emetic tor children. 

V. AifTiMOiiii TARTAKiZATi. Th'n may 
be ^ivcn in all cases where the tartar emetic u 
indicated. 

V. FEmt). Steel wine is iji nieful formlbf 
administering the iron. 

V. oENTHK* coM.osiion. A good 
slomachic bitter. 

V. iFECACUAMJE. In small doset this pre- 
paraiiun proves diaphoretic, and nauseates ; in 
larger doses it is emetic. 

V. NICOTIAN^. Dropsical diseases, obrti- 
naIcafl*ectioiisof thcskin,and aithma, are said 
to be relieved by a judicious administration of 
this wine, whicli is narcoiitr and diuretic. 

V. RHEi. A stomachic, adslringeut, and 

V, opii. A warmer and somewhat weaker J 
laud,inum ihan the tinclnie of opium, In tbvj 
present pharmacopoEia of the L/indon olle^ ■ 
two ot three of ihe preceding are nmilted. aiul 
ihe antimouial wine is exchanged far a solution 
oflhis maltrial in water. 

VIOL. A stringed musical inslrumeni re- 
semhlina in shape and tone the violin, of which 

manding iiisirumeni being little more ilian an 
improvemenl of the old viol. This inslrumeni 
formerly consisted of five or its strings, (he 
lones of which were regulated by their being 
brought by the fingers into contact wiih the 
freis with which the neck was furnished. The 
viol was for a long while in such hiiih esteem 
as lo dispute ihe pre-eminence wiih the harp, 
especiallyiii the early times of music in Fiance: 
and, indcol, being reduced lo four strinip, and 
siript of ihe frets wuh which viols of ail kinds 
seem to have been furnished till the sixteenth 
century, ii siiH holds ihe fii^t place among 
treble injtrumenis, under the denonijuation of 
violin. (Buibg). 
VioL.siiArED, in botany. See P*(ji>ti- 

VIOLA. Violet. In botany, a genus of 
the class pcnlandria, order moiioaiynia. Calyx 
6ve-leaved, lengthened oui at the base ; petali 
five, irregular, the lowermost spurred behiud ; 
anthers slightly cohciing ; capsule superior, 
one-celled, tbrec-valved. Fnrly 9|)eciea, seal- 
lered over Europe, the West Indies, and Amr- 
riea ; a few over India; six common to our 
own country. They arc thus subdivided. 

A. Without stem. 

B. Caulesceiil. 

C. Stipules pinnatilid ; sli^ma cup-shtped. 

D. h'lowers erect ; not reversed. 
The following are cultivated. 

t. V. odoraia. bwecl violet. Leaves licart- 
ed, notched; flovt'crs deep purple, single ^ sei- 



I 



V I O V I o 

out crcq>ing. It is found in our own hedges. Akermann, and Flennig, were less Ibrtuinl* 
The recent flowers of this plant arc received in the employment of this plant; the last of 
into the catalogues of the Materia Medica. whom declares^ that in the different cutancoiia 
They have an agreeable sweet smell, and a niu- disorders in which he iiicd it, no benefit w« 
cilaginous bitterish taste. Their virtues are derived. Haase, who administered this species 
purgative or laxative, and by some they are said of violet in various foruis, and largik doses, ez- 
to possess an anodyne and pectoral quality, tended its use to many chronic disorders ; and 
The officinal prepration of this flower is a from the great number of cases in which il 
syrup, which, to young children, answers the proved successful, we are desirous of recooi- 
purpose of a purgative; it is also of consider- mending it to a further trial in this country. 
able utility in manv chemical inquiries, to de- It is remarkable that Bergius speaks of thn 
tect an acid or an alkali ; the former changing plant as a u^ful mucilaginous purgativcj and 
the blue colour to a red, and the latter to a takes no notice of its efflcacy in the criisia lac- 
green, tea or in any other disease. 

There is a variety of this species with white Viola. A tenor violin. This instrument 

flowers. is similar in its tone and formation to the violin, 

9. V. canina. Dog-violet. Stem at length but its dimensions are somewhat greater, and 

ascending, channelled ; leaves oblong-heart- its compiss a fifth lower in the great scale of 

shaped ; calyxes acute. Found in our copses, souuds. Its lowest note is C on the fourth 

The root of this plant fMssesses the power uf space in the bass. The part it takes in concert 

Tomiting and purging the bowels ; with which is betivccn that of the bass and the second violin, 

inteniion a scruple of the dried root mu«t be VFOLABLK. a. (from violahUis, Latin.) 

exhibited. It appears, though neglected in this Such n< i.iii\ l)e violaie<l or hurt, 

country, worthy of ihe attention of physicians. VIOLA'CKOUS. a. (from viola^ Lit.) Re* 

3. V. palmata. Pahnnted violet. sembling violets. 

4. V. petlaia. Muliifid violet. To VFOL.^TE. r. a. iciolo, Lat.) I. To 
A. V. tricolor. HeurtVease. Pansy. Stem injure; to hurt {Pope), 2. To infringe; to 

angular, diflusc; lea ve!( oblong, tooth -crenate; break any thing venerable {Hooker). 3. To 

stipiiles lyre-pinnatiHd. injure by irreverence (Broicn). 4. To ravish; 

This well Known beautiful liitle plant grows to deflour {Prior). 

in corn fields, waste and cultivated grounds, VlOLA^IlON.f. {vioiaiio, Latin.) 1. In* 

flowering all the summer months. It varies fringemeitt or injury of something sacred or 

much by cultivation ; and by the vivid colour- venerable {Addison). 9. Rape ; the act of de« 

ing of it^ flowers often becomes extremely flouring {Shakspeare). 

beautiful in gardens, where il is distinguished VIOLATOR. #. {violator^ Latin.). 1. One 
by various names. To the taste* thii plant in who injures or infringes something sacred 
its recent state is extremely glutinous, or mu- {South), 9. A ravisher {Shakspeare). 
cilaginous, acrompanicd with the common her- VIOLENCE, s. {violentia, Lat.) I. Force; 
baceous (lavonrnnd roughness. By distillation strength applied to any purpose (iV/;7/on). 9. 
with water, nccording to lioasc, it affords a An attack ; an assault ; a murder {Shakspeare), 
small quantity of odorous es>ential oil, of a 3. Outni^^e; unjust force (iVi7/on). 4. li^ger- 
somewhat acrid ta:ie. The dried herb yields ness ; vehemence (Shakspeare). 5. Injury; 
about half its weight of watery extract, the infringement (/^Mr/ir/). (). Forcible ucdvirptio'n. 
fresh plant about one-ei«hth. 'I'hough A^any VTOLIi^Nl'. a {violentus, IjiU) 1. Fnrti- 
of the old writers on the maieria medica rcpre- ble; acting with strength {jililtoM). S. Pro- 
sent this plant as a powerful medicine in epi- duced, orcontinuH by force ( Bur ne/V 3. Not 
lepsy, asthma, ulcers, scabies, and cutaneous natural, bui brouuht hy force {Miitom). 4. 
complaints, yet the viola tricolor owes iis pre- Assailant, artinu by force (iVi/Zow)* 5. Un- 
sent character as a in<^icine to the modern au- seasonally veiiement {Hooker), (j. Extorted; 
thoriiies of Siarick, iMelzgcr,IIaaH», and others, not \oluntary iMifior), 

espcciallyasareinedy for thecrusta lactea. Fe.r VK)LENTI^V. wrf. (from violmt.) With 

this purpose, a handful of the fresh herb, or force; forcibly; vthcmcntly {Taylor). 

half a drain of it dried, boiled two hours in VIOLET, in hotany. Set- Viola. 

milk, is to he strained and taken ni'ilit and Violet (I3aine*t>), in botany. Sl'C Hes« 

morning. Brtud, with this decoction, is alio pbris. 

to l)e formed into a fmultice and applicl to the Violet (I)jmask), in hotany. See Hes* 
part. Bjfcthin treatment it has l)ecn r>bservcd« > nt:Ri.«'. 

that the eruption during the I'lrdt eight days in- Viulrt (IV./j tooth), in botany. See 

creases, and thai the urine, when the medicine Fryi hronii'M. 

5ucceeds, has an odour similar to that r»f cats; VIOLIN, or FiDOLu. A well-known string- 
but on continuing the use of the plant a suf. ed instrument of hiiUiant tone, ami active exe- 
ficient time, this suicil ^(k'S ofl*, the scabs dis- cniion. When, or by v/h.it nuuon, this inv- 
appear, and the bkin recovers it!i natural purity, portant and interc^tin-; instrument was first 
Instances of the successful exhibition fd' this m\-entr<l is not at present km \vn, nor can^he 
medicine, as cited by th-^se authors, are very form »nd character of the violin used in Knaland 
numerous ; indi^ this remedy, imder their in the time of Chaucer, wIhi mentious it. be 
mana^eincikt, «-eems rarely, if c^^r, to have exactly ascertained. There is, however, much 
faiirl. It ap|)cars, however^ that Mursinoa, reason for buppoiing tiiat frou \u lirst intro- 



V I R V I R 

k uodeiweotcondniial alterations and a woman with the qualities of a man (Peach* 
ia4irorciiiCBts, since eren towards the end of am). 2. It is commonly used in detestation 
Um soLteenth ccntnr? iu shape appears to have for an impudent turbulent woman. 
bcca vagoc and undetermined. It has, bow- VIRE, a town of France, in the department 
ever, long attained its present excellence, and of Calvados, with several manufactures of coarse 
fermed the leading instrument in concert. The woollen cloths. It is seated on the V ire, 30 
four siringsof which it consists are tuned in miles S.E. of Courances, and i50 W. of Paris. 
fifths from each other. The pitch of the low- Lon. 0. 45 W. Lat. 48. 48 N. 
CSC siring b G, under tlie second ledoer line in VIRECTA, in botany, a ^enus of the class 
the treble sta%'e ; consequently that of the next pentandria, order monogynia. Calyx five- 
is D, under the first line of the stave; the pitch toothed, with intermediate teeth ; corof funncl- 
of the next above that, A on the second space ; form -, stigma two-parted ; capsule onc-cellod, 
afsdihatof the upper string. Eon the fourth many-seeded, inferior. One species only, a 
e. During the protectorship the violin herbof Surinam, with pubescent stem and ter« 
in little esteem, and gave way to the rising minal two-flowered peduncle, the lower flower 
alence of the viol : but at the restoration, sessile. 
viok began to be out of fashion, and violins VFllELAY. i. (vtre/ay, orre/at, Fr.) A sort 
resumrd their former consequence. The anti- of little ancient French poem, that consisted 
qnity of this instrument has long been a subject only of two rhymes and short verses, with stops 
<N oupnlc with the learned. It is generally {Drudeny 

•upposed, and with much reason, that no in- VraLNT. a. (virens, Latin.) Green; not 

strument pUyed with the bow was known to faded (Brot^rn). 

tbeaocienu. VIRGA AUREA. Herbadorea. Consolida 
VIOLIST, a player on the viol. saracenica. Golden nxl. The leaves and flowers 
VIOLONCELLO. A base violin, con- of this plant, solidagovirgaaurea of Linn^us, art 
tainiog foor strings, the lowest of which is recommended as aperients and corroborants in 
tuned lo double C. The strings are in fifths, urinary obstructions, ulcerations of the kidneys 
consequently the pitch of that next the gravest and bladder, and cachexies. See Solid ago. 
BsGfamut; that of the next, D on the third VIRGATE, in botany, (virga, a rod, or 
line in the base ; and that of the upper string, wand.) A rod-like or wand-like stem or branch. 
Aon the fifth line. Ranmsculus debilibus in xqualibus. Shooting 
The violoncello was called the violono till forth slender weak unequal rods or twigs : as 
the introduction of the double-base, which aa- in artemisia campestris. 
turned that name. VIRGIL, in Latin Publius Virgilius Maro, 
VIOLONO. (ItaL) The name originally the most excellent of all the ancient Rotnaa 
given by the Italians and French to the violon- poets, was born Oct. lb, U. C. 684, in the 
cello, but afterwards transferred to the double- consulship of Pompey and Crassus, at a village 
ban, ID which instrument it is still apj>lied. called Andes, not far from Mantua. His father 
In pitch it an octave below that of the violon- was undoubtedly of low birth and mean cir- 
edki, and its true use is to sustain the harmony; cumstances, but by his industry so much re- 
in which application of its powers it has a firm commended himselt to hb master, that he gave 
and nolile eftiect. him his daughtc-r, named Mala, in marriage, 
VIPER, in amphibiology. Sec Colubbr. as a reward of his fidelity. Our poet, discover- 
ViFEK GRASS. Scc ScoRZOvERA. log early marks of a very fine genius, was sent 
VIPERA. (quod vi pariat; because it was at twelve yean old to study at Cremona, where 
<koo|ht that its young eat throuRh the moihcr*s he continued till his seventeenth year. He 
bovrli.) The viper or adder. This viviparous was then removed to Milan, and from thence 
Rpiilr, cohiber beras of Linn^us, fX)ssesscs the to Naples, being the resfdcnce of several teach* 
Po*v of forming a poi^nous fluid in little ers of philosophy and polite learning; and ap« 
nap Dear its teeth. The flesh is perfectly in* plied himself heartily to the study of the best 
Kctnt, and often taken by the conmion people Greek and Roman writers. But physic aud 
32unu the king's evil, and a variety of ois- mathematics were his favourite sciences, which 
wden of the skin. Experience evinces it to be he cultivated with much care. He learned the 
an inefficacioiifi substance. See Coluber. Kpicurean philo€ophy under the cclebipted 
VIPERAIIIA. See Serpentaria vir- Syro. His actjuainunce with Varus, his'first 
OKI AN A. patron, commenced hy his beinz fellow-student 
. V1PERIN.\. (from vf pfr, a snake; so call- with him under this philosopher. We have 
^ horn the serpentine appearance of its roots.) no certain knowledge of the time and occasion 
^^PENTARiA viRGiKiANA. ofVirgils going to Romc, how his counee- 
ViPiRiMA viRGiN£ANA. Scc SERPEN- tioos with tne wits and mcii of quality began, 
^AtiA viRGivEANA. * . nor how he was introduced 19 the court of 
. VlTERINE. c. {viperimii, Lat.) Belong- Augustus. 

'^ to a viper. In the warmth of early youth, he framed a 

VrpEHOUS. a. (tM'/MTAis, Lat. from rrper.) noble design, of writing an heroic poem Ou 

nirinflr the qualities of a viper iDanM). the Wars uf Rome ; but, after some attempts, 

VIPER'S jJUGLOS. See Ech i um. was discouraged from proceeding, by the rough- 

Viper's CRASS. SeeSco&zoNBRA. nci^ and a5|)erity of the old Roman names. He 

VlRA'GO.t. (I^ai.) 1. A female warrior ; turned himself, therefore, to jpastoral; aud^ 




V I R 



V Slid itvertneis 



bbhts raptivated ' 

of 'rhcocritus, was amuiiioui lo luuuaiicc mis 
new apeciei of poetry sniong the Remans. Hii 
llTSi performance io this way is supposed t-n 
have Wn written U. C. 7O9, ihe year before 
the death of Julius Csur, when llic pDi;t was 
in hit 3Hh year: it is entitled, Alexis. Pos- 
sibly Pal3>Dion wa» his second. Mr. Warlon 
places Silcnus next i which is said to have been 




publicly 
cdeb rated 



1 Ihe 



^ ifih eclogue is 
10 the death and deiliCB. 
of Cesar. The batlleof Philippi in 7IS 
having put an end to the Raman libetty, the 
veteran sold iera began to murmur for their pay ; 
and Augustus, to reward them, distribuied 
amonft them the lands of Mantua and Cremo- 



Vir 



nihis 









applied 10 Varus and Poilio, 
ally recummeoded him to Augustus, and 
procuri^ lot him his patrimony agsin. Full 
of grstilnde lo Aucuslua, he compuled the 
Tltyrns, in which he introduces two shepherds : 
one of them, complaining of the distraction of 
ibc times, and of the bavock the soldiers made 
among the Mantuan farmers ; (he other, re- 
joicing for die lecovely of his estate, and pro- 
mising to honour the per*on who mtoied it 10 
him as a god. Bttt our poet's joy was not of 
long continuance ; for, we are tolil, that when 
he returned to lake uosscssion of his fatm, he 
was violently assaulted by the intruder, and 
would have certainly been killed by him, if he 
had not escaped by swimming hastily over the 
Mincio. U|ion tnii uticxpectcd ditappoltji- 
ment, melancholy and dejected, he rulurncd lo 
Rome, to renew hit petition i and, during his 
journey, seems to have composed his ninth 
eclogue. The cciebialed eclogue, entitled 
Polho. was composed in T\4. upon the follow- 
ing occasion. The consul PolUo on the part 
ofAnlony.and Mxcenaton (he pattofCxtar. 
had maileuplhedillFtcncesbelHeen ihem; by 
urceingi that Octatia, half-sister to Cxsnr, 
inoold be given in marriage to Antony. This 
agreement caused an universal ioy; and Virgil, 
in ihis eclogue, testified his. It is dedicated to 
I^3llia by name, who was at that time consul ; 
and therefore we are sure of the d^le of this 
eclogtie, as it ia known that he enjoyed that 
high office in 714. In 715. Poilio was sent 
■gainst the Parthini, a people of lllyricum ; 
and during this expedition, Virgil addicssed to 
hint a beautiful eclngue, called Pharniaceuirii. 
Hia tenth and last eclogue is addresKd to Gal- 
Im. 

Bcina in his 34th ye^'i he retired lo Naples ; 
and laid the plan of his inimitable tieor^rs, 
which he UDtlertook at the entreaJes of Miece- 
nas, to (vhom he dedicated ihem. They are 
dlfided into four books; and the subjects of 
ihem are pMiicularly spccided in the four first 
Ihicsof the first book. Com and ploughing 
are the subject of the first book, vines of th« 
second, cattle of the third, and beet of ihc 

He is siippoMd to have been In hii 4ilh vear 
1 he oegtn to write th« JEntiii. 1'hii 



V I R 

poem may ve^ well be < 
work. Viigif wrote in dcrence of the new 
usurpation of ihe state ; and all that can be 
offered in his vindication, which however aeeoM 
ennugh, is, that the Roman government eottU 
LIU longer be kept from falling into a single 
hand, and that the usurper he wrutc fot waau 
good a one as they could have. But, whatever 
may be said of his motives for writing tt, ibc 
pr)em has in all ages been highly applauded. 
Augustus was eager lo peruse it IiefoTC it wtt 
finished ; and entreated him by leiiers iri coin- 
municate it. The poet at leuitth complied, 
and read himself the sixth book 10 the emperor, 
when Octavia, who had just Iwt her son Mar* 
cellus, the darling of Rome, and adripted ton nf 
Adgustu;, made one of the audii-nce. Vir^ 
had anfuUy inserted a beautiful lameiiiatios 
for the death of young Marccllus ; upon heat- 
ing which, Octavia could bear no more, but' 
fainted away, overcome with surprise and lor* 
row. When she recovered, she luade the Met 
3 present of ten sesterces for evciy line, whtcll 
amouuted in the whole to above SOOO/. 

The £neid beina brought to a coneinMn, 
but not In the perfection our author •nieiidca 
10 give it, he resolved to lra^el into Greece, lo 
correct and [lolish it at leisure. Augustus, re- 
ttiming victorious from the East, iiiei with 
Virgil at Alhtni, who thought himself obliged 
to attend the emperor to Italy, but the poei wm 
suddenly seized with a fatal distempci, which, 
being increased hy ihc agitati'in of the veasel. 

Sit an end to his life as Mon as he latidcd u 
rundusium. He dird Septimber fed, in tut 
A?d jvar. He had ordered in bis will, that (he 
£aeid should be burnt as an unfinished iioemi 
but Augustus forbade it, and had it deiiieted 
to Varius and Tucca, with the strictest chaim 
to make no addiiinni, but only to publrsh it 
corrccilv. He died with such steaJineaa and 
traoquiility, as lo l>c able to dictate hia ftwB 
epitaph. His bones were carried 10 Napki, 
according to his earnest requeil ; and a mmn- 
ment was erected at a sioall distance fmn ill* 



"'ft» 



genuine and undifpured works of ihii 
poet arc ten Eclogues, or Uucnlics, four booU 
of Gcoieics, and the ^neid in twelve book*. 
The Cuiix, iht Cciiis. and somcsiualtet ptoe**, 
called Caialecta, are subjoined lu some eililiooi 
ofhisworkr. For ciilical accounts ofih* vari- 
ous editions of Virgil, the reader i> referred to 
Dr. Clarke's Bibliographical Diclioiiaiy, and 
I^bdin's Introduction to the Cla»in. 

VlROIL (Polydore). Sec PuLVDOBB. 

ViHGIN.*. (rierge, Pt. virgo. Lai.) I. JL 
maid ; a woman unacquainted with mnt (Gt— 
neiii). 2. A woman not ■ mother (JgUtww). 
3. Any thing untouched or unmingled 1 anjr 
thing pure (DerAam). 4. The sign itf the m- 
diac in which the tim is in August (ATtlfM). 

Vi'KCiH.a. Befitting a virgin i luJuUe to 
a virgin i maidenly (Coio/n). 

r«Vi'ROiK.r.f.. tacantworf.) Taplar 
the virgin {Shahprarr). 

VtaciK Cape, acapeorPatajmnia. 



1*1. iS. 83 S. 



.la. i^^>^ 



^lt«nt GonitA, GiiKATViRcis/orSpA- 
'auaTowH, oneofihr Virgin Islands, in the 
w. Indid. Ii hu twD good harbours, wiih 
•ooMathctUbnilideptndiiietinit (see Virgin 
ItLASM). «nc! Udefendedliyarorl'silufilein 
i0fi.64.OW.1it. IS. 18 N. 

ViKcrie ItLAKDS.abouOOislandg.indlieys, 
in ihe W. Indies, bctwrtn Si. Juan de Pucito 
Kco «inf the Li«iv3rd Cntibbee Islands. Tliey 
wen called Lii Virgines by ihe Spaniards, ' 



InX" 



In the finl division, belongina to the Eiig 
bTorlaU, the principal, lo which belongs 
YiM CKke'i and Little V»n Dyke's, Gi 
Ille, wtlh Beef and Thatch Islands. 



JdsC 



In Ihe 

Mcond division is Viiinn Gorda, to which be- 
bnc Ane^da, or Drowned Iitc, Nicker, 
IHsckl; Pear, and Muskllo hltiTid>, the Com- 
nannc*. Scrub and D(w Islands, the Fallen 
Ci^ <(«vo tiwlty islets, close loRelher, at a dis- 
OBCcretcinbling ruins) the Round Hock, Gin- 
ger, Cooper's Salt Island, Peter's liland, and 
the DtmI Chest. Of the Danish division, ihc 

Cndpal iilaiiJi are Si. Tliomai and Si. John. 
n. from (i3. 45 to 64. 66 W. Lai. from I7. 
ID to 18. 30 N. 

VfRGlNAL. a. (frotn virpn.) Maiden i 
maiilrnly : pt^ruiiiing to a virgin (ffaminond). 

r» Vi'boimai.. B. n. Topat; lo strike as 
oa the tirglnil : a cant word (Shakipeare). 

ViRCtHAL, a stringed and keyed musical 
ituimiDcnt, resembling the harpsichord. For- 
oMrlj in much diecm, but now eniirely out of 

VtSGINI.'l. danghlei of the cenlurion L. 
Vit|ptiiu>. Apf"!'" Claudius, the decemvir, 
Wetme euaniouied of her, and 10 obtain pos- 
■otioo ot her person, procured one or his fa- 
* tij (Ilea tu claim her u ihe daughter of a slave, 
and Ap]iliM, in the capacity of judge, had pro- 
noonctil ihe lenunce, and deliveied her into 
tti« handi of his friend, when Virginius, in- 
fanned of ihts violent proceeding, arrived from 
tht amp. The father demanded to see his 
diu^ter, anil when ihif request was granted, 
btuutehed a kniTe and plunged it in Virginia's 
\itniL The soldiert, incensed against the 
•Jltni, marched to Rome. Appiuswas seized, 
mdntravvd himself in prison, and Marcus 
CluiiliiH, nil favourite, was put to death, and 
<Ih decemviral power abollsned, about 449 

r"> B. c. 

VliaiKIA, one of the United States of 
Aaierict, bounded on the S. by N. Carolina 
•ndTenUKe, on the W. by Kentucky, nn the 
"-hrftmnMlvaniaand the river Ohio, and on 
*«E. by Ihe Atlantic ocean. Itis44flmile» 
lolngth, and 924 In breadth. The principal 
*W» are James, York, Roppahinnoc, and 
^XAmae, which an full of convenient har- 
"ors; and iheie ate also maiiy small rivers, 
loaie of which arc capable of^ receiving the 
jjin^ tiwTchint ship. Theclimaieii various. 
">' lam) toward the mouth of the rivers is nc- 
""allylow, and fit for rice, hemp, and Indian 
""", thot^ at present iiockea with many 
•Mis of treei, from 30 to 70 feet high. The 



V I R 

land nichet up the livers is generally level, and 
watered! with 'prings : but there are here and 
there some iniall hiils. That near the sea it 
generally sandy, and without stones, for whicb 
reason the liories are seldom shod. The rich- 
est lauds lie near the branches of the rivers, 
and abound with various sortji of limber, sur- 

C' 'iigly large. The princi^l produce is to. 
0, wheal, and Indian coruj but the cul- 
ture of tobacco has considerably declined in 
favour of that of wheal. Virginia is divided 
into SS counties, and in I790co«tained747|6lO 
tiihabitanis, including 892,687 slavet. "" ^^ 
capital is Richmond. 
VIRGINIAN ACACIA, in bottny. 

ROBIHIA. 

ViRGis-iAK CREEPER, in botany. 



See Spircea. 
ViRcivTAV PIKB, in botany. See Prt 

TOLACCA. T 

VtRGis-iAH SILK, in botany. See Psn 

VlRCINIAH TOBACCO. See NlCi 

VrRGINITY.i.{fiVg.mVa.,Lal) Mail 

head ; 11 n acquaintance wiih man (Tay'or). 

VIRGINS ROWER (Uprighi). 
Flammula jo vis and Clematis. 

VIRGO, in astronomy, one nf the signs 
constellations of the zoiliac, which Ihe tun en- 
lers about the ?lst or 9Sd of August: being 
one of the 48 old can^iellatiarit, and is nteo- 
ttoned by the astronomers of all age^ and iia- 
tlons, ivhose works have reached uv Ancient- 
ly the fi<-ii>e was ibal of a uiil. almost naked, 
with an e.tr of corn in hernaiid, cridi-nily to 
denote the time of harvest among the people 
who invented litis sign, whoever they were, 
lint the Greeks much altered the lifure, with 
clothes, wings, &c. and variously cxpiuined the 
origin of it b^ their own fablei: thus, ihey tell 
us that the virgin, now evalicd into the skies, 
was, while on earth, that Justitia, the ilaughKi 
ui Astrxus and Ancora, who lived in the golden 
age, and taught mankind their duty ; but 
who, when ihcir crimes increased, was obliged 
10 leave the earth, and lake her place in the 
heavens. Again, Hesiod gi%ei the celestial 
maid another origin, an'l says she was the 
(JBUghter of Jupiter and Themis. There arc 
alto others who depart from both these ac- 
counts, and make her to have been Erignne. 
the daughter of Icaiiust while uthen make 
her Parlhene, the daughter of Apollo, who 
placed her there j and oihen, from ihe car of 
com, niake it a representation of Ceres ; and 
others, from the ot^curity of her bead, of For- 

The ancients, as thejr gave each of the IV 
months of ihe year to the care of tome one of 
the IS principal detiies, M>they also threw into 
the pmieciion of each of lhe<e one of the IS 
sijfns uf the zodiac. Hence Viivo, from ihi 
of corn in her hind, naturally M\ to the 
Cerei. and we aecoidingly 6nd it called Sii 
Cere" 



The; 



n the coiutellatioa Virgo, 



] 



V I R VIS 

lemy's catalogue, are 32 ; in Tycho's 33 ; in VI'RULENTLY. arf. {(romvintleni,) M«- 

Hevdius's 50 ; and in tlie Biitannic 1 10» viz. lignantly; with bitterness. 

1.0.5.11.38. and 65. VIS, a Laiin word, signifying force or 

VIRGULTUM. ( virgulcium^ a virguia^ di- power ; adopted }^y writers on physics, to ex« 

min. a virga,) Small twigs or brushwood, press divers kinds of natural oowers or facalUcs. 

Otherwise called cremiunij a cremando, from The term vis is either active or passi^re :^ the 

buminp. vis activa is the power of producing motion s 

VriULE. a. {virilis, Latin.) Belonging th/e vi< pajfftra is that of receiving: or losing it. 

to man ; not puerile \ not feminine. The m aciiva is again subdivided into vii vivm 

VlRi'LITi. «. (virililas, Latin.) J. Man- and vis muriual 

hood; character of man C7^am('/er). S. Power Vis absoluta, or absolute FoacE, is 

of procreation ( Brown), that kind of centripetal force which is measurc|il 

VIRNENBERG, a town and citadel of by the motion that would be generated by it 

Vl^estphalia, the capital of a countv to which in a given body, at a given distance, and dc- 

it gives name. It is twenty miles W. of Co- pends on the efficacy of the cause producing it 

blentz. Lon. 7* 5 E. Lat. 50. S7 N. Vis acceleratrix, or accelerating 

VIRTON, a town of Austrian Luxemburg, force, is that centripetal force which pro* 

S2 miles \V. of Luxemburg. Lon. 5. 41 E. duces an accelerated motion, and is propor- 

Lat. 4g. 36 N. tional to the velocity which it generates in a 

Vl'RTUAL. a. (virtue!, Fr. from virtue.) given time; or it is as the motive or absolute 

Having the efficacy without the sensible or ma- force directly, and as the quantity of matter 

terial part {Stillingfleet). moved inversely. 

Virtual focus, in optics, is a point in Vis impressa is defined by Newton io be 

the axis of a glass, where the continuation of the action exercised on any body to change its 

a refrtfcied ray meets it. state, either of rest, or moving uniformly io a 

Virtual VELOCITY. Sec Velocity. right line. 

VIRTUA'LITY. i. (from virtual.) Effi- This force consists altogether in the action ; 

cacy {Brown). and has no place in the body after the action it 

ViRTUA'LLY. ad. (from virtual.) In ef- ceased: for the body perseveres in every new 

feet, though not materially {Hammond). state by the vis ineriie alone. 

To Vl'RTUATE. v. a. (fnim virtue.) To This vis impressa may arise from varioas 

make efficacious : not used {Harvey). causes ; as from percussion, prcssion, aocl ccn* 

Vl'RTUE. 1. {virtus, Latin.) 1. Moral trinftal force, 

goodness: opposed to t'tcf( Pope). 2. A par- Vis inertije, or power ofivactivitt* 

ticular moral excellence {Addison). 3. Me- is defined by Newton to be a power implanted 

dicinal nuality {Bacon). 4. Medicinal effi* in all matter, by which it resists any change 

cacy {Aadison). 5. ElFicncv ; power {Atter- endeavoured to be made in its state, that is, hy 

hury). 6. Acting power {Slark). ?. Secret which it becomes difficult to alter its state, 

agency; rfficacy, without visible or material eiiher of rest or motion. 

action {Davies), 8. Bravery; valour {Ra- This power t lien aprees with the vis resisten- 

leiek). p. Excellence ; that wMch gives ex- di, or |)owcr of resisting, by which every body 

cencncQ {Ben Jonson). 10. One of ttie orders endeavours, as much as it can, to persevere in 

of the rclcsiial hierarchy {Tickel). its own stale, whether of rest or uniform recii- 

VI'RTUELESS. a, (from virtue.) 1. linear motion; which power is still proper- 

Wanting virtue; deprived of virtue. 2. Not tional to the body, or to the quantity of matter 

having efficacy; without operating qualities in it, the same as the.wcight or griivity of the 

{Hakewill). bfnly ; and yet it is quite uiHerent from, and 

VIRTUCKSO. 5. (Italian.) A man skilled even indejiendent of, the force of gravity, and 

in antique or natural curiosities ; a man stu- would be and act just the same if tht* body 

dious of painting, statuary, or architecture were devoid of ^raviiy. Thus, a body by this 

{Dryden). force resists the san>e in all directions, upwards 

Vl'RTUOUS. a. (from rir/ttf.) 1. Mprally or downwards or obliquely; whereas gravity 

good iShakspearc)» '2. Chaste {Shakspeare). acts only downwards. 

3. l>me in consequence of moral goodness Bodies only ixert this power in changes 

{Drtfden). 4. Efficario:is; p >wcrful (3/t7/.). brought on tiieir state by Mmie vis tmpre»sa. 

5. Having wonderful or eminent pro(>ertics force impressed on them. And the excrci«eor 

{Spenser). 6. Having medicinal qualities. this power is^ in different respects, both rc«ist- 

Vl^lTUOCSLY. ad. (from virtuous.) In ance and iru|:ctus ; resistance, as tlie body op- 

a virtuous m.inner {Drn.ham). poses a force im;)rob^ed on it to change its state ; 

VrRTUOUS.NESS. *. (from virtuous.) and impetus, as ihe same Ixxly endeavours w 

The state or character of b.'ing virtuous {iiptn" change the state of the resisting obstacle. Phil. 

ser). Nat. Princ. Math. lib. 1. 

VIRULENCE. V/Rt'LLNrv. s. (from ei- The vis iiKriia.\ the same itreat author o7^e- 

mlcnt.) Mental |)oi«on ; malignity ; acrimony where observes, is a passive principle, by which 

oftem|>er; biitrrncs^ (^V{/lr). bodies |>ersist in their motion or rest, and re- 

VI'RU LENT. a. (fir«/rii/Ms Latin.) 1. Poi- ceivc* motion, in proportion to the ft>rce im- 
sonous ; venomous, 'j. Poj^oned in tho miad ; pressing it, and resist as much as they are re- 
bitter i uuligiiatit. listed. Sec Rt^urANCK and Lslrtia* 



VIS VIS 

ViscESTMPBTA. SecCEHTRAL FORCES. Dcar, hawthom, service, hascl, maple, asbt 

Vis motrix. Sec Moving force. lime-tree, willow, elm, horn-beam, &c. It 

Vi« ELASTiCA. Sec Vis mortua. is siip|)06cd to be propagated by birds, especially 

Vis insita, in medicine, a pro|>erty which by the field-fare and thrush, which feed upon 

b defined bj Haller to be that power by which its berries, the see<ls of which pass through the 

a uittscle, when wounded, touched, or irritated, bowels unchanged , and alone with the excre- 

contncts^ independent of the will of the ani- ment adhere to the branches of trees where they 

Dial that it the object of the experiment, and vegetate. 

without its feeling pain. See Irritability. The missletoeof theoak has, from the times 

Vis medicatrix nature, a term em- of the ancient druids, been aiwavs preferred to 

ployed by physicians to express that healing that produced on other trees; out it is now 

power in an animated body, bv which, when well known that the viacus quercus differs in 

dueaoed, the body b enabled to regain its no respect from others, 

healthy actions. This plant is the t^ of the Greeks, and was 

Vis MORTUA. Vis elastica. That pro- in former times thought to possess many medi- 

perty by which a ranscle after the death ot the cinal virtues ; however, we learn but little 

animal, or a muscle immediately after having concerning its efficacy from the ancient writers 

been cut out firom a living body, contracts. on the materia medica, nor will it be deemed 

Vis VERY OS A. This property is considered necessary to state the extraordinaiy powers 

by Whytt to be another power of the muscles ascribed to the missletoe by the crafty designs of 

by which thev act when excited by the nerves, druidical knavery. Both the leaves and branches 

VISAGAPATAM, a town of the peninsula of the plant have very little smell, and a very 

of Hindustan, in the circle of Cicacole, 50 weak taste of the nauseous kind. In distilla- 

miletS-W. ofCicacoIe, and lOON.E. ofRa- tion they impregnate 'water with their faint 

jamcmdry. Lon. 83. 40 K. Lat. 17.45N. unpleasant smell, but yield no essential oil. 

Vl'SAGE. s. (visage^ Fr.) Facej counte- Extracts, made from them by water, are bit- 

n^nce ; \ack {ffaller). terish, roughish, and sub-saline. The spiri- 

VISCERA. The plural oftnseus. tuous extract of the wood has the greatest au- 

Vl'SCERATE. V. a. {viscera, Lat.) To sterity, and that of the leaves the greatest bit- 

cmbowel : to exenterate. terness. The .berries abound with an ex- 

VISCID. a. {oisciduSf Latin.) Glutinous ; tremely tenacious and most ungrateful sweet 

lenacions. mucilage. * 

VlSCl'DITY. 1. (from viscid,) I. Glu- The viscus quercus obtained great reputation 

tinott»ness ; tenacity ; ropiness {Arhuihnot). 2. for the cure of epilepsy ; and a caae of this dis* 

GIAtifioQS concretion {Ftoyer). easef of a woman of quality in which it proved 

VISCXXSITY. 1. (vitcocitt, Fr.) 1 . Glu- remarkably successful, is mentioned by Boyle. 

tinousiiest; tenacity (Arhulknot). 2. Agio- Some years afterwards its use was strongly re- 

tinous sobstance {Broum), commended in various convulsive disorders by 

VISCOUNT {Vice Comes), was ancieolly Colbach, who has related several instances of 

an officer onder an earl, to whom, during his its good effects. He administered it in sub- 

attendanee at conrt, he acted as deputy to look suiice in doses of half a dram, or adram^ of the 

after the affiiirs of the country. But the name wood or leaves, or an infusion of an ounce. 

was afterwards made use of as an arbitrary This author was followed by others, who have 

title of honour, without any shadow of office ' not only ^iven testimony of the efficacy of the 

pertaining to it, by Heniy VL; when, in the misslctoe m different convulsive affections, but 

I8ih year of bis reign, he created John Beau- also in those complaints denominated aervogf» 

moot a peer, by the name of Viscount Beau- in which it was supposed to act in the chanc* 

BNOt; which was the first instance of the terofatonic. 

^iod. A Tiscoont is created by patent as an But all that has been written in favour of 

tuiis; hb title is right honourable ; his man- this remedy, which is certainly well deservii>^ 

tie is two doublings and a half of plain fur; of notice, has not prevented it from falling 

*od his coronet has only a row of pearls close into general neglect ; and the eolloges of Loo* 

Id iHe circle. don and Edinburgh have, perhaps not without 

Vl'SCOUNTESS.s. The lady of a viscount reason, expunged it from their catalogues of 

Vl%OUS. a. (t;t5caftii, Lat.) Glutinous ; the materia medica. 

•t»cW; tenacious {Bacon), VISCUS, in medicine, any organ or part 

VlSCUM. Missletne. In botany, h senus which has an appropriate use, as the viscera of 

^f the dass dioecia, order tetandria. Male : the abdomen, &c. 

fiJyxless; peub four, resembling a calyx, di- VISHNEI VOLOTCHOK, a town of 
bted and ooitcd at the base ; anthers sessile, Russia, in 'the government of Tver. It hat a 




'^ed ; heads of the flowers axillary. It n a the universe. Brahma b the creator, and Siva 
^*^\k shmbj gftrntog oa the oak, apple^ the destroyer : and these two, with Vishnou, 



VIS VIS 

united in some inexplicable manner, constitute from which the pencil* of rays teeniinEly con* 

Brahme, or the supreme numen of the Hin- verge at their entrance into the pupn. Bat 

dus. when rays issue from below the surface of a 

VISIBI'LITY. 1. (visihiUti, Fr. from vu vessel of water, or any other refracting medium, 

sihle,) I. The sute or oiiality of being per- he finds that there are always two diflerent 

ceptible to the eye. 2. State of being appa- places of this seeming convergence : one of 

rent, or openly discoverable ; conspicuousness. them of the rays that issue from it in the same 

VrSIBLE. f. Perceptibility^ by the eye. vertical circle, and therefore fell with diffeicnt 

Vi'siBLE. a. {uisil'le, Fr. visiuitisf Latin.) degreesof obliquity upon the surface of there* 

1. Perceptible by the eye iDryden), 2, Dis- fracting medium; and another of those that 

covered to the eye {Shaksoeare). 3. Apparent; fall ufion the surface with the same decree oC- 

open; conspicuous (C/ar«iidbfi). obliquity, entering the eye laterally with ic* 

Visible, something that u an object of spect to one another. He says, sometimes one 

sight or \ision, or son ething whereby the eye of these images is attended to by the miodt 

is affected, so as to produce a sensation. and sometimes the other ; and difiereot images 

The Cartesians %ay that light alone is the may be observed by different persoDi. And 

proper object of vision. But according to he adds, that an object plun^ in water af** 

r^^ton, colour alone is the proper object of fords an example of this duplicity of images, 
sight; colour bein^ that [)roperty of light by From the principle above illustrated, several 

wnich the light itself is visiole, and by remarkable phenomena of vision may be ac* 

which the images of opaque bodies are painted countefl for : as — ^That if the distance between 

on the retina. Phikwtphers in general had two visible objects be an angle that is iosen- 

formerly taken for granted, that tne place to sible, the distant bodies will appear as if coDti- 

which the eye refers aiiy visible object, seen guous : wh^poe, a continuous oody, being the 

by reflection or refraction, is that in which the result of several contiguous ones, if the di- 

visual ray meets a perpendicular from the ob« stances between several visibles subtend insen-* 

jMt upon the reflecting or the refracting plane, sible angles, they will appear one cootinooui 

That this is the case with respect to plane mir- bodv ; which gives a pretty illustration of ihe 

rors is universally acknowledged ; and some notiou of a continuum. Hence also parallel 

experiments with mirrors of other forms seem lines, and long vistas, consisting of parallel 

to favour the same conclusion, and thus afford rows of trees, seem to converge more aiid mote 

reason for extending the analogy to all cases of the further they are extended from the eye ; 

vision. If a right hue be held perpendicularly and the rooft and floors of long extended alleys 

over a convex or concave mirror, its image seen, the former to descend, and the latter to 

seems to make one line with it. The same is ascend, and approach each other ; because the 

the case with a right line held perpendicularly apparent magnitudes of their perpendiciilar in- 

within water ; for the part which is within the tervals are perpetually diminishing, while at 

water seems to be a continuation of that which the same time wc mistake tlieir distance. See 

is without. But Or. Barrow called in ques- Priestley's Light and Colours, 
tion this method of judging of the place of an The mind perceives the distance of visible 

object, and so opened a new field of inquiry objects, 1st, From the different configurations 

and debate in this branch of science. This, of the eye, and the manner in which the rays 

with other optical investigations, he published strike the eye, and in which the image is im- 

in his Optical Lectures, first printed in l674. pressed upon it. For the eye disposes itself 

According to him, we refer everv point of an differently, according to the different distances 

object to the place from which the pencils of it is to see ; viz. for remote objects the pupil if 

light issue, or from which they would have dilated, and the crystalline brought nearer the 

iEsued, if no reflecting or refracting substance retina, and the whole eye b made more glob- 

intervened. Pursuing this principle, Dr. Bar- ous ; on the contrary, for near objects, the 

row proceeded to investigate the place in which pupil is contracted, the crystalline thrust for* 

the rays issuing from each of the points of an wards, and the eye lengthened. Again, the 

object, and that reach the eye after one reflec- distance of visible obiecis is judged of by the 

tion or refraction, meet; and he found tliat angle the object makes; from the distinct or 

when the refracting surface was plane, and confused repre:»enution of the objects ; and 

the refraction was made from a denser medium from the briskness or feebleness, or the rarity or 

into a rarer, those rays would always meet in a density of the ravn. To this it is owing, 1st, 

place between the eye and a perpendicular to That objects which appear obscure or confined 

the point of incidence. If a convex mirror be are judged to be more remote; a principle 

iiseo, the case will he the same; but if the which the painters make use of to cause some 

mirror be plane, the rays will meet in the per- of their figures to api^ear further distant than 

pendicular, and b«*yond it, if it be concave, others on the same plane. Vd, To this it is 

He also dtrteruiined, according to these prin- likewise owing that rooms whose walla are 

ciples, what form I he image of a right line will whitened, appear the smaller; that fields co» 

take when it i< prc»ented in dilTcrent manners vered with snow, or white flowers, appear lest 

toa sphtrricai mirror, or when it is seen through than when clothed with grass ; that mountains 

a refracting ine<li II m. covered with snow, in the night-time, appear 

M. B lugm-r adopts Barrow's general maxim, the nearer, an<l that opaque bodies appear the 

in supposing that we refer objects to the place more remote in the twiliglit. 



Mpcanofeaual migniiudc rron 
iBc drcttcnKitnce, though oi 



VIS 

Tti* RUipiiiiide or (ijible objects a known 
dtivflf by Uie angle contnincd belwcen livo 
n]rt tmwo from the twoMlremeaof iheobjecl 
to thec*iiUc«f Iheeje. An object appears 9u 
Urge M it tbe angle it lutilcnK*} or bodiei 
KTU uodft ■ greater angle, a pl>ear greater ; and 
Umbc under ■ leu angle, less, ke. Hence the 
»ii)pihingapi>ear*greaieror leusB it is nearer 
the ne «( further off. And this i> called the 
■p yw ent nuvniiDile. Bat to judje of the real 
M^nitude of an object, we 1111191 consider lUe 
iiattttee ; fat tincc a near and a remote object 
aim ■ppeit undei equal aiisle«, though the 
migBiuidei be dlKrent, the distance must ne- 
coMrily be csiimaicd, because the magnitude 
nffCMnrimallaccDrdiiiguihe distance is. So 
tbal tbe real magnitnde ii in the compound 
latin of tbe ditiapce and the apparent magni- 
n»Ut al kaitnhen the subtended angle, or 
aaparcni tnagnitude, it very soiall ; oiherwite, 
lAe real magnitude will be in a ratio com- 
pwiwfaJ of ine ditiance and the (ine o( the ap- 
pafent utgnitnde, nearly, or nearer still its lan- 
fKnU HeiKe. «bj«ci« «ecn under the same an- 
cle, heie ttieir tnainiludet in the same laiio at 
The chord of an arc of a circle 
:r; point in 
_ It be tastly 
Dianr than another. Or if the eye be fixed in 
Miffaian in the circiimferrnce.and a right line 
he BOi*d'mind.(oasit« extremes be always in 
ibc periphery, it will appear of the lame mag- 
Blladt in Kvwy po^ilion. And the rcsioii if, 
fc«e*iue lh< angle it sublendi in always of the 
tamcma^iitaJe. And hence al«n, the eye be- 
inv plica in any angle of a regular polygon, 
ihewlaof it will all iipprjr of etjunl magni- 
tude i beinf; all equ^t chords of a circle de- 
KTibrdabuui it. If the magnitude of an object 
tuttt\f opposite 10 the eye be etguul lo iti di- 
ittoee from the eye. the whole oajeci will be 

Hf teen, or taken in by the eye. but no- 
•re. And the nearer you approach an 
Bm les) part you see of it. The least 
lAtl which an ordinary object becomes 
l-lbonl one minute of a d^r 
Bgure of liiible objecu '* 
t(M^ feral our opinion of the 
tluttvoal parU of the ohiect. Thiiopini 
tf tbt alMaiion, Sec. enable* ihe mind to ap- 
pdwnd an external uhjrct under this or that 
|i|V*. mort justly than any similitude of the 
■tt^in (he retina, with >ne object, can ; the 
■■■jn being often elliptical, oblong, Sec. 
*Wn ibe objecia ihey 'exhibit to the aiind are 
«"*!, ot «)..»re«. &c. 

UNlanaof ■iiinn, with regard to iheliftnrcs 
^tnible object*, are, 1. That if the centre 
JTllkqrc be exactly in the direction of a right 
'"t. ille line will appear only ■* a point. 9. 
'I tiK cyt be [>l«c«d m the direction of a >ur- 
J^, it wiltaT>|ie)ronlyasaliiic. 3. If a body 
^ •>IJ«Mcd directly toward* tbe eye, so a« only 
P** plane of the turrace can radiate on ii. the 
^"dj •ill apiieaT a« a aurface. 4. A remote 
?'*fi, riewed by «n eye in the *amc plane with 
> "ill ajipeiir a* a right line. i. A s|>here. 
***cd at a dittance, appeana circle. 6. Au- 



VIS 

gular figures, at a great di*tance, ujually ap- 
pear round. ;. If the eye look obliquely on 
the centre of a regular figure, or a circle, the 
true fijore will not be aeen; but the circle 
will appear elliniical, 3tc. 

Vl-SIBLENESS. .. (from vnilU.) Smt 
or quality of being fliihle. 

Vl'SIBLY. a£ {from t,uii/e.) In a man- 
ner perce|niblc by the eye (Dryden). 

VlSIliR, an officer or dignitary in the Ot- 
toman empire, whereof there are two kinds; 
one called by the Tutks «>tier-azem. that is, 
grand visier, is the prime minister of flate in 
the whole empire. He commands the army 
in chief, and presides in the divan or great 
council. Next to him are six other subordi- 
^at^; visiers, called rliier* nf the bench ; who 
officiate as hi* counsellors or aiKuort in the 
divan. 

VI'SION. I. {mtion, French 1 lim, Lai.) 
1. Sight; ihc faculty of fleeiiiB (ATnfl/oi,). g. 
The act of seeing (HaniTaond), 3. A super- 
natural appearance ; a spectre ; a phantom 
( ilillon). 4. A dream ; something shown in 3 
dream (Lockr). 

For the theory of vision, according to the 
fit^t of the above acceptations, see Sicbt, 
See also Mr. Andrew Horn's ingenious work, 
lately published, entitled The Seat of VisloQ 

Vl'SIONARY. a. {visienairt, French.) 1. 
Affected by phantoms ; disposed to receive im- 
pressions on the im33;ioadon (Pope). S. Ima- 
Rinary ; not real ; seen in a dream ; perceived 
by the Imagination only (Sw^). 



. Vi'a; 



) mi mated 



French.) One whose imagination is disturbed 
{Tumrr). 

To Vl'SIT. li. a. ieintcr, Fr. initio, Lai.) 
■ To go to sec IPopt). S. To setid good or 

r ■ .- - ". - j^^IjIj ^ 

.^iih jtidicial atithority iAyUffry. 

To'Vi'slT. t, n. Tukeepupilieialcreoui 
of ceremonial salutation* at the houses of 1 
olhrr {Late). 

Vi'siT. .. (diiVf, Pr. from the verb ) 
act of aoinR 10 sfe another {Walli). 

VI-SITABLE. 0. Cfrom ««/,) Liable 
bevlMted {Avhfft). 

VI'SITANT. I. (fiwm dji/.) One 



wh9^^ 



ad of tiiiling {Skakipeart). V. Objvcts of 
visits (Millar). 3. Judicial visit or pcTJnibu- 
Ution {.lytifn- 4. Judicial evil .cnt by God 
{Taylor), 5, Communication of divine love 
iHookfT). 

VISITATO'RIAL. «. (from ««/«■.) Be- 
lomUng to n judicial visitor Crfy/iTTe). 

VI'SITER. I. (fr..n. Bi«V.) I. One who 
comw to ttr anolhet (Swift). 2. An otca- 
rional judgr; one who regulates the dlionler* 
ofanvsoriiily (Cor/*). 

VI-SIVE. 0. (.■-«/; Fr.) Formed in the 
icti>f«eing(Bro«me). 

VISNEA. in bniany. a grnui of the clasa 
dodecandria, order lrig)'nia. Calyx 6ve-lcave^^ 



V I T V I T 

inferior: enrol fi ve- petal led ; stiemas three; To VITl LITIGATE, v.n. (vifiosus und 

nut two or three-celled, half inferior. One lilt sti, haiin.) To contend in law cavillously. 

8j)ecies only, a shnih of the Canaries, with al- VlTl LITIGATION, s, (from vUiliiigaie.) 

ternatc leavi-s, and suiall yellow flowers. Contention ; t^villation {Iludihra^), 

VI'SNOMY. *. (corrupted from pAyj/ogno- VITIO'SITY. j. (from ri/toius, Latin.) 

wy.) Face; cotmtcnance : not in use(.S/>.'). Deprd\itY; corruption (6oaM). 

VrSOR. J. Wi^Hs, Ut. viticre, Fr.) A mask VlTlOUS. a, {viliosus, Latin.) 1. Car- 

used to disfigure and disguise (Shakspeare). rupt ; wicked ; opposite to virtuous iAIiiton). 

VrsOUIil3.a.(from visor.) Masked (A/<7/.). 2. C-orrupt ; having physical ill qualities {Ben 

Vl'STA. J. U^shun.) View; prospect Jvmon). 

through an avenue (/^(/iiion). X'l^IOUSLY. ad. Not virtuously; cor- 

VISTULA, or Weisel, a large river of ruptly. 

Pohiid, which taking its rise in the mountains VfTIOlJSNESS. J. (from vitiouM.) Cor« 

south of Silesia, visits Cracow, Warsaw, &c. ruptness ; state of being vitious (.South), 

and continuing its course northward, falls into VlTlS. Vine. In botany, a geniu oTthe 

the Baltic sea below Dantzic. class |)entandria, order monogynia. Petals co- 

Vl'SUAli. a, {visicl, Fr.) Used insight; hiring at the tip, withered; berry superior, 

exercising the power of sight ; instrumental to five-seeded. Twelve species; natives of the 

sight {Miltori). Knsi Indies and America, except vitis vinifm, 

VITaE ARBOR. See Arbor vitje. which is found in all temperate climates. The 

Vita LIGNUM. SccGuiacum. following are cultivated. 

VITAL, a. {vitalis, Latin.) 1. Contribut- 1. V. vinifera. Common vine, 

ing to life; necessary to life. S. Relating to '2. V. Indica. Indian vine, 

life {Shakspeare) 3. Containing hfe iMillon), 3. V. laciniosa. Parsley-leaved vine. 

4. Being the seat of life '{Pope). 5. So dis- 4. V. arborea. Pepper vine, 

posed ns to live (Brown). 6. Essential ; chiefly The first is of by far the most consequence ; 

nectrssary (Corbet). and it is characterised by having lobed, sinoate. 

Vital actions. See Vital func- naked leaves. It has an abundance of varieties, 

Tioxs. %vhich we have neither space to detail, nor can 

Vital functions. Vital actions. Those perceive any utility in attempting to do so. 

actions of the body upon which life imniedi- They are ah'ke propagate^l from layers or cut- 

ately depends, as tne circulation of the blood, tings. The former is the method usually prae- 

respiration, heat of the body, &c. See Func- tised, hut the latter seems miKh the better. In 

TION. order to propgate vines by cuttings, socb 

Vital principle. 5)eeLiFE. shoots should he chosen as are strong and 

VITALBA. Traveller's joy. This pl.-.nt weil-rijiened, of the last year's erowth ; and 

i» common in onr hedges, ;)nd is the clematis these should be cut from the old vine, just 

vitalha ; folils pinnatis, foliolis cordatis scan- below the place wlirrc they were produced, 

dentibus of Linn^us. lis leaves, when fresh, takinz a knot of the two year^ wood to each, 

produce a warmth on the ton<):iie; and, if the which should be pruned smooth. The upper 

chewin<; is continued, blisters arise. The part of the shoot should then \yc cut ofl', so as 

same effect follows their being rubbed on the to leave ihc cutting about sixteen inches lon^. 

skin. The plant has been administered inter- These cuttings are to be placed with their 

nally to cure lues venerea, scrophula, and rheu- lower part in tlie ground, in a dry place, la}- 

matisms. In France the yoiuig sprouts are in;; some litter about their roots to prevent 

eaten, when boiled, as hopiops are in this them from drying. Here they should remain 

country. till the be<:inning of April, which is the time 

VITA'HTY. s. (from vital.) Power of to plant iligm. They are ilicn to be taken op 

subsisting in life (Rulrigh). and wiped clean, and if very dry, they should 

VKFALLY. ad. (from vital.) In such a stand with their lower narts in water six or 

manner as to give life (Bentley), eight hours. Then, having prepared the beds 

VI'TaLS. .t. (without the singular.) Parts for them, they are to be set at abont six feet 

essential to life (P/ii/i/;^). distance from each other, makine their heads 

VITE'LLARY. i. (from n7f//Ms, Latin.) slant a little towards the wall. The cutting is 

The place where the yolk of the egg swims in to be so buried in the ground, that only the 

the white (Brown). uppermost hud be u]X)n a level with the sur- 

VITEX, Chaste-tree. In l)otany, a genus face ; the earth is then to be well closed about 

of the class didynamia, order angios|)ermia. the plant, and a little mould heaped up over 

Cah'x fi ve- toothed ; corol with the Imrder f ix- the eye of the bud, to keep it from drying, 

cleft; drupe one-seeded, with a four-celled After this no more trouble is necessary- than 

nut. Thirteen s|)ecies, chiefly natives of the to keep the ground clear from weeds, and to 

East or West Indies, or America. nail up the shoot a< it grows, to the wall. 

To VITIATE. V. a. (vilio, Lat.) To dc- rubbing otf all the side shoots. The Michael- 

pravc ; to si|)oil ; to make less pure (iirr/j/fi). mas following, if the cuttings have produced 

VlTIA^riON. 5. (from vitiate.) Deprava- strong shoots, they should be" pruned down to 

tion ; corrujaion (Harvey), two eyc!^. In the spring following the ground 

VITlLIf'O. (from vUio. to infect.^ A dii* i^ carefully to be dug up about the shoots, and 

ejKof the »kin. SeeALi'HUi. the stalks to be earthed up to^the firet eye. 




V I T I S. 

I atl i)m InKiai shooia muM utr ii a|iiH!e4 aicrireU bnowR. Th«-*id 

Ifipptmi, und duty the two wis inrrodund by ttie Roman* inio JStital^ 

which were Itfl musi be anti appran U> have Teiy soon become com^^ 

^ , ', a» they grow, arc to b« moii. Few ancient mnnasttriesweredcalitiila. 

I viWvtP''''**''*^''''* B>ul#& the miilillc of a viiirj'anl, and all the oldest mimconlnin 

ra Juljr thcf ihould be shortenetl, by Dipping Lrace« of luch a plantalion. MalmsbuFy iioiiiii 

f<licit Idpi, and thi) will greatly strengthen out the county of Glouceslcr as excelling every 

thuat. A» the Michatlnins folfowinft'ihEje oilier part of the cnuntrj, in his titlie, 'n the 

ib>wl<J be ftuned, leaving iberu each three number and richness of its vlncysnli. In an 

ejw, if siwng; but rf weakly, only two. The early peiioil of our history the isle of Ely was 

not ui'iunirt ibcre will be (wo shoott from expressly denomiC'iteil the isle of Vines by iht 

•>ch tluMit ;)f the last year's wood I but if there NormjuH. Vineyards are noticed in the 

ibsuH be uvofrotn one eye, which is some- Oui • ■ ■ . . n i .._■ 

Uiart the cue, tlie weaker is lo be nibbed uC the 

Al^liiituniiner tile ends of ihc shooiiare id be Wii 
pBcbed otr at before; all the weak lateral 



Uuomsday.bool;, as aisp by Bojc, as early ai 
' cut of the eighth ceninry, 

Ht this pcfiod ai ■ conimoii 
ithc. I'be bi!<bop of Ely, stjortly after ihg 



II the preceding conquest, appears to have received at least ihtC' 



frequeul reservations of a certain ouanlity of 
. it is \viiic by way of lent. Mar ' " 
Ti'eil, lluE these rurely produce any lilile lurcrinr to the French it 



klhemanigcinrnt of thrown vi 



Vt tCl 



g ahoou fioa wood tb^t ii more tbau, GhuI wai totally withon 

Bftu old; the ^cat csee mufl therefore be nfCa-aar, yei nut nnly this province, but 

ly« in hive plenty of this wood in cicry intetiot of the country, was Inroely clocked ., 

Din Iff ihe tree. The bcjririg shoots for tile early as llie time of :)Irat>o. In the reign o(, ^ 

Ifllowing year should be left at the pruning Vespasian Fiance became famous for her vinfji^ 

tub font eyei each. The under one of these yards, and even eiForted its wines to Italy. '^ 
W(S IMJ bejr, and consequently iliere are only In the a^ of Lucullus, howei er, even (bW 

wee wbich do. Manv leave inorir eyea on the Boiuam thcniiwlvet were setdom able to regtM 

i^Wli, that iJiey may have more riuii. which theinselvcii with wine. Italy raised but htltsjJ 

^ llw fionsequciice ; but then the fruit is mueb and l})e rorei)^ wjiies were *o expensive th^ 

(Oottr 1 an'lthisiiso well known in tbe uiuc ibcy were rarely produced even at enlerloiM 

unaines, ihil tliere are laws to direct that no lacnw i and when ihcy were, eveiy guest wa 

Mtethan such a number of eyes are lo be left unly indulged with a sinale draughl. Hut in 

«a lach shout, for ihr grapes would else be uf the levcnth century, as their conquests jug- 

tpMcjutoe, and drsimy the tepiiiaiiun of rjienicil thettegree oftheirwenllhtDil en^irgcil 

WW wuw. Each of ihe three eyes kfi will the sphere of their hmuiy, wines became an 

jmluee iwo or diree bunches; so thai each otyecl of p«rticu|jr uilehtion, Vauhs were 

^Imm will give six or nine benches, uhich is now eonsirucled, and gradually became wclU 

« outcfa as it cjin hriiig to any peffection. stocked, anil ilic wines of th« country iciiiiircd 

1W ihools niu>l be )«iJ in at about eijijiieen a eonsiilerablc character. The Falcrnian aroFe 

■bcbn asunder ajpiinst the w.'ill j fur if Uiey inniieilljiely inin gical lepnte ; the fashion for 

tRctowr, Mi-hen ilie sidc-thnuu are priwluccd ii, ho»eier, pr^itrcssively give wav; others 

line will be no room to train th$iii in upon rose intn greater fsvniir, upd eipeciiuly ihat of 

tbtwsll; ami ibelargetiessortheleaves ofthe Florence, luwaHs the close of the ceiituryi 

>iae requires alfo that the tliool) should be at atiJ the i ' -■-•--- 

* woportionable distance. 

The bell scHson for prunmg rines it the end cahiliraieU by her w 
tTS^ptunber. or beginniua uf Oeiober. The Vine leaves and tlte tendrils have ■ 

evt II fimny* to be made just above the eye, sliintctnt Uute, pi\d were fnrinerly used i 

Mdjajwd backward from it, ihat if it bleed, diarrhcen!, hxuiorrhages, and other diu>r(teA9 

Ou jiiice may unl run ujion ihe hud ; and ns^uiring refrigerant 9nd styptic meilicina;' 

nbrte there is an opportunity of cutting down The juice or sap of tbe vine, called tachryiiu^ 

K(ne young aha«ts to two eyes, to produce has beeri recommended in calculous ditorueiif 

riprou* ahuotj for the next year's bearing, it and it Is said (o be an excellent ap 

muU alwajn be di>ne, Ili May, when the weak eyes and specks of the aw 

linct are shouting, they should be looked over, unripe fruit his a harsh, rough, 

•Bd sH the shnois from the old wnod should be iUcxpiessedjuice.caUrd verjuice, w 

nsMed off, a* alto the weaker, wlieneicr there much esteemed, but is noiv superseded by 

V« two produced frmn one eye. Duiing the juice of lemnns ; for exi-rnal use, hnwevo^ 

Booth of Slay ihr branches must be n.iiled up pa'ticularly in bnii^>:a v d (lains, lerjuice 

i^nii the wall u they ihoot, and toward ibe siill emplovcd, and eon>ideitH to be a 

btirrend of this month the ends of the bear- useful .■[ipheatinn. See Uva fjiitx, W 

!■{ blanches should W iiipjivd oif, which will Acktum, and ViMevAit.u. 
paulystiengtheii Ihc fruit. Those, however, Vitis jSLBa. TIk >i-hite bryony wa: 

wMen are t» bear tbe next yenr shrnild not be nierly lo cDlIed. S-e Bktohu alha. 
miiipid hefore tlie beginning of July. . VlTIs idxa. Therrd whortleberry. 

Tw.uses '0 which ilin fruit of this valuably Icavu of thir plant, vaceinium rilis ■■' 



;be ni'ire weiierly oarts of Europe were «L 
subjxgateil by tne arms of Italy, iML 



s id«« 4 



V I T V I T 

Linn^us, arc so adstringent as to be nted in VlT&fOL^ in mineralogy. See Viinio* 

some places for tanning. They are said to lum. 

mitigate the pain atiennant on calculous dis- Vitriol of copPBRy in mineralogy. 

eases when uiven internaHy in ibe form of VrrRioLuia. 

decoction. The ripe berries abound with a Vitriol of irov, in mineralogy. 

grateful acid juice ; and are esteemed in Swc« Vitriolvm. 

den as aperient, antiseptic, and refrigerant. Vitriol of lead, in mineralogy. 

and often given in (lutrid diseases. See Vac- PLt^MBUM. 

ciNiUM. Vitriol of zivc, in mineralogy. 

VITIX AGNUS CASTUS. Thetystema- Vitriolum. 

tic name of the chaste tree. See Agnus Vl'TRIOLATE. Vi'triolatbo. a. (vi* 

CASTUS. IrhU, French, from vitriolum, I^atin.) Im* 

VITMANNIA, in botany, a genus of the pregnated with vitriol ; consisting of vitriol, 

class octandria, order monogynia. Calyx four* VrrRICLIC. Vitrio'lous. a. {vHrio^ 

cleft ; corol four-petalled ; nectary a scale at li^ue, French ; from viiriolum, Latin.) Re* 

the base of the titaments; nots semilunate, semblins vitriol ; containing vitriol (#lovfr). 

conipressed, one-seeded. One species only, VITKIOLUM. Vitriol. Sulphuricacidwitk 

an East Indian tree, with round branches, and an earthy or metallic base. Copperas. la 

umbelled, terminal flowers. mineralogy, a genus of the class salts. Of A' 

VITREOUS, o. (rffrfiiJ, Latin.) Glassy; very caustic taste; its watery solution maik. 

consisting of glass ; resemblins slass (/^ojf). turbid both by soda and prussiat of lime ; very 

Vitreous hvmour. xUimor vitreus. soft, mouldering in the air; dtsMlving hkm 

The pellucid body which fills the whole bulb water when exposed to heat, and in a v«j 

of the eye behind the crystalline lens. The strong degree leaving a genuine metallic ozyidl 

whole of the vitreous substance is composed of Nine species. 

small cells which communicate with each 1 . V. magnesii. Sulphat of cobalt. Of & 

other, and are distended with a transparent fluid, rosy red colour, its watery solution defsotiting 

VITREOUSNESS. «. (from vitreout.) . an ochraceous sediment when dinoWed soda 

Resemblance of slass. is poured into it, and a greenish one whc« • 

VI^TRIFICABLE. a. (from vitrificate.) solution of prussiat of lime is poured into it. 

Convertible into glass^ Found in the mines of Neusoht in Hungary : 

To VlTRl'FfCATE. v. a. {viirum and it is soluble in l6 times its tireight of cold 

facto, Latin.) To change into glass {Bacon), water, and melts with borax into a blue glassy 

VITRIFICATION, s. {vitrif cation, Fr. vvhen crysuUised it exhibits an elongated, 

from vitrificate.) Production of glass ; act of eight-sided prism, 

changing, or state of being changra into glass. ^ 9, V. niccoli. Sulphat of niccol. Green ; 

To VirrRIFY. V, a. {vitrijter, French.) its watery solution depositing a whitish-greea 

To change into glass {Bacon). sediment from a mixture of soda. Found ia 

To Vi'trift. v.n. To become glass ; to some mines of Sweden, and usually contains 

be changed into glass {Arbuthnot). some iron ; colour a deep green ; it crystallises 

VITRINGA (Campege), a learned pro- in double four-sided pyramids, with their lips 

fessor of Francker, ana author of many con- truncated ; and sometfmes in large four-sided 

siderable works ; the principal of which are, equal prisms. 

Commentary on Isaiah ; Observationes Sacrse ; 3.V. zinci. Sulphat of zinc. Vitriol of zinc. 
Synagoga Vetus ; }k^ He died in 1779. He White vitriol- While; its watery solution de- 
had a son, also named Campege Viiringa, who positing a white K*dimcnt from a mixture of soda 
gained some reputation by a work called or prussiat of lime, and when evaporated crystaU 
Abr^c^ de la Thcologie Naturelle. lising into four-sided prisms, terminated at 

VITRIOL (Acid of). See Sulphuric both ends by a pyramid. Found in the copper 

ACID. mines of Cornwall snd Anglesea, and in the 

Vitriol (Acid elixir of)* See Elixir zinc mines of Sweden, Bohemia, Germany, 

YITRIOLI ACIDUM. and Hungary ; rarely in its fierfect native sut'e. 

Vitriol (Blue). See Cufrum ▼ITRIO- but generally in a stalactitiral or capillary sute, 

LATUM. or in a loose powdery efflorescence : it is some- 

ViTRKTl (Elixir of). See £lixir vitrio- times blended with a liit!^ iron, and then tine- 

LUM ACIDUM. ture of galls turns its Koluiion blackish : the 

Vitriol (Green). See Fbrrum vitrio- cr^tals are soluble in something more than 

LATUM. twice their weight in water, and effloresce 

Vitriol (Roman). Sec Cuprum vitrio- slowly on ex|)osure to air: specific gravity 

LATUM when crystal li^c(l, 1*912. When in the state 

ViTK lOL (Spirits of). See Acioum sul- in whicH it i< found in the shops, 1*3V75 : con- 

fhuricum dilutum, and Sulphuric tains, according to Bersman, 

ACID. Acid - - 40 

Vitriol (Sweet elixir of). See Elixir Oxyd - - »0 

VITRIOL! nuLCis. Water - 40 

Vitriol (Sweet spirit oO. SeeSpiRiTUS — 

iRTflRRIS virKioi.ici. 100 

Vitriol (White). See ZiNCUM VITRIO* 4. V. enpri. Sulphat of copper. Bloc 

LATi'.M. vitriol. Copper vitriol. Of a deep oiuc colour. 




V IT 

Mdvcnuliinp'-nlacid usle ) its wnlcry wtlil- 
iiaa, wM« cubtuuily miml with a soluiiop o! 
t«tsul««lkali,bcciiBiinKBt>iieikT-bliie. 'Vtitti 
in wtcral varieiioi ihe ii»ller being found 
Hactinc* uf a lighl hlae. conlviiiing capper 
tad iton, or copper, iron, and zinc, uniiej 
wuh tulpbulic >cid ; anil toiDetimei ofa deep 
Uuc, coiiuioiug xiuc aud canpcr unly, uuiied 
miih mlphuric icid. Found ia the copper 
won o^ VVicklow in Ireland, in France, 
ScBMiy. Hunger;, Germany, Sweden, &c. 
temettcna in a *late of Hilution, BOmctiuiei 
cTHBUucdiKstiiacutieal; it hatagiiong iliip- 
tit lauKoui latlC) ii sometimes u>ed bs an 
c«(lk. but more gcDerally as a caustic ; its 
Rjful* arc four'iided )iritmi, with rhomboidil 
wn, wliich B[« loluble iD four times iheir 
weifUt of cotd %mler, and by exposure to the 
M lliey iii);htly effloresce, iDse their lustre, 
Mdare entered with a y el I an is h -grey ponder : 
tkry likewiK commuuicatc a ijreen colour to 
iuBe. A valuable article of commerce it 
■pnSaori by placing thin plales of iron in the 
nitn wtu't it is held ia lolution, for the 
•cid having a aruter afiinitj with iron ihan 
r«pprr. gTadualTy decompoKi it, and leavei 
i^ coppet in iu place. See Copfera^. 
Sjvcidc gntily 9-1943: conuins, according 

Acid • • 33 

Oryd of copper - 3« 
Water - - 36 

too 

S-V-frfil. Snlphatofiron. Gieenvitriol. 
TiHioIaf iion. Martial vitriol. Grecnj hi 
vtiaj nbition depOiiiing an ochraccous aedi- 
ibnil nheu mixed wilha solution of soda, and 
a U)ie one with a pruuiat nf iron, made 
UKliithb; tincture ofgalli. Fouudin Briialti 
tS^ raiious pant of the continenl, in grottoes, 
nvnnt, anil galleries nf mines, in the furtn of 
p>I(-l»di ciysInU, 01 in a grey, or yellowish, 
V loJdiih-grcv efSoroccncc, or ilalactltical, or 
^iiittj, and most Commonly mixed with 
ttmr, cine, or alum i it i> also found ia 
Wulloa : when pure it cjyslalliscs into rhom- 
(mtal, glr£n, irimaparent priimt, which are 
bwliiMe in alcohol 1 when heated it melts 
ill 
Strong heal there 
pairder, known by the nauie of colcolliar of 
•ibioL Specific gravity, according to Berg- 



9. V. tCTtvum. Combined with earth ; its 

J mtetyaolution made blackish by a nuKiure of 

P (inrtHRoF galls. Found in luly and Hnneary, 

cf a yellow, red, blue, green, or bUck colour : 

{ ihc carih with which it is mixed is generally 




Mixed with flonti 



Aat are not schistose j iu watery tn^alB 
iiuilc black bya niixiUTe of uuciure of 

a. Ora reil colour: called ea I citii. 

e. Of a prev colour : called sory 

y. Ofa bUckcflloui: calltd inetanter 

). Of a yellow colour : called mi..y. 

Found on mouul Ramclsburg, iu Hercynil 
and is produced by pyrites which have n 
dered in the air. 

8, V. (chisli. Mixed with schist; 
watery solution made black by a nnxiure |j 
tincture of galli. Found in I'rancuni 
originates in decayed pyrilca. 

0. V. utiCm. Mixtd with turf; Us 
lolution made blackish by a mixture g 
tiircof palU. Found in mme bogs iu Sweden 
SsKony, i'ruisia, and France ; and ni 
wlLh a fl.me. 

ViTSiOLUM ALBDV. See ZincvM nil 

VtTRtoLUu canvLBUM. See CufRiq 

VITRIOLATUM. 

ViraiOLVM BouAHOM. See CttrRDH 
ViTRioLtJM viRiDt. See Fekkvm tj] 

V°TRUM' ANXrMONIl CERATUffl 
A diaphoretic compound exhibited in lh« ca^ 
of d>senteTies aiisiue from checked per^piratiag 

VITRUVIUS (Marcus VilruTim Pollior 
in biography, a celebrated Roman archileci^i 
whom howerer nothing is known but whatJ| 
to be collected from his ten buukFi, De ArcU^ 
tectura. still extant. In the preface b 
sixth book, he writes that he was car 
iustrocted in the whole circle of art) . 
Ktencet ; a cifciinulance which he apeakf 1 
with muchgratitude, laying it down ascerl "' 
that no mao can be a eoiuplelc architect w 
out some knowledge and skill in every oth 
branch of knowledge. And in the preface 
the first book he mfurmt tts, thai he 
known to Jutius CEDsar; that he was a 
wards recommended by Oetavia to her bro 
Augiisius Cxsar) and that he was so favu 
aiidprovided for by this emperor, as to be o^ 
of all fear of poveily as long as he irtlgltt UM 
It ■■ tuppoied that Vitruviua was born eilkc 
at Rome or Verona, but it is not know 
which. Hit book* of architecture arc nj 
dressed to Augustus Canar, and not only ihn 
consummate skill in that particular scicf 
but also a very uncommon genius and nan 
abilities. Cardan ranks Vitruvius as one 
the twelve persons whom he supposes to h. 
excelled all men in the force of genius ft. 
invention i and would not hare scrupled t 
have given him the tirsl placcj if ii could b 
imagined ihat he had delivered noihini 
his own discoveries. Those twelve pi 
were Euclid, Archimedes, Ap»)loniut 1 
gsens, Ariitoiie, Archytas ofTarentum, "' 
vius, Achindus, Mahomet Ibn Mos .. 
if»ventor or improvei of algebra, Dun* Scot 
John Sniiiet, sumamed the calculator, Galen 
and Heber of Spin. The best edition of th 
Aichitcciiui of Vitnniiu U that of Amiia 

Is 



V IT V I V 

dam', tn 1 649. Perault gaye an excellent The bodici of thete are long, of equal ihidcA 

French translation of the same, and idded nesi ; legs short, usually with fire claws, ini. 

notes and finires : the first edition of which moveable, ears small, snout pointed ; between 

was published at Paris in l673, and the second, the arras and genitals an orifice, leading to a 

much improved, in l684. Mr. William New- duct secreting an unctuous fetid matter ; active 

ton too, an ingenious architect, published in and swift ; some walk on ihe heels, some 

1780, Sec. curious commentaries on Vitruvius, climb, and some burrow; the females produce 

illustrated with figures j to which is added a many at a litter. Thirty-two species, scattered 

description, with figures, of the military ma- over the globe; many of which have a near 

chines used by the ancients. approach to the mustela tribe; whence the 

. VLlTARi A, in botany, a genus of the class popular name of yveasel is applied to varioat 

cryptogamia, order Alices. Fructification ill special of bqth. All those that belong to the 

Ciintinued, longitudinal lines, on the disk or viverra tribe are exotic to our own eoonlrj. 

near ilie margin ; involucre double, continued; We shall select a few exdmplet. 
one from the surface, opening outwards, the 1. V. ichneumon. Ichneumon, or idmcii^ 

other from the inflected maigm, opening in- mon weasel. Tail thick at the base« mpcfiii^- 

wards. Three species; foreign ferns. tip tufted ; great toes remote. Thk spericaoft 

VITTEAUX, a town of France, in the the weasel, frequently called Pharaoh'a rat, hai 

department of C6te D'Or, seated on the river bright^ flame-coloured eyes; small Rrandcd 

Br.iine, among the mountains, frhere there are ears, almost naked; a long alender hose ; but 

quarries of marble, 18 miles S.E. of Semur, a thicker bod^ than others of the genus. lit 

and 27 W. of Dijon. Lon. 4. 2? E. Lat. tail is very thick, and tapers to a point ; Icp 

67. SON. short; hair hard and coarse; ooloor variooa 

VITTORI A, or Victoria, a considenMe in different individuals ; some alternately bamd 

town of Spain, capital of the province of Alaha^ with a dull yellowish-brown and white ; otheia 

in Biscay. It is surronndeci by double walls, of a pale brown or mouse-colour, and mottkil. 

and in the principal square are the- town* The throat and belly are of an uniform blown, 

house, two convents, and a fine fountain. The Mr. Pemiant mentions a specimen to the 

large streets are bordered with fine trees,- Ashmolean museum, that measured tbiiteen 

which are a good defence against the heat of inches and a. half to the origin of the tail, and 

the sun. It has a great trade in hardware,, the tail itsdf eleven;-, but the Egyptian variety 

ERrticularly in sword-blades, which are made is the largett Some of these measure fbrty- 

ere in large quantities. It is seated on ah two inches from the point of the nose to the 

tmineiice, at the end of a plain, fertile in corn extremity of the tail. 

and grapes, 32 miles S.E. of Bilboa, and I5S It inhabiu Egypt, Barbary, India, and the 

N. of Madrid. Lon. 9.5^ E. Lat.42. 5.sK. Indian islands, and is a most useful animal, 

VI^ULINE. a. (vitulinut, Lat.) Belong- being the inveterate enemy of serpents, and of 

ins to a calf, or to veal {Bailey). other noxious reptiles th&t infi-st the torrid 

VITUTERABLE. a. (tt7ii^rra2ri/tf, Lat.) zone. Itaitacks without dread that most fatal 

Blameworthy (i^tiifioorM). of serpents, the naja, or cohradi capello ; and 

To VITL^'PERATE. v. «. {vUuperer^ Fr. should it receive a wound in the combat, it 

vilupero, l«atin.) To blame; to censure. instantly retires, and is said to obtain an anti- 

V ITU PER ATI ON. «. (tfi/«pera/fo, Lat.) dote from the oppiortiza: afier which it re- 

Blaine ; censure {AuUffe), turns to the attack, and seldom fails of a 

VITUS'S DANCK (St.). See Medic INK. victor)*. It is a meat destroyer of the eggs of 

VIVA'CIOUS. a. (vtrace, Lat.) 1. Long- the crocodile, which it digs out of the sand ; 

Kved iBentley), 2. Sprightly; gay ; active ; ami even kilU multitudes of the young of those 

lively. teriible reptiles : it was not therefore without 

VlVA'CIOUSNESS. Viva'city. .t. (»i- reason that the ancient Iv^yptiuns ranked the 

waciie, French, from vivacirMs.) I. Liveii- ichneuinon atnong their deities. It is at present 

ries» ; spris^htliness {Boyle). 2. Longevity ^ doniesticutL-d, iind kept in houses in Imlia and 

(ength of life {Brown). I^P*- ^^ '' ^^^ more ustrful than a cat in 

VI'VAUY.i. (mt'arivm, I.atin.) A warren, destroying nit» and mice. It easily worries •. 

. VIVK. a. {vify Frtnch; virus, Latin.) eat, though larger and stronger than itself, and 

Livelv ; forcible ; prc<>sing {Bacon). declines not to combat even with the d<%;. It. 

V/VENCY. 1. {vivo, l^iin.) Manner of gmw^i very tame, and is veryacti^-e: sptinn. 

fupportini; or continuing life (Brown). with great agility on its prey, and will glide 

VIVEItO, a town of Spnin, in Gaiicia, along the ground like a serpent, and seem aa 

scntc'd at the foot of a stet'p mountain, near if witiiout feet : yet imnieclidtcly cjtches any 

the river L^ndrovu, who>e mouth fornix :i large thing that is Bung to it. It is a »!reat »*ncmy 

harbour on the Ailiniic, 30 miles N.W. <if to jxiultry, and will feign itscU dead till iluy 

Mondonnedo. Lon. 7.:<4W. Lat. 4'«. iO N. come within its n-ach. Likclhec.it, it is a 

* VIVi'jRllA, in 7'0l'»«y, a penu-of iheclass jrriat lover of iiahes. After mucking out the 

m.iuimali), orlcr A'lTiv Kort>tccih six, inter- hlood, it draws its prey lo its holt-. When 

mediate one 1 shortrr ; tn^ks one on tucli side, n^leep, it britigs the head and t.iil nrrtfr \he 

I >!»«ipr ; gr nch-rs more than ihrce ; tonj;ue brily, ami appears lik« a rouml hjll, \\i«h two 

efeu aculeate bickward>; cUus not a'trac- U-^s iiiicking oivt.. Uiini])hiu5 oh;cr«<..« how 

file. -■....... . skilfully it itiacs the *erj)<:i'it$ by iho turoai, lo 



6V I V E R R A. 
■nrid neetTiDg mj JnjtiTj ; and l.uca 
Ml}' dr>cribc« ihc lame address of ihi 
I in cODijutring ihe ^ypllin asp. 
* ol PbuiBf nud* (olertior hottU 
laU, et trsut ioeertikjimTaat umbra; 
(>blii|iita«q<» Mput *>nu ■erp^nlii Id auru, 
KIui* toto Mmprendil pullim morsu 
• ^■, : . liriupesti 



KifiBitDi'. ftucE»i|ue Buunl pereunlc runeno. 



Lib. i 



Tit. 



TtaB of! Ih' iehncDmon, on 
londca the deadly wipir, by 
WhiU arUull) hii ileuder Uil ii pl*y'd, 
Tba KTpnit ilarti upou the dsDcius «hiulct 
Tkas lurnlnc dd tba foe with iirin iiurpriM, 
FUl «■ bia Ihroat Uie nimhle crealure Bicit; 
TW sanllif Mialu expim bracalh Ihe wound, 
tad iMi bia banrTtil paiwn on the ground. 

UOWE. 

r.ioei! wMsel, o 



e baolit uf Nile, 



i anoihe 




very loDB; le^ and thigh* short, t 
thiok. Ii hss live ton on each Tool, !C|ia 
and standing all fatward ; iuclavriare la 
liiile hooked, and ora flesh- colou r ; hain 
close, foh, and gtomy ; on the huad, 
and sidct, it consisu of a mixiure of ^llij 
and blark ; cheeks, belly, and ihc inside L 
lelloiv. Halfway down the midA 
a duihy stripe, ending at the uffl 
along the middle of ihe back 1 
the tail; Hie tuil itself of a bright I. 
mixed with black ; it it round, and h. 
lame prelirn>^ile laculty as thai uf the sapaious. 
The body m'asures nmeieen inches, thr - ■ 
■cveiileen. There was one shewn tome 
ago in London. Iti kecpcrsaidli 
ihemountainsof Jamaica, and called itft pol 
the njme given by lome writers to a ipeciei 
sloth found in Guinea. It wai very goo. 
natured and sportive, and would caich hiild dl 
aiiy thing, and suspend ittelf by its lail. " 
lay with Its head under its Uin and belk. 

4. V. prehcnsilis. Mexican wei. ' "' 
yellow mixed with arew and brown 

■ ■ The Mexican wcj-el has a fhori 



t. V. letradacl) la 
•Olttau. Feet-toed; snout lon^, moveable, 
"nil « the turikaie of BuRoa, a weasel with a 
•ny iharp-puinteil nose, deprened head, in- 
fiiwd cfirefis. aixl a long upper jaw .- black 
whUm, arising fmin warty excrescences; 
iriJi ^ky ; th« span- about lis eves black ; 
tsm'imall, rounded, black, and clote to the prehensile. 

beiif; tni^pue oblong, blunt, and rough; sis dusky nose, a Uineueorii,reat length, and smull 
sidII cuiiin'tt teeth, iwfi l.nig cdtiine teeth in eyes," encircled with n dmkj hiic ; its ears are 
•adiiiw, aodfive grinders aneachsiile; back short, founded, and placed very dinonl from 

3 broad, and aljtlle convex; bellji broad each other i hnir also short. Dn the head, 
fllii Tc]^ short; feet tniall, and naked at the nppcr part of ihc body, and the lail, the 
ibe baiwiil, with four toes on ench. Tills ctilours are yellow, grev. and black, inter. 
wtHe hyena are the only qiizdttipeili which niixi'd; throat and inside nf the lens, I* 

■^ ' .1. .k.^. h.„, IT.. .1 ytllow ( belly of a dirty white, tinged 

" mini; the t 

d brneaih : aboR 






The cbv 



,-^. , - . - .- crooked, white, and Eutleretl 

Iti hair is blown near the bottom, black two feel four inches Toiigi i. 

BOilheenilt, and hoatyat thepoints; that on three, tapering, oovered with hair, 

iW back iimluUied or wavy ; on the iniide of beneath, near the end, where it is naked, a 

lU Itgi TetWiwish-brown ; tail is tufird with of a fine flesh-colour, It is eslreinely tike it 

blicli i deven inches long ; the tail, wliicli is former, hut Iwrger in all its parts. Like tt 

ibiclc at the baie, ending abinpl, measure* former, it ha.ta prehcntiie tail, and is nalunilHJ 

tl^t inches. very inod-natuied. It goes to sleep M a 

It Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, where approach nf day, wakes lowanls nisht. and bi 

ilii called mcer-ral. Ilfeedion flesh, prvvs comrs very lively. It makes >ise of its feel 

0(1 Bice, and I* a great enemy to the cock- catch any thing, and has many of the actin.. 

MkL Like the squirrel, it employs itt fore- of a innnkey. It eats like a •quirrel, holdinj 

ft to convey fonti to its mouth, and lapi its food in its hands. It h» a variety of eat. 

*iltr like a dog i tt is much in motion, and during the night : one like the low barking ol 

itmji make* » grnnling noise. It itliets two a ttog i iis plaintive note is coning hke a dove] 

liiBdiof louodii when uneasy or disturbel, it Its menace, o hissing like that uta Konse or k 

Wb like B young d(^; when pleased, emits set pent i its angtv cry is cinfured. It it very 

t nilltd like that of a imall rattle in rapid fond of suoar and alfsweet things ; eat* fruit* 

Bodim. It may be tamed ; but it bite* tho*e and veaeiables of all kinds t will Dy nl ptmliiy, 

whcicimcll it hods disjareeable. It sit* quite catch them under the winv, luck the blond, ■ 

enet, dropping in fnte4egs on iti breast, and and leave ihrm wiiho'it tearing iheiii. It pia^ 

("nii^ iu head with great ease, as if on a fees a duck to a puHel, vel hates ihr water. m 
[*>«, and appearing as if ii listened, or had 5. V. nastia. Unsilian wcbkI. T.iwnyn 

Jiatipicd something new. When pleated, it tnil annul.ite with white; *naut lone, niorti*-* 

*>ltsaiaii1ingnotie with its tail ; Hir which able. This weasel has the upper jaw reneihen- 

"■un the Dutch at the Cape colt it klapper- ed into a pliant, moveable probmcls. which Ja 

■out. It is alio found in Java, where the much longer than the lower juw- liteartara' 

JiiUMte style it jupe ; the Dutch turacstje. round, eyet tinall, no>e dusky ; hair of a briKht 

)> V. eandivolva. Yellow weasel. Veltow bay colour, smooth, tuft, and glossy ; tail an-. 

■lud with black; tail of the same colour, pre- niihled with dusky and bay; has a whitith 

wniile. This species has a short dtisky note, brcatt; body measuccs elgblccn inohea, tall 

"■■Ivallfycij can thort, bivad, and flapping, ihiilren. 



V I V E R R A. 

The duaky Brazilian weasel is a variety of and toil black c back and aidta Bukcdiith 

this- Its nose and ear* arc formed as above; five parallel whitish lines: one on the top oC 

but beneath each eye it has two spots of while ; the back, and two on each tkle ; the Ncood 

the liair on its back and sides is dusky at the extends some waY UP the Uil. which ii kin| 

TootF, biack in the middle, and tipt with and bushy towaixls the end: but {tvarissia 

yellow ; chin and throat, sides of its cheeks, the disposition of its suipes. It inhabiuMoith 

and belly, yellowish ; feet black, and tail an- America. When attacked, brbiles op iu 

pnlated with black and white. Sometimes hair, and flings its body into a round form: in 

the tail is of an uniform dusky colour. Lin- odour, like that of the lut, if intoknbk. 

n^us has described tliis variety as a distinct Dn Pratz says, that the male is of a ihintD; 

species. black. It digs holes, climbs, sleeps by dn, 

These inhabit Brazil and Gui^oa ; they feed prdWls by night j feeds on worms, inseeti, 

on fruits, eggs, nnd po»U-ry ; run up trees very birds, and sheep ; when punued b^ dflgieos* 

nimhly; cat like a Joj^;, holding their food tracts itself. Penis with a cartilaginows bont 

between their ^o^" • ; are easily ttmed, very 8. V. mephitis. Skunk, Back white, with 

§00(1- na lured, aii ! su m much inclined to sleep a longitudinal black line from the middle is 

iiri::g the day. Tliey make a sort of a whisl- the tail. This species, like the rest, has iboit 

line noise. rouqded ears : cheeks are black : awhitemipe 

O. V. vulpecula. Stifling weasel. Entirely from the nose, between the earst to die back: 

chesnut ; snout elongated , has a short slender the upper part of the neck, and the wbole 

nose, short cars and legs, and a long tail, of a back white, but divided at the bottom bjr a 

black and white colour; its body is black, black line, commencing at the tail, andBM* 

well covered with hair; its length from nose inga little way up the nack : its belly uitfbp 

to tail is about eighteen inches. It inhabits are black ; tail bushy, beine covered lUa 

J^lexico 4nd North America. This and the four with long coarse hair, generally^ black, sooe« 

following species are remarkable for the pes- times tipt with while : the nails on all the 

tifepus, sufibcatiiiff* and most fetid vapour feet are very long, like those on the Ibit ftfi 

they emit from l)eliind, when attacked, pur- of the badger: it is rather less than the fonna 

sued, or frightened ; which is their only means species. 

of defence. Some turn their tail to their ene- It inhabits Peru and North ^mrnc%mbt 

mies, and keep ihem at a distance bjy a fre- as Canada, and is of the same manncif,s*ii^« 

quent crepitus ; others send forth their urine, much a stinkard, as the two preceding. Cliar* 

loaded with an intolerable stench, to the dis- levoix calls it Venfant du diabie, afid fiete 

tance of eighteen feet : the pursuers are stopped puanie, devil*s child, and stinking Imnm, 

by the fetor. Sliould any of this liquid fall Q. V. zorilla. Zorilla, Variegated with 

into the eyes, it almost occasions blindness ; if black and white. This is the annas of the 

on the clothes, the smell will remain for seve- Indians, the zorrinas of the Spaniards. Itt 

ral days, in spite of all washing : — in order to back nnd sides are marked with shoft itripei 

be sweetened, they must even be buried in of black and while : but the latter is dnjed 

fresh soil. Dogs tnat arc not true bred to the with yellow : tail is long and bushv, pirt 

chace run back as soon as they perceive the white, part black : legs and belly black : lixe 

smell; those who have been used to it will less than the preceding. It inhabits Prro, lod 

kill the animal, but are often obliged to relieve other parts of South America. Its fetid odosr 

theoiiielve^ by thrusting tneir noses into the overpowers even the] American panther, aad 

ground. There is no bearing the company of stupifics that formidable enemy- 

a dog that has killed one, for several days. 10. V. Capensis. Cape weasel or nteL 

Professnr Kalm was one night in great danger Black ; back grey edged with white. This 

of being sufToc-ited by one of them that was creature has a blunt nose, and noexternalcan; 

punucfl into a house where he slept. When iu their place only a small rim round theoii* 

driven into a hoiue where cattle are kept, the fice of the auditory passage. Its tongue rwAp 

cattle bellow through pain : indeed they are legs short, and claws very long arid stnipii» 

much disturbed at the sight or smell of any like those of the badger, and guttered beneitli : 




soon a^ kilkd, and the bladder taken carefully sides a dusky line, lea^ving another of grejli^ 

out. It is capable of heiug tamed, and will neath it. 

ibllow its master like a dog, and never emits Length of the body forty inches, of theuil 

its vapour egccept when terrified. It brcedis in twelve : the fore claws measure an inch ^ 

hollow trees, or holes under ground, or in the three-quarters, the hind ones an inch. 

clefts of rocks. It climbs trees with great ' It inhabits the Cape of Good {lope: fires 

a:[;ility, kills poultry, eats eggs^ and destroys on honc]^, and is a great enemy to tne bcei, 

birds. ^ which, in that country, usualfjr inhabit the 

7. V. putorius. Striated or striped weasel, deserted burrows of the Ethiopian boar, the 

Blackish, with five dorsal, parallel, whitish porcupine, jackal, and other animals that lodp 

lines. This b about the size of an European underground. It preys in tne evening I'u? 

pole-cat, but the back is more arched ; the cends the highest part of the desert to look 

rirs are rounded ; the head^ neck, belly, legs, about, and will then put one foot before its 



^ I V E R R A." 

^a||i,|»BKH«it,Uw dnding^ the tun. The along tlic rii}gc^ribebci(,M csleniM a Ua3 

Kaioo or lu giimg lo an emineiice is. Tor ihe line, reaching snme way up the mil ) on each 

mi» of icting ut heariri)} the lionr^-guiilc aide of which are two others. The aide* are 

endtOOt whicb Irvea ou ben, and, as ji were, spoiled with ash-cohtur and bijck ; the inil ii 

condiKU it 10 Iheir hauiiti. The Hotteniou barreil wiih black and while: the bliick ban 

fbtlaw the time guide. This animal cannot are btoailer on the upper liito than on the 

dimbi bui when he 5di1< the bcei lodged in lower. Thii jpccieB ivai liiit dlsiiiignithed 

"' '' lenl, he from the prececTing by Bufiim, thongh il had 

this sign been long befoie figured by Hernandei and 



Inn, iliiaiuh rage at the di 
■ ill bite iheWtk Imia the 
•lao, tlic Hi 



Xi. By"t 






I Mex 



, till 



.. .__ __. .. intrnduccfl there rrom the Philippine isle^. .. 

The hair is so itifT, and the hide so tough, yields the same petfunie as V. civelta. These 

pnbably furmcl so by nature as a defence animals xeia not lo have been known (o tlie 

a^lui th« iiiae of bees, that ibis animal is ancients. It is probable the peilume was 

tkM easily killed. By biiing and scratching, brought to Europe without their being n 

ilBukMa stout resistance i and ihedogs c-~ — r„..j .„:.i. ;.. „.;„;_ 
Wt fuien oil Jti skin. A pack, which ci 



itti a middle siicd li , . 

oil the hide of this beasi. B;rn">f- 

will leave it for dead, yet without 

ly wonnd. The Hat- 

e It the natoe of ratel. TJiis emits 

iotolerable vapuui as several of the 



r%, U)cv will II 
ma; inflicied oi 



inled with IIS nrlgm. 
' The aibet is fuund wild in Arabia, Malabar, 
Siam, as well as in the Philippines, li in fe. 
rocious, hardly tameable, and easily returns to 
it* original wildness : eats small animals, birds, 
fishes, roots, and fruits ; climbs and rum wjilt 



13. V. genetu. Genet. Tail ai 
^ body spoited, blackisli lawny. Thee 

1 l^i^civella. Civet. Tail above spotted, liiile pointed; the body tl 
biawn toward* the tip; raanechesnuti back long: the ridzc of the back marked 
^oHct) wiih cinereous and brown. bluck line : tail annuls" ■-' ' ■ ■ 



I u late ; 



: pointed ; the body slender, and tail very 



Thij spei 
cnet-cii, hi 
iu agility. It ha: 
wftt, and a sharp 



though 

resemblance to a cat, tiut in 

has short rounded ears, sky blue 

ipped with hUck : the 



Mack : the test of the face, and part of the 
■idei of the neck white, tinged with yellow. 
Fmni each c.ir proceed three black stripes, 
ewlina at the throat and sh.iulders. The back 
and (Tdes are ash-ooloured, tinged with ye]- 
few, and marked jviih brge diuky spoti, dis- 
- ... 1. .j,j, „^ 

The 
u feet three 



*s. Tlie hail 



with black and tawny, 
has been called and the feel are black : sometimeg the ^rouad> 
colour of the hair inclines to grey. Il ti about 
thr size of a martin ; but the fur ii (hotter. 

It inhahiii Turkey, Sytia, and Spain : fre- 
queiiis ihe banks of rivers, and other moist 
place* : Butfim sayi there are some found in 
the southern provinces of France. 

Thn smell fuiiilly of musk, and, like the 
civet, have an orifice beneath the tail. They 
are kept tame in the houses at Constantinopl<-, 
--' - - useful as can, for the purpose of calch- 



; that on ingmice: teienieen inches Ion 

14, V. fossa. Fo^aane. Tail antiaiale ; 
body cinereouf , spoiled with black. 

The fossane weasel has a slender body, round 
ears, and bbick eyes : back and legs covered 
with dnereous hair, mixed with tawny ; the 
sides of its face black. From the hind |<art of 
the head four black lines are extended toward* 
the back and shoulders : the tail is •ernl^annu- 
laied with black ; the whole under side of the 



the lap of the body 
tail it tonielimes wholly black, su 
lid oral the base : length about 
ilicl>c*i ihe tail rourteen inches. 

It inhahiii India, tlie Philippine i'les, Gi 
nca. Eiliinpta, and Madagascar. The perfun 
atlcd civet I) produced from the oriliee iind 
ibf *(MM( in both sexes, secreted by peculi 
(tandt. The persons who keep ibem are sa. 

lo pracore Ihe civet by scraping (he in«ide of body ia of a dirty wl 
llu* bag twice a week with an iron spatula. It inhabits Mada^ascarand Gi 
Btllt^ about a dram each lime ) but il it scl- China, and the Philipi 
Mm Mid piiie, being generally mixed with hard to be tamed. 
' -- oil, to make it more weighty. ''■^- '"■'- 



pcvtotMty irti tiled, 
•nattg. with 
tiiite ftctb o 



ea,Cochiu. 
vpine isles : fierce, end 
In Guinea 11 Is called 
berbe, and by the Europeans wine-bibber, as 
it is very greedy of palm-wine. Like the rest 
of its genus, it I9 de>iruciivc to poultry. When 
young iu flesh is reckoned goM : has not the 

15. V. Malacccnsis. Malacca weasel. Tail 
lon^, annulate with blacky body grey, doited 
IS. V. nbelha. Zibet. Tail annijlate, above with black ( above the eyes four round 
Uaek, streaked: short rounded ears, a sharp apotsi on the neck and back three black stripe*. 

baoac, and a pale ash-col nu red face; the Inhabits Malacca ; fierce, active, leaping from 
aud lower pan of the neck mixed with tree lo tree ; lives by prey i smells of musk ; 
iinj white, brown, and bUck : the sides of rciaint its utinc a long time, which is used by 
llw neck maikcd with siripei of black, be- the Malays asan aphrodisiac and strcDgiheoer. 
(ianin^ near the ears, and ending at Ihe breast Site and habits of a cat. 
and ahuuUen. Prom tbe middle of the neck, 16. V. (asciau. Striped fitchtl. Htu of 



wild St . 



le, they prey on fowls, &c, : 




V I V U L C 

the tail long, bbck, aiid tawnyish ; body grey, quick ; striking (Pope), S. Sprightly ; aetlt^ 
with six long, black, Ibngitudinal stripes, be- (fValfs). 

neath white. InhabiU India : two feet nine VPVIDLY. ad. (fnim invid.) With life i 
ihchci long. with Quickness; with strength {Boyle). 

17. V. maculata. Spotted titchet. Body, VKVIDKESS. s. (from vivid,) Life; Ti- 
Ief9i, and tail black, ifiegularly spotted with gout; auickncss. 

white. Inhabits New South Wales: about VIVIERS.a lOwn of Frante, in thedepart- 
one and a half foot long. Set: Nat. Hist. PI. ment of Ardeche, with a bishop's sec. It it 
CLXXXV. seated ^niong rocks (on one of whi<^ thtf ci- 

VIVES, in veterinary science. See Ives, thedral is built) on Ihe ri\'^er Rhone, 20 mile* 

VlV^IANI (Vinceniio), a celebrated lialiati N. of Orange, and 70 N.E. of Monipelile/. 
mathematician, was born at Florence in l621, Lon. 4. 46 E. Lat. 44. SO N. 
5omc say l62S. He was a disciple of the iilus- VIVI^FICAL. a. iifivij/ais, Latin.) GiTiHg 
trious Galileo, and lived with him from tbe life (Bailey). 

I7.th to the 20th year of his age. Aficr the To ViVl'FICATE. ». «. (tnvificn, Latin.) 
death of his Krcat master, he passed two or ] i To make alive ; to infornii with life ; U> 
three years more in prosccutin{! f^enmetiical animate. 2. To recover from such a chan|Qr of 
studies without inlerrupUon, and in this time form ^ seems to destroy the essential proper- 
it 'Was that he formed tne design of hi> Ilesto- tie^. 

ration of Aristcus. This ancient geometrician, VI VlFlCATION.i . (ffom t;ivt/?cfr^e.)The 
tvlio was contemporary with Euclid, h:id com- act of f2;iving life (BacCti), 
posed live books of problems, De Locis Sulidis, YI VFFIC. a. {vitnficUs, Lat.) Giving life; 
the bare .propositions of which were collected making alive (/?ay). 

by Pappus, out the books are entirely lost; To VFVIFVT. v. a, (vivijier, Fr. tfivui anul 
\\hich Viviani undertook to rcsiorc by the Jacio, Lat.) To make alive; to aniroaie; to 
force of his genius. endue with life (Bacon, Harvey). 

He broke this work oH before it was finish- VIVFPAROUS. a, (vivus and pario, LmU!) 
ed, in ordor to apply himself to another of the Bringing the young alive: opposed to cvipt^ 
same kind, whicn was, to restore the fifth rous (Ray^, 

book of Apolloniiis*s Conic Sections. While VrXEN.i. Fixen is the came of a she-fox ; 
he was engaged ih this^ Borelli found, in the and applied to a woman, whose nature is tlicf^ 
library of the grand duke of Tuscany, an Ara- by compared to a she-fox (Shakspeart). 
bjp MS. with a Latin inscription, importing VlZ. ad, (videlicet, written with a contiac- 
thal it contained the eight books of Apollb- tion.) To wit; that is (/fti(/t6rtf5). 
nius*s Conic Sections ; of which the eighth VIZARD, t, (visiere, Fr.) A mask used 
%va» not found to be there. He carried this for dis{tuise ; a visor (Rnscomtuon), 
MS. to Rome, in order to translate it with the To Vi^zako. v, a, (from the noun.) To 
bsi-ibtMUce of a professor of the oriental Ian- mask iShahpearr), 

l^uages. So unwilling, however, was Viviani Vl'ZlKR. *. (properly waiir.) The prime 
to lose the fruits of his Ubours, that he refused minister of the Turkish empire (Knolles). 
to receive the smallest account from Borelli on UKRAINE, a large country of Europe, 
the subject. At length he finished the work, lying on the borders of Turkey in Europe, Po« 
and published it in iddQ, with the tide De Max- land, Russia, and Little Tartary. Its name 
imis et Minimis geometrica divinatio in quin- properly signifies a frontier. By a treaty be* 
tumconicorum ApolloniiPcrga?i. Hewascalled tween Russia and Poland in \(kj^, the fatter 
by the sute to Undertake an operation of great remained in possession of all that part of tbe 
importance, vi2. to prevent the inundations of Ukraine lying on the west side ot the river 
tlie Tiber, in which Cassinl and he were em- Dnieper, which is but indifferently cultivated; 
pipyed for some length of time. On account while the country on the east side, inhabited 
of his sreat talents he received u i>ension from by the Cossacs, is in much l>eiier condition. 
IjQuis AlV. In 1666 he was honoured by The Russian |)art is comprised in the govem- 
the graiui duke with the title of the first ma- ment of Kiof ; and the empress of Ruuia 
themutician. He resolved three problems having obtained the Polish palatinate of Kiof, 
which had been proposed to all the mathema- by the treaty of partition in 1793, the whole of 
ticians of Europe. In 1669 he was chosen to the Ukraine, on both sides of the I>iieper, be- 
fill, in the Royal Aeademy of Sciences, a place longs now to that ambitious and formidable 
among the eight foreign associates. This cir- power. The principal town is Kiof. 
t-onistance, so honourable to his reputation, ULCER, (ulcus, from ixxsc* a sore.) A 
a.ivc new vigour to his exertions, and he pub- purulent solution of continuity of the soft 
tished three hooka of the Divination upon parts of an animal body. Ulcers may 

Ariiteus, in 1701, which he dedicated to the arise from a variety of causes, as all those 
k 1 1. g of France. Viviani acquired a pood for- which produce inflammation, from wounds, 
iiiue, which he laid out in buildine a magnifi- specific irritations of the absorbents, from 
ct lit house at Floience; here he placed a bust scurvy, cancer, the venereal or scrofulous virus, 
of Galileo, with several inscriptions in honour &c. The proximate or immediate cause is an 
of that great nun. H« died in 1703, aged 81. increased action of the absorbents, and a speci- 
VrVID. a. (viifidus, Latin.) 1. Lively; fie action of the arteries, by which a fluid is 



r UL L 

VpBrttoJ fiwn the biood "upon the ulcerated 
Hu&cc Thej ue variously dmoininaisl ; the 
bitloiring it the moil frequent divisinn: 1. 
l^ie simphi ulcer, nhich tokci plice generally 
fititti a (tipetlici&l wound. 9. The sinuoui. 
which tun% under ilie inlcgtiroenu, and whiMC 
orioce ii narrow, b.ii not ealloin. 3. The fi»- 
lubos ulcer, or hsiuli, a derp illcfr, T>hn*e ori- 
S« ii BirroMf »n<I eallous. 4. The fungous 
nicer, wHo«e surTdCe it cmered wiih fiin-^HM 
teit. A. The ^ngienoui, which is livid, 
Irdd, and gangrenoua. 6. The jcorbiiiic, 
«Udb dqjendt nn a acotbuiic acrimony- 7. 
Th» Teiwreal, ariiing from the venereal dii- 
(Me. B. lltecaDcerous nicer, or open cancer. 
(Sm Cavom). (j. The canous nicer, depend- 
lagapon a cirioiis l>one. 10. The inveieraie 
iSrt, *hidi ii r,[ \onj- cnnilnnanee, ind re- 
ti«i ihe ordinary applmtioni. 1 1 . The icro. 
folooi nicer, kirawn by ht bavin; aiiien rroin 
inMw tniniiurs, iti diieliarging a viscid, 
V*n BMIeT, and in indoknt itnture. 

21 U'LCERATE. e. „. To lum to an 
nlov. 

T* U'tCHATS. B. a. {■/(■(TIT, Fr. tileero, 
Lalin.) To disenae wilh torn (ArbJi/linol). 

ULCliRATEI) SORE THROAT. See 
CvnaMCKE. 

ULCERATION. ,. lulffralio. Lat.) 1. 
^mm «f brr^akifls iiiio ulcers. 8. Ulcer ; 

^^^BERBD. a. (from ulcr.) Grown by 
^^^mm ■ hurt loan ulcer {Ti^pU). 

^PbCEROUS. 0. (H/cm>«u, Lji.) Afflici- 
itiaUl oU Miei (SAoidprarT). 

rLCEROUSNiai.S. .. crtom b/cwoM.) 
Tbt KMe of being ulceroua. 

ULEA, or Ulaboro, a seaport of Sweden, 
h Em Buthiiia. ll ii the Urgcsi tuwn in 
EattBotllDia, and liluate at ibe uiouth of a 
ritn of the wnie name, 330 milci N. of Abo, 
Loa. M. SO E. l^t. 66. 40 N. 

ULEX. Fune. Gor«. Whin. In bo- 
luy. a genui of the clan dintlelphia, order de- 
aa^. Calj'x two-leaved ; tegnme hRnlly 
llWHilurn ihectljTt.Thrcespecies, ai follow; 

■lieh are cultivated 
EoropBUa. Cntnmnu furze nr gorse, 
DOwD ibrub, anii fnund l.irgcly on our 
BMU 



Dwarf for 



U. Capentii. Ope oi 

ring la ihe hei^t of liie 

Utunl mil, (.rnducing no floi 

CU'GINOUS.a. (ritfgino 

a»: moM\(tf^oadiearti). 

i'LLACt , i 



African fiine. 
Ii! 'LaiinVsl.* 



much of a cask 
of bein^ full. 
OlXSWATKRi a late of Wcimorland. 
Iff mlc* N. of AmhlMtde, and 14 S.W. of 
Pemidt. !i ii eiabl nniln lonsi and abuondi 
wilfc chu, and a vaiieiv of oibcr fish. The 
tamg/UOn of Ihii lake And much atn 
by An^fjpng gfioi. Of HD^iU cannon, 



U L M 

tain rtatlonO. The report Is ret*b*itileVl ft 
rock to rock, promontory, cavern, and hil|| 
with every rariely of sitund ; now rhing nw 
upon the ear, and again reluriiinE: lihe peabil 
thunder, and thus re-echoed jeven times d*' 

ULM, a free imperial city of Suabia, . 
■he chief of that order in the circle, where it 
archive! thereof arc deposited. It is fortifiejl 
and ii sealed on (he Danube, where it re 
the Iller, with a haadsDme bridge ovi 
former. Here is a good college; and i 
caiheilrat, which h a hnndsomc tiroctur , 
63 copper ves!el« full of ivater, reaily for |] 
extinguishing of fire. The inhabitants uCl 
pToiejiants, and have a good trade in linent' 
ftistians, hardware, and wool. The duke 4 
Bavaria took it in 1709, by stratagem ; bui t 
rendered it after the baillc of Blenlieim, i 
17t>4. Itw»s taken by the French, i ' _ 
teinber 1798, but ihey were obliged to abnndak''fl 
it the same monih. It is 3(> miln W. of ' 
Aiig;iburg, 47 S.F. of Stuigard, and B3 N. of 
Munich. Lon. 10. Vi E. L«t.48. £5 N. 

ULMARIA. (from ulmut, the elm; to 
named because it has leaves like the eimtl^ 
Regina prati. Barlia caprie. Meadow si 
Queen of the meadows. Thii heaotiful » 
fragrant plant h the spirx ulmaria nF Lin 
The leaves are recommended aa mild aditrlM 
eenti. The flowers have a ilrunR smell rt 
bling ihalof may: ihey are supposed If 
antiipaaiRodic and diapliniciic lirtue;, 
ihey arc eery rarely uied in medicine, I 
n£m suipecia that the ne^ect of lliem 
arisen from the plant being tuppnied lo be ]ii 
sessed of some noxious qujiliiiei, which i 
seemed to bettdy by iis being left untouched b 
cattle. It may be observed, however, that ll 
cattle al«) refuse the angelica and other hertl. 
whose innocence is appaienl from daily expt 

ULMIN, in ehemitlry, a name given b 
Or. Thomson 10 a very lingular subslanre ihl. 
exudes froln the trunk of several specie* of tHs'!! 
elui-tree, apparently in conEcquence of a " 
easpii action of its ves»els. 

lu the year 1707 M, Vaui]itelii] poUi 
a paper, entitled Obtetvatinns lur une malij 
des urbrea mii alia(|up i|H^ialcmcnl 

3ui cat Biiafogne a un ulcere. Id ihi* paper! 
escribed two kindt of morbid matter whH 
flowed frum the common elm ; the one wb| 
i^h. and nearly as limpid ai walej ; the c 
dark brown, »f xteaier cooMilency, and o 

ing ihc bark of the elm with a kindof *ir 

The while culoored Minics contained the Ii 
lowing lubttances : 

Vc^ table mailer • 0-G05 
Carbonat of potaih . 0348 
Carlionat ofhme . OrU.SO 
Carbonai ul' magnciii O-003 

1-000 

The brawn oubilancu he found a coinfain>> 
lion of potaih and a pccnii&r vegetable millEr, 
■cscmbling gum in>evcralofiu propcriiet, biK 



U L M I N. 

differing in tevenl dfcumtlanctti firom that ve- pKheo»iretliat it might eoDbibBte to iscrcai 

jgctahle principle. It waiaoluble in water, in- the confusion of a branch of chembtiy bj n 

4olubie in alcohol, precipitated from ita aoln* means remarkable for iuprectaioo. 

tion by acids, and when burnt yields an acrid ** Fortunately, Mr. Walter Coulson, ei 

amoke, without any amell of caramel. reading the account of ulmin in my work, tt 

No notice of these experiments was taken by collected having seen a similar exudation Aaq 

any subsequent writer. But in the year 1604 an old elm in the neighbourhood of Plymoaiii. 

Klaproth published a paper, entitled Cbemische Conceiving that this exudation might be ulmio, 

Unter^uchung eines p^ummiaen jiflaoaeosaftes he collected a <|uantity of it, and wasso oblif- 

von S(amm eines Ulme ; that is. Chemical ing as to send it to -me. I seized with avidiny 

experiments on a gummy juice from the stem an opportunity, quite unlocked for, of putiiis 

of an Elm. The substance on which his ezpe- iny conjectures to the test of experiment, sol 

jrimenu were made was sent him from Pa- of iviinessing the very peculiar properties tf 

Icrmo in 1802; and he conjectures that the ulmin described by Klaproth. Tne subttanee 

species of elm from which it exuded was the which 1 examined agrees in so many particBp 

ulums nigra. What species he refers to, by lars with the properties noticed by Klaprodi, 

the nameof u1mu» nigra, it is difficult to guess ; that there can be little doubt of its bcluiuiBi; 

as probably no such name was ever given by to the same species. The few differeiKses woica 

botanists to any species of elm whatever, llus I observed were probably owing to the difier- 

substancc, according to Klaproth, possessed the ent lenath of time that the substanoe ia (M- 

following properties. tiou had been exposed to tlie atmosphere, ihc 

It was solid, hanl, of a black colour, and sul^tance which I examined being an exuds" 

bad considerable lustre. Its powder wa& brown, tion from the comnu>n elm, and agraeioK in 

It dissolved readily in the mouth, and uas in- every particular with the properties noticed by 

sipid. It did^nlved speedily in a small quanti- Vauquelin» there can be no hesiiatioo in con- 

ty of water. Tlie solution was transparent, of siderrng them as similar. Hence it foUowii 

a blackish brown colour; and even wjien very that the vegetable substance 6rst described bq 

anuch concentrated by evaporation, was not Vauquclin, and the ulmin of Klaproth, an 

the least mucilaginous or ropy ; nor could it one and the same. 

be employed, like mucilage of guin, to paste '* The following are the properties of th 

Bubsunccs together, ulmin from Plymouth, as far as I obscrrc 

It was cuniplciely insoluble both in alcohol them, 

and ether. W hen alcohol was poured into the <* I. It was of a black coiour, possessedcor 

aqueous solution, the greatest |)art of the sub- siderable lustre, and broke with a vitrroi 

stance was precipiuied in light brown flock'', fracture. It was nearly tasteless, leaving i 

The remainder was oi>taiiied by eva|>oration, the niouih onlv a very slight impression of a: 

and was not sensihly soluble in alcohol. The trin^ency. When heated it did not melt, bi 

alcohol, by this treatment, acquired a slutrpish swelled very much, as is the c.ise with giin 

t i«t>*. It readily burnt away at the flame of a candl 

When a few drops of nitric ncid were added leaving a white matter, which melted intoi 

to the .iqoeons solution, it became geiaiinoufl, opakc white bead, and was carbouat of |iOtas1 

lust it> uiaclciNh br(»vvn colour, an! a bght Tiie broportion of this alkali was considerabi 

bruvvn substance precipitated. The whole a^rrfeuiK exactly with the exudation examin< 

solution was slowly evapiiratcd to Hryncss, and by Vauquclin. It contained also lime: S 

the reddish brown powder which remained f^rains ot the ulmin when burnt in a platiou. 

was heated wiiti nlcoiiul. The alcohol assum- crucible left 5 grains of residue. Of this 4 

ed a golflcn \cli0w colour; and wacn evapo- grai'is dissolved in nitric acid. The O'S era: 

rated left a li«^iit brown, hitter and sharp resi- of residue was insoluble, and poAessed il 

nous substance. Chlorine was foun<l to pro- prn|)ertic8 of silica, tinged a little with iro 

duce precistly the same eil'ect as nitric acid. The nitric acid solution being saturated wii 

Wuen the exudation from the elm was carbonnt of potash, one grain of carbonat 

burnt, it emitted little smoke or flame, and linie precipitated. Hence 20 grains of ulm 

left asponjey, but fiim, charcoal ; which, when contained the following substances : 

heated sufliciendy in the open air, burnt all Sulxrnrbonat of potash - 3*8 

away. exce)»t a lit lie carlton^t of potash. Carl)onat of lime - - I'O 

"In tiie third etlition of my System of Che- Silica and oxyd of iron • 0'9 

mistr)'," obserxes Dr. Thomson, ** I m*erted ■ 

this substance as a peculiar vegetable princi- 5*0 

pie, imder the name of ulmin. Though 1 had << The silica and iron were probably a 

some suspicion that it might be the same with cidentally present, and might have ma 

the peculiar substance previou*>ly discovered by their way to the ulmin while moist upon t 

Vauquelin in the disea-ed exudation from the tree; f«>r it is probable that the dust of t 

common elm (nimns campestris); yet, as I road wouM c<msist chiefly of silica ; or at le: 

had no means of verifying this suspicion, and would be insoluble in nitric acid, the only c 

liad no hoi«s of being able to procure any of teritm by which the 0*3 grains of rcuUue w( 

the exudation described by Klaproth, I did judged to be silica, 

not veuUtfe to hint my su5[4cioD, being ap* <* 2. It dissolved readily iu watci. The i 



D L M 

brawn, nnd pnaKsMtl estelljr 
im characif n dcMiibnl by Kluprotl). Ii prn- 
iarti no cifvct upon litmus i>a|j<.-r. eiihcr in lis 
mull bluic lUtc, lit nhcn rcuilrned bv >iiie^ar. 
RtiKv the carixmat of jioiasli, which the 
ulniD winttiiked, muii have been \a a iiaie of 
Mdtbituiion. 

" 3. No effect wu pradiircd on ihc snluiinii 
%itin^bM ditwlccct in water, by linclurc of 
M^IU, or hy pfuuJBi of pniiiii. 

"4. Gieen tiiljihatof iron oocaiinncil h Mrj 
Mjiiau* motldy blown pKclpiinic. 

" i. Muriat of (in occasioned ■ copiniM litiht 
bwirn jjwcipiiiiie. The flame eR«ciV^) pro- 
ineii by nitml of locrcuiy, anil Mipriaceui of 
tiki. 

** G. Ni'nt of ailrer, eouiilc potash, unit 
arbonu at polaxh, occuiiuii no preclpiiate. 

"7. No precipitate wo* produced by alcohol, 
ta> Vttch Merer the Kiiuiion of almln wat 
Nacratrated. In thin reipect, niy cxpcrimenii 
ififtr from (hos« o( Klaproth. It ia posaible, 
Ikil if 1 hod employed .i stronger nlconol than 
•W 1 wa) possessed nf when theie experimcnli 

' , my result might hai-e curresponded 

of Klapmth, 1 had not the meani 
ining it> tpccilii: gmvity. But, as it 
ited from an apolhcrary's thnp in 
, . [ wai proUibly nnl lew than OUST, 
^llrie acid dnippeil into ttie aqueoui 
wmnn nf iilmin occasions a reddish brown 
pitcipiiale. The liquid being cduliimilv eva* 
fnnied lo dryneu, a reddith matter remiini, 
wtitrfa n w'luble in alcohn], and has a hitter 
■m. SVhen healiil to a lemjWTaturc between 
ara* &m1 400" Fahrenheit, it lakes Ric wm 
lnae)a*vMiel, sad burns inilantancougly tike 
nnpowdrr, producing a quaniiiy tiF gaicoua 
nil}, and leaving a black ■ponH' charcoal bc' 
Vai. Thia n uwing lo the miraiof (Ktlasli 
' by mconi of the [iota»h contained in the 
'- nailer. For when the precinilnie is 
by ih* filler, washed arwl nrieii, It 
te<M lb* property of ex])loJinj;. When the 
Ikfait la piadiially eraporated lo drtnux, pri«- 
(MMC cryvati of niiral o( poush liioot at the 
lottDin nf ihc I'cncl. 

•*((. Sulphuric acid occniionta very copioui 
fcttoniih biuwn urecipiiate when dropped 
inie tlw ■')ii(y)ii> Eolutiun ul' ulmiu. Mnrialic 
ttil {voducn the same elfcct. When ihii prr- 
ooiiMr kwell wmhet and dried, it ii a buff- 
tMoatcd tnwder, nearly inaipid, and not lenii- 
UyMtnble eiiherin water or ali-ohol. 

" Pn>m these prqpenin il is obvion*. that 
the rh»rui;ir>i aneribed in ulniiii, bv Klaptoth, 
do not apply lo ihe »ubsiaiice which I exarnin- 
ed. Ulmin mit^ht he compartd to extractive ; 
bit ill inaoliibtliiy in alcohol -eems lo make it 

UMt ■MltnT.*' 

UiJ4(J$. Elm. In botany, a gfn.vi of 
lb* «lw> pcnlandria, order dipynia. Calyx 
fi«e-e4efl; cotnllciti leed one, mcloted in a 
flat nembfiinaFraui cnpiule. Hcrrn «j>ecir«; 
fnur Kuropcan : two American ; oiio Laii ln> 
** :. tv« nalJTiu «f oui ffwn wuodf. 




U L N 

4/4^. eunpesirts. rnmmon etai- 
wild in our liedges ; a turiciy wiili d 

?. U. auheroM. Dutch elm. Bark oF 1 
Wnchlirlscork-winged. Introduced inio Etu 
land in the bf^inninii of the reign of 'WjUin 
and Mary; the ivoikI Ci( inferior to ihcprefi 
ing. It has three varirliet, ftom u» 
boreoiis, thrubby, and dw;irf. 

3. (J. monlana. Broad-leaved dm 
hasel. Found wild in our lanes. 

4. U. America. Amsriciin elm. 
of Canada, and admiiiin^ abo ihrci 
characterised hy iheir specilic uamct, red el 
while elm, dioopiiig or weeping elm 

5. U, pumila. Dwarf elm. Thi 
of lliis are slender ; but the tree itielf is aaid ■ 
contend with the oak in heif^t, whence il J 
strangely misnamed, li is a naliTeof Sibe' 
and an excellent cIoie.4Eraine'l timber. 

6. U. neinoralis. Horn-beam leaved e 
A naiive of Norih America, with oblong n 
glabrous leaves, equally serrate. 

7. U. integiifulia. Orienlal elm. 
tive of the East Indies, with the leavei vr 

All these may be propazaled either by layi 
r>r suckers taken from the roots of the « 
trees i the latter k generally practised, but 4 
former has inany supenor advantages, and tm 
Ih; more lirnily relied on. The ehn delighuij 
a stiff strong soil, though in such ii 

tlowlv, hut yields a much Iirmer and ei 

timber. In the lighter ioili it ihootj up nj 
hill the n-ood is poroue, and of much les* c_, 
patailve Talue. The inner lotuh baik of tl. 
tree is directed fat use by the p)iarniaco|)[BiM3 
It hunoremaTkablesmell, buiabiilerish tn~ ' 
and abounds with a tlimy iuicr, which I 
been recommended in nephntic cases, and g0j 
tcrnally as a mcful application lo burns. IIiMII 
ahn highly recommended in aome cuiAnM 
affections allied to hetpei and lepra. It 
mostly exhibited in the form of deciictiop, | 
boiling four ouncei in four pints of waier, |J 
two pinu ; of which fiom Four to ei; 
ate ^iven iwo or three times a d«y. 

ULNA, tfratn o.)^, the ulna or cuUEt^ J 
Cubitus. The ulna is smaller and shorlei thttk j 
the OS humeri, and becomes fCRiduully afii 
as it descends to the wrint. We may divi 
into its upper and lower extiemilics, and JM 
body or middle part. At its upper exiieiN ~ 
are two considerable proceMca, of which iJ 
posterior one and largest is named olecrai' ' 
and the smaller and anterior one the corn 
procctt. Between these two procesao, the<ai 
iremiiy of the bone is formed into a decji i ' 
culating cavity, which, from its semiciro 
shape, Ii called the greater sygmoid cavity, i 
dislinguish it from another, which hai bet^ii 
named the teMri sygmoid cavity. The ulecr«< 
non b^ns bv o considerable tuberosity, whiah 
il loug^, and series for the ioaerti'in of a 
cles, and terminate) in a kind of bnoh, |] 
ooncnve anrliicc of which ■lavci ti]>iHi the pint 
ley of ilie OS humeiL Thii {«ootu bisujf'^ 




U L N 

^tnt Bf the elbow. The coronotd , 
sharper at iu rxucmity than theolccrannn, hot 
ii much smaller, and does not re;>ch fi hig,h. 
In brnding the arm il is rrceired into the fossa 
at the fore |>art of the piillej. Ai the external 
side of ihe cnronoid princes* i« the lesser lyij- 
mnid raviiy. which » a amall, Bemi-iuDar, arli- 
cuUting siiViace, lined wiih cartilage, on which 
the rmnd head nf ihe ladius pUyi. Al the 
fore pari of the coronoid pioceis we obierve a 
small lube rosity, into which ihe tendon of the 
braehiiklii inteinus is inierird. The greaicr 
lyanioid cavi^, the liluatiun of which we just 
now nieiiii'ined, is divided iniD four surfaces by 
■ piominrnt line, which it intrncctcd b; a 
(mall sinuosity that lerrra for ihc loilgrneiii of 
inucilsEinnus 'glands. The whole of this ca- 
vity I* cnTCTctf with cartilage. The boilv, or 
middle p.in of the ulna, is of a piisiiiaiie or 
triingular shape, lo at lo nfTord three surraccs 
•nil as many angles. The enlemal and inlcr. 
nal surfaces are flat and broad, esMCially ihe 
external one, and ate separaiod by a sharp 
■ngle, which, from its situation, may he term- 
H the internal angle I'his internal angle, 
which is lurntvl lowardi the radiii!, serves for 
the allachnient of the lifamem ihni connects 
the Iwo kincs, and which is therefore called 
the iiiterosscus ligamenl. The pcsierior sur- 
face it convix, and ctirrcipnndi with the [>le- 
enuon. The borders, or dD^cs, which tepn- 
»te it iTom the other ttvo aiirfaccs, are snme- 
what rounded. At about a ihitd of the length 
of ihis bone from ihe lop, in in fore pari, we 
ohseivc a channel for the pasuge of veisets. 
'I'lte lower eilreiiilijr i« nmnllcr as it descend*, 
ly curved forwards 
t lerminaies it 
K> as lo form a neck to (he small 
held with which it ends. On the outside of 
this little head, answering to the olecranon, a 
small procrts, called the styloid process, stands 
out. from which a strong Eigainent is iireiched 
to the wrisl. The hewl has a rounded articti- 
latii^g surface, nn its internal side, which is 
covered with carlilage, and received into « 
small seiri-lunat cavity formed at the lower 
tudoftheradiui. Between iiandlheot cunei- 
foime,. a moveable cartilaee is interposed, 
which it continued from inc cattilap that 
envers *lhe lower end of the radius, and is con- 
nccied by ligamentous fibres to ihe styloid 
procettof ihe ulna, llie ulna is uliculated 
abiwe with the lower enti of the os humeri. 
Thii ariiculaiinn is of the species called ginali- 
Ritu- It isariieulatedalsoboih'Bbonreandbclow 
to the radius, and lo the carpus at its loweit 
exiiemttv. Iti chief use seeins to be to lup- 
uo(t and regulate the motions of ihe todiua. 
In children, both ealremiiiea of this bone are 
^ist canildginuni, and afteinartls epiphy<e*, 
before they arc conipleicly united to ihe test uf 
the bone. 

ULNAR ARTERY. AiterU ulnaris. S« 

CvltlTAL ARTeRV. 

UtKAK M(*vi. NttTUs iilnuii. See 

CoatTAL KIKVL 



irurly cylindrical, and sliglitly cut 
ind outwards. Just belorc il I 



nLNARIRBXTERNUS,inm;e)ogj>. Set 

Uln'akis i.-cteksus, in myoIoEj-, Sec 
Flexor CARFiULBABfa. 

V LOTHO. or Vlothow, a town of Wat. 

pNalia, in tlie counly of Riivensbrrg, near whidl 
is a medical spring. It issii miles S. of Min» 

iJLRICSHAMN.atown of Sweden, in W. 
Gothland, fiirmerlv called Bugcsund, the ptt* 

mem to tjur^-nUlriraEleanora. ft is 14 m>l« 
W, of Jonkioping, and 47 E. of Uvtheboi^ 
Un. 14. »t l'. U.t. S?. 10 N. 

ULSTER. apro.mtenflr.Uml. llfi milet 
lone and lOt) hroud ; bunndid nn ilie E. by the 
Irish lea, on the N. hy ihe Northern ncean,' 
on the W. by ihe Allanlic ocean, on the & 
hy ihe province of Ltioster, ntid on the S.W, 
by that of Counau^thi. The priiici|al mttl 
arc the Bann, FonIc, Swilly, Newty-mHT,' 
and Laiisan i and it alKxind* with taT)ie htc^' 
The soil, in gemial, is fniilful in com SM 
grass ; and there are plenty of hoi»et, )bM» 
and beeves. It contains one tieh bis hojiwet_l& 
bishojirici, 10 counties, and 3f>5 parishes; Th^ 
ptinciiial place is Londnnderiy. 

ULTIMATE.™. <«/(/««.. Lai.) InlroiW 
in the Ul resort (ffog,7.). 

Ultimate ratioi. To avoid boih ilw 
tedlotisuccs of ihe ancients and the inaceutMl 
of the moderns, tit haac Newion intrndutM 
what he called the method of pt<me andtillv, 
mate ratios, the foundation of which is cM> 
tained in ilic lirsi lemma nf ihr firai bookcT 
the Principia. Taking this Rrst lemnw fwt! 
definiiiun. it may be expldined (not proved) In' 
the manner follnwiiig. 

1*1 there be two quantities, one ft»ft1 aul 
the other varying, so related lo each nlhet, tbat 
fimihevBryiiigqnantity continually appiMchs 
to the fixed quantity. Secondly, tfiaiUicvaiT* 
ing quantity does never reach or [uiu bey«id' 
that which is fixed. Thirdly, thji ilte vaij.' 
ing quanlily approaches nearer to the flwd 
({uamily than by any assigneil difference, tbtA 
is such a Hxeil quan'iiiy called the limit of ifac 
varying i^uanlity ; or in a looser way of speak- 
ing, the vaiyins quantity mjy be said to bt 
ultimately eqiiuho the fixed quanlily. TbtW 
three prnperiiei may be oihctwi»e cipimsj 
more disiiocily thus. Finl. the dilTeianoc b*-, 
■ween the varying ouaiitiiy, and ihe fixed qoMt- 
iltv must continually decrease. Secoodlv, lUi. 
difTetcjice must never become eillier iiMmngar 
uecalive. Thirdly, this d> Here nee nii«t M> 
come less ii> te'ticct to the fixrd quantity liuai 
by any assigned rilinj or the dilTcrence b^ 
iwcen the two qii 
pail of the fixcil q 



^ 



btconie a ._ 
aiiiiiy Ihan any rnctioaal 
p.111 iimi iiaisi^iirii, how small iOCniei tilt tn> 
don expressing iuch pan may be. VVhfn^^tr 
these piuperlies are found, the fixed auaiitjl* ■• 
called ihe limit of the varying iiuanuij. or the 
varying quanlily is said to be ii1ii(natcl; e^nal 
to the fixed quantity. Tliii laM phrase muw 
not be uliea in an abtolute literal mum, ihoL 



V^ng no ultimaic state, no parilcul.ir magni- 
•odf th;it ia ihe ulijitiiiic magnilude of such a 
iwytii); i|iuiiti(y. UnJei the word qiianiiiy in 
Ibii itcliiillioti inilMlie Included notonlv mim- 
bin, linri. Sic. but more eipecially ralios con- 
lidriwl »« a pTCuliar ipccin ofquamily. 

M'gniiudes ihutGoiisidcrrd io nut consist of 
bdlrniUe pom, but ire imagined gen«rat«l 
bf notion. Lina, for initanc«, ir« dncribed, 
tad in ihetr desctipiian are ECnenled not by 
ibt tppmiiion of pam, bul by the conlimial 
mouon of pointi, aurraccf by the muliun of 
lino, lolrdi by the motion ol lutfaCM, ntiglcG 
bjibt mutiunof their sides, time bya cou- 
tinuil flowing, and so in other things. These 
pncntiunt really lake place in the nature o( 
Ihingi, and are daily seen in the motion of 
Wms. The prime or ultimate ratios of mng< 
oitudiei, thus generated, are tnvettigated by ob- 
•etrmg their Tiniie incrriucDls or decrements, 
ud thence finding ihe limit* of the rsLins of 
iboM oTtable magiiitudei ; not of ibe ratios lo 
rtich the tnagniiudet ever arrive, but those 
Uniia lo wlticli the ratioi of m^gnirudes per- 
fMnllj appruwh. 

Jlaiiy penoai deoy thai rjuantilie* can have 
* tru and a la« ratio ; we request iheir atten- 
li« eonsideration of ihe following 

iVoiporittan.'— If two qiiaiiuiies begin and 
mm W MiM in iny finite time, T, ther have a 
firUmd a laM miio. 

Otman- — If iiie; hare nol a (int ratio, ihey 
btt fuit a second nor a third rviio, &e.; <li>-rc- 
fare ih«y have no ratio In the time T. But in 
iketline T tliry ire ijujitiiliei; and therefore 
ll^ mUtt hAve a i.ttio ; that is, they hare a 
iim, and thry have not a rniin in the time T; 
■hich w absard. I'herefnrc they have a first 
niin. Q. K. U. 

Tiicy ce^o-cta enl-iai the end of ihe time T, 
l>riDnNKtlii»i : ihrrrfore, aficr the end of the 
mwl ihey are KOlhine ; onspqucntly, ai the 
«»)«f H.elin..Tilieyhavenon,ii<.. But in 
■It line T ihey had a rsiio ; and after the end 
■'the lima \t\iv have no raiio; therefore ihey 
to » Ia*i mio. Q.E. D. 

S(« Newtoii'i PrinHpia, Lib. i.; Smilh'i 
FTniMu i LiwIUm on Uliitii.ii« {Utio*. 8(e. 
'iKLTIMATl-LY.orf- ^.(">n^ uUimvit.) In 
ArlAtcanseqiiei.ce {Atltrluru). 

ULTl-MITY. .. («;/t™i,.. Lit.) The Usi 
VHX 1 file 1»M e<.n5eqi«nce i Baron). 

0LTRAMAB1NE. {.<i„t'(mfTi. Fr.) An 
t»[liitlt(rlV beaiiiiful, im 
MU, of a deep tkv bio 
t%tm i*A heitwHhout: 
iom^rMl liy ihe action ofair'nr weather. Ii 
OfRenllM'Tlng iitutirr eoniained in ihe elegant 
-^ ' ealleil tapis lactiti, («< L*2U tus >) and 



l^w itraps of mater in a clean iron mortar; i 
still bctier in an agate one, till it is reduced 
a perfectly impalpable powder. Then t>l 
one pini of linseed oil, warm it over ihe Ri 
a cli-an vessel, and add one pound of bees'-' 
one pound of lurpcniine, half a pound of 
iiid half a pound of ^m tnatlich ; keep tl 
giedienls over llie (ire, with cnnslanl iti ^ 
lill ihey are melted, and thoroughly incorpo- 
rated togethei : the result will be a tenaciunl. 
adhesive mass. Of this tike any quantity, aa 
six. ounces for example, melt it and pour it into 
a warm clean mortar; then spiinkle upon it 
three ounces of pulverized lapis iDiiili, and in- 
corporate il ihorouEhly by long beating with 
the pestle. This Being done, pour in tome 
work il abo 






■, capable ofsoslaining 
Jl iinury, and not icniibl^ 



rding 



. Klapr 



•iTyar 



Utile etw ihai< nxyd of ir'in, It is separatcit _ 

(rwn itir laiiieral with iRcal difScolty and de* kept by the guide*, 
KeitT]', and hence tiiodiic« n very htgh I'rice. - - ' -- - ■ ' - - 
TbeuivtKod is a< TiJIowt. Lei the Ispii lnuli 
jbe lieated josi in rrdncse, and ilien suddenly 
^ftenehrd in e<Jd water, and let this br rp|)»3ted 
tilt, nnliwr lime'. 'Ill the sinne beconle? almost 
\<. Lw it nest b« ^ound down with ■ 



water will betwme changed with the bli 
louring matter. It must then be [iour«d inlrf'L 
clear lall (-lass, and replaced by fresh male*/ 
procceditig in this manner lill ihe paste wilt 
giveoutnomoreculouron ihe addition of fresh 
walet. By Handing a few days the ci>l<>uf will 
subside from the walet in which it was sus- 
pended ; when the dear fluid beinti decanted, 
and ihe rest evaporated, the dee|) blue powder 
which remains will be genuine ullrnmarine. 

U'ltbauarink. a. (aftra mnrin. 
Bcins beyond ihe sea ; foreign {AiniKorlh), 

ULTItAMO'i\TANE. " ■ 
Lai.) BciiiR bevniid the m 

ULTRAWU'NDANE. a. Inlira and .»i 
dw, Lai.) Being beyond ihe worhl. 

iJLTROTJKOUS. n. (ullro. Lai.) -Sp 
neous; YOlonlaiy. 

ULTZIiN, or Veltieh, a town of Low 
Saxony, in the duchy uf Lunenburg, 
formerly ahanseaiic lown, has now a eousid*ti3 
able trade in wool, and ia sealed 
nan, !S miles S. ti Lunenburg, Lon. 10. I 
E. Lat. 59. 5!> N. ' 

ULVA, in botany, a Eenui of ihe class c^p-" 
tngamia, aider algx. Frond membraciaciM^uii 
or gelatinous i fructificaiiaD solitary nrchisiered,' 
within the substance or under the ciniclc of 
the whole frond. Forty-one sped es, of which 
Iwenly.five are indigenous to our own couoily,' 
They are all sessile, and wiiboui shoo la, and 
grow in dilchcf, and on stones along Itfc wa< 
coast. Ulva itmbilicalis i> sometime* picliletl 
wiih salt and preserveil in ja)!, and afkenvaids 
stewed and cnien wiih oil and lemon juiee. 
The s|:ecicB called lavcr or navel laver is flat^ 
otbiculnr. <e*>ile, and coriaceous, 

ULVERSTONE, a mwn in Lancashire, 
with a market on Monday, The conniry 
people call ;i Ouoon.anil iiiiteated atthe foot 
of a swifi descent of hills lo the S.E. near « 
shallow arm nfihe Irish sea. It it ihe port of 
the diitrlci of FiirnesB. llic principal iniis'ni* 
" who rejidiiily 



ToeMl,iy. and Fridav. It is 18 liiilcs "N.W. of 
Lanca'ler, and «67 N.N.W. ofUmdon. ton. 
3, l-iW. Lai. S4. !♦ N.' 

ULYS.SES, king of hhata. Ihesohnf La- 
ettei, and father of Tdcwachut, and one oC 



U M B V MB 

tliose heroes who cantributcd most to the tak* the country ; a still smnller qiiantiiy is Gonsam* 

itigofTroy. x\ fee r the destruction of that city, ed by the paiut-uiakers. The colour of thit 

he waiHJercil for ten years ; and at last returned vegetable umber is a warm aomewbat pinkish 

to Ithaca, \\ here, with the assistance of Tele- brown, and is an useful ingredient to the painter 

luachus, he killed A ntinous and other princes in water-colours. The 9d material of this 

who intended to marry his wife Peuc]o|>e and name, and which is far more generally eniptoy* 

seize his dominions. He at length resigned ed in painting* is denominated Tuckiwi umber, 

the governnient of his kingdom to his son and appeiin to be a variety of the iron am 

Tclcmachus; and was killed by Telcgonns, called brown ironstone ocnre. A spccioci 

his son by Circe, wiio did not know him* from Cyprus was analysed by Klapiotb^ and 

This hero is the subject of the Odyssey. afforded hini> 

UMA,or Umea, a townof Sweden, in \V. ^ % p' ' 

Bothnia, sealed on the river Uma, in the gulf Oxyd of iron 48 

of Bothnia. The houses are built of wood j Oxyd of manganese 20 

and it was twice burnt by tlic Russians. It is ai * • ^^ 

the residence of the governor of W. Bothnia, Ammmc 5 . 

and 280 miles N. of Stockholm. Lon. I9. 9 ^* ^'^^ ** 

UMBEL,' in botany. Umbella. Withering 1«> 

translates it the rundlc. Receplaculnm ex cen- ' 

tro eodcm elongatum in pedunculos tiliformes U'MBERED. a. (from uaihtr^ or mmhn^ 

proportionatos. A receptacle stretching out Lat.) Shaded ; clouded iSkahprare}. 
into filiform proportioned peduncles from the UiM BIBLICAL, a. (from MNfa'/ioi^; Lum.) • 

flame centre. See Corymb. It is Belonging to the navel (Aav), 

1. Simple or undivided ; as in panax. Umbilical cord. Funis umbirialiib 

9. Compound ; each peduncle bearing an- Funiculus umbilicalis. The navel-atring. A ' 

other little umbel, umbellet, or umbellule.^- cord-like substance, of an intestinal form. 



The first or larger set of rays constituting the half a }'ard in length, that proceeds from tin 

universal or general umbel; the second or sub- navel of the diw to the centre of the placrnti •' 

ordinate set constituting the partial umbel. It is composed of a cutaneous sheath, eeHelll 

Dr. Withering puts spokes for what Linn^us subsinncc, one umbilical vein, and t%ro unhH- 

calls radii. lical arteries ; the former conveys the blood to 

3. Prolifenms. or superdecompound. tlie child from the placenta, ano the latter id* 

An umoel also is turn it from the child to the placenta. 

1. Concave. 2. Convex. 3. Fastigate, or Umbilical hernia. Ilemia ombilioaGk ' 

rising gradually like the roof of a house. A protrusion of |)art of any of the abdomiml 

It is also cither viscera at the navel. See Herki A. 

1. Erect; or, 2. Nodding. Umbilical region. Rcgio umbilicalu. 

Flowers growing in this manner are called The part of the abdominal patietes about two 

unibellati, umbellate or umhelled flowers j by inches all round the navel, 
old authors uinhelliferotis. Hence, UMBILICUS MARINUS. CotjFlcdoa 

UMBELLAT/E. The name of the twenty- marina. Androsace. Acetabulum marinan. 

second order in Linn^us*s Fragments; and of Androsace mathioli. Funsrns petrapiis marinur. 

the forty-fifth in his Natural Orders. Includ- A submarine production found on rocks and 

ed in the second order of the fifth class, in the the shells of nshes, about the coast of Monl- 

Artificial System. This onlcr is^ called by Ray pelier, &c. It is said to bt: in the form of pow 

and others, umbelliferae; by Cacsalpinus, feru- der a useful antithelmetic and diuretic. 
lace«. UMBLES. (q. A f/m^f/rj, inferior parts.) The 

U^MBELLATED. a. In botany, is said of eatable |>art of a deer's ciiiniilsy which being a 

flowers when many of them gro%v together in ])er(|uisiie of oflice, atford a treat to the keeper 

umbels. and his friends. 

UMBELLIFEROUS, a. (wmW and /rro, U'MBO.j. (Lat.) The pointed boss, or pro- 

I^t.) U«ied of plants that bear many flowen, minent part of a buckler (Svi/i). 
growing upon many footstalks. U^MnRAGK. 5. (^ombrage, Fr.) I. Shade; 

UMBER, (from unbra, Lat. a shade, for screen of trees (P/rt7t7>s). V. Shadow ; app^*^ 

which purpose it is cliieHy used in painting.) ance (Bramhall). 3. Resentment; oneoce; 

Martial clay, iron ochre. See the article suspicion of iniurv (^acun). 
Argilla. UMBRa'GEOUS. a. iomhagiemx, Fr.) 

There arc, hmvevcr, two kinds of earth that Sh.idy ; vieldine shade {Horvey), 
pa^s under t'ni^i name; 1st, (?ologiie umber, UMRRA^(iKOUSNESS.jr (fromiimhafe- 

wliich is a v:iriety of peat or of earthy brown ous.) Shadinfss Uialeifrh). 
co;il. Thoie are' I ir«:e k-ds of it v^roupht in UMRRAHTILE. a.'(ifm/Ta/t7tj,Lal.) Being 

the iiei^ihlxinrlKMul of Culopie, prinrifKilly as in the shnde. 

an article of (iiel ; a pri'iiy considerable quan- U.MHRK. in omilhnloe\-. See ScOPUd. 
tity is also impnrfi'd into Holland, wht-re it is UMBRELLA, a moveable canopy, made of 

uH.'d in the niannfiirinrc, or niore nroperly, in silk or other clcJih spread out np«m libs of 

the udiiiti-raiin.i, ofsniiiF, for whien purjwsc it whale-bone, and supported by a staff, to pr»»" 

app'.ars to be better than the common pent of tect a person from rain, or the scwchin^ baam5 



^ US A 

m. Vcr the Inttw purpose ii h»s long 
ii tn erientkl uation) i fur ihe purpme 
ihifw iMttt from n'm, ii wu broughi 
liana lililc more than 30 yr^ri agn. A I 
■nd none list gcntnl people p<»se;<Kil 
LioHTlhcf are become )0 comrnon thai 
rho fmntj theitiidTet genlerl people 
ither get net ilitougb ihan b« leen lo 

KILL* Tsec See Macnoma. 
IRIATlCO,aio«-norNaples,inCilli. 
nio»c, with a bUhop'i lee, though now 
M a Hiftll pUce. It is seated on the 
15 mlha N. by W. of St. Severiua, 
. 10 E. Lai. 38. eg N. 
IRI'ERE. s. 'I'hc viior of the helmet 

iRtysnr. I. (Bwtrojni, Lai.) Shadi- 
idimon of U^ht (Brawn). 
fIRAGE. I. (from umpirt.) Arbiita- 
iradly dceiii^i of a coMtovtny. 
*IRt.t. (rrom un pm, Fr. a father, 
I.) AnftTbitmoi; one who, ai a com- 
ma, declrfctdiipulcs (Bay/e). 
A Snon privBiive or negative particle 
w to in of the Latins, and a of the 
«i)DBieb. Itiiplacnlalmraiatxvill 
l^titaHMladverbi. All the Jniiaocci 
ind of cam position cannot ihercfore be 
Wa faaire eollected as many as can 

BA-9HED. d. Notifaaaied; notcott- 

modcity iPope). 

'BLEu. I.No(ha^ingahili(y(RopTj). 
I] imiwtenl {Slmhprare). 
BO'LISH^X). K. Nut repeateJ ; re- 

to force (//ooJfT). 

OeE'PTABI.E 0. Not pleailngi 

M ■■ well recf ivpd (Hognj). 
CCE'PTABLENESS.i. Sisteofnot 

iColtifr). 

CCi?PTED. D. Not secepted (.Pnor). 

CCEWmLENESS. .. Suie of not 

be •liained or approachei) (HaM. 
CCaMMODATED. a. Unfurni.h- 
at«m*) convenience (Sliakipeare). 
CCC.MPANIKD.a. Notalteoded. 
Cet/MPLlSHtD. o. Unfiniihed; 

•le {Dry den). 

CCOITNTABLF. o. 1. Noi cxpli- 
Mt to he 5ol«ed bj- leaion ; not reduci- 
xA9 {OUnviilc). X. Notiol-jcct; not 

OCOU'NTABLy. arf. Sirimgfly(.«- 

(TTCURATE. fl. Not e«act (Boy/r). 
CCUVrOMED. a. I. Not usetl i 
ifMled (Boy/O- 9- Nttri not usual 

CKNOWLEDGED. a. Not owned 
r«). 

CgOA'TNTANCE... Wantoffami- 
truH of knowledie (Saulh). 
,CQUA1'NTI-:d: a. I. Noi known ; 
; DOI bmiliatly known (Sprnier). S. 
inz familiar knnwtcilge {H'ake). 
fCrtVE. a. I. Not brbk : nm livel; 
" wing DO employment (MUlon). 



. impru- 



UNA 

3. Not \mff; not diligent (,Setilh). 4, HavinS 

no efficacy (Milton). 

UNAnMl'RED. a. Not regarded with 

honnor (Pirpf). 

UNAlXyRED. fl. Not woMhipped (^i(. 

iMtl. 

UNADCRNED. o. Kot decoraled ; not 
embellished (Adduon). 

UNADVI'SED. o. I. Imprudent; ind;). 
creet (.Shakjpcarc). S, Done without due 
thouabl; Tiih (.Hauward). 

UNADVI-SEDLY. ad. lUshly; 
dentin indiscreeilv (//noifT). 

UNAUU'LTEftATEl). a. Genitinei not 
spoiled bv tpuriom rnixtuies {Ad<blon). 

U.VAtT&CTED. D. I. H«ili not hypo- 
critical {Drudnt). S, Free from afiectUiiin ; 
open ; candid ; liocere {Additen'j. 3. Not 
funned by loo rigid ohsccvatinu of rules <Jlfif- 
ton). 4.'NolmoTed! not touched. 

UNAFFE'CTING. o. Not pathetic ; not 
moiiii3 the passions. 

UNAl'DABLE. a. Not lo be helped 
(.SliakipeoTf). 

UNAl'DED. a. Not assisted i not helped. 

UNALLI'ED. a. i. Having no powerful 
relation. S. Having no common nature; not 
coneenial (Collier). 

L'NA'LTERABLE.o. UnchaneeablE) inx 

mutable (AltM'Ury). 

UNAMBITIOUS, a. Free from ambi- 

"UNANE'LED. a — 

the bell run^'. Tbi 

UNANGULATE STEM, in botany, a 
Item of one analc : as in iri& fdidistima. 

UNANl'MIl'V. I. Agreeuieni in design 
or opinion (Additon). 

UNA'NIMOUS. a. (unanime, Fr. unam* 
nil, Latin.) Being of one mind ; agreeing in 
design or opinion {Driidrn). 

UNA-NIMOOSLV. ad. With one mind. 

UNANO-INTLD. o. i , Not anointed. 2. 
Not prepared for dcaih by extreme unction 
(Shakiptor,',. 

UNA'NSWERABLE. a. Not to be rc- 

fulP't. 

UNA'NSWERABLY. ad. Beyond eonfu- 
tStinn. 

UNA'NSWERED. a. I. Not opposed by 
a tenly [Mtlten]. S Not <-onlnied (Heokrr). 
3. Nor iio.Ml Iv fetiimttj (Drgdm). 

UNAPPAl.LEl). n. N..I daunted J not 
imrreiW bi f*ir (.Sidary). 

UNAPPA'HENr. a. Obscure; not .ni. 
ble. 

UNAPPE'ASABLE. 0, Not to he paet- 
fie.1. i.i.|.l;inihie(3/.//<-Fi). 

UNAPPREHE'NSIVE. b. I. Nntinielli- 
eenl; t]oi ready of conception (5ouM). 8. Not 

'"'iSNAPPROACHED.a. InicceMible(JlfiJ* 
Ion). 
UNAPPRffVED. a. Not approved (JfiU 



^ilWini 



UNATT. a 
'. Not retidy J ; 



I. Dull; not apprehen^Te. 
It projienM CA'Aodpriir*). 3i 



Vofitriwt quftUfied (T^for). 4. iMpfoper; ^ UNBEATEN. «^ • K^Hbf^tni^ 

unfit; unsoiiable. . Uowi (G»r£«/). 2. NottfoddmUlMcii 

I UNAfpTN£SS;:f. -1. UofitneMi imsuit. UNBBCXXMlNa mi hdmoti 

mhitntm ISpftuer). «. Dulnetv; fnintofau- «ble ; indeoimiai- (XN|ri{m). 

lArAeinkm (SAdbprrtt). .a.-UafOKliipam di*- 7*« UNBED. o. «. To raite fron 

onaliHcatton ; want of propension {Lieke). • (A^ICmV . ■ ^ , ^ 

.« VVA'SLGUEIK U. .^ . Not dii^Mdl (36/- . UKB^TDNG. «. NoC bmni 

Ion). 2. Not censored (Bm /«l»Mi)«- .: luitablt Uvilftl*)^- . « « .^ 

UNARMED. 4. . HayingmanMMtt;: hav- UNBEGCyl*. Un Btco^TTiW. «. 1 

ing no wciipons (^fytr), ^ ml; without .ynerationt tf iitf ly^ 

Unarmed, in bptany. I«tr«ifaL -With- N(Ryetgttief«led<i#t^ofi),- 4k NotM 

OQt th6rq« or fttickJctb . Appiifrf ttitl|»9le«i, esittMied (JSnUA). 

leaf, and calyx. It itMcdiiivimiUirwdtein UNBfiU'EF.i. I. IntradaH^ (A 

•cberbranebd of n^tufal hiHonr. " ^ . « 9. Inidditr; ifie l iwion (Aai|<r)« 

UNAfRTFUL. au i. Hannc.no art or To UNBEL^E^E. «.«. l.Todk 

•unning iDrwdem). 9* Wanting dkUKCftmr). not to trail ( JIF^l^i). ' ,«. Kol^lii Ihiii 

; UNASKED. a« I.. Notcoiirtcdbviolieita. u^iDiyden). 

fkotHDenktm). 8. Not iOi«|it by cmmly or UNBELtE^ER. «• An iaAM} di 

^miDhidfn). believes not the icnplnie (^ God C&ai 

UNASHrRING. o. NotanbUiowUto^.). T0 UNBE'ND. «. «. K To Im 

vU NASSAU LED. a» Not attacked (not a»- aesnre (7m/^). S.TaJelvc$ toiH 

•anited (^oIj^mt^). sat at aase m a time (Hrydbn). 

f .-VNASSHfTElXia. Notbalped (ilsgm). UNBENDING, 0.1. Not aaCm^ 



UN ASSi'bTlNG. a. Givuig no hdp {Dry- (i^«/»Ol^.?^§£?*iS!l* >^ n^H« t" 



dbi). UNBE'NEFICED. 41. Noi 

UN ASSU'MINO. o. Not anpMiit CTkom. benefice IDrydem). 

0mi. . UNBENE' VOLENT. a. Stekioil 

UNASSUHEO. a. I. Not confident (^^a«- UNBENrGHTED. a, N«m wai 

otlTf ). ' 2^ Not to be tfosled (•SMwr). dnknew (Ht/toii},. . 

UN ATTAl'NABLE. a. Not to be gMnd UNBENFGN; «. AialigoMU aaal^ 

ai^bbiaincd \ beii« oot of itach (DiviIm). UNBE'NT. a. l. Not atnuMd l« iki 

UNATTAI'NABLENESS. «. Slato of {Jhyden). 2.. Having. tlMboir m 

bein|t6Qlari«nfch(£adie>. {Skaktpeart). 3. Not crashed; aatai 

; UN ATT&MFTED. a. Untried; not at- (I^rvite). 4. Relaxed; not intoM(0« 

saytd* UNBESE'EMINerC^lTnktoOBias^ 

c UNATTBrNDED. a. Hathigiioretinne i^)« • . , 

or atrendahis (llryd^). UNB^SCVUGHT: a. Nn^ mtonM I 

• UN A TTE'NTl VE. a* Cartleit ; heedless. JLJNBESTOWED. a. Not nvgb| 1 

UNAVAILABLE, a, Uieleas ; vain with, posed of (Bckroa). 

tfunect to anv piupoM (ffoeAcr). UNBEWA'ILED. a.NotUuDcnted 

. UNAVAILING, a. Usc|^ ; vajn (l>ry^ spemre). 

dfn). To UNBI'ASS. v. a. To free fioas a 

.' UNAVOIDABLE, a. 1. inevitable; not t^rpal motive; to diMiitaqglk ffoai pai 

to be thonned iRogert). 2, Not 10 be mitard iPope). 

in ratioctnation (7ii&>/ieR> UNBI^. Unbi'odbv. a. 1. Ud 

UNAVCyiDED. a. Inevitable (5Aaif.). (Shaktprarg), 8. Uncommanded } no 

■ UNAUnrHORlZED. /r. Not supported by oiaiMUion). . 

authority; not properly commissioned (Drjf- UNBPGOTTED. a. Fme finam I 

ira). - (Addison), 

UNAWAOIE. Unawa'rbs. ad. (fiom To UNBl'ND. v. a. To looaai H 

airare. or tror^.) 1 . Without thought; without ( Dtyden). 

previous mediiation (Milion. Pope). 2. Un- To UNBI'SHOP. i^. a. To deprive • 

expeclediv : when it is not thought of; tud* copal orden iSouih). 

denly(fFWe). . UNBiaTED. a. Unbridled; 



U>]A^VVIi:D. a. Unrestrained by fear or (Shakspeare) 

reverence (C/oreiMiofi). UNBLA'^IABLE. a. Not eohiaUi 

UNHAa:'KED. a. I. Not tamed; nor to be chaifeed with a fiiult (Drydea). 

ear the rider iSHckiing). 2. Not UNRLEfMIbllED. a. Free Ira 



taught to bear the rider {SHckling). 2. Not UNRL^MIbllED. a. Free ifoa 

countenancctl ; not aided {Daniel). 

. UNBA'LLASr. UirjiA'tLASTED, a. Not 

kept steady by ballast ; unstnuSy. injured by anj* soil (A/iV/on). 

To UN B.VR. r. a. To open by removing UNBLE'ST. a. I. Accursed in 

the bars; to unboU (BeaAaai}. from benediction (Baosa). 9* WiM 

UNBA'RKED. o. Decoriicateil ; stripped unl»ar>py (Pmr). 

•rb»rk {Baemi), (J N BLOODIED, a. Not atainoi 

UNBATTKRED.a. Not injured by blows, blood. 

To UNBA^Y. 1^. a. To set open ; to free UNBLO'WN. a. Having the bud ) 

frum *he rc»tiatnt of mouuds C^arnsj. . expanded {/SJiaks^9re). 



" U»N B 

OTJTED. a. Not maiie (Atnsc 

'DIED- a. 1. Incomnieal ; iinin t. 
tit). 2. F«ed from the body [.Drg- 

BCLT.B.a. TojelopeniWunbar. 

T.TKD. a. Coaw: sroH) not tf- 

knir. by boItiiiK ot eifiint; iA'liaib.). 

'NNETTEO. «. W.m.ng a hat or 

iaiiptart). 

aKISH. «- !. Not smrtiom of 

. Not culiiviit«l b; erudition iShak. 




lie. 



UNBU-RNING. a. Koi 



'RN. a- Not yel bmiighl it 
atig 10 come {Drvden). 
ItKOWED. a. Oertutne; 



^OM. 1 



Bty&OM. v.a. I.Torereal 
IQbm). S. To 0|>ea 



llife; 



disdoi 



TTOMED. o. I . Wiihom bottom ; 

I iMiUon). 9. Haviag no wild 

tlBamm«nd). 

■UGHT. a. I. Obtained vrilhnut 

'}nidm'}, S. Not iindiug in; pur- 

mIc). 

'VliD.a. I. Look; not lied. i. 

a vmrr (Locke). 

O-NDED. a. 1. Infinite; inter- 

Viban). «, Uiilioiited ; unrestraioed. 

•UNDEDLV.orf. Without boundi; 

MUt>(Gav. of ihe Tingur), 

U'NDEDNESS. j. Ecemption from 

'WED. a. Not bent (S/iakspeare). 
BO-WEL. V. n. To exeoterate; to 
tStdkrwiU). 

BRA'Ce. V. a. To loose j lo relax 
S. To rnaltc the clolJiu loose 

WW), 

E'ATHED. a. Not txaawHShak- 
■TATHING.d. Unaninuited iShak- 



t (Gnv. B/lht Tangue). 

Bb-CMEaa. H»ingaobreechrs. 
I'BED. a. Not inlluenccd by money 

I'T>L£D. a. Liceniimis ; tuot re- 

(yKE. Vmmlc/ubx. a. I. Not 
iTayfef). 8. Not lubil'ifd ; not 
{Dfyden). S.NutlanieH [.idiiion). 
OTHERLIKE. Uniiho'theiilv. 
ini; with ibc ctiniBCter of a brother 

fBU'CKLE. e. a. To loo»e from 

P*pel. 

BlIl'LO. V. a. To nze; to dettro; 



h tfteiitM of funeral tPopcl. 
'RNED.Uie«u'itirT.a. iNotcoo- 
MWMlod; not injured byfire (Dry- 
Not healed with are {.Bacon). 
)U.-^ART II. 



Ta UNBU'UDEN". e. n. To rid of a load 
CS«oi>/.furf). K- To throw off (,Shak.prart). 
3. To disriosc what lie» henj on the iniud 
{ShakiptaTc). 

T.. UNBU'TTON.t-, a. To loo* anj thing 
buttoned (/fi/Jtion). 

UNCAIX'I'NED. o. Free from calciiia- 

UNCA'LLED. a, Not (iimtnonedj not 
lent Tori not rienianded IM'I'vnj. 

TeUNCA'LM.r. a. Toilislurb (Drurffn). 

UNCA-WCELLED. a. Not er»«d j not 
sbroeaied (Dryde"). 

UNCANOTS'ICAL. a. Not igrceable to 
the canons. 

UNC A'PABLE. a. {inrapable, Fr. incapax. 
Lai.) Not capable ; not aiiiccplible (Ham.). 

UNCATlED/or. a. Not tegard«l j not 

UNCA'RNATE. a, Nm fleshly {B^ieiO. 

To UNCA'-SE V. a. I. To disengage from 

any covering (^dtfuen). S. To flay; to strip 

UNCA'UGHT. 0. Not vet calched (CayJ. 
UNCAU'SED. a. Hiring no precedent 

UNCAimOUS. a. Not wiry, heedleis. 

UNCE'LEQRATEO. o. Not soleinnwed. 

UNCE'NSURED. D. Exempt from public 
reproach (Pipe). 

UNCERTAIN. 0. {inccTlain. I'r. inrrttau 
Latin.) I. Doubtful; not certainly knuwn 
(Denham). S. Doubtful ; tioi havioE certain 
knowledge (TiUelion). 3. Not Jure in eon»e- 
queiice (.Pope). 4. Not exact ; not lure CZ>rj- 



wanl of knuwledn {DnhaiK). S. liiaccuney 
(Locke). 3. Contingency ; want of certainty 
iSauih). i. Something nnknown (L'Eiir.). 

To UNCHA'IN. V. a. To free from chainl 
(Prior). 

UNCII.\'NGEABLEo. Innmiiablc; n« 
»ub}<'Ct (n variation (Hookfr). 

UNCHA'NGEABLENESS. s. Immuta- 
biliiv (Srwioni- 

L'NCHA'NGEABLY. ad. Immutaliililji 

tvilbotlt ch«rl^ (SO'llh). 

UNCHA'NGFD.o. 1. Not altered (/"ay- 

hr). ?. Notaltorahlc (Popr). 

UNCKA'NGING. 0. Suffering no alter*. 

'"to UNCHARGE. V. a. To retract an ac- 
cuMtion (Shaitprare). 

UNCHA'RITABLE. a. Con I r ory lo cha- 
rity ; contrary to the anivenal lo»e ptticijbril 
by rhrtBiianiiy (Addiimi). 
UNCHA'RITABLENESS. >. Want of 

ch^iritv {dtlerturyl. 

UNCHARITABLY, ad. In a mmmer 
conitsry to charity (Sptat). 

UNCHA'RY.a. Not wary i not csution*. 

UNCIIA'STE. a. I.eivd ; libidinoujj not 
continent 1 not pure (Tov'w), 

ONCHA'STfTY. i. "LcwdnMi; incooti- 
nence (Ariuthm). 



i 



U NC U N C 

UNCHFCKED. a. Unrettnined ; not UNCLFAN. s. l. Foul; dirty; 

fluctuated (Milton), iUryden), 2, Not puxified by ritual pr 

UNCHEE^RFULNJESS. s. Melancholy ; 3. 1^1 with sin (Rogers), 4. Lewd ; oi 

gloominess of temper (Addison), (Milton), 

UNCHE'WEli. fl. Not masticated (Dry- UNCLBANLINESS. s. Want of i 

ieri), ness; dirtiness (Clarendon). 

To UNCHI'LD. V. a. To deprive of child- UNCLE'ANLY. a, 1. Foul ; filthy 

ren (Shakspeare), (Shakspeare), 2, Indecent; unchaste C 

UNCHRISTIAN, a, 1. Contrary to the UNCLEfANNESS. i. I. Lewdnc 

lawsofchrisiianity (6W/A). 2. UnconTcrted ; continence (OraKnO' 2. Want of deai 

itiUdel (Hooker), « nastiness (Tay/^)* 3. Sin ; wickednc 

UNCHRI'STIANNESS. s. Contrariety to Want of ritual purity. 

Christianity (K, Cliarles). UNCLEfANSED. a. Not cleansed < 

UNCIA, a term generally used for the 12th To UNCLEfW. v. a, (from clew,) 

part of a thing. In which sense it occurs in do any thing complicated (Shakspeare), 

Latin writers, both fur a weight, called by us , To uNCLE'NCH. v, a. To open tin 

an ounce, and a measure called an inch. hand (Garth), 

UNCIiE, in algebra, first used by VieU, UNCLia>PED. a. Whole; notcttt( 

ire the numbers prefixed to the letters in the To UNCLOTTHE. v, a. To strip; t 

terms of any power of a binomial; now- more naked (FTatts), 

usually,and generally, called coefficients. Thus, To UNCLOG. v. a, I. To disenc! 

in the 4th power of a+ h, vh, to exonerate (Shakspeare), 2. To setai 

a* + 4a?b + 6a*h* + 4al^ + b\ (Dryden), 

the unciae are 1, 4, 6, 4, 1. To UNCLCISTER. t;. n. To set 

Briggs first shewed how to find these unciae, (Norris), 

one from another, in any power, independent To UNCLOSE, v, a. To open (Pc 

of the foregoing powers. They ire now UNCLOSED, a. Not separated 

usually found by wnat is called Newton*s hi- closures (Clarendon), 

nomial theorem, which is the same rule as UNCLOUDED, a. Free from 

Brig»B*s in another form. See Binomial. clear from obscurity ; not darkened (Rt 

UNCIFORM BONE, (os unttforme, UNCLOUDEDNESS. i. Opennti 

from uncus, a book, waA forma, a likeness.) dom from eloom (fio^/e). 

The last hone of the second row of the carpus UNCLOUDY. a. Free from a cloud 

or wrist, so named from its hook-like process. To UNCLU'TCH. v. a. To open i 

which projects towards the palm of the hand, of Piety), 

and gives origin to the great ligament by which To UNCOIF. v, a. To pull the car 

the tendons of the wrist are bound down. To UNCOIL v. a. (from cot/.) j 

UNCINATE. Uncinatus. In botany, from being coiled or wrapped one pai 

Hooked at the end. As the awn of the seed m another (Derham). 

ceum urbanum; and the stigma in viola, UNCOINED, a. Not coined (Loc 

Jan tana, &c. This term is used, but not ex- UNCOLLEfCTED. a. Not collect 

plained by Linn^us. In what it difTen from recollected (Prior). 

hamous it is difficult to decide. UNCO'LOURED. a. Not stained fi 

UNCIRCUMCI'SED. a. Not circum- colour or die (/Jacon). 

cised ; not a Jew (Cowley), UNCOMBED, a. Not parted or i 

UNCIRCUMCrSION. s. Omission of by the comb (CrojAau;^. 

circumcision (Hammond), UNCOMELINESS. s. Want of 

UNCIRCUMSCRI'BED. a. Unbounded ; want of beauty (Locke). 

uuMmucd (Addison), UNCOMELY, a. Not comely;! 

UNCmCUMSPECT. a. Not cautious; grace (C/flrm<ion). 

not viRilani (Hay ward) UNCOMFORTABLE, a, 1 . Affor 

UNCIRCUMSTA'NTIAL. a. Unimport- comfort; gloomy ; dismal ; miserable ( 

ant. 2. Receiving no comfort ; melancholy. 

UNCI'VIL. a. (incivil, French ; incivilis, UNCOMFORTABLENES.S. s, \ 

Latin.) Unpolite ; not agreeable to the rules cheerfulness (Taylor). 

of elegance, or complaisance (Whitg\fl), UNCOMMA'NDED. a. Notcomi 

UNCl'VILIZED. o. ]. Not reclaimed UNCOMMON, a. Not frequent; n 

from barbarity (Pope), 2. Coarse ; indecent found or known (Addison), 

(Addison). UNCOM MON NESS, s, lufrequen 

UNCl'VILLY. arf. Unpolitely; notcom- dison). 

plaisanily (/JroMFn). UNGOMPA'CT. a. Not compai 

UNCLA'RIFIED. a. Not purged ; not closely cohering (/^cf(2t;on). 

purified (Bacon). UNCOMMU'NICATED a. Note 

To UNCLA'SP. V, a. To open what is shut nicated (Hooker), 

with claups (ray/or). UNCOMPANIED. a. Having w 

UNCLA'SSIC. a. Not classic (Pope), pan ion. 

l''NCLE. s, (oncle, French.) The brother UNCOM PA'SSIONATE. a. Hai 

of oue*s father or mother (Shakspeare), pity. 



U N C 

:OMPE'LL£D.a. Freefroaicoinp»t- 

:OMPl-AlSA'NT.o.Notci»iUt''c*#). 
:OMPLETE. a. Not pctfwii not 

F<yUNDED.a. ). Simple i not 
CyeuHBK). S. :iiinple; noi iiilriuie 
pitd). 
»MPREHBNSIVE. a. Uiulile to 

:OM'pRE'SS£D. a. Free frooi com- 

;ONCEfI VaBLE. a. Not 10 be un.ter- 
not ro be comiirehrnilecl by the mind. 
;ONCEriVABLEN£sS.j. Incompre- 

NCE'lVEO.o. N.x iliouglit i cot 
d (Owe*). 

ONCE'KN. I. Negligence; want of 
i freednm from anxiety i freedom frum 
ilion iSiei/l)- 

ONCE'ltNED.a. l.tlavinenoinle. 
f/*r). !t. Notanxiouij not Jiilutbed; 
iUi (DmhaiB'). 
ONCE'UNEDLY orf. Wiihoulin- 



X>NCE'RNING. a. N< 
EtinCi nolbelonEtng toone(^>i(fiion). 
WNCE'UNMENT. i. The siaic of 
DO ihut rSmM}. 

»NCLU'DENT. Umcobclu'dikc. 
lecitive; inferriog do plain or ceilain 
ion or con(tqiieiice ILade). 
;ONCLU'DINGNESS. .. Qualilyof 
ncoocludine (BeuU). 
ONCOCTED. a. f 

I (Srown). 

■OtiDVhOtiAL.a. Absolute; not 
b* aav tcrmi {.Drudrn). 
ONFl'NABLE.a. Unbounded (^Aei. 

ONFI'NED. a. 1. Free from restraint 
9. Having no limit* ; unbounded 

ONPl'RUED. a. I. Not fariifietl b; 
la ; out «tre>iglhenr'l ; raw ; wcat 
). 9. Not itrengthenrd by additional 
w {MUlon). 3. Not KiUed in the 
M the rite ofconfinnaiioQ. 
ONPO'RM. o. Unlike; diuimilari 



UNCONKB<rrRD. «. -Km '^Amnt t 
not joined by proper ir.insitioni or depeiidtiice 
of parti; lax; looir; iiigue [fValli). 

UNCONNl'VING. .. Not rorbcariiig 
p«n.il niiiice(Af(//<in). 

UNCONQUERABLE. «■ Not lo be .i.b- 
dued ; iniupcrablc , not to be ovcicociic i in- 
vincible (PopO- 

UNCONQUERABLY, ad- Invincibly j 
iniiiperably (Pope). 

UNCONQUEKED. o. Not Eubdiied j not 
overccime {Denham), 2. Intupcrablci la- 
■inciblc (Sidney). 

UNCONSCIONABLE, a. 1. Exceedins 



the 1 



. Not digeited ; not 



of any Jusi claim or txpeculiou 
iLi'j^sfraner). S. Forminp unreasonable ex- 
ueeiation (Drvden). 3. Enormoui i vaii, A 
low word i_milon). 4. Not guided or in- 
fluenced by conscirnce i&iit/A). 

UNCONSCIONABLY, ad. Unreawn- 
ablv. 

UNCONSCIOUS, a. I ■ Having no meii- 
(al perception (Blaekmorc). 3. U 11104 ua in ted; 
unlfnowing {Popt). 

UNCONSECRATED. o. Not dedicated ; 
nut devoicH (South). 

UNC()NSE'NTED.o.NoivieIded(ff'a4«). 

UNCONSI'DERED. a. Not considered j 
not siiended to IBrown). 

UNCONSONANT, a. loeongruovii ; un- 
fit; iiJconiiatentCflMyier). 

UNCO^bTANT. a. {inc^initant. French ; 
inconiianr, Latin.] Fickle ; noisleudyj change- 
able; >nuLible[jMdy). 

UNCONSTRAINED. * Free from com- 
piilaiun lUaifigli). 

UNCONSTRA'lNT. ». Freedom from 
constraint i tatc {Frllon). 

UNCONSU'LTING. a. {inconiullui, Lw.) 
Heady : wh ; improvident; imprudent (Sid-y 

UNCONSU'MED. a. Not waited ; not 
destroyed by any' waiting power (_Htilloni. 

UNCONSU'MMATE. a. Not conwni- 



aled. 



Not dc9 piled. 



proline (Waffil 
ONFpltMITY. >. Incongruily ; ii 



ONFUTABLE-n. Iriefragdbje; not 
Dviried of error (.Sprat). 
ONGE'ALED. a Not concrclel by 

ONJUGAL. 8. Not consiHEnt with 
nijd faiih { oot'bcfitting a wife or hut- 



Indisputable ; 
not controvertible (Loclir). 

UNCONTE'STED. a. Not ditpuiablei 
evident (BJactmurr). 

UNCONTRITE. Not teligioniljr penitent 



(Han 



and) 



L 



UNCONTROLLABLE. «. I.Resi«les*; 
powerful beyond opposition (.Milton), 3. hi- 
disnuUkble; irrcrrajcible (Hoinard)' 

UNCONTROLLABLy. ad. I. Wiihoot 
posiibility of opposition. S. Without djii)icr 
of refutation (oroicn). 

UNCONTROLLED, a. I. Unrcsi.tcd; 
iiiioppused ; not to be overruled (fhilipi), 8, 
Not convinced ; not refuted (Uaward). 

UNCONTROLLEDLY. ad. Without 
control ; nithmit oppntilionfOrcayn/'Pirhr). 

UNCONTROVBRTED-a. Notdiipuiedi 
nni liabl M debit {.GtaHBtUt). 



U N C 

imCONVE'RSABLE. a. NotidttUetA 

UNCONVE'RTED.o. i. Not penuadcl 
of the truth oi" chrisiinniiy (Bogm), 5. Not 
KlUit'us ; not vt) reduced lo live a huly lire. 

To I'NCO'RD. V. a. To lowe a thing 
bound with cnrdi. 

UNCORRECTED, a. Iraccoratej not 
polbheil lo ej£»ciiitw {Druiifv). 

UNCORRU;PT,o. Honwt; upright i not 
Ulntcd with wickednns ; not inniieiiced by 
iuinniloui mterMl [Hoaktr). 

UNCORRU'PTED. a« Not i-iiiatfd ; not 
depraved (ior*r). 

To UNCirVER. ». a. I. To dlvwt of a 
covering {Locke), t. To deprive of elotlies 
iSI'ahprarr). 3. To Jlripof theroof Ci'r'O'-;, 
4. To show openly j to strip of ■ veil, or con- 
cealment (MiltoH), 5, To bare the he]ul, as 
in lh« preteiiee of a tuperinr (Shaliiprare). 

UNCCUNSELLABLE. fl. Not to bead- 
UNO O'UNTABLE. o. Innumerable CRa- 
iiith). 

llNCCUNTERFEIT. o. Gennine; not 
spurious ISpral). 

To UNCtyUPLE. p. a. To kiote dt^s from 
their couple] (Dryden), 

UNCO'UKTKOUS. B. Uncivil ; unpolite. 

UNCO'URTLINESS, i. UoiuiublcneM 
of manners lo a court {jiddisoti). 

UNCCyURTLY-o. Inelegaatof manners; 
uncivil {Swi/n. 

UNCO'UTH. u. CuncB, Saxon.) Odd; 
ItMntti niiusml iFairfaic). 

UNCCUTHNESS.i. Oddneas ; Wrangc- 




pM«I to be • 
■ inoug the Chri^ 
none of the emperors were cieiaDMnialbcfiiK 
Justinian or Joitio. Tbe «inp«T«t» of Get- 
many look the practice from th«« of the cm^ 
ero empire. Kin|( Pe|itn of Fniice wu the 
first who received the unction. In iheancwui 
Chtisiian church, unctimi alwavs acttwiyiniei 
the ceremotiie* of buplisin and coiifittniittDc. 
Exlrcme unction, or the anointing p^rxnnin 
the article of death, was al»o praeiiwtl liy lit 
ancient Christians, in compliance ivilti ill 
prrce]it of Si, James, chap, v, I4ih and lilh 
verses. After the Roman catholic ttlmn 
found ii3 way into the wotid, iblt, as well n 
many other of the practices of the earlier dini' 
tians, bcci^me shnckinglv cnrnipied. 

UNCTUCySlTV. ..'Falnea.! oilinm. 

U'NCTUOUS. a. Fat; cUmmyi mIj 

{Shahptwe). 

U'NCTUOUSNESS. ,. FatneMi oHlAHIi 
clammineis ; erentiuess CBotr/r). 

I'NCU'LLED. a. Not aathered (*!««;. 

UNCU'LPABLE.o.Noiblan«bl*(ff9«*.l, 

UNCU'LTIVATED. o. (ineulhu. UIo.) 
1, Not cultivated i not improved 1^ lilllp 
{Locke}. S. Not instructed i noi ei'&ui 



iR«>e, 



,ny 



lihilah 



roUNCREA'TE.ip. o. Tost 
reduce to noibing; to deprive 
iPopt). 

I'NCREATED. a. 1, Nol yet created 
IMillon). 3. (incr/c, French,) Not produced 
by crealiiin {Blackmore). 

UNCRE'DITABLENESS. i. Watit of 

t cropped ; nol 
gathered i.MUl«n). 

UNCKCSSED. o. Uncancelled {Shah-). 

UNCUcyUDKD. a. Not straitened by 
wantofr-on, (.^i/Awn). 

To UNCRO-WN. V. «. To deprivt of a 
crown 1 lo deprive of sOTeiei^nty (Dryrfpn). 

UTJCTION. », (Hncfioii. Frrnch.) i. The 
act of anointing {Hooktr). 2. Unpitent j mni- 
ment iDraytonj. 3. The act of anointing 
medically ('Ir^'ii"''')- *■ Any thing soften- 
ing, or feniiive (Sdotipeore). 5. The rile of 
anoiniing in the last lioun {liamrnoitd), G. 
Any thii'g thai excites pieW and devotion. 

Okctiom, in matters of religion, is used for 
the character conferred on «acred things by 
anointing them with oil. Unctions were very 
ficQuent aniouK the Hebrews. They anointed 
both their kinr« and htgh-pr<e!t» at the cere- 
inony nf iheir iniusnration. Thev also anoint* 
«d the aacred vrurli of the labernacle and 
lemiite, in sanciifv and coniecraie ihem tn the 
— ~ -jf^Ood. The unctioQ of kinjp ti lup- 



UNCU'MBERED. a. Nol hnrdcnei; w 
embairassed (Drydfn). 

UNCUTIBABLE. «. That eantiU ba 
curbed or checked {Shaitpenie). 

UNCU'RBED. a. Licentious i Ml »> 
strained. 

To UNCU'RL. V. a. To lowe firm rin^ 
or concoluiions (Drifden). 

To Unci/rl. 0. n. To fall ftom Ac 

" UNCU'RRENT. a. Nol current -. iio(|i» 
inejn commrm jinyntent {Siak^rart). 
To UNCL'RSE. V. a. To bee fnw tui ■ 

eseciation {Sftoi^poire). 

UNCUT. «. Not cut (;ro//r7). , 

ToUNDA'M.e.o. ToopcHi lofrttlho 
llie restraint of mounds {Drudm't- 

UNDA'MAGED. o. Not ^ade mm; 
not impn-rpd (/>/,;/,>,). 

UNDATE. Undi.late. Inhouny.wirtl 
The surface rising and fallingin waves. «*• 
tuselj i not in n nH I e,^.— Applied lo At tatii 
poiamogeton crispum i and to the coral io{l>- i 

LinnJui. in Philos. Bot. baa otiijittim- 
cond of ihrte terms, which he apfilin loa W 



■ adscendit rt ikaeendh. Ill 
cet only with (he Enl, fto 




Term. B< 

eiplaineil-— disco rii 

111 Driin. PI. both termsoccnr. Bui At}* 

not ;ippcai in be iiacd in dificrent setiaet, )iu 

mnrc th^in paiem and patula, valva aitd w 

Tula, arc. 

UNDA'UNTED. a. Unwbdued bfbr; 
not deprcs^rd {Tirydtn). 

UNDAT-lNTEDLY. a. Boldlyj inw 
pidlv; without frai (Saa**). 

UNDA'ZZLED. o. Not dimmrtjOrtnii' 
fused by splcDdout cBoy'O- 



n UNDE'AF. t. ». To frte ftooj ileaf.icM 

lINOIiBA'UCHED. a. Noi ccnupwd by 
dclHuchen' '..Or-i/Jtn). 

DNDbCAGUN, it a polygon of cin-en 
tide*. 

irihr ti&t of ■ rrgulir unclecagnn be 1. its 
Ittt will I>e y-jtisfia^fl ~ " " '■"'?• "f T^fi 
dmni ; inrl therrfire if tliu number be nmi- 
i^tA by ihc K|uaie of ih« «i(le of any other 
i^uLf uu<lcc*Z(ui, ihe prodiici will be ilie 
tnaof thai uiif&a^nn. 

UNDiiCA-VKD-a. N»t Ibbleio be dimi- 



U N D 



I giving plea- 



UN6IXVYING. , 



Noi 







•rbcdMVIVcd iffallttr). 

-lECE'lVED- a. N.H cheated; noi 
IDrvdeit). 
, iEMVIR, a mmiilraie among the 
Athaiun«, who hail ten other cnl' 
juiiKii wiih him in ihc 
The fnnclioni of the uu- 
I were much the liime at 
Sm* of the J«le prtvott di mancliaut't In 
TniK«. "Hiey took c«re of the •pprehcndin^ 
rf tiiq)in«l> i Mciiteil ihem in the hmils oT 
Jsiee i and when they were cunJemned, took 
ten aitau) inu> cuciody, that the icntence 
■^ lie executed on them. They were 
Mat by the iriliet, caih tribe ruming il» 
•W; and a% tile number of the iribe» af- 
Ut Cdlnihcan wai bui toi, which made ten 
■Mnben. a icribe or unury wa* added, which 
■tile ibr number eleven. 

I'NDECl'DliD, a. Not deteririned ; not 
Milnl (/r«.«.>mmM). 

■ INDKfl'SlVE.a. Notdcciiivei uotoon- 
AmntiClaniilh). 

TiVmiV.'VK. «. a. To ilefxive or oma- 
anu> i,Skalui'*aTt). 

UNOE'CKl^l). a. Notidotoed; not ein- 
Ulith«iil [.Miilait). 

UNDFrU'NEI). a. 1. Nni grammati- 
od^ttiitd by termination. 3. Not deviating; 
m l»rn«l rram the right way (SurnJui). 

UNDE'DICATES. ». Not cg.«eccaud i 
Mt AerawX. S, Not inscribed to a pjlton 

UHDESDED. a. Not «igiiiiliEcd by action 
rSLilrWarr). 

"'. I'T , >-T:n, q. Not .leprived of its 

:-al (Cra«..7M. 

IKLIi:. a. Not dcrcatiblei 
'< 'irinnnlled. 

I < .1 i ji.r I uU. a. Not tci at dcBaiicc ; not 
<Uba*nl iJJrgiUn). 

UNMFI'LED. o. Not polluted ; not vi- 
(bled I BMenrrupied E.ViifDfl). 

UKDEFl'NABLE. a. Not to be marked 
•Vt, or Ctrcumwribed by n definiiion {Locke). 

UNDEFITJED. a. Not ciicomiciibed, 01 
esplaJDed bra dufinilioo (Leet/). 

BNDEPSyRMED. 0. ]S«t dftbriwdj 



UNDHLI'RERArED. a. Not caieft 

eoniidi-ti'ii {CorcHrfon). 

UNDELl'CHThU. a. Not pleased 
touched Willi ..Icisnir (JfiWon). 

UNDEU'GIITPUL. «. Nt 

aute ( ClarrHdoa) 

UNliEMO'l.lsriED. a. Not raie.1 ; nat 
lhroivnd..wmPAi;ipj)- 

UNDEMO'NSTRABLE. a. Not capable 
of fuller evidence (ffuoArt-). 

UN1)1-NI'AB1,E. a. Such u cannot U 
gainsaid t^Sidney). 

UNDENI'XBLV. ad. So plainly ai 10 ad. 
mit noconliadiciion {Brown). 

UNDEPLCVRED. a. Not lamented (Dry. 
den). 

UNDEPRA'VED.o. Nolcornipled (Cran. 
^■ilU). 

UNDEPRCVED. a. Not di.wied by au. 
ihcirity i not iliipped of any posieMion (.!>>/• 
dca). 

U'NDER. preposition, (aniar, Gothic 1 
unbeji, Saxon i cni^rr, Duicfi.) I. Inaitats 
of tubifciion : ic* ii>ere all nuder the king 
iDrt/dcH). 2. In the state of pupilage 10 ; I 
Uuiitd under ant It'enlmurlh (Deiiioa). 3, 
Beneath ; so as to be covered or hidden : Mt 
dagger icat under liii rtoak {Diyden). 4, 
Ddow in place ; uot abovc : lit parlouT it 
under the chamltr CBaion). b. la a leu de- 
gree than : k^ acted under bu natural ttrengtk 
iDrt/drn). 0. For less than: ("( mat told 
under Me price. 7- Lew than j below : no- 
tliini( under royaUif conlenltd hitm (Cn/fier). 
e. By the ahow of: lie ttnnped ondei ihe op- 

tearante ef a iiieticngtr lliaier). t). With 
ns than i lie would noi iptok under frn ;ioiin^ 
iSwiJl). 10. Jn the slate nf inferiority to; 
noting tank or urdet iif precedence ■■ a tiicounl 
ii anier an earl (Additon), II. Inaslaieof 
being loaded with : ht ftdntt under kit loAil 
iShakiprare). 13. In aaliiteof oppression by, 
or lubjectinn lo ; the criminal wai under tie 
lath lAddiion). 13. In a stile in which one 
is leized or overborn ; luiat under ^mj am- 
icii) iPopt). 14. In a ttaicof beiua liable lo, 
or limited by ; he oct$ under Ugal reitraintt 
iLoeke), III. In a Mate of depresiion or de- 
jection hy : Ae luni under hiij'ulher'i itifluence 
(.Skaktpeare), I6, In the state of being di> 
siinguiihcd : he woe known under enaiher 
tiaiar (Coekt). 17. In the stale of: lie may 
do writ under bit prttent diipoiiltait (Sufft), 
18. Not having reached or arrived to; noiing 
time: Ae 11 under .^/»n (,S>eiMer). I9. Re. 
prcKuted by : it appeared under a /air Jotm 
l,Ai^ion). iO. In a slate of proleciioo : un> 
dcr uDur direclion I am tuft {Cailifr). 21. 
With respect to: if it neiUioned under two 
headi (Fellon). 2i. Aucsted by : / gaur it 
under my haad. 93. Subjected 10 ; being 
ihesubjectof: all Ihii wai iiaiu coiuideralion 
(Addinn). St. Id the neU sUge of luburdi- 
oatinn : (Aetr Acipei wrre in liim under l^r ge- 
neral (Locke). S3. Jn a Male of relation iliat 
claimi pttjteclton ; ke wa* under bit uaclt'i 
cart. 

U'kdek. di. I. Inaitateof tubjcGltoo 



M 



u N b N b 

CkronkUi). 9. Bdow ; not abote. 3. Lcm : TV UNDERMI'NJB. o. •• (siiiir and «um^ 

opposed to over or mortf (ifffdiioii). 4. It has I. To dig caTitiM under anj thmg* to ibtt n 

a signiBeation resembling that of an adjective ; may Ml» or he bloim ups to tap {pepty fc 

lower in place | inferior ; sulnect ^ tabonlinate Ta esccavate under (ilMiiaiij. 3. To idjmi 

{Skakipeare). 5. It is much used in oompo- by clandestine means {Loeie)» 

fition* in sevefal senses, which the following UNDERMrV£R. t. (from mademim.) 

examples will explain. 1. He that saps; he that d^^ a way the sap* 

UNDERA'C^lON.f. Subordinate action; ports. 8. A clandestine enemy (SstilA). 

aetkm not essential to the main story (Dry- U'NDERMOST. a. I. Lowest in pboi 

ibfi). (Boy/s). S. Lowest in sUte or oondiiioiu 

To UNDERBE'AR. o. a. (imier and hear.) IJNDERNEf ATH. ad. (compoondcd (am 

1. To support ; to endure iSkaktpeare), 9. findfr and neatk^ of which we still retain d» 

To line ; to guard : out of use {Skaksfeare). comparative iiflA^.) In the lower place; be* 

UNDERBEA'RER. t. (wukr and IPMrer.) low; under; beneath {Additon). 

In funerals, those that sustain the weight of Undbrve'ath. prsp. Under (SeadKu). 

the body, distinct from those who are bearers UNDERCFFICER. t. ( vii^ and tfem.) 

of ceremony, and only hold up the pall. An inferior officer ; one in sobordinale aoths* 

To UNDERBID, v. a. {umUr and bid.) rity {Au^ffe). 

To offer for any thing less than its worth. tlNOFROGATORY. a. Not deragplaiy 

UNDERCLE'RK. #. (under and clerk,) A {Boyle). 

clerk subordinate to the principal derk (Sw.). U'NDERPART. #. (iiad^ and ncrl.) Sab- 

To UNOERIXy. V. n. {under and do,) 1 . ordinate, or unessential part (DntJemX 

^. t. The 



To met below one's abilities {Ben Jomon). 2. UNDERPETTICOAT. 

To do lett than is requisite {Crew). yrora next the body (Spectator). 

UNDERFA'CTION. $. Subordinate fac-v To UNDERPm e. a. {umUr w^ in) 

tion ; subdivision of a faction {Dee, ofPtettt). To prop ; to support {Hale). 

UND£RF£a.LOW. t. {under 2nd fellow.) U'NDERPLOT. t. (under and pUi t 

A mean man'; a sorry wretch {Sidney). A series of events proceeding collaleially wtk 

UNDERFPLLING. f. {under and Jill.) the main story of a plav, and sobserncntlsil 

Lower part of an edi6ee {JFotton). {Dryden). 2. A clanaestine scheme C4dd.)i 

To UNDERFCyNG. v. a. {under Bnd pm- 7b UNDERPRA'ISE. v. a. {umier, ad 

xan, Saxon.) To take in band {Spemer). praue.) To praise below desert iPrmieu). . 

To UNDERFU'RNISH. v. a. {under and To UNDERPRPZE. 9. a. {idee asi 

Jumisk.) To supply with less than enough prtse.) To value at less than die weftk 

iColUer). {Skaktpeare}. 

7b UNDERGPRD. v. a. {under and gird.) To UNDERPROP, v. n. {under udpnp.) 

To bind round the bottom {Acts). To support; to sustain {Fenton). 

7o UNDERGCV. 0. a. (a»<2fr and ^0.) 1. UNDERPROPCKRTIONED. a. {uniif 

To suffer ; to sustain ; to endure cva {Dry* and proportion.) Having too little proportioi 

den). 2 To support; to hazard: not used {Collier). 

{Shakspeare). 3. To sustain ; to be the bearer UNDERPU'LLER. f . {under and puller.) 

of; to possess: not used {Skaktpeare), 4. Inferior or subordinate puller (CblJicr). 

To sustain ; to endure without fainting (Shak- To UNDERRATE, v. a:{underMDdrtlt.) 

ipeare). 5. To pass through {Arbuthnot). 6. To rate too low. 

To be subject to (5Aaitipearf). Under ra'tb. s. (from the veib.) A 

UND^RGROU'ND. t.{underznd ground,) price less than is usual (Dryden). 

Subterraneous space (Aft/Zon). To UNDERSAT. v. n. (undemAtei>) 

UNDERGRCyWTH 1. (under and To say by way of derogation : obsolete (^flia- 

growtk). That which grows under the tall ter\ 



wood (Milton), UNDERSE'CRETARY. i. An i 

UNDERHA'ND. ad. (under and hand,) subordinate secretary (Bacon), 
1. By means not apparent ; secretly (Hooker). To UNDERSE'LL. v, a, (under and ssl.) 



2. Cismlestinely ; with fraudulent secrecy. To defeat, by selling for less ; to sell 

Uwderha'nd. a. Secret; clandestine; than another (C^t'/o). 

sly (Addison), UNDERSE'KVANT. i. (aiuifr and w 

UNDERPVED. a. (from derived,) Not vant.) A servant of the lower class (G^«W). 

borrowed (Locke), To U^'D£KSE1\ r. a. (under and je<.) 

UNDERLA'BOURER. s, (und^ and /a- To prop ; to support (Bacon), 

lour,) A flul>ordinate workman (^/ih'n«). UNDERSETTER. s, (from wsd^rssi) 

To UNDERLA'Y. v. a. (under and lay,) Prop ; pedestal to support (1 Kings). 

To St reoLthen by something laid under. IJNDE 11 SETTING, s. (from viidWsfi.) 

UNDERLE'AF. i. (under and leqf,) A Lower pan; pedestal (^f7»//<wi). 

species of apple (Mortimer). UNDERSHE'Rl FF. s, (under and sheriff 

To UNDERU'NE. 0. a, (under and line.) The deputy of the sheriff (Cleaveland). 

1. To m:irk with lines below the words. 2. UNDERSHE'RRIFRY. s. The business 

To infli»-nce secretly ( Wotton). or office of an undersheriff (Bacon), 

U'NDERLING. #. (from tmier.) An in- UNDERSHOT. par/, a, (under and skei.) 

ferior agent ; a sorry mean fellow (Sidnof). Mored by water passing und^ it (Gsrenr). 



U N D 

tTNOERSCNG. t. (unrfo- and wtig.) Cho- 
na i bunlni of > Mng (Ory Jm). 

re UNDERSTA-ND. «. a. pieieril unio-. 
tlnd. (uirvcfirtaii'Dan, Sason.) I. To conceive 
with adeqii-iic ideasi to have full knowledge 
(Ti 10 compreliend {Addiioa). «. Tu know 
ibrmeanina of: lo be able to inte^ret (Mil' 
Ml. 3. To iiippose to mean (iucte)- *■ 
Tu know hj experience {Millo'i). 5. To 
kDOW by imlmci tJlfif/on). 6. To iiUerpfel 
nleiU mentally i to conceive wiih ropeci lt> 
Boaiiig (Snliingfieel). 7. To know aitoiher'i 
Boning {Milieu). 8. To hold in opinion 
•iih conviction (Hfillon). g. To mean with- 
Mieapreuing (tfi//anj. 10, To know wh»i 
JiDocespRisnl {Milton). 

T» Uxdkista'nd. v. It. 1. To have use 
•ftbt inirllectual faculties; to be an intelli- 
■ul mntciom beinj; (Chroniclfii. S. To be 
abimtihy Another [Nthtmiah). 3. To have 
huncd i.ViltoH). 

[WDERSrA'NDlNG. : (from under- 
itmd.) 1. lnieUeciu.il powen; Hiculiiei of 
lltt mind, etpeciaily ihuae of knowinlge and 



ik 



iCla'rndiM'). 

UvDaMSTA'soiND. a. KnowinE; skilful. 

UNDERSTA'NDINGLY. ad. With 
kwwiedse [Millim). 

UNDERSTRAPPER. ,. (usio-and ilrap.) 
Apetn iettow: an inferior agent iSwifl). 
. ONDKRSWHN. or IJNDiitscEii.a hand- 
Mm Wwii uf Swiiserlanil, In the canton of 
Bna, ncjir which is ihc famous cuvern of St. 
Pu. Il U Ksied on the Uke I'hun, ?» miles 
SS.E.of BeTn,and30S.E.i>rFiiburg. Lon. 
:,3; E. Ui. 40. 32 N. 

r»UNDERTA'KE. v. a. pret. tindrrlook; 
fM. (■«. vndfTlakm. {under fangtn. Germ.) 
I, To illeilipt ; to enpae in (fl«.ct.n.«on). 
t.Tbaianme n rharacler: not used (SAui.). 
S-Taenpgie with; to attuk (Shakipeare). 
*. To have the clmae of {Shaktptarr). 

T, Umdenta'kb. v. n. I. To aniime 
•"J buunm or province {Milton). S. To 
muuie ; to huuinl {Shaktptart). 3. To pro- 

, UNDER I'A'K'ER. 1. (from uii>/<T/atr.) I. 
' Oik who en^iign in projecti and ufTairt [Cla- 
' n>jM). S. One who engaeea to build for 

twniier at a ceitjin price (Swifl). 3. One 

*bo manaort funrtali (Voang). 
DNDEHTA'KINU. i. (from undrrlait.) 

AliRDpti enierpiiic; enaaizeinenl (Raleigh). 
UNDERTE'N.INT. .. A iccotidarr le- 
ttati otie who holds from him that hold* 
ihmi the owner ( liamti). 
' UNDERVAl.UATION.r.fu'iifrrandi'a- 
it*.) R*i<i not rt'ixl loihe worth (fVoltan). 
! r» UNDERVALUE, o. a- CaWo- and va- 
pt.) I. To rale lovr; to etlecm li((hlly; 10 
Beat w of little worth {AUfrhurf/). S. To de- 

KircM i to nuike low in tslimjiioa j to despiie 
«'(.«■■ I. (fiom ibe verb.) Low 
rice iTempU). 



U N D 

UNDERVA'LUEB. i. {from undervahe.f^ 
One wl„> Hteems liahily {ITallon). ' ' 

UNDEKWALUEN, a cunion of Swisu 
land, bouiiiled on the N. by the canton of Lu^ I 
cetn and the Lake of the Four Canliinit E.,| 
by high monntains which separate it from th* 1 
canton of Uri ; S. hv Moiml Brunich whid^ J 
parts it from the canton of Bern, and W. by J 
that of Lucern. It ii iwenty-foiir miles lonvV 
and twenty broad, and divided inio the Uppet:l 
and Lower Valley, bya forest called Keiierwal^l 
which crosses the canton from N. to S. ThsM 
country abounds in fruit and cattle, but pr(x4 
duces little com and grows no wine. The in* T 
habiiamt are Roman Catholics, Stanz it ~ 
capital of the Lower Valley, and Sarnea of lbs 
Upper and of the whole canton. 

UNDERWOOD. .. {under and uiaod.) 
Tlie low trees that grow araong the timber 
{Morliiner). 

U'NDERWORK. {unier and uor*.),, Sub- 
ordinate business ; petty affairs (Addiion). 

To U'kdsrwork. v. a. preterit and parti- 
ciple pass. undtTWorked 01 underwrougkt. I. 
To destroy by claiideitine measurej {Shak- 
spuare). 2. To bbour less than enough (J?ry- 
dtn). 3. To work at a piicc below the com- 

UNDERWO-RKMAN.i.iiiiirfffanduKiri. 
man.) An inferior or subordinate labourer. 

To UNDERWRITE, v. a. {tmdtr and 
wriie.) To write under somethini; else {Sid- 

"'tender WRITER. .. {(loix, UTiderwrite). 
All insurer i so called from writing hii nainO 
under the condition*. 

UNDESCRl'BEU. a. Not described {Col- 
lier). 

UNDESCHI'ED. a. Not seen; unseen: 
undiscovered. 

UNDESE-RVED. o. I. Not merited; not 
obtained by merit {Sidney), a. Not incurmi 
by fault Miidiion). 

UNDESERVEDLY, ad. Without de^rt. 
wheihtr of good or ill (Dryden). 

UNDESE'RVEH. >. One of no merit 
(Shakipeare). 

UNDESE'RVING. a. I. Not having me- 
lit; not having any wonh {AllerluTg). a. 
Not meriting any particular advantage or hurt 
{Pope). 

UNDESl'GNED. a. Not intended; not 
purposed {Blackmore). 

UNUESI'GNING. u. 1. Not acting with 
any set purpose {jUlarkmoTt). 3. Having no 
an'ful orfraiiduleni schemes; sincere {Soulh), 

UNDESIRABLE, a. Not to be wished; 
not ptea^iiiz (Miltoit). 

UNDESrRlNG. a. Negligent; not wish- 

UNDKSTROYABLE. a. lodeittoctible ; J 
not suwepiible of destruction : not in ua* \ 
{H„yU]. 

UNDF-TE'RMI.'JABLE. o. Impossible to 
be decided (ff'«((Dii). 

UNDETEH.M1NATE- o. I. Nolseitted; 
not decided i conlin^eaL Regularly, iadeter- 
nirjait {SquIH), 8. Not fixed {Mori). 



I 
I 



U N P U N D 

UNDETE'RMINATENESS.Ukdet«r^ UNDISTRA'CTEDLY. «. Wliho 

mi:^a'tion. 1. (from tcftf/f/frmfmi/e.) I. Un- tarbaucefrofncontimrictyorientim«nu(. 

certainty ; indecHion (naie). 2. The Male of UNOISTEA'CTEDNESS. f. F 

not bfing fixnl, or invincibly directed (^More), from interroption by different thoughts (. 

UNDETE'RMINED. n. I. Unsettled; UNDiSTU'ItBED. «l 1. Free froi 

undecided {Milton), S. Not limilsd ; not re- tarbation ; calm; tranqtin; plftcid {AtU 

gul:ited {Hale). 9. Not interrupted by any ninderanee 

UNDlAPHA'NOUSa. NotpelIdcid;not lestation (J>v(lfii). 3. Notagiuted (. 

transparent (Boyle), UNDISTUIIBEDLY. ad. Calmly ; 

UNDlGE'StED. m. Not concocted ; not fully, 

subdued by the stomach {Denknm). UNDIVrDABLE. a. Notseparabl 

UNDrOHT. priterit Put off {Spwrner). susceptible of division (SMupttwrt). 

UNDIMPNISHED. a. Not impaired ; not UNDiVI'DED. a. Unbroken % who 

lessened (Addisun), parted {Taylor), 

UNDI/PPED. a. Not dipped ; not plunged UNDI VU'LGED. «. Seciet s not p 

iDryden), gated {Shakspeare), 

UNOIRE'CTED. a. Not directed (Blacks To UNDO', v. a. preterit undid i pi 

more). passive tifufefie. 1. To rain; to bring 

UNDISCEHNED. a. Not observed; not struction {Hayward). 2. To loose; t 

discovere<l ; not descried {Drudeti), what is shat or fastened ; to imravel (j 

UNDISCE'RNEDLY. a(2. So as to be un- 3. To change any thing done to iu 

discovered (Boyle). state ; to recall, or annul any action (If 

UNDISCE'RNIBLE. a. Not to be dis- UNDCyiNG.a. Ruining ; destructii 

cemed ; invisible (Rogers), Un doling, s. Ruin; destrtictioo ; fk 

UNDISCE'RNIBLY. ad. Iiivbibly; im* chief (ijottre). 

pcrceptibW {South), UNDONE, a. 1. Not done ; not pei 

UNDISCE'RNING. a. Injudicious; in- {Clarendon), 2. Ruined ; brought to < 

capable of roakins due distinction (Donne). tion (Glanvilie). 

UNDI'SCIPLINED. a. 1. Not subdued to UNDCUBTEP.o. Indubitable; inc 

T^gularity and order {Taylor). S. Untaught; bic; unquestionable ( /foi/er). 

unins«ructed (JT. atarles). UNDOUBTEDLY . ad. IndubitabU 

UNDISCC/RDING. a. Not disagreeing ; out question ; without doubt (7;t//olfM 

notjarriugin music (Milton), UNDOU'BTING. a. Admitting nc 

UXDISCOVERABLE. a. Not to be found UNDRE'ADED. a. Not feared (Mi 

out {Rogers). UNDRE'AiM ED. a. Not thought o 

UNDISCO'VERED^ a. Not seen ; not de- To UNDRE'SS. r. a. (from dress.) 

divest of clothes ; to strip (Suckfing), 
divest of ornaments, or the attire of ostc 
{Prior). 

UNDISMA'YED. fl. Not discouraged ; not Undre'ss. s, A loose or negligcr 

depressed with fear (Milton). (Drydcn), 

UNDlSOBLrOING. a. Inoffensive (Br.). U NDRE'SSED. a. I. Not regulated 

UNDISPOSED, a. Not bestowed (^wi//). 2. Not prepared for use (Arhuthnot). 

UNDISPUTED. c. Incontrovertible; evi- UNDROSSY. a. Free from r« 

dent. {Philips). 

UNDISSE^IBLED. a, 1. Openly declared. UNDU'BITABLE. a. Notadmittinj 

2. Hone t ; not feigned (-<4//er/'Mry). unquestionable (AorW- 

UNDI'SSIPATED. a. Not scattered; not UNDU'E. a, (indue, Fr.) 1. Not rij; 

dispersed (Boyle). legal (Bacon), 2. Not agreeable to dv 

UNDISSOLVING, a. Never melting, terlmry). 

UWDISTE'MPEUED. a. 1. Free from dis- U^NDULARY. a. (from unduh, 

ease. 7. Free froni p;»rtu baiion (7Vmp/r). Playing like waves; playing with interc 

UNDISTPNnrfsMABLE. fl. I Not to (Brown). 

he . distinctly seen iRrgers). 2. Not to be To UNDULATE, r. a, (from 

knov n bv ^nv ;.eculiar .to|)€rty (/^oc^f). I^at.) To drive backward and forw, 

L'NDlSTIN'CiUISHKD. a. l. Not mark- make to play as waves (Holder), 

cd r.nt so as lo 'c known from each other 7'w U'ndulate. v, ti. To play a; 

( Locke), 2. Not lo be seen otherwise than in curls (Pope). 

cot, fiipedly ; not separately and plainly descried UNDI'LaTIOX, in phjVirs, n 

(Drifden), 3, Not plainly discerned (Sn^i/'t). tremulous motion or vibration ob>erva 

4. Admittini; nothing be i ween ; having no liquid, whereby it alteniatcly rises and i 

intrrvrnient space (Shakipcare), 5, Not the waves of t lie sea. This undiilatorv 

m:« ki'H by any particular property. 6. Not if the liquid be smooth and at rcsl.'ii 

treatird w'tn any (Articular respect. gated in concentric circles, as mostpeoj 

UNDlSTl'NGL-lSillNG. a. Making no observed upon throwing a stone, or ot! 

differf ci- (Addtsvn). ler, upon the surface of a stagnant m 
UNDISTIIA'CTED. a. Not perplexed by e\'en upon touchins; die surface of t\ 

contrariety of thoughts or detirci (Boyle). lightly with the i:ngcr» or the like. 1 



tcrie<l ; not found out (Dryden)- 

UNDISCUEET. a. Not wise ; imprudent. 
UNDISGUISED, o. Open ; artless ; plain. 



^r u N u 

nn of thoe cireuUr iinduUiiom it, that hy 
(oDchiD^ ihi: auirice with your finmr, ilii?rr is 
f rgducwl 4 JtprMsioB of iht! water in (he pbce 
•feonuct. B« thiiilapfciiion the (ubJHCcnl 
pini are mined locceuirrly out of ilieii |iImx, 
in^ the othrr •itjannt pari* ihiutl upwards, 
iiKich lyinz lucceuiiely on the d«ceiiiiing li- 
Biiil ihui iht par» of the liquid 



dc5iiL''l degree of e 



U N E 

tiifg-in. a. 
It of the « 



sooo l«rn 'to tune 

pied teui)wr«iucnt of the Kale, anS 



, far bejonti 



^wt, follow it 

circukriT. 
^uid, (he 




ly counting 



ciprocst vibraiiont 



e lho< 



a th< 



pUcc of im- 
of the impulM 



mtriiini , ritina higher by 
ui trbound, till it come] lo laii again, gives an 
uapulte to the aJ^joinin); liadiT, by which 
mnt ilui u tilceiviw: rtJMd abuut the place of 
ilw Motif •* about ■ centre, and formi the tint 
anlalaiM circle; thb falling again gito an. 
nbn impuUc id the ftuid ncKi tu it, furthet 
ftm the oentrf, which rites likewise in a cir- 
rie i tod ihut lueceMively greater and greater 
o'ldaarc produced. 

Vmovlmios, in medicine, the term used 
hf (Hne lo cuprtH an uneasy seiiutinn in the 
bcari, of an undulalory tnolion, which may 
■«tRi«W* h* |>en«!vtd externally. 

ljHXiV(.ATiov, otBbat, in muiic, 11 ntol 
far that rattling, or jarring of iounds, which ii 
«tawr*cd, chieBy, when discordant iioie* are 
mmM toother. 

The phtnomcDOn is more fullp described 
ifcoti tiy Dr. Sinith. In tuning niuticil in- 
muamU, rsuecially orgaus, it 1) a known 
ikin^ Ihal while a cunmnance ts imprrfect, >t 
i> not luiiioth and uniform. ai when perfpci, 
hit tnurruptrd with very teuiible unJuUiioru 
« btais; which, while the two sound* coti- 
tinuealihe same pitch, succeed oneunolhet in 
t^Sil litne*, and in longer and lonjctr tiuin, 
■kik Either of the soundi approach gradually 
oapnfeei cohmmmuicc with the other, tilt at 
hMUie andubtioni vanish, atid leave imooth. 



^ichf anduhtions are he*ls, an<l are remark- 
lUjr liitagKcable in a eaiicert of itrtng, treble 
•wcci, when tome of them ate out of tune ; ot 
iaa ring of belli ill tuned, the hearer being 
Bcu tlie tlreple ; or in a full orcaii bailly tuned. 

the best luninz wholly pnAcnt that 

' Intieiing of the 



llin; II 



, quite 



•uuniti, and dci 
then, sod chiefly aau*nl by the rampaiand 
MUft calkd lh« cutnel and ictqaidtcr, and 
by iB other loud stops of a hi^h pilch, when 
■ilMd wuii the tci>I. ]tui if we be content 
Virit coiapwiliiMH of unisont and ociavci to 
tbediapuoH. whatever be the quality of ilieir 
■Oondi, the bat manner of luaing will render 
tfea MMM «f their bcaia inofletiiive, if not iui- 
pnerpiible. 

Tbc doctor has with Kteat incienuity deduced 
lb* tkeory of iiie>e unduUtions fium hit prin- 
ciplM, Mid hu C|if>lt«) hif doctrine to ilir tun- 
Oi^of wwHiMM Ills , by whirh he lias shewn, 
"' ' in of no ear Bi all fur music may 



Bttnin to. This may b 

number of undulatioiti in a ce 

ai fifieeii gecotidi. See the treatise befai 

ciled, prop. xv. p. Hi- and tlie table, p. 844«,S 

plate sr,. 

From thii ingeniom iheoiy the learned au- 
thor lias demonstrated several ciiors in what 
monsieur bauveur hai delitered concerning 
these undulaiiuns or beau. See Harmooictf M 
Scholium S. p. 115. yJ 

U'NDULATORY. .. (from wdutaltSm 
Moving in the nitii«:er of wa\es (.Arbalhnon^ 

UNDU'LY.fld, Noipropetlyi uoiai 
i.rBio(luty{SprnO- _ 

UNDUTEOUS. fl. N«t perrorming dulyj 
irreietentj disobedient (S^.-penre). 

UNDUTIFUL. o. Not obedient i not 
vercnt {Tilhhon). 

UNDUTIFULLY. a. Not according 
duly (i)™rfen). 

UNDUTlFULNESS.i. Wantofro 
ineverence ; disobedience {Spenirr). 

UNDY'ING. a. Not destroyed ; nt 
rishinit (J|fi//nN). 

UNI^'.IRNED. B. Nut obtained by labg 
ormetilCPAiVip.). 

UMi/ARTHI£U.a. Driven from the d^ 
in ihe iirnund {Thumja, 

UNE'ASILY. ad. Not wiiliout pain {ti 
lolion). 

UNB'ASINES.S. ,. Trouble; perpleailjcfl 
italeofdiHiuict (/fngrri). ■■ 

UNE'.\SY.<.. I. I'jinfuli givingdial 
ancc (Taylor). 9. Disturbed i not at . 
Vi'llhl $on), S.Constraihinei ctntnping (ifoc 
caiHBian). 4. CunstraiiMil ; not disengaged 
(Loekc). 6. Peeviili; difficult to pleaM (<<<{- 
diioN] 6. Difficult I <Mtofu<«(jAtoi(.). 

UNE'ATH. ad. (fn»n tatk. ea&, Sasmi. 
easy.) 1. Not eanly : outofusefSAailigirArr). 
S, It icenis in Sfienirr to lignify the lame u 
iitntalh. Under; below. 

UNE'DIFYING. a. Not improving i 
good life {AiUrt'uri/). 

UNE'LIGIBLE. a. Not proper to be <Jmh1 

I. Nut btiiy; ■a 
t. Not engaged in* 

UNENDCyUElJ. a. Not invested v i 
graced (CVarendon). 

UNENGA'nED. «. Nutengaged 
proptisted (Suiifl). 

UMiNJO'YED. a. Not oblaii 
no^icatcd (Dnrdrn). 

UNKNJO'YING. a. Not using; hariaj 
n(f fruiiion (OrrcA). 

UNENLA'UGED.o. Not enlarged j g 
row; contracted (Ifai(i)- 

UNENLl'GHTENED.o. Notillinnini 

(_AUrrt-iiry). 

UNENSLA'VED. a. F«««i nntei 
UNENTERTA'lNINC.fl. Giving no* 

liglii; giving HO enicrUtnmeni i.Popfi- 



UN E 

UNENtCVMBED. a. Unlmried {Drmd.). 
UNE^VIEO. «. EKempt fiom enty (B^ 

ۥ11). 

UNE'QUABLE. a. Difevnt from itaelf; 
dtverie iBentUy), 

UNE'QUaL. o. HMMuaRs, Litin.) I. 
Not even iSkdtspeare, JDrycfeii). 9. Noc 

eqoftl} inferior (ilrfrv/AJMO- 3. Partial} not 
beitowing on both the same adranti^get (Dtn- 
ibi«), 4. (ffMgo/y French.) Ditproportiaa- 
alO} ill matebra (JP^pe). 6. Not regobr; 
not nniform iDntden). 

UN£'QUALABLE.a. NottobeoquDed; 
not to be paralleled iBoyUXr 

UNE^JUALLED. i. IJnptnllded; m. 
rivalled in ezcdleoce {Roseammom). 

VSE'QUALLY. ad. In difeent detect ; 
in disproportion one to the other iPepe). 

UNEX^UALNESS. t. IneqoaUty $ state of 
being onequal. 

UNE'QUITABLE «. Not impartial; not 
just. 

' ' UNE'RRABLENESS. f . Incapad^ofcr- 
roor (Dtcoy ofPitty), 

UNE'RRING. a. {inerram, LaUn.) 1. 
Committing no mistake (itof «ri). 8. Incapa- 
ble of fiiiliire ; certain (DeiiMai). 

UNEfRRINGLY. oil. Without mistake. 
' UNESCHE^ABLE. «. Ineriiable; on- 
avddable ; not to be escaped : not in use. 

UN ESPI'ED. a. Not seen; undiscovered; 
undescried {Booker), 

UNESSE'NTIAL. a. l. Nothing of the 
last importance; not constituting essence {AA" 
diiom). 9. Void of real being (MiUou). 

UNESTA'BLISHED. «. Not established. 

UNE'VEN. a. l. Not even; not level 
iKnoUet). 9, Not suiting each other; not 
equal. 

UvBVBK NUMBER, the same as odd 
number, or such as cannot be divided by two 
without leaving one remaining. The series of 
uneven numbers are 1, 3, 5, 7> 9* &c« See 
NuMBBii, and Odd vumber. 

UNE'VENNESS. #. 1. Surface not level ; 
inequality of surfiice (Newton). 2. Tnrbu. 
lence; changeable state {Hale). 3. Not 
smoothness {Burnet). 

UNE'VITABLE. a. {inevUabilis. Latin.) 
Inevitable; not to be escaped {Sidney). 

UNEXA^CTED. a. Not exacted; not ta- 
ken byforce {Dry den). 

UNEXA'MINED. a. Not inquired; not 
tried ; not discussed (Ben Jonton), 

UNEXAMPLED, a. Not known by any 
precedent or example (philips). 

UNEXCEPTIONABLE, a. Not liable to 
any objection {Atterhury). 

UNEXCI'SED. a. Not subject to the pay- 
ment of excise {Brown). 

UNEXCOGITABLE. a. Not to be found 
•nt {Raleigh). 

UNE'XECUTED. a. Not performed ; not 
done {Shaktpeare). 

UNEXH'M PLIFIED. a. Not made known 
by insUnce or example {Southwell). 

UNEXE'MPT. a. Not free by peculiar pri- 
vilege {MiUon), 



UNF 

* OllBrK&RCISBIX c Notpnetised{aBt 
o pcrieuce d {Lo cke). 

uNEXUA^ariED. «. (iModmitef* Ia. 
do.) Not spent; nol drained m the bottoa 
{AJaUa^S. 

UNQCPAVnED. m. Not apmd ait 
(Bto cto f i) . 

UNEXraCFED. «. Not thoa^ en; 
sodden; not provided aaintt (SMO* 

UNEXPE?CTEDLt. oA. Soddoi^; it a 
time unAog ght o{(Wkke). 

UNEXIVCTEDNESS. a. SoddrnM; 
ontho qgtrt qftime or manner {WmiU), 

UNEXPFDIENT. m. Inoonvenioit ; Ml 

UNEXPERIENCED, a. Mot vend!; 
not acquainted by trial or practice (IPittsni). 

UNEXPE^T. m. {inesffertmt, Ltt.) Wmh> 
ing skill or knowledge (Plner). 
^NEXPLO'RED. c t. Not aniilHi 
oot. 9. Not tried ; not known (JDvvJhi). 

UNEXPOSED, a. Not laid open !•«» 
sore(iral/t). 

UNEXPRE'SSIBLE. m. Inefikbki Mto 
be uttered (TiUotiom). 

UNEXPRE'SSI VE. a. 1 . Not luving dM 
power of uttering or expressing, f • Uaallei<» 
able ; ineflEible. Improper (Jfi/len). 

UNEXTE^NDED. a. Ooeopyii« no n* 
signable space ; having no dimennoiii iLadt^ 

UNEXTKNGUISHABLE. m. Unqnen^ 
able ; not to be put oot (Benilmi)* ^ 

UNEXTINGUISHED.^!; (winfiMlii, 
Latin.) 1. Not quenched ; not put oni (Xfl* 
ielton). 9. Not extingubhmble (Dry^M). 

UNFAa>ED.c Not withered (JDvykni). 

UNFAO^ING. a. Not Uable id widiar 
{Pope). 

UNFA'ILING. a. Ceruin ; not missii« 
{Dryden). 

UnFA'IR. a. DisengenuoiM ; sobdofoosi 
not honesf {Swift). 

UNFA'ITHFUL a. I. Perfidious; trci- 
cherous. t. Impious ; infidel {Milion). 

UNFAaTHFULLY. ad. Treacherously ; 
perfidiously (Bacon). 

UNFAITHFULNESS, s. Tieacbeiys po^ 
fidiousness {Boyle). 

UNFA'MILIAR. a. Unaccnstomad ; mA 
as is not common {Hooker). 

UNFA'SHIONABLE. a. Not modish; 
not according to the reigninrr custom {Waii$\ 

UNFA'SHIONABLENESS. J. Deviatioa 
from the mode. 

UNFA'SHIONABLY. ai. 1. Not ae» 
cording to the fashion. 9. UnartfuUy iSkak* 
epeare). 

UNFA^SHIONED. o. I. Not modified fcf 
art {Dryden). 9. Having no regular focm. 

To UNFA'STEN. o. a. To loose; to unfit 
(Sidney). 

UNFAO^HERED. «. Fatherless ; having 
no fother (Shaktpeare)* 

UNFA>rHOMABLE. a. I. Not to be 
sounded by a line (Addison). 8. That of which 
the end or extent cannot be found (Benilew). 

UNFATHOMABLY. ad So as oot lobe 
soandcd (Thomson). 



W U N F 

(lHOMED. a. Not to ht loundcJ 

k 

kTI'GUED. a. Unwearied i unllred 

ifVOURABLE-o. No i kind. 
h^OURABLY. ad. 1. Unkindly i 



UNFtyiLED. a. UnsuMued ; nol put w 
Td UNFO-LD. I ~ 



Oualy. :^. So at pot li 
t (dlamdtn). 



iDt territiol : 
Mo I dread) 



. Not affriehled i in 
H in u$c (Btn Jm 

i noi rvgaided will 



SA'SlBLE.a. Impraciicable. 
lATHERED.a. rmplumomi naked 

-S (DrytttTt). 

?ATURED. a. Defrirmol ; wanting 
offealureitDrjJm). 
VD. a. Not supplied with food (.Rot- 



jnlerrciled j 
:riiie«l; real; hiaceie iSpral). 
i'lGNEDLY.oJ. Heillrisincerelyi 
^vpocrity {Common Prayer). 
^LT. a. Nol r<hi not perceived 

YltCED. a. 1. Naked of forlifica- 
Ji^tare). 3. Not surrounded b; an; 



JRMETNTED. a. Not fen 



:nte<J 



To unchain i to 



i'RTILE. a. Not froitrul ; not pro- 

thauklcs {The 
'GUKED. a. Repreicnting no ani- 
I imilon). 
'LLED. a. Nnt filled ; not supplied 

'LIAL. a. Unsuitable lo a son 

■NISHED. a. Incomplete; nol 
j> an end; nol Utoughl lo perfection; 
1; wsniing ihe last hand {Su-iji). 
iM. a. I. Weak) feeble {Shak- 
«. Not stable (Dryi^rn). 
"T. a. I. Impropet) '" " 



, 9. Unqualified {fVatli). 

fflT. tt.a. To disqualify {Gov. of 

TLY. ait Not properly ; nol suita- 

TNESS. •. I. Want of (jualifica- 
" t of proprieiy. 

>t proper (.Camdtn). 
rFl'X. V- a. I. Ti. I.JOiei. 1 to make 
{Shaktpearf). a. To make fluid 

'XED. a. l.lWanderinft: malic; 
ilj v>K™nt {Pope). 2. Not deier- 
mdn). 

-E'DGED. a. That hat not yet the 
tarcoffealhen; youngi nolcomplct- 
>e : nol hatiiit; nitaincti full growth. 
ASHED, a. Not fleihed ; doI Ma- 
lted; nw iCoieliy). 



spread; lo(ipcn(iTfi/(o>i). fi. To icil; lode- 
clare {Skakipcare). 3. Todiscover; lo rereal 
{Nemlon). 4. To display ; to set in view 
(Bumel), b. To releajc or dismiss riom a 
fold {Shnkipeare). 

To UNFtrOL. V. a- To restore from folly 
{Shakiprarrt. 

UNFORBl'D-UMPOBBiuiiEN.a.Nolpro. 
hibiieil {Mil/en, Norrii). 

UNFORIJl'DDENNESS. jr. The stale of 
beina uifnibidden {Boyle). 

UNFCRCED. o- 1. Not compelled; not 
con.irai.ied {D'yden). S. Not impelled 
{Donne). 3, Nni feigned {ffaymard). 4. Not 
violeni i aiij ; gradual (Denham). 5. Not 
cnnirary in case (Dryden). 

UNFO'RCIBLE. a. Wanting itrengih 

{Hochrr). 

UNFOREBO'DING. 0. Giving no omens 
(Pope). 
UNPOREKNCWN. a. Not foreseen by 



happened (Dryden). 

UNFORESKrNNED. u. Circtimcised 

{MiUon). 

UNFO-RFEITED. a. Not forfeited {Ito- 
gerO- 

UNFORGl'VING.o. Relentless j impU- 
cable (Dryden). 

UN FORGOTTEN, a. Nol losi to me- 

u'nFO'RH(ED- 0. Not modified into re- 
anlor sliape (Slieclator). 

UNFORSA'KEN.a. Noid«eried{ffB»..). 

UNFO'RTIFIED. a. I, Not secured by 
walls or bulwarks (Pope), a. Not sirength- 
enedi infirm ; weak} feclili- {Shaktpeare). 
3. W'nT>lingiecutiries(Ci>//ifr). 

UNFCyRTUNATE a. Not successful; 
unproiperous; wanting luck ; unhappy ( rait- 

"'UNFO'RTUNATI-XV. nrf. Unhappily; 
with'iui cnod luck (fyUkini). 

UNFO'RTLTNATtlNESS. i. JII luck 
{Sidney). 

UNFCUGHT. a. Not fought {Kaolin). 

UNFOU'LED.a. Unpolluted i uncotropt- 
ed; notvoiled (More). 

UNFR.VMED. a. Not formed; not fa- 
shionffl {Dn/dm). 

UNFRE'QUENT. a. Uncommon; Dot 
happening olien (Browi). 

TliUKFBeaOE'NT. P. a. To leave; !• 
crae tn frequent. A bad word {PkUipi). 

UNFREQUE'NTED. a. Rarely risited j 
rarely entered (floicommon). 

UNFRE'QUENTLY.wi. Not oomtnonly. 

UNFRIET^DED. a. Wanting friends^ 
uncounlenanced ; unsupported (Shakipean). 

liNFRIE'NDLINiys. ,. (from Bi|/H*Hrf. 
ly.) Want of kindness ; waul of favour, 

UNFRIE'NDLY. ad. Not benevolent i not 
kind tffwerg. 

UNFifO^EN.a. Nol congealed to ic 



i 



U N G UNO 

UNFRUITFUL, a. 1. Not proliiie To UNGCVD. 9. a. To dhoi of diriaiiv 

iPope). 2. Not fnictiferout IWalltr). 3* (Drj/den). 

]Not fertile (Afor/imfr). 4. Not producing UNGCyDULY. a^. Inpiously ; wickedly 

good effects. {Govemmeni of the TongM^. 

To UNFU'RL. V. a. To expnd t to ODfold $ UNGODLINESS. <. Impictj ; wicked, 

to open {AddiionY nest: neglect of God {TUUisou), 

To UNFU'RNISH. v. a. 1. To deprire ; to UNG&DLY. a. 1 . Wicked ; nedigntof 

strip; to divest (&*Aa^earO* 8. To leave naked God and his laws (Rogers), 8. Puloied by 

{Shakspeare), wickedness (Shmkspear^. 

UNFU'RNISHED. a. I. Not accommo- UNGCKRED* a. Unwounded; unhut 

dated with utensils, or decorated with orna- iShakspgare). 

ments {Locke). S. UnsuppUed. UNGCRGED* a. Not filled ; not sated. 

UNGMN. Unca'ivi-v. a. (unions, UNGOT.a. 1 . Not gained ; not aainired. 

Saxon.) Awkwnrd; uncouth (5ifl2/)0* ^* Not begotten (IFa//er). 

»^ UNGA'LLED. a. Unhurt; unwoonded UNGCXVERNABLE. a. K Not lo be 

(Shakspeare), ruled; not to be restrained (GimufUU). f. 

UNGA'RTERED. o. Being without gar- Licentious; wild ; unbridled {Aii€rbwrw). 

ten. UNGOVERNED. a. 1. Being witbont 

UNGATHERED. a* Not cropped ; not government {Shakspeare). 2. Not regulated; 

picked {Dr If den), unbridled; licentious (J9rj/(ifn). 

UNGELD, compouuded of the negative un, UNGRA'CEFUL. a. Wanting ckpoce} 

and gildan, to pay, in our ancient customs, a wanting heaiuiy (Addison), 

person out of the protection of the law ; so that UN6RA'C£FULNESS, f. Tnfkynrt ; 

if he wrere murdtred, no geld, or fine, was to awkwardness (Locke). 

be paid in the way of compensation by him UNGRA'CIOUS. a. 1. Wickod; fldioBS; 

that killed him. SeeGELD,and JEstxmatzo hateful {Spenser). S. Offensive; aoDlctsia| 

CAPITIS. (Dryien's. 3. Unacceptable; not Imam 

Si Frithman, i. e. liomo pacis, fu^iat & re- (Clarendon), 

pugnet, & se nolit indicare; si occidaiur,Jar UNGRAMMArTlCAL. «. No* ■coo'diflg 

ceat ungeki, i.e. no pecuniary compensation to grammar. 

shall be made for his death. (Skinner. ) Uu- UNGRAWTED. «. Not given ; not jidd- 

gilda akerc, mentioned in Bromptoo, lias much ed : not bestowed {Drydem), 

the same signification, viz. where any man UNGRAH^EFUL. a. 1. Makins no ifc 

was killed, attempting any felony, he was to turns, or makins ill retumi for UDdocM 

lie in the field unburied, and no pecuniary {South). 2. MaKing no returns for cuhve 

compensation was to be made for his death. (Dryden), p. Unpleasinz; unacoepfabfe (il/- 

UNGE'NERATED. o. Uubcgotten; hav- ierbury). 

in^ no bcRiHuin^ (/?«/«>*)• UNGRAnTEFULLY. nd. 1. Withingn- 

UNOE'NERATIVE. a. Begetting no- tiiude {Glanville). 2. Unaccrpubiy; uih 

thing t, Shakspeare). pleasingly. 

UNGiyXEROU.S. a. I. Not able; not UNGRATEFULNESS, s. 1. Ingraii- 

ingeuui'U*; nut liberal (Pope). 2. Ignomiui- tude ; ill return for good {Sidney), S. Ud- 

o\xi {Aiidiaon). acceptable; unpleasing quality. 

UNGF/M AL. a. Not kind or favourable to UNGRA'VELY. ad. Without seriousnen 

nature {Suii/'f). (Shakspeare). 

UNGh'NTLE. a. Harsh; rude; rugged UNGROU'NDED. a. Having no found*. 

(Shrkspefiu) tion. 

UNGE'NTLEMANLY.aJ. Illiberal; not UNGRU'DGINGLY. ad. Without ill- 
be-M)min^a centUiiian {Clarendon). 

UNGK'NTLENESS. s. I. Harshness 
rudencft*^ ; stfveritv {.Tusser). 2. Unkioduess 
incivility {Shakspeare). 

UNGE'NTLY. ad. Harshly; ruddy (Shak-^ meni (Pope), 

sptare). ^ UNGUENTUM. (from ungo, to anoint.) 

UNGEOME'TRICAL. a. Not agreeable In pharmacy, an ointment ; a oombination of 

to thr laws of geometry {Cheyne). fixed oil or animal fat, thinner than that of 

UNGI'LDED. a. Not overlaid with gold ccraces, and thicker than that of linimmti, 

{Drydcn^. having the consistency of butter, or nearly so. 

To UNGPRD. v. a. To loo«c any thing The chief medicines under this form are ibc 

bound with a girdle {Genesu). following* 

UNGPRT. /I. l>«K>si:ly dressed (Jfo/Zer). U. adipis silla. The most simple oint- 

UNGFVING. a. Not bringing gifts (Dry- ment in use, to which a variety of substances 

den). may be added ; it is mostly employed 10 chapped 

I'NGLOOUFIED. a. Not honoured; not hands, &c. 

exalt^ with praise and adoration {Hooker), U. jERUOiNis. A stimulating and corroaivo 

I 'Xff LOVKIX a. Having tlie hand naked, compound, employed to deterge foul ulcers. 

To I'NGLr'E. V. a. To loose any thing U. calcis hydraroyri alva. A ipe- 

cf'mcnted {I J a rvey). ful ointment to destroy ? ermin in the head^ and 




In die Kmovtl ftriciK] Knit, *cneml 
r children, and euuneous eruptions. 
VTT*- Whife n contnol discharge 
ilistn '» wanlMl, thii oinitnent n taottU 
daily. - 

iBA- Gxcoriated turfbccs, irritable ami 
1 sorct are mostlj covered wiih ihi>, 
ibIid applied wheie limply at) emollient 



iRtnsA. A ttdatiTe dntment, mo»ly 
» the intenrrgo or jooths. 
iKonx acbtxThC. A cooling and 
re ointment when Tmh, but a Tiolenily 
ing one when rancid. 
,BMI coMtojiTUM. Indolent dcers, 
n, chronic ulcers after Inimi, and in- 
Btaoun are often remoTcd by tliSt oiiii> 

rDaAKcYit PoBTius. Inverygcne- 
br mercurial frlciioti*. Ii maf be em- 
ia duMI ill eaa where mercury li 

ITPfi*>CV*> MITros. Weaker than 

Bcr. 

TaaAKOVRr hitrath. A Mlmulal- 

r^er^at ointment. Tinr» capiti!, 

alalia, imlulent lumonn on tlte margin 

ijv-ltd, and ulcers in the ocethn, are 

f iu appUcatkin. 

BTORABUTBI NITRICD OXVPUM. 

r only ihan tlic former. 
icts- The imell of thit ointment pre- 
I mora (troeral me ; in cutaneous erup- 
id ulecralieni about the hair it is very 

WINS VLavs. Yellow batiliron is in 
oMBsa ilimiilaiii and dctersirci ii is 
am and useful form of applying the 

msci- A cooling and emollient pre- 

teTLtX. An emollient. 
PtRUaTIS CETi. A simple cmnllienl. 
;t.tBinni. The moti efleclual prepa- 
O ahaiToylhe ilch. It li also icrvice- 
Ihc ran or niher cutaneotis emptiani. 
jrtm. Mildly adtiriiizent. 
.■NCI. A lery useful application to 
Ophthalmia and relaxed ulcen, 
« lau edition nf the phoriviicnpaia nf 
i4on collrge a few of iheie are nmitied : 
ilri is realnrcd. and U. sperm, ceti is 
ht dennminited V. cetacri. 
JUICULAK MEASURE. C""^"' ) 
sra of six lines, or half a French inch. 
!UICIJLATEM PETAL, in botany, 
wilh a claw. 

SUB, Cfrom «■,*, a hook) The nail. 
3tve horny laminnsiiuaied al the ei- 
n of the fingcts and lues, 
till, (fimm in Tm-mblance to (he lu- 
OTtiooi of thcnail of (hefin^rO Onyx. 
ttrm at eollcoium of pus between ilie 
• of the cornea traniparens of ihe eye, 
mil 01- 7^ Uchrymal bone is to 
&om it* rcumblance to a nail of the 
, SmLachrswal ions. 



'WCV^JE. SeeHoor. 

UnQULA CaBALLIHA. RcC TtJSKL A G . 

. UNGULATE SILICLE, in bolany. A 
hoof-ihaped silicU ; as in rose of Jeileho. 

UNHA'LLOW. e, a. To deprire of holi- 
ness; to profane 1 to deiecrate (Sob(A). 

UNHA'LLOWED. a. Unholy; profane 
(PopO. 

To UNHA'ND. u, o. To loose &om the 
band CDenkam). 

UNHA'NDLED. a. Not handled; not 
touchi->l (iVuiiipea'e). 

UNHA'NDSOME. a. I . Ungracefi)! ; not 
beiutiful (Si/^t^). 2. Uliberal; disingenu- 

UNIIA'NDSOMELY.orf. 1. Inel^nlly; 
nneracefully (Spenier). S. Ditingenuoutl; ) 
illibc-rally iVfydcn). 

UNHA-NDSOMENESS. J. I. Want of 
beauty iSidum/). S. Want of elegance (Toy- 
for). 3. Illiberalness ; dislngenuily, 

UNHA'NDY. a. Awkward; not desier- 

To UNHA'NG. e. a. To divest of hang- 
"^NHA'NGED. a. Not put to death by the 



" UNHA'P. •'. MislMk ; ill fortune. 

UNHA'PPILY. ad. Miserably; unfortu- 
nalelv i wreichcdiy; calamitously (.Tillolioa). 

UNHA'PPINESS. I. 1. Misery; infelicity 
(,TUIotton). S. Misfortune ; ill luck (Buinrf). 
3. Miachievou<> prank ISkaktptart). 

UNH.VPPY. a. Wrelcbed; miserable; 
unfortunjte; calamiti'us; distressed (^ifron). 

To UNHATlBOUa. »■ a. To drive from 

UNHA'RMED. a. Unhott; not injured 
(Lnckt). 

UNKA'RMFUL. a. Innoxiotn; innocent 
(.Drudeti). 

U^JHARMCVNIOTIS. a- I. Not symmetri- 
cal ; dispropnriionaie iMihoh). !. Unmusical ; 
illsoundinE t^Sicim. 

To UNHATINESS. t. o. i. Toloosefrom 
the traces (.Dry Jen}. S. To disarm ; to direst 
ofarmDO'- 

UNHATCHED-a I. Nrji diwlosed rmm 
the CRRS. 9. Not lirimght to light (.SAoiti). 

UNHA'ZARI>ED. a. Not adventured ; not 



UNKEA'LTHY.a. Sickly; wanting health 



enr (Millen). S. Ncl «ouehMfed an audicr 
{thydm). a. Unknown in cctcbralion (.Mil- 
loa). 4- Unheard e/*. Obscure; not known 
by ftime (GraniilU). UnHEAaD of. Vo- 
nrecrHenlnl (.Swift). 

To UNHKA'RT. V. a. To discourage ; to 
depress {Skakiprarr). 

UNHE'ATED. a. Not msde hoi (B«yM- 

UNHEE'DED.a. Disregarded; noiihought 
worthy nf notice ; escapiiie notice (Bnylr). 

UNHEEDING. a. Negtignit; careless. 



U N 1 




ialrd ; having r 

ELPKUL 

iShukxpiaif). 

UNHE'WN. pari. a. Rougli; noi hewn 
ithudtn). 

tfNHI'DEBOUND. a. Laxof inaw ; o- 
pacioiis iMillon). 

To UNHl'NGE. V. a. I. To throw from 
the hingM. 3. To (litplace by violence (,Biack- 
Bwr«). 3. To disiitdet ; 10 confuse ( WalUrX 

UNHO-LINESS. ,. lm^,ieiy ; profansncss ; 
vrickcdncsj {Rakigk). 

UNHCyLY- a. I. Profane; not hallowed 
Cff<w*fr). S. Imjiious i wicked IPope;. 

UNHO'NOURED. a. I. Noi regarded 
with tencraiiaii j uot celebrated {Dryden). S. 
Not ireolrd with respect (.Pope). 

To U'NHOOP. V. a. To divest of hoops 
^Addiion). 

UNHCPED. Unhoped /or. a. Not cx- 
pecied ; preattr than hope has ptoniised, 

UNHCyPEFUL. a. Such as leaves no room 
lohot-K {Shakspeare). 

To UNHO-KSE.u.fl.Tobealfrmnahorse; 
10 throw from the saddle {Knouihi). 

UNHO^PITABLE. a. (hho.puali,. Lit.) 
.Affording no kindness or enterlainment lo 
stranseri j cruel ; barbarous [^Drudeii). 

UNHO'STILE. a. Not belonging lo an 



can )m tw dmdK that rhiiioceros' is the pmvr 
translation of reem (en), for it is undtr tbi< 
name ihiil this animal is known iu AralMio 
the present Jay : and the book of Job, in which 
the lertn chietly occurs, is nou- admitted on ill 
h:iiidi lo be largely initisperseil with AtiIm 
lerma, and is usually supposed la have been 
written by Moses in Ambia. (See Good'i 
TiansUlion of the Book of Job ; latradiietwy 
DiiserUiiun and note lo ch. uuix. 9-) He 
teem is also called in Arabia huaiJtr, wbid 
is I lleratly unicorn, oi the beast with onehom. 
In the same couniTy oouifa signiRet a nun; 
and hence perhaps by an easy corrupiiaD «f 
names the aooda has been misuken lot hinil- 
dee ; and the ticure of a horse wiih a bora Iu 
been criooeously adopted as the figure ff itit 

Ukicdrv, in astronomy. See Monici- I 

ROS. \ 

Unicorn fibh, or Sea uxicorx. Sm ] 
MoNODON and Narwhal. f 

UNI'FORM. j.The regimeiitaldwrnini I 
by an officer. 

U'NiroRM. a. (hums and ybrwo, Lalin) 1. 
Keeping its lenour ; similar to itsdf. iCu- 
forming to one rule {Haokrr). 

UNIFCRWITY. .. (uni/'omi/e, FmoA.) 

1. Resemblance lo itself ic^en tenoui (i)(jJ.}. 

2. Conformity to one pliem ; icsemblinctel 
one to another (Hooker), 



Unii 



IV, IS par 
foim of pi 









n UNHOU-SE, 

habitation {Daniie), 

UNHOU'SED.a. I-Homelessj wanting a 
house {Shaksptare). 2- Having no settled ha- 
bilaUonCSoufAern). 

UNHOU'SELLED. a. Having not the sa- 
crament (S/iukipeare). 

UNHU'MBLED. o. Not humbled; not 
touched >vith shame or confusion (MUIoh). 

UNHU'RT. a. Free from harm (.Bacou). 

UNHU'RTFU L. a. Innonions ; harmless ; 
doinKon harm (Blackmort). 

UNICAPSULAR PERICARP, in botany. 
Havin)j one capsule to e^ch flower. 

Unicorn (iu>«if>(, Greek.) An aniniiil so 
denominated from its possessing but one horn. 
Among the Greeks and Romans it was usually 
described in some such manner as represented 
by our own heralds, and coostiluting one of 
the supporters of the royal arms ; a kind of 
hone or ass wlih a single horn issuing from 
the forehead. Under this figure it is altogether 
■n imaginary quadruped. Clesius is perhaps 
the first of the Greek writers who thu! deliuc- 
aXtA it ; but its existence was doubted by Aris- 
totle, and the description of Ctesius treated u 
fabuli 



and the same form of^ public prayers, uid i^ 

miiiiittation of sacraments, and oiha rilA 

from the &c, t»f ihc church of Englanil, pmcribd 1| 

the famous slaL 1 Elis- and I3 and II On. 

called the Act of Uniformiiy. (S« 



The I 



i the 






s the rhinoceros which is intended by thi^ 
name m the books of the Old Testament : in 
which the Hebrew term is teem (on.) some- 
limes, indeed, but improperly rendered by the 
Iranjlalors bubalus, bison, ei wild ok. There 



worship, and uoifiwffli? 
ofsenlimeniamong'themembettortbecboRh^ 
the former of these objects il efTectsj in lilt 
latter it fails so entirety that there is gminr 
son to apprehend that not above one-unlb ^ 
the English clergy are cordial believers in At 
doctrinal articles, or preach decidedly UKleIlH> 
ly the doctrines of the church whose uoda 
they have subscribed. 

UNIFORMLY. dA (from uaj/'m.) 1. 
Wlihuiit varialiou i in an even tenotit *• 
Without diversity of one from another. 

UNILABIATE COROL. A iw^ 
coral, or a cotol of one lip. 

UNILATERAL RACEME. AoowiW 
raceme. When the flowers grow orJy mi """ 
side of the common peduncle. 

UNILOCULAR PERICARP. A iwb- 
eular or one-celled pericarp, or of onenIL 

UNIMA'GINABLE. a 
ed by the fancy ; not to be cunccired 

UNIMA'GINABLY. ad. ToadepwW 

10 be imagined (Boyle). 

UNI'MITABLE a. (inimitalU. FiendL} 
inimttabiUi, Latin.) Not to be imiiatidjj'^ 



obeiMWo- 
ccived (*"'■ 



ItiddJ 



V N I 

PAIRED, a. Not ci;>mni*h«d ; nAt 



PORTANT.o. 1. N. 
ioK no ■■K of dttcnily {Pope). 
PORTf'NEU. a. No.^ol.ciwd ; not 
mnipliBiice iDonHt), 
PRO'VaBLE. o. Incapable of me- 

PRO'VABLENESS. 5. Quality of 
■mpcuvjble (Ma IN MOD J). 
PROVED. 0. I. Noi maHe belter. 
mIc more knowing {Pope). 3. Not 
lot melioniicd by inilruciiuo (,Glan- 

CREA'SEABLE. a. Admitting no 

DIFFERENT, o. Puitial; leaning 

Hoakrr). 

FLA'-VIMABLE. o. Not capable of 



[Pdpt). 2. Uiianimated ; not en- 

GE'NUOUS. a. Illiberal ; diiinge- 
\tcmy<ifPut»). 

HA'BITABLE. a- Unfit to be Inha- 
\Uigk). 

IlA-UITABLF^ESS. >. Incapacity 
nbaUted IBoule). 

BA'BITED, a. Having nodwellen. 
4JURED. a. Unhurt 1 auffenng do 

ESCRI'BED. a. Having no inicrip. 



ISTHU'CTED. a. Not laughl ; nut 
I'tatttnciioa (.Lockfj. . 
BTRU'CnVE. a. Not confetring 
ovatneut (,.1ddiion). 
ITE'LUGENT. o. Nol knowing; 
tHBiaekmotf\. 

fTELUGlBI'UTY. 1. Quality of 
; inulligible ( Burnti), 
rrE'LLKHBLEii. Nnt <uch B« can 
itcid (R»eer,). 

rrE'LLlGIBLY. ad. I.i a manner 
andentood i Locke). 
ITE;NT10NA1, o. Not designed; 
m without design IBeule), 
TTERI-SSED. USINTSKEITEO. a. 

ng in tefwt iDn/den). 
rrERMlTTED. «. Conlinneil ; not 
«d WaU). 

rrEREU'PTED. o. Not broken ; not 
td iHBtcontmon). 

ITERRU'FrEDl,Y.»(f. Without in- 
D (ZociO- 

IVE'STIGABLE a. Not to be 
«t (.Rag). 

IVITED. a. Not askeil (Philipt). 
)I'NTED.a. I.Diijoinedi KiurKlcd 
. S. Hiting no articul.uion IGrem). 
)l^, in botany, a eenui of the clan 
^■sdi^nis. CafJ-x many-vaUed ; 



UNION. 1' (mnh, Lai.) )■ The Mt oTjoln. 
inR two or more, so ai to make them one 
(iftiilen). 3. Concord ; conjunction of mind 
01 iutercsu {Taylor). 3. A pearl ; not in u« 
iShahpearg). -i. (In law.) Vnian 11 a com- 
bining ur conwlidalion of two churches in one, 
which ii doue by the cunient of the biahop, 
ibe jiaiton, aud incumbent {CoatU). 

UmovjOrTuE UNION, byway df eaii- 
nence, lua bceit niorc pariiculatly uwd 10 tx- 
preM the act by which the two lepaiate king- 
doms of England and Scotland were ineorpo- 
rated into one, under the tide nf The kingdom 
of Grcil Britain. This union, in vnin at- 
templed by kine James I. wa» at lenRth rflrct- 
ed in the year 17(17. 6 .Annx, when Sh aiiicle* 
were agrud to by the parliament of both na> 
tioni ; the purport of the moat considerable 
being as follows: l.Tbatonthe first of May 
1707. and for CTer arter, the kingdoms of Eng- 
land artd Scotland shall be united into on« 
hingdoin, by the name of Great Britain. 2. 
The lucceiiiou 10 the monarchy of Great Bri- 
tain shall be the same as was before irtllcd 
with regard to that of England. 3. The united 
kitiedom shall be tepiegented byone pailiamenL 
4. There shall be a communication of all right* 
aitd tirivileges between the aubjecli of both 
kingdoms, except where it is otherwise agreed, 
g. When England ralsei £,000,000'. by a land- 
tax, Scotland shall raise 48,000/. 16, 17. The 
standards of the coin, of weiahtc, and of nie»- 
siiret, shall be reduced to moie of England 
throughout the united kingdoms. 18. The 
laws relating to trade, customs, and the excifc, 
shall be the !>anie in Scotland as in England. 
But all thcother laws of Scotland shall remain 
in force; but alterable by the parliament of 
Great Britain- Yel with thii caution, that 
laws relating 10 public policy are alterable at 
the discietion of the parliamenl ; laws relating 
10 private riftbtdre not to be altered but for the 
evident utility of the people of Scotland. SS, 
Sixteen peers are In be chnscn 10 represent the 
peerage of Scotland in patliameut, andf.^mem- 
hers to sit in the house of commnns. S3. The 
1(1 pecis of Scotlaiul shall have all privileges of 
parliaiaent; and all ptiers of Scotland iliall be 
pc;rs of Great Britain, and lank next after 
thoic of the same degree at the time of the 
union, and shall have all privileges of peert, 
except sitting in the house of lardi, and voting 
on the uial of a peer- 

These are the principal of the SS aiticlei of 
union* which are talinrd and confirmed by 
iUIule 3 Ann. c. S. in which statute there are 
also two acts of parliamenl recited ; the one of 
.Scotland, whereby (he church of Scotland, and 
.iliu ihe four unitcnitics of that kingdom, 
are esiahlished for ever, and all succeeding 
iorerci^ns are to take an 03th inviolably to 
maintain the same ; the other of England, 
li Annie, c. (i. wheifby the acts of uniformity 
of 13 Elia. anil 13 Car. II. (except ai the ume 
had been allereil bv patliamtnt at that time), 
and all other acts then in force for the preieri- 
alion of (he church of England, are dedared 
perpetual j aiid it it slipuJaied, that cTe^Mj' 



itMMui oMfiin 




iTivMli iMI ii kititrMAiiTifciBiiwo «l 
Mt»fVi iMll fioig^rte afadm*tfita|iilHMil * 
and VIm Btftl f Midkiontof thglatfclMtt «««t the word cbiisMlMutMiy* 






tlirpnlitail^eoDiMiiowb0tw<nrGMgHii*«M >W thMiWf^ ■»iiuU bit OiiMiiWiiUt f 

^Scodud ; Ifdiiid tmvu^ mi<M)6.%cfcMi€lfi- . 'JtPMJttdiikliAiiwoimiiitoii MMii ift 

t ■likrljwCflfl. In pble 179 treUwglfcA^a \«bt^Mi;4ii»3MMrllii;IMiaMriMl 

^dmcliAf tie temm rivmorial oT-tha iMked tirifcwli W <»dtH4#Mr>Hh» itiiim U^i 

UMdoAof GMt&ittiw tidl^IrilMd, itf Ak- * deAMttai Mu* a4MMMlMIM«>^'' ^ < 

defii^iuMciiDcnineiK TbtMdnMir. tfyiS<IMI<r<(itdJ»1 AM A « iidb»i i 

'toiv^iimaiidAalll.Eiigladidi iicxmd;dcot- <hattht ygtiitf >d lOre HBF'illiull JTl 

land I thiid, Ireland: on an cteotcKaoo of ten are in uniion iritH f ^adtKMfff'Wi 

i|ritt«BD% the .anw of fni majee^'i'Gfennan wmmidt tfca >»iolui>»iw tulifciy * JMfcl 

dominifMiSt aisinied with tha metofal bonnet. «0at» the Btitet in dbiiM/ i' *T H*im\ 

V SknAftio^ liidm'-Hhe roife, ilbietk, and Ukit, UiiiTa» oaiUrnvT^MliSHI 

ithnawofk ■nmttfrean the tama stalk; Mine- Aenuai hy o> a, ^or<ipa>tfci^ I n d l i l ii 

Ijr. the rote between the thistle and tbanvtek, of disoratd citentim - < ii td jy <F l| gi itj 

HMd^-alitdUitcd-br the rase between tha sham- plaee af iMiitt^' is tbe irsl^.plriitVHllB 

rock and thittle ; both -enipwd with tha iai* hand in integer nmnbeil. '." ^' ' '^' {$ 

'ferial cwvtn. Seathefdalei AflcordtngiDei>cliii,onitTbMl»W 

Tha'misaB'lag eombms the laltienof 9t. . for lie deinei munber ta oe k «rtMi 

AfldflBiP apdHSt; Pillkk, tamoontad bf the units. ^ 

cross of St. George* as represented also ift tha UNITARI ANS» in ctwfcfc li im i j b< 

yhiSi ^ assomad bj those who belienwsrift 

' ima artsi oi Irdann w ft towcr»' lnpia-lowvr« there is vat one Gody tha fiipreaBa^Uai 

ad fv^cr i itfidia partaLa hart, lo4ged> aflseiit^ ligions worship i but iImi thil'OaA m 

.■nMyBis^liooMkdCr ^ • theronly.tndnotaTrinltfeoiiustii^gfl 

U 91»badgeafIialaadMasliaairocbcangiMd Sen.aiid Hdly Ghaet;' T'*'^- ^-^ 

nH^ dM imperielanMmi - - Those who assume this name in tha ] 

.Toaba^gedf tlie dianrock to be within the day are; as we are tald'bf one of ^i* 

ebttar of Su Fatiiekf ensigned with tha impe- number, under tha word UintariaiHlD I 

iiii'fiwmn; • ' fmS Cyclopedia, » orinoipailjf dhiik 

Ilia s^ of his QMuesty is as follows!— aiians and iraoianitaiMDt, or b iH e f u a 

m g #ji g si t TMm -De% GrmHm BriHumwrum simple humanity of Christ. Fof* an aaa 

'J^tlflpidei J^efkmHfr, elta T«rri EcelttimAn' the first of these two classes^ see tha 

ffimmm af HvHmieir supremum dput** In Aaiaira. The tanimaryt)f doetrirteel 

£ndish, ** Geofgethalliird, iiy the Grace of modem Unitarians ~ is as followt: "flia 

43anD04he nailed Kingdom of Great Britain article in the rali^us system of this'dem 

aoil'frdtnd. King, Defender of the Faith, and ttou is, that Christ was a mere man. 

iaf- 4m uiuted Church of England and Ireland they consider him as the great imUlni 

%a SaiChv aaprema Head. the hands of God of f#«-ersioK al) tha ai 

•*"The sapporteia, crest, and crown, remain the fall| at the object of an tha ppoj 

withattt any alteration* from Moses to his own timd ; at t h a'g le s 

tJinoir, tbeoonntytownof Fayette, in Vtm* of union to Yirtotms and jjood naen^ a 

eylvania, 14 miles from the Mononcohela, and christians, make one body m a peGoltat 

OS S. of Pittsburg. Lon.79'46HN Lat 39. as having communications wkh Ooi 

14- N. apeaking and acting from God in auak'i 

UNIONfiS. (from imiit, one ; so called be« ner as no other man ever did» and idki 

cause there is never more than one found in having the form of God, and Mng tha 

tha same shell, or according to others, for that Grod in a manner peeuliarioilrtihaLlft 

many heing fouiMl in one snell not any one of mean of spreading divine and swiiii|yUiai 

them is like the other). Sec MAaoAaiTA. to all the world of mankind |«i^iMh 

UNPPAROUS. a. (imaf and pom, Latin.) the head of all things 10 hit ahmchr 



Brvngtng one at a birth {Brornn), the Lord of life, having pow^ Aad'asi 

UNISON, a. (aavf and teavf, Latin.) from God to raise the dead, ami Jifll 

Sonndina alone (Miff an). . ^ ^ world at the last day. llivy suppafea tl 

UwisoN. That onafonance, or cotneidenee great object of the whole schema'fdT itia 

of sounds, prrKreeding from an ec^naliiy in the was to leach men how to liva here ooa 

hnmher of vibrations made in a given time by happy hereafter; and that tha pattiesJi 

two sonorous bodies: or the union of two trinet they taught, as having a cu w u a wi s 

sounds so dirrdly similar to each other hi re- this great obfect, are those of tha amitya 

spoct of grsrriiy, or acuieness, that the ear per- his nnivefsal prrsenee and ini p a ct i u siyt 

eeivtng no difference, receives them as one and eabrKtv 10 repnainji sinners, Ml chne 

^hmme. - of a hfo of retribution after dmah. -^Hhl 

The iibdents tvcve much divided hi o|4nioci pose» that to be a ahij^thni iaiplkr| 



UN-] 



EilM MitfilHi ChriM **i hb fm- 
•II m tit MCcv^i praptMti, litre 
tMrf b; CM M MKh what tte, 4c 
r«Mi<Ml (ton hitn) ihc uimi ini- 
laRMti Mticic ef which li tbc dociiine of • 
tmtntMB to imnntul life." 

Stwlt i* ifa« itBicmtiii giMn bj an Uniatian 
of ihe rtq«i»im la the ehridian ehafMiei. Wr 
kare no wiih lo draw uncaixliil inrcrcncni 
fct wc einnol hrip nratrk'uif. that, if ihr htu 
■Milri)c« be ■ cornel nprncntaiion of ihc Uni- 
nriao wHinnt, ami mitch of ihe laneuagt of 
Ml. BcUbani anil Mr. Aipla[><l might bt 
bnuht in eonliriDaiian of ii, the; arc, in the- 
•(;, «*ctiM Aniiiujinuiiiv 

Sc« ihc (Tiiela Ahian, Ckriit, Jeius, 
SooiriaH.TaiwiTir, Itc 

T* UNVTE. >. a. (am<«. L-ilin.) ). To 
jaw H»u oi more iiitu one (^nwrr). 9. To 
■iA« to asTM (C{«r««f/an). 3. To niake to 
tUkmtffurman). 4. To jQin iDrydm). S. 
To'-'- ■- -■" 



-U N I ^^^H 

fcrfinn. Gcninl Wuhiagtim wn cleeTed iTi« 
ftnt pfnidcni, M.rlccicd in I7CI>, and, on lii« 
Miinna; from pohlic aSain, in IJ>j6, Mr. AiUatM 
WM rltcud liit luceoaoc. Itic >lIu<trioua 
Wjahir^inn dwd Dec. 14, )76f)- To the (Ik- 
inn lUlcs licforc meaiioned muii be iddrd all 
ihr country to ihe N. of Ihc Ohio, extending 
fiom Peniuylvinia on ihe E. ihe lakes on ilia 
N, »M Axt MiiBioippi on li.e W. callca the 
WwteiiiTeiriioiy. The UniifJ Stiiei cilcnd 
ISiU miles in length from E. Florida to llie 
N.W. angle nf Nova Scotki being situate be* 
twern 31 »n(l 4B-> N. lat, See AmEMICA. 

UNITU^LY. ad. Willi unioni u m to 
join (Drudm). 

L'Nl'lER. ». The person or thine that 
uniiCJ IG/anville). 

UNI-nON. i. Iwten. Ff.) The act or 
power of uniting i conjunction ; coalition 



'<Meia in intcreil {Ctntni). 
r*Uwi*ra. e. a. i. Tojmn ii 



e.) Having the 






iShahprarr). *. T 
aeafcac* ; id be cemented -, to be consolidated. 
J. T> K'*"' '"I" ""*• 

D»ITa, in the manage. A hone ii said to 
■niw. at walk in union, when, in pallopine, 
dw band 4|uaners fullow and kce^ time wiih 

PNITED DRKTHBEN. See Moaavi- 
»•■ 

OvrrvB Pkovikcis op the Nkthek- 
B name gi)en to the Mven prointant 
the Netherlands, which ihrew off the 
«f S(Min, and became at) inile^iendent 
See HoLLAHD, and Netkck- 
uvea. 

UKtTBtt State* ar A wehica. a republic 
rf SI, Anriica, cot»iatingori|;inalI]', in 1783, 
af ihimKO auies, tiBOiely, Matiachiitci*, New 
IbnualliM, Rliode Island, ConDtciirm, New 
Ta*. N>» Jiney, Pcraoylvania, l>elawgre, 
Hmland, Vincinia, Non>i Carolina, South 
C i iji u a, iMd Georitia Only eleven nf ihen; 
Mm acwJid, ai first, to the new federal mo- 
rii«i»n, W ibey uere afvet ward joined by 
Kenh ^lolsoa aixl Rhode NIand; and Ken- 
Mek^; Vamoni, and TennaMce, having since 
Uin added islhem, the prcieni nuinher of ihc 
■iMa tlMt foini this ((teal Ameiicati republic ii 
aualia. Thaaa alalia Inne Hontished as pro- 
tiaaea of Gi«at Britain i but parliament ni- 
l«iy i»g IB tas tbeni by lis sole authority, 
»inaM the ■Meii'entiDn of their ancmhiics, a 
enl war maued t a conoress wai brmcd, 
»li«ris. in t77ti. diaclaimtd Ml dependence on 
Iba Mthrt cuuniry : the Fteiirh king entered 
JMBaB alliattec with ihem in I7it< i therolo- 
liiai. bairrrfiilly asiiited by Franre, were tiic- 
mm; Bod Great Britiiin icknowUderd ihcir 
iiAsjMiJiaice by ilxe peaee of ITU- The To 
4am HMiitMiion of ih< Lniied Sum i* nonr 
Mi«eia4 bf a con|trets, eonsisting of a ptrai* 
MHa aiMpfciidsnit, aenale. ami house of repr» 
MMMMt. The rntetenialivci ate eWtrd 
— jaawJ Jtn i tni acnalon are chosen fcr 
4a Man, BDd Iha p>«ldBM and *ioeprciidtnt 
«VL. XI^-PAfiT II. 



U'NITfVE. fl. (from u 
power of unillnjifWHTii). 

U'NITY. .. (ani/M, Lai.j I.Thesiaieof 
bein^ one {Hammond), S. Concord^ eon* 
junction (Sprat). 3. Apeemenii unitbtmity 

mo^kiT). 

Onitiei. in the drama. See Drama- 
tic. See also an ingeniout paper by Mr. Hope, 
in the Alheneunii vol. iti. p, 40g. 

UNIVALVE SHELLS, in natural history, 
B term uted to expreia one of the three general 
daises uf nhell-EiiKes i the other iwo being ihe 
bivalves and muUiroIvcji. See CoaiCHoLODZt 
and Shells. 

LlNJL''l5GED.a. Notjudieiallydctemift. 
«d (prior). 

i;NlVE''RSAL.a. (uniama/u, Laitn.) 1^ 
General ; esienriirg to all (Soulh). 8. TmWi 
whole (Drydn). 3, Not parliculari eonprife* 
inftsll pa ri I eu la rs (WrfaiAnat J. . 

UHivt.'asAL. I. The whole; the cennil 
system of the universe : not in ute {.ttaMgii^ 

UNIVERSALISTS, in church hiatmjv 
were orininally thoK reformers who taught* 
kind nf (iiiddte doctrine, beiwecu ihe fyslens 
of Calvin and .^tniinios. They were denomt* 
rated hypothetical Universal is Is, becauie (hey 
inamlained. that God it willing la show mer^ 
ta all mankind ; and because the]) held, that 
faiih in Christ is a neecsui; condilioa lo rci^ 
der them the objects of the divine mercjiL 
These opltiions were intended to be opposed to 
the notions of Calvin, concerning eleciion and 
reprobalion. on the one hand j and to the 0[U- 
nions of Pelasius, concerning the merit ofeooj 
works, on llie other. The riocirines »' ih* 
hypothetical Cntvcrialists were propagated wiiS 
success h» John Caiiieton ; and were fnrlkef 
illusttaietl and defended by Moses AmyranI, a 
rnan of |[reai learning and sapcliy. Ilic opi- 
nion* be maintained, aud whiHi piodnced no 
small change* in the doctrine of ihe reformed 
in France, are briefly snouned up in the fuN 
lowing piopoiiiioiia : 

That God desires the h.ippiness of all men ; 
and thai no mi-irial is excluded by any diving 
decree fr<."ni llie benefi's ihat are promri'd by 
rhe death, mfferingr, and gotpel of Christ ■ 



W the bleufng. of the gn.]*!, »i.d oi* M.n..l hendinc B.th™.l.a, "1"t«1 «f J*™/""; 



That luch, indewl, •* tlie immenie and iinl- 



i «nh AtuHj. Id ewli of tU»^ Ihere k 



T«»t8»odnmof.heSoprtmcBriog. .hjii lie J"!^"^ y,^ J h^,,„ „i j«,„ . fc, 
K;.iMSto.iarwthcpow«i.rbet.«itigi though o.*ojrh itnhs uoi.miliH of G««t Briufa ui4 
he doa not grant unlo all hit j«iiiiin« and £„i,„,i „ (,»„ „„ ,„* fcpee m *«t»r to MM 
tuccour, lliit thcj' may niscly impTOVe this ^dU inrnrci, nor maiicr of arti Bonrtn ta It* 
power ID the atiainnteat of evrrlatting suUa- d(>|;Toe at durXar in ptiilouipb^, «liir4 i« oa> 
lioo : f.!n-od bj ininj of ll" uniTnitiM am the MMll- 

Andll«t, iticonwquenceorthia, miiltilodM ntut. 
iwith ibiough thcit own fault, and not from Unirertilipi in their prcieni fc»», ami •» 
anywamorBooclnwioGod. their pretml prlTlle^^i, are intlMrtto* »«- 

But lh< doctrine of ihtr i.iMent U..i*erHli,<s pwatiirly nioderti. 1 Wr j y"»« ™ J^ff™: 
la widely difTeieni from tl.i. Their opinion i». """ "' "?"1'^ •'^'"v"!, i^ .S2^™ 
.hat c/ha.nan cr,a..re wha,».r hi^o.jluct :: tt^-^^ld^^^^^ '-^'ZS 
ma, h.v< b«n. w.ll be eternally m.aenb It ; ^^^ ,j,„ ,^^ ^ ni.«,«^ tf t Oe (IMa 
but that all me» un.veriall}- after having been ^„^,i„„ „,,i<A „, ^{f f„ Km,|». Tl.«e m. 
«b|e«:t«J 10 degreei of punishment proportion- ,g„„ „,.„ ,^i„,rim of leamhiit pmbrtlj (hw 
«d III dnialion to their resjieciive criuict, will tfif^r firil itn'titutian ; wid ire know wilk nr- 
\t i«irifiisJ and perfected thereby, and (hen iiiaty, that In Old Atierdecn thcrawoaM^ 
tdmitted to the piewnce of God, ihcre to enjny terj in whir h youth were inrtrai-ted la tfe(vl«|?, 
tinending felicity. This dncirine is nni hiii\ecl the cunoo-Ian, and ih« -rhnol phltoMfto, al 
■I fcr any of the Anie-nicene fathers, except least 300 jcara beft.re the rnSwniiiy ut »Wi 
Otipn. and by him very obwrurely. Ami.ng e..l1»Be ir^* f"«ii'led- The -wm «.. to|4«»M 
the oiodcma ii L» been embraced a,.d .lefend^ Ih" »« in Oxford .nd C.mbr, Jge aufl jnArtlj 
kr Dr. Thomas Bnroea. Dr. Har.ley, Mr. in erery town m Europe "^^f" '"r" JT "^ 
«ineherter, Mr. VWler, and a few otl^;.. U "."'""L'T'.r^"* "Vr^rih,^ rrliflt^^l 
i.no,vl.eWbyal«o.t.ll.heSoci„lan.. We ^\J^J-^''l^'-:^'^Z7.T^rZ:^ 
•hall tio.ply remark of ih.i docuine, thai ■ ,„d'^„,e. th.t unlTewitlet dl«i!t.et trtatim- 
ha* no foondnlHin in Scnptore^ u la indeed ,rn(i wera fnunded, iriih tlw pn»lc(*«f a^ai^ 
■dniillcd by Dr. Hartley i and that it is a dan- tio^ tn decree*, whiib evnfem^ waix nak la 
(ermn doctritie, whieh is wpressly alliwcd by civil sndeiy- Theae uB"«r«tiea hiWf Inacben 
«iie of ill abetlori, Dr. lipomas Burnett. For evnaldered u lay earporaliaaai Init ■■ a >Mf 
lolt^My decinive refoiaiions of the noiinn, we thai they had thi' eeefeHaatieal oriflo wfci* •! 
beg to refer to the 21si of Dr. Gregory '• Utlen hate awigiied in ihem. li -ill be .olBdrnt to* 
on the E»Uenees. Doctrines, and Duties of the "erre, ih«t the pope ami(«<«t ••• hlBttrtfaa 
ChtistiMiRelirion;andloananonyHioosp»m- rijht of .esiine Ihrm -ith .» il.e-r or..f(u<., 
^Wet vary racenlly published by IlivinBlon■^ andtlial prior lolbe^orar.!..: 
SnliileJ. The Errors of Uoiver.^lisii, i or, the "'» *" ^""'""J'^S.'^;!: ' 
li .i: _i-.L m e r . n ■ i. Ikenliie* bT aathoritT aerlTmi ri 

l>«lnn«of the Non-e.ern.iy of fuln.e Punish- „ ;, ^ „ („pe„b.Ll. 
inetitj eonttary to Secipiute and dangeroua lo the ehoreh o* Rome deritedlu. 
W';;*'!' „ .. falhmiounhointbi!Je«>.ai>..< 

UN!VERSA'Lln.».CwBiU(T.aA(a.,Mhool diillnclioo. catremdy aiokii.r 
l^t.) NoiparticuUfiiJ'; (teneraliiy; extension the nativity of our Saviour, v 
"-(he whole iSoulk. fFoodward), ]-onD; (tudent, "rilh reipMt t" ' 

ONIVE'HSALLY. ad. Thioughom the tailed a disciplej from Ma r.- 

■^'(j nflh out exception (Hooifr). andlhr ehoaenoreluHcd.on ■ 

NIVERSE I. (ami/eii. Ft unicfrtum tioniDtotheiuimberordii.rit>l ■ 

t) Thewneraliyaiemoflhincsi iheaweni- ""''* """ pmere.* m knr,^ 

S of hearenly and earthly bodies wiih all '^'^r."'"'! '' a ™'*"««n'.n n ira^ih, 

B. m ..^A .™n.. .K.n. « tlonOfhandimaile'Qn.BrniOpao.t.n tr •"»'"( 

gsmanrtitpon them. u«pm„„ ,ho oil.ei.i.;...lB5fhUf«n.. -la- 

UN1VKR.SITY. i» the name of a corpora- aociate theej" or, " Be thonatwtateidi-i^ta 

m fomrd for the cduealieo nf youth in the li- aonn ■fterwards m he «a* Ihawflil WMtfcl *^ 

..ral arts aodieieneo, and aulhoriaed to admit teach otbcm, the a«»»date waa rai»«4 U •• nak 

Ineh a> hnie itudicd in Et lo certain drEmn In of rabbi. Whether this pi 

rillTrirat fhnilllci, whirh not only b«ttc ai ecrti- idea or not, it bax rertainly 

train of preHrieacy in seiracr, but alio eoof^ that by irhlrh a youns maa la oor . 

*a ibatK wFn nblaln (bem eoniiderable prltllrgvs paiun thr«u(h lli* dr^sren of badbolar t> UUI n 

^^^MhtB th* infTcfiily, as well u leme rank in (be maitei' of afti or dodor. 

^^^■fcwttliaalil. tUreraltlneeBeniflytOBTprv- The mnit aaelent univerdlln Is Kwnpa «l 

^^^■■d Htthi« ihnn aiir or non eoll^ea ; bm thia thoae dt Oilbrd, Cambridtv. IHria. Bah w—o . 

^^^^^^( almyt ihe niM; far Ibe nalicrv'ty of Si. and Bologna ; and In Ihe l<T« KaKtiah oiliwri- 

^^^■■ren'xri) in being befim either of ftf eol- tie*, the drit-fnunded coltcfaaar* i*«a««fVi*i 

^^^■MB nil fnundH, and II would eDStlaae in venily, DaMol. and Moiox, ia Ik* -^ 

K "" 




I lUpflitlrsM, Ikouchbothllaeol- St. Peters in the laltvr. Oafoe4«dC 
eltedwithlhad -■ - -~ — 



!• leielted with Ih* dnit. bwcHr, wwb BattwattSra, at 

ry imlianiiy with wbicA m aro a»- aallnl, iWillea. aone haatwda rf jaw* WM 

Umt* WW tour BsemlUei, via. Uwolacr. »U*CCa at aefaaola «rcsa WK iB auwi *r 




UNIVERSITY., rw 



fcraaf Buntldu^ u > i«nuD«7 of Ipmo- 
Iw is Km nJim \,t AlCrri the Otkbi. »ad the 
M»M', Mul4 we MIn« ill pirtUl portiluu, it 
I oirlWr. Tbe uui>erHiti«« of Scol- 
iMdirrfiiar, St. AiHir«w'i,Ul*is<>*> Aberdoen, 
lul tCdiabu eb. la IreUnd ihere ii but ane 
Mtwnilf, «i3. IfaUofDublin, fouDdtdfayqueeo 
nnbriA, and vn? ridiljr rndoned. 

Wa iliAll anw pnoMd (o piplitia tlia TBrioiu 
Hnpa^iRil psrUoftD luivcnltj, «nd lo mcoom- 
fUWi Uii* mrnHly ind mioulcl;, «c bftve had 
MciMPt* lo the Cnniliridee L'niTrniity C*)endsr, 
iaviM>Bj bf Mh Bawurik, nha uji, " The imi- 
m^itj >H' Caia^ildtt it k nofiety of ttuOeaU in 
«U*a4 inrry -ittiu Uberd «rU uid scieai«>, io- 
MrpOTAM (13 Elii^wlh) bj tli* naoie of (tie 
AtB.'^Uar. Biulcr*, uid ncliolari. The frame 
•< Iklj UlUi- laMauD-rulth lUndvth uiion the 
«■>■■ •* »liit«ra oollcsei, or aacietiei, dcioled 
to ib« M«d;^ uf karninf and knaif ledsc, and Tor 
*«fc »M «f «cr*lp«i>f the fburdiand ilate. " Ererf 
eaUa|e i> rn il^lf a rarp»raU bodj, and gorera- 
•ritfbi awa ktilutci, which muit, however, CDU- 
«■■ witk ih* gi.>nml Inwi of the unitcnilf , form- 
•4 by KliuWih UD preiiaiii priiril«g«ii, kud niD- 
trm»d bf parllaiarnt, conuquentlf thcji are Ibe 
•*l« "rf ail lawIcrB refulalioa*. Each of the 
•«II*(K< M*d depuli», both for Ibe eiecutire and 
IccWalhe krMiah« at Ihe envemmcnl, aod Utc 
fUM! at 1b«iT ucdincii lonued tbeirDiU-bouse. 
Katun of art^ doMun U diFlnil) , rivil Uw, 
m4 rb)>ii!, wbo hare lh«r umo iuiiTibed on 
Ifa «dUc^ baardi. and are nrident at Cam- 
Mlte, (MNa»i tolei in tha aboie aiKnibl; ; nnd 
^Amb Ikcn mrc, in Iha )ur IHCU, about »40. 
na •»■«» nitiaiiU nf two elaiie*, which ai« 
■"■d ?«(*•!• or una-ri'geiiti, with a Ticw to 
pm» pBTIii-iilar oScei aiaigned by Ihe ilalulei 
iflfca onlicnitT to Ibe junlur diviiioa. Mulen 
,if WU ot Irth IbnQ lite yean itandiDC, aad doc- 
Ian mAet IWD, rnnii Utc regrni, or upper-huuie i 
Hi k hu bn>i<la lh«trrm ornhile-hood huair, 
l^m tka f<[i->iniiUDrr of Dm membera bftting 
ttrfr bood. tinr^ with illk of the above colour : 
ll»Wgi » biitcrponalitut«thf POO -rtgtnt, or black- 
ha«l bMiic: diKlon of mure than two years 
<« »Jla<. nad the public orator of IhaoniTBrtity, 
araMtillrdlDTalc in cither.uf lhD« bouKt it 
plixari ; eicluiive of wbiih Iherr ii a rspul, 
*a cMiaMI, <nmpatrd of the lice-nhaDeellor, a 
iNtor ml neb ranilljr, atid two muleni of artu, 
Wfca mru rcpmrDlnlirei of tha houw* already 
MmUvomL The lin-chanrvtlor b«in( a lonn' 
fear of iW nput b; Tlrtue of bi* oilier, hii <)ee- 
Vm to ItM ftinarr onl) lahf* place anDuilly, on 
Ibe Awrtll of S'oitcmber, » hen Ihe lenale cliooM 
U« tram Ike oiaiUniur llie )ixl«en collejce) ; but 
1^ ot Ut caput oc-un after tbc Hme lutenal, 
9* Iha ItIk orunsbn'. In IhefullowlDc minner: 
IfcaTl— i< »aiif»[lorandthelwn proctonaeiefailjr 
Mawlaal* t\r pcraaai, and rmni Ibe flneen ihui 
fll lfu md Ihe bcadi of collcgri and dorlnnl Milccl 
tn, gwa*t*tlj iirofcrring Ibc viee-;:taaaiiellur'( 

, 'Gutf 

lfcaia»iral«oll^c« Ihree dafa pnrvlauiljr lo Ibe 
bM* Bll^tntCtl, Acuugrrpliouorthe neiubari 
tbiai Mlfinmoanl -inty pra<Ted la buciiieaa, and 
Ji CMfr*!**"'." contifU nf any nuiutirr Blnio 
I^KIf-ua. uuludiuf the (iniper oJUrcri oT the 
'^^ '' ' irn BKHHllod to alk-jid on oath 
^1 iMirlefil d^utiai. lkJuJii|lir« 



of tbcM eaiual mceliagi, Iben am (UtUUbta 
COO" regal [uDi, Cor conferriuc Segrrri, vlrflini; 
olHrcn, iic. Ice. which arr held' wilhout noiiey. 
■■ ETcry iiieniberbaiarishl,"iijiMr. Raworlh, 
** to jiri'wnt any propnition, or ersee, to lUa 
consldtmlian nf thi' Unate ; but pTMintiiily tit 
iU bflinp •Died by Ihe Iwo bouio, it U to bo 
rtad and aji^roTCd. by the council, or Fipul, 
Bach uieaibrr of which ha« a nccalite loice. 
'rhit cuiton) baa ulduai bewn obwrved, unlcu 
aomrlbiaf manifeilly abminl, or obiiouily dfro- 
(atory lo Ihe credit of tbc UDiver4ily,ii proposed; 
iaiomuth, tbat nolbioe bas b«eu mar* comoiaa 
than for a pertou Ui giie a place! in Itie caput, 

the ides lliat Ibe capiil thuuld be coniidercd in 
the lighl of a comaiiltee to prepare Ibe gnoet in 
paialoffarm for Iheiubicquent TOlingi at wilh- 
out aome *uch r«|[Ulalian it might bcdiflrult to 
lake the seatt ot Ibe aenate upon Ihe nal aieril* 
of the question." When a (TM* hM pau«|l Ihe 
caput, one uf two icrulalun read it ia Uin uop- 
regeot houve, asd in Ibc other it in niad by Ibe 
wuiur proclnr, after which Ibe vice-ch«ncell«r 
dimoliei tha conf repilion i tlie ecreiuony tt 
reading ii repeated In a second conKnltaliop, 
and if a nao-plncct dnei not occur, it Iwcomoa a 
(talute) on the contrary, if a uun-placet ic pul 
in by ■ member of either boune, ll ia put to itt* 
Tote there, and a majority decide! Ihe quiMtioD. 

TbewnatUaflaHiullum decree, or grioe, of thii 
Uaraed awembly has the lanafamaDd rtfEcl at 
- >rtbclei!i9lltui»orGr«BtRHlain, Khi^ 



fadii 



uppor 



dbytl 



lebiMl coun- 



oppoiiiion to the laHi of tlie land, neither 1I19 
itatutet of Bliiabeth, our the mandatory lellcca 
af lueoeeding kinipi, althouf h their authorilj be 
apparently ilresflbened by uuinterniptcd lub- 
mitkion, can iland against (he ddanul nation" of 
Ibii reipeetnble aicembl)'." 

A degree cannot be eanferred itiihoul patatns 
of a gmca Tor Ihe piirpote, Hliich ii done wittt 
Ibe aaoie formality at if a new law w«> lo »• 
made. Thii U, bonerer, difpenied with in lb* 
(ingle erne of a bach^or of arl«, ai Ihii rcqutm 
readinit in one oougrcgation only, wlieB it ii 
termed a aupplical, and mnil be lijned bif Ihe 
prelector, wbo tbui becDmet re£pon>ibl« for the 
truth of itt oonteau, beiidei tha puoally of being 
deprived of hia priTilege of totiug in the aetata 
yeari, or bearing nay olGw in Ibe uni- 






Tersity, upim dlMorery of any f»l»t aMcrliu' 
it. Degrreiareneiereonferred, unleii 
•00) reeeiTing them preiiouily tign a ncciu-a- 
tion, that they are iona fi<fr meubert of the '-liurjh 
of Botland, a* by law emahllnhed. All the utB- 
cersortbe unoeraily, forming the exuculiie part 
of il, lire clioien by Ibe ■cnalr, the principal of 
whom il tbe obanerLtar, who prcvide* in ail catei, 
and in wbeai i* confided tho lole power »f gp- 
vemiiig, exurpl in eiuea of uayheiii lUid tc\aitj i 
he ia, beaidei, expected to prulecl and prwenie 
all the ri|;bl> and pritilegei of Ibe inaliluliun, 
and W wc that ilrict and imparlial justice i* ad- 
uiiniitered in oeij caie to llie nteubcr*! and 
that a'l thia aiay Iw unHireti, Ibe nlGce ha* lately 
been enlruilcd lo noblenen.of Ibe bigbeit rank. 
Oiber parti otbiaolOcial duty arc,tbecun>aking 
of auumbliM, Ibe rtealing of diplomai, >ellcri of 



Tlic 



biKi, -le. 



Ihu clisnn^Uor, aud l< 



l)i« fowci; to lupcciulund tlw t(»< ■*' •^4* 



UNIVERSITY. 



-At«iiMd~afft(cmy, whhtH the limtti ol (be jiirlc 
dietiaD, •rhidi » ont mite in eirry dtrai!(la« fram 
the uiburhi of the uniTentiiyi be li bIuioui- 
pnwmd to bold a Irvt, iiwoTding to ttic eita- 
bliibed chaiirr KDd cuilom, »a<l u pcrmilUd to 
bsie B drpul]'- 

Tlie virv-chancrllDr'i o&re it rxpUiordliy hli 
tillej but be aMt ai ■ TUBfialrate for tbeuuiver- 
ailjr and rnuol), and mutt be llie head of tnme 
collpge. Tbe regcuU elect Inn p<««loni, tiliu 
are elHren of the (leaee, and >uperinli-nd lhi< be- 
baYloiir and din^'lpline of all the papilt, and may 
•can4i fiirand maiiniltopriiOR Ihow abandoned 
fnoaln irho coolributa \o cnrrupl the morula 
•rthr •Indents at the uniTenilj. Giclnxiie of 
iJieae |iur|waH, the proctoni tie appoiDted to at- 
tend iJte nnfrreralionn of the tcBitr. when th«j 
Mnnd io anrulin} with (he chanmllnr or tIcck 
rl:Biml1nr, to take the open auSraeei, Tcrtiallj 
and wriltrii, ntilcb tbey read, and Dnal])' pr«- 
MDunr* the aitcnt or diaianl : the in'Bcet ore 
read b; Iheni in the rr^nl hooie, where they 
tako tttr uienla and dinenli nerretlj, bat after- 
Warda opeotv declare them. Although \har> arti 
•oiiuparltralar purl* af Ibe dulict of Iheai- ofll- 
een whirii may be rnniidrrrd Terj- unpleasant, 
yet Ihej nnit be maatim of aria, and are recenta 
bj tirtiie of their nfllni, and arr enabled to de- 
■ermiiio the aeniorily of all matlors of arU at the 
line of Ihrir Inking that Arurr ; benidtm whirli , 
they may nomiaalr two moderalon, whn an.' thcii 
•ppoinlcd bj a graiT of llir lenBle. Tho«p per- 
MDB ait *• Ibe Mihttttiitea ofthc prorlon In Iha 
phibiwphieal arhonia, and allematelT luperin- 
Iwid rii<ipalatIoii« md eiierri>ci there, and the 
•lantnationi for the degree of barhclor of 
aria. 

Other mSem arc termed laxnni, acrutalont, s 
BuhUc orator, a eommiiKBrj, a rexiitar, engulre 
WitHIa, and librarian). Tbe laxora, ulniilar tn 
the BOitcralon, are niailert of artt and reirenta 
bj virtue nf Ibeir olBre, wbirh i% to reeulale the 
markela, the BHiie of br«>d, the etartiim of 
weigh)* and msitum. by the different utandarAi, 
and to tuiDmoa all oUimderii into the rDrnmii- 
■Mjr'ieoart.' the icnilalan are nen-regcola, and 
their ftnirtfoni are to attend al eierj cun|rega- 
lion, to reod the itraeM in the lower huuse, wbere 
Ihey e«llerl the »nl«t aerretly or openly, in «cru- 
tinjr, when Ibey publicly proBouDce the ataent or 
divaCnl of thai hoiiae. 

Tbe public ornloT boldian offlee whieh ii eon- 
aiderHl ■■ one or Ibe moat hunaurable inthc uni- 
ranily { he i>, in fart, the mediuai of the acoala 
Dpon all Milvmo uceaaioDi, reading and reronlinf 
Ml eoBimiHikatiBciii to aad froai Uie tetialc, and 
pwaetiting all hnnorwy degree*, aeoumpanied by 
■ nItaMa apeecfa. The eommiiaary holdi hia 
aBne nadrr the rhaneellor, and offlciatM aa a«' 
aeaaor, nrauittant, In iha t iee-chanrcllor'a court j 
bnidei irhleii, he bolda a eourt of record, where- 
all OBuva are lubjert to tlie alatute and citil taw 
and eiHlow of the univerally, and tha peraoni 
for whom It U held are all priWleitt>d, and aeho- 
lar< under the i'gnr af aiaMer of arta. Tbe 
(•■iitrar altetidi binifelf. or by deputy, all c-in- 
RrrfBlioni, lo|>iia dlrtetioDa, If Beccsatry, for 
Ih* cnrnirt wording of lueh gracra ai am piv- 
IWKnded, aadt* drawop any that the liw-rtiia- 
cellar mar appoint | to rarelntliea hInd pB*ied 
Ihrxugli botb bourn, and to reciMrar them in 
lh«arehi>e*BrUu'uaiter*ily;eiirlu*ln-or»hl<h. 
him to record the Hniurlly of 
9 wtiu pTMwil MKMiallj im Uu uU or faeul* 



Ilea, agreeably to the cdientuln fUn!ah«4 1« Ut 
by tbe proeton. 

The eiquirc bedell* attend tho Tiee-riua«rlta> 
during all puhlio aolemnitiei, prendmit Urn 
with Iheir iaaignra of ailTer aiBCci i (hey altaad, 
beiidAt, the dorton when preacat in the rcfeal 
bouie. by brraginK them to epen icnitliiy, tkcR 
to deliver their lUfli-aEeii, either by word or writ- 
ing, Bocordiu; to the order af tha Ostute ^ Bad 
to roreiie fhim tbe rice-cbiiBacllor and tba IMI 
of l]w caput the grace*, which tbeydaliiartollu 
icrutalur* in tbe lower houu; when, ITgntnM^ 
tlieyeon*ey tbem to the proetora in Iho olbtt. 
PrUYinut tn a meeting, they prooKd Io •■<«} 
college, wilh an open auntuMBa, aillaar to tt* 
aeaale, nr whatever el*e place may be ii^pelaNd 
«ndec the regulaliouii of tbe uaiicnMy; wd, 
finally, they altend the profeaHin and rxMlld- 
enta in each faenlty from their wveral eoU*^ 
Id Ibe ichooli, collect pcnailici and «**a, and 
■ummon all membcn of tbe ■enala Ui the ibaft- 
oellor'* court. 

We haie now mentioned the diffimal •IBewi 
of an univeraily in England, with ma mudi hiv 
Tily t^ the natsre of the lubjeet will perall; M 
tbe same time we muat obieaTe, that none aaa be 
more impartant In a alate, or fan mere d f i n 
eiplanation. There ire two oourta of law la <hc 
univenily of Cambridgp: Ihe tint ol titoA H 
the coniistory will rt of the chance H«*,wlK#wlbal 
oiGcer,oriii hia ab*ca« the Ti(v-(4iauic4lar, ai- 
(isled by anmeofthr head* of colleget, aitdaa* 
or more docton ofthreiril law, praido, aad*d> 
mi n inter juttice demanded by any nMnbcr «f Ibt 
uuiversity, nr afford it to Utaie wbo euaMlH 
themHlvcs Injured by them ia tbe caa« cogiriM- 
ble by thii particular court ; ibvn alt plaa* aad 
adiona prraonal, originating within thajtiriadi*' 
liaoortbcuniicr*it), to wbicb a privltogedfW- 
Bon ia a party, and nut rBlatiog to msshtm W 
(eloDy, i* derided according tu tbe umbJ cdoM 
of dril law, by ciUlion, libel, it-c. Who* Ikf 
cauie relatea to the anla or purchue of vletwla. 
the chaocetlor i* directed by tha charten Ut 
m*lorn* of the body he gocrnia ; and ia (aM 
they are allent uiKin the sut^prt, iheitalatMal 
Knglnnd are hit guide- Tbe deei>ioB( «f iWt 
court are not abinliile, aa nn appeal may be aadi 
to the aenale, nhich appoioli three or ll<«di» 
tori, or maatcra of art, who are laupaimid Ii 
examine, eosBm, or revtrae Ihe dacHC'di^ 
plained of. 

The oihrr oouit Li the ronalttor* («tff if tti 
commiiHry. The cowoiiiaBry, a Aoelar aClM 
civil law, acta under the authority and a*ala(ll« 
Aancrllar, and alia aa well In the anlfnattir, m 
at Midnmnmer and mirbllch faira, than to taW 
knowledge, and to procred ia all cautra " wi^ 
•laaHaiitltrBmatianrmfisTluiilnpra" the ^ wlias 
or one of them, being privileged: aavlag lU 
within the unlTcnily all cauwa or aulU wlBf*> 
unto Ibe prurton, or lBior!i, or any of Itkaati tt 
■ maiter of nrti. nrany olhrr of iupvHiir dafrea, 
i* a parly, are merred anlely and wlM>l1y ta Ite 
JurtadielHiD of IherhnDrellnr or vire-chatMancr. 
Tbe Banarrof pmcerdingin tbl< court i* uarflai 
to thai of the preceding, whIeh bat a regiitrar, 
pro^ratnr*, and adrocatca, aad a yesma* W- 
dell, ■■ HI rii;ulrt4 In Ihe eanditory eoart. Ap- 
it, but Id II' 



nade in 



bvHni 



I ,U N I V E R 

' ft* Htilnntt; potwutri tlie ri^ht oTneBding eomplfWlj cepurBlcd in the puriuit of Isiinw. 

krv I— I to tbe imperial parUuiniiil at (hu Icd^, KiiJ it i^ ton murh to be feircri ll»l thia 

ttftfrfkfai^noi.iiboan^clHnnib; tlieciillcHiie cir.iiiuitlunre ii (lie n>l <MuiG of Ibo Kfferlrri 

farfr'f •'vx^Me. A niiiDfil, termed Ibr uoi- ccialempl oflhe dcgrroi BBd ■rademii? liDiinun 

nnitj cauarl), ■(>poiDl«l for tsHous ]mipoir«, f:riinli'd bj nemiatrlen oT lorniu^ In tfcotland 

h i M i ywj l by ■(rftcrof the tennte, uid ■ toll- snd In-Und. It iantifHlBr th*> the indttiduili 

ciHr ■■ aaninatcd tn Ihe Tice-L-bnoTi-llor. wbu fnundi-d the <!allcf>Fi< al CambriJee and ilx- 

7beay«4>iB. cbonen fram the nienibors at the ford ihould bate (wnrurml in Ihia parrflw and 

HUta« CondBM kU apfviil attnir^, audi an Traio- illiberal cwtdool alinoit itniTprulIy, u they varh 

llf -iawa|LM(Wla(iifier<ni. and iai>pcel)D| Die Ii- had ■ itroUK wme nf rclieinn, whirh, however, 

Mq^-iAe priatin^, building*, iir. t^r. Tlione dnet not appear to haie taught llirn Ihi^ betl 

if UwaatTcnity^rvneailnalpnKCCit lu biiaiiiewi prinriple of it, brolbcrif ii>*e. Atafewofthe 

^au (t>* Ttar-^baarpll'TK tad four otlirfa are rollegcii admit of ^neral rompetiliDD for rellon- 

fW W t in Ike pnlour.uf iLiu oBii*. All Ihv pni- ibipa, and Ihe iupmhen of the two uniTenilin 

bnoraoClb*>ti<ii«(aveallu>rudii4ip('DclB,wbic'h leen wniiblu of the iojuttice and impaliqr of 

mm darutvA rr««i rarioui wurn'i, c-r>inp<»rd of «ueh diilinetiuDu, we maj renlure to ho|>e (one 

tba ttnTitoilj' ohailv luniafrasaKomrDuicnl, -ta method will be deriied ere loiig to obviate orro- 

Im« «atalM'>ppT'¥"aledliir llMI purpoH-i llic Hove them. The folio win; regulation applin 

■k*lc-(MBDwoflholui*fr*il5l>eiD|cabnulale*M Is all ihe enllef^'S al Cambridge. " WhoaoeTer 

IfcxnnJ p«Mtd* pcrtitaaun, ifl«liidfiig fe*« fur hath one Engliih panat, allhou^h he bu bom in 

dat»*i, ptaHtiufthe prinliDg-ulKiv, fce. Oflhia another ewiiiLry, ihall be eateened aa ifborn ip 

a«»«(«lMlbMiiUKl p<M«Mb<.i>ui)end«l atinu- that counly tn wtiioh hia English pni«ni be- 

■iif to Affiwri^ ,pri4^««uni Id tiiH librar]' nnd long^ed. But if both parcnta arc Eoglish, he 

tdiaal^ the pae^n, in laxo^ and eharltabk dona- ihall bo raekoned of thai county to whirli hjf 

ll»*»t..tfce ttlwie- Hndrr thti muiagenical uf Ihe falhvr belonsed." 

»i »i ^ ri la o cnUnr fnr ilie linw being, nhoM af- Tb* colleges an; thui esn^lilutad; The hen d, 

0««aCt-arp auAilod by thne peraona appoiaiod by whiHioild tern theoiaMer ia dBiif^nBled,wlir> 

ICar^br <Ik acnale. ii guiemllyndDelur of divinity j but Caiun eol- 

Tka llanh of Statate* wai printed in Ihr j-car Irgu niay be gtiveraed by m dortnr of phyxir, and 

llttH, titfir* nf nhinh are poAkTUed by Ihe vire- Trinily niu^l have a dooluriif lam; thcprlncl- 

MHa(alli>rand.lhi-preetori<, atidanc ixdepotilcd pal of King'* i« Ktvledlproml, and ntQueeti'i 

lalhc(>uh11eBnt1inllHilibriiHe«a(c«Fhcnllege; pmidnil. The fellowsafe geaerally bprhelora 

ilaOBUBlaaf Uie ancifol ■latiitea, thoie nf Henry of divinity, haehekini nr mailer* of arid, and 

nU., l^dwurd \1., and Uiow of the flrtt and other* are bachelen and doctor* oflaw and phy- 

taaWU ymra of IhM rripi of queen Eliaabeth ; aie, particularly at the Iwo rollcgei of Trtnity- 

'LUtrnJirttraJjitarltnuaiii data/ i latirpitlaliona hall and Ciiua. There is a diiliu.tion between 

(MtteiBBj Stnflui t'ent'illa net graiur i/rcrcia thefelloH'i, who am divided into dauei, eallcd 

pt^ntammi Jartniunia rl Hiiiiiir.'' Mb Ita- regular and bye; Ihe latler ore eeaiiider«d ag 

■Klihaifa, '' IhaitalBlooClhBlwcinbafKUia. merely boDorary, never lucteediog to nltirfra 

bMkraarflAcSrualui Coanukla, ara Uiu» which preferment, nor having an* conntm whatever iS 

««<M«ly reaperledat lhi> tioia. Manynfthe the affain of it, but are allowed an incontrdera. 

rid ataniia. decnwa, interpretatiiuu, Mc. are ble anm annually by their Kspeclire eollegea,' 

hafeaAapnaaabinlele, uiDieaaridieuloua.and whieh aet at trvtieci rortbem. They andmnml' 

mttn mtmrnmnrj in the preaent eUabliibuHOl ; nated PeneWonley, Varhahire, Coventry, Plait, 

EbU Or. BcntUy obnrved of Trinity eo:- Dixie, and Tiverton- Clerrymenvrhtiarrtcrmnt 

fclnl— , during hi< diaagrtwtneni with the canduili are employed in Ihe teveral initituliona 

a aT.lbat weiaty, niigbl lie urged ooncem- ta ehaplaini, and peffunu aorae of tfau dutiva bu- 

ta( Ibaaa : ' Home are my i-lub, and olhen mj longing to thai office. 

im^fammti, wbiob I can draw upon oc<«*ion.' " Thvre are noblemen gradaatet, doelnrt in th« 

BalafM an lhrc«inaiimher: Midiaelman dlflVrenl facnltii'*, nnd hac-helnri nfdlvlnily(wha 

tmm anawaaee« nn the tenth ofOrtolier. and have been mailer* of art*), whole nauiea am on 

HHdaMeathaoUoeBtbday of Oeocmber j licnt the board ■, and are all memhera ortbeaonate; 

Imm Inlaa January thirloen, and ii eoodudad Ihey reaido In tbe uniTenity nceaiionally, but 

«Blfea Ftidny Imiaedlatcly preceding Palni Sun- have no further claim upnn ■ nllege than the 

day i Hidauuimer terai begina •me week afler general reaper! duo lo their rank in the honourt 

KuM-day, and end* on the Friday I'ullewing of Ihe former; their ebargei are ineonaidersble 

mwawaeaminil day.wliirh ia invariably the ftmt for keeping their name* on Ibe board*, bmng 

Tmulmf la July. Ijpoa Ihe deoeaw of a mem- aboHt four jMunil* per annum. 
bV*f iMacnate donng the lemi, and wilhin the Graduatra, neither membert of Ihe aenate, nor 

mBm, BBd tbe bell of the univeniily i* lolled denomlnaled fnur. and twenty men, or ten-year 

Iv ,Am baur, lam inatanlly ceaiea for tbtee men. Theie are- generally elergynea that pro* 

dqp^ aad lot that period Iceturea and diipula- rure tbe dignilietoftha onjvenity in addilia» to 

Uaaaoraav. Iheir wrallh and preferment at an eaay rata, 

Maal af Ihe alatulea made for the govemBtnt wilhnul tlie famialille* of an eduealion within 

af IIm aUtewi diffrratlt ivlle^* diMale Ibat Uio it* iuriidictian. Usfurd due* nol jiermit Ibia 

iMaiban «t fvllowa oS Ibem ahall be exeluiivdy luolhod of partaking of academie liliea, and in- 

BagUahioai. aud (ana Crea prMcriba Ibat they deed tho paiisiwr* of them enjoy hut little re- , 

mmt lK^in*af particular eounlica luiJ tli>- putaltou derived from meh at Cambrid|;e. Thry 

lrict»t iMnea an inridioua Jiitinctiun i* creattd are toleraled by the statute of Eliaabelh, whirlr 

■ the raaiAnUoflheuorlhern and WUlb- allow* peraoa* wbn are admjllcd at any en i lege, 

*— ■- 'ixdi wbieh, though united (or wlicn tw(nly-rour yesra of age, and upward*, a f- 

M patili<al uattcra, are aauat l«r Ion roar* (during tlw last two of which 1M|^I 



■u«l Tttiit ihe |rat«r part ,ar thnt ssreMl «j, tb* Prindpla alKady omliMfld, tfharinl 

lrr*l) to benuM bachelor* of dliinity, wilhaut trigaaatattrj, Ihs «(nl dtfleu't a»d inDorlaal 

taJiiag uiy prior degree. pin> of HuiioDk, alfcbra. anil fmiuctrj i III* la« 

BadMton of lair and pli|rilo'Mneltinci ^iit lerv.JITUif Gitltcnnoribtfi]ui1brc*r,r(M]ulrai 

eioaeWea to ibe uDnewnaarr txjmnie of kcp- all Ihe energiM of liin mind j bt U iiu« nw* 



iog tlwir nagies upon the boanla Till tittj obuiii deeply eDsaged in Ihe arduaua roqflict itf Iba 

Uw dUtiaalisn of doclori j bathcloM of Kria, oa icbgali itilL all bii iliali.^nd prtpartpg tunatU' 

tltc rantrarj. wbo ive in Halu-ft/niluni oad pay for the neDate-hniKe etamiDalian. 
for lutorafcc. nhelher n~>IdcDl or nun-rciidenl, Uatin; campleted Ihii <ourw of Dalnr«l ph^ 

K Derail J keep IbeiroiniciionlbelioarililaenMDe ToUphy, we ihall nCll lum our altvatioa la lb* 

eir deaire «r berooilng raDdldstca for fclloir- mode ailoplcd in the tMVbd bfwl of afsdraakal 

«liip<, nrniemlien aflheienalei Uiey mnyi bow. it'idin, or the roune sf moral philiiwpb} la Iba 

et«r,en*c their nametiRnd »tc Ihe expeowi of all am men t of Ibi* braoeb. Tbcflratymr it da- 

lutoraCc and college dtlrimtnta, and lake the de- mied to Lorhe and \afir, and the \wo MUmiat 

(ne sf A H. after the umal time, bj InacriUn^ lo Paley, HarllcT, Borlaniaeni, RulberfsM, 

Ibeir Dtme* a few diyt before Iheir incoplloEi Clark* oa Ihe Allribiilci, and otber BiMban 

nul^ayiOf a qilarter'i tutorage ; lonie of ttieae wliOM wriliD|[i ar* of a Mnijlnr tendeory, m4 

arc called baehelon rainiDoiicn, as they are at- thoie arc made the lubjei^i of varioui oriUn sf 

loved to dine with Die fellowi, and whea under lecture* in Ihe different colleges; leetum sa 

(raduMeii they were fellow comntooen. tlie thronology. pojraphy, lair<<, rcHginut rilei 

The fellow eoaiinuncri are atmoil uuiiertallj and ciidnni!! of Ihe nationi which are mrnlioocd 

the youncer loait of tilled penoni, or Ihe unit of lo Ibc Old and >'ew TnlaTaenti, in loram tif n * 

men of ancient familiei and pmperly ; tbedeoo- derived from Beauaobre, but purity froa albar 

mlDatiOD of Riose moil probably ori^nated tVom snuroei, ar« aim gircn lo proacitv an aiMiala 

the pririlege Ihey eajuj of dlnlng-with the fel- knowledee of ib« foundatian of uur fallb. 1'b> 

Iowa. Tbrm are aaote few eicluuve rigbti at* fortunately, although Ihew method* of prMoMinf 

laehH lo Hiprank of fellow rnininonen,b<il Ihcy the itudiei of Ibe pupil* wix* niiely ruattncd, 

chiffiy apply lo Ihe iwagei of theliall and chapel, and arc georralty occuled wilb gleal abillti 

bealdei whirh Iheir acndeaiic habiti ore orna- and BdinDltigei. there hata been iiMtaimti of D»> 

Bienled arilh fold or ailTcr. ftniioueva and gWI nnd very »licbl allendatiec. 
■rliolan pa; for Ibeir rooriK, rnminniM, lie. The third head includrii Ihe belle* Irlbw, W 

Tbow who eitjoy arhnlartbip* rdad Ihe gracca, elaailc*, and Ihia of nil Ibe Tirirlv uf panidt 

Intoai in the riloal, tec-. Of the iliari it ha.t wcm* the uioitt aupcckiful in nvh uf ihv fBtligtri, 

bwn obarrred, Ibey are generally ineP of inferioT aa every t^ rm liaii an appca|ii'iale ><■ Wlinn of tW 

fortune, though fmjuenlly by their merit they bcil for Ihe Wlurc-rDom, when ■tlnrl* bwm 

auccred to Ihu hlehett honoura in the nniteraity. (he nio^t a|>provcd author* of aoltiivily, Jiidl' 

They uaually hftT« their cominoni free, and re- ciously Minjmeoled on, and nxiiparnl wttli atal. 

coin (arioui eiDolumenta, by whieh loeaai Ibey Ur pauagei fruni modern writer*. ri>rmi • laMia 

ara mablcd ctvdilably to proceed thmueh their of enlertalnnuDl highly graleful a* well aa bm- 

lourae of educalkiB. Mont ofour rhurrh digni- ful. Beaidea the exertionn of Um latur la lM< 

Uifn have been nf IhU order. partirular, tlie atudent* deliver sllbcr wrilH^W 

Such i* Ihe general onllioe of an Engliah uni' gn.i vocf, cumposilion* in their niapetti*« il *' 

tertily, a conmliution the work of agvii, with weekly, whirh may be in Ibe L«tla or T 

DUHtcrcu* perfpclinna, and wilhtery few errori ; language". The author of lheUllt« but n 

our OOBfloeil limila will not pcruil Ut lo enlarge worii. tvefore mentioned, >ery propcHy ab. 

M wa eould wiih upon Ihe form* adopted in Ihe that emulation of an honourable kind i* <9.. 

Hduoui undertaking of taaehing Ihe tdences and by priae* aud reward* in mutt of the aoRa, 

■ latte for poll le llleralurf united, but lie may aitd Ihisemulalionianot oftbe dangennMBBW* 

aafely say they uem >urk aa are l)»l calculated loo oHea perreptible In inferior avuinaaiai^ M 

for the Dnal purpone aad (u eirlle emulation, Uie dnt man Id each year Irela Ma ialetwaftflf 

and we aisiupported in thi* aaaeillon hy the fact tlioie a few yean older Ihma U^teU, nilf 

Ihal no other univeriiliei bare exralled thnte of pre-eniinenn oter hi> own yesr In Ikia •«■ Mk 

tngland and Qrpal Britain, in Ihe aggrrgale, in lege, may receiTa a m«l liokat ekaek In. ttaak 

tbe produetionofaxcellealpbiloHiphcniandr^ lition nitb the r>«al hcadaof biaawa MaAl 

■pertable dliinei. Superficial kouwkdgeli held in Sfleen olhrr mllegc*. 

ia ao kind af ealiualina al eitbar of our great I'ho emperor Napoleon iianed a dacua i* 

•eminariea, the very euenca aad eaute*, a* well March, lUOH, by which a uew imperikl MlMml) 

a* cKict*, muil he eipUred la aatiafy the expert- wn* onnalittited for the whole uf hit Pmdi4i- 

•tiona oftb* rarinua profnaora. formed by long minioaa. Thi* turioua doruDirot nia) he tam 

npefioooo aad um-xhautted auddully j a ynuni; in Ulc AtbeaKum, vot. iU. p. 4W. 
wan muat Ibrroforu atudy f igorouily, and wilh- 

Dul rclaaaiioD. for iwo year* aad oae quarter, UNl'VOCAL. a, (rnnont, !.«.) I. Hj»* 

era he teat un-* to appear in a public eiereiic i no One moiniiiii <»'o/ri). 3. Ortiln ; nff 

before thouni.er.ity Tl.e Aral year u oeeupiert |„ ; poouina aJwavi one^ien,.-.- ■ 
by Irrture* from Euelid, with the ftratilx buoka UNl'VOCALLV aii I 1^ 

uf ahich he lau't be thoroughly a(wualnled,aail _,. J-„„ *u„ii,' *' i_ j_ . 

Uie prinoipte* of algebra, plana Irinaonulry. ™?,mi^V>?iY' 'l^'f"'' 
.od«nlc^ion» Dllfcr;„t™lWgafh.«thei; J!^^ S ^ V' ^''* S-" ' ^ :'-'■ 

paeotS.r *y.l«.., hut maohaBi<u. bydroMalie^ , iJNJU'J'l- "■ (>«J'"''f P'. "jaWU^^^^M 

upt<«, laaioaa, and apanofNtwIon'aPrind- Inic)uitoui i tonlcai)- lu.rtiipij; •"fS^^H 

pia, with Iha aoelhod of inrrcnenU, dlflemtint iMuct (King Clionri) - ■' l^^^M 

n Mlhod, aadabniU, Mi*ecll*a», are ihe parwila U^JXJ'ifBI Pi.VULF.- it. No( •» te^^^l 

^^^pfee aacond jear i to ib« third bclooti atlro - cd ; not lo be juinacd {4dAita)Ji - t^^^H 




V^TLV. ^<l. liii manner cmirai^f lo 

>l.(D*«S4iii). 

■b UNlffiiSNEL, ... a. i.Todriv, rr"tn 
hit hole (l>rytlrn), s.Tomuwrroio'hiiiccrccjr 
oncUrat (.ShfkiPitae)- 

UNKKPT. fl. 1. Noi kept ; noi tmioed. 
i;NKt'>fD. <. Noi favooitble i not bene- 

ITNKINDLy. a. I. Unnatural; contrary 
to luure ('S'Sfiurr]. S. Maiiitnanii unHivour- 
•ble CJtfi7<«.). 

[<UKI'^ULT. Bif< I. Wilhnut kindnn!, 
« ^(aoio't {Dtnkam). S.Cobtrarilyio nature 

UNKIOCDNESS. I. Malignli;; Ul-willj 

wmM of Jlkction (C/<irrnJ.>f>V 

n L"NK1NG. .. a. To deptiK of roy.l.y 

UVKLE. J. CSm UxcLt.) The brothef of 
•nt'i f.iihcr iir mnihc'r (.Ory</fs). 

L'NKXl'GHTty. n. Lnbfwming * 
Lnubi. 

SUNKNlT.r.a. 1. To onww«i to 
Mptraw i^laLfiraff). 8. To open (.Skak- 

r« UNKN(y\V. V. 0. To ccaw to know 

UNfcNOWABLE. e. Not to be known 

UNKNOaVING. a- 1. I«nnr«nt; not 
kMWIMR ( D^ray (/■ Pir/y). B. Not pnctiKd; 
MlfliiatiAcH {Popt). 

UNKNCWINGLY-mi. Ijmwnay; wiih- 
jhU knowlnln (/f^uoa). 

UXKNO^VN.a. I. N<.tknnwft (Rorcoii.. 
naaj. :.'. Gtcatct klmo i« iniagincil (Baro")- 
J. £(M luiiiig colubilalion iShakipearr). 4. 
Not h^viiiK coitkmunlcalion ( j^^ffiian). 

UN L.^'B(JUll£ a «. I . Not produced by 
bboHt iDrycJr'i}. £. Not cultivated liylsliour 
tfUofitteH). 3. SpoiiULneoiu ; voluntary. 

TVUNJ.A'CU. t.a. I.TolooKaiiyiliinj; 
Ciilraed wiih iiring). 3. Ti looM a wumau') 
-dns* lOonnr). 3. To divwt of omaiDcnii 



U N L ^TB 

UNU'WFULNESS. I. l. CoMnnelrift 

Uw {iloalier). 8. Il|cgmniacy. 

T-nUNLE'ARN.p.o. To forget, o, disu.e, 
what liB! hern learned. 

UNLE'AHNED. o. 1. Ipioram- -"■ i"- 
rotmed; not iniinicted. 2. Not g 
'n (MiUon), 3. Not 
(SAaJjpeorO. 

UNLE'ARNEDLy.ud. Ignonnlly; gros*- 
lytfirou-O- 

UNLEa'VENED. a. Not fernjemej; nof 
mixed with rcnncnlitia mailer lExodui). 

UNLE'ISUltEDNTSS.i. B.uineui waot 
Oflime; want of leitiire ; QOl in use {B-j/^-. 

UNLESS. eoh;unc/. Except; ifnul; *up- 
poiinpii.;'nolCA''tr/?). 

UNLE'SSONEli. «. X,.t uught (.Skak- 

UNLETTERED. 0. Unlearned* oinaturirt. 

UNLE'\'ELLED- o. Nm l.iJeven. 

UNUBI'DINOUS. a. NoLlutiful; pur« 
from carnaliiT (Mitlon). 

UNLI'CENSED. i. Hawng no reimlar 
peri«i»ion !Mill.u)- * ^ 

UNLl'CKED.u. Shapeleii; nolfortneJ^ 
ftom the opininii thai the bear licki her joiing 
to shape {S/iakiprart). 

UNLI GHTED. o. Not kindled j not wl 
on fire (.Pritr). 

UNLI'KE.a. l.DLMimilarj having note- 
•emUaiice (Pope). 8. Improbable; uiilikelyi 
not likely (_Baa»i): 

UNLl-KELinoOD. UirLi'KBLiNEss.f. 
(ffoni unlikely.) Improbabiliiv ISautk'j. 

UNLI'KELY.o. 1. Improbable; notsuch 
be reasonably expected (SidHe^). V. 



Nof promising any [iarticujar 



l.Tor. 



'« Tfom Iha 



)cl which c;iiTirs, 'J. To exonciaie ili;it 
jrfcich«wf»»Ci>i(i(fn)- 3. To pui out. Used 

U&^jIa'IU. a. I. Ngt placed i nut fixed 
iBotAer). V. Not (oeifiedi not itilloj (jV/i/. 

roJLAME'NTED. a. Noi deplored fC/a- 

ii 1JN"LATX:H. u. * To open by Jifiing 
•P (he X-t^ iD'vin)- 

l"^-'! fJUiirL. 0. Contrary to Jaw j not 

I.LY. ad. I. tu a roannet 

' ! situ, s. lUffi^uutfiyj not 
■ 'i.^.„iSi^!Sji. ^. ., ... , .t . 



I, uiiaiuailiiuJc ; n 
>f reaemblance {Dradtn). 
UNLI'MITABLE. u. Admitting n? 

UNLI'MITED. a. 1. Having no boundi, 
■ <i{TillolSBn). 8. Undefined; nolbound- 
et esceplioiii (/fm ' 
rmtnined (flower; 
UNLI'MITEDLV.nrf. Boiindleulyi with- 
uul bouniTi {Decay el' Pit/u). 

UNLINEAL. 8. Not «nung it, the onJet 
ofiucceinon (Skalipran). 

r^ UNU'NK. e. B. To uniwm ; to open 

UNLl-QUIFlED. a. UnmeM i unili>- 
•olied l^aJ-ton). 

To UKLtVAD. o. 0. I. To diiburden ; lo 
exonriate i to fret from I'lail {Crrrc'i). W. Tq 
|)ut ofT nny ibinfi burdenuinie {Skukipfatt). 

To UNLO'CK. f. a. J. To open what ia 
ahui wJlli a lock (.Shi'k'pcaTe)^ fi. To open in 
getietsl {Miihm). 

ENLOOK'ED. UsLoo'sBD/or. «. \}a. 
exp«citdi not furcMcii tSAni^rarr). 

To UNLOOSE, .'.a. Tolonie. A wpnl 
perhap baihatOutaiiduopvnuDaiical, the paif 
tide preliied implying loyjiion; tuithjUM an* 
fvuif, 11 properly lo Itnd (SJi^t^air). 

To UuLoo'sr. t. 1. To fall in ptecwj to 
\oii all litiion >tid conncation (fifUitT), 

I,'. ■-.-,'■-■, C IC ..'J '.-H>T-. /, ■■■ ■!!»-, 



ifNM UNM 

t)NL(yS ABLE. o. Not ID be loit {Ee^l^. tJN^f ATCHED. «. MatdilcH; fiat IdK 

UNLCyVELINESS. s. Untniableactt ; no match, or equal (Dryieii). 

Inability lo create love {Sidney). UNME^ANlNG.a. Expravii* no mcior 

UNLCyVELY.a. That cannot excite lore, ins ; having no meaning (Pflpe). 

UNLOVING. a. Unkind; noi fond (;M«ib* XJNME'ANT. a. Not intended (Diyrfn). 

iptare). UN MEASURABLE, a. BoaodleM| b«« 

UNLU'TKILY. ad. Unfortunatelj ; by ill bounded iShakspeare). 

luck (Addison). UNME'ASURED. e. 1. Immense j in- 

UNLUCKY, a.* I. Unfortunate; pmduc- finite iBlackmvre). S. Not measured; plend- 

ing uuliaupineis (Boyle). 8. Unhappy } oiiaer. fuf beyond meaatire (Milion). 

able } wbgect to frequent misfortunes (Spensfr). UNME'DITATED. a. Not Conned by 

3. Siiphtly mischievous ; mischievously wag- previous thought (Millon). 

gishCTViUffr). 4. IH-omeued; inauspicious (Dry- UNMEET, tf. Not fit j notpfoperinrt 

dfit). fvonhv iShakspeare). 

UNLU'STROUS. fl. Wanting splendour ; UNME'LLOWED. «. Not fnlly ripened 

wanting lustre {Shukspeare). (Shakspeare). 

To UNLUI'E. t;. a. To separate vessels UNiME^TIONED. a. Not told $ doI • 

closed with chyniical cement (Beyle), named (Clarendon). 

UNMA'DE. a. I. Not yet formed; not UNME'RCHANTABL£.a. UuadcaWe; 

created (Spenser). 2. Di-prived of formorqua- not vendible (Careio). 

lilies (ffhodiPard). 3. Omitted to be made UNME'RCIFUL. a. 1. Crodi imie; 

{Bfa(kmurr) inclement ( Ao/reri). 2. Unconaciopable; ea- . 

UNMA'JiVIFD. a. Not deprived of any orhiunt (Pope). 

e.- it .1 p ri (/W). : ; UNMK'RClFULLY.ei. WithontMcys 

l.'NM A'K.ABLt. a. N**)!' possible to be without leiificrness (i^cMtion). 

nv!i ^C' -). • . UNME'RCIFULNESS- f. .Indancw|; . 

To {j SM .VHE. V. a. Va il^'puve of former cruflty ; want of iendemen(7Vjf/0r;. j. . .*. 

quafiies' ■ eV.'rc |iiTSiei>ed • to tfepriye of form UNMETIITED. a. NoidetenreAj qoc^l 

or U'iiiu (lyru ten). . lained otherwise than by favonr (dfify/tfyr \ I 

7-0 ITNM-A^N. t'. fl.' I. To deprive of the UNME'RITEDNESS. i. Sutt oC li^ls 

consiimeiii qtialiries pf a human beiukt ^s tea- undesrnvd (Boyle). ■ ' ": /'" 

soil (South), tf. To emaaculaie. p. To break' UNMTNDED. a. Not bcede^ j fMH f«^ : 

into irri-Milutinn ; \n{\t*]wi j^JJri/den). ganled (Aft/Zoii). ••'■:-:. ■ . - - J 

UNMA'N\GKABLK.fl. I. Noi mana;»e. UNMrNDFUL.fl. Notheedlul ;.n«tii» : 

able; no I tasily governed (G/anviZ/f). S. Not gardiul ; negligent; inattentive GSIv{/l). r « 

easily w\i:[M^t\. To UNMPNGl^. v. a. Tb tegsi^tf^d^ 

UNM A'N AGED. n. I. Not broken by mixtd (Brtfow). 

liorsruianship (Taylor). 2. Not luloied ; not UNMI'NGU.D. a. Pure; nptyitiaifedlV 

ediir^ited (Fr//o»j>. aiw i^m-.p mingled (Pope). 

1:N.\JA'MJKL:. Usma'nly. «. l.Un- UNMKRY.a. Not fouled with dirt (Gej). 

beounin-i a human bcinj; (Collier). 2. Un- UNMITlGATED.fl. NotsoiieDefl (>VAa^ 

suiiul'U' lo .1 man ; etrnninalc (Addison). spearc), 

UNMA'.NNERIiD.c. Rudr; brutal; un- UNMIXED. Unmi'xt.o. Not ipinaM 

civil {Btn Jnnsnn). with any thing; pure; not corrupted byaodi* 

UNMA'NNERLINRSS. *. Brcachof civi- tion:. (Baron. Pope). 

litv i ill hchaxii.ur (Lockr). UNMCXANED. a. Not lamented (SW- 

IJNMA'NNERLY. a. Ill bred ; not civil ; speare). 

not compUisani (SwiJI). UNMCIST. a. Not wet (Philips). 

Unma'nnerly. ad. Uncivilly (Shak- UNMOi'STENED. a. Not made •« 

speure). (Boyle). 

UNMANU'RED.a. Not cultivated (.S))en. UNMOLE'STED. e. Free from dbtwb- 

ser.) ancc ; free from external trouble (Rogirt). 

UNMAHKED. a. Not observed ; not re- To UNMOOR, v. a. To loose from laad 

garded (Pope). by takmfc up ihe anchors (Pope). 

UNMAaiRlKD.a. Having no huf band, INMCKRALlZliJ). a. Untutored by mo- 
or no wife (Bacon, jyruden). ralilv (Son is). 

To UNMA'SK. V. a. 1. Tosiripof a mask. UNMCRTIFIED. a. Not subdiifd bf 

S. To strip of any disguise (Roscommon). sorrr»w and se\eritit*s (Rogers). 

To Unma'sk. r. fi. To put off the mask UNMCVEARLE. a. Such as oennet be 

iSk§k^pearc). removed or altered (Locke). 

UNMA'SKED. a. Naked; open to the UNMO'VED.a. I. Not put out of one plsel 

view (Diyaeny into another (Mau. Locke). 2. Not changed 

UNMA'STKftABLE. a. Unconquerable; in resolution (.1/i //on). 3. Not aflletfcd; od 

not 10 be sulxlned (Brpwu). . . touched with any passion (Pope), 4. Unalieied 

UNMA'STERKl). fl'. f. Not sobdaed. 2. by i»a*sion (Dry^/^). .i .. < 

NcHconq,e*ibie(Ofyrfen). *' UNMCyVlNG. «. 1. Having no notion 

UN M ATI HA ULE. a. Unparalleled; U0- (Cheynr). €. Having no poweri^ IMellM 

cijualkd (ilocijfccf]^. - pasiiont ; unaflfccting. 



.Villon) i"^'-<^l '-f ■■-^.'^-■■-•'' ■- 

io.Mrt>.).''' ■ ■■'■■'■■■" ^' .\-\ ■ ' -j^' 

■»iheficc{Am«) ■ ■, ;■'' 
"SICaL. n. NfciTi3tm*n!fluii'o'pl 
• tnutih(B<nJomo-). ' ' 

.JII'ZZLE. ffo: to iM^^e ffutn.i 
ialiprart). ■ ; ' 

MED:' a- "NW (nentioned (WiV- A 

TUBAL. 0. i. Contrary lo (he 
imrci copiriff 10 'il|c commoa io- 
Eitrungry S. Aciitig wiihoui ihe 
luplmioil by nature (.DimiaM). 3. 
M aiciPrsble lo the real italc of [xr- 

TUBALLV. ai. la oppositfon lo 

(fofw w). 

TVRALNCSS. (, Contrariety to 

VIGABLE. 0. Not to be paucd 
' imltD lie navigated (O-ui/fu). 
fESSAHlLY.orf. Without iiece*- 
Urt nerd i neidlesily tBroume). 
;ciiSSARlNliSS. .- NecdleMnen 

C^ARY -0. Needle«i noiwanl- 

i(ff(wlrf). 

IGHBOURLY.a. Not kind j noi 

ditdAtiFi Ofa netiihbuur (GorfA). 



flVED. a Weak ; feeble {Shak- 

TH'. Uske'tbes. ed. [This ii 
(■d'MR, Saxon, taiy ; and ooalit 
to be Hriiien untalh.) ScatccTy ; 
It wlihniildiSiculiy: obioletc (iSpni> 



; ignominiiH 



-BLto Ml 

TliU a. I, Not ob^enedi not te- 
aiUpfat^. S.Sii\iumoiired(Poitf). 
•MBERLU.a. Unnmeiable (ffa- 

SKCTED. a. Nol diar^ u a 
iDti^rv to nrgiiitient {AtitriuTy). 
yCXlOUs: o. Not liablei not 
any hurt iDiinne). 
JP.'QUIUUSNESS. .. Iccompi;- 
ibedifntY {Brawn). 
JE'RVABLK. o. Nottobcobvfv- 
tcttvriahlr {BtiyU). 
SeitVANT.a. ] . Not obscquiom. 
■n.i..- IGlanmHc). 

MErttVEU. a. Not fcparJwtj not 
f ; WW Hrrdol (^f/frtlirv). 
SrftVING. 0. liutieniive; not 
t>idiny. 

sTHU'CTED. a. Not hindeccdj 
HBlKtmtrf). 
graU^griVB. ± Netnuingui; 



ITKUrFE'NDrNt.. a. 1. HirmtcM: in* 
noci:M.( Dm^cn). ^-..!)iiilus;. pure fToai Wli 
'CflocI^O'. ■ 

uKOTPEPKn. ov Not pK'pMe'l w ip- 
"ceiiiance {CUriadon). 

To UNO'II- ii, a. To free from oH (D^y- . 

UN'ONA. in botany,'* genus of tbe,cli» 
polyaiidria, or-iel^ (lolygynia. Calyx three-leav- 
ed ; peia!* SIX i berriei two fr Uiree-«ecded^. 
beaded like a necklace. Four specie), nilivet 
of the Emi or Weil Indies. , 

UNOPENING. a. Not opening (.Pepi). 

UNOTEKATIVE.a. Pio<iucingnoeflfC<» 
ISoulh). 

UNOPPO'SED. o. Nol encountered I7 
any hotidiiy or obstruction iDruden). 

UNCRDERLY. a. Dlwrdeted ; irregidar 
iSundrrtoa). 

UNCRUINARY. a. Uncommon; un- 
usual: niAiticd ILoctr). 

UNt/RGANlZED. a. Having no part. 
insiriiincnlal to the motion or nouiishaieiit of 
the rest (Grein). 

UNORIGINAL. Uuom'tttwATED. a. 

Not holding pure 
doctrine (Decay of Piely). 

UN0'WEi5. .. H-«ing no owner CS*-»*- 

UNOfWNED. a. 1. Having no owner. 
S. Nol acknowledged ; nol claimed {Mil/on) 

7"o UNPAfCK.P. a. 1 . To di.burden ; 10 
exonerate (SAakiprart). 2. To open anything 
bound KK."i><r (Bay Ir). 

UNPA'CKED. o. Nol collected by onlaw. 
fill arlilices {Hudil-rai). 

UNPA'ID-o. uNoidiwhargcd (Milton], 
8. Nol hflvityt duet or debit (Pope). 3. Um- 
PAio/or. "Diat for which the price ii not yet 
given (Sliaiipeatt). 

UNPA'INED. a. Suffering no pain (JUl7- 
Ian). 



L'NPA'LATABLE.a. Nauseous i disgutt. 
ihr (Dredm). 

llNPAHAGONED. a. Uoequalledi un- 
matched (Shokipeore). 

UNPA'RALLELED. a. Not matched ; 
not lo be matched ; haring no equal (dd- 

UNPA'RDONAHLE, a. (irMpardanaliU, 

FrJ Irren^i.-»iblc (iln-ktr). 

UNPA'RDONABLV. ad. Beyond foiw ' 

givenew (,4/(er/-ury]. ' ;,' 

UNPA'RDONED. «. I. Not forp^wV 
(RogtTiy ■/. Nol diichargidi nol cancdifd 
by a IckbI pardon (Ratrigh). . 1 - • 

UNPA'RUONING. a. Not Tatfitiam 
iDri/din). : , ; 

UNPATILIAMENTARINE-SS. ,. CodW 
(rarieiy lo the u*age or consiituiioD of parlia» -^ 

cnl (aorf»d«D). U 

UNPARLIAMENTARY. 



beat 



U N P U N P 

UNPA'RTED. a. Uodiridcd ; not tepa- UNPinTYING. a. HAring no 

Mlcd (Prior), (.GranviiU), 

UNPA'KTIAL. a. Equal; hoocst (5a». UNPLA'QEIXa. Hariiig no p1«x 

ierson), pendance (Pope), 

UNPAOITIALLY. ad. Equally ; indiffo UNPLA'GUED. a. Not lomentcd 

cntly (Hooker), spear e). 

UNPA'SSABLE. a. 1. Admitiing no pass- UNPLA'^^^ED. a. Not planted { i 

age iffaiis), 2. Not cvrent; not Miffered |o neous {Waller). 

pass (Z^ocAO. UNPLA'USIBLE. a. Not pbnaibi 

UNPA'SSION ATE. Uxpa'ssi ovate d. such as has a fair anpearanct {CUrtndm 

a. Free from passiou i calm ; impartial ( ffb/- UNPLA'USlVt. o. Not approving 

ton. GUinville). spear e), 

UNPASSlONATELY.iiJ- Without pas- UN PLEA'S A NT. a. Not delightinj; 

flion {King Ckarfes). blesoine; uneasy {IVoodicard). 

UNPArTHEI). a. Untracked; un marked UNPLEA'SANTLY. oi. Notdcligt 

Vy passage CShakspeare). uneasily (Pope). 

UNPA'VVNED. a. Not given to pledge. UNPLK'ASANTNESS. i. Wanic 

To UNPA'Y. V. a. To undo (Skakspearr). lities to give deli^hl (Hooker). 

UNPEA'CEABLE. a. Quarrelsome; in- UNPLEA'SED. a. Not pleased ; i 

clined to disturb the tranquillity of others (7//- lighted (Shaksteare), 

iotsan). UNPLEA'SlNG.a. OffenaWcidisgi 

To UNPE'G. r. a. To 0|)cn any thing giving no deliRht (Milion)» 

closed with a iieg (Shakspeare). . UNPLPANT. a. Not easily 

UNPE'NSlONED. o. Noi kept in depend- cnnforminz to the will (fF^ilon). 

ance by a pcnuion (Pope). To UNPLU'ME. v. a. To strip of pi 

To UNPK'OPLE. V. a. To de|jopuIate; to desrade ((^Mnvt/ZO. 

to deprive of inhabitants (Addison). UNPOETICAL. UvpobTticc. N 

UNPERCE'I VED. a. Not obsenetl ; not as becomes a poet (Bishop Corhtl). 

heed«*d ; not sensiblydi&covercd ; not known. UNPO'LISHED. a. I. Not smooilM 

UNPERCeiVEDLY.aci. So as not to be brightened by attrition (5n7/iii|^€cO. 

perceived (Boyle) civUized ; not refined (Dryden). 

UNPEOIFECT. a. (imparfaii, Fr. imper- UNPOLITE. a. (impeli, Fr. taj 

feetuit Lat.) Incomplete (Peaekam), Latin.) Not elegant ; not refined ; n 

UNPEHFECTNESS. 1. Imperfection j in- (Watts). 

completeness (Asekam). UNPOLLUTED, a. (impolluius, i 

UNPERFORMED, a. Undone; notdone Not corrupted ; not defiled (Hi/Zon). 

(Taylor). UNPOPULAR, a. Not fitted to pie 

UNPE'RISHABLE. a. Lasting to perpe- pconle (Addison). 

tuity ; exempt from decay (Hammond). UNPO'RTABLE. a. Not to be car 

UNPERPLE'XED. a Disenungied j not UXPOSSE'SSED. a. Not liad ; noi 

embarrassed (Locke). not cnjove<l (Prior). 

UNPERSIUliABLE. a. Not to be emit- UNPOSSF/SSING. a. Having no 

ted through the pores of the skin {^Arhuthnot). sion (Shakspeare). 

UNPmSUA'DABLE. o. Inexorablci not UNPRA(T1CABLE. a. Not feasi 

to he persuaded {Sidnei/). UNPR A'CTISED. a. I. Not skilful 

UNPE'IHIFIED. a. Not turned to stone and experience (Milton). 2. Not knowi 

(Brown). fainlli«ir bv use (Prior). 

UNPHILOSCPHICAL. a. Unsuitable UNPR'HCA'UIOUS. c. Not depend 

to the rules of philosophy, or right reason another (BiacLmore). 

(^Ccliier), UXPRE'CE1?1'.NTFD. a. Noiju* 

UNPHILOSO'PHICALLY. ad. In a by any example (Nit- j/7). 

manner contrary to the rules of risht reason. To UNPREOrCT. r. a. To retrai 

UNPIULOSOTlIICALNluSS. *. Incon- diction (3/i//«n). 

grtiitvwith philof^ouhy (Norris). UNPREFI^'ERED. «. Notadvanoa 

UNPIE'KCED. a. Not penetrated; not Hrr). 

piercH (Gcu). IJNPRE'GNANT. a. Not prolific 

I'NPi'LLARED. a. Deprived of pillars quicV o( w'n (Shah pear e). 

(Pufr). LNPREJU'DlCATRrt. Xotprepo 

UNPl'LLOWED. a. Wanting a pillow, by any settled noiicms (Taylor). 

To UNPIN. 1?. o. To open what u shut, UNPREUUDICED. a. Free from 

or fastened with a pin (Herbert), dice; void of preconceived notions (Tiii 

UNPl'NKED.a. Not marked wUfaTeyelet UNPKELATUAL. a. LiituiuU 

lioles (Shakspeare). prelate (Clarchdon). 

U N PlTl ED. a. Not eomps&ionated ; not UN PR F/M I D ITATF.D. a. . Noi pi 

regarded with sympathettcal sorrow (Roscom* in the niiud befonhand {Milton). « 

mon).^ UNPREPA'KFD.fl. i. Not fitted I 

iUNPI'I IFULLY.oJ. UumtrcifuUy; with« vious measures (..Mtltnn). '2. Not nw-idc 

nut lucrcy (Shakspeare). the dreadful iiiciucut ofdvparture ;^Shu^^ 



ning any 



BWKEB^E9S.V. ' ^iate of trtng 

i iKtng Ckarlf,). 

EPO^ESSED. o. Noi prepo»«.i- 
tixcupied by imlicn* iHoutli'i. 
E^ED.fl i.tiotpteatHTiekcl). 
r tccd ICiartnilaa), 
ETE'NDlNy.o. Nofcbi 

EVA'luNG. a. Being of no farce 

EVE'NTED. a. I. Nol prevhmly 
[Shukiprartj. s. Not urecetlci! by 

I'NCELV.n. UMuIiablctoapiinw. 
I'NCIPLED.u. Notwliledinteneu 

VS\&\M. a. Nut valued; not or 

ISONED. o. Set free from cdh- 

V/.Z'O.a. Not valued (SAaijpcnrO. 
CXU-A'iMKD. a. Not uuLiliMl liy 
lecUraiioa {MUton). 
OFA-NED. a. Nol violated {flrj. 



B. Unfit ; not tight. 

O'PEHLV. ad. Conirtrily to pjo- 

faroutablei \a* 



O'^ITABLE. a. UkIcsi: lenini; 

e tmokf.). 

CyTPlTABLENESS. .. Utelcsinns 

b'FITABLY.flrf. Uielmly; wltli- 

OTlTED.a. Havingno2=in(SAai- 

QLI'FIC. a. Barren .; nol proJuc- 

031IS1NG, a. ■ Giving no ptDtniie 
16c J tuviog no appearance of value 

OTER. a. 1. Not peculiar (SAa*- 

B. Unfit ; not right. 

O'PEHLV. od. " 

rpraiirrlv {Shaktp< 

OPITIOUS.B. ] 

1 {Popt). 

OPO'RTIONED. o. Noi nuied to 

beltc IXhakiprare'^. 
, >PO':»E[>. a. Not propoied {Dry- 

OflPPED. a. HcA lupported; not 

CySpEROUS. a. (.iiwpratpir, LaiinO 
tie; not vnntKiaui (CitUf nJoHl, 
OSPEKOUSLY. ad. Unsuccen- 

OTErCTED.a. Not proitctej; not 
1 not defended (Utlifr). 
(/W.D.a. l.Notuied; nol known 
^ftutr). £. Not eiinctd by argument 

PftOVI'DE. t^ «, 'T. rtivw of r<r- 
r ntialific.itiutit iSeuthtru). 
OVi'DED. •. I. Nut »cartd ot 
bjr nrtviuuk raeuum {S/uii'p^arr). 
'iii(K«l IA>r«0- 
UyO'KEb.a. Not provoknl (Srjf. 



U N It 

UNPU'NISHED. a. (.impunl,. Ft.) W 
punithed ; suffered to comintie in impunilf 

UNPUllCHASED. a. Unbought iDm- 
ham). 

UNPU'RIFIED. a. 1. Not ri««d froa) m- 
cremcni. ;;. Not cleantcd from sin iDeeajf of 

U?;PUTREFIED. a. Not cormpud bj 
roltcnneM (.'fW'ufAnof}. 

n UNQUALIFY, t. a. To distjualify ; 
to divert of qiinliticBtion iAtlfThwTf). 

UNQUA'RRELABLE-o. Such a. eannot 
be iinpiigne'l (.Brown). 

To UiXgUE'EN. I., a. To div*«t' of the 
dignity of qu«n ^Shuk^earf). 

TJNQUfc'NtHABLE. a. Unestinguiih- 
ablclMWcn). 

UNQUE'NCHABLENESS. ». Uoealin- 
EuisliflHrnM* (Hakeicill). 

l.'NQUEN( HED.o. 1. Not «tingni-.h«I 
(Barnv). 9. Not rx ling) livable {ATi-uHmft). 

UNQLT.'STIONABLaii- Klndubiiabki 
not lo be iloubreil ilt'vllon). S. Such as con- 
nol liear to be (juMtiotied without impaticQeo 

UNQL'E«TIONABLy.BA Induhitably; 

without driubt (Spriil). 

UNQUE-STIONED, a. I. Nol doubted ; 
paMcd ivithont doubt (ifreicn). 8. Indiiputr- 
able; not tobeopiKWfd (fi«n./anian]. 3. NOt 
interrncnted ; not examinc^l (J}riri&H). 

UNOUl'CK. t. Mutionlcts: not alive 
(Da^i^). 

UNQUI'CKENED.a. Not aolmaled ; not 
ripened tovilalily (Blackmorr). 

UNQUl'ET.o. (iByairf, Fr.in^w/w. Ul.) 
1. Moved with perpetual ugilalion ; noi cnlm 
not Kill {MitloH). S. DtMurbed; full of per. 
tuibation; not at peace (XAaitijreiire), 3. Knir 
Icj.; .insalislicd (Popr). 

UNQUrETLY.aJ, Withow ral tSAa*. 
i;.Mre) . 

UNQUrETNUSS.*. l.\Vaot of Itaoqnil. 
lily {Denkam). 'J. Want of peace iSpelttei^. 

3. RJcitlcs9ne»i turbulence (ijryrffii). 4. Pcr- 
totbsticinj iinea?ineii (Toy'o'')- 

UNRA'CKED. o. Not poured ffoin the 
lets inncon). 

UNRAliED. a. Not Ihnwvn together and 
covered. Uiril only <i( firo (Shahpt^iTr). 

UNRA'NSACKHD.o. Not nillnged. 

UNRA'NSOMED.fl. Not »et free by pay- 
mcnl for liU-rty (Pope). 

To UNRAVFL. u. II. I. TodiwnianpU; 
tnexlricatci lo tlear{rf/tii(A«el). S.T<(dn»r. 
der ; lo throw out of the pmeni onfet (Dn/- 
dett). 3. To clear up the intrigue of a play 
(/•op*)- 

UNRA'ZORm). n. Un-haveo (MUten). 

UNREA'CHED. a. Not aiiaiaed (JDrucf.V 

U^'RE•AD. fl. 1. Not rend ; nnt puWic1» 
p?anoUi>ced(DnnQ(). 3. Untaaghri noiteiira'- 
ed in book) (£lrV''<''>). I i ■ 

unreadiness: «• l. Waniof^Mdi- 
ncsi; want of promptness C^Mto). 3. Want 
of prepiration (Toy/or). 

tJ>jREADV.«. .1. N-MimrnedtiMlk 



P^^^ t N R 

fSfialtsfterty. ' t. Not prompl i not qnicV 
X,Brou!n). a. Awhwattt; lirtgaio (B«e«n). 

UNRE'-AL.d. IJasiibjiaiitiftlj hiviiigonly 
ipptaitnce (Shaifptart). 

UN REASON ABLJE. «., i. Not agrcenblt 
W rnuon (Hoeirr). 3. Uxoibiunt; claiming 
or iniiitlng on loorc llian h fit iDrgtim). 3- 
Grealcr ih«n is fit ; mmoierauHAlltTiury). 

UNREASONABLENESS.,, i. Incon- 
■iitency WLth leaMin (Hammond), S. Esorbi- 

CNRE'ASONABLY. a<i. l.Inamann" 
cADtrtry to icasun. 9. More thaD eouugh 

^"TklJ^^AyR*. «^ ^!iat«ril-(%»- 
tci/0- 

UNRE&UKEABLli. e. Oljnoxious lo no 
censoTC {rimclhu). 

UNRECE'lVJiD.n. Not rereiveJ (K,o*.). 

UNRECI,AI'MED.a. i . Noi ixn.cd (SAai- 
tpeare). S. Not reloriiinl (Rogert). 

UNRECONCri-EABLE. a. i.Noiiobe 
mpaMcl; imuUcnble {Stiakipeatc). S. Nol 
>M IbTmadc con.ltteni w,<l> {llam«tm-l). 

UNRE'CdNCiLED. a. Not reconciled 

UNRECO'RDED.a, Nol kepi in wnwm- 
Intnee bv public rn'mumenli {Pope). 

UNRECCUNTEU. a. Not lolJ ; not re- 
hred {ShaUprare). 

UNRECHU'lTABLE.a. lowpabltofrt. 
painita ihe Jefitienciti of an army {MUlon). 

UNRliCU'RING, 0. l.rtmediabU (SAai- 

.UNREFO'RMABLE. o. Not to be jmi 
'una a new Torm {Hammond). 

UNREFO'RMKD. a. l. Not amended; 

ori*ctt(l {Daviei). S. NotbrouEhl to new- 



UNBEPA'JD. ff. Not » 



coRipOMtcd i,DrydeA. 

UNHm^'AlXlL «.. Nm moMi 
■bnmtfd i.Biactmart'i. 

UNm?ET4T^NT. UMxsrM'vTia 
Not repentiog ; not penitent j dm 4aK 
fiir tin {MUIa». Saieomman), 

UNREPErKTKD. «.• Not 



Not pfcvatily 



UNREPHIETVABLE-ia. Ndi Wl 
fpitot from prnal death iSkalMtm^; •» 

UNREPRtrACHED. ■: JfM4qMi 
noteeniurcd iHGng CkarUt). ■ ..\M, 

UNRHPRO'rABL&. «. .KmiW 
blatnc(C^Mi4ai).,, ./j.J 

UNREPRC/VHD. «, t. Not M 
(5M(h«). 9.,Not)iabkiotqMair(JRI 

UKlH^U'GNANT. a. .-JUm «|| 

UN^h>tJTABLE. n. . 1 1((* CHI 
{fl«m). ■'.■(■■■■« 

UNREQUITABLE.*. I)*.* te 
luted. :■'• -I, 

UNRESE<NT£D. «, No* r 



IKH of life lHamtMnd'i. 
"" "EFWSHED. 0. 



tW REFtUfS&ED. 0. NotchwKd; 
itliend (AtKftufO- 

ONfUeGA^DED. a. Not hmdcd ; «ot n- 
nMetMl-V'neActed (&ciliiir). 
^NREGE'NERATE. «. Not branght to 
aiiMf-ia«(Si«p&nui. 

UNRE'GlS^EDKi. NottccoriedWoi. 

..B'iNED: 0. Not icumimd fa* the 
h fMUtm). 



LVED.«. I.NoiJii^iril 

priTilecaDveniu)ce(Aeg(n}. r.Opeat-l 
cnncealinK nothing. 

UNR^E'RVEDLY- of- I. Witbo 

miuiioii (Boyle). *. Wiihoot COBOU^ 

^NRESE'RVEDNE^. ,. I.Unbr 
nesa; largeoeii (Aiy/r). S.Oprnaoai I 
»{P, 



UNI 



I'STED-s. I.Not:opMMa'(J 
, S. Roittlew i ihu canfM be «p| 
NRESI-STING. a. Not o 




ING.o. Hudicrad; fixl. 

IB.'VABVE.a. Admitting no mic> 

1. Not weoouicd 

CABLE.r'l. MotMMbk 
i^th)- ;>■ Not trcruq of 



UNB£M%BRANCE. « ' itna^f^lMii 

ItifFattt). 



NoTtoboM 
iiuoluble (SoKfi). 

UNRESCTLVED. a. i. Notdcin^ 
faiviog made no MwlutJon ^jShabptmH 
Not aolTtd i not cleared (Z^cif). 

UNRESO'LVING. a. Not«rfol«{ni 
determiiitd (Dnidfn), 

UNR£SP£'CTIV£.a. InanmiTcil 
litilo notice (S/UitMsr*). 

UNREOT.*. D^uiet; wantoTtM 
lit*; unquietoeu : not in uw IfFoU^A 

1/NfUSTO'RED.B. ]..NotniiM 
Not cleared from in attainiler (CWtkA^ 

UNBESTRA'INED. A I.MmomI 
iu»t hindeitd IDryden). S. Lkentinuail 



UN^VE'AtEO. m. 1Im.mM| « 



r u N s 

WEDGED.*, Not revenged (Fotf- 
I'VERHNP. a. Inrvcmi; di<re> 
.'VtUUSiLY. ad. Diirevectfully 
IVfasED. a. Not revoknlj noi 

Siakipmrr). 

:VO-KKU .1. NoiiecalkiK-UiVfoti). 
IWA-KOEI), fl. Noi revratUrd ; noi 
tiilL'tillianee). 

Rl'DULH.t>. s. Tn mKc an enig- 
IpUh) a [iroblem (SuMin^). 
JRl'U. V. a. To stnpof the tackle 

'GHT. o, Wmnc C'Fijrfoni). 
'GHTEOUS. o. Unjun; wicked; 
Ml (/joioA). 

BIlI-EOUSLY.flii. Unjustly; wick- 
Tult* (Oiffiw). 

'GHTIiOUSNESS.*. Wicked n ess ; 
.Hall). 

■GHTFUL. a. Not righlful; not 
tMprare). 

IHl'NG. t>. a. Ta deprive of a rinn. 
Bl'P, e. a. (»nioipropetwonl ) To 
11 open Clavlor). 

'!>£. s. I. In>iij3tDiei not full; 
{H^aller). C. Not si^^ionablc ; not 
•(,Drvden). 3. Tooearly (SiAiry). 
'l'KIflii> a. N"t matured {,*ddi..)- 
"PENE^i).!. liiiaijiuhi; J want of 

'VALLED. «. I. Having nncoai- 
Up*}. S. Having no pet-r or er|<ia1. 
BWU-v-a. To open wlul i» tolled 
nr>d iDruiIrn). 
IMA'NTIC. a. Cooir»ry 



1!>"SA'NCT!FIED. a. UrJwtyj not eon- 

!criit«d; i\ot piuui {Skaktpearr). 

UNSA'IIABLE. a. ^inialiabilh. LalJo.) 
lot to be satistied j gteedy without boiuuU 



UNSATISFA'CTORINESS.., Failui 

giving ^atiifactlon (Boylt). 



>of 



UNSATISFa'cToRY. a. I. Nolfpving 
latitraciifin. 1!. Not clearing the difficulijr 
(miitigjlctl). 

UNSATISFIED, o. 1. Noi cotitentwj; 
not plt^ated (,Bacnn). 9. Not letllal in opinion 
{Boyle). 3. Not ailed 1 Dot gratified ig ihi 
full {Shakspearr). 

UNSATISFIEDNESS. .. (from uiualii. 
fed.) The Slate .if btiiig not satisfied (Baylt 

UNSATISFYING, u. Unable - 
to the full ijlddimrt). 

UNSA'VOUIUNESS.*,ffroniuM«w.«>*-) 
l.Ba<Ita.<tc. S. Bad Jtnell (dr0u>N}. 

UN'SA'VOURY.n. i.Tu*teleBi(Joij. 8." 
H.-itinjc a bad UMe (Ulillim), 3. Hiiving ati 
illiiTicHi fetid (Bruun). 4. Unpleising) 4u* 

UNSA'V, ti.d. ToMract; lOTfc^ntj, 






a^. 



'ROOT. V. a. Tn alrip off the roof 
lt«f liDn«e4 [S/>aiipcart). 
Kf&TED. a. UtWto ftoin the roost 
«). 

IROOT. v. a. To tear from the 
rxtirnitcj lo tradicBle (Ofj/rf'i)- 
fOGH. tf.' Smooth (Shokiprarr). 
("UNDED. a. Not shapeil i not cut 

TYaL. a. Unprincelyi not royal 

itiTi.-i r •■ n. ToeeMefromcom- 

nr;llm). 

dim ; tranquil ; tiot 

\iit directed by any tu- 

ia.lI«t^8S. (. (Dnm vnru/yO Tar- 
nn){iltiiair<iie«>; l>cet]iioi»iie*t($nii.). 
KLY. «:' Ty'xil'tili ungoreinahle i 

'HH^.' Not secure; hRzanloua; dan- 

'FELV. ad. Kot Kcutelji dsnger- 

wrtt. Hm uttered i not meniioneil 

'hLTED. «. Not pickled or icMoaed 



^Umtkr^). 



gUtll 

r. 

to (Itny what has been said {Millen, 

UNSCA'LY.a. Having no icijlw 

UN^C.VRRED. fl. -' 
wounds {Sliakipeart). 

UNSCHOLA'S TIC. a. Not bred to litMW 
ture(£flar). TT"" 

UNSCHOO'LED. o. UneducM«dj, a^ 
leoraol (//ooiln-). 

UNSCORCHED. a. Not touchy IHn 
(S*o*»peaffl. - ^. 

UNSCREENED, a. Not cm-ered; i^ 
protected (BoyM- , ,, 

UN8CRI'PTURAI,a. Not iJeftn^^ Bj 
scripture C'^/'n'tury)- i. 'i- 

To X;NSE'AL. f.a. To open anitMig 
sealed (Dryrfrn). ' * .7 *; 

UNSE'ALED. a. I. WaniJiMfttcal (.SM- 
iprare). 8. Having the teal br<d(«|. ~ , 

To UNSE'AM. V. a. To rip ; to cut^M^ '' 

UNSEAiRCHABLE. a. lniefutjile,i,i|j« 
to be explored (Millon). , ^ ^ , ' 

UNSEA'HCHABLENF„SS. ,. Imjavfli: 
bililv to be explorni (Branball). 

UNSEA-SfJNABLE. ). Not suitaUe to 
limeor occasiou; nnfiti untimely j' it'-iufw 
iClarcndony S. Not airecable to th<lim<^AF 
the year iShaktpeoTf). 3. Late: M, |iiM4HM* 
aWclimeofni^ht. 

UNSE'ASONABLENESS, 1. . D\t»ytf 
ment nirh time or place {llalc). 

UNSEASONABLY, ad. Not seaaonabljj 
not ■arceahlv to lime or occasion iBooter). 

UNSE'aSONED. fl. i.Unjeawqablcjiln- 
timelfi ill-timed: out of iwe(5*a*»p»4rf). 8., 
Unformed 1 not qualified by uu XShalitpkare^. 
3. IticBiilar 1 inotdinaie {^Uaywood), ,4. Not 
kept till (n for ute. S. Not s«lied : ai, li»- 
itasonrd meat. , 

UNSE'CONOED. a. t. Not iupponed_. 
{Shaktptari). «. Not cxemptilied.v t^cand 
time ittraten). 

7-0 UNSECRET. ». 0. To iliKlMei u ii. 
Tulge iBfKon). 



xpfwv). UNSHOT. MN. «• NiKliithvilM 

UllfiEDU<lElX«.Mbtdi«wBioai(5ldh (iSEAdbM^f). ^ 

. UNSEBINGw «. WanfiBis A# iia#tt of thowm (KKftM). 

tUoh (SAnWrn), ' UNMBPNUNa «. Mftt jMiii 

. UMSEEMLmfiSS. «• Itftoeneiri imle. ihttoniag jhagf or dmo (Sl ^ljf — ■> 

.WW; ^neoBcHnM iBmkm). UMSRUmiAnS. «. InmiiMeC 

UNSEE'lli;y. «. indeoeolj vaMMdlf s ' UNSITTED. •• LNokpanedbf 

tolieedftiiiig UMhr). (4fiy). f* Not tried i Bot» lumpm 

Wmimi^ji. - . .. ^ UNSI^GHlr. a. Nol ttek^CAUHi 

T;(BBEBH*c. iNotictttf lM«Mtareral UNSl'GUTED. «. latiMblti « 

(BMbm). f. InviilUaf m di w o f ei itle (Jft/- (SvciliiwV. 

jliM. frUvkilUI $ iiiia[pcfMbafir<ClirMir.). UNSPGIRUNESS. i. Defeno* 

VfllaBUnSH. a. Mai^tficMtopfivaie im«abl«liciilDlhecve(iriM«uni). -^ 

Bt«»fcaBp«ni«»r). - ' UNSIiGHTLY, «. OM^mAfe 

UflSSBTnr.a. l.Noftfi9t.f.Uv8«rriW'. tMi(JftlM)- . .^ 

NotnilMir l'^**^ or MJMiPitffr (nyl^, TJNSINCERE. a. (numcmu. Uti 

' DMSBTARABLE. «. ■ Not lo te parted; Not heiflyi not faidifuL • Not p 

-aot t » lie dfa r tted (SI<fajMar»h UQP«Si MliiHtfated (Boy/r). 3. MJt) 

' mnBTARATED. c Not mrted (PpM). not tMM ( J>mIiii>. 

. PN SE^VICE A ^IJB. o, Ui ek» » bXg. I TOMN C gBITY. i , Adidtonaimf 

"■■K-vO'OdfviliBe or convtetteeo lAteilfv). diihomity of piofcmon (jBowlr)* 

IJNSBltVI&BABLYk o^ WUMtqM} nVVmiVXW.v.m.Wfifnw9^^ 

UNSET, o. Not sat } feotfbeedCffMltfr). UNSI^NEWEDp o. Norvdoii 

n^UNaETIXE. t-ii. tTib make on. (r ^ ^ ^^^ 




eenrin (iJrtetotljw rToawvofttaiapliw^ UNSI'NGBIXa.NotaooidMiaal 

(£*&«nnM). a.-To ofcrtbroir. cd bf tire (S^g^kemi). 

•^CMSBTFLED. o. i. Not ftnd la molii> UNSI'NNINO. o. ImoeeeeUo (Xm 

don } j»9t diminUicd : not ilndy 18mA). f . UNSKA'NNED. o. Not mmm 

ITniiMiihi not rtaiuari thinwde ibtnt' eonipiitod {SMttpearfj. 

a). 3. Not citabliiM llhfStn). 4. Not UinKl'LPUL, o. Wantilis«its m 

Bd in a -plaee «f abode (J fc a iir ). knovrlaine ( Ahoto«or«). 

UNSEnmLEDNESS. i. 1. Irmelotion; t UNSKI'LFULLY. oi. Widiont* 

ta^ermined state of mind, f . Uncertainty ; Icdce ; withoot art {Skahpemre). 

flnctnal'ioo {JDHyden), 3. Want of Bsity (5sa.). UNSKFLFULNESS. $. Want e 

■ • To UNSE^X^ 9. o. To make otherwise than want of knowledse cTViw^). 

tbasexoorom6ulyis(6*AiiAsp«ore). UNSKPLLED. a. Wanting skiDi 

» UNSHACKLE. »; m. To looie4iom iog knowledge (Dryden. il/adhnarf ). 

bonds Uildiioii). UNSLA'IN. a. Not killed (iSiibifV 

UNSHAn30W£D. a. Not clooded; not UNSLA'KED.o. Notquenehed(n 

darkened {Olmnlh). UNSLEE1>1N6. a. Ever wakofel C 

< UNSHA'KEABIJB. a. Not solgect to eon- UNSLiePPING. a. Not liable losfif 

enision: not in nse (5»a^Mrf ). UNSMrRCHED. a. UnpoUoiai 

UNSHA'KEN. m; I. Not aplated; not stained (SAoi^^^are). 

teoved (Bbylr). 9. Not subject to eoneoision. UNSMO^KED. a. Not smoked iSm 

3. Not woakcved tn resototion ; not moved. UNSCK^I ABLE. a. (tMsoctaWiit I 

'UNSHA'MED. a. Not shamed iDrwdm). Not kind ; not eommunicatire of mmi 

'VtiSHAfPED. a. Mishanens deformed suitable to tocietv (ffo/i^gA). 

(Bunmi). ^ UNS(>CIABLY. acf. Not Undlfi 

UNSBAlffiD. a. Not partaken I not had oot jHioH-nature cL'fs/ivaye). 

in common (Jttitm). UNSCyi LED. o. Not polluted $ M 

^ 7a UNBHEATH. e. a. To dmw fiom ibe ed : not stained {Ray). 

scabbard (DfaAaai). (iNSCrLD. a. Not exebanoed for « 

UMSHEXI. a. . Not spilt (Afi/^). UNSOLD I ERLIKE. a. TJubee^ 

UNSHBLTEHED. a. Wanting a screen ; soldier (fi^^MHiie). 

. Wnotinic nretMrtion. (Jpfcay i^FieM. UNSOUD. a. Fluid ; not eobeicai 

UNSHI'ELDED. a. Kot guarded by the UNSCXLVED.a. Not espHcatedf II 

OMiiBndai). VJ^SOC^^.fnrunsweet.iSpmmy 

To UNSHIT. V. a. To take oat of a ship. UNSOPJU-^TICA FED. a. Not ♦ 

«. UNSQOCKED. a. Not dii^usltd; not ated ; not counterfeit (More), 

oflended iTitkel). UNSCRTED a. Not dbiribvtadi 

.UNSHi/D. a. (from vmAs^.l Hartng no per separation ( fTaiU). 

<hoet iChrenian). ^ UN^iO^UGHT. «. I Had wf iho^M 

JUJiUHOGriL>orl, a. IIq^iNhi^ ((>^)^ Cl^ra/cm). S. Not seardied j .Ml««fl« 



UNO. a. 1. Sickly ; ^niniing lieaUh (JNSTE'ADFAST. a. Not fixed; not Tsati 

/). 9. Not free from cracks. 3. Rot- not resolute (6'ibaitfpeare). 

ipted. 4. Not orthodox {Hooker): 5. (JNSTfi'ADI LY. oil. 1 . Withoot any cer-' 

ii\noiupr\fiJt\t{Shakspeare) 6. Not tainty. €. laconstantly ; not coiisistentlj 

certain ISpenser), ?. Not fast ; not {Locke). 

tdet). 8. Not close 3 not compact ' UNSTE'ADINESS.i. Want of constancy ; 

')• (^ Not Mncere; not faithful (Ga^). irresolution ; mo tabitity (5^vr/^^. 

tolid ; not material {Spm^cr), 11. UNSTE'ADY. a. 1. Inconstant; irresolute 

; wrong (itfiZ/on). 12. Not fast on« {Rotre). 8. Mutable; variable; changeablt 

{Locke). 3. Not fixed ; not settfed. 

UNDED. a. Not tried by the plum- UNSTEE'PED. a. Not miced' (Bocos). 

cspeare]. To UNSTl^G. v. a. Tb disarm of a sting. 

IJNDNESS. «. 1 . Erroneousness of UNSTl'NTED. a. Not limited {SkeUon). 

im of orthodoxy (£fooitfr). €. Cor- UNSTlHItED. a. Not stirred ;' not agi* 

>f anv kind (Hooker). 3. Want of Uted (Btyle). 

want of solidity {Addison). To UNSTinH^H. &. a. To Open by picking 

URED. a. 1 .'Not made sour (Bo- the stitches (C^//r<T). 

Not made ttinrosc {DryieH). UNSTCyOPING. a: Not beAdingf not 

'WN. a. Not propagated by scatter- yield injc (S^akspgare'). 

Bacon). To UNSTCVP. v. a. To ftet tteia stop or 

%'RKD. ff. Not snared (itfi//o«). obstruction ; to open (Bov/f). ' ' , 

VRING. a. 1. Not parsimonious UNS'lXyPPED. a. Meeting no resistAnor 

2. Not meTcifiil. {Drvdm). 

SPE'AK. V. a. To retract ; to recant UNSTRAINED, a. Easy ; not forced. 

re). UNSTRATFENED. «. Not contracted 

lifAKABLE. a. Not to be express- {GlnnvUie). 

hie; unutterable {^oo*«-). UNSTRE'NGTHENED. «. Not support* 

f^AKABLV. a(f. Inexpressibly; in- ed; not assisted (f/ooil;^). 

peciafftr). To UNSTRI'NG. v. a. 1. To relax any 

E'C\ Fi ED. a. Not particularly men- thing strung ; to deprive of strings {Smiik). 8. 

rown). To loo^e ; to untie {Dryden), 

E-CU LATI VE. a. Not theoreUcal. UNSTRU'CK. «. Not morcd ; not affected 

E'D. a. Not di8|)atcfaed; not per- {PiUip*). 

tarih). yNSTUa)IED, a. Not premeditated ; not 

E'NT. a. Not wasted; not diminish- laboured {Drydew). 

eakened; not exhausted (Bacon). UNSTU'PFED. a. Unfilled; unfurnished 

SPHE'RE. r. a. To remove from its {Skaktpeare). 

sp^are). UNSUBSTA'NTIAL. a. 1. Not solid; 

I'ED. a. I. Not searched; not ex- not palpable {Milton). 2. Not real (i^ddStofi). 

filion). -S. Not seen; not discovered UNSUCCE^SFU!.. a. Not having the 

wished event ; not fortunate (Gleaae/aiia). 

I'LT. a. 1. Not shed {Denham). «. UNSUCCE^ FULLY, ad. Unfortunate* 

ailed ; not marred {1\ttser). ]y ; without success {South). 

SPlOllT. V. a. To dispirit; to de- UNSUCC&SSFULNEfe. t. Want of sue 

dcjf^t {Norris). cess ; event contrar? to wish {Hammond). 

Ol'LED. a. 1 . Not plundered ; not UNSUCCE'SSI VE. a. Not proceeding by 

Dryden). 2. Not marred; not hurt, flux of parts (Broi0ii). 

CytTED. a. 1. Not marked with UNSU^KED. a. Not having the breaatt 

{ihyden). 2. Immaculate; not drnwn(tl/t/^oN). 

ith isnilt {Shakspeare). UNSU'FFERABLE. a. Not snppoitabh; 

UA'RED. o. Not formed ; irregular intolemhle ; not to he etMlured {MiUan)». 

trey. UNSUFFICIENCE. a. (wnj^iance, Fr.) 

A^LE. a. {inslabiiis, Latin.) 1. Innbilitv to answer the end proposed (Baaikcr). 

; not fast (7>mp/e). ». Inconstant; UNSUFFI»C1ENT. a; {iniujfuanl, Fr.y 

{James). L^nablc; inadequate X£<>cA»), 

A^ID. a. Not cool; not prudent; UNSU^GARED. a. Not sweet»ned with 

t into discretibn; not steady; motable sugar (Bacon). 

UNSUinTABLE. a. Not congruous; not 

A'IDNESS. f. I. Indiscretion*; vola- equal : not proportionate (Ti^tofi). 

2. Unceruin motion {Sidney). UNSUaTABLENESS. s. Inoongruity; 

A^NED. o. Notstamed; not died; un6tncss (iS^/A). 

oared; not dishonoured (Bo/com.). UNSUITING. a. Not fitting; not ba- 

STATE, t. a. To put out of dignity eomine (Dryden). 

re). UNSU'LLIFJ). a. Not fouled | nol dia- 

A'TUTABLE. a. Contrary to sta* graced ; pure (Sprat). 

ft). UNSUNG, a. Not celebrated in verse; 

A'UNCRED. a. Not stopped ; not sot recited in verse {Millon). 

^kffi»^. UNSU'MNED'a. NotcxjioiedtDthtioe. 



. HNSUFBRFLUOIM. «. NotaiMrllMQ . UNTSWDSE. «.; Wapriav tsl 

cnooid) (iliilm). waniins ■flection (M«toMpA<r _ 
ulsUPPSLArNTED. c l. Mcf *md or UOTfimMOlfiaZ llbi«ilHi I 

ihiowo (n^ amLer thai which «ippiiili it ij^mtt). 

(PiriftM). «. Not 4effatcd by ttritncni. • 7*o UNTBNT.».fl» Ti1ii|Moal«r 

.UNSUProqiTABLE. «. (iwiitffrtti/f, (S^Aipwif w). 

Fkench.) In i ote i ab k i foch.atcftOiMiJM«i<» . UNrEnnCD..€. (fh» IkaQ Bivj 

. roffiUPRMTTED. <..l.JVoiiMiiiM4$ . UNTT^Rm¥lED. o. Not aftyM 

boc Md rnnU^im), «. Not ■wiinJ (JkMpa). ttnick with fatr (IftllMi). 

UNI^LH* A ilot bicd ; Mt cciiiMB. . UNTHAfNKfiD. m. I. Not icpyi 

. P^TOaftypyrABLR #. (fwrpwof- acknowl^^nratorkinaMMCifilM-l 

idfe. FitMh^ U'lopwiMti aoii^he over- Teceittdwiih thtnkfahmi (Aiydba^ 

coBM (£ed b), . UNTRAWKFUL. o. CpmidGBi i a 

UNSUSCEPTIBLE. «.' lucaptbh s not ingoo aclcDowkdcmcm (2>y*p). 

liri>i« tq jriait (Jbyi). ^ HlNTH A'NKFULLTr. md. IRj 



UMSlISFEvT. Uiraairifctu. o. Not tlMnktj^ withooticiMitndBCAylrt^ 



00B aitoM#t.ttMl^ *> cf »«» Mi (JBton). UNTHAfNKFULNESft. 

UMSIAKJA/TING. o. Nol iiaa^iiing ociitiioa ofaoknowMptnt futpi* 
AhuoiMiM'kilciUBird (ffiW^ wantof teiMeofbeiicfiti*' 

' l7MnnnC10US.OLHmiSBOiM^i^ r« DNTHl'NK. o. o. 
CJfilte«>. a dboogbt iSkahpewre)* 

UNSUSTAINED. a. Nainppotfteil^iiot UNTHIWKING. a. 




hald UP CPg*)._._ — - -» --• gT<» <p reflcctiop (£acifc>). i 



ra UNSWATHILo. a. TafwarnMnftldf UNTHCVRNY. a. Nat 

UNSWAnrABLETaTNot to be gmnMd UNTHOaJGHT ^. a. Nat 

or inflocooed Enr anolhtr (Aai^aaartf). heeded (Slatocare). 

, UNSWAWBD. a. NaiwialM i apt held To UNTHte'AD. v. a. Ih baiaCll 

1o the buiil(S»aA^Mr»). UNTHRfi'ATENED. a. Nai m 

n UNSWEFAlt a. a. Not lo twtarj lo UNTHRITT. t. An extrafivMi i 

ffcam anv thins mroni (4*jRMni«r)» diaiil (fiiaAj^acre). 

' Te UNSWETAT. a. a. To caie after fiUigoBs UHTHtrrr. a. ProRiie; waalaM»] 

|a cool after ezerraa (Jftlfea). gal ; estri?afaint (SMspem). 

UMWOKS. a. N^t boond by an oath. UNTHRI'FTILY. ai. Wltha«l Ba 



. VNTAONTED. a. l. Not auUied} not (CbUfrr)* 

ponnied (RvMmaaiaa). f. Not charged with UNTHRITTINESS. #. Waalai | 

any crinfc {Skakgpeart). 3. Not cormpted by gality ; profiision (HavMHird)^ 

taiature {Smiih). UNTHRi'FTY. a. I. ProdiAl ; faa 

UNTAVEN.a. I.Notuken (HoywarJ). lavish ; wasteful dS't Jury). 8. Not to i 

f . Untakbv fl^. Not filled (Boy^). of improrcmeDt (SkakMpeare), 3. Nol 

UNTAUCEO *if. a. Not- mentioned in made to thrive or fatten iMoriimer). 

the world (Dhryi/fji). UNTHIU'VING. a. Not thmtngi 

UMTA'MCaBLE. a. Not to be tamed; pros^icrine (Gov. of ike Tongue). 

not to be lubdued (Grrw). ^ To UNTHRCyNE. v. a. To pall i 

. UNTA'MED. a. Not tubdoed ; not sup- from a throne (Milion), 

pmaed : not softened by culture {Sptnser), To UNTJ'E. o. a. I. To nnlnnd; I 

^ To UNTACSGLE. v. a. To loose from in- from bonds {Skakspeare). 9. To Umm 

tricacy or convolution (Prior), unfasten {fFalier). 3. To loosen from a 

UNTAfSTED. a. Not tasted ; not tried by lution or knot (Pope). 4. To aH ftae 

tliepdate iJFaUery any obstruction (ray/or). 6. To lasals 

UNTAfSTING. a. 1 . Not perceiving any clear (Dm Aam). 

IMte iSmiik). 8. Not trying by the pabte. UNTPED. a. I. Not bound | Mtfri 

ONTAVGHT. a. |. Uninstructed ; un- in a knot {Ptiot). 9. Not lastencakj 

educated; ignorant; unlettered (Foaag). 8. binding or knot {Shaks,), 3. Not Bi 

Debarred from instruction i^Lo^ke), 3. Un- Not held by anv tie or band, 

skilled ; new: not having use or practice. UNTFL. ad. I . To the time that (O 

Tq UNTEfACH. o. a. To make to quit, or 9. To the place that {Dryden). 3. t 

for^ what has been inculcated (B^oani). degree that {Ckronicies), 

UNTE^MPERED. a. Not tempeitd (fist- Vnti'l. prep. To (Ja^rtj), 

fttffi). UNTPLLED. a. Not cnltivaiad iBIm 

UNTDMPTED. a. 1 . Not embarrassed by UNTI'MBERED. a. Not furiualid 

temptation (Ttfy/or). 9. Not invited by any timber; weak iSkakspeare). 

ihinjK alMng (Coiiom). UN^I'AIELY. a. Happening befti 

UNTENABLE. 0. 1. Not to' be held iq natural time {Pope). 



asassioo. 8. Not capable of ddetica {G^rtih^ UktiVbly. ad Before the natwal I 

a). UNTI'NGED. a, i. Notstainad} m 

VNTBKAMTED. a. SaYifD| M HMttt coknucd (Bof /«). 8. Not infectad (Aij 



UNT 

m 

I^RAMiE. a.' Inddttifpible ; tinwea- 
QkspeaT€). 

mSJL^.^m. Not nude weary (l>rf</.)* 
ITLED. a. Having no title {.Skaks,). 
O*. prtp'^ (it was the old word for to i 
olete.) To. See To illooker). 
CKLD.ft. 1. Not related ifFaUer). 
vv«alcd iDry^n). 

OOICHED. a. l. Not touched; not 
{Stephens), 9. Not movefl; not af- 
iMn^y). 3. Not meddled with. 
JfWARD. a. 1 . Fro«vard ; pervene ; 
i ; oot easily guided, or tau;;ht ( Wood' 
S. Awkward; uiigraeefol {^Creech), 
ivenieoi^ troublesome {Huiibrat). 
>\VARDLY. a. Awkward; per- 
oward {Locke). 

%ARDLr. ad. Awkwardly; un* 
wnwselv {Tittottony 
fU^CBlABLE. a. Not to he traced. 
AA^€>£i>. a. Not marked by any fbot- 
tnkatn). 

EUkfyTABI J:. a, {pitractahllis, Lat.) 
ieldirig to commcm nitrasores and mn- 
t;'Btubbofti {Hay ward), U. Rough; 
[Milton), 

iUCTABLENESS. $, Unwilling. 
nfitness to be regulated or managed. 
Rained, a. 1. Notorlucated; not 
d; not disciplined (Ilaifward). S, 
'I luifCDvernahle {Herieri), 
iANbFFRRAHLE. n. Incapable 
given from one to another {Howet), 
lANSPA'RENT. a. Not diaphan- 
que<Boy/tf>. 

lA'VELLED. a, 1. Never trodden by 
%. (Brown). 2. Having never seen 
)ii n tries {Additon) . 
^ TREAO). V. a. To tread back ; to 
n the same steps {Sfinkspeare). 
HEA'SURED. a. Nut laid up ; not 
(Skaktpeare), 

lETATABLE. n. Not treatable ; not 
\e {Decay qf Piety). 
U'ED. a. 1. Nut yet attempted 
2. Not yet experienced {Collter). 
mn^ pasted trial {Milton). 
UU'MPHABLE. a. Which aUows 
ph {Huditrat). 

lO^D. Untr o'ddek. a. Not passed ; 
ed hv the foot {IFallcr). 
tOLLED. a. Nut bowled ; not rolled 

lO^BLED. a. l . Not disturbed by 
EOiTy or guilt {Shakspeare). 2. Nut 
not confuted ; free from pssion 
. 3. Not interrupted in the natural 
penser), 4. Tranfi|)areiii; clear; nut 
'Baron). 

tU'E. a. 1. False; contrary to re- 
0icr). 2. False ; nut faithful {Suck- 

lU'LY. ad. Falsely; not according 

Raleifiih), 

lU'SiJNESS. 5. Unfaithfulness 

LUTH. J. ]. Falsehood ; contrariety 
. S. Moral finlschoQd; not veiavity 
XL— PART II. 



•UN U 

iSandy^)^ 3. Treacheiy ; wint of fidelity 
{ShaJis.), 4. False assertion (il//«r^ury). 

UNTU'NABIi£. a, Unharmoniouf ; not 
musical {Bacon). 

To UNTU'NE. ». a. 1 . To make incapable 
of harmony {Prior), 2. To disorder {Sk.). 
UNTU'RNKD. a. Not turned {JVoodw,). 

UNTUTORED, a. UninUructed 5 un- 
taught {Shakipeare). 

7b UNTVVl'NE. v.a. 1. To open what n 
held together by convolution ( Walter), 2*,To 
open what is wTap)ied on k«elf (BotoYr).^ 3. 
lo separate that which clasys round any thing 
{Ascham), 

To UNTWrST. V. «. To separate any 
things involved in eacK othtfr, or wrapped; tip 
on themselves (Tiny /or).-'' ..#»'* 

To UNVA'IL. V. a.To uncover;- to ftripoT 
avail {Denham). •* * >* ^ •* J 

UNVA'LUABLE. a. Inestimabl^j'teing 
above priee (j4//#^Nrv). . /- .■ *" '.. 

UNVA^LUED. «r I. Not nrized ; neglected 
{Skiikspeofi)* 4t» Inestimable; above price 
{Skit k spear ('). 

UNVA'NQUISJIED. a. Not oonquertd; 
not overcome. (jiff //on). 

UNVA'RIAHLK. a. {in^^ariMe, FrencTi.) 
Not changeable ; not mutable {Norris), 

UNVA'RiED. a. Noi changed ; hVtt-dlvcr- 
sified {Locke). - 

UNVA'RNISIIED. a, I. Not ovetliid with 
varnish. 1>. Not adorned'; not decorated 
{Shakspeare). * ' " 

UNVA'RYING. a. Not liable to change 
{Locke). ' \ . 

To UNVE'IL. V. a. I. To uncover; to di- 
vest of a veil {Popi-y, 2. To disclose ; to show 
{Shakspeare), • a 

UNVEflLEDLY. arf.j Plainly; viritfaout 
disguise {Boyle). 

UNVFyNfTJLATED. a. Not fanned by 
the wind {Blackmore), 

UNVEfRITABLE. a. Not true (Broww), 

UNVE'RSED. a. Unacquainted ; unskilled 
{Blackmore). 

UNV£/XED a. Untroubled ; undisturbed 
{Shakspeare). 

UNVI'OLATEO. a. Not injured; oot 
broken {Clarendon), 

UN VI/RTUOUS. a. Wanting virtue (*A.). 

UNVI'SITED. a. Not resorted to {MiUonJ. 

UNU^NIFORM. a. Wanting uniformity 
{Decaff of Piety), 

UNVcy YAGEABLE. a. Not to be pasMd 
over or voyaged {Milton). 

UNU'RGED. a. Nut incited; not pressed 
{Shakspeare). 

UNU'SED. a, 1. Not put to use; unem- 
ployed {Sidney). 2. Not accustomed {Dry 
den), « 

UNU'SEFUL. a. Useless ; serving no pur* 
pose {Glanmlie), 

UNU'SUaL. a. Not common; not fs^- 
quent ; rare {Felton). .; 

UNU'SUALNESS. s. Uncommooness ^ 

infrequency {Broome). 

UNUOTERABLE. a. Ineffable; inev 
pressibU. {Smith). , .^V. ;; . . ^ 



UMVUHLNERABLE. m. Bunpi fiWB XJKWKBLD1LY. «^ Hcwilsr; wtth^ifr 

woand : not wIneriUs (JSUupmn). ficnlt notion (Dryitii). .._ 

UNWA'KENED.c Nonowcdftomttoep UNWI'ELDINESS. t. Hemaen} ddi- 

(MiUon). colty to mofe, or be moved (GUMmlfa). 

UNWAaXED.«. Having no walkCAMl.). UNWIELDY, a. VnmumpBMmi Mt 

UNWA'RES. oA Uoezpeeicdly ; before cetily moving or moved; bulky; we^tfj; pes* 

any caution or eipeetition (Fotrfajr). derous (Glor mdba). 

fjNWA'RlLY.ci.WitlMmtcautioo scare- UNWl'LLING. c Loath; ooft 

ktsly iJieedicftW {Dighy). ed ; not inclined ; not complying by ^ 

UNWAWNESS. f. (from WMwryO Want (jRTMitar). , ^ 

of caation ; carelcmneM (jjtec/alor). UNwFLUNGLY.tf. Not with gDad-vSr 

UNWAIULIKE. a. Not fit for war ; not not without loathneti (DvaAma). 

Med to war X not military (Drydm}. UNWILLINGNESS, t. LoadiBCm ; db- 

lJNWAW>f£D. a. Not canUoned ; nol inclination (J^iMgA). 



made wary (Lm4«). To UNWPND.' 9. a. 1. To aeparatt aay* 

UNWA'BRANTABLE.ff.NotderenMble; thing convolvsed; toontwitt; lo«Mwina(» 

not to be juatilied : not allowed (Smtik). luy). 9. To diaentangfe ; to looae from " 

UNWA'RRANTABLY. ad. Not jotd. giment (fiMla^). 

fiably; not dcfeniibly ( yaJie). To Uvwi^vd. v. ft. To admit — 

UNWA'RR ANTH). a. Not aaceruined i IMoriimer). _ 

oncertain (Baeoa). UNWl^PED. c Notdeaned (SM^mr). 

UNWA'RY. a. 1. Wanting caation ; im- UNWl'SE. a. Weak ; defoeiive is ' 

prudent ; haaty ; precipiute (Miiion). S. Un- (J*iliot9om). 

eipected : obsolete {Spemer). UN Wl'SELY. ad. Weakly ; nol 

:UNWA'SHED.Uii wa'shbv.c. Notwath* ly ; not wively ISidnty). 

ad : not dcoMed by washing (JDnf^a). To UNWFSH. v. a. To wnA that wMdih 

UNWA'STED. a. Not consumed ; not hot to be (ShakspHore). 

diminuhed iBUckmom). UNWraHED. a. Not aoo^t; notdmni 

UNWA'STING. a. Not gmwing less ; not lSk^e€are). 

dccayina (Papr). UNwI'ST. a. Unthooght oft nM I 

UNWAnrED. a. Not used to ti»rd; not To UNWI^. v. a. To deprnra of 

lemoned to the road iSttekihig^ standing : not used {Simkipemrey 

UNWFAKENED. a. Not weakened UNWITHDRA'WING. a. 

iBogle). liberal (MUfon). 

UNWErAPONED. a. Not furnished with UNWITHSTOaD.a. NotopposedaW). 

oHeosive arms ( Arlrifft). UNWITNESSED. a. Wanting lesiiiMfi 

UNWE^Aia ABLE. a. Not to be tired ; in- wantins notice (Hooker). 

ixhti^LMt {Hooker). UNWITnNGLY. ad. (properly aawf^ 

UNWEfARlED. a. l . Not tired ; not fa- influ, from unweeL) Without knowkdlp; 

tigued(/iFW/^). 9. Indefatigable; continual ; without confciowne^ (5idn«v). 

ntot to be spent; not sinking under fatigue UNWONTED, a. I. Uncommon; aa* 

iDenkam). usual; rare; infrrquent (Glanvilie). f . Ua> 

7b UNWEA'RY. a. a. To refresh after accustomed : unused (May). 

weariness (reiap/O- UNWOOIKING. a. Living without labsor 

UNWFD. a. Unmarried (Shakspcare). (Locke). 

UNWE^DGEABLE. a. Not to be cloven UNWORTHILY, ad. Not acconliDf » 

(Skaktpeare). desert (Broome), 

UN WEEDED, a. Not cleared from weeds UN WORTHINESS, t. Want of trofdi ; 

(Shahpeare), want of merit (IFaitf). 

UN WEFPED. a. Not lamented. Now mt- UNWORTHY, a. I . Not deserving (JW- 

wepi(Miiion). er). 8. Wanting merit (Wkt/«/>). 3. Mcso; 

UNWEEfTING. a. Ignorant; unknow- worthless (5tVnfy). 4. Not suitable ; not s4e 

lua (Spenser), • qiuite (5t9fy}). 6. Unbecoming; vile (DtmL). 

UNWEflGHED. a. 1. Not examined by UN WOUNDED, a. 1. Not mmkd 

the balance (King). 2. Not considerate ; ne- (Miiion). 9. Not hurt (Pope). 

gTigf nt (Skaktpeare). To UN WR A'P. v. a. To open what is folM. 

UNWEfJGMlNG. a. Inconsiderate ; 7oUNWRE'ATH.«.a.lWuntwine(Ay.). 

thouRhtlffts (^/ra^spforO. UN WRITING. 0. Not assuming the da- 

UNWEIXOME, a. Not pleasing; not racter of an author (i^rluMao/). 

grateful ; not well received (JDeaAaai). UNWRITTEN, a. I. Not written; not 

UNWEfPT. a. Not lamented ; not bemoan* conveyed by writing; oral ; tradidonal (jfab). 

ed (Drtfden). 2. Not containing writing (South). 

UNWErr. a. Not moist (Dryden). UNWROUGHT. a. Not laboured ; m 

UNWHl'PT. a. Not punished ; not cof- manufactured (Fatr/ojr). 

raeted with the rod (Skakspeare). UNWRU'NG. a. Not pinched (Slali.). 

UNWHOLESOME, a. l. Insalubrious; UNXIA, in botany, a genus of the ds« 

mischievous to heulth (Arbuiknot). S.Cor- syngenesia, order polygiimia nrrcfsirii, Ra- 

nptj tainiad (Skakspeare). aeptacle naked, flat; downless; calyx fivt- 



V O I 



TKrotpFCKs, South American planli; 
bem, nnxii csmphoraia, poKcuing the 

I'ELUED. a- Not given up (Dry- 




S YO-K E. B. <!. I . To loose from the 
^^kaptare). 2. To iiari) lo ili«join 

(YKED.a. 1. 

IrjfJfH). a. Li 






iinrestraincij 



A. or Ukiha, a 

E.N.li:. ofKox 
>6N. 
[KNIiD".a. Ni 



n of Ru; 






rUnu, 






7b VoiCB;*ir 

mour i to re|V(trt'i no* taeii (,Bac 
lie: obsolete (SAujtipfDre). 
?'« VoicB. V. n. T» clamouri to make out- 
let ; alKoJeie iSoalh). 

The voice it a suhjcct of great curiosity, both 
re<i>id> the orftant dmioni Tor its produc- 
in, and as regaiitilhe ageucy ofairand other 
constiiuenli in iu prodoctinn. TIic prinduat 
ir^an of the voice a the laiynx ; for, when this 
i; injured, the air passes through ihe windpipe, 
wiihoiit jpivldio^ any sound. By the latjinx, 
we undersland an atsemblagc of catii o^, 
join«l iniD a hollow machine, which rrcrifes 
1. 49. [3 c the air froiii the faiicci, and itansmils ii into 
the tvindpi|ie, connected with it b; ligaments 
th a girdle and mutcular (ibrea. Among tite larger of 
these CBitilaee*, ihe annular and tcuiifonn in 
^'BtJLARV. (. (vocabulariitm, Lat, adulitouify inlemalljr. The anterior and larger 
b». Ft ) A dictionary ; a tcxicon ; a part of the larynx, wlijch lies almost imme- 
Dk (Brvwit). diatcly under the skin, is composed of two car- 

AL. B. (t«i*n/, Fr. uoro/i.i, Lmin.) I. liiages, the thyroid and cricoid, to which the 
I toiee (CrashoK). a. Uttered or itio- lateral pirlsof the larynx also belong in such a 
ff the »ol« IHeotrr). manner, that the portions of the cricoid carti- 

V'LITV. t. (DsmJi/ai, Latin.) Power lace alwavs become larger, as they are higher 
nee; qtuUly of being utlerable by the seated. The back-part of the UiynK is com- 
'Mfry. fioied first of the said annular cartilage, and 

KCALIZE. e. a. (from eecal.) To afterwnrd* of the arytenoid cartilages, con- 
it voice (tloldrr), . nceted by iiiii*clei. The cpijcloiiii, loosely 
AU.V- ad. (from vocal.) In wordi ; omneciLiJ with the thyroid cariilaite, ii etthei 
'Ij (tfn/e). raised or inclined over Itie laryni. The insels 
i'riUN, t, (oecafiua, Fr. uocatm, amr (torn the ofipet and lower thyroids; the 
Calling by the wdl of God (Hunker), nenn ate numerous; the'inferioi one* cnma 
ooni {Dtyden). 3. Trade; employ- Irnm the recurrentsi the luperiar ones from 
iHin* iSidntv)- the eighth jwit, inosculating in various ways; 
*TiVE. a. "Crar-ft/, Fr. VDcalirut, aoiiie also from the intercostal. The former of 
il cate utrd iu culling or these nerves ij remarkable fur ill origin in the 
'lorai; for in reflection round lh<r anrld and 
ight subclavian ; for its giving rise In some of 
.1 Clamour ; ouicrv {Arbulhnol'i. the nerves of ll>« heart ; and for the expeii- 
FE'ROl'S. a. (BoiT/o-u, Lat.) Cla- mcnt, which proves, that the voice ii desiroycH 
by tying! this nciie. 

All iheie rartilages are connected together 
by various muscles and ligaments, so (hat Ille 
whole may possets mobility, while some of its 
jiarli are firm, and others extremely moveable. 
The sculirorm or thyroid cariFlage, siiualed on 
the fore part, is compoHil of ino, almost tjua- 
dr.tiijjiilar, plates, inclined to each other in an 
ibtiise angle, prnjecling forwanli. It> these 
ilatei, two a]ierturra, one on each side for the 
iitcriial vessels uf the Iftrynx, arc fonnd some- 
igh rarely. The up|: 



legramm 



PERATION. I. {Poti/ero/ie, m 
.1 Clamour i ouicrv {Arbulhnol'i. 
FE'ROl'S. a. (,«o^/fru, Lat.) Cla- 

noisj (.Pepe). 

IDEN, > lowo of the United P,n- 
iHotlsml. It waitikenbyihe French 
tnd I79&. h i* Kaie<l on ibe Rliine, 
W.of Ulrechi, and ?0 S. of Amstet- 
00. 4. SHE. Ui. A3. (JN. 
3ERA. a forliArd town of Italy, i 
f «rMtl3n and territory of PjvIa. 

on the SlafTora, 14 mites S.S.W. of 
id 30 S. bv W. of Milan. Lon. g. 
M. 44. b-St N. 
^EnUCK, H town of the archduchy 



which eiijovi the privilege of ftnini- this ci 



fl enjoy I 
9 all sii 



1 burghi 
oanta, iMether with their »are», are 
hlDush all the Austrian countries. It 
i»SS.E. of Paisau. Loa. 13. 40E. 
IN. 

fE.«. («c„e. Fr) Faehi 
wrptian (^niconnvn). 
B. u leoix, Fr. bot, vocU 
nittrd by the mouth IChapmnit) 






yards and backwards, ■ 



.iniitli. . 



li'hed I 



I 



I her mouth (i 
by bnaih {AdiUian). 4. Vju. 
Mon cxprOKd iKixllei'). i- Laii- 



ig upwar 

with the horns of the os hvoides, by strong h- 

gamenis, lomeliraes mixed with bone. The 

Inwer processes are shorter, are adapte<l to ilie 

sIt-Llhtly hollowed, and almost flst torfacrs Of 

mode i the cricoid cartila^ ; and are eoniiec'ed by a 

very tiim articulation, on accoiml of ihe thnrl- 

in.) I. nest iind tirengih of Ihe cellular subsiaace 

2. which unites them. The niiil.He anieriur pan 

hal is ^iied by ilmoii perforated li|amenti to the 

Any middle (if ihe annular eariiluge ; and likewise 

by other superior ligam^nln, pmceeding from 

Ihe deicendiiift horn nf the scuiiforin caiilUgc 

tolheui'iier p^rl uf ibc annular eaTlibge. 



VOICE. 

. Thf criooiit canilin, anleriorly thick and diiKN» m t1titie» proeted finfltl horn 
load, is incrcuert bock wards, id form of a ring aryleii«id cartilage lo the thyraM* Beiwny^ 
viiMiuiUy iruDcated ; and, in the middle, it b these two ligamenti of each tida a famtiac 
divided into two cavitioi by a protuberant line, cavity or ventricle detcenda^ hvrinig m fipwv 
It ii firmer than the reft of the cartilages^ and of a compressed parabolic spaee, fYtrndiM 
forms their basis. From it longitudinal mos- downwania betwixt the doumnMQihnuie « 
Ctdai fibres and ligunenM descend to the wind- the larynx, with its sopecior orifioe, of an cUi^ 
pipe. The pharynx, oonuecled with each of tic form, constantly open into the laiynu ■ 
lilMBse cartilage* ^y many muscular layers, re- Lastly, all the iutecnal cavity^ of the Jaiyw 
qeives the larynx into its cavity. From this is lined with the same soft, irrifabUa iCMai 
cartilage a short ligament proceeds to the ary* membrane we before described in tba wiodp ' 
tenoid cartilage on each side. pipe. This membtane is moisiieDed by a gml 

' The 6gm« of the two arytenoid cartilages is number of glands. The oppermoat ara muJ^ 
Wy oomploc. It spontaneously divides into and composed of simple gkndi* They are seal* 
two partSf of which the lower is larger, and is edon the anterior convex part of the apif^olii^i 
oonDccted by a moderately concave tM»e with and send prolongations through ita vacMnasfMr- 
the Ifhick cricoid cartilage, forming a niov«»ble forations and laiger sinuses, to its coqeava nAii 
articulation* It sends a process forwards, which are there continued into ttmilar fia^ 
whidi Kparates the gfoliis, and susuios the glands. Moreover, upon theantarm.ionoand 
inforior part of the venuicle of the laryiuc surface of the aiytenoid cartilagea thaaa h «• 
They asoead upwards, of a triangular figure i each side a gland, of a loose congloaicinleUiM^ 
the posterior base is hollow, and the anterior resemblinffmuchagnomoQ«comooaedo(MM 
side la convex, and divided by three furrows, acini, doubtless mucous, of whic» a loi "^^ 
They aie extenuated upjwards, till they are at tion descends on each side as for aa tht 
last tenaioatcd by a prettythick, oval, cartila^ cartilage. In the venif ides* ihrie are/ 
ginoua head fixed on them. The lower part oos mnoout sinuses. Lastly* all tht m 
c£ these caftilagea is connected by numeroua surface of the larjmx is full of laiga m 
maecular fibres, partly transverse, and partly pores. AH these glands secreta a ahnp 
okdiquo) of whicn the difierent directions are watery, but, at the same time, viscid smio 
evkleot, tbonah thi^ cannot be separated. Has the thyroid gland any similar OK MM* • 
These are called the acytenoid muscles, in of the congbmerate kind, bat soft, thaaaaiN 
their upper part, the arvtemml cartilages are ings of the lobules beios much mava Hvti 
scparatMi by a perpendicular chink, which has than in the salival g|an«; it mmtf- Mtf/^Jk . ^ 
hjKen improperly by some called the glottis. anteriorly seated upon the thyroid andavoiil r 

'The arytenoid cartilages are connected with cartilages and windpipe, surrounding^ wilhlNtoi.j 
the thyroid hy tiansveiie ligamenia, for the ral prudoctions the sides of the thyroNb bjall* 
most part sufficiently strong and elastic, but ed to its companion by an isthmaa, w^pSk B 
covered with the common mucous membrane narrow and emarginateo below; and by an" 
of the larynXr These ligaments arise bel^w 
the middle of the arytenoid cartilages, and are 
inserted into the flat angle of the thyroid carti- 
lage, and may be separated from each other, by mour. l3oes it discharge this fluid inia tla 
removing the arytenoid cartilages from being windpipe or into the casophagus? Into neitbcr. 
in mutual contact, and ma^ be again brought Are ducts certainly known to open) Docs it 
into contiguiw by the cartilages approachmg retain its fluid entirely, and aAerwards restsis 
each other. This constitutes the true glottis, it to the veins, like the thymus, which is aa^ 
and is continuous, but at right angles with the logons in itsstructure? Is it aconj^batedsatf 
above-mentioned chink. That the use of this gland is very c on iide r a hh 

From the same angle of the thyroid cartilage, appears from the remarkable size of the MtcnM 
aiider a notch, from a firm ligament, a cartilage which it receives from the carotids* and of itt 
arises, with an erect slender stalk, of an oval inferior ones from the subclavians. The fMl 
shape, convex before, behind concave, and return into the jugulars and subclavians. b 
with its superior extremity reflected backwards has a peculiar muscle, not however oomttm 
and concave. It is kept erect by its own elas- arising from the margin of the os hyoidc8»0i 
ticit;^, so that it rises upright behind the tongue ; sometimes from the lower edge of the thyrii^ 
but u can be so inclined whenever the root of cartilage towards thelefl, which deaoends widl* 
the tongue is pressed backward, that, having out a fellow, and spreads its tendinous fibiti 
b^pome trans\'erse, it completely shuts up and over the gland, upon which also the aienio* 
protects the passage into tlie larynx, whicn de- hyoidei and stemo-thyroidei muscles ate iora^' 
scends between this, the epiglottis, and the bent. 

arytenoid cartilages. The epiglottis is joined The whole larjmx is suspended fnooi the • 
to the tongue by pale membranous fibres, and hyoides, both by ligaments iniierted into lbs 
to the OS hvoides oy much membranous expan- superior horns of the thyroid cartilage, and kf 
sion. It either has no fibres from the thyro* the middle of its basis, united to the juaeiisa 
arytenoidal and arytenoidal muscles, or they of the plates, constituting that cartilage. Ha 
are too minute to e«)unteract its elasticity. larynx, and os hyoides connected wi£ it, mtf 

At the sides of the li^ments of the glottis, be raised considerablv. even half an inch afaosa 
two other upper and softer ligaments, less ton its mean altitude. This is parfmned by ii» 




VOICE. 

Btdetei; ibgcAicT with the g^Dio-tijioi- canitngei of the laTyns, a loantl ts jmHateS, 
io-gtoHi, itylo-gloMi. alylo-hjuidei, which we call ihe voice, peculiar in every clasi 
Yngei, ihyto-jialaiiui, hyo-ihjroiilei j of animals, and which depciidi entirely an ibe 
gundly or pinially. During its ele- larynx and gbitis. When there are no vibta- 
le giMiii Is rmdered narrower, and tions, a whisper a produced. 
Mta btfon ineniioncil a|>pr(iach nearer ITie aircngth of the voice depend* upon the 
HtB, by (heamixiiiiceuf the action quantity or air ezupircd, and ihc tiarrownesi ot 
ficiioid miuclei, lioth oblique and ihe glotiij; and thciernre, npon capacioa« 
, the ^atli! may be accatatcly closed, liin)^ easily ditnlable, an ample, csrtila^noul 
liit witli an inereOitile force tlie prea- and ela-stic larynx and windpipe, the free re- 
e whole atmofphere. »onanc<? of the nostrils, and a powerful eupini- 

hole Urynx may alio be cicpieued lion. Bui the aciiteneMOt^rsTiiy of the lanes 
t aa incfi bcncalh ill ordinary Mat- we observe in arise front ranoni causes. The 
Ibe (lerno-hyoiitri, alerno-ihyrijidei, fonnei proceeds parily rrom the narrowness. 
O-hyoidet, at they are calleJ; and, and parily from ine tension, of the glotlii, and 
« arc in action, hy the anterior and the Inner from in relaxation and diliialion. 
BtIeo-|})yr<Hdci. By this motion the For hence, ihe n" ' 
cartilages remove from each cjihrr, ujmn llie ligaitiei 
;laiiii bMomei wider, which is also ""' 
n by the nmscles laierslly inierted 
rylenoid cariilaac*. and by the cricu- 
I pnalici and lalerales, an<I ihyionry- from the greater tension of ilie ligiimcnlt, the 
tfieae also, by i«siing upon trie ven- tremors in like manner become more numet- 
belarytiK. are capable otcomprcsjing ons from the same stroke. Tlierefore (o pro- 
be particular caitilagu which form ducean acaieiound, the whole bryn's isdrtma 
eanicireely be moved sepiraiely. upwards and forward*; and wiili greater force 
he larynx (he air comu into the as the voice is r.quired lo be sharper, inioniucli 
il Donrils. By the month, ive here thai the Ueadiiself It someiimes inclined back- 
Uige and irregularly shaped cavity, wards, thai the muscles elevaiing the luryn^ 
Kwcen the wifl and hard palaiei, both muy exert ilirir full powers. The Uoth of ihii 
■ the middle, and the muscles lying is ojtiftnncd by ea|ieriment : for by applyini; 
a, and ihc lower jaw. The noslrill Ihe fingers to the larynx when acute sounds 
irardt obove Ihc toft |Mlaie ; they arc are emiitrd, (he elevatinn of the larynx, which 
««viliei, inetiided )<etwecn Ihr w-p. it about hnlf an inch for the octave, is easily 
ao, and the o^m cavernous, nnd some felt ; and by comparative analomyi which de- 
t. They ate every where bony and monstrales the glot'is to be very narrow and 
iit> carl ilagi nous in sinking birds, and wide in 

(M lira in the middle of the month; huar&e animals, antT such as are low or are 
lad piece of flesh easily changeable mule Thii U alio illustrated fay whistling, 
liod of figure, aitd readrly moved where the sharpness of the sound evidently 
l» to any lurt of the mouih^ by lU pmcpeds from the coniraetion of the mouth; 
nbret, and by the miiseles alt»eh«l nod by muiical inslruinents. in which the nar. 
Wif ot in the M hvoldo, which i) rowocss of ihe opentna admitting ihe air, and 
it by many fleshy nb-ci and mem- the celtrily with whiefi it is im|>ellc<I, are the 
may with grrnt faclliiy be made to eaiucsof an ncute lone. 

tno«Hioni>r Itgurr. Il is drawn for- Gravity nf tlie voice i* produced by Opposite 
Inc genio-glotsi and ^nio-hyoidei rireum stances, the depri-wion of the larynx b* 
btekwardi, by the slylo'eliiasi, slylo- the cauici already dctcrlbrdi a wide glotin and - 
«tt»-Elo"t, boiro-vlnsM, ohonilrtt- a vtry ample Inrvnx- Tiiis is proved by Ihe 
hiTcnltr 1 dnwnwardt, by the Memo- loueh, which easily perceives the deKenl of the 
d Deralo-hvoidei 1 and upward*, by 1arvn« in |)er><ins»ingins, in littemannei about 
m*l, ilylo-tiynidei, by ilie biicniert, hi^if an inch for evity iselwe; bv the greater 
ir 1^ Ihe mylo-hytridei. Jfa^ity of 'he voice in males, and oy thelowe«( 

I for the analomy. Il remains Ihot lonei of the voice degencMlihg into a silent 
Rrate what efTecti are pniduccd by breathing;. 

Rpelttd, during exsplration, by ihe Does every diversity of tniie prtKeed from 
reiJeMrribcd.ftnm Ihclungiihmugh the lenstih of the h)pment« of the glottis, 
peinlo ihc larynx, and fromlhence which is augiiienied when titeicmitnrm car* 
■mil the glollis into the muulh v»- lilage it drawn forwnrds, and ihe uryienoill 
miAred. Then effeclt are, voice, ones backwards f i> it according In this rule 
itinpag. Sound onlv i> produced that the most acute tones are pnJJnced liy the 
irb expelled with soorrat a velocity li^menis being rendered very <enw, and there- 
e e<J<m«eir<l glottis, ihtit li imi^inges fore vibrating with jireal crterityt Tliii ii 
neWf of the gloitis, and tlin< pro- aitericd by some late anatomists, from expert. 
• larynx Ihi" tremor, which, Iwing menu, which have been also rejieaied by some 
I acHMRl <if its elasticity, it o'o- eminent men : they have ohservid, that when 
' itetM*. Therefore, Oom ihe ihe chords or ligaments of the glottis art tense, 
MAf tlu Kgamenli and of tht the peculiu toice of ncry kind of uiiaial k 



^b^et 



vol 

proJacfJ by Mowing air inlo jtt trachea : tli«t 
ihia voifC was rcrnlcrcJ more acute by slrelcli- 
in^ tile litc^imcmi, and [itoie grave hj iiKMeainjj 
ihem : ihat by Khutiing the whole li^ineni, 
the voice was suppressed ; by shutting the 
huir, the voice was renilered an octave higher ) 
hy sliiitting a tliird part, a fifth higher, &c. 
1 here are not waDiing, however, doubts con- 
cerning this new theory, arising from the car- 
tilaginiiiii aiiil bany, and canieqiienlly Iid- 
moveable and inextensible, glottis of birdfj 
from the nrtaiii prixluciioti of more acute 
sonnits, in whistling, from the mere contiac- 
lion ufthe lipi; froiii the exninpic of women, 
in which the larynx is anfitr, but the vuice 
Diore acute, than in men ; from experiments, 
which sliuw thai more aciili: sounili are pro- 
diicfd liy brining (he ligaments of the ulotlis 
neater inin contact with each other ; anil from 
the toial abtencif of machiuery fur sireicbing 
the ligaments, and drawiiif the thyroid catti- 
lagc forwards Trom the annular one. Bat since 
it api^cin from ncprriments, thai the lension 
of the lig^menti snffices for producing acute 
snoiidi, without the contraction of the glottis, 
it is jirobable that difference of tension in the 

5 lotus eiiniributes more than a iliffcience of lis 
iamcler to the diversity of voice. 
Sitiicing is produced ivhen llie voice, modii- 
laied through various degrees of ncuieiiess and 
grariiy, is expelled throu^ii the larynx, while 
ribralihg and suspcn<ic<l between contrary 
|)owcrs, which chicBy dltiingiiishe) it from 
Epccch. It is 8 laborious action, on account of 
tne iKrpeiual action of the mu%]n noiiing the 







1 iheai 



na^ hea 



bc- 



, a contracted glottis, 
which retards the e\sj>irjtion, and at the same 
lime a great deal of air, to give them strength, 
and, therefore, deep inspirnlinns are necessary. 
It lends very much lo dry the windpipe, from 
the accelerated passage of the olr ; and renders 
n great deal of mucua iiecot^rvi which is (he 
teaaoD why there are such niiniWrs of aiurDul 
receplaclw in ihe larynx, aniongat which 
Huller suspects ihe ventricles iMibie described 
ouaht to be ntunberrd. 

S|>e«ch Is performed when the larj'ux Is at 
rest, in tonei ili lie ring but little in aciiteness 
and gravily, by vnrionsty laodifying the voice 
hy the organs (if (he mouth. Sonorous speech 
has variations both in the tone, and modiRra- 
tions of ihe voice by ihe organs of (he moulh. 
All tpeech i» reducible to (he pronunciation 
of li-ders, which differ in various nations, al- 
though ihey agree in (he greatest number nv«r 
Ihe whole world. Of these some ate called 
vowels, which are fxpressed by the mere 
emission of the voice through ihe mouth; 
other conMiiams, which are formed hy a cnl- 
iiiion of the tongue agaiiiit some i>art of the 
mouth, lips, or teeth. 

VOl'CKD. a. (from the noun.) Foruislicd 
i"(i(h a voicF (i>f«*u™). 

, VOID, n (.vaide, French.) 1. Envplv; 
earn yShoiipearr). 2. Vain; inefflc(«a\i 
hll 1 vBcalcd iSan/l). 3. Unsnpplled ; na- 
'^'■-ipiri (Chaifeit). 4. Wanting junWiiiati- 



VOL 

e.1; empty (ir/ii/gi/i!). a.UniulHtaDlial;)!!.; 
twi (.P-ipr). 

Voio. 1. (from the adje 
space j vacuuni , vacancy iPnpr). 

To Void. b. a. (from the siljceiive 
Flendi.) l.Tofjuil; to leave emtwv (Siat 
ipiatf). «. To rm'U ; to pour out imUm). 
3. To emit >• oiertment (Boco"). *■ Tgtt. 
catei lonuUilf; lo annul (aofeWonV 

To Void. t.. «. I. To be emitted (fPiw 
nun). S. To receive what iseiiii(«d(Stah.). 

VOrDABLE. a. (from v«id.) Aoeh M 



of emptying. 2. fiction from a beurAc*. 

VOl'DER. J. (from void.) A buktt it 
which broken meat is carried from theiMilt 
laravrland). 

VUlDNESS. : (fiom rwd.) I. Empi- 
nrss ; vacuity. 2. Nullity : IneHicM. }. 
Want of suhiianliality i.H«kfuHl). 

VOIGTLAND. a (erriiory ol Up)<ecbft 
ooy, one of the four circle of the in»r^arii 
of'Mlsnia; bounded on (he £. by BoInMB 
on the N. by(hediicliy nf Alicnburg, «iii« 
the W. by "I huiingia j.id Francouia. Mm* 
\^ (he capital. 

VOIGTSBERG. a town and ciwM (T 
Upper Saxnny, belnnGing 10 the (ImM if 
Saxony, IS mile« S.S.W. nfZutickau. 

VO'lTURE. .. (French.) Cariiifle (ik 
lulhnol). I 

VOLANT, o. (uo/o.w, I^tin i .iB/siif, Pli 
I. Ftying; patiing ihrough the#lr (H'iMiaJk 
!. Niiiibiri active (PAfVipO- 

VO-LATiLE. a. (Bo/ori/t., Lodn.) I.Bf 
ing; pasting through ihe air (fisiuK). y 
{vnlalilr, French.] Having the |>uwer Ht|M" 
off by spontaneous evaporaiioQ iililliia). I, 
Livelv ; lickle ; changeable of mind ; hiB rf 
spirit; airy (Swi/iJ. 

VoLaiiLB ALKALI, in minmlop. Sk 
Natrum. ''. 

Vo'i.ATiLB.t. (po/fldVe.Frtnch.) Awitf. 
edanimnUBratrn). 

VCLATILENHSS. VoiATi'tiTT.*.(l»> 
lalilili, French ; from volatile.) I. Thtff 
lity of flying awa? by evapoiailon ; ital Hf 
iBacon). S. Mutability of mind j aiiHM 

"volatilization, in chemlatlj.MpJ 
rizaiion, or (he conversion of a Kilid ol Bm 
into a vapour or volatile aura, by the opener li 
caloric. Substances are said lo be peroiaiiail^ 
elastic, volatile, or fixed. 'Jhe peimsntltt 
clastic Raids or gasses are iliose which euigR 
he condensed inlo a fluid or solid form, half 
absttacilon of caloric we are capble of pii 
duciug. Fixed iubtiaoces, on the ciuiln~ 
are lliusc which cannot be rcndeicj (cjat 
or converted into vapour, hy any lBCf«aH 
temperaiure- The piessuie of the simosfbci* 
has a very considerable effec( iu varying ifc* 
degree at which lubsunccs become vautik 
that are not naturally so, Some solid), diiM> 
subjected lo very great pressure, ce at "*• 
converted inlo vapour, though most of Ihn 
*"'"" fliriMl^ flu intcrmedtate ti^tc of lhiiifi7t 



uHbk 



W VOL 

HLIZE. ». a. (volalilutT. French.) 

ritUlik; to lubiilize to (he highett 

wtan). 

l'NIC. a. Appertiining la volcanos; 

•ini Tolcinas. 

Htc lAND, ia mineralogy, a speciel 

I*. S<« ihe ariiclc PuTBaLA^rA. 

>ic SCHOHL, ill miiieidlogy. See 

lie roRMATIoKa, ill niincralogj^, 
uptirnDuii of the Wtrneriaa cluti' 
111 the jnicle Geologv wc haie 
hut M. Werner hat arranged all ihe 
di erf rockf iliai eiiici itito the tolid 
ler live icpurate iliviaionB, lo whicli 
Ml the name of rorinati'ini, BixDri}- 
U he Mppmrt lo be thci/ more 
uation 111 re^rd to each olher, a> 
t, mnfe *upei<iciBl, or u|ipe'inosI. 
;anie formation), however, are of 
ir (ubdivuioni, fiilw anil true. The 
ii(l or foiiierali altered to a volcanic 
, in coTitrquence uf Uic cnaibuiiion 
is of co«l iu their neighbourhood. 
ncet which arc chictly altered by 
•ft (xircclain.Jaqier, earths, slaa, 
columiinr clay-iron stone, aad pec- 
volcanic minrtili coniiil of those 
I been ihrown out of the crnlcr of a 
d ire of three itescripiionf. Pint, 
i« and ashes; secondly, diScrenl 
ivai and. ihir'tty, the matter of 
ption). Tiie ito«y cjeciioni are 
I are alwavt thrown from the mm- 
otcaiK): llieyHccumulate and form 
which i> a fiiuiiel.shapeil hollow. 
It* have cnumcriiicil among ejected 
Granular hme>tone, which ii said 
mnolitc, {liilacitc, olivine, augiic, 
neUi.iie, sommiie, and hornblende ; 
I 3, MicB-'late ; 4. Green-iione; 
d>»tone. Lava eoniiiti of two sub- 
!• *lag-lava and foam-liva : ihe^edo 
ftr, having in seneral flowtd, in 
eoiuidrrable height, into hollows, 
lly coDwIidaied during iti course. 
nuddy cruplioni compiehendi vol- 
which it Gompoieil lomeiime) of 
ilime* of vesicular lava, and pro- 
! particular chemical formatiouf, 

NO; (from Fufi^antir, L«i. liic god 
lorniait nountaln, hoUow b«low,ind 
hif, perbapa, • ' 



VOL 

«crup;iDg the lummiti of tiiKny of the AndM, •■ 
well a> of the Meiic«n and Calirumiaa iiilge:>. 
Tbeie li also a coniidcrable nuinti«r that aprcad 
- of All. - ■ - = 



ladrui 



laad a 



eiRht 



I. One of tlie kifi leit is Hie Peak of TeiiC' 
rif, though at preieiit le;) freiguent in its erup- 
tions than many othen. Several Indeed of Ihose 
tliat may prrlispi lie regarded as the molt 
aoelcnt appear tn have ipeiit tbemielves al- 
togelher ; while «the» have Ixvn riiinf, even to 
our own dayi, as Ihoogh it were to tupply ihoir 
place. Among Ihe latter wehacea very iDleresl- 
ing acc<,unl,in tbcPhilosopliical Tiaosactiinii for 
i;c>8, of a volcano timt burst out, fur the Bnt 
time, ill the Archipelago, near Ihe island of 
Eriiii, ia the hei^inDing of May in the precedinf 
-ing, at Ihe tame lime, ■ new itlund out 



of t 



ruptiont, 



I supplied 
■1 IrnllHl malcnalt, which it iiiuallir 

after uncertain inlervols, throngh 
ntiTnal aperture! or ■piradn>. 
eoBStitule, without duulit, the mint 

formidibte Fvofuostle phBnornenon 
> ha* prCKiiled to our view. They 
*d, M deitracllTr to the live* of the 
M MTthqualieii but they oftrr <o the 
aaneh more terrilie. Thrir numlxr 
HMe, nearly t*a hundred batiDR 
H*r dlSrrtul wrilrrs. Tlirre i> 
^Lb of then ruuninf trrnn north 
^^m cvstiocsl of ABMrio, and 



succeeded by similar iflandt, hate occurred in 
•ariijui initincei', in Ihe gmup of the Azores, 
and the Sicilian seal; and aaplain Tillard, of his 
m^esly'i sloop Snbrioa, lias (ivcn a eery valua- 
ble description, in the Phil. Trans, for iSii, of a 
like phenomenon, which took place no lonier ago 

Ihe iaUnd (hen ihrown up having been happily call- 
ed by him ^brino, after the name of hisuwo ship. 

The two voicanos with whicli wc arv beat 
■cqiininted are those oF Etna and Veiuiius. The 
fiirii.er ba< been buiaing at fir back as tlie 
rccurdi of Eurupean history go. We have an ae- 
ciraiit uf an emptian during the eipedition of the 
Arsonauls. which tank place at Icn^t twelve 
centuries beTore the commencement of the Chris- 
tiao eta. The fijilowing dates of the remarkibl* 
eruptions of this rolcano, to the middle of the 
levcateeuth century, ire lakeu from an article in 
■be PliiloMphlcKl Transactions (or ibSf. 

476 years before Christ, Mentioned by Thn- 
ey^Kles. 

40 years otter Cbiist. During the tclgn of 
Caligula. 

Sii yean after Chriat, During Ihe reign of 
Charlemagne. 

1184. ijjj, 1444. ijj6, i«H. 1650. 

The two wtilrra who have chiefly [ignaliacd 
thrmtelvei upon Ihe phcnonHna of tbJa and the 
TOlcanos in Ihe neighbnuihood are sir William 
Hsmilinnand theabbf Spallanaani. To the rotmer 
we ate c hiefly indebted fur their history irHl ef- 
fecK, ami to ihelalterforlheirpoisifalecautitand 
■eognosy. it is from these celebrated wrilers 
that we shall drduce Ihe remainder of this article, 
which we shall divide into two parts. 

Hillary and FftiU af VoUimei. 
Vdrauos are pecoliai lo no climttea, a>d 
have no necnsary eonnecllon wilh any otbar 
iiKmntaiita, hut seem to have fjine with the set, 
brill,' generally in ill nelghbouthoo<) { they 
frpqueiitly tbrvw Out (naltert which belonK to Iba 

limes lea.watrr itKlf. Sit William Hamilton 
observes in the Phil. Trans, for 1776. that " the 
operations 0' Vesiiiins arc very ctpriciout and 
Bticntatn, eici*pl iliat the imoke incrcatei «>a- 
tidntbly and constantly when the ita ia atitated, 
and th* wind blows from that quarter." Volcaotc 
fnuBntaTtii are of all hrighti ; ■omc, at tbal nf 
Tanna, to low as 4(0 ten ; Vrtariut is ]6oo 
fret high; and Etna, IIOOO. They in (enettl 
form lofty spiru( and tba TDlcaoo itself U 



i 



VOLCANO. 

ioternally ihaped like ta inverted cone, placed en We should bwrc remained igaoraat to tbe pn- 

a broader basis. This ccyne is called the crater^ or Kiit hour of the statu of this iioiiiense Bitmi 

bowl, and through it the lava generaily passes, furnac<*, had uot the spirit or teawiity of eigtt 

though sometimes it bursts through the sides, and Frenchmen, in the year iSoj, enabled tbrn rac- 

even proceeds occasionally from the bottom of the cessfnily to explore this caveru of destrmtiot. 

mountain. Sometimes ^he crater falls inland The m^)uth, or upper hut^, of tbe ceutre of Veso* 

is effaced; sometimes, in extinguished volca- vius, which is a little inciincd to iiti s&tf, ii 

DOS, it is filled with water. Submarine vul- represented by these travellers as 5722 feet loctr* 

canos have been observed, and from these cumference. After walking round the spertwe 

some islands have derived their origin. YoU of the volcano, in order to choose the most cob* 

cantc fires taking place at the bottom of the niodious part for^ descending, M. Dampieic, 

ocean, would frequently, by the expansive adjutant commandant, and M. Wickar, a painter, 

force of the steams which are generated, first descended without any accident at tki 

elevate those parts which were once at the determined point ; when, homercr, they ibaal 

bottom of the deept and overflow those which themselves slopped by an excavation of 50 fcit, 

were habitable earth. It is conjectured, that which it was necessary to pass. Finding it iaipai* 

subterraneous convulsions operated more power- sible to obtain a fixed supftort on ashes 10 omi- 

fully in the early aces of the world than at any able, and being coitvinced that the fridioa if 

Jater period ; and indeed such an hypothesis is ropes would buve destroyed both tbe poiat «f 

supported by the most probable reasoning, since support and the neighbouring masses, Iheyie- 

we may well conceive that at the first consolida- solved to return. Some stones at the mmt 

lion of the earth, much heterogeneous matter moment rolled from the summit, and occaiioud 

would be included in the different masses, which a general agitation as they pas>«l; the grooid 

might produce more frequent fermentations than shook under their feet, and they had i 

at any after periods, when these have been, if we quitted it when it disappeaied and fell in. 
may so express it, purgcil off by frequent erup- After walking once more round the 

tions, and, in many parts, perhaps, rectified and of the crater, they discovered at Icn^stb s tai| 

assimilated by slow and secret processes in declivity, smooth, though steep, whicb sp- 

tbe bowfis of the earth. But history was not peered to conduct to the focus. Whro tksy 

cultivated till a very late period, and the most had proceeded half-way, amidst a torreat i 
eventful ages of nature have passed unre- ' ashes which rolled down along with the■^tlMy 

corded. found means to fix themselves on tbe edge sf lie 

Tbe force of subterraneous fires, or rather precipice, twelve feet in height, whicb it was i^ 

of the steam which is generated by them, is cesf^ary to pa vs. With one of the lazaroni,koi- 

ao great, that considerable rocks have been ever, iheyplungtd down this precipice; and ftol 

projected by Vesuvius to the distance of thouisclves on the brink of another, which, iMfi 

eight miles. A stone was once thrown from the ever, not being quite so high, they passed lift 

crater of that volcano twelve mile^, and fell more case. At length, amidst showers of bX^ 

upon the marquis of Lauro's house at Nola, lava, asiies, and stones, they reached tbe botMi 

which it set on fire. One also, which measured of tbe crater. 

twelve feet in height and forty-five in circum- They found the immense furnace still soslng 

ference, was carried in 1767, by the projectile in several places. The bottom of the crsta^ 

force of the steam, a quarter of a mile from which from above appeared perfectly tmotB/H^ 

the crater. In an eruption of Etna, a stone, was found, on the contrary, when they reachid it, 

fifteen U et long, was ejected from the crater to the exceedingly rough and unev<'n. They passed onr 

distanceof a mile, and buried itself eight feet deep lava very porous, in general hard, but ia sose 

in the ground. places, nuil particularly where they entered, still 

A Tolcaoo broke forth in Peru in ]6oo, ac- soft, so as even to yield under their feet. Tht 

companied with an earthquake, and the sand spectacle, however, which mo^t attracUid tbcp 
and ashes which were ejected covered the fields ^^^ ^li^-' spiracles ; which either at tbe boUoB 

ninety miles one way, and one hundred and or interior siths, suffer the vapours to escipSi 

twenty another. Dreadful thunders and light- These vapours, however, did not appear of a bos* 
ning were heard and seen for upwards of ninety ous quality. In traversing the crater the7pe^ 
miles round Araquapa during this eruption, ceived a focus half covered by a large UMSsat 
which seemed to denote some connection be- pumice stone, and which, from its whole cirevB* 
tween the electric matter and these volcanic ference, emitted a strong h«'aL ReauouV 
fires; and this fact is strongly confirmed by thermometer, on the summit of Vesuvius, stood 
the very accurate observations of sir William Ha- <^t twelve degrees ; in the crater it rose to iiitees; 
aiitoa. placed at one of the spiracles it indicated fifty 

* ^ -^ trance of the tocus it never rose higher ibM 

The interior structure and component parts of tuenty-two degrees, 
volcanos, together with the tremendous agency The volcanic productions in the crater vm 
they possess, aiid which has produced them, have la-, a, exceedingly porous, and reduced by ike fill 
for ages been .in object of philosophical cu- in some places to scoria. U was of a dark bran 
riosity. Yet, when we consider the danger of colour iu general; and in some places rM^i 
attempting to sound them; that the incompact with a xery little uhite. The substances onf«i 

ftate of the materials, by affording no proper the spiracles were covered or iropreaaated vitfe 

aupport, may hurry the incautious adventurer sulphur, which sometimes was in a state of oiy* 

Into the burning abyss ; that the mephitic genation. Some basaltic lava was also foond. but 

vapours may produce instantaneous suffocation; or in a small quantity. Tbe burning* focus pruducd 

that a sudden explosion may overwhelm him tlie same results. ' 

with destruction ; we cannot wonder that so few On the north side of the crater there wei« two 

have engaged man exploit so replete with danger, large fissures, one of which was twenty feetii 



VOLCANO. 



depth. tlM other tfteen. They were shaped like 
an tarortai cone, and the matter with which 
they wave oavercd wa» ninilar to the rett of the 
aarlaee, hat they emitted neither tmoke nor 



The ascent of our adventurers was accom- 
plhh ad with more diiBcutty, though perhaps with 
Ism daofer, than the descent. It also-occupied 
a greater space of time ; for they could only 
ascend one at a time after considerable inter- 
vals^ lior fear of burying, under torrents of dust 
•■d Tolcaiiic matters, those who immediately sue- 



Both the inside of the crater and the base of many 
ounsist of lava, either entire or decom- 
irly as low as the level of the sea ; but 
AfyionUy rest cither on granite, as in Peru, or 
sehutns, as the extinguished volcanos of Hesse 
aad Bohemia, or on limestone, as those of Silesia, 
nMiol Vesuvioi, &c. No ore is found in tliese 
■SBBlain^, except that of iron, of which lava con- 
ifrom twenty to twenty-five parts in the hun- 
and aona detached fragments of the ores of 
r,aatimoDy, and arsenic. Vesuvius ejected, 
£ruB the year 1779 to 1783 309,658,161, cubic 
face af omfttar of diOerent kinds $ we must there- 
fan nanclnde the seat of the^^e fires to be several 
■lies helow Che level of the sea ; and as iron 
from one-fourth to one-fifth of these 
we may infer that the internal parts of 
the cnrth abound much in this ntetal. 

t of the best, as well as of the most modern, 
upon this subject is the abbe Spallan- 
In the course of a variety of interesting 
npon the spot, he examined minutely 
kt9 the jMinre of the gasses poured forth ; and 
that the stony substances thrown forth 
invariably, when completely heated by the 
nnaneons fire, rarilied, inflated, and rendered 
ir, by thinr elasticity, an etfect which is 
•bsrsahle in numbers of lavas, glasses, and ena- 
■ri^ ^eeleu during eruptions : and he discover- 
ii» in addition, that their violence contiuually 
laiMd the liquified matter from the interior of the 
cntsffs to their very borders^ over which it 
Asecd at each impulse. 

He was, at the same time, equally attentive to 

tWastore and force of the fire which acts in the 

hnnli of volcanic mountains; and, in the course 

if his researches, discovered that the immense 

MnRains of Vesut-ins» Mtna, the Eolian Is- 

lisdi, and Ischis, are composed of rocks that 

^fn been litfoificd, and even vitrified, by the 

**ulmoa of the subterraneous conflagration. 

*Vhal fire,*' he exclaims, " can wo produce eqni- 

vihat to these efic.'Cts !** Humble, however, as 

■Uttperiments appear with our lindted means, 

ttiivenemble philosopher justly thonght imper- 

^ biowledse of volcanos preferable to rontent- 

ciifnorance, and, undismayed by the magnitude 

flfUie object, proceeded tu ascertain, as far as' 

RoMble, what man is permitted to know on ttiis 

hrrific subject. *' I have," he observes, " disco. 

Hnd, that the fire of the glass-furnace will 

nmpletely refuse the vitrifications, enamels, 

pnniQcs, aeoris, and lavas, of these and other 

vsicauic countries. The same- will, in like man* 

•rr, vitrily rocks congenerous to those from which 

these mountains have originated, by the means of 

ssbterraiiaan cooflngrstions. A less intense fire, 

en the contrary, produces no such cflTcct on any 

of these substances. Determined to exercise tbe 

■lost rigoruas research, and to ascertain, with the 

fKatnt poMthle precision,tbe exact degree of heat 



Kqnisite to produce the above effNTts, he had 
recourse to the pyrometer of Wedgwood, which 
he compliments and praises by saying, nothing 
oonid be better adapted for his purpose. 

The terrific appearance of a volcano in eruption 
is so appalling, so grand, and altogether so 
wonderful, that it is by no means astonishing the 
world should suppose the vast volumes of smoke, 
ignited matter, and stones, hurUd into the air 
with incouceivable violence and rapidity, exclu* 
sive of the torrents of liquified substances which 
roll down its sides in solemn and destructive 
majesty, were caused by more powerful fires than 
those man has been permitted to kindle ; in say- 
ing the world, we wish to be understood as mean- 
ing those who have seen or read of eruditions 
without examining the subject further. Of na- 
tural philosophers, there were many who coin- 
cided with this general opinion ; and others have 
maintamed the direct contrary supposition, as- 
serting that volcanic fires are extremely feeble in 
their operations : following the example of SpaU 
lanzaoi, we shall give the substance of the argu- 
ments of each, in order that the reader may draw 
his own conclusion. It is evident that we must 
have recourse to the same rule for ascertainii^g 
the intensity uf volcanic fires which we make use 
of in measuring the effects of our fires when in 
activity on bodies immersed in them ; and we have 
alrea^ly mentioned, that Wedgwood's pyrometer 
answers for the purpose, as nearly as the nature 
of the pursuit will permit ; but long before the 
invention of ttiis instrument attempts were made 
to attain the object in question, particularly by 
the academicians of Naples, who at the time of 
the great eruption, in the year 1737, made an ex* 
periment on the lava near the Torre del Greco, in 
valley where it had accumulated ; and though it 
had ceased its motion several days, yet re- 
tained a beat equal to that of red-hot iron* 
They formed a piece of lead weighing two 
ounces, in a conical shape, which they placed 
on the red-hot surface of the lava; the metal 
became soft in two minutes and a half, and in one 
minute more it was completely melted : another 
piece of lead, in every respect exactly similar, 
was then deposited on a plate of red-hot iron 
rendered so by burning coals beneath it, when 
they found that it required six minutes and a 
half to soften, and seven and a half to liquify 
it. Water placed on the lava boiled furiously 
in three minuter, and on burning coals, one 
minute later. Juddtig from these facts, the aca- 
demicians concluded that lava, though exposed 
to the external air for some days, and con- 
sequently far less intensely heated then when first 
issuini( from the crater, was much more fiery in 
its nature than red hot iron or buniing coals: 
but this concluhion is obviously incorrect; 
because the plu^e of iron, bein*^ surrounded hy 
air, could not acquire all the heat which was 
applied to it; neitlier was it fair to rcbt an 
opinion of this description upon a result pF)- 
duccd by a means so unrqual, as a vast depth 
of ignited matter opposed to a tliin plate ef 
iron. 

Pi ince Cassano, a member of our Royal .Society, 
pnxluced an instance of the violent heat of the 
lava which issued from Vesuvius to that learned 
bod}', which seems more to the purpose than that 
of the acndinnieians : the torrent of lava alluded 
to approached a convent of Carmelites; every 
combuytible article was immediately consumed, 
even before the mats came into contact with it ; 



»■ Or toc A N o. 

Mid Ibe liMtWM (O *x?ei3i<r, Ibat tlic gliuaei sriiei 

aUDdio^ upon > table in ihe referlory were wben 

■i»lan1ly reiliicud la shapeleii pi«ce> rjf tbal those 

nieful material : tliii circumitancv piiHluced an melle 

cxpotimriit, altritded nitb tbe same come- walet 

qnmcn, wbicli hbs the raiteoin^ of ■ ftagmeut fmb 

of gl»i to the end uf a luug ttick, oud tiotding of i^jl, 




it r 



r the 



ig (be eruption of tlie luller jmt, 
hirig froin tbe ctairr, fel upno tbit 

roBgealed iu rarious fieiirei caprickHuIr 
bed, anil ICnninaling in thin iharp poisli 
neatles. A circoiDaiancB obtcrted by ht 



the yenr 

it the llaid.ty of the 
a, B> to aepariile i 
ing thrown up from the f 



n paBle. A fact of t 
tame nalure i> meuliuned by prufesiur Bottii, 

hii Bccount of the eruption of Vcauviu*, in tlie William Haoiiltun, count de Will 
year 1667. Now, tbough tbif eflecl may be pio- Heraan, and the aTchduke Maiiiuil 
duceil by tuipending a piece of (liua in the air of tiiii, 
a glaoi runmcr, <t muat be admitted, thut this fac^ 
beii.R in a itate of full art vily, and the heat in til 
cicilel lo tlie ulmoil by evert huaiBO miani, 
it nut » juit ram|iBiiian with a body of lava 
far luinoidJ from the »pot uheie it acquired conilucting ibise iflqilrioiit vitiior 
iti hc£>, wliich Dind, nilbout doubt, be at fragment, paiMd a atick through i 
.reater; htnoe it appeari .--.--. 
le inlrrnal tire of Veauviui 
glaat-fumacei. 
M, B'Ulii aeiiiB tu have been one of the lint 
rapidity with 
B fiw of VeaiiviiH eauiei fusion; thai 
I meiiliotii, in tia descriptian of tbe 






niptiuu of July I7}9, 11 



a amall bill, this 



depoailed in bii private inuiruiii ; Ibii, hnwetcf, 
selilam oocura, at leaet tbe indcfiitigiiblr ^palUa- 
luni nner diacoverrd thew fisemenii flatwwd 
or indentul, aa if tbuy had fallen on lome hoi 
(ubitance ■ bea in the coan*trnce ol paUe. 
With reipect to the npidity of 1 



I greatly citpend upun the ^ 
nityof it» heal 



ejected, ai wcti a( 

an oppurlunity happeni lor aticDtive (HiMVraiKa, 

■uDiniit of the eraler.ani} at tudilcnly oirrrfla«iB| 
its boundariea, niili down in various rivuMa <f 
fire; Indeed Bottia compaMt it to " a liqaa 
whiub baila in aveisel, and liiea and oredini 
tbe edies of tbal Vcuel from tbe viutmec o( IM 
' ' ~ The lava from Vesuviua, iaining in ifjl, 
ipsce of tventy-eighl palauia 
ineminotejin i;j4, it proceeded lotaro bnnck' 
it the rale of thirty feet in lbrly-Bi« iKuiid^ 
ind a/tenfardi uniting, at Ihirty-thm fart i* 



tboiKU 



loipoted if porop* <ara and tcoris, indu 
inconaidprablc gulph, tliat produced D uoiw like 
that ofuil or fat, in tbe art of bulling ai limmcr- 
ing oter a Ore; thii appeaianee induced hiin to 
CUinine ii, wbeii he found it contained matter 
in fusion, which imnirdiaiely healed red but, and 
then melwd frogmcnu of lara or acuiia tlirown 
into it. Ai Spallanzaoi acknowledgci that hit 
cfforliito melt ai 01 ill r (ubttance* required balfao 
hour, we miiit admit, that thii it aaolher proof of flowed 
the auprrior beat of volcanic firea. Aatill further one mini 
c*ideiiceuFthi.ir eatremeheat it, thesreat leogtb 
of time which laraa rrtaiQ it. la tbe year 17371 
amnr- labounrB iverc emplcytd to remove the 
lava which had croucd a road, and alttaongh a 
■loath bad elapaed from the period of the erop- 
tion* they were enmpelled lo deaitt, aa th« heat 
•ofleaid Ibairtooti beyond tbe poaaibility of nains 
tb«oi. Sir William Hamilton alao band it very 
great, and dropping acme pieoea of wood into the 
fiMUTca of a maaa, aituated four milei Irom tbe 
toleauo, they immediately took fire [ but Spallao- 
■ani illuatntol tbia lact more deeidedly, by paaa- 
iag a body of la<a near the upper crater ofiEliia, 
Viaibly red hot, oven in full daylight, which had 
So«ed from the mountain eleven montbi before. 

It ia Duppoiwd that the volcanic flrei of Iceland 
are vary active and powerful, which ia inferred 
from tbe incompetenry of tha blow-pipe to fo«a 
tbe glaaa iuoiiig from them. Valliincri, da- breadlli 1 
icribing a new roleaiiic ialand, wbicb roae fraai dreadful ri 
tbe aea in the year 170;, near Santorine, aiierlt, . . 
that the aiB in it* vicinity became ao violently from tt 

bratrd, that vaat number* of Bah periahed, and Tbe argumenia niea 10 cataDHan aa MMi im 

■4ere actually boiled; and it ii well known that firei eiciled and maintained by baman MMM 
Vt)a aame eauae melted tbe pilch ia the team* of aaceed thoae of volcanic origin In faeea' ■• h 
fbipa* buttuni , and occaaioned their leaking: a very auiall compaaa indeed; they an Ittjui 
tbia m -deru fact la corroborated on the authority from obierring, that inme fiiinacs* ** vitrify h<* 
of Strabo, who declam, that the irB wti obierv. more deciiledly than volcanot, and ■ell aehirt 
«d to boil for four daya between Then aad Tbe- which remain perfect in the fonDcr." DulfiW 
raaia. Tbe complete fluidity of lava it another placei thli luppotition in a clear point of *ie«,ll 
■onvioring proof of tbe eicrtaive heat preiaUing a memoir publnbed by him of banltea. ' I riilH 
^ the centre uf volcanua. M. Bottia prodneea agaia rrpcal," obaervei thia oeMrated Pitaek 
two iiutancea, derived from Voauviua in 1771 and aataralial, "what cannot be taa ft a n « at rtlT 
1776, ohicb demoDtlrate that tbii &eiy naaa inrolcaled, that lavaa are not vitriAcMiMI 
aakuniaa a (tale of liquidity aloioat e4|ual to their fluidity iiaimilartolhatofmetabredacadla 
OTiftbaptofaMsr Bentiooi fc«r kiUtt»haTi iiNioBi It do« not clwni* Uaa Mdtr twd «■■•« 



I»tiiiiu&y uf »r William Hamilton, 

it> velocity in i;6j. r(|ual lo that o( 

It the passage near Bristol. It may, however, M 

necritary lo observe, that the fluiitily of Ut 

Lii>n, which may be accelerated by a great de««I> 
3r tbe viiilrnt pieiaute of IVeah lava eonuaadf 
iitniag from the auurce, particularly Bi larUM 
known to harden when actually moving, to u ■• 
produce a anund when alrurk, and to bear wao 



beyond a doubt, 
ua, that hini(<?if a 
pie of Mr. Jsmin 



lir Wilham Hamilton inftiw 
d olheni, following tbe enah 
Bu, British contui at Napfn 



VOLCANO. 

if tb« coDittlanit pirti rf (he Uth. ftmn ihe boiton 

M '■> Bo*, llwy t»uin«, like oireumference, u 

I, InUHc, tad all the rhirietm liilct in deitruc'Cire airrBoi*, which overwhelm ia 
> baw I cflectB which vc amnot the'r pnsuitE «Tery <>l)Jri.t, riibcr nalursl vr arti' 
tsnr* III uur fnni>i.'r<, liiitp w« litHal. SpnlUnuni made Im disunct esperi- 
kaiw lo wfleu tlwni by Dn, i-ithoiit mrnlt, in order to obuin aomc idea of ihc nalure 
IB BiamMr in wbieli tliry nis a^gregat- and cffccu of gnu ■> rxhibilrd by lolcaiu)* ; fi)i 
It* of volcano* bat txit llul iuicniiif Ibia puipoM be made uis of diflercal lavaa, 
ppotcd, iDil produce* ib> efTcL'ti rather enamcla, and g1a»», ejected fnini themi and Ibe 
niioQ and duralioa ol lU ar:liua Iban cootcigueace wu, a pourit-'tian ll»t the bubble* 
iij." and JnHationi of >ariou< diioensioni. obsembi* 
upon tbetciariout fflcl^ Bnd reinailli in theie lubiiiiices, aie not produced by Ibe 
ItAdioc talhewme point, Spnilaniani action of any pennauent gats." but by that of an 
ikdgt), that he hail licen niDre ■criroim Buid, ptdduccd by tbeexccBiive attenua- 
;o beJicve, that inir tirei tion. of tboM lame product* in consequence of 
thaa Ihote of *al<:enua ; ■ heal." Ttr. Priritley made ilmilar eipeiimenli, 
1, howcTFTi iDdnced lilm lo wbich differed in mme decree from tlioae related 
ttctt pnire, fint, ihol it ii not by Ibe above oelebrated Italian flalurallil. The 
'olranic fiiea ore intufHcieut for doLlor futed ^^ auiices uf Uva fium Iceland in a 
(•Oborl* ; tei'andly, by the rilriGcaticm nnd-itone retort, and obtained twenty meaiure* 
eta, toey cwiOnn the powerful activity ofair, half ofwhicli,at tbe CDuimeucement of the 
U I thirdly, that tbntc fire* operate in pracex, wai carbonic arid ga-n, and the re. 
ia lOQie meaiure uiiknuwti lo lu; mainder, in putlty i.yi, eitinsu'sl"^ > Candle i 
he aaole time that tbejr vitrify Ibe betweeu the iotenticei of thU laia wa* a sand, 
i*y ItBie Ihe hale in which they are which Ibe operator could not *(parnlc froin it. 
aalate perfectly recugiiinb1e,notwith- Fire ounce* and a half of Veiuiian Uva produced 
•t Ibe former an- irfrartoty to the fire thirty itieatuTes of air, with a ilight nppcaraiice 
•M, while the Utier i* easily fuiible." of catboiiic acid gui. the rot wa* azotic gaii.frua 
t • SM«r«Ily rocoiiMl aHeftioii, that the degree 1.64 to i,)8, with reipect to what 
nk latne duritiK cniptlen, and that canic laat. On roolin;!, the residue broke Uw 
H an attended hy the lanie accumpa- retort by it* eicoiive inllalioB. 
be I Ihit luppDiitioD i> emmeouii, ai Without enteiing into an eianiDitioD of 0)* 
iTod by referring to the woika ofSeiau, difference of opinion emitting between these pbi> 
IS, Uollii, and lir William Hamilton, losophen, wa ihall give an extract froot the 
Bi oiil be toDod to hare omitted the work* of Spallaiisani, that fully illuitTSlea thif 
1 (if aidiet. The fint rtpreiily say* part of uur tubjrct ; " I ■hall,'' he obserrea, " now 
M of Vrsuvius, "that iihen leen by |ii.iceedtoeDquire wbut part thisacriform vapoar 
any diatance, they emit a Hghl, not acts in Ihe eruptions of volcanoi. Where it eziit* 
M a bright Dame, but of a dead kind, in the depth* of a vulcanic eraler, abundantly 
[ l«d-b«t lubtlaocet which burn without miard with a lii|uid lava violently urged by sub- 
id the but meatiooi, that be has " oh- icmneau conflagiatiuns, I can eaiily conceive, 
» Boaol Veauviu*, that ioob after a that by i>i energetic force it may raise the lava to 
onw down and burned n tree, a bright the top of the crater, and Compel it to flow over 
(• fiim it* surbce ; ulherwiie 1 bare the aides and fonn ■ current. Art can imltaM 
I Bay Rame attending an eruption 1" this granil operation of nature no an infinitely 
K th« light refleetpd on the stDvke, a* lesi scale. 1 placed on a (Isis furnace a cyli** 
m Uie orater, by the raging of the fire drical crucible, one foot high, and two incb^ ■nd 
>h beneath, ii frequently miiukcn for a half in breadth, whicbl Bllcd half fiillwilboneaf 
•llaoiani coalirini Hie opinion of these those Tolcaoic products which most inflate and 
ibaervera, and decleie* he never (aw bull in ibe file. After some hotira, I ubicrvcd that 
IT pnM.«edlu| frooi, any uf the craters the liquid fnalter began slowly to rise, and after- 
>dL u'Brds lo liae higher, until it at Inil otrrllowed 
tboofkt it not impi-obable that fire the cdgra uf the orucible, forming small atreams 
b water nay pridDCe autne uf those down iti sides.which, when Ihey reached tVplaue 
tOKit which we know not <he urigin; on which the crucible *(uo<l, gave origin to tmall 
I Ihtasubject,-* I almost incline to lie of mrrenls, if that plane was at all inclined. Whan 
iBt tbe aqueoDa fluid, raited to a drgiea I put tnore of the same product into the crucible, 
Ms and incandescence, of which uur tbe curienta bo^aine Larger. If the pllne waa 
larri can give us no idea, sometimes then taken from the tiiibce, and the siaall 
lib Ihe laai'live and concentrated Are currrnia, thus produced, examined, they were 
It* in Iba immenie volcanic catems, found full of minute bubblea, as was likewise the 
•01 thiacnucurrenceresultaa muliiluds mntter which remnined In the t-ruciblr. TUil 
BlioDS hitherto unknown 10 us, which curious experimuut I made with leTiral glassea 
. oa ttw ituirea ami esrtbs that remaia and volcanic enamels, a* also irith a rntiety of 
aolcagnintheae butoiiigt;u'{>hs,«hrra cellular latas, aud alvays with the lame sdc- 
lolent to dcstray, has for ita edvcr- en*.*' 

Btler, which ioceaiautly ctcatx and liid^ng from the result of (be above trial. It 

a il all Ittc forms and modiflcatioos of caiiont lie ilauMeil that a similar clastic vapuur, 

BMim laausreptible.'' collecting in vast quaulili's under the siirfiwe of 

■V banecnsary tomantionsame of Ibt Ibe earth, raucl, up<in tneeliog with resiitanee ia 

gaia Ui lb* operations of ilirse fierce its paa'Kge, pioducf- loud noises mcmbltnt 

«ai it (B wsJI knowa that their violent thunder, and local tremhling* of the turvoundlng 

■Mktba mhcc of tbe bijuilied masses earth, btiidra forcing its iiay upwards Ihrough 

LCBUSM it to rise iiiildctily aniKT-inciiinlxnl lava: olhiT cipellmcuts, aiade 



VOLCANO. 

• bf SpsltBniilai, boirercTi icmi to provr that it reaehfi tha conHtgratiaB ; ulim laJJcBlyreiBCTJ 
DiQft be anotlwr L'anie vhich eipeli the fierf to »puur by the htiM, it flndi no raotn tot in 

traHP* lie uwd brake without iK-i*c, aiid nithout aiiiijng tlie liquified nultcn ; of ohich we hart ■ 
^eutiiig or lottering the lubi^lHnce, add parti< MtlaFBCtory praofintbe cipioaion of Ibr bua*io- 
culariy.ai theetcifieorgaiMS hiibe«ilV«qDe^ Iriitly forced ftoai the e "" " ' "' " 



)y aicertsinnl by the hiitiDg loimils atteniling 








nffrt Ihenuelvcs to euinriiatiun, it would be ioi* 




pttaible to colliel -H? part of iIicr) without 




enposlDg the life of the eiperimcnUlid lo aimort 


add a conciie oarrativB uf their TJtiblf- ptwiio- 




nwna, and fcr this puriKHW we Bud ample male 


tlwir exiiLcncc, nnd coiijecture muit aupplr the 





Slromiboli det^rves e»ery praise for its ruaia^ 
It will be ncoljecled that all vulcaiioe, at pre- Ihou^li we canDut help L-ondcniain;; him for lfc« 
•est is ■ slate of acliiilf , ace >urra<inded hy, eicriMie of lety tlaring tementjr. 1'bc <i*il •* 
or situated rety ntnr, the Ma; beirt it appcaii allad^ to wal raaHa id 17SS. wliro llw a|>|H«h 
clear, thnt Ihe a(*iiry of that body it catreinely auce of Iha nioiiiitaili was luForulcd, aiid tt« 
tKHTiTflil in ptomoting the oiolence of thcr »ra|>- crater ailiialed at aolue diitaace from the mm* 
tiom, by rnihia; at uncertain intrivali, and ftnai nilr, {niin both of irhich Ihe opentiunt withla H 
UukDonacauMi, through Ilie catemi of Ihemiili, arc dJMJnclly Tiiiblc.and from tbme the lMiftH*i 
upon Ibe tro'-DDduring dm tfatre ejiiiling; aiul ifaa ejflctiom mny Ih- adorrtained, uith totmUe 
thii luppoiitioH i* lupported by (Ue fai't whii^h ucfiiracy. During violent internal Ag:tatUa lb* 
lias beeo regieatedly iibierved of the loddcn retir- niatter Bp|>r'nn to awend half a tnile aft4 Bin, 
ing of the sea immedialel}' prMedioi; a violent biit whm tlie mountain U in actOHl eriiptiea, tM 
eipioaioii from a tnv-r, the certain consequence tcattered frajinenu prove, that the unfMnf 
nf a rapid diroinulion of wntvr on the ihorr. fjrcc is rery gr^'tly increaaml. After banat 
Little need be'urired to frore the iaKDediate and attetitl*ely examined the erater ttant the nmiA 
Tehetnent aeparation that lakei place tijion Ibfl aboreailuded to, Spalleozani approactml tli«(iv 
coHliiiRi of fire and water, and of Ihe lore* af ler, wherehe found that Ihe eiplosiOQi (onndrt 
steam thai prodiic«d; one inatanc^, however, tnny tach other ao rapidly, that they mrght aliiMai it 
be tafvly cited, which will plate thii iiippoHd uid to oocur without auy lutertala of quirt, bat 
collision in alrue light, and ii eilracled from the they varied in their force; the malter, in Ma* 
finifth Folume of the Memoir* of lb« Academy 
■t Bologoa. A bell of enonnoDi dinenslont hud 
been ordered to be cast, at Modern, nnd prcpara- 
^ liena of the niual deicriptian were made under a 
apsoioua portico. After tlie metal had been 
completely melted, it wa> led iulo llie mould, 
(ituBted at a aiDall depth under the paietnent, 
through a imoll channel ; the burning fluid had 
DO •nonet enlend the muuld than a dreadfnl 
enpliiiioB loik place, wbich rewmbled in every 
porticolar the horrid Ht-elt of iprinijiDg ■ laloF [ 
■ deep hole n-af suuk in the earth, tbe meial, lb« 
mould, and cveiy material of the portico ahoso il, 
were scattered in Ihe air, and several prrvoni 
were killed ami leveidy woanded : if gurh were 
the immediate ronseqiiencei of a trifling degree of 
tnoialure teinaining in Ihe land which eompoted 
the mould, it may be naturally inferred, that a 
body of water, (neiiin; with iiibtenantoui flm, 
ia capable of producing eruplions and eatth- 

Jualief. It leemq, hovrvet, evlri'mely probable 
tuo experiments, that tliia elTvct printipally aria- 
«*frHn lh« innimiation of a-ater under or below Tolumc of slDiilar vapour, and to the e*H, * n't 
tbe lurface ut the «ide< bf those firea, at it ha» oSvern emilled a column at leaat tirrive fc« * 
boea aarertained thai water thrown upon fire dlanielcr, extremely Wacfc and denae. 
enporatos tAthout much violence, and yet if the " Nut amlsfied with the ob"en-rton« t W 
vaptHir thiit psnerated it conSiied by aitpcr- alTeady mtide," obwrvat ijpallanmni, " my ••'^ 
■aeuinbant eailh, or rock-, ll* sin.gglr. hr a vent oarty impelled me ro atlcmpl further di*n>«Br» 
mnat oceaainn the violvnl diirnpiion of thoae From the pointed rock On which I rtooH, ( «il* 
pwrK; Miaevmt is dilfemi on pourin* water on only Ke the rdm of the imxte of the enM>.> 
»e»a<l tin, Bliirli i* llir c-r.lv n.. i.nl ll.sl i. ,-<.n„.lfmJ, tti. lofm*', ^-lipiher it iniplit net t« 

Wi.;!!--!!.'.! ..■ '[ . ,,...,,, ,.,!.,- ,! . ,;:-i- |. . .M ■ .1 -.-t-.' "I ■ • !■■"" parts W" 

g.iti,, ... V. ,...;. "-■■"■'[ "'"^^ 

••ling ohsrrvat iuiis dcrivwl frnin nperitnce,hy 
ifiarking, " From this serir* of experiments 1 thi 
wv are authorixed (0 conclude, that when a qui 

tity of water Aitl* on the burning crater of _ , ...._. 

Tolcatn, it hai not the power of producing npio- ny view, t llWrefbre hMtMMil M tshb mf ■*■{** 

atom ) but th»t tbe latter an the conlnry ars in thia cavity, laking ad¥antBt« «t ••• rf ■• 

t4ry Tiolm «Imr tba wbMt ftaetMUaf below, very ibort ii ' ' ~ 



intUncM, no 


t T» 


nc mm* than Wly fM, b*< 


falling asaiu i 


nto Ihe crater, and in others il wn 








are proportin 




tembl" a hi< 


i<>tt 


noi«; the frano'iia of l*a 


were actually 




wan evident 


froo 


Ibeir globular iharw. u< 


becoming hsi 




.)!« they Ml upon Ihe lidaol 






form il preaerved. 


Theeil»la 




eihlbited ■ thick ctnod wMri 


milea In eite 


t, » 




withsnlphuri 




cloud wa» impei^etraMa by Da 


benmt of the 




lid appeared very Meek tn W 


midbt. hut » 




n Ihe eilges, and WM, in dl 


pnbabilily, a 


mil 


in depth. The vapaar Ik" 








three diallnct 






ed hy tbe saoi 


e cauae in the first initaiK*: wM 


an ejection c 


f la 


a took place, it wa* alwp 


«>compan,ed 


by a 


cloud of s^y'tnok* (W»IH 
ofthatfpotwewamimkatrf 


crater; lo Ihe 


wei 




each of whirh aeM Ibflk • 



of the volcano, 


nto wbicb tbe Mcfc 


vented the eon 


aiica of any baml 


ihoold thev be t 


rown ao far. It w>* 


elevated, that f 


tim it thB en»«-.i. 



VOL 

my pr«at tttirfftctifMi, mj evpccUtioos vere com* 
plvteiy I'allilU'd; 1 coald here look down into the 
very buwd* of the voteaoo, and truth aii'l nature 
■tood as it were uu veiled before me.** Thus 
.•iiiiated in probable safety, the iotrepid Spallon- 
»ni saw ihe fuUowing wundert. 

The crater he found to be of m circular ftrm, 

with edges composed of a diaos of sand, scoriar, 

aad lara ; mod be imaKined the circumference to 

be about three hundred and forty feet. Similar 

lA all other craters, that of Stromboli astsnmes the 

shape of a truncated inverted cone, the sides of 

which, from cast to south, were gently inclined, 

but the remainder very steep. Mauy parts of 

this iaternal descent appeared to be incrustcd 

With yellow substances,which he supposed to be the 

Bariaicif ammouia (sal ammoniac) or sulphur. 

Fluid lava, resembling melted brass, red-bot, 
and liquid, filled the crater to a certain height, 
ad thi* matter appeared to tx* influenced by two 
teiiaet impelling powers, the one whirling and 
afitsled, and the other upwards; at tivne^ it rose 
rapdly, and when tha surfisce hod reached with- 
iy thirty feet of tlie edges of the crater, an explo- 
lioB look place like a short clap of thunder, and 
It te same instant, a portion of the lava was 
kaitod with inconcKivabie swiitness into tlie air, 
ahicb was as inbtintancoutily sepaiated into nu- 
ftecous fragments, and those were accompanied 
hf a eopioua diKsharge of sand, ashes, and smoke. 
laOMdiatcly before the eruption occurred, the 
hfa appeared inflated, and larce bubblen, some 
■veral Icei in diameter, ro^e and burst, the deto- 
■twa followed, and the lava sunk, till a repeti- 
bm of this operation was commrnced ; during 
Hi rising, a sound issued from the crater like 
tha pcwliiued by a liquid boiling violently in 
• cauldron. Many of the eruptions were so 
iscaasidtf Table, that their effect could not be 
naUe at a small distance from the mountain ; in 
iWia the fragments constintly fell back into the 
gslpb, with a sound, on their collision with the 
peat Ba«» of matter, similar to that produced by 
■ater when forcibly struck with flat startrs ; 
ia the greater explosions, many of the pieces 
» %ta iae d into the crater, sume falling on the 
lides and rolling down, but many descended a 
pneipior, formed by one side of the mountain, to 
the Ma. 









pieces of scoriaceous lava, as they moved 
la the air, retained their red-hot appearance, 
tbaagh tha sun shone clear ; many of them came 
>a cootact during their progress, ami, according 
to the degree of heat they poKscssed,* tht;y 
^hered, or were broken. I'lie smoke seemed to 
bt ftveign to the lava, as none alteiiUed the frag- 
ttkeecs thrown into the air, and that which 
escaped passed through fissures, and at the 
laoment the lava burit. According to Sjullan- 
SaniTi eonjeetures, the crater may be about 
twtaty-five or thirty feet in depth, when the lava 
it raised to its greatest height, and upon its sub- 
tidiagv forty or fifty. There are no visible marks 
«f itacrer bavine overBowed so as to descend like 
laciea of JBXmm and Vesuvius. 

'* Tboogh the ejections of the larger and 
bearier stooes have short intcrmiisions, those 
of the lessor and lighter liave Kcarcely any. Did 
not ibo eye perceive how thoae showers of stones 
onginate* it would be supposed that they fell from 
the thy : tiie ooiip of the mure violent eruptions, 
rrannMinf that of thunder, and the darkness 
occasioned by the mounting cloud of smoke, pre- 
«Bi th« Image of a tempeit.'' 



VOL 

While this naturalist was employed in intenSto 
obsenution, the eruption suddenly cea»ed, the 
lava sunk to a greater depth than usual, and 
remained thus depressed ; the fierce Iii;ht subsid- 
ctl, and at the same instant, the various streama 
of ^smoke, issuing bifore fciUntly from the aper* 
tores west of the crater, began to lUsh forth with 
a loud hissing noise, and the apertures to shine 
with a bright colour of fire. *• I know nothing," 
says Spallanzant, *' to which the sound produced 
by the issuing of thefc fumes can be more proper- 
ly compared than the blowing of large bellows 
into a furnace by which metals are melted; such 
as 1 have seen at Zalatna, in Transylvania, and 
Schemuitz and Kremnitz, in Hungary, except 
that those volcanic bellows roared a hundred timet 
louder, and almost deafened tlie ear.*' 

Volcano, one of the most considerable of 
the Lipari islands, in the Mctiiterranean, lying 
S. of the island of I^ipari, froni which it is 
separated by a deep channel, a mile and a half 
broad. It is 12 miles in circumference, and 
is a volcano, in the form of a broken cone, 
hut now emits smoke only. Volcano, as well 
as all the rest of these islands, is supposed to 
have been orii^inaiiy the work of subterraneaa 
fire. Of the produ'ciion of this island, in par- 
ticular, Fazzello says that it happened in the 
early tiuje of the Roman republic, and is re- 
corded bv Pliny and others. 

VOLE. s. {vole, French.) A deal at cards, 
that draws the whole tricks (Sujift). 

VO'LEllY. s, {voicrie, French.) A flight 
of birds. 

Sometimes the word is used to signify a bird- 
cage large enough for the birds to fly up and 
down in it. 

VOLGA, a river of Russia, which forms 
part of the boundary between Europe aiid 
Asia. It has its source iti two small lakes, ip 
the «)vernmciit of Ple&kof, about 80 miles W. 
of Tver, begins to be navigable a few miles 
above that town, and is there augmented by 
the iiillux of the Tverza. It waters some of 
the finest provinces in the Russian empire, 
jKiaacs by Varoslaf. Kostroma, Nislmei Novo- 
gorod, Kasan, Simbirsk, Saratof, Tzariizin, 
and Astracan, and enters the Caspian sea by 
several mouths. This is supposed to be the 
largest river in Europe ; and by means of it^ the 
river Tverza, and a canal thence to the Neva, 
there is a navigable communication between 
the ('a^pian sea and the Baltic. 

VOLIIYNIA, a palatinate of Russian Po- 
land, 9*20 miles long and 130 broad ; bounded 
on the N. by Polesia, E. bv Kiof, b. by Podo- 
lin, and W. by Austrian l^olaiid. It consists 
chiefly of fertile plains watered byagreatnum* 
ber ot rivers. Lucko is the capital. 

VOLITATION. s, {voliio, Latin.) The act 
or power of flving {Brown), 

VOLITION. 5. {volilio, Latin.) The act 
of willing; the power of choice exerted {Lockt). 

VO'LITIVE. a. Having the power M) wUl 
» (Hale). 

VOLKAMERIA, in botany, a genus of the 
class didyiiamia, order anginspermia. Calyx 
five-cleft; corul with all tlie divirioos pointins 
one way } drupe two-seeded ; nuts two*cclled. 



VOL 

Eight species. The two following aiE cul- 
tivitul. 

I. V. oculeaia. Prickly vol knmeTl a. 

S. V. iiietmu. Ovate- leaved, smoolh rol- 

Both arc ihrutn, rising six or icven feet, 
wllh while flowers, void of odour. 

VcyLLEV-j. IvaUe. Freiicli.) I. A (tight 
oUhnnRaUigl'). S.A biirgti aii emiatioD of 
many at once {Skakipeare). 

To Vi/lley. v. n. To throw out iShak- 

VO-ixiED. o. Cfrom volleu.) Di*pl«led ; 
Uiichawd with a volley (PkiGpt). 

VOLO, a town nf European Turkev, in 
Janna, with a ciludul and a furt. It was taken, 
and 'linott ruined, in idoi, by the Venetians- 
It ia seated on a gull r>( the same name, wbere 
ihere ii a tcuod harbour, 30 niilei S.E. of 
Laii'H. Loii. S3. 55 E. Lst. 3Q. VI N. 

VOLODIMIH, or Vladimir, a govern, 
mem of Ku»sia, formerly a proiince of the 
gDvernmtnt of Moscow. The soU is exireiuely 
Icriile, and in the forests are innunieiable 
swartns of bees. 

VoLODiuiK, oi Vladiwih., a town of 
Russia, capital of a govcrniDent of the same 
ivjiac It II seated on the KItasma, I to mWet 
E. by ti. of Moscow. Lun. 40. sa E. Lai. 
bb. A3 N. 

VOLOGDA, a government ofKusiia, di- 
vided inln the two provinces of Volixnia and 
Uttiug. Ii is a marshy country, full of roresis, 
lakes, and riven, and noted for its 6ne wool. 

VoLOODA, a town of Russia, capiial of a 
province of the same name, and the see of an 
archbishop. It has a magnificeni cathedral, 
several churches, a castle, and a fortress. The 
principal irade is in hemp, malting, leather, 
and lallow. It is seated in a marsh, on the 
river Vologda, which flows into theSukbnna, 
SS7 miles N. by E. of Moscow. Loo. 31). 
4ti E, Lat. 5g. 20 N. 

VOLSCENS. a Uiin chief, who discuver- 
ed Nisus and Enryalus returning from the 
Uuiulian camp loaded with spoils- He killed 
Enryalus, and wushlmselfimtnedialcly stabbed 
by riisu.. 

VOLSCl or VoLCi, a people of Lalitim, 
' . ■- - - J bouildeu ■' -'- 



by the Tyrrhene sea, north by the country of 
the Hernici and Marsi, west by the Lalini 
and Rutidians, and east by Campania. Ancui 
king ol Itomc made war against ihem, and in 
ilie time of the republic they became formida- 
ble enemies, till they were at last conquered 
with the rest or the Latiu*. 

VOLT. SeeVoLTH. 

VOLTAIRE (M«ic Francis Arouetde).a 
French write' i-r i;clebrily, born at Pari*, SOih 
Feb. Itjrn- lie wa«M feeble (I his birth, that 
it wM long doiibful whethei he eould be 
reared. Frgin his earliest yean he evinced 
■uiKri'ir piwcri, so that he said, he wrote 
vcr^ b<:f .le h>.' iefi his cradle. He wa* edu- 
caUd in iha coUeip; nf L«wi> the Great, where 
hi' maik ><ic)i pra^itis.^, that Ninon de I'Enclos 
Iclt him itoou likrcs tu buy him a libr.iry. He 



V o t-' 

was intended for the law ; but the fnusuM' i 
fircaier charms, and among the conrtien of I 
Lewis XIV. he acquired those graces (vf ddt< 
caie humour and eaay enpreisioft by which he 
was so much distinguished. His fondnm far 
satire prceured his imprisonment in the Kti> 
tille for one year, from which h« was hbtnled 
by Urlcaiib, who was pleased with the repr*- 
sentation of (Edipuc, the first tragedy ubdi 
he wrote, I718.' Some of hisplays wereafW- 
wards unsuccessful, and the poei, ind'giiaBttI 
the censures of his countrymen, left Paris, aari 
came to England, wbere he was noticed bf 
George I. and qneen Caroline, onder whtM 
patronage he published hij Henriade. FlalieT- 
cd with this and wiih the handsome proivrty 
which he had realized by the libetaliiy of hu 
subscribers, he in 172B returned to Piirii, sad 
while he labouied by commerce to imiJtmi 
his income, he devoied ilie best |iirt o( hit 
time to liierary pursuits. His Braiiis, ib« umsi 
nervous of his tragedies, appearrd in 17». »"* 
was soon succeeded by Zara, the most pub^ 
Lie of his pieces. His leitres philosophmnBil 
this time gave such offence for their inMcol 
witticism}, that they were burnt by a decieeof 
the pariiament, and the author withdretv la 
the seal of madatne de Chaielet. His AliJie. 
Mahomet, and Merope, produeed soon aAcr, 
placed him at the head of the dramatic poctt 
of France, and inlrodueed him 10 the courtu 
the favourite of madauie Pompadour. He 
was appointed gentleman of the bedchambn 
to the king, and historiu^pher of Fnnce, 
and in I74ti had a leai m the acadcDiy M 
Though thus popular, he yel ' 



monarch, anda liberal pension of 2? .OOUlitrtSi 
for a while-commanded his attaclinienl, boll 
tjuarrel with Mauptttuis, who was at the ittt 
of the Berlin academy, and that spirit of In*- 
pendence which always marked his condoct, 
soon after brought on his disgrace, and aftW 
being dispossessed of a volume of roy^ vuwt, 
which he wished 10 carry away, he left the 
kinedom. The publication of an obscene pnen 
at that time rendered his return to Parisdao- 
Ef rous, and therefore after slaying oneyeir it 
Calivar, he purchased an estate near Gcntrs, 
where he fixed his residence. This place h* 
soon abandoned for Feri;ey, on the bonlen of 
France, where he etiablished a colony ofindn^ 
trious artisans, and received in iirogtctsof lin* 
the homage and the respect of the learned of 
Europe. He received the adulation at ibe 

Sreat. and the liberal presents of cramwd 
eads, especially of ihe king of Pmida, and*' 
the empress Catherine, ana continued long ■* 
direct the ustc and the literature of the wtiid. 
At last, in 1778. he tenittred to exchange d« 
tranquillity of Fetney for the capital, arid Wt- 
rounded wilh glnrv and with wealih, he *p 
peared at Paris, wnere he was rreeivrd wiUI 
unusual honours by all the learned bodin, aid 
cmwnod wilh the ixiclicwrralh in thctlieattt. 
amidst applauding ihousands. X'hese tiunoBls. ' 
■tid the complimenlary tisils of ccKtHDJ 



VOL 

icjrlproduccd, wert, however, tnn bur- 
lof bi> giett age and change of regi- 
Iconiinutd faiigue infljuicd bis bl(>M 
■ghi OD a hvmorihage. A> if fnre- 
ia eA(l> he declared when he reached 
«i be came lo leck gloc; and death, 
prcsenied by an anist with a piciiiie 
mjih, lie nbscrved, " a tomb would 
»r me than a iriuatph." When un- 
ijof his usual ml, and unable to bear 
ioni, he look a large doie nf opium, 
wntd him of bii scnKi, and he died 
, 30lh May, 1778. He WIS bulieil 
rt> between Nogenl and Troyes, and 
in* were, during: the rcvoluiioti, le- 
a (be church of Si, Getievk-ve, at 
• decree of the coii*eiitian, Voluire, 
dee of ■ new seel, has catueU a revolu- 
id iDoral], and whilst lie hat often 
\ia powerful ulenu to piomoie the 
rrucui aiiil of humanily, in inspire 
rnh toleratinn, and wiili a horror for 
M* loo often cxeiled himself in extend- 



Lnndon, the Caneiian al Vetsailles, 
ndcd Cbriuian ai Nann, and (he un- 
infide] al Betlin. From tbe liiuh 
r of the moralist, he fretjucntly de- 
inio ihc bulToon, from the philoMipher 
me au enibiutast, from mildness he 

> pataion, from flattery lo satire, from 
M oioiiey lo the love of luxury, from 

le»y of • wiie man lo ibe vanity of an 
WiL li has been said, that his nhy- 
ypartookof tbalofiheca^leand of the 
[Bn^haracirr eihibittii him oiTejsion- 
I MMibiliiy, bui void of alTeetion, vo- 
lt bat without panioni, open without 
', and liberal niilioul gcncio^ity. As 
(f letten he must tiand on very high 
for reriahty of talent, for brilliancy of 
lion, for astonishing ease, for exquisite 
id Sot vast extern of knowledge. He 
bcude*. several Iragedies, ihe last of 
rM Irene — ttvetal comedies, the best 
^h are, rinditcrei, I'enfaiil prodieuej 
line — opcrai — fuKili*t pieces— es<aMur 

> Iteneralc — les tieclei de Louis XIV. 
ait XV.— bitlory of Charle. XII.— of 
r Peter— melange* de liierature — dic- 

philewphique— jthiloiophie de I'his- 
M oibei wi'rk) of impious lendenev — 
rfPWer aodTh. COmeille. See. The 
ncel ediiiun of hii works it ihat of 
, in 90 volt. 410. anil the most copiou), 
BM«l.fn;i vnl..Hvo. 
nmt records of Voltaire, First, that 
Wieed ihe drtign of avetlumiru ihc 
n Ktifton, and ibat by hit own hxnd. 
wearied," laiil he, " of liearin^ ji re- 
ihat twelve men wer« tnfliclenl lo es- 
r%ri»tianity; and I wish to prvvc ihal 
■dt bnl one » Hrtlioy ii." Secondly, 
Mrsnii of this object, he was ihreaien- 
a (mxecnlinn ; lu avoid which he rr- 
be McraoicDI. and publicly declaced 

Kihe church, and hl'ditdiiii for 
I Galled in ijuaiiou hMChiitt]* 



VOL 

ani^t Thirdly, that in his laiit ilIneM, fit 
■"aris, beingdeslrous ofoblaininfc what is railed 
Christiau burial, he sent fur > print, to tv'liom 
he declaied ihat he " died in ihe calhulic 
faith in which he was born-" Fourthly, ibat 
another priest (curate of the parish) troubled 
htm witn questions. Among olhei ihin);^ he 
asked, " Do you believe ihr divmiiy of Je<ns 
Christ i" " la ihe name of fK>d, lir," leplied 
Voltoire, " speak to me no more of ibal man, 
but lei me die in peace." Hnw different From 
ihe language of David, P^alin xvii. 15. 

For an account of Voltaire's shameful in- 
terpolations, flee, in hit edition of Pascal'* 
Thoughts, seepAsciL. 

VOLTAISM, that curious and iniporlant 
branch of eleetricily, which depend* upon me- 

Tiirts whi<:b paved the •vay lo this scienrp, we are 
iudebtfril to pn<re*ior Galiani ; Tor their expln- 
natian and ipplicalioa lo purpntei of real ulililv, 
we are iodcbted to professor Volla ; and for Ilia 
grand and liuiple law or nature by nhieb Ihey 
operate in the production of eOcctn, we arc in- 
debted 1« sir Humphrey Davy. 

Aboulllie year liW, pror«ior Galvaai ofBo^ 
logDB diicDiercd aeetdenlaily, Ihsl Ihe eriiral 
nerve of a frog eut up fur aoup for hi> wifc'a 
dinner, evnlrarled and brrnmc eonvolsi^ upna 
Iheappllcslionora kaire ivclted »ilh waleri as 
Ihe itory ja told by other writen, lie prrivived 
wbilstbewaaonedaydiuei'liDg a tVon in a ronm 
where aanic ot his frienili were amiiiing them- 
aeliei wilh electrical expert incaU, Ibal I ho body 
of the aniuial waa shaken wilh a viutcnt eou- 
vuliion, in conarquenec of a apark being drawn 
from the ronduelor of Ihe uacbine al llie time be 
was touching one of its nortcii. AMoniihrd at 
Ibe phEnamcDon, and al flrM imaeinliif that it 
might be ovringlo hi* baying wounded the nerve, 
he pricked it with Ibe point of his knife, lo «i»uro 
himaetrwhelherornatlhU waitheraw, bul no 
tuotion of the frog't body wis produced. He nnw 
touched the nene wilh Ihr iniitnimenl a« al firvl, 
and directed a ipark lo br laken al the 'ame 
limu from tbe machine, onwjiirb the mnlracliona 
were renewed. Upon a Ihird iriai, Ih' astmal 
mnainvd vol innleoi i but nliwrting thai br held 
his kniff by Ihc handle, wliicli na« made of Ivory, 
be chingrd it fur a melallic one. aud iwmedlateir 
IhB mOTemenli look pisce, which never wa* Ui« 
raw when he used an eledrie lubilanre. 

After having made a great many limilar ex- 
perimenta with the cleelrieal inarhine, ho re^ 
•olved to proHcute Ihe sul^erl wilh almoipberio 
eteetridtj. Wilh Ibia view br raised a rvndne- 
tor on tbe roof of hia houi>e, from which b* 
broughl aa Iron niiv Inio hti loom. To Ibis ha 
allached nirlal eonducton, oonnrcti^ viilh Iha 
nenre* of Ihc anlnali dotliord to be Ibe >ubiecla 
of hUFXpefimenlsi and lolbeir itga he fuli'sed 
wire* which rearbed the llunr. ThTM aipu- 
ri meat* were not ronflned la In'if aliine, bif- 
ferrnl animali, both uf nild and warm blood, 
were (ubjerird la Ibeei ; aail iu all of Itieui eon- 
aideralite movemgnta wrri- raeilvd wheMVcr It 
lightened. I'beie prervdcd lliuoder, snd earre- 
•poiided with ita inteiitilj and rcpalllleii i and 
ovrn nben no lighlniog appckrcd. Ihe movt-ntenta 
took place when any kloniiy eluud pavtrd over 
Uie BpjMralus. Tbal all tlicw appewaomi wr* 
praUun-d by Ihe elcctrig lluld oaa obtiaui. 



TOLTAISl 




Ml *• «lM M« ««•»«• ilM M* to iMtt |« ■ I ■iiiia. ua wi^ B^aai. 

flKHMHiMiaf rN-M-ffcM an •MrEtmqv; i-*c*r^LMl)y, -Wb • firak arnrf ■( ni, 

M4 4MnM«ta| > (Hi MMfavarcsrniatBM, «»jM»lfctr«f «illwr.»e i «fc^— < »fcfh* 

MfMlIf •»«>• Mrf •«»rW«(, hM htn »«■ «■« »i|fahfca»anwrfWlfcr— tK»«iri- 

to Uaw 1x4 M^m llw piMi>- bji Vslll, FmIct, mUh iftumd hj WiMW Ik oImmI mA 

||>W*,V«tll>,HM*Mt,Udo<ll^. lBtaHMMt.W>*«yp«MrMi MdlMoBri 

Vmi«b, m/tifj/Hf lor Hhm^Im*. hne bn* b^ ilx «iM t« ^tmOmt 'm tvt* »• IW iiwrtht 

AmM II>« mm* 'Mtmirwl iNltc^t roT Uh«b n- andBf fraa ta fyHiiMlii !• tt* iHCae. 
■OTtMnMa, Mllwv ratals iMr aMtralar trrita- Xn ntftboJ ha« fcUterta fcfa» fc^wwi rf» 

MUlf ai^ MNM9«Mlil)r af fha calnaM hrfhMM* pliiag ibc OaliMie faiflMwc la awk ■ ««« 

wr« laafl. M aaf fwan aAvr thrj hate btn da- ■• Is tSrti the mnn af ai«41, teaftaf. Mi 

mini--', ar bar* tmA thatr IrralB aod if^ul U.t»lii ilwugh >fief»l fAia«i pkHu mifciW Iff* 

'aMraair 4ra(ra}n(,>tratif HMiTMUifflnma be pr»> i-arrfull]) iuirnigdlrd itte tubbed. NerMlMt 

AMitf hi (kaw b* Iba appllratUn of Ihe aafalt. r*u« of Uxw phHioiD.ii* clewlj ■M i i W larfi 

Ab«*BfanMf»Hilb«bndjwlllannn»tfnua tiiiloB) and u>aj of liU Mlomn ■■)*■&■ ' 

ivpaMa at nalivmiM hr meral daja. N«, ihtni i<. d'lKod un the define Saul, aU* 

MTf Malbwl atarwanta ha*r bem prodOMd ia .■V.nr-. i>iif,<.i,|.' ili.ii, i<i ih, mDutorr iC una* 

fMg« frallr (bradiaaertfla Iba )rraar*> of paHa- pbniral afcata. 

Iballaa. MMbrral hiadt irf flUie*, and naa; Ht. Crete, ntrfeoa in WnrlabarKi ha^Mi^ 

■Hwraalnali, bathnfrvU and «ina blood, hata partuDltjofobacirfDctlK trrilatIaBO«ttak(< 

baotiMtb)*rtadln*iMilar aaprrlmnitx, and biira abo;, whidi had bcra BaptrtaiadlBry "* 

nhlMI*d llw Maie phranrnenai but J he mm knaela tba bo^lA ml Ibatdt 

bluwM animal* Ima lbvtrMiwiv|illblMty of gal- after tbe wipalatlDB, Mr. Ci« 

nnlwi, M irf ■mrji atbof allMUlu', »«rjr aooa enirmi wm (kukMumn), an . __ 

■Aardaalb. wUb a ilip of tinfoil. Ho Uathe4 at aaa* 

AInuNi my two MalaUwIII praduna Iha mota- liaroil aad tbe nana with a FroMcfc CMMftMi- 

MaaU I but, II U ballatnt, Ihe aioM pnwarful ara In tliat Inilanl tba maat vloknt «««niMaMMk 

UMMIuirlni.ln Iha order In whlHi thej ara hara place In the leg both aboie and bahw Ifca tM» 

plaiwdi I. Klnr|tl.Tla|U. l.rari}la<«a)onBttaa The remalDderaf Iha thighbow boat wUkftl» 

wltb, l.<laldiXmitor|l. Mnlibdmai^. Hteeli toward tha calf ithefoatwaa MonbaMlkW» 

A, rappers Ipoa Ihh paint, huarier, aulhora teadcd. All tboa notlou were r*- -"^ — ^ 

Ma Bol poiIWiIt ag raod. foKa and f^Idttj. Nob* wan 

Tba prwreM liy whlrli Iheae lingular pheno. the lijifbllwadtliaa amj.ar td 

■Mti* ara pnidntad rnadili In efTprtlng, by the waaaiadln plaaeef aphaaordl 

Ma af Uw aMdlUf ■ppantliu, a Butwd cos- lU «r ailiat ma aancaAwHk 




V O i T A I S M. 



■tlwwaMBclea wrre remoMd. 
M conllaued till 3S miiialn kftcr 

ic limb beeuoe raid. 
* Urinrich VUS (in Diurrta- 
fteitalB Aninali, Sluleardt, 1793 : 
I'l Journal der Physk, T. viii. 
At duwil the pheDoiDvai or inui- 
ioo ia ■ tei7 nrderlj' and peniii- 

1 fonu of bii experimenU i» tbe 
I wbicb we haw Blreedj dnrrilfa] ; 
inn^irkliu irere obiencd: 
briilf coated wilh tlnfnil, il iru 
gi tllU tlie coDtrBClioiis nrrc 
■patlicr Irit touched llii: inuicle, 
Kbc- If it loutbed Ibc coXins 
Wnre ftlnaji, and lery semiljl)', 

on >lr. 



trtnt «if moumtar Itofc Mi flic 

loEether jireveiit tli« ninlia^' 

lad in aiany caiei did not ■viiiiblj' di> 

■rlMor 



li.hllipii 



otrBctiona were weaker at tliu bc- 

iDQ Muurd friHu taunliinj; the roitt- 
« ncrt« Mil;, or the niutclc only. 



knd duraliiin were gnalrr whei 
nidied cauh oilier In psinU oi 



rMa 



. (ilk thread bclon' the coat- 
Iweex tberaatiuc and the mutcle, 
tern louch»d by Ihe liiitr), pre- 
InclJKO i but not if the ligature 
be raatinf anil the braiu. If the 
Ibrouith beloiT the coaling, and the 
I ■ qaarter arcp inrb, no cuoirac- 
by lotiefaiuK the caatiiig anil llie 
«i but it touk plaee, if the parta 
Bio contact; or enn if a piece of 
e wai put lietwecii Ihe parli. 
vble part of a barnl aerte woa in- 
'i, parlljr irllh tlufuil and partly 



r the two nicUiU 



be enatrd wilb ti 



m^BCX lo lb* IT 

■It. 

vd tWi( he lulOH 



It In oUi oral lirtl, 
f trf^ alttllt. 
1 pndo'e ronlrai'lifni i 



IviT be laid on Ihe 
the breiht or bcllf , and be brought ii 
wilh Ihe tin coiling on the lumbal recion, only 
the niiuclet of the breatl or bell; are aS'ected, 
hut nut thoK nflhe leg*. 

PFaff obnerven, Ihal Iha involunlar; miuolea 
ara ool affected b; galinnimni; and refcri for 
eaDiIacios proof* to a diiiertalioD b; Ur. Lad- 
wig, tlieAing that the henrt ii not furnished 
itilli nerve*. (Scriplar. nkuroli^. minor. leleeu 

ProiciMir Aldan!, the nephew or flaliani, hu 
purtued the intereiting lubjcct with great led 
and Biiccesa. Uarl; in the year 1803 the pmrea- 
*Dr wH in ED^Iaad, and exhibilrd neieral ler^ 
curious (:BlvBDic eiperioimU. Among other ioi* 
portant facta, it waii deciiiTelf BhrHo, 

I. That a vital allrulimi submti between > 
nerrc anil niuiele; for the impended uiati* 
nerve* of » frog, iRer detaching the ipiDe, being 
brougbl near the iutcrcutlal muielei i>f a dogj 
whiii! the aKiitanl who held tbe fnig did, wilb 
hiiother band, touch Ibe muicln of lha Ibighor 

llie oerTCa suiikended approadird, and eame into 
coutaol with Ihe niukclu, a* evidently as a lilke*. 
thread U attracted by svaling.wai. 

'2. Tbe heart of a rabbit wa* excited lo action 
in a little lioie al\er Ibe animal was billed ; but 
vitality diiappcarcd uiurb saaner than in tb* 
other luuictci : to that thia organ ii the primini* 
end nol, a* Ilancj aisertcd, tbe ullimum au/rinia. 
The lung*, liver, and iplren cnuld nol be cKciled 
to action, even iuiuicdialely alUr the auioBl wk« 
killed. 

3. The moit imporlant fiH of nil wa* that of 
cKciliDg coutraclioni b; making « circle ofnervea 
and muulei of different an iuab., without aoy mi*' 
tallic exciter or conductorB. 

i. The head of an el, rcNnlly decapitated, tx- 
hibiled atlonitliingcOeclKi for, the tongue bcin« 
drawn out by a hook flxed inlo it, on applying 
the ckcilarx, in ipUo of the ilrcngtb of Ihe ai- 
■iitanl, tbe tonguowai ivlracted,*o Bi to dotaclt 
iUoir by tearing itulf frmn tbe hook , at the Mma 
tine a loud nobc ixued from tbe moutli by ih* 
Bburption of air, attended by violent eonlortbna 
uf the wluile bead and eyes. 

Aldaiii alio availed himH>tf of the opportunitj 
•ITunled by Ihe eiecutiou of Forster on the 17Ut 
of January, for Ihc murder of hii wife and child, 
III repeat hi* galvanic capcrimontt. A liberal 
grant bad been uide hiiu of the um of th<t lub- 
jFct, by Mr. Keale, turgeon to the king, and 
mailer of the coUego of luigcooi, who wai iiin- 
self prcarnt on thit ucmvton. The nuull of Ibia 
ctperimml yiomiwn grcul advantagai to Ibe in- 
lemt* of humanity, etpcciall/ in caaci af ^pa- 
rent dcBlh by droll ning, and other i-aoei of a«« 
pbyxlB. ThcK gentlemen, we understand, found 
that Uie corptc. by Beam uf galvauiun, wan 
made to cKbibil very powerful aiuscjilar contrM* 
lioua beforr dis*ci.tiun, and Ihit aflcrwBnJa tbna 
coatnrtioiu ronliuucd fur tcveu hnurs nod B balU 
On (beOnt applicaliuo aflliu pmeeuita Ibefiiiic, 
the Ja» of Ihe deceiscd crimiaalJiegBa to qoiinr, 
■nd ibo B(\)aiuiog muirlri were horribly eonlort' 
ed, and one eye wn ■rlually oix-ned. In lUe |bIi> 
teilUL-iit pari of Iha proreis, ijif lighl hand WB4, 

nuwd Mi elotdMi^jnl tbg Unj^thjf *- - ~ — 



a 



V O L T A I S M. 



•Mill mMloa. ft apparad, to the uninfonned 
pKTl of the by-ilanden, ii if the wrelehed man 
iT«» nn Iho e*o of iKin; restored to liff. 

A TUieljr of similar cxperlmMits i>f re punueit 
under a f^real muKiplicilj of fomiitby difirrpnt 
phjuiologiita and phitoiophen in our ovnx cnun- 
try, and etpeciallj by Dr. Fowlfr, whoie evity 
on Ihii nubjeH waipublinhed in ITIIO ; the actions 
produced mm, fraia tlie flnl, aitrribi'd lo a prio- 
rfple of eteelridlf, and the inripiFDl (dencr, 
■hiu liniled lo looie and E«DFral experlmrnN 
on the nnimal frame, trai denominaleil alYrr its 
cariieal diKoiFrrr, gBlvanlini. 

Theprineiplu, hoirever, upon nliich th* clvr- 
triepomr acted wai mUundiTMiKid i nor were 
an J mcana as ji-t tleriied bj wliieh Ihe new puwec 
Miild hp wcuniulatfd lo any dennileeiteiil, or 
■ applicable to any uteful piir|tnte<i. 



OaUa 






^ piK'i 



[od Ley- 



n'iiln; the mitiple* lo rescinble 

den phial, hntiDg electrir-ity aec 

istidr, nhile tile uutaide wu mjniia. The nertea 

be eonreived to be connected irilh the iniidc: 

when it naa united with the outside by conduo- 

(•ra, Ihe aarplui electricity wan dUttiirBCd, and 

hence (be mottoni of the limli. 

H. Valla, profeuor of natural pbilosoptiy al 
Como in the Milancie, loon diHeotpred, however, 
Ibal the mavulnionii trere producrd by a ililTerent. 
operation of the cleclrie principle, iu reality by 
merely touching tno diftreni parts of the name 
ofrrebylwodifTerenl melala, and thuB making 
a circuit of the three Bubstanreii, of which the 
part of thenerre aelecled for the purpoic rarmed 
Ibe middle: and purauin; thia timple but b*au- 
liful law, be aonn anerwardi perceived Ihnt 
Ibe two diatinct melals alone had an action upon 
each other when brought Into ooDtact, but that 
Ibe aeliun waa eonaiderably incrraaed by the In- 
terpoMlion of a third aubitance of a diStrent na- 
ture. Tha bjrpolheula of Oalvaui naa hereby 
completely deatroyed, and a roundation laid for 
that wonderful electric oolumn which has been 
called the gaWanie, or more correcUy the tol- 
laie pile, which, bj the limple oieaai of niutliply' 
iB« plain of two different kiods of mftal, with 
an inlerpaaitloD of a plile of anint other lub- 
vlaoce between eacb^ producra «ucb an accumu- 
lation of cteclric power, and, when the force of 
Ibe oppo'ite endi in brought into approximation 
by meaii* of a Beaible wire, or other conductor, 
allaebed to each cad, «uch an exertion of Ihii 
power a* t» become one ofthe uioit If not atto- 
ffelher Ibe moirt energetic afenla in cbcmiitry. 
And "« now advinM to the acHind and moil Im. 
portanl ilage of Ihii new branch of natural ici- 
encc ; for which Ihe world in entirely indebted to 
Ibe penelralitig genius uf M. Volla, and the cu- 
rioua fafli and phenooiena at which haie hence 
been univeraally denominated voltaiam. 

M. Vulla comnienrcd his experimrnla in 17113, 
and it waa soen yeara before he rendered hit 

Eilla auHciently nalinfaetory and perfrcl lo other 
ta dracripiion and powen before the public. 
This.howetCT.heacniraplishtdin IBOOj at which 
time he comrauirirated a particular account of it 
lo the Uoyal 8uc)ely, th»U|^ the medium of air 
Joaeph Bankt, who published tbia oaluablv paper 
in the latter paH of Ihelr Transa'Hinnt for tlial 
J«ar. Hit apparatus, aa there dr'-rribrd, conaiitt 
of a number of copper or siWer plates (nbich last 
are prvrcrable), tafellier with in equal number 
at Diaica nimpnaed of tin, or itill better of ainr, 
_mI m itBdUtiKm^r, 9t smt* «f nttf, kiiUier. 




or woollen cloth, the lail of whlrii mbattnen a^- 
peara In be the motl tuilable. Thev lul should 
be well loaked in water salurited with common 
stll,muriat of ammonia, or more edectually, witti 
nitre. — The siWer or copper may be pieeca of 
money, and the platea of line may be cast of Iha 
same siie. A pile is then lo be formed, by placing 
a piece of iilter on a corresponding one of aiac, 
and on tliem a piece of wcl cloth or card : wtaleb 
ia to be repeatnl a1lcmal<1y, till thr number r»- 
quiPMl be arranged in regular loccession. Bnl, 
u Ihe pieces are apt lo tumble down, if Ihvir 
Dumbcrs be muiiderable, unlesa property W- 
eured. it will 1w adriiablc Iu lupport then b* 
means of three rndi of glass, or baked wood, tsti 
ioln a dat wooden pedestal, and loddiisg lb« 
jiiccca of metal at three eqai-distaot poiala. 
Lpun thae rods may be made to slide a «aall 
circular piece of wood, perforated with thite 
holes, whiob will senc lo keep Ihe top of Uw 
pile llrm. nnd Ihe difierenl layers In close eoaUM. 
Tlie moistened piern should likewiae be icmt- 
what anialler thsa those of metal, and gaotlf 
tqueeicd before they are applied, to prervntlM 
■uperBuoUi moisture ftvm insinuating ittelf !•• 
twecn Ihe pieces of metsl. Thus oouatnitM, 
the apparatus will alord a perpetual rurnst of 
the electric Huid, or TOltaie inluenee, thm|b 
any conductor that communicates betireea Ik* 
uppcrmait and lowest plate; uid, if oD* htal 
be applied to the lalter. and Uic ottnr to tl* 
highest nietaf, a ahodi will be perreind, wUA 
may he repeated a< oflen M Ihe coutarl la !•• 
newed, Thiishockgreatlyrosemblesthalginato 
tli« tor[>edo,ar gymnolua rlectricus : and, MCM» 
ing lo the larger siie of the metallic plates, tht 
shock will be proportlouably atrongcr. The !•• 
Icnsiljof Ihe charge, however, is au low, IkltH 
cannot peactrnte the dry skin ; it will tbenAM k( 
neceuary to wet both bands, aad ia graap a |^ 
of metal in each, in order to praduea the imiftt 
eSect: its power may be considerably iaoaaMli 
both by an elevation uf temperature, aad b^ a«- 
menllni! the numlier of pieces that ei»ip«aBtt* 
pile. Tliun, 30 piece* of each will en>>l ■ ifea^ 
thai is very perceptible in the anna; if UMM 

tinned aeoaaKon will extend even tv UwiAaal* 
den ; and, if the aiirfkce of the akin ba brclli, 
the action uf the Toltiie iolluenn irflt ba ^ 
commonly painful. ' 

TheteDutioBof adash, or shack wilb Ihlisf- 
parntui, does ool maturialty diHcr froni thalw*- 
ducedby Iwo simple plates j bnt It may becMd- 
rd in tarioua ways, npecially if one or b4fe 
bandi be applied in a wet slate la the lotn* 
plate uf Ibe pile i or any part nf the ttm H 
brought iu contact with a wire fa miaua t M lIl t 
with the top piece. Further, If a wlr« be tdi 
between Ihe trelh, so s> to ml upaa Ita* iMfi^ 
that organ, as well ai tlie lipa, will hew *^ 
vuliod, Ihe dash will appear before the ^M^ Md 
a *cry pungent taste will be pe rw i lad la 4b 
uioulb. 

When a mctalllo wire, having a b)l orMd> 
burnt charcual at Iti exlnmity, la auatfe ta Mt- 
ncci the two ellremlUes ofthe pile, a apailE vU 
Iw ptrcciied, or tbe point af Iba diarraal will 
become ignited. 

Various other modes of n 
ralus harclicen aJupted, a 
suprrior In poiiit of mnienkDoe. Oaa a 
bj soldering Uia pUtn of alae aa4 e 
falhCTt N»t b) n " — "-" " 



S. I 



V o L r A r s M. 



b«ba4 ««ed, Mvered vitli ttptesX in the rt^ukr 
seder, »■« 1» fona ralU lo be filled witli tliP anid 
ai*»truMi, cull lurfkM of due bein; nppoiitc lo 

• nf<K« of copper; aad lh» ooDihin*liDn ii very 
MMpt* ud euj of ■ppliratian. AnoUirr fonn U 
Ikal of iBImdudng pUtes of («ppcr and line, 
&at>n4 tocctber bf BiUpofropptTiiiilo ■■rough 
sf ponvluB, contUDinc ■ nuraber of relli cor- 
muoduig to the number of the series. The 
Umrtat aeriei nsj be intradatcd neptrelelj into 
Ita lr««|tli* ID<I lakcn out without the neccuil5 
rf ^Mtiuit the fluid i or the} may be atlmchcd lo 

• |MCC»r baked wood (anil when the Dumber ia 
M(t«7lulc)latMdu«d into the celJi, or taken 




diaeover;. Theie, Ihaugli Tery ittikUe Md 
portant, Rre not to be cottpsrcd, in point of ra 
to liii original diicoTery of the deconipsiit^ 
power of Yoltaiun, tfhirh bai made u* afquaidl- 
ed with a new energy in nalure, and put inia 
pos^etsion a inurh more efficicnl rhemical k; 
than any with whirh we were before ««|Uain 
This is the ditrovery whieh doe> ho uiucli 
to HIT Humphrey Davy, aad has put hi 
Iciel with llie imall number of indiviilui 
been fortunate enough to lay open 



orlda 



r of nature 



Similar polar eleririra! arransenienti la thote 
formed by line and copper may be made by *a- 
Ttn* allatuliona of conducting and imperfect 
CDBdurtiDg lubaUom : but for the accumulation 
■4 Ike power, tbeteriea muatconidil of three sub* 
Maoeaa or more, and one, at leail. 



aihe 



ouEbt i. 



•wlut with 

pinr aoil pota;kh, at one extremity, and in con- 

■tk« anlTKoailj, aome ialine lolulion being be- 
!■••» Ike «utpburelted and the acid wlulion*, 
faCMS ut aJeiDenl of ■ powerful nnubination, 
whU will fite ahock* when fifty are put lo- 
■Ihir . Tbc order U copper, etoili of the tame 
fapMlrt— cd wiUi aolution of nitric arid, clolh 
■■Hnad In the aolution of common lall, clolh 
Htenad in Ibc aolution of the compound of 
■HMr, (npper. and ao on : the ipeciSr craviliet 
iUM MhUiona abould'be in the order in which 
mif m<* MTSBf ed, lo picteni the miKlure of the 
t/it aad uilphurelted lolution i that i>, Ihc 
taaiiaal aoltilion should be placed loweat 
.foTtheae and varioua other progrcaiiTe i'n- 
tttarfMiacareehieay iadehted to air Ilumphvey 
thnj ; ■« »e an allogelber for tbc great din- 
tentrf remeling iLe agency of tollaiim, whicli 
Wa|MiblMli(d in Die Pliiloiophical l'r>n>aellon(. 
In a pap" whidi gained the prlie prupo«ed on 
^haian by Ibe Krrnch emperor. Thia di>ru- 
»m MBJ be eiprened in the rullowing tentt^u^' : 
*• Tk» wHaie energy ha< the properly of dceum- 
id allbalaocea (tuppoiing the 



fnm tlw Iw citn-ioitiea of the battery, 
lag; In iIm fbllDHlug law: oiygan and arida ar- 
nutfB llwancliei round the poailite wire; by- 
dtaps, allialiii, earths, and tnetali, round llie 
MfBliic aire." From lb ia tery important din- 
tt^Tj »ir Muiophrey drewaevwal tery plauaible 
labnmera. Oiygeu Bail ■eiiU, a'lnre they are al- 
kMlcd lowarila Ibe poailiie wire, are naluraliy 
■inTlii wbilr, un the olher bind. hydro|Een, 
''tr'*— . Bad uetala, being allnclid to the nega- 
Hw win, an aalurmlly poailitc. When two 
wfcaUncaa are ehenically combined, tbcy are in 
lifcaifl alaka of electricity ; and the more coni'- 
pMaly oippvtilc Ibcae ilalva, the more iotimalcly 
tk(j an iHitad. To (eparate the two eunillluenU 
af bn4l» froui each otbcr, we ban only to bring 
thaw U, Ik* aauie electrical alale ; and tlii* ik tbe 
iAi.( wbleb ToUaiam pmdueea. Hence, tbc- 
■iwl aAnit] U nulking clac than the allrseUon 
■Ufk AxiaU between badicH in dlBerenl lUlea of 
•hdridty. The 4ecaaip<»ition of the fixed al- 
kaliM^of the alkaline earlhi and baracic add, 
~ " ' by the aanie celebrated cbt- 

CDnar(|ucnev of bia original 



It haa been doubled by many per. 
the (ollaic and electrical energy were ine same: 
bul thousand! oreiperimrnU might be iiffcred to 
prove them lo be such. M. de Luc'a tery tiraplo 
■eriat elertrotcope, or eteolrleal column, a-i ha 
call* it, may be adTertcd to, aiauffldent nf ilielf 
to eatabliih Ihii fnct. This rolumn eooiialt of 
linc-plalei and Dutch gilt-paper, in regular ^DC- 
ecBiion, like the metallic platei of the loltaio 
pile, the groupx facing from one Ihouiand to ten 
Lhouiand. nhcn two of Iheae columni are placed 
horiiontally, tbe one insulated, and the other 
eommunicating with the ground, each being ler- 
minaled wilb a small bell, and ■ small braaaball 
ia luapendcd between the two bcUi by 
thread, the ball, by the mere influence of t 
(ricil) miitained in the atmoaitlicre, will tlili 
by striking allerealely froia column lo eo 
■nd cODaequently from bell to betl, aami 
more or Icsa rapidly, and nomelimes mi 
leu loudly, and BOmetlmei scarcely at all, ac- 
cording lo Uk slate and proportion of tbe elce. 
trie aurs { and the inalrunieni, which is a ge- 
nuine toltaie pile, not ooly proTcs tbe identity 
of the electric and voltaic potter, but may ba 
eontenicDlly employed aa a measurer of the elec- 
tricity which the almoiphere conlaina It ihould 
be obaerred, however, that ai then: ^re no lluid* 
known, cioept aucli aa eoDtain wstn-, that are ca- 
pable nf being made tbe medium of Connesioii 
between the meUla, or metal of the toIIbIc ap- 
paratus, ihc cRect in thii., and in all similar in- 
alancei, is re«ilt*d by ,:t Humphrey Davy into 
aome small quanllly of moisture, or water still 
existing in llie «ubilaoccii employed, whjch he 
aiserta will not ad if each of the subHiiincFa bs 
made perferlly dry. 

The first dislinci experiment upon the igniting; 
powera of Urge volule plates waa performed bjt 
MM. Fnurcroy, Vauqoelin, and Thcnard ; tiut 
■ much grander combinalioD for eahlhltiu^ the 
effocU of extensile surfkce was coOslniMcd by 
Mr. Children, ami conaisU of a battery of twenty 
double plate* four feel by two) of which the 
whole surfaces are eiposed, in a woiidcn trough, 
in crila covered with cement, to the action of di- 
luted acida. 

The most powerful cumbjnalion, hovrever, thai 
«ists,in which numbers of alUmatialis ii enm- 
Lined with cilenl of lUrTacv, is that cmslrudcd 
by the aubaeriplions of a few aealaus tultivalort 
and patron* of sdenee, in Ibe laboratory of llw 
Royat Inilltulion. ll contlsU ot two hundr.-A 
inslrument^ connecletl together In regular onJer, 
tich composed of ten double plates, arrangeil in 
eelli of porcelain, and containing in ear: 
thirty-two square iuciies ; so that the whok „. 
bcr of double plates Is 3(X)0, and the whole a 
face 13B,000 square inches. Thi« battery, wl 
the cells were filled with stxty parU of wi 
nixed with ooe part of nitric add, and one j 
of the aulphuric add, afforded a series of i 



lelMi^l 



h plate 







^ VOL 

liitit tioi inipreatirc cUbrti. Wlien p?Mra «t 
diBrrod about ui iacli Ions and one-siKth of an 
inrh in diamcler wrn- broughl near vacli other 
(Kilhin the thirtieth or fortieth part of an inrh), 
a licieht upark nai produred, and more than half 
tliv volume of the rhnrroai bcraiue iin>ited to 
; and by wilhdraning the poinlB from 
cub olbcr, a «iti«lant discharge la«k plaee 
'' rOUKb (he licated sir, in a i>par« njud at lent 
four in«he<, produriug a moM brilliaut as- 
of lipht, broad, and cani«al ia form 
'the middle. When any aubManre «m iiilro- 
IDCd into thii arch it initanllf became Ignited ; 
lelled a* readily in it «« was ia Wia 
Bane of ammmon candle j quarli, the wpphire, 
MiagDexia, lime, all cnte(«d into fusion ; IVag- 
■Bcntt of diamond, and poinla of cliarroal and 
plumbago, rapidi; disappeared, and wrnied to 
Wvpnrale in it, eien when the rannrilon waa 
" "le in a receiver fahaualed hj the air^pTinip ; 
there waa no evidence uf their haviDg pre- 
Illy undergone futiim. 

' 9 the eommuDicatiou between the poinla 

(ly and nrfalifelf cleelrifled wai made in 

-, nretled in Ihc receiver of the air-pump, the 

^ ire at which the iliacbarge took place In- 

:d ai the exhauilion iraa made ; and wiien 

ttmoaphere in the vestel lupported only one- 

thc (parks piEied through a apace uf nearly 
an inch ; and by wilhdravring the poiuta 
each othiir, the diidiarge waa made liiroi<eh 
inchen, produring a mott beautiful 
of purple light, the charcoal be- 
•ame inlenaely ignited, and lome plalina wire at- 
tached to it fuHcd with brilliant iciDlUlulionn.and 
fell in large gtubulet upon the plate of the pump. 

AllUieph(i;aunirDiorii|ieniiral AuigESwi'tcpro] 
duced with inlcnie npidily by Ibiicombi nation ■ 
When the point* of cliareoal were brought nenr 
each oUier in nonconducting Buidi, such as oili, 
ether, and oxymuriatie compound*, briUianl 
■parki occurred, and elaitic mailer nan rapidly 
generated; and luch wna the inlenaity of the 
electricity, that iparti were produced, itcd io 
good imperfect n>uduclor>,iiu(iiia« tile nitric and 
•ulphuric acids. 

VOLTE, ill the manage, a round or 
circular mmion, mnsitlin^ of a ^it of two 
treuli, maik by a lioiie going lide-n-ays round 
lire, in such a manner, that IheM two 

I make purullcl iracki; one by ihe forc- 

[f ImI, iat^r; and the other 1^ the Inodet Teet, 
■mailer; the shoulder bearing upwardv, and 
ihe croupe appioaching (onsrds the centre, 
Somefimea the 'olie i» of one tread, as when 
■ hotie inikesroltBin ciirveti, and in captiolei, 
to tlml the haunchm follow the (houldcis, and 
mtne furwarda on Ihc same tread. In general, 
the track of the voUe is made round, some- 
times ov»l, and sometimes a aquare of fnur 
iliaiftlii lines, so that these irradi, whether 
iniitid or H]uare, inclose a leirain or maoaee 
ground, the midille of which is soajetimes ui- 
tlinguiied by a pillar, or else by nn imaginary 
cenlie, which is suppoMd. in ot<lFr to regulate 
thBdislaneea, and IhejuHneHorihcvcli'. 

, a half round of one Iresd or 

I, inad~e by the horse at one nf ihe angles 

"le volte J or elte at the end of the line of 

ade : M ihat bdu^ near the end of this 



line, or elwotietof the comenofihe toIk, te 
changes hands lo ictmn hy a lemicirclc ia n- 
gain the «aiiielii>e. When hedoea noi teiuni 
u|Hiu this line, they suy he has not ctncd hii 
deniivolle. 

Demvullri n/ /he Irngth of a horte, Knsi- 
circlca of two ircads, which a horse tiacoin 
wiirkinf( itlde-wavii the hauDchcs low.audibt 
head high, Lorning very narrow i so that hn> 
ing formed a demi-tinind, hech^Dgci the hud 
lu make anoiher, which is n«in followed bj 
another chnnge of hand, and dooihcr im\^ 
round, which crosses the (int. This demimlli 
of a linrsc's leogih ia a very preliy m.insge. bul 
vtry diDicult, if vnt compare it to a figuie ot 
eight. 

Demivntle nf fee Itmrt, or pasiadt «f^» 
times. See PassADE. 

Reierietl vollr, u a track of two trei4 
made by the hor»e with his head to the MUn, 
and his croupe out, to that he goes side-mji 
upon a walk, trot, or giiUotii and traces onia 
itnall circumference with his ahouldert, SD^a 
larger one wiih his croupe. Reversed lalni 
uiion a walk appeabc and oujet unruly benOr 
if ihey ate niade meihodi cully. 

The six votls are mudc lerra t terra; nm 
to ihe tij;bt, two lo ihe left, and twoudw 
right ag.iin, all with one breath, observing tlu 
ground with ihe same cadence, working ilwl 
and quick, and ready, the fore bam) in tneiii, 
the breech uiuin the ^ouud, the head aad nd 
firm and stcatiy. 

VOLT^RNO. a river of Naples, whid 
TiKS in the A|)ennines, passes by Ixnuiud 
Canua, and enters the gulf of Gaieia, 

VOLVA. (The ruffle, Withering.) Th 



mbranaceoua calvx of ■ 



"?"'.- 



-Thii ii 



said to be approximating, when il 

VOLUBI'LITY. *, [ntlulnlitai, tatin.) I. 
The actor powerof ralling(/ra:?j)' *■ A** 
tivity of tongue; llueney of speech (Qaf* 
don). 3. Miiubiliiyi hableiirss lo tcvolulilt 
{,L Eilran^e). 

VCyi-UBLE. a. UuMilii, Laiin.) L 
Formed ao as lo roll easily j formed so as lo I* 
easily put in motion (Uanmend). a. lURin; 
having quick moiiou (Millan). 3. Niiiibl*l 
active (Jfalli). 4. Fluent of noria (5tt^ 

VOLLCEI.LA. in the enionwlogy of ft 

bricius, a tribe of the genus UoHBUliUi 

" VOLVIC, a town ofFrauce, in the depW 
iDEtit of VuT de DoDie. Here are imnKM 
quarries, wliich furniih materials fo( iS* 
buildin;^ of the adjiccnt towns, and for tke 
statues iu the churches. It is siic miles N'** 
CIcroioni. 

VO'LUME.i.{io/u™en, Latin.) 1. Sse*- 
ihing rolled nr convolved, a. As utocfa * 
seems cunvolred ai once ; as a fold of aaeqcxt 
a wave of waler {Drijden). 3. Abo<*i» 
called hecau>e bnoks were anciently rolled ea 
a slaff {Sfenscf). 

VOLD'MINODS. o. (froat voluKt.) !■ 
CooaiiluigormaaycoaipKeiiiioni {Mittt^y)^' 



/• 



JfATUSAL HISTORY. M 



'^:p=^ 




VOL V O M 

Consiiting of manj Tolumes, or books (3fi//.). VOLU'PTUOUSLY. ad. Luxuriooslv ;; 

3. Copious ; diflusnre {Clarendon), with indulgence of excessive pleasure (Souin). 

VOLUMINOUSLY, ad. (from volumin- VOLU'FTUOUSNESS. j. (from volupiw- 

§ut.) In nunv volumes or books (Grafi<;t7/f). ous.) Luxuriousnesi ; addictedneds to excess 

VOLUMNUS and Volumna, two deities of pleasure (Donne). 

wfio presided over the will, chiefly invoked at VOLUTA. Volute. Mitre. In zoology, a 

Durriages, to preserve concord between the bus- genus of the class vermes, order testacca. Ani* 

band and wife. They were particularly wor- raal a limax ; shell one-celled, spiral ; aperture 

shipped bv the Etrurians. {£ivy)- without a beak, and somewhat effuse ; pillar 

VO'LUNTARILY. ad. {(Toin voluntary.) twisted or plaited; generally without lips or 

Spontaneously ; of one's own accord ; without perforation. A hundred and forty^four species, 

oom pulsion (Hooker). thus subdivided : 

VCyLUNTARY. a. {volunlaire, French; A. Aperture entire. 

99luniariii$g Latin.) 1. Acting without com- B. Subcylindrical, emarginate. 

pulsion ; acting by choice {Hooker), 2. Will- C. Oboval, effuse, emarginate. 

log; acting with willingness {Pope). 3. Done I). Fusiform. 

hj design ; purposed {Perkins). 4. Done K. Ventricoie ; spire papillary at the tip. 

without compulsion {Seed). 5. Acting of his These are scattered over the coasts and 

tim accord ; spontuaeous {Milion). marshes of the globe, several of tbeui resem- 

Vo'luvtary. 1. (from the adjeclive.) A blincthe helix, and others the niurex. We 

foianteer; one who engages in any alFuir of shallselect ao example or two, 

btsowQ accord (Da(;ie«).^ 1. V. auris Mids. Midas*s ear. Shell con- 

VoLUVTARY, in music, a piece played by tracted, oval-oblong, with a ruoged spire; pil* 

1 musician extempore, according to his fancy, lar two-toothed, inhabits India, in marshy 

This is often used before he begins to set him- woods and swamps, and very much resembles 

Klf to oUy auy particular composiiion, to try a helix : about four inches long ; shell brown, 

the iomument, and to lead him into the key solid, wrinkled, or striate ; spire large, with 

vf the piece he intends to perform. from six to nine whorls, each terminated by a 

VOLUNTEE'FL /. {voloniaire, French.) granulate band, the outer ones cancellate; 

A soldier who enters into the service of his aperture long, wider beneath, 

own accord {Collier). 2* V. monilis. Necklace volute. Shell 

To VoLUVTfifi'R. V. ». To go for a soldier entire, white, with an obliterated white spire; 

[Drgden), pillar obliquely striate. Inhabits Cnina, 

VuLVOX, in zoology, a genus of the class where it is used to make beads and necklaces ; 

Tcrmes, order infusoria. Worm invisible to one and a half inches long. Another variety 

the naked eye, 4imple, pellucid, spherical, tn Africa, two and a half inches loofl^ 

Nine species, fotmd in vegetable infusions, 3. V. episcopalis. Mitre volute. Shell emar* 

stagnant, and sometimes in purer waters, or wa- ginate, smooth ; margins of the whorls entire; 

lers kept for some time in a glass; often of a lip denticulate ; pillar with four plates. Inhn- 

fieenisn, or greenish-yellow cast; sometimes bits India, the inhabitant or fisn is said to be 

roembling small soap-bubbles; some solitary, of a poisonous nature if eaten, and to wound 

some gregarious. We shall notice Iwo, the those who touch it with a kind of poisoned 

first for the singularity of its habiuition. trunk. The natives of the island Tauna fix 

1. V. dimidiatus. Globular when at rest, the shells in handles, and use them as hatchets. 

hemispherical when in motion. Found on Shell five inches long. 

the tub of tadpoles. VOLUTA' HON. /. {volutaiio, Latin.) 

S. V. globator. Spherical, membranaceous. Wallowing; rolling. 




vanoui sized homogeneous molocules. VOLUTE, in architecture, a kind of spiral 

Amd in stagnant waters and vei^etible iiifu- scmII, and used in the Ionic and Composite 

body green or yellow, moving slowly capitals; of wiiich it makes the principal cha- 

tlsaxis in all directions, a pellucid nicm- rjcteri>tic and ornament. 

covered with smaller and larger mole* Volute, in heliniiithology. See VoLU- 

■nd these pro\ided with a still smaller ta. 

dar progeny, containing within itself a VOLUTELLA, in botany, a genus of the 

tribe of already imurcjBLnated descendants. See class cryptogamia, orlcr fuii-^i. Fungus sal- 

Xat. Hist. PI.CLaXXV. vcr-sha|>i:d, siipiute; upper surface of the cap 

VOLUPTAS and Volupia, the goddess dotted, umbilicatc ; thcinargin at hrstrevolute; 

of sensual pleasures, worshipped at llome, seeds similar ; stem short, cetaceous. Two 



she had a teiu^Ic. She was ropresenied species ; exotics. 

a]roung and beautiful woman, well dressed, VOLVULUS, (from volco, to roll up.) See 
dclegantlyadorncd, having Virtue under her Iliac passion. 

VOMl!)ll. C^ called from its resemblance 



VOLU'Fl'UARY. i. {voluptuaire, French ; to a plou^thshare.) A bone of the nose si tu- 

^0lmpiuariut, Latin.) A nnn given up to plea- ated in the cavity of the nostrils, which it di- 

•ore and luxury {AUtrlurtj). vidcs into two parts. 

VOLU'FTOOUS. a. {volupfuosus, l-atin.) VOMICA. An abscess of the lungs. 

Given to excess of pleasure ; luxurious {Benl* Vomica mut. See Nux vomica. 

Uy}^ Vomica muz. See Nux voiifca. 



To VOMIT, v. n. ivomo, Lstin.) To call 
up ihe conlems of ihe itomach iJUore). 

roVo'MiT.u. 0. (I'WMir, French.) l.To 
throw up fioni the stoTnach (Arbullinel). S. 
To throw up wiih violence from inv hollow. 

Vo'MiT. J, tfrom ihc verb.) 1. The matter 
thrown up from Ihv ilomach (^Sandys). 3. 
An emetic meiliciDe j a medicine that causes 
vomilt I^Arbuthnot). 

VOMITING. A forcible ejection of food, 
or any oihcc substance, from the siomach, 
through Ihe CEiophagus and mouth. It it 
either idiopathic, when aritiog from a cause in 
the stomach iiselfj or lyiuplomatic, when 
originating from diseases sealed in any other 
pjrl of the body. Its immediate cause is ati 
anii|;erii)ialtic, BpasmodJcal, convulsive con- 
striction of Ihe siomach, ami pressure of ihe 
diaphtajfm and abdominal rou^cles. It is an 
eltfirl of nature to expel whaiever molests or Is 
Imublesome in the siomach. 

Vomiting of blood. See HjekatE' 

MESIB. 

VOMITION. t. (from vomo, Latiu.) The 
act or power of vomiting {Grew). 
VtyMlTIVE. a. (uflmJIi/, French.) Erne- 




VO-RTICAL. a. (fti 

VORTICELLA, in toolo^, i^oirf 
the clus vermea, order infusona. Bodjr cot- 
iractile, nakal, and furnished wiih ciliate Mti> 
tory organs. Fifty-seven snecies ; found in 
stagnant waters, m seas adhering to (uei,in 
risers adhering to conferva, aomf"'"" '" 
fresh waters, appearing like » point. 

The species are thus subdivided : 

A. Seated on a |>ediccl f " 



B. Fui 



lished Y. 



lail. 



TEMKSIS. 

VOORN, a fyrl of Holland, in Gelderland, 
on a small island formed by the Waal and the 
Meuse. at the H. end of Bonimelwcrt, seven 
miles E. bj N. of Bommel. 

VoORN, an island of S. Holland, between 
ihe mouihs of the Meuse, iwenly miles lone 
and live bro^d. This island, with Goree and 
Overflackee, form the territory called Voorn- 
laiid, which anciently belonged to Zealand, 
Briel is the capital. ^ 

VORA'CIOUS. a. (rorace, Fr. io.dj, 
Ltitin.) Greedy (o eat; ravenous i eilacious 
{Gca. of Tongue). 

Voracious appetite. See Bulimia. 

VORA'CIOUSLY. ad. (ft 



yORA'CIOUSNl 

Taciii, Fr. voTadlaj, Latin.) Greediness ; ra- 
vine ; ravenousness (Sandyi). 

VO'RTEX. J. In the plural vortict!. (Lat.) 
Anv thing whirled round {NrtBton). 

VoRTBXjOr Whirlwikd, inmeteorologj-, 
a Aidden, rapid, violent motion uf the air, in 
circular whirling directions. 

Vortex is also used for an eddy or whirl- 
pool, or a body of water, in certain seas and 
riveis, which rum rapidly round, forming a 
sort of cavity in the middle. 

Vortex, in ihe Cartesian philosophy, is a 
■yslcm or collcclion of particles of mallet uiov- 
\n% the same way, aitd round the same axis. 

Such vortices aie the grand machines Ly 
which the Carlesiant solved most of the mo- 
tions and oihct phenomena of the heavenly 
bodies. And accordingly, thedoctrineof these 
Torticei makes a creat part of ihe Cartesian 
philosophy. See Cartesiak. 



C. Without tail or stem. 

We shall offer an example or two. 

1. V. racemosa. Compound, with a ririd 
stem, and very much branched, lon^ pedius. 
Inhabits stagnant water ; pedicel very slender, 
and from ii proceed a countless numbei ofpd- 
lucid pearb. 

2. v. polypHia, Compound, hell-tht^, 
with retortire branched stem. Inhablu At 
European seas, adhciin^ to fuci. and appcU 
to the naked eye like a white point. 

3. V. ampull.1. Contained in a bonk- 
shaped pellucid bag: head divided inia Im 
lobes. The bag of the shape of a coniitM 
water-bottle, in which the animalcule iipIiMJ 
sometimes at the bottom, sometimes nfflly 
fiUinait. 

4. V. vitidi*. Cylindrical, uniform, ptdii 
op.-ikc. In fresh water, appearing 10 tke 
naked eye a mere green point. , 

VORTIGERN, a British chief, who, « 
the departure ofthe Ramans in 44&, was elw- 
ed king of South Britain. 



prince, and being ihreaieoed 1^ 
the Scois and Picts, applied to the Sanoai f« 
assistance. The Saxons landed anno 4X), 
under the conduct of ivfo brothers, Hni(i>i 
and Horsa, and succeeded in the overthrow of 
the confederate army. Disagrecmrnis ww 
happened between ihe Saxons and the BriUV, 
and warscnsued, which ended in the ruin ol 
the natives. Vortigern afterwards msriiHl 
Rowena, the daughter of Hengist, who, b 
consequence of the marriage, ^i posscssioD 'i 
the whole provinces of Kent. Hengial lot* 
the king prisoner, and for his ransom obtuod 
those provinces since called Etsex, Sus*es, anl 
Middle!>ex. Thus ihe Saxons acquired poiM 
by degrees, and Voniocm refiring to a eastlt 1 
he had built in North Wales, was tmrnt then, ' 
A.D. 484 

VOS (Martin dr), a celebrated painter, ml 
born at Antwerp about 1534. He was ei- 
cellent in every branch of the orl, and hi) 
drawings have been highly esteemed. Hcdiol 
in 1604, ' 

VOSSIUScJohnGeraidu3),8leBrnedwritef, 
was born near Heidelberg, in Id??. Hi bfr 
gan his studies at Dorl, from whence beMBl 
10 Leyden, and in ISija was made saMU \ 
aiu, and doctor in philosoph]^. In |6M,1« 
became director of the theological collme, ni 
afterward) professor of eloquenc* and chrono- 
logy. Though he had made himsell' eneoiia 
abroad by some ofhis writiiias, panicuWIy bf 
hi) History of the Pcbgian OtDtroversy, pt&t> 



^^ vow 

4I ia l6lt ; he gained both honour nod profii 
hlhcm io England, and archbishop Laud o[i. 
tmmaA fin him * gircbend in ihu church if 
Ctlilnbinr, while he resided at Lefdcii. He 
HoerdiDKlv cimc nver In be inllalled, look n 
doctor ofliivt degree at Oxford, and then re- 
BunML In l633he accepted the proressorehip 
<f hittory It Amiieidain, where he died in 
I6M. H» woiki aiDouQl to 6 ruls. folio. 

Votiius (Isaac], a man of great parti and 
hatning. the wn of John Gerard Voisius, wns 
boru at Le^en in lljie. He had no other 
MM but hit laiher, aud employed hii ivhole 
tie in undying: hia merit recommended him 
la ■ eorteipandencc with <^^ltta Chtittina of 
Sweden > he made sereral jouroeyii into Swe- 
den by her onler, and had ine honnur to leach 
heriheGreck language. In lO/Ohecameoverin 
Eiuland. where Kini ChiH« made him canon 
•(Windsor; ihongh he knew his character 
well enough to say, That there wai nothing 
dut Vmiiui Tefuseit Io believe, except the 
fitUe. He appeaii indeed by hii publication*. 
which are ncitaei so useful nor >o niimeraus ai 
hit Euher's, to have been a molt credulous 
nail, while he afforded many circumstances 10 
brine hi) rcligioiu faith in question. He died 
■I Windior ca«tl« in 1G88. 

VOTARIST. I. (.dfvolui. Latin.) One 
dnoted 10 any person or thing ; one given up 
bt a vow 10 any service ot worship (.Milten). 

VOTARY. I. One devoted, as by a vow, 
n any inrlicular Kivice, worship, study, or 
ntrotUttiSlBifi). 

Vd'takv. o. Consequent to a vow {Ba- 



U P B 



A Mlemn pi^^^| 
miM uf Invft.^^^H 



"vo' 



VOTARESS. (. (female of wlary.) A 
woman devoted loany worship or state {Pope). 

VOTE.), (eofun, Latin.) Suffrage j voice 
pMnand numbered (Raicommon). 

T» VoTB. >• a. 1 . To choose by lufTraae ; 
ID datfrmine by suffrage (Bacaa). Q. Togive 
hfnM (.Sitifi). 

VOTEa. I. ((rotn coie.) One who ha) 
d>e riitht of uving his voice ot suffrage (Swyft). 

VOTIVE, a. (fofietir, Lalin.) Given by 
«•!* (/Vtor). 

r# VOUCH. D. a. {tiuuehn. Norman Fr.) 
I. To call to wilneu; to obleil {Dryden). 
t. Toalleiii towarrani; todeclare; tomain- 
(aiti bv TCficatcd affirmations (Allerbuiy), 

TV Vouch, v. n. To bear witness ; in ap- 
pear •• a wiineiii to give testimony {Sipiji). 

VoucM. f. (fmrntheveth.) WWranii at. 
Ittfalioo IShoiipeart). 

VOU'CHER. I. (from vmch.) I. One 
who give* wiiaeM to any ihlng iPipf). i. 
Te*tift»nT(f.<.rt'). 

n VOUCHS.VFE. B. a. (voufb and ,a/,.) 
I. To permit any thing to be done wiihoui 
4M0et. S. Tu condnceod ) 10 grant (Shak- 

TV Voocii»*'Flt. B. n. To deign ; to con- 
JwCTtld t M yield iDrvdrn). 

VOUCHSA'FEMJ-^T. .. (from eoKcA- 

t»M i condescension {Boyte). 
I. (rra, French; xofun, Lsli 



of dcvoiinn (Bammead). S. A » 
mise, commonly used for a prnmiM uf ! 
matrimony iDrgdrn). 

To Vow. u, a. {Hoser, French ; veero. 1_ 
tin.) I. To consecrate by a lolemn dedica- 
lion i Io give Io a divine power (Sptlman). 
S. To devote! a ceremonial phrase (Spmier). 

To Vow. t. n. To make vows or solemn 
promises (Suckling), 

VOWEL, in grammar, a leiWr which af- 
fordi a complete sound of ilself, or a letter so 
simple as only to need a bare opening of the 
moulh to make il heard, and to form a distinct 
voice. The vowelsare six in number, vii. a, 
lAMV 

(duu and Jellow.) 
One bound bv llie tame vow (Skaiipt^t). 

VO'YAGE. I. (.voyagt. French.) 1. A 
travel by sea (Prior). S. Course ; uliempt : 
undertaking (Shakspcare). 3. The placlice of 
travelling {Bitoit). 

Tu Vo'kace.f.b. (coyajer, French.) To 
travel bv -ea {Pope). 

To V'o'vAOE. V. a. To travel ; 10 pas' nvtr. 

VO'VAGER. I, (from lo^ngeuf, French.) 
One who travels by >ea {Pope). 

UP. ad. (up, Saxon; op, Dutch and Dan.) 
I. Alafl) on high; not down {Knollri). P. 
Out of lied \ in Oie stale of beiug nam from 
rni {WotlaH). 3. In the slate oT being risen 
from a seat (.JiM^an). 4. FroroasialFurde- 
cumblture or concealment, b. In a siaie of 
being built (Skakipeart). 6. Above the hori- 
zon Jjad^fi). 7. To a state of prnlieiency ; 
he il gelling up in reputaliati {Allrrbury.) 8. 
'■ -" Ihf favnurite ij 

(Sp<Ti«rr). y. 
lOibing: Ar ii eoming tip. 10. In a 
siaie 01 iiisurreetioD : Ihe people are up m 
ifalei (SftoitipRire). 1 1. In a siaie of lieing 
increased, or raised : the price u gilting op 
IDryden). IS. From aScmmer plitce.comlin; 
10 any person or place: our iervaal wkofo^ 
iowi Ell tnill icon be up with hi {L'Silfange). 

13. Into order: at, he drew up i(j< rrgimtnt. 

14. Fr»myoungerloelderi'ear*(P>a/Hi). IS. 
Up and doun. Dlsperwoly; here ind ibcie 
{Addiion). 16. Vr and doum. Backward 
and forward. 17. Up/o. To an coual height 
with {Addison). IB. Up with. Adequately 
to {Hagert). ig. Up aith. A phrase that 
siEiiifiei (he act of ratling any tiling to give a 
blow {Sidney). 

L'p. inlerjecliun. I. A woni c-xborling to 
rise from bed {Pope). 2. A vword of exhnrta- 
tion, exctling or rousing to acllon : up and fry 
(5peBirr). 

Up. prtponlitn. From a lower to * higher 
part; noldown: ge \m ikt hill {Beeon). 

UPAS TREE. Boas upas. See Toxi- 
cARiAMACASAaieasts. 

7s UPBE'AR. D. a. preterit upl-art ; par- 
ticiple passive upturn, (up end brar.i |, To 
sustain aloft ; to support in devatiun {Slillon). 
'J. To m^sc alofl {Pope). J. Tu support from 



lil^ made to a divine power; an act I. To charge conn^inptuouiij with any 



lUi^K^^ 



ttiigraceful (Blaekmnre). t. To objeet «t n UPLPFT. if: m. i»9nA l^fi.y Ttf nIV 

mttter ofreproiQb (Spra/). 3. To urge with aloft (/h^ira), 

reproach {^Decay qf Pitiy). 4. To nepiXNich UPMiN^'lER, a village in Emmx, mmi 

Qn account of a benefit receircd from the re* on a lofljr cmineo€e> thRo milct &E. of Rai^ 

pioacher {Shaktpearf). 5. To bring reproach ford. Or. Denham» uoihor of Aatio-Tbea^pr- 

tipon i to sliovr faolu by being in "a state of and PhjFiioo-Theol^» was reetor of iilni phcc 

companion (Sidney), o. To treat with con- 64 3rcan$ and here'is a apfiiigy wbich heaHOp 

tempt {Spenter), tiont in the latter work, aa a proof thai apnap' 

UPi3RA'JD£R. f. (firom nphraid.) One have their origin from the lea, mad not. Am 

that reproaches. rains and vapours ; for this springs in tl» 

UPBRA1DINGLY. od. fiy way of k- greatestdioaghu, was little, if at all, diommlk 

fmach (B#a Jon$4m). ed, after an observation of SO years, Msmfjk 

To UPfiRA'Y. a. a. To shame (Spemer). the ponds all orer theoounuy, and an si lj sii 

UPBROUGHT. part. pass, of vpbrmg. ing brook, had been dry oaany aaootfaf. 
Educated; nartored(5fffiifcr). U'PMOST. a. (an irre^olar aoperlatifc 

U'PHAND. a. (tip and hmd.) Lifted by formed from i^.) Highest ; topoMit {Dry- 

the hand (ilfaMa). den), 

U'PCAST. a. Thrown upward (Dry den). UPO^N. prefntum. (up and ea.) 1. Mbl 

U'PCAST. «. A term of bowling | a throw | imdcr; noting being on the top (Skmk^mri^ 

a cast (Shakspfure), f . Not within ; being on the outside (l^bUy, 

To UPGATHER. v. a. (ap and gaiJUr.) 3. Thrown over tbebody, as olothea (Jtti' 

To contract (t^eaifr), 4. ESv way of imprecation or inBictioii : 

UPHFLD. prpt. and |Mrt. pais, of upheld, chitf upon him (Shoktpeare). 6. It ca- 

Maintained ; sustained (Miiion). obtestation, or protestation : upon aijf 

UPHFLLa. (ttptindhilL) Difficult; like; (Shaktpeare). 6. It is used to expiCM siy 

the labour of climbing a hill (CVirrijia). hardship or mischief: t/ trougki emi vfm 

n UPHOA'RD. V, a. (up and hoard.) To ihem (Bumei), 7* In conseouence of: At 

treasure; to store; to accumulate in private valued himself upon his birik ( faa r rarf sa ) . t* 

places (Spenser). in immediate consequence of: upon em hud 

To UPHCyLD. 9. a. pret. mpheld-, part. uHftd he was reconciled (TUioienny 0. la a 

vaas. upheld or uphoUen. (up and hold.) I. state of view: ii uppeurs^upau kuieew {Te^ 

To lift on high (Drydea). S. To support; to pie). 10. Supposing a thing granied: ama 

flosttin ; to keep from falling (Shakspeare). 3. these terms it is admitted (Burnet), II. Hi* 

To keep^from declrnsion (Bacon). 4. To sop« laiin^ to a subject : Locke wrote upon f s s aa 

]>ort in any sute of life (Raleigh). 5. To con- ment f Temple). 19. With respect to ; i aoi 

tinue; to keep from defeat (Booker), 6. To silent upon auestiens wkU^ I did motmdm 

keep from being lost (Shakspeare). ?. To stand (Drydenj. 13. In consideration of: k 

eontjnue without failing (Holder). 8. To surrendered ui>on splendid promises (P«^)* 

continue in being (IJakewill), 14. In noting a particular day : Grjor dui 

UPHOLDER, s. (from uphold.) I. A U[tonihe ides of March (Addison). 15. Not- 

Bopporter (Swi/i). 2. A susiaincr in being ing reliance or trust : I do it upon your werd 

iuale). 3. An undertaker; one who provides (ohakspeare). 16. Near to: noiina situation: 

for funerals (Gav)- Fontarahia is upon the edge iff trance {Cl^ 

UPHCLSIIlHER. 1. (a corruption of fip. rendon). 17* On pain of : hence I upon your 

holder.) One who furnishes houses ; one who lives (Sidney). 18. On occasion of: the kmg^ 

fits up apartments with beds and furniture upon this news ^ marched (Swijt). I9. Byiate- 

iPape). rence from : upon your promises nothingwiU 

UPIS, in the entomology of Fabricius, a follow (Locke). SO. Noting attention :/ »st 

tribeof the ooleopterous genus AiTELLABUSy upon my work, when the fright* happened 

which Ke. (Locke). 21. Noting particular pace: Aacaaf 

UPLAND, a province of Sweden, in the on upon a gallop (Dryden). SV. Hxactl]^; 

division of Sweden Proper. It is a sort of pe- according to : they are near upon ien thousoMd 

ninsula, bounded on the W. by Westmania (Shakspeare). 23. By: noting the means of 

and Gestricia, on the N.K. by the Baltic, and support : he lives u|x>n his annuity (tVoedw.), 

on the S. by the sea of Sudennania. It is 70 24. Upon is, in many of its sigiiificatioDSi now 

miles long and 45 broad, chiefly covered with contracted into or. SeeOrt. 
shapeless stones and impenetrable woods; but U^FPKR. a. (a compnitivc from sip.) It 

it is enriched with inexnaustible mines of cop- Superior in place; higher (Peachmm). 2. 

|»er, iron, and silver; and the peas«ints are Hizher in nowcr or dignity (i/oo/l-^). 
cliiefly employed in the manufacture of those L'FPKRMOST.a.(snperlativcfromttp^n'.) 

metals. Stockholm is the capital. 1. Highest in place (lyritden). 2. Highest io 

U^FLANO.f. (up aiMl /an^.) Higher ground power or autliority (Gianciilr). 3. PrediK 

{Bttrne). minnnt ; most powerful (Orv</r»). 

U/rLAND. a. Higher in situation (Carrw). UPPINGHAM, a tnwn'in Rutland9hir^ 

UPLA'NDISH. a. (from upland.) Moun- with a market on Wednesday; seated on an 

tainous ; inhabiting mountains (Chapman). eminence, six milc:i S. of Oakham, and (jO N. 

To UPLA'Y. c. a. (up and lay.) To hoard j by VV. of London. Lon. 0. 45 W. * Ut* 

^ lay up (Donne). 6^. 3(5 N. 



UPS • trpu 

tSH. a. (ffom t^^.) Proud ; arrogant. To UPSTA^D. v. n. {up and tiand.) To- 

fPRA'lSE. V. a. {up and raise.) To be erected (Afov). 

»; to exalt {Miltoh), To UPSTaIRT. v, «. (tip and itart.) To 

PRRAR, V. o. (up and rear.) To rear tpring up suddenly {Dryden). 

< (0«y). U rsT a'rt. j. One suddenly raised to wealth, 

IIGHT. a. (tip and right.) 1 . Straight power, or honour ; what suddenly rises and 

rpendicolarly erect {Bacon), 9. Erect- appears {Milton). 

rked up {Spenter). 3. Honest ; not To UPSTA'Y. v. a. {up and stay.) To sus- 

ig from the right {Milton). tain ; to snpnort {Milton). 

lOHT. J. Elevation ; orthography To UPSW A'RM. v. a. {up and swarm.) To 

I). raise in a swarm : out of use {Skakspeare), 

ilGHTLY. ad. (from upright.) 1. To U FT A'KE. ©. a. (up ami /aite.) To take 

iicularly to the horizon. 2. Honestly; into the hands {Spenser). 

: deiriation from the right {Taylor). UPTON, a town in Worcestershire, with 

UGHTNESS. s. (from uprMt.) I. a market on Thursday ; seated on the Severn, 

Jicutar erection (fTaZ/er). 2. Honesty; 11 miles S. of Worcester, and lOg W.N.W. 

y {Atterlury). of London. Lon. I. 65 W, LaL 61. 69 N. 

fPRi'SE.i;. «. {up and rise,) I. To rise To UPTRAaN. v, a. {up and train.) To 

iconibitire {Psalms). 2. To rise from bring up; to educate: not used {Spenser), 

hthoTiion {Cowley). 3. To rise with To VFTU^RJ^. v. a. {up and turn.) To 

f (Sltakspeare). throw up ; to furrow {Milton). 

I'sB. s. Appearance above the horizon UPUPA. Hoop, or hoopoe. In zoology, »> 

*eare). genus of the class aves, order pic£. Bill arched, 

lOAR. s. {oproer, Dutch.) Tumult; lone, slender, convex, a little compressed, 

disturbance; confusion {Raleigh), somewhat obtuse; nostrils small, at the base 

/pROAR. V. a. (from the noun.) To of the bill; tongue obtuse, entire, triangular, 

nto confusion-: not used {Shaks pear e). very short; feet formed for walking Ten 

FPROOTi V, a. {up and root,) To tear species, scattered over the warmer climates of 

he root (Dryden). the globe. The following are the chief. 

jPROU'SE. V, a. {up and rouse.) To 1. U. epop^. Common hoopoe. Variegat- 

from sleep ; to excite to action {Sh.). ed with blackish and rufous white, beneath 

AL, a town of Sweden, in Upland, reddish-white; crest yellow brown, or pale 

famous university, and an archbishop's orange tipt with black; tail black, witha wnite 

t contains, exclusive of the students, bar. 

3000 inhabitants. It is divided into This species, often seen in our own country, 

(lost equal parts by the river Sala ; and is easily distinguished by its enormous tuft of 

fets are diawn at right angles from a feathers, which rise perpendicularly from the 

kind of square. A few of the houses crown of the head, and which it can erect or 

It of brick ; but the gencr.ility are con- depress at pleasure. Of this crest, the longest 

lof wood, and painted red. The roofs feathers are in the middle; so that, when 

wed in with turf; and e.ich house has erected, it is of a semicircular form, twoincher 

II Gonriyard or garden. Upsil was for- above the head. The crest feathers are all 

he metropolis of Sweden, and the royal brown, tipt at the end with black. The back, 

3e. The ancient palace was a magnifi- scapulars, and wings, are crossed with broad 

lildinis, until grrat part of it was con- bars of white and black. The neck a pale 

i>ylire, in 1702. The cathedral, a large reddish brown. The breast and belly are 

structure of brick, has been several whije. 

(reatly damaged by fire, and as often The hoopoes are spread over the whole of 

I: *it contains the monument of the the ancient continent, from Sweden, where 

Gustivus Vasa. The univers>ity is the they inhabit the large forests; and even from 

neient in Sweden, and the first semi- Lapland and the Orcadcs ; to the Canaries and 

the North for acaHemical education, the Cape of Good Hope. Throughout all 

0)al Societjf here is likewise the oldest Europe they are biids of passage, never rc- 

acadcmy m the North. Here is a mainmg the whole year, even in the mild 

j| garden, of which the celebrated Lin- climates of Greece and luly. They are seen 

IS su|>erintcndnnt. Upsal is seated in a among those vast crowds of migratory birds 

len plain, fertile in corn, 36 miles that, twice every year, pass the island of 

^. of Stockholm. Lon. 17. 48 E. Lat. Mnlta, 

N. The food of these birds, in a state of nature, 

IHOT. /. (tip and shot.) Conclusion; is commonly insects, and espeeially such as are 

ist amount ; final event (Pope). found upon the surface of the ground; for 

I IDE down, (an adverbial form of they seldom perch upon tree^, or remain long 

} J. With the lower part above the upon the wmg. In Eevpt, they narrowly 

iffeylin). 8, In confusion ; in com- watch the retreat of the Nile, on account of iu 

lorder {Italeifrh). leaving'a rich slime, which, being warmed by 

SPRING. 1. A man suddenly exalted ; the sun, soon begins to teem with insects of 

ift : not used {Shakxpearc). r\'ery deoomioation. Their flesh smells so 



U P u 

fonglvof musk, ihai the cat, ^ 
r birds in general, 






hoopoe builds in holei of roKen iices, or of 
old waits, and lays horn Iwo to seven eji^. 
Tbis, according to tuicirni fable, it the bird 
into which Tereu9 wai metamorphosed. 

S. U. paradiiea. Crested hoopoe. Crested ; 
chonut ; two of the lail-feathcrs very long. 
Inhabiu India; nineieen inche* in length. 

When lamed, this bird shewi great niiach- 
mcnt to ill mailct ; but is not eatUy reconciled 
lo (he company of ilrangers. This exclusive 
Btiaclimcnl becooiei even so strong, as to efface 



the desire of liberty. A tameil hoopoe 
It escape from its keeper, though left 






When fully domcElicated, i 



B»h, and may be held a bird afprey. In the 
vicinity of Cairo and Rosetto tneie are two 
varieties, the one migratory, and the other sta- 
tionary : and of the former, the individuals. 



lent ratiiiK- lu li)eyp>, ihei 
ID small flocks; and when on 






mble 



e finds itself de- 
serted by Uie rt«t, it recals its loti companions 
by a feeble sharp cry. In other places, the 
hoopoes are so solilary in their manners, that 
even when ihey arrive in the saoie district to- 

iioursv 
Itlcation with each other. 

The young hoopoes are itol all excluded from 
ihc shell at the tame time. Several tlays, or 
even weeks, elapse, before the last are emanci- 
pated, if we inav trust to iheit appearance in 
the nest; some being nearly fledged, while 
the te*l are almost bate. The Italian natu- 
talists allege, ihat birds of this species produce 
several broods in the same ceasoa, and that 
the young disperse as soon as they become In* 
dependent of tlieir parents. About the end of 
summer, the hoopoes leave Europe ; but, at 
they are produced at diETetenl seasons, they are' 
not all eqnally prepared for the journey; 
whence many of the young and infirm are 
forced lo remain behind, and they shut them- 
selves up in (he botes in which they were 
reared. In a climate unfuiiable lo their con- 
stitution these pass the winter in a slate ap- 
proaching to torpor, taking but little food, and 
often perishing. This has aiven rise to ihe 
opinion that the birds of inis genus lodge 
spontaneously during winter in hollow trees, 
where they remain naked and benumbed till 
the approach of spring Similar accounti have 
been g^ven of (he cuckoo, from probably a 
like csute, and founded on do better grounJa. 

These birds, it is said, among the Egyptians, 
are accounted the emhieins of filial aSeclion. 
No sooner do the father and mother become 
frail from age. than their young aliend to 
nurse and cotnforl them. They warm them 
under their winces j aid them in their painful 
mouliing, by pulling away the old feathers; 
apply healing hetba lo I'ticir eye* when tender ; 
and render inem all those services, which ihc 
young lliemselTcs received during their feeble 



R A ^m 

a*e. Such fables, however agtcraWe tW 
may be lo the pious credulity of the E^pti«iM, 
are far from being so well altetled as to Aoii 
anycredii from the historian. 

The crested hoopoe is about the si'M of a 
thrush, and weight from two to four «uBcei. 
So Urge a crc&t, added to a creature of ladtnai- 
nulive a siie, renders this bird one of Ibc omi 
fanusiical of the feathered iribci. 'The cntt 
consists of two rows of feathers. e^uidislaaL 
The feathers of ihe longesi row arwe fsMti 
the middle of the crown i and h citee, when 
erect, theyform a semicircle, nbou) two indn 
and a half in bright. The wImIc of iImc 
feathers are red, and terminate with a Uict I 
spot. The upper pan of ihe body ia p^, | 
with a tinac of brown, varied with liaiuvint | 
tvaves of dirty while : the wii.igs and tail tr* 
black, undulated with bars of white. Tbtn 
ate some rarieiiet of this biri*! in Europe, u4 ', 
a distinct species in the isluiid of MadagncM, 
and at the Cape of Good Hope. To ihiN, 
M. Montbcillard, the contantiaior of Bobt, 
has added a tpeci», which he calls the pnnk 
ripe, distinguished by a long tail, memblio| 
that of iheliird of Paradite. M. Briston tut 
added four different ijieeies of biidt in dw 
genus, from America and the Wcti India. 
These do nol, however, seem strictly lo behMf 
10 it, because ihey all want the large cresl, ih 
most singular characteristic of the E i Mf tm 

Tliere are two others, ihe Mexiem ti4 d« 
brown or New Guinea, the former niueWn, 
the latter iwenty-two inches long. 

U'FWAKD. a. (up and peB[ii>, SaionJ 
Directed lo a higher port (Drydn). 

U'pwAao. f. The top: out of use C^Ui.). 

U'pwAkD. U'pwARDS. ad. (up and pHP*-) 
I. Toward a higher place (Dryden'). 9. To- 
ward heaven and God {Bwkrr), 3. Widi 
respect lo the higher part (Afilttoa). 4. Mm 
ihani with tendency to a higher or gKMB 
number {Hotter). b. Toward the MM 
iP»pt). 

To UPWI'ND. t>. a. prel. and ptn. «• 
ueund. (up and if ind.) To convolve (^MWr)- 

UR (ane. geog), a citadel of MeaopoiMBis. 
situaird between the 'HKris and Nixbis ; lakn 
by some for Ur of the Chaldees. the rtiitlww 
of Abraham. What seems lo coDlinn this it. 
thai from Ut to Haran, the other rcsidMKeaf 
the patriarch, the road lies directly for Pakstiiw. 
And it ii no objection (hat Ur ii said W-bt ia 
Mesopoiamia; because ihe parli nesi the Ti- 
gris were occupied by the Cnaldeani, as m«H 
to be confirmed from Acts vii. 8,4, It isnlU 
ed Orche, in Sttabo ; Orchtte, in Ptolemy. 

URACH, a town of Suabia, in the diwhyoT 
Winemburg. Here are considetahla mano* 
(actnres of damask and other linens. It it II 
miles S.S.E. of Siuiganl, and S* W. of UIb. 
Lon.g. 16 E. I,il.48. S7N. 

URACH US. (from .^. urine, and .x., lo 
contain.) The ligaiucntoiu cord that anm 
from the basis of the urinary bladder, which 
it rum along aud tcmiaatct in the iimbtM 



m U R A 

tn the fetiua ot btule animals, which 
ient* ntoitlj diisecled, ii ii a hollunr 
id oMiireji the urine to ihe alUnloid 

iLq a DTCr or Ruuia, which rises in 
Caacasus, >a6 w 3 wring Orenburg, 
and Gtuief, falls b; three mouths inta 

K' in sea. Sec the next Jdiclc. 
LAN COSSACS. aTarUt tribe that 
ihe Ruuiin province of Orenburg, on 
Ii side of the Ural. These Cossaci are 
led from those of the Don; and are a 
race- llie} profess the Gteek religion ; 
re arc dissenters from the established rc- 
wbom Uie Russians calktl Rf^ikulnilii, 
raliitt, and who style ihemseUea Siaro- 
«T Old Believers. These cogsidei the 
of ihe established church as profane, 
te their own pri»u and ceiemonies. 
Tralian Cosstics are all enlhusiasii f'lr 
»enl liiutt, and prize iheir beards al- 
[|iul to their lives. A Russian officer 
ofrfeted a number of Cossac recruits to 
lirty shaved in the town of Yaiuk, in 
Jiia wanton imuil excited an inturrcc- 
'hjch was suppressed for a time ; but, 
), the impostor, Pugatcbef, having ns- 
ute name of Peter III. appeared among 
and, taking advantage of this circum> 
niiMd ihem once more into apta re< 
. This being suppressed by the defeat 
ecation of the impostor, in order 10 ex- 
h all remembrance of this rebellion, the 
aik was called the Ural ; ihe Yiik Cos- 
EK (tenoininated Uralian I'^ossacs ; and 
raofVallsk was named ITialsk. These 
s an very rich, in consequence of iheir 
» In the Caspian sea. Their principal 
i* (or sturfKons and belup, whose roe 
!* large quantities of cDviarei and the 
liiefly salted and dried, afford s consider- 
licle of eonuimptioa in the Russian em- 

AL5K, a town of Russia, in the govern- 
>f Caucasus and province of Orenburg. 

fbrnierlv called Vaitsk (tw the preced- 
ide) anil is seated on the river Ural, 375 
N.N.E. of Atiracsn. Lon. 60. 10 E. 
(. ON. 

\NIA. in fabulous history, one of the 
, daufihlcr of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, 
resided over astronomy. She was repre- 

u a «oung virgin crowned with stars, 
gariobe in her hands, and having many 
aalical inslnuncnti placed round. (He- 
^ptlhd.). A limame of Venus, the 
U Celestial, supposed to preside over 

and generation. 

iNta, in botany, a genus of the class 
Ilia, Older monogynia. Cslyxlcis; cotol 
Mlalled i nectary iwo-leaved. with an 
nal bifid leaflet ; capsule inferior, ihree- 

inany-4ceded ; seeds in two rows, cover' 
.h an aril. One species only, a Mada- 
Irec, with an undivided trunk. 
ANnCinminenloBv. SceURAHIttM. 
ANITIC OCHRE. SccUKAKtOH. 



URANIUM, in mineralon, a gennj of the 
class metals. Dark-grcv. inciniing inicrnallj 
to a brown, with a slignt lustre, soft, brittle; 
specific gravitv 6'440 i hardly fusible before 
the blowpipe, but with borax forming a brown 
and with microcosmic salt a grass-gieen glass; 
convertible intoayellowoxydliy the nitric acid. 
Three species. 

1. U. ocbraceum- Utanite. Uranites. Uiac 
nitic ochre. Yellow oxyd o( uranium. Yel- 
lowish or green, of an earthy texture, entirely 
soluble in nitric acid, combined with a tatgc 
portion of oxygen. Generally found on the 
surface of uranium sulphureum or iicch- 
blende in Cornwall, &c. of a lemon or brim- 
stone yellow or green ; it slightly stains the 
(ineeis, is meagre to the touch, hardiv fusible 
br^lu".' the blowpipe, but in a strong ileal be- 
comes black: sficcitic gravity 3 943; coniiiU 
of oxyd of uranium aiieToxygcn. 

a. U. chjlcholilhui. Chalcolit. Oxyd of 
uraniie. Ciystnlliied oxyd of uranium. 
Hardish, diaphonous, shining internally, of a 
foliated texture, entirely soluble in nitnc acid. 
Found in Cornwall, neat Eibcnsiock and Jo- 
hanngeorgensiadl in Saxony, and near Rein- 
bteidenbach in thealecloraleof Tiieves, somo- 
limes on the surface of other ores, sometime* 
in larfjer or less particles mixed with rocks of 
gneiss, nniel, or quarlz, most commonly cry- 
sLillizcd in cubes, square plates, eight-sided or 
six-sided prisms : colour emerald or grass- 

f;reen, oi^en inclining to silvery- white, or ycl- 
uwish with a greenish-while streak: luitre 
sometimes perlaceous, sometimes metallic ; so- 
luble in nitric acid without effetvcscence, but 
insoluble and infusible by alkalies ;* consists of 
oxyd of uranium, carbonic acid ; and, the 
green kind, of a little oxyd of cop|>er, 

3. U. sulphureum. Sulphurated uranite. 
Pechblende. Hardish, very Mnderous, black, 
compact, shining iniemally. Found at Johann- 
^eorgensladl, jn Saxony ; eilher forming en. 
tire thin strata, alteniating with other siniified 
mineral), or massive and dispersed ; coloui 
black, dark-grey, or bluciih-Mack, with a 
darker streak, and opaque, black powder ; lex- 
lure conchoidal, very Willie ; inipcifeclly so- 
luble in sulphuric and muriatii: acids, bui per- 
fectly in nuric and oitro- muriatic acids, giving 
the solution a vinous yellow ; funning a grey 
opske slag with borax and soda, antTa green 
glass wilH microcosmic sail : ipecilic gravity 
U'37S 10 7-500 : contains, according to Klap- 
roib. 

Uranium . 80* 

Sulphurctoflcad - 60 
Silrx . 3 

Oxyd of iron . 9 5 



The analysis of ihe ores of oraninm Is tof- 
ficitndy fiuiple. The only nibsiances thai 
have liitherin been found in natuial tnixtureor 
combination with ibis metal are lead, irtui, 
coppUi Hitphur, and sila. Of iheae the ml- 



U R A U it » 

|>haruiditlcKaretobeieptratedfintbycli^» tliorler than the birer; gHI-membraM irilb 

tkm in dilate nitric Jtcid; amf the- other exotic nx papillooi toothed njt ; the coreit wldis 

BiateriaU from the meul thus far purified in membiinaeeoot- fringe; rent inthe middktf 

the regular order of leady dopiper, and iron. the body. Two specica. 

The oitnit of uraniom being boiled with l. U. aeabfer. Body amooth. HeadhnL 

canttie fixed alkali, the whole m the uranium aquare, mailed, with a bone sprinkled bverwidi 

.will be precipitated at nnre yellow oxyd. minute warts, and which lerminaiea aboic li 

The process bv whicn Klaproih reduced thb two, beneath in (irt spines ; tongoe tfeidE, 

netal u the following : he mixed the veilow strong, shorty covered with minnle teedi ; Ih 

oxyd of uianhim, precipitated from its solutions beanwd with cirri ; upper jaw with a dodw 

by an alkali, witli linseed oil, in the form of a oval cairity within, lower corered widi a 






ante, and this being exposed to a strong heat, brane terminating in a long appendage ;eya 

ttere remained a black powder, whicn had vertical, approximate; pupil bl8CK,ifiayenNrj 

lost rather more than one-fourth of its weight* apNertnre or the gills very large ; body eofeni 

It was then exposed to the heat of a porcelain with small scales, nearly square, aa rarlb tk 

furnace, in a dose crucible, and the oxyd was rent, and aftt^rwards rotmd ; lateral line, eoa» 

mfterwards found in a coherent mass, but fri- sisting of small, round, holloiw dots, dasceaJiag 

sd)ie under the fingers, and reduced to a black from the nape to the pectoral fina, and aflai* 

atiining powder, it decomposed nitric acid wards straight; fins with soft yeUownyi^ 

with effervescence. This black powder, co* those of the venltal quadrifid, of the bnsl 

vered with calcined borax, was for the second pectoral cleft at the tip, of the skMay-bhA aarf 

time exposed to a still stronger heat, by which and dorsal simple, of the caudal much baab? 

a metallie mass was obtained, consisting of ed ; first dorsal fin bony. Inhabits the IM^ 

ray small g^boles adhering together. terranean sea; frequents deep places' near ifci 

The affinity of the yellow oxyd for the acids shores ; body above brown, cineieoos at dit 

ia ao considerable, that its salu are not decom- sides, tieneath white ; feeds on snnSer Mk 

poeed by the addition of atnc or of any other and aquatie insects; somettmeaslecpe; fle4 

metal. good, but tough ; ler^h about a fbot. 

The followinf vitrescent mixtures were f . U; Japonicus. Back with a itiw ofipik 

made by Klaproui to ascertain the power of ous scales. Head depressed, with nearalB 

this oxyd aa a colouring substance. prickles ; ventral fins short. Inhabila the nt 

Silex • « drachms, around Japan; half a foot long; body w^ ! 

Carb. potash - I drachm, ■^T^?' ^iTi **"^? ^^'^ u n " 

Ydloroxyd - lOgfs. , URANUS, or Oca ASUS, the««eala^ 

fioduces a cleaf light brown glass? IS ^ J!^''"''l?L* p il'^'LPtJ?^^ 

■^ ^., ^ . , n«i Tiih»a, or the Earth, by wbomhehH 

Silex - 8 drachms, the Titans. His children conspired againsthi^ 

Carb. soda - 1 drachm, because he confined them in the bosom of die 

Yellow oxyd ^ -^ . , 10 grs. earth, and his son Saturn mutilated him, sod 

produces an opaque, blackish-grey glass. jrove him from his throne. 

Siiex - 2 drachms, Uranus, in astronomy, the name giren, 

Glass of l)orax - 2 drachms, for the sake of analogy, to the primary planet 

Yellow oxyd - 90 grs. discovered by Dr. Herschel. See Astrovo- 

jpioduces a clear glass of a smoke-brown co- my, Georgium stdus, and Herschel. 

lour. URATS. Salts formed by a combination of 

Silex - £ drachms, " c^^*"* "^'^^ ""^ *'^''' ""^ *'''"*'' ^ ^'*'* 

^'*'?S^^tt^^"' *"''' 2 dr..hm, ^ URBA'NITY. .. iurhaniU, French ; mk- 

Yellow oxi^^ . IS^^ ' -'-'f ^^''^'\ ^^^'y ' ^^^^"" ' PO^^i 

iciiowoxjci *"R". merriment ; facet onsness (Dryrfen). 

produces an opaque apple-giec.i glass like URBINO, a duchy of ffi in the Eccic 

chrysoprase. «iastical Stale, fifty-fi've miles long, and fofty- 

Vitreous phosphoric five broad ; bounded on the north by Rom^aa, 

acid ' - 2 drachms, north-cast by the gulf of Venice, sooth-oit 

Yellow oxyd - 10 grs. and south by Ancona, and W. Iw I^rogiao 

produces a clear emcrala-grccn glass. and Tusrany. The air is not devnied wbotr- 

I'he glass obtained, however, by the two some, nor is the soil fertile. The chief pro- 
last experiments was in some degree deli- duction is silk, and fcame is plentiful, 
quescent. U RBI no, a city of Italy, capital of the doehy 

The yellow oxyd when mixed with the of Urbino, and an archbi$hop*s see. Thepi- 

common enamelling flux tinges porcelain of a lace, where the dukes formerly resided, ntiv 

deep orange-yellow. belongs to the pope. The university contains 

•The alloys of uranium are as yet wholly un- a noble colle^ice and sixteen convents. Great 

known. quantities of fine earthen ware are made here; 

URANOSCOPUS. Star-gaier. In zoology, and it is famous for being the hirthpl.ice of the 

a^iius of the class pisccs, order jueularia. illustrious painter Raphael. It was tiken by 

Head large, depressed, rough; up[)CT jaw the French in 1 79(). It stands on a hillj b^' 



U R E . U R E 

e rivers Metro and Fo^lia, 68 miles tbere remains behind a large rfesiduam, oom^ 

»rence> and 120 N. of Rome. Loo. posed of charcoal, inuriat of ammonia, and 

Lat. 43. 46 N. muriat of soda. The distillation is accompa* 

10 (Raphael D*). See Raphael. nied with an almost insupportable fetid alii- 

lOLATEy in botany. Piicher-shaped. aceous odour. Two hundred and eighty parts 

. iK'lvis iostar inflatus & undique sib- of urea yield by distillation ^eOO parts of carbo- 

Hying out like a pitcher. Applied to nat of ammonia, 10 (>arts of carbureted hydro« 

, corol, and nectary, gen gass, seven pans of charcoal, and 68 parts 

LIN, in zoology. See Echinus. of benzoic acid, muriat of aoda, and muriat of 

IV, a term of slight anger to a child, ammonia. These three last ingre<iients Four- 

a river in Yorkshire, v«^hich rises on croy and Vauquelin consider as foreisn sub- 

ncs of Westmorland, flows by Mid- stances, separated from the urine by the alco- 

Ripon, Boroughbridge, and Aldbo- hoi at tliesame time with the urea. Hence ||t 

nd a little below joins the Swale, follows tliat 100 parts of urea, when distilled^ 

e united stream forms the Ouse. yield 

i, the constituent and characteristic _^ ^^^ u . r 

• urine, which may be obuincd by the ' 9f g^ carbonat of ainmonia 

5 process : Evaporate by a gentle^heat ^'^^ carbureted hydrogen gas^ 

y of human urine, voided six or eight 3'g26 c harcoal 

er a meal, till it is reduced to the con- ^. 

>f a thick syrup. In this stale, when 99"800 

3 cool, it concretes into a crystalline Now 200 parts of carbonat of ammonia, ac« 

^our at different times upon this mass cording to Fourcroy and Vauouelin, are com* 

es its weight of alcohol, and apply a posed of 86 ammonia, 90 caroonic acid gasa^ 

at; a great part of the mass will be and 24 water. Hence it follows that 100 par);* 

, and there will remain only a number of urea are composed of 
substances. Pour the alcohol solution 3(>*5 oxygen 

tort, and distil by the heat of a sand- 32*5 azot 

the liquid, after ooiling some time, is 14.'^ carbon 

to the consistence of a thick syrup. 13.3 hydrogen 

ole of the alcohol is now separated, 
t remains in the retort crystallizes as lOO'O 

These crystals consist of the substance « 

y the name of urea. But it can scarcely be doubted that the wateK 

obtained in this manner, has the form which was found m the carbonat of ammonia 

line plates crossing each other in dif- existed ready-formed in the urea before the 

irections. Its colour is yellowish distillation. 

C has a fetid smell, somewhat resem- When the solution of urea in water is kepft 

at of garlic or arsenic; its taste is in a boiling heat, and new water is added as it 

)d acrid, resembling that of ammoni- evaporates, the urea is gradually decomposed, 

; it is very viscid and difficult to cut, a very great quantity of carbonat orammonia 

a good deal of resemblance to thick is di^enga§ed, and at the same time acetic acid 

When cxpofcd to the of)en air, it is formed, and some charcoal precipitates. 
1 attracts moisture, and is converted When a solution of urea in water is left to 

lick brown liquid. It is extremely itself for some time, it is gradually dccompos- 

n water; and during its solution a ed. A froth collects on its surface; and air-* 

ible degree of cold is produced. Al- bubbles aie emitted which have a strong dis- 

•solves It with facility, but scarcely in agreeable smell, in which ammonia and acetia 

a proportion as water. The alcohol acid are di»tingulshable. The liquid contains 

yields crvstals much more readily on a quantity of acetic acid. The decomposition 

on than tne solution in water. is much more rapid if a little gelatine is added 

nitric acid is dropt into a concen- to the solution. In that case more ammonia 

lation of urea in water, a great num- is disengaged, and the proportion of acetic acid 

right pearl-coloured crvstals are depo- is not so great. 

nposed of urea and nitric acid. No When the solution of urea is mixed with 

d produces this singular effect. The one-fourth of its weight of diluted sulphuric 

ated solution ofurea in water is brown, acid, no effervescence takes place; but, 00 

ecomes yellow when diluted with a the application of heat, a ouantity of oil ap- 

mtity of water. The infusion of nut- pears on the surface, whicn concretes upon 

es it a yellowish- brown colour, but cooling; the liquid which comes over into tha 

> precipitate ; neither does the infusion receiver contains acetic acid, and a quantity of 

odnce any precipitate. sulphat of ammonia remains in the retort dis* 

heat is applied to urea, it very soon solved in the undistilled mass. By repealed 

treRs up, and evaporates with an insup- distillations, the whole of the urea is C0Dvertc4 

fetid odour. When dii»tilled, there into acetic acid and ammonia. 
n first benzoic acid, thencarbonat of When nitric acid is poured upon cnrstaU 

i in crystals, some carbureted hydrogen lized urea, a violent effervescence takes place, 

h traces of prussic acid and oil ; and the mixture froths, assumes llie forn «f a 



^^^ U R E 

diric-Kdliqirid,grcatquanihJe9ornitroiH|yN, nypto^jiinla, ntder Ain^I Fungu fU^ 
ozolic ga«, and carbonic acid gnss are diKn- consUting of inenl; pon^Jer aadrt thcculiclsoT 
gaged. When the eflervHcence isover, there planu; tnmeliines under the cuticle of ktis 
remains only a concrete white mattri, with oritrnij somctimf) under that or the parli of 
lome drops of reddish liquid. When heat i» friiciilieation. Nine specie*, all indiEenatt 
applied lu thii residuum, it delcnale* like ni- to our coDntrc. The rollotving are well cdi^ 
itat of ammonia. Into a solution of ures, ilod to notice. 

formed by its altrscting moiitore from the at- I. U. frnmenii. LJneai-oblnng, bltek- 
mospherc, an equal quantitjp of nilfic acid, of brown ; well known, as to iti ef&cu, bj du 
the specific grant]! I .t6o, diluted with twice name of blight. 

iU weight of water, was added; a gentle efl'er- S. V. K^ctum. Black, in ibe tptkeltn «( 
TCtcence emued : ■ very tmall heal was on- gnssa. bqualljr well known, as lo iu tf 
plied, which supported the efiervescence for feels, by the name of imui. 
twodayt. There was disen^ged the lint day See the arliclei Hvsmakdry Bud Mv- 
agceat miaDlityofanolicgauanHeaTbonicacid cok, under a particular specie* of wbtcH 
gais ; the second day, carbonic acid ^s ; and M. Wildenow ha* chosen to rank bolh ttM( 
at last nitrout gaas. At the same liine niih plants. 

the nitrous rass ihe smell of the ozjpruMic UREE, in cheniiiiiy, the basia of the arie 
acid of Berthollet was perceptible. At ihc amuirvnia; urine Cfaporated to the comitcraa 
end of the second day. the matter in the retort, of honey. i 

which was become tliick, took fire, and burnt l'REN.\, in botany, a genus of the rim 
with a violent explosion. The residuum con- monadclphia, order pnlyandria. Calyx da»- 
tained traces of prussic acid and ammonia, ble ; the outermost five-cleft ; eapiutc ftn- 
The receiver contained a yellowish acid liquor, celled, fivc-parlible ; the cells clwed and aor- 
on the eurface of which some drops of oil seuded. Eight species, nativei of ihe Ean «> 
swam. West Indies. 'Fhe two followini; oie cubi- 

Muriatic acid dissolves urea, but does not vated. 
alter it. OxyitiiiHaiie acid bj^s' is absorbed I. U. lobatj. Angular- leaved urena: R>- 
very rapidly by a diluted soluiion of urea ; ing with an upright slock, Iwn ftel bi^ j 
small whitish flakes appear, which soon be- and mallow-shaped flowcn of a deep blue. A ' 
come brnwn, aod adhere to the sides of ihs native of China. 

vessel like a concrete oil. After a eonsiderable 8. U. tinuara. Cut-leaved urena, Suffhafc 
quantity of oxymuriallc acid had been ahtorb- cosa : rising three feel, with small tnu-coloutd 
*d, the solution, left lo itself, cuoliaued to ef- floweri. A native of India. Both are MWi ' 
(ervesce exceedingly slowly, and to emit cii- plant', and increased by seeds from iheirmasl 
bonic acid and azotic ^s. After ibis eflei- toils. i 

vescence was over, the liquid contained murial L'RETER. (■■,*>j\, from ■;«, uttne,) Til 
and carbonat of ammonia. membranous cunal which conveys the ortM 

Urea is dissolved very rapidly bv a soluiion from the kidney i» the urinary bladder; al in 
of potass or soda, and at ihe same time a su|icnnr part it is considerably the largnl, w- 
'' '' ' 'is disengaged ; the same cupyiiig the ipealcst ponioii of the jicliit of 

ed when urea Is treated (he bidaey i it then contracts lo the siwofa 



"7 i 
with baiyles, time, or even magnesia. Hence goose-quill, and descends over ihc dum 
it is evident, thai this appearance must be as- nui muscle and large crural veaoli inu iM 
cribed to the muriat of ammonia, with which iwUls, in which il perforates the urinary bU- 
it is constantly mixed. When pure solid pot- dei very obliquely. Its internal surface is Inbn- 
a» is Irilurated with urea, heal is produced, caied wllh mucus, to defend it from the Itni^ 
a great quantity of ammonia ii disengaged, tion of the urine in passing, 
the mixture becomes htown. and a mbMance URETHRA, {n^fo, (lom ayii, the uriiB< 
is deposited, bavins the appearance of an em- because It is the canal through which ih 
pyreumalic oil. One part of urea and two urine passes. ] A membranous canal tonnioi 
of potass, dissolred in four limes its weight of fioiii the neck of the bladder through the ial^ 
water, when distilled, gives out a ereat quan- rior part of ihe penis to the eatiemiljr oflbt 
lil^ of animoniacal water ; the residuum con- glans penis, in which it opens by a longiiu^inl 
taint aceiat and carbonat of potass. orifice, called ihc meatus urinariiu. In iliii 
When muriai of soda is dissolved in a solu- course It lirst passes thruugh the proiuic gland, 
tion of urea in water, it is obtained by ciaptt- which porlion is dislinguished by the naawef 
ration, not in cubic crystals, its usual form, the prosiatlcal urethra; it then becouiniaacti i 
but in regular octahedrons. Muriat of ammo- dilated, and is known by ihc nauieof tb«b■illr 
n the contrary, which cryjtalliies naiu- ous pan, in which is situated a cuunesia 



tally 1 
byjis 



I octahedrons, is converted into cubes eminence called the caput gallinaginia oi 



dissolvingandcryslallizingil in thesolution monlanum, around v 

OI urea. orifices of the excteioiy duet* of the prtwau 

UREDO. {from !(«>, to bum,) An itch- gland, and two of the spcrniatie vc»«*l., V" 

iiigor burning sensation of the skin, which remaining pailof the urrihraconiainianun- 

accompanies many diseases. The nettle rash bei of triangular mouths, which are the tm- 

il also m called. ax, nr o|>rnings of ihe exeretoi^r ducts ot ihf 

Ukbso, is botany, a genua of ihe cbtt mucous glaada of the uic'hta. 



f U R I 

TAIS. Mcdicioes which piamMe a' 
X of urine. 
RGE. 0. o. {urgfo, Latin.) i. To 
to puh; to pr«i by mofives (Tiltol- 
I. To uiwoke; to exasperate (5*0*- 

3. To r»llow cltMc, so us to Impel 

4. To labour vehememly ; to ilo 
iQcriMB or violence (Pope), t. To 

ntlbrce (Dn/dea}. C- To prva »» 
imeiil {Siaiipeia-t). 7. To impor- 

1 xriidl (SjSfiuer). 8, To presi id op- 
, by way of objection {TillolKm}. 
>CB. ■. n. To pms forward {Donne). 
<EL, a town of S|>ain, in Calaionla, 
biinp'* we. It is leated on the Segia, 
rtile pimin, surrounded by mountain* 
wiih Tineyard*. 78 mites N.N.W. of 



^urgfnl, French ; urgeni, 
1. Cogent j pressing; violent (Aa- 
i. Imiiortunate; vehement in tolicito- 




rM&u). 
!ENTL' 



TLy. ad. Cogently i violently i 
nlly 1 itnporlu I lately (//arufu). 
JER. «. (from urgf.) One wno presses ; 
ner ISwi/t). 

, • canton of Swisiertand, 30 miles 
i ISbtnadj bounticil on tbeN. by the 
arSdiweiltand Ihe WalsiadterSec, E. 
Stnt^ns of Gciannt and Gbrui, S- by 



SeeScHweiTZ. 

C ACID. Uric or lithle acid was dis- 
by Scheele in m6. It is ihe most 
Scnniiiiuent ururinaryc.-ilculi.andex- 
in human urine. That species of caU 
hich resembles wood in iu colour and 
)cc i« composed entirely of ihli sub- 
It wit called at firtt littiic acid ; but 
le, in cnttscquencc of the remarks made 
Pesfton wn its impropriety, has been 
e, and that of uric acid lubsiituted in 

tad n this stale hu a brown colour ; 
i, and CTystalllied in small scales. It 
her iMle nor tmell, is insoluble in cold 
int toluble in 360 parts of boiling wa- 
iw Mlntion reildeni regeiable blues. 
If the tincture of turnsol. A great 
be acid precipiuies again as the water 
It combines readily with alkalies and 
bnl ihe compound is decomposed by 
l)cr acid. Muriatic acid has no action 
^kher W sulphuric acid while cold, 
1^ Mtntcd by heat it decomposes il 

i tritiiiueid with potass or soda, it 
nponaceout paste, very soluble in wa> 
) therv is au occeas of alkali, but ipar- 
waihe alkali is neutralised. The uril 
I (n of soda is ncjrly tasteless. The 
onDd crystal N led, conitilutina gouty 
ans. Ammonia does not dissolve uric 
I it cmnbinet with it, and forms a salt 
I nlilUe ihw du pure and, and r^ 



Minbling it in ita estarnal chaiaeten. Nail 
does uric ncid dissolve in time-water ; the alka- 
line carbanaU have no acuon whatever on it. 
Hence the only urai which hai hithetio been 
iletccted it urat nraminonia, or uric acid united 
with volatile iilkali. 

Nitric acid dissolves it readily ; the solution 
i» of a pink-colour, and has the property of 
tinging nnimal nubstances, the akin for in- 
stance, of [lie same coloiir. When this solu- 
lion is boiled, a quantitv of azotic eass, carbo- 
nic acid gass, and of prussic acid, is disengaged. 
When oxymurialic acid gals is made 19 paia 
into water containing this acid suspended in it, 
Ihe acid assumes a gelatinous appeatance, then 
■tissolves ; cartionic acid gass is emitted, and 
the solution yields by evaporation muiial of 
nmmoniii, luperoxalat of ammonia, muriatic 

When uric acid is disiilled, about a Iburth 
of the acid passes o^e^ a litllc altered, and ia 
found in the receiver crystallized in plates ; a 
few drops of thick oil make their appearance ; 
)ih of the acid of concrete catbonat of ammo- 
nla, some prussiat of ammonia, some wato*, 
and carbonic acid, pass over ; and there re- 
mains in the retort charcoali amounting lo 
about ^ih of the weight of the acid disiillci. 

These facis are sufficient to shew us that 
uiic acid is composed of carbon, ami, hydro- 
gen, and oxygen ; and that the proportion of 
uie two last ingredient* is much smaller than 
of the other two. 

URIM and THUMMIM. among the an- 
cient Hebrew*, a certain oracular manner of 
consulting Goil, which was done bv the high 
priest dressed in his robCs, and having on his 
pectoral or breast-plate. Various have been 
the sentiments of commcntatoti eonccrning the 
urim and thummim. Josrphus, and several 
others, maintain, that it meant the precious 
(tones set in the high -priest's hreast-platc, 
which by extraordinary lusirc made known ilie 
will of God to those who consulted him. 
Spenser believes that the utim and thummim 
were two little golden figures shut up in the 
pcctnial, as in a purse, which gave responses 
with an articulate voice. In short, there are 
ai man; opinions concerning the urim aiul 
thummim as there arc particular authors that 
wrote about them. Broughton thinks, that the 
n-ordt urim and thummim signify snme divine 
viiiue and power annexed to the breast-plale 
of the high-priest, by wliich an oraculous an- 
swer was obtained from God when he wat 
consulted by the higb-prietl ; and that this was 
called urim and thumniiiH, to express thecleir- 
ness and perfection which these oracular an. 
Ewers always carried with them t for urim 
signifies light, and ihumtnim perfection : these 
answers not Ixing imperfect and ambiguous, 
like the heathen oracles, hot clear and evident. 
The use made of the urim and thummim was 
lu consult God in diOicutt cates relating to the 
whole state of Israel ; and somciimci in cases 
rclaiine to the king, the sanhedrim, the gene- 
ral of Ihe army, or some other gicat personage. 

A very ingeniou* writer (we inspect, a fe- 



1 



P U R I ^^^tg^amf R i 

isale one) in the Chiiitian ObsCTrtr i) alspM- pre B new intncit to Ihe enmtnaltoo oi. .^ 

ed (o consider ihe nnrnmoribe twelve Irlbci of cull, and matiy addiiional obsemtiotii \i»t 

Israel eiigiavea on the iwdvB precioui stonca i>ccn added lij other chenihli. l)etgiii*n. wbo 

at what alone wal meant by the lustre and was ein ployed on the same siil^ecl at ibeuBa 

])crfeclinn, the urim and the Lhummin), which time with Sthcelc, gai e some furiher tcmailcs 

was appointed 1o be put in the hreail-pUte of im its habitude with aci'ls. Dr. Wolbtion 

judgment; urini denalins the glary orilie ri- has shown that the gouty calculus, oi rlulk- 

stble church, ai bearing the light of imih (sig- stone, as it is generally calledi confiais oi Ihe 

niliedby iheliistreof th« pteciotu stones) ; and liihic Mid neutralized by soda, and his tin 

tbummim, the unity of all its parts, comiiiiit- udtJcil largely to our linowledgc of the virtr^ 

ing its perfection, iigniltcil by all Ihe tribes of of urinary calculi, by discovering ih.st f^Mk 

Jstaelcngravejion these stones, and, as it were, phat of ammonia and magnesia it the e onifoii- 

eiishiinol in their glory. tion of one speciet ; that pure |ihn«|ihatcf lime 

Fot'a fuller explication, together withslrik- forms auolher speciesj and that the tariett 

ing practical reflections in favour of unity of known to surgeons by the name of tbe mal* 

■pirit, deduced from the cjrcumslance that the berry calculus, cnnsiaia of photphai and oulil 

enquiry by urim and thummiin censed about of lime. Dr. Purton, in anatyaing 300 spe- 

^e lime of the defection of the ten tribes, see cimena of culcuir, has foutKl the lilhic Kid of 

cltristian Obser^'er, vol. xl- p- I37- Scheele, in all but six, of very varying prcpn- 

(JRJNA. (■■n> from g,uw, to ruth out.) See tiona. but he consiilert this peculiar sobdaixt 

Crime. rather aa an animal r>xyd ilun an acid, 8in|^ 

U'RINAL. I. {urinai, French.) A bottle natelli and other cheini>ts, whom it is nnd* 

ID which urine is kept for inspection. less to enumerate, have thrown tome fuiiltB 

URINARIA, (so called from producing n light on ibit subject^ .ind Instly, a lung and 

copious eincn.ition of urine.) See Linaria. must elaborate series of experiment!, basbnn 

URINARY BLADDER. Vesica urina- in::de by fouicroy and Vonouclin, which liw 

lia. A muscular >ac, situated in the cavity nf the fullest andiuwtcomprehentivc viewof A* 

thepelii^ in men between the pubes and rec- subject. 

tutn; iMd in women between the pubes and f'rom all these authoiiiiet we naj colkct 

uterus \ which receicet the urine, retains it a the following pntticulars : 
certain time, and then expels ii. lis external The greater iinmber of urinary calenli n 

coat is from the peritonBuni ; internally it is atones in the bl:uldcr are of a round or oitl 

covered with a mucoua membrane, which ae- shape, varying in aize from Uiai of a bean id ihi 

pamtu mucus from the blood to lubricaieand bigness ofa pullet's eag; briiile, hard euougjt 

defend it from the acrimony of ilie urine, to take a good polish: when *Bwn tfaraa^ 

AiMtomist* have distinguished thii bladder obv iously composed of concentric lam inc Ibm* 
iain a fundiia, body, and neck. It h»Biteries , ed rourxla small nucleus; of a dull yellow laa 

from the hypngnitricand ha^mnrihoidati nen'es red gravelly colour, ofien inier-peiMd wiik 

from the intercostal and sacrjl ; and iia veins blond-ted spots ; ami the specific pavitj of 

emiity tliemselves into the hypngasiric reins. even the heaviest d<ies not unite arnouni to & 

UmvAIir CALCULUS, a hard round con- These are the calculi into which ihe litkic or 

cretion rrcqitently formed in the bladder of uric acid euters at a cnnstiluent part, but eie* 

many animaU, and especially of man. stony in in thcie there is a considerable variety of la* 

appearance, and producing the most dreadful tore and appearance, the surface being mnr- 

paioxysina of paui and geuet^l disease, for times smooth and polished, somclimea roiifll 

which no radical cure hat hitherto been dis- with small protuberances, and occasionsUy in- 

covered, except a very serious surgical opera- lerapersed with cryslala, which laiiet are kilt" 

lion. ammoniaco-magnesian pfaouphai. 

The stone in the bladder has been examined The mulberry calculi, as they arc ealkd,*K 

with minute attention by several n'ffit excel teat distinguished by their maoimillated andusalllf 

chcaiisii, who have lieen stimulated by the ad- iwlished surface, resembling that of the aMJ" 

ditional hope of finding a solvent which might berry, and their colour, too, is generalle madi 

remove it ;>hogether, or at least mitlgdle the darker. These, as before mentionod, h<H 

leverity of the svmptoms which it produces: been found by Dr. WoUailon to consiit chitAf 

and itwai enily'discoieied that a contidemble of oxalat of lime. The analysis of thit and «( 

henelit wasdcrited from the internal use of al- the other rarer varieties we slial) reiuin »■ 

kaline medicines, taken in aa large quantily a» after describing the common uric ctkidab 

could be borne, and for a length of time. which is particularly distinguished by ti* It* 

The first and by far ihe uinst important di*- mellar texture, its toughness', and the uoifana 

covery relating to Ihe cheniioal nsiure of cal- brown yellow coltnir of the inner part, a gori 

cuius waa made by Scheele in I7T6> who oh- deal resembling petrified wond in appearioci- 
lained from it a large proportion of a peculiar W hen this CHTcatuii is boiled for tome lio* 

crv9l.illiz.iUe aubitance till then unknown, in water, a lolutlon is obtained holding *Imi> 

wnich bod all the properties uf a very weak 8 grK. in b oz. nf lit^uid which raddeos lilnui* 

acid, raiiicularly in reddening litmus, and paper. As it grows cold tlie grcaiftt pariif 

neutralizing alkaline anil earthy bases. Thii the dissolved portion of calculus triuralnspia 

substance was afterward) denominated lithic in the form of line ciyslols: and it it inr* 

•sid and more Iitelj' uric acid. Tbe diicuvcry which condiiuie ih« pm htjiic or uiic aci^ 



_ _ . ii uldnlw, 

rA itdphutic acid dbcoltrs il by tll« 
>r Vu. But ihc most chaiacieris- 
nre ihMC produced by ihe nitiic 
en ihu ftcid, KDiewtfai cliliiu, ii 
K calciilai, the latKr it mlircly <Jis- 

vapours ariie, and a ROod dral of 
M g»a is pmdumiJ. 
ugh 






'cipitalcil by 



of Ihe csIcuIqs 
liric *cid can dinolvc; il 
ow colour, (Vhich ledtlen! 
mI produce* rose-Cdlnurrd 
out half an hour 
Hi!* Mluliun is n 

alkati, bui when 

Iballne tolution is oraduced which 
colour wlien heauif, and lin^es ii)c 
r with the aciil solution. 
pfpietpiat n/ammania uilh mag- 
fpecies of urinary ralciilua exigis 
Ant noticed by Mr. Teiinanl to 
ibe cominon enlculi in bciug fusible 
ilowpipe inii) nn opahc while glass, 
being almost wholly consumed : 
I able chemtal conjeclured il lo be 
ritme united wiih some other phos* 
TTiii conjecture was found lo be 
CI by ihe sub^uent lualysii of 
itoQ. who ascertained its composi- 
\ tri[jlG salt compwed of phosplioric 
nU, and magnetia. Thit fusible cal- 
my* vrhtier and harder than the 
tcitli, and generally hoi ihe appear- 
liling cryitils, which are sometimes 
ic form of a white satid, 
( of lime catnllui. — The surface of 
nlly of a pale brown, and to imonth 
r polished. VVlien sawn throrgh it 
1} regularly laminated, and die la- 
mal adhere 10 slighily to each other 
le with case into concent lic cnists. 
the lamioc are striated in a direc- 
dicolar 10 the sur^ce, giriae a crys- 
■au texture. Thi*calculuidi»nlvr3 
alowljr 



ysialJizi 



evapo- 



le phosphal of lime is precipni.___ 
a. Before the blowpipe this calcu* 
I at flrsi tliglitlj chairiid, owinfj lo 
g of aonie gelatin or other uoiting 
Huie tritti which il is inlermtxedi 
becomes |>ericctly wliile, and at 
to an opake itlcibule. 

milh aialal qf Imt. mulberry 
rtlis cakutui I) the liaTdcit and 

all thtte ■ub>iances. It« culout is 
n dark chocolate [.town ex(crn.->lly, 
llljr grey within, lu jurfacc is co- 
mboclet oT roDnded knobt, like ihc 

anil when nwn through il give* 
mD u bone 0( ivory. It is mluble 
illy in acids; the cimiic dUalics 
ion Dpon it. When cjictneil in the 
blackens, and gives an ammniiiacal 

ihe other products of hj^ animal 
I a white powiler Gn.illy ri'iniiiiis, 
lifia of qiiick-Iim* and phtnphat of 



^-^ART U. 



Jnin tba KMtrehe* of- MM, t'oncroy ant 
vaiu|(Klin urinnry calculi hate bten ditidei 
aiid arranged into the following twelve distmcl 
specie*. 

I. C*Icu1i of uric acid aloiK. 
2i Ur^it of nmmonia. 

3 0«lal of li.tie. MulberrycaVui;. 

4j Uric acid, a. id earthy pho>)>hat:i, in two 

a, The sdme intermixed, 

C, Urai'if ammonia, and earthy ]i!Kj<phats, 
in dislinci layers. 

7. The same intermixed, 

8i Phosphat of liuie and nnimt^niaco-inag* 
ncsian pliusphui. 

9. Nuclfus oxalal of lime, and covered with 
a thick coaling of uric acid. 

10. A nucrens of oxaiat of Ume, iniestcA 
with earthy phiHphal?. 

I I. Uric acid, or urat of ammonia, earthy 
photphats and oxalat of lime. 

19. Uric acid, urat of ammonia, eaithj 
pliosphats and siiex. 

This laft is rosde a disllnel speciM, on ac- 
count of 1I1C silex, which however k rare. 

The above classification is perhap* loo com- 
pticaled ; but i' will at least serve to ibow ih^ 
very vaiioDS nature of urinary calculi and ihe 
total- abacnce of any one common chemical 
property ■ and it hence demonsitaies to us the 
luipossioility of Ending a single wlvent whicli 
may apply to every case of this formidable dia- 

U'RINATlVRa. Working by urine ipi«. 
vokino urine (Boron). 

URINATOa. ». {urinator, Latin,) A 
diver (.Ray). 

URINE. (-;-.. from »f™. to rosh OOL) 
The Hline liquid secreted in the kidoeyi, and 
dropping donn from them, gutlitim, throiifh lh« 
ureten into Ibe catity oflhc unnary Madder. 

The Kwretory or|tui i* compoSHl of Ihe arle* 
rioni lesaels fit the eorllcal lubstaDCe of llie kJ4- 
Dry*, fraai which Ihe urine paisea IhroHgh tlia 
uriaiferoun tubnii and renal papills, intu Ibe re- 
nal p«Uia, whence it Sows ilrop by dnip throutta 
Itw ureleri into the eiTity of the urinary blad- 
der) where il is detained taine hour*, and, at 
length, when abundant, eliminated Ibraaeh tba 
orelhra. The urine ot aa hollby man U divided 
[d geaeral into, 

I. Crude, or that which >* emitted me or two 
boar* aflcT raliDf ; this is for the mont part aque- 
DUi, and ofteo vitiated by some food*, and, 

a. Coded, which is elimiaated tnme honrt 
after llie digestion of the faad, an that wliich la 
eiiiitlud ID the mominK nrWr deeping. This ia 
generally in smaller quantity, thit'krr, more co- 
loured, nore acrid Ihaa ai any other tine. Of 
■ueh coded urine the colour ia amatly dlttn^ 
■nd not lanhandwine. The de('re of lieat aipwa 
with thai of the blood j henee la atuoipboric aic 
il it w vnH'r, as i> perceived if Ibe hand be waib- 
cil with urine. The >peeiBe grailtjr i* greater 
thin water, ssd that eiullled in the luaruiitcil 
alwajB heavier than at any other time. Tb* 
smell of fresh urlae in not di<agreeahlr. The last* 
is taltiib and nauaroun. The cunaiiteDce U uinie- 
wiint Ibirker than water. The i|oaattlir drpenda 
on that iif the liquid drink, it* diurelle Dalure, 
lud tba UuBpcratitr* of the air. 



A 



U R I N 



'fiipnl'itt ofTi»al1Iirnfrnf.— T. Pwih urine 
iaei n«l >{ip«i' to W of «n ncid nor an nlk^lme 
nilun-i rorildoeinnlchiLaeetlictyrupof TiolcH. 
S. MUrdnilhfixi^tlkiUuidKquKaleiiiilenic- 
tatemtaUtilemlkiili. 3. UrineiimtiUiprmifoUt- 
ed b) •Uobol of irinc, nor minenl >n>r : hen e tt 
]i sn >queou« tiquar, nol m leroiii one. 4. Whrn 
tftld it i( gnduallj rendered mora turbid, and 
dfpaiils a wdimfDl, nhleh is again dittolicd if 
thv urine be made iiarn. ■). Evaporated Id llie 
Ibickneu of bonej, it bcfooies red, bitter, tctj 
arrid, but not alkaline, and ia sailed sapa ol' 
urine i nliich, irbm eiaporated to dr^neti, ii 
called eitrart of urine. G. Urine diilillcd lo Ihe 
coniistenra of honry, and suffered lo erjitalliic, 
dtfpoaitt lal digetliru*, mierocoamic nil, and 
pboiphoralcd and mineral alkali. 

The changvi of urine in the air. — Preierred in 
■ti open »e«el it remaini pcllurid ft-r Home tinw, 
and at Itnglli tbcre i« peri-elred at the b«lian> a 
Dubenila, or little rioud, fonsol (dated u it (Fere 
from the gluten. Tbii nubecula lucreaiei by 
degree*, accU|iie> all Ibe urine, and rcadera il 
opake. The natural bdipII )• changed iuln a pu- 
Irid cadaiemu* one ; and the surface is now ge- 
nenillj covered trilb a cuticle, roiuposed of very 
minute cryitala. At lenglh Ibe urine reKafna its 
tmntparencj, and Ihr euluiir is chauged from a 
jHlovr to a bronn ; the cadaveroui smell pawe* 
Inlo an alkaline, and a hrowu grumous widinicnl 
Ml* to the Uottom, filled with nhite particlei, 
deli(|tiescing in Ihe air, and m conglulmated aa 
•nfnrm, ai It were, little soft calculi. 

Thus two sedimenla are diilin^iahable in 
Ihe urine ; the one white and girlalinoui, and ms 
panled in the beginning ; the olher brown aud 
Crumnd), deposited by Ihe uriue when putrid. 

iiponlBOeouideveneration.— Ofallthelluidaof 
the body, the urine firirt putrcfle.. In aunimcr, 
after a few houn, it heroniea turbid and aiirdidly 
black, then depotili a lopioua icdimeuti and ex- 
halei a (elor lika that of putrid cancer*, which 
■t length becomes cadaterous. Putrid urine ef- 
ftrveiceswilh adds, and if ditlllled. gites ofl', 
befurp water, an urinous volatile ■pirit. 

No liquor in the human body, however pure, 
I* to variable in n^peet to quaintly and qualjly 
•a toe urine, for it varies, 

I. Ih reupcct to age ; in the fetui it is inodor- 
ous, inaipid, andalnioitaqueouKibut an the in- 
fant grows it liecomM uioiv acrid and fetid, and 
in old agi; more particularly so, 

3. In trspePt (u drink : it ii iccreled in greater 
qnBDlit),andof a more pale colour, from cold and 
rupioui draughtu. It bcrouics green froni an in- 
fukjon of Chineie tea, or the UK of the pulp of 

•J. In respect to fuod ; from rating Ihe heftds 
of Mparagua, or oliven, it contracts a peculiar 
amcil ; from the fVuit of the opuntia it becomes 
red, nnd tram fkaling, turbid. 

1. In respect to mediciacs: tmm the exhi- 
hiliun of rhubub-root, it bcei>nii-$ yellow ; and 
from liirpcnline, a riolet colour. 

S. In reapvct to the lime nfthe yeart la the 
wiuirr the Urine i> more copious and aqueoua ; 
bill in the suntaiPr, from Ihe inereaiett tran>ipi- 
,ratinn, it is note uparing, higher colound, and 
•o arrfd, tiial it sometime!! becomca ttnin|uriau*. 
The cltiualc induces Ihe ^aB.e dlffertii™. 

IS. In rt'pect lo Ibe musrular mMlon of Ihe 
bpdy : It is secreted niarv aparingly, and eon- 
wnlrated by motion; and ta more Mi piously -lU- 
Kn^ fcltd, and rendcivd aier* <nd*,-b7 rut. ' 



T . In mpect' ttt 'OT* ^leeirod t>f t^ ^i T 
Ihii4 fVi^-ht makes Ihe urine pale. 

II«',— Thf urine h »» e.rre,n*ntil!«us flntiJAi 
liviviuiii, by irhich tlie human bfldy is not «■') 
liberated from the superfluous vriler, but alaa 
from the suiwrlluuDS sail* and anhnal varlh, wmt 
ii defended fram eorruotion. 

Laally, The via medjcalrix n 
etiminalea mnay morbid and i 
with Ihv urine, al may bv obwrt«d ia fnen, 

Mo nuinnl subslnocc has attracted mor* a^ 

coimcction with various rfiieaset, and on anwatl 
nf Die singular product) obtained frntn il, la fh 
ncrsl, healtby arlnc is a Iransparenl ilqvil •( s 
light sniber. colour, an amoiatic smell, nd a^ 
able bitter tan 
ding to Mr. 
i .iwa. When it cools, tlie anmialle amcll !•■« 
it, and is ■ucccrded by another, well ftainntf 
the name of urinoui smell. Tliis snu;!) la a» 
ceeded in two or three days by an<>(lvr, wUdl 
has a OBnaideralile reaemblanre li> llisl at HO 
uiilk. Thia tnicll gradually dioapi.F.rs ta IH 
turn, and is sucsecded by a fetid nlkaiitK adwi. 

Urine reddens paper stained with tummle nl 
with Ihe juicaurrsdlshet, andlhcrcfore Aialaiai 
an acid. " 

If a solution nf ammonia Is poared lalofM 
urine, a while powder pr«ripitalea,w^ieh basIM 
properties ol phosphat «f Hue. Th* prcMVMsf 
thii substaocE in urine waa first dltmrmrd'tx 
Si-hcele. If lime-water ia poumi into vtM, 
phu^ihat of lime preeipilatn In grvnlvr abol- 
ancc tban when amoionis is used ; fonsf ^ — By 
urine contains phosphoric acid. Tb<u w« H 
Ihatthepbunphaioflimeiikeptdiaaolt-edlavte 
by an f xceu of acid, or it is in Ihe state tl «•■ 
per.plioiphat. This alra was flrsl discsnni ty 
8vh«le. This Buht,1«Dce is most ahuadud B 
the urine of llie sick. Berlhollet baa nWari, 
that the urine of gouty people is less acid *•■ 
that nfjicople in perfect Iieallh, The etrnti 
quanlilyofphiKphBtoriiRie in health; nitok 
a* Cruikahank hat atcertainert, about J^ af to 
weight ofUie urine. 

ir Ihe phi.fphat of limeprceipiUted f>iM*iM 
■--■ - lagarMa will ba hmi 



ixed with i 



rcrey > 



phit of mai;aeiiiB which iir, 
which is dcRimiiawd i»j llir i, 
ployed to preelpilale Ihe phi>v,.)i . 

Proust infomiK us tlial ntl ..,.., - 

urine, and that ila sepBralion n,i>a.„to» Uiefwi 
which appears during ttlc evapuralion of nna 
roureroy and Vauquclln, nii Ihe <rtber bsb 
eonsider this acid a* fomed during the en^ 
rarion, by the decumpnailion of th* nnv th» 
observations of Promt nonllrni ilisw wbicb M 
been made by Priestley and Pcrrlvnl. 

ProuM has oliMrvvd, that orinr l»Tti«vrt 
casks depDiiii small iryslali. wbi.-h riBur»w»la 
Ihe air and fall In powder. Thiw rrjstal* !■»• 
■eaa the prnptrtiea of carbonat nf lime. H»»« 
we must eanelude that ujinr mntiini nrlaaM J 
lime i % very etlraxnlinarr «"■'. "* we itlknllM 
Bunar-phosphal Hflime Unlio prcuvt. 

When ftexh nrint- cnoN, it ofloi Irli AM * 
bridl-mlMln-d prwipilalr, whlAt KrheelB «■! 
asceruinvd I* bo cryataU i.r uric acU. AIIhIm 
tnnlalns this acid, rvi-i. when ni> vm^MI s*. 
eipihto npp«ai* whcu ll-cbrta. Par tf * W- 



U R I N 



4H*Mtl^ tf €Im/ Uid Krib urine U na- 
I to j^j of it! weight, k*utitle piwdar pre- 
wtol^ bottom, ondiUacbe* ilwlf in |i«rt 
tsl; Id Uk (c»c1. Thii pin maj be di»- 

10 iNiro alkkU, Hid prcdpiuted •fnin b; 
•rid. It nbibilt all Ibe propertiea of 
rid. The fust it, Uut tbe precipitaM 
uaually Jklla irhtii urine fooli ranaitli 
orphnaphatoflimeaDd uric acid. It Diay 
alml iu diluted ailrie acid. If the •<>■ 
1 healed and eraparated to drjuei), it a*, 
a ine rsw-mlonr iruric arid ii preienl. 
oportion of uric acid varie* caniidcrably 
n. It crTiUlli«e> io snull »d prixui, 
iKtbeivrraOE, if uria«it miiednilb wine 
•id, aod Un enpoied to llus air. 

ng lalcnuiltmt frven, and especially diir- 
rMca uf the lirer, a ropioui nedimGnt of a 
td egleur ii depniiilM from urine. Tbia 

11 ia Dw maacic and of PrauM. Sehcvie 
nd thi* atdiment ai uric acid mixed witli 
iMpbal of liinc ; and the laoie apiDinn tiai 
ll(itala<<d by ulhrr cheiniita: but Prouit 
thai il «ia<ii>ti chitifljr ofa diflareni tub- 
towUrtihe haisiTCD the mmcarroiacic 
Ma lla colour, iniaed willi a certain pro- 
,«r«rio arid and phutphal of liiue. Tbi* 
•rid, he inlunni ui, ia dintinguiihed tVoni 
I b]P the firilitj with vhicb il diuultm in 
Icr, Uw violet preeipitale which il occa- 
■ Mvial of gold, and by the liltle ua- 
Akh II ha. to n'j^Ullfte. 

dl ariiM U evaporaled tu the conaitlean 
up, and muriatic arid ii Ihrn pniiivd into 
apMste appear* which poMcaici tiie pru- 
•f beaioie apiil. Scbeele fini diieotered 
anca of bivinle acid In urine. He evi- 
it Io drjne*', •eparated the wlina part, 
dM bnl to the reiiduum. Tttr bmiiuie 
a cablined, utd found rryntalliied in llie 
'. CMnidenblequaatitiet ufbMiuiaacid 
(■ be obtnined fWtin Ibe urioe oflionea 
■a, where il ii mnrh murt- nbundant tliau 
in vrioe. In huiaan urinv il varlei from 
l^of tbc whol?. Proutlafflnni that Ibe 
•iavd h) lifbrels'* prarcM ia not lUc ben- 
1 aaolber pat-CHc-dof ainiilar properlieat 
•riilg Ib thin eircuiuitaoce, Ibtl nitric arid 
MM It, whereaa il osl]' wbilena beoioie 

I u Uf»Ioo oflao i* dmpi tnia urine, a 
raeipitale appear*, lia*in( tbv.prDpcrlie* 
mUaatioTi of tan and ■lliiimen, or eola- 
rlftc ttrarafore fonlnina albuntvu or grla- 
haa* aabitancT* l>ad been aiiipeetcd In be 
,biallbtirpmrucewa«tlr«ldcni'»i<ilra)ed 
ta, wIhI diacoveml the aboie method of 
llbeoi. Their qiianlilr II 




TbU forntroTi^ uf lAe Mi*l tmijileiie'ii Uli Jnt' 
portaBt dittincliuui bvtwo-n Ibe uriuc ot IboM 
who CBJoy giiiKl aud bad hcaltli. 

irurioe isrcapurelcd b] ■ Ooirfipe to Uie con- 
lialenoe of alhiaU <yrup, it aaiuuiei a detjp brown 
Dolour, and eihalra a Iblid Bmniaoiaciil odour. 
When allowed to cool, it coueretci iiilo a mats of 
eriilals, roiupoaed of all Uie coraponeiil paria of 
urin,... If four limea im wright ii' ' ' ' - 
piiured upon thU m*^t at 
heal a.pp)ird, the in^ateKl 

decaiited off, did d'stilled in a 
tort in a saud-lteal, till the miiture hai b^Oed 
far aouie limr, and arquirrd the Ma>ialeD''«< of f 
*;rup. By tliia time the nbuleof llii-^|l<'i)ho1bu 
patatdoff; and tbe mailer, on, CoaliBe, fryit^ 
liici in quadrangular platei H liich intffaerl Wtoh 
other, Thia tubalBnce i« urea, nhfeh roiqjfp^ 
jtolthe urine, proiided the yiMetj. part ,i% .e\' ■ 
eluded. To Ihii aubslance Ihe la«tCAnd muell «r 
urine are owing. Il ii a aubt 
racleriaea urine, and niaUiti ' 
to whieb Iho greater pari 



Uai 



laall. 



e pre- 



n hralltiy i 
IhpWIof lbcwe>«hlarilie urine. It la 
' (UbMaMMa that the appearance uf Ihe 
I It la oatled, nr the muFilajcinoul mailer, 
I KnBoUiun depoailed aa the urine rouli, 
k It U probaM* that healthy urine con- 
\j griuin, and onl albumen, tbaugb the 

la too wuall to admit of aecurilu eaa- 
l; hut In mau) diaeawt the quantity of 
LttaraikTery uurb ineeaaaed. Tbe urioe 
inal pvoplB often runtaJnt to much albu- 
\X U cMgvlatet not •-dIj on the addition 

balatenon theappilcslionorbeai. Io 
t^rinpaired dig«<tiaa, tbe albuniinoiw 
rilHp pHt (f uriBO II lavaik iBcieaaad. 



lUituIca il irlikl it la^and 

irl of ijie Via* kiijgOliir 

of urine ia ta be ucribed. .Ska 



ij be detected by cwpomtinf urine to. Ill* 
conaiaientc of a lyrup, and pouring iiilii it roD- 
cenlrulpdmlrieaeid' Im medial ely n jf"'*! iiuvt> 
ber of while alifniaB cryatnU appi-'if ■<■ the foftt 
of plalei lery mUtli rfieulilioi; cryitailiwd ba> 
rarie arid. Tlieae ctytl^ are urea couiblttad 

The qnantiiyof ureavarwaeTcce.linEly iiidir- 
fercDl unoe*. In the uriuc vnidci mhiii ader.f 
neal, very lilllr of il it to be found, Mtd acaiolly 
any at all in that nhieh b}tlerical palicuta \iiid 

Aemriling to Fouromy >ad VauquiUin, Ihr >«■ 
lourofurinoitrpeadaupon'ilu'ui**! the cfaler 
Ihe prtipurlion of urea, Ibu deeper Ihc colour. 
But I'niuat liai it/tfrivA a reiineua mailer .in 
urine similar to the renin of bitci Uid tn tbia 
aubalnnee he ateribe* the colour of urine. IX 
urine, evaporaicd to theeonaiiteoce of tin eitraeti 
ia mUed wjtii anlphurio »rid and diililled, Ihi* 
roin, he inlomia u", iicpar»te* durine tlir dii- 
lilUlion. What ia lira obUined ii> aotl, but Iha 
laal poninaa are in Ihe alale of a dry powder. 
The oonaiitenoe and eolourof tbia retin reaembte 
caitori it ia tery aoluble in alcohol, nnd pro- 
ripitaled from iliaoluKou by water: but il it alao 
•oluble in water ; and, according <o Prau<il, U 
tbe reata of bile, aomewhat niodifltd by ill paai- 
age througb the urinary organ*, 

If urine ia ilowlyevaporatrdtolbaConaialCDoa 
ofanyrup, a number ofcrjilBla make Ihe^ ap- 
pearaaee on ila aurface ; Ihew poaaena tbe prn- 
pertie* of muriat ofaoda. Urine thereforeeun- 
lalni muriat of aoda. It i( well known that mu> 
rial of aoda crydalliaea in cube* j but wlwa ob- 
tained frooi uriM it hai Ibe form of oclahedroua. 
Tbi< ■inguliu' modiUcation of lt> form U owing 
to the arlioa of urea. It ha« been luuR known 
that urine talurated witb murial of aud* depoiila 
lliat aalt iu regular a'-tabrdroui. 

Tbe aaline residuum wliich remahia aricr Iha 
teparaliun of urea from cryt^Uidi]! urine by 
nioaoa of alcohol haa beta loii| kaiiwa under tb« 
nameaof fuaible xalt of urine aoi) isi''rvcnaii^ 
•■lu Various nielhodaof obtaining it hai* Ite^n 
giien by ebeiBiitii from Boeihaave, who Hnl 
publiahid a proceu, Io Ruuellc and Cliaolnta, 
wbegiia III* mnlhadiBitaentiuood. If tbe ■»- 



S 



J 



URINE. 



IIwai«nIidtAi>iTcati«miffli!^l4Uutlit;arhot 

«nUir, Kiid allnwcil lo rrj^ttltlM Hpontaneuuily 
In a c!a« teste!, tiro teta ot vryitali iire gra- 
dually dt'piniliHl. The lowrriuoX Mt hu llie 
Agure ol' tint rlinmli»lilat pritins ; tlie uppermatl, 
oa Itw rnnlrerjr, liu Ihe form of rerUogultr 
tabtct. Thdie two nny be euily uparated b]> 
CipoiinfClbem for inme limelo > ilr; atmiupljert). 
The rcclwi|[iilir tablei tIRamsrt tai i all In pow- 
der, buttherhaniMdllpritini reniain unaltered. 
Wben Ibe-iv xalls an rupiined, thej are found 
Id have Ihepropertin of photpbal*. The rlioia- 
boidal priaio* con*iM of pbnxplial of ammnnia 
united lo a little phoiplial al toda; the rcirtan- 
|ulir tablEi, on tbe cnalr^, ar« phoiphat at 
toda uDiled tu a »imall qiianlitjr of photphat of 
BDimoiUa, Urine, tlwD, caotaiiis photpbal of 
loda and phoipbat of ammonia. 

When urine i« caulioutlj evaporaled, a few 
nbie rryitali are ofleu deposited amang the oilier 
•alU; theae crjalali hare Ihe propertici df luu- 
rial of ainmunia. Now the ukual form of the 
CTTitaU of muriat of ammonia ia the orlabedron. 
The change of it* form in urine is produced alto 
by urea. Tlii« nail la oblaiDed in greater abund* 
ance Hhea the trrj'alali ut urea obtained from Ute 
■l{Bbol lolution are dialilled. 

When urine i« boiled in aailTerbaaon it Mack' 
ena the ba><jn ; and if the quantity of urine ii 
large, small rruata of aulphurel of lilver may be 
detached. Hence we «ee tbst urine conlaiat 
■uLplinr. Thia aulpbur exhale* along irilh the 
carbonic icid nhcn the urine putreflea; for the 
fumea which aeparate from uriua in that ttale 
blacken paper ilained nllh acctal of lead. 

Urine, then, cflotaim the following lubatancec 

^^^ I. Water, 

^^^b S. Phosphoric acid, 

^^^H 3. Pboaphalofliine, 

^^^^H 4. Phoaphalof magnaaia, 

^^^^K Carbonic acid, 

^^^^^B 6, Carbonat of liu*, 

^^■< 

^^^^B 8. Roudeaall, 

^^^H g. Bentoie acid, 

^^^^H 10, Gelatin and albUBMH, 

^^^^B 13. Ruin, 

^^^^B 13. Muriat of loda, 

^^^f 14. Phoaphatofaoda, 

^^^^^ 15. Phunphal orammoniB, 

16. Muriat uf ammonia, 
IT. Sulphur. 
Theac are tbe only auhitaneei irhich are eon- 
atanlly found in healthy urine j but il roDlaina 
alao ocniiiouaUy other lubilance*. Very nflcn 
muriat of pnlaih may be diitioguiahed among the 
ciTilala which form during ila eiiporatton. Tlw 
preaeaee of Ihlt tall may almiya be dcleeled by 
dropping Mutioualy aome tartaric add into uritic. 
If il contain* muriat of potaih, there nil 1 prc- 
ai|dlale a Utile tartar, iTlileh may eaaily be re- 
cogailrd by ila pruperlica. 

Urine aomvlimeialiiucunlaina lolphatof toda, 
•nd ereo lulphat ofliuiu. Tbe ^reaenre of Ihene 
aalt* may be aKvrlained by pouring into urine a 
Mlutloa of muriat i>f barylvt i a 'npiaua nhile 
precipitate appeam, coutiMing of Ihe baryCn 
Mmblned arilh pbMphorIc a id, and with tul> 
phurle acid if any i* prcaeot. Thi* precipiUle 
niuat be inwtMl with a auacient quaatll) of iuu< 
riallRBeid. TbephnaphatofliaryleiiadlaMilaed, 

I k<M lb* Htlphat of barytm rmnainii uaalten.'d. 

^^^vietfttth arc the pcopniOivt uf bumau utinc iu a 



atate of hHlth : but thlt etcWkV h dn^«HMf 
mudiOed by tliteate ; and tbe rbange* to «UA 
i^ia liable linrB attracted the alteiilion of pky- 
*lclaDB in all a^a, bcrauae they ht*« in aoaa 
meaanre l« indieale the atate of the palicat aad 
the progreaa of the diteaae under whleh be la- 
bour!. The follniriDg ate the moat reaaifcitil 
of Ibcac change* that liiite horn ohMTTcd : 

I. In iadammalor]' diunaca ilie uriiM b of a 
red colour, and peculiarly acrid « it depoail* ■• 
aediment oil itanding, but witb uxymurial *f 
mercury il yield* a copioua preripitste. 

3. During Jauodice tbe urine ha* alt ana(» 
yellow colour, and commuDiratet Ihe aaoelialU 
linen. Muriatic add rendera thi* nriae (IM^ 
and thuadetecla Ihe pmencenf a little Ml*. 

3 About the end of indammalorj diacaaea dM 
urine liecooie!. abundant, and depoul* a *opiaN 
pinh-colnurcd ledlmenl, compoied of roaane itU, 
a Utile phoaphat of lioie, nnd uric acid. 

4. During hyiterical paroxyinii. Ibe anH 
uaually Bowa abundnittly. Il ia Uuipid aadM- 
lourtcas, mnlaining much *all, but acarcely aif 
urea or gelatin. 

0. Mr. lierlhollet obaerred that Ibe arialil 
gouty peraoni contain* uiually oiurh Iraa pfcM- 
phoric acid than healthy urine. Bol iantf * 
gouty paroxyam it coutaina much more pboaplw- 
rie add than uaual i though not mora than CM- 
atantly eiiali in healthy urine. 

Ii' In general dropay, the urine la Inadfd «M 
albumen, and becomea reilky, ore*cn coagnlawt 
when heated, or at leaot nh